Conclusion: In terms of practical implication, to avoid creating disadvantages of WIF and FIW,facilitation in two domains of improving work and family conditions can be a useful means to prevent WFC and its consequences.
Bagherzadeh, Razieh; Taghizadeh, Ziba; Mohammadi, Eesa; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Pourreza, Abolghasem; Ebadi, Abbas
The present study was conducted to examine the relationship between two dimensions of work-family conflict (WFC) with marital satisfaction and burnout in a society in which few studies have been done about the consequences of WFC. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015. Surveys were distributed to 420 employed married women with various jobs living in Bushehr province, Iran. Data were collected using a questionnaire for demographic characteristic, the Netmeyer's WFC questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory: General Survey (MBI-GS), and Enrich maritalsatisfaction questionnaire. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. There was a negatively significant association between work interference with family(WIF) and overall burnout as well as emotional exhaustion (P Family interference with work (FIW) was significantly associated with depersonalization (P marital satisfaction and its subscales were significantly associated with WIF (P marital satisfaction and P work and family conditions can be a useful means to prevent WFC and its consequences.
Bagherzadeh, Razieh; Taghizadeh, Ziba; Mohammadi, Eesa; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Pourreza, Abolghasem; Ebadi, Abbas
Background: The present study was conducted to examine the relationship between two dimensions of work-family conflict (WFC) with marital satisfaction and burnout in a society in which few studies have been done about the consequences of WFC. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015. Surveys were distributed to 420 employed married women with various jobs living in Bushehr province, Iran. Data were collected using a questionnaire for demographic characteristic, the Netmeyer’s...
Full Text Available Six pigeons were trained using a matching-to-sample procedure where sample and rewarded comparisons matched on both attributional (color and relational (horizontal or vertical orientation dimensions. Probes then evaluated the pigeons’ preference to comparisons that varied in these dimensions. A strong preference was found for the attribute of color. The discrimination was not found to transfer to novel colors, however, suggesting that a general color rule had not been learned. Further, when color could not be used to guide responding, some influence of other attributional cues such as shape, but not relational cues, was found. We conclude that pigeons based their performance on attributional properties of but not on relational properties between elements in our matching-to-sample procedure.. Future studies should look at examining other attributes to compare attributional versus relational processing.
Hui, Siu-Kuen Azor; Elliott, Timothy R; Martin, Roy; Uswatte, Gitendra
The relations of caregiver attributions about care-recipient's problem behaviour to caregiving relationship satisfaction and caregiver distress were examined. This is a cross sectional study. Seventy-five family caregivers of individuals diagnosed with various disabling health conditions were recruited and interviewed. Caregiver attributions (internality, intentionality, responsibility, and controllability), caregiving relationship satisfaction, and caregiver distress variables were measured. Structural equation techniques tested an a priori model of the latent constructs of caregiver attributions and caregiver relationship satisfaction to caregiver distress. Maladaptive caregiver attributions (i.e., more trait, higher intentionality, higher responsibility, and higher controllability) about care-recipients' problem behaviours predicted lower caregiving relationship satisfaction, which in turn was predictive of higher caregiver distress. Unexpectedly, caregiver attributions were not directly related to caregiver distress. However, attributions had an indirect effect on distress through relationship satisfaction. Younger caregivers experienced higher caregiver distress. Caregivers' explanations about care-recipient's problem behaviour are indicative of their satisfaction in the relationship with the care recipient, and poor caregiving relationship satisfaction is predictive of caregiver distress. Caregiver attributions and relationship quality may be considered in interventions with family caregivers. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.
Werner, Nicole E.
Relatively little is understood about the role of hostile attributions in children's use of relational aggression with peers, or about the impact of family processes on children's attributions about ambiguous provocations. This cross-sectional study investigated associations among hostile attributions made by children, mothers, and fathers, and…
Brink, Tove; Neville, Mette
-sized Enterprises (SMEs)” to enhance the growth opportunities present in the EU SMEs. Most initiatives focus on creating better framework conditions for SMEs. However, research shows that growth is hampered by a number of internal factors. Many SMEs often lack the important internal attributes for growth pointed...... out in theory and empirical studies, which means that there is a gap between theory and practice when it comes to growth attributes in SMEs. This paper provides an enhanced understanding of whether gap-filling between theory and practice in family-SMEs is possible and whether gap-filling will actually...... stimulate growth. The findings are based on a large-scale research project involving 24 Danish family-SMEs, which completed a learning and development process over a period of three years. The aim of the project was to examine whether such a process which focused on a combination of some of the most...
Sorge, Shawn T; Hesdorffer, Dale C; Phelan, Jo C; Winawer, Melodie R; Shostak, Sara; Goldsmith, Jeff; Chung, Wendy K; Ottman, Ruth
Rapid advances in genetic research and increased use of genetic testing have increased the emphasis on genetic causes of epilepsy in patient encounters. Research in other disorders suggests that genetic causal attributions can influence patients' psychological responses and coping strategies, but little is known about how epilepsy patients and their relatives will respond to genetic attributions of epilepsy. We investigated the possibility that among members of families containing multiple individuals with epilepsy, depression, the most frequent psychiatric comorbidity in the epilepsies, might be related to the perception that epilepsy has a genetic cause. A self-administered survey was completed by 417 individuals in 104 families averaging 4 individuals with epilepsy per family. Current depression was measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire. Genetic causal attribution was assessed by three questions addressing the following: perceived likelihood of having an epilepsy-related mutation, perceived role of genetics in causing epilepsy in the family, and (in individuals with epilepsy) perceived influence of genetics in causing the individual's epilepsy. Relatives without epilepsy were asked about their perceived chance of developing epilepsy in the future, compared with the average person. Prevalence of current depression was 14.8% in 182 individuals with epilepsy, 6.5% in 184 biologic relatives without epilepsy, and 3.9% in 51 individuals married into the families. Among individuals with epilepsy, depression was unrelated to genetic attribution. Among biologic relatives without epilepsy, however, prevalence of depression increased with increasing perceived chance of having an epilepsy-related mutation (p = 0.02). This association was not mediated by perceived future epilepsy risk among relatives without epilepsy. Depression is associated with perceived likelihood of carrying an epilepsy-related mutation among individuals without epilepsy in families containing
Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Rich, Yisrael
Cluster analysis identified 3 groups of individuals who differed systematically on attributions of relative importance to work and to family roles. Participants were 213 married computer workers and lawyers, 126 men and 87 women. Questionnaires gathered data on attributions of importance to life roles, work-family conflict, spousal and managerial…
Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Weisel, Amatzia; Tzuk, Kineret
To better understand the work-family interface within the family domain, this study investigated crossover effects of two types of work-family conflict among 120 participants (60 married couples), these conflicts' relations with parental self-efficacy and perceived quality of parent-child interaction, and the contribution of attributions of…
The work assessed the relative importance of production and consumption attributes of different wealth groups of households and tested the effect of attribute preference and that of other factors on common bean variety demand in the drought areas of Eastern Kenya. Variety demand was conceptualized within the ...
Harlev, Eli; Nevo, Eviatar; Solowey, Elaine; Bishayee, Anupam
The ever-increasing occurrence of cancer and the severe side effects and limited efficacy of current cancer chemotherapy based on chemical drugs shift the attention toward drugs of plant origin. The Cactaceae family comprises more than 1500 species, but until recently only a few of them have been tested for their chemopreventive and anticancer attributes, leaving a wide unexplored area still waiting for researchers to investigate. Considering this fact, and also the promising results obtained with the relatively few plants of this family already tested, it should justly be expected that some plants of the Cactaceae family yet unexplored might possess outstanding anticancer attributes, exceeding those displayed by the plants already tested. This review presents in vitro and in vivo experimental evidence on cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of bioactive phytoconstituents and extracts derived from cactus plants. It also examines the underlying biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the antineoplastic effects of plants of the Cactaceae family. Current limitation and future directions of research towards effective use of cacti to develop efficient and side effect-free future cancer-preventive and anticancer drugs are also discussed. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Bednark, Jeffery G; Franz, Elizabeth A
Knowledge about the effects of our actions is an underlying feature of voluntary behavior. Given the importance of identifying the outcomes of our actions, it has been proposed that the sensory outcomes of self-made actions are inherently different from those of externally caused outcomes. Thus, the outcomes of self-made actions are likely to be more motivationally significant for an agent. We used event-related potentials to investigate the relationship between the perceived motivational significance of an outcome and the attribution of agency in the presence of others. In our experiment, we assessed agency attribution in the presence of another agent by varying the degree of contiguity between participants' self-made actions and the sensory outcome. Specifically, we assessed the feedback correct-related positivity (fCRP) and the novelty P3 measures of an outcome's motivational significance and unexpectedness, respectively. Results revealed that both the fCRP and participants' agency attributions were significantly influenced by action-outcome contiguity. However, when action-outcome contiguity was ambiguous, novelty P3 amplitude was a reliable indicator of agency attribution. Prior agency attributions were also found to influence attribution in trials with ambiguous and low action-outcome contiguity. Participants' use of multiple cues to determine agency is consistent with the cue integration theory of agency. In addition to these novel findings, this study supports growing evidence suggesting that reinforcement processes play a significant role in the sense of agency.
Stott, Peter A; Christidis, Nikolaos; Otto, Friederike E L; Sun, Ying; Vanderlinden, Jean-Paul; van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; Vautard, Robert; von Storch, Hans; Walton, Peter; Yiou, Pascal; Zwiers, Francis W
Extreme weather and climate-related events occur in a particular place, by definition, infrequently. It is therefore challenging to detect systematic changes in their occurrence given the relative shortness of observational records. However, there is a clear interest from outside the climate science community in the extent to which recent damaging extreme events can be linked to human-induced climate change or natural climate variability. Event attribution studies seek to determine to what extent anthropogenic climate change has altered the probability or magnitude of particular events. They have shown clear evidence for human influence having increased the probability of many extremely warm seasonal temperatures and reduced the probability of extremely cold seasonal temperatures in many parts of the world. The evidence for human influence on the probability of extreme precipitation events, droughts, and storms is more mixed. Although the science of event attribution has developed rapidly in recent years, geographical coverage of events remains patchy and based on the interests and capabilities of individual research groups. The development of operational event attribution would allow a more timely and methodical production of attribution assessments than currently obtained on an ad hoc basis. For event attribution assessments to be most useful, remaining scientific uncertainties need to be robustly assessed and the results clearly communicated. This requires the continuing development of methodologies to assess the reliability of event attribution results and further work to understand the potential utility of event attribution for stakeholder groups and decision makers. WIREs Clim Change 2016, 7:23-41. doi: 10.1002/wcc.380 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
Mueller, Simone; Sirieix, Lucie; Remaud, Hervé
Purpose: A cross-cultural study with large representative samples analyses to what degree Schwartz’s personal values and environmental concerns are related to consumers’ choices of wine with sustainable characteristics. Methodology: Across seven countries, the attribute importance and willingness to pay of consumer segments resulting from choice experiments are related to Schwartz’s personal value dimensions and environmental attitudes. Findings: Personal values were only weakly related to re...
Olsen, Ingrid Blø; Øverland, Simon; Reme, Silje Endresen; Løvvik, Camilla
Common mental disorders (CMDs) are major causes of sickness absence and disability. Prevention requires knowledge of how individuals perceive causal mechanisms, and in this study we sought to examine work-related factors as causal attribution of CMDs. A trial sample of n = 1,193, recruited because they struggled with work participation due to CMDs, answered an open-ended questionnaire item about what they believed were the most important causes of their CMDs. The population included participants at risk of sickness absence, and participants with reduced work participation due to sickness absence, disability or unemployment. We used thematic content analysis and categorized responses from 487 participants who reported work-related factors as causal attributions of their CMDs. Gender differences in work-related causal attributions were also examined. The participants attributed their CMDs to the following work-related factors; work stress, leadership, reduced work participation, job dissatisfaction, work conflict, social work environment, job insecurity and change, workplace bullying, and physical strain. Women tended to attribute CMDs to social factors at work. Findings from this study suggest several work-related risk factors for CMDs. Both factors at the workplace, and reduced work participation, were perceived by study participants as contributing causes of CMDs. Thus, there is a need to promote work participation whilst at the same time targeting aversive workplace factors. Further, our findings indicate that work-related factors may affect women and men differently. This illustrates that the association between work participation and CMDs is complex, and needs to be explored further.
Lee, Suji; Lee, Hwanhee; Myung, Woojae; Kim, E Jin; Kim, Ho
The association between high temperature and mental disease has been the focus of several studies worldwide. However, no studies have focused on the mental disease burden attributable to hot temperature. Here, we aim to quantify the risk attributed to hot temperatures based on the exposure-lag-response relationship between temperature and mental diseases. From data on daily temperature and emergency admissions (EA) for mental diseases collected from 6 major cities (Seoul, Incheon, Daejeon, Daegu, Busan, and Gwangju in South Korea) over a period of 11years (2003-2013), we estimated temperature-disease associations using a distributed lag non-linear model, and we pooled the data by city through multivariate meta-analysis. Cumulative relative risk and attributable risks were calculated for extreme hot temperatures, defined as the 99th percentile relative to the 50th percentile of temperatures. The strongest association between mental disease and high temperature was seen within a period of 0-4days of high temperature exposure. Our results reveal that 14.6% of EA for mental disease were due to extreme hot temperatures, and the elderly were more susceptible (19.1%). Specific mental diseases, including anxiety, dementia, schizophrenia, and depression, also showed significant risk attributed to hot temperatures. Of all EA for anxiety, 31.6% were attributed to extremely hot temperatures. High temperature was responsible for an attributable risk for mental disease, and the burden was higher in the elderly. This finding has important implications for designing appropriate public health policies to minimize the impact of high temperature on mental health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Raman, Aarthi; Sharma, Sushma; Fitch, Mark D.; Fleming, Sharon E.
Objective: To identify family and child nutrition and dietary attributes related to children's dietary intakes. Design: African American children (ages 8-11 years, n = 156), body mass index greater than 85th percentile, from urban, low-income neighborhoods. Baseline, cross-sectional data collected as part of an ongoing diabetes prevention…
An experiment was conducted with 150 children (mean age=10.1years) in third to fifth grades to test whether exposure to different forms of aggression in the media affected hostile attributional biases in response to different forms of provocation scenarios. Children were randomly assigned to watch a clip containing physical aggression, relational aggression, or no aggression. After exposure, children were asked to respond to a series of written provocation scenarios where a character caused some form of harm (instrumental or relational) to a target person, but the intent of the provocateur was ambiguous. Results revealed that exposure to relationally aggressive portrayals resulted in a hostile attributional bias in response to relational scenarios, whereas exposure to portrayals of physical aggression was associated with a hostile attributional bias in response to instrumental scenarios. Moreover, these biases were shown to be specific to the exposure condition (physical or relational) and not simply associated with exposure to aggression in general. The findings are discussed in terms of the general aggression model and children's social information processing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ilies, R.; de Pater, I.E.; Lim, S.; Binnewies, C.
Work-family conflict may give rise to different emotional reactions, depending on the causal attributions people make for the experience of work-family conflict. These emotional reactions, in turn, may result in specific behavioral reactions, that may either be adaptive or maladaptive in nature. In
Gomes, Giovana Calcagno; Xavier, Daiani Modernel; Pintanel, Aline Campelo; Farias, Dóris Helena Ribeiro; Lunardi, Valéria Lerch; Aquino, Deise Ribeiro
Understanding the meanings attributed by family caregivers of children in hospital environments about their interactions with nursing professionals. This qualitative study used Symbolic Interactionism as a theoretical reference and Grounded Theory as the methodological framework. It was carried out in a Pediatrics Center in southern Brazil, in the first half of 2013. Participants were 15 family caregivers of hospitalized children. Data were collected through interviews and submitted to open and axial analysis. Interactions with the nursing team enable family to trust or distrust in the provided child care and to positively evaluate the care received. Interactions between family members and the nursing team contribute to the significance attributed by the family to the nursing care received by the child. Nurses should be aware of the attitudes of the nursing team regarding the child and their family, prioritizing humanized care.
Giovana Calcagno Gomes
Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Understanding the meanings attributed by family caregivers of children in hospital environments about their interactions with nursing professionals. METHODS This qualitative study used Symbolic Interactionism as a theoretical reference and Grounded Theory as the methodological framework. It was carried out in a Pediatrics Center in southern Brazil, in the first half of 2013. Participants were 15 family caregivers of hospitalized children. Data were collected through interviews and submitted to open and axial analysis. RESULTS Interactions with the nursing team enable family to trust or distrust in the provided child care and to positively evaluate the care received. CONCLUSION Interactions between family members and the nursing team contribute to the significance attributed by the family to the nursing care received by the child. Nurses should be aware of the attitudes of the nursing team regarding the child and their family, prioritizing humanized care.
Background Belgian hospitals face a growing shortage of physicians and increasingly competitive market conditions. In this challenging environment hospitals are struggling to build effective hospital-physician relationships which are considered to be a critical determinant of organizational success. Methods Employed physicians of a University hospital were surveyed. Organizational attributes were identified through the literature and two focus groups. Variables were measured using validated questionnaires. Descriptive analyses and linear regression were used to test the model and relative importance analyses were performed. Results The selected attributes predict hospital attractiveness significantly (79.3%). The relative importance analysis revealed that hospital attractiveness is most strongly predicted by professional attributes (35.3%) and relational attributes (29.7%). In particular, professional development opportunities (18.8%), hospital prestige (16.5%), organizational support (17.2%) and leader support (9.3%) were found to be most important. Besides these non-economic aspects, the employed physicians indicated pay and financial benefits (7.4%) as a significant predictor of hospital attractiveness. Work-life balance and job security were not significantly related to hospital attractiveness. Conclusions This study shows that initiatives aimed at strengthening physicians’ positive perceptions of professional and relational aspects of practicing medicine in hospitals, while assuring satisfactory financial conditions, may offer useful avenues for increasing the level of perceived hospital attractiveness. Overall, hospitals are advised to use a differentiated approach to increase their attractiveness to physicians. PMID:24884491
Trybou, Jeroen; Gemmel, Paul; Van Vaerenbergh, Yves; Annemans, Lieven
Belgian hospitals face a growing shortage of physicians and increasingly competitive market conditions. In this challenging environment hospitals are struggling to build effective hospital-physician relationships which are considered to be a critical determinant of organizational success. Employed physicians of a University hospital were surveyed. Organizational attributes were identified through the literature and two focus groups. Variables were measured using validated questionnaires. Descriptive analyses and linear regression were used to test the model and relative importance analyses were performed. The selected attributes predict hospital attractiveness significantly (79.3%). The relative importance analysis revealed that hospital attractiveness is most strongly predicted by professional attributes (35.3%) and relational attributes (29.7%). In particular, professional development opportunities (18.8%), hospital prestige (16.5%), organizational support (17.2%) and leader support (9.3%) were found to be most important. Besides these non-economic aspects, the employed physicians indicated pay and financial benefits (7.4%) as a significant predictor of hospital attractiveness. Work-life balance and job security were not significantly related to hospital attractiveness. This study shows that initiatives aimed at strengthening physicians' positive perceptions of professional and relational aspects of practicing medicine in hospitals, while assuring satisfactory financial conditions, may offer useful avenues for increasing the level of perceived hospital attractiveness. Overall, hospitals are advised to use a differentiated approach to increase their attractiveness to physicians.
Wang, Xuerui; Mohanty, Natasha; McCallum, Andrew
The authors present a probabilistic generative model of entity relationships and their attributes that simultaneously discovers groups among the entities and topics among the corresponding textual attributes...
You, Xinge; Wang, Ruxin; Tao, Dacheng
The use of relative attributes for semantic understanding of images and videos is a promising way to improve communication between humans and machines. However, it is extremely labor- and time-consuming to define multiple attributes for each instance in large amount of data. One option is to incorporate active learning, so that the informative samples can be actively discovered and then labeled. However, most existing active-learning methods select samples one at a time (serial mode), and may therefore lose efficiency when learning multiple attributes. In this paper, we propose a batch-mode active-learning method, called Diverse Expected Gradient Active Learning (DEGAL). This method integrates an informativeness analysis and a diversity analysis to form a diverse batch of queries. Specifically, the informativeness analysis employs the expected pairwise gradient length as a measure of informativeness, while the diversity analysis forces a constraint on the proposed diverse gradient angle. Since simultaneous optimization of these two parts is intractable, we utilize a two-step procedure to obtain the diverse batch of queries. A heuristic method is also introduced to suppress imbalanced multi-class distributions. Empirical evaluations of three different databases demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach.
Godleski, Stephanie A; Ostrov, Jamie M; Houston, Rebecca J; Schlienz, Nicolas J
This exploratory study investigates how hostile attribution biases for relationally provocative situations may be related to neurocognitive processing using the P300 event-related potential. Participants were 112 (45 women) emerging adults enrolled in a large, public university in upstate New York. Participants completed self-report measures on relational aggression and hostile attribution biases and performed an auditory perseveration task to elicit the P300. It was found that hostile attribution biases for relational provocation situations was associated with a larger P300 amplitude above and beyond the role of hostile attribution biases for instrumental situations, relational aggression, and gender. Larger P300 amplitude is interpreted to reflect greater allocation of cognitive resources or enhanced "attending" to salient stimuli. Implications for methodological approaches to studying aggression and hostile attribution biases and for theory are discussed, as well as implications for the fields of developmental psychology and psychopathology. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hepnarova G. Caltova
Full Text Available This paper presents partial results of the research focusing on education and protection of children in Roma families. The Roma family is regarded as a specifically closed border system. The type of family life organization is presentedin front of view of dominant values. The focus is on heavily represented values, especially esteem, solidarity end equality. Those values affect behaviour of family members and organize relations between the children and parents. The main aim of this paper is to present particularity of Roma community and specifics of relationships. The paper deals with fractional results of qualitative research project, the research survey was carried out in the year 2012, it was done as a field survey. The information, obtained on the nature of educational processes and directions of education, allowed us to crystallize key values passed in Roma families. In this paper, we focus mainly on the value of interpersonal relationships and maintaining compliance which are strongly represented in the educational efforts of Roma parents. The starting point of our considerations became the concept of values of G. Hofstede, who in his concept of value orientation reflects the cultural specifics. Above all, we focus on the values associated with collective cultures, which Roma belong to.
Dilworth, Jennifer A.; Phillips, Neil; Rose, John
Background: Previous research has suggested that severity of intellectual disability (ID) and topography of behaviour may influence staff causal attributions regarding challenging behaviour. Subsequently, these causal attributions may influence helping behaviours. This study investigated the relationship between attributions of control over…
Full Text Available Biospeckle is nondestructive optical technique based on the analysis of variations of laser light scattered from biological samples. Biospeckle activity reflects the state of the investigated object. In this study the relation of biospeckle activity (BA with firmness, soluble solids content (SSC, titratable acidity (TA and starch content (SC during the shelf life of seven apple cultivars was studied. The results showed that the quality attributes change significantly during storage. Significant and pronounced positive correlation between BA and SC was found. This result shows that degradation of starch granules, which could be stimulated to vibration by intracellular cyclosis, causes a lesser number of laser light scattering centers and results in smaller apparent biospeckle activity.
Zdunek, Artur; Cybulska, Justyna
Biospeckle is nondestructive optical technique based on the analysis of variations of laser light scattered from biological samples. Biospeckle activity reflects the state of the investigated object. In this study the relation of biospeckle activity (BA) with firmness, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA) and starch content (SC) during the shelf life of seven apple cultivars was studied. The results showed that the quality attributes change significantly during storage. Significant and pronounced positive correlation between BA and SC was found. This result shows that degradation of starch granules, which could be stimulated to vibration by intracellular cyclosis, causes a lesser number of laser light scattering centers and results in smaller apparent biospeckle activity.
O'Donnell, Susan L.; Chang, Kelly B.; Miller, Kristen S.
Research suggests that a personal sense of autonomy supports individuals' success in a variety of domains, but information regarding these processes remains unclear. This paper attempts to establish a link between personal autonomy and cognitive processes, in the form of attributions for success and failure, in establishing a sense of subjective…
This cross-sectional study aimed at identifying the most common attributions of their mental disorder in a Mexican patients who have experienced psychosis and their relatives and exploring how having experienced or not characteristic psychotic symptoms and their present clinical status might affect their etiological attributions. Past and current symptom profiles of 66 patients were as assessed with the SCID-I (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders) and the PANSS (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), respectively. The etiological attribution of psychosis of patients (n = 62) and the relatives (n = 65) was assessed with the Angermeyer and Klusmann scale comprising 30 items into five categories: biology, personality, family, society, and esoteric. Patients and relatives attribute psychosis mainly to social factors. Relatives' attributions were not influenced by clinical profile of patients, whereas in the case of patients it was only current clinical status that showed a difference, with those in nonremission scoring higher personality and family factors. Acknowledging patients' and relatives' beliefs about mental disorders at onset and later on is particularly important in psychosis, a mental condition with severe and/or persistent symptoms, in order to promote better involvement in treatment and in consequence efficacy and recovery. PMID:27413550
Trybou, Jeroen; Gemmel, Paul; Van Vaerenbergh, Yves; Annemans, Lieven
Background: Belgian hospitals face a growing shortage of physicians and increasingly competitive market conditions. In this challenging environment hospitals are struggling to build effective hospital-physician relationships which are considered to be a critical determinant of organizational success. Methods: Employed physicians of a University hospital were surveyed. Organizational attributes were identified through the literature and two focus groups. Variables were measured using valida...
Hustedde, Carol; Paladine, Heather; Wendling, Andrea; Prasad, Rupa; Sola, Orlando; Bjorkman, Sarah; Phillips, Julie
The USA needs more rural physicians. Although women represent half of all US trained medical students, the rural physician workforce has remained predominantly male. Insight is needed into what makes rural practice attractive for women and which practice characteristics allow women physicians to practice successfully in rural areas. This study's purpose was to examine aspects of the practice environment that impact women physicians' professional satisfaction and commitment to rural medicine. Twenty-five women family physicians practicing in rural areas of the USA were interviewed by phone using a semi-structured format. Transcribed interviews were analyzed using an immersion and crystallization approach. Emergent themes were identified, coded, and discussed until team consensus was attained. Interviews continued until saturation of themes was reached. Three themes emerged from the data, in relationship to practice and employment attributes that contribute to US women physicians' professional satisfaction and willingness to remain in a rural setting: professional relationships, practice characteristics, and support during times of transition. Participants placed high importance on professional relationships, both within and outside of their rural practice. Rural women physicians enjoyed practicing an expanded scope of care, valued loan repayment opportunities, and appreciated supportive practice partners. Importantly, women physicians who found themselves struggling to maintain rural careers often had experienced difficulty during times of practice transition, including maternity leaves. Understanding practice attributes valued by successful rural women family physicians in the USA will help rural health systems, practices, and physicians-in-training to develop and evaluate opportunities that will best contribute to successful rural practice. Supporting women physicians during periods of practice transition may improve retention.
Reinaldo, Amanda Márcia Dos Santos; Pillon, Sandra Cristina
Problems related to alcohol abuse have been associated to different factors, regardless of the causes attributed to this phenomenon. Alcohol consumption and dependence is considered a public health problem and deserve attention because of the social, work, family, physical, legal and violence-related risks it represents. This study aimed to identify the effects of alcoholism on family relations and, by means of case management, to encourage the recovery of these relationships. The results show that the problems caused by alcohol abuse impose profound suffering to family members, which contributes to high levels of interpersonal conflict, domestic violence, parental inadequacy, child abuse and negligence, financial and legal difficulties, in addition to clinical problems associated to it.
of husband centered migration. Couples are more likely to migrate if household earnings potential is disproportionally due to one partner, and families react equally strongly to a male and a female relative advantage in educational earnings potential. These results are driven by households with a strong......A unitarian model of family migration in which families may discount wives’ private gains is used to derive testable predictions regarding the type of couples that select into migrating. The empirical tests show that gender neutral family migration cannot be rejected against the alternative...
Full Text Available The research aims to test situational crisis communication and attribution theories in Indonesian context. Crisis threats companies’ reputation and affects the public’s attribution which will lead to the creation of punitive behavior from the public towards the organization. The study used a quantitative approach with experimental method and content analysis in the pre-research. Involving 90 respondents, the research fi nds that mass media infl uences public’s attribution within the experimental group who were given positive and negative news. The research shows that the crisis history and the relational reputation determine the public attribution toward the initial crisis responsibility.
Frijters, Jan C; Tsujimoto, Kimberley C; Boada, Richard; Gottwald, Stephanie; Hill, Dina; Jacobson, Lisa A; Lovett, Maureen W; Mahone, E Mark; Willcutt, Erik G; Wolf, Maryanne; Bosson-Heenan, Joan; Gruen, Jeffrey R
The present study investigated the relation among reading skills and attributions, naming speed, and phonological awareness across a wide range of reading skill. Participants were 1,105 school-age children and youths from two understudied populations: African Americans and Hispanic Americans. Individual assessments of children ranging in age from 8 to 15 years were conducted for reading outcomes, cognitive and linguistic predictors of reading, and attributions for success and failure in reading situations. Quantile regressions were formulated to estimate these relations across the full skill span of each outcome. Reading-related attributions predicted contextual word recognition, sight word and decoding fluency, and comprehension skills. Attributions to ability in success situations were positively related to each outcome across the full span. On three reading outcomes, this relation strengthened at higher skill levels. Attributions to effort in success situations were consistently and negatively related to all reading outcomes. The results provide evidence that the strength of the relation between reading and attributions varies according to reading skill levels, with the strongest evidence for ability-based attributions in situations of reading success.
Melo, Lucas Pereira de
This article analyzes the significance that health professionals attribute to health education groups for people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). This ethnographic study was developed with five professionals from an Expanded Family Health team that operated in five diabetes health education groups. Information was gathered using participant observations and semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed by means of a thematic coding technique. Three different categories emerged: (1) It is a way of educating them: groups as an educational and clinical monitoring forum; (2) they know I will be there for them: the groups as a resource to access the health system; and (3) this serves as a self-help group: after all, what purpose does this group serve? The conclusion reached is that the groups studied were a therapy and support hybrid that, by means of their structure, made it possible for the informants (perhaps, also for the patients) to construct other significance for the standardization of health policies and the dilemma of chronicity. Such hybridization made it possible to create outcomes for the specificities of health work in a "total life" context.
Parish, Joycelyn G.; Parish, Thomas S.
Surveyed 426 children from intact, divorced, and reconstituted families, who responded to the Personal Attribute Inventory for Children to evaluate their families and themselves. Results showed a significant association between children's self-concepts and both their family structure and family concepts. (JAC)
Mathieson, Lindsay C.; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.; Woods, Kathleen E.; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie; Geiger, Tasha C.; Morales, Julie R.
The current study adopts a relational vulnerability model to examine the association between hostile attribution bias and relational aggression. Specifically, the relational vulnerability model implicates the interactive effects of a number of relational risk factors in the development of relational aggression. A sample of 635 3rd, 4th, and 5th…
Full Text Available The selection of seismic attributes is a key process in reservoir prediction because the prediction accuracy relies on the reliability and credibility of the seismic attributes. However, effective selection method for useful seismic attributes is still a challenge. This paper presents a novel selection method of seismic attributes for reservoir prediction based on the gray relational degree (GRD and support vector machine (SVM. The proposed method has a two-hierarchical structure. In the first hierarchy, the primary selection of seismic attributes is achieved by calculating the GRD between seismic attributes and reservoir parameters, and the GRD between the seismic attributes. The principle of the primary selection is that these seismic attributes with higher GRD to the reservoir parameters will have smaller GRD between themselves as compared to those with lower GRD to the reservoir parameters. Then the SVM is employed in the second hierarchy to perform an interactive error verification using training samples for the purpose of determining the final seismic attributes. A real-world case study was conducted to evaluate the proposed GRD-SVM method. Reliable seismic attributes were selected to predict the coalbed methane (CBM content in southern Qinshui basin, China. In the analysis, the instantaneous amplitude, instantaneous bandwidth, instantaneous frequency, and minimum negative curvature were selected, and the predicted CBM content was fundamentally consistent with the measured CBM content. This real-world case study demonstrates that the proposed method is able to effectively select seismic attributes, and improve the prediction accuracy. Thus, the proposed GRD-SVM method can be used for the selection of seismic attributes in practice.
Johnston, Charlotte; Ohan, Jeneva L.
Presents a social-cognitive model outlining the role of parental attributions for child behavior in parent?child interactions. Examples of studies providing evidence for the basic model are presented, with particular reference to applications of the model in families of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and/or…
Bugental, Daphne Blunt; Happaney, Keith
Maternal attributions and child neonatal status at birth were assessed as predictors of infant maltreatment (harsh parenting and safety neglect). The population included low-income, low-education families who were primarily Hispanic. Child maltreatment during the 1st year of life (N = 73) was predicted by neonatal status (low Apgar scores, preterm…
Choisel, Sylvain; Wickelmaier, Florian Maria
playing a role in sound quality evaluation. Eight selected attributes are quantified by a panel of 39 listeners using paired-comparison judgments and probabilistic choice models, and related to overall preference. A multiple-regression model predicts preference well, and some similarities are observed......Sound reproduced by multichannel systems is affected by many factors giving rise to various sensations, or auditory attributes. Relating specific attributes to overall preference and to physical measures of the sound field provides valuable information for a better understanding of the parameters...
Fernando, Dulitha N; Gunawardena, Nalika S; Weerasinghe, Manuj Chrishantha
Teenage pregnancies are associated with negative outcomes. Prevention requires understanding them and their families. This study aimed to describe personal and family attributes of pregnant teenagers in Sri Lanka. This was a community-based study in Sri Lanka among 510 pregnant teenagers. Half (50%) of the subjects were 19 years of age at the time of pregnancy. A majority (79.8%) had studied up to grades 6-11. Confidence in decision-making (80.7%) and in refusing unnecessary requests (88.3%) was "excellent" in a majority. Mean age of marriage/co-habiting was 17.6 years. For 31%, marriage/cohabiting was a sudden decision taken jointly with their partner (81.6%) and 83% reported being "legally" married. Substantial proportions of mothers (17.6%) and fathers (13.9%) had not attended school, and 33.1% mothers had worked abroad. Teenagers reported the death of a parent (14.1%), parental separation (10.9%) and being brought up by relatives (20%). Only a few rated strictness of rules/regulations (32.4%), freedom to discuss problems regarding puberty (25.5%), love affairs (12.7%) and sexuality (26.7%) as excellent/good. Of the spouses, 12.9% were <20 years, 71.9% had low education and 98.8% were employed. A majority had "planned" the pregnancy, and for 79.8%, the reason was "husband's wish to have a baby". Pregnant teenagers were mostly in their late teens, from poor families and with low formal education. Though teenagers showed confidence in decision-making, the decision to have a pregnancy had mostly been their spouses. Parents and spouses of the teenagers were also young, less educated and poor. There was evidence of poor parenting practices.
This study was conducted to investigate the relation between hopelessness and causal attribution in Japanese school-aged children. In Study 1, the Japanese edition of hopelessness scale for children developed by Kazdin, French, Unis, Esveldt-Dawsan, and Sherick (1983) was constructed. Seventeen original items were translated into Japanese and they were administrated to 405 fifth- and sixth-graders. All of the items could be included to the Japanese edition of hopelessness scale. The reliability and validity was examined. In Study 2, the relation between hopelessness and causal attribution in children were investigated. The causal attribution questionnaire developed by Higuchi, Kambare, and Otsuka (1983) and the hopelessness scale developed by Study 1 were administered to 188 sixth-graders. Children with high scores in hopelessness scale significantly attributed negative events to much more effort factor than children with low scores. It supports neither the reformulated learned helplessness model nor the causal attribution theory of achievement motivation. It was explained mainly from points of self-serving attribution, cultural difference, and social desirability. Some questions were discussed for developing studies on depression and causal attribution in Japan.
Wright, Michelle F.; Li, Yan; Shi, Junqi
This study examined two social status goals in relation to aggressive and prosocial behaviors as well as attributions for relational aggression among 477 (244 girls) Chinese early adolescents. Findings indicate that, after controlling for each other, the social preference goal was negatively related to self-reported overt aggression, and…
This study attempted to understand the relationship between causal attributions for stuttering and psychological well-being in adults who stutter. The study employed a cross-sectional design using a web survey distribution mode to gain information related to causal attributions and psychological well-being of 348 adults who stutter. Correlation analyses were conducted to determine relationships between participants' causal attributions (i.e. locus of causality, external control, personal control, stability, biological attributions, non-biological attributions) for stuttering and various measures of psychological well-being including self-stigma, self-esteem/self-efficacy, hope, anxiety and depression. Results indicated that higher perceptions of external control of stuttering were related to significantly lower ratings of hope and self-esteem/self-efficacy and higher ratings of anxiety and depression. Higher perceptions of personal control of stuttering were related to significantly lower ratings of self-stigma and higher ratings of hope and self-esteem/self-efficacy. Increased biological attributions were significantly related to higher ratings of permanency and unchangeableness of stuttering and lower ratings of personal control of stuttering. The findings demonstrate the importance of instilling a sense of control in PWS regarding their ability to manage their stuttering. Findings also raise questions regarding the benefits of educating PWS about the biological underpinnings of stuttering.
Filip, Petr; Moravkova, Tereza
Sensory attributes occupy irreplaceable position in offering the cosmetic and food products in the market. However, their evaluation is expensive and time-consuming. One of the possibilities how to eliminate at least partially these shortcomings is represented by an application of instrumental analysis. The aim of this contribution is to present rheological modelling using four eye creams and twelve body lotions. The parameters of the proposed models are coupled with selected sensory attributes. It enables a priori prediction of these attributes in a relatively cheap and fast way.
Martin, Betty; Kelly, Mary Margaret; Towner-Thyrum, Elizabeth
Interviewed adopted college students regarding perceptions of adoptive family life. Found that overall satisfaction with adoptive status and family life was the strongest predictor of perceived general family environment. Perception of adoptive parents' communication styles predicted different aspects of family environment. Acknowledgment of life…
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate relative importance and priority regarding airport selection attributes using Incheon International Airport and Gimpo International Airport, the two main gateway airports to Seoul, Korea, as the target. For the purpose, a survey was carried out with aviation experts as target utilizing five factors which consist of 15 airport selection attributes. The analysis has been conducted on the relative importance and priority of the airport selection factors by expert group using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. As a result of the analysis, the relative importance of airport selection attributes turned out to be different depending on the expert group. Aviation experts working in government agencies and aviation experts working in educational institutions and research institutes regarded accessibility as the most important airport selection factor, and aviation experts working for airlines and companies related to air travel regarded operation as the most important selection factor.
Ekiz, Erdogan H.; Khoo-Lattimore, Catheryn
The recent discourse of tourism development among officials within the Government of India has included the state of Goa, mainly because it has consistently witnessed positive economic impacts from tourism. However, in view of competition from other destinations, Goan tourism planners will need to identify important attributes of Goa that will positively affect tourists' destination loyalty. This study examines the correlation between five attributes of Goa and tourists' loyalty to Goa. Famil...
Godleski, Stephanie A.; Ostrov, Jamie M.
The present study used both categorical and dimensional approaches to test the association between relational and physical aggression and hostile intent attributions for both relational and instrumental provocation situations using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development longitudinal Study of Early Child Care and Youth…
Nicassio, P M
A study was conducted to determine the way in which stereotypes of machismo and femininity are associated with family size and perceptions of family planning. A total of 144 adults, male and female, from a lower class and an upper middle class urban area in Colombia were asked to respond to photographs of Colombian families varying in size and state of completeness. The study illustrated the critical role of sex-role identity and sex-role organization as variables having an effect on fertility. The lower-class respondents described parents in the photographs as significantly more macho or feminine because of their children than the upper-middle-class subjects did. Future research should attempt to measure when this drive to sex-role identity is strongest, i.e., when men and women are most driven to reproduce in order to "prove" themselves. Both lower- and upper-middle-class male groups considered male dominance in marriage to be directly linked with family size. Perceptions of the use of family planning decreased linearly with family size for both social groups, although the lower-class females attributed more family planning to spouses of large families than upper-middle-class females. It is suggested that further research deal with the ways in which constructs of machismo and male dominance vary between the sexes and among socioeconomic groups and the ways in which they impact on fertility.
Mosca, A.C.; Rocha, J.L.; Sala, G.; Velde, van de F.; Stieger, M.A.
This study investigated the effect of the spatial distribution of fat on the perception of fat-related sensory attributes using a model system that consisted of layered agar/gelatin gels containing oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion droplets dispersed in the gel matrix. Four layers of gel varying in the
Oppewal, H.; Louviere, J.J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Chias, J.; Sureda, J.
This paper first reviews approaches to modeHing consumer choice of shopping destination and argues that models typically have included only few attributes related to the selection or variety of stores in a shopping centre. Next a conjoint choice experiment is described in which profiles of
Malti, Tina; Gasser, Luciano; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline
The study investigated interpretive understanding, moral judgments, and emotion attributions in relation to social behaviour in a sample of 59 5-year-old, 123 7-year-old, and 130 9-year-old children. Interpretive understanding was assessed by two tasks measuring children's understanding of ambiguous situations. Moral judgments and emotion…
Relative age effect in physical attributes and motor fitness at different birth-month quartile. S.M. Mat-Rasid, M.R. Abdullah, H Juahir, R.M. Musa, A.B.H.M. Maliki, A Adnan, N.A. Kosni, V Eswaramoorthi, N Alias ...
Steel, Jennifer; Sanna, Lawrence; Hammond, Barbara; Whipple, James; Cross, Herbert
Objective: The aim of this study was to test a model predicting the contribution of abuse-related characteristics and mediating variables such as coping and attributional style in the development of psychological sequelae in adults reporting a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). Methodology: Two hundred and eighty-five males and females from…
Frijters, Jan C.; Tsujimoto, Kimberley C.; Boada, Richard; Gottwald, Stephanie; Hill, Dina; Jacobson, Lisa A.; Lovett, Maureen W.; Mahone, E. Mark; Willcutt, Erik G.; Wolf, Maryanne; Bosson-Heenan, Joan; Gruen, Jeffrey R.
The present study investigated the relation among reading skills and attributions, naming speed, and phonological awareness across a wide range of reading skill. Participants were 1,105 school-age children and youths from two understudied populations: African Americans and Hispanic Americans. Individual assessments of children ranging in age from…
Simon, Laurent S R; Zacharov, Nick; Katz, Brian F G
The benefit of using individual head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) in binaural audio is well documented with regards to improving localization precision. However, with the increased use of binaural audio in more complex scene renderings, cognitive studies, and virtual and augmented reality simulations, the perceptual impact of HRTF selection may go beyond simple localization. In this study, the authors develop a list of attributes which qualify the perceived differences between HRTFs, providing a qualitative understanding of the perceptual variance of non-individual binaural renderings. The list of attributes was designed using a Consensus Vocabulary Protocol elicitation method. Participants followed an Individual Vocabulary Protocol elicitation procedure, describing the perceived differences between binaural stimuli based on binauralized extracts of multichannel productions. This was followed by an automated lexical reduction and a series of consensus group meetings during which participants agreed on a list of relevant attributes. Finally, the proposed list of attributes was then evaluated through a listening test, leading to eight valid perceptual attributes for describing the perceptual dimensions affected by HRTF set variations.
Schneiderman, Gerald; And Others
Based on interviews with 24 families, the article discusses family planning and the choices available to those families in which a child has previously died from Tay-Sachs or related lipid storage diseases. (IM)
McQuaid, Sara Dybris
Good neighbourly relations or family values? Assessing British Irish cooperation in a comparative perspective 1990-2010. This paper forms part of a larger comparative study, which charts the past 20 years development of British Irish cooperation and Nordic cooperation. It examines specifically...... associations lies in the legitimacy they derive from a historical narrative of a common social, cultural, economic and political fabric. Importantly, however, the impetus behind the cooperation is constructed from both associative and ascriptive components of collective identity; cooperation is motivated...
Rowley, Stephanie; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rouland, Karmen
We examined relations among African American mothers’ (N = 392) stereotypes about gender differences in mathematics, science, and reading performance, parents’ attributions about their children’s academic successes and failures, and their seventh and eighth grade children’s academic self-views (domain-specific ability attributions and self-concept). Parents’ stereotypes about gender differences in abilities were related to their ability attributions for their children’s successes and failures within academic domains. Mothers’ attributions, in turn, were related to children’s attributions, particularly among girls. Mothers’ attributions of their children’s successes to domain-specific ability were related to the self-concepts of daughters, and failure attributions were related to domain-specific self-concepts of sons. The influences of parents’ beliefs on young adolescents’ identity beliefs are discussed. PMID:23878519
Rowley, Stephanie; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rouland, Karmen
We examined relations among African American mothers' ( N = 392) stereotypes about gender differences in mathematics, science, and reading performance, parents' attributions about their children's academic successes and failures, and their seventh and eighth grade children's academic self-views (domain-specific ability attributions and self-concept). Parents' stereotypes about gender differences in abilities were related to their ability attributions for their children's successes and failures within academic domains. Mothers' attributions, in turn, were related to children's attributions, particularly among girls. Mothers' attributions of their children's successes to domain-specific ability were related to the self-concepts of daughters, and failure attributions were related to domain-specific self-concepts of sons. The influences of parents' beliefs on young adolescents' identity beliefs are discussed.
Rutkienė, Aušra; Trepulė, Elena
Work-family conflict is a complex, multi-dimensional construct. When families decide to continue their professional career, work and family role matching demands efforts and causes strain. Results of a qualitative research show that having and taking care of pre-school and primary-school age children is one of main conflict reasons. Child-care arrangements have an important impact on parents’ experiences of work and their career paths. Job tenure and involvement into work-team are lower stres...
Boylan, Christine; Trueswell, John C; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L
The angular gyrus (AG) and anterior temporal lobe (ATL) have been found to respond to a number of tasks involving combinatorial processing. In this study, we investigate the conceptual combination of nominal compounds, and ask whether ATL/AG activity is modulated by the type of combinatorial operation applied to a nominal compound. We compare relational and attributive interpretations of nominal compounds and find that ATL and AG both discriminate these two types, but in distinct ways. While right AG demonstrated greater positive task-responsive activity for relational compounds, there was a greater negative deflection in the BOLD response in left AG for relational compounds. In left ATL, we found an earlier peak in subjects' BOLD response curves for attributive interpretations. In other words, we observed dissociations in both AG and ATL between relational and attributive nominal compounds, with regard to magnitude in the former and to timing in the latter. These findings expand on prior studies that posit roles for both AG and ATL in conceptual processing generally, and in conceptual combination specifically, by indicating possible functional specializations of these two regions within a larger conceptual knowledge network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kim, Seokkyun; Song, Jinsu; Park, Seungkyu; Ham, Sunyoung; Paek, Kyungyeol; Kang, Minjung; Chae, Yunjung; Seo, Heewon; Kim, Hyung-Chan; Flores, Michael
ABSTRACT A biosimilar product needs to demonstrate biosimilarity to the originator reference product, and the quality profile of the latter should be monitored throughout the period of the biosimilar's development to match the quality attributes of the 2 products that relate to efficacy and safety. For the development of a biosimilar version of trastuzumab, the reference product, Herceptin?, was extensively characterized for the main physicochemical and biologic properties by standard or stat...
Pan, Jiabao; Liu, Bingjie; Kreps, Gary L
Depression is a mood disorder that may lead to severe outcomes including mental breakdown, self-injury, and suicide. Potential causes of depression include genetic, sociocultural, and individual-level factors. However, public understandings of depression guided by a complex interplay of media and other societal discourses might not be congruent with the scientific knowledge. Misunderstandings of depression can lead to under-treatment and stigmatization of depression. Against this backdrop, this study aims to achieve a holistic understanding of the patterns and dynamics in discourses about depression from various information sources in China by looking at related posts on social media. A content analysis was conducted with 902 posts about depression randomly selected within a three-year period (2014 to 2016) on the mainstream social media platform in China, Sina Weibo. Posts were analyzed with a focus on attributions of and solutions to depression, attitudes towards depression, and efficacy indicated by the posts across various information sources. Results suggested that depression was most often attributed to individual-level factors. Across all the sources, individual-level attributions were often adopted by state-owned media whereas health and academic experts and organizations most often mentioned biological causes of depression. Citizen journalists and unofficial social groups tended to make societal-level attributions. Overall, traditional media posts suggested the lowest efficacy in coping with depression and the most severe negative outcomes as compared with other sources. The dominance of individual-level attributions and solutions regarding depression on Chinese social media on one hand manifests the public's limited understanding of depression and on the other hand, may further constrain adoption of scientific explanations about depression and exacerbate stigmatization towards depressed individuals. Mass media's posts centered on description of severe
Branje, S.J.T.; Aken, M.A.G. van; Lieshout, C.F.M. van
To better understand what determines the support that family members perceive in dyadic family relationships, this study tested to what extent the perceiver, the partner, their specific relationship, and the family determine perceived support, and Whether these effects differ for horizontal (i.e.,
Dias, Adriano; Cordeiro, Ricardo
Noise is the most frequent type of occupational exposure and can lead to both auditory and extra-auditory dysfunction as well as increasing the risk of work accidents. The purpose of this study was to estimate the attributable fraction of work accidents related to occupational noise exposure in a medium-sized city in Southeast Brazil. In this hospital-based case-control study, including 600 cases and 822 controls, the odds ratio of work accidents (controlled for several covariables) was obtained classifying occupational noise exposure into four levels and determining the prevalence at each level. Based on these data, the calculated attributable fraction was 0.3041 (95%CI: 0.2341-0.3676), i.e., 30% of work accidents in the study area were statistically associated with occupational noise exposure. The authors discuss the causes of this association and the implications for the prevention of work accidents.
Celenkosini Thembelenkosini Nxumalo
a cycle of disability on the part of the patient and family. Purpose: To explore the stigma .... prevention of stigmatisation of people with mental illness and their families in rural ... as a family member's accounts of stigma related feelings, situations or ..... ishment from the family as a reason for the bad behaviour. The participants ...
Peterson, Carla A.; Roggman, Lori A.; Green, Beth; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel; Korfmacher, Jon; McKelvey, Lorraine; Zhang, Dong; Atwater, Jane B.
Variations in dosage, content, and family engagement with Early Head Start (EHS) home visiting services were examined for families participating in the EHS Research and Evaluation Project. Families were grouped by characteristics of maternal age, maternal ethnicity, and level of family risk. All home visiting variables were related differentially…
Full Text Available This paper presents rough netrosophic multiattribute decision making based on grey relational analysis. While the concept of neutrosophic sets is a powerful logic to deal with indeterminate and inconsistent data, the theory of rough neutrosophic sets is also a powerful mathematical tool to deal with incompleteness. The rating of all alternatives is expressed with the upper and lower approximation operator and the pair of neutrosophic sets which are characterized by truth-membership degree, indeterminacy-membership degree, and falsitymembership degree. Weight of each attribute is partially known to decision maker. We extend the neutrosophic grey relational analysis method to rough neutrosophic grey relational analysis method and apply it to multiattribute decision making problem. Information entropy method is used to obtain the partially known attribute weights. Accumulated geometric operator is defined to transform rough neutrosophic number (neutrosophic pair to single valued neutrosophic number. Neutrosophic grey relational coefficient is determined by using Hamming distance between each alternative to ideal rough neutrosophic estimates reliability solution and the ideal rough neutrosophic estimates un-reliability solution. Then rough neutrosophic relational degree is defined to determine the ranking order of all alternatives. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the applicability and efficiency of the proposed approach.
Timshel, Isabelle; Montgomery, Edith; Dalgaard, Nina Thorup
and protective factors an ecological model was used to structure the findings. At the individual level, parental trauma experiences/mental illness, substance abuse and history of child abuse were found to be risk factors. Family level risk factors included parent-child interaction, family structure and family...... families is a result of accumulating, multiple risk factors on the individual, familial, societal and cultural level. The findings suggest that individual trauma and exile related stress do not only affect the individual but have consequences at a family level. Thus, interventions targeting family related...
Full Text Available Many manufacturers today are striving to offer high value-added product-related services (PRS due to increasing competition and environmental pressure. PRS can reduce the negative impact on the environment, because it extends the life of products and minimizes the cost. Product and service planning has been considered as the critical factor to the success of PRS. Quality function deployment (QFD has been recognized as an efficient planning tool which can convert customer needs (CNs into design attributes of PRS involving product attributes (PAs and service attributes (SAs. However, the subjective and vague information in the design of PRS with QFD may lead to inaccurate priority of PAs and SAs. To solve this problem, a novel rough VIKOR- (VIseKriterijumska Optimizaciji I Kompromisno Resenje- based QFD is proposed. The proposed approach integrates the strength of rough number (RN in manipulating vague concepts with less a priori information and the merit of VIKOR in structuring framework of compromise decision-making. Finally, an application in compressor-based service design is presented to illustrate the potential of the proposed method.
Correa, Loreto A; Zapata, Beatriz; Samaniego, Horacio; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio
Social life involves costs and benefits mostly associated with how individuals interact with each other. The formation of hierarchies inside social groups has evolved as a common strategy to avoid high costs stemming from social interactions. Hierarchical relationships seem to be associated with different features such as body size, body condition and/or age, which determine dominance ability ('prior attributes' hypothesis). In contrast, the 'social dynamic' hypothesis suggests that an initial social context is a determinant in the formation of the hierarchy, more so than specific individual attributes. Hierarchical rank places individuals in higher positions, which presumably increases resource accessibility to their benefit, including opportunities for reproduction. We evaluate the maintenance of hierarchy in a family group of guanacos (Lama guanicoe) and evaluate the possible mechanisms involved in the stability of these interactions and their consequences. We estimate the linearity of social hierarchy and their dynamics. We find evidence of the formation of a highly linear hierarchy among females with males positioned at the bottom of the hierarchy. This hierarchy is not affected by physical characteristics or age, suggesting that it is established only through intra-group interactions. Rank is not related with calves' weight gain either; however, subordinated females, with lower rank, exhibit higher rates of allosuckling. We found no evidence of hierarchical structure in calves suggesting that hierarchical relationship in guanacos could be established during the formation of the family group. Hence, our results suggest that hierarchical dynamics could be related more to social dynamics than to prior attributes. We finally discuss the importance of hierarchies established by dominance and their role in minimizing social costs of interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tziner, Aharon; Meir, Elchanan I.; Segal, Hila
Data from 359 military officers (measures of personality, ability, and congruence) and supervisor and peer performance ratings were analyzed. Personality and person-environment fit were related to performance. Extroverts and those whose interests were congruent with their work environment tended to receive higher ratings. (Contains 41 references.)…
Noack, Peter; Krettek, Christine; Walper, Sabine
Examined peer relations of young people from nuclear families, step families, and single-parent families. Findings suggest peer relations were affected by parental separation only to a minor extent as compared to, e.g. gender- or age-specific effects. A central aspect of friendship quality, however, namely admiration by friends, clearly suffered…
Full Text Available Most studies reporting ethnic disparities in the quality of healthcare come from developed countries and rely on observational methods. We conducted the first experimental study to evaluate whether health providers in Peru provide differential quality of care for family planning services, based on the indigenous or mestizo (mixed ethnoracial ancestry profile of the patient. In a crossover randomized controlled trial conducted in 2012, a sample of 351 out of the 408 public health establishments in Metropolitan Lima, Peru were randomly assigned to receive unannounced simulated patients enacting indigenous and mestizo profiles (sequence-1 or mestizo and then indigenous profiles (sequence-2, with a five week wash-out period. Both ethnic profiles used the same scripted scenario for seeking contraceptive advice but had distinctive cultural attributes such as clothing, styling of hair, make-up, accessories, posture and patterns of movement and speech. Our primary outcome measure of quality of care is the proportion of technical tasks performed by providers, as established by Peruvian family planning clinical guidelines. Providers and data analysts were kept blinded to the allocation. We found a non-significant mean difference of -0.7% (p = 0.23 between ethnic profiles in the percentage of technical tasks performed by providers. However we report large deficiencies in the compliance with quality standards of care for both profiles. Differential provider behaviour based on the patient's ethnic profiles compared in the study did not contribute to deficiencies in family planning outcomes observed. The study highlights the need to explore other determinants for poor compliance with quality standards, including demand and supply side factors, and calls for interventions to improve the quality of care for family planning services in Metropolitan Lima.
Li, Li; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Liang, Li-Jung; Lin, Chunqing; Farmer, Shu C; Flore, Martin
This article explores the association of people who inject drugs and their family members in terms of mental health and family relations. The objective was to understand the family context and its impact on people who inject drugs in a family-oriented culture in Vietnam. Cross-sectional assessment data were gathered from 83 people who inject drugs and 83 of their family members recruited from four communes in Phú Thọ province, Vietnam. Depressive symptoms and family relations were measured for both people who inject drugs and family members. Internalized shame and drug-using behavior were reported by people who inject drugs, and caregiver burden was reported by family members. We found that higher level of drug using behavior of people who inject drugs was significantly associated with higher depressive symptoms and lower family relations reported by themselves as well as their family members. Family relations reported by people who inject drugs and their family members were positively correlated. The findings highlight the need for interventions that address psychological distress and the related challenges faced by family members of people who inject drugs. The article has policy implication which concludes with an argument for developing strategies that enhance the role of families in supporting behavioral change among people who inject drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hwang, J; Kim, Y H
A number of obesity studies have been focused on identifying the relationships between socioeconomic status and physical activity involvement. In behavioral medicine, the limited data are available on obese people's physical activity and its related psychological predictors based on psychological theories. To identify the differences in physical activity and its related motivational attributes among normal weight, overweight, and obese adolescents and to find the effect of body mass index (BMI) and the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) constructs in predicting physical activity. One thousand seventy-one students ranging from seventh to ninth grades were randomly selected from three junior high schools in Seoul (359 normal weight students, 468 overweight students, and 244 obese students). A Korean version of Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 and Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire were applied to measure the participants' motivational attributes and physical activity. Overweight and obese adolescents showed higher scores on amotivation and externally motivated regulations for physical activity than their normal weight counterparts. Internal regulation was more significant for physical activity in normal weight adolescent. However, there was no difference in physical activity among the three groups. Additionally, the findings identified that BMI and the SDT constructs were significant to explain physical activity. This study offers fundamental knowledge in gaining a clearer understanding of the types of motivation most likely to contribute to the initiation and promotion of physical activity in overweight and obese adolescents.
Baldwin, Austin K.; Corsi, Steven; Mason, Sherri A.
Plastic debris is a growing contaminant of concern in freshwater environments, yet sources, transport, and fate remain unclear. This study characterized the quantity and morphology of floating micro- and macroplastics in 29 Great Lakes tributaries in six states under different land covers, wastewater effluent contributions, population densities, and hydrologic conditions. Tributaries were sampled three or four times each using a 333 μm mesh neuston net. Plastic particles were sorted by size, counted, and categorized as fibers/lines, pellets/beads, foams, films, and fragments. Plastics were found in all 107 samples, with a maximum concentration of 32 particles/m3 and a median of 1.9 particles/m3. Ninety-eight percent of sampled plastic particles were less than 4.75 mm in diameter and therefore considered microplastics. Fragments, films, foams, and pellets/beads were positively correlated with urban-related watershed attributes and were found at greater concentrations during runoff-event conditions. Fibers, the most frequently detected particle type, were not associated with urban-related watershed attributes, wastewater effluent contribution, or hydrologic condition. Results from this study add to the body of information currently available on microplastics in different environmental compartments, including unique contributions to quantify their occurrence and variability in rivers with a wide variety of different land-use characteristics while highlighting differences between surface samples from rivers compared with lakes.
Baldwin, Austin K; Corsi, Steven R; Mason, Sherri A
Plastic debris is a growing contaminant of concern in freshwater environments, yet sources, transport, and fate remain unclear. This study characterized the quantity and morphology of floating micro- and macroplastics in 29 Great Lakes tributaries in six states under different land covers, wastewater effluent contributions, population densities, and hydrologic conditions. Tributaries were sampled three or four times each using a 333 μm mesh neuston net. Plastic particles were sorted by size, counted, and categorized as fibers/lines, pellets/beads, foams, films, and fragments. Plastics were found in all 107 samples, with a maximum concentration of 32 particles/m 3 and a median of 1.9 particles/m 3 . Ninety-eight percent of sampled plastic particles were less than 4.75 mm in diameter and therefore considered microplastics. Fragments, films, foams, and pellets/beads were positively correlated with urban-related watershed attributes and were found at greater concentrations during runoff-event conditions. Fibers, the most frequently detected particle type, were not associated with urban-related watershed attributes, wastewater effluent contribution, or hydrologic condition. Results from this study add to the body of information currently available on microplastics in different environmental compartments, including unique contributions to quantify their occurrence and variability in rivers with a wide variety of different land-use characteristics while highlighting differences between surface samples from rivers compared with lakes.
Sharma, Harshita; Zerbe, Norman; Heim, Daniel; Wienert, Stephan; Lohmann, Sebastian; Hellwich, Olaf; Hufnagl, Peter
This paper describes a novel graph-based method for efficient representation and subsequent classification in histological whole slide images of gastric cancer. Her2/neu immunohistochemically stained and haematoxylin and eosin stained histological sections of gastric carcinoma are digitized. Immunohistochemical staining is used in practice by pathologists to determine extent of malignancy, however, it is laborious to visually discriminate the corresponding malignancy levels in the more commonly used haematoxylin and eosin stain, and this study attempts to solve this problem using a computer-based method. Cell nuclei are first isolated at high magnification using an automatic cell nuclei segmentation strategy, followed by construction of cell nuclei attributed relational graphs of the tissue regions. These graphs represent tissue architecture comprehensively, as they contain information about cell nuclei morphology as vertex attributes, along with knowledge of neighborhood in the form of edge linking and edge attributes. Global graph characteristics are derived and ensemble learning is used to discriminate between three types of malignancy levels, namely, non-tumor, Her2/neu positive tumor and Her2/neu negative tumor. Performance is compared with state of the art methods including four texture feature groups (Haralick, Gabor, Local Binary Patterns and Varma Zisserman features), color and intensity features, and Voronoi diagram and Delaunay triangulation. Texture, color and intensity information is also combined with graph-based knowledge, followed by correlation analysis. Quantitative assessment is performed using two cross validation strategies. On investigating the experimental results, it can be concluded that the proposed method provides a promising way for computer-based analysis of histopathological images of gastric cancer.
The stigma of families is seen in the form of assignment of blame, social isolation and rejection. This stigma subsequently perpetuates a cycle of disability on the part of the patient and family. Purpose: To explore the stigma related experiences of family members of persons with mental illness in a selected community in the ...
Formoso, Diana; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Barrera, Manuel, Jr.; Dumka, Larry E.
This study examined independent and interactive relations between the interparental relationship and maternal employment in predicting fathering within low-income, Mexican American two-parent families (N = 115). Interparental conflict was negatively related to quality fathering, and these relations were noted only for single-earner families. The…
Elda Mei Lo Chan
Full Text Available Abstract Despite substantial evidence that problem gambling is associated with a wide range of family difficulties, limited effort has been devoted to studying the negative impacts on family members as a result of problem gambling and how they cope and function under the impacts of problem gambling in Chinese communities. Among the very few Chinese-specific gambling-related family impact studies, none have examined how gambling-related family coping responses are related to gambling-related family impacts. Based on a sample of treatment-seeking Chinese family members of problem gamblers, this study aimed to explore: (1 the demographic characteristics and health and psychological well-being of the family members; (2 the gambling-related family member impacts (active disturbance, worrying behavior; (3 the family coping strategies (engaged, tolerant-inactive and withdrawal coping; (4 the relationship between gambling-related family member impacts, psychological distress and family coping strategies. It was hypothesized that positive significant relationships would be found between family member impacts, psychological distress and family coping strategies. From March 2011 to February 2012, a total of 103 family members of problem gamblers who sought help from Tung Wah Group of Hospitals Even Centre in Hong Kong were interviewed. Results showed that a majority of family members were partners or ex-partners of the gambler with low or no income. A large proportion of participants reported moderate to high psychological distress (72.6 %, poor to fair general health (60.2 %, and poor to neither good nor bad quality of life (61.1 %. Family member impacts were positively significantly correlated to all family coping strategies and psychological distress. Tolerant-inactive coping had the strongest relationships with family member impacts and psychological distress. Strong relationships between family member impacts and psychological distress were also
Timshel, Isabelle; Montgomery, Edith; Dalgaard, Nina Thorup
The current systematic review summarizes the evidence from studies examining the risk and protective factors associated with family related violence in refugee families. Data included 15 peer-reviewed qualitative and quantitative studies. In order to gain an overview of the identified risk and protective factors an ecological model was used to structure the findings. At the individual level, parental trauma experiences/mental illness, substance abuse and history of child abuse were found to be risk factors. Family level risk factors included parent-child interaction, family structure and family acculturation stress. At the societal level low socioeconomic status was identified as a risk factor. Cultural level risk factors included patriarchal beliefs. Positive parental coping strategies were a protective factor. An ecological analysis of the results suggests that family related violence in refugee families is a result of accumulating, multiple risk factors on the individual, familial, societal and cultural level. The findings suggest that individual trauma and exile related stress do not only affect the individual but have consequences at a family level. Thus, interventions targeting family related violence should not only include the individual, but the family. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Arslan, Salim; Ersahin, Tulin; Cetin-Atalay, Rengul; Gunduz-Demir, Cigdem
More rapid and accurate high-throughput screening in molecular cellular biology research has become possible with the development of automated microscopy imaging, for which cell nucleus segmentation commonly constitutes the core step. Although several promising methods exist for segmenting the nuclei of monolayer isolated and less-confluent cells, it still remains an open problem to segment the nuclei of more-confluent cells, which tend to grow in overlayers. To address this problem, we propose a new model-based nucleus segmentation algorithm. This algorithm models how a human locates a nucleus by identifying the nucleus boundaries and piecing them together. In this algorithm, we define four types of primitives to represent nucleus boundaries at different orientations and construct an attributed relational graph on the primitives to represent their spatial relations. Then, we reduce the nucleus identification problem to finding predefined structural patterns in the constructed graph and also use the primitives in region growing to delineate the nucleus borders. Working with fluorescence microscopy images, our experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm identifies nuclei better than previous nucleus segmentation algorithms.
Luo, Wenshu; Hogan, David J.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Sheng, Yee Zher; Aye, Khin Maung
This study investigates attributional beliefs of Singapore secondary students in their English study and how they can be predicted by self-construal, competence and achievement goals. A total of 1,496 students were administered surveys on seven attributions, independent and interdependent self-construals, previous achievement, self-efficacy,…
Kim, Min Jung; Kwak, Han Sub; Jung, Hee Yeon; Kim, Sang Sook
Various microbial communities play a role in generating the distinctive sensory characteristics of the traditional Korean soybean paste, doenjang. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between sensory characteristics and microbial communities in traditional doenjang. The results of the descriptive analysis revealed that some traditional doenjang (T1-T11) exhibited distinctive characteristics, such as fish sauce flavor, meju, bitterness, sourness, and saltiness, whereas the modified samples (M1-M3) demonstrated sweetness, umami, and an alcohol odor. According to the metagenomic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the phylum Firmicutes was the dominant bacterium in most doenjang. At the genus level, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were frequently found in most doenjang. Among these LAB, the major genera of bacteria were Tetragenococcus in M2 (60.30%), T3 (91.20%), T8 (48.60%), and T9 (60.90%); Enterococcus in T1 (29.40%), T4 (34.10%), and T10 (50.50%); Leuconostoc in T7 (89.10%); and Lactobacillus in T9 (38.3%). The most frequently occurring non-LAB was Bacillus in M3 (50.10%), T5 (46.50%), and T6 (20.50%), and M1 and T2 contained Staphylococcus and Ochrobactrum as their major non-LAB, respectively. The results of a correlation analysis between the sensory attributes from the descriptive analysis and the microbial communities from 454 pyrosequencing provided an overview for the relationship between sensory characteristics and microbial communities. Ochrobactrum, Stenotrophomonas, Rhodobacteraceae, Proteus, and Luteimonas were found in samples that had a strong fish sauce characteristic. The presence of LAB-Tetragenococcus, Enterococcus, Pediococcus, Carnobacterium, and Weissella-was related to sourness. Enterococcus and Enterobacter were found in samples with a matured flavor and a soft mouthfeel, respectively. The overall results of the study demonstrate that microbial communities found in doenjang were closely related to distinct
Full Text Available Families of children with chronic illness experience persistent stress. Facing the diagnosis and learning how to cope with it is a stressful experience not only for the child but also for the parents and for the whole family. The illness, with its unpredictability and treatment, disturbs their daily routine and threatens the whole family system. Parental involvement in the child’s disease management and their emotional support are crucial for effective coping and adaptation to the child’s chronic illness. The aim of this article is to present the importance of the parental role in these families through theoretical findings of the relational family model.
Li, Jian-Bin; Delvecchio, Elisa; Lis, Adriana; Mazzeschi, Claudia
Family allocentrism is a domain-specific collectivistic attribute referring to the family. This research tested the one-factor structure of the Family Allocentrism Scale (FAS), examined the association between family allocentrism and adjustment outcomes, and compared the factor means and the correlations with adjustment between Chinese and Italian adolescents. To this end, 484 Chinese and 480 Italian adolescents participated in the study by answering a battery of self-report measures. The results confirmed the one-factor structure of the FAS. Family allocentrism was related to a number of adjustment outcomes. More importantly, Chinese adolescents reported more family allocentrism than their Italian counterparts did, but the relations between family allocentrism and adjustment outcomes were equivalent in magnitude between the two samples. Collectively, these findings provide crucial evidence for the psychometric properties of the FAS and shed light on the importance of family allocentrism in promoting positive youth development from a cross-cultural perspective. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Murphy, Yolanda E; Flessner, Christopher A
Research among youths with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) has shown a significant relationship between illness severity, treatment outcome, and the family environment yet little work has been undertaken among the broader class of obsessive compulsive and related disorders (OCRDs) - Trichotillomania, body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), skin picking disorder (SPD), and hoarding. The aim of this study was to (1) review the family functioning literature among paediatric OCRDs, (2) address limitations to previous studies, and (3) highlight areas in need of further research. A review of the literature was conducted using several databases (i.e., Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect) and employing key search terms (e.g., 'family functioning', 'paediatric OCD'). The resultant articles examined several domains subsumed under the broader heading of family environment including parental mental health, parenting practices, family dynamics, family involvement with symptoms, and family emotional climate. The literature reviewed demonstrated a strong relationship between paediatric OCD and adverse family functioning (e.g., parental symptoms of anxiety and depression, family accommodation, family strain and stress, parental guilt and fear) in all identified domains. While family functioning research in paediatric HPD was relatively scant, research suggested similar familial dysfunction (e.g., limited independence, low family cohesion, family violence). Collectively, only 1 article, examining BDD, assessed family functioning within other OCRDs. This review supports the need for further research in the OCRDs. Limitations to the available literature and targeted suggestions for future research are discussed. The domains of family environment in this study indicate specific family functioning deficits that may serve as aetiological and/or maintenance factors in paediatric OCRDs, possibly contributing to the understanding of these complex disorders. The recognition of family deficits
Sommer, Monika; Sodian, Beate; Döhnel, Katrin; Schwerdtner, Johannes; Meinhardt, Jörg; Hajak, Göran
The understanding that other people's emotional states depend on the fulfilment of their intention is fundamentally important for responding adequately to others. Psychopathic patients show severe deficits in responding adequately to other people's emotion. The present study explored whether these impairments are associated with deficits in the ability to infer others' emotional states. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), identical cartoon stories, depicting a subject whose intention was fulfilled or not fulfilled, were presented to 14 psychopathic patients and 14 non-psychopathic patients. The participants should indicate the protagonist's emotional state. Additionally, a non-mentalizing control condition was presented. The two groups showed no behavioural differences. But in non-psychopathic patients emotion attribution was associated with increased activity of the mirror neuron system, the bilateral supramarginal gyrus and the superior frontal gyrus. In contrast psychopathic patients showed increased activation of regions associated with outcome monitoring and attention, such as the orbitofrontal cortex, the medial frontal cortex and temporo-parietal areas. The results emphasize that although psychopathic patients show no deficits in reasoning about other people's emotion if an explicit evaluation is demanded, they use divergent neural processing strategies that are related to more rational, outcome-oriented processes. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Castonguay, Andree L; Gilchrist, Jenna D; Mack, Diane E; Sabiston, Catherine M
This study explored body-related emotional experiences of pride in young adult males (n=138) and females (n=165). Data were collected using a relived emotion task and analyzed using inductive content analysis. Thirty-nine codes were identified and grouped into six categories (triggers, contexts, cognitive attributions, and affective, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes) for each of two themes (hubristic and authentic pride). Hubristic pride triggers included evaluating appearance/fitness as superior. Cognitions centered on feelings of superiority. Behaviors included strategies to show off. Triggers for authentic pride were personal improvements/maintenance in appearance and meeting or exceeding goals. Feeling accomplished was a cognitive outcome, and physical activity was a behavioral strategy. Contexts for the experience of both facets of pride primarily involved sports settings, swimming/beach, and clothes shopping. These findings provide theoretical support for models of pride as it applies to body image, and advances conceptual understanding of positive body image. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Szu-Yao; Davies, Elizabeth
The literature on the impact of nursing home placement of older parents on family caregivers is still incomplete. Family caregivers experience stress, shock, anxiety, fear, resistance, and guilt in the process of decision making. The literature has demonstrated that family caregivers continue to experience stress and problems after placing older relatives into a long term care facility. Cultural values impact on people's attitudes, values and expectations. Culture will therefore affect the care-giving experience. Relatively little information is available from Asian and multicultural societies. Identifying family caregiver experiences after nursing home placement can alert professionals to the need for family guidance prior to nursing home placement and assist in early identification of potential problems. This article reviews the literature and discusses the impact on family caregivers of making a decision for nursing home placement and dealing with the stress and challenges that persist after nursing home admission.
Luo, Ling; Harmon, Jennifer; Yang, Xian; Chen, Haoyu; Patel, Shrena; Mineau, Geraldine; Yang, Zhenglin; Constantine, Ryan; Buehler, Jeanette; Kaminoh, Yuuki; Ma, Xiang; Wong, Tien Y; Zhang, Maonian; Zhang, Kang
We examined familial aggregation and risk of age-related macular degeneration in the Utah population using a population-based case-control study. Over one million unique patient records were searched within the University of Utah Health Sciences Center and the Utah Population Database (UPDB), identifying 4764 patients with AMD. Specialized kinship analysis software was used to test for familial aggregation of disease, estimate the magnitude of familial risks, and identify families at high risk for disease. The population-attributable risk (PAR) for AMD was calculated to be 0.34. Recurrence risks in relatives indicate increased relative risks in siblings (2.95), first cousins (1.29), second cousins (1.13), and parents (5.66) of affected cases. There were 16 extended large families with AMD identified for potential use in genetic studies. Each family had five or more living affected members. The familial aggregation of AMD shown in this study exemplifies the merit of the UPDB and supports recent research demonstrating significant genetic contribution to disease development and progression.
Malti, Tina; Krettenauer, Tobias
This meta-analytic review of 42 studies covering 8,009 participants (ages 4-20) examines the relation of moral emotion attributions to prosocial and antisocial behavior. A significant association is found between moral emotion attributions and prosocial and antisocial behaviors ("d" = 0.26, 95% CI [0.15, 0.38]; "d" = 0.39, 95%…
Walter Henriques da Costa
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cancer related to hereditary syndromes corresponds to approximately 5-10% of all tumors. Among those from the genitourinary system, many tumors had been identified to be related to genetic syndromes in the last years with the advent of new molecular genetic tests. New entities were described or better characterized, especially in kidney cancer such as hereditary leiomyomatosis renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC, succinate dehydrogenase kidney cancer (SDH-RCC, and more recently BAP1 germline mutation related RCC. Among tumors from the bladder or renal pelvis, some studies had reinforced the role of germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR genes, especially in young patients. In prostate adenocarcinoma, besides mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes that are known to increase the incidence of high-risk cancer in young patients, new studies have shown mutation in other gene such as HOXB13 and also polymorphisms in MYC, MSMB, KLK2 and KLK3 that can be related to hereditary prostate cancer. Finally, tumors from testis that showed an increased in 8 - 10-fold in siblings and 4 - 6-fold in sons of germ cell tumors (TGCT patients, have been related to alteration in X chromosome. Also genome wide association studies GWAS pointed new genes that can also be related to increase of this susceptibility.
Hanni SM Kiiski
Full Text Available Although aesthetic preferences are known to be important in person perception and can play a significant role in everyday social decisions, the effect of the age of the observer on aesthetic preferences for faces of different ages has not yet been fully investigated. In the present study we investigated whether aesthetic preferences change with ageing, with an age-related bias in favouring faces from one’s own age group. In addition, we examined the role of age on both the perceptual qualities and the social attributes of faces that may influence these aesthetic judgements. Both younger and older adult observers provided ratings to images of younger, middle-aged and older unfamiliar faces. As well as attractiveness, the rating dimensions included other perceptual (distinctiveness, familiarity and social (competence, trustworthiness and dominance factors. The results suggested a consistent aesthetic preference for youthful faces across all ages of the observers but, surprisingly, no evidence for an age-related bias in attractiveness ratings. Older adults tended to provide higher ratings of attractiveness, competence and trustworthiness to the unfamiliar faces, consistent with the positivity effect previously reported. We also tested whether perceptual factors such as face familiarity or distinctiveness affected aesthetic ratings. Only ratings of familiarity, but not distinctiveness, were positively associated with the attractiveness of the faces. Moreover, ratings of familiarity decreased with increasing age of the face. With regard to the social characteristics of the faces, we found that the age of the face negatively correlated with ratings of trustworthiness provided by all observers, but with the competence ratings of older observers only. Interestingly, older adults provided higher ratings of perceived competence and trustworthiness to younger than older faces. However, our results also suggest that higher attractiveness ratings, together
Kiiski, Hanni S. M.; Cullen, Brendan; Clavin, Sarah L.; Newell, Fiona N.
Although aesthetic preferences are known to be important in person perception and can play a significant role in everyday social decisions, the effect of the age of the observer on aesthetic preferences for faces of different ages has not yet been fully investigated. In the present study we investigated whether aesthetic preferences change with aging, with an age-related bias in favoring faces from one’s own age group. In addition, we examined the role of age on both the perceptual qualities and the social attributes of faces that may influence these aesthetic judgements. Both younger and older adult observers provided ratings to images of younger, middle-aged and older unfamiliar faces. As well as attractiveness, the rating dimensions included other perceptual (distinctiveness, familiarity) and social (competence, trustworthiness and dominance) factors. The results suggested a consistent aesthetic preference for youthful faces across all ages of the observers but, surprisingly, no evidence for an age-related bias in attractiveness ratings. Older adults tended to provide higher ratings of attractiveness, competence and trustworthiness to the unfamiliar faces, consistent with the positivity effect previously reported. We also tested whether perceptual factors such as face familiarity or distinctiveness affected aesthetic ratings. Only ratings of familiarity, but not distinctiveness, were positively associated with the attractiveness of the faces. Moreover, ratings of familiarity decreased with increasing age of the face. With regard to the social characteristics of the faces, we found that the age of the face negatively correlated with ratings of trustworthiness provided by all observers, but with the competence ratings of older observers only. Interestingly, older adults provided higher ratings of perceived competence and trustworthiness to younger than older faces. However, our results also suggest that higher attractiveness ratings, together with older aged
Estrada Fernández, M Eugenia; Gil Lacruz, Ana I; Gil Lacruz, Marta; Viñas López, Antonio
The purpose of this work is to analyse the effects on informal caregiver's health and lifestyle when living with a dependent person at home. A comparison will be made between this situation and other situations involving commitment of time and energy, taking into account gender and age differences in each stage of the life cycle. Cross-sectional study analysing secondary data. The method used for collecting information is the computer assisted personal interview carried out in selected homes by the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality. The study included 19,351 participants aged over 25 years who completed the 2011-2012 Spanish National Health Survey. This research is based on demographic information obtained from a Spanish National Health Survey (2011/12). Using an empirical framework, the Logit model was select and the data reported as odds ratio. The estimations were repeated independently by sub-groups of age and gender. The study showed that the health of people who share their lives with a dependent person is worse than those who do not have any dependent person at home (they are 5 times at higher risk of developing health problems). The study found that being a woman, advance age, low educational level and does not work, also has an influence. Being a caregiver reduces the likelihood of maintaining a healthy lifestyle through physical exercise, relaxation, or eating a balanced diet. Living with a dependent person reduces the likelihood of maintaining healthy lifestyles and worsens the state of health of family members. Significant differences in gender and age were found. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Skoczen, I.; Cieciuch, J.; Oud, J.H.L.; Welzen, K.F.
The aim of the present study was to develop and investigate the psychometric properties of the Computerized Family Relations Test (CFRT) for children. This test assesses the quality of family relationships with the mother and father from a child's perspective. The CFRT consists of six scales
Radina, M. Elise
An estimated 20% of breast cancer survivors face the chronic condition of breast cancer-related lymphedema. This study explored the ways in which women with this condition experienced changes in their participation in family leisure as one indicator of family functioning. Participants (N = 27) were interviewed regarding lifestyles before and after…
In Turkey, the family unit is regarded as the cornerstone of a healthy and balanced society. Family relations exhibited in Turkish proverbs deal with several aspects of married life and the persons making part of it. These include the functions of Husband and Wife, Mother, Father, Grandparents, Children, Grandchildren, and even In-laws and their…
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Substantive equity-focused policy changes in Ontario, Canada have yet to be realized and may be limited by a lack of widespread public support. An understanding of how the public attributes inequalities can be informative for developing widespread support. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to examine how Ontarians attribute income-related health inequalities. METHODS: We conducted a telephone survey of 2,006 Ontarians using random digit dialing. The survey included thirteen questions relevant to the theme of attributions of income-related health inequalities, with each statement linked to a known social determinant of health. The statements were further categorized depending on whether the statement was framed around blaming the poor for health inequalities, the plight of the poor as a cause of health inequalities, or the privilege of the rich as a cause of health inequalities. RESULTS: There was high agreement for statements that attributed inequalities to differences between the rich and the poor in terms of employment, social status, income and food security, and conversely, the least agreement for statements that attributed inequalities to differences in terms of early childhood development, social exclusion, the social gradient and personal health practices and coping skills. Mean agreement was lower for the two statements that suggested blame for income-related health inequalities lies with the poor (43.1% than for the three statements that attributed inequalities to the plight of the poor (58.3% or the eight statements that attributed inequalities to the privilege of the rich (58.7%. DISCUSSION: A majority of this sample of Ontarians were willing to attribute inequalities to the social determinants of health, and were willing to accept messages that framed inequalities around the privilege of the rich or the plight of the poor. These findings will inform education campaigns, campaigns aimed at increasing public support
Lockhart, Grant; Grütter, Herman; Carlson, Jon
This paper outlines the development of a multi-disciplinary strategy to focus exploration for economic kimberlites on the Ekati property. High-resolution aeromagnetic data provide an over-arching spatial and magnetostratigraphic framework for exploration and kimberlite discovery at Ekati, and hence also for this investigation. The temporal, geomagnetic, spatial and related attributes of kimberlites with variable diamond content have been constrained by judiciously augmenting the information gathered during routine exploration with detailed, laboratory-based or field-based investigations. The natural remanent magnetisation of 36 Ekati kimberlites has been correlated with their age as determined by isotopic dating techniques, and placed in the context of a well-constrained geomagnetic polarity timescale. Kimberlite magmatism occurred over the period 75 to 45 Ma, in at least five temporally discrete intrusive episodes. Based on current evidence, the older kimberlites (75 to 59 Ma) have low diamond contents and are distributed throughout the property. Younger kimberlites (56 to 45 Ma) have moderate to high diamond contents and occur in three distinct intrusive corridors with NNE to NE orientations. Economic kimberlite pipes erupted at 55.4±0.4 Ma along the A154-Lynx intrusive corridor, which is 7 km wide and oriented at 015°, and at 53.2±0.3 Ma along the Panda intrusive corridor, which is 1 km wide and oriented at 038°. The intrusion ages straddle a paleopole reversal at Chron C24n, consistent with the observation that the older economic kimberlites present as aeromagnetic "low" anomalies while the younger economic pipes are characterised as aeromagnetic "highs". The aeromagnetic responses for these kimberlites are generally muted because they contain volcaniclastic rock types with low magnetic susceptibility. Kimberlites throughout the Ekati property carry a primary natural magnetic remanence (NRM) vector in Ti-bearing groundmass magnetite, and it dominates over
Maciosek, Michael V.; Xu, Xin; Butani, Amy L.; Pechacek, Terry F.
Objective To accurately assess the benefits of tobacco control interventions and to better inform decision makers, knowledge of medical expenditures by age, gender, and smoking status is essential. Method We propose an approach to distribute smoking-attributable expenditures by age, gender, and cigarette smoking status to reflect the known risks of smoking. We distribute hospitalization days for smoking-attributable diseases according to relative risks of smoking-attributable mortality, and use the method to determine national estimates of smoking-attributable expenditures by age, sex, and cigarette smoking status. Sensitivity analyses explored assumptions of the method. Results Both current and former smokers ages 75 and over have about 12 times the smoking-attributable expenditures of their current and former smoker counterparts 35–54 years of age. Within each age group, the expenditures of formers smokers are about 70% lower than current smokers. In sensitivity analysis, these results were not robust to large changes to the relative risks of smoking-attributable mortality which were used in the calculations. Conclusion Sex- and age-group-specific smoking expenditures reflect observed disease risk differences between current and former cigarette smokers and indicate that about 70% of current smokers’ excess medical care costs is preventable by quitting. PMID:26051203
Jager, Justin; Yuen, Cynthia X.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Hendricks, Charlene
Among a community sample of families (N = 128), this study examined how family members’ shared and unique perspectives of family dysfunction relate to dyad members’ shared views of dyad adjustment within adolescent-mother, adolescent-father, and mother-father dyads. Independent of a family’s family perspective (shared perspective of family dysfunction), the adolescent’s unique perspective was associated with lower security and higher conflict with both mother and father, the father’s unique perspective was associated with lower security and higher conflict with the adolescent as well as lower marital quality with mother, and the mother unique perspective was associated with lower marital quality with the father. Moreover, for adolescent-parent dyads, compared to the parent unique perspective, the adolescent unique perspective was more strongly associated with dyad adjustment. These findings indicate that both shared and unique views of the family system – the adolescent’s unique view in particular - independently relate to the health of family subsystems. They also suggest that research as well as therapeutic interventions that focus on just the shared view of the family may miss important elements of family dysfunction. PMID:24884682
Barber, Horacio A; Kousta, Stavroula-Thaleia; Otten, Leun J; Vigliocco, Gabriella
A number of recent studies have provided contradictory evidence on the question of whether grammatical class plays a role in the neural representation of lexical knowledge. Most of the previous studies comparing the processing of nouns and verbs, however, confounded word meaning and grammatical class by comparing verbs referring to actions with nouns referring to objects. Here, we recorded electrical brain activity from native Italian speakers reading single words all referring to events (e.g., corsa [the run]; correre [to run]), thus avoiding confounding nouns and verbs with objects and actions. We manipulated grammatical class (noun versus verb) as well as semantic attributes (motor versus sensory events). Activity between 300 and 450ms was more negative for nouns than verbs, and for sensory than motor words, over posterior scalp sites. These grammatical class and semantic effects were not dissociable in terms of latency, duration, or scalp distribution. In a later time window (450-110ms) and at frontal regions, grammatical class and semantic effects interacted; motor verbs were more positive than the other three word categories. We suggest that the lack of a temporal and topographical dissociation between grammatical class and semantic effects in the time range of the N400 component is compatible with an account in which both effects reflect the same underlying process related to meaning retrieval, and we link the later effect with working memory operations associated to the experimental task. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ahmad, I.; Hussain, M.; Hameed, M.; Ahmad, R.
This research was designed for the phyto-monitoring of Pb2+ pollution emitted from automobiles running along Motorway (M-2) and G.T. road and its effects on photosynthetic attributes and water relations of selected plant species growing along these roads. The data were collected from specified sites at different time intervals during all four seasons of the year. The results revealed significantly (p<0.05) higher Pb2+ content plant leaves growing in the vicinity of roadside (0 m distance) as compared to plant leaves collected from 50 m distance (Control) along both roads (M-2 and G.T. road). The leaves of Nerium oleander (2.45 mg kg-1 dry wt.) collected from M-2 trapped the higher amount of Pb2+ (p<0.001) at Kalar Kahar in Summer and Calotropis procera (2.78 mg kg-1 dry wt.) had the highest (p<0.05) Pb2+ deposition at Bahyria Town during summer. Photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance decreased significantly (p<0.01) in plants along roadsides; whereas, inconsistent results in water use efficiency were perceived in plants at 0 m distance as compared to those collected from 50 m distance. These outcomes are important to identify the existence of roadside vehicular pollutants on plants and to its ecological hazards. (author)
Rosaev, A.; Plávalová, E.
Asteroid families are groups of minor planets that have a common origin in catastrophic breakup events. The very young compact asteroid clusters are a natural laboratory in which to study impact processes and the dynamics of asteroid orbits. In the first part of the paper, we define the term very young asteroid families (VYF), that is to say, younger than 1.6 Myrs, and explain why we have defined this group as being separate from young families (younger than 100 Myr), due to specific characteristics, in particularly, non-gravitational forces which have a very small effect (which could be negligible) on their dynamics and the role of the initial conditions in VYFs as being more significant. Due to these facts, the way we study VYFs may be different relative to young families. For the most part, the calculation of VYFs' normal component of relative velocity using backward numerical integration, exhibited a clear, deep minimum, which was close to the breakup epoch. The age estimations found while employing this method were in excellent agreement with the established age estimations used by other authors. We confirmed our results with the established age estimation of the Hobson family (365 ± 67 kyrs). Concerning the Emilkowalsky family, we confirmed the results of Nesvorný and Vokrouhlický (2006) (220 ± 30 kyrs), obtaining a far clearer result using the relative velocity method rather than single-orbital element convergence. The case of the Datura family is more complex to study, mainly due to its 9:16 resonance with Mars. We have exemplified that the z-component of relative velocity may prove to be a powerful and useful criterion for VYF age estimations. The studied value of relative velocity may contain information about the ejection velocity. As an additional outcome of this paper, we have introduced two new members of two different VYFs; one new member of the Emilkowalsky family and one of the Hobson family.
Ma, Lei; Li, Bin; Han, Fenxia; Yan, Shurong; Wang, Lianzheng; Sun, Junming
The soybean seed chemical quality traits (including protein content, oil content, fatty acid composition, isoflavone content, and protein subunits), soymilk chemical character (soluble solid), and soymilk sensory attributes were evaluated among 70 genotypes to determine the correlation between seed chemical quality traits and soymilk sensory attributes. Six sensory parameters (i.e., soymilk aroma, smoothness in the mouth, thickness in the mouth, sweetness, colour and appearance, and overall acceptability) and a seven-point hedonic scale for each parameter were developed. Significant positive correlations were observed between overall acceptability and the other five evaluation parameters, suggesting that overall acceptability is an ideal parameter for evaluating soymilk flavour. The soymilk sensory attributes were significantly positively correlated with the characteristics of the glycinin (11S)/beta-conglycinin (7S) protein ratio, soluble solid, and oil content but negatively correlated with glycitein and protein content. Our results indicated that soymilk sensory attributes could be improved by selecting the desirable seed chemical quality traits in practical soybean breeding programs. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Delpisheh, A.; Kelly, Y.; Rizwan, S.; Attia, E.; Drammond, S.; Brabin, B. J.
BACKGROUND: Little is known about how population-attributable risks (PAR) for adverse birth outcomes due to smoking differ in adolescent and adult pregnancies. METHODS: An analysis of community and hospital-based cross-sectional studies in Liverpool was undertaken to estimate the PAR values of low
Arsenio, William F.; Adams, Erin; Gold, Jason
Connections between adolescents' social information processing (SIP), moral reasoning, and emotion attributions and their reactive and proactive aggressive tendencies were assessed. One hundred mostly African American and Latino 13- to 18-year-olds from a low-socioeconomic-status (SES) urban community and their high school teachers participated.…
Janssen, A.M.; Terpstra, M.E.J.; Wijk, R.A.de; Prinz, J.F.
The relevance of initial rheological properties and mechanical and enzymatic structure breakdown in determining selected sensory texture attributes of custards was studied. The so-called structure breakdown cell was used to characterize saliva-induced breakdown, i.e., by monitoring digestion of
Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.
Twenty-five appendixes from a study attempting to match capabilities of the handicapped to the human attribute requirements of three jobs (general secretary, automotive mechanic, and business data programmer) are presented. Appendixes include information on such topics as data analysis for identification of key tasks; job descriptions for the…
Koda, Naoko; Martens, Pim
Recently, studies in the United States and European countries have shown that the degree of attachment is associated with the attribution of emotions to companion animals. These studies imply that investigating the degree of attachment to companion animals is a good way for researchers to explore animal emotions and then improve animal welfare. Although a promising area of study, in Japan, no empirical studies have examined the correlation between the degree of attachment and the attribution of emotions to companion animals. In this research, we aimed to assess companion animal owners’ attribution of six primary (anger, joy, sadness, disgust, fear and surprise) and four secondary (shame, jealousy, disappointment and compassion) emotions to their dogs and cats, as well as how the degree of attachment related to such attribution of emotions from a Japanese cultural perspective. The “Pet Bonding Scale” (PBS), which is used to determine the level of bonding between humans and animals, was introduced to measure respondents’ degree of attachment to their companion animals. The results of a questionnaire (N = 546) distributed throughout Japan showed that respondents attributed a wide range of emotions to their animals. Companion animals’ primary emotions, compared to secondary emotions, were more commonly attributed by their owners. The attribution of compassion and jealousy was reported at a high level (73.1% and 56.2%, respectively), which was surprising as compassion and jealousy are generally defined as secondary emotions. All participants were highly attached to their companion animals, and this attachment was positively associated with the attribution of emotions (9/10) to companion animals (all p animal emotions by analyzing the bonding between companion animals and owners in Japan, and it can therefore provide knowledge to increase Japanese people’s awareness of animal welfare. PMID:29304166
Su, Bingtao; Koda, Naoko; Martens, Pim
Recently, studies in the United States and European countries have shown that the degree of attachment is associated with the attribution of emotions to companion animals. These studies imply that investigating the degree of attachment to companion animals is a good way for researchers to explore animal emotions and then improve animal welfare. Although a promising area of study, in Japan, no empirical studies have examined the correlation between the degree of attachment and the attribution of emotions to companion animals. In this research, we aimed to assess companion animal owners' attribution of six primary (anger, joy, sadness, disgust, fear and surprise) and four secondary (shame, jealousy, disappointment and compassion) emotions to their dogs and cats, as well as how the degree of attachment related to such attribution of emotions from a Japanese cultural perspective. The "Pet Bonding Scale" (PBS), which is used to determine the level of bonding between humans and animals, was introduced to measure respondents' degree of attachment to their companion animals. The results of a questionnaire (N = 546) distributed throughout Japan showed that respondents attributed a wide range of emotions to their animals. Companion animals' primary emotions, compared to secondary emotions, were more commonly attributed by their owners. The attribution of compassion and jealousy was reported at a high level (73.1% and 56.2%, respectively), which was surprising as compassion and jealousy are generally defined as secondary emotions. All participants were highly attached to their companion animals, and this attachment was positively associated with the attribution of emotions (9/10) to companion animals (all p animal emotions by analyzing the bonding between companion animals and owners in Japan, and it can therefore provide knowledge to increase Japanese people's awareness of animal welfare.
Full Text Available Recently, studies in the United States and European countries have shown that the degree of attachment is associated with the attribution of emotions to companion animals. These studies imply that investigating the degree of attachment to companion animals is a good way for researchers to explore animal emotions and then improve animal welfare. Although a promising area of study, in Japan, no empirical studies have examined the correlation between the degree of attachment and the attribution of emotions to companion animals. In this research, we aimed to assess companion animal owners' attribution of six primary (anger, joy, sadness, disgust, fear and surprise and four secondary (shame, jealousy, disappointment and compassion emotions to their dogs and cats, as well as how the degree of attachment related to such attribution of emotions from a Japanese cultural perspective. The "Pet Bonding Scale" (PBS, which is used to determine the level of bonding between humans and animals, was introduced to measure respondents' degree of attachment to their companion animals. The results of a questionnaire (N = 546 distributed throughout Japan showed that respondents attributed a wide range of emotions to their animals. Companion animals' primary emotions, compared to secondary emotions, were more commonly attributed by their owners. The attribution of compassion and jealousy was reported at a high level (73.1% and 56.2%, respectively, which was surprising as compassion and jealousy are generally defined as secondary emotions. All participants were highly attached to their companion animals, and this attachment was positively associated with the attribution of emotions (9/10 to companion animals (all p < 0.05. This study is one of the first to investigate animal emotions by analyzing the bonding between companion animals and owners in Japan, and it can therefore provide knowledge to increase Japanese people's awareness of animal welfare.
Full Text Available The peculiarity and uniqueness of family businesses set them apart from other businesses in many things. Natural need of man to survive in these harsh circumstances forces him to constantly seek new sources of funding or simply tries to improve the existing. Secure existence is difficult to ensure.The successful family business provides many benefits: reliable operation, to be your own boss, flexible working hours, family members are taken care of, to become successful with your own strengths. Also this kind of business brings a range of difficulties that have to be overcomed.Apart from the daily struggle for enterprise development in the complex conditions of tough competition and rapid changes in the environment, family businesses face problems of internal character. Namely, the parents are thorn between the family relations, the love towards their children and the consistence in the decision making processes. Although this is a modern and very present theme however owners of family businesses rarely dare to speak publicly on the subject.This paper presents an action research conducted on a sample of 26 family businesses in FYROM. This research study is primarily exploratory in nature, and the research instruments include survey through questionnaires with family member and employees that are not family members.
Flagel, Shelly B; Akil, Huda; Robinson, Terry E
Drugs of abuse acquire different degrees of control over thoughts and actions based not only on the effects of drugs themselves, but also on predispositions of the individual. Those individuals who become addicted are unable to shift their thoughts and actions away from drugs and drug-associated stimuli. Thus in addicts, exposure to places or things (cues) that has been previously associated with drug-taking often instigates renewed drug-taking. We and others have postulated that drug-associated cues acquire the ability to maintain and instigate drug-taking behavior in part because they acquire incentive motivational properties through Pavlovian (stimulus-stimulus) learning. In the case of compulsive behavioral disorders, including addiction, such cues may be attributed with pathological incentive value ("incentive salience"). For this reason, we have recently begun to explore individual differences in the tendency to attribute incentive salience to cues that predict rewards. When discrete cues are associated with the non-contingent delivery of food or drug rewards some animals come to quickly approach and engage the cue even if it is located at a distance from where the reward will be delivered. In these animals the reward-predictive cue itself becomes attractive, eliciting approach towards it, presumably because it is attributed with incentive salience. Animals that develop this type of conditional response are called "sign-trackers". Other animals, "goal-trackers", do not approach the reward-predictive cue, but upon cue presentation they immediately go to the location where food will be delivered (the "goal"). For goal-trackers the reward-predictive cue is not attractive, presumably because it is not attributed with incentive salience. We review here preliminary data suggesting that these individual differences in the tendency to attribute incentive salience to cues predictive of reward may confer vulnerability or resistance to compulsive behavioral disorders
Wu, Lingli; Gao, Xiaoli
Dental fear and anxiety (DFA) is a major issue affecting children's oral health and clinical management. This study investigates the association between children's DFA and family related factors, including parents' DFA, parenting styles, family structure (nuclear or single-parent family), and presence of siblings. A total of 405 children (9-13 years old) and their parents were recruited from 3 elementary schools in Hong Kong. Child's demographic and family-related information was collected through a questionnaire. Parents' and child's DFA were measured by using the Corah Dental Anxiety Scale (CDAS) and Children Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS), respectively. Parenting styles were gauged by using the Parent Authority Questionnaire (PAQ). DFA was reported by 33.1% of children. The mean (SD) CFSS-DS score was 29.1 (11.0). Children with siblings tended to report DFA (37.0% vs. 24.1%; p = 0.034) and had a higher CFSS-DS score (29.9 vs. 27.4; p = 0.025) as compared with their counterpart. Children from single-parent families had lower CFSS-DS score as compared with children from nuclear families (β = - 9.177; p = 0.029). Subgroup analysis showed a higher CFSS-DS score among boys with siblings (β = 7.130; p = 0.010) as compared with their counterpart; girls' from single-parent families had a lower CFSS-DS score (β = - 13.933; p = 0.015) as compared with girls from nuclear families. Children's DFA was not associated with parents' DFA or parenting styles (p > 0.05). Family structure (nuclear or single-parent family) and presence of siblings are significant determinants for children's DFA. Parental DFA and parenting style do not affect children's DFA significantly.
Sergio Silva Braga Junior
Full Text Available To evaluate the relationship between attributes of lifestyle and consumption of organic products in specialty retail, this research sought to understand who the consumer of organic products in specialty retail. To serve this purpose, a field survey of qualitative and quantitative nature was conducted with a sample of 60 subjects covered at the time of purchase at a grocery store specializing in organic products in the city of São Paulo/SP. To justify the sample size G*Power 3.1.7 software with the specifications recommended in the literature. The collected sample was sufficient to detect the desired effects of Structural Equation Modeling with Partial Least Squares Method (Partial Least Square - PLS. As a result it was observed that consumers of organic produce state to adopt a healthy lifestyle and attributed the following determinants for buying organic produce factors: the quality and the benefits that accrue to the same health.
Purpose The purpose of the research work is to investigate the importance of the communication in the cross-functional teams and in what which communicational tools provide better convenience of communication in cross-functional team members. Methodology An empirical study including the data collection from the interviews conducted from the participants working in cross-functional teams. Qualitative approach has been adopted to understand the communicational attributes in the cross-functional...
Ahmad Hariza Hashim
Full Text Available It is important for a neighbourhood to provide a quality and good environment to ensure that inhabitants are able to live their lives in a satisfying way. There have been few attempts to investigate people’s perceptions about the places they currently live, especially what makes their neighbourhoods a good or bad place to live. Thus, this study aims (1 to identify the attributes and the dimensions that residents consider in evaluating the liveability of their neighbourhood and (2 to assess the importance of these attributes and dimensions. A literature review found that four dimensions are used in most studies to understand the liveability issues: social, physical, functional and safe. Sixteen attributes are also identified to be indicators for the four dimensions. The study was conducted in one of the neighbourhoods in the Subang Jaya Municipal Council vicinity, and data were collected using mailed questionnaires. A total of 170 questionnaires were completed and returned, which represented a 57% response rate. Results revealed that residents are most concerned about safety, while social issues are deemed to be the least important factor. Thus, efforts to promote neighbourhood liveability should be focused on ensuring the overall safety of the community by incorporating a design that creates territoriality and allows more surveillance. Neighbourhoods should be maintained to avoid incivilities to reduce the fear of crime and crime itself.
Rotenberg, Ken J.; Betts, Lucy R.; Moore, Jolene
The authors examined the relation between early adolescents' trust beliefs in peers and both their attributions for, and retaliatory aggression to, peer provocation. One hundred and eight-five early adolescents (102 male) from the United Kingdom (M age = 12 years, 2 months, SD = 3 months) completed the Children's Generalized Trust Beliefs in peer…
Sullivan, Nicolette; Hutcherson, Cendri; Harris, Alison; Rangel, Antonio
We propose that self-control failures, and variation across individuals in self-control abilities, are partly due to differences in the speed with which the decision-making circuitry processes basic attributes, such as tastiness, versus more abstract attributes, such as healthfulness. We tested these hypotheses by combining a dietary-choice task with a novel form of mouse tracking that allowed us to pinpoint when different attributes were being integrated into the choice process with temporal resolution at the millisecond level. We found that, on average, tastiness was processed about 195 ms earlier than healthfulness during the choice process. We also found that 13% to 39% of observed individual differences in self-control ability could be explained by differences in the relative speed with which tastiness and healthfulness were processed. © The Author(s) 2014.
de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Scholderer, Joachim
, foods, household appliances, alcoholic beverages) and on two involvement dimensions (interest and importance). The results indicate that in three of the four super-categories the predominant source of variation in product involvement were the attributes of the products, not the product category...... they belong to. Only for foods, the traditional conceptualisation of involvement held. The findings suggest that parts of previous research on involvement may have to be re-interpreted and that future research should adopt more complex conceptualisations of involvement. From a managerial point of view...
Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Lampila, Piritta; Grunert, Klaus G.
countries explored consumers' perceptions of attractiveness, healthiness, naturalness, tastiness and ability to reduce risk of disease by comparing ratings of products with and without health claims. Used claims varied in their benefit, active ingredient, claim structure and framing. The results showed...... that health claims had a moderate but mostly negative impact on the perception of other product attributes; the most significant impact was decrease in perceived naturalness. Consumers could also interpret the benefits in claims as intended. The wording of the claim had only small impact on the perception...... is not likely to cause any unrealistic positive inferences in perceived product quality....
Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Ziegert, Jonathan C.; Allen, Tammy D.
This study examines the mechanisms by which family-supportive supervision is related to employee work-family balance. Based on a sample of 170 business professionals, we found that the positive relation between family-supportive supervision and balance was fully mediated by work interference with family (WIF) and partially mediated by family…
McMahon, Kelly Q; Papandreou, Apostolos; Ma, Mandy; Barry, Brenda J; Mirzaa, Ghayda M; Dobyns, William B; Scott, Richard H; Trump, Natalie; Kurian, Manju A; Paciorkowski, Alex R
FOXG1-related disorders are caused by heterozygous mutations in FOXG1 and result in a spectrum of neurodevelopmental phenotypes including postnatal microcephaly, intellectual disability with absent speech, epilepsy, chorea, and corpus callosum abnormalities. The recurrence risk for de novo mutations in FOXG1-related disorders is assumed to be low. Here, we describe three unrelated sets of full siblings with mutations in FOXG1 (c.515_577del63, c.460dupG, and c.572T > G), representing familial recurrence of the disorder. In one family, we have documented maternal somatic mosaicism for the FOXG1 mutation, and all of the families presumably represent parental gonadal (or germline) mosaicism. To our knowledge, mosaicism has not been previously reported in FOXG1-related disorders. Therefore, this report provides evidence that germline mosaicism for FOXG1 mutations is a likely explanation for familial recurrence and should be considered during recurrence risk counseling for families of children with FOXG1-related disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Murry, Velma McBride; Brody, Gene H.; Brown, Anita; Wisenbaker, Joseph; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Simons, Ronald L.
Using an ecological risk-protection perspective, explores functional changes in single African American mothers (N=96) receiving government assistance. Examines links among maternal employment, mothers' physical and psychological health, and children's attributions about causes of poverty. Maternal psychological distress was linked with children's…
Corsi, Daniel J; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Subramanian, S V
Nearly 40% of the world's stunted children live in India and the prevalence of undernutrition has been persistently high in recent decades. Given numerous available interventions for reducing undernutrition in children, it is not clear of the relative importance of each within a multifactorial framework. We assess the simultaneous contribution of 15 known risk factors for child chronic undernutrition in India. Data are from the 3rd Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), a nationally representative cross-sectional survey undertaken in 2005-2006. The study population consisted of children aged 6-59 months [n = 26,842 (stunting/low height-for-age), n = 27,483 (underweight/low weight-for-age)]. Risk factors examined for their association with undernutrition were: vitamin A supplementation, vaccination, use of iodized salt, household air quality, improved sanitary facilities, safe disposal of stools, improved drinking water, prevalence of infectious disease, initiation of breastfeeding, dietary diversity, age at marriage, maternal BMI, height, education, and household wealth. Age/sex-adjusted and multivariable adjusted effect sizes (odds ratios) were calculated for risk factors along with Population Attributable Risks (PAR) and Fractions (PAF) using logistic regression. In the mutually adjusted models, the five most important predictors of childhood stunting/underweight were short maternal stature, mother having no education, households in lowest wealth quintile, poor dietary diversity, and maternal underweight. These five factors had a combined PAR of 67.2% (95% CI: 63.3-70.7) and 69.7% (95% CI: 66.3-72.8) for stunting and underweight, respectively. The remaining factors were associated with a combined PAR of 11.7% (95% CI: 6.0-17.4) and 15.1% (95% CI: 8.9-21.3) for stunting and underweight, respectively. Implementing strategies focused on broader progress on social circumstances and infrastructural domains as well as investments in nutrition specific
The relative activities of the members of the principal radioactive families, with respect to the initial activities of chosen parents were calculated for a wide range of time intervals. Tables ard graphs that are useful for radiochemistry, source standardization and chronology are presented.Three series of graphs and tables are included; series A corresponds to the family 4n, series B corresponds to the family 4n+ x, series C corresponds to the family 4n+2. A foustry, source standardization and chronology are presented. rth series 4n+1 ( 241 Pu/ 209 Bi) was not included, because it does not exist in nature and, thus, is of little interest. Each series begins with a table identified by a plain letter (A,B,C) where all the nuclides considered for the calculations and their half-lives are listed. Branching was neglected. All the series begin with isotopes of plutonium in order to show some examples of no-equilibrium, and five of the longest lived members of each family were chosen as the parents of the sub-families. The graphs show that, besides their obvious use in radiochemical separations and standardizations, each family beginning with a naturally occuring nuclide has a particular time span (before secular equilibrium occurs) that can be used for chronology. Thus, if the proper radionuclides are present, we can use the wide range families in geological and archeological research and the short range ones in other kinds of jobs, like checking the authenticity of art masterpieces and other forensic problems. (T.G.)
Johansson, Gine Ørnholt; Frosch, Stina; Jørgensen, Bo Munk
an efficient use of the information gathered in the different links of the value chain, a deeper knowledge of the correlations between the various quality attributes and factors like the geographical origin of the salmon, the company and the water temperature of the fish farm, is needed. In the present study......It is well know that factors like fat content and texture affect the yield when making products from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). The relation between these factors and other quality attributes like water holding capacity and protein content, however, has received limited attention. To enable...... a multivariate approach was taken to investigate the variation in some quality parameters (fat, protein, texture, water holding capacity, weight) amongst salmon samples (n = 136) from Norwegian aquaculture in order to establish which parameters were accounting for most of the variation seen in relation...
Zapata-Diomedi, Belen; Herrera, Ana Maria Mantilla; Veerman, J Lennert
Attributes of the built environment can positively influence physical activity of urban populations, which results in health and economic benefits. In this study, we derived scenarios from the literature for the association built environment-physical activity and used a mathematical model to translate improvements in physical activity to health-adjusted life years and health care costs. We modelled 28 scenarios representing a diverse range of built environment attributes including density, diversity of land use, availability of destinations, distance to transit, design and neighbourhood walkability. Our results indicated potential health gains in 24 of the 28 modelled built environment attributes. Health care cost savings due to prevented physical activity-related diseases ranged between A$1300 to A$105,355 per 100,000 adults per year. On the other hand, additional health care costs of prolonged life years attributable to improvements in physical activity were nearly 50% higher than the estimated health care costs savings. Our results give an indication of the potential health benefits of investing in physical activity-friendly built environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pfouts, Jane H.
Very close age spacing was an obstacle to high academic performance for later borns. In family relations and self-esteem, first borns scored better and performed in school as well as their potentially much more able younger siblings, regardless of age spacing. (Author)
Parker, Lauren; Allen, Tammy D.
A study of 283 workers showed that younger people, minorities, those who used flexible work arrangements, and those whose jobs required greater interdependence had more favorable perceptions of family-related benefits. Gender and children's ages influenced perceptions of the fairness of benefits. (Contains 37 references.) (SK)
Tricotel, Aurore; Raguideau, Fanny; Collin, Cédric; Zureik, Mahmoud
PURPOSE: To estimate the number of venous thromboembolic events and related-premature mortality (including immediate in-hospital lethality) attributable to the use of combined oral contraceptives in women aged 15 to 49 years-old between 2000 and 2011 in France. METHODS: French data on sales of combined oral contraceptives and on contraception behaviours from two national surveys conducted in 2000 and 2010 were combined to estimate the number of exposed women according to contraceptives genera...
Villatte, Matthieu; Monestès, Jean-Louis; McHugh, Louise; Freixa i Baqué, Esteve; Loas, Gwenolé
Impaired ability of identifying mental states is a characteristic of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In particular, people suffering from this illness tend to fail at attributing a belief to another, which has been linked to difficulties in changing interpersonal perspective. Following the view of Relational Frame Theory on perspective-taking skills, the current study aimed at examining the involvement of social anhedonia, one of the frequent features of schizophrenia, in the development of deficits in reversing the I-YOU relation (i.e., adopting the perspective of another). A task consisting of attributing a belief to another or to the self was employed with 30 non-clinical participants with a high level of social anhedonia and with 15 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. In comparison to two control groups, both experimental groups showed significant poorer performance when adopting the perspective of another. These results constitute important indications to target specific relational repertoires when attempting to remediate impairments in mental states attribution linked to schizophrenia.
Daniel Tan Lei Shek
Full Text Available The current study investigated the differences between intact and non-intact families in family processes, including systematic family functioning, parental behavioral control, parental psychological control, and parent-child relational qualities. The participants were 3,328 Secondary One students, with a mean age of 12.59 years, recruited from 28 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Four validated scales were used to assess family processes. Results showed that adolescents in non-intact families perceived relatively poorer family functioning, lower level of paternal and maternal behavioral control, lower level of paternal psychological control and poorer parent-child relational qualities than did adolescents in intact families. This generally indicated that family processes were poorer in non-intact families, compared with those in intact families. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed.
Ergin, Rahime Nida; Polat, Aslıhan; Kars, Bülent; Öztekin, Deniz; Sofuoğlu, Kenan; Çalışkan, Eray
To determine the perceived social stigma and familial attitides and perception of sexuality in infertile couples attending infertility clinics. Infertile couples attending infertility clinics between the years of 2014 and 2015 were requested to complete detailed evaluation forms including questions related to the social stigma on their infertility, their familial attitudes, and perception of sexuality. Any partner of the infertile couple accepting to enroll in the study was given the evaluation forms. Their scores related to answers and demographics, and parameters related to infertility were analyzed. A total 598 partners of infertile couples enrolled in the study, 58% represented 177 couples. Their infertility was primary in 98.3% and the duration of marriage and infertility was 9.81±5.58 and 9.76±5.53 years, respectively. The perception of social exclusion was present in 38% (psocial stigma on infertile couples.
Li, Li; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Liang, Li-Jung; Lin, Chunqing; Farmer, Shu C.; Flore, Martin
Background This article explores the association of people who inject drugs and their family members in terms of mental health and family relations. The objective was to understand the family context and its impact on people who inject drugs in a family-oriented culture in Vietnam. Methods Cross-sectional assessment data were gathered from 83 people who inject drugs and 83 of their family members recruited from four communes in Phú Thọ province, Vietnam. Depressive symptoms and family relations were measured for both people who inject drugs and family members. Internalized shame and drug-using behavior were reported by people who inject drugs, and caregiver burden was reported by family members. Results We found that higher level of drug using behavior of people who inject drugs was significantly associated with higher depressive symptoms and lower family relations reported by themselves as well as their family members. Family relations reported by people who inject drugs and their family members were positively correlated. Conclusion The findings highlight the need for interventions that address psychological distress and the related challenges faced by family members of people who inject drugs. The article has policy implication which concludes with an argument for developing strategies that enhance the role of families in supporting behavioral change of people who inject drugs. PMID:23910167
Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel soft computing technique, called the complex neutrosophic soft expert relation (CNSER, to evaluate the degree of interaction between two hybrid models called complex neutrosophic soft expert sets (CNSESs. CNSESs are used to represent two-dimensional data that are imprecise, uncertain, incomplete and indeterminate. Moreover, it has a mechanism to incorporate the parameter set and the opinions of all experts in one model, thus making it highly suitable for use in decision-making problems where the time factor plays a key role in determining the final decision. The complex neutrosophic soft expert set and complex neutrosophic soft expert relation are both defined. Utilizing the properties of CNSER introduced, an empirical study is conducted on the relationship between the variability of the currency exchange rate and Malaysian exports and the time frame (phase of the interaction between these two variables. This study is supported further by an algorithm to determine the type and the degree of this relationship. A comparison between different existing relations and CNSER to show the ascendancy of our proposed CNSER is provided. Then, the notion of the inverse, complement and composition of CNSERs along with some related theorems and properties are introduced. Finally, we define the symmetry, transitivity and reflexivity of CNSERs, as well as the equivalence relation and equivalence classes on CNSESs. Some interesting properties are also obtained.
Dhar, V Erica
This article concerns how globalization and the aging of the world's population are affecting the already complex issue of intergenerational transnational caregiving. Globalization has caused an increase in workforce mobility with large numbers of individuals seeking employment overseas. This, coupled with increased longevity globally, has resulted in many workers leaving their elderly parents in need of care in their home countries. This has spawned caregiving across national borders, or caring for family relations across nations. Currently in the United States, not enough emphasis is given to family caregiving. Data compiled by AARP and the National Alliance for Caregiving estimate the economic value for this group of family caregivers in 2007 to be $375 billion, accounting for 34-52 million family caregivers per given year. This does not include those families who are transnational caregivers. The seminal work in this emerging field has been done by social anthropologists Loretta Baldassar, Cora Velekoop Baldock, and Raelene Wilding, who have defined the components of transnational caregiving based on an ethnographic study using qualitative data to study nine immigrant communities in Western Australia. Although their research focused on caregiving from a distance, additional work has been added to the discussion by introducing the element of "care drain" and further cultural perspectives. Therefore, this research is an exploratory study on intergenerational transnational caregiving within the context of the changing world and its demographics. Within the context of globalization and global aging, the following questions are addressed: What is the significance of family caregiving? What is a transnational? How has technology changed "transnationalism" today? What are the elements that comprise transnational caregiving? How does culture play a role in transnational caregiving? What are some of the national initiatives undertaken by governments to aid in workforce
Popek, V; Hönig, K
Relatives are the primary and existential resource of cancer patients, while at the same time experiencing substantial distress themselves. This article presents a description of tasks, roles and distress factors, the prevalence of psychosocial distress, description of risk factors in families contributing to dysfunctional coping, options and empirical evidence for the efficacy of psychosocial support. Evaluation of registry data, analysis of case reports, discussion of basic research findings, meta-analyses and expert judgments. Psychosocial distress in relatives of cancer patients is comparable to the degree of distress experienced by the patients and is sometimes even higher. Distress in relatives is still underrecognized, underreported and undertreated. Hostile interaction patterns, low emotional expression and high conflict tendencies impair coping with cancer and its treatment. Psychosocial support for the family of cancer patients improves coping behavior and the quality of life both in relatives and patients. Professional and lay caregivers need to adopt a social perspective on cancer whereby participation and inclusion of relatives in the treatment, acknowledgment of their engagement and recognition of their distress is beneficial for both patients and their relatives. Screening for psychosocial distress in relatives is recommended, attention should be drawn to psychosocial support services and utilization should be encouraged.
Jin, Jia; Zhang, Wuke; Chen, Mingliang
Due to the limitations of the human ability to process information, e-consumers' decisions are likely to be influenced by various cognitive biases, such as the attribute framing effect. This effect has been well studied by numerous scholars; however, the associated underlying neural mechanisms with a critical temporal resolution have not been revealed. Thus, this study applies the measurement of event-related potentials (ERPs) to directly examine the role of attribute framing in information processing and decision-making in online shopping. The behavioral results showed that participants demonstrated a higher purchase intention with a shorter reaction time under a positive framing condition compared to participants under a negative framing condition. Compared with positive framing messages, the results of ERPs indicated that negative framing messages attracted more attention resources at the early stage of rapid automatic processing (larger P2 amplitude) and resulted in greater cognitive conflict and decision difficulty (larger P2-N2 complex). Moreover, compared with negative messages, positive framing messages allowed consumers to perceive a better future performance of products and classify these products as a categorization of higher evaluation (larger LPP amplitude) at the late cognitive processing stage of evaluation. Based on these results, we provide evidence for a better understanding of how different attribute framing messages are processed and ultimately lead to the framing effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.
Cidonea Machado Deponti
Full Text Available This article is a result of the research and technological extension work related to the Project entitled "The use and appropriation of ICTs by family farmers in the Vale do Caí - RS", financed by the edict of MCTI/CNPq, FAPERGS and UNISC, developed in Partnership with EMATER/ASCAR-RS, the Union of Rural Workers, the rural schools located in the Vale do Caí, the students of the Graduation Administration and Accounting Sciences courses of the Campus of Montenegro/UNISC and the doctoral students of the Postgraduate Program in Regional Development. This article refers to a literature review of the production carried out by the project team and aims to demonstrate the interrelations between the use and appropriation of ICTs and family agriculture. It was identified that only the access of the families of farmers to the new technologies and an adequate infrastructure does not guarantee, in itself, the use of the ICTs. It is concluded that the appropriation of ICT by family agriculture depends on a process of mediation and social interface between the University and society, requiring interdisciplinary work teams, resources for the extension, projects with long-term maturity, without time limits and of goals. In addition, it is emphasized that the understanding of the symbolic universe and the everyday life of the farmers must be the starting point.
Zilli, Marcia Terezinha
Austral summer (DJF) precipitation over tropical South America (SA) is characterized by the South American Monsoon System (SAMS) and the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ). The increase in atmospheric temperature and water vapor content over the SA during the last decades of the 20 th century could affect the duration and amplitude of the SAMS and the intensity of the SACZ. This research examines the spatial variability of precipitation trends over SE Brazil, focusing on the SACZ. More specifically, this study investigates trends in precipitation over Southeastern Brazil (SE Brazil) and examines changes in the position and intensity of the SACZ. SE Brazil is the most densely populated region in the country with a large portion of this population living in urban centers. The SACZ is important for agriculture and water supply for millions of people. One of the main goals of this research is to identify mechanisms associated with the observed changes in the characteristics of the SACZ during the last three decades of the 20th century, and examine the relative contribution of natural and anthropogenic forcing to precipitation trends. The first chapter investigates the pattern of spatial variability of precipitation trends over the coastal region of SE Brazil. This study shows that over the southern portion of the study area, precipitation is increasing due to the increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme events. Over the northern portion of the area, while the intensity of extreme events is increasing, the number of precipitating days is decreasing. This spatial pattern of precipitation trends suggests a poleward shift of the SACZ, which is investigated in the second chapter. Chapter 2 focuses on the underlying mechanisms associated with changes in precipitation intensity related to the position of the SACZ. Decadal variations in the mean state of the atmosphere suggest that the observed changes in precipitation over SE Brazil are associated with a
Torá Rocamora, Isabel; Martínez Martínez, José Miguel; Delclos Clanchet, Jordi; Jardí Lliberia, Josefina; Alberti Casas, Constança; Serra Pujadas, Consol; Manzanera López, Rafael; Benavides, Fernando G
This study analyze the duration of episodes of work absence due to non work-related diseases in Catalonia by health regions, assuming a homogeneous distribution of durations between health regions. A retrospective cohort study of 811.790 episodes in 2005 and followed to episode closure through July 2007 provided by the Institut Català d'Avaluacions Mèdiques, describing their median duration (MD) in days for each of the seven health regions of Catalonia. The probability of returning to work was plotted according to Wang_Chang survival curves and median durations were then compared using the Barcelona health region as the referent group. Results were extended through stratification by sex. The Camp de Tarragona health region had the shortest MD (5 days), while the episodes in the Alt Pirineu i Aran region had the longest (MD, 13 days). The Barcelona health region had a MD of 7 days as was the case for Cataluña Central. MD in Girona was 8 days, and in Lleida and Terres de l'Ebre it was 9 days. This latter region also had the highest median duration 13 days. The are significant differences in the duration of work absence between the health regions of Catalonia. These differences persisted after adjusting for age, management of episodes and social security system status, in both men and women.
Din, S.U.; Khan, M.A.; Usman, K.; Sayal, O.U.
This paper encompasses the study of line * tester analysis to chalk out genetic implications regarding yield and yield relating components in different genotypes of sunflower. Eight parents (four CMS lines and four restorers) along with their sixteen F1 hybrids were considered and planted in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) replicated thrice at experimental area of Oilseed Research Program, National Agriculture Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan in 2011. Combining ability for some important morphological traits included days to flower initiation, days to flower completion, days to maturity, plant height, head diameter and seed yield plant-1. In this concern general combining ability (GCA), reciprocals combining ability (RCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) for all traits were studied. The GCA and SCA variances due to lines and testers interaction were significant for all the characters. However, the magnitude of GCAs from CMS lines (females) and restorers (pollinators) were higher than the SCA indicating preponderance of additive genes in the expression of all the traits. Among the lines, CMS-HA-54 whereas in testers, RHP-71, by manifesting maximum GCA effects were considered as the best general combiners for almost all the traits indicating the presence of more additive gene effects in these parents, therefore may serve as potential parents for hybridization and to improve the characters studied. Among the F1 hybrids, CMS HA-99 * RHP-76 (1.54, 212.65) and CMS HA-101 * RHP-73 (0.91, 432.73) were found as the best specific combiners for head or capitulum and seed yield. Hence, if farming community and researchers include these hybrids in their selection and hybridization program for the trait under study optimum result may be obtained. (author)
Silva, Iramildes Souza; Arantes, Cássia Irene Spinelli
to analyze the power relations that permeate the work of the family health team, and to discuss perspectives of emancipation of these subjects, focusing on nursing and community health agents. a qualitative study with a family health team from a municipality in the countryside of the state of São Paulo. Data were collected through systematic observation and interview with workers. A thematic content analysis was performed. three categories were identified: the work of the family health team and power relations; power relations between the nurse and the healthcare team; and the relations among the nursing team and between community agents and the nurse. The team produces relations of power moved by hierarchical knowledge that move in the search for the reordering of powers. it is necessary to review the contradictions present in the performance scenario of the family health teams, with a view toward making power relations more flexible. analisar as relações de poder que permeiam o trabalho da equipe de saúde da família e discutir perspectivas de emancipação desses sujeitos, com enfoque na enfermagem e agentes comunitários de saúde. estudo qualitativo com equipe de saúde da família de município do interior paulista. Os dados foram coletados por meio de observação sistemática e entrevista com os trabalhadores. Foi realizada análise de conteúdo temática. foram identificadas três categorias: o trabalho da equipe de saúde da família e as relações de poder; a relação de poder entre enfermeira e equipe de saúde; as relações da enfermagem e agentes comunitários com a enfermeira. A equipe produz relações de poder movidas por saberes hierarquizados que se movimentam na busca pelo reordenamento dos poderes. é necessário rever as contradições presentes no cenário de atuação das equipes de saúde da família, com vistas à flexibilidade nas relações de poder.
Shabeer Ahmed Abbasi
Full Text Available Seismic attribute analysis approach has been applied for the interpretation and identification of fault geometry of Zamzama Gas Field. Zamzama gas field area, which lies in the vicinity of Kirthar fold and thrust belt, Southern Indus Basin of Pakistan. The Zamzama fault and its related structure have been predicted by applying the Average Energy Attribute, Instantaneous Frequency Attribute, relative Acoustic Impedance Attribute and Chaotic Reflection Attribute on the seismic line GHPK98A.34. The results have been confirmed by applying the spectral decomposition attribute on the same seismic line that reveal the geometric configuration of Zamzama structure. The fault is reverse and started from 0 s and ended at the depth of 2.5 s on the vertical seismic section. Hanging wall moves up along the fault plane under the action of eastward oriented stress, which formed a large north–south oriented and eastward verging thrusted anticline.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing number of individuals are diagnosed with hereditary cancer. Though increased levels of anxiety and depression have been demonstrated around the time of genetic counselling, most individuals handle life at increased risk well. Data have, however, been collected on individual basis, which led us to focus on family perspectives of hereditary cancer. Methods Lynch syndrome represents a major type of hereditary colorectal and gynaecological cancer. We preformed open-ended interviews with 27 informants from 9 Lynch syndrome families. Inductive content analysis revealed three major themes: transition to a risk family, patterns of communication and influence on family relations and individual roles. Results Family members described how learning about Lynch syndrome shifted focus from daily issues to concerns about cancer. Changes in communication related to difficulties in talking to children about heredity and informing new family members and distant relatives about an increased risk of cancer. Influence on relations was exemplified by family members taking on different roles, e.g. females often being responsible for coordinating information about heredity and providing support. Families in which members had experienced cancer at young age typically informed children soon after learning about heredity and at young age, whereas families with experience of cancer at higher age postponed information and thereby also genetic counselling. Conclusions Three major family perspectives are described in Lynch syndrome families; becoming a risk family, patterns of communication and influence on family relations. Since these issues are central, our findings suggests that such family perspectives should be considered during genetic counselling in order to contribute to information spread, help family members cope with the increased risk, and motivate family members at risk to undergo surveillance.
Rahime Nida Ergin
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the perceived social stigma and familial attitides and perception of sexuality in infertile couples attending infertility clinics. Materials and Methods: Infertile couples attending infertility clinics between the years of 2014 and 2015 were requested to complete detailed evaluation forms including questions related to the social stigma on their infertility, their familial attitudes, and perception of sexuality. Any partner of the infertile couple accepting to enroll in the study was given the evaluation forms. Their scores related to answers and demographics, and parameters related to infertility were analyzed. Results: A total 598 partners of infertile couples enrolled in the study, 58% represented 177 couples. Their infertility was primary in 98.3% and the duration of marriage and infertility was 9.81±5.58 and 9.76±5.53 years, respectively. The perception of social exclusion was present in 38% (p<0.001 of infertile couple, which was more significantly pronounced in female partners (p=0.013. Fifteen percent of the infertile couples thought themselves as isolated in public and losing value in public (p<0.001. However, sixty percent of infertile couples thought that they would achieve a notable place in community after having a baby (p<0.001. Infertility was accepted as a reason of divorce in only 13% of infertile couples (p<0.001. The majority of perticipnats, irrespective of sex, rejected that infertile women or men lost sexual appeal (86%; p<0.001. Conclusions: There is significant effect of infertility on familial attitudes and perception of sexuality of infertile couples. Unfortunately, there is significant negative social stigma on infertile couples.
Albrechtslund, Anders; Bøge, Ask Risom
technologies for interpersonal surveillance between parents and children, partners, and school mates. The findings from our in-depth interviews suggest, for instance, that the use of smartphones in families involve negotiations about the boundaries of trust and intimacy in parent-child relations which can...... sometimes lead to strategies of resistance or modification. Also negotiated is the management of children’s exposure to perceived risks, drawbacks and harmful influences caused by the use of digital technologies. In the paper, we identify examples of the way the deep infiltration of technology...... into contemporary life leads to new challenges to parenting and growing up which need critical attention....
Cummings, E Mark; Koss, Kalsea J; Davies, Patrick T
Conflict in specific family systems (e.g., interparental, parent-child) has been implicated in the development of a host of adjustment problems in adolescence, but little is known about the impact of family conflict involving multiple family systems. Furthermore, questions remain about the effects of family conflict on symptoms of specific disorders and adjustment problems and the processes mediating these effects. The present study prospectively examines the impact of family conflict and emotional security about the family system on adolescent symptoms of specific disorders and adjustment problems, including the development of symptoms of anxiety, depression, conduct problems, and peer problems. Security in the family system was examined as a mediator of these relations. Participants included 295 mother-father-adolescent families (149 girls) participating across three annual time points (grades 7-9). Including auto-regressive controls for initial levels of emotional insecurity and multiple adjustment problems (T1), higher-order emotional insecurity about the family system (T2) mediated relations between T1 family conflict and T3 peer problems, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Further analyses supported specific patterns of emotional security/insecurity (i.e., security, disengagement, preoccupation) as mediators between family conflict and specific domains of adolescent adjustment. Family conflict was thus found to prospectively predict the development of symptoms of multiple specific adjustment problems, including symptoms of depression, anxiety, conduct problems, and peer problems, by elevating in in adolescent's emotional insecurity about the family system. The clinical implications of these findings are considered.
McGrath, Helen; O'Toole, Thomas
While research in family businesses has focused on familiness as a resource with potential to generate competitive advantage, a gap exists in understanding how such value can be extended to wider business relationships. We contribute to an increased understanding of how familiness can influence the development of relational capability in entrepreneurial family firms. Using a business relational and family embedded perspective, we advance a conceptualisation of the link between familiness and ...
Tannenbaum, Michal; Howie, Pauline
Investigated the relevance of emotional and familial factors to language maintenance in immigrant families. Information on the family relations of 40 children from Chinese-speaking immigrant families in Sydney, Australia. Analysis revealed that children likely to use their parents' mother tongue were those who perceived their family to be more…
Bongoni, R.; Steenbekkers, L.P.A.; Verkerk, R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Dekker, M.
The domestic preparation of vegetables induces a significant change in their sensory and health attributes. The preparation of vegetables by consumers is likely to be controlled by assessing perceivable (sensory) quality attributes such as colour and texture because other quality attributes,
Kim, Seokkyun; Song, Jinsu; Park, Seungkyu; Ham, Sunyoung; Paek, Kyungyeol; Kang, Minjung; Chae, Yunjung; Seo, Heewon; Kim, Hyung-Chan; Flores, Michael
A biosimilar product needs to demonstrate biosimilarity to the originator reference product, and the quality profile of the latter should be monitored throughout the period of the biosimilar's development to match the quality attributes of the 2 products that relate to efficacy and safety. For the development of a biosimilar version of trastuzumab, the reference product, Herceptin®, was extensively characterized for the main physicochemical and biologic properties by standard or state-of-the-art analytical methods, using multiple lots expiring between March 2015 and December 2019. For lots with expiry dates up to July 2018, a high degree of consistency was observed for all the tested properties. However, among the lots expiring in August 2018 or later, a downward drift was observed in %afucose (G0+G1+G2). Furthermore, the upward drift of %high mannose (M5+M6) was observed in the lots with expiry dates from June 2019 to December 2019. As a result, the combination of %afucose and %high mannose showed 2 marked drifts in the lots with expiry dates from August 2018 to December 2019, which was supported by the similar trend of biologic data, such as FcγRIIIa binding and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity. Considering that ADCC is one of the clinically relevant mechanisms of action for trastuzumab, the levels of %afucose and %high mannose should be tightly monitored as critical quality attributes for biosimilar development of trastuzumab.
Full Text Available Introduction: Every family physician has a key role in achieving the goals of the family physician program (FPP. Low satisfaction of physicians in certain areas of Iran and their low maintenance level in the program is quite challenging. The aims of the present study were; (1 to assess the attitude of rural/rural-urban family physicians about FPP and (2 to investigate their interest toward participation in urban FPP and (3 to explore the influencing factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 137 family physicians who were working in rural/rural-urban FPP in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (Iran. A self-designed valid and reliable questionnaire including demographic data and thirty questions on the participants' attitudes toward the FPP in Likert scale were used. Data were analyzed by multiple logistic regression models using SPSS software. Results: 49.3% of physicians were interested in continuing their cooperation in the urban-FPP. The mean total attitude score was 62.18 out of 100. The highest agreement and positive attitude of physicians were related to achievements of the program goals dimension. Multiple analyses showed that gender (odds ratio [OR] =5.5; male vs. female and employment status (OR = 16.7 and 10.9 for permanent employment and by contract compared to legal obligation, respectively were significantly associated with physicians' willingness toward participation in the urban-FPP. Conclusion: About half of the studied physicians were interested toward participation in the urban-FPP; Male physicians more than females and permanent employees more than others were willing and interested to participate in the urban-FPP.
This thesis is concerned with different characterizations of multi-particle quantum correlations and with entropic uncertainty relations. The effect of statistical errors on the detection of entanglement is investigated. First, general results on the statistical significance of entanglement witnesses are obtained. Then, using an error model for experiments with polarization-entangled photons, it is demonstrated that Bell inequalities with lower violation can have higher significance. The question for the best observables to discriminate between a state and the equivalence class of another state is addressed. Two measures for the discrimination strength of an observable are defined, and optimal families of observables are constructed for several examples. A property of stabilizer bases is shown which is a natural generalization of mutual unbiasedness. For sets of several dichotomic, pairwise anticommuting observables, uncertainty relations using different entropies are constructed in a systematic way. Exponential families provide a classification of states according to their correlations. In this classification scheme, a state is considered as k-correlated if it can be written as thermal state of a k-body Hamiltonian. Witness operators for the detection of higher-order interactions are constructed, and an algorithm for the computation of the nearest k-correlated state is developed.
This thesis is concerned with different characterizations of multi-particle quantum correlations and with entropic uncertainty relations. The effect of statistical errors on the detection of entanglement is investigated. First, general results on the statistical significance of entanglement witnesses are obtained. Then, using an error model for experiments with polarization-entangled photons, it is demonstrated that Bell inequalities with lower violation can have higher significance. The question for the best observables to discriminate between a state and the equivalence class of another state is addressed. Two measures for the discrimination strength of an observable are defined, and optimal families of observables are constructed for several examples. A property of stabilizer bases is shown which is a natural generalization of mutual unbiasedness. For sets of several dichotomic, pairwise anticommuting observables, uncertainty relations using different entropies are constructed in a systematic way. Exponential families provide a classification of states according to their correlations. In this classification scheme, a state is considered as k-correlated if it can be written as thermal state of a k-body Hamiltonian. Witness operators for the detection of higher-order interactions are constructed, and an algorithm for the computation of the nearest k-correlated state is developed.
Full Text Available Neuropeptides regulate all aspects of behavior in multicellular organisms. Because of their ability to act at long distances, neuropeptides can exert their effects beyond the conventional synaptic connections, thereby adding an intricate layer of complexity to the activity of neural networks. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a large number of neuropeptide genes that are expressed throughout the nervous system has been identified. The actions of these peptides supplement the synaptic connections of the 302 neurons, allowing for fine tuning of neural networks and increasing the ways in which behaviors can be regulated. In this review, we focus on a large family of genes encoding FMRFamide-related peptides. These genes, the flp genes, have been used as a starting point to identifying flp genes throughout Nematoda. Nematodes have the largest family of FMRFamide-related peptides described thus far. The challenges in the future are the elucidation of their functions and the identification of the receptors and signaling pathways through which they function.
Condon, R G
This paper reports on a ten-year longitudinal study of adolescent development and socialization conducted in the Copper Inuit community of Holman. This research has documented how demographic, social, and economic changes have dramatically altered the patterning and sequencing of traditional Inuit life stages, thus giving rise to a prolonged adolescent life stage which was non-existent in the precontact period. At the same time, Inuit family relations have undergone drastic changes as a result of population increase, population concentration, access to government housing, introduction of formal schooling, and the availability of social subsides. Today, the Copper Inuit family has lost its focus as the primary agent of socialization and learning, and many young Inuit now spend most of their time within the context of a greatly expanded peer group which has gradually acquired the values and aspirations of the southern adolescent sub-culture. This paper will discuss the impact of these changing attitudes upon parent-child relations as well as the social adjustment problems experienced by young Inuit as they strive to find a place in the North's changing social landscape.
Clawson, Ann; South, Mikle; Baldwin, Scott A.; Larson, Michael J.
We examined the error-related negativity (ERN) as an endophenotype of ASD by comparing the ERN in families of ASD probands to control families. We hypothesized that ASD probands and families would display reduced-amplitude ERN relative to controls. Participants included 148 individuals within 39 families consisting of a mother, father, sibling,…
Jager, Justin; Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Hendricks, Charlene
Using the McMaster Family Assessment Device (Epstein, Baldwin, & Bishop, 1983) and incorporating the perspectives of adolescent, mother, and father, this study examined each family member's "unique perspective" or nonshared, idiosyncratic view of the family. We used a modified multitrait-multimethod confirmatory factor analysis that (a) isolated for each family member's 6 reports of family dysfunction the nonshared variance (a combination of variance idiosyncratic to the individual and measurement error) from variance shared by 1 or more family members and (b) extracted common variance across each family member's set of nonshared variances. The sample included 128 families from a U.S. East Coast metropolitan area. Each family member's unique perspective generalized across his or her different reports of family dysfunction and accounted for a sizable proportion of his or her own variance in reports of family dysfunction. In addition, after holding level of dysfunction constant across families and controlling for a family's shared variance (agreement regarding family dysfunction), each family member's unique perspective was associated with his or her own adjustment. Future applications and competing alternatives for what these "unique perspectives" reflect about the family are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Jager, Justin; Bornstein, Marc H.; Diane, L. Putnick; Hendricks, Charlene
Using the Family Assessment Device (FAD; Epstein, Baldwin, & Bishop, 1983) and incorporating the perspectives of adolescent, mother, and father, this study examined each family member's “unique perspective” or non-shared, idiosyncratic view of the family. To do so we used a modified multitrait-multimethod confirmatory factor analysis that (1) isolated for each family member's six reports of family dysfunction the non-shared variance (a combination of variance idiosyncratic to the individual and measurement error) from variance shared by one or more family members and (2) extracted common variance across each family member's set of non-shared variances. The sample included 128 families from a U.S. East Coast metropolitan area. Each family member's unique perspective generalized across his or her different reports of family dysfunction and accounted for a sizable proportion of his or her own variance in reports of family dysfunction. Additionally, after holding level of dysfunction constant across families and controlling for a family's shared variance (agreement regarding family dysfunction), each family member's unique perspective was associated with his or her own adjustment. Future applications and competing alternatives for what these “unique perspectives” reflect about the family are discussed. PMID:22545933
Burstein, Marcy; Stanger, Catherine; Dumenci, Levent
The present study: (1) examined relations between parent psychopathology and adolescent internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and substance use in substance-abusing families; and (2) tested family functioning problems as mediators of these relations. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the independent effects of parent…
MacLean, P D
Mammals stem from the mammal-like reptiles (therapsids) that were widely prevalent in Pangaea 250 million years ago. In the evolutionary transition from reptiles to mammals, three key developments were (1) nursing, in conjunction with maternal care; (2) audiovocal communication for maintaining maternal-offspring contact; and (3) play. The separation call perhaps ranks as the earliest and most basic mammalian vocalization, while play may have functioned originally to promote harmony in the nest. How did such family related behavior develop? In its evolution, the forebrain of advanced mammals has expanded as a triune structure that anatomically and chemically reflects ancestral commonalities with reptiles, early mammals, and late mammals. Recent findings suggest that the development of the behavioral triad in question may have depended on the evolution of the thalamocingulate division of the limbic system, a derivative from early mammals. The thalamocingulate division (which has no distinctive counterpart in the reptilian brain) is, in turn, geared in with the prefrontal neocortex that, in human beings, may be inferred to play a key role in familial acculturation.
Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen; Wu, Yu-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping
This study aimed to examine the relationship between three indicators of family adversity (domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage) and the severity of social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan, as well as the mediating effects of perceived family function and self-esteem on that relationship, using structural equation modeling (SEM). A total of 5607 adolescents completed the social anxiety subscale of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children; the Family APGAR Index; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; and a questionnaire for domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety, as well as the mediating effects of family function and self-esteem, was examined using SEM. SEM analysis revealed that all three indicators of family adversity reduced the level of family function, that decreased family function compromised the level of self-esteem, and that a low level of self-esteem further increased the severity of social anxiety. The results indicated that, along with intervening to change family adversity, evaluating and improving adolescents' self-esteem and family function are also important clinical issues when helping adolescents reduce their social anxiety.
A family of tridiagonal pairs which appear in the context of quantum integrable systems is studied in detail. The corresponding eigenvalue sequences, eigenspaces and the block tridiagonal structure of their matrix realizations with respect the dual eigenbasis are described. The overlap functions between the two dual bases are shown to satisfy a coupled system of recurrence relations and a set of discrete second-order q-difference equations which generalize those associated with the Askey-Wilson orthogonal polynomials with a discrete argument. Normalizing the fundamental solution to unity, the hierarchies of solutions are rational functions of one discrete argument, explicitly derived in some simplest examples. The weight function which ensures the orthogonality of the system of rational functions defined on a discrete real support is given
Baseilhac, Pascal [Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS/UMR 6083, Federation Denis Poisson, Universite de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France)
A family of tridiagonal pairs which appear in the context of quantum integrable systems is studied in detail. The corresponding eigenvalue sequences, eigenspaces and the block tridiagonal structure of their matrix realizations with respect the dual eigenbasis are described. The overlap functions between the two dual bases are shown to satisfy a coupled system of recurrence relations and a set of discrete second-order q-difference equations which generalize those associated with the Askey-Wilson orthogonal polynomials with a discrete argument. Normalizing the fundamental solution to unity, the hierarchies of solutions are rational functions of one discrete argument, explicitly derived in some simplest examples. The weight function which ensures the orthogonality of the system of rational functions defined on a discrete real support is given.
Krasnov, Kirill; Shtanov, Yuri
We study linear cosmological perturbations in a previously introduced family of deformations of general relativity characterized by the absence of new degrees of freedom. The homogeneous and isotropic background in this class of theories is unmodified and is described by the usual Friedmann equations. The theory of cosmological perturbations is modified and the relevant deformation parameter has the dimension of length. Gravitational perturbations of the scalar type can be described by a certain relativistic potential related to the matter perturbations just as in general relativity. A system of differential equations describing the evolution of this potential and of the stress-energy density perturbations is obtained. We find that the evolution of scalar perturbations proceeds with a modified effective time-dependent speed of sound, which, contrary to the case of general relativity, does not vanish even at the matter-dominated stage. In a broad range of values of the length parameter controlling the deformation, a specific transition from the regime of modified gravity to the regime of general relativity in the evolution of scalar perturbations takes place during the radiation domination. In this case, the resulting power spectrum of perturbations in radiation and dark matter is suppressed on the comoving spatial scales that enter the Hubble radius before this transition. We estimate the bounds on the deformation parameter for which this suppression does not lead to observable consequences. Evolution of scalar perturbations at the inflationary stage is modified but very slightly and the primordial spectrum generated during inflation is not noticeably different from the one obtained in general relativity
Esra Esim Büyükbayrak
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of family planning counseling on the changeover of the family planning method and to determine level of knowledge of participants on family planning methods and their attitude towards changeover of the method after counseling. Setting: Kartal education and reseach hospital obstetrics and gynecology clinic, department of family planning. Patients. 500 consecutive women applying to family planning department for any reason. Interventions: Effective family planning counseling service was given to each participant then a questioner containin 14 questions was applied with face to face technique. Main Outcome Measures: Attitude towards family planning counseling, comparison of the preference of family planning method before and after family planning counseling service and influential sociodemographic parameters on method choise were studied. Results: 45,2% of the participants were not taken family planning counseling service before. knowledge on family planning methods was sufficient in 25,2% of the participants, insufficient in 56,8% of the participants and 18% of the participants reported that they have no idea. 57,8% of the participants change mind about family planning counseling. 52,2% of the participants changeover perious method after counseling. 99,4% of the participants said that family planning counseling service should be given to every women. Preference of family planning method before and after family planning counseling service was statistically significantly different (p<0.01. Educational level, income and age were found to be influential sociodemographic factors for method preference. Conclusions: Effective family planning counseling service is found to have favorable effect on attitude and knowledge about family planning methods. Modern method usage increase as educational level and income of the participants increase.
Oana Viorela NISTOR
Full Text Available The effect of ohmic treatment on some quality related characteristics of pear purée (cv. ‘Conference’ such as color, reducing sugars, total phenols, rheological behavior and microbial counts, was analyzed. The inactivation kinetics of pectin methyl esterase (PME in pear crude extract and purée were studied by conventional thermal and ohmic treatments. Thermal inactivation of PME in crude extract was described by a first-order kinetic model. The activation energy values suggested the presence of two isoenzymes with different thermostability. The ohmic heating reduced PME activity by 96% at 25 V·cm-1. Minimal changes induced by ohmic heating on above quality related aspects were observed. Supporting this statement, there were no significant changes in the nutritional and sensorial attributes. It was reported an increase of 3% of reducing sugar content for the ohmic heated samples. The phenolic content of the treated samples registered a reduction of 59% in comparison with fresh pear purée. The pear purée presented a non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behaviour. The Ostwald de Waele model was fitted to rheograms and the consistency coefficient (m and flow behavior index (n were determined. Results obtained for the microbial charge were higher in the control samples. Thus, microbial counts showed complete inactivation of yeast and mold at voltage gradient higher than 17.5 V·cm-1.
Alexson de Mello Cunha
Full Text Available Soil characteristics related to the genesis, land use and management are important factors in water dynamics in watersheds. This study evaluated physical, morphological and pedogenetic attributes related to water yield potential in small watersheds in Guarapari, ES, Brazil. The following representative profiles were selected, morphologically described and sampled in area of Atlantic Forest domain: Lithic Udifolists, Oxyaquic Udifluventes, Typic Paleudults, Typic Hapludults, Typic Hapludox, Oxic Dystrudepts and Typic Endoaquents. Samples were collected in the soil profiles for physical analysis. Measurements of field-saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil penetration resistance were perfomed in some profiles, which were under different uses. The Endoaquents of Limão Creek can be considered efficient as temporary water reservoirs. However, the use of artificial drainage tends to reduce this effect. Differential erosion was detected by the sand texture on the surface of the Typic Paleudults due to the low degree of clay flocculation, slope, high resistance to the penetration and low hydraulic conductivity of the Bt horizon, making it necessary to adopt soil management practices to increase the water infiltration. Under pasture, mainly in the cattle trails where the trampling is more intense, there was high resistance to penetration in the superficial layers of the Typic Hapludults. The Typic Hapludox have the greatest potential for water yield in the small watersheds because of its greater extent in the headwaters and their morphological and physical characteristics, which can result in increased aquifer recharge.
Faye eVan der Fluit
Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS is a developmental disorder of genetic origin, with characteristic cognitive and personality profiles. Studies of WS point to an outgoing and gregarious personality style, often contrasted with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs; however, recent research has uncovered underlying social reciprocity difficulties in people with WS. Participants in the current study included 24 children with WS ages 8 through 15. A lab-based measure of social perception and social cognition was administered (Social Attribution Test, as well as an intellectual functioning measure (KBIT-II and parent reports of communication and reciprocal social skills (Social Communication Questionnaire, Social Responsiveness Scale. Relations between social cognition, cognitive abilities, and social-communication were examined. Results demonstrated relations between parent-reported social reciprocity and the typicality of the responses provided in the lab-based measure, even once variability in intellectual functioning was taken into account. In addition, a significant improvement in performance was seen with the added scaffolding particularly for participants with stronger intellectual functioning.
This article seeks to present the principal stages of the prehistory and history of the Quechuan language family in its interaction with the Aimaran family. It reconstructs a plausible scenario for a unique, intensive process of linguistic convergence that underlies the protolanguages of both families. From there on, it traces the principal developments that characterize the history of the Quechuan linguistic family, such as the initial split in two main branches, Quechua I and Quechua II (fo...
Kálmán, Csaba; Eugenio, Esther Gutierrez
Attribution theory (Weiner, 1985) and self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) have been explored as contributors to L2 motivation (cf. Dörnyei, 2001) but have never been studied quantitatively in concert. In addition, students' attributions for success in learning a foreign language have never been measured through the use of a…
Full Text Available Attribution theory (Weiner, 1985 and self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985 have been explored as contributors to L2 motivation (cf. Dörnyei, 2001 but have never been studied quantitatively in concert. In addition, students’ attributions for success in learning a foreign language have never been measured through the use of a questionnaire. The aim of this paper is therefore (a to develop a questionnaire with reliable constructs that allows to measure adult learners’ attributions for their success in learning English in a corporate setting, (b to investigate these learners’ attributions, and (c to investigate the relationship between students’ attributions and the constructs of Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivation central to self-determination theory. Our main results show that among the attributions measured, interest, effort and corporate culture seemed to be the main causes that students recognised as directly involved in their success in learning English. Of all the attributional scales, interest and ability appeared to importantly contribute to intrinsic motivation, while corporate culture, encounters with foreign professionals and ability contributed to a lower extent to extrinsic motivation. It must be noted, however, that attributions for success to teacher and task were so consistently high that they could not be reliably measured with the questionnaire.
Keery, Helene; Boutelle, Kerri; van den Berg, Patricia; Thompson, J Kevin
This study evaluated the prevalence and effects of teasing by family members on body dissatisfaction, eating disturbance, and psychological functioning. Self-report data were collected from 372 middle school girls who were part of a larger study in a Tampa Bay, Florida area middle school (mean age: 12.6 years; 85% Caucasian). Twenty-three percent of participants reported appearance-related teasing by a parent, and 12% were teased by a parent about being heavy. Nineteen percent of the girls reported appearance-related teasing by fathers, 13% reported appearance-related teasing by mothers, and 29% reported appearance-related teasing by siblings. After controlling for body mass index (BMI) and maternal teasing, paternal teasing was a significant predictor of body dissatisfaction, comparison, thin-ideal internalization, restriction, bulimic behaviors, self-esteem, and depression. After controlling for BMI and paternal teasing, maternal teasing was a significant predictor of depression. After controlling for BMI and maternal teasing, paternal teasing significantly increased the odds of having a sibling who teases. Girls who reported being teased by at least one sibling demonstrated significantly higher levels of body dissatisfaction, comparison, thin-ideal internalization, restriction, bulimic behaviors, depression, and significantly lower levels of self-esteem than those girls who reported they were not teased by their siblings. Frequency of teasing was associated with higher levels of negative outcomes. This study has implications for treatment and prevention of eating disorders. The results suggest that health care providers should assess appearance-related teasing in their patients' lives to identify girls who may be at risk for body image and eating disturbance and poor psychological functioning.
Ehrhardt, Annette; Ehrhardt, Götz R A; Guo, Xuecui; Schrader, John W
Many members of the Ras superfamily of GTPases have been implicated in the regulation of hematopoietic cells, with roles in growth, survival, differentiation, cytokine production, chemotaxis, vesicle-trafficking, and phagocytosis. The well-known p21 Ras proteins H-Ras, N-Ras, K-Ras 4A, and K-Ras 4B are also frequently mutated in human cancer and leukemia. Besides the four p21 Ras proteins, the Ras subfamily of the Ras superfamily includes R-Ras, TC21 (R-Ras2), M-Ras (R-Ras3), Rap1A, Rap1B, Rap2A, Rap2B, RalA, and RalB. They exhibit remarkable overall amino acid identities, especially in the regions interacting with the guanine nucleotide exchange factors that catalyze their activation. In addition, there is considerable sharing of various downstream effectors through which they transmit signals and of GTPase activating proteins that downregulate their activity, resulting in overlap in their regulation and effector function. Relatively little is known about the physiological functions of individual Ras family members, although the presence of well-conserved orthologs in Caenorhabditis elegans suggests that their individual roles are both specific and vital. The structural and functional similarities have meant that commonly used research tools fail to discriminate between the different family members, and functions previously attributed to one family member may be shared with other members of the Ras family. Here we discuss similarities and differences in activation, effector usage, and functions of different members of the Ras subfamily. We also review the possibility that the differential localization of Ras proteins in different parts of the cell membrane may govern their responses to activation of cell surface receptors.
Peay, H L; Hooker, G W; Kassem, L; Biesecker, B B
Genetics and mental health professionals increasingly provide education and counseling related to risk for psychiatric illness, but there is insufficient evidence about patient perceptions and needs to guide such interventions. Affected individuals and relatives may perceive increased family risk and have interest in genetic education and counseling. Our objectives were to explore perceptions of family vulnerability, perceived control, and coping strategies related to familial risk and needs from genetic counseling. Our methods included conducting semi-structured interviews (n = 48) with individuals with bipolar disorder (BPD) and unaffected siblings. Content analysis generated descriptive data that provide guidance for clinical interventions and themes to evaluate in future studies. The results showed that participants perceived increased personal and family risk, attributing BPD to genes and family environment. Causal attributions were often uncertain and at times inconsistent. Participants wished to modify psychiatric risk to relatives, but were uncertain how to do so; despite the uncertainty, most parents reported risk-modification efforts. Efforts to cope with family vulnerability included monitoring and cognitive distancing. Participants endorsed the usefulness of education and psychological support, but described more ambivalence about receiving risk assessment. Educational and supportive interventions around family risk for BPD should focus on perceptions of cause and vulnerability, reproductive decision-making, and early intervention and risk modification in young relatives. Psychological support is an important component. Providers should evaluate patient coping strategies, which could facilitate or hinder genetic counseling interventions, and should not assume interest in quantitative risk assessment. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Bove, Karsten; Kristensen, Gitte Hvoldal; Skytte, Hans
The recent decade has seen a concentration in the food retail sector in Europe (Eurostat, 1997), and this has increased the importance of understanding value creation in the retail industry, as retailers are becoming the gatekeepers to the consumer mar-ket (Skytte & Blunch 1998; Sternquist 1994...... was to analyse whether there is a difference in consequences and values sought from the same set of attributes. The results showed that supplier attributes were more important than product attributes, but both categories interact in a complex web of attributes to create central con-se-quences and values...... really want to achieve by means of certain attri-butes, and what the difference in value means. These results offer possible improvements in the value chain of fish products from the sea to the customer, thereby improving market orientation and competitive advantage in the fish industry....
An overview is presented of the attributes of gluons, deducible from experimental data. Particular attention is given to the photon-gluon fusion model of charm leptoproduction. The agreement with QCD and theoretical prejudice is qualitatively good
Derks, D.; Bakker, A.B.; Peters, P.; Wingerden, P. van
Is work-related smartphone use during off-job time associated with lower conflict owing to the blurring of the boundaries between work and family life? Or does it help employees juggling work and family demands? The present four-day quantitative diary study (N = 71 employees, N = 265–280 data
Shield, Kevin D; Rehm, Jürgen
Alcohol consumption is a major risk factor for the burden of disease globally. This burden is estimated using Relative Risk (RR) functions for alcohol from meta-analyses that use data from all countries; however, for Russia and surrounding countries, country-specific risk data may need to be used. The objective of this paper is to compare the estimated burden of alcohol consumption calculated using Russia-specific alcohol RRs with the estimated burden of alcohol consumption calculated using alcohol RRs from meta-analyses. Data for 2012 on drinking indicators were calculated based on the Global Information System on Alcohol and Health. Data for 2012 on mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived with Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost by cause were obtained by country from the World Health Organization. Alcohol Population-Attributable Fractions (PAFs) were calculated based on a risk modelling methodology from Russia. These PAFs were compared to PAFs calculated using methods applied for all other countries. The 95% Uncertainty Intervals (UIs) for the alcohol PAFs were calculated using a Monte Carlo-like method. Using Russia-specific alcohol RR functions, in Russia in 2012 alcohol caused an estimated 231,900 deaths (95% UI: 185,600 to 278,200) (70,800 deaths among women and 161,100 deaths among men) and 13,295,000 DALYs lost (95% UI: 11,242,000 to 15,348,000) (3,670,000 DALYs lost among women and 9,625,000 DALYs lost among men) among people 0 to 64 years of age. This compares to an estimated 165,600 deaths (95% UI: 97,200 to 228,100) (29,700 deaths among women and 135,900 deaths among men) and 10,623,000 DALYs lost (95% UI: 7,265,000 to 13,754,000) (1,783,000 DALYs lost among women and 8,840,000 DALYs lost among men) among people 0 to 64 years of age caused by alcohol when non-Russia-specific alcohol RRs were used. Results indicate that if the Russia-specific RRs are used when estimating the health burden attributable to alcohol consumption in
MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol; Lindsey, Eric W; Frabutt, James M; Chambers, Jessica Campbell
The present study examined mothers' use of corporal punishment and adolescents' aggression as predictors of mother-youth conflict during early adolescence. Particular attention was given to the potential mediating role that adolescents' hostile attributions of intent (HAI) regarding mothers' behavior might play in connections between corporal punishment, youth aggression, and mother-adolescent conflict for European American (EA) and African American (AA) youth. Data were collected from 268 12- to 14-year-olds (154 European American; 114 African American; 133 girls; 135 boys) and their mothers over a period of 2 years. Questionnaires completed by both mothers and adolescents were used to assess maternal corporal punishment and adolescent aggression, and interviews concerning hypothetical situations were used to assess adolescent HAI in year one. In both year one and year two mother-adolescent conflict was observed in a laboratory interaction session. Data revealed that adolescent HAI mediated the link between maternal corporal punishment and mother-adolescent conflict for EA, but not AA youth. Adolescents' HAI mediated the link between adolescent aggression and mother-adolescent conflict for both EA and AA families. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Martínez, Rocío; Rodriguez-Bailon, Rosa; Moya, Miguel; Vaes, Jeroen
The present research examines the relationship between the infrahumanization approach and the two-dimensional model of humanness: an issue that has received very little empirical attention. In Study 1, we created three unknown groups (Humanized, Animalized, and Mechanized) granting/denying them Human Nature (HN) and Human Uniqueness (HU) traits. The attribution of primary/secondary emotions was measured. As expected, participants attributed more secondary emotions to the humanized compared to dehumanized groups. Importantly, both animalized and mechanized groups were attributed similar amounts of secondary emotions. In Study 2, the groups were described in terms of their capacity to express secondary emotions. We measured the attribution of HN/HU traits. Results showed that the infrahumanized group was denied both HU/HN traits. The results highlight the importance of considering the common aspects of both approaches in understanding processes of dehumanization.
Cardol, M.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Dijk, L. van; Bosch, W. van den; Bakker, D.H. de
Background: Efforts to promote health or prevent disease may conflict with patients’ habits at home. Irrespective of the national setting, families are important social contexts in which illness occurs and resolves. Family members resemble each other in their illness behaviour, even across
Kylmänen, Paula; Hakko, Helinä; Räsänen, Pirkko; Riala, Kaisa
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between family size and psychiatric disorders of underage adolescent psychiatric inpatients. The study sample consisted of 508 adolescents (age 12-17) admitted to psychiatric impatient care between April 2001 and March 2006. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition-based psychiatric diagnoses and variables measuring family size were obtained from the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL). The family size of the general Finnish population was used as a reference population. There was a significant difference between the family size of the inpatient adolescents and the general population: 17.0% of adolescents came from large families (with 6 or more children) while the percentage in the general population was 3.3. A girl from a large family had an about 4-fold risk of psychosis other than schizophrenia. However, large family size was not associated with a risk for schizophrenia. Large family size was overrepresented among underage adolescents admitted for psychiatric hospitalization in Northern Finland. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stoilkovska, Aleksandra; Milenkovska , Violeta; Serafimovic , Gordana
The peculiarity and uniqueness of family businesses set them apart from other businesses in many things. Natural need of man to survive in these harsh circumstances forces him to constantly seek new sources of funding or simply tries to improve the existing. Secure existence is difficult to ensure. The successful family business provides many benefits: reliable operation, to be your own boss, flexible working hours, family members are taken care of, to become successful with your own strength...
Full Text Available In this study family-related factors that can influence the succession process in small and medium-sized family businesses are empirically investigated. The dependent variable in this study is measured by two underlying dimensions, namely satisfaction with the process and continued profitability of the business. The empirical results indicate that the family-related factors that influence both the aforementioned dimensions are the mutual acceptance of roles, the relationship between the owner-manager and successor, and family harmony. The continued profitability of the business is also influenced by the agreement to continue the business. The existence of family harmony in itself influences the relationship between the owner-manager and successor, the agreement to continue the business, as well as the mutual acceptance of roles. The managerial implications of these empirical findings are discussed and recommendations offered.
Sayanthooran, Saravanabavan; Magana-Arachchi, Dhammika N; Gunerathne, Lishanthe; Abeysekera, Tilak D J; Sooriyapathirana, Suneth S
Objective. To infer the influence of internal and external oxidative stress in chronic kidney disease patients of unknown etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka, by analyzing expression of genes related directly or indirectly to oxidative stress: glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), and NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3). Methods. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was carried out for the selected populations: CKDu patients ( n = 43), chronic kidney disease patients (CKD; n = 14), healthy individuals from a CKDu endemic area (GHI; n = 9), and nonendemic area (KHI; n = 16). Fold changes were quantified relative to KHI. Results. GCLC had greater than threefold upregulation in all three study groups, with a maximum of 7.27-fold upregulation in GHI ( p = 0.000). GSTM1 was not expressed in 25.6% of CKDu and 42.9% of CKD patients, but CKDu patients expressing GSTM1 showed upregulation of 2.60-fold ( p CKDu was observed ( p CKDu, possibly owing to environmental conditions.
Full Text Available Objective. To infer the influence of internal and external oxidative stress in chronic kidney disease patients of unknown etiology (CKDu in Sri Lanka, by analyzing expression of genes related directly or indirectly to oxidative stress: glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC, glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23, and NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3. Methods. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR was carried out for the selected populations: CKDu patients (n=43, chronic kidney disease patients (CKD; n=14, healthy individuals from a CKDu endemic area (GHI; n=9, and nonendemic area (KHI; n=16. Fold changes were quantified relative to KHI. Results. GCLC had greater than threefold upregulation in all three study groups, with a maximum of 7.27-fold upregulation in GHI (p=0.000. GSTM1 was not expressed in 25.6% of CKDu and 42.9% of CKD patients, but CKDu patients expressing GSTM1 showed upregulation of 2.60-fold (p<0.05. Upregulation of FGF23 and NLRP3 genes in CKD and CKDu was observed (p<0.01, with greater fold changes in CKD. Conclusion. Results suggest higher influence of external sources of oxidative stress in CKDu, possibly owing to environmental conditions.
Arellano-Valle, Reinaldo B.; Genton, Marc G.
A class of multivariate extended skew-t (EST) distributions is introduced and studied in detail, along with closely related families such as the subclass of extended skew-normal distributions. Besides mathematical tractability and modeling flexibility in terms of both skewness and heavier tails than the normal distribution, the most relevant properties of the EST distribution include closure under conditioning and ability to model lighter tails as well. The first part of the present paper examines probabilistic properties of the EST distribution, such as various stochastic representations, marginal and conditional distributions, linear transformations, moments and in particular Mardia’s measures of multivariate skewness and kurtosis. The second part of the paper studies statistical properties of the EST distribution, such as likelihood inference, behavior of the profile log-likelihood, the score vector and the Fisher information matrix. Especially, unlike the extended skew-normal distribution, the Fisher information matrix of the univariate EST distribution is shown to be non-singular when the skewness is set to zero. Finally, a numerical application of the conditional EST distribution is presented in the context of confidential data perturbation.
Arellano-Valle, Reinaldo B.
A class of multivariate extended skew-t (EST) distributions is introduced and studied in detail, along with closely related families such as the subclass of extended skew-normal distributions. Besides mathematical tractability and modeling flexibility in terms of both skewness and heavier tails than the normal distribution, the most relevant properties of the EST distribution include closure under conditioning and ability to model lighter tails as well. The first part of the present paper examines probabilistic properties of the EST distribution, such as various stochastic representations, marginal and conditional distributions, linear transformations, moments and in particular Mardia’s measures of multivariate skewness and kurtosis. The second part of the paper studies statistical properties of the EST distribution, such as likelihood inference, behavior of the profile log-likelihood, the score vector and the Fisher information matrix. Especially, unlike the extended skew-normal distribution, the Fisher information matrix of the univariate EST distribution is shown to be non-singular when the skewness is set to zero. Finally, a numerical application of the conditional EST distribution is presented in the context of confidential data perturbation.
Egbert, Nichole; Child, Jeffrey T; Lin, Mei-Chen; Savery, Carol; Bosley, Tammy
For older adults, approaching end-of-life (EOL) brings unique transitions related to family relationships. Unfortunately, most families greatly underestimate the need to discuss these difficult issues. For example, parents approaching EOL issues often struggle with receiving assistance from others, avoiding family conflict, and maintaining their sense of personhood. In addition, discussions of EOL issues force family members to face their parents' mortality, which can be particularly difficult for adult children to process emotionally. This study explored aging issues identified by aging parents and their families as they traverse these impending EOL changes. Ten focus groups of seniors ( n = 65) were conducted. Focus groups were organized according to race (African-American/European-American), gender, and whether the older adult was living independently or in an assisted care facility. When asked open-ended questions about discussing aging and EOL issues with family members, participants revealed tensions that led us to consider Relational Dialectics Theory as a framework for analysis. The predominant tension highlighted in this report was certainty versus uncertainty, with the two sub-themes of sustained life versus sustained personhood and confronting versus avoiding EOL issues. For these data, there were more similarities than differences as a result of gender, race, or living situation than one might expect, although culture and financial status were found to be influential in the avoidance of EOL discussions. The results of this study help to provide additional insight into relational dialectics related to aging, EOL, and the importance of communication in facilitating family coping.
Kurdek, Lawrence A.; Fine, Mark A.
Young adolescents who lived with both biological parents, single divorced mother, single divorced father, mother and stepfather, father and stepmother, or multiply divorced parent appraised dimensions of family climate and dimensions of parenting. Differences among family structures were found on warmth, conflict, permissive parenting, and…
Kalpakci, Allison; Venta, Amanda; Sharp, Carla
Central to most theories of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is the notion that the family environment interacts with genetically-based vulnerabilities to influence the development of BPD, with particular attention given to risk conferred by conflictual familial relations. However, the extent to which family conflict may relate to the development of BPD via related interpersonal beliefs is currently unknown. This study sought to test the hypothesis that the concurrent relation between conflictual family relations and borderline features in female college students is explained by beliefs associated with real or perceived unmet interpersonal needs (captured by Joiner's  Interpersonal Psychological Theory, specifically thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness). The sample included 267 female undergraduates ages 18-25 years (M = 20.86; SD = 1.80). Level of borderline personality features, unmet interpersonal needs, and family conflict were assessed. Bivariate analyses revealed significant relations between both thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, conflictual family relations, and borderline features. Multivariate analyses revealed that thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness both mediated the relation between family conflict and borderline personality features, thus supporting a multiple mediation model. This cross-sectional study is a preliminary step towards confirming the broad theoretical hypothesis that conflictual family relations relate to beliefs about thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, which, in turn, relate to borderline personality pathology. Limitations and areas of future research are discussed.
Grønhøj, Alice; Ølander, Folke
Studies of 'green' consumer behavior have often reported differences in male and female environmental concern and participation. This paper looks into the nature of such differences within the family. Husband-wife differences with regard to family participation in a number of environmentally...... for this could be discerned. Most notably, the division of household and consumption roles within families often made sub-activities of pro-environmental practices the prime responsibility of either one of the partners. Thus, a gender-based inside-outside division of household responsibilities with regard to pro......-environmental practices could be noted. It is suggested that the processes whereby environmentally oriented consumer practices are adopted and transmitted among family members receive closer research attention....
Sobotková, Veronika; Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin; Hrdlička, M.
Roč. 33, č. 8 (2013), s. 1091-1115 ISSN 0272-4316 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : family * antisocial behavior * typology * adolescence Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.200, year: 2013
Robins, Richard W; Mendelsohn, Gerald A; Connell, Joanie B; Kwan, Virginia S Y
Two studies examined consistency and agreement in behavior ratings and causal attributions. In Study 1, participants (N = 280) engaged in a series of getting-acquainted conversations in one of 3 communication media (face-to-face, telephone, computer mediated); in Study 2, participants (N = 120) engaged in a competitive group task. In both studies, participants rated themselves and their interaction partners on a set of behaviors and then made attributions about the causes of those behaviors. The major findings were that (a) participants consistently favored some causal factors over others in explaining both their own and their partners' behavior, supporting the existence of generalized attributional styles; and (b) participants showed moderate self-partner and partner-partner agreement about behavior but virtually no agreement about the causes of behavior. Thus, in brief interactions people tend to see themselves and others through the lens of their stable patterns of perceiving and interpreting behavior.
Pernice-Duca, Francesca; Taiariol, Jennifer; Yoon, Jina
The role of family and school-level variables on relational aggression and relational victimization was investigated among 158 fourth- and fifth-grade children. Family cohesion, maternal and paternal responsiveness, and school climate were hypothesized to be significant predictors of relational aggression and relational victimization. The results…
Mitchell Douglas A
Full Text Available Abstract Background A new family of natural products has been described in which cysteine, serine and threonine from ribosomally-produced peptides are converted to thiazoles, oxazoles and methyloxazoles, respectively. These metabolites and their biosynthetic gene clusters are now referred to as thiazole/oxazole-modified microcins (TOMM. As exemplified by microcin B17 and streptolysin S, TOMM precursors contain an N-terminal leader sequence and C-terminal core peptide. The leader sequence contains binding sites for the posttranslational modifying enzymes which subsequently act upon the core peptide. TOMM peptides are small and highly variable, frequently missed by gene-finders and occasionally situated far from the thiazole/oxazole forming genes. Thus, locating a substrate for a particular TOMM pathway can be a challenging endeavor. Results Examination of candidate TOMM precursors has revealed a subclass with an uncharacteristically long leader sequence closely related to the enzyme nitrile hydratase. Members of this nitrile hydratase leader peptide (NHLP family lack the metal-binding residues required for catalysis. Instead, NHLP sequences display the classic Gly-Gly cleavage motif and have C-terminal regions rich in heterocyclizable residues. The NHLP family exhibits a correlated species distribution and local clustering with an ABC transport system. This study also provides evidence that a separate family, annotated as Nif11 nitrogen-fixing proteins, can serve as natural product precursors (N11P, but not always of the TOMM variety. Indeed, a number of cyanobacterial genomes show extensive N11P paralogous expansion, such as Nostoc, Prochlorococcus and Cyanothece, which replace the TOMM cluster with lanthionine biosynthetic machinery. Conclusions This study has united numerous TOMM gene clusters with their cognate substrates. These results suggest that two large protein families, the nitrile hydratases and Nif11, have been retailored for
Peeters, MCW; Schaufeli, WB; Buunk, BP
This paper describes a micro-analysis of the cognitive appraisal of daily stressful events in a sample of correctional officers (COs). More specifically, the authors examined whether three attribution dimensions mediated the relationship between the occurrence of stressful events and the
Krettenauer, Tobias; Eichler, Dana
The study investigates adolescents' self-attributed moral emotions following a moral transgression by expanding research with children on the happy-victimizer phenomenon. In a sample of 200 German adolescents from Grades 7, 9, 11, and 13 (M=16.18 years, SD=2.41), participants were confronted with various scenarios describing different moral rule…
Liu, Ziqi; Smola, Alexander J.; Soska, Kyle; Wang, Yu-Xiang; Zheng, Qinghua; Zhou, Jun
In this paper we describe an algorithm for estimating the provenance of hacks on websites. That is, given properties of sites and the temporal occurrence of attacks, we are able to attribute individual attacks to joint causes and vulnerabilities, as well as estimating the evolution of these vulnerabilities over time. Specifically, we use hazard regression with a time-varying additive hazard function parameterized in a generalized linear form. The activation coefficients on each feature are co...
Branje, S.J.T.; Lieshout, C.F.M. van; Aken, M.A.G. van
The authors investigated the longitudinal relations between family members' Big Five personality factors and perceived support. Members of 285 two-parent families with 2 adolescent children judged their own and other family members' Big Five factors and the support perceived from the other members
Examines relationship between structural family model and self-psychology constructs. College women (n=164) completed the Structural Family Interaction Scale-Revised (SFIS-R), the Parental Relations Inventory, and the Goal Instability and Superiority scales from the Self-Expression Inventory. Indicated that women raised in families with strong…
Fivush, Robyn; Marin, Kelly; McWilliams, Kelly; Bohanek, Jennifer G.
Family reminiscing is a critical part of family interaction related to child outcome. In this study, we extended previous research by examining both mothers and fathers, in two-parent racially diverse middle-class families, reminiscing with their 9- to 12-year-old children about both the facts and the emotional aspects of shared positive and…
Johnston, Elizabeth; Rasmusson, Xeno; Foyil, Barbara; Shopland, Patricia
Content analysis of 35 family members stories found that sharing individualized music enhanced memory, mood and provided interactive opportunities, where family members connected and communicated with relatives who had dementia. Technology supports a positive new role for family members, who often use MP3 players (e.g. iPods), headphones,…
Sperlich, Stefanie; Geyer, Siegfried
This study explores the contribution of social and family-related factors to women's experience of an effort-reward imbalance (ERI) in household and family work. Using a population-based sample of German mothers (n = 3,129), we performed stepwise logistic regression analysis in order to determine the relative impact of social and family-related factors on ERI. All factors investigated showed a significant association with at least one ERI component. Considering all predictors simultaneously in the multivariate analysis resulted in a decrease in significance of socioeconomic status in explaining the effort-reward ratio while the impact on low reward partly remained significant. In addition, age of youngest child, number of children, lower levels of perceived social support, domestic work inequity and negative work-to-family spillover, irrespective of being half- or full-time employed, revealed to be important in predicting ERI. The experience of ERI in domestic work is influenced by the social and family environment. Particularly among socially disadvantaged mothers, lack of social recognition for household and family work proved to be a relevant source of psychosocial stress.
Jacobs, Myrthe; Marks Woolfson, Lisa; Hunter, Simon C
Children with developmental delays (DD) are at risk for developing behavior problems. Research suggests that parents' causal attributions for child behavior are related to parenting. This study investigated this association in parents of children with DD compared to parents of typically developing (TD) children. It specifically focused on attributions of child control by separating these from attributions of responsibility, blame and intent, and from attributions of parent control and responsibility. Fifty-one parents of children with DD and 69 parents of TD children completed two questionnaires. The Written Analogue Questionnaire measured causal attributions. The Parenting Scale measured dysfunctional discipline practices. Parents of children with DD viewed the child's role in problematic behavior more positively while also viewing misbehavior as more fixed than parents of TD children. Parents of TD children who viewed their child as more in control over misbehavior used less dysfunctional discipline, but this association was not found for parents of children with DD. The results advance understanding of how parents perceive behavior problems in children with DD and the important role these perceptions play in parental behavior management strategies. More importantly, these perceptions relate to discipline practices differently for parents of children with DD compared to parents of TD children, highlighting that parent interventions should be adapted to the specific needs of parents of children with DD.
Sobotková, Veronika; Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin; Hrdlicka, Michal
The study deals with the relationship between antisocial behavior in early adolescence and family environment. Sample consisted of 2,856 adolescents (53% girls, mean age 13.5 years, SD = 1.1) from urban areas in the Czech Republic. The Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), a school survey, was used to measure sociodemographic characteristics of the…
We establish a Canonical Form for the least full $R_Y$-AFL containing $Sub(K_1,K_2)$. From a well-known characterization of the families EOL and ETOL due to Ehrenfeucht & Rozenberg (1974, 1974a) we obtain Salomaa's (1973) result on the full Lindenmayer-AFL's $Sub(K,OL)$ and $Sub(K,TOL)$. The
The advance of reproductive technologies, like surrogacy arrangements, confronts courts with new demands and dilemmas. This contribution analyses the potential of EU law towards a better and more balanced reconciliation of work, private and family life when no national law applies. In two recent
Dias, Adriano; Cordeiro, Ricardo
Noise is the most common agent of occupational exposure. It may induce both auditory and extraauditory dysfunction and increase the risk of work accidents. The purpose of this study was to estimate the fraction of accidents attributable to noise occupational exposure in a mid-size city located in southeastern Brazil. In this population case-control study, which included 108 cases and 324 controls, the incidence rate ratio of work accidents controlled for several covariables was obtained by classifying occupational noise exposure into three levels, as well as determining the prevalence in each level. Based on these data, the attributable fraction was estimated as 0.6391 (95% CI = 0.2341-0.3676), i.e., 63% of the work accidents that took place in the study site were statistically associated with occupational noise exposure. The causes of this association as well as its implications in the prevention of work accidents are discussed.
Dias, A; Cordeiro, R
Background: Noise is the most common agent of occupational exposure. It may induce both auditory and extraauditory dysfunction and increase the risk of work accidents. The purpose of this study was to estimate the fraction of accidents attributable to noise occupational exposure in a mid-size city located in southeastern Brazil. Materials and Methods: In this population case-control study, which included 108 cases and 324 controls, the incidence rate ratio of work accidents controlled for sev...
Fäldt Ciccolo, Erica B
Elements of family dynamics have been shown to be related to onset, course, as well as prognosis of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. The goal was to explore the experience of family relations in a group of patients with eating disorders using a projective family test. The Patient group (anorexia=21, bulimia=16), as well as a healthy Control group, were given a projective family test, the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, as well as Karolinska Scales of Personality. The Patient group expressed more discord within the family picture than the Control group, such as cold and loveless relationships and not feeling validated. The group of patients reporting the most family discord did not show more eating disorder pathology or general psychopathology. They did, however, have higher scores on the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 subscale Maturity Fears, as well as higher values on the Karolinska Scales of Personality subscale Socialization. These results are interpreted within the background of methodological challenges in this area of research.
Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Lee, Chun-Te; Lu, Huei-Lan; Tsai, Yun-Fang
To examine influencing factors of health-related quality of life in primary family caregivers of people with schizophrenia receiving inpatient psychiatric rehabilitation services. Families, particularly primary family caregivers, have become more important than ever in mental health care. Yet, research on health-related quality of life among primarily family caregivers is limited. A correlational study design was used. A convenience sample of 122 primary family caregivers participated in the study. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics, Pearson's product-moment correlation, t test, one-way analysis of variance and a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Primary family caregivers who were parents, older, less educated, and had a lower monthly household income, increased affiliate stigma and decreased quality of family-centred care experienced poor health-related quality of life. Particularly, monthly household income, affiliate stigma and quality of family-centred care appeared to be the most critical determinants of health-related quality of life. Efforts to enhance satisfaction of life should focus on reducing affiliate stigma as well as increasing monthly household income and strengthening the quality of family-centred care. Findings may assist in the development of culturally integrated rehabilitation programmes to decrease affiliate stigma and increase family engagement as a means of promoting quality of life for primary family caregivers living with people who have schizophrenia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Dental caries is common childhood disease with children from lower socioeconomic status experiencing disproportionately higher levels of the disease. Parents and the broader family environment may play an important role in the development of childhood dental caries as mediators / moderators of risk.
interpretation of attribute grammars. The framework is used to construct a strictness analysis for attribute grammars. Results of the analysis enable us to transform an attribute grammar such that attributes are evaluated during parsing, if possible. The analysis is proved correct by relating it to a fixpoint...... semantics for attribute grammars. An implementation of the analysis is discussed and some extensions to the analysis are mentioned....
The advance of reproductive technologies, like surrogacy arrangements, confronts courts with new demands and dilemmas. This contribution analyses the potential of EU law towards a better and more balanced reconciliation of work, private and family life when no national law applies. In two recent cases of the Court of Justice of the EU on leave for surrogacy mothers, the Advocates General Kokott and Wahl published diverging opinions on similar prejudicial questions of national courts. These op...
Research purpose: The objective of the research was to investigate the relation between adultlearners’ cognitive learning strategies (measured by the examination preparation inventoryand their psychosocial employability attributes (measured by the employability attributesscale. Motivation for the study: Recent research has made important progress in understanding thenotions of cognitive learning styles in learning and psychosocial employability attributes insustaining individuals’ employability in the contemporary world of work. However, researchon how adult learners’ cognitive learning strategies influence the psychosocial attributes theyneed to manage and sustain their employability has been lacking. Research approach, design and method: A quantitative cross-sectional survey design wasused, involving a stratified proportional random sample of 1102 predominantly early careerblack female undergraduate level adult learners. The participants were enrolled for distancelearning studies in the economic and management sciences field at a South African highereducation institution. Main findings: Canonical correlation and multiple regression analysis indicated the abstracttheoretical and factual practical cognitive learning strategies as useful predictors of theparticipants’ overall level of psychosocial employability attributes and especially their levelsof career self-management and proactivity. Practical/managerial implications: Learning practitioners should strive to integrate cognitivelearning strategies in the design of learning and assessment activities in order to fosterthe psychosocial employability attributes adult learners need to manage their continuedemployability in the contemporary workplace. Contribution: The study contributes new insights to the employability and learning andeducation literature. The results may potentially inform formal learning and assessmentdesign in order to improve adult learners’ learning performance and employability.
McGillicuddy-De Lisi, Ann V; De Lisi, Richard
College students (N = 125) reported their perceptions of family relations in response to vignettes that presented 5 different parenting styles. Participants viewed family relations as most positive when parents were portrayed as authoritative or permissive and as most negative when parents were portrayed as uninvolved-neglecting or authoritarian. Student gender and parent gender effects qualified these findings. Female students reported family relations to be less positive than did male students when parents were depicted as authoritarian or as uninvolved-neglecting, and they rated family relations more positively than did male students when parents were depicted as permissive. Participants viewed family relations as more positive when mothers rather than fathers were presented as permissive and when fathers rather than mothers were depicted as authoritarian. The authors discuss the findings of the study in relation to theories of beliefs about children and implications for future parenting styles of male and female college students.
Untas, Aurélie; Rascle, Nicole; Idier, Laetitia; Lasseur, Catherine; Combe, Christian
This study investigated the effect of family relations on patients' adjustment to dialysis. The two main aims were to develop a family typology, and to explore the influence of family profile on the patient's anxiety, depression and adherence to nutritional guidelines. The sample consisted of 120 patients (mean age 63 years; 67.5% of men). They completed several measures 1, 6 and 12 months after dialysis initiation. The scales used were the Family Relationship Index and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Perceived adherence to nutritional guidelines was assessed using two visual analogical scales. Results showed that family relations remained stable over time. Cluster analysis yielded three family profiles, which were named conflict, communicative and supportive families. Patients belonging to conflict families perceived themselves as less adhering to nutritional guidelines. For these patients, anxiety and depressive moods increased significantly over time, whereas mental health remained stable over time for communicative and supportive families. This research underlines that family relations are essential in global consideration of the care of patients treated by dialysis. Conflict families seem especially at risk. They should be identified early to help them adapt to this stressful treatment.
Beutell, Nicholas J
This research examined health, supervisory support, and workplace culture as predictors of work interfering with family, family interfering with work, and work-family synergy. The analysis of data from 2,796 respondents from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce yielded significant relations among measures of mental health, self-rated health, supervisory support, and work-family culture with a focus on career concerns. Support was found for a measure of work-family synergy. Implications and directions for research are discussed.
Wadsworth, Martha E.; Berger, Lauren E.
Examined prospective associations among poverty-related family stress, coping, involuntary stress reactivity, and psychological symptoms in a sample of 79 rural, low-income adolescents. Poverty-related family stress predicted adolescents' anxious/depressed and aggressive behavior 8 months later, controlling for prior symptoms. Coping interacted…
Al-Yagon, Michal; Cinamon, Rachel Gali
The study examined conflict and facilitation in work-family relations among working mothers of children with learning disorders (LD) or with typical development. The study also focused on three maternal personal resources (maternal anxious/avoidant attachment security, affect and sense of coherence) as antecedents of these work-family relations,…
Plant, Karen; Byrne, Linda; Barkla, Joanne; McLean, Duncan; Hearle, Jenny; McGrath, John
Examines the utility of various self-report instruments related to family functioning in families where a parent has a psychotic disorder, and explores associations between these instruments and symptoms in the parent. There were significant associations between objective measures of negative symptoms and self-report scores related to problems in…
Vendlinski, Matthew; Silk, Jennifer S.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Lane, Tonya J.
Background: Family process variables have been linked to child problem behavior, but recent research suggests that child ethnicity may moderate relations between family process and child outcomes. The current study examined how ethnicity moderates relations between parent conflict, parent-child relationship quality, and internalizing problems.…
McGillicuddy-De Lisi, Ann V.; De Lisi, Richard
College students (N = 125) reported their perceptions of family relations in response to vignettes that presented 5 different parenting styles. Participants viewed family relations as most positive when parents were portrayed as authoritative or permissive and as most negative when parents were portrayed as uninvolved-neglecting or authoritarian.…
Sullivan, Sherry E.
Examined business students' (n=203) attitudes relating to sequencing of career and family events for women. Results indicated gender, attitudes regarding women's timing of career and children, and women's ability to balance work and family demands were significantly related. There was a relationship between attitudes toward timing of marriage and…
... relative and family-sponsored petitions. 204.1 Section 204.1 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... about immediate relative and family-sponsored petitions. (a) Types of petitions. Petitions may be filed..., Application to Determine Suitability as Adoptive Parents for a Convention adoptee; and (ii) After USCIS...
Davis, Kelly A.; Epkins, Catherine C.
We extended past research that focused on the relation between family conflict and preadolescents' depressive and anxiety symptoms. In a sample of 160 11- to 12-year-olds, we examined whether private religious practices moderated the relations between family conflict and preadolescents' depressive and anxiety symptoms. Although preadolescents'…
Fonseca, Lílian Martins; Araújo, Telma Martins de; Santos, Aline Rôde; Faber, Jorge
Physical attributes, behavior, and personal ornaments exert a direct influence on how a person's beauty and personality are judged. The aim of this study was to investigate how people who wear a fixed orthodontic appliance see themselves and are seen by others in social settings. A total of 60 adults evaluated their own smiling faces in 3 different scenarios: without a fixed orthodontic appliance, wearing a metal fixed orthodontic appliance, and wearing an esthetic fixed orthodontic appliance. Furthermore, 15 adult raters randomly assessed the same faces in standardized front-view facial photographs. Both the subjects and the raters answered a questionnaire in which they evaluated criteria on a numbered scale ranging from 0 to 10. The models judged their own beauty, and the raters assigned scores to beauty, age, intelligence, ridiculousness, extroversion, and success. The self-evaluations showed decreased beauty scores (P <0.0001) when a fixed orthodontic appliance, especially a metal one, was being worn. There was no statistically significant difference between the 3 situations in the 6 criteria analyzed. A fixed orthodontic appliance did not affect how personal attributes are assessed. However, fixed orthodontic appliances apparently changed the subjects' self-perceptions when they looked in the mirror. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Crocker, Peter R E; Brune, Sara M; Kowalski, Kent C; Mack, Diane E; Wilson, Philip M; Sabiston, Catherine M
Guided by the process model of self-conscious emotions, this study examined whether physical self-concept (PSC) and shame and guilt proneness were associated with body-related self-conscious emotions of state shame and guilt and if these relationships were mediated by attributions of stability, globality, and controllability. Female participants (N=284; Mean age=20.6±1.9 years) completed measures of PSC and shame and guilt proneness before reading a hypothetical scenario. Participants completed measures of attributions and state shame and guilt in response to the scenario. Significant relationships were noted between state shame and attributions of globality and controllability, and shame proneness, guilt proneness, and PSC. Similar relationships, with the additional predictor of stability, were found for state guilt. Mediation analysis partially supported the process model hypotheses for shame. Results indicate PSC and shame proneness are important in predicting body-related emotions, but the role of specific attributions are still unclear. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Strunin, Lee; Díaz-Martínez, L. Rosa; Díaz-Martínez, Alejandro; Heeren, Timothy; Winter, Michael; Kuranz, Seth; Hernández-Ávila, Carlos A.; Fernández-Varela, Héctor; Solís-Torres, Cuauhtémoc
Introduction Parental monitoring and family relations are recognized as protective factors for youth alcohol use. The purpose of this study was to investigate perceived parental monitoring and family relations among subgroups of Mexican youths with different patterns of drinking behaviors and consequences. Methods A Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) identified profiles of drinking behavior in a cross-sectional survey of entering first year university students. Multinomial regression examined associations between parental monitoring, family relations and drinking profiles among 22,224 students. Results Both lower perceived parental monitoring and weaker perceived family relations were associated with heavier drinking profiles among males and females, but more strongly associated with female than male heavier drinking profiles. Being older, having parents with lower education, and not living with parents were also associated with lower parental monitoring and weaker family relations. There was a general trend of lower parental monitoring and weaker family relations as the profiles increased from Non/Infrequent-No Consequences to Excessive-Many Consequences drinkers. Lower perceived parental monitoring and weaker perceived family relations were more strongly associated with drinking profiles among females than among males. Both the parental monitoring and family relations scales had similar associations with drinking profiles. Conclusions Findings suggest drinking norms and values may contribute to any protective influences of parental monitoring and family relations on Mexican youths’ drinking. Research about changes in drinking norms, contextual factors, and youth-parent trust would inform the utility of parental monitoring or family relations as protective strategies against alcohol misuse among Mexican and Mexican American youths and also youths from other backgrounds. PMID:26256470
Daniel, Ella; Dys, Sebastian P; Buchmann, Marlis; Malti, Tina
This study examined the development of sympathy, moral emotion attributions (MEA), moral reasoning, and social justice values in a representative sample of Swiss children (N = 1273) at 6 years of age (Time 1), 9 years of age (Time 2), and 12 years of age (Time 3). Cross-lagged panel analyses revealed that sympathy predicted subsequent increases in MEA and moral reasoning, but not vice versa. In addition, sympathy and moral reasoning at 6 and 9 years of age were associated with social justice values at 12 years of age. The results point to increased integration of affect and cognition in children's morality from middle childhood to early adolescence, as well as to the role of moral development in the emergence of social justice values. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bruno, Davide; Balottin, Umberto; Berlincioni, Vanna; Moro, Marie Rose
This study aims to show how language disorders in children affect language transmission and the mixedness experience in intercultural families. To this end, it adopts a qualitative method of study based on the administration of ad hoc interviews to intercultural couples who consulted our Child Neuropsychiatry Service because of language disorders in their children. One of the main consequences, when the child of an intercultural couple presents a language disorder and a diagnostic process has to be initiated, may be interruption of the transmission of the second language, especially if it is the mother's language. The decision to do this, which may be taken on the advice of teachers and health professionals, but also because the parents themselves often attribute their child's language disorder to his bilingual condition, affects not only the relationship between the mother and her child, but also processes in the construction of parenthood and in the structuring of the child's personality and the plurality of his affiliations. A clear understanding of how the dialectic between the categories of "alien" and "familiar" is managed in these contemporary families, which have to reckon with the condition of otherness, is crucial for psychiatrists and psychotherapists working in settings in which cultural difference is an issue to consider.
Lindblom, Jallu; Vänskä, Mervi; Flykt, Marjo; Tolvanen, Asko; Tiitinen, Aila; Tulppala, Maija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena
Research has demonstrated the importance of early family characteristics, such as the quality of caregiving, on children's later mental health. Information is, however, needed about the role of more holistic family systems and specific child-related socioemotional mechanisms. In this study, we conceptualize families as dynamic family system types, consisting of both marital and parenting trajectories over the transition to parenthood. First, we examine how early family system types predict children's anxiety, depression, peer exclusion, and emotion regulation. Second, we test whether couples' infertility history and other family related contextual factors moderate the effects of family system types on child outcomes. Third, we test whether children's emotion regulation and peer exclusion mediate the effects of family system types on anxiety and depression. The participants were 452 families representing cohesive, distant, authoritative, enmeshed, and discrepant family types, identified on the basis of relationship autonomy and intimacy from pregnancy to the child's age of 2 and 12 months. Children's anxiety, depression, emotion regulation, and peer exclusion were assessed at the age of 7-8 years. Structural equation modeling showed that distant, enmeshed, and discrepant families similarly predicted children's heightened anxiety and depression. Infertility history, parental education, and parity moderated the associations between certain family system types and child outcomes. Finally, emotion regulation, but not peer exclusion, was a common mediating mechanism between distant and enmeshed families and children's depression. The results emphasize the importance of early family environments on children's emotion regulation development and internalizing psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Siti Aisyah Binti Panatik
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the relationship between work-family conflict (i.e.work-to-family and family-to-work and work-related attitudes (i.e. job satisfaction,affective commitment and turnover intentions among academician in Malaysia.Mediationeffects of stress reactionswhich arebehavioral stress, somatic stress andcognitive stresswere also tested. A survey method using questionnaire was utilizedto obtain the data. A total of 267 respondents were participated, giving the return rateof 20% from the entire ofpopulation. Research data were analyzed using PASW18and AMOS SPSS18.Result indicated that onlywork-to-family conflict wassignificantly related to stress reactions.While, behavioral stress mediates the effectsof work-to-family conflict on job satisfaction, affective commitment and turnoverintentions. Cognitive stress only mediates the effects of work-to-family conflict onaffective commitment. This paper also discusses the implication of this study to theorganization and future research.
Makowski, Adam J.
A large family of potentials related to the Maxwell fish-eye model is derived with the help of conformal mappings. It is shown that the whole family admits square-integrable E=0 solutions of the Schroedinger equation for discrete values of the coupling constant. A corresponding supersymmetric family of partner potentials to the preceding ones is derived as well. Some applications of the considered potentials are also discussed.
Siti Aisyah Binti Panatik; Siti Khadijah Binti Zainal Badri; Azizah Binti Rajab; Rosman Bin Mohd. Yusof
This study aims to investigate the relationship between work-family conflict (i.e.work-to-family and family-to-work) and work-related attitudes (i.e. job satisfaction,affective commitment and turnover intentions) among academician in Malaysia.Mediationeffects of stress reactionswhich arebehavioral stress, somatic stress andcognitive stresswere also tested. A survey method using questionnaire was utilizedto obtain the data. A total of 267 respondents were participated, giving...
Okasha, Tarek; Elkholy, Hussien; El-Ghamry, Reem
The family is the basic unit of any society and culture. The concept, structure, and function of the family unit vary considerably across different cultures; however, its role continues to be imperative to the development of individuals and their psychological make-up. All societies have a concept of 'family', its relative importance, structure, and functions; however, this varies according to the particular culture. In the Arabic culture, as well as other collectivistic cultures, the extended family is often regarded as the basic unit. The family is the foundational and basic social unit that fosters the stability, well-being and sustainability of society. The quality of family relationships shapes and influences the social, psychological, and biological development and functioning of its members. This may be especially relevant to individuals with mental health problems. The people of ancient Egypt valued family life highly, and this is the case even now. They treasured children and regarded them as a great blessing. If a couple had no children, they would pray to the gods and goddesses for help. They would also place letters at the tombs of dead relatives asking them to use their influence with the gods. The importance of family has not changed dramatically even though the structures are beginning to. In this paper we highlight changes in family set-up and the state of family therapy in Egypt.
Kageyama, Masako; Solomon, Phyllis; Yokoyama, Keiko; Nakamura, Yukako; Kobayashi, Sayaka; Fujii, Chiyo
There have been several violence-related deaths in Japan due to family violence by persons with severe mental illness against their caregivers. However, it is not often acknowledged that these violent acts are mainly directed at family members. This study aimed to clarify what acts of violence family caregivers experienced from their relative with schizophrenia, and how frequently these violent incidents occurred in their lifetime. We also examined caregivers' thoughts of death about themselves and their relatives, as well as their consultation efforts and escape from the violence perpetrated by their relative. Of the 277 caregivers, 87.7% had experienced psychological violence and 75.8% had experienced physical violence perpetrated by their relative. Of 210 caregivers who had experienced physical violence, 26.7% had thought of murder-suicide and 31.0% had wished for their relative's death. Family violence by persons with schizophrenia is not rare but a common occurrence in Japan and may have fatal consequences.
Besseling, Joost; Huijgen, Roeland; Martin, Seth S.; Hutten, Barbara A.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Hovingh, G. Kees
We evaluated whether the severity of the familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) phenotype, i.e. increased levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, decreases in more distantly related patients within one family. We included heterozygous FH patients
Holtzman, Rochelle J.; Roberts, Michael C.
The current study examined the role of family conflict as a mediator in the relation between exposure to community violence and depressive symptoms. Two hundred thirty-two early adolescents (aged 11-16 years) completed a demographics questionnaire, the Survey of Exposure to Community Violence, the 9-item conflict subscale of the Family Environment…
Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Peng, Ann C.; Allen, Tammy D.
This study examined relations of multiple indicators of work identity and family identity with the number of weekly hours worked by 193 married business professionals. We found that men generally worked long hours regardless of the situational demands to work long hours and the strength of their work and family identities. Women's work hours, on…
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify the factors associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of family caregivers of Chinese stroke patients. One hundred and twenty-three stroke patients consecutively admitted to a stroke clinic and their 123 family caregivers were recruited. The caregivers' HRQOLs were assessed…
These symptoms vary in individuals, usually multiple and affect different body parts. Studies have shown that stress relating to health, work and financial ... but association with pattern and extent of PSM has not been widely studied in Nigeria. ... disorder- patient health questionnaire somatoform, anxiety and depression ...
de Winter, Remco F. P.; Zwinderman, Koos H.; Goekoop, Jaap G.
Anxious-retarded depression is a two-dimensionally defined subcategory of depression based on high scores for both anxiety and retardation. The anxious-retarded subcategory is related to melancholia as defined by DSM-IV. Patients with this diagnosis exhibit elevated plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP)
McCann, Terence V; Lubman, Dan I
To explore the coping strategies used by affected family members of a relative with substance misuse. Families play an important role in supporting a relative with substance misuse. However, the experience often has an adverse effect on their general well-being, the extent of which depends largely on their coping strategies. An interpretative phenomenological analysis study. Data were collected between January - December 2015. Semistructured, audio-recorded qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 affected family members. Three main themes and related subthemes were abstracted from the data illustrating how participants coped with their relative's substance misuse: (1) Seeking timely access to evidence-based information; (2) Enhancing personal coping strategies and (3) Accessing informal and formal support. Greater investment is needed in support services for affected family members, particularly in regional and rural areas. A wide range of accessible evidence-based information and informal and formal support, including telephone and online support, is needed to assist them to cope in this crucial support-giving role. Affected family members need to adopt a flexible set of coping strategies while supporting a relative with substance misuse. Family and friends, alcohol and other drug services, mental health nurses and other clinicians have a critical role providing emotional, instrumental and educational support to affected family members to enhance their adaptive coping strategies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Iribarren, Sarah; Stonbraker, Samantha; Suero-Tejeda, Niurka; Granja, Maribel; Luchsinger, José A; Mittelman, Mary; Bakken, Suzanne; Lucero, Robert J
To identify the information and communication needs of Hispanic family caregivers for individuals with Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias (ADRD) and the manner in which online tools may meet those needs. We conducted 11 participatory design sessions with 10 English- and 14 Spanish-speaking urban-dwelling Hispanic family caregivers and gathered data using a survey, collage assemblage, and audio and video recordings. Four investigators analyzed transcripts of audio recordings with a coding framework informed by several conceptual models. Participants had an average age of 59.7 years, were mostly female (79.2%), and had cared for a family member with ADRD for an average of 6.5 years. All participants accessed the Internet at least once a week with 75% ≥ daily. Most used the Internet to look up health information. All participants reported caregiver attributes including awareness of the disease symptoms or behaviors. The majority reported information needs/tasks (91.7%), communication needs/tasks (87.5%), and need for online tools (79.2%). Hispanic caregivers of individuals with ADRD reported key information and communication needs/tasks. Only Spanish-speaking participants reported Internet and technology use deficits suggesting the requirement for further technology support. Data show a need for online tools to meet the needs of caregivers.
Knight, George P.; Berkel, Cady; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Ettekal, Idean; Jaconis, Maryanne; Boyd, Brenna M.
Research has documented a relation between parents' ethnic socialization and youth's ethnic identity, yet there has been little research examining the transmission of cultural values from parents to their children through ethnic socialization and ethnic identity. This study examines a prospective model in which mothers' and fathers' Mexican…
Nielsen, Mia; Andersson, Charlotte; Gerds, Thomas A
showed an RR of 4.30 (95% confidence interval 3.53–5.23) for siblings of a patient with MI. Children of parents with MI also showed high risk: for children of a maternal case RR 2.40 (2.20–2.60), and of a paternal case RR 1.98 (1.98–2.09), respectively; P value for gender interaction paternal...... case with MI at an age 50 years was associated with a risk of 1.83 (1.73–1.93). For maternal cases below and above 50 years of age the risks were 3.23 (2.56–4.10) and 2.31 (2.11–2.52), respectively. Conclusion First-degree relatives...
Boles, Richard E; Halbower, Ann C; Daniels, Stephen; Gunnarsdottir, Thrudur; Whitesell, Nancy; Johnson, Susan L
This study evaluated the influence of child and family functioning on child sleep behaviors in low-income minority families who are at risk for obesity. A cross-sectional study was utilized to measure child and family functioning from 2013 to 2014. Participants were recruited from Head Start classrooms while data were collected during home visits. A convenience sample of 72 low-income Hispanic (65%) and African American (32%) families of preschool-aged children were recruited for this study. We assessed the association of child and family functioning with child sleep behaviors using a multivariate multiple linear regression model. Bootstrap mediation analyses examined the effects of family chaos between child functioning and child sleep problems. Poorer child emotional and behavioral functioning related to total sleep behavior problems. Chaos associated with bedtime resistance significantly mediated the relationship between Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS) and Bedtime Resistance. Families at high risk for obesity showed children with poorer emotional and behavioral functioning were at higher risk for problematic sleep behaviors, although we found no link between obesity and child sleep. Family chaos appears to play a significant role in understanding part of these relationships. Future longitudinal studies are necessary to establish causal relationships between child and family functioning and sleep problems to further guide obesity interventions aimed at improving child sleep routines and increasing sleep duration.
Nelson, Kimberly M; Carey, Kate B; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Eckert, Tanya L; Park, Aesoon; Vanable, Peter A; Ewart, Craig K; Carey, Michael P
Research regarding the role of gender in relations between family characteristics and health risk behaviors has been limited. This study aims to investigate gender differences in associations between family processes and risk-taking in adolescents. Adolescents (N = 249; mean age = 14.5 years) starting their first year at an urban high school in the northeastern USA completed self-report measures that assessed family characteristics (i.e., parental monitoring, family social support, family conflict) and health behaviors (i.e., tobacco use, alcohol use, marijuana use, sex initiation) as part of a prospective, community-based study. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate gender differences in associations between the family characteristics and health behaviors. Among males, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with lower odds of using tobacco and having ever engaged in sex. Among females, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with lower odds of marijuana use, alcohol use, and having ever engaged in sex. However, in contrast to males, among females (a) higher levels of perceived family social support were associated with lower odds of alcohol use and having ever engaged in sex and (b) higher levels of perceived family conflict were associated with higher odds of marijuana use and having ever engaged in sex. Family processes were more strongly related to health behaviors among adolescent females than adolescent males. Interventions that increase parental monitoring and family social support as well as decrease family conflict may help to protect against adolescent risk taking, especially for females.
AIMS: Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS) occurs when a person suffers a sudden, unexpected death, with no cause found at postmortem examination. We aimed to describe the cardiac screening outcomes in a population of relatives of SADS victimsMETHODS AND RESULTS: Prospective and retrospective cohort study of consecutive families attending the Family Heart Screening clinic at the Mater Misericordiae Hospital in Dublin, Ireland, from January 2007 to September 2011. Family members of SADS victims underwent a standard screening protocol. Adjunct clinical and postmortem information was sought on the proband. Families who had an existing diagnosis, or where the proband had epilepsy, were excluded. Of 115 families identified, 73 were found to fit inclusion criteria and were retained for analysis, with data available on 262 relatives. Over half of the screened family members were female, and the mean age was 38.6 years (standard deviation 15.6). In 22 of 73 families (30%), and 36 of 262 family members (13.7%), a potentially inheritable cause of SADS was detected. Of the population screened, 32 patients (12.2%) were treated with medication, and 5 (1.9%) have received implantable cardiac defibrillators. Of the five families with long QT syndrome (LQTS) who had a pathogenic gene mutation identified, three carried two such mutations.CONCLUSION: In keeping with international estimates, 30% of families of SADS victims were found to have a potentially inherited cardiac disease. The most common positive finding was LQTS. Advances in postmortem standards and genetic studies may assist in achieving more diagnoses in these families.
Reinares, María; Bonnín, C Mar; Hidalgo-Mazzei, Diego; Colom, Francesc; Solé, Brisa; Jiménez, Esther; Torrent, Carla; Comes, Mercè; Martínez-Arán, Anabel; Sánchez-Moreno, José; Vieta, Eduard
Functional improvement has become one of the aims of the treatment of bipolar disorder. However, scant attention has been given to family functioning, even though it has a role in the illness outcome and is affected by the disorder. The aims of this study were to compare family functioning reported by euthymic patients with bipolar disorder and healthy controls; explore the level of congruence in the perception of family environment between patients with bipolar disorder and their relatives; and analyse the relationship between clinical variables and family functioning. The sample comprised 82 adult euthymic subjects with bipolar disorder, 82 family caregivers of these patients and 47 healthy controls. Participants completed the Family Environment Scale. Results showed moderate correlations and a mean pattern almost identical between relatives' and patients' reported scores in family functioning subscales. There were significant differences between patients and controls, favourable for the latter, in the subscales cohesion (pbipolar disorder and highlight the importance of family work. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Min; Luo, Meifen; Nie, Rui; Zhang, Yan
This paper aims to explore factors influencing the healthcare wearable technology adoption intention from perspectives of technical attributes (perceived convenience, perceived irreplaceability, perceived credibility and perceived usefulness), health attribute (health belief) and consumer attributes (consumer innovativeness, conspicuous consumption, informational reference group influence and gender difference). By integrating technology acceptance model, health belief model, snob effect and conformity and reference group theory, hypotheses and research model are proposed. The empirical investigation (N=436) collects research data through questionnaire. Results show that the adoption intention of healthcare wearable technology is influenced by technical attributes, health attribute and consumer attributes simultaneously. For technical attributes, perceived convenience and perceived credibility both positively affect perceived usefulness, and perceived usefulness influences adoption intention. The relation between perceived irreplaceability and perceived usefulness is only supported by males. For health attribute, health belief affects perceived usefulness for females. For consumer attributes, conspicuous consumption and informational reference group influence can significantly moderate the relation between perceived usefulness and adoption intention and the relation between consumer innovativeness and adoption intention respectively. What's more, consumer innovativeness significantly affects adoption intention for males. This paper aims to discuss technical attributes, health attribute and consumer attributes and their roles in the adoption intention of healthcare wearable technology. Findings may provide enlightenment to differentiate product developing and marketing strategies and provide some implications for clinical medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Spence, J T; Helmreich, R; Stapp, J
Male (N = 248) and female (N = 282) subjects were given the Personal Attributes Questionnaire consisting of 55 bipolar attributes drawn from the Sex Role Stereotype Questionnaire by Rosenkrantz, Vogel, Bee, Broverman, and Broverman and were asked to rate themselves and then to compare directly the typical male and female college student. Self-ratings were divided into male-valued (stereotypically masculine attributes judged more desirable for both sexes), female-valued, and sex-specific items. Also administered was the Attitudes Toward Women Scale and a measure of social self-esteem. Correlations of the self-ratings with stereotype scores and the Attitudes Toward Women Scale were low in magnitude, suggesting that sex role expectations do not distort self-concepts. For both men and women, "femininity" on the female-valued self items and "masculinity" on the male-valued items were positively correlated, and both significantly related to self-esteem. The implications of the results for a concept of masculinity and femininity as a duality, characteristic of all individuals, and the use of the self-rating scales for measuring masculinity, femininity, and androgyny were discussed.
Dumelow, C; Littlejohns, P; Griffiths, S
To explore the relation between work and family life among hospital consultants and their attitude towards the choices and constraints that influence this relation. Qualitative study of consultants' experiences and views based on tape recorded semistructured interviews. Former South Thames health region in southeast England. 202 male and female NHS hospital consultants aged between 40 to 50 years representing all hospital medical specialties. Three types of relation between work and family life (career dominant, segregated, and accommodating) were identified among hospital consultants. Most consultants had a segregated relation, although female consultants were more likely than male consultants to have a career dominant or an accommodating relation. Many male consultants and some female consultants expressed considerable dissatisfaction with the balance between their career and family life. A factor influencing this dissatisfaction was the perceived lack of choice to spend time on their personal or family life, because of the working practices and attitudes within hospital culture, if they wanted a successful career. Consultants are currently fitting in with the profession rather than the profession adapting to enable doctors to have fulfilling professional and personal lives. Current government policies to increase the medical workforce and promote family friendly policies in the NHS ought to take account of the need for a fundamental change in hospital culture to enable doctors to be more involved in their personal or family life without detriment to their career progress.
Full Text Available Familial risks of lung cancer are well-established, but whether lung cancer clusters with other discordant cancers is less certain, particularly beyond smoking-related sites, which may provide evidence on genetic contributions to lung cancer aetiology. We used a novel approach to search for familial associations in the Swedish Family-Cancer Database. This involved assessment of familial relative risk for cancer X in families with increasing numbers of lung cancer patients and, conversely, relative risks for lung cancer in families with increasing numbers of patients with cancers X. However, we lacked information on smoking. The total number of lung cancers in the database was 125 563. We applied stringent statistical criteria and found that seven discordant cancers were associated with lung cancer among family members, and six of these were known to be connected with smoking: oesophageal, upper aerodigestive tract, liver, cervical, kidney and urinary bladder cancers. A further novel finding was that cancer of unknown primary also associated with lung cancer. We also factored in histological evidence and found that anal and connective tissue cancers could be associated with lung cancer for reasons other than smoking. For endometrial and prostate cancers, suggestive negative associations with lung cancer were found. Although we lacked information on smoking it is prudent to conclude that practically all observed discordant associations of lung cancer were with cancers for which smoking is a risk factor.
Full Text Available Life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life (SWFoL are associated with healthy eating habits, family interaction around eating and family support. The present study evaluates the relationship between SWFoL and satisfaction with family life (SWFaL, and their relationship with life satisfaction in university students. We identify the relationship of two different types of family support and student SWFaL and explore a moderator effect of gender. A questionnaire was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 370 students of both genders (mean age 21 years in Chile, including Satisfaction with Life Scale, SWFoL scale, SWFaL scale, and the Family Resources Scale. Using structural equation modeling, we found that students’ life satisfaction was related to SWFaL and food-related life. A high positive relationship was identified between intangible family support and students’ SWFaL, which would have a mediating role between intangible support and life satisfaction. Using multi-group analysis, a moderator effect of gender was not found. These findings suggest that improving SWFoL, SWFaL and intangible family support is important for both female and male students.
Schnettler, Berta; Miranda-Zapata, Edgardo; Grunert, Klaus G.; Lobos, Germán; Denegri, Marianela; Hueche, Clementina; Poblete, Héctor
Life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life (SWFoL) are associated with healthy eating habits, family interaction around eating and family support. The present study evaluates the relationship between SWFoL and satisfaction with family life (SWFaL), and their relationship with life satisfaction in university students. We identify the relationship of two different types of family support and student SWFaL and explore a moderator effect of gender. A questionnaire was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 370 students of both genders (mean age 21 years) in Chile, including Satisfaction with Life Scale, SWFoL scale, SWFaL scale, and the Family Resources Scale. Using structural equation modeling, we found that students’ life satisfaction was related to SWFaL and food-related life. A high positive relationship was identified between intangible family support and students’ SWFaL, which would have a mediating role between intangible support and life satisfaction. Using multi-group analysis, a moderator effect of gender was not found. These findings suggest that improving SWFoL, SWFaL and intangible family support is important for both female and male students. PMID:28932203
Song, Michael; Chen, Yan
Extensive research has shown that organizational attributes affect product innovation. Extending this literature, this article delimits two general categories of organizational attributes and relates them to product innovation. Organizational attributes can be either control oriented or flexibility
At least four proteins of 70,000 to 75,000 molecular weight (70-75K) were synthesized from mRNA which hybridized with a cloned heat shock gene previously shown to be localized to the 87A and 87C heat shock puff sites. These in vitro-synthesized proteins were indistinguishable from in vivo-synthesized heat shock-induced proteins when analyzed on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. A comparison of the pattern of this group of proteins synthesized in vivo during a 5-min pulse or during continuous labeling indicates that the 72-75K proteins are probably not kinetic precursors to the major 70K heat shock protein. Partial digestion products generated with V8 protease indicated that the 70-75K heat shock proteins are closely related, but that there are clear differences between them. The partial digestion patterns obtained from heat shock proteins from the Kc cell line and from the Oregon R strain of Drosophila melanogaster are very similar. Genetic analysis of the patterns of 70-75K heat shock protein synthesis indicated that the genes encoding at least two of the three 72-75K heat shock proteins are located outside of the major 87A and 87C puff sites
Schnettler, Berta; Lobos, Germán; Miranda-Zapata, Edgardo; Denegri, Marianela; Ares, Gastón; Hueche, Clementina
Family is a major determinant of children's and adolescents' eating behavior. The objectives of the present study were to assess diet quality, eating habits, satisfaction with life, family life, and food-related life in mother-father-adolescent triads, and to identify profiles of families according to family members' diet quality. Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 300 two-parent families with one child over the age of 10 in the city of Temuco (Chile), including the Adapted Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFoL) scale, Satisfaction with Family Life (SWFaL) scales, and questions relating to their eating habits. Positive relationships were found between the diet quality of the family members, particularly between mothers and adolescents. Three family profiles with different diet qualities were identified: "families with an unhealthy diet" (39.3%), "families in which mothers and adolescents have healthy diets, but the fathers' diets require changes" (14.3%), and "families that require changes in their diet" (46.4%). These findings stress the key role of mothers in determining family diet quality and suggest a positive relationship between diet quality and satisfaction with life.
Full Text Available Family is a major determinant of children’s and adolescents’ eating behavior. The objectives of the present study were to assess diet quality, eating habits, satisfaction with life, family life, and food-related life in mother–father–adolescent triads, and to identify profiles of families according to family members’ diet quality. Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 300 two-parent families with one child over the age of 10 in the city of Temuco (Chile, including the Adapted Healthy Eating Index (AHEI, Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFoL scale, Satisfaction with Family Life (SWFaL scales, and questions relating to their eating habits. Positive relationships were found between the diet quality of the family members, particularly between mothers and adolescents. Three family profiles with different diet qualities were identified: “families with an unhealthy diet” (39.3%, “families in which mothers and adolescents have healthy diets, but the fathers’ diets require changes” (14.3%, and “families that require changes in their diet” (46.4%. These findings stress the key role of mothers in determining family diet quality and suggest a positive relationship between diet quality and satisfaction with life.
Lobos, Germán; Miranda-Zapata, Edgardo; Denegri, Marianela; Ares, Gastón; Hueche, Clementina
Family is a major determinant of children’s and adolescents’ eating behavior. The objectives of the present study were to assess diet quality, eating habits, satisfaction with life, family life, and food-related life in mother–father–adolescent triads, and to identify profiles of families according to family members’ diet quality. Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 300 two-parent families with one child over the age of 10 in the city of Temuco (Chile), including the Adapted Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFoL) scale, Satisfaction with Family Life (SWFaL) scales, and questions relating to their eating habits. Positive relationships were found between the diet quality of the family members, particularly between mothers and adolescents. Three family profiles with different diet qualities were identified: “families with an unhealthy diet” (39.3%), “families in which mothers and adolescents have healthy diets, but the fathers’ diets require changes” (14.3%), and “families that require changes in their diet” (46.4%). These findings stress the key role of mothers in determining family diet quality and suggest a positive relationship between diet quality and satisfaction with life. PMID:29109387
This study was aimed at determining: (i) relationships among goal expectancy, self-efficacy, attributions and attributional dimensions, (ii) whether motivational patterns, and (iii) attributional styles, differ in accordance with conceptual levels of courses, and (iv) whether attributional style and self-efficacy influence academic achievement in courses differing in conceptual level. A literature study was undertaken to examine the nature of goals, attributions and self-eff...
Franks, P; Campbell, T L; Shields, C G
The associations between social relationships and health have been examined using two major research traditions. Using a social epidemiological approach, much research has shown the beneficial effect of social supports on health and health behaviors. Family interaction research, which has grown out of a more clinical tradition, has shown the complex effects of family functioning on health, particularly mental health. No studies have examined the relative power of these two approaches in explicating the connections between social relationships and health. We hypothesized that social relationships (social support and family functioning) would exert direct and indirect (through depressive symptoms) effects on health behaviors. We also hypothesized that the effects of social relationships on health would be more powerfully explicated by family functioning than by social support. We mailed a pilot survey to a random sample of patients attending a family practice center, including questions on depressive symptoms, cardiovascular health behaviors, demographics, social support using the ISEL scale, and family functioning using the FEICS scale. FEICS is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess family emotional involvement and criticism, the media elements of family expressed emotion. Eighty-three useable responses were obtained. Regression analyses and structural modelling showed both direct and indirect statistically significant paths from social relationships to health behaviors. Family criticism was directly associated (standardized coefficient = 0.29) with depressive symptoms, and family emotional involvement was directly associated with both depressive symptoms (coefficient = 0.35) and healthy cardiovascular behaviors (coefficient = 0.32). The results support the primacy of family functioning factors in understanding the associations among social relationships, mental health, and health behaviors. The contrasting relationships between emotional involvement and
Singh, Kiran A; Spencer, A John; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye F; Brennan, David S
The characteristics of the work environment and relationships with family roles may impact on health and be of public health significance. The aims were to investigate the cross-sectional association of work-family conflict with oral- and general health-related quality of life, and well-being. A random sample of 45-54-year olds from Adelaide, South Australia, was surveyed by self-complete questionnaire in 2004-2005 (n = 879, response rate = 43.8%). Health-related quality of life was measured with the OHIP-14 and EQ-VAS instruments, and well-being by the Satisfaction With Life Scale. In adjusted analyses controlling for sex, income, education, tooth brushing frequency and social support, the higher Family Interferes with Work (FIW) tertile and the middle tertile of Work Interferes with Family (WIF) were associated with more oral health-related impacts as measured by OHIP-14 in relation to problems with teeth, mouth or dentures (Beta = 1.64, P Work-family conflict was associated with more oral health impacts and lower general health and well-being among employed middle-aged adults. This supports the view of work-family conflict as a psychosocial risk factor for health outcomes spanning function, health perceptions and well-being, and encompassing both oral health and general health.
Tornatore, Jane B; Grant, Leslie A
This article examines family caregiver satisfaction after nursing home placement of a relative with Alzheimer disease or a related dementia. Determining what contributes to family caregiver satisfaction is a critical step toward implementing effective quality improvement strategies. A stress process model is used to study caregiver satisfaction among 285 family caregivers in relation to primary objective stressors (stage of dementia, length of stay, length of time in caregiving role, visitation frequency, involvement in nursing home, and involvement in hands-on care), subjective stressors (expectations for care), caregiver characteristics (education, marital status, familial relationship, workforce participation, distance from nursing home, and age), and organizational resources (rural/urban location, profit/nonprofit ownership, special care unit [SCU] designation, and custodial unit designation). SAS PROC MIXED is used in a multilevel analysis. Higher satisfaction is associated with earlier stage of dementia, greater length of time involved in caregiving prior to institutionalization, higher visitation frequency, less involvement in hands-on care, greater expectations for care, and less workforce participation. Multilevel analysis showed that primary stressors are the strongest predictors of satisfaction. Only one caregiver characteristic (work participation) and one organizational resource (rural/urban location) predict satisfaction. SCU designation was unrelated to satisfaction, perhaps because SCUs have less to offer residents in more advanced as opposed to earlier stages of Alzheimer disease. If family satisfaction is to be achieved, family presence in a nursing home needs to give caregivers a sense of positive involvement and influence over the care of their relative.
Diehl, S.F.; Hofstra, A.H.; Koenig, A.E.; Emsbo, P.; Christiansen, W.; Johnson, Chad
In other parts of the world, previous workers have shown that sparry dolomite in carbonate rocks may be produced by the generation and movement of hot basinal brines in response to arid paleoclimates and tectonism, and that some of these brines served as the transport medium for metals fixed in Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) and sedimentary exhalative (Sedex) deposits of Zn, Pb, Ag, Au, or barite. Numerous occurrences of hydrothermal zebra dolomite (HZD), comprised of alternating layers of dark replacement and light void-filling sparry or saddle dolomite, are present in Paleozoic platform and slope carbonate rocks on the eastern side of the Great Basin physiographic province. Locally, it is associated with mineral deposits of barite, Ag-Pb-Zn, and Au. In this paper the spatial distribution of HZD occurrences, their stratigraphic position, morphological characteristics, textures and zoning, and chemical and stable isotopic compositions were determined to improve understanding of their age, origin, and relation to dolostone, ore deposits, and the tectonic evolution of the Great Basin. In northern and central Nevada, HZD is coeval and cogenetic with Late Devonian and Early Mississippian Sedex Au, Zn, and barite deposits and may be related to Late Ordovician Sedex barite deposits. In southern Nevada and southwest California, it is cogenetic with small MVT Ag-Pb-Zn deposits in rocks as young as Early Mississippian. Over Paleozoic time, the Great Basin was at equatorial paleolatitudes with episodes of arid paleoclimates. Several occurrences of HZD are crosscut by Mesozoic or Cenozoic intrusions, and some host younger pluton-related polymetallic replacement and Carlin-type gold deposits. The distribution of HZD in space (carbonate platform, margin, and slope) and stratigraphy (Late Neoproterozoic Ediacaran-Mississippian) roughly parallels that of dolostone and both are prevalent in Devonian strata. Stratabound HZD is best developed in Ediacaran and Cambrian units, whereas
Kaller, T; Petersen, I; Petermann, F; Fischer, L; Grabhorn, E; Schulz, K-H
Parental functioning is essential to children's development. Therefore, this cross-sectional single-center study examined the prevalence of family strain in 181 parents and its associations to psychosocial functioning in their children after LT. Median age at LT was one yr. Mean time elapsed since LT was 5.8 yr. The IFS, and the SDQ were applied to parents. Family strain in the present sample was comparable to that in the German normative group of families with a chronically ill or disabled child, but families of LT recipients showed a significantly higher financial impact, impact on coping, and impact on siblings (p family strain (R(2) = 0.42). Parents reported less family strain after living-related compared with deceased donation. Family strain was significantly correlated to psychosocial dysfunction in children post-LT. Present findings demonstrate a risk of maladjustment to the post-LT condition in families. They emphasize the importance of psychological assessment of parents and patients during transplant and follow-up to ensure the best achievable long-term outcome of patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Qouta, Samir R.; Peltonen, Kirsi
ABSTRACT Background: Trauma affects the family unit as a whole; however, most existing research uses individual or, at most, dyadic approaches to analyse families with histories of trauma. Objective: This study aims to identify potentially distinct family types according to attachment, parenting, and sibling relations, to analyse how these family types differ with respect to war trauma, and to explore how children’s mental health and cognitive processing differ across these family types. Method: Participants included Palestinian mothers and fathers (N = 325) and their children (one per family; 49.4% girls; 10–13 years old; mean ± SD age = 11.35 ± 0.57 years) after the Gaza War of 2008–2009. Both parents reported their exposure to war trauma, secure attachment availability, and parenting practices, as well as the target child’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms [Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)]. Children reported their symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (on the Children’s Revised Impact Event Scale), depression (Birleson), and SDQ, as well as their post-traumatic cognitions (Children’s Post Traumatic Cognitions Inventory). Results: A cluster analysis identified four family types. The largest type reflected secure attachment and optimal relationships (security and positive family relationships, 36.2%, n = 102), and the smallest exhibited insecurity and problematic relationships (insecurity and negative family relationships, 15.6%; n = 44). Further, families with discrepant experiences (23.0%; n = 65) and moderate security and neutral relationships (25.2%; n = 71) emerged. The insecurity and negative relationships family type showed higher levels of war trauma; internalizing, externalizing, and depressive symptoms among children; and dysfunctional post-traumatic cognitions than other family types. Conclusion: The family systems approach to mental health is warranted in war conditions, and therapeutic
Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Qouta, Samir R; Peltonen, Kirsi
Background : Trauma affects the family unit as a whole; however, most existing research uses individual or, at most, dyadic approaches to analyse families with histories of trauma. Objective : This study aims to identify potentially distinct family types according to attachment, parenting, and sibling relations, to analyse how these family types differ with respect to war trauma, and to explore how children's mental health and cognitive processing differ across these family types. Method: Participants included Palestinian mothers and fathers ( N = 325) and their children (one per family; 49.4% girls; 10-13 years old; mean ± SD age = 11.35 ± 0.57 years) after the Gaza War of 2008-2009. Both parents reported their exposure to war trauma, secure attachment availability, and parenting practices, as well as the target child's internalizing and externalizing symptoms [Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)]. Children reported their symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (on the Children's Revised Impact Event Scale), depression (Birleson), and SDQ, as well as their post-traumatic cognitions (Children's Post Traumatic Cognitions Inventory). Results: A cluster analysis identified four family types. The largest type reflected secure attachment and optimal relationships (security and positive family relationships, 36.2%, n = 102), and the smallest exhibited insecurity and problematic relationships (insecurity and negative family relationships, 15.6%; n = 44). Further, families with discrepant experiences (23.0%; n = 65) and moderate security and neutral relationships (25.2%; n = 71) emerged. The insecurity and negative relationships family type showed higher levels of war trauma; internalizing, externalizing, and depressive symptoms among children; and dysfunctional post-traumatic cognitions than other family types. Conclusion: The family systems approach to mental health is warranted in war conditions, and therapeutic interventions for
Thomas, Sarah A; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Le Grange, Daniel
To examine the relation between observed familial connection and individuation and adolescent bulimia nervosa (BN) symptoms. As part of a treatment study for adolescent BN, adolescents (n = 54) and their parents participated in a videotaped semi-structured interview. Participants were rated on observed connection and individuation from these interviews using the Scale of Intergenerational Relationship Quality and two measures of connection. There was a significant negative relation between individuation from parents and adolescent BN symptoms. Connection both to and from mothers and adolescents was negatively associated with BN symptoms. Increased eating concern was significantly associated with a greater likelihood of expressing a desire for more connection with the family. Investigating and understanding family factors present at the time of adolescent BN may assist in providing treatment specific to the needs of the family to best aid the adolescent's recovery process. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Paidipati, Cynthia P; Brawner, Bridgette; Eiraldi, Ricardo; Deatrick, Janet A
Previous research has shown major disparities in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for diverse youth across America. We do not fully understand, however, how parent and family processes are related to the identification, care-seeking approaches, treatment preferences, and engagement with care systems and services for youth with ADHD. The present study aimed to explore parent and family processes related to the management of ADHD in racially and ethnically diverse youth. This integrative review was structured with the methodology proposed by Whittemore and Knafl. Three major electronic databases yielded a final sample of 32 articles (24 quantitative, 6 qualitative, and 2 mixed methods). Nine themes emerged within three overarching meta-themes. Understanding the unique perspectives of families from diverse backgrounds is essential for clinicians, researchers, and policymakers, who are dedicated to understanding racial and ethnic perspectives and developing ecologically appropriate and family-based interventions for youth with ADHD.
Eastham, Sebastian D.; Barrett, Steven R. H.
Aviation is a significant source of tropospheric ozone, which is a critical UV blocking agent, an indirect precursor to the formation of particulate matter, and a respiratory health hazard. To date, investigations of human health impacts related to aviation emissions have focused on particulate matter, and no global estimate yet exists of the combined health impact of aviation due to ozone, particulate matter and UV exposure changes. We use a coupled tropospheric-stratospheric chemical-transport model with a global aviation emissions inventory to estimate the total impact of aviation on all three risk factors. We find that surface ozone due to aviation emissions is maximized during hemispheric winter due to the greater wintertime chemical lifetime of ozone, but that a smaller enhancement of 0.5 ppbv occurs during summertime. This summertime increase results in an estimated 6,800 premature mortalities per year due to ozone exposure, over three times greater than previous estimates. During the winter maximum, interaction with high background NOx concentrations results in enhanced production of nitrate aerosol and increased annual average exposure to particulate matter. This ozone perturbation is shown to be the driving mechanism behind an additional 9,200 premature mortalities due to exposure to particulate matter. However, the increase in tropospheric ozone is also found to result in 400 fewer mortalities due to melanoma skin cancer in 2006. This is the first estimate of global melanoma mortality due to aviation, and the first estimate of skin cancer mortality impacts due to aviation using a global chemical transport model.
Coronado, Pluvio J; Sánchez-Borrego, Rafael; Ruiz, Miguel A; Baquedano, Laura; Sánchez, Sonia; Argudo, Cristina; Fernández-Abellán, Mariela; González, Silvia; Iglesias, Eva; Calleja, Jackie; Presa, Jesus; Duque, Alfonso; Ruiz, Fernando; Otero, Borja; Rejas, Javier
To analyse the psychometric properties of the Cervantes scale short-form (SF) in the peri- and post-menopausal periods. Outpatients women 45-65 years with menstrual problems associated with the climacteric syndrome were analysed. Original and SF versions of the Cervantes scale were administered along with the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) and work productivity and activity impairment questionnaire (WPAI) scales. Conceptual model, burden of administration, feasibility, reliability, criteria validity and construct validity were assessed. 317 women [55.7±5.3 years (mean±standard deviation)] were recruited: 75.4% were post- and 22.3% were peri-menopausal. The Cervantes-SF was completed in 2.5±1.6min, and 86% answered all items. Cronbach's α was 0.820, and ranged from 0.510 (Aging) to 0.918 (Vasomotor Symptoms) for individual dimensions. The scale structure matched the structure of the original version, χ(2)/(degrees of freedom)=3.6, Comparative Fit Index=0.848, Tucker-Lewis Index=0.850, and root mean square error of approximation=0.099, although differences were found between sexual activity statuses. Criteria validity was good (r=0.890), concurrent validity was congruent with a priori hypothesis using either the EQ-5D or the WPAI scales. The scale discriminated significantly the severity of both vasomotor and genital climacteric associated symptoms. The Cervantes-SF has shown good psychometric properties for measuring Health related quality of life in peri- and post-menopausal women who regularly attended gynaecology clinics in Spain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Galdiolo, Sarah; Roskam, Isabelle; Verhofstadt, Lesley L.; De Mol, Jan; Dewinne, Laura; Vandaudenard, Sylvain
Our study examined the relationships of relational pronouns used in parental conversation to the quality of early family interactions, as indexed by Family Alliance (FA). We hypothesized that more positive family interactions were associated with the use of more we-pronouns (e.g., we, us, our; we-ness) and fewer I- and you-pronouns (e.g., I, me, you, your; separateness) by both mothers and fathers. Our statistical model using a multilevel modeling framework and two levels of analysis (i.e., a...
Basit, A.; Hakeem, R.; Hydrie, M.Z.; Ahmadani, M.Y.; Masood, Q.
Objective: To assess the differences in relative risk of developing diabetes and CHD, obesity, fasting blood glucose, insulin and lipids of children having family history of diabetes or heart disease in first or second degree relatives as compared to control group. Design: Children were given a questionnaire to collect demographic data and to assess their dietary habits and family history. Anthropometric measurements and blood samples for fasting blood glucose, insulin and lipids of 8-10 years old children from 4 schools was taken. Subjects: Children having positive family history of diabetes (n=44) or heart disease (n=16) in first or second degree relatives were compared with a control group (n=39). Results: Children having positive family history for diabetes had slightly higher mean values for BMI, waist circumference, arm fat % as compared to the controls but the differences were not statistically significant. Overweight children (>85th Percentile of BMI for age) did not differ significantly in terms of various risk indicators however those who were in the uppermost tertile of arm fat % had significantly higher total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, LDL-C, LDL:HDL and Insulin levels (P<0.05 in each case). Conclusion: Diabetes and CVD risks from positive family history for the disease are probably mediated through increased body fat percentage. Thus even when information about family history of disease is lacking, arm-fat-percentage could be used as an important screening tool for determining the risk status of children. (author)
Jia, Rongfang; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.
One-hundred twelve primarily European American and middle-class two-parent families with resident fathers and a 4-year-old child (48% girls) participated in a longitudinal study of associations between coparenting and father involvement. At the initial assessment and one year later, fathers reported on their involvement in play and caregiving activities with the focal child, and coparenting behavior was observed during triadic family interactions. SEM was used to test cross-lagged associations between coparenting behavior and father involvement. Overall, paths from father involvement to coparenting behavior were significant, but paths from coparenting behavior to father involvement were not. Specifically, greater father involvement in play was associated with an increase in supportive and a decrease in undermining coparenting behavior over time. In contrast, greater father involvement in caregiving was associated with a decrease in supportive and an increase in undermining coparenting behavior. Multi-group analysis further showed that these cross-lagged relations did not differ for dual earner families and single (father) earner families, but these relations appeared to differ for families with focal daughters and families with focal sons. These findings highlight the potential for fathering to affect coparenting and the importance of considering the role of contextual factors in coparenting-fathering relations. PMID:21244153
de Haan, Hein A.; Joosten, Evelien A.G.; de Haan, Lydia; Schellekens, Arnt F.A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; de Jong, Cor A.J.
Objectives Previous research identified alexithymia as a potential risk factor for substance use disorders (SUD). More insight into the relation between alexithymia and SUD is needed in order to treat SUD effectively. Therefore, we investigated whether a familial vulnerability to alcoholism relates
Dubas, Judith Semon; Baams, Laura; Doornwaard, Suzan M.; van Aken, Marcel A.G.
Research on how dark personality traits develop and relate to risky behaviors and family relations during adolescence is scarce. This study used a person-oriented approach to examine (a) whether distinct groups of adolescents could be identified based on their developmental profiles of
Lau, Sing; And Others
Results of a study of 925 educated Chinese who recalled child-rearing patterns of their parents indicated that greater perceived parental dominating control was related to less perceived parental warmth and that greater parental warmth and less parental control were related to greater perceived family harmony. (RH)
Wermer, M. J. H.; van der Schaaf, I. C.; van Nunen, P.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.; Anderson, C. S.; Rinkel, G. J. E.
Background and Purpose - In families with >= 2 relatives with intracranial aneurysms (IAs), screening for IAs in asymptomatic first-degree relatives is often recommended. We assessed the long-term psychosocial impact of such screening. Methods - We identified all persons with IA (screen-positives)
Wayne, Julie Holliday; Randel, Amy E.; Stevens, Jaclyn
Despite growing research on the positive connections between work and family, antecedents and consequences of work-family enrichment are understudied. Using a sample of employees from a major insurance company, we assessed the relationship of (i) individual (i.e., work and family identities), (ii) family (emotional and instrumental support), and…
Over the past two decades, the number of women entering the labour market has grown sharply in Indonesia. This led to a situation in which many couples experience work-family conflicts. Work-family conflicts can occur in two directions, work-to-family (WFC) and family-to-work (FWC) conflicts. WFC
Lv, Weihua; Zheng, Xianhu; Kuang, Youyi; Cao, Dingchen; Yan, Yunqin; Sun, Xiaowen
Comparing QTL analyses of multiple pair-mating families can provide a better understanding of important allelic variations and distributions. However, most QTL mapping studies in common carp have been based on analyses of individual families. In order to improve our understanding of heredity and variation of QTLs in different families and identify important QTLs, we performed QTL analysis of growth-related traits in multiple segregating families. We completed a genome scan for QTLs that affect body weight (BW), total length (TL), and body thickness (BT) of 522 individuals from eight full-sib families using 250 microsatellites evenly distributed across 50 chromosomes. Sib-pair and half-sib model mapping identified 165 QTLs on 30 linkage groups. Among them, 10 (genome-wide P <0.01 or P < 0.05) and 28 (chromosome-wide P < 0.01) QTLs exhibited significant evidence of linkage, while the remaining 127 exhibited a suggestive effect on the above three traits at a chromosome-wide (P < 0.05) level. Multiple QTLs obtained from different families affect BW, TL, and BT and locate at close or identical positions. It suggests that same genetic factors may control variability in these traits. Furthermore, the results of the comparative QTL analysis of multiple families showed that one QTL was common in four of the eight families, nine QTLs were detected in three of the eight families, and 26 QTLs were found common to two of the eight families. These common QTLs are valuable candidates in marker-assisted selection. A large number of QTLs were detected in the common carp genome and associated with growth-related traits. Some of the QTLs of different growth-related traits were identified at similar chromosomal regions, suggesting a role for pleiotropy and/or tight linkage and demonstrating a common genetic basis of growth trait variations. The results have set up an example for comparing QTLs in common carp and provided insights into variations in the identified QTLs
Xu Xixiang, E-mail: email@example.com [College of Science, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, 266510 (China)
An integrable coupling family of Merola-Ragnisco-Tu lattice systems is derived from a four-by-four matrix spectral problem. The Hamiltonian structure of the resulting integrable coupling family is established by the discrete variational identity. Each lattice system in the resulting integrable coupling family is proved to be integrable discrete Hamiltonian system in Liouville sense. Ultimately, a nonisospectral integrable lattice family associated with the resulting integrable lattice family is constructed through discrete zero curvature representation.
An integrable coupling family of Merola-Ragnisco-Tu lattice systems is derived from a four-by-four matrix spectral problem. The Hamiltonian structure of the resulting integrable coupling family is established by the discrete variational identity. Each lattice system in the resulting integrable coupling family is proved to be integrable discrete Hamiltonian system in Liouville sense. Ultimately, a nonisospectral integrable lattice family associated with the resulting integrable lattice family is constructed through discrete zero curvature representation.
Lanza, H Isabella; Drabick, Deborah A G
Although child impulsivity is associated with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, few studies have examined whether family processes moderate this association. To address this gap, we tested whether child-reported family routine moderated the relation between child hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) and ODD symptoms among a sample of low-income, urban, ethnic-minority children (N = 87, 51% male). Child HI and ODD symptoms were assessed using parent and teacher reports. HI also was indexed by a laboratory task. Family routine was assessed using child self-report. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that family routine moderated child HI. Among children with higher levels of teacher-reported HI symptoms, lower levels of family routine were associated with higher levels of teacher-reported ODD symptoms compared to children with lower levels of teacher-reported HI symptoms. Children who self-reported higher levels of family routine were rated as low on teacher-reported ODD symptoms, regardless of teacher-reported HI levels. Parent report and laboratory measures of child HI did not produce significant interactions. Lower levels of family routine may confer risk for ODD symptoms among low-income, urban, ethnic-minority children experiencing higher levels of HI.
Full Text Available Our study examined the relationships of relational pronouns used in parental conversation to the quality of early family interactions, as indexed by Family Alliance (FA. We hypothesized that more positive family interactions were associated with the use of more we-pronouns (e.g., we, us, our; we-ness and fewer I- and you-pronouns (e.g., I, me, you, your; separateness by both mothers and fathers. Our statistical model using a multilevel modelling framework and two levels of analysis (i.e., a couple level and an individual level was tested on 47 non-referred families (n = 31 primiparous families; child’s age, M = 15.75 months, SD = 2.73 with we-ness and separateness as outcomes and FA functions as between-dyads variables. Analyses revealed that we-ness within the parental couple was only positively associated with family affect sharing while separateness was negatively associated with different FA functions (e.g., communication mistakes. Our main finding suggested that the kinds of personal pronouns used by parental couples when discussing children’s education would be associated to the emotional quality of the family interactions.
Galdiolo, Sarah; Roskam, Isabelle; Verhofstadt, Lesley L; De Mol, Jan; Dewinne, Laura; Vandaudenard, Sylvain
Our study examined the relationships of relational pronouns used in parental conversation to the quality of early family interactions, as indexed by Family Alliance (FA). We hypothesized that more positive family interactions were associated with the use of more we-pronouns (e.g., we, us, our; we-ness ) and fewer I- and you-pronouns (e.g., I, me, you, your; separateness ) by both mothers and fathers. Our statistical model using a multilevel modeling framework and two levels of analysis (i.e., a couple level and an individual level) was tested on 47 non-referred families ( n = 31 primiparous families; child's age, M = 15.75 months, SD = 2.73) with we-ness and separateness as outcomes and FA functions as between-dyads variables. Analyses revealed that we-ness within the parental couple was only positively associated with family affect sharing while separateness was negatively associated with different FA functions (e.g., communication mistakes). Our main finding suggested that the kinds of personal pronouns used by parental couples when discussing children's education would be associated to the emotional quality of the family interactions.
Albright, Frederick S; Stephenson, Robert A; Agarwal, Neeraj; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A
There are few published familial relative risks (RR) for lethal prostate cancer. This study estimates RRs for lethal prostate cancer based on comprehensive family history data, with the goal of improving identification of those men at highest risk of dying from prostate cancer. We used a population-based genealogical resource linked to a statewide electronic SEER cancer registry and death certificates to estimate relative risks (RR) for death from prostate cancer based upon family history. Over 600,000 male probands were analyzed, representing a variety of family history constellations of lethal prostate cancer. RR estimates were based on the ratio of the observed to the expected number of lethal prostate cancer cases using internal rates. RRs for lethal prostate cancer based on the number of affected first-degree relatives (FDR) ranged from 2.49 (95% CI: 2.27, 2.73) for exactly 1 FDR to 5.30 (2.13, 10.93) for ≥3 affected FDRs. In an absence of affected FDRs, increased risk was also significant for increasing numbers of affected second-degree or third degree relatives. Equivalent risks were observed for similar maternal and paternal family history. This study provides population-based estimates of lethal prostate cancer risk based on lethal prostate cancer family history. Many family history constellations associated with two to greater than five times increased risk for lethal prostate cancer were identified. These lethal prostate cancer risk estimates hold potential for use in identification, screening, early diagnosis, and treatment of men at high risk for death from prostate cancer. Prostate77:41-48, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cláudia Silveira Tondowski
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze intergenerational patterns of alcohol related violence (ARV. An intentional sample comprising 42 family members was selected according to a set of criteria, including history of ARV. A genogram based on anonymous semi-structured taped interviews was created. The Content Analysis pointed to different patterns of repetition of intergenerational ARV. The most recurrent ones were those of lineal consanguinity (father/son and through marriage. We observed similarities over the generations of each family as regards the pattern of alcohol consumption; the type of violence; the family reaction and the family life cycle in which ARV was intensified. Our results confirm the intergenerational reproduction of ARV. In conclusion, it is important to create intervention strategies to prevent intergenerational repetition of this association of behaviors.
Elder, Nancy C.; Jacobson, C. Jeffrey; Bolon, Shannon K.; Fixler, Joseph; Pallerla, Harini; Busick, Christina; Gerrety, Erica; Kinney, Dee; Regan, Saundra; Pugnale, Michael
PURPOSE The clinician-colleague relationship is a cornerstone of relationship-centered care (RCC); in small family medicine offices, the clinician–medical assistant (MA) relationship is especially important. We sought to better understand the relationship between MA roles and the clinician-MA relationship within the RCC framework. METHODS We conducted an ethnographic study of 5 small family medicine offices (having informed by clinicians’ roles in hiring and managing MAs and the social familiarity of MAs and clinicians. Within the RCC framework, these findings can be seen as previously undefined constraints and freedoms in what is known as the Complex Responsive Process of Relating between clinicians and MAs. CONCLUSIONS Improved understanding of clinician-MA relationships will allow a better appreciation of how clinicians and MAs function in family medicine teams. Our findings may assist small offices undergoing practice transformation and guide future research to improve the education, training, and use of MAs in the family medicine setting. PMID:24615311
Valenzuela, Rafael; Codina, Nuria
Based on Bourdieu's idea that cultural capital is strongly related to family context, we describe the relations between family musical cultural capital and optimal experience during compulsory primary school musical practice. We analyse whether children from families with higher levels of musical cultural capital, and specifically with regard to…
Full Text Available There is expedient evidence showing that differences in adolescent alcohol consumption and other risk-behaviour depend on both family structure and family member drunkenness exposure. Data were obtained among adolescents (N = 12,115, mean age 14.9 ± 0.89 in Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain within the European Union’s 7th Framework Programme funded project, ‘Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE’. The current study reveals how adolescents’ alcohol consumption patterns are related to their family structure and having seen their family member drunk. The results revealed statistically significant differences in adolescent alcohol consumption depending on whether the adolescent lives in a family with both birth parents, in a single-parent family or in a family with one birth parent and one step-parent. The study also revealed that the abstaining from alcohol percentage among adolescents was greater in families with both birth parents compared to other family types. The study also showed that the more often adolescents see their family member drunk the more they drink themselves. There is no difference in adolescent drinking patterns whether they see their family member drunk once a month or once a week. This study gives an insight on which subgroups of adolescents are at heightened risk of alcohol abuse and that decrease of family member drunkenness may have positive effects on the drinking habits of their children.
Dilley, Laura C.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Gamache, Jessica L.; McAuley, J. Devin; Redford, Melissa A.
Purpose As children mature, changes in voice spectral characteristics covary with changes in speech, language, and behavior. Spectral characteristics were manipulated to alter the perceived ages of talkers’ voices while leaving critical acoustic-prosodic correlates intact, to determine whether perceived age differences were associated with differences in judgments of prosodic, segmental, and talker attributes. Method Speech was modified by lowering formants and fundamental frequency, for 5-year-old children’s utterances, or raising them, for adult caregivers’ utterances. Next, participants differing in awareness of the manipulation (Exp. 1a) or amount of speech-language training (Exp. 1b) made judgments of prosodic, segmental, and talker attributes. Exp. 2 investigated the effects of spectral modification on intelligibility. Finally, in Exp. 3 trained analysts used formal prosody coding to assess prosodic characteristics of spectrally-modified and unmodified speech. Results Differences in perceived age were associated with differences in ratings of speech rate, fluency, intelligibility, likeability, anxiety, cognitive impairment, and speech-language disorder/delay; effects of training and awareness of the manipulation on ratings were limited. There were no significant effects of the manipulation on intelligibility or formally coded prosody judgments. Conclusions Age-related voice characteristics can greatly affect judgments of speech and talker characteristics, raising cautionary notes for developmental research and clinical work. PMID:23275414
Schneid, Stefan C; Stärtzel, Peter M; Lettner, Patrick; Gieseler, Henning
The recent US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) legislation has introduced the evaluation of the Design Space of critical process parameters in manufacturing processes. In freeze-drying, a "formulation" is expected to be robust when minor deviations of the product temperature do not negatively affect the final product quality attributes. To evaluate "formulation" robustness by investigating the effect of elevated product temperature on product quality using a bacterial vaccine solution. The vaccine solution was characterized by freeze-dry microscopy to determine the critical formulation temperature. A conservative cycle was developed using the SMART™ mode of a Lyostar II freeze dryer. Product temperature was elevated to imitate intermediate and aggressive cycle conditions. The final product was analyzed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Karl Fischer, and modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC), and the life cell count (LCC) during accelerated stability testing. The cakes processed at intermediate and aggressive conditions displayed larger pores with microcollapse of walls and stronger loss in LCC than the conservatively processed product, especially during stability testing. For all process conditions, a loss of the majority of cells was observed during storage. For freeze-drying of life bacterial vaccine solutions, the product temperature profile during primary drying appeared to be inter-related to product quality attributes.
Full Text Available The goal of the research presented in this paper is to describe the relations between educational styles as dyad and co-parenting relations, as well as triad relations in the family which include processes of upbringing and taking care of the child. The sample comprised families with an adolescent. Data were obtained from 200 respondents, of the average age of 18. Respondents evaluated educational styles of their parents (separately father's, separately mother's in the Questionnaire for evaluating parenting style, and then also the quality of co-parenting cooperation in their families in the questionnaire Co-parenting relations in the family. The results indicate a significant correlation between the dimensions of parental styles and co-parenting relation. In that process, more prominent is the contribution of affective dimensions of parenting style, and what was also perceived and described are the differences in mutual relations of educational styles and co-parenting cooperation regarding parent's gender. The effects of the evaluated co-parental cooperation on educational behavior of the father are more evident.
Profound changes in family structure took place in many countries, during the second part of the previous century. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the association between the type of family residency and psychosomatic problems in younger and older adolescents, particularly focusing on alternate residency, and to examine the impact of child-parent relations. We used data collected in 2009 by Statistics Sweden among 172,298 Swedish students in Grade 6 and Grade 9 (approximate ages 12 and 15 years old); comprising 80% and 86%, respectively, of the entire population of students in those grades. We collected the data with a questionnaire, completed anonymously in school: We used the Psychosomatic Problems (PSP) scale as the outcome measure. The type of family residency showed a weaker association with psychosomatic problems than the child-parent relationships did. Living in non-intact families increased the probability of adolescent psychosomatic problems by 0-0.05, compared to intact families. In Grade 9, there were no differences in psychosomatic problems between the students in alternate residency and those living with their two parents; and in Grade 6, these differences were relatively small. In comparison, a worse relationship with parents increased the probability of psychosomatic problems by 0.11-0.17, depending on the school grade and type of family residency. The structure of the family, as well as the child-parent relationships needs to be taken into account, to properly estimate the magnitude of the family situation as a determinant of adolescent psychosomatic problems. Our results justify universal intervention at the policy level. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Cislak, A; Safron, M; Pratt, M; Gaspar, T; Luszczynska, A
This umbrella review analysed the relationships between family variables and child/adolescent body weight, diet and physical activity. In line with theories of health behaviour change, it was assumed that behaviour-specific family variables (i.e. beliefs, perceptions and practices referring to food intake or physical activity) would have stronger support than more general family variables (i.e. socio-economic status or general parental practices). Data obtained from 18 systematic reviews (examining 375 quantitative studies) were analysed. Reviews of experimental trials generally supported the effectiveness of reward/positive reinforcement parental strategies, parental involvement in treatment or prevention programmes, and cognitive-behavioural treatment in reducing child/adolescent body mass and/or obesity. Results across reviews of correlational studies indicated that healthy nutrition of children/adolescents was related to only one parental practice (parental monitoring), but was associated with several behaviour-specific family variables (e.g. a lack of restrictive control over food choices, high intake of healthy foods and low intake of unhealthy foods by parents and siblings, low pressure to consume foods). With regard to adolescent physical activity, stronger support was also found for behaviour-specific variables (e.g. physical activity of siblings), and for certain socio-economic variables (e.g. parental education). Child and adolescent obesity prevention programmes should account for behaviour-specific family variables. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Edwards-Lee, Terri; Wen, Johnny; Chung, Julia A; Vasinrapee, Panukorn; Mishkin, Frederick S
Clinical characteristics of autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease often differ clinically from sporadic disease with the onset of seizures, spasticity and myoclonus early in the disease course. Similarly imaging characteristics may also differ. We report the findings of relative hyperperfusion by Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and anterior temporal lobe in four affected family members carrying a presenilin 1 mutation. SPECT of the four individuals was compared to an age-matched normal database. We speculate that the findings of relative medial orbitofrontal and anterior temporal lobe hyperperfusion may be a marker of early onset Alzheimer's disease in this family.
Masticatory sensory-motor changes after an experimental chewing test influenced by pain catastrophizing and neck-pain-related disability in patients with headache attributed to temporomandibular disorders.
La Touche, Roy; Paris-Alemany, Alba; Gil-Martínez, Alfonso; Pardo-Montero, Joaquín; Angulo-Díaz-Parreño, Santiago; Fernández-Carnero, Josué
Recent research has shown a relationship of craniomandibular disability with neck-pain-related disability has been shown. However, there is still insufficient information demonstrating the influence of neck pain and disability in the sensory-motor activity in patients with headache attributed to temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of neck-pain-related disability on masticatory sensory-motor variables. An experimental case-control study investigated 83 patients with headache attributed to TMD and 39 healthy controls. Patients were grouped according to their scores on the neck disability index (NDI) (mild and moderate neck disability). Initial assessment included the pain catastrophizing scale and the Headache Impact Test-6. The protocol consisted of baseline measurements of pressure pain thresholds (PPT) and pain-free maximum mouth opening (MMO). Individuals were asked to perform the provocation chewing test, and measurements were taken immediately after and 24 hours later. During the test, patients were assessed for subjective feelings of fatigue (VAFS) and pain intensity. VAFS was higher at 6 minutes (mean 51.7; 95% CI: 50.15-53.26) and 24 hours after (21.08; 95% CI: 18.6-23.5) for the group showing moderate neck disability compared with the mild neck disability group (6 minutes, 44.16; 95% CI 42.65-45.67/ 24 hours after, 14.3; 95% CI: 11.9-16.7) and the control group. The analysis shows a decrease in the pain-free MMO only in the group of moderate disability 24 hours after the test. PPTs of the trigeminal region decreased immediately in all groups, whereas at 24 hours, a decrease was observed in only the groups of patients. PPTs of the cervical region decreased in only the group with moderate neck disability 24 hours after the test. The strongest negative correlation was found between pain-free MMO immediately after the test and NDI in both the mild (r = -0.49) and moderate (r = -0.54) neck disability
Although the exact aetiology of schizophrenia remains unknown, multiple genetic and environmental factors influence the development and expression of schizophrenia. The strongest risk factor to develop schizophrenia is the familial risk, thus having a family member with schizophrenia. The
Fu, Xinyuan; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Brown, Michael N
The present study examined age-trends and longitudinal bidirectional relations in self-esteem and prosocial behavior toward strangers, friends, and family over a four-year time period (age 11 to 14). A total of 681 adolescents were recruited in the United States (51% girls, 28% single parent families). A longitudinal panel model was conducted and the results showed that adolescent self-esteem was associated longitudinally with subsequent prosocial behavior toward strangers, and earlier prosocial behavior toward strangers promoted subsequent self-esteem. There were no such bidirectional relations between self-esteem and prosocial behavior toward friends and family. Findings also highlight the complexity of adolescent development of selfesteem and the multidimensional nature of prosocial behavior. Discussion focuses on understanding the dynamic interplay between adolescent selfesteem and prosocial behavior. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Over the past two decades, the number of women entering the labour market has grown sharply in Indonesia. This led to a situation in which many couples experience work-family conflicts. Work-family conflicts can occur in two directions, work-to-family (WFC) and family-to-work (FWC) conflicts. WFC and FWC decrease couples marital satisfaction and their job satisfaction. The negative impact of WFC decreases if couples receive social support from their supervisors, while spouse and extended fami...
Tanakaya, Kohji; Yamaguchi, Tatsuro; Ishikawa, Hideki; Hinoi, Takao; Furukawa, Yoichi; Hirata, Keiji; Saida, Yoshihisa; Shimokawa, Mototsugu; Arai, Masami; Matsubara, Nagahide; Tomita, Naohiro; Tamura, Kazuo; Sugano, Kokichi; Ishioka, Chikashi; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Ishida, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Sugihara, Kenichi
To elucidate the causes of cancer death in Japanese families with Lynch syndrome (LS). The distributions of cancer deaths in 485 individuals from 67 families with LS (35, 30, and two families with MutL homologue 1 (MLH1), MSH2, and MSH6 gene mutations, respectively), obtained from the Registry of the Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum were analyzed. Among 98 cancer deaths of first-degree relatives of unknown mutation status, 53%, 19%, 13% (among females), 7% (among females) and 5% were due to colorectal, gastric, uterine, ovarian, and hepatobiliary cancer, respectively. The proportion of deaths from extra-colonic cancer was significantly higher in families with MSH2 mutation than in those with MLH1 mutation (p=0.003). In addition to colonic and uterine cancer, management and surveillance targeting gastric, ovarian and hepatobiliary cancer are considered important for Japanese families with LS. Extra-colonic cancer in families with MSH2 mutation might require for more intensive surveillance. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.
Stensgaard, Anette; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Nielsen, Dorthe
To explore and better understand the impact that peanut allergy can have on family experiences in everyday life through interviews with individual family members. Peanut allergy affects adolescents' quality of life through the need to avoid eating peanut-containing food and the risk of anaphylaxis. Adolescence is a period of increasing separation from parents and has the highest risk of food fatalities. A qualitative interview study taking a phenomenological-hermeneutical approach. Data were generated through semi-structured individual interviews with the adolescent with peanut allergy, and both parents and a sibling. Five families were interviewed, with 20 participants in total. The theoretical foundation was the family as an interactive system, and data were analysed with Ricoeur's theory of interpretation. The consequences of peanut allergy appeared to affect all family members and required knowledge and understanding, especially in the social network. Siblings took responsibility and had concerns for the well-being of the adolescent with allergy, while parents expressed difficulties with their child's transition to independence and their subsequent loss of control. Social relations with new family members or friends were challenged by lack of knowledge about the potential seriousness of peanut allergy. Risk and uncertainty were permanent companions for the adolescents with peanut allergy and their families. It takes time to acquire the necessary understanding about peanut allergy and the risk of anaphylaxis. The adolescent's social network also needs this knowledge during the transition to independent living. In the management of peanut allergy in adolescence, it is important to consider not only the smaller biological family unit (mothers, fathers and siblings) but to also take a wider perspective to include others such as stepfamily and friends. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Youngson, Megan J; Currey, Judy; Considine, Julie
To explore the characteristics of and interactions between clinicians, patients and family members during management of the deteriorating adult patient in the emergency department. Previous research into family presence during resuscitation has identified many positive outcomes when families are included. However, over the last three decades the epidemiology of acute clinical deterioration has changed, with a decrease in in-hospital cardiac arrests and an increase in acute clinical deterioration. Despite the decrease in cardiac arrests, research related to family presence continues to focus on care during resuscitation rather than care during acute deterioration. Descriptive exploratory study using nonparticipatory observation. Five clinical deterioration episodes were observed within a 50-bed, urban, Australian emergency department. Field notes were taken using a semistructured tool to allow for thematic analysis. Presence, roles and engagement describe the interactions between clinicians, family members and patients while family are present during a patient's episode of deterioration. Presence was classified as no presence, physical presence and therapeutic presence. Clinicians and family members moved through primary, secondary and tertiary roles during patients' deterioration episode. Engagement was observed to be superficial or deep. There was a complex interplay between presence, roles and engagement with each influencing which form the other could take. Current practices of managing family during episodes of acute deterioration are complex and multifaceted. There is fluid interplay between presence, roles and engagement during a patient's episode of deterioration. This study will contribute to best practice, provide a strong foundation for clinician education and present opportunities for future research. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Shahid, Humma; Khan, Jane C; Cipriani, Valentina; Sepp, Tiina; Matharu, Baljinder K; Bunce, Catey; Harding, Simon P; Clayton, David G; Moore, Anthony T; Yates, John R W
Family history is considered a risk factor for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). With the advent of effective therapy for the disease, the importance of family history merits further investigation. This study quantifies the risk associated with family history, first, by a case-control study of reported family history and, second, by examining the siblings of AMD cases. The authors recruited cases with advanced AMD, spouses and siblings. All subjects were carefully phenotyped. Clinical findings in the siblings were compared with spouses. Information about family history was collected. The ORs for reported family history of AMD were calculated. Analyses were adjusted for age, smoking and genotype. 495 AMD cases, 259 spouses and 171 siblings were recruited. The OR for AMD was 27.8 (CI 3.8 to 203.0; p=0.001) with a reported family history of an affected parent and 12.0 (CI 3.7 to 38.6; p<0.0001) with a history of an affected sibling. ORs adjusted for age and smoking were higher. Examination of siblings confirmed their increased risk with 23% affected by AMD and an OR of 10.8 (4.5 to 25.8; p<0.0001). Adjusting for age increased the OR to 16.1 (6.2 to 41.8). The risk of AMD is greatly increased by having an affected first-degree relative. Those at risk need to be made aware of this and AMD patients should advise siblings and children to seek prompt ophthalmological advice if they develop visual symptoms of distortion or reduced vision.
Simard, Marie; Beaudry, Madeleine; Drapeau, Sylvie; Nadeau, France; Charbonneau, Cécile
In this study, similarities and differences in sibling relationships between children who have experienced family transitions and those who have not are examined. Comparisons are made between children who live in intact families, those whose parents have separated, and those who live in substitute care regarding the quality of their relationships with one of their siblings. More specifically, 4 dimensions describing the quality of sibling relationships are compared: Warmth/Closeness, Conflict, Relative Status/Power, and Rivalry (Furman & Buhrmester, 1985). The sample is made up of 3 groups of children (N = 158) aged between 8 and 12 years old: children living in intact families (n = 101), children who have experienced parental separation (n = 35), and children living in substitute care (n = 22). Results indicate differences on dimensions of Warmth/Closeness, Conflict, and Relative Status/Power. Different patterns of responses between the children who have experienced family transitions and those who have not are observed for the dimensions of Conflict and Power. The significant difference observed between the groups for the dimension of Warmth appears difficult to explain. Discussion of these results emphasizes the importance of the relationship between brothers and sisters experiencing family transition.
The question whether tidal and non-tidal members of a family have a separate wood anatomical structure would be examined best in such genera as embrace both types. The sequel to this examination, whether any such differences are connected with peculiarities in the water relations of the plants,
Ma, Hing Keung; Cheung, Ping Chung; Shek, Daniel T. L.
This study investigated the relation of peer interactions, family social environment and personality to prosocial orientation in Chinese adolescents. The results indicated no sex differences in general prosocial orientation and inclination to help others, but sex differences in inclination to maintain an affective relationship and inclination to…
Sekowski, Andrzej; Siekanska, Malgorzata
The article presents the results of a study focusing on the family situation, education and interpersonal relations of adults (26-35 years old) who in their adolescence (16-19 years old) displayed exceptional giftedness. One group of those surveyed were national academic award winners (90). The control group consisted of 90 people of no…
Loon, L.M.A. van; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Witteman, C.L.M.; Hosman, C.M.H.
Children of parents with a mental illness are often found to be at high risk of developing psychological problems themselves. Little is known about the role of family factors in the relation between parental and adolescent mental health. The current study focused on parent-child interaction and
Bai, Yu; Jin, Leili
Gratitude is a key construct in positive psychology. Previous studies seldom examined the salient contextual correlates of gratitude in early adolescence in non-Western society. This study examined the relations among family functioning, class environment, and gratitude in a sample of 202 Chinese elementary school students. The results showed that…
Foster, Cynthia Ewell; Webster, Melissa C.; Weissman, Myrna M.; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Wickramaratne, Priya J.; Talati, Ardesheer; Rush, A. John; Hughes, Carroll W.; Garber, Judy; Malloy, Erin; Cerda, Gabrielle; Kornstein, Susan G.; Alpert, Jonathan E.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Fava, Maurizio; King, Cheryl A.
Family functioning and parenting were hypothesized to mediate the relation between remission of maternal depression and children's psychosocial adjustment. Participants were 114 mother-child dyads participating in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression Child 3-month follow-up. All mothers had been diagnosed with major…
Ledbetter, Andrew M.
In this study, both face-to-face and online relational maintenance behaviors were tested as mediators of family communication patterns and closeness with a same-sex friend. Participants included 417 young adults recruited from communication courses at a large university in the Midwestern United States. The obtained structural model demonstrated…
Phillips, Beth M.; Morse, Erika E.
This paper presents findings from a stratified-random survey of family child care providers' backgrounds, caregiving environments, practices, attitudes, and knowledge related to language, literacy, and mathematics development for preschool children. Descriptive results are consistent with prior studies suggesting that home-based providers are…
Lawson, Jennifer E.
This qualitative study explores the experiences of women administrators in high-poverty community schools, investigating four women's perspectives on work demands and the impact on their families. Their work demands are related to the characteristics of impoverished communities, whereas their work resources are based on intrinsic rewards and…
P.A. Dykstra (Pearl)
textabstractFocusing mostly on Europe,this overview reveals how the research on cross-national differences in intergenerational family relations has movedfrombasic descriptions to a focus on understanding how support exchanges are shaped by macro-level processes.A key issue concerns generational
KARAKAŞ, Ayhan; SAHİN, Nilufer
The aim of thisstudy was, to examine the relation between work family conflict and employeeperformance. To measure the relationship ,WFC and EP scales used. Data weregathered from hotel employees in Western Black Sea provinces. End of the study,through data were examined -obtained statistical software package-, frequencyanalysis, correlation analysis, t-test, ANOVA test and regression analysis. Theresult indicate that work familyconflict related significantly to employee performance. Employ...
Séguin, Monique; Manion, Ian; Cloutier, Paula; McEvoy, Lisa; Cappelli, Mario
The objective of this study was to investigate family psychopathology and relationships between family members. Three groups of adolescents were interviewed: 1) currently depressed adolescents who have at least one parent who had/or is still experiencing a mood disorder, 2) currently depressed adolescents whose parents were never diagnosed with a mood disorder, 3) never-depressed control adolescents. Personal interview data was obtained from the proband, their parent(s) and one sibling. Findings suggest that parental psychopathology, parent-child relations and life events are all relevant factors in adolescent depression and should be considered in combination for assessment, prevention and intervention efforts.
Unger, D G; Wandersman, L P
The influence of teenage mothers' perceptions of family and partner social support on their postpartum adjustment was examined in this study. A structured interview with teenage mothers was conducted prenatally and a follow-up assessment was done when their children were 8 months of age. Both partner and family support were related to greater satisfaction with life, but each was associated in a different way with parenting and concerns about daily living. The results indicate the importance of distinguishing between specific sources of social support and different aspects of adjustment to teen parenthood.
van Elk, Michiel
The present study investigated the relation between paranormal beliefs, illusory control and the self-attribution bias, i.e., the motivated tendency to attribute positive outcomes to oneself while negative outcomes are externalized. Visitors of a psychic fair played a card guessing game and indicated their perceived control over randomly selected cards as a function of the congruency and valence of the card. A stronger self-attribution bias was observed for paranormal believers compared to skeptics and this bias was specifically related to traditional religious beliefs and belief in superstition. No relation between paranormal beliefs and illusory control was found. Self-report measures indicated that paranormal beliefs were associated to being raised in a spiritual family and to anomalous experiences during childhood. Thereby this study suggests that paranormal beliefs are related to specific cognitive biases that in turn are shaped by socio-cultural factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Proliferating effect of radiolytically depolymerized carrageenan on physiological attributes, plant water relation parameters, essential oil production and active constituents of Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud. under drought stress.
Singh, Minu; Khan, M Masroor A; Uddin, Moin; Naeem, M; Qureshi, M Irfan
Carrageenan has been proved as potent growth promoting substance in its depolymerized form. However, relatively little is known about its role in counteracting the adverse effects of drought stress on plants. In a pot experiment, lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud.), grown under different water stress regimes [(100% field capacity (FC), 80% FC and 60% FC)], was sprayed with 40, 80 and 120 mg L-1 of gamma irradiated carrageenan (ICA). Foliar application of ICA mitigated the harmful effects of drought stress to various extents and improved the biochemical characteristics, quality attributes and active constituents (citral and geraniol) of lemongrass significantly. Among the applied treatments, ICA-80 mg L-1 proved the best in alleviating detrimental effects of drought. However, drought stress (80 and 60% FC), irrespective of the growth stages, had an adverse impact on most of the studied attributes. Generally, 60% FC proved more deleterious than 80% FC. At 80% FC, application of ICA-80 mg L-1 elevated the essential oil (EO) content by 18.9 and 25%, citral content by 7.33 and 8.19% and geraniol content by 9.2 and 8.9% at 90 and 120 days after planting (DAP), respectively, as compared to the deionized-water (DW) spray treatment (80% FC+ DW). Whereas, at 60% FC, foliar application of 80 mg L-1 ICA significantly augmented the EO content by 15.4 and 17.8% and active constituents viz. citral and geraniol, by 5.01 and 5.62% and by 6.06 and 5.61% at 90 and 120 DAP, respectively, as compared to the control (water-spray treatment).
Proliferating effect of radiolytically depolymerized carrageenan on physiological attributes, plant water relation parameters, essential oil production and active constituents of Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud. under drought stress.
Full Text Available Carrageenan has been proved as potent growth promoting substance in its depolymerized form. However, relatively little is known about its role in counteracting the adverse effects of drought stress on plants. In a pot experiment, lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud., grown under different water stress regimes [(100% field capacity (FC, 80% FC and 60% FC], was sprayed with 40, 80 and 120 mg L-1 of gamma irradiated carrageenan (ICA. Foliar application of ICA mitigated the harmful effects of drought stress to various extents and improved the biochemical characteristics, quality attributes and active constituents (citral and geraniol of lemongrass significantly. Among the applied treatments, ICA-80 mg L-1 proved the best in alleviating detrimental effects of drought. However, drought stress (80 and 60% FC, irrespective of the growth stages, had an adverse impact on most of the studied attributes. Generally, 60% FC proved more deleterious than 80% FC. At 80% FC, application of ICA-80 mg L-1 elevated the essential oil (EO content by 18.9 and 25%, citral content by 7.33 and 8.19% and geraniol content by 9.2 and 8.9% at 90 and 120 days after planting (DAP, respectively, as compared to the deionized-water (DW spray treatment (80% FC+ DW. Whereas, at 60% FC, foliar application of 80 mg L-1 ICA significantly augmented the EO content by 15.4 and 17.8% and active constituents viz. citral and geraniol, by 5.01 and 5.62% and by 6.06 and 5.61% at 90 and 120 DAP, respectively, as compared to the control (water-spray treatment.
Jewell, Shannon L; Letham-Hamlett, Kirsten; Hanna Ibrahim, Mariam; Luecken, Linda J; MacKinnon, David P
Obesity presents a significant health concern among low-income, ethnic minority women of childbearing age. The study investigated the influence of maternal acculturation, family negativity, and family support on postpartum weight loss among low-income Mexican-origin women. Low-income Mexican-origin women (N=322; 14% born in the U.S.) were recruited from a prenatal clinic in an urban area of the Southwest U.S. Acculturation was assessed during a prenatal home visit (26-38 weeks gestation), and post-birth family support and general family negativity were assessed at 6 weeks postpartum. Objective maternal weight measures were obtained at five time points across the first postpartum year. Higher acculturation predicted higher family support and family negativity. Higher family support predicted decreasing weight across the first postpartum year, and higher family negativity predicted higher weight at 6 weeks postpartum and increasing weight across the first postpartum year. In combination, family negativity and support mediated the impact of acculturation on postpartum weight gain. Cultural and family-related factors play a significant role in postpartum weight gain and loss for low-income Mexican-origin women.
Raynor, Laura A.; Pankow, James S.; Miller, Michael B.; Huang, Guan-Hua; Dalton, Dayna; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.
Purpose To estimate the genetic contributions to presbycusis Method Presbycusis was assessed by audiometric measurements at three waves of the population-based Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS). Measurements from the most recent hearing examination were used, at which time subjects were between 48 and 100 years of age. Heritability of presbycusis was estimated using maximum likelihood methods in 973 biological relative pairs from 376 families. Familial aggregation was also evaluated by tetrachoric correlations, odds ratios, and lambda statistics in 594 sibling pairs from 373 sibships. Subjects 3,510 participants from the EHLS study Results The prevalence of presbycusis conformed to previous research, increasing with age and male sex. Heritability estimates for presbycusis adjusted for age, sex, education level, and exposure to work noise exceeded 50%, and siblings of an affected relative were at 30% higher risk. When stratified by sex, estimates of familial aggregation were higher in women than men. Conclusions There is evidence that genetic factors contribute to age-related hearing loss in this population-based sample. The familial aggregation is stronger in women than in men. PMID:19474454
Full Text Available This study aims to find out the relation of language family and glottochronology of Gorontalo language and Atinggola language in Gorontalo Province. The research employed a comparative method, and the research instrument used a list of 200 basic Morris Swadesh vocabularies. The data source was from documents or gloss translation of 200 basic vocabularies and interview of two informants (speakers of Gorontalo and Atinggola languages. Data analysis was done by using the lexicostatistic technique. The following indicators were used to determine the word family: (a identical pairs, (b the word pairs have phonemic correspondences, (c phonetic similarities, and (d a different phoneme. The results of data analysis reveal that there are 109 or 55.05% word pairs of the word family out of 200 basic vocabularies of Swadesh. The results of this study also show that the glottochronology of Gorontalo language and Atinggola language are (a Gorontalo and Atinggola languages are one single language at 1.377 + 122 years ago, (b Gorontalo and Atinggola languages are one single language at 1,449 - 1,255 years ago. This study concludes that (a the relation of the kinship of these two languages is in the family group, (b glottochronology (separation time between Gorontalo language and Atinggola language is between 1.4 to 1.2 thousand years ago or in the 12th – 14th century. Keywords: relation, kinship level, local language, Gorontalo Province, lexicostatistics study
Darling, Nancy; Cohan, Catherine L; Burns, Andrew; Thompson, Louisa
Continuity in conflict behaviors from (a) adolescents' behavior with parents and their behavior with romantic partners and (b) from parents' marriage to adolescents' romantic relationships were examined in a sample of 58 mother-father-adolescent families and the adolescents' romantic partners. The social relations model was used to analyze within-family reports of own and partner conflict behavior. Mother-father consensus about adolescents' use of physical aggression was associated with romantic partners' reports of adolescents' physical aggression. Less functional behaviors observed during observed marital conflict were associated with a range of less functional conflict behaviors in adolescents' observed interactions with romantic partners, including withdrawal, verbal aggression, negativity, ineffective problem solving, and low cohesion. Within-family conflict and methodological issues in the use of partner and self-reports of conflict behaviors are discussed.
Rasmussen, Richard Skøtt; Jokumsen, Alfred
Experiments have been carried out aimed at clarifying variations in the digestibility of dietary nutrients in rainbow trout families and studying how differences in digestibility may be related to growth and feed utilisation at various growth rates. The digestibility of protein, lipid...... the digestibility of protein, lipid, nitrogen-free extracts and dry matter was measured. Taken as a whole, our results indicate that selective breeding still offers a large potential for improved growth and feed utilisation in rainbow trout strains. In the first study, family Dc showed a higher specific growth rate......, carbohydrates (nitrogen-free extracts, NFE) and dry matter was analysed in two experiments involving eight rainbow trout families [Ab, Ba, Cd, Dc (first study); V, X, Y, Z (second study)]. In the first experiment rainbow trout were reared for 128 days at 13.0A degrees C, and in the second experiment, they were...
Rori V Rohlfs
Full Text Available We investigate the consequences of adopting the criteria used by the state of California, as described by Myers et al. (2011, for conducting familial searches. We carried out a simulation study of randomly generated profiles of related and unrelated individuals with 13-locus CODIS genotypes and YFiler® Y-chromosome haplotypes, on which the Myers protocol for relative identification was carried out. For Y-chromosome sharing first degree relatives, the Myers protocol has a high probability (80~99% of identifying their relationship. For unrelated individuals, there is a low probability that an unrelated person in the database will be identified as a first-degree relative. For more distant Y-haplotype sharing relatives (half-siblings, first cousins, half-first cousins or second cousins there is a substantial probability that the more distant relative will be incorrectly identified as a first-degree relative. For example, there is a 3~18% probability that a first cousin will be identified as a full sibling, with the probability depending on the population background. Although the California familial search policy is likely to identify a first degree relative if his profile is in the database, and it poses little risk of falsely identifying an unrelated individual in a database as a first-degree relative, there is a substantial risk of falsely identifying a more distant Y-haplotype sharing relative in the database as a first-degree relative, with the consequence that their immediate family may become the target for further investigation. This risk falls disproportionately on those ethnic groups that are currently overrepresented in state and federal databases.
The intertwining ideas of self-determination and well-being have received tremendous support in western bioethics. They have been used to reject medical paternalism and to justify patients' rights to give informed consent (or refusal) and execute advanced directives. It is frequently argued that everyone is thoroughly unique, and as patients are most knowledgeable of and invested in their own interests, they should be the ones to make voluntary decisions regarding their care. Two results of the strong focus on autonomy are the rejection of the image of patients as passive care recipients and the suspicion against paternalistic influence anyone may have on patients' decision-making process. Although the initial focus in western bioethics was on minimizing professional coercion, there has been a steady concern of family's involvement in adult patients' medical decision-making. Many worry that family members may have divergent values and priorities from those of the patients, such that their involvement could counter patients' autonomy. Those who are heavily involved in competent patients' decision-making are often met with suspicion. Patients who defer to their families are sometimes presumed to be acting out of undue pressure. This essay argues for a re-examination of the notions of autonomy and undue pressure in the contexts of patienthood and relational identity. In particular, it examines the characteristics of families and their role in adult patients' decision-making. Building on the feminist conception of the relational self and examining the context of contemporary institutional medicine, this paper argues that family involvement and consideration of family interests can be integral in promoting patients' overall agency. It argues that, in the absence of abuse and neglect, respect for autonomy and agency requires clinicians to abide by patients' expressed wishes.
Jonkman, Jeffrey; Blinn-Pike, Lynn; Worthy, Sheri Lokken
Background and aims The relationship between college student gambling, parenting styles, and family environments is a neglected area of gambling research. Do parenting styles indirectly influence problem gambling behaviors via family environments? Do poor family environments, characterized by high levels of conflict and low levels of cohesion, increase the likelihood of problem gambling among youth? This study explored the interrelationships among college students' current gambling behaviors and a) having an emotionally close and supportive family environment, b) having nagging and critical parents, c) having an authoritative mother, and d) frequency of alcohol consumption. Methods and results Survey data were collected from 450 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory psychology classes at two state universities in a southern state. Feeling that one has nagging and critical parents was associated with gambling in more venues, while the opposite was true for having emotionally close and supportive families. However, perceptions of having authoritative mothers were not related to gambling. The results also showed that more frequent alcohol consumption was associated with higher odds of gambling in casinos, playing cards for money, betting on sports, gambling on the Internet, higher gambling losses, and a larger number of gambling venues. Conclusions As with any exploratory research, there are several unique lines of inquiry that can, and should, follow from these findings, including more research on how college students' attitudes toward gambling activities may have begun prior to college and been influenced by their feelings about their homes and parents.
Metcalfe, Jessica Jarick; Fiese, Barbara H
Children in the United States fall far short of meeting federal dietary recommendations. The unhealthy diets common amongst young children are of crucial public health concern, given that they can inhibit healthy development and are predictive of chronic diseases in adulthood. Research investigating behaviors that are related to dietary habits is crucial to allow a better understanding of the causes of unhealthy dietary practices. Involvement in food preparation is known to be associated with healthy dietary behaviors in school-aged children, but little is known about these behaviors and their correlates in younger children. The present study sought to examine the influences and correlates of involvement in family food preparation in children at ages three and four. Parents of preschool aged children (n = 497) completed surveys including information about demographic background, their children's family food involvement, dietary intake, mealtime routines, and problematic eating behaviors. Data were collected when children were three (wave one of the survey) and four years of age (wave two). Findings from this study indicate that family food involvement at age three is predictive of healthier dietary intake at age four (increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, decreased consumption of fast food). These findings indicate that family food involvement is predictive of healthier dietary behaviors in young children, and that outreach efforts focused on family food involvement in early childhood may improve children's dietary habits. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Yallampalli, Chandra; Chauhan, Madhu; Endsley, Janice; Sathishkumar, Kunju
Synchronized molecular and cellular events occur between the uterus and the implanting embryo to facilitate successful pregnancy outcome. Nevertheless, the molecular signaling network that coordinates strategies for successful decidualization, placentation and fetal growth are not well understood. The discovery of calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptides (CT/CGRP) highlighted new signaling mediators in various physiological processes, including reproduction. It is known that CGRP family peptides including CGRP, adrenomedulin and intermedin play regulatory functions during implantation, trophoblast proliferation and invasion, and fetal organogenesis. In addition, all the CGRP family peptides and their receptor components are found to be expressed in decidual, placental and fetal tissues. Additionally, plasma levels of peptides of the CGRP family were found to fluctuate during normal gestation and to induce placental cellular differentiation, proliferation, and critical hormone signaling. Moreover, aberrant signaling of these CGRP family peptides during gestation has been associated with pregnancy disorders. It indicates the existence of a possible regulatory role for these molecules during decidualization and placentation processes, which are known to be particularly vulnerable. In this review, the influence of the CGRP family peptides in these critical processes is explored and discussed.
Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Quick, Virginia; Zhang, Man; Jin, Yanhong; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol
This study examined how food-related behaviours differed in mothers and their preschool children by levels of family functioning (cohesion and conflict) and household disorganization (chaos). A nationally representative sample of mothers of preschoolers completed an online survey assessing food-related behaviours of themselves and their children. Maternal and child diet, eating behaviours, and health status; household availability of fruits/vegetables, salty/fatty snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages; family mealtime atmosphere; and family conflict, cohesion, and household chaos were assessed with valid, reliable scales. Cluster analyses assigned families into low, middle, and high conflict, cohesion, and chaos groups. Participants (n = 550) were 72% White, and 82% had some post-secondary education. Regression analysis examining the association of cluster grouping levels on diet-related behaviour measures revealed that positive home environments (i.e., low family conflict, high family cohesion, and low household chaos) were associated with healthier food-related behaviours (e.g., increased fruits/vegetables intake), whereas negative home environments (i.e., high family conflict, low family cohesion, and high household chaos) were associated with unhealthy food-related behaviours (e.g., greater % total calories from fat) even after controlling for sociodemographic and related behavioural factors. Findings suggest family functioning and household chaos are associated with food-related behaviours. This frequently overlooked component of family interaction may affect intervention outcomes and objectives of educational and interventional initiatives. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Vinoski, Erin; Webb, Jennifer B; Warren-Findlow, Jan; Brewer, Kirstyn A; Kiffmeyer, Katheryn A
Yoga has become an increasingly common health practice among U.S. adults over the past decade. With this growth in popularity, yoga-related print media have been criticized for shifting away from yoga's traditional philosophies and promoting a thin, lean ideal physique representing the "yoga body." The purpose of this study was to (a) analyze the presence and content of advertisements over the 40-year publication history of Yoga Journal magazine and (b) explore female advertisement models' socio-demographic and appearance-related attributes over time. Results suggested that Yoga Journal now contains significantly more advertisements for food, nutritional supplements, and apparel and fewer advertisements for meditation and nutritional practices than in its early years of publication. Models were more frequently rated as White and in their 20s and 30s in recent years of publication. Trends in model body size matched shifts in culturally dominant body ideals over time. Implications and future research directions are considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In Norway an ideology of gender equality and the universal welfare state has created generous leave arrangements for parents, both mothers and fathers, to make the combination of work and family possible.To recruit competent women and men, knowledge work organisations have to accommodate to working hours that are compatible with the responsibility for a family. In the knowledge economy in Norway we therefore find women and men with higher education trying to act out the ideals of gen- der equality at work and at home. In this paper we explore how family-friendly policies in knowledge work organisations result in family-friendly practices.We do this by analysing two R&D departments belonging to large Norwegian companies in the international market. Both had policies of gender equality and family friendly working time arrangements and career opportunities for women with reduced hours.We show how different employment relations and forms of organisation influenced the work and time practices of the research scientists. Using the concept of social contracts in em- ployment and a relational concept of time, we found that it was more difficult to realise the reduced hours in the organisation that took responsibility for the career and welfare of their employees in a long-term perspective because of the mutual trust and obligations in this relationship.The women in the organisation with more transactional relations where their employment was dependent upon the market and their short-term economic performance, were able to use their accounting system to reduce their hours.The young fathers in the same organisation who were not yet established as experts, could not use the accounting system to limit their hours like the senior women.They needed to work long hours on scientific publications to qualify as researchers to secure their employment. In Norway an ideology of gender equality and the universal welfare state has created generous leave arrangements
Reiter Randy B
Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, national and global mortality data have been characterized in terms of well-established risk factors. In this regard, alcohol consumption has been called the third leading "actual cause of death" (modifiable behavioral risk factor in the United States, after tobacco use and the combination of poor diet and physical inactivity. Globally and in various regions of the world, alcohol use has been established as a leading contributor to the overall burden of disease and as a major determinant of health disparities, but, to our knowledge, no one has characterized alcohol-related harm in such broad terms at the local level. We asked how alcohol-related premature mortality in San Francisco, measured in years of life lost (YLLs, compares with other well-known causes of premature mortality, such as ischemic heart disease or HIV/AIDS. Methods We applied sex- and cause-specific population-attributable fractions (PAFs of years of life lost (YLLs from the Global Burden of Disease Study to 17 comparable outcomes among San Francisco males and females during 2004-2007. We did this in three ways: Method 1 assumed that all San Franciscans drink like populations in developed economies. These estimates were limited to alcohol-related harm. Method 2 modified these estimates by including several beneficial effects. Method 3 assumed that Latino and Asian San Franciscans drink alcohol like populations in the global regions related to their ethnicity. Results By any of these three methods, alcohol-related premature mortality accounts for roughly a tenth of all YLLs among males. Alcohol-related YLLs among males are comparable to YLLs for leading causes such as ischemic heart disease and HIV/AIDS, in some instances exceeding them. Latino and black males bear a disproportionate burden of harm. Among females, for whom estimates differed more by method and were smaller than those for males, alcohol-related YLLs are comparable to leading
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to develop and investigate the psychometric properties of the Computerized Family Relations Test (CFRT for children. This test assesses the quality of family relationships with the mother and father from a child’s perspective. The CFRT consists of six scales relating to control (Restrictiveness and Justice, and support (Affection, Vulnerability, Acknowledgement, and Trust within the family relationships. CFRT is an innovative approach to the Dutch Nijmegen Family Relations Test (NFRT developed by Oud and Welzen (1989. The administration of the test has been computerized and graphical representations of female and male silhouettes were included to facilitate the child’s parental identification. In total, 404 primary school children, aged 8 to 13 years (M = 11.0; SD = 1.17, took part in this study. The CFRT’s reliability was assessed by McDonald’s omega coefficients, and ranged from .71 to .86, except for Vulnerability which achieved the lowest reliability.57 for mothers’ ratings and .56 for fathers’ ratings. The test-retest procedure revealed higher stability for the ratings on father-child relationships of .71 compared to mother-child relationships of .67. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a six-factor model provided an adequate fit. Measurement invariance across the children’s assessments of the quality of family relationships was achieved. The construct validity of CFRT was assessed by examining differences in the child’s ratings of the relationships with the mother and father, the child’s gender, and associations of CFRT scales with other variables such as depression, anxiety symptoms, and prosocial behavior.
Skoczń, Ilona; Cieciuch, Jan; Oud, Johan H L; Welzen, Kai
The aim of the present study was to develop and investigate the psychometric properties of the Computerized Family Relations Test (CFRT) for children. This test assesses the quality of family relationships with the mother and father from a child's perspective. The CFRT consists of six scales relating to control (Restrictiveness and Justice), and support (Affection, Vulnerability, Acknowledgment, and Trust) within the family relationships. CFRT is an innovative approach to the Dutch Nijmegen Family Relations Test (NFRT) developed by Oud and Welzen (1989). The administration of the test has been computerized and graphical representations of female and male silhouettes were included to facilitate the child's parental identification. In total, 404 primary school children, aged 8 to 13 years (M = 11.0; SD = 1.17), took part in this study. The CFRT's reliability was assessed by McDonald's omega coefficients, and ranged from 0.71 to 0.86, except for Vulnerability which achieved the lowest reliability 0.57 for mothers' ratings and 0.56 for fathers' ratings. The test-retest procedure revealed higher stability for the ratings on father-child relationships of 0.71 compared to mother-child relationships of 0.67. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a six-factor model provided an adequate fit. Measurement invariance across the children's assessments of the quality of family relationships was achieved. The construct validity of CFRT was assessed by examining differences in the child's ratings of the relationships with the mother and father, the child's gender, and associations of CFRT scales with other variables such as depression, anxiety symptoms, and prosocial behavior.
Roisko, Riikka; Wahlberg, Karl-Erik; Hakko, Helinä; Wynne, Lyman; Tienari, Pekka
Communication Deviance (CD) in rearing parents is a known indicator of a psychopathology risk in the offspring, but the direction of the effects of these two factors on each other has remained an unresolved question. The purpose of the present study was to clarify this issue by assessing the relationship of CD in adoptive parents with certain attributes of the adoptee and adoptive parents themselves. The subjects were 109 adoptees at a high or low risk of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and their adoptive parents. Communication Deviance was measured in individual, spouse and family Rorschach situations. Thought disorders in the adoptees were assessed using the Thought Disorder Index. The variability of CD in the adoptive parents in individual Rorschach situations was not significantly explained by any characteristics of the child. The variability in parental CD in family Rorschach situations was most closely associated with the characteristics of the parents themselves. The results strongly support the hypotheses that the frequency of Communication Deviance is an enduring trait rather than a fluctuating state and that frequent CD in parent's speech may impair the growing child's cognitive development and predispose him/her to schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Takaki, Jiro; Hibino, Yuri
The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540) at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%). The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6). The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p women should devote themselves to their household duties" those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that "married life without children is favorable" and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment.
Smedje, Greta; Wang, Juan; Norbäck, Dan; Nilsson, Håkan; Engvall, Karin
To investigate the relationships between symptoms compatible with the sick building syndrome (SBS) in adults and building dampness and ventilation in single-family houses. Within the Swedish BETSI study, a national sample of single-family houses were inspected by professional building experts, and adults living in the houses answered a questionnaire on SBS. Relationships between building factors and SBS were analysed using logistic regression. Of the respondents, 23% reported having had weekly SBS symptoms during the last three months. A large proportion of houses exhibited building or construction problems. In total, 40% of houses had dampness problems in the foundation, and this was related to a higher prevalence of both mucous and dermal symptoms, and any SBS symptoms. Furthermore, high air humidity was related to more symptoms, with the relationship with absolute humidity being stronger than that with relative humidity or moisture load. Symptoms were also more prevalent in houses with a high U value, reflecting a poor thermal insulation. Compared to natural ventilation, living in a house with mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation was related to a lower prevalence of general symptoms and any SBS symptoms, but there were only weak associations between measured air exchange rate and symptoms. A large proportion of single-family houses have dampness problems in the foundation, and pollutants may enter the living space of the house and affect the health of the occupants. Furthermore, absolute air humidity should be measured more often in indoor air studies.
Chen, Stephen H; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Wang, Yun
OBJECTIVES: Parents from different cultures differ in how frequently they express emotions. However, the generalizability of the relations between parental expressivity and child adjustment in non-Western cultures has not been extensively studied. The goal of the present study was to investigate prospective relations between parental expressivity within the family (positive, negative dominant, and negative submissive expressivity) and Chinese children's psychological adjustment, above and beyond parenting styles. DESIGN: The study used two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data from a sample (n= 425) of children in Beijing (mean ages = 7.7 years at T1 and 11.6 years at T2). Parental expressivity and parenting styles were self-reported. To reduce the potential measurement overlap, items that tap parental expression of emotions toward the child were removed from the parenting style measure. Children's adjustment was measured with parents', teachers', and peers' or children's reports. RESULTS: Consistent with findings with European American samples, parental negative dominant expressivity uniquely and positively predicted Chinese children's externalizing problems controlling for prior externalizing problems, parenting styles, and family SES. Neither parental expressivity nor parenting styles uniquely predicted social competence. CONCLUSIONS: Despite previously reported cultural differences in the mean levels of parental expressivity, some of the socialization functions of parental expressivity found in Western countries can be generalized to Chinese families. Although parental expressivity and parenting styles are related constructs, their unique relations to child's adjustment suggest that they should be examined as distinct processes.
Mariana de Almeida Moraes Gibaut
Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the level of comfort of families of patients in a critical health condition related to the welcoming practices performed by the hospital staff. Interviews were conducted with 250 relatives in hospitals of the state Bahia, using a Likert scale. Data were analyzed as percentages and quartiles. For nine of the 12 statements of the scale, most relatives scored their comfort level between very and totally comfortable, median of 4,revealing kindness, tranquility and friendly communication with family members. More than half of the sample scored its level as not at all to more or less comfortable, median of 3, for statements about demonstration of interest towards the relative by the staff and flexible visiting of the patient. The necessity of greater interest of the team in the condition and needs of the family was observed. Promoting comfort from the dimension of welcoming demands interdisciplinary actions grounded in humanistic philosophy, in which the nurse has an important role to play.
Twibell, Renee; Siela, Debra; Riwitis, Cheryl; Neal, Alexis; Waters, Nicole
To explore the similarities and differences in factors that influence nurses' and physicians' decision-making related to family presence during resuscitation. Despite the growing acceptance of family presence during resuscitation worldwide, healthcare professionals continue to debate the risks and benefits of family presence. As many hospitals lack a policy to guide family presence during resuscitation, decisions are negotiated by resuscitation teams, families and patients in crisis situations. Research has not clarified the factors that influence the decision-making processes of nurses and physicians related to inviting family presence. This is the first study to elicit written data from healthcare professionals to explicate factors in decision-making about family presence. Qualitative exploratory-descriptive. Convenience samples of registered nurses (n = 325) and acute care physicians (n = 193) from a Midwestern hospital in the United States of America handwrote responses to open-ended questions about family presence. Through thematic analysis, decision-making factors for physicians and nurses were identified and compared. Physicians and nurses evaluated three similar factors and four differing factors when deciding to invite family presence during resuscitation. Furthermore, nurses and physicians weighted the factors differently. Physicians weighted most heavily the family's potential to disrupt life-saving efforts and compromise patient care and then the family's knowledge about resuscitations. Nurses heavily weighted the potential for the family to be traumatised, the potential for the family to disrupt the resuscitation, and possible family benefit. Nurses and physicians considered both similar and different factors when deciding to invite family presence. Physicians focused on the patient primarily, while nurses focused on the patient, family and resuscitation team. Knowledge of factors that influence the decision-making of interprofessional colleagues
Alvarez, José M; Bueno, Natalia; Cañas, Rafael A; Avila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M; Ordás, Ricardo J
WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX (WOX) genes are key players controlling stem cells in plants and can be divided into three clades according to the time of their appearance during plant evolution. Our knowledge of stem cell function in vascular plants other than angiosperms is limited, they separated from gymnosperms ca 300 million years ago and their patterning during embryogenesis differs significantly. For this reason, we have used the model gymnosperm Pinus pinaster to identify WOX genes and perform a thorough analysis of their gene expression patterns. Using transcriptomic data from a comprehensive range of tissues and stages of development we have shown three major outcomes: that the P. pinaster genome encodes at least fourteen members of the WOX family spanning all the major clades, that the genome of gymnosperms contains a WOX gene with no homologues in angiosperms representing a transitional stage between intermediate- and WUS-clade proteins, and that we can detect discrete WUS and WOX5 transcripts for the first time in a gymnosperm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Considering psycho-social aspects of diabetes such as family support ,depression and anxiety ,may have a pivotal role in improvement of health status of the patients. In Iran (IR, as other parts of the worldprevalence of diabetes and its burden are increasing therefore these issues must be seriously considered.Aims: The aim of this study was identify the contributing factors that could be promote quality of life in diabetes. For this reason , relationship between perceived family support and psychiatric comorbidities (depression and anxiety in Iranian diabetic population sample was studied.Methodology: In this cross-sectional study which was conducted in South-east Iran, 386 diabetic patients were assessed. The assessment instruments were Diabetes Specific Family Support (DSFS, Hospital Anxiety–Depression Scale( HADS, and demographic variables. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as statistical significance.Results: About 52% of the participants were female. The mean (SD age was 50.77 (10.24 years. The mean score of supportive behaviors,in females waslower than males. There was no relationship between the mean scores of depression and anxiety with gender. Duration of diabetes, educational level and socio-economic level had significant relationship with depression. The relation between subscales of family behaviors (supportive and non supportive and psychological comorbidities (depression, anxiety were significant (P<0.05.Conclusion: The survey results emphasized the important role of family support in Iranian diabetic patients. Families should be encouraged to provide a supportive environment for the diabetic patients that could be due quality of life promotion.
G. S. Samoylova
Full Text Available The article consider the structure of a word meaning a family in diachronic aspect. The valuable attitude towards concept «family» is characteristic of the entire periods in the history of Russian, and transformation of semantics of the word concept is insignificant. The central idea in definition of a family in modern Russian is the idea of spiritual proximity of people, the close emotional relations. The word is actively used in figurative sense for expression of estimated meanings. In a different way there is a history of values of the terms of relationship entering a theme group «family». In modern Russian these words cease to express a positive emotional assessment at the use in relation to not relatives. According to authors, it demonstrates change of valuable reference points in a modern language picture of the world.
Full Text Available A la lumière des théories sociologiques et anthropologiques de la famille et de la parenté, cet article pose la question de la préparation et de la consommation de nourriture dans les familles tchèques de différentes générations, et ce, aussi bien en milieu rural qu’urbain. Sur la base d’une enquête qualitative (entretiens ainsi que de données d’observation, l’article interroge le rôle que joue réellement le partage alimentaire dans la vie quotidienne des familles étudiées, ainsi que dans la construction de liens entre les membres de la famille, en particulier concernant les relations entre hommes et femmes. Ensuite, l’article se focalise sur la famille en tant qu’«unité de consommation», ainsi que sur son développement dans le temps. Comment se construit le régime alimentaire familial et jusqu’où se développent, entre les membres de la famille, des préférences alimentaires partagées? Sur la base des modèles émergeants relatifs aux pratiques alimentaires, le débat est ouvert quant aux rôles entre hommes et femmes ainsi que sur les thèmes relatifs au traditionalisme et au pouvoir. L’argument principal est que la formation de relations au sein même de la famille dépend moins du partage de nourriture que du rôle joué par les femmes dans la préparation et la distribution des repas, compte tenu des désirs de chacun des membres de la famille.In the context of sociological and anthropological theories about family and kinship, this article discusses the preparation and consumption of food in Czech families of different generations, both urban and rural. Based on a qualitative interview study and participant observation, the article begins by investigating the role played by the sharing of food in everyday family life and in the shaping of relations, including gender relations, between family members. Next, the article focuses on the family as a consumption unit and on its development over time. What
Franrenet, Sandra; Duchange, Nathalie; Galactéros, Fréderic; Quantin, Catherine; Cohen, Olivier; Nzouakou, Ruben; Sudraud, Sophie; Hervé, Christian; Moutel, Grégoire
The Inforare project aims to set up a system for the sharing of clinical and familial data, in order to study how genes are related to the severity of sickle cell disease. While the computerisation of clinical records represents a valuable research goal, an ethical framework is necessary to guarantee patients' protection and their rights in this developing field. Issues relating to patient information during the Inforare study were analysed by the steering committee. Several major concerns were discussed by the committee and formalized in the patients' information letter: educating patients to aid the recruitment of family members, rules of confidentiality and the disclosure of aggregate, individual and unexpected research results. This paper presents the main issues addressed.
Full Text Available Background: Family caregiver is the most important person who cares for patient with schizophrenia. However when care is provided for long time, he/she may experiences the burden.Purpose: The purpose was to review concept and factors related to burden on family caregivers caring for patients with schizophrenia.Method: A literatures were searched from databases: Pubmed, CINAHL, and Science Direct. Key words used to retrieve literature include caregiver burden and schizophrenia. Searching was limited in English language, full text, and the year of publication from 2000 to 2009 was used.Results: Twenty two studies were reviewed in this paper. The result showed that the caregivers caring for patients with schizophrenia experience burden. Burden was defined as a negative impact of caring for the impaired person experienced by caregiver on their activity (objective burden or feeling (subjective burden that involves emotional, physical health, social life, and financial status. Factors related to burden on family caregiver were grouped into: 1 caregiver‟s factors included age, gender, educational level, income, health status, and spent time per day, knowledge of schizophrenia, culture, and coping; 2 patient‟s factors included age, clinical symptoms, and disability in daily life; 3 environmental factors included mental health service and social support.Conclusion: Definition of burden have quite same meaning and mostly factors focus on the patient‟s symptoms, demographic factors of caregiver, and time spent per day. Most of studies cannot be generalized due to small sample used in the study and that too conducted in western countries. For further research, the correlation between burden and resources of family caregiver should be investigated particularly in eastern country.Key words: burden on family caregiver, caring, schizophrenia.
Full Text Available Relevance feedback approaches is used to improve the performance of content-based image retrieval systems. In this paper, a novel relevance feedback approach based on similarity measure modification in an X-ray image retrieval system based on fuzzy representation using fuzzy attributed relational graph (FARG is presented. In this approach, optimum weight of each feature in feature vector is calculated using similarity rate between query image and relevant and irrelevant images in user feedback. The calculated weight is used to tune fuzzy graph matching algorithm as a modifier parameter in similarity measure. The standard deviation of the retrieved image features is applied to calculate the optimum weight. The proposed image retrieval system uses a FARG for representation of images, a fuzzy matching graph algorithm as similarity measure and a semantic classifier based on merging scheme for determination of the search space in image database. To evaluate relevance feedback approach in the proposed system, a standard X-ray image database consisting of 10000 images in 57 classes is used. The improvement of the evaluation parameters shows proficiency and efficiency of the proposed system.
Asna Ntelu; Dakia N Djou
This study aims to find out the relation of language family and glottochronology of Gorontalo language and Atinggola language in Gorontalo Province. The research employed a comparative method, and the research instrument used a list of 200 basic Morris Swadesh vocabularies. The data source was from documents or gloss translation of 200 basic vocabularies and interview of two informants (speakers) of Gorontalo and Atinggola languages. Data analysis was done by using the lexicostatistic techniq...
Kuo, Chang-Fu; Grainge, Matthew J.; See, Lai-Chu; Yu, Kuang-Hui; Luo, Shue-Fen; Valdes, Ana M.; Zhang, Weiya; Doherty, Michael
OBJECTIVE: To examine familial aggregation of gout and to estimate the heritability and environmental contributions to gout susceptibility in the general population. \\ud \\ud METHODS: Using data from the National Health Insurance (NHI) Research Database in Taiwan, we conducted a nationwide cross-sectional study of data collected from 22 643 748 beneficiaries of the NHI in 2004; among them 1 045 059 individuals had physician-diagnosed gout. We estimated relative risks (RR) of gout in individual...
Withers, Mellissa; Dworkin, Shari L; Zakaras, Jennifer M; Onono, Maricianah; Oyier, Beryl; Cohen, Craig R; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Grossman, Daniel; Newmann, Sara J
Gender inequity has been closely linked with unmet need for family planning among women in sub-Saharan Africa but the factors related to male family planning disapproval are not well-understood. This qualitative study explored men's perspectives of gender roles and cultural norms as they pertain to family planning. Twelve small group meetings were held with 106 married men in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Shifting gender relations made the definitions of manhood more tenuous than ever. Men's previous identities as sole breadwinners, which gave them significant control over decision-making, were being undermined by women's increasing labour force participation. While many men viewed family planning positively, fears that family planning would lead to more female sexual agency and promiscuity or that male roles would be further jeopardised were widespread and were major deterrents to male family planning approval. By addressing such fears, gender-sensitive programmes could help more men to accept family planning. Increased family planning education for men is needed to dispel misconceptions regarding family planning side-effects. Focusing on the advantages of family planning, namely financial benefits and reduced conflict among couples, could resonate with men. Community leaders, outreach workers and healthcare providers could help shift men's approval of joint decision-making around family size to other reproductive domains, such as family planning use.
Full Text Available Research demonstrates an association between poverty and health. Populations in poverty suffer from poor mental and physical health, and thus, poor health-related quality of life. Research also indicates people living in the lower socio-economic categories experience higher levels of stress that are associated with these health declines. Family Scholar House, a local community intervention designed to alleviate poverty and improve socio-economic status by providing college education and support to single parents, combats these health outcomes by addressing the five social determinants of health (economic stability, education, social and community context, health care, and neighborhood and built environment. Quantitative analysis indicates an improvement in mental health among Family Scholar House participants: 0-12 month participants reported significantly more mentally unhealthy days than a control group; however, this difference is no longer significant at the end of participant’s time in the program. Qualitative analysis suggests this improvement may be due to stress reduction related to increased economic stability and financial security gained through an intentional implementation of a financial empowerment curriculum within the Family Scholar House program. Implementation of financial empowerment into community programs designed to alleviate poverty may improve mental health and thus health-related quality of life.
Ben-Gashir, M A; Seed, P T; Hay, R J
Atopic dermatitis (AD) can be traumatizing to family life. Little is known about the relationship between quality of life in AD and disease severity. To document family quality of life and relate this to severity of AD in children, for a 6-month period from a given point in time. These data are part of a longitudinal study conducted in two parts of the UK to investigate risk factors for AD severity and its impact on quality of life. and methods Thetargetedpopulation comprised children with AD aged 5-10 years in a primary-care setting. The general practitioners identified potential subjects and the UK diagnostic criteria for AD were used to verify the diagnosis. Both the children and their parents were interviewed. Eczema severity was assessed using a modified form of the SCORAD (SCORe Atopic Dermatitis) Index (SCORAD-D) from which parents' score of itching and sleep loss were excluded. The quality of family life was quantified by the Dermatitis Family Impact (DFI) questionnaire. These two parameters were evaluated on two occasions 6 months apart. Multiple regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between the quality of family life and the severity of the AD in the children, at a specific point in time and over the following 6-month period. Of the 116 children attending the first visit, mean age 8 years, 106 attended the second visit (91%) and were included in the analysis. Quality of family life was shown to be significantly affected in 48 (45%) cases at the first visit and 38 (36%) cases at the second visit. The initial means of the DFI and SCORAD-D were 2.4 and 8.2, respectively. Six months later the mean final DFI and SCORAD-D were 1.9 and 7.7, respectively. Using multiple regression on the first and second visits, each unit increase in SCORAD-D was associated with 0.21 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.06-0.37 P = 0.008] and 0.37 (95% CI 0.15-0.59, P = 0.001) units increase in quality of family life, respectively. This relationship remained
Fernando César Akira Urbano Matsuura
das Almas town, Bahia State considering the fruit quality attributes of fresh mature banana. The methodology used was descriptive research for statistical method. The data were collected by questionnaire, in the form of personal interview with 400 people. The quality attributes (variables questioned and appraised were related with the appearance, color, texture, aroma, flavor and shelf-life of the banana fruits. In agreement with the consumers' preference, the fruit of ideal mature banana should present characteristics like hand contends 10 to 12 fingers (fruits, fingers of medium or big size, medium diameter, present angularity, absence of black spots in the peel, color of the pulp light or medium yellow, firm texture, aroma and flavor of medium intensity, medium sweet and shelf-useful of 7 to 10 days in natural conditions. The flavor, shelf-life and appearance of the banana fruits are considered the most important attributes at the purchase, according the consumers.
Wood, Beatrice L; Miller, Bruce D; Lehman, Heather K
Asthma is the most common chronic disease in children. Despite dramatic advances in pharmacological treatments, asthma remains a leading public health problem, especially in socially disadvantaged minority populations. Some experts believe that this health gap is due to the failure to address the impact of stress on the disease. Asthma is a complex disease that is influenced by multilevel factors, but the nature of these factors and their interrelations are not well understood. This paper aims to integrate social, psychological, and biological literatures on relations between family/parental stress and pediatric asthma, and to illustrate the utility of multilevel systemic models for guiding treatment and stimulating future research. We used electronic database searches and conducted an integrated analysis of selected epidemiological, longitudinal, and empirical studies. Evidence is substantial for the effects of family/parental stress on asthma mediated by both disease management and psychobiological stress pathways. However, integrative models containing specific pathways are scarce. We present two multilevel models, with supporting data, as potential prototypes for other such models. We conclude that these multilevel systems models may be of substantial heuristic value in organizing investigations of, and clinical approaches to, the complex social-biological aspects of family stress in pediatric asthma. However, additional systemic models are needed, and the models presented herein could serve as prototypes for model development. © 2015 Family Process Institute.
Garrido Fernández, M; Torrado Val, E; Marcos Sierra, J A
In this article the familiar functioning of subjects addict to opioids included in a maintenance programme with methadone will be analyzed, trying to identify whether belonging to one type of family (family typology) or another, according to Olson's Familiar Functioning Model, is related to the level of deterioration or severity of addiction of the different areas associated to consumption . The sample is composed by 69 subjects (N=69) users of the Servicio de Atención a las Drogodependencias (SAD) in Centro de Servicios Sociales Comunitarios del Ayuntamiento de Alcalá de Guadaíra (Seville). In order to evaluate the functioning and the family typology of these subjects the Escala de Cohesión y Adaptación Familiar--CAF-1--Spanish version of FACES III was used. In order to evaluate the level of deterioration, the Spanish version of the 5th edition of the personal, clinical semistructured interview Addiction Severity Index--ASI4--was applied. The results indicate that the subjects included in balanced families present more addiction severity in two dimensions of the ASI: Alcohol and Employment/Support and are, moreover, the ones that take greater doses of methadone.
Yang, Zhixu; Fu, Xinyuan; Yu, Xiaoxia; Lv, Yichen
The present study examines the short-term changes and longitudinal relations between adolescents' materialism and prosocial behavior toward family, friends, and strangers over a year. A total of 434 Chinese adolescents (mean age at Time 1 = 11.27; 54% girls) participated in the two time points. From 6 th grade to 7 th grade, boys' and girls' materialism increased, whereas their prosocial behavior toward family, friends, and strangers declined, despite the stable trend in boys' prosocial behavior toward strangers. Furthermore, a cross-lagged model was conducted and the results showed that, adolescent materialism was associated longitudinally with decreased prosocial behavior toward friends and strangers, but not toward family. However, earlier prosocial behavior toward family, friends, and strangers were not associated with subsequent adolescent materialism. The findings point toward an understanding of materialism as a precursor rather than an outcome or byproduct to prosocial behavior. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Drury, Helena; Ajmi, Sana; Fernández de la Cruz, Lorena; Nordsletten, Ashley E; Mataix-Cols, David
Hoarding Disorder (HD), a new diagnostic entity in DSM-5, is associated with substantial functional impairment and family frustration but data from well-characterized samples is lacking. Participants were 37 individuals meeting DSM-5 criteria for HD, 55 relatives of individuals meeting criteria for HD, and comparison groups of 51 self-identified collectors and 25 relatives of collectors. All participants completed a clinician-administered diagnostic interview for HD and an online battery of standardized measures of health, well-being, and impairment. Substantial functional impairment was found for both HD individuals and their relatives. HD relatives reported significantly greater carer burden and accommodation of hoarding behaviors than relatives of collectors. Perceived level of squalor, co-habiting with, and increasing age of the HD individual were significant predictors of carer burden and functional impairment in the relatives. The use of self-identified HD individuals may have produced a bias towards participants with relatively good insight. Subjective biases in self-reported symptoms cannot be ruled out, although the use of informant-report data provided some independent validation. HD is associated with substantial functional impairment for both sufferers and their relatives. The level of carer burden experienced by HD relatives was comparable to or greater than that reported in the literature by relatives of individuals with dementia. The findings indicate that relatives of individuals with HD may benefit from increased support and suggest that it may be beneficial to involve family members in the treatment of HD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The local duality relations proposed previously are applied systematically to the P 8 -B 8 scattering, where P 8 and B 8 denote the 0 - unitary octet and 1/2 + one, respectively. The system of the relations involves the harmonic-oscillator spectrum of SU(6) x O(3) L multiplets, and for a process with one exotic channel (the exotic u-channel), the relation relates the s-channel resonance family N s with the t-channel one N t in terms of residues of the scattering amplitude at s-and t-channel resonances a and b (a is an element of N s , b is an element of N t ) in the narrow-width approximation. The resonance family N s (N t ) is defined to be a set of s-(t-) channel resonances with a fixed total number N s (N t ) of quanta of harmonic-oscillator excitations. The system of the relations is powerful in predicting mass ratios and coupling ratios for resonances. It is found that predictions are consistent with available experiments. Some discussion is made on the present results and previous successes in a work where we obtained a uniquely determined π - π + →π - π + dual Born amplitude, starting with the most general Veneziano-type amplitude and restricting parameters in it by the system of the relations and an asymptotic convergence condition. (author)
Lim, Jung-Won; Shon, En-Jung
Spouses' ability to care for survivors can be particularly challenging because patients and spouses are interdependent and mutually influence one another. Family functioning such as family cohesion and communication may play a primary role in improving the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of couples, given that cancer can influence family dynamics. The aims of this study were to investigate the mediating effect of family communication on the relationship between family cohesion and HRQOL and examine the moderating effect of sex on this relationship among cancer survivor-spouse dyads. A total of 91 cancer survivors with a diagnosis of breast, colorectal, or prostate cancer and their spouses were recruited from the University Hospital Registry in Cleveland, Ohio. The dyadic data were analyzed using structural equation modeling with the actor-partner interdependence mediation model. Findings demonstrated that the spouses' own perceived family communication mediated the associations between their own family cohesion and physical HRQOL and between the survivors' family cohesion and physical HRQOL. The spouse actor effects between family communication and HRQOL significantly differed by sex. Enhancing family cohesion and communication within the family can improve the spouses' HRQOL. Findings regarding sex differences serve as a rationale for gender-based approaches to improving HRQOL in survivorship care in the family context. Couple- and/or family-based interventions should be designed to enhance family cohesion and improve family communication skills for effective adjustments within couples and families. Supportive care within the family context can be promoted to address the diverse challenges of survivorship care.
Tsiouli, Elina; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Stefanaki, Charikleia; Darviri, Christina; Chrousos, George P
To investigate the way that family stress influences glycemic control among patients with diabetes who are younger than 18 years of age. PubMed and Scopus were searched for relevant studies published since 1990 using the following key words: diabetes type 1, glycemic control, family stress, family conflict, and family function. In total, 1478 papers were identified in the initial search. The final review included 6 cohort studies, 3 cross-sectional studies, and 1 qualitative review in which family stress was assessed using specific diabetes-related conflict measurement instruments, and glycemic control was evaluated by glycosylated hemoglobin measurement. In most studies family stress was negatively correlated with patients' glycemic control. Family function was strongly related to patients' glycemic control, while family conflict was adversely associated with glycemic control. Families of low socioeconomic status, those of adolescents with diabetes, and those of single parents were more prone to diabetes-related stress and thus more susceptible to worse glycemic control. Therapeutic psychological interventions and educational programs can help alleviate family diabetes-related stress and will likely improve glycemic control.
Duijster, D.; Jong-Lenters, M. de; Ruiter, C. de; Thijssen, J.; Loveren, C. van; Verrips, E.
Objectives The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between parental and family-related factors and childhood dental caries in a sample of 5- to 6-year-old children of Dutch, Moroccan and Turkish origin. Furthermore, the relationship of parental and family-related
Volling, Brenda L.; McElwain, Nancy L.; Miller, Alison L.
Examined relations between sibling jealousy and child and family characteristics in families with toddler and preschool-age siblings. Found that positive marital relationship was particularly strong predictor of older siblings' abilities to regulate jealousy in sessions with mothers. Younger siblings' jealous affect with mothers related to child's…
Full Text Available Mutations in the PINK1 gene cause autosomal recessive familial Parkinson's disease (PD. The gene encodes a mitochondrial protein kinase that plays an important role in maintaining mitochondrial function and integrity. However, the pathophysiological link between mutation-related bioenergetic deficits and the degenerative process in dopaminergic neurons remains to be elucidated. We performed phosphorous ((31P and proton ((1H 3-T magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI in 11 members of a German family with hereditary PD due to PINK1 mutations (PARK6 compared to 23 age-matched controls. All family members had prior 18-Fluorodopa (FDOPA positron emission tomography (PET. The striatal FDOPA uptake was correlated with quantified metabolic brain mapping in MRSI. At group level, the heterozygous PINK1 mutation carriers did not show any MRSI abnormalities relative to controls. In contrast, homozygous individuals with manifest PD had putaminal GPC, PCr, HEP and β-ATP levels well above the 2SD range of controls. Across all subjects, the FDOPA K(i values correlated positively with MI (r = 0.879, p<0.001 and inversely with β-ATP (r = -0.784, p = 0.008 and GPC concentrations (r = -0.651, p = 0.030 in the putamen. Our combined imaging data suggest that the dopaminergic deficit in this family with PD due to PINK1 mutations relates to osmolyte dysregulation, while the delivery of high energy phosphates was preserved. Our results corroborate the hypothesis that PINK1 mutations result in reduced neuronal survival, most likely due to impaired cellular stress resistance.
Rousseau, Cécile; Hassan, Ghayda; Measham, Toby; Moreau, Nicolas; Lashley, Myrna; Castro, Thelma; Blake, Caminee; McKenzie, Georges
Caribbean and Filipino immigrant families in Canada have much in common: the women have often immigrated as domestic workers, first-generation children may be separated from their parents for long periods, and they must deal with negative stereotypes of their ethnic group. This transcultural study looks at the associations between family relations and adolescents' perceptions of both their own group and the host society, and analyzes how these affect their mental health. The results suggest that family cohesion plays a key role in shaping adolescents' perceptions of racism in the host country and in promoting a positive appraisal of their own community, thus highlighting the need for a systemic understanding of family and intergroup relations.
Terzic Supic, Zorica; Santric Milicevic, Milena; Sbutega, Isidora; Vasic, Vladimir
Adolescence is transitional stage of physical and mental human development occuring between childhood and adult life. Social interactions and environmental factors together are important predictors of adolescent cannabis use. This study aimed to examine the relationship between the social determinants and adolescents behavior with cannabis consumption. A cross sectional study as part of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs was conducted among 6.150 adolescents aged 16 years in three regions of Serbia, and three types of schools (gymnasium, vocational - professional, and vocational - handicraft) during May - June 2008. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to obtain adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals in which the dependent variable was cannabis consumption non-user and user. Among 6.7% of adolescents who had tried cannabis at least one in their lives, boys were more involved in cannabis use than girls, especially boys from gymnasium school. Well off family, lower education of mother, worse relations with parents were significantly associated with cannabis use (P related to cannabis use (P study confirmed the importance of family relationship development. Drug use preventive programmes should include building interpersonal trust in a family lifecycle and school culture.
Kuo, Chang-Fu; Grainge, Matthew J; See, Lai-Chu; Yu, Kuang-Hui; Luo, Shue-Fen; Valdes, Ana M; Zhang, Weiya; Doherty, Michael
To examine familial aggregation of gout and to estimate the heritability and environmental contributions to gout susceptibility in the general population. Using data from the National Health Insurance (NHI) Research Database in Taiwan, we conducted a nationwide cross-sectional study of data collected from 22 643 748 beneficiaries of the NHI in 2004; among them 1 045 059 individuals had physician-diagnosed gout. We estimated relative risks (RR) of gout in individuals with affected first-degree and second-degree relatives and relative contributions of genes (heritability), common environment shared by family members and non-shared environment to gout susceptibility. RRs for gout were significantly higher in individuals with affected first-degree relatives (men, 1.91 (95% CI 1.90 to 1.93); women, 1.97 (95% CI 1.94 to 1.99)) and also in those with affected second-degree relatives (men, 1.27 (95% CI 1.23 to 1.31); women, 1.40 (95% CI 1.35 to 1.46)). RRs (95% CIs) for individuals with an affected twin, sibling, offspring, parent, grandchild, nephew/niece, uncle/aunt and grandparent were 8.02 (6.95 to 9.26), 2.59 (2.54 to 2.63), 1.96 (1.95 to 1.97), 1.93 (1.91 to 1.94), 1.48 (1.43 to 1.53), 1.40 (1.32 to 1.47), 1.31 (1.24 to 1.39), and 1.26 (1.21 to 1.30), respectively. The relative contributions of heritability, common and non-shared environmental factors to phenotypic variance of gout were 35.1, 28.1 and 36.8% in men and 17.0, 18.5 and 64.5% in women, respectively. This population-based study confirms that gout aggregates within families. The risk of gout is higher in people with a family history. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to gout aetiology, and the relative contributions are sexually dimorphic. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Qi, Y; Wu, X; Guo, Z; Zhang, J; Pan, H; Li, M; Bao, X; Peng, J; Zou, L; Lin, Q
To confirm the linkage of familial febrile convulsions to the short arm of chromosome 6(6p) or the long arm of chromosome 8(8q). The authors finished genotyping of Pst I locus on the coding region of heat shock protein (HSP) 70, 5'untranslated region of HSP70-1, 3' untranslated region of HSP70-2, D8S84 and D8S85. The data were processed by the genotype-based haplotype relative risk(GHRR) and transmission disequilibrium test(TDT) methods in PPAP. Some signs of association and disequilibrium between D8S85 and FC were shown by GHRR and TDT. A suspect linkage of familial febrile convulsions to the long arm of chromosome 8 has been proposed.
Doralúcia Gil da Silva
Full Text Available This work aimed to discuss relations between life satisfaction, family and friendship satisfaction and religiosity in a sample of adolescents. A record of sociodemographic data, a Multidimensional Scale of Life Satisfaction and a Positive and Negative Affect Scale were applied in 420 students (M= 14.91 years old; SD=1.65 from public schools of Porto Alegre. The results indicated that adolescents who reported having religion had higher life satisfaction, subjective well-being, and family and friendship satisfaction, all with significant differences. Religiosity and interpersonal relationships are factors that can act in a positive way and increase well-being perception by the adolescent. Implications about the form of to assess subjective well-being, as well as religiosity, are discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background About 20% of schoolchildren and adolescents in Sweden suffer from perceived food hypersensitivity (e.g. allergy or intolerance. Our knowledge of how child food hypersensitivity affects parents HRQL and what aspects of the hypersensitivity condition relate to HRQL deterioration in the family is limited. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate the parent-reported HRQL in families with a schoolchild considered to be food hypersensitive. The allergy-associated parameters we operated with were number of offending food items, adverse food reactions, additional hypersensitivity, allergic diseases and additional family members with food hypersensitivity. These parameters, along with age and gender were assessed in relation to child, parent and family HRQL. Methods In May 2004, a postal questionnaire was distributed to parents of 220 schoolchildren with parent-reported food hypersensitivity (response rate 74%. Two questionnaires were used: CHQ-PF28 and a study-specific questionnaire including questions on allergy-associated parameters. In order to find factors that predict impact on HRQL, stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were carried out. Results An important predictor of low HRQL was allergic disease (i.e. asthma, eczema, rhino conjunctivitis in addition to food hypersensitivity. The higher the number of allergic diseases, the lower the physical HRQL for the child, the lower the parental HRQL and the more disruption in family activities. Male gender predicted lower physical HRQL than female gender. If the child had sibling(s with food hypersensitivity this predicted lower psychosocial HRQL for the child and lower parental HRQL. Food-induced gastro-intestinal symptoms predicted lower parental HRQL while food-induced breathing difficulties predicted higher psychosocial HRQL for the child and enhanced HRQL with regards to the family's ability to get along. Conclusion The variance in the child's physical HRQL was to a
Brummelhuis, Lieke L. ten; Lippe, Tanja van der; Kluwer, Esther S.; Flap, Henk
We aimed to explain the influence of family involvement on feelings of burnout among employees who combine work and family tasks. As proxies for family involvement, we used the family structure (partner, number and age of children) and family tasks (e.g. hours spent on household chores). We compared
Cromley, Taya R.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; Boutelle, Kerri
Purpose To examine parent and family variables in relation to adolescent weight control and eating behaviors, body satisfaction, and importance of thinness among overweight adolescents. Methods This study examined parent-reported use of weight control behaviors (i.e., healthy and unhealthy behaviors, behavioral changes, other diet strategies), parent psychosocial functioning (i.e., depression, self-esteem, body satisfaction, importance of thinness), and family functioning (i.e., cohesion and adaptability) in relation to adolescent weight control and eating behaviors, body satisfaction, and importance of thinness. Surveys were completed by 103 overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) adolescents, ages 12 to 20, and their parents. Height and weight were also measured. Linear regression equations were used for continuous outcomes and logistic regression equations for dichotomous outcomes. Results Adolescent report of lower body satisfaction and engagement in more “severe” or less healthy forms of weight control behavior were associated with parent weight control behaviors. Adolescent report of overeating was associated with lower scores of family cohesion and adaptability. Adolescent report of lower body satisfaction was positively associated with parent report of body satisfaction and self-esteem. Adolescent report of greater importance placed on thinness was associated with parent report of lower self-esteem. Conclusions Findings indicate that several parent and family variables are associated with weight control behaviors, episodes of overeating, and body satisfaction and importance of thinness among overweight adolescents. Parent weight control behaviors and adolescent cognitions about body image may be important variables to target within intervention research and treatment programs for overweight youth. PMID:20708565
Gundlund, Anna; Christiansen, Mia N.; Hansen, Morten Lock
AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Determination and quantification of familial risk may help identify high-risk patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using Danish nationwide registry data (1978-2012), we identified all first-time AF patients (probands......) in Denmark. Relatives to these probands were grouped according to proband-relation: offspring from either maternal or paternal proband, and siblings to proband. Age-specific incidence of AF for these three groups of relatives and for the general Danish population was estimated. Using the general population...... as reference, we calculated adjusted rate ratios (RRs) of AF in the three groups of relatives. We identified 67 310, 103 822, and 11 800 AF probands who were mothers (median age 74 years, IQR 66-81), fathers (70 years, IQR 62-78), and siblings (46 years, IQR 38-52), respectively. Among those, 133 516, 221 774...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540 at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%. The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6. The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p < 0.05 and independently high: those with more frequent miscarriage/stillbirth/abortions, those with repeated miscarriages as the cause of infertility, those with infertility of unknown causes, those living with no child, those having a low joint income with their partner, those with the opinion that “women should devote themselves to their household duties” those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that “married life without children is favorable” and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment.
Tillery, Rachel; Beal, Sarah J; Thompson, Aimee N; Pai, Ahna L H
Late physical and emotional effects of cancer treatment pose a burden for adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancer, including family milestone achievement. This brief report examined links between ongoing cancer-related post-traumatic stress symptoms (CR-PTSS) and family milestone achievement. Survivors (n = 51; M age = 24.73, SD = 8.20) completed CR-PTSS and family formation questionnaires. Descriptive statistics, univariate parameter-constraints, and correlation analyses examined relations among study variables. Ongoing intrusive thoughts and hyperarousal were negatively linked to family identity development and family achievement. Findings from the present study provide support that ongoing CR-PTSS may be a barrier to family formation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Belardinelli, Cecilia; Hatch, John P; Olvera, Rene L; Fonseca, Manoela; Caetano, Sheila C; Nicoletti, Mark; Pliszka, Steven; Soares, Jair C
We studied the characteristics of family functioning in bipolar children and healthy comparison children. We hypothesized that the family environment of bipolar children would show greater levels of dysfunction as measured by the Family Environment Scale (FES). We compared the family functioning of 36 families that included a child with DSM-IV bipolar disorder versus 29 comparison families that included only healthy children. All subjects and their parents were assessed with the K-SADS-PL interview. The parents completed the FES to assess their current family functioning. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to compare the family environment of families with and without offspring with bipolar disorder. Parents of bipolar children reported lower levels of family cohesion (pfamilies where a parent had a history of mood disorders compared to families where parents had no history of mood disorders. Length of illness in the affected child was inversely associated with family cohesion (r=-0.47, p=0.004). Due to the case-control design of the study, we cannot comment on the development of these family problems or attribute their cause specifically to child bipolar disorder. Families with bipolar children show dysfunctional patterns related to interpersonal interactions and personal growth. A distressed family environment should be addressed when treating children with bipolar disorder.
Chi, Huifang; Gan, Yanhai; Qi, Lin; Dong, Junyu; Madessa, Amanuel Hirpa
Semantic attributes are commonly used for texture description. They can be used to describe the information of a texture, such as patterns, textons, distributions, brightness, and so on. Generally speaking, semantic attributes are more concrete descriptors than perceptual features. Therefore, it is practical to generate texture images from semantic attributes. In this paper, we propose to generate high-quality texture images from semantic attributes. Over the last two decades, several works have been done on texture synthesis and generation. Most of them focusing on example-based texture synthesis and procedural texture generation. Semantic attributes based texture generation still deserves more devotion. Gan et al. proposed a useful joint model for perception driven texture generation. However, perceptual features are nonobjective spatial statistics used by humans to distinguish different textures in pre-attentive situations. To give more describing information about texture appearance, semantic attributes which are more in line with human description habits are desired. In this paper, we use sigmoid cross entropy loss in an auxiliary model to provide enough information for a generator. Consequently, the discriminator is released from the relatively intractable mission of figuring out the joint distribution of condition vectors and samples. To demonstrate the validity of our method, we compare our method to Gan et al.'s method on generating textures by designing experiments on PTD and DTD. All experimental results show that our model can generate textures from semantic attributes.
José Elias Feres de Almeida
Full Text Available In an environment with poor quality of Corporate Governance Mechanisms, the quality of directors’ attributes might exert an important role to improve firm’s value and performance. I developed an index to explore the quality of Board of Directors based on Brazilian and international corporate governance codes to measure directors qualitative attributes. The sample consist in 24 Brazilian firms that traded at NYSE in the period over 1999-2006. The results show us that board of directors with high types of attributes can improve value measured individually and by the quality index. The main results indicate that firm value improved with high types of professionals, accountants seated in boards, directors with high level of education and that participated in executive training
Kotler, Tamara; Hammond, S. B.
A sample of 41 migrant mothers and their sons is used to develop an analysis of family environment and parental competence, using the concept of resources as a conceptual framework that includes and extends beyond socioeconomic indicators of family contexts. Also discussed are the relation of this resources scale to other family attributes, the…
Anne-Li Lindgren; Anna Sparrman
This paper combines sociological perspectives on family display, internet studies on family and private photography and a child studies perspective on the display of children. The paper proposes that blogging practices related to visits to theme and amusement parks in Sweden provide a new arena for people to displayfami-ly-like relationships. In the different displays,adults mainly use pictures of chil-dren in the blogs to demonstratetheir ability to perform family-likerelationships. The pape...
Gray, Wendy N; Graef, Danielle M; Schuman, Shana S; Janicke, David M; Hommel, Kevin A
Parenting stress in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been under-examined. Data validating use of the Pediatric Inventory for Parents (PIP), a measure of parenting stress associated with caring for a chronically ill child, in chronic diseases with intermittent, unpredictable disease courses, such as IBD, are needed. This study presents validity data in support of the PIP in pediatric IBD and examines relations between parenting stress and important psychosocial and medical outcomes. Adolescents (N = 130) with IBD and their caregivers across 3 sites completed measures of parenting stress, family functioning, and emotional/behavioral functioning. Disease severity was also assessed for each participant. The PIP demonstrates excellent internal consistency. Parenting stress was significantly higher among those with unhealthy general family functioning and those with children with borderline or clinically elevated internalizing symptoms. Caregiving stress was greater among parents of youth with more active Crohn's disease. Results supported the reliability and validity of the PIP for assessing caregiving stress in pediatric IBD. Routine assessment of parenting stress is recommended, particularly among parents reporting unhealthy family functioning and parents of youth with borderline or clinically elevated internalizing symptoms and more active disease.
Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Etter, Erica Moran; Wadsworth, Martha E; Raviv, Tali
This study tested how poverty-related stress (PRS), psychological distress, and responses to stress predicted future effortful coping and involuntary stress responses one year later. In addition, we explored age, sex, ethnicity, and parental influences on responses to stress over time. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses conducted with 98 low-income families (300 family members: 136 adults, 82 school-aged children, 82 adolescents) revealed that primary control coping, secondary control coping, disengagement, involuntary engagement, and involuntary disengagement each significantly predicted future use of that response. Primary and secondary control coping also predicted less maladaptive future responses to stress, while involuntary responses to stress undermined the development of adaptive responding. Age, sex, and interactions among PRS and prior coping were also found to predict certain responses to stress. In addition, child subgroup analyses demonstrate the importance of parental modeling of coping and involuntary stress responses, and warmth/nurturance and monitoring practices. Results are discussed with regard to the implications for preventive interventions with families in poverty.
Sharif, Adnan; Moorlock, Greg
Refusing consent to organ donation remains unacceptably high, and improving consent rates from family or next-of-kin is an important step to procuring more organs for solid organ transplantation in countries where this approval is sought. We have thus far failed to translate fully our limited understanding of why families refuse permission into successful strategies targeting consent in the setting of deceased organ donation, primarily because our interventions fail to target underlying cognitive obstacles. Novel interventions to overcome these hurdles, incorporating an understanding of cognitive psychology and behavioral change therapy, may be beneficial. One potential intervention is to use the concept of nudge theory, where decision-making is influenced by encouraging positive reinforcement and indirect suggestion. Purposefully nudging families to given consent for organ donation by understanding, and then overcoming, their inherent cognitive biases is novel but also controversial. This article explores the roles of relatives in decisions about organ donation, how nudge theory translates to organ donation and discusses the arguments for and against its application. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Chen, Stephen H; Zhou, Qing; Main, Alexandra; Lee, Erica H
The present study examined 2 measures of Chinese American immigrant parents' emotional expression in the family context: self-reported emotional expressivity and observed emotional expression during a parent-child interaction task. Path analyses were conducted to examine the concurrent associations between measures of emotional expression and (a) parents' American and Chinese cultural orientations in language proficiency, media use, and social affiliation domains, and (b) parents' and teachers' ratings of children's emotion-related regulation. Results suggested that cultural orientations were primarily associated with parents' self-reported expressivity (rather than observed emotional expression), such that higher American orientations were generally associated with higher expressivity. Although parents' self-reported expressivity was only related to their own reports of children's regulation, parents' observed emotional expression was related to both parents' and teachers' reports of children's regulation. These results suggest that self-reported expressivity and observed emotional expression reflect different constructs and have differential relations to parents' cultural orientations and children's regulation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Jacobs, Elizabeth T; Gupta, Samir; Baron, John A; Cross, Amanda J; Lieberman, David A; Murphy, Gwen; Martínez, María Elena
Little is known about the relationship between having a first-degree relative (FDR) with colorectal cancer (CRC) and risk for metachronous colorectal adenoma (CRA) following polypectomy. We pooled data from seven prospective studies of 7697 patients with previously resected CRAs to quantify the relationship between having a FDR with CRC and risk for metachronous adenoma. Compared with having no family history of CRC, a positive family history in any FDR was significantly associated with increased odds of developing any metachronous CRA (OR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.01-1.29). Higher odds of CRA were observed among individuals with an affected mother (OR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.05-1.53) or sibling (OR = 1.34; 95% CI = 1.11-1.62) as compared with those without, whereas no association was shown for individuals with an affected father. Odds of having a metachronous CRA increased with number of affected FDRs, with ORs (95% CIs) of 1.07 (0.93-1.23) for one relative and 1.39 (1.02-1.91) for two or more. Younger age of diagnosis of a sibling was associated with higher odds of metachronous CRA, with ORs (95% CIs) of 1.66 (1.08-2.56) for diagnosis at 65 years (p-trend = 0.008). Although limited by sample size, results for advanced metachronous CRA were similar to those for any metachronous CRA. A family history of CRC is related to a modestly increased odds of metachronous CRA. Future research should explore whether having a FDR with CRC, particularly at a young age, should have a role in risk stratification for surveillance colonoscopy.
Horst, van der H.M.; Hoogsteyns, M.
Research regarding disabling situations generally focuses on disabling situations within a public society ‘out there’. In our research, however, the intimate family setting itself appears central to the emergence of dis/enabling experiences. Moreover, the relationships that shaped these experiences
MacElveen-Hoehn, P; Eyres, S J
The purpose of this presentation is to review the concepts of social support and vulnerable families and children, propose a theoretical model on coping and adaptation, and ascertain any significant implications for the delivery of health care services and future research. The review of the literature indicates that major problems persist in the classification, conceptualization, empirical investigation, and clinical application of social support due to a lack of clarity regarding the definition of social support and how it works. Related perspectives such as bonding, child development, and child rearing also reaffirm the need for and the utilization of social support. High-risk factors, such as low maternal age, poverty, single parenthood, and long-term health problems, increase the vulnerability of families and children. This literature strongly suggests that the interactions of adults and children with supportive members of their social networks are important in the development of essential cognitive and social skills, as well as for the promotion of security and comfort. Supports from individuals, families, and groups also are associated with more successful adaptation and favorable outcomes. Despite numerous articles and research projects, however, questions concerning how social support works to assist vulnerable children and families remain. Seven factors are proposed as a theoretical model to identify threatening situations and coping difficulties so that appropriate support can be provided. These factors are surprise, experience, confusion, perceived effectiveness, perceived allies, perceived uniqueness of threat, and overload. Additional testing is required for this model so that a more meaningful investigation and utilization of social support can be established. Additional research also is indicated to determine the specific types of support needed in the presence of certain factors, network style preferences, the supply and demand for support over the
Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) are two essential proteins involved in DNA replication. RNR catalyzes the last and rate limiting step of the deoxyribonucleotide biosynthetic pathway. The dysregulation of RNR has been related to higher mutation rate...... characterized in budding and fission yeast. Within this protein family Dif1 (from S. cerevisiae) and Spd1 (from S. pombe) were analyzed in this study. These proteins were previously found to interact with and regulate the activity of RNR and Spd1 was also linked to PCNA dependent signaling for degradation...
Hansen, J.M.; Thomsen, L.L.; Olesen, J.
Objective: The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a migraine trigger that plays a crucial role in migraine pathophysiology, and CGRP antagonism is efficient in the treatment of migraine attacks. Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) is a dominantly inherited subtype of migraine w...... without aura. This indicates that the pathophysiologic pathways underlying migraine headache in FHM may be different from the common types of migraine and questions whether CGRP antagonists would be effective in the treatment of FHM patients Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9/9...
Grey, Jillian M.; Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P.
Background: Providing long-term care to an adult relative with intellectual disability can impact negatively on caregivers' health and well-being. Methods: Data were collected via online and postal questionnaires on 110 family carers' physical and psychological health, family stress and perceived positive gains from caring. Psychological…
Parks, Elizabeth P; Kazak, Anne; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Lewis, Lisa; Barg, Frances K
Objective In an effort to develop targets for childhood obesity interventions in non-Hispanic-Black (Black) families, this study examined parental perceptions of stress and identified potential links among parental stress and children's eating patterns, physical activity, and screen-time. Method Thirty-three self-identified Black parents or grandparents of a child aged 3 to 7 years were recruited from a large, urban Black church to participate in semistructured interviews. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Parents/grandparents described a pathway between how stress affected them personally and their child's eating, structured (sports/dance) and unstructured (free-play) physical activity, and screen-time usage, as well as strategies to prevent this association. Five themes emerged: stress affects parent behaviors related to food and physical activity variably; try to be healthy even with stress; parent/grandparent stress eating and parenting; stress influences family cooking, food choices, and child free-play; and screen-time use to decrease parent stress. Negative parent/grandparent response to their personal stress adversely influenced food purchases and parenting related to child eating, free-play, and screen-time. Children of parents/grandparents who ate high-fat/high-sugar foods when stressed requested these foods. In addition to structured physical activity, cooking ahead and keeping food in the house were perceived to guard against the effects of stress except during parent cravings. Parent/child screen-time helped decrease parent stress. Conclusion Parents/grandparents responded variably to stress which affected the child eating environment, free-play, and screen-time. Family-based interventions to decrease obesity in Black children should consider how stress influences parents. Targeting parent cravings and coping strategies that utilize structure in eating and physical activity may be useful
Hadley, Judith A.; And Others
Surveyed 97 adults self-identified as coming from dysfunctional families. Although level of family dysfunction was generally high, no significant differences were observed between adult children of alcoholics and adults from families whose dysfunction was not due to substance abuse. Degree of family dysfunction was significantly associated with…
Arnett, Peter A.
Several etiologic theories have been proposed to explain depression in the general population. Studying these models and modifying them for use in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population may allow us to better understand depression in MS. According to the reformulated learned helplessness (LH) theory, individuals who attribute negative events to internal, stable, and global causes are more vulnerable to depression. This study differentiated attributional style that was or was not related to MS in 52 patients with MS to test the LH theory in this population and to determine possible differences between illness-related and non-illness-related attributions. Patients were administered measures of attributional style, daily stressors, disability, and depressive symptoms. Participants were more likely to list non-MS-related than MS-related causes of negative events on the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ), and more-disabled participants listed significantly more MS-related causes than did less-disabled individuals. Non-MS-related attributional style correlated with stress and depressive symptoms, but MS-related attributional style did not correlate with disability or depressive symptoms. Stress mediated the effect of non-MS-related attributional style on depressive symptoms. These results suggest that, although attributional style appears to be an important construct in MS, it does not seem to be related directly to depressive symptoms; rather, it is related to more perceived stress, which in turn is related to increased depressive symptoms. PMID:24453767
Sympathovagal imbalance contributes to prehypertension status and cardiovascular risks attributed by insulin resistance, inflammation, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in first degree relatives of type 2 diabetics.
Gopal Krushna Pal
Full Text Available Though cardiovascular (CV risks are reported in first-degree relatives (FDR of type 2 diabetics, the pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to these risks are not known. We investigated the association of sympathovagal imbalance (SVI with CV risks in these subjects.Body mass index (BMI, basal heart rate (BHR, blood pressure (BP, rate-pressure product (RPP, spectral indices of heart rate variability (HRV, autonomic function tests, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, lipid profile, inflammatory markers, oxidative stress (OS marker, rennin, thyroid profile and serum electrolytes were measured and analyzed in subjects of study group (FDR of type 2 diabetics, n = 72 and control group (subjects with no family history of diabetes, n = 104.BMI, BP, BHR, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, inflammatory and OS markers, renin, LF-HF (ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power of HRV, a sensitive marker of SVI were significantly increased (p<0.0001 in study group compared to the control group. SVI in study group was due to concomitant sympathetic activation and vagal inhibition. There was significant correlation and independent contribution of markers of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation and OS to LF-HF ratio. Multiple-regression analysis demonstrated an independent contribution of LF-HF ratio to prehypertension status (standardized beta 0.415, p<0.001 and bivariate logistic-regression showed significant prediction (OR 2.40, CI 1.128-5.326, p = 0.002 of LF-HF ratio of HRV to increased RPP, the marker of CV risk, in study group.SVI in FDR of type 2 diabetics occurs due to sympathetic activation and vagal withdrawal. The SVI contributes to prehypertension status and CV risks caused by insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation and oxidative stress in FDR of type 2 diabetics.
E. V. Sukhova
Full Text Available A family is a social group that satisfies the most important needs and fulfils diverse functions. Patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis are not emotionally supported by their family members and hence experience anger and exasperation. The functioning of 30 families of patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis was psychologically studied using the family environment scale. The findings were compared with those of 100 standard families. Six out of 10 items showed significant differences, the other 4 items also displayed dissimilarities, but the latter were insignificant. The families of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were dysfunctional. The social climate of the family had established well before infiltrative tuberculosis was diagnosed in its member. The dissimilarities from the standard families are due to the social characteristics of family members, such as low income, alcohol abuse, and imprisonment. The specific features of the social climate of a family provide an explanation for no moral support to the patient.
Foster, Cynthia Ewell; Webster, Melissa C.; Weissman, Myrna M.; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Wickramaratne, Priya J.; Talati, Ardesheer; Rush, A. John; Hughes, Carroll W.; Garber, Judy; Malloy, Erin; Cerda, Gabrielle; Kornstein, Susan G.; Alpert, Jonathan E.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Fava, Maurizio; King, Cheryl A.
Family functioning and parenting were hypothesized to mediate the relation between remission of maternal depression and children's psychosocial adjustment. Participants were 114 mother-child dyads participating in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression Child 3-month follow-up. All mothers had been diagnosed with major depressive disorder and were treated initially with citalopram; 33% of mothers experienced remission of depressive symptoms. Youth ranged in age from 7 to 17. Remission of maternal depression was associated with changes in children's reports of their mothers' warmth/acceptance, which in turn partially mediated the relation between maternal depression remission and youth internalizing symptoms, accounting for 22.9% of the variance. PMID:18991123
Oestergaard, Louise B.; Christiansen, Mia N.; Schmiegelow, Michelle D.
the rate of the disease, and whether this rate is affected by the type of family relationship (that is, parent or sibling) or by how the relative acquired the infection. DESIGN: Register-based nationwide cohort study (1992 to 2011). SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: First-degree relatives (children...... or siblings) of patients previously hospitalized with S aureus bacteremia. MEASUREMENTS: Poisson regression models were used to calculate standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of S aureus bacteremia, with the incidence rate in the population as a reference. RESULTS: 34 774 individuals (the exposed cohort...... in the background population. The estimate was significantly higher if the index case patient was a sibling (SIR, 5.01 [CI, 3.30 to 7.62]) than a parent (SIR, 1.96 [CI, 1.45 to 2.67]; interaction P
Full Text Available Suicide attempt (SA is common in early adolescence and the risk may differ between boys and girls in nonintact families partly because of socioeconomic, school, and health-related difficulties. This study explored the gender and family disparities and the role of these covariates. Questionnaires were completed by 1,559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France including sex, age, socioeconomic factors (family structure, nationality, parents’ education, father’s occupation, family income, and social support, grade repetition, depressive symptoms, sustained violence, sexual abuse, unhealthy behaviors (tobacco/alcohol/cannabis/hard drug use, SA, and their first occurrence over adolescent’s life course. Data were analyzed using Cox regression models. SA affected 12.5% of girls and 7.2% of boys (P<0.001. The girls living with parents divorced/separated, in reconstructed families, and with single parents had a 3-fold higher SA risk than those living in intact families. Over 63% of the risk was explained by socioeconomic, school, and health-related difficulties. No family disparities were observed among boys. Girls had a 1.74-time higher SA risk than boys, and 45% of the risk was explained by socioeconomic, school, and mental difficulties and violence. SA prevention should be performed in early adolescence and consider gender and family differences and the role of socioeconomic, school, and health-related difficulties.
Forgeot d'Arc, Baudouin; Ramus, Franck
False-belief (FB) tasks have been widely used to study the ability of individuals to represent the content of their conspecifics' mental states (theory of mind). However, the cognitive processes involved are still poorly understood, and it remains particularly debated whether language and inner speech are necessary for the attribution of beliefs to other agents. We present a completely nonverbal paradigm consisting of silent animated cartoons in five closely related conditions, systematically teasing apart different aspects of scene analysis and allowing the assessment of the attribution of beliefs, goals, and physical causation. In order to test the role of language in belief attribution, we used verbal shadowing as a dual task to inhibit inner speech. Data on 58 healthy adults indicate that verbal interference decreases overall performance, but has no specific effect on belief attribution. Participants remained able to attribute beliefs despite heavy concurrent demands on their verbal abilities. Our results are most consistent with the hypothesis that belief attribution is independent from inner speech.
Chau, Kénora; Kabuth, Bernard; Chau, Nearkasen
Suicide attempt (SA) is common in early adolescence and the risk may differ between boys and girls in nonintact families partly because of socioeconomic, school, and health-related difficulties. This study explored the gender and family disparities and the role of these covariates. Questionnaires were completed by 1,559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France including sex, age, socioeconomic factors (family structure, nationality, parents' education, father's occupation, family income, and social support), grade repetition, depressive symptoms, sustained violence, sexual abuse, unhealthy behaviors (tobacco/alcohol/cannabis/hard drug use), SA, and their first occurrence over adolescent's life course. Data were analyzed using Cox regression models. SA affected 12.5% of girls and 7.2% of boys (P gender and family differences and the role of socioeconomic, school, and health-related difficulties.
Full Text Available This paper combines sociological perspectives on family display, internet studies on family and private photography and a child studies perspective on the display of children. The paper proposes that blogging practices related to visits to theme and amusement parks in Sweden provide a new arena for people to display family-like relationships. In the different displays, adults mainly use pictures of children in the blogs to demonstrate their ability to perform family-like relationships. The paper suggests that this form of child-centred display, a visualized child-centredness, done during the park visit as well as in the blogging, is part of the construction of contemporary childhoods and what it means to be a child today and has not been theorized in earlier research on the display of family-like relations.
Westman, A S; Stuve, M
Three studies explored whether young adults' preference for using a sense modality, e.g., hearing, correlated with presence or clarity of attributes of that sense modality in earliest memories from childhood, elementary school, or high school. In Study 1, 75 graduates or seniors in fine arts, fashion merchandising, music, conducting, or dance showed no greater frequency or clarity of any modality's sensory attributes. In Study 2, 213 beginning university students' ratings of current importance of activities emphasizing a sense modality correlated with sensory contents of recollections only for smell and taste. In Study 3, 102 beginning students' ratings of current enjoyment in using a sense modality and sensory contents of recollections were correlated and involved every modality except vision.
Abreu, Tatiana Fernandes Kerches de; Amendola, Fernanda; Trovo, Monica Martins
This article aims to identify the relational technologies used by Family Health Strategy nurses in their daily work when treating patients. Descriptive and cross-sectional study with qualitative approach; conducted between May and July 2015, in three Basic Health Units of the Southern Region of the Municipality of São Paulo, with 19 nurses of the Family Health Strategy. Data were collected through a semi-structured interview, and the speeches were fully transcribed and analyzed according to the technique of content analysis. From the speeches of the participants, three categories emerged, showing the unawareness of the concept, but the valorization of its use; which are the relational technologies used by the participating nurses (communication, listening, empathy and welcoming reception), as well as the report of barriers to the use of relational technologies. Although the nurses value the use of relational technologies, the participants denoted unawareness of the nomenclature and its associated concepts, suggesting superficiality in the understanding and use of these instruments in the context of care in the Family Health Strategy. Identificar as tecnologias relacionais utilizadas por enfermeiros de Estratégia Saúde da Família em seu cotidiano de trabalho no atendimento aos usuários. Estudo descritivo, transversal, com abordagem qualitativa; desenvolvido entre maio e julho de 2015, em três Unidades Básicas de Saúde da Região Sul do Município de São Paulo, com 19 enfermeiros da Estratégia Saúde da Família. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista semiestruturada, e os discursos foram transcritos na íntegra, analisados segundo a técnica de análise de conteúdo. Das falas dos participantes, surgiram três categorias, que evidenciam o desconhecimento do conceito, mas valorização do uso; quais são as tecnologias relacionais utilizadas pelos enfermeiros participantes (comunicação, escuta, empatia e acolhimento), além do relato de barreiras
Cabral Menéres, Maria Sofia
Tese de Doutoramento em Psicologia, apresentada a Departament of Psychology, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Simon Fraser University Children’s understanding of emotions in victimization situations has been investigated as a way to study children’s moral motivation. To assess this understanding, researchers have used a procedure known as the happy victimizer task in which children are asked to attribute emotions to victimizers who have performed an immoral action. In the present study...
Cabote, Christy Joy; Bramble, Marguerite; McCann, Damhnat
Family caregiving for people with younger onset dementia affects everyone in the family unit. This article presents findings of a qualitative systematic review exploring the experiences of family caregivers of persons with younger onset dementia. A systematic search resulted in the inclusion of five relevant articles, and two groups within the family unit were identified-child caregivers and adult and spousal caregivers. Using the thematic synthesis approach, five themes emerged: dementia damage, grief for loss of relationship, changes in family roles, positive and negative impacts of family caregiving, and transition to formal care. The review findings support increasing evidence that despite the stress of caring for a person with dementia damage, family members have the capacity to cope, adapt, and grow through their experiences. Nurses can assist families to identify their unique strengths and enhance family resiliency so they can navigate the "lonely road" of younger onset dementia. © The Author(s) 2015.
Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...
Full Text Available Abstract Aim The aim of this survey was to assess the accuracy of a family physician's diagnosis of depression and alcoholism. Methods Consecutive new adult patients attending a family practice in Japan between April 2004 and August 2006 were enrolled. Excluded were those with dementia or visual disturbance, and emergency cases. Participants completed a questionnaire regarding their complaints and socio-demographics. A research nurse conducted the Japanese version of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (J-MINI in the interview room. The doctor independently performed usual practice and recorded his own clinical diagnoses. A researcher listed the clinical diagnoses and complaints, including J-MINI or clinically-diagnosed alcoholism and depression, using the International Classifications for Primary Care, Second Edition (ICPC-2 and calculated kappa statistics between the J-MINI and clinical diagnoses. Results Of the 120 adult first-visit patients attending the clinics, 112 patients consented to participate in the survey and were enrolled. Fifty-one subjects were male and 61 female, and the average age was 40.7 ± 13.2 years. Eight alcohol-related disorders and five major depressions were diagnosed using the J-MINI, whereas no cases of alcoholism and eight depressions were diagnosed by the physician. Clinically overlooked patients tended to have acute illnesses like a common cold. Concordance between the clinical and research diagnosis was achieved only for three episodes of Major depression, resulting in a kappa statistic of 0.43. Conclusion Although almost half of the major depressions were identified, all alcoholism was missed. A mental health screening instrument might be beneficial in family practice, especially to detect alcoholism.
Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D; Engels, Rutger C M E; Florek, Ewa; Hanewinkel, Reiner
Seeing smoking depictions in movies has been identified as a determinant of smoking in adolescents. Little is known about how such media influences interact with other social risk factors. Differences in smoking rates in different socio-economic status groups might be explainable by differences in media exposure. There might also be differences in the average response to movie smoking exposure. We tested this hypothesis within a cross-national study conducted in six European countries. A total of 16,551 pupils from Germany, Iceland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, and Scotland with a mean age of 13.4years (SD=1.18) were recruited from 114 state funded schools. Using previously validated methods, exposure to smoking depictions in movies was estimated for each student and related to ever smoking. The analysis was stratified by level of family affluence (low, medium, high) and migration history of parents (yes vs. no), controlling for a number of covariates like age, gender, school performance, television screen time, sensation seeking and rebelliousness and smoking within the social environment (peers, parents, siblings). We found a significant association for each category of family affluence and ethnicity between ever smoking and movie smoking exposure, also significant adjusted odds ratios for age, school performance, sensation seeking, peer smoking, mother smoking, and sibling smoking. This relationship between movie smoking and adolescent smoking was not moderated by family affluence or ethnicity. Although we used a very broad measure of economic status and migration history, the results suggest that the effects of exposure to movie smoking can be generalized to the population of youths across European countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Evolutionary theory was applied to Reeder and Brewer's schematic theory and Trafimow's affect theory to extend this area of research with five new predictions involving affect and ability attributions, comparing morality and ability attributions, gender differences, and reaction times for affect and attribution ratings. The design included a 2 (Trait Dimension Type: HR, PR × 2 (Behavior Type: morality, ability × 2 (Valence: positive, negative × 2 (Replication: original, replication × 2 (Sex: female or male actor × 2 (Gender: female or male participant × 2 (Order: attribution portion first, affect portion first mixed design. All factors were within participants except the order and participant gender. Participants were presented with 32 different scenarios in which an actor engaged in a concrete behavior after which they made attributions and rated their affect in response to the behavior. Reaction times were measured during attribution and affect ratings. In general, the findings from the experiment supported the new predictions. Affect was related to attributions for both morality and ability related behaviors. Morality related behaviors received more extreme attribution and affect ratings than ability related behaviors. Female actors received stronger attribution and affect ratings for diagnostic morality behaviors compared to male actors. Male and female actors received similar attribution and affect ratings for diagnostic ability behaviors. Diagnostic behaviors were associated with lower reaction times than non-diagnostic behaviors. These findings demonstrate the utility of evolutionary theory in creating new hypotheses and empirical findings in the domain of attribution.
Moriarty, Helene; Winter, Laraine; Robinson, Keith; True, Gala; Piersol, Catherine; Vause-Earland, Tracey; Iacovone, Dolores Blazer; Holbert, Laura; Newhart, Brian; Fishman, Deborah; Short, Thomas H
Community reintegration (CR) poses a major problem for military veterans who have experienced a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Factors contributing to CR after TBI are poorly understood. To address the gap in knowledge, an ecological framework was used to explore individual and family factors related to CR. Baseline data from an intervention study with 83 veterans with primarily mild to moderate TBI were analyzed. Instruments measured CR, depressive symptoms, physical health, quality of the relationship with the family member, and sociodemographics. Posttraumatic stress disorder and TBI characteristics were determined through record review. Five variables that exhibited significant bivariate relationships with CR (veteran rating of quality of relationship, physical functioning, bodily pain, posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis, and depressive symptoms) were entered into hierarchical regression analysis. In the final analysis, the five variables together accounted for 35% of the variance, but only depression was a significant predictor of CR, with more depressed veterans exhibiting lower CR. Efforts to support CR of Veterans with TBI should carefully assess and target depression, a modifiable factor. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available The paper presents a systematisation of broader social factors affecting student dropout in Serbia from the framework of Bronfenbrenner’s approach. Although recognised by authors and commonly related to community and education as a system, these factors are rarely investigated. Starting from our previous research into dropout, focused primarily on family and school, this study is aimed at investigating community and systemic factors. The data were compiled by semi-structured interviews with respondents from the following groups (including relevant public statistical data: students who dropped out/are at risk and their parents; school principals and counsellors from schools with high and low attrition rates; teachers’, parents’ and students’ representatives from schools with high dropout rates; social workers in charge of schools with a low attrition rate; representatives of national educational institutions. The findings reveal that factors with a negative impact on children’s education dominate over supportive ones which could have a preventive effect on attrition. Negative influences exist in all social niches: in microsystems (peers prone to risky behaviour, poor neighbourhoods, in weak mesosystem connections of school and family with local institutions, in exosystems (undeveloped regions, up to the macrosystem level (legislative inefficiency, lack of cooperation within educational institutions and between governmental departments. Productive features were observed in mesosystem connections of schools as examples of good practice, as well as at macrosystem level in the form of recognising the dropout problem at the national level. Although preliminary, the obtained results provide useful guidelines for future investigations.
word of mouth to mass media and motion pictures. The JUSPAO messaging effort operated under five specified PSYOP Objectives: 1.) To impress upon the...in railroad cars and stations, in taverns, and by word of mouth .”53 Because carrying a large number of printed products was cumbersome for an...campaign through social media to support their actions. Deeper investigation of their efforts exposed “troll armies” made up of paid or bot personas
Hayes, Maureen A; Gallagher, Matthew W; Gilbert, Karina Stavitsky; Creech, Suzannah K; DeCandia, Carmela J; Beach, Corey A; Taft, Casey T
We evaluated the effectiveness of Strength at Home Friends and Families (SAH-F), a dyadic group intervention to prevent relational aggression and its negative consequences, in a community-based sample of service members/veterans and significant others who reported relational difficulties. Participants included 70 veterans and their loved ones. Recruitment was conducted from October 2010 through March 2012. Participants completed an initial assessment that included measures of relational aggression and functioning, depressive symptoms, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were enrolled in the 10-week SAH-F targeting social information-processing mechanisms hypothesized to underlie the relationship between trauma and aggression and were reassessed at program completion and 3 months after intervention. Significant reductions in psychological aggression were seen both at program completion and at 3-month follow-up for both veterans (standardized mean gain effect size [ESsg] = -0.45, P aggression remained low after pretreatment and did not increase. Relationship adjustment reported by significant others, but not veterans, indicated a significant improvement from pretreatment to program completion (ESsg = 0.33, P relational aggression in military member/significant other dyads and enhancing relationship quality and mental health. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the biopolitics of involvement discourses articulated by nursing staff concerning relatives in nursing home institutions, using a Foucault-inspired discourse analytical approach. Previous research has described how relatives have not been involved in nursing homes on their own terms. This is partly due to a lack of communication and knowledge, but it is also a consequence of an unclear organizational structure. Results from a discourse analysis of six focus group interviews with nursing staff show that the “involvement discourse” in nursing homes can be described as a “new” vs “old” family rhetoric. This rhetoric can be said to uphold, legitimize and provide different subject positions for both nursing staff and relatives concerning the conditions for involvement in nursing homes. As part of a “project of possibility” in elderly care, it may be possible to adopt a critical pedagogical approach among nursing staff in order to educate, strengthen and support them in reflecting on their professional norming and how it conditions the involvement of relatives.
Morina, Nexhmedin; Reschke, Konrad; Hofmann, Stefan G.
Exposure to war-related experiences can comprise a broad variety of experiences and the very nature of certain war-related events has generally been neglected. To examine the long-term outcomes of war-related death of family members, the authors investigated the prevalence rates of major depressive episode (MDE), anxiety disorders, and quality of…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with type 2 diabetes can have an important role in discussing health risk within families. This study aimed to establish the acceptability to first degree relatives towards their relative with type 2 diabetes intervening as health promoters in their own families, using the Health Belief Model as a theoretical framework for evaluation. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaire design. Survey questionnaire for first degree relative (sibling or child mailed to a random sample of patients with type 2 diabetes registered with an urban hospital diabetes clinic (n = 607 eligible patients. Patients were asked to pass on questionnaires to one to two first degree relatives. Results Questionnaires were returned from 257 families (42% response rate with two responses provided by 107 families (a total of 364 questionnaires. The majority (94% of first degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes would like to be informed about reducing their risk. Half (48% of respondents reported being spoken to by a relative with type 2 diabetes about their risk of diabetes. Those spoken to were more likely to see themselves at risk of diabetes, to worry about developing diabetes and to view diabetes as a serious condition. Conclusions A role for patients with type 2 diabetes in discussing health risk in their family appears to be acceptable to many relatives. Discussion of risk and interventions to reduce health risk with their relatives should be encouraged in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Whitford, David L
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes can have an important role in discussing health risk within families. This study aimed to establish the acceptability to first degree relatives towards their relative with type 2 diabetes intervening as health promoters in their own families, using the Health Belief Model as a theoretical framework for evaluation. METHODS: Cross-sectional questionnaire design. Survey questionnaire for first degree relative (sibling or child) mailed to a random sample of patients with type 2 diabetes registered with an urban hospital diabetes clinic (n = 607 eligible patients). Patients were asked to pass on questionnaires to one to two first degree relatives. RESULTS: Questionnaires were returned from 257 families (42% response rate) with two responses provided by 107 families (a total of 364 questionnaires). The majority (94%) of first degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes would like to be informed about reducing their risk. Half (48%) of respondents reported being spoken to by a relative with type 2 diabetes about their risk of diabetes. Those spoken to were more likely to see themselves at risk of diabetes, to worry about developing diabetes and to view diabetes as a serious condition. CONCLUSIONS: A role for patients with type 2 diabetes in discussing health risk in their family appears to be acceptable to many relatives. Discussion of risk and interventions to reduce health risk with their relatives should be encouraged in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Batz, M. B.; Doyle, M. P.; Morris, J. G.
source responsible for illness. A wide variety of food attribution approaches and data are used around the world including the analysis of outbreak data, case-control studies, microbial subtyping and source tracking methods, and expert judgment, among others. The Food Safety Research Consortium sponsored......Identification and prioritization of effective food safety interventions require an understanding of the relationship between food and pathogen from farm to consumption. Critical to this cause is food attribution, the capacity to attribute cases of foodborne disease to the food vehicle or other...... the Food Attribution Data Workshop in October 2003 to discuss the virtues and limitations of these approaches and to identify future options for collecting food attribution data in the United States. We summarize workshop discussions and identify challenges that affect progress in this critical component...
Prichard, I; Lee, A; Hutchinson, A D; Wilson, C
Risk for colorectal cancer, breast cancer, heart disease and diabetes has both a familial and a lifestyle component. This quasi-experimental study aimed to determine whether a Family Health History (FHH) assessment and the subsequent provision of risk information would increase young adults' (17-29 years) intentions to modify health behaviours associated with the risk of these chronic diseases (i.e. alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity) and to talk to their family about their risk. After baseline measures of current and intended health-related behaviours, participants (n = 116) were randomly allocated to either a FHH assessment or control information. Based on the FHH provided, participants in the FHH condition were then classified as 'above-average risk' or 'average risk'. One week later, participants were provided with tailored health information and completed follow-up measures of intended health-related behaviours and perceived vulnerability. Participants classified as 'above-average risk' had increased perceptions of vulnerability to a chronic disease. Despite this, no group differences were found in intentions to change physical activity or fruit and vegetable consumption. Participants with above-average risk reported greater intentions to decrease the frequency of their alcohol consumption than average risk/control participants. In addition, completing a FHH assessment promoted intended communication with family members about chronic disease risk. FHH assessments may have the greatest value within the family context. SO WHAT? Future research could examine the impact of providing FHH information to different family members as a health promotion strategy.
Martin, Summer C
The ways in which Parkinson's disease (PD) impacts, and is experienced by, the couple (i.e., the individual with PD and his or her spouse or other romantic partner) have not been fully elucidated. Such research is strongly warranted because when one member of a couple is chronically ill, it can cause major distress for not only the patient but also for his or her partner and their relationship. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine how PD affects a couple's relationship. Data from 44 individual, in-depth interviews (with 21 persons with PD and 23 partners) revealed several challenges that PD commonly invokes in the patient-partner relationship, though most participants reported that PD had not decreased their overall relational closeness. The findings have significant practical implications for family-focused care. © The Author(s) 2016.
Olga Lidia Casillas-Cárdenas
Full Text Available Today, society faces the secondary traumatic stress in work settings, transmitted through the intervention process the social worker, serving human social suffering of the families. This phenomenon is reflected as burnout or contagion of emotions similar to those suffered by subjects treated, characterized by pain, anguish and fear behaviors, and is associated with the cost of care. The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the emergence of relationships that emerge in the process of social intervention, as simultaneous complex relationships that keep reciprocity between the life of the social worker, the suffering of the treated subject and labor dynamics, where a frame is shared favoring meanings recirculation secondary traumatic stress. Previous advances show complex triadic relations, which only have interconnection through professional speaking at a given time and space.
Harkonmäki, K; Rahkonen, O; Martikainen, P; Silventoinen, K; Lahelma, E
To examine the associations of mental health functioning (SF-36) and work and family related psychosocial factors with intentions to retire early. Cross sectional survey data (n = 5037) from the Helsinki Health Study occupational cohort in 2001 and 2002 were used. Intentions to retire early were inquired with a question: "Have you considered retiring before normal retirement age?" Mental health functioning was measured by the Short Form 36 (SF-36) mental component summary (MCS). Work and family related psychosocial factors included job demands and job control, procedural and relational justice, conflicts between work and family, and social network size. Multinomial regression models were used to analyse the data. Poor mental health functioning, unfavourable psychosocial working conditions, and conflicts between work and family were individually related to intentions to retire early. After adjustments for all work and family related factors the odds ratio for low mental health functioning was halved (from OR = 6.05 to 3.67), but nevertheless the association between poor mental health functioning and strong intentions to retire early remained strong. These findings highlight not only the importance of low mental health and unfavourable working conditions but also the simultaneous impact of conflicts between work and family to employees' intentions to retire early.
van de Gaar, V M; van Grieken, A; Jansen, W; Raat, H
The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) may contribute to the development of overweight among children. The present study aimed to evaluate associations between family and home-related factors and children's SSB consumption. We explored associations within ethnic background of the child. Cross-sectional data from the population-based 'Water Campaign' study were used. Parents (n = 644) of primary school children (6-13 years) completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, family and home-related factors and child's SSB intake. The family and home-related factors under study were: cognitive variables (e.g. parental attitude, subjective norm), environmental variables (e.g. availability of SSB, parenting practices), and habitual variables (e.g. habit strength, taste preference). Regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations between family and home-related factors and child's SSB intake (p ethnic background, with the explained variance of the full models ranging from 8.7% for children from Moroccan or Turkish ethnic background to 44.4% for children with Dutch ethnic background. Our results provide support for interventions targeting children's SSB intake focussing on the identified family and home-related factors, with active participation of parents. Also, the relationships between these factors and the child's SSB intake differed for children with distinct ethnic backgrounds. Therefore, we would recommend to tailor interventions taking into account the ethnic background of the family. Number NTR3400 ; date April 4th 2012; retrospectively registered.
Korja, Riikka; Piha, Jorma; Otava, Riia; Lavanchy Scaiola, Chloé; Ahlqvist-Björkroth, Sari; Junttila, Niina; Aromaa, Minna; Räihä, Hannele
The aim of the study was to assess whether a parent's psychological well-being and/or self-efficacy relate to interaction within the family. This study is part of a Finnish follow-up study called Steps to the Healthy Development and Well-Being of Children (STEPS;). The study group included 120 families. Mother's and father's social anxiety and depression were assessed during pregnancy and at 18 months of the child's age using self-report questionnaires; the mother's and father's self-efficacy were assessed at 18 months using a parental self-efficacy scale validated within the STEPS study. Mother-father-child triadic interaction was studied at 18 months within a Lausanne Triadic Play setting. Results showed that maternal symptoms of depression during pregnancy and maternal social anxiety at 18 months were related to triadic interaction within the family. There was no relation between father's psychological well-being and triadic interaction within the family. Father's self-efficacy in teaching tasks and the Mother's self-efficacy in emotional support were associated with family interaction. The findings suggest that maternal psychological well-being and self-efficacy in emotional support may be important components of family triadic interaction whereas paternal self-efficacy in teaching tasks seems to support family coordination in triadic interaction. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Simpson, Grahame; Jones, Kate
To investigate the relationship between resilience and affective state, caregiver burden and caregiving strategies among family members of people with traumatic brain or spinal cord injury. An observational prospective cross-sectional study. Inpatient and community rehabilitation services. Convenience sample of 61 family respondents aged 18 years or older at the time of the study and supporting a relative with severe traumatic brain injury (n = 30) or spinal cord injury (n= 31). Resilience Scale, Positive And Negative Affect Schedule, Caregiver Burden Scale, Functional Independence Measure, Carer's Assessment of Managing Index. Correlational analyses found a significant positive association between family resilience scores and positive affect (r(s) = 0.67), and a significant negative association with negative affect (r(s) = -0.47) and caregiver burden scores (r(s) = -0.47). No association was found between family resilience scores and their relative's severity of functional impairment. Family members with high resilience scores rated four carer strategies as significantly more helpful than family members with low resilience scores. Between-groups analyses (families supporting relative with traumatic brain injury vs. spinal cord injury) found no significant differences in ratings of the perceived helpfulness of carer strategies once Bonferroni correction for multiple tests was applied. Self-rated resilience correlated positively with positive affect, and negatively with negative affect and caregiver burden. These results are consistent with resilience theories which propose that people with high resilience are more likely to display positive adaptation when faced by significant adversity.
Büyükcan Tetik, A.; Finkenauer, C.; Siersema, M.; Vander Heyden, K.; Krabbendam, L.
How do people know which family member is trustworthy? In this study, the authors tested the hypothesis that people use their perception of a family member's self-control as an indicator of his or her trustworthiness. Eighty-four Dutch families consisting of 2 parents and 2 children completed
The American disability service system is predicated on underlying assumptions and beliefs which are dominant in the majority culture. Consequently, minority families, such as families from India, living in America sometimes experience dissonance with respect to the services provided to their family due to their varying cultural values. As such,…
Anson, Julie; And Others
Describes winning videotapes and films of Media Competition in 12 categories: Human Development across the Life Span; Parenting Issues; Nontraditional Family Systems; Marital and Family Issues and Communication; Sexuality and Sex Role Development; Substance Abuse/Addiction; Human Reproduction and Family Planning; Stress, Transition, and Crisis…
Full Text Available Smoking habits increase occurred in the XX century, especially in the 50-60ths decades; countries like Brazil and Spain, among others, saw a significant decrease of its consume in the 1990ths decade; however, social repercussions were harmful for a long period of time. Objectives: Assess the social aspects related to smoking in an elderly population; evaluate the main social factors that led to smoking. One hundred and sixty subjects with 60 or more years were included into two groups: non-smoking (G1 (N=80 and smoking (G2(N=80 groups; both had a smoking history over 20 packs/years, e.g., equivalent of one smoked pack per day for 20 years; and also those who did not present dementia or any condition that would not allow them to respond the questionnaires applied in the study. All subjects included attended the health family program in the Capão Redondo region, São Paulo (SP city, Brazil. Mean age was: 66.7+ 5.95 and 67+13 years G1 and G2, minimum and maximum age was 60 and 80 years old, respectively. Mean house residents were: 3.45 + 1.57 and 4.6 +2.1 of G1 and G2, respectively, having more smokers with lower financial and educational resources; an illiterate presented a significant higher risk then a subject with completed undergraduation. Smoking brings important social repercussions over families; parents/friends that smoke are significant stronger related risk factors for other people to start smoking.
Mattila, M L; Rautava, P; Sillanpää, M; Paunio, P
It is generally understood that the teeth of pre-school-aged children are healthy, but the improvement in the dmft index has halted in the industrialized countries. Those few children who have caries have more of it than before. Little is known of the family-related factors which are associated with this polarization of caries. A representative population-based sample consisted of 1443 mothers expecting their first child. The children were followed at well-baby clinics and public dental health clinics for over five years. The objective was to study the prevalence of dental caries and its predictors in five-year-old children and to assess children's own dental health habits and the meaning of family-related factors in dental health. The findings were based on questionnaire data from parents and on clinical dental examinations of the five-year-old children as completed by 101 public health dentists. In firstborn five-year-old children, dental health was found to be good in 72%, fair in 20%, and poor in 8% of the cases. The final multivariate analysis illustrated that the dmft index > 0 was independently associated with the mother's irregular toothbrushing (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.4-3.5), annual occurrence of several carious teeth in the father (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.9-3.6), daily sugar consumption at the age of 18 months (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.4-4.1), occurrence of child's headaches (OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.5-8.8), parents' cohabitation (OR 3.3; 95% CI 1.5-7.6), rural domicile (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.2-4.5), and mother's young age (OR 5.0; 95% CI 1.3-19.8). The findings indicated that attention should be paid not only to the child's dental health care but also to that of the whole family. Parents should be supported in their upbringing efforts and encouraged to improve their children's dental health habits. In everyday life, parents function as role models for their children, and therefore, parents' own dental hygiene habits are very meaningful.
Norup, Anne; Snipes, Daniel J.; Siert, Lars
– Emotional scores were higher when patients had high Rancho Los Amigos Scale scores at admission to early intensive rehabilitation in hospital. These results suggest that the acute and sub-acute periods after brain injury are an extremely difficult time psychologically for many families, and family......Scant research has examined health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in family members of patients with severe brain injury, even less has been done in Scandinavian countries, and none has examined this construct longitudinally. The current study therefore used multilevel modelling to investigate...... the trajectories of HRQoL in 94 Danish family members of patients with severe brain injury at five time points, beginning at the patient's stay in a neuro intensive care unit through one year after injury. The family members’ HRQoL scores significantly and strongly increased over time, and Role Limitations...
Fung, Joey; Kim, Joanna J; Jin, Joel; Wu, Qiaobing; Fang, Chao; Lau, Anna S
This study examined the relationship between perceived social change, parental control and family relations in a sample of 419 4th and 5th grade children and their mothers who are of Chinese descent but reside in three different contexts: Los Angeles (LA), Hong Kong (HK), and Beijing (BJ). HK mothers endorsed the highest levels of psychological control and the lowest levels of autonomy support compared to BJ and LA mothers. Perceived social change as measured by mothers' endorsement of new values and ideologies was associated with increased use of both autonomy support and psychological control. Results of the mediation analyses suggested that perceived social change explained differences between LA and HK mothers in autonomy support, but group differences in psychological control were magnified when perceived social change was accounted for. Finally, whereas autonomy support was associated with higher levels of child perceived acceptance in HK and LA, psychological control was associated with greater family conflict in BJ and LA. Findings suggested that as families undergo urbanization or social change, it may shift the implications of traditional strategies that are intended to socialize the child toward interpersonal attunement. Overall, the study highlights the importance of moving beyond ethnic-group or cross-national comparisons to investigate the role of changing social and economic contexts in understanding differences in the use of parental control and their associations with family relations.
Fung, Joey; Kim, Joanna J.; Jin, Joel; Wu, Qiaobing; Fang, Chao; Lau, Anna S.
This study examined the relationship between perceived social change, parental control and family relations in a sample of 419 4th and 5th grade children and their mothers who are of Chinese descent but reside in three different contexts: Los Angeles (LA), Hong Kong (HK), and Beijing (BJ). HK mothers endorsed the highest levels of psychological control and the lowest levels of autonomy support compared to BJ and LA mothers. Perceived social change as measured by mothers’ endorsement of new values and ideologies was associated with increased use of both autonomy support and psychological control. Results of the mediation analyses suggested that perceived social change explained differences between LA and HK mothers in autonomy support, but group differences in psychological control were magnified when perceived social change was accounted for. Finally, whereas autonomy support was associated with higher levels of child perceived acceptance in HK and LA, psychological control was associated with greater family conflict in BJ and LA. Findings suggested that as families undergo urbanization or social change, it may shift the implications of traditional strategies that are intended to socialize the child toward interpersonal attunement. Overall, the study highlights the importance of moving beyond ethnic-group or cross-national comparisons to investigate the role of changing social and economic contexts in understanding differences in the use of parental control and their associations with family relations. PMID:29062285
Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between perceived social change, parental control and family relations in a sample of 419 4th and 5th grade children and their mothers who are of Chinese descent but reside in three different contexts: Los Angeles (LA, Hong Kong (HK, and Beijing (BJ. HK mothers endorsed the highest levels of psychological control and the lowest levels of autonomy support compared to BJ and LA mothers. Perceived social change as measured by mothers’ endorsement of new values and ideologies was associated with increased use of both autonomy support and psychological control. Results of the mediation analyses suggested that perceived social change explained differences between LA and HK mothers in autonomy support, but group differences in psychological control were magnified when perceived social change was accounted for. Finally, whereas autonomy support was associated with higher levels of child perceived acceptance in HK and LA, psychological control was associated with greater family conflict in BJ and LA. Findings suggested that as families undergo urbanization or social change, it may shift the implications of traditional strategies that are intended to socialize the child toward interpersonal attunement. Overall, the study highlights the importance of moving beyond ethnic-group or cross-national comparisons to investigate the role of changing social and economic contexts in understanding differences in the use of parental control and their associations with family relations.
Mobilio, Dominick; Walker, Gary; Brooijmans, Natasja; Nilakantan, Ramaswamy; Denny, R Aldrin; Dejoannis, Jason; Feyfant, Eric; Kowticwar, Rupesh K; Mankala, Jyoti; Palli, Satish; Punyamantula, Sairam; Tatipally, Maneesh; John, Reji K; Humblet, Christine
The Protein Data Bank is the most comprehensive source of experimental macromolecular structures. It can, however, be difficult at times to locate relevant structures with the Protein Data Bank search interface. This is particularly true when searching for complexes containing specific interactions between protein and ligand atoms. Moreover, searching within a family of proteins can be tedious. For example, one cannot search for some conserved residue as residue numbers vary across structures. We describe herein three databases, Protein Relational Database, Kinase Knowledge Base, and Matrix Metalloproteinase Knowledge Base, containing protein structures from the Protein Data Bank. In Protein Relational Database, atom-atom distances between protein and ligand have been precalculated allowing for millisecond retrieval based on atom identity and distance constraints. Ring centroids, centroid-centroid and centroid-atom distances and angles have also been included permitting queries for pi-stacking interactions and other structural motifs involving rings. Other geometric features can be searched through the inclusion of residue pair and triplet distances. In Kinase Knowledge Base and Matrix Metalloproteinase Knowledge Base, the catalytic domains have been aligned into common residue numbering schemes. Thus, by searching across Protein Relational Database and Kinase Knowledge Base, one can easily retrieve structures wherein, for example, a ligand of interest is making contact with the gatekeeper residue.
Stoller, Jacqueline; Carson, James D; Garel, Alisha; Libfeld, Paula; Snow, Catherine L; Law, Marcus; Frémont, Pierre
To identify differences and gaps in recommendations to patients for the management of sport-related concussion among FPs, emergency department physicians (EDPs), and pediatricians. A self-administered, multiple-choice survey was e-mailed to FPs, EDPs, and pediatricians. The survey had been assessed for content validity. Two community teaching hospitals in the greater Toronto area in Ontario. Two hundred seventy physicians, including FPs, EDPs, and pediatricians, were invited to participate. Identification of sources of concussion management information, usefulness of concussion diagnosis strategies, and whether physicians use common terminology when explaining cognitive rest strategies to patients after sport-related concussions. The response rate was 43.7%. Surveys were completed by 70 FPs, 23 EDPs, and 11 pediatricians. In total, 49% of FP, 52% of EDP, and 27% of pediatrician respondents reported no knowledge of any consensus statements on concussion in sport, and 54% of FPs, 86% of EDPs, and 78% of pediatricians never used the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool, version 2. Only 49% of FPs, 57% of EDPs, and 36% of pediatricians always advised cognitive rest. This study identified large gaps in the knowledge of concussion guidelines and implementation of recommendations for treating patients with sport-related concussions. Although some physicians recommended physical and cognitive rest, a large proportion failed to consistently advise this strategy. Better knowledge transfer efforts should target all 3 groups of physicians. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.
MacArthur, Duncan W.; Langner, Diana; Smith, Morag; Thron, Jonathan; Razinkov, Sergey; Livke, Alexander
Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two seemingly contradictory constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released. At the same time, the monitoring party must have confidence in the veracity of the measurement. An information barrier (IB) is included in the measurement system to protect the potentially classified information while allowing sufficient information transfer to occur for the monitoring party to gain confidence that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations, concerning that material. The attribute measurement technique incorporates an IB and addresses both concerns by measuring several attributes of the nuclear material and displaying unclassified results through green (indicating that the material does possess the specified attribute) and red (indicating that the material does not possess the specified attribute) lights. The attribute measurement technique has been implemented in the AVNG, an attribute measuring system described in other presentations at this conference. In this presentation, we will discuss four techniques used in the AVNG: (1) the 1B, (2) the attribute measurement technique, (3) the use of open and secure modes to increase confidence in the displayed results, and (4) the joint design as a method for addressing both host and monitor needs.
Dallaire, Danielle H; Ciccone, Anne; Wilson, Laura C
The current study examined children's attachment representations as assessed with their family drawings in relation to contact with an incarcerated or estranged parent, caregiver behavior, and family stress in a high-risk sample of children (N = 44, M (age) = 8.14), 55% of whom had incarcerated parents. Greater phone, mail, and physical contact with an incarcerated parent was associated with more role reversal in children's family drawings. Additional results show that child-reports of more hostile caregiver behavior were associated with greater overall insecurity in their family drawings; child and caregiver reports of stress were associated with increased global pathology and bizarreness/dissociation in children's family drawings. Given the lack of research on concurrent familial-based correlates of ratings made of children's family drawings, these results provide additional insights into children's representations of attachment relationships in early middle childhood. Further, the results regarding contact with incarcerated parents have implications for researchers and clinicians working with families impacted by parental incarceration.
Marquez, Jorge A; Ramírez García, Jorge I
Family caregivers' views and experiences related to treatment usage processes by their adult relatives with serious and persistent mental illness (SPMI) were empirically examined in a sample of Latino caregivers (n = 17) who were users of services at the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) in a predominantly Latino- (80%) and Mexican-descent large city in the Southwest United States. We conducted a stability check of qualitative findings with a second sample of Latino caregivers with no exposure to NAMI (n = 15). Overall, the combined sample (N = 32) compared similarly with larger samples of Latino adults and caregivers in quantitative measures of acculturation, familism, caregiver stigma, and depression symptoms. Together, caregivers' stigma and cultural beliefs, such as vergüenza (shame), use of folk healers, and lack of insurance, were major reported barriers to service usage. Family support (and lack of) for treatment also weighed heavily as a facilitator (and a barrier) of service usage, thus highlighting the complexity of family relationship contexts. Substantial portions of caregivers reported that treatment initiation was prompted by psychiatric hospitalization (50%), and that positive experiences with service providers were influential in treatment retention (72%). Given the high levels of family involvement reported among Latino caregivers, the findings underscore the potential role of family caregivers in treatment engagement and retention. Future research is needed that examines family caregivers' role in treatment with models that consider the interplay between cultural background, family level relationships, and service system contexts. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Goodyear-Smith, F A; Laidlaw, T M; Large, R G
To survey New Zealand families where an alleged perpetrator and/or other family member denies an accusation involving the childhood molestation of one family member by another, based on a memory recovered in adulthood. As the validity of such memories is crucial, our aim was to develop a profile of such families and to compare it with New Zealand epidemiological data. Information was collected by questionnaire regarding family demographics, characteristics of the accuser, family life, events surrounding and leading up to the accusations, consequences of the accusations and details of the accuser's current life situation. The 73 subjects included fathers, mothers, siblings and other relatives of the accusing adults. Most accusers were highly educated white women, frequently first born or older children from relatively large families, statistically different proportions from those expected. Many accusations involved events of low base-rate probability including satanic ritual abuse. Proportions differed from those of another New Zealand prevalence survey of 1019 18-year-olds in almost every way. The data suggest that it is unlikely that many, if not most, of the memories of child sexual abuse recovered in adulthood are a true reflection of history. Memories recovered during therapy should be treated with respect as part of the patient's narrative truth, but not assumed to be factually accurate without corroborative evidence.
Kiliś-Pstrusińska, Katarzyna; Medyńska, Anna; Adamczyk, Piotr; Bałasz-Chmielewska, Irena; Grenda, Ryszard; Kluska-Jóźwiak, Agnieszka; Leszczyńska, Beata; Olszak-Szot, Ilona; Miklaszewska, Monika; Szczepańska, Maria; Tkaczyk, Marcin; Wasilewska, Anna; Zachwieja, Katarzyna; Zajączkowska, Maria; Ziółkowska, Helena; Zagożdżon, Ilona; Zwolińska, Danuta
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children burdens life of patients and their families. Little is known about parents` assessment of families' social situation. However, the knowledge of the details of a patient's and his family's life standards might influence modification and optimization of applied therapy. Therefore, the main goal of the present study was to explore the selected elements of life situation of patients suffering with CKD as well as their parents, depending on the CKD stage and appropriate treatment. Cross-sectional national study was conducted. A total of 203 children with CKD and 388 their parent-proxies (196 women and 192 men) were enrolled into this study. Patient data and questionnaires filled by both parents, concerning social-demographic parameters and assessment of changes in families after CKD diagnosis in the child, were analysed. CKD children are being brought up in proper families whose financial situation is not good. Children need help in process of education. Perception of current situation differed between both parents in the change of the income source, taking care of CKD child, change in social relations and evaluating relations with medical staff. Parents do not obtain proper support from social workers. Families of CKD children require support in area of financial and educational help for school children. The discrepancies in evaluation of family situation between mothers and fathers of ill children might be the source of conflicts possibly resulting in worsening the outcome for CKD children.
Ylvén, Regina; Granlund, Mats; Persson, Carina
Problem solving is recognized as a skill, helping families of children with disabilities to manage problems in everyday life. Family problem-solving skills may therefore be seen as an important outcome of a child and youth habilitation service. The aim of this pilot feasibility study was to examine the design of a future web-based questionnaire study focusing on problem-solving patterns in relation to resources in families of children with disabilities. The descriptive statistical analyses built on data from 13 families and findings showed an overall satisfactory score distribution for three of the included instruments, whereas two instruments showed floor effects in one third of the items. Findings indicated design problems with data collection related to adapting questionnaires to a web-based survey format and to problems with the stop function that was added. Implementing the main study using web-based surveys needs critical considerations according to the choice of the web tool and the recruitment process.
Topham, Glade L; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Rutledge, Julie M; Page, Melanie C; Kennedy, Tay S; Shriver, Lenka H; Harrist, Amanda W
The aim of the present study was to examine the relations of parenting style, parent response to negative child emotion, and family emotional expressiveness and support to child emotional eating. Mothers (N=450) completed questionnaires and their 6-8-year-old children (N=450) were interviewed. Results showed that emotional eating was negatively predicted by authoritative parenting style and family open expression of affection and emotion, and positively predicted by parent minimizing response to child negative emotion. Results suggest the need for early prevention/intervention efforts directed to these parenting and family variables. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lau, Jennifer Y F; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Eley, Thalia C
Parenting factors may be important to the development of attributional style in adolescence, which in turn relates to depression symptoms. These relationships have mainly been considered in terms of social risk mechanisms, and little is known about the role of genetic influences. Self-reported measures of attributional style, depression symptoms and parental disciplinary styles were administered to over 1300 adolescent twin and sibling pairs. Model-fitting techniques were used to examine the role of genetic and environmental influences. Moderate genetic influences on attributional style were demonstrated, and furthermore, its association with depression reflected considerable genetic effects. Familial factors were implicated in the association between attributional style and punitive parenting, although genetic from shared environmental causes could not be distinguished. Our results demonstrate that attributional style is influenced by genetic, as well as social factors. Implications for aetiological pathways integrating cognitive, genetic and social factors on adolescent depression are discussed.
Setia, Nitika; Saxena, Renu; Sawhney, J P S; Verma, Ishwar C
Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited disorder of lipid metabolism characterized by very high low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol since birth, resulting in premature atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (CAD). Cascade screening of children and family members of proven FH individuals can identify more subjects who have high LDL cholesterol or the family mutation and appropriate intervention can reduce their risk of atherosclerosis and prevent its complications. Cascade screening by molecular testing, was carried out in 133 family members, comprising 24 children, of 31 probands with FH having a pathogenic mutation in LDLR/ApoB gene. Lipid profiles were obtained in 44 family members including 11 children. Of 133 family members tested, 88 (66.1%) were identified to carry the family mutation. Twelve of these were children below 18 y of age and 76 were adults. CAD was present in 15 (11.2%) family members and 63(47.4%) family members, including nine children, were already on Lipid Lowering Therapy. Cascade screening led to identification of 88 new cases, with a pathogenic mutation, who were at a very high risk of developing premature CAD. The authors identified 12 children with family specific mutation, out of which 9 were initiated on low dose statin therapy. Four homozygous children were treated with high dose statins because of substantially increased risk of CAD. Cascade screening, therefore, proved to be a successful initiative towards primary prevention of CAD in India.
Verhage, Chantal L; Gillebaart, Marleen; van der Veek, Shelley M C; Vereijken, Carolus M J L
Family meals are associated with multiple health benefits in children and adolescents including evidence that eating together as a family may play a role in reducing childhood obesity. The current review aims to investigate whether the beneficial health effects of the family meal also apply to infants and toddlers. PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and PsycInfo were searched and 14 empirical studies were identified. The findings were discussed according to frequency of having a family meal and parental perception, associations between the family meal and health aspects (e.g., eating behaviors and diet quality) and causal influences of these associations. Descriptive data showed that mothers offer food at a structured mealtime, but that eating together as a family was not always upheld. The frequency of family meals was positively associated with more nutrient-dense food intake and a more balanced diet. Different advantages (e.g., social importance, practical considerations) and obstacles (e.g., planning, possible mess) of the family meal were mentioned by parents. Further, having structured mealtimes and family meals was associated with more food enjoyment and less fussy and emotional eating. Finally, no causal studies were identified. The limited number of studies suggests that the pattern of positive associations between family meal and child health which has been shown in older children may also exist in infants and toddlers. More specific research is needed to examine the causality of the associations between the family meal and health of the infant and toddler. The associations between the family meal and less fussiness and emotional eating, more food enjoyment and better nutrient intake suggest that the family meal is a valuable moment to promote healthy eating in toddlers and infants. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Marchal, Jan Pieter; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul; Grootenhuis, Martha A
Like any child, children with Down syndrome (DS) affect the lives of their families. Most studies focus on the adaptation of parents and families of young children with DS, while relatively few studies include the perspective of fathers. To determine 1) whether mothers and fathers of 11 to 13-year-olds with DS differ from reference parents in health related quality of life (HRQoL) and family functioning, and 2) whether HRQoL in parents of children with DS changes over time, from when the child was 6-8 years old to when the child was 11-13 years old. 80 mothers and 44 fathers completed HRQoL and family functioning questionnaires. 58 parents (53 mothers) had completed the HRQoL-questionnaire in a previous study. Mothers differed from reference mothers in one HRQoL-domain (Sexuality), while fathers' HRQoL did not significantly differ from reference fathers. Both mothers and fathers scored in the (sub)clinical range more frequently than reference parents in Total family functioning, and in the domains Partner relation and Social network. Furthermore, fathers scored in the (sub)clinical range more frequently than reference parents in Responsiveness and Organization. HRQoL showed no significant change over time. Our findings indicate frequent family functioning problems but few HRQoL problems in parents and families of children with DS. In offering care, a family based approach with special attention for partner relation and social functioning is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zeynab Sedoughi; Masoumeh Sadeghi; Sedigheh Khodabaneh Shahraki; Seyed Hossein Saberi Anari; Mohammadreza Amiresmaili
Background: Work and family are the source of tranquility and if the balance between these two is not provided, pleasure, happiness and peace of human being would be lost, which will cause unreturnable loss for him. Regarding the importance of nurses’ role in health system, the present study aimed to study the relation of work-family balance and quality of life of nurses working at selected Iranian teaching hospitals. Methods: Present study is a cross sectional, descriptive-analytical study w...
This report focuses on the quality attribute aspects of mechanisms. An architectural mechanism is a 'structure whereby objects collaborate to provide some behavior that satisfies a requirement of the problem...
Wei, Bo-Bo; Plenio, M B
In this paper, we establish a general relation which directly links the dissipated work done on a system driven arbitrarily far from equilibrium, a fundamental quantity in thermodynamics, and the family of Rényi divergences between two states along the forward and reversed dynamics, a fundamental concept in information theory. Specifically, we find that the generating function of the dissipated work under an arbitrary time-dependent driving is related to the family of Rényi divergences between a non-equilibrium state along the forward process and a non-equilibrium state along its time-reversed process. This relation is a consequence of the principle of conservation of information and time reversal symmetry and is universally applicable to both finite classical system and finite quantum system under arbitrary driving process. The significance of the relation between the generating function of dissipated work and the family of Rényi divergences are two fold. On the one hand, the relation establishes that the macroscopic entropy production and its fluctuations are determined by the family of Rényi divergences, a measure of distinguishability of two states, between a microscopic process and its time reversal. On the other hand, this relation tells us that we can extract the family of Renyi divergences from the work measurement in a microscopic process. For classical systems the work measurement is straightforward, from which the family of Rényi divergences can be obtained; for quantum systems under time-dependent driving the characteristic function of work distributions can be measured from Ramsey interferences of a single spin, then we can extract the family of Renyi divergences from Ramsey interferences of a single spin. (paper)
Dubas, Judith Semon; Baams, Laura; Doornwaard, Suzan M; van Aken, Marcel A G
Research on how dark personality traits develop and relate to risky behaviors and family relations during adolescence is scarce. This study used a person-oriented approach to examine (a) whether distinct groups of adolescents could be identified based on their developmental profiles of callous-unemotional (CU), grandiose manipulative (GM), and dysfunctional impulsivity (DI) traits and (b) whether these groups differ in their problem behaviors and parent-adolescent relationship quality. Latent class growth analyses on 4-wave data of 1,131 Dutch adolescents revealed 3 personality profiles: (1) a dark impulsive group (13.9%), with high scores on all 3 traits (CU, GM, and DI) that were stable over time; (2) an impulsive group (26.1%), with high and increasing levels of impulsivity and relatively low scores on CU and GM; and (3) and a low risk group (60.0%), with relatively low levels on all 3 personality characteristics, with impulsivity decreasing over time. Compared with adolescents in the low risk group, adolescents in the dark impulsive and impulsive groups reported higher initial levels of substance use, sexual risk behaviors, permissive sexual attitudes, parent-adolescent conflict, and lower parent-adolescent satisfaction, as well as greater increases in sexual risk behavior over time. Compared with adolescents in the impulsive group, those in the dark impulsive group showed the highest levels of risk behaviors. Hence, dark personality traits coupled with impulsivity may be indicative of an earlier and more severe trajectory of problem behaviors that may differ from the trajectory of youth who are only impulsive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Lee, Anne CC; Lawn, Joy E.; Cousens, Simon; Kumar, Vishwajeet; Osrin, David; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Wall, Steven N.; Nandakumar, Allyala K.; Syed, Uzma; Darmstadt, Gary L.
Background Delays in receiving effective care during labor and at birth may be fatal for the mother and fetus, contributing to 2 million annual intrapartum stillbirths and intrapartum-related neonatal deaths each year. Objective We present a systematic review of strategies to link families and facilities, including community mobilization, financial incentives, emergency referral and transport systems, prenatal risk screening, and maternity waiting homes. Results There is moderate quality evidence that community mobilization with high levels of community engagement can increase institutional births and significantly reduce perinatal and early neonatal mortality. Meta-analysis showed a doubling of skilled birth attendance and a 35% reduction in early neonatal mortality. However, no data are available on intrapartum-specific outcomes. Evidence is limited, but promising, that financial incentive schemes and community referral/transport systems may increase rates of skilled birth attendance and emergency obstetric care utilization; however, impact on mortality is unknown. Current evidence for maternity waiting homes and risk screening is low quality. Conclusions Empowering communities is an important strategy to reduce the large burden of intrapartum complications. Innovations are needed to bring the poor closer to obstetric care, such as financial incentives and cell phone technology. New questions need to be asked of “old” strategies such as risk screening and maternity waiting homes. The effect of all of these strategies on maternal and perinatal mortality, particularly intrapartum-related outcomes, requires further evaluation. PMID:19815201
Cheung, Alice Y; Wu, Hen-Ming
The plant cell wall provides form and integrity to the cell as well as a dynamic interface between a cell and its environment. Therefore mechanisms capable of policing changes in the cell wall, signaling cellular responses including those that would feedback regulate cell wall properties are expected to play important roles in facilitating growth and ensuring survival. Discoveries in the last few years that the Arabidopsis THESEUS 1 receptor-like kinase (RLK) may function as a sensor for cell wall defects to regulate growth and that its relatives FERONIA and ANXURs regulate pollen tube integrity imply strongly that they play key roles in cell wall-related processes. Furthermore, FERONIA acts as a cell surface regulator for RAC/ROP GTPases and activates production of reactive oxygen species which are, respectively, important molecular switches and mediators for diverse processes. These findings position the THESEUS 1/FERONIA family RLKs as surface regulators and potential cell wall sensors capable of broadly and profoundly impacting cellular pathways in response to diverse signals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Crellin, Nadia E.; Orrell, Martin; McDermott, Orii
Objectives: This review aims to explore the role of self-efficacy (SE) in the health-related quality of life (QoL) of family carers of people with dementia. Methods: A systematic review of literature identified a range of qualitative and quantitative studies. Search terms related to caring, SE......, and dementia. Narrative synthesis was adopted to synthesise the findings. Results: Twenty-two studies met the full inclusion criteria, these included 17 quantitative, four qualitative, and one mixed-method study. A model describing the role of task/domain-specific SE beliefs in family carer health-related Qo...
Mache, Stefanie; Bernburg, Monika; Groneberg, David A; Klapp, Burghard F; Danzer, Gerhard
These days physicians' work is characterized by an increase in economic demands, pressure and challenges in establishing a balance between work and family life. The current study investigates the relationship between physicians' job demands and resources, perceived job stress, work-family conflict, work engagement and job satisfaction. 564 clinicians specialising in different medical fields participated in the cross-sectional study. Self-administered questionnaires, including the COPSOQ and the UWES- Scale were administered. Our results illustrated significant relationships between physicians' work engagement and their job satisfaction as well as between job stress and work family conflict. Moreover, perceived job stress moderated the effect of high job demands on work family conflict. In addition, significant gender differences have been found in perceived stress levels, work family conflict and work engagement. This study proves and verified associations between work engagement, work-family conflict, job demands and resources that may influence employees' satisfaction. Implications for both working physicians and hospital management are given.
C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); D.G. Clayton (David); V. Chandra; L. Fratiglioni (Laura); A.B. Graves; A. Heyman; A.F. Jorm; E. Kokmen (Emre); K. Kondo; J.A. Mortimer; W.A. Rocca; S.L. Shalat; H. Soininen; A. Hofman (Albert)
textabstractCase-control studies of Alzheimer's disease were re-analysed to examine the association of Alzheimer's disease with family history in first degree relatives of dementia, Down's syndrome and Parkinson's disease. Overall, the relative risk of Alzheimer's disease for those with at least one
Linsk, Nathan; Mason, Sally; Fendrich, Michael; Bass, Michael; Prubhughate, Priti; Brown, Allene
Grandparents and other relatives increasingly assume the role of primary caregiver to minor children. This study interviewed family members caring for children whose parents were not available due to parental incarceration, other involvement in the criminal justice system, and substance abuse-related issues. Interviews with 25 African American…
Jeong Sun Kim, RN, PhD
Conclusions: The study provides the essential structure of the experience on dementia-related anxiety that caregivers of a family member with dementia have. The findings could help healthcare providers and researchers have better understanding of dementia-related anxiety and give more attention to the caregivers to relieve their anxiety.
Mohammad Reza Iravani; Samaneh Salimi; Akram Fakhri Fakhramini; Ghasem Shahmoradi; Zakaria Eskandari; Mohsen Dadashi
We present a study to investigate the impacts of various factors on juvenile delinquency. The study distributes 400 questionnaires among young people aged 19-26 who are involved with some sort of crime and analyzes their feedbacks. There are three hypotheses including family income, tendency to spirituality and religion and educational backgrounds of families and juvenile delinquency among these people. The results show that while family income and religious as well as spirituality characteri...
Wittenberg, Elaine; Kravits, Kate; Goldsmith, Joy; Ferrell, Betty; Fujinami, Rebecca
Caring for the family is included as one of the eight domains of quality palliative care, calling attention to the importance of the family system and family communications about cancer during care and treatment of the disease. Previously, a model of family caregiver communication defined four caregiver communication types-Manager, Carrier, Partner, Lone-each with a unique communication pattern. The purpose of the present study was to extend the model of family caregiver communication in cancer care to further understand the impact of family communication burden on caregiving outcomes. This mixed-method study employed fieldnotes from a family caregiver intervention focused on quality of life and self-reported caregiver communication items to identify a specific family caregiver type. Caregiver types were then analyzed using outcome measures on psychological distress, skills preparedness, family inventory of needs, and quality-of-life domains. Corroboration between fieldnotes and self-reported communication for caregivers (n = 21, 16 women, mean age of 53 years) revealed a definitive classification of the four caregiver types (Manager = 6, Carrier = 5, Partner = 6, Lone = 4). Mean scores on self-reported communication items documented different communication patterns congruent with the theoretical framework of the model. Variation in caregiver outcomes measures confirmed the model of family caregiver communication types. Partner and Lone caregivers reported the lowest psychological distress, with Carrier caregivers feeling least prepared and Manager caregivers reporting the lowest physical quality of life. This study illustrates the impact of family communication on caregiving and increases our knowledge and understanding about the role of communication in caregiver burden. The research provides the first evidence-based validation for a family caregiver communication typology and its relationship to caregiver outcomes. Future research is needed to develop and test
Teresa A. Mauldin
Full Text Available How do youth and parents perceive their communication with each other? How do they perceive communication about money with each other? Are there differences between married-parent families and single-parent families? The reported study examined the discrepancies in perception between parents and youth and compares these differences between married and single-parent families. Although single-parent families had greater discrepancies in perceptions regarding communication in general, there was no evidence of such differences in discrepancies regarding communication about money. The finding suggests the importance of youth development programs to provide information and encouragement to both youth and their parents.
In family therapy, during the last years more and more importance is attached to the dynamics of the sibling subsystem. In the present paper differences between them as well as similarities are discussed from the point of view of family theory. Relevant dimensions like support, attachment, rivalry and envy between brothers and sisters contribute essentially to the family dynamics. In this clinically orientated paper, we describe by means of a case example how the couple's conflicts after their separation is unconsciously repeated in the sibling subsystem. It is shown how the intergenerational dynamics can be interrupted by the initiative of the children and the initiated family therapy.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The unique properties of wheat flour primarily depend on gluten, which is the most important source of protein for human being. γ-Gliadins have been considered to be the most ancient of the wheat gluten family. The complex family structure of γ-gliadins complicates the determination of their function. Moreover, γ-gliadins contain several sets of celiac disease epitopes. However, no systematic research has been conducted yet. Results A total of 170 γ-gliadin genes were isolated from common wheat and its closely related species, among which 138 sequences are putatively functional. The ORF lengths of these sequences range from 678 to 1089 bp, and the repetitive region is mainly responsible for the size heterogeneity of γ-gliadins. The repeat motif P(Q/L/S/T/I/V/R/AF(S/Y/V/Q/I/C/LP(R/L/S/T/H/C/YQ1–2(P(S/L/T/A/F/HQQ1–2is repeated from 7 to 22 times. Sequence polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium analyses show that γ-gliadins are highly diverse. Phylogenic analyses indicate that there is no obvious discrimination between Sitopsis and Ae. tauschii at the Gli-1 loci, compared with diploid wheat. According to the number and placement of cysteine residues, we defined nine cysteine patterns and 17 subgroups. Alternatively, we classified γ-gliadins into two types based on the length of repetitive domain. Amino acid composition analyses indicate that there is a wide range of essential amino acids in γ-gliadins, and those γ-gliadins from subgroup SG-10 and SG-12 and γ-gliadins with a short repetitive domain are more nutritional. A screening of toxic epitopes shows that γ-gliadins with a pattern of C9 and γ-gliadins with a short repetitive domain almost lack any epitopes. Conclusion γ-Gliadin sequences in wheat and closely related Aegilops species are diverse. Each group/subgroup contributes differently to nutritional quality and epitope content. It is suggested that the genes with a short repetitive domain are more
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial pathogen that can infect human stomach causing gastritis, ulcers and cancer, is known to have a high degree of genome/epigenome diversity as the result of mutation and recombination. The bacteria often infect in childhood and persist for the life of the host. One of the reasons of the rapid evolution of H. pylori is that it changes its genome drastically for adaptation to a new host. To investigate microevolution and adaptation of the H. pylori genome, we undertook whole genome sequencing of the same or very similar sequence type in multi-locus sequence typing (MLST with seven genes in members of the same family consisting of parents and children in Japan. Detection of nucleotide substitutions revealed likely transmission pathways involving children. Nonsynonymous (amino acid changing mutations were found in virulence-related genes (cag genes, vacA, hcpDX, tnfα, ggt, htrA and the collagenase gene, outer membrane protein (OMP genes and other cell surface-related protein genes, signal transduction genes and restriction-modification genes. We reconstructed various pathways by which H. pylori can adapt to a new human host, and our results raised the possibility that the mutational changes in virulence-related genes have a role in adaptation to a child host. Changes in restriction-modification genes might remodel the methylome and transcriptome to help adaptation. This study has provided insights into H. pylori transmission and virulence and has implications for basic research as well as clinical practice.
Fishman, Evan J.; Husman, Jenefer
Research in attribution theory has shown that students' causal thinking profoundly affects their learning and motivational outcomes. Very few studies, however, have explored how students' attribution-related beliefs influence the causal thought process. The present study used the perceived control of the attribution process (PCAP) model to examine…
Gammon, D; Christiansen, E K; Wynn, R
Patient self-management of disease is increasingly supported by technologies that can monitor a wide range of behavioural and biomedical parameters. Incorporated into everyday devices such as cell phones and clothes, these technologies become integral to the psychosocial aspects of everyday life. Many technologies are likely to be marketed directly to families with ill members, and families may enlist the support of clinicians in shaping use. Current ethical frameworks are mainly conceptualised from the perspective of caregivers, researchers, developers and regulators in order to ensure the ethics of their own practices. This paper focuses on families as autonomous decision-makers outside the regulated context of healthcare. We discuss some morally relevant issues facing families in their decisions to monitor the health-related behaviours of loved ones. An example - remote parental monitoring of adolescent blood glucose - is presented and discussed through the lens of two contrasting accounts of ethics; one reflecting the predominant focus on health outcomes within the health technology assessment (HTA) framework and the other that attends to the broader sociocultural contexts shaping technologies and their implications. Issues discussed include the focus of assessments, informed consent and child assent, and family co-creation of system characteristics and implications. The parents' decisions to remotely monitor their child has relational implications that are likely to influence conflict levels and thus also health outcomes. Current efforts to better integrate outcome assessments with social and ethical assessments are particularly relevant for informed decision-making about health monitoring technologies in families.
Richter, Anne; Näswall, Katharina; Lindfors, Petra; Sverke, Magnus
Job insecurity and work-family conflict are increasingly prevalent in contemporary working life and numerous studies have documented their antecedents and negative consequences. The present study used longitudinal questionnaire data collected among teachers in Sweden to test the direction of the relation between job insecurity and work-family conflict using cross-lagged modeling. Multiple-group comparisons were conducted to account for the skewed gender composition in the teachers' group. After controlling for baseline levels of job insecurity, work-family conflict, and four potential confounders (age, children under 12 living at home, university education, and relationship status), we found that the reciprocal relationship between job insecurity and work-family conflict over a 1-year time period fitted the data best for the men. For women, however, only the auto regression coefficients were significant. The results provide some empirical support for gender differences in the relation between job insecurity and work-family conflict. Moreover, this study partially supports theoretical assumptions suggesting that job insecurity and work-family conflict influence each other. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Lysova, E.; Korotov, K.; Khapova, S.N.; Jansen, P.G.W.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a growing body of literature on the role of family in managers’ career decision making. Specifically, the authors offer an empirical elaboration on a recently proposed concept of the “family-relatedness of work decisions” (FRWD) by illuminating
ten Brummelhuis, Lieke L.; Bakker, Arnold B.; Euwema, Martin C.
Previous studies have convincingly shown that employees' family lives can affect their work outcomes. We investigate whether family-to-work interference (FWI) experienced by the employee also affects the work outcomes of a co-worker. We predict that the employee's FWI has an effect on the co-worker's outcomes through the crossover of positive and…
Francke, A.L.; Huis in het Veld, J.; Verkaik, R.; Meijel, B. van; Verkade, P.J.; Werkman, W.; Hertogh, C.
Background: Self-management is not only important for patients, but also for family caregivers. The aim of this presentation is to give insight into what makes dealing with behavior and mood changes stressful for family caregivers, and which self-management strategies they use in such situations.
Branje, S.J.T.; Lieshout, C.F.M. van; Aken, M.A.G. van
Do more agreeable individuals perceive more support, and are they perceived as more supportive, across all family relationships or only within specific relationships? In a study of 256 Dutch two-parent families with two adolescents, we examine whether links between Agreeableness and support are
Cheng, Wen; Ickes, William; Verhofstadt, Lesley
Previous studies of the influence of family support on college students' academic performance have yielded inconsistent results. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the link between family support and students' university-level academic performance in a more detailed way. First, we sought to clarify how two distinct aspects of perceived…
Majdandžić, M.; de Vente, W.; Feinberg, M.E.; Aktar, E.; Bögels, S.M.
Research into anxiety has largely ignored the dynamics of family systems in anxiety development. Coparenting refers to the quality of coordination between individuals responsible for the upbringing of children and links different subsystems within the family, such as the child, the marital
Majdandžić, M.; Vente, de W.; Feinberg, M.E.; Aktar, E.; Bögels, S.M.
Research into anxiety has largely ignored the dynamics of family systems in anxiety development. Coparenting refers to the quality of coordination between individuals responsible for the upbringing of children and links different subsystems within the family, such as the child, the marital
Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Collins, Karen M.; Shaw, Jason D.
The relationship between work-family balance and quality of life was assessed for 353 accounting professionals. Those who spent more time on family than work experienced higher quality of life than balanced individuals, who experienced higher quality than those who spent more time on work. Findings were similar for level of involvement balance and…
Lee, Cameron; Iverson-Gilbert, Judith
Studies of clergy have emphasized the effects of stressors inherent to the profession and the impact of these on the minister's personal and family life. A model of family stress was employed to extend the focus to include three classes of variables: demands, social support, and perception. Results indicated that perception variables are more…
Liu, Freda F; Goto, Sharon G
The interactive effects between interdependent and independent self-construal on family cohesion and mental distress were examined. Survey responses from 153 Asian American high school students supported the hypothesized moderation of interdependence by independence on family cohesion, which was found to further mediate the relationship between self-construal and mental distress. Specifically, interdependence was positively associated with family cohesion when independence was high and negatively associated with family cohesion when independence was low. Accounting for the mediator effects of family cohesion, mental distress was positively associated with interdependence and more so for those low on independence than those high on independence. The benefits of biculturalism and research implications for the bidimensional conceptualization of self-construal for ethnic minority populations are discussed. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.