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Sample records for attributable familial relative

  1. Relationship of work-family conflict with burnout and marital satisfaction: cross-domain or source attribution relations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Bagherzadeh

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: In terms of practical implication, to avoid creating disadvantages of WIF and FIW,facilitation in two domains of improving work and family conditions can be a useful means to prevent WFC and its consequences.

  2. Relationship of work-family conflict with burnout and marital satisfaction: cross-domain or source attribution relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherzadeh, Razieh; Taghizadeh, Ziba; Mohammadi, Eesa; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Pourreza, Abolghasem; Ebadi, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the relationship between two dimensions of work-family conflict (WFC) with marital satisfaction and burnout in a society in which few studies have been done about the consequences of WFC. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015. Surveys were distributed to 420 employed married women with various jobs living in Bushehr province, Iran. Data were collected using a questionnaire for demographic characteristic, the Netmeyer's WFC questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory: General Survey (MBI-GS), and Enrich maritalsatisfaction questionnaire. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. There was a negatively significant association between work interference with family(WIF) and overall burnout as well as emotional exhaustion (P Family interference with work (FIW) was significantly associated with depersonalization (P family conditions can be a useful means to prevent WFC and its consequences.

  3. Attributional and relational processing in pigeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis eGarlick

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Six pigeons were trained using a matching-to-sample procedure where sample and rewarded comparisons matched on both attributional (color and relational (horizontal or vertical orientation dimensions. Probes then evaluated the pigeons’ preference to comparisons that varied in these dimensions. A strong preference was found for the attribute of color. The discrimination was not found to transfer to novel colors, however, suggesting that a general color rule had not been learned. Further, when color could not be used to guide responding, some influence of other attributional cues such as shape, but not relational cues, was found. We conclude that pigeons based their performance on attributional properties of but not on relational properties between elements in our matching-to-sample procedure.. Future studies should look at examining other attributes to compare attributional versus relational processing.

  4. Growth attributes – closing the GAP in Family-SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove; Neville, Mette

    important growth attributes pointed out in theory and empirical studies could close the gap between theory and practice and whether – if this was possible – it would actually stimulate growth and value creation. The study is now in the last part of the third year and will continue to run a year from now......SMEs represent 99 per cent of all enterprises, 67 per cent of the total number of employees and 58 per cent of value added (European Commission, 2015: 3). Many SMEs can be defined as family firms. Depending on the definition of family firms as many enterprises as 50–95% can be qualified as family...... firms in Denmark (Bennedsen & Nielsen 2014). Due to the substantial value-added contribution made by SMEs, (including) family firms, the development of SMEs is thus crucial to the European economy, and Business media and policy-makers have focused intensely on small firm growth in EU (Story 2011...

  5. Human attribute concepts: relative ubiquity across twelve mutually isolated languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucier, Gerard; Thalmayer, Amber Gayle; Bel-Bahar, Tarik S

    2014-07-01

    It has been unclear which human-attribute concepts are most universal across languages. To identify common-denominator concepts, we used dictionaries for 12 mutually isolated languages-Maasai, Supyire Senoufo, Khoekhoe, Afar, Mara Chin, Hmong, Wik-Mungkan, Enga, Fijian, Inuktitut, Hopi, and Kuna-representing diverse cultural characteristics and language families, from multiple continents. A composite list of every person-descriptive term in each lexicon was closely examined to determine the content (in terms of English translation) most ubiquitous across languages. Study 1 identified 28 single-word concepts used to describe persons in all 12 languages, as well as 41 additional terms found in 11 of 12. Results indicated that attribute concepts related to morality and competence appear to be as cross-culturally ubiquitous as basic-emotion concepts. Formulations of universal-attribute concepts from Osgood and Wierzbicka were well-supported. Study 2 compared lexically based personality models on the relative ubiquity of key associated terms, finding that 1- and 2-dimensional models draw on markedly more ubiquitous terms than do 5- or 6-factor models. We suggest that ubiquitous attributes reflect common cultural as well as common biological processes.

  6. Parent Attributions About Child Symptoms Related to Cancer Therapy.

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    Di Battista, Ashley; Dupuis, Lee L; Cassidy, Marilyn; Portwine, Carol; Johnston, Donna L; Pradier Silva, Mariana; Sung, Lillian; Barrera, Maru

    2016-01-29

    Symptom assessment is an emergent area of research in pediatric cancer. Our team previously reported on the development of a questionnaire to be completed by parents to determine symptom prevalence and bother. This exploratory study examined parental nonprobed, free-text comments about their child's treatment-related symptoms reported on the questionnaire. Participants were parents of children aged 4 to 18 years who had been diagnosed with cancer at least 2 months prior to enrolment and had received intravenous chemotherapy within the past month at 1 of 5 pediatric cancer centers. The questionnaire consisted of 69 or 71 items (based on child's age) addressing physical and psychological sequelae. Each symptom query was accompanied by a blank space in which parents could comment on their response. Comments were analyzed guided by content analysis methodology. Five major themes emerged: parental attributions for the symptoms experienced in their child; coping patterns and communication styles within the family; evidence of anticipatory, procedural, and other anxieties; interruption of daily life; and changes in the child's physical appearance. These exploratory findings provide context to parental perception of their child's treatment-related symptoms and may contribute to a better understanding of parental perception of child and the family coping and communicating style. These findings may assist in the development of psychoeducational interventions aimed at promoting open communication styles within the family and reducing child and parent burden during treatment procedures. © 2016 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  7. Support for using five attributes to describe spirituality among families with a parent in hospice.

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    Stephenson, Pam Shockey; Sheehan, Denice; Shahrour, Ghada

    2017-06-01

    The importance of spirituality in the dying process is well documented. However, what spirituality means in these situations is hard to discern because few people (patients, families, researchers, or caregivers) will view spirituality in the same way. The present research supports the use of a spiritual framework consisting of five common attributes (meaning, beliefs, connections, self-transcendence, and value) as a mechanism for viewing spirituality for people nearing the end of life. Using qualitative interviews from two related studies, our study aims to describe the prevalence of spirituality and its nature according to these five spiritual attributes. Data from two previous studies were analyzed. The first employed the methods of grounded theory to understand the strategies adolescents used to manage the impending death of a parent. Some 61 participants from 26 families were interviewed, including ill parents/patients, well parents/caregivers, and adolescents. The second study consisted of 15 interviews with the surviving parent and adolescents from 6 of these families after the death of the parent. The original research from which these data were drawn did not seek to describe spirituality. However, spiritual themes were prevalent in the stories of many participants and included each of the five spiritual attributes. Our findings demonstrate the prevalence of spirituality in the everyday lives of these families and supports the use of the spiritual framework according to the five common attributes to describe spirituality.

  8. Mothers' and fathers' attributions for adolescent behavior: an examination in families of depressed, subdiagnostic, and nondepressed youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeber, Lisa B; Johnston, Charlotte; Chen, Mandy; Leve, Craig; Hops, Hyman; Davis, Betsy

    2009-12-01

    This study examined whether parents of adolescents experiencing depressive symptoms or disorder make more negative and fewer positive attributions for their adolescents' behavior than do parents of nondepressed adolescents, and whether parental attributions for adolescents' behavior contribute to parenting behavior, above and beyond the adolescents' behavior. Parents and adolescents (76 girls and 48 boys) participated in videotaped problem-solving interactions (PSIs). Each parent subsequently watched the videotape and offered attributions for their adolescent's behavior. In addition, parent and adolescent behavior during the PSIs was coded. Mothers and fathers in families of nondepressed adolescents made significantly fewer negative attributions for their children's behavior than did parents in families of adolescents with diagnostic or subdiagnostic levels of depressive symptoms. Moreover, mothers' and fathers' negative attributions were related to greater levels of observed aggressive behavior and lower levels of observed facilitative behavior during the PSIs controlling for both demographic characteristics and the relative level of adolescent aggressive and facilitative behavior during the PSI.

  9. Cancer preventive and curative attributes of plants of the Cactaceae family: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlev, Eli; Nevo, Eviatar; Solowey, Elaine; Bishayee, Anupam

    2013-06-01

    The ever-increasing occurrence of cancer and the severe side effects and limited efficacy of current cancer chemotherapy based on chemical drugs shift the attention toward drugs of plant origin. The Cactaceae family comprises more than 1500 species, but until recently only a few of them have been tested for their chemopreventive and anticancer attributes, leaving a wide unexplored area still waiting for researchers to investigate. Considering this fact, and also the promising results obtained with the relatively few plants of this family already tested, it should justly be expected that some plants of the Cactaceae family yet unexplored might possess outstanding anticancer attributes, exceeding those displayed by the plants already tested. This review presents in vitro and in vivo experimental evidence on cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of bioactive phytoconstituents and extracts derived from cactus plants. It also examines the underlying biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the antineoplastic effects of plants of the Cactaceae family. Current limitation and future directions of research towards effective use of cacti to develop efficient and side effect-free future cancer-preventive and anticancer drugs are also discussed. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Agency attribution: event-related potentials and outcome monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednark, Jeffery G; Franz, Elizabeth A

    2014-04-01

    Knowledge about the effects of our actions is an underlying feature of voluntary behavior. Given the importance of identifying the outcomes of our actions, it has been proposed that the sensory outcomes of self-made actions are inherently different from those of externally caused outcomes. Thus, the outcomes of self-made actions are likely to be more motivationally significant for an agent. We used event-related potentials to investigate the relationship between the perceived motivational significance of an outcome and the attribution of agency in the presence of others. In our experiment, we assessed agency attribution in the presence of another agent by varying the degree of contiguity between participants' self-made actions and the sensory outcome. Specifically, we assessed the feedback correct-related positivity (fCRP) and the novelty P3 measures of an outcome's motivational significance and unexpectedness, respectively. Results revealed that both the fCRP and participants' agency attributions were significantly influenced by action-outcome contiguity. However, when action-outcome contiguity was ambiguous, novelty P3 amplitude was a reliable indicator of agency attribution. Prior agency attributions were also found to influence attribution in trials with ambiguous and low action-outcome contiguity. Participants' use of multiple cues to determine agency is consistent with the cue integration theory of agency. In addition to these novel findings, this study supports growing evidence suggesting that reinforcement processes play a significant role in the sense of agency.

  11. Attribution of extreme weather and climate-related events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Peter A; Christidis, Nikolaos; Otto, Friederike E L; Sun, Ying; Vanderlinden, Jean-Paul; van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; Vautard, Robert; von Storch, Hans; Walton, Peter; Yiou, Pascal; Zwiers, Francis W

    2016-01-01

    Extreme weather and climate-related events occur in a particular place, by definition, infrequently. It is therefore challenging to detect systematic changes in their occurrence given the relative shortness of observational records. However, there is a clear interest from outside the climate science community in the extent to which recent damaging extreme events can be linked to human-induced climate change or natural climate variability. Event attribution studies seek to determine to what extent anthropogenic climate change has altered the probability or magnitude of particular events. They have shown clear evidence for human influence having increased the probability of many extremely warm seasonal temperatures and reduced the probability of extremely cold seasonal temperatures in many parts of the world. The evidence for human influence on the probability of extreme precipitation events, droughts, and storms is more mixed. Although the science of event attribution has developed rapidly in recent years, geographical coverage of events remains patchy and based on the interests and capabilities of individual research groups. The development of operational event attribution would allow a more timely and methodical production of attribution assessments than currently obtained on an ad hoc basis. For event attribution assessments to be most useful, remaining scientific uncertainties need to be robustly assessed and the results clearly communicated. This requires the continuing development of methodologies to assess the reliability of event attribution results and further work to understand the potential utility of event attribution for stakeholder groups and decision makers. WIREs Clim Change 2016, 7:23-41. doi: 10.1002/wcc.380 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  12. Exploring Work-Related Causal Attributions of Common Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Ingrid Blø; Øverland, Simon; Reme, Silje Endresen; Løvvik, Camilla

    2015-09-01

    Common mental disorders (CMDs) are major causes of sickness absence and disability. Prevention requires knowledge of how individuals perceive causal mechanisms, and in this study we sought to examine work-related factors as causal attribution of CMDs. A trial sample of n = 1,193, recruited because they struggled with work participation due to CMDs, answered an open-ended questionnaire item about what they believed were the most important causes of their CMDs. The population included participants at risk of sickness absence, and participants with reduced work participation due to sickness absence, disability or unemployment. We used thematic content analysis and categorized responses from 487 participants who reported work-related factors as causal attributions of their CMDs. Gender differences in work-related causal attributions were also examined. The participants attributed their CMDs to the following work-related factors; work stress, leadership, reduced work participation, job dissatisfaction, work conflict, social work environment, job insecurity and change, workplace bullying, and physical strain. Women tended to attribute CMDs to social factors at work. Findings from this study suggest several work-related risk factors for CMDs. Both factors at the workplace, and reduced work participation, were perceived by study participants as contributing causes of CMDs. Thus, there is a need to promote work participation whilst at the same time targeting aversive workplace factors. Further, our findings indicate that work-related factors may affect women and men differently. This illustrates that the association between work participation and CMDs is complex, and needs to be explored further.

  13. Are personal values related to sustainable attribute choice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone; Sirieix, Lucie; Remaud, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A cross-cultural study with large representative samples analyses to what degree Schwartz’s personal values and environmental concerns are related to consumers’ choices of wine with sustainable characteristics. Methodology: Across seven countries, the attribute importance and willingness...

  14. Dietary Intakes of Urban, High Body Mass Index, African American Children: Family and Child Dietary Attributes Predict Child Intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Raman, Aarthi; Sharma, Sushma; Fitch, Mark D.; Fleming, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify family and child nutrition and dietary attributes related to children's dietary intakes. Design: African American children (ages 8-11 years, n = 156), body mass index greater than 85th percentile, from urban, low-income neighborhoods. Baseline, cross-sectional data collected as part of an ongoing diabetes prevention…

  15. Relating counselor attributes to client engagement in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Dwayne; Rowan-Szal, Grace A; Joe, George W; Best, David; Day, Ed; Campbell, Angela

    2009-04-01

    Client functioning and treatment engagement were examined in relation to staff attributes and organizational climate across a diverse sample of drug treatment and outreach programs in England. Self-rating assessments were obtained from 1,539 clients and 439 counselors representing 44 programs, and results were interpreted using comparable data from studies of treatment programs in the United States. Client scores on treatment participation and counseling rapport in England were directly related to their higher levels of motivation and psychosocial functioning, as well as to staff ratings of professional attributes and program atmosphere. By linking records from English clients with their counselors in each program, findings also indicate these relationships are rooted in the personal interactions between clients and their counselor. Standardized assessments of treatment structure, process, and performance used across therapeutic settings and national boundaries show there is generalizability in the pattern of clinical dynamics, including the relationships between organizational functioning and quality of services.

  16. Attributed causes for work-family conflict: emotional and behavioral outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilies, R.; de Pater, I.E.; Lim, S.; Binnewies, C.

    2012-01-01

    Work-family conflict may give rise to different emotional reactions, depending on the causal attributions people make for the experience of work-family conflict. These emotional reactions, in turn, may result in specific behavioral reactions, that may either be adaptive or maladaptive in nature. In

  17. Meanings attributed by family members in pediatrics regarding their interactions with nursing professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Calcagno Gomes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Understanding the meanings attributed by family caregivers of children in hospital environments about their interactions with nursing professionals. METHODS This qualitative study used Symbolic Interactionism as a theoretical reference and Grounded Theory as the methodological framework. It was carried out in a Pediatrics Center in southern Brazil, in the first half of 2013. Participants were 15 family caregivers of hospitalized children. Data were collected through interviews and submitted to open and axial analysis. RESULTS Interactions with the nursing team enable family to trust or distrust in the provided child care and to positively evaluate the care received. CONCLUSION Interactions between family members and the nursing team contribute to the significance attributed by the family to the nursing care received by the child. Nurses should be aware of the attitudes of the nursing team regarding the child and their family, prioritizing humanized care.

  18. [Meanings attributed by family members in pediatrics regarding their interactions with nursing professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Giovana Calcagno; Xavier, Daiani Modernel; Pintanel, Aline Campelo; Farias, Dóris Helena Ribeiro; Lunardi, Valéria Lerch; Aquino, Deise Ribeiro

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the meanings attributed by family caregivers of children in hospital environments about their interactions with nursing professionals. This qualitative study used Symbolic Interactionism as a theoretical reference and Grounded Theory as the methodological framework. It was carried out in a Pediatrics Center in southern Brazil, in the first half of 2013. Participants were 15 family caregivers of hospitalized children. Data were collected through interviews and submitted to open and axial analysis. Interactions with the nursing team enable family to trust or distrust in the provided child care and to positively evaluate the care received. Interactions between family members and the nursing team contribute to the significance attributed by the family to the nursing care received by the child. Nurses should be aware of the attitudes of the nursing team regarding the child and their family, prioritizing humanized care.

  19. Hostile attribution biases for relationally provocative situations and event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godleski, Stephanie A; Ostrov, Jamie M; Houston, Rebecca J; Schlienz, Nicolas J

    2010-04-01

    This exploratory study investigates how hostile attribution biases for relationally provocative situations may be related to neurocognitive processing using the P300 event-related potential. Participants were 112 (45 women) emerging adults enrolled in a large, public university in upstate New York. Participants completed self-report measures on relational aggression and hostile attribution biases and performed an auditory perseveration task to elicit the P300. It was found that hostile attribution biases for relational provocation situations was associated with a larger P300 amplitude above and beyond the role of hostile attribution biases for instrumental situations, relational aggression, and gender. Larger P300 amplitude is interpreted to reflect greater allocation of cognitive resources or enhanced "attending" to salient stimuli. Implications for methodological approaches to studying aggression and hostile attribution biases and for theory are discussed, as well as implications for the fields of developmental psychology and psychopathology. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Intergenerational relations in romany families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hepnarova G. Caltova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents partial results of the research focusing on education and protection of children in Roma families. The Roma family is regarded as a specifically closed border system. The type of family life organization is presentedin front of view of dominant values. The focus is on heavily represented values, especially esteem, solidarity end equality. Those values affect behaviour of family members and organize relations between the children and parents. The main aim of this paper is to present particularity of Roma community and specifics of relationships. The paper deals with fractional results of qualitative research project, the research survey was carried out in the year 2012, it was done as a field survey. The information, obtained on the nature of educational processes and directions of education, allowed us to crystallize key values passed in Roma families. In this paper, we focus mainly on the value of interpersonal relationships and maintaining compliance which are strongly represented in the educational efforts of Roma parents. The starting point of our considerations became the concept of values of G. Hofstede, who in his concept of value orientation reflects the cultural specifics. Above all, we focus on the values associated with collective cultures, which Roma belong to.

  1. Relation of Causal Attribution and Success to Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latta, R. Michael

    In testing Weiner's (1972) attribution theory of achievement behavior, success was found to produce (1) no differential attribution to effort for those high and low in achievement motivation, and (2) an early performance asymptote for those high in achievement motivation, while (3) it also facilitated performance independently of attributions. The…

  2. Relation of biospeckle activity with quality attributes of apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdunek, Artur; Cybulska, Justyna

    2011-01-01

    Biospeckle is nondestructive optical technique based on the analysis of variations of laser light scattered from biological samples. Biospeckle activity reflects the state of the investigated object. In this study the relation of biospeckle activity (BA) with firmness, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA) and starch content (SC) during the shelf life of seven apple cultivars was studied. The results showed that the quality attributes change significantly during storage. Significant and pronounced positive correlation between BA and SC was found. This result shows that degradation of starch granules, which could be stimulated to vibration by intracellular cyclosis, causes a lesser number of laser light scattering centers and results in smaller apparent biospeckle activity.

  3. Relation of Biospeckle Activity with Quality Attributes of Apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Zdunek

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Biospeckle is nondestructive optical technique based on the analysis of variations of laser light scattered from biological samples. Biospeckle activity reflects the state of the investigated object. In this study the relation of biospeckle activity (BA with firmness, soluble solids content (SSC, titratable acidity (TA and starch content (SC during the shelf life of seven apple cultivars was studied. The results showed that the quality attributes change significantly during storage. Significant and pronounced positive correlation between BA and SC was found. This result shows that degradation of starch granules, which could be stimulated to vibration by intracellular cyclosis, causes a lesser number of laser light scattering centers and results in smaller apparent biospeckle activity.

  4. Relational Control Patterns in Families of Schizophrenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarrick, Anne; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined patterning of relational control in families of schizophrenic patients, and relationship between control in the family and the course of the illness. Transcripts of conversations among 17 schizophrenic outpatients and their families were coded into Relational Control Coding System. Found rigid, one-up messages from family members to…

  5. Attributions and Emotions Related to Future Goal Attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, Zbigniew

    1988-01-01

    Causal ascriptions for anticipated goal attainment and the emotional consequences of such ascriptions were studied in 731 college students answering questionnaires. Internal and external attributions were made for past outcomes. Subjects felt that internal factors accounted more for success, and external, for failure. (SLD)

  6. Relations among Autonomy, Attribution Style, and Happiness in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Susan L.; Chang, Kelly B.; Miller, Kristen S.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that a personal sense of autonomy supports individuals' success in a variety of domains, but information regarding these processes remains unclear. This paper attempts to establish a link between personal autonomy and cognitive processes, in the form of attributions for success and failure, in establishing a sense of subjective…

  7. Relative Importance of Common Bean Attributes and Variety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variety demand was conceptualized within the agricultural household framework and attributes incorporated in the model according to the Lancaster (1966) consumer theory. Empirical analysis was based on primary data collected from two districts of Eastern Kenya using the stated preference and revealed preference ...

  8. Relative Importance of External Quality Attributes of Shell Eggs: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An inferential comparison of the attributes however, showed that size and cleanliness were rated higher (P0.05) sub-class differences. Respondents expected large eggs to have more edible material; clean shells to signify freshness and safety, while dark ...

  9. Symptoms and Etiological Attribution: A Cross-Sectional Study in Mexican Outpatients with Psychosis and Their Relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Hansen, Gisela

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed at identifying the most common attributions of their mental disorder in a Mexican patients who have experienced psychosis and their relatives and exploring how having experienced or not characteristic psychotic symptoms and their present clinical status might affect their etiological attributions. Past and current symptom profiles of 66 patients were as assessed with the SCID-I (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders) and the PANSS (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), respectively. The etiological attribution of psychosis of patients (n = 62) and the relatives (n = 65) was assessed with the Angermeyer and Klusmann scale comprising 30 items into five categories: biology, personality, family, society, and esoteric. Patients and relatives attribute psychosis mainly to social factors. Relatives' attributions were not influenced by clinical profile of patients, whereas in the case of patients it was only current clinical status that showed a difference, with those in nonremission scoring higher personality and family factors. Acknowledging patients' and relatives' beliefs about mental disorders at onset and later on is particularly important in psychosis, a mental condition with severe and/or persistent symptoms, in order to promote better involvement in treatment and in consequence efficacy and recovery. PMID:27413550

  10. Symptoms and Etiological Attribution: A Cross-Sectional Study in Mexican Outpatients with Psychosis and Their Relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizzette Gómez-de-Regil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed at identifying the most common attributions of their mental disorder in a Mexican patients who have experienced psychosis and their relatives and exploring how having experienced or not characteristic psychotic symptoms and their present clinical status might affect their etiological attributions. Past and current symptom profiles of 66 patients were as assessed with the SCID-I (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders and the PANSS (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, respectively. The etiological attribution of psychosis of patients (n=62 and the relatives (n=65 was assessed with the Angermeyer and Klusmann scale comprising 30 items into five categories: biology, personality, family, society, and esoteric. Patients and relatives attribute psychosis mainly to social factors. Relatives’ attributions were not influenced by clinical profile of patients, whereas in the case of patients it was only current clinical status that showed a difference, with those in nonremission scoring higher personality and family factors. Acknowledging patients’ and relatives’ beliefs about mental disorders at onset and later on is particularly important in psychosis, a mental condition with severe and/or persistent symptoms, in order to promote better involvement in treatment and in consequence efficacy and recovery.

  11. Mothers' Causal Attributions Concerning the Reading Achievement of Their Children with and without Familial Risk for Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Katja; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Lyytinen, Paula; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2008-01-01

    The present study analyzed data from the Jyvaskyla Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia to investigate the factors to which mothers of children with and without familial risk for dyslexia attribute the causes of their first-grade children's reading achievement. Mothers' causal attributions were assessed three times during their children's first school…

  12. Genetic control and combining ability of agronomic attributes and northern leaf blight-related attributes in popcorn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J S; Amaral Júnior, A T; Vivas, M; Mafra, G S; Pena, G F; Silva, F H L; Guimarães, A G

    2017-09-27

    The present study was conducted to investigate the genetic control and to estimate the general and specific combining abilities of popcorn for agronomic attributes and attributes related to resistance to northern leaf blight (NLB). The 56 hybrids (F1 and reciprocals), together with the eight parent lines and six controls, were evaluated in two harvests, in a randomized-block design with four replications. Dominance components were more expressive than the additive components for grain yield and expression of resistance, and hybridization was the most suitable option for obtaining resistant and productive genotypes. For grain yield, popping expansion, and resistance to NLB, there was no significance for reciprocal effects, which indicates that the direction in which the cross is performed does not interfere with the hybrid's performance. Then, the superior hybrids recommended for more profitable growth were P8 x L61, L61 x L76, and L61 x L77.

  13. Attributes Related to Attitudes toward People with Disabilities.

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    Eichinger, Joanne; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 162 adult members of the general public evaluated their attitudes toward people with disabilities. Among results was that the number of movies viewed about people with disabilities was positively associated with number of discussions and with positive attitudes toward people with disabilities. Gender was also significantly related to…

  14. Family migration and relative earnings potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Mette

    2016-01-01

    A unitarian model of family migration in which families may discount wives’ private gains is used to derive testable predictions regarding the type of couples that select into migrating. The empirical tests show that gender neutral family migration cannot be rejected against the alternative...... of husband centered migration. Couples are more likely to migrate if household earnings potential is disproportionally due to one partner, and families react equally strongly to a male and a female relative advantage in educational earnings potential. These results are driven by households with a strong...

  15. Effectiveness of preventive family intervention in improving cognitive attributions among children of depressed parents: a randomized study.

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    Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Paavonen, Juulia; Toikka, Sini; Solantaus, Tytti

    2013-08-01

    Our randomized trial examined the effectiveness of preventive interventions in increasing positive cognitive attributions and reducing negative cognitive attributions in children of depressed parents. In addition, it tested the role of attribution changes in mediating the intervention effects on children's depressive and emotional symptoms. The participants were 109 Finnish families with at least one parent in treatment for affective disorder, for a total of 145 children, 8-16 years of age. Families were randomized into two groups: the "family talk intervention" (FTI, a whole-family approach enhancing communication and child resilience, Beardslee et al., 1997) group, and an active control, the "let's talk about the children" (LTC, a parent-only psycho-educational approach, Solantaus, Paavonen, Toikka, & Punamäki, 2010) group. Children reported their cognitive attributions (CASQ-R, Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire-Revised (Thompson, Kaslow, Weiss, & Nolen-Hoeksema, 1998)), depressive (CDI/BDI, Child Depression Inventory (Kovacs, 1981)/Beck Depression Inventory (Beck, Steer, & Garbin, 1988)) and emotional (SDQ, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman, 1997)) symptoms, and mothers reported their children's emotional symptoms (SDQ at baseline (T1) and 10-month (T2) and 18-month (T3)) follow-ups. Contrary to our hypothesis, no beneficial attribution changes were found in the FTI group across the follow-ups. Instead, positive cognitive appraisals increased in the LTC group, especially from T2 to T3. The increase of positive attribution further served as a mediator for changes in children's emotional and depressive symptoms. The findings suggest that a short preventive intervention can enhance beneficial cognitive processes in high-risk families in routine adult psychiatric care. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  16. Students' Attributions for Their Best and Worst Marks: Do They Relate to Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, John; Meyer, Luanna H.; Garisch, Jessica; Fischer, Ronald; Weir, Kirsty F.; Walkey, Frank H.

    2011-01-01

    Research has found a relation between motivation and attributions for success and failure. However, few studies have clarified the relationship of attributions to school achievement and possible cultural differences in this relationship. To investigate this issue, 5333 secondary students (European, Asian, Maori, Pacific) rated four common…

  17. Shyness in late childhood: relations with attributional styles and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S M; Wong, A K Y

    2013-03-01

    Shyness in late childhood is related to social and psychological problems. The present study examined the relations among shyness, attributional styles and self-esteem. It was hypothesized that self-esteem mediated the effects of attributional styles on shyness. Self-reported data on degree of shyness, attributional styles and self-esteem were obtained from 326 Chinese children with mean age of 10.85 years. It was found that positive attributional styles predicted shyness in the negative direction and the effects were fully mediated by self-esteem, and negative attributional styles predicted shyness in the positive direction both directly and through self-esteem. The results imply that how children attribute positive and negative outcomes affect both self-esteem and shyness. It is suggested that practitioners should conduct attribution-retraining workshops for shy children and help teachers and parents learn how to mitigate negative attributional style and foster positive attributional styles in children. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Partners’ Attributions for Service Members’ Symptoms of Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Keith D.; Allen, Elizabeth S.; Carter, Sarah P.; Markman, Howard J.; Stanley, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    The association of service members’ combat-related PTSD with partners’ distress is weaker when spouses/partners believe that service members experienced more traumatic events during deployment. Also, when simultaneously examining partners’ perceptions of all PTSD symptoms, perceptions of re-experiencing symptoms (the symptoms most obviously connected to traumatic events) are significantly, negatively related to distress in partners. These findings are consistent with the notion that partners may be less distressed if they make external, rather than internal, attributions for service members’ symptoms. The present study explicitly tests this possibility. Civilian wives of active duty service members completed measures regarding their own marital satisfaction, their perceptions of service members’ combat exposure during deployments, their perceptions of service members’ symptoms of PTSD, and their attributions for those symptoms. External attributions were significantly, positively associated with perceptions of combat exposure (rp = .31) and re-experiencing symptoms (β = .33) and significantly, negatively associated with perceptions of numbing/withdrawal symptoms (rp = −.22). In contrast, internal attributions were significantly, negatively associated with perceptions of re-experiencing symptoms (β = −.18) and significantly, positively associated with perceptions of numbing/withdrawal symptoms (β = .46). Internal attributions significantly moderated the negative association of PTSD symptoms with marital satisfaction, such that the association strengthened as internal attributions increased. These findings are the first explicit support for an attributional understanding of distress in partners of combat veterans. Interventions that alter partners’ attributions may improve marital functioning. PMID:24491194

  19. Positive family relationships: Longitudinal network of relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Kathleen S J; Gottfried, Allen W; Oliver, Pamella H; Gottfried, Adele Eskeles; Delany, Danielle E; Ibrahim, Sirena M

    2016-10-01

    The construct of positive family relationships (PFR), defined as family members getting along well and supporting each other, was investigated in a long-term prospective study. A newly constructed scale of positive family relationships developed using the nominal response model of item-response theory, was subject to a longitudinal network of relations analysis. The conceptualization for this research was founded on a positive psychology framework. Data derived from the Fullerton Longitudinal Study and spanned 20 years from middle childhood (age 9 years) to early adulthood (age 29 years). Evidence indicated both stability and change in PFR across time. Moderate to high stability of individual differences among families across 9 annual assessments was found from ages 9-17 years. Concomitantly across these years, there was a progressive decline in PFR. PFR proved to be independent of socioeconomic status. Specific conceptually based directional hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. Multiple sources of information included intra- and cross-informant, as well as objective and ecologically valid data. The network of relations involved concurrent and predictive criterion-related variables. PFR had a pervasive relation to a variety of psychological domains across time. As predicted, PFR related (a) positively to family cohesion and inversely to family conflict, (b) positively to parental social support, (c) positively to children's self-concept, (d) positively to children's academic performance and educational attainment, and (e) inversely to children's behavior problems. The theoretical importance of the findings and the applicability of the PFR Scale for both researchers and practitioners in the field of family psychology are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Is Presentation Everything? Using Visual Presentation of Attributes in Discrete Choice Experiments to Measure the Relative Importance of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Beef Attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Umberger, Wendy J.; Mueller, Simone C.

    2010-01-01

    A unique discrete choice experiment (DCE) is used to estimate the relative importance of quality attributes to Australian beef consumers. In the DCE, consumers choose their preferred beef steaks from options varying in a large number of intrinsic (marbling and fat trim) and extrinsic/credence (brand, health, forage, meat standards/quality, and production and process claims) attributes. This study is the only known DCE to present these attributes to consumers visually – in a manner that more r...

  1. Personal and family attributes of pregnant teenagers: findings from a community-based study in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Dulitha N; Gunawardena, Nalika S; Weerasinghe, Manuj Chrishantha

    2014-01-01

    Teenage pregnancies are associated with negative outcomes. Prevention requires understanding them and their families. This study aimed to describe personal and family attributes of pregnant teenagers in Sri Lanka. This was a community-based study in Sri Lanka among 510 pregnant teenagers. Half (50%) of the subjects were 19 years of age at the time of pregnancy. A majority (79.8%) had studied up to grades 6-11. Confidence in decision-making (80.7%) and in refusing unnecessary requests (88.3%) was "excellent" in a majority. Mean age of marriage/co-habiting was 17.6 years. For 31%, marriage/cohabiting was a sudden decision taken jointly with their partner (81.6%) and 83% reported being "legally" married. Substantial proportions of mothers (17.6%) and fathers (13.9%) had not attended school, and 33.1% mothers had worked abroad. Teenagers reported the death of a parent (14.1%), parental separation (10.9%) and being brought up by relatives (20%). Only a few rated strictness of rules/regulations (32.4%), freedom to discuss problems regarding puberty (25.5%), love affairs (12.7%) and sexuality (26.7%) as excellent/good. Of the spouses, 12.9% were teenagers were mostly in their late teens, from poor families and with low formal education. Though teenagers showed confidence in decision-making, the decision to have a pregnancy had mostly been their spouses. Parents and spouses of the teenagers were also young, less educated and poor. There was evidence of poor parenting practices.

  2. Relations between causal attributions for stuttering and psychological well-being in adults who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Michael

    2016-02-01

    This study attempted to understand the relationship between causal attributions for stuttering and psychological well-being in adults who stutter. The study employed a cross-sectional design using a web survey distribution mode to gain information related to causal attributions and psychological well-being of 348 adults who stutter. Correlation analyses were conducted to determine relationships between participants' causal attributions (i.e. locus of causality, external control, personal control, stability, biological attributions, non-biological attributions) for stuttering and various measures of psychological well-being including self-stigma, self-esteem/self-efficacy, hope, anxiety and depression. Results indicated that higher perceptions of external control of stuttering were related to significantly lower ratings of hope and self-esteem/self-efficacy and higher ratings of anxiety and depression. Higher perceptions of personal control of stuttering were related to significantly lower ratings of self-stigma and higher ratings of hope and self-esteem/self-efficacy. Increased biological attributions were significantly related to higher ratings of permanency and unchangeableness of stuttering and lower ratings of personal control of stuttering. The findings demonstrate the importance of instilling a sense of control in PWS regarding their ability to manage their stuttering. Findings also raise questions regarding the benefits of educating PWS about the biological underpinnings of stuttering.

  3. Relating auditory attributes of multichannel sound to preference and to physical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choisel, Sylvain; Wickelmaier, Florian Maria

    2006-01-01

    Sound reproduced by multichannel systems is affected by many factors giving rise to various sensations, or auditory attributes. Relating specific attributes to overall preference and to physical measures of the sound field provides valuable information for a better understanding of the parameters...... within and between musical program materials, allowing for a careful generalization regarding the perception of spatial audio reproduction. Finally, a set of objective measures is derived from analysis of the sound field at the listening position in an attempt to predict the auditory attributes....

  4. On the relation between sensory attributes and rheological characterization of cosmetic products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, Petr; Moravkova, Tereza

    2017-05-01

    Sensory attributes occupy irreplaceable position in offering the cosmetic and food products in the market. However, their evaluation is expensive and time-consuming. One of the possibilities how to eliminate at least partially these shortcomings is represented by an application of instrumental analysis. The aim of this contribution is to present rheological modelling using four eye creams and twelve body lotions. The parameters of the proposed models are coupled with selected sensory attributes. It enables a priori prediction of these attributes in a relatively cheap and fast way.

  5. Causal Attribution, Self-Concept and Academic Achievement of Children from Low SES Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliuli, Nelma; Gama, Elizabeth M. P.

    This investigation was designed (l) to assess to what causal factors Brazilian elementary students attribute their success or failure in achievement tasks; (2) to verify whether their attributions can be classified into the categories proposed by Weiner (1972): ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck; and (3) to assess the relationship between…

  6. Work Family Relations: Antecedents and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Rich, Yisrael

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated interrelations between conflict and facilitation in work and family domains, with spousal, managerial, and collegial social support serving as antecedents, and professional vigor and burnout as outcomes. Participants were 322 female, married teachers. Regression analyses revealed complex relations between conflict and…

  7. Marriage, Family Relations, and the Birthrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolbik-Vorobei, T. A.

    2011-01-01

    Under the conditions of the market, the development of the economy must be of priority to the state, for the state cannot exist and be dynamic without such an economy and, consequently, there can be no question of any transformation of marriage, family relations, and the birthrate. A vital task in the development of the state has to do with…

  8. [Gender-related aspects of family caregiving].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deufert, D

    2013-08-01

    Most people in need of care and assistance are currently still being cared for at home by family members. The majority of family caregivers are women. However, the percentage of men assuming the role of main caregiver at home is increasing. This may point to a change in the distribution of caregiving within the family. The health-related and social stresses and strains affecting cargiving persons also show gender-specific differences and are experienced more frequently and with a higher intensity by female caregivers than caregiving men. Men approach the challenge of caring differently to women and also organize care differently to female family caregivers. Although a high percentage of those providing informal care to family members at home are now men, this fact is hardly appreciated by society. In the specialist literature, caring men are often seen from the perspective of women. This article aims to portray gender-specific perspectives concerning the situation of providing informal care and assistance to elderly people and the stresses and strains that are associated with it.

  9. Transcriptional changes between uninflamed ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis pouch mucosa can be attributed to an altered immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paziewska, Agnieszka; Horbacka, Karolina; Goryca, Krzysztof; Mikula, Michal; Jarosz, Dorota; Dabrowska, Michalina; Krokowicz, Piotr; Karon, Jacek; Ostrowski, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    A total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is considered the surgery of choice for definitive management of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and some patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). However, this surgical treatment is often associated with pouchitis, a long-term complication that occurs mostly in UC patients. The purpose of this study was to better define the molecular background of pouchitis. A microarray-based survey was performed using pouch mucosal samples collected from 28 and 8 patients undergoing surgery for UC and FAP, respectively. There were 4,770 genes that significantly differentiated uninflamed from inflamed mucosal samples, and their functional features were represented mostly by metabolic and cell proliferation pathways. In contrast, functional analyses of aberrantly expressed genes between UC and FAP samples, irrespective of mucosal inflammation status, revealed multiple pathways and terms that were linked to changes in immune response. Interestingly, the comparison of uninflamed UC and FAP samples identified a set of 29 altered probe sets, including an inflammation-related transcript encoding a Charcot-Leyden crystal (CLC) protein. The most distinct changes in gene expression profiles differentiating uninflamed UC and FAP pouch mucosal samples were attributed to the Gene Ontology category innate immune response. Our study confirmed that alterations in immune responses can be found between patients who underwent surgery for UC and FAP, independent of the pouch inflammation status. This observation may be important when managing IPAA patients.

  10. Random Forest Classifier for Zero-Shot Learning Based on Relative Attribute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuhu; Qiao, Xue; Wang, Xuesong; Yu, Qiang

    2017-03-21

    For the zero-shot image classification with relative attributes (RAs), the traditional method requires that not only all seen and unseen images obey Gaussian distribution, but also the classifications on testing samples are made by maximum likelihood estimation. We therefore propose a novel zero-shot image classifier called random forest based on relative attribute. First, based on the ordered and unordered pairs of images from the seen classes, the idea of ranking support vector machine is used to learn ranking functions for attributes. Then, according to the relative relationship between seen and unseen classes, the RA ranking-score model per attribute for each unseen image is built, where the appropriate seen classes are automatically selected to participate in the modeling process. In the third step, the random forest classifier is trained based on the RA ranking scores of attributes for all seen and unseen images. Finally, the class labels of testing images can be predicted via the trained RF. Experiments on Outdoor Scene Recognition, Pub Fig, and Shoes data sets show that our proposed method is superior to several state-of-the-art methods in terms of classification capability for zero-shot learning problems.

  11. Liked, disliked and unseen forest attributes: relation to modes of viewing and cognitive constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Anders Busse; Heyman, Erik; Richnau, Gustav

    2012-12-30

    There is broad agreement that in determination of preferences the spatial configurations and content-based properties of the landscape interact with each other and with cognitive constructive. This interaction and how it is influenced by changes in landscape appearance was explored here in a site-specific context where 32 respondents took their own photos of liked and disliked attributes while walking a pre-defined trail of 2 km through a recreational forest landscape with extensive variation in landscape appearance and management regimes. Each respondent provided five photos of features that contributed positively to their landscape experiences and five that contributed negatively and recorded the location and reason in a photo-log, resulting in a total of 320 photos and photo-log pairs. Photos of content-based attributes were more frequent than photos of the landscape's spatial organisation. Photos in the spatial configuration domain were dominated by liked attributes, while the content-based domain was dominated by disliked attributes. Subtle details and ephemera events constituted a large share of the captured content-based attributes, indicating that they are equally important for on-site experience of landscape character and attractiveness as larger landscape elements and their spatial organisation. Closer examination showed marked differences in the relative distribution of spatial and content-based properties between forested and open landscape units. In forested units content-based attributes dominated, while in the open unit photos motivated by the spatial configurations in the implied space dominated. We concluded therefore that changes in depth of the perceptible space alter the relative importance of spatial and content-based properties for people's visual landscape perception, and thus the type of attributes that pass through the individual's perceptual and cognitive filters and become decisive in determining preferences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier

  12. Social class and family size as determinants of attributed machismo, femininity, and family planning: a field study in two South American communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicassio, P M

    1977-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the way in which stereotypes of machismo and femininity are associated with family size and perceptions of family planning. A total of 144 adults, male and female, from a lower class and an upper middle class urban area in Colombia were asked to respond to photographs of Colombian families varying in size and state of completeness. The study illustrated the critical role of sex-role identity and sex-role organization as variables having an effect on fertility. The lower-class respondents described parents in the photographs as significantly more macho or feminine because of their children than the upper-middle-class subjects did. Future research should attempt to measure when this drive to sex-role identity is strongest, i.e., when men and women are most driven to reproduce in order to "prove" themselves. Both lower- and upper-middle-class male groups considered male dominance in marriage to be directly linked with family size. Perceptions of the use of family planning decreased linearly with family size for both social groups, although the lower-class females attributed more family planning to spouses of large families than upper-middle-class females. It is suggested that further research deal with the ways in which constructs of machismo and male dominance vary between the sexes and among socioeconomic groups and the ways in which they impact on fertility.

  13. Relations among Parental Causal Attributions and Children's Math Performance and Task Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tõeväli, Paula-Karoliina; Kikas, Eve

    2017-01-01

    The present longitudinal study examined the cross-lagged relations between parental causal attributions of children's math success to children's ability, parental help, children's math performance and task persistence. A total of 735 children, their mothers, fathers and teachers were assessed twice--at the end of the second and the third grades.…

  14. Using remotely sensed data to construct and assess forest attribute maps and related spatial products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Warren B. Cohen; Erik Naesset; Stephen V. Stehman; Erkki O. Tomppo

    2010-01-01

    Tremendous advances in the construction and assessment of forest attribute maps and related spatial products have been realized in recent years, partly as a result of the use of remotely sensed data as an information source. This review focuses on the current state of techniques for the construction and assessment of remote sensing-based maps and addresses five topic...

  15. Inhomogeneous distribution of fat enhances the perception of fat-related sensory attributes in gelled foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosca, A.C.; Rocha, J.L.; Sala, G.; Velde, van de F.; Stieger, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the spatial distribution of fat on the perception of fat-related sensory attributes using a model system that consisted of layered agar/gelatin gels containing oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion droplets dispersed in the gel matrix. Four layers of gel varying in the

  16. Alexithymia, not fibromyalgia, predicts the attribution of pain to anger-related facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Marialaura Di; Enrici, Ivan; Castelli, Lorys; Colonna, Fabrizio; Fusaro, Enrico; Ghiggia, Ada; Romeo, Annunziata; Tesio, Valentina; Adenzato, Mauro

    2017-11-08

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a syndrome characterized by chronic, widespread musculoskeletal pain, occurring predominantly in women. Previous studies have shown that patients with FM display a pattern of selective processing or cognitive bias which fosters the encoding of pain-related information. The present study tested the hypothesis of an increased attribution of pain to facial expressions of emotions (FEE), in patients with FM. As previous studies have shown that alexithymia influences the processing of facial expressions, independent of specific clinical conditions, we also investigated whether alexithymia, rather than FM per se, influenced attribution of pain to FEE. One hundred and twenty-three women (41 with FM, 82 healthy controls, HC) were enrolled in this cross-sectional case-control study. We adopted two pain-attribution tasks, the Emotional Pain Estimation and the Emotional Pain Ascription, both using a modified version of the Ekman 60 Faces Test. Psychological distress was assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and alexithymia was assessed using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Patients with FM did not report increased attribution of pain to FEE. Alexithymic individuals demonstrated no specific problem in the recognition of basic emotions, but attributed significantly more pain to angry facial expression. Our study involved a relatively small sample size. The use of self-reported instruments might have led to underestimation of the presence of frank alexithymia in individuals having borderline cut-off scores. Alexithymia, rather than FM per se, plays a key role in explaining the observed differences in pain attribution to anger-related facial expressions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Relative importance of attributes of drug benefit plans: Thai civil servants' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngorsuraches, Surachat; Wanishayakorn, Tanatape; Tanvejsilp, Pimwara; Udomaksorn, Siripa

    2013-01-01

    The drug benefit plan of Thailand's Civil Servant Medical Benefit Scheme (CSMBS) must be amended to control increasing costs; to that end, it is important to gather the views of beneficiaries before making changes to the benefit plan. To examine the relative importance of attributes of drug benefit plans from the perspective of CSMBS beneficiaries. Attributes and levels adopted from focus group discussions and a preliminary survey were used to develop a questionnaire concerning hypothetical drug benefit plans. A convenience sample of 650 CSMBS beneficiaries in Songkhla province was asked to rate the drug benefit plans. To determine the beneficiaries' decision models, judgment analysis was used. Policy-capturing analysis was used to examine the beneficiaries' preferences, and cluster analysis was conducted to explore the variability among judgment plans. Judgment policy insight was also examined. The results of the study showed that the beneficiaries weighed on cost-sharing as their most important attribute. The results remained unchanged, although only data from the beneficiaries who used the compensatory model were analyzed. The results of the cluster analysis showed that the largest cluster of beneficiaries weighed mostly on the cost-sharing attribute. The judgment policy insight results not only supported the finding that most beneficiaries focused on the cost-sharing attribute but also revealed that they might have the least understanding of how the formulary attribute affected beneficiaries' decision making. Cost-sharing was the most important attribute for the CSMBS beneficiaries. This study indicated that a possible preferred drug benefit plan should have no cost-sharing, permit access only to drugs listed in a closed formulary, allow beneficiaries to obtain 3 months of drugs, and allow them to obtain drugs from either a community pharmacy or a government hospital. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Tay Sachs and Related Storage Diseases: Family Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Gerald; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Based on interviews with 24 families, the article discusses family planning and the choices available to those families in which a child has previously died from Tay-Sachs or related lipid storage diseases. (IM)

  19. Good neighbourly relations or family values?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQuaid, Sara Dybris

    . The potential of the cooperation: what can it be used for? 3. The relationship between these institutions and other loci of political agenda setting (i.e. the EU, the nation states and competing regional organisations.) The paper will argue more broadly that the continued importance of transnational political......Good neighbourly relations or family values? Assessing British Irish cooperation in a comparative perspective 1990-2010. This paper forms part of a larger comparative study, which charts the past 20 years development of British Irish cooperation and Nordic cooperation. It examines specifically...

  20. Self Views of African American Youth are Related to the Gender Stereotypes and Academic Attributions of Their Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Stephanie; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rouland, Karmen

    2013-01-01

    We examined relations among African American mothers' ( N = 392) stereotypes about gender differences in mathematics, science, and reading performance, parents' attributions about their children's academic successes and failures, and their seventh and eighth grade children's academic self-views (domain-specific ability attributions and self-concept). Parents' stereotypes about gender differences in abilities were related to their ability attributions for their children's successes and failures within academic domains. Mothers' attributions, in turn, were related to children's attributions, particularly among girls. Mothers' attributions of their children's successes to domain-specific ability were related to the self-concepts of daughters, and failure attributions were related to domain-specific self-concepts of sons. The influences of parents' beliefs on young adolescents' identity beliefs are discussed.

  1. Self Views of African American Youth are Related to the Gender Stereotypes and Academic Attributions of Their Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Stephanie; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rouland, Karmen

    2012-01-01

    We examined relations among African American mothers’ (N = 392) stereotypes about gender differences in mathematics, science, and reading performance, parents’ attributions about their children’s academic successes and failures, and their seventh and eighth grade children’s academic self-views (domain-specific ability attributions and self-concept). Parents’ stereotypes about gender differences in abilities were related to their ability attributions for their children’s successes and failures within academic domains. Mothers’ attributions, in turn, were related to children’s attributions, particularly among girls. Mothers’ attributions of their children’s successes to domain-specific ability were related to the self-concepts of daughters, and failure attributions were related to domain-specific self-concepts of sons. The influences of parents’ beliefs on young adolescents’ identity beliefs are discussed. PMID:23878519

  2. Matching career and family related factors for families with children

    OpenAIRE

    Rutkienė, Aušra; Trepulė, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Work-family conflict is a complex, multi-dimensional construct. When families decide to continue their professional career, work and family role matching demands efforts and causes strain. Results of a qualitative research show that having and taking care of pre-school and primary-school age children is one of main conflict reasons. Child-care arrangements have an important impact on parents’ experiences of work and their career paths. Job tenure and involvement into work-team are lower stres...

  3. Exploring the Mediating Role of Graduate Attributes in Relation to Academic Self-Directedness in Open Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Melinde

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to add to the extant literature on graduate attributes by examining the mediating role of global/moral citizenship and lifelong learning attributes in the relation between students' scholarship attributes and their academic self-directedness in a higher-education open distance learning (ODL) environment. The Graduate…

  4. The Social Relations Model in Family Studies: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelsheim, Veroni I.; Dekovic, Maja; Buist, Kirsten L.; Cook, William L.

    2009-01-01

    The Social Relations Model (SRM) allows for examination of family relations on three different levels: the individual level (actor and partner effects), the dyadic level (relationship effects), and the family level (family effect). The aim of this study was to present a systematic review of SRM family studies and identify general patterns in the…

  5. Relative Importance of Different Attributes of Graphic Health Warnings on Tobacco Packages in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Kim Bao; Chung, Le Hong; Minh, Hoang Van; Kien, Vu Duy; Giap, Vu Van; Hinh, Nguyen Duc; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Manh, Pham Duc; Duc, Ha Anh; Yang, Jui-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Graphic health warnings (GHW) on tobacco packages have proven to be effective in increasing quit attempts among smokers and reducing initial smoking among adolescents. This research aimed to examine the relative importance of different attributes of graphic health warnings on tobacco packages in Viet Nam. A discrete choice experimental (DCE) design was applied with a conditional logit model. In addition, a ranking method was used to list from the least to the most dreadful GHW labels. With the results from DCE model, graphic type was shown to be the most important attribute, followed by cost and coverage area of GHW. The least important attribute was position of the GHW. Among 5 graphic types (internal lung cancer image, external damaged teeth, abstract image, human suffering image and text), the image of lung cancer was found to have the strongest influence on both smokers and non-smokers. With ranking method, the image of throat cancer and heart diseases were considered the most dreadful images. GHWs should be designed with these attributes in mind, to maximise influence on purchase among both smokers and non-smokers.

  6. Complaints and incident reports related to anaesthesia service are foremost attributed to nontechnical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koetsier, Eva; Boer, Christa; Loer, Stephan A

    2011-01-01

    While anaesthesiology is still perceived as a rather technical specialty, nontechnical skills of anaesthesiologists become increasingly important. In this context, we hypothesised that complaints and incident reports about anaesthesia service are often related to nontechnical skills. To test this hypothesis, we attributed complaints and incident reports to the seven roles of CanMEDS (Canadian Medical Educational Directives for Specialists), which are the role of 'medical expert', 'communicator', 'collaborator', 'health advocate', 'manager', 'scholar' and the role of 'professional'. All complaints and incidents reported to the Anaesthesiology Department of the VU University Medical Centre Amsterdam (2001-2007) were analysed and attributed to the seven CanMEDS roles. In total, 169 reports could be identified, of which the majority were related to changes in operating room schedules (24%), teeth damage during laryngoscopy (9%), insufficient information about anaesthetic procedures (9%) or insufficient communication with other professionals (9%). Most reports were attributed to the roles of medical expert (39%) or manager (38%), followed by reports about the roles as professional (9%) and communicator (8%). Our data suggest an increased importance of nontechnical skills in addition to medical expertise in anaesthesia service. We propose to take this aspect into consideration in postgraduate training programmes of anaesthesiologists to improve satisfaction of patients as well as colleagues.

  7. Attributable fraction of work accidents related to occupational noise exposure in a Southeastern city of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Adriano; Cordeiro, Ricardo

    2007-07-01

    Noise is the most frequent type of occupational exposure and can lead to both auditory and extra-auditory dysfunction as well as increasing the risk of work accidents. The purpose of this study was to estimate the attributable fraction of work accidents related to occupational noise exposure in a medium-sized city in Southeast Brazil. In this hospital-based case-control study, including 600 cases and 822 controls, the odds ratio of work accidents (controlled for several covariables) was obtained classifying occupational noise exposure into four levels and determining the prevalence at each level. Based on these data, the calculated attributable fraction was 0.3041 (95%CI: 0.2341-0.3676), i.e., 30% of work accidents in the study area were statistically associated with occupational noise exposure. The authors discuss the causes of this association and the implications for the prevention of work accidents.

  8. Mass relations among family members of quarks and leptons

    OpenAIRE

    Gilani, Amjad Hussain Shah

    2005-01-01

    The various mass relations among members of quark and lepton families are given. Three mass relations for the charm, beauty, and top quark family members are given and three mass relations for the electron, muon, and tau lepton family members are presented.

  9. Home Visiting Processes: Relations with Family Characteristics and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carla A.; Roggman, Lori A.; Green, Beth; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel; Korfmacher, Jon; McKelvey, Lorraine; Zhang, Dong; Atwater, Jane B.

    2013-01-01

    Variations in dosage, content, and family engagement with Early Head Start (EHS) home visiting services were examined for families participating in the EHS Research and Evaluation Project. Families were grouped by characteristics of maternal age, maternal ethnicity, and level of family risk. All home visiting variables were related differentially…

  10. Family Relational Values in the Parent-Adolescent Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar-Smith, Susan E.; Wozniak, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    This study measured the relational family values system of upper-middle-class mothers, fathers, and adolescents in the United States. Results revealed that participants shared common family values that mainly reflected the importance of individualism, equality in family relationships, family member interdependence, and parental guidance. Parent…

  11. Self Views of African American Youth are Related to the Gender Stereotypes and Academic Attributions of Their Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Rowley, Stephanie; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rouland, Karmen

    2012-01-01

    We examined relations among African American mothers’ (N = 392) stereotypes about gender differences in mathematics, science, and reading performance, parents’ attributions about their children’s academic successes and failures, and their seventh and eighth grade children’s academic self-views (domain-specific ability attributions and self-concept). Parents’ stereotypes about gender differences in abilities were related to their ability attributions for their children’s successes and failures...

  12. Alcohol-related adverse consequences: cross-cultural variations in attribution process among young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Martin A.; Plant, Moira L.; Miller, Patrick; Kuntsche, Sandra; Gmel, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Background: Social norms around what is culturally accepted in terms of alcohol consumption and drunken comportment appear important regarding the acceptance of alcohol-related adverse consequences; however, investigations often neglect to consider differences in terms of attribution. This study aims at assessing cross-cultural differences in the reporting of alcohol-related adverse consequences. It also considers differences across consequences that might explain which type of consequences (mainly acute or mainly chronic) are most affected by an attribution process. Methods: Conditional regression models were estimated based on data from eight European countries participating in the Gender, Alcohol and Culture—An International Study (GENACIS) project. Cases were matched to controls based on usual drinking patterns in order to control for average volume of alcohol and frequency of ‘risky single occasion drinking’ (RSOD). Results: Differences among the patterns of associations between countries and consequences were evident. The distinction between Nordic and other European countries was persistent. A higher variability of associations was observed for some consequences, namely the mainly acute instances. Finally, the Isle of Man and Switzerland showed specific trends with associations across consequences. Conclusion: Reporting of alcohol-related adverse consequences seemed strongly affected by cultural norms. The latter may be exemplified by viewing drinking as ‘time-out’ behaviour. Respondents in countries with a stereotypical history of being ‘dry’ or with a stereotyped ‘binge’ drinking culture were more likely to attribute consequences to their alcohol consumption than people in ‘wet’ countries. This was particularly true for consequences that related to episodic ‘time-out’ heavy drinking. PMID:18287104

  13. Occupational Congruence and Personal Task-Related Attributes: How Do They Relate to Work Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziner, Aharon; Meir, Elchanan I.; Segal, Hila

    2002-01-01

    Data from 359 military officers (measures of personality, ability, and congruence) and supervisor and peer performance ratings were analyzed. Personality and person-environment fit were related to performance. Extroverts and those whose interests were congruent with their work environment tended to receive higher ratings. (Contains 41 references.)…

  14. Effects of ethnic attributes on the quality of family planning services in Lima, Peru: a randomized crossover trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Elena Planas

    Full Text Available Most studies reporting ethnic disparities in the quality of healthcare come from developed countries and rely on observational methods. We conducted the first experimental study to evaluate whether health providers in Peru provide differential quality of care for family planning services, based on the indigenous or mestizo (mixed ethnoracial ancestry profile of the patient. In a crossover randomized controlled trial conducted in 2012, a sample of 351 out of the 408 public health establishments in Metropolitan Lima, Peru were randomly assigned to receive unannounced simulated patients enacting indigenous and mestizo profiles (sequence-1 or mestizo and then indigenous profiles (sequence-2, with a five week wash-out period. Both ethnic profiles used the same scripted scenario for seeking contraceptive advice but had distinctive cultural attributes such as clothing, styling of hair, make-up, accessories, posture and patterns of movement and speech. Our primary outcome measure of quality of care is the proportion of technical tasks performed by providers, as established by Peruvian family planning clinical guidelines. Providers and data analysts were kept blinded to the allocation. We found a non-significant mean difference of -0.7% (p = 0.23 between ethnic profiles in the percentage of technical tasks performed by providers. However we report large deficiencies in the compliance with quality standards of care for both profiles. Differential provider behaviour based on the patient's ethnic profiles compared in the study did not contribute to deficiencies in family planning outcomes observed. The study highlights the need to explore other determinants for poor compliance with quality standards, including demand and supply side factors, and calls for interventions to improve the quality of care for family planning services in Metropolitan Lima.

  15. Mental health and family relations among people who inject drugs and their family members in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Liang, Li-Jung; Lin, Chunqing; Farmer, Shu C; Flore, Martin

    2013-11-01

    This article explores the association of people who inject drugs and their family members in terms of mental health and family relations. The objective was to understand the family context and its impact on people who inject drugs in a family-oriented culture in Vietnam. Cross-sectional assessment data were gathered from 83 people who inject drugs and 83 of their family members recruited from four communes in Phú Thọ province, Vietnam. Depressive symptoms and family relations were measured for both people who inject drugs and family members. Internalized shame and drug-using behavior were reported by people who inject drugs, and caregiver burden was reported by family members. We found that higher level of drug using behavior of people who inject drugs was significantly associated with higher depressive symptoms and lower family relations reported by themselves as well as their family members. Family relations reported by people who inject drugs and their family members were positively correlated. The findings highlight the need for interventions that address psychological distress and the related challenges faced by family members of people who inject drugs. The article has policy implication which concludes with an argument for developing strategies that enhance the role of families in supporting behavioral change among people who inject drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Plastic debris in 29 Great Lakes tributaries: Relations to watershed attributes and hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Austin K.; Corsi, Steven; Mason, Sherri A.

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris is a growing contaminant of concern in freshwater environments, yet sources, transport, and fate remain unclear. This study characterized the quantity and morphology of floating micro- and macroplastics in 29 Great Lakes tributaries in six states under different land covers, wastewater effluent contributions, population densities, and hydrologic conditions. Tributaries were sampled three or four times each using a 333 μm mesh neuston net. Plastic particles were sorted by size, counted, and categorized as fibers/lines, pellets/beads, foams, films, and fragments. Plastics were found in all 107 samples, with a maximum concentration of 32 particles/m3 and a median of 1.9 particles/m3. Ninety-eight percent of sampled plastic particles were less than 4.75 mm in diameter and therefore considered microplastics. Fragments, films, foams, and pellets/beads were positively correlated with urban-related watershed attributes and were found at greater concentrations during runoff-event conditions. Fibers, the most frequently detected particle type, were not associated with urban-related watershed attributes, wastewater effluent contribution, or hydrologic condition. Results from this study add to the body of information currently available on microplastics in different environmental compartments, including unique contributions to quantify their occurrence and variability in rivers with a wide variety of different land-use characteristics while highlighting differences between surface samples from rivers compared with lakes.

  17. Plastic Debris in 29 Great Lakes Tributaries: Relations to Watershed Attributes and Hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Austin K; Corsi, Steven R; Mason, Sherri A

    2016-10-04

    Plastic debris is a growing contaminant of concern in freshwater environments, yet sources, transport, and fate remain unclear. This study characterized the quantity and morphology of floating micro- and macroplastics in 29 Great Lakes tributaries in six states under different land covers, wastewater effluent contributions, population densities, and hydrologic conditions. Tributaries were sampled three or four times each using a 333 μm mesh neuston net. Plastic particles were sorted by size, counted, and categorized as fibers/lines, pellets/beads, foams, films, and fragments. Plastics were found in all 107 samples, with a maximum concentration of 32 particles/m 3 and a median of 1.9 particles/m 3 . Ninety-eight percent of sampled plastic particles were less than 4.75 mm in diameter and therefore considered microplastics. Fragments, films, foams, and pellets/beads were positively correlated with urban-related watershed attributes and were found at greater concentrations during runoff-event conditions. Fibers, the most frequently detected particle type, were not associated with urban-related watershed attributes, wastewater effluent contribution, or hydrologic condition. Results from this study add to the body of information currently available on microplastics in different environmental compartments, including unique contributions to quantify their occurrence and variability in rivers with a wide variety of different land-use characteristics while highlighting differences between surface samples from rivers compared with lakes.

  18. Network pharmacology of medicinal attributes and functions of Chinese herbal medicines: (II Relational networks and pharmacological mechanisms of medicinal attributes and functions of Chinese herbal medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In present study, the database, CHM-DATA, with 1127 Chinese herbal medicines mainly having recorded chemical composition, involving 7 taste attributes, 5 medicinal properties, 1 toxicity attribute, 22 chemical composition categories, 12 meridians and collaterals (Gui Jing, and 78 medicinal functions (Gong Xiao, was used to calculate point correlations between these 125 attributes. Totally four relational networks, i.e., the networks for medicinal attributes and functions, for chemical composition and meridians and collaterals, for meridians and collaterals and medicinal functions, and for meridians and collaterals were constructed based on the significant point correlations. Network analysis indicated that the former three ones are scale-free complex networks and the last one tends to be a random network. Node degrees of the four networks follow power-law distribution. Detailed between-attribute relationships and medicinal mechanisms were revealed. For example, concerning chemical composition categories, alkaloids and amines have positive correlation / correspondence. More alkaloids correspond to more amines. Alkaloids negatively correlate with volatile oils / ordinary oils, carbohydrates / starch, ketones / flavonoids, and olefins. Alkaloids mainly function in decrease internal heat, dry dampness, etc. Organic acids and alkaloids have negative correlation. More organic acids mean the less alkaloids. Organic acids mainly act on large intestine meridians and collaterals, and function in moisten dryness. As for meridians and collaterals, kidney meridians and collaterals negatively correlate with lung meridians and collaterals, stomach meridians and collaterals, and large intestine meridians and collaterals. Kidney meridians and collaterals positively function in consolidate or warm kidney, invigorate male impotence (Yang or strengthen male essence, strengthen bones and muscles, stop diarrheal, regulate menstruation or promote blood flow, relieve

  19. Cell nuclei attributed relational graphs for efficient representation and classification of gastric cancer in digital histopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Harshita; Zerbe, Norman; Heim, Daniel; Wienert, Stephan; Lohmann, Sebastian; Hellwich, Olaf; Hufnagl, Peter

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a novel graph-based method for efficient representation and subsequent classification in histological whole slide images of gastric cancer. Her2/neu immunohistochemically stained and haematoxylin and eosin stained histological sections of gastric carcinoma are digitized. Immunohistochemical staining is used in practice by pathologists to determine extent of malignancy, however, it is laborious to visually discriminate the corresponding malignancy levels in the more commonly used haematoxylin and eosin stain, and this study attempts to solve this problem using a computer-based method. Cell nuclei are first isolated at high magnification using an automatic cell nuclei segmentation strategy, followed by construction of cell nuclei attributed relational graphs of the tissue regions. These graphs represent tissue architecture comprehensively, as they contain information about cell nuclei morphology as vertex attributes, along with knowledge of neighborhood in the form of edge linking and edge attributes. Global graph characteristics are derived and ensemble learning is used to discriminate between three types of malignancy levels, namely, non-tumor, Her2/neu positive tumor and Her2/neu negative tumor. Performance is compared with state of the art methods including four texture feature groups (Haralick, Gabor, Local Binary Patterns and Varma Zisserman features), color and intensity features, and Voronoi diagram and Delaunay triangulation. Texture, color and intensity information is also combined with graph-based knowledge, followed by correlation analysis. Quantitative assessment is performed using two cross validation strategies. On investigating the experimental results, it can be concluded that the proposed method provides a promising way for computer-based analysis of histopathological images of gastric cancer.

  20. Dietary self-control is related to the speed with which health and taste attributes are processed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Nicolette; Hutcherson, Cendri; Harris, Alison; Rangel, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We propose that self-control failures, and variation across individuals in self-control abilities, are partly due to differences in the speed with which the decision-making circuitry processes basic attributes like taste, versus more abstract attributes such as health. We test these hypotheses by combining a dietary choice task with a novel form of mouse tracking that allows us to pinpoint when different attributes are being integrated into the choice process with millisecond temporal resolution. We find that, on average, taste attributes are processed about 195 ms earlier than health attributes during the choice process. We also find that 13 - 39% of observed individual differences in self-control ability can be explained by differences in the relative speed with which taste and health attributes are processed. PMID:25515527

  1. The proportion of postmenopausal breast cancer cases in the Netherlands attributable to lifestyle-related risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, W. A.; Lanting, C. I.; Goldbohm, R. A.; van den Brandt, P. A.; Grooters, H. G.; Kampman, E.; Kiemeney, L. A. L. M.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; Monninkhof, E. M.; de Vries, E.; Peeters, P. H.; Elias, S. G.

    We aimed to estimate the proportion of Dutch postmenopausal breast cancer cases in 2010 that is attributable to lifestyle-related risk factors. We calculated population attributable fractions (PAFs) of potentially modifiable risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer in Dutch women aged > 50 in

  2. The proportion of postmenopausal breast cancer cases in the Netherlands attributable to lifestyle-related risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, van W.A.; Lanting, C.I.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, van den P.A.; Grooters, H.G.; Kampman, E.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Leeuwen, van F.E.; Monninkhof, E.M.; Vries, de E.; Peeters, P.H.; Elias, S.G.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the proportion of Dutch postmenopausal breast cancer cases in 2010 that is attributable to lifestyle-related risk factors. We calculated population attributable fractions (PAFs) of potentially modifiable risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer in Dutch women aged >50

  3. The proportion of postmenopausal breast cancer cases in the Netherlands attributable to lifestyle-related risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. van Gemert; C.I. Lanting (Caren); R.A. Goldbohm; P.A. van den Brandt (Piet); H.G. Grooters (Hilda G.); E. Kampman (Ellen); L.A.L.M. Kiemeney (Bart); F.E. van Leeuwen (F.); E. Monninkhof (Evelyn); E. de Vries (Esther); P.H.M. Peeters; S.G. Elias (Sjoerd)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWe aimed to estimate the proportion of Dutch postmenopausal breast cancer cases in 2010 that is attributable to lifestyle-related risk factors. We calculated population attributable fractions (PAFs) of potentially modifiable risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer in Dutch women

  4. The proportion of postmenopausal breast cancer cases in the Netherlands attributable to lifestyle-related risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, W.A. van; Lanting, C.I.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Grooters, H.G.; Kampman, E.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Monninkhof, E.M.; Vries, E. de; Peeters, P.H.M.; Elias, S.G.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the proportion of Dutch postmenopausal breast cancer cases in 2010 that is attributable to lifestyle-related risk factors. We calculated population attributable fractions (PAFs) of potentially modifiable risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer in Dutch women aged >50 in

  5. Brachydactyly A1: New relatives for old families?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    ounding the IHH gene showed that Farabee's family is more closely related to the family Drinkwater de- scribed in 1915 (McCready et al. 2005). The same muta- tion and common haplotypes were also observed in a study from two families from the USA and New Zealand, respectively (DE Bulman, personal communication).

  6. Exploring the stigma related experiences of family members of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This stigma subsequently perpetuates a cycle of disability on the part of the patient and family. Purpose: To explore the stigma related experiences of family members of persons with mental illness in a selected community in the iLembe district of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), in order to develop recommendations to help families ...

  7. Familial Variables Related to Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlock, Tracy; And Others

    Domestic violence is the most frequent type of violent crime, thus children are likely to experience or witness violence at home. In this study, familial variables predictive of domestic violence were investigated. Data were collected from 64 intake forms at a battered women's shelter in the Mississippi Delta. Most clients were white and had…

  8. Social rights and employment rights related to family care: family care regimes in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frericks, Patricia; Jensen, Per H; Pfau-Effinger, Birgit

    2014-04-01

    In early welfare states, social rights predominantly derived from formal employment relations. Within the past two decades, however, some European countries have opened these social institutions to care work also. Cash-for-care and social entitlements for periods of at-home family caregiving have changed the characteristics of informal care work that family members traditionally provide to older relatives. Formerly based on unpaid kinship relations, it has changed towards new paid and more formalized forms of care work by family members. But it can be assumed that long-term care work by family members is constructed differently across welfare states. The paper is guided by the following research question: How do welfare-state policies differ in the degree to which their policies towards family care for senior citizens create social risks for the caring family members? We use the conceptual framework of "family care regimes" as our analytical framework for the comparative research. To do this, we compare care policies towards older care-needy people in the welfare states of the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark. The findings show that a common feature in all three countries is that the situation of family carers is to some degree being formalized: in all three countries a frail senior citizen can chose a family member as the care provider, and the welfare states support the family care providers. Still, the legal situation as well as the quality and level of social rights for family caregivers differ considerably among the three countries. It is shown that the institutional framework for senior care by family members in Germany and the Netherlands represents a family care regime that supports semi-formal family care, and that in Denmark it can be classified as a family care regime that supports formal family care. We show that these different types of family care regimes differ considerably in the social risks they pose to family carers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  9. Relation of the Family Representation and Family Identity to Emotional Well-Being in Teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strokova S.S.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the description of the results of the investigation of relations between family representation and family identity in adolescents with their emotional state which was diagnosed with Beck Depression Inventory. Family representation was investigated with the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES-III and modified projective methods “What is my family?” by M. Kuhn and T. McPartland. 249 boys and girls at the age of 10 to 17 took part in this research. There was revealed the relation of teenager’s emotional well-being to the specifics of their family values experience, family emotional estimate, idea of its cohesion and adaptability. The more points the subject had on the Beck Depression Inventory, the more negative family representation one demonstrated: there were more negative characteristics while family description, his dissatisfaction of family cohesion and adaptability level was higher. In addition the more negative emotion condition was diagnosed, the less cohesive and adaptive was his family for the teenager. Thus the relation between teenager’s family representation and family identity and his emotional well-being was confirmed.

  10. Family Functioning as a Mediator of Relations between Family History of Substance Use Disorder and Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Stacy R; Friedman, Carly K; Liang, Yuanyuan; Lake, Sarah L; Mathias, Charles W; Charles, Nora E; Acheson, Ashley; Dougherty, Donald M

    2016-03-01

    Impulsivity is strongly related to the development of adolescent substance use. Therefore, understanding factors that influence impulsive characteristics is important for the development of prevention and intervention programs. Intervention and prevention programs focused on factors that influence impulsive characteristics are especially important for those at particularly high risk for the expression of impulsivity - those with a family history of substance use disorder. A factor of particular interest is family functioning. To examine family functioning as a mediator of relations between having a family history of substance use disorder and impulsivity. Participants included a majority Hispanic sample of pre-adolescent boys and girls (mean age 10.99, SD = .84) recruited from the community who did (FH+) and did not (FH-) have a family history of substance use disorder. FH status and the quality of family functioning were compared at the initial visit with impulsiveness assessed a year later. Results showed FH+ children had worse family functioning; worse family functioning was related to higher levels of impulsivity, and higher levels of impulsivity among FH+ children were due to the influence of family functioning on levels of impulsivity. In other words, family functioning mediated relations between having a family history of substance use disorder and impulsivity. These results indicate that higher levels of impulsivity in FH+ children are due in part to worse family functioning.

  11. Gambling related family coping and the impact of problem gambling on families in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elda Mei Lo Chan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite substantial evidence that problem gambling is associated with a wide range of family difficulties, limited effort has been devoted to studying the negative impacts on family members as a result of problem gambling and how they cope and function under the impacts of problem gambling in Chinese communities. Among the very few Chinese-specific gambling-related family impact studies, none have examined how gambling-related family coping responses are related to gambling-related family impacts. Based on a sample of treatment-seeking Chinese family members of problem gamblers, this study aimed to explore: (1 the demographic characteristics and health and psychological well-being of the family members; (2 the gambling-related family member impacts (active disturbance, worrying behavior; (3 the family coping strategies (engaged, tolerant-inactive and withdrawal coping; (4 the relationship between gambling-related family member impacts, psychological distress and family coping strategies. It was hypothesized that positive significant relationships would be found between family member impacts, psychological distress and family coping strategies. From March 2011 to February 2012, a total of 103 family members of problem gamblers who sought help from Tung Wah Group of Hospitals Even Centre in Hong Kong were interviewed. Results showed that a majority of family members were partners or ex-partners of the gambler with low or no income. A large proportion of participants reported moderate to high psychological distress (72.6 %, poor to fair general health (60.2 %, and poor to neither good nor bad quality of life (61.1 %. Family member impacts were positively significantly correlated to all family coping strategies and psychological distress. Tolerant-inactive coping had the strongest relationships with family member impacts and psychological distress. Strong relationships between family member impacts and psychological distress were also

  12. Macroamylasemia attributable to gluten-related amylase autoantibodies: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barera, G; Bazzigaluppi, E; Viscardi, M; Renzetti, F; Bianchi, C; Chiumello, G; Bosi, E

    2001-06-01

    . Screening for other autoantibodies-including antinuclear, islet cell, glutamic acid decarboxylase, protein tyrosine phosphatase islet antigen 512, adrenal gland, and cytoplasmic neutrophil granulocyte antibodies-was negative. A diagnosis of CD, MA, and hypothyroidism attributable to autoimmune thyroiditis was made. A gluten-free diet and oral replacement with L-thyroxine was started with clinical improvement. Serum amylase and amylase clearance/creatinine clearance ratio normalized, consistent with resolution of MA. The patient's serum samples were obtained at the time of CD diagnosis and at 3 and 12 months after instituting a gluten-free diet. Serum samples from 10 consecutive untreated celiac children were disease controls, and 39 participants with no gastrointestinal symptoms and no family history of CD served as healthy controls. The origin of MA as determined by complexes of amylase with circulating immunoglobulins was tested by the measurement of amylase on supernatants after precipitation of immune complexes with either protein A Sepharose or polyethylene glycol. The precipitation of >60% of amylase activity was consistent with the presence of MA. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) circulating autoantibodies to amylase were measured using recently developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using porcine amylase as antigen. Results were expressed as arbitrary units (AUs). Statistical analysis was performed by Student's t test for unpaired data. IgA and IgG antibodies to exocrine pancreas tissue were detected by indirect immunofluorescence on human pancreas cryosections. Serum immunoprecipitation with either protein A Sepharose or polyethylene glycol reduced amylase activity from 1698 to 89 U/L (94.8%) and to 75 U/L (95.6%), with only marginal reduction in control serum samples. The ELISA for autoantibodies to amylase detected high values, both IgA (3531 AU) and IgG (1855 AU), in the serum sample from the patient at CD diagnosis. Ig

  13. 75 FR 33491 - Absence and Leave; Definitions of Family Member, Immediate Relative, and Related Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... family relationship. Parent means-- (1) A biological, adoptive, step, or foster parent of the employee... 3206-AL93 Absence and Leave; Definitions of Family Member, Immediate Relative, and Related Terms AGENCY... issuing final regulations to modify definitions related to family member and immediate relative in 5 CFR...

  14. Effect of yellow-tinted lenses on visual attributes related to sports activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohmura, Yoshimitsu; Murakami, Shigeki; Aoki, Kazuhiro

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of colored lenses on visual attributes related to sports activities. The subjects were 24 students (11 females, 13 males; average age 21.0 ±1.2 years) attending a sports university. Lenses of 5 colors were used: colorless, light yellow, dark yellow, light gray, and dark gray. For each lens, measurements were performed in a fixed order: contrast sensitivity, dynamic visual acuity, depth perception, hand-eye coordination and visual acuity and low-contrast visual acuity. The conditions for the measurements of visual acuity and low-contrast visual acuity were in the order of Evening, Evening+Glare, Day, and Day+Glare. There were no significant differences among lenses in dynamic visual acuity and depth perception. For hand-eye coordination, time was significantly shorter with colorless than dark gray lenses. Contrast sensitivity was significantly higher with colorless, light yellow, and light gray lenses than with dark yellow and dark gray lenses. The low-contrast visual acuity test in the Day+Glare condition showed no significant difference among the lenses. In the Evening condition, low-contrast visual acuity was significantly higher with colorless and light yellow lenses than with dark gray lenses, and in the Evening+Glare condition, low-contrast visual acuity was significantly higher with colorless lenses than with the other colors except light yellow. Under early evening conditions and during sports activities, light yellow lenses do not appear to have an adverse effect on visual attributes.

  15. Graduate Distance Education in Family Relations: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercy, Kathleen W.; Lee, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses graduate distance education in family relations and related disciplines, using a case study approach. Challenges that occur in distance graduate programs are outlined and illustrated by examination of a new master's degree program in Family and Human Development. The program delivers courses by satellite broadcast and…

  16. Experiences of relatives caring for family members who attend ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... responsibilities in terms of care resources and relatives' experiences with regard to patients' behavioral changes. Nurse managers should to facilitate participative workshops and establish of family support groups. Keywords: Experiences, diagnosed with AIDS, antiretroviral therapy clinic, relatives of infected family ...

  17. Families of Children with Chronic Illness and the Relational Family Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Pate

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Families of children with chronic illness experience persistent stress. Facing the diagnosis and learning how to cope with it is a stressful experience not only for the child but also for the parents and for the whole family. The illness, with its unpredictability and treatment, disturbs their daily routine and threatens the whole family system. Parental involvement in the child’s disease management and their emotional support are crucial for effective coping and adaptation to the child’s chronic illness. The aim of this article is to present the importance of the parental role in these families through theoretical findings of the relational family model.

  18. Gender disparities in the attribution of cardiac-related symptoms: contribution of common sense models of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R; Gordon, E E; Lounsbury, P

    1998-07-01

    The role of common sense models of heart disease in the attribution of cardiac-related symptoms was examined in a sample of healthy young adults (N = 224). Participants were less likely to attribute symptoms to possible cardiac causes for female victims reporting stressful life events (M = 5.14) than for female victims without such stressors (M = 6.82) or for male victims with (M = 6.23) or without (M = 6.48) concurrent stressors. Cardiac attributions remained lowest for female/high-stress victims in additional samples of undergraduates (N = 194), community-residing adults (N = 48), and physicians (N = 45), although this outcome sometimes appeared to reflect additive, rather than interactive, effects. Two final experiments with undergraduate samples (Ns = 48 and 60, respectively) indicated that stereotypes associating heart disease with male gender may account for gender disparities in the attribution of cardiac-related symptoms.

  19. Relations Between Coastal Catchment Attributes and Submarine Groundwater Discharge at Different Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosdorf, N.; Langlotz, S. T.

    2016-02-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been recognized as a relevant field of coastal research in the last years. Its implications on local scale have been documented by an increasing number of studies researching individual locations with SGD. The local studies also often emphasize its large variability. On the other end, global scale studies try to estimate SGD related fluxes of e.g. carbon (Cole et al., 2007) and nitrogen (Beusen et al., 2013). These studies naturally use a coarse resolution, too coarse to represent the aforementioned local variability of SGD (Moosdorf et al., 2015). A way to transfer information of the local variability of SGD to large scale flux estimates is needed. Here we discuss the upscaling of local studies based on the definition and typology of coastal catchments. Coastal catchments are those stretches of coast that do not drain into major rivers but directly into the sea. Their attributes, e.g. climate, topography, land cover, or lithology can be used to extrapolate from the local scale to larger scales. We present first results of a typology, compare coastal catchment attributes to SGD estimates from field studies and discuss upscaling as well as the associated uncertainties. This study aims at bridging the gap between the scales and enabling an improved representation of local scale variability on continental to global scale. With this, it can contribute to a recent initiative to model large scale SGD fluxes (NExT SGD). References: Beusen, A.H.W., Slomp, C.P., Bouwman, A.F., 2013. Global land-ocean linkage: direct inputs of nitrogen to coastal waters via submarine groundwater discharge. Environmental Research Letters, 8(3): 6. Cole, J.J., Prairie, Y.T., Caraco, N.F., McDowell, W.H., Tranvik, L.J., Striegl, R.G., Duarte, C.M., Kortelainen, P., Downing, J.A., Middelburg, J.J., Melack, J., 2007. Plumbing the global carbon cycle: Integrating inland waters into the terrestrial carbon budget. Ecosystems, 10(1): 171-184. Moosdorf, N

  20. Geochemical and Microbial Community Attributes in Relation to Hyporheic Zone Geological Facies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Zhangshuan; Nelson, William C.; Stegen, James C.; Murray, Christopher J.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Crump, Alex R.; Kennedy, David W.; Perkins, M. C.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.

    2017-09-20

    The hyporheic zone (HZ) is the active ecotone between the surface stream and groundwater, where exchanges of water, nutrients, and organic matter occur in response to variations in discharge and riverbed properties. Within this region, a confluence of surface-derived organic carbon and subsurface nitrogen (in the form of nitrate) has been shown to stimulate microbial activity and transformations of carbon and nitrogen species. For example, production of gases such as CO2, N2 and N2O indicate hyporheic zones might have a significant effect on energy and nutrient flows between the atmosphere and the subsurface. Managed and seasonal river stage changes and geomorphology-controlled sediment texture drive water flow within the HZ of the Columbia River. To examine the relationship between sediment texture, biogeochemistry, and biological activity in the HZ, the grain size distributions for sediment samples taken across 320 m of shoreline were characterized to define geological facies, and the relationships among physical properties of the facies, physicochemical attributes of the local environment, and the structure and activity of associated microbial communities were examined. Mud and sand content and the presence of carbon and nitrogen oxidizers were found to explain the variability in many biogeochemical attributes. Microbial community analysis revealed a high relative abundance of putative ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota and nitrite-oxidizing Nitrospirae, together comprising ~20% of the total community across all samples, but scant ammonia-oxidizing Bacteria. Network analysis of operational taxonomic units and the measured geophysical, chemical, and functional parameters showed negative relationships between abundance-based modules of organisms and sand and mud contents, and positive relationships with total organic carbon. The relationships identified in this work indicate grain size distribution is a good predictor of biogeochemical properties, and that subsets

  1. The Relation of Moral Emotion Attributions to Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Krettenauer, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analytic review of 42 studies covering 8,009 participants (ages 4-20) examines the relation of moral emotion attributions to prosocial and antisocial behavior. A significant association is found between moral emotion attributions and prosocial and antisocial behaviors ("d" = 0.26, 95% CI [0.15, 0.38]; "d" = 0.39, 95%…

  2. Urological cancer related to familial syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Henriques da Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cancer related to hereditary syndromes corresponds to approximately 5-10% of all tumors. Among those from the genitourinary system, many tumors had been identified to be related to genetic syndromes in the last years with the advent of new molecular genetic tests. New entities were described or better characterized, especially in kidney cancer such as hereditary leiomyomatosis renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC, succinate dehydrogenase kidney cancer (SDH-RCC, and more recently BAP1 germline mutation related RCC. Among tumors from the bladder or renal pelvis, some studies had reinforced the role of germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR genes, especially in young patients. In prostate adenocarcinoma, besides mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes that are known to increase the incidence of high-risk cancer in young patients, new studies have shown mutation in other gene such as HOXB13 and also polymorphisms in MYC, MSMB, KLK2 and KLK3 that can be related to hereditary prostate cancer. Finally, tumors from testis that showed an increased in 8 - 10-fold in siblings and 4 - 6-fold in sons of germ cell tumors (TGCT patients, have been related to alteration in X chromosome. Also genome wide association studies GWAS pointed new genes that can also be related to increase of this susceptibility.

  3. Interpersonal values and their relation to attributional styles in fifth high school students

    OpenAIRE

    Tueros C., Rosa; Doctorado en Psicología, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Matalinares C., María; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Raymundo V., Ornella; Maestría en Psicología, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    This research aimed to establish the degree of relationship between interpersonal values and attributional styles of male and female students of the 5th year of secondary education. We used a descriptive correlational method, the sample consisted of 400 students, distributed in proportion to the population. The research was carried out, using the attributional style questionnaire and the Interpersonal Values Questionnaire SIV Leonard Gordon 1977. The results indicate according to the Spearman...

  4. Sex-related clustering of intracranial aneurysms within families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsma, Laura C; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Ruigrok, Ynte M

    2015-04-01

    Family history is important risk factor for intracranial aneurysms (ICA), but the pattern of inheritance is unsettled. If ICA within families would cluster according to sex, this may have implications for risk prediction and screening advice within families. We assessed the relationship between the sex of probands and their affected first-degree relatives (FDRs) within families with ICA. We used data from our prospectively collected database of families with known familial ICA. We calculated relative risks for a female affected proband having a female affected FDR as compared with a male affected proband having female affected FDR with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. We included 148 families with 376 affected FDR. For a female proband the relative risk for having a female affected FDR compared with a male proband having an affected female FDR was 1.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-1.6). The clustering of ICA within families is greater in women than in men, with an excess of affected female FDR in female probands. However, because this excess is modest, our findings indicate that sex is not a relevant factor in risk prediction or screening advice in families with ICA. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. How do people attribute income-related inequalities in health? A cross-sectional study in Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Lofters

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Substantive equity-focused policy changes in Ontario, Canada have yet to be realized and may be limited by a lack of widespread public support. An understanding of how the public attributes inequalities can be informative for developing widespread support. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to examine how Ontarians attribute income-related health inequalities. METHODS: We conducted a telephone survey of 2,006 Ontarians using random digit dialing. The survey included thirteen questions relevant to the theme of attributions of income-related health inequalities, with each statement linked to a known social determinant of health. The statements were further categorized depending on whether the statement was framed around blaming the poor for health inequalities, the plight of the poor as a cause of health inequalities, or the privilege of the rich as a cause of health inequalities. RESULTS: There was high agreement for statements that attributed inequalities to differences between the rich and the poor in terms of employment, social status, income and food security, and conversely, the least agreement for statements that attributed inequalities to differences in terms of early childhood development, social exclusion, the social gradient and personal health practices and coping skills. Mean agreement was lower for the two statements that suggested blame for income-related health inequalities lies with the poor (43.1% than for the three statements that attributed inequalities to the plight of the poor (58.3% or the eight statements that attributed inequalities to the privilege of the rich (58.7%. DISCUSSION: A majority of this sample of Ontarians were willing to attribute inequalities to the social determinants of health, and were willing to accept messages that framed inequalities around the privilege of the rich or the plight of the poor. These findings will inform education campaigns, campaigns aimed at increasing public support

  6. Diagnoses, Relational Processes and Resourceful Dialogs: Tensions for Families and Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Tom

    2015-09-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), given its psychiatric focus on mental disorders in individuals, presents families and family therapists with challenges. Despite considerable controversies over its adoption, the DSM-5 extends a process of standardizing a language for human and relational concerns. No longer a diagnostic language of professionals alone, its use is medicalizing how mental health funders and administrators, as well as clients, respond to human concerns. For family therapists who practice systemically, particularly from poststructuralist and strengths-based orientations, many tensions can follow when use of the DSM-5 is expected by mental health administrators and funders, or by clients who present concerns about themselves or a diagnosed family member. In this paper, I explore how such DSM-5 related tensions might be recognized, navigated, and negotiated in the practice of family therapy with clients, and with administrators and funders. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  7. [Dependent relative: Effects on family health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada Fernández, M Eugenia; Gil Lacruz, Ana I; Gil Lacruz, Marta; Viñas López, Antonio

    2017-04-18

    The purpose of this work is to analyse the effects on informal caregiver's health and lifestyle when living with a dependent person at home. A comparison will be made between this situation and other situations involving commitment of time and energy, taking into account gender and age differences in each stage of the life cycle. Cross-sectional study analysing secondary data. The method used for collecting information is the computer assisted personal interview carried out in selected homes by the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality. The study included 19,351 participants aged over 25 years who completed the 2011-2012 Spanish National Health Survey. This research is based on demographic information obtained from a Spanish National Health Survey (2011/12). Using an empirical framework, the Logit model was select and the data reported as odds ratio. The estimations were repeated independently by sub-groups of age and gender. The study showed that the health of people who share their lives with a dependent person is worse than those who do not have any dependent person at home (they are 5 times at higher risk of developing health problems). The study found that being a woman, advance age, low educational level and does not work, also has an influence. Being a caregiver reduces the likelihood of maintaining a healthy lifestyle through physical exercise, relaxation, or eating a balanced diet. Living with a dependent person reduces the likelihood of maintaining healthy lifestyles and worsens the state of health of family members. Significant differences in gender and age were found. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Intentions to quit smoking: causal attribution, perceived illness severity, and event-related fear during an acute health event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Edwin D; Moon, Simon; Baumann, Brigitte M; Camargo, Carlos A; O'Hea, Erin; Ziedonis, Douglas M

    2010-12-01

    Experiencing a serious consequence related to one's health behavior may motivate behavior change. This study sought to examine how causal attribution, perceived illness severity, and fear secondary to an acute health event relate to intentions to quit smoking. Using a cross-sectional survey design, adult emergency department patients who smoked provided demographic data and ratings of nicotine dependence, causal attribution, perceived illness severity, event-related fear, and intentions to quit smoking. A linear regression analysis was used to examine the relations between the independent variables and quit intentions. We enrolled 186 participants. After adjusting for nicotine dependence, smoking-related causal attribution and event-related fear were associated with intentions to quit (β = 0.26, p < 0.01 and β = 0.21, p < 0.01, respectively). Perceived illness severity was correlated with event-related fear (r = 0.46, p < 0.001) but was not associated with intentions to quit (β = -0.08, p = 0.32). While causal attribution and event-related fear were modestly associated with quit intentions, perceived illness severity was not. Longitudinal studies are needed to better explicate the relation between these variables and behavior change milestones.

  9. Designing a New Program in Family Relations and Applied Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Sharon Mayne; Daly, Kerry; Lero, Donna; MacMartin, Clare

    2007-01-01

    Family Relations and Applied Nutrition, which is offered at the University of Guelph, is an interdisciplinary department that previously offered three undergraduate majors: child, youth, and family; applied human nutrition; and gerontology; as well as graduate programs at the master's and doctoral levels. Several factors have precipitated a review…

  10. Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema: Implications for Family Leisure Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radina, M. Elise

    2009-01-01

    An estimated 20% of breast cancer survivors face the chronic condition of breast cancer-related lymphedema. This study explored the ways in which women with this condition experienced changes in their participation in family leisure as one indicator of family functioning. Participants (N = 27) were interviewed regarding lifestyles before and after…

  11. The relations of family members' unique and shared perspectives of family dysfunction to dyad adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Justin; Yuen, Cynthia X; Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Hendricks, Charlene

    2014-06-01

    Among a community sample of families (N = 128), this study examined how family members' shared and unique perspectives of family dysfunction relate to dyad members' shared views of dyad adjustment within adolescent-mother, adolescent-father, and mother-father dyads. Independent of a family's family perspective (shared perspective of family dysfunction), the adolescent's unique perspective was associated with lower security and higher conflict with both mother and father; the father's unique perspective was associated with lower security and higher conflict with the adolescent, as well as lower marital quality with mother; and the mother unique perspective was associated with lower marital quality with the father. Moreover, for adolescent-parent dyads, compared with the parent unique perspective, the adolescent unique perspective was more strongly associated with dyad adjustment. These findings indicate that both shared and unique views of the family system-the adolescent's unique view in particular-independently relate to the health of family subsystems. They also suggest that research, as well as therapeutic interventions, that focus on just the shared view of the family may miss important elements of family dysfunction. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Smoking-attributable medical expenditures by age, sex, and smoking status estimated using a relative risk approach☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciosek, Michael V.; Xu, Xin; Butani, Amy L.; Pechacek, Terry F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To accurately assess the benefits of tobacco control interventions and to better inform decision makers, knowledge of medical expenditures by age, gender, and smoking status is essential. Method We propose an approach to distribute smoking-attributable expenditures by age, gender, and cigarette smoking status to reflect the known risks of smoking. We distribute hospitalization days for smoking-attributable diseases according to relative risks of smoking-attributable mortality, and use the method to determine national estimates of smoking-attributable expenditures by age, sex, and cigarette smoking status. Sensitivity analyses explored assumptions of the method. Results Both current and former smokers ages 75 and over have about 12 times the smoking-attributable expenditures of their current and former smoker counterparts 35–54 years of age. Within each age group, the expenditures of formers smokers are about 70% lower than current smokers. In sensitivity analysis, these results were not robust to large changes to the relative risks of smoking-attributable mortality which were used in the calculations. Conclusion Sex- and age-group-specific smoking expenditures reflect observed disease risk differences between current and former cigarette smokers and indicate that about 70% of current smokers’ excess medical care costs is preventable by quitting. PMID:26051203

  13. Perceived family-related stressors and clinical manifestations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived family-related stressors and clinical manifestations of patients with psychosomatic morbidity attending general outpatient clinic university college hospital. O.A. Ajetunmobi, M.M.A. Ladipo, A Adetunji, M Shabi ...

  14. The Relations of Family Members’ Unique and Shared Perspectives of Family Dysfunction to Dyad Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Justin; Yuen, Cynthia X.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Hendricks, Charlene

    2017-01-01

    Among a community sample of families (N = 128), this study examined how family members’ shared and unique perspectives of family dysfunction relate to dyad members’ shared views of dyad adjustment within adolescent-mother, adolescent-father, and mother-father dyads. Independent of a family’s family perspective (shared perspective of family dysfunction), the adolescent’s unique perspective was associated with lower security and higher conflict with both mother and father, the father’s unique perspective was associated with lower security and higher conflict with the adolescent as well as lower marital quality with mother, and the mother unique perspective was associated with lower marital quality with the father. Moreover, for adolescent-parent dyads, compared to the parent unique perspective, the adolescent unique perspective was more strongly associated with dyad adjustment. These findings indicate that both shared and unique views of the family system – the adolescent’s unique view in particular - independently relate to the health of family subsystems. They also suggest that research as well as therapeutic interventions that focus on just the shared view of the family may miss important elements of family dysfunction. PMID:24884682

  15. How Japanese companion dog and cat owners’ degree of attachment relates to the attribution of emotions to their animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Naoko; Martens, Pim

    2018-01-01

    Recently, studies in the United States and European countries have shown that the degree of attachment is associated with the attribution of emotions to companion animals. These studies imply that investigating the degree of attachment to companion animals is a good way for researchers to explore animal emotions and then improve animal welfare. Although a promising area of study, in Japan, no empirical studies have examined the correlation between the degree of attachment and the attribution of emotions to companion animals. In this research, we aimed to assess companion animal owners’ attribution of six primary (anger, joy, sadness, disgust, fear and surprise) and four secondary (shame, jealousy, disappointment and compassion) emotions to their dogs and cats, as well as how the degree of attachment related to such attribution of emotions from a Japanese cultural perspective. The “Pet Bonding Scale” (PBS), which is used to determine the level of bonding between humans and animals, was introduced to measure respondents’ degree of attachment to their companion animals. The results of a questionnaire (N = 546) distributed throughout Japan showed that respondents attributed a wide range of emotions to their animals. Companion animals’ primary emotions, compared to secondary emotions, were more commonly attributed by their owners. The attribution of compassion and jealousy was reported at a high level (73.1% and 56.2%, respectively), which was surprising as compassion and jealousy are generally defined as secondary emotions. All participants were highly attached to their companion animals, and this attachment was positively associated with the attribution of emotions (9/10) to companion animals (all p animal emotions by analyzing the bonding between companion animals and owners in Japan, and it can therefore provide knowledge to increase Japanese people’s awareness of animal welfare. PMID:29304166

  16. How Japanese companion dog and cat owners' degree of attachment relates to the attribution of emotions to their animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bingtao; Koda, Naoko; Martens, Pim

    2018-01-01

    Recently, studies in the United States and European countries have shown that the degree of attachment is associated with the attribution of emotions to companion animals. These studies imply that investigating the degree of attachment to companion animals is a good way for researchers to explore animal emotions and then improve animal welfare. Although a promising area of study, in Japan, no empirical studies have examined the correlation between the degree of attachment and the attribution of emotions to companion animals. In this research, we aimed to assess companion animal owners' attribution of six primary (anger, joy, sadness, disgust, fear and surprise) and four secondary (shame, jealousy, disappointment and compassion) emotions to their dogs and cats, as well as how the degree of attachment related to such attribution of emotions from a Japanese cultural perspective. The "Pet Bonding Scale" (PBS), which is used to determine the level of bonding between humans and animals, was introduced to measure respondents' degree of attachment to their companion animals. The results of a questionnaire (N = 546) distributed throughout Japan showed that respondents attributed a wide range of emotions to their animals. Companion animals' primary emotions, compared to secondary emotions, were more commonly attributed by their owners. The attribution of compassion and jealousy was reported at a high level (73.1% and 56.2%, respectively), which was surprising as compassion and jealousy are generally defined as secondary emotions. All participants were highly attached to their companion animals, and this attachment was positively associated with the attribution of emotions (9/10) to companion animals (all p animal emotions by analyzing the bonding between companion animals and owners in Japan, and it can therefore provide knowledge to increase Japanese people's awareness of animal welfare.

  17. The social relations model for family data : A multilevel approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, TAB; Kenny, DA

    1999-01-01

    Multilevel models are proposed to study relational or dyadic data from multiple persons in families or other groups. The variable under study is assumed to refer to a dyadic relation between individuals in the groups. The proposed models are elaborations of the Social Relations Model. The different

  18. What drives consumer involvement? The relative impact of product category and product attribute

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Scholderer, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    , foods, household appliances, alcoholic beverages) and on two involvement dimensions (interest and importance). The results indicate that in three of the four super-categories the predominant source of variation in product involvement were the attributes of the products, not the product category...

  19. Effects of age and causal attribution to aging on health-related behaviors associated with urinary incontinence in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locher, Julie L; Burgio, Kathryn L; Goode, Patricia S; Roth, David L; Rodriguez, Eric

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of age and patients' attribution of incontinence to aging on health-related behaviors associated with incontinence. Participants in this study were 74 women who either sought treatment for urinary incontinence at a multidisciplinary continence program or volunteered for a randomized clinical trial of behavioral and drug therapy for incontinence. As part of their clinical evaluation, women were interviewed about how they managed their incontinence and their perceptions of what had caused the condition. Self-management of incontinence was defined as behaviors used to cope with incontinence, rather than treat or cure incontinence. Self-treatment was defined as self-implementation of Kegel exercises, and formal treatment was defined as interaction with a health care provider. Over half of the respondents attributed their incontinence to aging. In multivariate analyses, age was associated with self-management of incontinence, but not self-treatment or formal treatment. In contrast, attribution of incontinence to aging was associated with self-management and self-treatment of incontinence. There was also a trend for attribution of incontinence to aging to be associated with formal treatment for incontinence. Women who attributed their incontinence to aging were less likely to have engaged in self-management strategies and to have received a previous evaluation or treatment; but, they were more likely to have engaged in self-treatment for incontinence. When other relevant variables were added to the regression models, perception that incontinence restricted one's activities became the most significant predictor of performing self-management strategies and performing Kegel exercises. Attribution to aging may be an impediment to seeking treatment. Education to promote understanding of the actual causes and treatment of urinary incontinence may encourage people to seek appropriate intervention. Additionally, whereas

  20. Family Relational Health, Psychological Resources, and Health Behaviors: A Dyadic Study of Military Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Lucier-Greer, Mallory; Mancini, Jay A; Ferraro, Anthony J; Ross, D Bruce

    2016-02-01

    In addition to facing stressors that are typical of life course development (e.g., marital struggles, balancing work/family demands), military families face additional stress attributed to their military context (e.g., deployments, relocations). Using a systems framework and stress process perspective, this study examined military couples' relational health, as a gauge for how couples collectively cope and address challenges as a united front and how their relational health influences crucial health behaviors (sleeping and eating) through the promotion or erosion of psychological resources (N = 236 couples). This study evaluated a latent variable structural equation dyadic model whereby each partner's perspective of their family's relational health was hypothesized to influence their own eating and sleeping behaviors (actor effects), as well as the eating and sleeping behaviors of their spouse (partner effects). The role of psychological resources (high self-efficacy, few depressive symptoms, and minimal anxiety) as a mechanism linking family functioning to health behaviors was also examined. Overall, the findings supported the hypothesized model, particularly for actor (intraindividual) effects. Discussion is provided pertinent to service providers and researchers, including the importance of improving, or maintaining, family relational health, as a means for encouraging positive health behaviors among active duty military members and their spouses. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  1. Family Relations and Psychopathology: Examining Depressive and Bulimic Symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluck, Annette S; Dallesasse, Starla; English, Erin M

    2017-10-01

    Despite early theories suggesting that family dysfunction (FD) may cause disordered eating, FD has been linked with other disorders and is a non-specific risk factor for disordered eating. We examined one potential model of the way FD relates to disordered eating, drawing on research that identified depression as a risk factor for bulimia. We examined whether depression symptoms (DEPs) partially mediated the relationship between family cohesion (as a measure of FD) and bulimic symptoms (BNs) using a sample of 215 never-married college women under age 20. Perceptions that one's family was less cohesive (or more disengaged) was associated with increased DEPs and BNs. Moreover, DEPs partially mediated the influence of cohesion on BNs through a significant indirect effect. Both family systems in general and treatment of mood difficulties may be important considerations in the prevention of disordered eating, and prevention efforts that include family relationships should be experimentally explored.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF FAMILY RELATIONS ON DECISION MAKING IN FAMILY BUSINESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Stoilkovska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarity and uniqueness of family businesses set them apart from other businesses in many things. Natural need of man to survive in these harsh circumstances forces him to constantly seek new sources of funding or simply tries to improve the existing. Secure existence is difficult to ensure.The successful family business provides many benefits: reliable operation, to be your own boss, flexible working hours, family members are taken care of, to become successful with your own strengths. Also this kind of business brings a range of difficulties that have to be overcomed.Apart from the daily struggle for enterprise development in the complex conditions of tough competition and rapid changes in the environment, family businesses face problems of internal character. Namely, the parents are thorn between the family relations, the love towards their children and the consistence in the decision making processes. Although this is a modern and very present theme however owners of family businesses rarely dare to speak publicly on the subject.This paper presents an action research conducted on a sample of 26 family businesses in FYROM. This research study is primarily exploratory in nature, and the research instruments include survey through questionnaires with family member and employees that are not family members.

  3. Intergenerational relations and the family food environment in families with a child with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Penny; Stapleton, Helen; James, Allison

    2011-07-01

    Implicit in much of the literature on childhood obesity is a hierarchical, unidirectional understanding of intergenerational relations, which highlights parents' responsibility for children's food and eating practices. Drawing upon alternative understandings from the social science literature, which offer more nuanced insights into family life and generational relations, this paper explores, through parents' narratives, the construction of family food environments and family eating practices in families with a child with obesity. Data were generated through individual, semi-structured interviews with parents of children attending a community-based obesity intervention programme in an inner city area in the North of England. Forty-nine interviews were conducted with 25 parental adults from 19 families. Parent's own concerns over their body weight and size and children's social experiences in a fat-averse society can both work to flatten the traditional familial, adult-child hierarchy. Both parents and children actively contribute to the construction of family life and family eating practices. Findings may pose challenges for contemporary health promotion and policy agendas which presume that parents have the ability and resources to control and direct children's eating in a unidirectional and authoritative manner.

  4. Attributes of Lifestyle Consumer Related to the Use of Organic Products Retail Specialist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Silva Braga Junior

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the relationship between attributes of lifestyle and consumption of organic products in specialty retail, this research sought to understand who the consumer of organic products in specialty retail. To serve this purpose, a field survey of qualitative and quantitative nature was conducted with a sample of 60 subjects covered at the time of purchase at a grocery store specializing in organic products in the city of São Paulo/SP. To justify the sample size G*Power 3.1.7 software with the specifications recommended in the literature. The collected sample was sufficient to detect the desired effects of Structural Equation Modeling with Partial Least Squares Method (Partial Least Square - PLS. As a result it was observed that consumers of organic produce state to adopt a healthy lifestyle and attributed the following determinants for buying organic produce factors: the quality and the benefits that accrue to the same health. 

  5. Does Response Evaluation and Decision (RED) Mediate the Relation between Hostile Attributional Style and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Reid Griffith; Tanha, Marieh; Yang, Chongming; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    The role of hostile attributional style (HAS) in antisocial development has been well-documented. We analyzed longitudinal data on 585 youths (48% female; 19% ethnic minority) to test the hypothesis that response evaluation and decision (RED) mediates the relation between HAS and antisocial behavior in adolescence. In Grades 10 and 12, adolescent…

  6. LIVEABILITY DIMENSIONS AND ATTRIBUTES: THEIR RELATIVE IMPORTANCE IN THE EYES OF NEIGHBOURHOOD RESIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hariza Hashim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It is important for a neighbourhood to provide a quality and good environment to ensure that inhabitants are able to live their lives in a satisfying way. There have been few attempts to investigate people’s perceptions about the places they currently live, especially what makes their neighbourhoods a good or bad place to live. Thus, this study aims (1 to identify the attributes and the dimensions that residents consider in evaluating the liveability of their neighbourhood and (2 to assess the importance of these attributes and dimensions. A literature review found that four dimensions are used in most studies to understand the liveability issues: social, physical, functional and safe. Sixteen attributes are also identified to be indicators for the four dimensions. The study was conducted in one of the neighbourhoods in the Subang Jaya Municipal Council vicinity, and data were collected using mailed questionnaires. A total of 170 questionnaires were completed and returned, which represented a 57% response rate. Results revealed that residents are most concerned about safety, while social issues are deemed to be the least important factor. Thus, efforts to promote neighbourhood liveability should be focused on ensuring the overall safety of the community by incorporating a design that creates territoriality and allows more surveillance. Neighbourhoods should be maintained to avoid incivilities to reduce the fear of crime and crime itself.

  7. Variation in some quality attributes of Atlantic salmon fillets from aquaculture related to geographic origin and water temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Gine Ørnholt; Frosch, Stina; Jørgensen, Bo Munk

    2017-01-01

    an efficient use of the information gathered in the different links of the value chain, a deeper knowledge of the correlations between the various quality attributes and factors like the geographical origin of the salmon, the company and the water temperature of the fish farm, is needed. In the present study......It is well know that factors like fat content and texture affect the yield when making products from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). The relation between these factors and other quality attributes like water holding capacity and protein content, however, has received limited attention. To enable...

  8. Nonverbal communication as an expression of family relations

    OpenAIRE

    KRYSTYNA FERENZ

    2011-01-01

    Family is the basic and immediate environment of human life, in which one becomes a person. It is in that social circle that all of the most important needs – existential, conscious and emotional – are being fulfilled. The mutual understanding of the family members creates a plane for integration. A feeling of community is constructed upon it. Interpersonal relationships called social relations are becoming important to everyone. Their character and strength of bond vary. The u...

  9. When Family-Supportive Supervision Matters: Relations between Multiple Sources of Support and Work-Family Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Ziegert, Jonathan C.; Allen, Tammy D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the mechanisms by which family-supportive supervision is related to employee work-family balance. Based on a sample of 170 business professionals, we found that the positive relation between family-supportive supervision and balance was fully mediated by work interference with family (WIF) and partially mediated by family…

  10. Attributes of primary care in relation to polypharmacy: a multicenter cross-sectional study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Takuya; Ikenoue, Tatsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Kise, Morito; Fujinuma, Yasuki; Fukuma, Shingo; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the association between attributes of primary care and polypharmacy. Cross-sectional study. A primary care practice-based research network in Japan (28 primary care clinics). Adult outpatients filled out a standardized questionnaire. Polypharmacy defined as the use of five or more concurrent prescription or over-the-counter medications. Attributes of primary care were assessed via patient experience using the Japanese version of Primary Care Assessment Tool (JPCAT). Poisson mixed effects model was used to adjust for clustering within clinics and covariates. Data were analyzed for 544 primary care outpatients. After adjusting for patients' sociodemographic and health characteristics, the JPCAT community orientation score was found to be inversely associated with polypharmacy at the clinic level [risk ratio per 1 standard deviation increase = 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.73-0.96; P = 0.008]. Sensitivity analyses using a different definition of polypharmacy showed results similar to those of the primary analyses. We found that a higher level of community-oriented primary care is associated with a lower prevalence of polypharmacy in outpatients at the clinic level. These findings may be useful in developing community-based interventions to minimize polypharmacy.

  11. Religion in families 1999 to 2009: A relational spirituality framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Annette

    2010-08-01

    This review examines the role of religion, for better and worse, in marital and parent-child relationships according to peer reviewed studies from 1999-2009. A conceptual framework labeled "relational spirituality" is used to: (a) organize the breadth of findings into the three stages of the formation, maintenance, and transformation of family relationships, and (b) illustrate three in-depth sets of mechanisms to delve into unique ways religion may shape family bonds. Topics include union formation, fertility, spousal roles, marital satisfaction and conflict, divorce, domestic violence, infidelity, pregnancy, parenting children, parenting adolescents, and coping with family distress. Conclusions emphasize moving beyond markers of general religiousness and identifying specific spiritual beliefs and practices that could prevent or intensify problems in traditional and nontraditional families.

  12. Children's internal attributions of anxiety-related physical symptoms: Age-related patterns and the role of cognitive development and anxiety sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter); B.N. Mayer (Birgit); N.K. Freher (Nancy Kramer); S. Duncan (Sylvana); M.F.C.M. Van Den Hout (Mari F. C. M.)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe present study examined age-related patterns in children's anxiety-related interpretations and internal attributions of physical symptoms. A large sample of 388 children aged between 4 and 13 years completed a vignette paradigm during which they had to explain the emotional response

  13. How embodied cognitions affect judgments: height-related attribution bias in football foul calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Quaquebeke, Niels; Giessner, Steffen R

    2010-02-01

    Many fouls committed in football (called soccer in some countries) are ambiguous, and there is no objective way of determining who is the "true" perpetrator or the "true" victim. Consequently, fans as well as referees often rely on a variety of decision cues when judging such foul situations. Based on embodiment research, which links perceptions of height to concepts of strength, power, and aggression, we argue that height is going to be one of the decision cues used. As a result, people are more likely to attribute a foul in an ambiguous tackle situation to the taller of two players. We find consistent support for our hypothesis, not only in field data spanning the last seven UEFA Champions League and German Bundesliga seasons, as well as the last three FIFA World Cups, but also in two experimental studies. The resulting dilemma for refereeing in practice is discussed.

  14. Patient and program attributes related to treatment process indicators in DATOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, K M; Simpson, D D; Joe, G W

    1999-12-01

    Patient ratings of their personal confidence in treatment and commitment to recovery were examined in a national sample of long-term residential, outpatient drug-free, and outpatient methadone programs. It was found that patients expressing greater confidence and commitment after 3 months of treatment generally began with higher motivation at intake, had formed better rapport with counselors, and attended counseling sessions more frequently. In addition, overall levels of patient involvement (as indicated by confidence and commitment) varied across programs; those programs with higher average involvement by patients used more social and public health services, maintained more consistent attendance at counseling sessions, and served patients who collectively had more similar kinds of needs. Thus, patient and program attributes both play a role in determining therapeutic engagement of persons who enter drug treatment.

  15. Risk factors for chronic undernutrition among children in India: Estimating relative importance, population attributable risk and fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Daniel J; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Subramanian, S V

    2016-05-01

    Nearly 40% of the world's stunted children live in India and the prevalence of undernutrition has been persistently high in recent decades. Given numerous available interventions for reducing undernutrition in children, it is not clear of the relative importance of each within a multifactorial framework. We assess the simultaneous contribution of 15 known risk factors for child chronic undernutrition in India. Data are from the 3rd Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), a nationally representative cross-sectional survey undertaken in 2005-2006. The study population consisted of children aged 6-59 months [n = 26,842 (stunting/low height-for-age), n = 27,483 (underweight/low weight-for-age)]. Risk factors examined for their association with undernutrition were: vitamin A supplementation, vaccination, use of iodized salt, household air quality, improved sanitary facilities, safe disposal of stools, improved drinking water, prevalence of infectious disease, initiation of breastfeeding, dietary diversity, age at marriage, maternal BMI, height, education, and household wealth. Age/sex-adjusted and multivariable adjusted effect sizes (odds ratios) were calculated for risk factors along with Population Attributable Risks (PAR) and Fractions (PAF) using logistic regression. In the mutually adjusted models, the five most important predictors of childhood stunting/underweight were short maternal stature, mother having no education, households in lowest wealth quintile, poor dietary diversity, and maternal underweight. These five factors had a combined PAR of 67.2% (95% CI: 63.3-70.7) and 69.7% (95% CI: 66.3-72.8) for stunting and underweight, respectively. The remaining factors were associated with a combined PAR of 11.7% (95% CI: 6.0-17.4) and 15.1% (95% CI: 8.9-21.3) for stunting and underweight, respectively. Implementing strategies focused on broader progress on social circumstances and infrastructural domains as well as investments in nutrition specific

  16. Effects of Age and Causal Attribution to Aging on Health-Related Behaviors Associated With Urinary Incontinence in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locher, Julie L.; Burgio, Kathryn L.; Goode, Patricia S.; Roth, David L.; Rodriguez, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of age and patients’ attribution of incontinence to aging on health-related behaviors associated with incontinence. Design and Methods Participants in this study were 74 women who either sought treatment for urinary incontinence at a multidisciplinary continence program or volunteered for a randomized clinical trial of behavioral and drug therapy for incontinence. As part of their clinical evaluation, women were interviewed about how they managed their incontinence and their perceptions of what had caused the condition. Self-management of incontinence was defined as behaviors used to cope with incontinence, rather than treat or cure incontinence. Self-treatment was defined as self-implementation of Kegel exercises, and formal treatment was defined as interaction with a health care provider. Results Over half of the respondents attributed their incontinence to aging. In multivariate analyses, age was associated with self-management of incontinence, but not self-treatment or formal treatment. In contrast, attribution of incontinence to aging was associated with self-management and self-treatment of incontinence. There was also a trend for attribution of incontinence to aging to be associated with formal treatment for incontinence. Women who attributed their incontinence to aging were less likely to have engaged in self-management strategies and to have received a previous evaluation or treatment; but, they were more likely to have engaged in self-treatment for incontinence. When other relevant variables were added to the regression models, perception that incontinence restricted one’s activities became the most significant predictor of performing self-management strategies and performing Kegel exercises. Implications Attribution to aging may be an impediment to seeking treatment. Education to promote understanding of the actual causes and treatment of urinary incontinence may encourage people to seek

  17. Motivations relating to family planning in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieris, R

    1978-01-01

    Indifference to family planning in Sri Lanka stems from a number of institutional factors. Family planning advocates in Sri Lanka constitute a small group of Westernized individuals who are alienated from the traditional cultural patterns of Sri Lanka society. The majority of Sri Lanka se. In traditional Sinhalese culture 1) marriages were easily dissolved; 2) fidelity was not highly valued; 3) polyandrous marriages were relatively common; 4) large families were desired; and 5) abortion and infanticide were practiced. Although the traditional culture is no longer intact, many low income Sinhalese still adhere to some elements of traditional culture and most still want to have large families. In recent years, some of the inhabitants of Sri Lanka became westernized, and most of these individuals now constitute the middle class. The middle class adopted an extremely rigid morality which they have attempted to impose on the lower class Sinhalese. The middle class tends to oppose abortion and fears that contraceptive availability will lead to promiscuous behavior. Both the middle and lower classes tend to associatefamily planning with the Tamil segment of the population. The Tamil immigrated to Sri Lanka from India, and their presence and power have always been resented and feared by theSinhalese. Many Sinhalese believe that family planning is a politically motivated attempt on the part of the Tamil to reduce the number of Sinhalese in the population. Although family planning is integrated into the government's maternal and child welfare program, resistance to family planning, especially among the lower classes, remains high. At the present time only 19% of all married women less than 50 years old practice contraception. The national family program made only a minor contribution to the recently observed decline in the fertility rate. The major factor involved in the decline was a growing pattern of delayed marriage.

  18. Parental Attributions of Control for Child Behaviour and Their Relation to Discipline Practices in Parents of Children with and Without Developmental Delays

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Myrthe; Marks Woolfson, Lisa; Simon C. Hunter

    2017-01-01

    Children with developmental delays (DD) are at risk for developing behavior problems. Research suggests that parents? causal attributions for child behavior are related to parenting. This study investigated this association in parents of children with DD compared to parents of typically developing (TD) children. It specifically focused on attributions of child control by separating these from attributions of responsibility, blame and intent, and from attributions of parent control and respons...

  19. Grandparent-Adolescent Relations: Beyond the Nuclear Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Marc D.

    1982-01-01

    Focuses on another aspect of intergenerational ties--extended family relations between adolescents and their grandparents. The nature of this relationship is explored, and factors affecting the quality of the relationship are discussed. The ways in which grandparents may influence the development of their adolescent grandchildren are described.…

  20. Families of Orphans: Relation and Disrelation in Octavia Butler's "Kindred."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushdy, Ashraf H. A.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the acute representations of familial and historical relations as depicted in Octavia Butler's novel, "Kindred." Suggests that the novel is best understood as a novel of memory, functioning as a means of reconstructing a sense of place and home. (HB)

  1. Attributes of conception of relational continuity: an essential component of the integration of services for frail older people

    OpenAIRE

    Dominique Gagnon; Yves Couturier; Francis Etheridge; Joanie Lacasse-Bédard

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Present the results of an exploratory study which aimed to identify the attributes of relational continuity as conceived by the actors involved in the organization of services to frail older people. Theory The lengthening of the duration of life with autonomy loss warrants a transformation of the response to the needs of older people. The organization of services must evolve from a hospital-centered model to a residence-centered model better adapted to long-term care. This refocus on ...

  2. The relative importance of patch habitat quality and landscape attributes on a declining steppe-bird metapopulation

    OpenAIRE

    Vögeli, Matthias; Serrano, David; Pacios, Fernando; Tella, José Luis

    2010-01-01

    Metapopulation theory is one of the most popular approaches to identify the factors affecting the spatial and temporal dynamics of populations in fragmented habitat networks. Habitat quality, patch area and isolation are mainly focused on when analyzing distribution patterns in fragmented landscapes. The effects of landscape heterogeneity in the non-occupied matrix, however, have been largely neglected. Here, we determined the relative importance of patch quality and landscape attributes on t...

  3. THE FORMATION OF CULTURE OF FAMILY RELATIONS AS A PRIORITY DIRECTION OF FAMILY UPBRINGING IN THE CONTEMPORARY SOCIOCULTURAL SPACE

    OpenAIRE

    Северинчук, Людмила

    2016-01-01

    In the article the researches in pedagogy and psychology are analyzed as for problems of preparing young people to create a family, it is emphasized the interdependence of cultural relationships in the family and the level of culture in society in general. Some reasonable grounds are given to the priority of forming the culture of family relations as a direction of family upbringing in the contemporary sociocultural space. Some aspects of forming culture of youth’s family relations are reveal...

  4. Adopting the perspective of another in belief attribution: contribution of Relational Frame Theory to the understanding of impairments in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villatte, Matthieu; Monestès, Jean-Louis; McHugh, Louise; Freixa i Baqué, Esteve; Loas, Gwenolé

    2010-06-01

    Impaired ability of identifying mental states is a characteristic of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In particular, people suffering from this illness tend to fail at attributing a belief to another, which has been linked to difficulties in changing interpersonal perspective. Following the view of Relational Frame Theory on perspective-taking skills, the current study aimed at examining the involvement of social anhedonia, one of the frequent features of schizophrenia, in the development of deficits in reversing the I-YOU relation (i.e., adopting the perspective of another). A task consisting of attributing a belief to another or to the self was employed with 30 non-clinical participants with a high level of social anhedonia and with 15 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. In comparison to two control groups, both experimental groups showed significant poorer performance when adopting the perspective of another. These results constitute important indications to target specific relational repertoires when attempting to remediate impairments in mental states attribution linked to schizophrenia.

  5. White Spruce Growth and Wood Properties over Multiple Time Periods in Relation to Current Tree and Stand Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cortini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between white spruce radial increment and wood properties were investigated in relation to tree and stand attributes using data from mature white spruce stands in the boreal forest of western Canada that experienced a range of shelterwood treatments. The model with the highest predictive ability was radial increment (adj-R2 = 67% and included crown attributes, diameter at breast height (DBH, average height of competitors, and a climate index. Radial growth was positively related to live crown ratio, whereas wood density and modulus of elasticity were negatively correlated to the crown attribute. Tree slenderness had a significant negative effect on wood density and modulus of elasticity, as it reflects the mechanical stability requirement of the tree. The models consistently improved when using annual averages calculated over longer periods of time. However, when the annual averages were calculated using time periods of 5–10 and 10–20 years prior to sampling, the predictive ability of the models decreased, which indicated that the current tree and stand conditions were the best predictors of growth and wood properties up to five years prior to sampling. This study suggests that crown length equal to 2/3 of the tree height might represent an optimal balance between radial growth and wood quality.

  6. 'Am I damaging my own family?': Relational changes between foster carers and their birth children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hayley; McPherson, Susan; Marsland, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Foster placements are more likely to break down where the foster carers already have birth children. Studies that explore the impact of fostering on foster carers and their birth children have suggested that relational changes occur, but these changes have not been examined in depth. This study aimed to explore the impact of fostering on parent-child relationships within foster families. Nine foster carers (including three couples) were interviewed separately, and the data were analysed using constructivist grounded theory methods. Analysis indicated that birth children may attribute particular importance to their position in the family (e.g. oldest child, youngest child) and that this is a key element of the way in which they relate to their parents. Emotional security and parent-child relationships can therefore be strained by a foster placement not taking this into account. Foster children also introduce significant competition for parental resources, putting a strain on relationships. Foster carers seem to prioritise, consciously or not, the preservation of relationships within the biological family. Reflecting on relationships and making changes to maximise potential improvements in relationships can lead to positive outcomes, and this can have an impact on whether families continue fostering or not. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. The Complex Neutrosophic Soft Expert Relation and Its Multiple Attribute Decision-Making Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Al-Quran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel soft computing technique, called the complex neutrosophic soft expert relation (CNSER, to evaluate the degree of interaction between two hybrid models called complex neutrosophic soft expert sets (CNSESs. CNSESs are used to represent two-dimensional data that are imprecise, uncertain, incomplete and indeterminate. Moreover, it has a mechanism to incorporate the parameter set and the opinions of all experts in one model, thus making it highly suitable for use in decision-making problems where the time factor plays a key role in determining the final decision. The complex neutrosophic soft expert set and complex neutrosophic soft expert relation are both defined. Utilizing the properties of CNSER introduced, an empirical study is conducted on the relationship between the variability of the currency exchange rate and Malaysian exports and the time frame (phase of the interaction between these two variables. This study is supported further by an algorithm to determine the type and the degree of this relationship. A comparison between different existing relations and CNSER to show the ascendancy of our proposed CNSER is provided. Then, the notion of the inverse, complement and composition of CNSERs along with some related theorems and properties are introduced. Finally, we define the symmetry, transitivity and reflexivity of CNSERs, as well as the equivalence relation and equivalence classes on CNSESs. Some interesting properties are also obtained.

  8. Mental Health and Family Relations: Correlated Reports from People Who Inject Drugs and their Family Members in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Liang, Li-Jung; Lin, Chunqing; Farmer, Shu C.; Flore, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background This article explores the association of people who inject drugs and their family members in terms of mental health and family relations. The objective was to understand the family context and its impact on people who inject drugs in a family-oriented culture in Vietnam. Methods Cross-sectional assessment data were gathered from 83 people who inject drugs and 83 of their family members recruited from four communes in Phú Thọ province, Vietnam. Depressive symptoms and family relations were measured for both people who inject drugs and family members. Internalized shame and drug-using behavior were reported by people who inject drugs, and caregiver burden was reported by family members. Results We found that higher level of drug using behavior of people who inject drugs was significantly associated with higher depressive symptoms and lower family relations reported by themselves as well as their family members. Family relations reported by people who inject drugs and their family members were positively correlated. Conclusion The findings highlight the need for interventions that address psychological distress and the related challenges faced by family members of people who inject drugs. The article has policy implication which concludes with an argument for developing strategies that enhance the role of families in supporting behavioral change of people who inject drugs. PMID:23910167

  9. A Familial Cluster of Human Brucellosis Attributable to Contact with Imported Infected Goats in Shuyang, Jiangsu Province, China, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhongming; Huang, Yong; Liu, Genyan; Zhou, Weizhong; Xu, Xilou; Zhang, Zibing; Shen, Qing; Tang, Fenyang; Zhu, Yefei

    2015-10-01

    Brucellosis remains a serious public health issue in developing countries, including China. On August 8, 2013, four cases of brucellosis from one extended family were reported at Shuyang County, Jiangsu Province, China. Active case finding was performed to identify the source and the risk factors of the infection and to prevent additional cases. Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was used for molecular subtyping analysis. Six people from two extended families met the case definition for brucellosis infection; four were blood culture positive for Brucella melitensis biotype 3. Four additional family members were found seropositive by using a serological test. Isolates from the four patients were indistinguishable by MLVA profiling, displaying a unique type for Jiangsu Province. Field epidemiological data combined with MLVA genotyping supported a common source of the isolates from the different patients. We recommend stronger reinforcement measures for animal quarantine practices, enhanced cooperation with veterinary service organizations, and implementation of measures that strengthen public education on brucellosis to prevent further human outbreaks in Jiangsu Province. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  10. Transnational caregiving: Part 1, caring for family relations across nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, V Erica

    2011-01-01

    This article concerns how globalization and the aging of the world's population are affecting the already complex issue of intergenerational transnational caregiving. Globalization has caused an increase in workforce mobility with large numbers of individuals seeking employment overseas. This, coupled with increased longevity globally, has resulted in many workers leaving their elderly parents in need of care in their home countries. This has spawned caregiving across national borders, or caring for family relations across nations. Currently in the United States, not enough emphasis is given to family caregiving. Data compiled by AARP and the National Alliance for Caregiving estimate the economic value for this group of family caregivers in 2007 to be $375 billion, accounting for 34-52 million family caregivers per given year. This does not include those families who are transnational caregivers. The seminal work in this emerging field has been done by social anthropologists Loretta Baldassar, Cora Velekoop Baldock, and Raelene Wilding, who have defined the components of transnational caregiving based on an ethnographic study using qualitative data to study nine immigrant communities in Western Australia. Although their research focused on caregiving from a distance, additional work has been added to the discussion by introducing the element of "care drain" and further cultural perspectives. Therefore, this research is an exploratory study on intergenerational transnational caregiving within the context of the changing world and its demographics. Within the context of globalization and global aging, the following questions are addressed: What is the significance of family caregiving? What is a transnational? How has technology changed "transnationalism" today? What are the elements that comprise transnational caregiving? How does culture play a role in transnational caregiving? What are some of the national initiatives undertaken by governments to aid in workforce

  11. Quantitative Authorship Attribution of Users of Mexican Drug Dealing Related Online Forums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico Sulayes, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    As the violence in the Mexican drug war escalates, a proliferation of social media sites about drug trafficking in Mexico was followed by the murder of some of their users, and the eventual disappearance of many of those sites. Despite these events, there still exist a number of drug-dealing related social media outlets in this country with a…

  12. [Psychometric properties of the Basic Family Relations Inventory (BFRI)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez Martínez, Núria; Linares Fernández, Juan Luis; Vilaregut Puigdesens, Anna; Virgili Tejedor, Carles; Campreciós Orriols, Meritxell

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the factor structure and internal consistency of the Basic Family Relations Inventory (BFRI) in a non-probabilistic convenience sample of 442 participants (221 couples). Exploratory factor analysis resulted in three components. In a second-order factor analysis, the three components were grouped into two factors: the Conjugal factor, which refers to how the people who exercise the parental role interact with each other (generally, the parental couple), and the Parenting factor, which represents the way in which the parental couple treat their children. Both first- and second-order factors had high reliability indices. It was concluded that the 25-item BFRI is a valid instrument to evaluate the two-dimensional model of the basic family relations theory.

  13. How consumers are affected by product descriptions in online shopping: Event-related potentials evidence of the attribute framing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jia; Zhang, Wuke; Chen, Mingliang

    2017-12-01

    Due to the limitations of the human ability to process information, e-consumers' decisions are likely to be influenced by various cognitive biases, such as the attribute framing effect. This effect has been well studied by numerous scholars; however, the associated underlying neural mechanisms with a critical temporal resolution have not been revealed. Thus, this study applies the measurement of event-related potentials (ERPs) to directly examine the role of attribute framing in information processing and decision-making in online shopping. The behavioral results showed that participants demonstrated a higher purchase intention with a shorter reaction time under a positive framing condition compared to participants under a negative framing condition. Compared with positive framing messages, the results of ERPs indicated that negative framing messages attracted more attention resources at the early stage of rapid automatic processing (larger P2 amplitude) and resulted in greater cognitive conflict and decision difficulty (larger P2-N2 complex). Moreover, compared with negative messages, positive framing messages allowed consumers to perceive a better future performance of products and classify these products as a categorization of higher evaluation (larger LPP amplitude) at the late cognitive processing stage of evaluation. Based on these results, we provide evidence for a better understanding of how different attribute framing messages are processed and ultimately lead to the framing effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Family size and paternal unemployment in relation to myocardial infarction.

    OpenAIRE

    Burr, M. L.; Sweetnam, P.M.

    1980-01-01

    Men who had been in hospital for myocardial infarction (MI) were compared with other male patients in an attempt to provide evidence on the hypothesis linking MI with poverty in childhood followed by relative affluence. In each of three social class groupings MI patients came from larger families than controls, and a higher proportion of their fathers had been unemployed for more than a year during their childhood. This gives some support to the hypothesis that childhood poverty may be associ...

  15. The inter-relations between ICT and Family Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cidonea Machado Deponti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a result of the research and technological extension work related to the Project entitled "The use and appropriation of ICTs by family farmers in the Vale do Caí - RS", financed by the edict of MCTI/CNPq, FAPERGS and UNISC, developed in Partnership with EMATER/ASCAR-RS, the Union of Rural Workers, the rural schools located in the Vale do Caí, the students of the Graduation Administration and Accounting Sciences courses of the Campus of Montenegro/UNISC and the doctoral students of the Postgraduate Program in Regional Development. This article refers to a literature review of the production carried out by the project team and aims to demonstrate the interrelations between the use and appropriation of ICTs and family agriculture. It was identified that only the access of the families of farmers to the new technologies and an adequate infrastructure does not guarantee, in itself, the use of the ICTs. It is concluded that the appropriation of ICT by family agriculture depends on a process of mediation and social interface between the University and society, requiring interdisciplinary work teams, resources for the extension, projects with long-term maturity, without time limits and of goals. In addition, it is emphasized that the understanding of the symbolic universe and the everyday life of the farmers must be the starting point.

  16. Nonverbal communication as an expression of family relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRYSTYNA FERENZ

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Family is the basic and immediate environment of human life, in which one becomes a person. It is in that social circle that all of the most important needs – existential, conscious and emotional – are being fulfilled. The mutual understanding of the family members creates a plane for integration. A feeling of community is constructed upon it. Interpersonal relationships called social relations are becoming important to everyone. Their character and strength of bond vary. The underlying powers are also diverse. The family as a unique social group has its own codes of communication, including a nonverbal code. Its understanding and correct decoding is made possible through social experience originating in a common circle. Direct contact dominates in this type of communication, with the phatic function being the most important one. Communicating in this way bears a strong emotional charge, which makes it the best means for transferring values. Competence of the users is shaped by the emotional bond between the members of the family

  17. Stigmatizing attitudes in relatives of people with schizophrenia: a study using the Attribution Questionnaire AQ-27 Atitudes estigmatizantes em familiares de pessoas com esquizofrenia: um estudo utilizando o Attribution Questionnaire AQ-27

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara de Sousa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Family members of people with mental disorders can contribute to stigmatization. Because of the lack of adequate information and resources, and the fatigue resulting from daily care, the family can reinforce social exclusion of the mentally ill and disbelieve recovery. Furthermore, family members may also suffer from self-stigma, experiencing a decrease in their own self-esteem and self-worth. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of stigmatizing attitudes towards patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in a group of relatives of patients with this disorder. METHODS: In this exploratory study, we surveyed 40 family members of patients with schizophrenia seen at the Community Psychiatry Unit of the Psychiatry Department at Centro Hospitalar de São João (CHSJ, in Porto, Portugal, using a preliminary version of the Attribution Questionnaire AQ-27 in Portuguese. RESULTS: The questionnaire dimensions with the highest mean scores were help, pity, and coercion, followed by segregation, anger, avoidance, dangerousness, responsibility, and fear. These results suggest that relatives do not see people with schizophrenia as responsible for their illness and that they show concern and willingness to help. They avoid but do not fear people with schizophrenia and neither consider them dangerous. CONCLUSION: The participants expressed positive, little stigmatizing attitudes towards people with schizophrenia, probably as a result of their familiarity with severe mental disorder, an adequate attribution process, and low levels of perceived dangerousness. However, the high scores of coercion, pity, and segregation may reflect concealed stigmas that may influence the self-determination of the mentally ill, suggesting the need for psychoeducational interventions aimed at family members.INTRODUÇÃO: Na doença mental, a família pode ser um agente do processo de estigmatização. Devido à falta de informação adequada e de recursos e ao cansa

  18. Primary liver cancer deaths and related years of life lost attributable to hepatitis B and C viruses in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami, Farhad; Dikshit, Rajesh; Mallath, Mohandas K; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-02-01

    More than 25,000 people die of liver cancer annually in India. There is little information about the contribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) to these deaths. We conducted a systematic review of published studies on HBV or HCV infection and liver cancer in India and estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) of liver cancer deaths caused by these infections and the corresponding annual number of deaths and years of life lost (YLL) in the country. We searched the PubMed and Scopus databases, as well as the reference list of relevant articles in the systematic review. For calculation of the number of liver cancer deaths attributable to HBV and HCV, we used two sources of outcome data and two relative risks for the association between HCV and liver cancer. The PAF was 67% for HBV, 17-19% for HCV, and 71-72% for HBV and/or HCV. The annual attributable number of liver cancer deaths was approximately 17,000 for HBV; 4500 for HCV; and 18,500 for HBV and/or HCV, corresponding to approximately 297,000, 75,000, and 315,000 YLL, respectively. There was little difference in these numbers using the two sources of outcome data or the two risk estimates for HCV. Our findings underscore the importance of primary prevention of HBV and HCV by appropriate measures, including vaccination (HBV only), prevention of transfusion-related infections, and increased awareness of the routes of transmission and long-term health outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Familial pachygyria in both genders related to a DCX mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ok; Nam, Tai-Seung; Park, Chungoo; Kim, Seul Kee; Yoon, Woong; Choi, Seok-Yong; Kim, Myeong-Kyu; Woo, Young Jong

    2016-06-01

    Doublecortin (DCX) and tubulin play critical roles in neuronal migration. DCX mutations usually cause anterior dominant lissencephaly in males and subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) in females. We used whole-exome sequencing to investigate causative gene variants in a large family with late-childhood-onset focal epilepsy and anterior dominant pachygyria without SBH in both genders. Two potential variants were found for the genes encoding DCX and beta tubulin isotype 1 (TUBB1). The novel DCX mutation (p.D90G, NP_000546.2) appeared to be a major causative variant, whereas the novel mutation of TUBB1 (p.R62fsX, NP_110400.1) was found only in patients with more-severe intellectual disability after gender matching. We report an unusual DCX-related disorder exhibiting familial pachygyria without SBH in both genders. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Study of fault configuration related mysteries through multi seismic attribute analysis technique in Zamzama gas field area, southern Indus Basin, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabeer Ahmed Abbasi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Seismic attribute analysis approach has been applied for the interpretation and identification of fault geometry of Zamzama Gas Field. Zamzama gas field area, which lies in the vicinity of Kirthar fold and thrust belt, Southern Indus Basin of Pakistan. The Zamzama fault and its related structure have been predicted by applying the Average Energy Attribute, Instantaneous Frequency Attribute, relative Acoustic Impedance Attribute and Chaotic Reflection Attribute on the seismic line GHPK98A.34. The results have been confirmed by applying the spectral decomposition attribute on the same seismic line that reveal the geometric configuration of Zamzama structure. The fault is reverse and started from 0 s and ended at the depth of 2.5 s on the vertical seismic section. Hanging wall moves up along the fault plane under the action of eastward oriented stress, which formed a large north–south oriented and eastward verging thrusted anticline.

  1. Power relations in the family health team: focus on nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Iramildes Souza; Arantes, Cássia Irene Spinelli

    2017-01-01

    to analyze the power relations that permeate the work of the family health team, and to discuss perspectives of emancipation of these subjects, focusing on nursing and community health agents. a qualitative study with a family health team from a municipality in the countryside of the state of São Paulo. Data were collected through systematic observation and interview with workers. A thematic content analysis was performed. three categories were identified: the work of the family health team and power relations; power relations between the nurse and the healthcare team; and the relations among the nursing team and between community agents and the nurse. The team produces relations of power moved by hierarchical knowledge that move in the search for the reordering of powers. it is necessary to review the contradictions present in the performance scenario of the family health teams, with a view toward making power relations more flexible. analisar as relações de poder que permeiam o trabalho da equipe de saúde da família e discutir perspectivas de emancipação desses sujeitos, com enfoque na enfermagem e agentes comunitários de saúde. estudo qualitativo com equipe de saúde da família de município do interior paulista. Os dados foram coletados por meio de observação sistemática e entrevista com os trabalhadores. Foi realizada análise de conteúdo temática. foram identificadas três categorias: o trabalho da equipe de saúde da família e as relações de poder; a relação de poder entre enfermeira e equipe de saúde; as relações da enfermagem e agentes comunitários com a enfermeira. A equipe produz relações de poder movidas por saberes hierarquizados que se movimentam na busca pelo reordenamento dos poderes. é necessário rever as contradições presentes no cenário de atuação das equipes de saúde da família, com vistas à flexibilidade nas relações de poder.

  2. Reliable and valid NEWS for Chinese seniors: measuring perceived neighborhood attributes related to walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Lok-chun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of the built environment on walking in seniors have not been studied in an Asian context. To examine these effects, valid and reliable measures are needed. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire of perceived neighborhood characteristics related to walking appropriate for Chinese seniors (Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for Chinese Seniors, NEWS-CS. It was based on the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale - Abbreviated (NEWS-A, a validated measure of perceived built environment developed in the USA for adults. A secondary study aim was to establish the generalizability of the NEWS-A to an Asian high-density urban context and a different age group. Methods A multidisciplinary panel of experts adapted the original NEWS-A to reflect the built environment of Hong Kong and needs of seniors. The translated instrument was pre-tested on a sample of 50 Chinese-speaking senior residents (65+ years. The final version of the NEWS-CS was interviewer-administered to 484 seniors residing in four selected Hong Kong districts varying in walkability and socio-economic status. Ninety-two participants completed the questionnaire on two separate occasions, 2-3 weeks apart. Test-rest reliability indices were estimated for each item and subscale of the NEWS-CS. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to develop the measurement model of the NEWS-CS and cross-validate that of the NEWS-A. Results The final version of the NEWS-CS consisted of 14 subscales and four single items (76 items. Test-retest reliability was moderate to good (ICC > 50 or % agreement > 60 except for four items measuring distance to destinations. The originally-proposed measurement models of the NEWS-A and NEWS-CS required 2-3 theoretically-justifiable modifications to fit the data well. Conclusions The NEWS-CS possesses sufficient levels of reliability and factorial validity to be used for measuring perceived neighborhood

  3. Family perspectives in lynch syndrome becoming a family at risk, patterns of communication and influence on relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartuma Katarina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing number of individuals are diagnosed with hereditary cancer. Though increased levels of anxiety and depression have been demonstrated around the time of genetic counselling, most individuals handle life at increased risk well. Data have, however, been collected on individual basis, which led us to focus on family perspectives of hereditary cancer. Methods Lynch syndrome represents a major type of hereditary colorectal and gynaecological cancer. We preformed open-ended interviews with 27 informants from 9 Lynch syndrome families. Inductive content analysis revealed three major themes: transition to a risk family, patterns of communication and influence on family relations and individual roles. Results Family members described how learning about Lynch syndrome shifted focus from daily issues to concerns about cancer. Changes in communication related to difficulties in talking to children about heredity and informing new family members and distant relatives about an increased risk of cancer. Influence on relations was exemplified by family members taking on different roles, e.g. females often being responsible for coordinating information about heredity and providing support. Families in which members had experienced cancer at young age typically informed children soon after learning about heredity and at young age, whereas families with experience of cancer at higher age postponed information and thereby also genetic counselling. Conclusions Three major family perspectives are described in Lynch syndrome families; becoming a risk family, patterns of communication and influence on family relations. Since these issues are central, our findings suggests that such family perspectives should be considered during genetic counselling in order to contribute to information spread, help family members cope with the increased risk, and motivate family members at risk to undergo surveillance.

  4. Family perspectives in lynch syndrome becoming a family at risk, patterns of communication and influence on relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartuma, Katarina; Nilbert, Mef; Carlsson, Christina

    2012-05-25

    A growing number of individuals are diagnosed with hereditary cancer. Though increased levels of anxiety and depression have been demonstrated around the time of genetic counselling, most individuals handle life at increased risk well. Data have, however, been collected on individual basis, which led us to focus on family perspectives of hereditary cancer. Lynch syndrome represents a major type of hereditary colorectal and gynaecological cancer. We preformed open-ended interviews with 27 informants from 9 Lynch syndrome families. Inductive content analysis revealed three major themes: transition to a risk family, patterns of communication and influence on family relations and individual roles. Family members described how learning about Lynch syndrome shifted focus from daily issues to concerns about cancer. Changes in communication related to difficulties in talking to children about heredity and informing new family members and distant relatives about an increased risk of cancer. Influence on relations was exemplified by family members taking on different roles, e.g. females often being responsible for coordinating information about heredity and providing support. Families in which members had experienced cancer at young age typically informed children soon after learning about heredity and at young age, whereas families with experience of cancer at higher age postponed information and thereby also genetic counselling. Three major family perspectives are described in Lynch syndrome families; becoming a risk family, patterns of communication and influence on family relations. Since these issues are central, our findings suggests that such family perspectives should be considered during genetic counselling in order to contribute to information spread, help family members cope with the increased risk, and motivate family members at risk to undergo surveillance.

  5. The relations between violence exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms, secondary traumatization, vicarious post traumatic growth and illness attribution among psychiatric nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerach, Gad; Shalev, Tal Ben-Itzchak

    2015-06-01

    This study examined posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSD), secondary traumatization (ST) and vicarious posttraumatic growth (VG) among Israeli psychiatric nurses (PN) who were compared to community nurses (CN). Furthermore, we examined the contribution of PN perceptions of the etiology of their patients' mental illness to their PTSD, ST and VG. Results show that PN reported higher levels of both PTSD and ST symptoms, but lower levels of VG, as compare to CN. While ST symptoms were positively related to VG among CN, PTSD and ST symptoms were negatively associated among PN. Finally, exposure to patients' violence, PTSD or ST symptoms, and illness attribution dimensions of 'powerful others', predicted nurses' VG. PN are an at-risk population for work-related stress residues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Relative Importance of Modularity and Other Morphological Attributes on Different Types of Lithic Point Weapons: Assessing Functional Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-José, Rolando; Charlin, Judith

    2012-01-01

    The specific using of different prehistoric weapons is mainly determined by its physical properties, which provide a relative advantage or disadvantage to perform a given, particular function. Since these physical properties are integrated to accomplish that function, examining design variables and their pattern of integration or modularity is of interest to estimate the past function of a point. Here we analyze a composite sample of lithic points from southern Patagonia likely formed by arrows, thrown spears and hand-held points to test if they can be viewed as a two-module system formed by the blade and the stem, and to evaluate the degree in which shape, size, asymmetry, blade: stem length ratio, and tip angle explain the observed variance and differentiation among points supposedly aimed to accomplish different functions. To do so we performed a geometric morphometric analysis on 118 lithic points, departing from 24 two-dimensional landmark and semi landmarks placed on the point's contour. Klingenberg's covariational modularity tests were used to evaluate different modularity hypotheses, and a composite PCA including shape, size, asymmetry, blade: stem length ratio, and tip angle was used to estimate the importance of each attribute to explaining variation patterns. Results show that the blade and the stem can be seen as “near decomposable units” in the points integrating the studied sample. However, this modular pattern changes after removing the effects of reduction. Indeed, a resharpened point tends to show a tip/rest of the point modular pattern. The composite PCA analyses evidenced three different patterns of morphometric attributes compatible with arrows, thrown spears, and hand-held tools. Interestingly, when analyzed independently, these groups show differences in their modular organization. Our results indicate that stone tools can be approached as flexible designs, characterized by a composite set of interacting morphometric attributes, and

  7. Relative importance of modularity and other morphological attributes on different types of lithic point weapons: assessing functional variations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando González-José

    Full Text Available The specific using of different prehistoric weapons is mainly determined by its physical properties, which provide a relative advantage or disadvantage to perform a given, particular function. Since these physical properties are integrated to accomplish that function, examining design variables and their pattern of integration or modularity is of interest to estimate the past function of a point. Here we analyze a composite sample of lithic points from southern Patagonia likely formed by arrows, thrown spears and hand-held points to test if they can be viewed as a two-module system formed by the blade and the stem, and to evaluate the degree in which shape, size, asymmetry, blade: stem length ratio, and tip angle explain the observed variance and differentiation among points supposedly aimed to accomplish different functions. To do so we performed a geometric morphometric analysis on 118 lithic points, departing from 24 two-dimensional landmark and semi landmarks placed on the point's contour. Klingenberg's covariational modularity tests were used to evaluate different modularity hypotheses, and a composite PCA including shape, size, asymmetry, blade: stem length ratio, and tip angle was used to estimate the importance of each attribute to explaining variation patterns. Results show that the blade and the stem can be seen as "near decomposable units" in the points integrating the studied sample. However, this modular pattern changes after removing the effects of reduction. Indeed, a resharpened point tends to show a tip/rest of the point modular pattern. The composite PCA analyses evidenced three different patterns of morphometric attributes compatible with arrows, thrown spears, and hand-held tools. Interestingly, when analyzed independently, these groups show differences in their modular organization. Our results indicate that stone tools can be approached as flexible designs, characterized by a composite set of interacting morphometric

  8. Family size and paternal unemployment in relation to myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, M L; Sweetnam, P M

    1980-06-01

    Men who had been in hospital for myocardial infarction (MI) were compared with other male patients in an attempt to provide evidence on the hypothesis linking MI with poverty in childhood followed by relative affluence. In each of three social class groupings MI patients came from larger families than controls, and a higher proportion of their fathers had been unemployed for more than a year during their childhood. This gives some support to the hypothesis that childhood poverty may be associated with an excess risk of MI. There was no obvious evidence of a greater improvement in social class status among the MI patients compared with the controls.

  9. Studying consumer behaviour related to the quality of food: A case on vegetable preparation affecting sensory and health attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongoni, R.; Steenbekkers, L.P.A.; Verkerk, R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Dekker, M.

    2013-01-01

    The domestic preparation of vegetables induces a significant change in their sensory and health attributes. The preparation of vegetables by consumers is likely to be controlled by assessing perceivable (sensory) quality attributes such as colour and texture because other quality attributes,

  10. Psychological symptoms and health-related quality of life in idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellqvist, Anna; Palmquist, Eva; Nordin, Steven

    2016-05-01

    Need for better understanding of the etiology of idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) motivated the present study of psychological symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in person who attribute health problems to electromagnetic fields. Participants with IEI-EMF (n=114) and a population-based sample of referents (n=104) were investigated with six subscales of the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) to assess psychological symptoms, and with eight subscales of the Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36) to assess HRQoL. Significantly higher scores were found on obsessive/compulsive behavior, interpersonal hypersensitivity, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid thoughts in the IEI-EMF group compared to referents, whereas only a tendency of such a difference was found for psychotism. Furthermore, poorer HRQoL in the IEI-EMF group, compared to referents, were found regarding physical and social functioning, physical and emotional role limitations, general health, vitality, bodily pain, and mental health. Significant correlation with moderate to strong effect sizes were found between several of the SCL-90 and SF-36 subscales. The results suggest that IEI-EMF is associated with various types of psychological symptoms and with poor HRQoL. Clinical implications include theoretical support for cognitive behavioral therapy, and, although further research is needed, that attention should be directed towards feelings of inferiority and uneasiness in relationships as well as anger, hostility and resentment towards other people. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Drifts in ADCC-related quality attributes of Herceptin®: Impact on development of a trastuzumab biosimilar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seokkyun; Song, Jinsu; Park, Seungkyu; Ham, Sunyoung; Paek, Kyungyeol; Kang, Minjung; Chae, Yunjung; Seo, Heewon; Kim, Hyung-Chan; Flores, Michael

    A biosimilar product needs to demonstrate biosimilarity to the originator reference product, and the quality profile of the latter should be monitored throughout the period of the biosimilar's development to match the quality attributes of the 2 products that relate to efficacy and safety. For the development of a biosimilar version of trastuzumab, the reference product, Herceptin®, was extensively characterized for the main physicochemical and biologic properties by standard or state-of-the-art analytical methods, using multiple lots expiring between March 2015 and December 2019. For lots with expiry dates up to July 2018, a high degree of consistency was observed for all the tested properties. However, among the lots expiring in August 2018 or later, a downward drift was observed in %afucose (G0+G1+G2). Furthermore, the upward drift of %high mannose (M5+M6) was observed in the lots with expiry dates from June 2019 to December 2019. As a result, the combination of %afucose and %high mannose showed 2 marked drifts in the lots with expiry dates from August 2018 to December 2019, which was supported by the similar trend of biologic data, such as FcγRIIIa binding and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity. Considering that ADCC is one of the clinically relevant mechanisms of action for trastuzumab, the levels of %afucose and %high mannose should be tightly monitored as critical quality attributes for biosimilar development of trastuzumab.

  12. Effect of Intentional Bias on Agency Attribution of Animated Motion: An Event-Related fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Naoyuki; Ikeda, Takashi; Osaka, Mariko

    2012-01-01

    Animated movements of simple geometric shapes can readily be interpreted as depicting social events in which animate agents are engaged in intentional activity. However, the brain regions associated with such intention have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, intentional bias was manipulated using shape and pattern animations while measuring associated brain activity using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-five higher-intention involved and twenty-five lower-intention involved animations were presented to participants. Behavioral results showed that the degree of agency attribution of the mental state increased as intentional involvement increased. fMRI results revealed that the posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS), inferior temporal gyrus (ITG), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), premotor, temporal pole, supramarginal gyrus, and superior parietal lobule (SPL) were activated while participants viewed the high-intention animations. In contrast, occipital, lingual, and middle frontal gyri were activated while the participants viewed the low-intention animations. These findings suggest that as agent attribution increases, the visual brain changes its functional role to the intentional brain and becomes a flexible network for processing information about social interaction. PMID:23155450

  13. Prospective relations between family conflict and adolescent maladjustment: security in the family system as a mediating process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Koss, Kalsea J; Davies, Patrick T

    2015-04-01

    Conflict in specific family systems (e.g., interparental, parent-child) has been implicated in the development of a host of adjustment problems in adolescence, but little is known about the impact of family conflict involving multiple family systems. Furthermore, questions remain about the effects of family conflict on symptoms of specific disorders and adjustment problems and the processes mediating these effects. The present study prospectively examines the impact of family conflict and emotional security about the family system on adolescent symptoms of specific disorders and adjustment problems, including the development of symptoms of anxiety, depression, conduct problems, and peer problems. Security in the family system was examined as a mediator of these relations. Participants included 295 mother-father-adolescent families (149 girls) participating across three annual time points (grades 7-9). Including auto-regressive controls for initial levels of emotional insecurity and multiple adjustment problems (T1), higher-order emotional insecurity about the family system (T2) mediated relations between T1 family conflict and T3 peer problems, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Further analyses supported specific patterns of emotional security/insecurity (i.e., security, disengagement, preoccupation) as mediators between family conflict and specific domains of adolescent adjustment. Family conflict was thus found to prospectively predict the development of symptoms of multiple specific adjustment problems, including symptoms of depression, anxiety, conduct problems, and peer problems, by elevating in in adolescent's emotional insecurity about the family system. The clinical implications of these findings are considered.

  14. The Association between Language Maintenance and Family Relations: Chinese Immigrant Children in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Michal; Howie, Pauline

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relevance of emotional and familial factors to language maintenance in immigrant families. Information on the family relations of 40 children from Chinese-speaking immigrant families in Sydney, Australia. Analysis revealed that children likely to use their parents' mother tongue were those who perceived their family to be more…

  15. Perceived neighborhood environmental attributes associated with adults’ transport-related walking and cycling: Findings from the USA, Australia and Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Active transportation has the potential to contribute considerably to overall physical activity levels in adults and is likely to be influenced by neighborhood-related built environment characteristics. Previous studies that examined the associations between built environment attributes and active transportation, focused mainly on transport-related walking and were conducted within single countries, limiting environmental variability. We investigated the direction and shape of relationships of perceived neighborhood attributes with transport-related cycling and walking in three countries; and examined whether these associations differed by country and gender. Methods Data from the USA (Baltimore and Seattle), Australia (Adelaide) and Belgium (Ghent) were pooled. In total, 6,014 adults (20–65 years, 55.7% women) were recruited in high-/low-walkable and high-/low-income neighborhoods. All participants completed the Neighborhood Environmental Walkability Scale and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Generalized additive mixed models were used to estimate the strength and shape of the associations. Results Proximity to destinations, good walking and cycling facilities, perceiving difficulties in parking near local shopping areas, and perceived aesthetics were included in a ‘cyclability’ index. This index was linearly positively related to transport-related cycling and no gender- or country-differences were observed. The ‘walkability’ index consisted of perceived residential density, land use mix access, proximity of destinations and aesthetics. A non-linear positive relationship with transport-related walking was found. This association was stronger in women than in men, and country-specific associations were identified: the strongest association was observed in Seattle, the weakest in Adelaide. In Ghent, the association weakened at higher levels of walkability. Conclusions For cycling, consistent correlates were found in the three

  16. Perceived neighborhood environmental attributes associated with adults’ transport-related walking and cycling: Findings from the USA, Australia and Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Dyck Delfien

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active transportation has the potential to contribute considerably to overall physical activity levels in adults and is likely to be influenced by neighborhood-related built environment characteristics. Previous studies that examined the associations between built environment attributes and active transportation, focused mainly on transport-related walking and were conducted within single countries, limiting environmental variability. We investigated the direction and shape of relationships of perceived neighborhood attributes with transport-related cycling and walking in three countries; and examined whether these associations differed by country and gender. Methods Data from the USA (Baltimore and Seattle, Australia (Adelaide and Belgium (Ghent were pooled. In total, 6,014 adults (20–65 years, 55.7% women were recruited in high-/low-walkable and high-/low-income neighborhoods. All participants completed the Neighborhood Environmental Walkability Scale and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Generalized additive mixed models were used to estimate the strength and shape of the associations. Results Proximity to destinations, good walking and cycling facilities, perceiving difficulties in parking near local shopping areas, and perceived aesthetics were included in a ‘cyclability’ index. This index was linearly positively related to transport-related cycling and no gender- or country-differences were observed. The ‘walkability’ index consisted of perceived residential density, land use mix access, proximity of destinations and aesthetics. A non-linear positive relationship with transport-related walking was found. This association was stronger in women than in men, and country-specific associations were identified: the strongest association was observed in Seattle, the weakest in Adelaide. In Ghent, the association weakened at higher levels of walkability. Conclusions For cycling, consistent

  17. FAMILY OF FLP PEPTIDES IN CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS AND RELATED NEMATODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris eLi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptides regulate all aspects of behavior in multicellular organisms. Because of their ability to act at long distances, neuropeptides can exert their effects beyond the conventional synaptic connections, thereby adding an intricate layer of complexity to the activity of neural networks. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a large number of neuropeptide genes that are expressed throughout the nervous system has been identified. The actions of these peptides supplement the synaptic connections of the 302 neurons, allowing for fine tuning of neural networks and increasing the ways in which behaviors can be regulated. In this review, we focus on a large family of genes encoding FMRFamide-related peptides. These genes, the flp genes, have been used as a starting point to identifying flp genes throughout Nematoda. Nematodes have the largest family of FMRFamide-related peptides described thus far. The challenges in the future are the elucidation of their functions and the identification of the receptors and signaling pathways through which they function.

  18. Characterizing quantum correlations. Entanglement, uncertainty relations and exponential families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niekamp, Soenke

    2012-04-20

    This thesis is concerned with different characterizations of multi-particle quantum correlations and with entropic uncertainty relations. The effect of statistical errors on the detection of entanglement is investigated. First, general results on the statistical significance of entanglement witnesses are obtained. Then, using an error model for experiments with polarization-entangled photons, it is demonstrated that Bell inequalities with lower violation can have higher significance. The question for the best observables to discriminate between a state and the equivalence class of another state is addressed. Two measures for the discrimination strength of an observable are defined, and optimal families of observables are constructed for several examples. A property of stabilizer bases is shown which is a natural generalization of mutual unbiasedness. For sets of several dichotomic, pairwise anticommuting observables, uncertainty relations using different entropies are constructed in a systematic way. Exponential families provide a classification of states according to their correlations. In this classification scheme, a state is considered as k-correlated if it can be written as thermal state of a k-body Hamiltonian. Witness operators for the detection of higher-order interactions are constructed, and an algorithm for the computation of the nearest k-correlated state is developed.

  19. The buying motives related to important supplier and product attributes: An analysis of retail buying behaviour in Denmark and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bove, Karsten; Kristensen, Gitte Hvoldal; Skytte, Hans

    1999-01-01

    and Germany using the laddering technique and means-end theory (Reynolds & Gut-man 1988). The purpose of the interview was to identify the content and relationship between attributes, consequences and values in order to get a deeper understanding of the retail buyer's cognitive structure. Our purpose...... was to analyse whether there is a difference in consequences and values sought from the same set of attributes. The results showed that supplier attributes were more important than product attributes, but both categories interact in a complex web of attributes to create central con-se-quences and values...... for the buyer. The study also showed that the same attributes lead to different consequences in the two coun-tries, and this means that value researchers must analyse more than concrete attribute to understand retail buying behaviour. The study has revealed that it is possible to analyse what the retail buyers...

  20. Social Cognition in Williams Syndrome: Relations between Performance on the Social Attribution Task and Cognitive and Behavioral Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Fluit, Faye; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Klein-Tasman, Bonita P.

    2012-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a developmental disorder of genetic origin, with characteristic cognitive and personality profiles. Studies of WS point to an outgoing and gregarious personality style, often contrasted with autism spectrum disorders; however, recent research has uncovered underlying social reciprocity difficulties in people with WS. Social information processing difficulties that underlie these social reciprocity difficulties have been sparsely examined. Participants in the current study included 24 children with WS ages 8 through 15. A lab-based measure of social perception and social cognition was administered (Social Attribution Test), as well as an intellectual functioning measure (KBIT-II) and parent reports of communication and reciprocal social skills (Social Communication Questionnaire, Social Responsiveness Scale). Relations between social cognition, cognitive abilities, and social-communication were examined. Results demonstrated relations between parent-reported social reciprocity and the typicality of the responses provided in the lab-based measure, even once variability in intellectual functioning was taken into account. Specifically, those individuals who produced narratives in response to the social attribution task (SAT) that were more similar to those described in previous studies of typically developing individuals were also reported to have fewer social reciprocity difficulties in the real world setting as reported by parents. In addition, a significant improvement in performance on the SAT was seen with added scaffolding, particularly for participants with stronger intellectual functioning. These findings indicate that difficulties interpreting the social dynamics between others in ambiguous situations may contribute to the social relationship difficulties observed in people with WS, above and beyond the role of intellectual functioning. Exploratory analyses indicated that performance by individuals with stronger intellectual

  1. The proportion of postmenopausal breast cancer cases in the Netherlands attributable to lifestyle-related risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gemert, W A; Lanting, C I; Goldbohm, R A; van den Brandt, P A; Grooters, H G; Kampman, E; Kiemeney, L A L M; van Leeuwen, F E; Monninkhof, E M; de Vries, E; Peeters, P H; Elias, S G

    2015-07-01

    We aimed to estimate the proportion of Dutch postmenopausal breast cancer cases in 2010 that is attributable to lifestyle-related risk factors. We calculated population attributable fractions (PAFs) of potentially modifiable risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer in Dutch women aged >50 in 2010. First, age-specific PAFs were calculated for each risk factor, based on their relative risks for postmenopausal breast cancer (from meta-analyses) and age-specific prevalence in the population (from national surveys) around the year 2000, assuming a latency period of 10 years. To obtain the overall PAF, age-specific PAFs were summed in a weighted manner, using the age-specific breast cancer incidence rates (2010) as weights. 95 % confidence intervals for PAF estimates were derived by Monte Carlo simulations. Of Dutch women >40 years, in 2000, 51 % were overweight/obese, 55 % physically inactive (factors combined had a PAF of 25.7 % (95 % CI 24.2-27.2), corresponding to 2,665 Dutch postmenopausal breast cancer cases in 2010. PAFs were 8.8 % (95 % CI 6.3-11.3) for overweight/obesity, 6.6 % (95 % CI 5.2-8.0) for alcohol consumption, 5.5 % (95 % CI 4.0-7.0) for physical inactivity, 4.6 % (95 % CI 3.3-6.0) for smoking and 3.2 % (95 % CI 1.6-4.8) for low-fibre intake. Our findings imply that modifiable risk factors are jointly responsible for approximately one out of four Dutch postmenopausal breast cancer cases. This suggests that incidence rates can be lowered substantially by living a more healthy lifestyle.

  2. [Factors affecting young mothers' social and family relations after pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Thatiana Araújo; Gomes, Keila Rejane Oliveira; Silva, José Mário Nunes da

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to analyze factors affecting social and family relations of young mothers in the two-year postpartum period. This was a cross-sectional study of 464 young mothers in Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil, who gave birth during the first four months of 2006 in six maternity hospitals. Data were collected from May to December 2008 after identifying the young women in the maternity hospital records. Multivariate analysis used multinomial logistic regression. Married young women (including those in common-law marriages) were 80% less likely to have negative relations with their partners. Participants 20 to 22 years of age related 2.4 times better with their mothers than those 17 to 19 years of age. Young women not attending school showed 97% higher odds of negative changes in relations with friends, and Catholics were 50% less likely to have worse relations with friends following childbirth. Measures are needed to orient individuals living with young mothers (especially their partners and mothers) concerning the importance of support in this phase of life, particularly encouraging them to stay in school.

  3. Family Members' Unique Perspectives of the Family: Examining their Scope, Size, and Relations to Individual Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Justin; Bornstein, Marc H.; Diane, L. Putnick; Hendricks, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    Using the Family Assessment Device (FAD; Epstein, Baldwin, & Bishop, 1983) and incorporating the perspectives of adolescent, mother, and father, this study examined each family member's “unique perspective” or non-shared, idiosyncratic view of the family. To do so we used a modified multitrait-multimethod confirmatory factor analysis that (1) isolated for each family member's six reports of family dysfunction the non-shared variance (a combination of variance idiosyncratic to the individual and measurement error) from variance shared by one or more family members and (2) extracted common variance across each family member's set of non-shared variances. The sample included 128 families from a U.S. East Coast metropolitan area. Each family member's unique perspective generalized across his or her different reports of family dysfunction and accounted for a sizable proportion of his or her own variance in reports of family dysfunction. Additionally, after holding level of dysfunction constant across families and controlling for a family's shared variance (agreement regarding family dysfunction), each family member's unique perspective was associated with his or her own adjustment. Future applications and competing alternatives for what these “unique perspectives” reflect about the family are discussed. PMID:22545933

  4. Family members' unique perspectives of the family: examining their scope, size, and relations to individual adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Justin; Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Hendricks, Charlene

    2012-06-01

    Using the McMaster Family Assessment Device (Epstein, Baldwin, & Bishop, 1983) and incorporating the perspectives of adolescent, mother, and father, this study examined each family member's "unique perspective" or nonshared, idiosyncratic view of the family. We used a modified multitrait-multimethod confirmatory factor analysis that (a) isolated for each family member's 6 reports of family dysfunction the nonshared variance (a combination of variance idiosyncratic to the individual and measurement error) from variance shared by 1 or more family members and (b) extracted common variance across each family member's set of nonshared variances. The sample included 128 families from a U.S. East Coast metropolitan area. Each family member's unique perspective generalized across his or her different reports of family dysfunction and accounted for a sizable proportion of his or her own variance in reports of family dysfunction. In addition, after holding level of dysfunction constant across families and controlling for a family's shared variance (agreement regarding family dysfunction), each family member's unique perspective was associated with his or her own adjustment. Future applications and competing alternatives for what these "unique perspectives" reflect about the family are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Relations between Parent Psychopathology, Family Functioning, and Adolescent Problems in Substance-Abusing Families: Disaggregating the Effects of Parent Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Marcy; Stanger, Catherine; Dumenci, Levent

    2012-01-01

    The present study: (1) examined relations between parent psychopathology and adolescent internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and substance use in substance-abusing families; and (2) tested family functioning problems as mediators of these relations. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the independent effects of parent…

  6. Familial clustering of myocardial infarction in first-degree relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mia; Andersson, Charlotte; Gerds, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Aims Family history is an established risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI), but it is not clear how this risk changes with number and gender of first-degree relatives with MI. We used the entire Danish population to examine the importance of MI in siblings and parents. Methods and results...... showed an RR of 4.30 (95% confidence interval 3.53–5.23) for siblings of a patient with MI. Children of parents with MI also showed high risk: for children of a maternal case RR 2.40 (2.20–2.60), and of a paternal case RR 1.98 (1.98–2.09), respectively; P value for gender interaction

  7. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan: effects of family function and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen; Wu, Yu-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between three indicators of family adversity (domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage) and the severity of social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan, as well as the mediating effects of perceived family function and self-esteem on that relationship, using structural equation modeling (SEM). A total of 5607 adolescents completed the social anxiety subscale of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children; the Family APGAR Index; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; and a questionnaire for domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety, as well as the mediating effects of family function and self-esteem, was examined using SEM. SEM analysis revealed that all three indicators of family adversity reduced the level of family function, that decreased family function compromised the level of self-esteem, and that a low level of self-esteem further increased the severity of social anxiety. The results indicated that, along with intervening to change family adversity, evaluating and improving adolescents' self-esteem and family function are also important clinical issues when helping adolescents reduce their social anxiety.

  8. The perception of relations in the family of origin of patients with eating disorders and the perception of relations in families of origin of their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilecki, Maciej; Józefik, Barbara; Kościelniak, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of the correlation between the assessment of current family relations in families of patients diagnosed with eating disorders and the assessment of the relations in the family of origin of their parents. 54 female patients with restrictive anorexia nervosa, 22 female patients with binge-purge anorexia, 36 female patients with bulimia. Two control groups were included: 36 female patients with depressive disorders and 85 schoolgirls from Krakow. The study also covered the girls' parents. Family of Origin Scale and FAM Family Assessment Measure (Polish version). In the families of schoolgirls from Krakow better evaluation of the experience of intimacy and autonomy in the family of origin of parents of the investigated girls was associated with their and their children more favourable perception of relations in the present nuclear family. What proved particularly significant were perception of transgenerational experiences of the fathers. Only a few statistically significant correlations were observed in all clinical groups. In the parents of the investigated patients a weak correlation was observed between the current marital relations perception and transgenerational experiences evaluation and a significant correlation between parents' transgenerational experience evaluation and the assessment of the relations with their daughters. No specific correlations were found between the perception of the transgenerational experience of parents and evaluation of current relations in the nuclear family of their children with eating disorders. The results in the group with eating disorders suggest that the relations between parents and daughters are more intense than marital relations.

  9. The roles of familial alcoholism and adolescent family harmony in young adults' substance dependence disorders: mediated and moderated relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; King, Kevin M; Chassin, Laurie

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the prospective relations among family history density of alcoholism (FHD), adolescent family harmony, and young adults' alcohol and drug dependence. Family harmony was rated by mothers and fathers in adolescence, and young adults' substance dependence diagnoses were obtained through structured interviews. Higher FHD predicted lower adolescent family harmony, which in turn increased young adults' odds of being diagnosed with drug dependence (with and without alcohol dependence) compared to no diagnoses or to alcohol dependence only. Family harmony also interacted with FHD such that the protective effect of family harmony on young adults' drug dependence with or without alcohol dependence decreased as FHD rose, and was nonsignificant at high levels of FHD. The findings suggest the importance of distinguishing among alcohol and drug dependence disorders and examining their differential etiological pathways, and also suggest that the protective effects of harmonious family environments on substance dependence may be limited at high levels of FHD.

  10. Ohmic Treatment of Pear Purées (cv. ‘Conference’ in Terms of Some Quality Related Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Viorela NISTOR

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ohmic treatment on some quality related characteristics of pear purée (cv. ‘Conference’ such as color, reducing sugars, total phenols, rheological behavior and microbial counts, was analyzed. The inactivation kinetics of pectin methyl esterase (PME in pear crude extract and purée were studied by conventional thermal and ohmic treatments. Thermal inactivation of PME in crude extract was described by a first-order kinetic model. The activation energy values suggested the presence of two isoenzymes with different thermostability. The ohmic heating reduced PME activity by 96% at 25 V·cm-1. Minimal changes induced by ohmic heating on above quality related aspects were observed. Supporting this statement, there were no significant changes in the nutritional and sensorial attributes. It was reported an increase of 3% of reducing sugar content for the ohmic heated samples. The phenolic content of the treated samples registered a reduction of 59% in comparison with fresh pear purée. The pear purée presented a non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behaviour. The Ostwald de Waele model was fitted to rheograms and the consistency coefficient (m and flow behavior index (n were determined. Results obtained for the microbial charge were higher in the control samples. Thus, microbial counts showed complete inactivation of yeast and mold at voltage gradient higher than 17.5 V·cm-1.

  11. Social Cognition in Williams Syndrome: Relations Between Performance on the Social Attribution Task and Cognitive and Behavioral Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faye eVan der Fluit

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS is a developmental disorder of genetic origin, with characteristic cognitive and personality profiles. Studies of WS point to an outgoing and gregarious personality style, often contrasted with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs; however, recent research has uncovered underlying social reciprocity difficulties in people with WS. Participants in the current study included 24 children with WS ages 8 through 15. A lab-based measure of social perception and social cognition was administered (Social Attribution Test, as well as an intellectual functioning measure (KBIT-II and parent reports of communication and reciprocal social skills (Social Communication Questionnaire, Social Responsiveness Scale. Relations between social cognition, cognitive abilities, and social-communication were examined. Results demonstrated relations between parent-reported social reciprocity and the typicality of the responses provided in the lab-based measure, even once variability in intellectual functioning was taken into account. In addition, a significant improvement in performance was seen with the added scaffolding particularly for participants with stronger intellectual functioning.

  12. Successful Language Learning in a Corporate Setting: The Role of Attribution Theory and Its Relation to Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kálmán, Csaba; Eugenio, Esther Gutierrez

    2015-01-01

    Attribution theory (Weiner, 1985) and self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) have been explored as contributors to L2 motivation (cf. Dörnyei, 2001) but have never been studied quantitatively in concert. In addition, students' attributions for success in learning a foreign language have never been measured through the use of a…

  13. Successful language learning in a corporate setting: The role of attribution theory and its relation to intrinsic and extrinsic motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba Kálmán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Attribution theory (Weiner, 1985 and self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985 have been explored as contributors to L2 motivation (cf. Dörnyei, 2001 but have never been studied quantitatively in concert. In addition, students’ attributions for success in learning a foreign language have never been measured through the use of a questionnaire. The aim of this paper is therefore (a to develop a questionnaire with reliable constructs that allows to measure adult learners’ attributions for their success in learning English in a corporate setting, (b to investigate these learners’ attributions, and (c to investigate the relationship between students’ attributions and the constructs of Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivation central to self-determination theory. Our main results show that among the attributions measured, interest, effort and corporate culture seemed to be the main causes that students recognised as directly involved in their success in learning English. Of all the attributional scales, interest and ability appeared to importantly contribute to intrinsic motivation, while corporate culture, encounters with foreign professionals and ability contributed to a lower extent to extrinsic motivation. It must be noted, however, that attributions for success to teacher and task were so consistently high that they could not be reliably measured with the questionnaire.

  14. Relations between the course of illness, family history of schizophrenia and family functioning in persons with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadić-Hero, Elizabeta; Ruzić, Klementina; Palijan, Tija Zarković; Graovac, Mirjana; Siuc-Valković, Dunja; Knez, Rajna; Grahovac, Tanja

    2013-03-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the aspects of family functioning which are associated with the course and remission of schizophrenia and to explore relations between aspects of family functioning and family history of schizophrenia. The subjects were 90 patients, treated at the Clinical hospital centre in Rijeka, Croatia, with diagnosed schizophrenia (F20.0 to F20.5) and without psychiatric comorbidity. The patients were organized into three groups depending on the treatment status during the calendar year that preceded the year in which the survey took place: patients with schizophrenia who received an outpatient care and were maintaining favourable remission, patients who were hospitalized once to twice and patients who were hospitalized at least three times in the precedent calendar year. The treatment status was used as an indicator of the course of the illness. A Family Functioning Scale was applied and the data on the absence/presence of schizophrenia in the family history were collected through the examination of previous medical records. The lowest prevalence of familial schizophrenia was found among the patients who were maintaining favourable remission. Among the three groups statistically significant differences were found regarding the following family functioning variables: expressiveness, family sociability, democratic family style. Also there were observed statistically significant differences in the family functioning depending on the presence/absence of the schizophrenia in the family history that included following domains: family cohesion, external locus of control and democratic family style. Our study gives support to the conclusion that family functioning of persons with schizophrenia differs depending on the course of the illness and presence/absence of schizophrenia in the family history.

  15. Relations between parent psychopathology, family functioning, and adolescent problems in substance-abusing families: disaggregating the effects of parent gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Marcy; Stanger, Catherine; Dumenci, Levent

    2012-08-01

    The present study: (1) examined relations between parent psychopathology and adolescent internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and substance use in substance-abusing families; and (2) tested family functioning problems as mediators of these relations. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the independent effects of parent psychopathology and family functioning problems by parent gender. Participants included 242 parents in treatment for substance abuse and/or dependence and 59 of their coparents (16.9% in treatment for substance-abuse/dependence) from middle income households (SES: M = 4.7; SD = 2.1). Ratings were obtained for 325 adolescents (48% female; 27.8% non-Caucasian) between the ages of 10 and 18 years (M = 13.5 years; SD = 2.5 years). Parent psychopathology, family functioning problems, and adolescent problems were assessed with parent and coparent ratings on the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90)/Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Family Relationship Measure, and the Child Behavior Checklist, respectively. Results indicated that maternal psychopathology was directly related to adolescent internalizing problems and substance use, but maternal perceptions of family functioning problems failed to mediate relations between maternal psychopathology and adolescent problems. By contrast, paternal perceptions of family functioning problems uniquely mediated relations between paternal psychopathology and adolescent externalizing problems. Findings underscore the importance of examining how mothers and fathers may differentially impact adolescent problems in substance-abusing families.

  16. Effect of family sense of coherence on internalized stigma and health-related quality of life among individuals with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Lu, Huei-Lan; Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2018-02-01

    Health-related quality of life is an increasingly critical outcome of mental healthcare, yet its disease-independent attributes, particularly family-focused resilient indicators, for individuals with schizophrenia have not been explicitly examined. The aim of this study was to explore the degree of health-related quality of life and to examine the mediating effect of family sense of coherence on internalized stigma and health-related quality of life in individuals with schizophrenia. A cross-sectional and correlational study design was used. A total of 111 individuals with schizophrenia were enrolled from the in-patient psychiatric rehabilitation services of two psychiatric hospitals in Taiwan. Face-to-face structured interviews were applied to collect information. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and multiple regression analyses. The results indicated that affected individuals experienced impaired health-related quality of life. Family sense of coherence partially mediated the relationship between internalized stigma and health-related quality of life. This study indicates that knowledge about the role of family sense of coherence in mental health rehabilitation may assist mental healthcare professionals to provide therapeutic interventions to address internalized stigma, thereby promoting health-related quality of life in individuals living with schizophrenia. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  17. Evaluating the effect of family relations in the board of directors on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... between variables and multiple regression equations through panel data method. The results suggest that family relations have a significant impact on the Board of Directors on profit management using Dechow and Dichev, and Kothari Models. Keywords: family firms, family control, family business, discretionary accruals, ...

  18. Work-related smartphone use, work–family conflict and family role performance: The role of segmentation preference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, D.; Bakker, A.B.; Peters, P.; Wingerden, P. van; Bakker, A.B.

    2016-01-01

    Is work-related smartphone use during off-job time associated with lower conflict owing to the blurring of the boundaries between work and family life? Or does it help employees juggling work and family demands? The present four-day quantitative diary study (N = 71 employees, N = 265–280 data

  19. The identification of family subtype based on the assessment of subclinical levels of psychosis in relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derks Eske M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder characterized by high phenotypic heterogeneity. Previous studies have distinguished between familial and sporadic forms of schizophrenia and have suggested clinical differentiation between patients and relatives from sporadic and multiplex families. We will introduce a more refined method to distinguish between family subtypes based on psychosis dimension profiles in the relatives of schizophrenia patients. Methods Positive, negative, disorganization, mania, and depression scores were assessed in 1,392 relatives. Mixed Model Latent Class Analysis was used to identify family subtypes. A family subtype is a relatively homogeneous group of families with similar symptom profiles in the relatives in these families. Next, we investigated in 616 schizophrenia patients whether family subtype was associated with symptom profiles, IQ, cannabis dependence/abuse, or age of onset of psychosis. Results Based on the data of relatives, we identified two different family types: “healthy” and “at risk for psychiatric disorder”. Patients from at risk families obtained higher positive scores compared to patients from healthy families (Wald(1 = 6.6293, p = 0.010. No significant differences were found in any of the remaining variables. Conclusions Our findings confirm the existence of high-risk families and although we did not establish an etiological basis for the distinction between family types, genetic studies might reveal whether family subtype is associated with genetic heterogeneity.

  20. Russia-specific relative risks and their effects on the estimated alcohol-attributable burden of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Kevin D; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-05-10

    Alcohol consumption is a major risk factor for the burden of disease globally. This burden is estimated using Relative Risk (RR) functions for alcohol from meta-analyses that use data from all countries; however, for Russia and surrounding countries, country-specific risk data may need to be used. The objective of this paper is to compare the estimated burden of alcohol consumption calculated using Russia-specific alcohol RRs with the estimated burden of alcohol consumption calculated using alcohol RRs from meta-analyses. Data for 2012 on drinking indicators were calculated based on the Global Information System on Alcohol and Health. Data for 2012 on mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived with Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost by cause were obtained by country from the World Health Organization. Alcohol Population-Attributable Fractions (PAFs) were calculated based on a risk modelling methodology from Russia. These PAFs were compared to PAFs calculated using methods applied for all other countries. The 95% Uncertainty Intervals (UIs) for the alcohol PAFs were calculated using a Monte Carlo-like method. Using Russia-specific alcohol RR functions, in Russia in 2012 alcohol caused an estimated 231,900 deaths (95% UI: 185,600 to 278,200) (70,800 deaths among women and 161,100 deaths among men) and 13,295,000 DALYs lost (95% UI: 11,242,000 to 15,348,000) (3,670,000 DALYs lost among women and 9,625,000 DALYs lost among men) among people 0 to 64 years of age. This compares to an estimated 165,600 deaths (95% UI: 97,200 to 228,100) (29,700 deaths among women and 135,900 deaths among men) and 10,623,000 DALYs lost (95% UI: 7,265,000 to 13,754,000) (1,783,000 DALYs lost among women and 8,840,000 DALYs lost among men) among people 0 to 64 years of age caused by alcohol when non-Russia-specific alcohol RRs were used. Results indicate that if the Russia-specific RRs are used when estimating the health burden attributable to alcohol consumption in

  1. Optimal yield-related attributes of irrigated rice for high yield potential based on path analysis and stability analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganghua Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of yield in rice (Oryza sativa L. is vital for ensuring food security in China. Both rice breeders and growers need an improved understanding of the relationship between yield and yield-related traits. New indica cultivars (53 in 2007 and 48 in 2008 were grown in Taoyuan, Yunnan province, to identify important components contributing to yield. Additionally, two standard indica rice cultivars with similar yield potentials, II You 107 (a large-panicle type and Xieyou 107 (a heavy-panicle type, were planted in Taoyuan, Yunnan province and Nanjing, Jiangsu province, from 2006 to 2008 to evaluate the stability of yield and yield-related attributes. Growth duration (GD, leaf area index (LAI, panicles per m2 (PN, and spikelets per m2 (SM were significantly and positively correlated with grain yield (GY over all years. Sequential path analysis identified PN and panicle weight (PW as important first-order traits that influenced grain yield. All direct effects were significant, as indicated by bootstrap analysis. Yield potential varied greatly across locations but not across years. Plant height (PH, days from heading to maturity (HM, and grain weight (GW were stable traits that showed little variation across sites or years, whereas GD (mainly the pre-heading period, PHP and PN varied significantly across locations. To achieve a yield of 15 t ha− 1, a cultivar should have a PH of 110–125 cm, a long GD with HM of approximately 40 days, a PN of 300–400 m− 2, and a GW of 29–31 mg.

  2. How do different humanness measures relate? Confronting the attribution of secondary emotions, human uniqueness, and human nature traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Rocío; Rodriguez-Bailon, Rosa; Moya, Miguel; Vaes, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    The present research examines the relationship between the infrahumanization approach and the two-dimensional model of humanness: an issue that has received very little empirical attention. In Study 1, we created three unknown groups (Humanized, Animalized, and Mechanized) granting/denying them Human Nature (HN) and Human Uniqueness (HU) traits. The attribution of primary/secondary emotions was measured. As expected, participants attributed more secondary emotions to the humanized compared to dehumanized groups. Importantly, both animalized and mechanized groups were attributed similar amounts of secondary emotions. In Study 2, the groups were described in terms of their capacity to express secondary emotions. We measured the attribution of HN/HU traits. Results showed that the infrahumanized group was denied both HU/HN traits. The results highlight the importance of considering the common aspects of both approaches in understanding processes of dehumanization.

  3. Measuring Family-School Relations for School Reform and Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, Beth

    2014-01-01

    A series of metaanalyses have documented a notable association between family engagement with children's learning and students' academic outcomes (Fan & Chen, 2001; Hill & Tyson, 2009; Jeynes, 2003, 2005, 2007). Family-school engagement is also associated with effective school-level reform and improvement efforts. The University of Chicago…

  4. Parenting and family structure after divorce : are they related?

    OpenAIRE

    Bastaits, Kim; Mortelmans, Dimitri

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Children are raised in various family structures after a parental divorce. Currently, research including both repartnering and the custodial arrangement when investigating parenting is scarce and mainly proceeds from a maternal perspective, ignoring potential partner effects. Consequently, we investigate differences in parenting after divorce according to family structure (repartnering and custodial arrangement), analyzing a dyadic subsample of the multiactor Divorce in Flanders dat...

  5. Relations between Parents and Children in a Rural Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reprintseva, G. I.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how the conditions in Russia are changing the characteristics of rural families, reducing the prevalence of traditional culture, changing the behavior of rural youth, and increasing familial conflict and the incidence of divorce. The deterioration of the social and economic situation that is being experienced today by many…

  6. Multivariate extended skew-t distributions and related families

    KAUST Repository

    Arellano-Valle, Reinaldo B.

    2010-12-01

    A class of multivariate extended skew-t (EST) distributions is introduced and studied in detail, along with closely related families such as the subclass of extended skew-normal distributions. Besides mathematical tractability and modeling flexibility in terms of both skewness and heavier tails than the normal distribution, the most relevant properties of the EST distribution include closure under conditioning and ability to model lighter tails as well. The first part of the present paper examines probabilistic properties of the EST distribution, such as various stochastic representations, marginal and conditional distributions, linear transformations, moments and in particular Mardia’s measures of multivariate skewness and kurtosis. The second part of the paper studies statistical properties of the EST distribution, such as likelihood inference, behavior of the profile log-likelihood, the score vector and the Fisher information matrix. Especially, unlike the extended skew-normal distribution, the Fisher information matrix of the univariate EST distribution is shown to be non-singular when the skewness is set to zero. Finally, a numerical application of the conditional EST distribution is presented in the context of confidential data perturbation.

  7. Families' perceptions of veterans' distress due to post-traumatic stress disorder-related symptoms at the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alici, Yesne; Smith, Dawn; Lu, Hien L; Bailey, Amos; Shreve, Scott; Rosenfeld, Kenneth; Ritchie, Christine; Casarett, David J

    2010-03-01

    To define the frequency of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related symptoms among veterans who are near the end of life and to describe the impact that these symptoms have on patients and their families. Patients had received inpatient or outpatient care from a participating VA facility in the last month of life, and one family member per patient was selected using predefined eligibility criteria. Family members then completed a telephone survey, The Family Assessment of Treatment at End-of-Life, which assessed their perceptions of the quality of the care that the patients and they themselves received during the patients' last month of life. Seventeen percent of patients (89 of 524) were reported to have had PTSD-related symptoms in the last month of life. PTSD-related symptoms caused discomfort less often than pain did (mean frequency score 1.79 vs. 1.93; Wilcoxon sign rank test, P<0.001) but more often than dyspnea did (mean severity score 1.79 vs. 1.73; Wilcoxon sign rank test, P<0.001). Family members of patients with PTSD-related symptoms reported less satisfaction overall with the care the patient received (mean score 48 vs. 62; rank sum test, P<0.001). Patients who received a palliative care consult (n=49) had lower ratings of discomfort attributed to PTSD-related symptoms (mean 1.55 vs. 2.07; rank sum test, P=0.007). PTSD-related symptoms may be common and severe among veterans near the end of life and may have a negative effect on families' perceptions of the quality of care that the veteran received. (c) 2010 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The influence of family-related factors on the succession process in small and medium-sized family businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Venter

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study family-related factors that can influence the succession process in small and medium-sized family businesses are empirically investigated.  The dependent variable in this study is measured by two underlying dimensions, namely satisfaction with the process and continued profitability of the business.  The empirical results indicate that the family-related factors that influence both the aforementioned dimensions are the mutual acceptance of roles, the relationship between the owner-manager and successor, and family harmony.  The continued profitability of the business is also influenced by the agreement to continue the business. The existence of family harmony in itself influences the relationship between the owner-manager and successor, the agreement to continue the business, as well as the mutual acceptance of roles.  The managerial implications of these empirical findings are discussed and recommendations offered.

  9. 49 CFR 805.735-8 - Employment of family members in transportation and related enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Employment of family members in transportation and related enterprises. (a) No individual will be employed or retained in employment by the Board if a member of his immediate family (blood relations who are residents... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment of family members in transportation and...

  10. Upregulation of Oxidative Stress Related Genes in a Chronic Kidney Disease Attributed to Specific Geographical Locations of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanabavan Sayanthooran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To infer the influence of internal and external oxidative stress in chronic kidney disease patients of unknown etiology (CKDu in Sri Lanka, by analyzing expression of genes related directly or indirectly to oxidative stress: glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC, glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23, and NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3. Methods. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR was carried out for the selected populations: CKDu patients (n=43, chronic kidney disease patients (CKD; n=14, healthy individuals from a CKDu endemic area (GHI; n=9, and nonendemic area (KHI; n=16. Fold changes were quantified relative to KHI. Results. GCLC had greater than threefold upregulation in all three study groups, with a maximum of 7.27-fold upregulation in GHI (p=0.000. GSTM1 was not expressed in 25.6% of CKDu and 42.9% of CKD patients, but CKDu patients expressing GSTM1 showed upregulation of 2.60-fold (p<0.05. Upregulation of FGF23 and NLRP3 genes in CKD and CKDu was observed (p<0.01, with greater fold changes in CKD. Conclusion. Results suggest higher influence of external sources of oxidative stress in CKDu, possibly owing to environmental conditions.

  11. Valuation, Categories and Attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Galperin, Inna; Sorenson, Olav

    2014-01-01

    Existing research on categories has only examined indirectly the value associated with being a member of a category relative to the value of the set of attributes that determine membership in that category. This study uses survey data to analyze consumers' preferences for the "organic" label versus for the attributes underlying that label. We found that consumers generally preferred products with the category label to those with the attributes required for the organic label but without the la...

  12. Beliefs about unmet interpersonal needs mediate the relation between conflictual family relations and borderline personality features in young adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpakci, Allison; Venta, Amanda; Sharp, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Central to most theories of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is the notion that the family environment interacts with genetically-based vulnerabilities to influence the development of BPD, with particular attention given to risk conferred by conflictual familial relations. However, the extent to which family conflict may relate to the development of BPD via related interpersonal beliefs is currently unknown. This study sought to test the hypothesis that the concurrent relation between conflictual family relations and borderline features in female college students is explained by beliefs associated with real or perceived unmet interpersonal needs (captured by Joiner's [2005] Interpersonal Psychological Theory, specifically thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness). The sample included 267 female undergraduates ages 18-25 years (M = 20.86; SD = 1.80). Level of borderline personality features, unmet interpersonal needs, and family conflict were assessed. Bivariate analyses revealed significant relations between both thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, conflictual family relations, and borderline features. Multivariate analyses revealed that thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness both mediated the relation between family conflict and borderline personality features, thus supporting a multiple mediation model. This cross-sectional study is a preliminary step towards confirming the broad theoretical hypothesis that conflictual family relations relate to beliefs about thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, which, in turn, relate to borderline personality pathology. Limitations and areas of future research are discussed.

  13. Moral values in family relations of youth in Arkhangelsk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilya F. Vereschagin; Evgenia A. Sergicheva

    2016-01-01

    ... — May 2015 in Arkhangelsk. The aim of the study was to make an image of the perfect marriage and analysis of the role of moral values in family-marriage attitudes of contemporary youth in the Arkhangelsk...

  14. Antisocial behavior in adolescence: Typology and relation to family context

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobotková, Veronika; Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin; Hrdlička, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 8 (2013), s. 1091-1115 ISSN 0272-4316 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : family * antisocial behavior * typology * adolescence Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.200, year: 2013

  15. Do people agree about the causes of behavior? A social relations analysis of behavior ratings and causal attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Richard W; Mendelsohn, Gerald A; Connell, Joanie B; Kwan, Virginia S Y

    2004-02-01

    Two studies examined consistency and agreement in behavior ratings and causal attributions. In Study 1, participants (N = 280) engaged in a series of getting-acquainted conversations in one of 3 communication media (face-to-face, telephone, computer mediated); in Study 2, participants (N = 120) engaged in a competitive group task. In both studies, participants rated themselves and their interaction partners on a set of behaviors and then made attributions about the causes of those behaviors. The major findings were that (a) participants consistently favored some causal factors over others in explaining both their own and their partners' behavior, supporting the existence of generalized attributional styles; and (b) participants showed moderate self-partner and partner-partner agreement about behavior but virtually no agreement about the causes of behavior. Thus, in brief interactions people tend to see themselves and others through the lens of their stable patterns of perceiving and interpreting behavior.

  16. Perceptions of School and Family Climates and Experiences of Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernice-Duca, Francesca; Taiariol, Jennifer; Yoon, Jina

    2010-01-01

    The role of family and school-level variables on relational aggression and relational victimization was investigated among 158 fourth- and fifth-grade children. Family cohesion, maternal and paternal responsiveness, and school climate were hypothesized to be significant predictors of relational aggression and relational victimization. The results…

  17. Expansion of ribosomally produced natural products: a nitrile hydratase- and Nif11-related precursor family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Douglas A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new family of natural products has been described in which cysteine, serine and threonine from ribosomally-produced peptides are converted to thiazoles, oxazoles and methyloxazoles, respectively. These metabolites and their biosynthetic gene clusters are now referred to as thiazole/oxazole-modified microcins (TOMM. As exemplified by microcin B17 and streptolysin S, TOMM precursors contain an N-terminal leader sequence and C-terminal core peptide. The leader sequence contains binding sites for the posttranslational modifying enzymes which subsequently act upon the core peptide. TOMM peptides are small and highly variable, frequently missed by gene-finders and occasionally situated far from the thiazole/oxazole forming genes. Thus, locating a substrate for a particular TOMM pathway can be a challenging endeavor. Results Examination of candidate TOMM precursors has revealed a subclass with an uncharacteristically long leader sequence closely related to the enzyme nitrile hydratase. Members of this nitrile hydratase leader peptide (NHLP family lack the metal-binding residues required for catalysis. Instead, NHLP sequences display the classic Gly-Gly cleavage motif and have C-terminal regions rich in heterocyclizable residues. The NHLP family exhibits a correlated species distribution and local clustering with an ABC transport system. This study also provides evidence that a separate family, annotated as Nif11 nitrogen-fixing proteins, can serve as natural product precursors (N11P, but not always of the TOMM variety. Indeed, a number of cyanobacterial genomes show extensive N11P paralogous expansion, such as Nostoc, Prochlorococcus and Cyanothece, which replace the TOMM cluster with lanthionine biosynthetic machinery. Conclusions This study has united numerous TOMM gene clusters with their cognate substrates. These results suggest that two large protein families, the nitrile hydratases and Nif11, have been retailored for

  18. Evaluation of relative risk and attributed proportion due to exposure to Nitrogen dioxide in Ahwaz, Kermanshah, Iran (western half of Iran during 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Zalaghi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds and Objectives: Air pollution is very important because of every human being inhales an average of 10 m3 air and its impact on human health. The objective of this study was to evaluating the compare to relative risk and attributed proportion exposure to Nitrogen dioxide in the western half of Iran during 2013. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in Ahvaz, Kermanshah and Bushehr during 2012. In the present study, Data’s was taken from Department of Environment (ADoE and meteorological organizations of the studied cities. After processing and modification on the basis of meteorological data, data were converted as input file to the Air Q model. Finally, by using epidemiologic formulas such as relative risk (RR and attributed proportion (AP estimated the health effects of NO2 in the three studied cites were estimated. Results: Based on result, the total accumulative number of cardiovascular death attributed to exposure with NO2 in the studied cities was in Ahvaz, Kermanshah Bushehr 45,51 and 6, respectively . According to the research findings, the relative risk of NO2 were estimated attributed to cardiovascular death 1.002. Results showed that the maximum and minimum number of obstructive pulmonary disease attributed to NO2 were observed in Kermanshah and Bushehr with 26 and 5 cases. Conclusions: The high percentage of cardiovascular mortality and respiratory mortality in Kermanshah can result due to this higher average NO2 in comparison with Ahvaz and Bushehr.

  19. Space-restricted attribute grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    1980-01-01

    Restricting the size of attribute values, relative to the length of the string under consideration, leads to a model of attribute grammars in which grammars with both inherited and synthesized attributes can be significantly more economical than grammars with synthesized attributes only....

  20. The role of attributions in the cognitive appraisal of work-related stressful events : An event-recording approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, MCW; Schaufeli, WB; Buunk, BP

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a micro-analysis of the cognitive appraisal of daily stressful events in a sample of correctional officers (COs). More specifically, the authors examined whether three attribution dimensions mediated the relationship between the occurrence of stressful events and the

  1. Uncovering attribute-based determinants of loyalty in cigarette brands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    smokers to switch across brands and within family brands, resulting on improved market performance and loyalty levels. Length and thickness-related differentiation are slightly better than nondifferentiation in inducing loyalty, but worse in improving performance. Practical implications – Two types...... of categorization prevail in the category: first, a family brand-based, mainly relevant for large brands; and second, an attribute-driven, apparent for small family brands. Two types of switching behaviors can also be considered: first within family brands, switching among product attributes for the larger brands......; and second within product attributes, switching among family brands for smaller brands. Social implications – These findings have profound implications for the development of anti-smoking policy in terms of the exact functioning of product differentiation as part of the tobacco industry’s strategy. Public...

  2. Socio-legal regulation of family relations: current state and prospects of development

    OpenAIRE

    Sayenko, Ludmila

    2013-01-01

    during the crisis of the traditional family important to study the methods and techniques of social regulation of family relations in the contemporary reality. Special attention is paid to the legal regulation of having in my opinion the fundamental nature of the general system of social regulation, its value in the preservation of traditional family values, moral.

  3. Witnesses to Transformation: Family Member Experiences Providing Individualized Music to Their Relatives with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Elizabeth; Rasmusson, Xeno; Foyil, Barbara; Shopland, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Content analysis of 35 family members stories found that sharing individualized music enhanced memory, mood and provided interactive opportunities, where family members connected and communicated with relatives who had dementia. Technology supports a positive new role for family members, who often use MP3 players (e.g. iPods), headphones,…

  4. Relations between Big Five personality characteristics and perceived support in adolescents' families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branje, S.J.T.; Lieshout, C.F.M. van; Aken, M.A.G. van

    2004-01-01

    The authors investigated the longitudinal relations between family members' Big Five personality factors and perceived support. Members of 285 two-parent families with 2 adolescent children judged their own and other family members' Big Five factors and the support perceived from the other members

  5. Digestibility in selected rainbow trout families and relation to growth and feed utilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Richard Skøtt; Jokumsen, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    the advantageous protein digestibility on fish growth, analysis of the protein retention efficiency (PRE) showed that when protein was ingested in relatively large amounts, as in the fastest growing families, the "excess" nitrogen was excreted and therefore did not contribute to protein deposition in the fish body...... (SGR) than the other three families (P ratio (FCR) than family Ab (P

  6. The impact of social and family-related factors on women's stress experience in household and family work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Stefanie; Geyer, Siegfried

    2015-03-01

    This study explores the contribution of social and family-related factors to women's experience of an effort-reward imbalance (ERI) in household and family work. Using a population-based sample of German mothers (n = 3,129), we performed stepwise logistic regression analysis in order to determine the relative impact of social and family-related factors on ERI. All factors investigated showed a significant association with at least one ERI component. Considering all predictors simultaneously in the multivariate analysis resulted in a decrease in significance of socioeconomic status in explaining the effort-reward ratio while the impact on low reward partly remained significant. In addition, age of youngest child, number of children, lower levels of perceived social support, domestic work inequity and negative work-to-family spillover, irrespective of being half- or full-time employed, revealed to be important in predicting ERI. The experience of ERI in domestic work is influenced by the social and family environment. Particularly among socially disadvantaged mothers, lack of social recognition for household and family work proved to be a relevant source of psychosocial stress.

  7. Examining the Family Context and Relations with Attitudes to School and Scholastic Competence

    OpenAIRE

    George, Melissa RW; Koss, Kalsea J; McCoy, Kathleen P; Cummings, E Mark; Davies, Patrick T

    2011-01-01

    The importance of family relations in children’s adjustment has been established, but questions remain about the contexts that account for these associations. Examining children’s reactions to family stress holds promise for advancing our understanding of the relations between attachment and school-related outcomes. The present study examined children’s attachment, basal cortisol, and emotional reactions in 235 community families, to understand contributions to children’s attitudes to school ...

  8. Parental Attributions of Control for Child Behaviour and Their Relation to Discipline Practices in Parents of Children with and Without Developmental Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Myrthe; Marks Woolfson, Lisa; Hunter, Simon C

    2017-01-01

    Children with developmental delays (DD) are at risk for developing behavior problems. Research suggests that parents' causal attributions for child behavior are related to parenting. This study investigated this association in parents of children with DD compared to parents of typically developing (TD) children. It specifically focused on attributions of child control by separating these from attributions of responsibility, blame and intent, and from attributions of parent control and responsibility. Fifty-one parents of children with DD and 69 parents of TD children completed two questionnaires. The Written Analogue Questionnaire measured causal attributions. The Parenting Scale measured dysfunctional discipline practices. Parents of children with DD viewed the child's role in problematic behavior more positively while also viewing misbehavior as more fixed than parents of TD children. Parents of TD children who viewed their child as more in control over misbehavior used less dysfunctional discipline, but this association was not found for parents of children with DD. The results advance understanding of how parents perceive behavior problems in children with DD and the important role these perceptions play in parental behavior management strategies. More importantly, these perceptions relate to discipline practices differently for parents of children with DD compared to parents of TD children, highlighting that parent interventions should be adapted to the specific needs of parents of children with DD.

  9. Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence: Typology and Relation to Family Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotková, Veronika; Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin; Hrdlicka, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The study deals with the relationship between antisocial behavior in early adolescence and family environment. Sample consisted of 2,856 adolescents (53% girls, mean age 13.5 years, SD = 1.1) from urban areas in the Czech Republic. The Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), a school survey, was used to measure sociodemographic characteristics of the…

  10. Family And Community Practices Relating To Infant Feeding In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the Epi-info and SPSS softwares, this study assessed mainly breast feeding, the use of breast milk substitutes and weaning ... Complementary foods were introduced at an average age of 6 months with water, pap, «diuri» (a plant decoction), and at an average age of 11 months with other family foods. Altogether,

  11. Relative abundance of hard tick on reared cattle (Family: Bovidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was carried out among cattle reared in Idah LGA of Kogi State, for tick infestations for a period of four months (May – August, 2009). A total of 294 cattle were sampled, 181 were infested with three species of hard ticks (Family: Ixodidae), comprising of Amblyomma variegatum, Boophilus decoloratus, and ...

  12. Familial Testotoxicosis: Outcome and Possible Relation to Testicular Malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer Hovinga, ICL; Verrijn Stuart, AA|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304817589

    2016-01-01

    Background: Testotoxicosis or familial male-limited precocious puberty (FMPP) is a rare disease caused by an autosomal dominant activating mutation of the luteinizing hormone receptor gene, leading to early gonadotrophin-independent precocious puberty. Phenotypic expression is limited to males.

  13. Learning multimodal latent attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yanwei; Hospedales, Timothy M; Xiang, Tao; Gong, Shaogang

    2014-02-01

    The rapid development of social media sharing has created a huge demand for automatic media classification and annotation techniques. Attribute learning has emerged as a promising paradigm for bridging the semantic gap and addressing data sparsity via transferring attribute knowledge in object recognition and relatively simple action classification. In this paper, we address the task of attribute learning for understanding multimedia data with sparse and incomplete labels. In particular, we focus on videos of social group activities, which are particularly challenging and topical examples of this task because of their multimodal content and complex and unstructured nature relative to the density of annotations. To solve this problem, we 1) introduce a concept of semilatent attribute space, expressing user-defined and latent attributes in a unified framework, and 2) propose a novel scalable probabilistic topic model for learning multimodal semilatent attributes, which dramatically reduces requirements for an exhaustive accurate attribute ontology and expensive annotation effort. We show that our framework is able to exploit latent attributes to outperform contemporary approaches for addressing a variety of realistic multimedia sparse data learning tasks including: multitask learning, learning with label noise, N-shot transfer learning, and importantly zero-shot learning.

  14. Culture- and Immigration-Related Stress Faced by Chinese American Families with a Patient Having Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Winnie W

    2016-07-01

    The impact of culture and immigration on the experience of Chinese American families with a member having schizophrenia is explored within the frameworks of family systems and stress and coping. This qualitative study was conducted within an intervention study of family psychoeducation using therapists' session notes from 103 family sessions and 13 relatives' group sessions from nine patients and 19 relatives. The high stigma attached to mental illness leading to social isolation, and families' devotion to caregiving exacerbated caregiver burden. Taboo against discussing dating and sexuality and the consideration of arranged marriages caused unique stress. The insecurity as immigrants and shortage of bilingual services were related to greater enmeshment within these families. Implications on research methodology and practice are discussed. © 2015 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  15. Applying Within-Family Differences Approaches to Enhance Understanding of the Complexity of Intergenerational Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suitor, J Jill; Gilligan, Megan; Pillemer, Karl; Fingerman, Karen L; Kim, Kyungmin; Silverstein, Merril; Bengtson, Vern L

    2017-12-15

    The role of family relationships in the lives of older adults has received substantial attention in recent decades. Scholars have increasingly looked beyond simple models of family relations to approaches that recognize the complex and sometimes contradictory nature of these ties. One of the most exciting conceptual and methodological developments is the application of within-family differences approaches. In this paper, we focus on the ways in which such within-family approaches can extend the understanding of patterns and consequences of intergenerational ties in adulthood. Following a review of the conceptual underpinnings of within-family differences approaches, we provide empirical illustrations of these approaches from three projects conducted in the United States: the Family Exchanges Study (FES), the Longitudinal Study of Generations (LSOG), and the Within-Family Differences Study (WFDS). Analyses from the FES, LSOG, and WFDS reveal differences in the consequences of patterns of intergenerational relations found when using within-family compared to between-family approaches. In particular, these analyses demonstrate considerable variation within families that shapes patterns and consequences of parent-adult child ties that is masked when such variations are not taken into account. Within-family differences approaches have been shown to shed new light on intergenerational relations. Despite the value of within-family designs, their use may be limited by the higher investment of finances and time required to implement such studies.

  16. Talking About Type 2 Diabetes: Family Communication From the Perspective of At-Risk Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Melanie F; Fernandes, Sara L; Arduser, Lora; Hopper, Jennifer L; Koehly, Laura M

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe type 2 diabetes (T2DM) communication and risk reduction recommendations from the perspective of family members at risk for T2DM based on family history. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 33 individuals with a first-degree relative with T2DM. Participants were recruited from the community and a previous pharmacogenetics study. Deductive and inductive codes were applied to the transcripts. Conversations with family members with and without T2DM focused on symptoms and disease management of the family member with T2DM. With at-risk relatives, conversations also focused on prevention. Lack of perceived relevance to family members without T2DM was a barrier to communication. Recommendations to facilitate communication included education of an at-risk family member to increase awareness of risk, followed by sharing of learned information with others. Efforts are needed to increase awareness and improve communication about T2DM risk factors, familial risk, and risk reduction behaviors within families with a family history of T2DM. Family members with and without T2DM should be encouraged to communicate with their relatives about T2DM and the risk to family members. Identification of family members who can facilitate communication, education, and modeling of healthy behaviors may increase awareness and motivate at-risk individuals to engage in risk-reducing behaviors. © 2015 The Author(s).

  17. Behaviour problems, maternal internalising symptoms and family relations in families of adolescents and adults with fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J K; Seltzer, M M; Greenberg, J S

    2012-10-01

    Studies have linked the behaviour problems of children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) to maternal well-being, but less is known about how behaviour problems relate to important family factors such as marital satisfaction and family cohesion. Married mothers of 115 adolescents and adults with FXS completed questionnaires and interviews, and maternal CGG repeat length was obtained by medical/laboratory records or by blood analysis. Indirect effects were present between behaviour problems and family variables in that behaviour problems were positively related to maternal internalising symptoms which were, in turn, negatively associated with both family cohesion and marital satisfaction. Direct associations between behaviour problems and family relationship variables were not significant. Findings suggest the importance of intervening with behaviour problems in individuals with FXS and identify maternal mental health as a potentially powerful conduit for the effects of child behaviour on relationships within these families. Implications for targeted interventions are discussed. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Exploring experience of family relations by patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa using a projective family test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fäldt Ciccolo, Erica B

    2008-08-01

    Elements of family dynamics have been shown to be related to onset, course, as well as prognosis of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. The goal was to explore the experience of family relations in a group of patients with eating disorders using a projective family test. The Patient group (anorexia=21, bulimia=16), as well as a healthy Control group, were given a projective family test, the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, as well as Karolinska Scales of Personality. The Patient group expressed more discord within the family picture than the Control group, such as cold and loveless relationships and not feeling validated. The group of patients reporting the most family discord did not show more eating disorder pathology or general psychopathology. They did, however, have higher scores on the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 subscale Maturity Fears, as well as higher values on the Karolinska Scales of Personality subscale Socialization. These results are interpreted within the background of methodological challenges in this area of research.

  19. Family relations in the context of HIV/AIDS in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yeon Jung; Li, Xiaoming; Qiao, Shan; Zhou, Yuejiao

    2016-10-01

    In China, an estimated 780,000 people have been infected with HIV (China AIDS, 2012 ). Even as this stigmatized population rapidly grows, with the majority of reproductive age (20-40 years old), information about their daily experiences in the domestic sphere has been scarce. Because the family remains a central unit of social and ethical organization in China, the current qualitative study examines family relations among people living with HIV (PLWH) with the goal of identifying the effect of HIV on family relations and, conversely, the effect of family relations on those with HIV. We analyzed data from 90 in-depth interviews with PLWH and people around them (i.e., their children, health care providers, other community members) in southwest China (Guangxi province). Through analyzing the families' experiences with illness, three themes emerged: how individuals with HIV interact with their community; how they cope with stigma alongside and against their family; and how families can support those with HIV. Our data ultimately showed the critical role of family in the quality of PLWH's well-being. Because concealment of their serostatus was the primary coping strategy, stigma manifestation was most obvious in the domestic spheres. Yet, when help was received, PLWH regarded family support as the most helpful, as those who received empathy from their families remained more optimistic. Thus, there is an urgent need for developing efficacious intervention programs that could lead to maximize family support, involving the families of PLWH, with a particular attention to family dynamics in daily interactions. Despite our awareness of the significance of family in China, this study reveals a particular kind of role of family that has rarely been considered, namely the role of family in healing and sustaining social bonds within the context of stigmatization, when those bonds might otherwise be broken.

  20. Family Matters. The role of parental and family-related psychosocial factors in childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is common childhood disease with children from lower socioeconomic status experiencing disproportionately higher levels of the disease. Parents and the broader family environment may play an important role in the development of childhood dental caries as mediators / moderators of risk.

  1. Valuation, categories and attributes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Galperin

    Full Text Available Existing research on categories has only examined indirectly the value associated with being a member of a category relative to the value of the set of attributes that determine membership in that category. This study uses survey data to analyze consumers' preferences for the "organic" label versus for the attributes underlying that label. We found that consumers generally preferred products with the category label to those with the attributes required for the organic label but without the label. We also found that the value accorded to the organic label increased with the number of attributes that an individual associated with the category. Category membership nevertheless still had greater value than even that of the sum of the attributes associated with it.

  2. Valuation, categories and attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galperin, Inna; Sorenson, Olav

    2014-01-01

    Existing research on categories has only examined indirectly the value associated with being a member of a category relative to the value of the set of attributes that determine membership in that category. This study uses survey data to analyze consumers' preferences for the "organic" label versus for the attributes underlying that label. We found that consumers generally preferred products with the category label to those with the attributes required for the organic label but without the label. We also found that the value accorded to the organic label increased with the number of attributes that an individual associated with the category. Category membership nevertheless still had greater value than even that of the sum of the attributes associated with it.

  3. Fibrosis Related Inflammatory Mediators: Role of the IL-10 Cytokine Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Sziksz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance of chronic fibroproliferative diseases (FDs including pulmonary fibrosis, chronic kidney diseases, inflammatory bowel disease, and cardiovascular or liver fibrosis is rapidly increasing and they have become a major public health problem. According to some estimates about 45% of all deaths are attributed to FDs in the developed world. Independently of their etiology the common hallmark of FDs is chronic inflammation. Infiltrating immune cells, endothelial, epithelial, and other resident cells of the injured organ release an orchestra of inflammatory mediators, which stimulate the proliferation and excessive extracellular matrix (ECM production of myofibroblasts, the effector cells of organ fibrosis. Abnormal amount of ECM disturbs the original organ architecture leading to the decline of function. Although our knowledge is rapidly expanding, we still have neither a diagnostic tool to detect nor a drug to specifically target fibrosis. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the more comprehensive understanding of the pathomechanism of fibrosis and development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. In the present review we provide an overview of the common key mediators of organ fibrosis highlighting the role of interleukin-10 (IL-10 cytokine family members (IL-10, IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, and IL-26, which recently came into focus as tissue remodeling-related inflammatory cytokines.

  4. [A study on the related factors of the wellbeing of family caregivers in elderly with stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeon Hwan; Yu, Su Jeong; Kim, Shin Mi; Lee, Yun Jung

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the factors related to the wellbeing of the family caregivers of the elderly with a stroke. The subjects of this study were 199 elderly treated in four oriental hospitals in Korea, and their primary family caregivers. The data was collected by interviews and a self-reported questionnaire, during the period from October, 2003 to April, 2004. The results of this study were as follows. The mean score of wellbeing of family caregivers was 60.6412.63. The factors related to wellbeing of family caregivers were sex, age, education, depression, illness severity, ADL, paralysis, and speech disability in elderly characteristics. Among family caregivers characteristics, education, relation, and burden were significantly related. In situational variables, family income and the previous relationship between the elderly and family caregivers were related to wellbeing. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the most powerful predictor of wellbeing was the burden of family caregivers. A combination of the depression of elderly and age of family caregivers accounted for 50.3% of the variance of wellbeing. On developing the nursing intervention for improving wellbeing of family caregivers, many factors should be considered, especially caregiver burden, and elderly depression.

  5. Perceptions of family relations when mothers and fathers are depicted with different parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillicuddy-De Lisi, Ann V; De Lisi, Richard

    2007-12-01

    College students (N = 125) reported their perceptions of family relations in response to vignettes that presented 5 different parenting styles. Participants viewed family relations as most positive when parents were portrayed as authoritative or permissive and as most negative when parents were portrayed as uninvolved-neglecting or authoritarian. Student gender and parent gender effects qualified these findings. Female students reported family relations to be less positive than did male students when parents were depicted as authoritarian or as uninvolved-neglecting, and they rated family relations more positively than did male students when parents were depicted as permissive. Participants viewed family relations as more positive when mothers rather than fathers were presented as permissive and when fathers rather than mothers were depicted as authoritarian. The authors discuss the findings of the study in relation to theories of beliefs about children and implications for future parenting styles of male and female college students.

  6. Positive-engagement behaviors in observed family interactions: a social relations perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Robert A; Kashy, Deborah A; Donnellan, M Brent; Conger, Rand D

    2011-10-01

    The present study investigates the nature of positive engagement (an interpersonal style characterized by attentiveness, warmth, cooperation, and clear communication) in family interactions involving at least one adolescent. Approximately 400 families (mothers, fathers, and two siblings) were videotaped during brief conflict-resolution discussions that occurred on a yearly basis for 3 years. Coders rated the degree to which each family member was positively engaged with every other family member during the interactions. The social relations model was used to partition variation in positive-engagement behavior into family-level, individual-level, and dyad-level effects. Results demonstrated the importance of family norms and individual factors in determining the expression of positive-engagement behaviors in dyadic family relationships. Moreover, longitudinal analyses indicated that these effects are stable over a 3-year period. Finally, results highlighted the relative distinctiveness of the marital and sibling relationships, as well as the existence of reciprocity within these dyads.

  7. Positive Engagement Behaviors in Observed Family Interactions: A Social Relations Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Robert A.; Kashy, Deborah A.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Conger, Rand D.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the nature of positive engagement (an interpersonal style characterized by attentiveness, warmth, cooperation, and clear communication) in family interactions involving at least one adolescent. Approximately 400 families (mothers, fathers, and two siblings) were videotaped during brief conflict resolution discussions that occurred on a yearly basis for three years. Coders rated the degree to which each family member was positively engaged with every other family member during the interactions. The Social Relations Model was used to partition variation in positive engagement behavior into family-level, individual-level, and dyad-level effects. Results demonstrated the importance of family norms and individual factors in determining the expression of positive engagement behaviors in dyadic family relationships. Moreover, longitudinal analyses indicated that these effects are stable over a three year period. Finally, results highlighted the relative distinctiveness of the marital and sibling relationships, as well as the existence of reciprocity within these dyads. PMID:21875194

  8. Work and family satisfaction and conflict: a meta-analysis of cross-domain relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Michael T; Heinen, Beth A; Langkamer, Krista L

    2007-01-01

    This meta-analysis is a review of the literature examining the relations among stressors, involvement, and support in the work and family domains, work-family conflict, and satisfaction outside of those domains. Results suggest that a considerable amount of variability in family satisfaction is explained by work domain-specific variables, whereas a considerable amount of variability in job satisfaction is explained by family domain-specific variables, with job and family stress having the strongest effects on work-family conflict and cross-domain satisfaction. The authors propose future directions for research on work and family issues focusing on other explanatory mechanisms and moderators of cross-domain relations. 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  9. Family relations, mental health and adherence to nutritional guidelines in patients facing dialysis initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untas, Aurélie; Rascle, Nicole; Idier, Laetitia; Lasseur, Catherine; Combe, Christian

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of family relations on patients' adjustment to dialysis. The two main aims were to develop a family typology, and to explore the influence of family profile on the patient's anxiety, depression and adherence to nutritional guidelines. The sample consisted of 120 patients (mean age 63 years; 67.5% of men). They completed several measures 1, 6 and 12 months after dialysis initiation. The scales used were the Family Relationship Index and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Perceived adherence to nutritional guidelines was assessed using two visual analogical scales. Results showed that family relations remained stable over time. Cluster analysis yielded three family profiles, which were named conflict, communicative and supportive families. Patients belonging to conflict families perceived themselves as less adhering to nutritional guidelines. For these patients, anxiety and depressive moods increased significantly over time, whereas mental health remained stable over time for communicative and supportive families. This research underlines that family relations are essential in global consideration of the care of patients treated by dialysis. Conflict families seem especially at risk. They should be identified early to help them adapt to this stressful treatment.

  10. Kinship Support, Family Relations, and Psychological Adjustment among Low-Income African American Mothers and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald D.; Seaton, Eleanor; Dominguez, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The association of kin social support with mothers' adjustment and family relations was assessed among 204 African American mothers and adolescents who were on average 14.45 years of age. Also examined was the association of mothers' adjustment with family relations and adolescents' adjustment. Findings revealed that kin social and emotional…

  11. Do Private Religious Practices Moderate the Relation between Family Conflict and Preadolescents' Depression and Anxiety Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kelly A.; Epkins, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    We extended past research that focused on the relation between family conflict and preadolescents' depressive and anxiety symptoms. In a sample of 160 11- to 12-year-olds, we examined whether private religious practices moderated the relations between family conflict and preadolescents' depressive and anxiety symptoms. Although preadolescents'…

  12. Perceptions of Family Relations when Mothers and Fathers Are Depicted with Different Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillicuddy-De Lisi, Ann V.; De Lisi, Richard

    2007-01-01

    College students (N = 125) reported their perceptions of family relations in response to vignettes that presented 5 different parenting styles. Participants viewed family relations as most positive when parents were portrayed as authoritative or permissive and as most negative when parents were portrayed as uninvolved-neglecting or authoritarian.…

  13. Work-Family Relations among Mothers of Children with Learning Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yagon, Michal; Cinamon, Rachel Gali

    2008-01-01

    The study examined conflict and facilitation in work-family relations among working mothers of children with learning disorders (LD) or with typical development. The study also focused on three maternal personal resources (maternal anxious/avoidant attachment security, affect and sense of coherence) as antecedents of these work-family relations,…

  14. Family Factors Related to Children's Intrinsic/Extrinsic Motivational Orientation and Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Bronstein, Phyllis

    1993-01-01

    Examined familial factors in relation to 93 fifth-graders' motivational orientation and academic performance. High parental surveillance of homework; parental reactions to grades that included negative control, uninvolvement, or extrinsic reward; and over- and undercontrolling family styles were found to be related to children's extrinsic…

  15. Interpersonal Relations of Surveillance and Privacy in Families and Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Bøge, Ask Risom

    sometimes lead to strategies of resistance or modification. Also negotiated is the management of children’s exposure to perceived risks, drawbacks and harmful influences caused by the use of digital technologies. In the paper, we identify examples of the way the deep infiltration of technology......The aim of this paper is to highlight important changes in conceptions of surveillance and privacy, which are brought about by emerging technological practices in family and school settings. We report from a qualitative study of practices, attitudes and perceptions of the use of digital...

  16. A gender perspective on environmentally related family consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice; Ølander, Folke

    2007-01-01

    for this could be discerned. Most notably, the division of household and consumption roles within families often made sub-activities of pro-environmental practices the prime responsibility of either one of the partners. Thus, a gender-based inside-outside division of household responsibilities with regard to pro...... significant consumption issues were explored in a qualitative study including 30 couples with children. The partners' responses to the issues did not differ much. Nevertheless, the participants perceived the differences between themselves and their partner to be rather large. A number of reasons...

  17. Body-related state shame and guilt in women: do causal attributions mediate the influence of physical self-concept and shame and guilt proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Peter R E; Brune, Sara M; Kowalski, Kent C; Mack, Diane E; Wilson, Philip M; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    Guided by the process model of self-conscious emotions, this study examined whether physical self-concept (PSC) and shame and guilt proneness were associated with body-related self-conscious emotions of state shame and guilt and if these relationships were mediated by attributions of stability, globality, and controllability. Female participants (N=284; Mean age=20.6±1.9 years) completed measures of PSC and shame and guilt proneness before reading a hypothetical scenario. Participants completed measures of attributions and state shame and guilt in response to the scenario. Significant relationships were noted between state shame and attributions of globality and controllability, and shame proneness, guilt proneness, and PSC. Similar relationships, with the additional predictor of stability, were found for state guilt. Mediation analysis partially supported the process model hypotheses for shame. Results indicate PSC and shame proneness are important in predicting body-related emotions, but the role of specific attributions are still unclear. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluating the relative clinical efficiency of family medicine satellite clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, James E; Bernard, Matthew; Adamson, Steve; Naessens, James; Furst, Joseph; Angstman, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the impact of decentralization in family medicine clinic services by comparing utilization of services in 3 satellite clinics to utilization patterns of patients served at the hub clinic. It was expected that a hub clinic would be more efficient than satellite clinics because of tighter administrative control and economies of scale. Stable chronically ill patients were used as a homogeneous tracer condition in a secondary analysis of 12 months of archival data. Three types of service use were analyzed: laboratory visits, x-ray visits, and visits to specialists. Among 1,410 stable chronically ill family medicine patients, 303 (21.5%) had 10 more laboratory visits, 222 (15.7%) had 2 or more x-ray visits, and 617 (43.8 %) had 2 or more visits to a specialist. Patients at one of the satellite clinics had greater odds of receiving 2 or more x-rays but lower odds of receiving 10 or more laboratory visits, in comparison with the hub clinic. Patients at the other 2 satellite clinics did not differ from hub patients for any type of service use. Overall, stable chronically ill patients were treated with approximately equal clinical efficiency in our satellite clinics. Some differences in efficiency may occur in some clinics, but these appear to be idiosyncratic rather than due to clinic size or distance from central control.

  19. A Prospective Study of the Effects of Marital Status and Family Relations on Young Children's Adjustment among African American and European American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Winslow, Emily B.; Flanagan, Clare

    1999-01-01

    Investigated effects of divorce and family relations on young children's development in ethnically diverse low-income families. Found that soon-to-be-divorced families demonstrated higher rates of preschool-age behavior problems, and already-divorced families showed similar trends. Parental conflict and behavior problems accounted for pre-divorce…

  20. The effect of 5-HTT gene promoter polymorphism on impulsivity depends on family relations in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paaver, Marika; Kurrikoff, Triin; Nordquist, Niklas; Oreland, Lars; Harro, Jaanus

    2008-07-01

    The short (S) allele of the 5-HTT gene promoter region polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), in combination with adverse environmental influence, leads to higher likelihood of depression. Impulsivity has been related to low serotonin turnover, poor regulation of affect, and problems in the family, including child maltreatment. The current study explored the effect of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene and adverse family environment on impulsivity in adolescents. Healthy adolescents participating in the Estonian Children Personality Behaviour and Health Study (n=483) filled the Adaptive and Maladaptive Impulsivity Scale (AMIS), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), a scale measuring family relations, and were genotyped. While genotype alone was not associated with thoughtlessness, BIS-11 impulsiveness, fast decision-making or excitement seeking, 5-HTTLPR S allele carriers, however, had higher scores of disinhibition. In girls carrying the S allele, scores of thoughtlessness and disinhibition depended on family relations, being higher with less warmth in the family. Adverse family relations had no effect on impulsivity in girls with LL genotype. In boys, the effects of family relations on maladaptive impulsivity did not depend on genotype. However, the S allele and high maltreatment in the family both independently increased disinhibition and the BIS-11 score in boys. Family environment and the 5-HTTLPR genotype had no interactive effect on excitement seeking or fast decision-making. In summary, carrying the S allele may lead to high maladaptive impulsivity due to higher sensitivity to environmental adversity, which is more significantly expressed in girls.

  1. School and Integration in Multi-Ethnic Classes: School and Family Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Monteduro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the integration between national and foreign students in schools with a significant presence of foreign students. The analysis focuses on the relationship - both in school and out of school - among students and between their families. The analysis measures both the capital of the students in primary school that the share capital of the families. The fields of study are both the school context that family relationships. The social network analysis allows us to grasp the essential elements and the form of social relations. They were used - two different questionnaires - one for students and one for the families in order to measure social capital school and the family and their connection. The reference sample covers 34 classes of primary schools in the Italian province of Trento, where foreign students are at least 25%. Students who were involved in the survey were 618, 210 of whom were foreigners. As for integration not noticed significant differences between Italian students and foreign students. The low integration is not exclusively linked to the nationality of pupil. The significant difference is found in family relationships: Italian families have many interfaces with other class families of their children, particularly with the families of students Italians; foreign families have little or no relation to the other families of the class of their child. In addition, it is noted that there is a relationship between the increased popularity of the child in the classroom and the social capital of the same class.

  2. Parental monitoring and family relations: associations with drinking patterns among male and female Mexican students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunin, Lee; Rosa Díaz-Martínez, L; Díaz-Martínez, Alejandro; Heeren, Timothy; Winter, Michael; Kuranz, Seth; Hernández-Ávila, Carlos A; Fernández-Varela, Héctor; Solís-Torres, Cuauhtémoc

    2015-12-01

    Parental monitoring and family relations are recognized as protective factors for youth alcohol use. The purpose of this study was to investigate perceived parental monitoring and family relations among subgroups of Mexican youths with different patterns of drinking behaviors and consequences. A latent profile analysis (LPA) identified profiles of drinking behavior in a cross-sectional survey of entering first year university students. Multinomial regression examined associations between parental monitoring, family relations and drinking profiles among 22,224 students. Both lower perceived parental monitoring and weaker perceived family relations were associated with heavier drinking profiles among males and females, but more strongly associated with female than male heavier drinking profiles. Being older, having parents with lower education, and not living with parents were also associated with lower parental monitoring and weaker family relations. There was a general trend of lower parental monitoring and weaker family relations as the profiles increased from Non/Infrequent-No Consequences to Excessive-Many Consequences Drinkers. Lower perceived parental monitoring and weaker perceived family relations were more strongly associated with drinking profiles among females than among males. Both the parental monitoring and family relations scales had similar associations with drinking profiles. Findings suggest that drinking norms and values may contribute to any protective influences of parental monitoring and family relations on Mexican youths' drinking. Research about changes in drinking norms, contextual factors, and youth-parent trust would inform the utility of parental monitoring or family relations as protective strategies against alcohol misuse among Mexican and Mexican American youths and also youths from other backgrounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Family and peer factors related to alcohol abuse and smoking by 15-year-old youth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Jakub; Małkowska-Szkutnik, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    A characteristic feature of the period of adolescence is to experiment with e.g. alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking. Both family relations and relations with peer groups can be referred to undertaking this kind of behavior by adolescents. The aim of this study was an attempt to assess relationships between joint family and peer-group relations and the frequency of binge drinking and tobacco smoking by 15-year-olds. The study was conducted in 2010/2011 within the framework of the international HBSC study (Health Behaviour in School-aged Children) on a group of 1551 people aged 15 years (49.1% boys). It was carried out in schools. Items from the HBSC questionnaire were used to assess the frequency of undertaking risky behaviors. To assess the quality of relations within the family, questions from the FDM II scale (Family Dynamics Measure II) were used, whereas an abbreviated version of the IPPA (Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment) scale was used to assess the quality of peer relations. Three patterns of relations with family and peers were identified by the use of the cluster analysis methods (k-means method). In the group of girls the differences in the proportions in clusters reflecting the patterns of relations with the family and peers were greater than in boys. 15-year olds who had good relations with peers and poor relations with their family got drunk and smoked tobacco more often than adolescents in other clusters. The frequency of undertaking risk behavior by adolescents is associated with perceptions of social relations. Good family relations, as a protective factor, may partially reduce the negative impact of the peer group on undertaking risk behavior by adolescents. There is a need for further research to answer the question about the trends in the correspondence between the quality of family and peer relations and undertaking risk behaviors.

  4. Developmental relations between sympathy, moral emotion attributions, moral reasoning, and social justice values from childhood to early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Ella; Dys, Sebastian P; Buchmann, Marlis; Malti, Tina

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the development of sympathy, moral emotion attributions (MEA), moral reasoning, and social justice values in a representative sample of Swiss children (N = 1273) at 6 years of age (Time 1), 9 years of age (Time 2), and 12 years of age (Time 3). Cross-lagged panel analyses revealed that sympathy predicted subsequent increases in MEA and moral reasoning, but not vice versa. In addition, sympathy and moral reasoning at 6 and 9 years of age were associated with social justice values at 12 years of age. The results point to increased integration of affect and cognition in children's morality from middle childhood to early adolescence, as well as to the role of moral development in the emergence of social justice values. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bilingualism, Language Disorders and Intercultural Families in Contemporary Italy: Family Relations, Transmission of Language and Representations of Otherness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Davide; Balottin, Umberto; Berlincioni, Vanna; Moro, Marie Rose

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to show how language disorders in children affect language transmission and the mixedness experience in intercultural families. To this end, it adopts a qualitative method of study based on the administration of ad hoc interviews to intercultural couples who consulted our Child Neuropsychiatry Service because of language disorders in their children. One of the main consequences, when the child of an intercultural couple presents a language disorder and a diagnostic process has to be initiated, may be interruption of the transmission of the second language, especially if it is the mother's language. The decision to do this, which may be taken on the advice of teachers and health professionals, but also because the parents themselves often attribute their child's language disorder to his bilingual condition, affects not only the relationship between the mother and her child, but also processes in the construction of parenthood and in the structuring of the child's personality and the plurality of his affiliations. A clear understanding of how the dialectic between the categories of "alien" and "familiar" is managed in these contemporary families, which have to reckon with the condition of otherness, is crucial for psychiatrists and psychotherapists working in settings in which cultural difference is an issue to consider.

  6. From early family systems to internalizing symptoms: The role of emotion regulation and peer relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Jallu; Vänskä, Mervi; Flykt, Marjo; Tolvanen, Asko; Tiitinen, Aila; Tulppala, Maija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-04-01

    Research has demonstrated the importance of early family characteristics, such as the quality of caregiving, on children's later mental health. Information is, however, needed about the role of more holistic family systems and specific child-related socioemotional mechanisms. In this study, we conceptualize families as dynamic family system types, consisting of both marital and parenting trajectories over the transition to parenthood. First, we examine how early family system types predict children's anxiety, depression, peer exclusion, and emotion regulation. Second, we test whether couples' infertility history and other family related contextual factors moderate the effects of family system types on child outcomes. Third, we test whether children's emotion regulation and peer exclusion mediate the effects of family system types on anxiety and depression. The participants were 452 families representing cohesive, distant, authoritative, enmeshed, and discrepant family types, identified on the basis of relationship autonomy and intimacy from pregnancy to the child's age of 2 and 12 months. Children's anxiety, depression, emotion regulation, and peer exclusion were assessed at the age of 7-8 years. Structural equation modeling showed that distant, enmeshed, and discrepant families similarly predicted children's heightened anxiety and depression. Infertility history, parental education, and parity moderated the associations between certain family system types and child outcomes. Finally, emotion regulation, but not peer exclusion, was a common mediating mechanism between distant and enmeshed families and children's depression. The results emphasize the importance of early family environments on children's emotion regulation development and internalizing psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Impact of the relatively light fourth family neutrino on the Higgs boson search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetin, S.A., E-mail: scetin@dogus.edu.tr [Dogus University, Department of Physics, Istanbul (Turkey); Cuhadar-Doenszelmann, T., E-mail: tcuhadar@cern.ch [University of Sheffield, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Sahin, M., E-mail: m.sahin@etu.edu.tr [Usak University, Department of Physics, Usak (Turkey); Sultansoy, S., E-mail: ssultansoy@etu.edu.tr [TOBB University of Economics and Technology, Physics Division, Ankara (Turkey); Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences, Baku (Azerbaijan); Uenel, G., E-mail: gokhan.unel@cern.ch [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2012-04-04

    The existence of a fourth fermion generation has mostly been considered as a source of enhanced Higgs signals with respect to the 3 family Standard Model predictions. However, a fourth Standard Model family neutrino could cause the opposite situation. It is shown that relatively light fourth family neutrino (2m{sub {nu}{sub 4}}

  8. Overview of the family structure in Egypt and its relation to psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, Tarek; Elkholy, Hussien; El-Ghamry, Reem

    2012-04-01

    The family is the basic unit of any society and culture. The concept, structure, and function of the family unit vary considerably across different cultures; however, its role continues to be imperative to the development of individuals and their psychological make-up. All societies have a concept of 'family', its relative importance, structure, and functions; however, this varies according to the particular culture. In the Arabic culture, as well as other collectivistic cultures, the extended family is often regarded as the basic unit. The family is the foundational and basic social unit that fosters the stability, well-being and sustainability of society. The quality of family relationships shapes and influences the social, psychological, and biological development and functioning of its members. This may be especially relevant to individuals with mental health problems. The people of ancient Egypt valued family life highly, and this is the case even now. They treasured children and regarded them as a great blessing. If a couple had no children, they would pray to the gods and goddesses for help. They would also place letters at the tombs of dead relatives asking them to use their influence with the gods. The importance of family has not changed dramatically even though the structures are beginning to. In this paper we highlight changes in family set-up and the state of family therapy in Egypt.

  9. Family-Related Opinions and Stressful Situations Associated with Psychological Distress in Women Undergoing Infertility Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Jiro Takaki; Yuri Hibino

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540) at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%). The family-related ...

  10. Communication relating to family members' involvement and understandings about patients' medication management in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manias, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Many patients with complex health-care needs are prescribed several medications on a daily basis. With admission to hospital, patients are often placed in a vulnerable position. Family members can therefore play an important role in supporting patients in decision making about managing medications and negotiating communication exchange with health professionals. From the perspective of family members, to explore family members' involvement with health professionals and patients about how patients' medications are managed in hospital. Using an ethnographic design, interviews were conducted with family members of patients admitted to hospital who had at least five medications prescribed in hospital. A purposive sampling approach was used for recruitment. A thematic framework process was used for analysis. Interviews took place in four surgical and four medical wards in each of two Australian hospitals. Forty interviews were conducted with family members in relation to their respective relative's medications. Family members tended to participate in passive, rather than active or shared decision-making activities. Those who demonstrated active or shared decision making were extensively involved in managing medications and in addressing problems relating to continuity of care. Communication with health professionals was generally insufficient, despite family members' keenness to speak with them. Improved communication is needed between family members, health professionals and patients in hospitals. Greater attention should be played by health professionals in initiating communication proactively. Family members possessed valuable, unique information about patients' medications that can be utilized to facilitate patient safety. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. A time-series analysis of alcohol tax policy in relation to mortality from alcohol attributed causes in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Ming; Liao, Chen-Mao; Li, Chung-Yi

    2011-12-01

    It is known that taxation on alcohol products may effectively reduce the alcohol consumption. However, whether alcohol taxation may lead to a decrease in alcohol attributed disease mortality (ADM) has been inclusively. We conducted this time-series analysis to assess the effect of alcohol tax policy intervention in 2002 on rate of ADM in Taiwan. Mortality data were retrieved from Taiwan's Death Registry. We employed the autoregression integrated moving average technique to examine secular patterns of quarterly rate of ADM in residents aged 15 or above between 1991 and 2007, and to determine whether alcohol tax policy intervention, imposed in January 2002, had affected the time trend in rate of ADM in subsequent years. We observed a statistically significant reduction in the rate of ADM following the implementation of alcohol tax policy for all sex- and age-specific segments of population. Further analyses revealed that the effect was most obvious in men aged 15-64 years, who showed an abrupt decline in AMD rate (10.9%) in the first quarter of 2002. For elderly men and women, the tax intervention was followed by a gradually declining trend of ADM, with a magnitude ranging from 0.53% per season (elderly women) to 0.63% per season (elderly men). This study demonstrated that alcohol taxation policy may pose favorite influences on the time trend of ADM rate in Taiwan, and such influence was most noteworthy in young and middle aged men.

  12. The relation of cognitive learning strategies to psychosocial employability attributes amongst black adult learners in the economic and management sciences field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinde Coetzee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Research provides empirical evidence of the importance employers andemployees attach to continuous learning and development opportunities as aspects ofemployees’ employability, retention and job and career satisfaction.Research purpose: The objective of the research was to investigate the relation between adultlearners’ cognitive learning strategies (measured by the examination preparation inventoryand their psychosocial employability attributes (measured by the employability attributesscale.Motivation for the study: Recent research has made important progress in understanding thenotions of cognitive learning styles in learning and psychosocial employability attributes insustaining individuals’ employability in the contemporary world of work. However, researchon how adult learners’ cognitive learning strategies influence the psychosocial attributes theyneed to manage and sustain their employability has been lacking.Research approach, design and method: A quantitative cross-sectional survey design wasused, involving a stratified proportional random sample of 1102 predominantly early careerblack female undergraduate level adult learners. The participants were enrolled for distancelearning studies in the economic and management sciences field at a South African highereducation institution.Main findings: Canonical correlation and multiple regression analysis indicated the abstracttheoretical and factual practical cognitive learning strategies as useful predictors of theparticipants’ overall level of psychosocial employability attributes and especially their levelsof career self-management and proactivity.Practical/managerial implications: Learning practitioners should strive to integrate cognitivelearning strategies in the design of learning and assessment activities in order to fosterthe psychosocial employability attributes adult learners need to manage their continuedemployability in the contemporary workplace

  13. Health Visitors' experiences of Family Group Conferences in relation to child protection planning: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Fiona; Jasper, Melanie

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Health Visitors' experiences of Family Group Conferences as part of Child Protection Planning in Hampshire, England. The aim was to identify good practice, recognizing the challenges of the approach and enabling recommendations for improved collaboration to be framed. The Family Group Conferences model is based on partnership, decision-making and family involvement and presents an alternative to case conferences. A Husserlian phenomenological approach was adopted, using taped semi-structured interviews with four health visitors who had experience of Family Group Conferences. Colaizzi's seven stages of phenomenological analysis were used. The four key categories related to the ability of the Family Group Conference model to empower families; the need for health visitors to receive appropriate education and training; organizational; and professional issues. Health visitors believed that Family Group Conferences could empower families, but they felt unprepared to attend. Concerns were identified regarding confidentiality and responsibility. Although the health visitors supported the principles underpinning Family Group Conferences, they were unsure about how to put theory into practice. The need for more education and training was strongly supported to enable the model to move from marginal to mainstream use. They also considered that Family Group Conferences could threaten interagency working, associated with issues relating to professional responsibility. The results identified training and procedural issues that need to be addressed if Family Group Conferences are to be introduced successfully within mainstream child protection practice. Insights from this study have led to inclusion of Family Group Conferences in the local child protection guidelines, with emphasis applied to interdisciplinary working, empowerment of families and professional staff, and education and training.

  14. Sex differences in patterns of relations between family interactions and depressive symptoms in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smojver-Azić, Sanja; Bezinović, Petar

    2011-08-15

    To gain insight into the relations between protective/risk family interactions and depressive symptoms in adolescent boys and girls. A self-reported cross-sectional survey was conducted on a representative sample of 1191 secondary school students (617 girls and 574 boys) aged from 14 to 19 years, with a median of 16, from all secondary schools in the Primorsko-goranska County, Croatia in January and February 2010. Students reported their depressive symptoms, perceptions about the relationship with their mother and father, family activities, and parents' conflict resolution strategies. Data were analyzed by hierarchical multiple regression to calculate the effects of family supportive and harmful interactions on depressive symptoms in girls and boys. Depressive symptoms were reported often and very often by 19.1% of girls and 15.8% of boys. Girls' assessment of the family relations was significantly more positive than boys', including the assessment of family activities, constructive family conflict resolution, or father's and mother's warmth and affection. Multiple correlation analysis revealed that the examined family variables accounted for 16.3% of the variance of depressive symptoms in boys and for 17.2% in girls. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed a difference in the relation of family variables and depressive symptoms between boys and girls. Depressive symptoms in girls were more linked to the lack of protective family factors (9.9% of the explained variance in girls vs. 5.5% in boys), while depressive symptoms in boys were more linked to the existence of harmful family factors (10.8% of the explained variance in boys vs.7.3% in girls). Family activities and the father's warmth and affection have a higher significance for girls than for boys, while destructive parental conflict and the mother's aggression and hostility are equally significant for both girls and boys. These results indicate the targets for family-based preventive and intervention

  15. Relations of Work Identity, Family Identity, Situational Demands, and Sex with Employee Work Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Peng, Ann C.; Allen, Tammy D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined relations of multiple indicators of work identity and family identity with the number of weekly hours worked by 193 married business professionals. We found that men generally worked long hours regardless of the situational demands to work long hours and the strength of their work and family identities. Women's work hours, on…

  16. Preparation for Separation: Preparing the Military Family for Duty-Related Separation. Crisis Intervention Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadaway, Nancy L.

    Duty related separation for military family members demands family support programs to help alleviate the stresses produced by separation. Not only is performance of the military member affected, but so is the emotional stability of the spouse and children. Three phases of emotion and behavior can be delineated in the sequence-reaction to the loss…

  17. Relation between Family Literacy Practices and Children's Literacy Development: Exploring the Link between Home and School

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Jaclyn Roverud

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between family literacy practices and children's early literacy development. Drawing from a developmental-ecological framework, this study modified existing surveys (e.g., Family Involvement Questionnaire, a.k.a. FIQ, by Fantuzzo, Tighe, & Childs, 2000) to develop the "Family…

  18. Relations between Early Family Risk, Children's Behavioral Regulation, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sektnan, Michaella; McClelland, Megan M.; Acock, Alan; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined relations among early family risk, children's behavioral regulation at 54 months and kindergarten, and academic achievement in first grade using data on 1298 children from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Family risk was indexed by ethnic…

  19. Stage-Environment Fit during Adolescence: Trajectories of Family Relations and Adolescent Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Leslie Morrison; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2007-01-01

    Within the framework of stage-environment fit theory, the authors examined the contribution of family relations to adolescent outcomes concurrently and longitudinally, as well as the moderating effects of gender and ethnicity in these associations. Data came from a longitudinal study of European American and African American families from a range…

  20. Family Routine Moderates the Relation between Child Impulsivity and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, H. Isabella; Drabick, Deborah A. G.

    2011-01-01

    Although child impulsivity is associated with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, few studies have examined whether family processes moderate this association. To address this gap, we tested whether child-reported family routine moderated the relation between child hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) and ODD symptoms among a sample of…

  1. Family caregivers' experiences of involuntary psychiatric hospital admissions of their relatives--a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Jelena; Yeeles, Ksenija; Katsakou, Christina; Amos, Tim; Morriss, Richard; Rose, Diana; Nichol, Peter; McCabe, Rosemarie; Priebe, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Family caregivers of people with mental disorders are frequently involved in involuntary hospital admissions of their relatives. To explore family caregivers' experience of involuntary admission of their relative. 30 in-depth interviews were conducted with family caregivers of 29 patients who had been involuntarily admitted to 12 hospitals across England. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Four major themes of experiences were identified: relief and conflicting emotions in response to the relative's admission; frustration with a delay in getting help; being given the burden of care by services; and difficulties with confidentiality. Relief was a predominant emotion as a response to the relative's admission and it was accompanied by feelings of guilt and worry. Family caregivers frequently experienced difficulties in obtaining help from services prior to involuntary admission and some thought that services responded to crises rather than prevented them. Family caregivers experienced increased burden when services shifted the responsibility of caring for their mentally unwell relatives to them. Confidentiality was a delicate issue with family caregivers wanting more information and a say in decisions when they were responsible for aftercare, and being concerned about confidentiality of information they provided to services. Compulsory admission of a close relative can be a complex and stressful experience for family caregivers. In order for caregivers to be effective partners in care, a balance needs to be struck between valuing their involvement in providing care for a patient and not overburdening them.

  2. Family caregivers' experiences of involuntary psychiatric hospital admissions of their relatives--a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Jankovic

    Full Text Available Family caregivers of people with mental disorders are frequently involved in involuntary hospital admissions of their relatives.To explore family caregivers' experience of involuntary admission of their relative.30 in-depth interviews were conducted with family caregivers of 29 patients who had been involuntarily admitted to 12 hospitals across England. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis.Four major themes of experiences were identified: relief and conflicting emotions in response to the relative's admission; frustration with a delay in getting help; being given the burden of care by services; and difficulties with confidentiality. Relief was a predominant emotion as a response to the relative's admission and it was accompanied by feelings of guilt and worry. Family caregivers frequently experienced difficulties in obtaining help from services prior to involuntary admission and some thought that services responded to crises rather than prevented them. Family caregivers experienced increased burden when services shifted the responsibility of caring for their mentally unwell relatives to them. Confidentiality was a delicate issue with family caregivers wanting more information and a say in decisions when they were responsible for aftercare, and being concerned about confidentiality of information they provided to services.Compulsory admission of a close relative can be a complex and stressful experience for family caregivers. In order for caregivers to be effective partners in care, a balance needs to be struck between valuing their involvement in providing care for a patient and not overburdening them.

  3. When faith divides family: religious discord and adolescent reports of parent-child relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Charles E; Regnerus, Mark D

    2009-03-01

    What happens to family relations when an adolescent and her parent do not share the same religious convictions or practices? Whereas previous work on religion and intergenerational relations looks at relationships between parents and their adult children, we shift the focus to younger families, assessing how parent-child religious discord affects adolescents' evaluation of their relationship with their parents. Exploring data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we find several interesting patterns of association between religious discord and parent-child relations. Overall, religious discord predicts lower quality intergenerational relations. When parents value religion more than their teens do, adolescents tend to report poorer relations with parents. Relationship quality is not lower, however, when it is the adolescent who values religion more highly. We also find that religious discord is more aggravating in families where parent and child share religious affiliation and in families where the parent is an evangelical Protestant.

  4. Family functioning in bipolar disorder: Characteristics, congruity between patients and relatives, and clinical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinares, María; Bonnín, C Mar; Hidalgo-Mazzei, Diego; Colom, Francesc; Solé, Brisa; Jiménez, Esther; Torrent, Carla; Comes, Mercè; Martínez-Arán, Anabel; Sánchez-Moreno, José; Vieta, Eduard

    2016-11-30

    Functional improvement has become one of the aims of the treatment of bipolar disorder. However, scant attention has been given to family functioning, even though it has a role in the illness outcome and is affected by the disorder. The aims of this study were to compare family functioning reported by euthymic patients with bipolar disorder and healthy controls; explore the level of congruence in the perception of family environment between patients with bipolar disorder and their relatives; and analyse the relationship between clinical variables and family functioning. The sample comprised 82 adult euthymic subjects with bipolar disorder, 82 family caregivers of these patients and 47 healthy controls. Participants completed the Family Environment Scale. Results showed moderate correlations and a mean pattern almost identical between relatives' and patients' reported scores in family functioning subscales. There were significant differences between patients and controls, favourable for the latter, in the subscales cohesion (pfamily environment and clinical variables of severity. These findings contribute to increasing the understanding of family functioning in bipolar disorder and highlight the importance of family work. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Family Relations and Elder Care Among Arabs in the North of Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, Liat

    2018-01-01

    The study examined family relations and elder care, in light of the modernization processes that are taking place in the Arab sector. Interviews with 25 older adults, 27 family members, and 5 paid home care workers of an Arab origin were conducted. Qualitative analysis consisted of constant comparisons and contrasts of relevant themes. Most Arabs reported that intergenerational solidarity is very strong in the Arab sector. Whereas many older adults and a few of their family members tended to favor paid care, the majority of Arab family members and fewer older adults stated that family care is preferred. Finally, a third theme outlined the desired properties of care, which consists of a true mix between formal and informal care. The study points to two sources of tension between (a) older adults and their family members and (b) perspectives on care held by the National Insurance Institute and the Arab sector.

  6. Adaptive coping strategies of affected family members of a relative with substance misuse: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Terence V; Lubman, Dan I

    2018-01-01

    To explore the coping strategies used by affected family members of a relative with substance misuse. Families play an important role in supporting a relative with substance misuse. However, the experience often has an adverse effect on their general well-being, the extent of which depends largely on their coping strategies. An interpretative phenomenological analysis study. Data were collected between January - December 2015. Semistructured, audio-recorded qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 affected family members. Three main themes and related subthemes were abstracted from the data illustrating how participants coped with their relative's substance misuse: (1) Seeking timely access to evidence-based information; (2) Enhancing personal coping strategies and (3) Accessing informal and formal support. Greater investment is needed in support services for affected family members, particularly in regional and rural areas. A wide range of accessible evidence-based information and informal and formal support, including telephone and online support, is needed to assist them to cope in this crucial support-giving role. Affected family members need to adopt a flexible set of coping strategies while supporting a relative with substance misuse. Family and friends, alcohol and other drug services, mental health nurses and other clinicians have a critical role providing emotional, instrumental and educational support to affected family members to enhance their adaptive coping strategies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Medicine-related services in community pharmacy: public preferences for pharmacy attributes and promotional methods and comparison with pharmacists' perceptions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gammie, Shivaun; Rodgers, Ruth; Loo, Ruey Leng; Corlett, Sarah; Krska, Janet

    2016-01-01

    ... medicine-related services with community pharmacists' perceptions of their customers' views.Methods: Parallel surveys were conducted in South East England, using a street survey for the general public and a postal survey for community...

  8. The Familial Socialization of Culturally Related Values in Mexican American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, George P.; Berkel, Cady; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Ettekal, Idean; Jaconis, Maryanne; Boyd, Brenna M.

    2011-01-01

    Research has documented a relation between parents' ethnic socialization and youth's ethnic identity, yet there has been little research examining the transmission of cultural values from parents to their children through ethnic socialization and ethnic identity. This study examines a prospective model in which mothers' and fathers' Mexican…

  9. Family factors related to children's intrinsic/extrinsic motivational orientation and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, G S; Bronstein, P

    1993-10-01

    This study examined 3 familial factors--parental surveillance of homework, parental reactions to grades, and general family style--in relation to children's motivational orientation and academic performance. Family, parent, and child measures were obtained in the home from 93 fifth graders and their parents. Teachers provided a measure of classroom motivational orientation, and grades and achievement scores were obtained from school records. Higher parental surveillance of homework, parental reactions to grades that included negative control, uninvolvement, or extrinsic reward, and over- and undercontrolling family styles were found to be related to an extrinsic motivational orientation and to lower academic performance. On the other hand, parental encouragement in response to grades children received was associated with an intrinsic motivational orientation, and autonomy-supporting family styles were associated with intrinsic motivation and higher academic performance. In addition, socioeconomic level was a significant predictor of motivational orientation and academic performance.

  10. Cancer Worry, Perceived Risk and Cancer Screening in First-Degree Relatives of Patients with Familial Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jenny; Hart, Tae L; Aronson, Melyssa; Crangle, Cassandra; Govindarajan, Anand

    2016-06-01

    Currently, there is a lack of evidence evaluating the psychological impact of cancer-related risk perception and worry in individuals at high risk for gastric cancer. We examined the relationships between perceived risk, cancer worry and screening behaviors among first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with familial gastric cancer. FDRs of patients diagnosed with familial gastric cancer with a non-informative genetic analysis were identified and contacted. Participants completed a telephone interview that assessed socio-demographic information, cancer risk perception, cancer worry, impact of worry on daily functioning, and screening behaviors. Twenty-five FDRs completed the telephone interview. Participants reported high levels of comparative and absolute cancer risk perception, with an average perceived lifetime risk of 54 %. On the other hand, cancer-related worry scores were low, with a significant minority (12 %) experiencing high levels of worry. Study participants exhibited high levels of confidence (median = 70 %) in the effectiveness of screening at detecting a curable cancer. Participants that had undergone screening in the past showed significantly lower levels of cancer-related worry compared to those that had never undergone screening. In conclusion, individuals at high-risk for gastric cancer perceived a very high personal risk of cancer, but reported low levels of cancer worry. This paradoxical result may be attributed to participants' high levels of confidence in the effectiveness of screening. These findings highlight the importance for clinicians to discuss realistic risk appraisals and expectations towards screening with unaffected members of families at risk for gastric cancer, in an effort to help mitigate anxiety and help with coping.

  11. Technical attributes, health attribute, consumer attributes and their roles in adoption intention of healthcare wearable technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Luo, Meifen; Nie, Rui; Zhang, Yan

    2017-12-01

    This paper aims to explore factors influencing the healthcare wearable technology adoption intention from perspectives of technical attributes (perceived convenience, perceived irreplaceability, perceived credibility and perceived usefulness), health attribute (health belief) and consumer attributes (consumer innovativeness, conspicuous consumption, informational reference group influence and gender difference). By integrating technology acceptance model, health belief model, snob effect and conformity and reference group theory, hypotheses and research model are proposed. The empirical investigation (N=436) collects research data through questionnaire. Results show that the adoption intention of healthcare wearable technology is influenced by technical attributes, health attribute and consumer attributes simultaneously. For technical attributes, perceived convenience and perceived credibility both positively affect perceived usefulness, and perceived usefulness influences adoption intention. The relation between perceived irreplaceability and perceived usefulness is only supported by males. For health attribute, health belief affects perceived usefulness for females. For consumer attributes, conspicuous consumption and informational reference group influence can significantly moderate the relation between perceived usefulness and adoption intention and the relation between consumer innovativeness and adoption intention respectively. What's more, consumer innovativeness significantly affects adoption intention for males. This paper aims to discuss technical attributes, health attribute and consumer attributes and their roles in the adoption intention of healthcare wearable technology. Findings may provide enlightenment to differentiate product developing and marketing strategies and provide some implications for clinical medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. How working in cross-functional teams relates to core attributes of professional occupations and the moderating role of personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, Eric; Broekhuis, Manda

    In this study, we related the extent to which professional workers participate in cross-functional teams (CFTs) to 3 facets of professional occupations: domain distinctiveness, accountability, and task autonomy. Furthermore, we investigated whether these relationships are moderated by 3 personality

  13. On Linking Social Performance with Social Competence: Some Relations between Communicative Style and Attributions of Interpersonal Attractiveness and Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, David R.

    1979-01-01

    Explores the process of impression formation in initial interactions as a function of a person's communicative style. Develops a method for measurement of interactive or communicative style and describes a study designed to empirically assess relations between style, attractiveness, and effectiveness. (JMF)

  14. [Correlations between the perception of family functioning by patients with eating disorders and their parents and the perception of relations in the parents' families of origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilecki, Maciej W; Józefik, Barbara; Salapa, Kinga

    2014-01-01

    To assess the correlations between the perception of relations in parents' families of origin and the assessment of the current family by the parents and their daughters suffering from eating disorders. STUDIED GROUP: Statistical analyses were applied to the results obtained from 54 patients diagnosed with restrictive anorexia nervosa, from 22 with binge-purge anorexia, from 36 with bulimia and from two control groups: 36 patients diagnosed with depressive disorders and 85 Krakow schoolgirls. The study also covered the parents of the investigated girls. Family of Origin Scale and Family Assessment Questionnaire (FAM Polish version) were used in the study. The procreative family assessment made by the mothers was correlated with the assessment of their own generational family and the assessment of own generational family made by their husbands. Procreative family assessment made by the fathers was correlated only with their assessment of their family of origin. Family of origin assessment made by patients with diagnosed eating disorders, particularly bulimia, was correlated only with the family of origin assessment made by their fathers. The last correlation did not occur in the control groups. The research shows a correlation between the experience of the families of origin and the current functioning of the family. They show the impact of the fathers' trangenerational experience on the perception of family relations of daughters with diagnosed anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

  15. Family Chaos and Child Functioning in Relation to Sleep Problems Among Children at Risk for Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Richard E; Halbower, Ann C; Daniels, Stephen; Gunnarsdottir, Thrudur; Whitesell, Nancy; Johnson, Susan L

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of child and family functioning on child sleep behaviors in low-income minority families who are at risk for obesity. A cross-sectional study was utilized to measure child and family functioning from 2013 to 2014. Participants were recruited from Head Start classrooms while data were collected during home visits. A convenience sample of 72 low-income Hispanic (65%) and African American (32%) families of preschool-aged children were recruited for this study. We assessed the association of child and family functioning with child sleep behaviors using a multivariate multiple linear regression model. Bootstrap mediation analyses examined the effects of family chaos between child functioning and child sleep problems. Poorer child emotional and behavioral functioning related to total sleep behavior problems. Chaos associated with bedtime resistance significantly mediated the relationship between Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS) and Bedtime Resistance. Families at high risk for obesity showed children with poorer emotional and behavioral functioning were at higher risk for problematic sleep behaviors, although we found no link between obesity and child sleep. Family chaos appears to play a significant role in understanding part of these relationships. Future longitudinal studies are necessary to establish causal relationships between child and family functioning and sleep problems to further guide obesity interventions aimed at improving child sleep routines and increasing sleep duration.

  16. Gender Differences in Relations among Perceived Family Characteristics and Risky Health Behaviors in Urban Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kimberly M; Carey, Kate B; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Eckert, Tanya L; Park, Aesoon; Vanable, Peter A; Ewart, Craig K; Carey, Michael P

    2017-06-01

    Research regarding the role of gender in relations between family characteristics and health risk behaviors has been limited. This study aims to investigate gender differences in associations between family processes and risk-taking in adolescents. Adolescents (N = 249; mean age = 14.5 years) starting their first year at an urban high school in the northeastern USA completed self-report measures that assessed family characteristics (i.e., parental monitoring, family social support, family conflict) and health behaviors (i.e., tobacco use, alcohol use, marijuana use, sex initiation) as part of a prospective, community-based study. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate gender differences in associations between the family characteristics and health behaviors. Among males, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with lower odds of using tobacco and having ever engaged in sex. Among females, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with lower odds of marijuana use, alcohol use, and having ever engaged in sex. However, in contrast to males, among females (a) higher levels of perceived family social support were associated with lower odds of alcohol use and having ever engaged in sex and (b) higher levels of perceived family conflict were associated with higher odds of marijuana use and having ever engaged in sex. Family processes were more strongly related to health behaviors among adolescent females than adolescent males. Interventions that increase parental monitoring and family social support as well as decrease family conflict may help to protect against adolescent risk taking, especially for females.

  17. Family-based cardiac screening in relatives of victims of sudden arrhythmic death syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGorrian, Catherine

    2013-02-03

    AIMS: Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS) occurs when a person suffers a sudden, unexpected death, with no cause found at postmortem examination. We aimed to describe the cardiac screening outcomes in a population of relatives of SADS victimsMETHODS AND RESULTS: Prospective and retrospective cohort study of consecutive families attending the Family Heart Screening clinic at the Mater Misericordiae Hospital in Dublin, Ireland, from January 2007 to September 2011. Family members of SADS victims underwent a standard screening protocol. Adjunct clinical and postmortem information was sought on the proband. Families who had an existing diagnosis, or where the proband had epilepsy, were excluded. Of 115 families identified, 73 were found to fit inclusion criteria and were retained for analysis, with data available on 262 relatives. Over half of the screened family members were female, and the mean age was 38.6 years (standard deviation 15.6). In 22 of 73 families (30%), and 36 of 262 family members (13.7%), a potentially inheritable cause of SADS was detected. Of the population screened, 32 patients (12.2%) were treated with medication, and 5 (1.9%) have received implantable cardiac defibrillators. Of the five families with long QT syndrome (LQTS) who had a pathogenic gene mutation identified, three carried two such mutations.CONCLUSION: In keeping with international estimates, 30% of families of SADS victims were found to have a potentially inherited cardiac disease. The most common positive finding was LQTS. Advances in postmortem standards and genetic studies may assist in achieving more diagnoses in these families.

  18. Organizational Attributes, Market Growth, and Product Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Michael; Chen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Extensive research has shown that organizational attributes affect product innovation. Extending this literature, this article delimits two general categories of organizational attributes and relates them to product innovation. Organizational attributes can be either control oriented or flexibility

  19. Natural landscape and stream segment attributes influencing the distribution and relative abundance of riverine smallmouth bass in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, S.K.; Rabeni, C.F.; Sowa, S.P.; Annis, G.

    2007-01-01

    Protecting and restoring fish populations on a regional basis are most effective if the multiscale factors responsible for the relative quality of a fishery are known. We spatially linked Missouri's statewide historical fish collections to environmental features in a geographic information system, which was used as a basis for modeling the importance of landscape and stream segment features in supporting a population of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu. Decision tree analyses were used to develop probability-based models to predict statewide occurrence and within-range relative abundances. We were able to identify the range of smallmouth bass throughout Missouri and the probability of occurrence within that range by using a few broad landscape variables: the percentage of coarse-textured soils in the watershed, watershed relief, and the percentage of soils with low permeability in the watershed. The within-range relative abundance model included both landscape and stream segment variables. As with the statewide probability of occurrence model, soil permeability was particularly significant. The predicted relative abundance of smallmouth bass in stream segments containing low percentages of permeable soils was further influenced by channel gradient, stream size, spring-flow volume, and local slope. Assessment of model accuracy with an independent data set showed good concordance. A conceptual framework involving naturally occurring factors that affect smallmouth bass potential is presented as a comparative model for assessing transferability to other geographic areas and for studying potential land use and biotic effects. We also identify the benefits, caveats, and data requirements necessary to improve predictions and promote ecological understanding. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  20. Common attributes of high/low performing general surgery programs as they relate to QE/CE pass rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankhead-Kendall, Brittany; Slama, Eliza; Truitt, Michael S

    2016-12-01

    This comparative study aims to identify the differences between high and low performing programs as defined by their ABS board pass rates. We identified programs in the top 5% (TP) and lower 5% (LP) for 1st time QE/CE pass rates during the study period with resident and program related variables. All data was pooled and analyzed. TP had more U.S. graduates, higher average USMLE Step 1/2 scores, and all residents took the exam within a year of graduation. TP were more likely to rotate at a Level 1 trauma center, spent more time with simulation, and had numerous fellowship programs. They ascribed their success to mock oral exams, mature curricula, and group educational activities. Graduates of TP chose general surgery twice as often (40% vs 19%). Program related factors (Level 1 trauma, excellent didactics, higher number of fellowships, increased group educational activities, higher percentage of graduates into general surgery) are associated with TP. Our data suggests there may be modifiable program related variables that positively impact QE/CE pass rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Relative exchangeable copper: a promising tool for family screening in Wilson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocello, Jean-Marc; El Balkhi, Souleiman; Woimant, France; Girardot-Tinant, Nadège; Chappuis, Philippe; Lloyd, Carla; Poupon, Joël

    2014-04-01

    Family screening is a main step for the diagnosis in Wilson disease. This study was undertaken to evaluate the value of relative exchangeable copper for family screening. Data from family screening were collected from the French National Center of Reference for Wilson disease. Subjects who were first- or second-degree relatives of the index case underwent clinical examination and biological parameters. Of 127 subjects examined, copper abnormalities or low ceruloplasminemia were detected in 21 subjects, corresponding to 5 patients with Wilson disease, 14 heterozygous ATP7B carriers and 2 subjects with no ATP7B mutations. Relative exchangeable copper determination significantly discriminates heterozygous ATP7B carriers and subjects with no ATP7B mutations from WD patients with a cutoff of 15%. Exchangeable copper appears to be a promising tool for family screening in Wilson disease. © 2013 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  2. Life Satisfaction of University Students in Relation to Family and Food in a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Miranda-Zapata, Edgardo; Grunert, Klaus G; Lobos, Germán; Denegri, Marianela; Hueche, Clementina; Poblete, Héctor

    2017-01-01

    Life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life (SWFoL) are associated with healthy eating habits, family interaction around eating and family support. The present study evaluates the relationship between SWFoL and satisfaction with family life (SWFaL), and their relationship with life satisfaction in university students. We identify the relationship of two different types of family support and student SWFaL and explore a moderator effect of gender. A questionnaire was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 370 students of both genders (mean age 21 years) in Chile, including Satisfaction with Life Scale, SWFoL scale, SWFaL scale, and the Family Resources Scale. Using structural equation modeling, we found that students' life satisfaction was related to SWFaL and food-related life. A high positive relationship was identified between intangible family support and students' SWFaL, which would have a mediating role between intangible support and life satisfaction. Using multi-group analysis, a moderator effect of gender was not found. These findings suggest that improving SWFoL, SWFaL and intangible family support is important for both female and male students.

  3. Life Satisfaction of University Students in Relation to Family and Food in a Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Miranda-Zapata, Edgardo; Grunert, Klaus G.; Lobos, Germán; Denegri, Marianela; Hueche, Clementina; Poblete, Héctor

    2017-01-01

    Life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life (SWFoL) are associated with healthy eating habits, family interaction around eating and family support. The present study evaluates the relationship between SWFoL and satisfaction with family life (SWFaL), and their relationship with life satisfaction in university students. We identify the relationship of two different types of family support and student SWFaL and explore a moderator effect of gender. A questionnaire was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 370 students of both genders (mean age 21 years) in Chile, including Satisfaction with Life Scale, SWFoL scale, SWFaL scale, and the Family Resources Scale. Using structural equation modeling, we found that students’ life satisfaction was related to SWFaL and food-related life. A high positive relationship was identified between intangible family support and students’ SWFaL, which would have a mediating role between intangible support and life satisfaction. Using multi-group analysis, a moderator effect of gender was not found. These findings suggest that improving SWFoL, SWFaL and intangible family support is important for both female and male students. PMID:28932203

  4. Other cancers in lung cancer families are overwhelmingly smoking-related cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyao Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Familial risks of lung cancer are well-established, but whether lung cancer clusters with other discordant cancers is less certain, particularly beyond smoking-related sites, which may provide evidence on genetic contributions to lung cancer aetiology. We used a novel approach to search for familial associations in the Swedish Family-Cancer Database. This involved assessment of familial relative risk for cancer X in families with increasing numbers of lung cancer patients and, conversely, relative risks for lung cancer in families with increasing numbers of patients with cancers X. However, we lacked information on smoking. The total number of lung cancers in the database was 125 563. We applied stringent statistical criteria and found that seven discordant cancers were associated with lung cancer among family members, and six of these were known to be connected with smoking: oesophageal, upper aerodigestive tract, liver, cervical, kidney and urinary bladder cancers. A further novel finding was that cancer of unknown primary also associated with lung cancer. We also factored in histological evidence and found that anal and connective tissue cancers could be associated with lung cancer for reasons other than smoking. For endometrial and prostate cancers, suggestive negative associations with lung cancer were found. Although we lacked information on smoking it is prudent to conclude that practically all observed discordant associations of lung cancer were with cancers for which smoking is a risk factor.

  5. Life Satisfaction of University Students in Relation to Family and Food in a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Schnettler

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life (SWFoL are associated with healthy eating habits, family interaction around eating and family support. The present study evaluates the relationship between SWFoL and satisfaction with family life (SWFaL, and their relationship with life satisfaction in university students. We identify the relationship of two different types of family support and student SWFaL and explore a moderator effect of gender. A questionnaire was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 370 students of both genders (mean age 21 years in Chile, including Satisfaction with Life Scale, SWFoL scale, SWFaL scale, and the Family Resources Scale. Using structural equation modeling, we found that students’ life satisfaction was related to SWFaL and food-related life. A high positive relationship was identified between intangible family support and students’ SWFaL, which would have a mediating role between intangible support and life satisfaction. Using multi-group analysis, a moderator effect of gender was not found. These findings suggest that improving SWFoL, SWFaL and intangible family support is important for both female and male students.

  6. Correlation of parents' religious behavior with family's emotional relations and students' self-actualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorsheikhali, Fatemah; Alavi, Hamid Reza

    2015-02-01

    The main goal of this research is to study the relationship between parents' religious behavior, emotional relations inside family, and self-actualization of male and female high school students of district 2 in Kerman city. Research method is descriptive and of correlative type. Questionnaires of parent's religious behavior, emotional relations inside family, and students' self-actualization were used in the research. After collecting questionnaires, data were analyzed by SPSS, MINITAB, and EXCEL software. The sample volume in the research has been 309 students and their parents, and the sampling method was in the form of classification and then in the form of cluster in two stages. 1.29 % of students had a low self-actualization, 17.15 % had average, and 81.55 % of them had high self-actualization. Also the results showed that 9.4 % of emotional relations in families were undesirable, 55.3 % were relatively desirable, and 35.3 % were desirable. Moreover, 2.27 % of parents' religious behavior was inappropriate, 29.13 % was relatively appropriate, and 68.61 % was appropriate. The main results of the research are as follows: (1) There is a significant positive correlation between parents' religious behavior and emotional relations inside students' family. (2) There is not any significant correlational between parents' religious behavior and students' self-actualization. (3) There is a significant positive correlation between emotional relations inside family and students' self-actualization.

  7. Family adversity and inhibitory control for economically disadvantaged children: preschool relations and associations with school readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eleanor D; Ackerman, Brian P; Moore, Charlee A

    2013-06-01

    This study examined longitudinal relations linking aspects of family adversity to inhibitory control and school readiness for 120 economically disadvantaged children attending a Head Start preschool. The aspects of family adversity included income-to-needs ratios and an adversity index representing family instability and family chaos. The results showed that the adversity index but not the income ratios contributed to explaining diversity in the development of inhibitory control over the course of the preschool year. Additionally, the adversity index predicted school readiness at the end of the year, and the results suggested that inhibitory control mediated this effect. The implications concern understanding family sources of diversity in inhibitory control for economically disadvantaged preschool children. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Diet Quality and Satisfaction with Life, Family Life, and Food-Related Life across Families: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study with Mother-Father-Adolescent Triads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Schnettler

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Family is a major determinant of children’s and adolescents’ eating behavior. The objectives of the present study were to assess diet quality, eating habits, satisfaction with life, family life, and food-related life in mother–father–adolescent triads, and to identify profiles of families according to family members’ diet quality. Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 300 two-parent families with one child over the age of 10 in the city of Temuco (Chile, including the Adapted Healthy Eating Index (AHEI, Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFoL scale, Satisfaction with Family Life (SWFaL scales, and questions relating to their eating habits. Positive relationships were found between the diet quality of the family members, particularly between mothers and adolescents. Three family profiles with different diet qualities were identified: “families with an unhealthy diet” (39.3%, “families in which mothers and adolescents have healthy diets, but the fathers’ diets require changes” (14.3%, and “families that require changes in their diet” (46.4%. These findings stress the key role of mothers in determining family diet quality and suggest a positive relationship between diet quality and satisfaction with life.

  9. Diet Quality and Satisfaction with Life, Family Life, and Food-Related Life across Families: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study with Mother-Father-Adolescent Triads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Lobos, Germán; Miranda-Zapata, Edgardo; Denegri, Marianela; Ares, Gastón; Hueche, Clementina

    2017-10-29

    Family is a major determinant of children's and adolescents' eating behavior. The objectives of the present study were to assess diet quality, eating habits, satisfaction with life, family life, and food-related life in mother-father-adolescent triads, and to identify profiles of families according to family members' diet quality. Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 300 two-parent families with one child over the age of 10 in the city of Temuco (Chile), including the Adapted Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFoL) scale, Satisfaction with Family Life (SWFaL) scales, and questions relating to their eating habits. Positive relationships were found between the diet quality of the family members, particularly between mothers and adolescents. Three family profiles with different diet qualities were identified: "families with an unhealthy diet" (39.3%), "families in which mothers and adolescents have healthy diets, but the fathers' diets require changes" (14.3%), and "families that require changes in their diet" (46.4%). These findings stress the key role of mothers in determining family diet quality and suggest a positive relationship between diet quality and satisfaction with life.

  10. Diet Quality and Satisfaction with Life, Family Life, and Food-Related Life across Families: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study with Mother-Father-Adolescent Triads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobos, Germán; Miranda-Zapata, Edgardo; Denegri, Marianela; Ares, Gastón; Hueche, Clementina

    2017-01-01

    Family is a major determinant of children’s and adolescents’ eating behavior. The objectives of the present study were to assess diet quality, eating habits, satisfaction with life, family life, and food-related life in mother–father–adolescent triads, and to identify profiles of families according to family members’ diet quality. Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 300 two-parent families with one child over the age of 10 in the city of Temuco (Chile), including the Adapted Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFoL) scale, Satisfaction with Family Life (SWFaL) scales, and questions relating to their eating habits. Positive relationships were found between the diet quality of the family members, particularly between mothers and adolescents. Three family profiles with different diet qualities were identified: “families with an unhealthy diet” (39.3%), “families in which mothers and adolescents have healthy diets, but the fathers’ diets require changes” (14.3%), and “families that require changes in their diet” (46.4%). These findings stress the key role of mothers in determining family diet quality and suggest a positive relationship between diet quality and satisfaction with life. PMID:29109387

  11. Family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), perceived CVD risk, and health-related behavior: A review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imes, Christopher C.; Lewis, Frances Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Background Over 82 million Americans have one or more forms of cardiovascular disease (CVD), accounting for 32.8% of all deaths in the United States. Although the evidence for the familial aggregation of CVD is strong, the relationship between family history (FH) of CVD, perceived risk for CVD and their relationship to health-related behavior is poorly understood. Objective The objective of this article is to review and summarize the published research on the relationship between a FH of CVD, an individual’s perceived risk, and health-related behavior in order to make recommendations for clinical practice and future research. Methods A literature search was conducted using PubMed, CINAHL Plus, and PsycINFO to identify articles that examined the relationship between a FH of CVD, perceived CVD risk, and health-promoting behaviors. A total of 263 unique articles were reviewed. Two hundred thirty-eight were excluded, resulting in a total of 25 articles included in the paper. Results There was a positive relationship between a reported FH of CVD and perceived risk. However, the relationship between a FH of CVD and health-related behavior change and perceived risk and behavior change was inconsistent. Conclusions A person’s awareness of their FH of CVD or their own risk for CVD is not a sufficient predictor of changes in their health-related behavior. Future studies are needed to better explain the processes by which perceived CVD risk or FH of CVD can be used to affect health-related behavior changes. It appears that both FH and perceived personal risk for CVD are necessary but not sufficient conditions to change health-related behavior in high-risk populations. Future studies should also test interventions that help individuals with a FH of CVD attribute increased personal risk to themselves for developing CVD, while providing lifestyle management options to minimize their risk. PMID:23321782

  12. Family Risk Factors Among Women With Addiction-Related Problems: An Integrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abasi, Imaneh; Mohammadkhani, Parvaneh

    2016-01-01

    Context Recent years have produced many articles about women’s addiction and its risk factors and the consequences of substance use and misuse in the emotional, social, psychological, and economic domains of life. Family vulnerabilities are one of the most important variables contributing to addiction among women. Thus, the purpose of this article is to investigate areas of family life that lead to women’s taking up and maintaining drug and alcohol abuse. Evidence Acquisition A database search of PubMed, ScienceDirect, Springer, and Google Scholar was conducted using the following keywords: “women and addiction”, “women addiction and family”, “addiction”, “substance abuse” and “family”. For the first step, we chose studies that were conducted between 2000 and 2015, and for the second step, studies conducted before 2000. We categorized all search results into three main groups: processes related to family disturbances, factors related to parenting styles, and variables related to partners. Results Partners, parenting styles, and family disturbances are three main factors affecting children growing up in a family and their inclination toward addiction. Some of these pathways are complicated and indirect, and some are straightforward. Conclusions Future research should pay more attention to the mechanisms and pathways mediating or moderating the relationship between family risk factors and addiction in women. Clinicians and researchers should keep in mind these vulnerabilities and take into consideration factors special to processes related to addiction in women. PMID:27622169

  13. Relations and values in children family education: Between traditionalism and modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luković Ivana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigations on the characteristics of relations and values in children family education considering traditionalism and modernism respectively. The investigations were carried out in 2003 in Belgrade comprising the sample of 173 parents of primary school sixth graders. The investigations were conducted by the poll technique. Traditionalism and modernism, respectively, in relations and values were integrally examined using indicators as follows: authority distribution in a family, parental general care of a child, parent expectations of children of different gender with regard to doing housework, educational achievement and characteristics they consider desirable for males and females respectively. The biggest move from traditionalism to modernism was noted in the sphere of authority distribution in a family. As for parental general care of a child and their expectations in the three separated domains, there are signs of intensive abandon of traditionalistic positions. On the whole, concerning relations and values in children family education, the majority of examined families are in transition from traditionalism to modernism. Also, the results demonstrate that parent education level and level of urban character of a setting where parents grew up largely determine the type of relations and values parents will give priority to in children family education.

  14. Work-Family Conflict and Oral and General Health-Related Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kiran A; Spencer, A John; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye F; Brennan, David S

    2015-08-01

    The characteristics of the work environment and relationships with family roles may impact on health and be of public health significance. The aims were to investigate the cross-sectional association of work-family conflict with oral- and general health-related quality of life, and well-being. A random sample of 45-54-year olds from Adelaide, South Australia, was surveyed by self-complete questionnaire in 2004-2005 (n = 879, response rate = 43.8%). Health-related quality of life was measured with the OHIP-14 and EQ-VAS instruments, and well-being by the Satisfaction With Life Scale. In adjusted analyses controlling for sex, income, education, tooth brushing frequency and social support, the higher Family Interferes with Work (FIW) tertile and the middle tertile of Work Interferes with Family (WIF) were associated with more oral health-related impacts as measured by OHIP-14 in relation to problems with teeth, mouth or dentures (Beta = 1.64, P health (Beta = -4.20 and -5.71, P family conflict was associated with more oral health impacts and lower general health and well-being among employed middle-aged adults. This supports the view of work-family conflict as a psychosocial risk factor for health outcomes spanning function, health perceptions and well-being, and encompassing both oral health and general health.

  15. Social relationships and health: the relative roles of family functioning and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, P; Campbell, T L; Shields, C G

    1992-04-01

    The associations between social relationships and health have been examined using two major research traditions. Using a social epidemiological approach, much research has shown the beneficial effect of social supports on health and health behaviors. Family interaction research, which has grown out of a more clinical tradition, has shown the complex effects of family functioning on health, particularly mental health. No studies have examined the relative power of these two approaches in explicating the connections between social relationships and health. We hypothesized that social relationships (social support and family functioning) would exert direct and indirect (through depressive symptoms) effects on health behaviors. We also hypothesized that the effects of social relationships on health would be more powerfully explicated by family functioning than by social support. We mailed a pilot survey to a random sample of patients attending a family practice center, including questions on depressive symptoms, cardiovascular health behaviors, demographics, social support using the ISEL scale, and family functioning using the FEICS scale. FEICS is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess family emotional involvement and criticism, the media elements of family expressed emotion. Eighty-three useable responses were obtained. Regression analyses and structural modelling showed both direct and indirect statistically significant paths from social relationships to health behaviors. Family criticism was directly associated (standardized coefficient = 0.29) with depressive symptoms, and family emotional involvement was directly associated with both depressive symptoms (coefficient = 0.35) and healthy cardiovascular behaviors (coefficient = 0.32). The results support the primacy of family functioning factors in understanding the associations among social relationships, mental health, and health behaviors. The contrasting relationships between emotional involvement and

  16. Hydrothermal zebra dolomite in the Great Basin, Nevada--attributes and relation to Paleozoic stratigraphy, tectonics, and ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, S.F.; Hofstra, A.H.; Koenig, A.E.; Emsbo, P.; Christiansen, W.; Johnson, Chad

    2010-01-01

    In other parts of the world, previous workers have shown that sparry dolomite in carbonate rocks may be produced by the generation and movement of hot basinal brines in response to arid paleoclimates and tectonism, and that some of these brines served as the transport medium for metals fixed in Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) and sedimentary exhalative (Sedex) deposits of Zn, Pb, Ag, Au, or barite. Numerous occurrences of hydrothermal zebra dolomite (HZD), comprised of alternating layers of dark replacement and light void-filling sparry or saddle dolomite, are present in Paleozoic platform and slope carbonate rocks on the eastern side of the Great Basin physiographic province. Locally, it is associated with mineral deposits of barite, Ag-Pb-Zn, and Au. In this paper the spatial distribution of HZD occurrences, their stratigraphic position, morphological characteristics, textures and zoning, and chemical and stable isotopic compositions were determined to improve understanding of their age, origin, and relation to dolostone, ore deposits, and the tectonic evolution of the Great Basin. In northern and central Nevada, HZD is coeval and cogenetic with Late Devonian and Early Mississippian Sedex Au, Zn, and barite deposits and may be related to Late Ordovician Sedex barite deposits. In southern Nevada and southwest California, it is cogenetic with small MVT Ag-Pb-Zn deposits in rocks as young as Early Mississippian. Over Paleozoic time, the Great Basin was at equatorial paleolatitudes with episodes of arid paleoclimates. Several occurrences of HZD are crosscut by Mesozoic or Cenozoic intrusions, and some host younger pluton-related polymetallic replacement and Carlin-type gold deposits. The distribution of HZD in space (carbonate platform, margin, and slope) and stratigraphy (Late Neoproterozoic Ediacaran-Mississippian) roughly parallels that of dolostone and both are prevalent in Devonian strata. Stratabound HZD is best developed in Ediacaran and Cambrian units, whereas

  17. Explaining the variability of Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI): deconvolution of variability related to Light Use Efficiency and Canopy attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlier, Elodie; Hmimina, Gabriel; Dufrêne, Eric; Soudani, Kamel

    2014-05-01

    The Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) was designed as a proxy of the state of xanthophyll cycle which is used as a response of plants to excess of light (Gamon et al., 1990; 1992). Strong relationships between PRI and LUE were shown at leaf and canopy scales and over a wide range of species (Garbulsky et al., 2011). However, its use at canopy scale was shown to be significantly hampered by effects of confounding factors such as the PRI sensitivity to leaf pigment content (Gamon et al. 2001; Nakaji et al. 2006) and to canopy structure (Hilker et al. 2008). Several approaches aimed at correcting such effects and recent works focused on the deconvolution of LUE related and LUE unrelated PRI variability (Rahimzadeh-Bajgiran et al. 2012).In this study, the PRI variability at canopy scale is investigated over two years on three species (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur and Pinus sylvestris) growing under two water regimes. At daily scale, PRI variability is mainly explained by radiation conditions. As already reported at leaf scale in Hmimina et al. (2014), analysis of PRI responses to incoming photosynthetically active radiation over seasonal scale allowed to separate two sources of variability : a constitutive variability mainly related to canopy structure and leaf chlorophyll content and a facultative variability mainly related to LUE and soil moisture content. These results highlight the composite nature of PRI signal measured at canopy scale and the importance of disentangling its sources of variability in order to accurately assess ecosystem light use efficiency. Gamon JA, Field CB, Bilger W, Björkman O, Fredeen AL, Peñuelas J. 1990. Remote sensing of the xanthophyll cycle and chlorophyll fluorescence in sunflower leaves and canopies. Oecologia 85, 1-7. Gamon JA, Field CB, Fredeen A AL, Thayer S. 2001. Assessing photosynthetic downregulation in sunflower stands with an optically-based model. Photosynthesis Research 67, 113-125. Gamon JA, Peñuelas J, Field CB

  18. Child Attributions Mediate Relationships Between Violence Exposure and Trauma Symptomology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn S. Collins

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Violence and trauma exposure have been increasingly investigated as contributing to a range of negative outcomes in child physical, cognitive, emotional, social, and psychological functioning, particularly among youth who are racial/ethnic minorities. This study presents findings related to children's attributions of their violence and trauma exposure. Attributions are inferences made about the cause of an event, situation, or action, with internal, stable, and global attributions most likely to lead to negative psychological outcomes. Data were drawn from an on-going clinical intervention study with families at risk for child maltreatment and/or neglect residing in a large metropolitan city on the East Coast. Mediation models provide evidence for a mediated relationship between violence exposure and PTSD through child attribution. Children develop their definitions of violence, formulate reasons why the violence occurs, and react to violence based on interpreting and developing cognitive attributions and schema about their experiences with violence in order to adaptively cope.

  19. Family relationships and advance care planning: do supportive and critical relations encourage or hinder planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Kathrin; Carr, Deborah; Moorman, Sara

    2013-03-01

    The effectiveness of advance care planning (ACP) may depend on family members' understanding of patient preferences. However, we know of no studies that explore the association between family relationship dynamics and ACP. ACP includes a living will, durable power of attorney for health care (DPAHC) appointment, and discussions. We evaluated the effects of three aspects of family relations--general family functioning, support and criticism from spouse, and support and criticism from children--on both overall ACP and specific DPAHC designations. Using multinomial logistic regression models and data from a sample of 293 older adults, we estimated the effects of family relationship quality on the likelihood of completing ACP and appointing a spouse or adult child as DPAHC. Analyses controlled for demographic and health characteristics. Better overall family functioning increased the odds of ACP. Higher levels of spousal support increased the odds of holding informal discussions, whereas spousal criticism reduced the odds of naming one's spouse as DPAHC. Both criticism and emotional support from children increased the odds that a child was named as DPAHC. Family dynamics affect ACP in complex ways and should be considered when patients and their families discuss end-of-life care and make DPAHC designations.

  20. Family strain and its relation to psychosocial dysfunction in children and adolescents after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaller, T; Petersen, I; Petermann, F; Fischer, L; Grabhorn, E; Schulz, K-H

    2014-12-01

    Parental functioning is essential to children's development. Therefore, this cross-sectional single-center study examined the prevalence of family strain in 181 parents and its associations to psychosocial functioning in their children after LT. Median age at LT was one yr. Mean time elapsed since LT was 5.8 yr. The IFS, and the SDQ were applied to parents. Family strain in the present sample was comparable to that in the German normative group of families with a chronically ill or disabled child, but families of LT recipients showed a significantly higher financial impact, impact on coping, and impact on siblings (p family strain (R(2)  = 0.42). Parents reported less family strain after living-related compared with deceased donation. Family strain was significantly correlated to psychosocial dysfunction in children post-LT. Present findings demonstrate a risk of maladjustment to the post-LT condition in families. They emphasize the importance of psychological assessment of parents and patients during transplant and follow-up to ensure the best achievable long-term outcome of patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Preschool Children's Cardiac Reactivity Moderates Relations Between Exposure to Family Violence and Emotional Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, Elizabeth A.; Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined relations between cardiac reactivity, family violence exposure (i.e., child maltreatment [CM] and inter-partner violence [IPV]), and preschool children's emotional adjustment. A sample of 92 mother–preschooler dyads was drawn from predominantly low-income, rural communities. Dyads participated in a laboratory session in which children's Electrocardiograph (ECG) monitoring occurred during a resting baseline, joint-challenge, and individual emotional and cognitive tasks. Mothers consented to review of Children & Youth Services (CYS) records for CM and completed an IPV measure. Mothers rated children's emotional adjustment, and observers rated children on their frustration and positive affect. Children's vagal suppression was shown to moderate relations between family violence exposure and emotional adjustment. Findings indicated that children greater in vagal suppression showed better emotional adjustment when from families low in violence. However, regardless of children's level of vagal suppression, all children showed poorer emotional adjustment when from families high in violence. PMID:21593016

  2. Aviation-attributable ozone as a driver for changes in mortality related to air quality and skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, Sebastian D.; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2016-11-01

    Aviation is a significant source of tropospheric ozone, which is a critical UV blocking agent, an indirect precursor to the formation of particulate matter, and a respiratory health hazard. To date, investigations of human health impacts related to aviation emissions have focused on particulate matter, and no global estimate yet exists of the combined health impact of aviation due to ozone, particulate matter and UV exposure changes. We use a coupled tropospheric-stratospheric chemical-transport model with a global aviation emissions inventory to estimate the total impact of aviation on all three risk factors. We find that surface ozone due to aviation emissions is maximized during hemispheric winter due to the greater wintertime chemical lifetime of ozone, but that a smaller enhancement of 0.5 ppbv occurs during summertime. This summertime increase results in an estimated 6,800 premature mortalities per year due to ozone exposure, over three times greater than previous estimates. During the winter maximum, interaction with high background NOx concentrations results in enhanced production of nitrate aerosol and increased annual average exposure to particulate matter. This ozone perturbation is shown to be the driving mechanism behind an additional 9,200 premature mortalities due to exposure to particulate matter. However, the increase in tropospheric ozone is also found to result in 400 fewer mortalities due to melanoma skin cancer in 2006. This is the first estimate of global melanoma mortality due to aviation, and the first estimate of skin cancer mortality impacts due to aviation using a global chemical transport model.

  3. Associations between Relational Pronoun Usage and the Quality of Early Family Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Galdiolo, Sarah; Roskam, Isabelle; Verhofstadt, Lesley L.; De Mol, Jan; Dewinne, Laura; Vandaudenard, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Our study examined the relationships of relational pronouns used in parental conversation to the quality of early family interactions, as indexed by Family Alliance (FA). We hypothesized that more positive family interactions were associated with the use of more we-pronouns (e.g., we, us, our; we-ness) and fewer I- and you-pronouns (e.g., I, me, you, your; separateness) by both mothers and fathers. Our statistical model using a multilevel modeling framework and two levels of analysis (i.e., a...

  4. Gender Equality in Family Relations of Vietnamese Living in Vietnam and Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Van Hai, Mai

    2016-01-01

    Gender equality is an important aspect of a happy family. It is expressed in equality of tasks sharing, decisions related to organization of family life, equal treatment of daughters and sons etc. The main aim of the study was to look at the eff ect of immigration on the perception of gender equality. Respondents of this study were 196 Vietnamese living in Vietnam (100 persons) and Poland (96 persons). Methods of the study included: the purposely designed questionnaire administered to all par...

  5. Familial Clustering of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia in First-Degree Relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oestergaard, Louise B.; Christiansen, Mia N.; Schmiegelow, Michelle D.

    2016-01-01

    the rate of the disease, and whether this rate is affected by the type of family relationship (that is, parent or sibling) or by how the relative acquired the infection. DESIGN: Register-based nationwide cohort study (1992 to 2011). SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: First-degree relatives (children...... of variables in the multiple regression analysis, and whether nonsignificant interactions were true or caused by insufficient statistical power remains uncertain. CONCLUSION: A significant familial clustering of S aureus bacteremia was found, with the greatest relative rate of disease observed in individuals...

  6. RELATIONS BETWEEN COPARENTING AND FATHER INVOLVEMENT IN FAMILIES WITH PRESCHOOL AGED CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rongfang; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    One-hundred twelve primarily European American and middle-class two-parent families with resident fathers and a 4-year-old child (48% girls) participated in a longitudinal study of associations between coparenting and father involvement. At the initial assessment and one year later, fathers reported on their involvement in play and caregiving activities with the focal child, and coparenting behavior was observed during triadic family interactions. SEM was used to test cross-lagged associations between coparenting behavior and father involvement. Overall, paths from father involvement to coparenting behavior were significant, but paths from coparenting behavior to father involvement were not. Specifically, greater father involvement in play was associated with an increase in supportive and a decrease in undermining coparenting behavior over time. In contrast, greater father involvement in caregiving was associated with a decrease in supportive and an increase in undermining coparenting behavior. Multi-group analysis further showed that these cross-lagged relations did not differ for dual earner families and single (father) earner families, but these relations appeared to differ for families with focal daughters and families with focal sons. These findings highlight the potential for fathering to affect coparenting and the importance of considering the role of contextual factors in coparenting-fathering relations. PMID:21244153

  7. The relative importance of child, family, school and neighbourhood correlates of childhood psychiatric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Tamsin; Goodman, Robert; Meltzer, Howard

    2004-06-01

    Many studies have described associations between childhood psychiatric disorder and characteristics of the child, and their family, school and neighbourhood, but few studies have studied them simultaneously. Also, most investigators have failed to allow for the extent to which different exposures are correlated, or for clustering at different levels of observation. Our objective was to establish which correlates were independently associated with psychiatric disorder. Data on DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses, as well as child and family characteristics, were obtained on 8772 English 5- to 15-year-olds included in a large British prevalence survey of mental health. These data were supplemented by independent measures of school and neighbourhood disadvantage. We entered child and family variables with the measures of school and neighbourhood disadvantage into a logistic regression analysis to establish which variables were independently associated with child psychiatric disorder. No variables were associated with all types of disorder. Poor general health and life events were related to emotional disorders, while conduct disorders were most closely associated with family variables, and ADHD was only related to child characteristics. Disadvantaged schools, deprived neighbourhoods, low socioeconomic status, parental unemployment, cohabiting, large family size, and poverty were not independently associated with disorder. Individually assessed child and family factors may be more influential than aggregate measures of school and neighbourhood factors. Different disorders have distinctive correlates. Many of the best known "risk factors" are not independently related to childhood psychiatric disorder, and are, therefore, acting distally in the causal pathway or irrelevant.

  8. A family history of alcoholism relates to alexithymia in substance use disorder patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, H.A. de; Joosten, E.A.J.; Haan, L. de; Schellekens, A.F.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Palen, J.A.M. van der; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Previous research identified alexithymia as a potential risk factor for substance use disorders (SUD). More insight into the relation between alexithymia and SUD is needed in order to treat SUD effectively. Therefore, we investigated whether a familial vulnerability to alcoholism relates

  9. A family history of alcoholism relates to alexithymia in substance use disorder patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, H.A. de; Joosten, E.A.G.; Haan, L. de; Buitelaar, J.K.; Palen, J.A.M. van der; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Previous research identified alexithymia as a potential risk factor for substance use disorders (SUD). More insight into the relation between alexithymia and SUD is needed in order to treat SUD effectively. Therefore, we investigated whether a familial vulnerability to alcoholism relates

  10. A family history of alcoholism relates to alexithymia in substance use disorder patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Hein A.; Joosten, Evelien A.G.; de Haan, Lydia; Schellekens, Arnt F.A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; de Jong, Cor A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Previous research identified alexithymia as a potential risk factor for substance use disorders (SUD). More insight into the relation between alexithymia and SUD is needed in order to treat SUD effectively. Therefore, we investigated whether a familial vulnerability to alcoholism relates

  11. Parent Involvement in School: Conceptualizing Multiple Dimensions and Their Relations with Family and Demographic Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Gwynne O.; Lengua, Liliana J.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the association between parental involvement (PI) and children's positive academic performance and social competence. Study examines the relations between a set of family and demographic risk factors and PI. Results reveal different patterns of relations between the risk factors studied-parental education, maternal depression, and…

  12. Testing the Relations Among Family Disorganization, Delay Discounting, and Adolescent Alcohol Use: A Genetically Informed Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Frances L; Pandika, Danielle; Chassin, Laurie; Lee, Matthew; King, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    Delay discounting is a potential etiological factor in adolescents' alcohol use, making it important to understand its antecedents. Family disorganization might contribute to delay discounting, but few studies have tested this relation. Moreover, because delay discounting is heritable, the effects of family disorganization on delay discounting might be moderated by adolescents' genetic risk for delay discounting. Thus, the current study examined the role of family disorganization, in interaction with genetic risk, in predicting adolescents' delay discounting and subsequent alcohol use. Adolescents participated in 4 waves of data collection. Adolescents self-reported their family disorganization at T1, completed a delay discounting questionnaire at T3, and self-reported their alcohol use both at T2 (covariate) and T4 (outcome). Using results from an independent sample, we created a polygenic risk score consisting of dopaminergic genes to index genetic risk for delay discounting. Greater family disorganization predicted adolescents' greater delay discounting, but only for adolescents with low levels of genetic risk for delay discounting. Adolescents with high and mean levels of genetic risk for delay discounting showed elevated delay discounting regardless of their family's disorganization. Greater delay discounting prospectively predicted adolescents' greater alcohol use. Finally, the effects of family disorganization on adolescents' alcohol use were mediated through delay discounting, but only for adolescents with low levels of genetic risk. Results suggest multiple pathways to delay discounting. Although there are genetically influenced pathways to delay discounting, family disorganization might represent an environmental pathway to delay discounting (and subsequent alcohol use) for a subset of adolescents at low genetic risk. These findings reinforce the utility of family interventions for reducing adolescents' delay discounting and alcohol use, at least for a

  13. QTL variations for growth-related traits in eight distinct families of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Weihua; Zheng, Xianhu; Kuang, Youyi; Cao, Dingchen; Yan, Yunqin; Sun, Xiaowen

    2016-05-05

    Comparing QTL analyses of multiple pair-mating families can provide a better understanding of important allelic variations and distributions. However, most QTL mapping studies in common carp have been based on analyses of individual families. In order to improve our understanding of heredity and variation of QTLs in different families and identify important QTLs, we performed QTL analysis of growth-related traits in multiple segregating families. We completed a genome scan for QTLs that affect body weight (BW), total length (TL), and body thickness (BT) of 522 individuals from eight full-sib families using 250 microsatellites evenly distributed across 50 chromosomes. Sib-pair and half-sib model mapping identified 165 QTLs on 30 linkage groups. Among them, 10 (genome-wide P <0.01 or P < 0.05) and 28 (chromosome-wide P < 0.01) QTLs exhibited significant evidence of linkage, while the remaining 127 exhibited a suggestive effect on the above three traits at a chromosome-wide (P < 0.05) level. Multiple QTLs obtained from different families affect BW, TL, and BT and locate at close or identical positions. It suggests that same genetic factors may control variability in these traits. Furthermore, the results of the comparative QTL analysis of multiple families showed that one QTL was common in four of the eight families, nine QTLs were detected in three of the eight families, and 26 QTLs were found common to two of the eight families. These common QTLs are valuable candidates in marker-assisted selection. A large number of QTLs were detected in the common carp genome and associated with growth-related traits. Some of the QTLs of different growth-related traits were identified at similar chromosomal regions, suggesting a role for pleiotropy and/or tight linkage and demonstrating a common genetic basis of growth trait variations. The results have set up an example for comparing QTLs in common carp and provided insights into variations in the identified QTLs

  14. Family relations and health over the life course. A Lebanese perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajrouch, Kristine J; Abdulrahim, Sawsan; Antonucci, Toni C

    2015-01-01

    The link between family relations and well-being in old age has received ample attention in the international literature, but remains least examined in the Arab region where cultural ideals assume positive intergenerational relations within families as the norm. In this paper, we employ survey data collected in Greater Beirut in 2009 to explore associations between family relations and health. over the life course. We tested (1) the extent to which age and social relation characteristics predict health; and (2) whether the association between age and health is stronger for those who report: smaller social networks and poorer relationship quality. We employed self-rated health and self-reported chronic illness as the health outcome measures and:social network size, positive quality and negative quality with family members as the social relations measures. Our findings suggest that social relations are differentially important depending on the health status indicator examined. The single dimension that influenced both self-rated health and the probability of reporting a chronic illness was positive relationship quality with spouse. Further, social relations, particularly having a negative relationship quality with spouse and adult child, exert stronger effects on both self-rated health and chronic illness for older compared to younger adults. The findings of the present study are important for clinical practitioners who often consider the role and importance of available social resources as they address the health needs of older adults.

  15. Associations between relational pronoun usage and the quality of early family interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Galdiolo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Our study examined the relationships of relational pronouns used in parental conversation to the quality of early family interactions, as indexed by Family Alliance (FA. We hypothesized that more positive family interactions were associated with the use of more we-pronouns (e.g., we, us, our; we-ness and fewer I- and you-pronouns (e.g., I, me, you, your; separateness by both mothers and fathers. Our statistical model using a multilevel modelling framework and two levels of analysis (i.e., a couple level and an individual level was tested on 47 non-referred families (n = 31 primiparous families; child’s age, M = 15.75 months, SD = 2.73 with we-ness and separateness as outcomes and FA functions as between-dyads variables. Analyses revealed that we-ness within the parental couple was only positively associated with family affect sharing while separateness was negatively associated with different FA functions (e.g., communication mistakes. Our main finding suggested that the kinds of personal pronouns used by parental couples when discussing children’s education would be associated to the emotional quality of the family interactions.

  16. Negative emotional reactivity moderates the relations between family cohesion and internalizing and externalizing symptoms in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Jill A; Osigwe, Ijeoma; Drabick, Deborah A G; Reynolds, Maureen D

    2016-12-01

    Lower family cohesion is associated with adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. However, there are likely individual differences in youth's responses to family processes. For example, adolescents higher in negative emotional reactivity, who often exhibit elevated physiological responsivity to context, may be differentially affected by family cohesion. We explored whether youth's negative emotional reactivity moderated the relation between family cohesion and youth's symptoms and tested whether findings were consistent with the diathesis-stress model or differential susceptibility hypothesis. Participants were 651 adolescents (M = 12.99 ± .95 years old; 72% male) assessed at two time points (Time 1, ages 12-14; Time 2, age 16) in Pittsburgh, PA. At Time 1, mothers reported on family cohesion and youth reported on their negative emotional reactivity. At Time 2, youth reported on their symptoms. Among youth higher in negative emotional reactivity, lower family cohesion predicted higher symptoms than higher family cohesion, consistent with the diathesis-stress model. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Associations between Relational Pronoun Usage and the Quality of Early Family Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdiolo, Sarah; Roskam, Isabelle; Verhofstadt, Lesley L; De Mol, Jan; Dewinne, Laura; Vandaudenard, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Our study examined the relationships of relational pronouns used in parental conversation to the quality of early family interactions, as indexed by Family Alliance (FA). We hypothesized that more positive family interactions were associated with the use of more we-pronouns (e.g., we, us, our; we-ness) and fewer I- and you-pronouns (e.g., I, me, you, your; separateness) by both mothers and fathers. Our statistical model using a multilevel modeling framework and two levels of analysis (i.e., a couple level and an individual level) was tested on 47 non-referred families (n = 31 primiparous families; child's age, M = 15.75 months, SD = 2.73) with we-ness and separateness as outcomes and FA functions as between-dyads variables. Analyses revealed that we-ness within the parental couple was only positively associated with family affect sharing while separateness was negatively associated with different FA functions (e.g., communication mistakes). Our main finding suggested that the kinds of personal pronouns used by parental couples when discussing children's education would be associated to the emotional quality of the family interactions.

  18. Associations between Relational Pronoun Usage and the Quality of Early Family Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdiolo, Sarah; Roskam, Isabelle; Verhofstadt, Lesley L.; De Mol, Jan; Dewinne, Laura; Vandaudenard, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Our study examined the relationships of relational pronouns used in parental conversation to the quality of early family interactions, as indexed by Family Alliance (FA). We hypothesized that more positive family interactions were associated with the use of more we-pronouns (e.g., we, us, our; we-ness) and fewer I- and you-pronouns (e.g., I, me, you, your; separateness) by both mothers and fathers. Our statistical model using a multilevel modeling framework and two levels of analysis (i.e., a couple level and an individual level) was tested on 47 non-referred families (n = 31 primiparous families; child’s age, M = 15.75 months, SD = 2.73) with we-ness and separateness as outcomes and FA functions as between-dyads variables. Analyses revealed that we-ness within the parental couple was only positively associated with family affect sharing while separateness was negatively associated with different FA functions (e.g., communication mistakes). Our main finding suggested that the kinds of personal pronouns used by parental couples when discussing children’s education would be associated to the emotional quality of the family interactions. PMID:27847495

  19. Family members affected by a relative's substance misuse looking for social support: who are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakiyama, Helena M T; de Fatima Rato Padin, Maria; Canfield, Martha; Laranjeira, Ronaldo; Mitsuhiro, Sandro Sendin

    2015-02-01

    This study proposes to describe family members in the city of Sao Paulo who are seeking support in mutual self-help groups to deal with a substance misusing relative. Five hundred participants (one participant per family) completed a structured questionnaire collecting socio-demographic information, length of time taken to seek help, and where they sought help. Participants were recruited from the mutual self-help group 'Amor Exigente' in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Parents of substance misusers counted as the largest group of family members. It took an average time of 3.7 years for the family members to discover their relatives' substance misuse. 42% had then sought help immediately; it took an average of 2.6 years for the remaining 58% of the sample to seek some form of support. A belief that the substance misuse of their relatives was just a transient problem or that they could cope with the situation by themselves were among the most indicated reasons for delay in seeking help. Findings stress the importance of implementing services that take into account the difficulties families have in finding help to deal with the substance misusing relative. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Representation of information about family relatives as structured data in electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L; Lu, Y; Vitale, C J; Mar, P L; Chang, F; Dhopeshwarkar, N; Rocha, R A

    2014-01-01

    The ability to manage and leverage family history information in the electronic health record (EHR) is crucial to delivering high-quality clinical care. We aimed to evaluate existing standards in representing relative information, examine this information documented in EHRs, and develop a natural language processing (NLP) application to extract relative information from free-text clinical documents. We reviewed a random sample of 100 admission notes and 100 discharge summaries of 198 patients, and also reviewed the structured entries for these patients in an EHR system's family history module. We investigated the two standards used by Stage 2 of Meaningful Use (SNOMED CT and HL7 Family History Standard) and identified coverage gaps of each standard in coding relative information. Finally, we evaluated the performance of the MTERMS NLP system in identifying relative information from free-text documents. The structure and content of SNOMED CT and HL7 for representing relative information are different in several ways. Both terminologies have high coverage to represent local relative concepts built in an ambulatory EHR system, but gaps in key concept coverage were detected; coverage rates for relative information in free-text clinical documents were 95.2% and 98.6%, respectively. Compared to structured entries, richer family history information was only available in free-text documents. Using a comprehensive lexicon that included concepts and terms of relative information from different sources, we expanded the MTERMS NLP system to extract and encode relative information in clinical documents and achieved a corresponding precision of 100% and recall of 97.4%. Comprehensive assessment and user guidance are critical to adopting standards into EHR systems in a meaningful way. A significant portion of patients' family history information is only documented in free-text clinical documents and NLP can be used to extract this information.

  1. Robustness testing in pharmaceutical freeze-drying: inter-relation of process conditions and product quality attributes studied for a vaccine formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneid, Stefan C; Stärtzel, Peter M; Lettner, Patrick; Gieseler, Henning

    2011-01-01

    The recent US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) legislation has introduced the evaluation of the Design Space of critical process parameters in manufacturing processes. In freeze-drying, a "formulation" is expected to be robust when minor deviations of the product temperature do not negatively affect the final product quality attributes. To evaluate "formulation" robustness by investigating the effect of elevated product temperature on product quality using a bacterial vaccine solution. The vaccine solution was characterized by freeze-dry microscopy to determine the critical formulation temperature. A conservative cycle was developed using the SMART™ mode of a Lyostar II freeze dryer. Product temperature was elevated to imitate intermediate and aggressive cycle conditions. The final product was analyzed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Karl Fischer, and modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC), and the life cell count (LCC) during accelerated stability testing. The cakes processed at intermediate and aggressive conditions displayed larger pores with microcollapse of walls and stronger loss in LCC than the conservatively processed product, especially during stability testing. For all process conditions, a loss of the majority of cells was observed during storage. For freeze-drying of life bacterial vaccine solutions, the product temperature profile during primary drying appeared to be inter-related to product quality attributes.

  2. Specialty Selection and Relative Job Satisfaction of Family Physicians and Medical Specialists in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Wolfgang; Pichlhöfer, Otto; Haoula, Diana; Schneider, Barbara; Maier, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    Aim To estimate the relative job satisfaction of Austrian family physicians and other specialists with respect to whether or not they obtained training in the desired specialty. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we re-examined the previous data on allocation of medical training posts in Austria. All board-certified physicians practicing in Vienna were surveyed with a 12-item questionnaire. We analyzed the association between respondents’ desired and practiced medical specialty and their answer to the question of whether they thought they would have had greater job satisfaction in a different medical specialty. We also calculated their relative job satisfaction. Results Of 8127 licensed physicians, 2736 (34%) completed the questionnaire in two mailings. Of physicians who completed the questionnaire, 50.3% (43.2% of men) did not obtain the training in their desired specialty and 65.1% stated that they had originally desired a different specialty. There was a significant difference in relative job satisfaction between specialists who got their desired medical specialty (n = 1005) and those who did not (n = 697) (0.95 vs 0.62 of maximum 1, P<0.001). No significant difference in relative job satisfaction was found between family physicians who had originally wanted to become specialists (n = 679) and specialists who had originally wanted to become family physicians (n = 533; 0.89 vs 0.81; P = 0.01; χ2 test). Conclusion A high percentage of family physicians in Austria had originally wanted to become practitioners of a different specialty. Among physicians who did not receive training in their desired medical specialty, family physicians showed a significantly higher relative job satisfaction than specialists. Obtaining the desired medical specialty is a strong predictor of relative job satisfaction among specialists, but not among family physicians. PMID:18581616

  3. Intergenerational patterns of family violence related to alcohol abuse: a genogram-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Silveira Tondowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze intergenerational patterns of alcohol related violence (ARV. An intentional sample comprising 42 family members was selected according to a set of criteria, including history of ARV. A genogram based on anonymous semi-structured taped interviews was created. The Content Analysis pointed to different patterns of repetition of intergenerational ARV. The most recurrent ones were those of lineal consanguinity (father/son and through marriage. We observed similarities over the generations of each family as regards the pattern of alcohol consumption; the type of violence; the family reaction and the family life cycle in which ARV was intensified. Our results confirm the intergenerational reproduction of ARV. In conclusion, it is important to create intervention strategies to prevent intergenerational repetition of this association of behaviors.

  4. Relations between early family risk, children's behavioral regulation, and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sektnan, Michaella; McClelland, Megan M; Acock, Alan; Morrison, Frederick J

    2010-10-01

    This study examined relations among early family risk, children's behavioral regulation at 54 months and kindergarten, and academic achievement in first grade using data on 1,298 children from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Family risk was indexed by ethnic minority status, low maternal education, low average family income from 1 - 54 months, and high maternal depressive symptoms from 1 - 54 months. Results of structural equation modeling indicated that minority status, low maternal education, and low family income had significant negative effects on reading, math, and vocabulary achievement in first grade. Modest indirect effects were also found from ethnicity, maternal education, and maternal depressive symptoms, through 54-month and kindergarten behavioral regulation to first-grade achievement. Discussion focuses on the importance of behavioral regulation for school success especially for children facing early risk.

  5. Habitus and Flow in Primary School Musical Practice: Relations between Family Musical Cultural Capital, Optimal Experience and Music Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Rafael; Codina, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    Based on Bourdieu's idea that cultural capital is strongly related to family context, we describe the relations between family musical cultural capital and optimal experience during compulsory primary school musical practice. We analyse whether children from families with higher levels of musical cultural capital, and specifically with regard to…

  6. Educational processes in the family: Linkage between the quality of dyad and triad relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihić Ivana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the research presented in this paper is to describe the relations between educational styles as dyad and co-parenting relations, as well as triad relations in the family which include processes of upbringing and taking care of the child. The sample comprised families with an adolescent. Data were obtained from 200 respondents, of the average age of 18. Respondents evaluated educational styles of their parents (separately father's, separately mother's in the Questionnaire for evaluating parenting style, and then also the quality of co-parenting cooperation in their families in the questionnaire Co-parenting relations in the family. The results indicate a significant correlation between the dimensions of parental styles and co-parenting relation. In that process, more prominent is the contribution of affective dimensions of parenting style, and what was also perceived and described are the differences in mutual relations of educational styles and co-parenting cooperation regarding parent's gender. The effects of the evaluated co-parental cooperation on educational behavior of the father are more evident.

  7. Masticatory sensory-motor changes after an experimental chewing test influenced by pain catastrophizing and neck-pain-related disability in patients with headache attributed to temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Touche, Roy; Paris-Alemany, Alba; Gil-Martínez, Alfonso; Pardo-Montero, Joaquín; Angulo-Díaz-Parreño, Santiago; Fernández-Carnero, Josué

    2015-03-05

    Recent research has shown a relationship of craniomandibular disability with neck-pain-related disability has been shown. However, there is still insufficient information demonstrating the influence of neck pain and disability in the sensory-motor activity in patients with headache attributed to temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of neck-pain-related disability on masticatory sensory-motor variables. An experimental case-control study investigated 83 patients with headache attributed to TMD and 39 healthy controls. Patients were grouped according to their scores on the neck disability index (NDI) (mild and moderate neck disability). Initial assessment included the pain catastrophizing scale and the Headache Impact Test-6. The protocol consisted of baseline measurements of pressure pain thresholds (PPT) and pain-free maximum mouth opening (MMO). Individuals were asked to perform the provocation chewing test, and measurements were taken immediately after and 24 hours later. During the test, patients were assessed for subjective feelings of fatigue (VAFS) and pain intensity. VAFS was higher at 6 minutes (mean 51.7; 95% CI: 50.15-53.26) and 24 hours after (21.08; 95% CI: 18.6-23.5) for the group showing moderate neck disability compared with the mild neck disability group (6 minutes, 44.16; 95% CI 42.65-45.67/ 24 hours after, 14.3; 95% CI: 11.9-16.7) and the control group. The analysis shows a decrease in the pain-free MMO only in the group of moderate disability 24 hours after the test. PPTs of the trigeminal region decreased immediately in all groups, whereas at 24 hours, a decrease was observed in only the groups of patients. PPTs of the cervical region decreased in only the group with moderate neck disability 24 hours after the test. The strongest negative correlation was found between pain-free MMO immediately after the test and NDI in both the mild (r = -0.49) and moderate (r = -0.54) neck disability

  8. Quality of life and family functioning in caregivers of relatives with mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heru, Alison M; Ryan, Christine E; Vlastos, Kim

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the quality of life of caregivers of hospitalized relatives with mood disorders. Caregivers reported poor social, physical and emotional functioning. Family functioning was poor in the areas of roles, communication and affective involvement. It is significant that problem-solving, affective responsiveness and behavior control are within the normal range, indicating that these families do have strengths. Subjective burden but not objective burden was correlated with a poorer quality of life. Less than 30% of caregivers received help from other relatives and less than 5% sought help from outside organizations like NAMI, MDDA or VNA.

  9. The vulnerability of family caregivers in relation to vulnerability as understood by nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvimäki, Anneli; Stenbock-Hult, Bettina; Sundell, Eija; Oesch-Börman, Christine

    2017-03-01

    In Finland, the care of older persons is shifting from institutional care to family care. Research shows that family caregivers experience their situation much in the same way as professional nurses. The nurses' experiences have been studied in terms of vulnerability, and the same perspective could deepen our understanding of family caregivers' experiences. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge of the vulnerability of older caregivers taking care of an ageing family member. The research questions were as follows: How do family caregivers experience vulnerability? How do their experiences relate to vulnerability as understood by nurses? The study was done as a secondary analysis of focus group interviews on the experiences and daily life of older family caregivers. Four caregivers had taken part in monthly interviews during a period of 10 months. The interviews were analysed by deductive and inductive content analysis. The results showed that the caregivers saw caregiving as part of being human. They experienced a variety of feelings and moral agony and were harmed physically, mentally and socially. They showed courage, protected themselves and recognised that being a caregiver also was a source of maturing and developing. These results corresponded with the nurses' understanding of vulnerability. Shame, the experience of duty as a burden, worry and loneliness were themes that were found only among the family caregivers. The use of a matrix may have restricted the analysis, but using it in an unconstrained way allowed for new themes to be created. The results indicate a common humanness and vulnerability in professional and family caregiving. They also show that family caregivers need more support both from society and professionals. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  10. Alcohol consumption patterns among adolescents are related to family structure and exposure to drunkenness within the family: results from the SEYLE project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüütel, Erik; Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Airi; Värnik, Peeter; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina W; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Poštuvan, Vita; Sáiz, Pilar A; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-12-01

    There is expedient evidence showing that differences in adolescent alcohol consumption and other risk-behaviour depend on both family structure and family member drunkenness exposure. Data were obtained among adolescents (N = 12,115, mean age 14.9 ± 0.89) in Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy,Romania, Slovenia and Spain within the European Union'ss 7th Framework Programme funded project, 'Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE)’. The current study reveals how adolescents' alcohol consumption patterns are related to their family structure and having seen their family member drunk. The results revealed statistically significant differences in adolescent alcohol consumption depending on whether the adolescent lives in a family with both birth parents, in a single-parent family or in a family with one birth parent and one step-parent. The study also revealed that the abstaining from alcohol percentage among adolescents was greater in families with both birth parents compared to other family types. The study also showed that the more often adolescents see their family member drunk the more they drink themselves. There is no difference in adolescent drinking patterns whether they see their family member drunk once a month or once a week. This study gives an insight on which subgroups of adolescents are at heightened risk of alcohol abuse and that decrease of family member drunkenness may have positive effects on the drinking habits of their children.

  11. Alcohol Consumption Patterns among Adolescents are Related to Family Structure and Exposure to Drunkenness within the Family: Results from the SEYLE Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Rüütel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is expedient evidence showing that differences in adolescent alcohol consumption and other risk-behaviour depend on both family structure and family member drunkenness exposure. Data were obtained among adolescents (N = 12,115, mean age 14.9 ± 0.89 in Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain within the European Union’s 7th Framework Programme funded project, ‘Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE’. The current study reveals how adolescents’ alcohol consumption patterns are related to their family structure and having seen their family member drunk. The results revealed statistically significant differences in adolescent alcohol consumption depending on whether the adolescent lives in a family with both birth parents, in a single-parent family or in a family with one birth parent and one step-parent. The study also revealed that the abstaining from alcohol percentage among adolescents was greater in families with both birth parents compared to other family types. The study also showed that the more often adolescents see their family member drunk the more they drink themselves. There is no difference in adolescent drinking patterns whether they see their family member drunk once a month or once a week. This study gives an insight on which subgroups of adolescents are at heightened risk of alcohol abuse and that decrease of family member drunkenness may have positive effects on the drinking habits of their children.

  12. Comfort of the patient's family in an Intensive Care Unit related to welcoming

    OpenAIRE

    Gibaut, Mariana de Almeida Moraes; Hori, Luisa Mayumi Rocha; Freitas, Katia Santana; Mussi, Fernanda Carneiro

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the level of comfort of families of patients in a critical health condition related to the welcoming practices performed by the hospital staff. Interviews were conducted with 250 relatives in hospitals of the state Bahia, using a Likert scale. Data were analyzed as percentages and quartiles. For nine of the 12 statements of the scale, most relatives scored their comfort level between very and totally comfortable, median of 4,revealing kindness, tranquility and fri...

  13. Family residency and psychosomatic problems among adolescents in Sweden: The impact of child-parent relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagquist, Curt

    2016-02-01

    Profound changes in family structure took place in many countries, during the second part of the previous century. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the association between the type of family residency and psychosomatic problems in younger and older adolescents, particularly focusing on alternate residency, and to examine the impact of child-parent relations. We used data collected in 2009 by Statistics Sweden among 172,298 Swedish students in Grade 6 and Grade 9 (approximate ages 12 and 15 years old); comprising 80% and 86%, respectively, of the entire population of students in those grades. We collected the data with a questionnaire, completed anonymously in school: We used the Psychosomatic Problems (PSP) scale as the outcome measure. The type of family residency showed a weaker association with psychosomatic problems than the child-parent relationships did. Living in non-intact families increased the probability of adolescent psychosomatic problems by 0-0.05, compared to intact families. In Grade 9, there were no differences in psychosomatic problems between the students in alternate residency and those living with their two parents; and in Grade 6, these differences were relatively small. In comparison, a worse relationship with parents increased the probability of psychosomatic problems by 0.11-0.17, depending on the school grade and type of family residency. The structure of the family, as well as the child-parent relationships needs to be taken into account, to properly estimate the magnitude of the family situation as a determinant of adolescent psychosomatic problems. Our results justify universal intervention at the policy level. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  14. Attribution theory and attributional therapy: some theoretical observations and suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, B

    1988-02-01

    Two shortcomings of attributional therapy and therapy-related research are pointed out. First, crucial comparisons between attributional inductions are not being made, so that the variables mediating change remain uncertain and, secondly, the full theory is not being used, thereby greatly limiting the possible change programmes.

  15. Automatic ability attribution after failure: a dual process view of achievement attribution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sakaki, Michiko; Murayama, Kou

    2013-01-01

    Causal attribution has been one of the most influential frameworks in the literature of achievement motivation, but previous studies considered achievement attribution as relatively deliberate and effortful processes...

  16. Family History Density of Alcoholism Relates to Left Nucleus Accumbens Volume in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cservenka, Anita; Gillespie, Alicia J; Michael, Paul G; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A family history of alcoholism is a significant risk factor for the development of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Because common structural abnormalities are present in reward and affective brain regions in alcoholics and those with familial alcoholism, the current study examined the relationship between familial loading of AUDs and volumes of the amygdala and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in largely alcohol-naive adolescents, ages 12–16 years (N = 140). Method: The amygdala and NAcc were delineated on each participant’s T1-weighted anatomical scan, using FMRIB Software Library’s FMRIB Integrated Registration & Segmentation Tool, and visually inspected for accuracy and volume outliers. In the 140 participants with accurate segmentation (75 male/65 female), subcortical volumes were represented as a ratio to intracranial volume (ICV). A family history density (FHD) score was calculated for each adolescent based on the presence of AUDs in first- and second-degree relatives (range: 0.03–1.50; higher scores represent a greater prevalence of familial AUDs). Multiple regressions, with age and sex controlled for, examined the association between FHD and left and right amygdala and NAcc volume/ICV. Results: There was a significant positive relationship between FHD and left NAcc volume/ICV (ΔR2 = .04, p = .02). Post hoc regressions indicated that this effect was only significant in females (ΔR2 = .11, p = .006). Conclusions: This finding suggests that the degree of familial alcoholism, genetic or otherwise, is associated with alterations in reward-related brain structure. Further work will be necessary to examine whether FHD is related to future alcohol-related problems and reward-related behaviors. PMID:25486393

  17. Family history density of alcoholism relates to left nucleus accumbens volume in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cservenka, Anita; Gillespie, Alicia J; Michael, Paul G; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2015-01-01

    A family history of alcoholism is a significant risk factor for the development of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Because common structural abnormalities are present in reward and affective brain regions in alcoholics and those with familial alcoholism, the current study examined the relationship between familial loading of AUDs and volumes of the amygdala and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in largely alcohol-naive adolescents, ages 12-16 years (N = 140). The amygdala and NAcc were delineated on each participant's T1-weighted anatomical scan, using FMRIB Software Library's FMRIB Integrated Registration & Segmentation Tool, and visually inspected for accuracy and volume outliers. In the 140 participants with accurate segmentation (75 male/65 female), subcortical volumes were represented as a ratio to intracranial volume (ICV). A family history density (FHD) score was calculated for each adolescent based on the presence of AUDs in first- and second-degree relatives (range: 0.03-1.50; higher scores represent a greater prevalence of familial AUDs). Multiple regressions, with age and sex controlled for, examined the association between FHD and left and right amygdala and NAcc volume/ICV. There was a significant positive relationship between FHD and left NAcc volume/ICV (ΔR² = .04, p = .02). Post hoc regressions indicated that this effect was only significant in females (ΔR² = .11, p = .006). This finding suggests that the degree of familial alcoholism, genetic or otherwise, is associated with alterations in reward-related brain structure. Further work will be necessary to examine whether FHD is related to future alcohol-related problems and reward-related behaviors.

  18. Paircomp, FamilyRelationsII and Cartwheel: tools for interspecific sequence comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidson Eric H

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative sequence analysis is an effective and increasingly common way to identify cis-regulatory regions in animal genomes. Results We describe three tools for comparative analysis of pairs of BAC-sized genomic regions. Paircomp is a tool that does windowed (ungapped comparisons of two sequences and reports all matches above a set threshold. FamilyRelationsII is a graphical viewer for comparisons that enables interactive exploration of several different kinds of comparisons. Cartwheel is a Web site and compute-cluster management system used to execute and store comparisons for display by FamilyRelationsII. These tools are specialized for the discovery of cis-regulatory regions in animal genomes. All tools and their source code are freely available at http://family.caltech.edu/. Conclusion These tools have been shown to effectively identify regulatory regions in echinoderms, mammals, and nematodes.

  19. Family Emotion Expressiveness Mediates the Relations Between Maternal Emotion Regulation and Child Emotion Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Are, Funlola; Shaffer, Anne

    2016-10-01

    While there is a growing body of literature examining the influence of emotion socialization on children's emotional and social development, there is less research on what predicts emotion socialization behaviors among parents. The current study explores maternal emotion regulation difficulties as a predictor of emotion socialization practices, specifically, family emotion expressiveness. Further, the current study examines the role of family emotion expressiveness as a possible mediator of the relations between maternal and child emotion regulation in a community sample of 110 mother-child dyads with preschool-aged children. Analyses revealed that positive family expressiveness mediated the relations between maternal emotion dysregulation and child emotion regulation and thus presents important clinical implications for existing emotion socialization interventions.

  20. Longitudinal relations between adolescents' self-esteem and prosocial behavior toward strangers, friends and family.

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    Fu, Xinyuan; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Brown, Michael N

    2017-06-01

    The present study examined age-trends and longitudinal bidirectional relations in self-esteem and prosocial behavior toward strangers, friends, and family over a four-year time period (age 11 to 14). A total of 681 adolescents were recruited in the United States (51% girls, 28% single parent families). A longitudinal panel model was conducted and the results showed that adolescent self-esteem was associated longitudinally with subsequent prosocial behavior toward strangers, and earlier prosocial behavior toward strangers promoted subsequent self-esteem. There were no such bidirectional relations between self-esteem and prosocial behavior toward friends and family. Findings also highlight the complexity of adolescent development of selfesteem and the multidimensional nature of prosocial behavior. Discussion focuses on understanding the dynamic interplay between adolescent selfesteem and prosocial behavior. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Understanding Relations Among Early Family Environment, Cortisol Response, and Child Aggression via a Prevention Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Neal, Colleen R.; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Huang, Keng-Yen; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Calzada, Esther J.; Pine, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined relations among family environment, cortisol response, and behavior in the context of a randomized controlled trial with 92 children (M = 48 months) at risk for antisocial behavior. Previously, researchers reported an intervention effect on cortisol response in anticipation of a social challenge. The current study examined whether changes in cortisol response were related to later child aggression. Among lower warmth families, the intervention effect on aggression was largely mediated by the intervention effect on cortisol response. Although the intervention also resulted in significant benefits on child engaging behavior, cortisol response did not mediate this effect. These findings demonstrate meaningful associations between cortisol response and aggression among children at familial risk for antisocial behavior. PMID:20331668

  2. Family matters : The influence of family history on phenomenology and IQ in patients with schizophrenia and their relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.H.W.

    2014-01-01

    Although the exact aetiology of schizophrenia remains unknown, multiple genetic and environmental factors influence the development and expression of schizophrenia. The strongest risk factor to develop schizophrenia is the familial risk, thus having a family member with schizophrenia. The

  3. Quality of life, family burden and associated factors in relatives with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicek, Erdinc; Cicek, Ismet Esra; Kayhan, Fatih; Uguz, Faruk; Kaya, Nazmiye

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the quality of life (QoL), family burden and psychiatric disorders in first-degree relatives of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and to compare them with healthy controls and their relatives. Forty patients with OCD and 47 of their first-degree relatives as well as 40 healthy subjects and 45 of their first-degree relatives were recruited in this study. OCD and comorbid anxiety or mood disorders were determined by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Comorbid Axis II disorders were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Third Edition Personality Disorders. Type and severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms were assessed with the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, and the disability of patients with OCD was evaluated with the WHO DAS II. Family burden and QoL in the relatives were evaluated with the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) protocol and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-Brief, respectively. The mean ZBI score of family members of OCD patients was higher than the control relatives. Linear regression analysis indicated that the independent factors associated with ZBI were duration of OCD, comorbid major depressive disorder and poorer insight. Compared with those of control relatives, the QoL of relatives of patients with OCD was significantly lower in all domains. While the diagnosis of major depressive disorder in relatives of OCD patients was significantly higher than the control relatives, the diagnosis of any anxiety disorder did not differ. Our study provides evidence that OCD not only affects the lives of patients but also their family members. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical validation of the nursing diagnosis of dysfunctional family processes related to alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangueira, Suzana de Oliveira; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the clinical validity indicators for the nursing diagnosis of dysfunctional family processes related to alcohol abuse. Alcoholism is a chronic disease that negatively affects family relationships. Studies on the nursing diagnosis of dysfunctional family processes are scarce in the literature. This diagnosis is currently composed of 115 defining characteristics, hindering their use in practice and highlighting the need for clinical validation. This was a diagnostic accuracy study. A sample of 110 alcoholics admitted to a reference centre for alcohol treatment was assessed during the second half of 2013 for the presence or absence of the defining characteristics of the diagnosis. Operational definitions were created for each defining characteristic based on concept analysis and experts evaluated the content of these definitions. Diagnostic accuracy measures were calculated from latent class models with random effects. All 89 clinical indicators were found in the sample and a set of 24 clinical indicators was identified as clinically valid for a diagnostic screening for family dysfunction from the report of alcoholics. Main clinical indicators with high specificity included sexual abuse, disturbance in academic performance in children and manipulation. The main indicators that showed high sensitivity values were distress, loss, anxiety, low self-esteem, confusion, embarrassment, insecurity, anger, loneliness, deterioration in family relationships and disturbance in family dynamics. Eighteen clinical indicators showed a high capacity for diagnostic screening for alcoholics (high sensitivity) and six indicators can be used for confirmatory diagnosis (high specificity). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Effects of depressive symptoms and family satisfaction on health related quality of life: the Hong Kong FAMILY study.

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    Hairong Nan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of depressive symptoms and satisfaction with family support (FS on physical and mental Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Hong Kong FAMILY Project baseline survey in 2009-2011, which included 16,039 community residents (age ≥ 20. The FS was measured using the Family Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection, Resolve (APGAR, range 0-10 Questionnaire. HRQoL were assessed using the SF-12 version 2. Depressive symptoms were recorded using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. Demographic and lifestyle variables, stressful life events, perceived neighborhood cohesion were also assessed. RESULTS: In a multilevel regression model, socio-demographic and behavioral variables explained 21% and 19% of the variance in physical and mental HRQoL. The presence of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score ≥ 10, standardized coefficients, β of -1.73 and high FS (APGAR score 7-10, 1.15 were associated with mental HRQoL, after adjustment for age, education, household monthly income, drinking status, physical activity, chronic conditions, life stress and neighborhood cohesion. Not FS but the presence of depressive symptoms (β of -0.88 was associated with physical HRQoL. The presence of depressive symptoms in women than men were more associated with a poorer physical HRQoL (p<0.01 while depressive symptoms in men were associated with a decrease in mental HRQoL (p<0.001. The interaction between FS and depressive symptoms was nonsignificant in relation to HRQoL. Among those with depressive symptoms, high FS was associated with a better mental HRQoL (41.1 vs. 37.9, p<0.001 in women but not contribute to variance in men. CONCLUSIONS: Higher FS and presence of depressive symptoms were significantly associated with HRQoL in general population in Hong Kong. Among those with depressive symptoms, high FS was associated with a favorable mental HRQoL in women but not men.

  6. Peanut allergy as a family project: social relations and transitions in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensgaard, Anette; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Nielsen, Dorthe

    2017-11-01

    To explore and better understand the impact that peanut allergy can have on family experiences in everyday life through interviews with individual family members. Peanut allergy affects adolescents' quality of life through the need to avoid eating peanut-containing food and the risk of anaphylaxis. Adolescence is a period of increasing separation from parents and has the highest risk of food fatalities. A qualitative interview study taking a phenomenological-hermeneutical approach. Data were generated through semi-structured individual interviews with the adolescent with peanut allergy, and both parents and a sibling. Five families were interviewed, with 20 participants in total. The theoretical foundation was the family as an interactive system, and data were analysed with Ricoeur's theory of interpretation. The consequences of peanut allergy appeared to affect all family members and required knowledge and understanding, especially in the social network. Siblings took responsibility and had concerns for the well-being of the adolescent with allergy, while parents expressed difficulties with their child's transition to independence and their subsequent loss of control. Social relations with new family members or friends were challenged by lack of knowledge about the potential seriousness of peanut allergy. Risk and uncertainty were permanent companions for the adolescents with peanut allergy and their families. It takes time to acquire the necessary understanding about peanut allergy and the risk of anaphylaxis. The adolescent's social network also needs this knowledge during the transition to independent living. In the management of peanut allergy in adolescence, it is important to consider not only the smaller biological family unit (mothers, fathers and siblings) but to also take a wider perspective to include others such as stepfamily and friends. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Family History of Migraine Associated With Posttraumatic Migraine Symptoms Following Sport-Related Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufrinko, Alicia; McAllister-Deitrick, Jamie; Elbin, R J; Collins, Michael W; Kontos, Anthony P

    To determine whether family history of migraine increased the likelihood of posttraumatic migraine (PTM) symptom presentation in adolescents following concussion, and examine the influence of family history of migraine and PTM on postinjury outcomes. Outpatient concussion clinic. A total of 153 patients with concussion (103 males and 50 females) aged 15.72 ± 1.48 years (range 12-18 years). Cross-sectional, observational study of patients presenting for initial evaluation 4.72 ± 3.05 days (range 1-14) postinjury. Computerized neurocognitive testing, symptom report, and vestibular/oculomotor screening. Patients with a family history of migraine were 2.6 times (odds ratio = 2.60, confidence interval = 1.35-5.02, P = .003) more likely to present with PTM compared with patients without a family history. Results of multivariate analyses of covariance, controlling for concussion history, revealed significant main effects for PTM on (1) Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT)/Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) (F = 15.43, P history of migraine on ImPACT/PCSS (P = .22) and VOMS (P = .83) or interaction between family history of migraine and PTM on ImPACT/PCSS (P = .84) and VOMS (P = .52). Family history of migraine is associated with PTM symptoms following sport-related concussion, suggesting a genetic predisposition for migraine may serve as a catalyst or trigger for onset of PTM. However, only presence of PTM, rather than family history of migraine, was related to worse neurocognitive and vestibular/oculomotor outcomes.

  8. Age-related macular degeneration: the importance of family history as a risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Humma; Khan, Jane C; Cipriani, Valentina; Sepp, Tiina; Matharu, Baljinder K; Bunce, Catey; Harding, Simon P; Clayton, David G; Moore, Anthony T; Yates, John R W

    2012-03-01

    Family history is considered a risk factor for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). With the advent of effective therapy for the disease, the importance of family history merits further investigation. This study quantifies the risk associated with family history, first, by a case-control study of reported family history and, second, by examining the siblings of AMD cases. The authors recruited cases with advanced AMD, spouses and siblings. All subjects were carefully phenotyped. Clinical findings in the siblings were compared with spouses. Information about family history was collected. The ORs for reported family history of AMD were calculated. Analyses were adjusted for age, smoking and genotype. 495 AMD cases, 259 spouses and 171 siblings were recruited. The OR for AMD was 27.8 (CI 3.8 to 203.0; p=0.001) with a reported family history of an affected parent and 12.0 (CI 3.7 to 38.6; p<0.0001) with a history of an affected sibling. ORs adjusted for age and smoking were higher. Examination of siblings confirmed their increased risk with 23% affected by AMD and an OR of 10.8 (4.5 to 25.8; p<0.0001). Adjusting for age increased the OR to 16.1 (6.2 to 41.8). The risk of AMD is greatly increased by having an affected first-degree relative. Those at risk need to be made aware of this and AMD patients should advise siblings and children to seek prompt ophthalmological advice if they develop visual symptoms of distortion or reduced vision.

  9. Understanding Relations among Early Family Environment, Cortisol Response, and Child Aggression via a Prevention Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Colleen R.; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Huang, Keng-Yen; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Calzada, Esther J.; Pine, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined relations among family environment, cortisol response, and behavior in the context of a randomized controlled trial with 92 children (M = 48 months) at risk for antisocial behavior. Previously, researchers reported an intervention effect on cortisol response in anticipation of a social challenge. The current study examined…

  10. The potential of Family Group Conferencing for the resilience and relational autonomy of older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metze, Rosalie N.; Kwekkeboom, Rick H.; Abma, Tineke A.

    2015-01-01

    Family Group Conferencing (FGC) is emerging in the field of elderly care, as a method to enhance the resilience and relational autonomy of older persons. In this article, we want to explore the appropriateness of these two concepts to understand the FGC process in older adults.

  11. Learning Processes Associated with Panic-Related Symptoms in Families with and without Panic Disordered Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Jiske E. G.; Munsch, Simone; Margraf, Jurgen; Schneider, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared learning processes associated with panic-related symptoms in families with and without panic disordered mothers. Using a multi-informant approach, 86 mothers [of whom 58 had a primary diagnosis of panic disorder (PD)], their partners and teenage children (mean age, 16.67 years) reported about parents' behavior (modeling…

  12. Cross-National Perspectiveson Intergenerational Family Relations: The Influence of Public Policy Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Dykstra (Pearl)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractFocusing mostly on Europe,this overview reveals how the research on cross-national differences in intergenerational family relations has movedfrombasic descriptions to a focus on understanding how support exchanges are shaped by macro-level processes.A key issue concerns generational

  13. Pit membranes in tracheary elements of Rosaceae and related families: New records of tori and pseudotori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.; Sano, Y.; Choat, B.; Rabaey, D.; Lens, F.; Dute, R.R.

    2007-01-01

    The micromorphology of pits in tracheary elements was examined in 35 species representing 29 genera of Rosaceae and related families to evaluate the assumption that angiosperm pits are largely invariant. In most Rosaceae, pit membranes between fibers and tracheids frequently appear to have amorphous

  14. Multi-family treatment for patients with persistent auditory hallucinations and their relatives : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenner, JA; van de Willige, G; Wiersma, D

    Objective: To test feasibility and effectiveness of multi-family treatment (MFT) for patients with persistent auditory hallucinations. Method: A naturalistic pilot study with 6-month follow-up of 12 patients and 10 relatives. Pre- and post-treatment assessment concerned compliance, satisfaction,

  15. A family of singular functions and its relation to harmonic fractal analysis and fuzzy logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Amo Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a parameterized family of singular functions which appears in a paper by H. Okamoto and M. Wunsch (2007. Various properties are revisited from the viewpoint of fractal geometry and probabilistic techniques. Hausdorff dimensions are calculated for several sets related to these functions, and new properties close to fractal analysis and strong negations are explored.

  16. National Academic Award Winners over Time: Their Family Situation, Education and Interpersonal Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekowski, Andrzej; Siekanska, Malgorzata

    2008-01-01

    The article presents the results of a study focusing on the family situation, education and interpersonal relations of adults (26-35 years old) who in their adolescence (16-19 years old) displayed exceptional giftedness. One group of those surveyed were national academic award winners (90). The control group consisted of 90 people of no…

  17. [The quality of sibling relation who have experienced family transitions and those who have not].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Marie; Beaudry, Madeleine; Drapeau, Sylvie; Nadeau, France; Charbonneau, Cécile

    2002-01-01

    In this study, similarities and differences in sibling relationships between children who have experienced family transitions and those who have not are examined. Comparisons are made between children who live in intact families, those whose parents have separated, and those who live in substitute care regarding the quality of their relationships with one of their siblings. More specifically, 4 dimensions describing the quality of sibling relationships are compared: Warmth/Closeness, Conflict, Relative Status/Power, and Rivalry (Furman & Buhrmester, 1985). The sample is made up of 3 groups of children (N = 158) aged between 8 and 12 years old: children living in intact families (n = 101), children who have experienced parental separation (n = 35), and children living in substitute care (n = 22). Results indicate differences on dimensions of Warmth/Closeness, Conflict, and Relative Status/Power. Different patterns of responses between the children who have experienced family transitions and those who have not are observed for the dimensions of Conflict and Power. The significant difference observed between the groups for the dimension of Warmth appears difficult to explain. Discussion of these results emphasizes the importance of the relationship between brothers and sisters experiencing family transition.

  18. Effect of a family psychoeducational program on relatives of schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sota, Satoko; Shimodera, Shinji; Kii, Masaru; Okamura, Kayoko; Suto, Koichirou; Suwaki, Mitsuru; Fujita, Hirokazu; Fujito, Ryosuke; Inoue, Shimpei

    2008-08-01

    Family psychoeducational programs have been shown to be effective in terms of knowledge acquirement and relapse prevention, but few studies have looked at whether one mode of educational method is more effective than another. The aim of the present study was to compare several modes of educational approaches and to elucidate which mode of education is more effective. A total of 110 relatives of 95 patients with schizophrenia received three types of family psychoeducational programs between January 1995 and September 2003: a small group with two sessions (P1), a large group with nine sessions (P2), and a large group with five sessions (P3). In addition to the demographic data, acquired knowledge was measured using the modified Knowledge About Schizophrenia Interview (KASI), family expressed emotion (EE), and relapse episodes. Overall there were significant increases in many KASI subcategory scores after the three programs, in mothers in particular. The change in KASI scores indicated that the low EE group was able to be highly educated and that the relatives of non-relapsers were more effectively educated. As for the mode of the family psychoeducational program, the P1 and P2 groups surpassed the P3 in terms of knowledge acquired. Effects of family psychoeducation may depend not on the number of members or sessions but on the time spent on the program per member.

  19. The relations family- school in the handle of schoolchild’s violence

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    Katia Legrá-Matos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The cases of violence between school childs are, to a large extent, an iceberg´s pike, which is compound by a net of interpersonal relations. Those relations could be forming the social structure of the educational institution. The presence of the proper relationships fall off the risk of violence into these spaces. The present article offers a point of view above the relevance of the relations between family and school for handle the violence between school childs. It offers a program that on the base of the investigation- action is approached on increase these relations and improve the family-school´s communication. It was worked indicators, which are associated with communication´s barriers, attitude into the communicative process, feedback, communication´s functions and styles of communication. It´s based into the work with a group of teachers applying the groups of reflection as a methodological implement.

  20. Auto- and cross-induction within the mammalian epidermal growth factor-related peptide family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, J A; Graves-Deal, R; Pittelkow, M R; DuBois, R; Cook, P; Ramsey, G W; Bishop, P R; Damstrup, L; Coffey, R J

    1994-09-09

    Several polypeptide growth factors related to epidermal growth factor (EGF) have been identified recently, including transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), amphiregulin (AR), heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), and betacellulin (BTC). These peptides all bind to the EGF receptor (EGFr). In an effort to understand redundancy within this peptide family and interactions among these related peptides, we compared the biological activities of EGF, TGF-alpha, AR, and HB-EGF in an EGF-responsive, nontransformed intestinal epithelial line (RIE-1) and also determined the effect of individual EGF-related peptides on the expression of related family members in these cells. TGF-alpha, AR, HB-EGF, and EGF were equipotent in stimulating [3H]thymidine incorporation by RIE-1 cells and bound the EGFr with equivalent affinity. Each EGF-related peptide induced the mRNA expression of the remaining family members, including BTC. HB-EGF and AR mRNAs were induced rapidly (within 30 min) and to a greater extent than TGF-alpha and BTC mRNAs, suggesting heterogeneity in the molecular mechanisms for induction. This same pattern was observed for all EGF-related peptides tested. A similar pattern of mRNA induction was observed in secondary cultures of human keratinocytes and in LIM1215 colon adenocarcinoma cells. Nuclear run-on analysis showed that induction of AR and HB-EGF is, at least in part, regulated at the level of gene transcription. Concurrent treatment with HB-EGF and cycloheximide resulted in superinduction of HB-EGF and AR, suggesting that these peptides are immediate early genes in RIE-1 cells. Our results demonstrate an equivalent biological response to EGF-related peptides in RIE-1 cells and further indicate that extensive auto-induction and cross-induction occur within the EGF-related peptide family in several EGF-responsive epithelial cell types.

  1. Family Functioning and Quality of Life among Families in Eating Disorders: A Comparison with Substance-related Disorders and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiadou, Dimitra; Sepulveda, Ana R; Sánchez, Julio César; Parks, Melissa; Álvarez, Tamara; Graell, Montserrat

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the family functioning of Spanish parents of patients with an eating disorder (ED) with that of carers of patients with substance-related disorders (SRDs) and families of healthy controls (HC). This cross-sectional study included 48 mothers and 45 fathers of 48 adolescent patients with an ED, 47 mothers and 37 fathers of 47 patients with an SRD and 66 mothers and 50 fathers of 68 HCs. Families of ED patients reported lower levels of criticism, symptom accommodation and negative caregiving experience than families of SRD patients. However, relatives of both ED and SRD patients reported similar levels of quality of life related to their mental health. Furthermore, families of HCs generally exhibited better scores on all scales assessing their caregiving experiences. Regarding gender differences, there was a tendency in mothers, primarily those from the ED group, to report more adverse experiences as caregivers compared with fathers. Symptoms characteristic to each disorder may be associated with differential patterns of family functioning and may require specifically tailored family interventions. Early family intervention in adolescence is crucial, as relatives' quality of life does not seem to have been badly affected at this point in the course of the illness. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  2. Proliferating effect of radiolytically depolymerized carrageenan on physiological attributes, plant water relation parameters, essential oil production and active constituents of Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud. under drought stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minu Singh

    Full Text Available Carrageenan has been proved as potent growth promoting substance in its depolymerized form. However, relatively little is known about its role in counteracting the adverse effects of drought stress on plants. In a pot experiment, lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud., grown under different water stress regimes [(100% field capacity (FC, 80% FC and 60% FC], was sprayed with 40, 80 and 120 mg L-1 of gamma irradiated carrageenan (ICA. Foliar application of ICA mitigated the harmful effects of drought stress to various extents and improved the biochemical characteristics, quality attributes and active constituents (citral and geraniol of lemongrass significantly. Among the applied treatments, ICA-80 mg L-1 proved the best in alleviating detrimental effects of drought. However, drought stress (80 and 60% FC, irrespective of the growth stages, had an adverse impact on most of the studied attributes. Generally, 60% FC proved more deleterious than 80% FC. At 80% FC, application of ICA-80 mg L-1 elevated the essential oil (EO content by 18.9 and 25%, citral content by 7.33 and 8.19% and geraniol content by 9.2 and 8.9% at 90 and 120 days after planting (DAP, respectively, as compared to the deionized-water (DW spray treatment (80% FC+ DW. Whereas, at 60% FC, foliar application of 80 mg L-1 ICA significantly augmented the EO content by 15.4 and 17.8% and active constituents viz. citral and geraniol, by 5.01 and 5.62% and by 6.06 and 5.61% at 90 and 120 DAP, respectively, as compared to the control (water-spray treatment.

  3. Familial Aggregation of Age-Related Hearing Loss in an Epidemiological Study of Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Laura A.; Pankow, James S.; Miller, Michael B.; Huang, Guan-Hua; Dalton, Dayna; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the genetic contributions to presbycusis Method Presbycusis was assessed by audiometric measurements at three waves of the population-based Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS). Measurements from the most recent hearing examination were used, at which time subjects were between 48 and 100 years of age. Heritability of presbycusis was estimated using maximum likelihood methods in 973 biological relative pairs from 376 families. Familial aggregation was also evaluated by tetrachoric correlations, odds ratios, and lambda statistics in 594 sibling pairs from 373 sibships. Subjects 3,510 participants from the EHLS study Results The prevalence of presbycusis conformed to previous research, increasing with age and male sex. Heritability estimates for presbycusis adjusted for age, sex, education level, and exposure to work noise exceeded 50%, and siblings of an affected relative were at 30% higher risk. When stratified by sex, estimates of familial aggregation were higher in women than men. Conclusions There is evidence that genetic factors contribute to age-related hearing loss in this population-based sample. The familial aggregation is stronger in women than in men. PMID:19474454

  4. Folate-related gene variants in Irish families affected by neural tube defects

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    Ridgely eFisk Green

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Periconceptional folic acid use can often prevent neural tube defects (NTDs. Variants of genes involved in folate metabolism in mothers and children have been associated with occurrence of NTDs. We identified Irish families with individuals affected by neural tube defects. In these families, we observed that neural tube defects and birth defects overall occurred at a higher rate in the maternal lineage compared with the paternal lineage. The goal of this study was to look for evidence for genetic effects that could explain the discrepancy in the occurrence of these birth defects in the maternal vs. paternal lineage. We genotyped blood samples from 322 individuals from NTD-affected Irish families, identified through their membership in spina bifida associations. We looked for differences in distribution in maternal vs. paternal lineages of five genetic polymorphisms: the DHFR 19bp deletion, MTHFD1 1958G>A, MTHFR 1298A>C, MTHFR 677C>T, and SLC19A1 80A>G. In addition to looking at genotypes individually, we determined the number of genotypes associated with decreased folate metabolism in each relative (risk genotypes and compared the distribution of these genotypes in maternal vs. paternal relatives. Overall, maternal relatives had a higher number of genotypes associated with lower folate metabolism than paternal relatives (p=0.017. We expected that relatives would share the same risk genotype as the individuals with NTDs and/or their mothers. However, we observed that maternal relatives had an over-abundance of any risk genotype, rather than one specific genotype. The observed genetic effects suggest an epigenetic mechanism in which decreased folate metabolism results in epigenetic alterations related to the increased rate of NTDs and other birth defects seen in the maternal lineage. Future studies on the etiology of NTDs and other birth defects could benefit from including multigenerational extended families, in order to explore potential

  5. Self-reports of differentiation of self and marital compatibility as related to family functioning in the third and fourth stages of the family life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, E

    1989-01-01

    Using Bowen's, Olson's, and general systems frameworks, this investigator tested relationships among individual, marital, and family functioning in the stressed childrearing stages of the family life cycle. Sixty volunteer married couples completed the Level of Differentiation of Self Scale (LDSS), Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test (MAT), and Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales (FACES) III. A significant canonical correlation was found among differentiation of self and marital compatibility as they both relate to family functioning. Subsequent canonical correlations were significant for wives but not for husbands, indicating gender differences in relationships among perceived individual, marital, and family phenomena. The concept of adaptability as proposed by Olson's Circumplex Model of Marital and Family Functioning was not supported. A revised model is proposed.

  6. How a Small Family of Yeast IDPs Control Complicated Processes Related to DNA Replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marabini, Riccardo

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) are two essential proteins involved in DNA replication. RNR catalyzes the last and rate limiting step of the deoxyribonucleotide biosynthetic pathway. The dysregulation of RNR has been related to higher mutation rate...... and the onset of cancer. PCNA is part of the DNA sliding clamp family, and it is a processivity factor that enhances the activity of DNA polymerases both in DNA replication and repair. In the last two decades, a family of five small intrinsically disordered proteins (IDP) has been identified and genetically...... characterized in budding and fission yeast. Within this protein family Dif1 (from S. cerevisiae) and Spd1 (from S. pombe) were analyzed in this study. These proteins were previously found to interact with and regulate the activity of RNR and Spd1 was also linked to PCNA dependent signaling for degradation...

  7. Exploring the Relations between Parent Depressive Symptoms, Family Religious Involvement, and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: A Test of Moderation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lisa M.; Caroline R. Newman

    2011-01-01

    Building on previous research, the current study examined the relations between parent depressive symptoms, family religious involvement, and adolescent depressive symptoms in a convenience sample of 74 parent-adolescent dyads of southern U.S. families. We used hierarchical regression analysis to explore whether family religious involvement…

  8. "Head take you": causal attributions of mental illness in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Carlotta M; Whitley, Rob

    2015-02-01

    Causal attributions are a key factor in explanatory models of illness; however, little research on causal attributions of mental illness has been conducted in developing nations in the Caribbean, including Jamaica. Explanatory models of mental illness may be important in understanding illness experience and be a crucial factor in mental health service seeking and utilization. We explored causal attributions of mental illness in Jamaica by conducting 20 focus groups, including 16 community samples, 2 patient samples, and 2 samples of caregivers of patients, with a total of 159 participants. The 5 most commonly endorsed causal attributions of mental illness are discussed: (a) drug-related causes, including ganja (marijuana); (b) biological causes, such as chemical imbalance, familial transmission, and "blood"; (c) psychological causes, including stress and thinking too much; (d) social causes, such as relationship problems and job loss; and (e) spiritual or religious causes, including Obeah. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Family relations, social connections, and mental health among Latino and Asian older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Man; Li, Shijian; Liu, Jinyu; Sun, Fei

    2015-02-01

    Using a nationally representative sample, we compared Latino and Asian older adults in terms of lifetime and 12-month prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, anxiety and mood disorders. Given the strong family norms and collectivist cultures shared by the two groups, we also examined whether 12-month prevalence rates were associated with various family relation and social connection variables. The findings showed that older Latinos were almost twice as likely as older Asians to have any anxiety or mood disorders in their lifetime (34.5% vs. 17.7%) and in the past year (14.3% vs. 7.4%). Logistic regressions revealed different predictors of anxiety and mood disorders in the two groups: Family cultural conflict was associated with a higher prevalence of anxiety disorders, whereas family cohesion was associated with a lower prevalence of mood disorders. We argue that more research is needed on negative family interactions and their implications for the mental health of older ethnic minorities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. How is gambling related to perceived parenting style and/or family environment for college students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkman, Jeffrey; Blinn-Pike, Lynn; Worthy, Sheri Lokken

    2013-03-01

    Background and aims The relationship between college student gambling, parenting styles, and family environments is a neglected area of gambling research. Do parenting styles indirectly influence problem gambling behaviors via family environments? Do poor family environments, characterized by high levels of conflict and low levels of cohesion, increase the likelihood of problem gambling among youth? This study explored the interrelationships among college students' current gambling behaviors and a) having an emotionally close and supportive family environment, b) having nagging and critical parents, c) having an authoritative mother, and d) frequency of alcohol consumption. Methods and results Survey data were collected from 450 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory psychology classes at two state universities in a southern state. Feeling that one has nagging and critical parents was associated with gambling in more venues, while the opposite was true for having emotionally close and supportive families. However, perceptions of having authoritative mothers were not related to gambling. The results also showed that more frequent alcohol consumption was associated with higher odds of gambling in casinos, playing cards for money, betting on sports, gambling on the Internet, higher gambling losses, and a larger number of gambling venues. Conclusions As with any exploratory research, there are several unique lines of inquiry that can, and should, follow from these findings, including more research on how college students' attitudes toward gambling activities may have begun prior to college and been influenced by their feelings about their homes and parents.

  11. A family of genes related to a new expression site-associated gene in Trypanosoma equiperdum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florent, I C; Raibaud, A; Eisen, H

    1991-04-01

    Two genes, belonging to a new expression site-associated gene family of six to eight members in Trypanosoma equiperdum and Trypanosoma brucei, have been cloned from a T. equiperdum variant. One of them, called ESAG-9c, is contained in the 1.78-C expression site and is found just upstream of the 5' barren region. The other one, called ESAG-9u, is unique in the family, is not telomere linked, and apparently is not expression site related. A 2-kb poly(A)+ mRNA is detected with probes for this ESAG-9 family in all T. equiperdum variants examined. By using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques, it has been possible to distinguish between ESAG-9c and ESAG-9u and to show that ESAG-9c is transcribed in an expression site-specific manner. However, ESAG-9u (or another gene in the family having identical characteristics) is transcribed in all variants, regardless of the expression site used by these variants. Thus, this ESAG-9 family contains at least one gene that is under expression site control but might have other genes that are not. The function of these ESAG-9 genes is unknown. Transcripts homologous to ESAG-9 were detected in T. brucei bloodstream forms but not in procyclics.

  12. Got yoga?: A longitudinal analysis of thematic content and models' appearance-related attributes in advertisements spanning four decades of Yoga Journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoski, Erin; Webb, Jennifer B; Warren-Findlow, Jan; Brewer, Kirstyn A; Kiffmeyer, Katheryn A

    2017-06-01

    Yoga has become an increasingly common health practice among U.S. adults over the past decade. With this growth in popularity, yoga-related print media have been criticized for shifting away from yoga's traditional philosophies and promoting a thin, lean ideal physique representing the "yoga body." The purpose of this study was to (a) analyze the presence and content of advertisements over the 40-year publication history of Yoga Journal magazine and (b) explore female advertisement models' socio-demographic and appearance-related attributes over time. Results suggested that Yoga Journal now contains significantly more advertisements for food, nutritional supplements, and apparel and fewer advertisements for meditation and nutritional practices than in its early years of publication. Models were more frequently rated as White and in their 20s and 30s in recent years of publication. Trends in model body size matched shifts in culturally dominant body ideals over time. Implications and future research directions are considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationships of family conflict, cohesion, and chaos in the home environment on maternal and child food-related behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Quick, Virginia; Zhang, Man; Jin, Yanhong; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2017-10-10

    This study examined how food-related behaviours differed in mothers and their preschool children by levels of family functioning (cohesion and conflict) and household disorganization (chaos). A nationally representative sample of mothers of preschoolers completed an online survey assessing food-related behaviours of themselves and their children. Maternal and child diet, eating behaviours, and health status; household availability of fruits/vegetables, salty/fatty snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages; family mealtime atmosphere; and family conflict, cohesion, and household chaos were assessed with valid, reliable scales. Cluster analyses assigned families into low, middle, and high conflict, cohesion, and chaos groups. Participants (n = 550) were 72% White, and 82% had some post-secondary education. Regression analysis examining the association of cluster grouping levels on diet-related behaviour measures revealed that positive home environments (i.e., low family conflict, high family cohesion, and low household chaos) were associated with healthier food-related behaviours (e.g., increased fruits/vegetables intake), whereas negative home environments (i.e., high family conflict, low family cohesion, and high household chaos) were associated with unhealthy food-related behaviours (e.g., greater % total calories from fat) even after controlling for sociodemographic and related behavioural factors. Findings suggest family functioning and household chaos are associated with food-related behaviours. This frequently overlooked component of family interaction may affect intervention outcomes and objectives of educational and interventional initiatives. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A family history of alcoholism relates to alexithymia in substance use disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Hein A; Joosten, Evelien A G; de Haan, Lydia; Schellekens, Arnt F A; Buitelaar, Jan K; van der Palen, Job; De Jong, Cor A J

    2013-10-01

    Previous research identified alexithymia as a potential risk factor for substance use disorders (SUD). More insight into the relation between alexithymia and SUD is needed in order to treat SUD effectively. Therefore, we investigated whether a familial vulnerability to alcoholism relates to the presence and severity of alexithymia in SUD patients. Hospitalized, abstinent SUD-patients (n=187), were assessed with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI). A maternal, paternal, and total continuous measure of the Family History of Alcohol (FHA) was developed. Kruskal-Wallis tests and Spearman correlations were used to relate the composite scores of FHA to alexithymia as a categorical and continuous measure. Multivariate regression models were performed to control for the effects of confounders on the relation between FHA and alexithymia. Compared to moderate (33%) and low (17%) alexithymic SUD-patients, high alexithymic (50%) patients were more likely to have fathers with alcohol problems (P=0.004). Such a difference was not found for mothers with alcohol problems. The composite FHA-score was significantly associated with alexithymia (Rs=.19, P=0.01). However, only a paternal FHA, independent from disturbed family functioning, related to the degree of alexithymia (β=.13, P=0.06), especially to the Difficulty Identifying Feelings as measured by the TAS-20 (β=.16, P=0.02). The relation between a paternal FHA and a higher degree of alexithymia in SUD-patients suggests that alexithymia could mediate the familiality of alcoholism or SUD in the paternal line. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Lagged effects of family-supportive organization perceptions and supervision in relation to generalized work-related resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Russell A; Toumbeva, Tatiana H

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, grounded in organizational support and social exchange theory, the dynamic lagged interplay between family supportive supervision (FSS), family supportive organization perceptions (FSOP), perceived organizational support (POS), and leader-member exchange (LMX) was examined. Data were collected from 435 respondents over 3 time points with 6-week lags between assessments. Consistent with theory, FSS had a significant lagged effect on FSOP, whereas the reverse relationship was not supported. Interestingly, contrary to conservation of resources theory, we did not find significant lagged effects between POS and FSOP. Results further indicated that LMX and FSS were reciprocally related over time, suggesting the potential for a dynamic, mutually beneficial exchange relationship between subordinates and supervisors. Theoretical implications and considerations for research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Child Problems as a Moderator of Relations Between Maternal Impulsivity and Family Environment in a High-Risk Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Carly K; Ryan, Stacy R; Charles, Nora E; Mathias, Charles W; Acheson, Ashley; Dougherty, Donald M

    2016-08-23

    Previous studies have suggested that maternal characteristics are related to family environment; however, the relation between maternal impulsivity, in particular, and family environment is not well understood. As such, we examined direct relations between maternal impulsivity and family environment, as well as whether the relation between maternal impulsivity and family environment was moderated by child problems for sons and daughters. We hypothesized that child problems would moderate the association between maternal impulsivity and family environment. We also explored whether these associations differ for boys and girls. Data from the initial visit of a longitudinal study was used for the current study. Participants included 297 youth (137 boys; 160 girls) of 10 to 12 years of age (M = 10.99, SD = .84) and their mothers. The majority of the sample had a family history of substance use disorder (n = 236). Hierarchical linear regressions showed that for sons there was a significant interaction between maternal impulsivity and child problems on family environment. Maternal impulsivity was positively related to family environment problems among sons with few emotional and behavioral problems, but there was no significant correlation among sons with high problem levels. Among daughters, there was no significant interaction between maternal impulsivity and child emotional and behavioral problems on family environment. The results suggest that the association between maternal impulsivity and family environment may depend on problem level and child gender. Thus, addressing maternal impulsivity in therapy may benefit some families.

  17. Decision-making factors affecting different family members regarding the placement of relatives in long-term care facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ying-Chia; Chu, Chiao-Lee; Ho, Ching-Sung; Lan, Shou-Jen; Hsieh, Chen-Hsi; Hsieh, Yen-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this research was to investigate factors affecting different family members’ decisions regarding the placement of relatives in long-term car (LTC) facilities in Taiwan. The objective was to investigate the correlations between family members’ personal traits, the living conditions of residents in the LTC facilities, and family members’ experiences with LTC facilities. Methods This study selected family members visiting residents in LTC facilities as research subjects and...

  18. Policies and Practices of Family Friendliness. Time and Employment Relations in Knowledge Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tove Håpnes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In Norway an ideology of gender equality and the universal welfare state has created generous leave arrangements for parents, both mothers and fathers, to make the combination of work and family possible.To recruit competent women and men, knowledge work organisations have to accommodate to working hours that are compatible with the responsibility for a family. In the knowledge economy in Norway we therefore find women and men with higher education trying to act out the ideals of gen- der equality at work and at home. In this paper we explore how family-friendly policies in knowledge work organisations result in family-friendly practices.We do this by analysing two R&D departments belonging to large Norwegian companies in the international market. Both had policies of gender equality and family friendly working time arrangements and career opportunities for women with reduced hours.We show how different employment relations and forms of organisation influenced the work and time practices of the research scientists. Using the concept of social contracts in em- ployment and a relational concept of time, we found that it was more difficult to realise the reduced hours in the organisation that took responsibility for the career and welfare of their employees in a long-term perspective because of the mutual trust and obligations in this relationship.The women in the organisation with more transactional relations where their employment was dependent upon the market and their short-term economic performance, were able to use their accounting system to reduce their hours.The young fathers in the same organisation who were not yet established as experts, could not use the accounting system to limit their hours like the senior women.They needed to work long hours on scientific publications to qualify as researchers to secure their employment. In Norway an ideology of gender equality and the universal welfare state has created generous leave arrangements

  19. Physical fighting, fighting-related injuries and family affluence among Canadian youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Djerboua

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical fighting is an assaultive behaviour that can lead to injury. Family affluence is a health determinant that can influence injury. This study examines the relationship between family affluence and two outcomes: physical fighting and fighting-related injury in Canadian adolescents. Three measurements were used to represent family affluence and assess whether these measures demonstrated different associations with these outcomes. Methods Canadian data from the 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study were used. It consists of a nationally representative sample of 26,078 grade 6–10 students. A subset analysis of 10,429 grade 9–10 students was conducted to account for additional confounders. Modified Poisson regression was used to compare the risk of physical fighting and fighting-related injury in youth from different levels of family affluence. Three indicators were used to represent family affluence: self-perceived affluence, a family affluence scale (FAS, and area-level average household income. Results The overall prevalence was 35.6 % for physical fighting and 2.7 % for fighting-related injuries. Both outcomes were more frequent in males than females. An inverse gradient was present where risk for both outcomes increased with decreasing levels of affluence irrespective of the affluence measurement. The self-perceived affluence variable showed a significantly stronger gradient in girls than boys for both outcomes. For both outcomes, FAS showed a similar inverse gradient within females, but a threshold effect in males where there was a strong effect in the low FAS group, but a null effect in the moderate FAS group. The area-level income variable presented a significantly higher likelihood for physical fighting only in females (p = 0.001–0.075. For fighting-related injury, none of the area-level income models showed significant risk estimates with the exception of the bivariate association

  20. Disaster-related physical and mental health: a role for the family physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedy, John R; Simpson, William M

    2007-03-15

    Natural disasters, technologic disasters, and mass violence impact millions of persons each year. The use of primary health care services typically increases for 12 or more months following major disasters. A conceptual framework for assisting disaster victims involves understanding the individual and environmental risk factors that influence post-disaster physical and mental health. Victims of disaster will typically present to family physicians with acute physical health problems such as gastroenteritis or viral syndromes. Chronic problems often require medications and ongoing primary care. Some victims may be at risk of acute or chronic mental health problems such as post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, or alcohol abuse. Risk factors for post-disaster mental health problems include previous mental health problems and high levels of exposure to disaster-related stresses (e.g., fear of death or serious injury, exposure to serious injury or death, separation from family, prolonged displacement). An action plan should involve adequate preparation for a disaster. Family physicians should educate themselves about disaster-related physical and mental health threats; cooperate with local and national organizations; and make sure clinics and offices are adequately supplied with medications and suture and casting material as appropriate. Physicians also should plan for the care and safety of their own families.

  1. Family business: the multidrug-resistance related protein (MRP) ABC transporter genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolukisaoglu, H Uner; Bovet, Lucien; Klein, Markus; Eggmann, Thomas; Geisler, Markus; Wanke, Dierk; Martinoia, Enrico; Schulz, Burkhard

    2002-11-01

    Despite the completion of the sequencing of the entire genome of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., the exact determination of each single gene and its function remains an open question. This is especially true for multigene families. An approach that combines analysis of genomic structure, expression data and functional genomics to ascertain the role of the members of the multidrug-resistance-related protein ( MRP) gene family, a subfamily of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters from Arabidopsis is presented. We used cDNA sequencing and alignment-based re-annotation of genomic sequences to define the exact genic structure of all known AtMRP genes. Analysis of promoter regions suggested different induction conditions even for closely related genes. Expression analysis for the entire gene family confirmed these assumptions. Phylogenetic analysis and determination of segmental duplication in the regions of AtMRP genes revealed that the evolution of the extraordinarily high number of ABC transporter genes in plants cannot solely be explained by polyploidisation during the evolution of the Arabidopsis genome. Interestingly MRP genes from Oryza sativa L. (rice; OsMRP) show very similar genomic structures to those from Arabidopsis. Screening of large populations of T-DNA-mutagenised lines of A. thaliana resulted in the isolation of AtMRP insertion mutants. This work opens the way for the defined analysis of a multigene family of important membrane transporters whose broad variety of functions expands their traditional role as cellular detoxifiers.

  2. Development and Validation of the Computerized Family Relations Test for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczń, Ilona; Cieciuch, Jan; Oud, Johan H L; Welzen, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and investigate the psychometric properties of the Computerized Family Relations Test (CFRT) for children. This test assesses the quality of family relationships with the mother and father from a child's perspective. The CFRT consists of six scales relating to control (Restrictiveness and Justice), and support (Affection, Vulnerability, Acknowledgment, and Trust) within the family relationships. CFRT is an innovative approach to the Dutch Nijmegen Family Relations Test (NFRT) developed by Oud and Welzen (1989). The administration of the test has been computerized and graphical representations of female and male silhouettes were included to facilitate the child's parental identification. In total, 404 primary school children, aged 8 to 13 years (M = 11.0; SD = 1.17), took part in this study. The CFRT's reliability was assessed by McDonald's omega coefficients, and ranged from 0.71 to 0.86, except for Vulnerability which achieved the lowest reliability 0.57 for mothers' ratings and 0.56 for fathers' ratings. The test-retest procedure revealed higher stability for the ratings on father-child relationships of 0.71 compared to mother-child relationships of 0.67. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a six-factor model provided an adequate fit. Measurement invariance across the children's assessments of the quality of family relationships was achieved. The construct validity of CFRT was assessed by examining differences in the child's ratings of the relationships with the mother and father, the child's gender, and associations of CFRT scales with other variables such as depression, anxiety symptoms, and prosocial behavior.

  3. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Jiro; Hibino, Yuri

    2014-09-02

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540) at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%). The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6). The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p infertility, those with infertility of unknown causes, those living with no child, those having a low joint income with their partner, those with the opinion that "women should devote themselves to their household duties" those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that "married life without children is favorable" and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment.

  4. Further Evidence That Cannabis Moderates Familial Correlation of Psychosis-Related Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Winkel, Ruud

    2015-01-01

    Background Familial correlations underlie heritability estimates of psychosis. If gene-environment interactions are important, familial correlation will vary as a function of environmental exposure. Methods Associations between sibling and parental schizotypy (n = 669 pairs, n = 1222 observations), and between sibling schizotypy and patient CAPE psychosis (n = 978 pairs, n = 1723 observations) were examined as a function of sibling cannabis use. This design is based on the prediction that in unaffected siblings who are not exposed, vulnerability for psychosis will remain latent, whereas in case of exposure, latent psychosis vulnerability may become expressed, at the level of schizotypal symptoms, causing the phenotypic correlation between relatives to become “visible” under the influence of cannabis. Results Siblings exposed to recent cannabis use resembled their patient-relative more closely in terms of positive schizotypy (urinalysis(+):B = 0.30, Pcannabis (urinalysis(+):B = 0.78, Pcannabis frequency of use as exposure instead of recent use. Parental schizotypy did not predict cannabis use in the healthy sibling, nor in the patient. Similarly, parental cannabis use was not associated with level of schizotypy in the sibling, nor with psychotic symptoms in the patient, making gene-environment correlation unlikely. Conclusion Familial correlation of psychosis-related experiences varies considerably as a function of exposure to cannabis, confirming the importance of gene-cannabis interaction in shifts of expression of psychosis-related experiences. PMID:26384217

  5. Comfort of the patient's family in an Intensive Care Unit related to welcoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Almeida Moraes Gibaut

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the level of comfort of families of patients in a critical health condition related to the welcoming practices performed by the hospital staff. Interviews were conducted with 250 relatives in hospitals of the state Bahia, using a Likert scale. Data were analyzed as percentages and quartiles. For nine of the 12 statements of the scale, most relatives scored their comfort level between very and totally comfortable, median of 4,revealing kindness, tranquility and friendly communication with family members. More than half of the sample scored its level as not at all to more or less comfortable, median of 3, for statements about demonstration of interest towards the relative by the staff and flexible visiting of the patient. The necessity of greater interest of the team in the condition and needs of the family was observed. Promoting comfort from the dimension of welcoming demands interdisciplinary actions grounded in humanistic philosophy, in which the nurse has an important role to play.

  6. Familial and genetic effects on motor coordination, laterality, and reading-related cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francks, Clyde; Fisher, Simon E; Marlow, Angela J; MacPhie, I Laurence; Taylor, Kathleen E; Richardson, Alex J; Stein, John F; Monaco, Anthony P

    2003-11-01

    Recent research has provided evidence for a genetically mediated association between language or reading-related cognitive deficits and impaired motor coordination. Other studies have identified relationships between lateralization of hand skill and cognitive abilities. With a large sample, the authors aimed to investigate genetic relationships between measures of reading-related cognition, hand motor skill, and hand skill lateralization. The authors applied univariate and bivariate correlation and familiality analyses to a range of measures. They also performed genomewide linkage analysis of hand motor skill in a subgroup of 195 sibling pairs. Hand motor skill was significantly familial (maximum heritability=41%), as were reading-related measures. Hand motor skill was weakly but significantly correlated with reading-related measures, such as nonword reading and irregular word reading. However, these correlations were not significantly familial in nature, and the authors did not observe linkage of hand motor skill to any chromosomal regions implicated in susceptibility to dyslexia. Lateralization of hand skill was not correlated with reading or cognitive ability. The authors confirmed a relationship between lower motor ability and poor reading performance. However, the genetic effects on motor skill and reading ability appeared to be largely or wholly distinct, suggesting that the correlation between these traits may have arisen from environmental influences. Finally, the authors found no evidence that reading disability and/or low general cognitive ability were associated with ambidexterity.

  7. Parental Expressivity and Parenting Styles in Chinese Families: Prospective and Unique Relations to Children's Psychological Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephen H; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Wang, Yun

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Parents from different cultures differ in how frequently they express emotions. However, the generalizability of the relations between parental expressivity and child adjustment in non-Western cultures has not been extensively studied. The goal of the present study was to investigate prospective relations between parental expressivity within the family (positive, negative dominant, and negative submissive expressivity) and Chinese children's psychological adjustment, above and beyond parenting styles. DESIGN: The study used two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data from a sample (n= 425) of children in Beijing (mean ages = 7.7 years at T1 and 11.6 years at T2). Parental expressivity and parenting styles were self-reported. To reduce the potential measurement overlap, items that tap parental expression of emotions toward the child were removed from the parenting style measure. Children's adjustment was measured with parents', teachers', and peers' or children's reports. RESULTS: Consistent with findings with European American samples, parental negative dominant expressivity uniquely and positively predicted Chinese children's externalizing problems controlling for prior externalizing problems, parenting styles, and family SES. Neither parental expressivity nor parenting styles uniquely predicted social competence. CONCLUSIONS: Despite previously reported cultural differences in the mean levels of parental expressivity, some of the socialization functions of parental expressivity found in Western countries can be generalized to Chinese families. Although parental expressivity and parenting styles are related constructs, their unique relations to child's adjustment suggest that they should be examined as distinct processes.

  8. SBS symptoms in relation to dampness and ventilation in inspected single-family houses in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedje, Greta; Wang, Juan; Norbäck, Dan; Nilsson, Håkan; Engvall, Karin

    2017-06-17

    To investigate the relationships between symptoms compatible with the sick building syndrome (SBS) in adults and building dampness and ventilation in single-family houses. Within the Swedish BETSI study, a national sample of single-family houses were inspected by professional building experts, and adults living in the houses answered a questionnaire on SBS. Relationships between building factors and SBS were analysed using logistic regression. Of the respondents, 23% reported having had weekly SBS symptoms during the last three months. A large proportion of houses exhibited building or construction problems. In total, 40% of houses had dampness problems in the foundation, and this was related to a higher prevalence of both mucous and dermal symptoms, and any SBS symptoms. Furthermore, high air humidity was related to more symptoms, with the relationship with absolute humidity being stronger than that with relative humidity or moisture load. Symptoms were also more prevalent in houses with a high U value, reflecting a poor thermal insulation. Compared to natural ventilation, living in a house with mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation was related to a lower prevalence of general symptoms and any SBS symptoms, but there were only weak associations between measured air exchange rate and symptoms. A large proportion of single-family houses have dampness problems in the foundation, and pollutants may enter the living space of the house and affect the health of the occupants. Furthermore, absolute air humidity should be measured more often in indoor air studies.

  9. Approximations for Estimating Change in Life Expectancy Attributable to Air Pollution in Relation to Multiple Causes of Death Using a Cause Modified Life Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieb, David M; Judek, Stan; Brand, Kevin; Burnett, Richard T; Shin, Hwashin H

    2015-08-01

    There is considerable debate as to the most appropriate metric for characterizing the mortality impacts of air pollution. Life expectancy has been advocated as an informative measure. Although the life-table calculus is relatively straightforward, it becomes increasingly cumbersome when repeated over large numbers of geographic areas and for multiple causes of death. Two simplifying assumptions were evaluated: linearity of the relation between excess rate ratio and change in life expectancy, and additivity of cause-specific life-table calculations. We employed excess rate ratios linking PM2.5 and mortality from cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischemic heart disease, and lung cancer derived from a meta-analysis of worldwide cohort studies. As a sensitivity analysis, we employed an integrated exposure response function based on the observed risk of PM2.5 over a wide range of concentrations from ambient exposure, indoor exposure, second-hand smoke, and personal smoking. Impacts were estimated in relation to a change in PM2.5 from 19.5 μg/m(3) estimated for Toronto to an estimated natural background concentration of 1.8 μg/m(3) . Estimated changes in life expectancy varied linearly with excess rate ratios, but at higher values the relationship was more accurately represented as a nonlinear function. Changes in life expectancy attributed to specific causes of death were additive with maximum error of 10%. Results were sensitive to assumptions about the air pollution concentration below which effects on mortality were not quantified. We have demonstrated valid approximations comprising expression of change in life expectancy as a function of excess mortality and summation across multiple causes of death. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Does Perceived Family Support has a Relation with Depression and Anxiety in an Iranian Diabetic Sample?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behshid Garrusi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering psycho-social aspects of diabetes such as family support ,depression and anxiety ,may have a pivotal role in improvement of health status of the patients. In Iran (IR, as other parts of the worldprevalence of diabetes and its burden are increasing therefore these issues must be seriously considered.Aims: The aim of this study was identify the contributing factors that could be promote quality of life in diabetes. For this reason , relationship between perceived family support and psychiatric comorbidities (depression and anxiety in Iranian diabetic population sample was studied.Methodology: In this cross-sectional study which was conducted in South-east Iran, 386 diabetic patients were assessed. The assessment instruments were Diabetes Specific Family Support (DSFS, Hospital Anxiety–Depression Scale( HADS, and demographic variables. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as statistical significance.Results: About 52% of the participants were female. The mean (SD age was 50.77 (10.24 years. The mean score of supportive behaviors,in females waslower than males. There was no relationship between the mean scores of depression and anxiety with gender. Duration of diabetes, educational level and socio-economic level had significant relationship with depression. The relation between subscales of family behaviors (supportive and non supportive and psychological comorbidities (depression, anxiety were significant (P<0.05.Conclusion: The survey results emphasized the important role of family support in Iranian diabetic patients. Families should be encouraged to provide a supportive environment for the diabetic patients that could be due quality of life promotion.

  11. The Views of Disability – the Problems of Families with Disabled Relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANUTA HINC

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Subject of my work encompasses all issues relating to family life with a disabled person. In this article I went into the situation of both parents of a disable child, their relationship between themselves and offspring, both healthy and sick, and also described the living conditions of handicapped siblings. The text also includes a description of the family in which children are healthy while parents are facing deficits. In my work I focused mainly on problems that relatives of a handicapped person need to face – the first shock when they find out about the sickness, an internal struggle with their own opinions, the reorganization of life and breaking the shame and fear. The purpose of my article is to show the reader realities of living under one roof with a disable person, to confront him with a situation which can affect anyone of us, forcing to ask the question:Am I really tolerant?

  12. Ethical issues related to computerised family medical histories in sickle cell disease: Inforare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franrenet, Sandra; Duchange, Nathalie; Galactéros, Fréderic; Quantin, Catherine; Cohen, Olivier; Nzouakou, Ruben; Sudraud, Sophie; Hervé, Christian; Moutel, Grégoire

    2010-10-01

    The Inforare project aims to set up a system for the sharing of clinical and familial data, in order to study how genes are related to the severity of sickle cell disease. While the computerisation of clinical records represents a valuable research goal, an ethical framework is necessary to guarantee patients' protection and their rights in this developing field. Issues relating to patient information during the Inforare study were analysed by the steering committee. Several major concerns were discussed by the committee and formalized in the patients' information letter: educating patients to aid the recruitment of family members, rules of confidentiality and the disclosure of aggregate, individual and unexpected research results. This paper presents the main issues addressed.

  13. Familial and Economic Influences on the Gender-Related Educational and Occupational Aspirations of Rural Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meece, Judith L; Askew, Karyl J S; Agger, Charlotte A; Hutchins, Bryan C; Byun, Soo-Yong

    Economic, occupational, and social shifts in rural economies have influenced nuanced changes in the educational and occupational aspirations of rural adolescent women and men. However, there is limited contemporary research that examines the aspirations of rural adolescents at the beginning of the 21(st) century. Drawing on a sample of 8,756 rural adolescents in the United States, we examine how familial, geographic, and economic variables influence gender-related differences in educational and occupational aspirations. Findings revealed significant gender differences, favoring girls, in youth's educational aspirations, occupational aspirations, and aspirations for nontraditional careers. Results highlight the importance of contextual variables such as parental expectations, family income, and motivation variables in predicting gender-related aspirations of rural youth.

  14. A Novel Relevance Feedback Approach Based on Similarity Measure Modification in an X-Ray Image Retrieval System Based on Fuzzy Representation Using Fuzzy Attributed Relational Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossien Pourghassem

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Relevance feedback approaches is used to improve the performance of content-based image retrieval systems. In this paper, a novel relevance feedback approach based on similarity measure modification in an X-ray image retrieval system based on fuzzy representation using fuzzy attributed relational graph (FARG is presented. In this approach, optimum weight of each feature in feature vector is calculated using similarity rate between query image and relevant and irrelevant images in user feedback. The calculated weight is used to tune fuzzy graph matching algorithm as a modifier parameter in similarity measure. The standard deviation of the retrieved image features is applied to calculate the optimum weight. The proposed image retrieval system uses a FARG for representation of images, a fuzzy matching graph algorithm as similarity measure and a semantic classifier based on merging scheme for determination of the search space in image database. To evaluate relevance feedback approach in the proposed system, a standard X-ray image database consisting of 10000 images in 57 classes is used. The improvement of the evaluation parameters shows proficiency and efficiency of the proposed system.

  15. What comes first, origin or production method? An investigation into the relative importance of different attributes in the demand for eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lopez-Galan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses consumer preferences for different eggs attributes to assess the importance placed by consumers on the origin and method of production when shopping. The data comes from an experiment conducted in Spain during 2009. An Error Component Random Parameter Logit model is used to estimate the effect of different eggs characteristics on consumers’ utility and derive their willingness to pay. Results suggest that consumers positively value the free-range and organic method of production and the local and regional origin and that they are willing to pay an additional € 0.85 for each package of six free-range or organic eggs, € 0.77 for locally produced and € 0.27 for regional produced eggs. Hence, the least valued eggs for consumers are those produced in cages and outside the region. Relative to this product, the highest willingness to pay corresponds to free-range or organic eggs followed by locally produced eggs and finally, by the regional eggs. Thus, we can conclude that Spanish consumers give more importance when shopping for eggs to the method of production than to the origin of production.

  16. The phenomenon experienced by family members with a relative interned in the Intensive Care Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Comassetto, Isabel; UFAL; Enders, Bertha Cruz; UFRN

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the lived phenomenon of relatives having a patient hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit. It was conducted using the phenomenological approach in the modality of the situated phenomenon. Ten family members of patients interned in intensive care unit of a private hospital in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte were interviewed from March to July of 2006. Five thematic categories emerged from the analysis that constituted the elements of the lived experience: Fe...

  17. Calcitonin gene-related peptide does not cause migraine attacks in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob M; Thomsen, Lise L; Olesen, Jes

    2011-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a key molecule in migraine pathogenesis. Intravenous CGRP triggers migraine-like attacks in patients with migraine with aura and without aura. In contrast, patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) with known mutations did not report more migraine......-like attacks compared to controls. Whether CGRP triggers migraine-like attacks in FHM patients without known mutations is unknown....

  18. Relations between Grandparents and Grandchildren in the Context of the Family System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Arránz Becker

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The demographic change which has taken place in recent decades, and in particular the considerable increase in life expectancy, has resulted in intergenerational relationships that are lasting much longer. Despite the increase in people’s median age at first child birth, members of different generations now have the opportunity to live together for periods that are unparalleled in human history. Especially the medical and technical progress has led to grandparents being increasingly capable in both health and cognitive terms at an advanced age that they provide active support for their children and grandchildren in many ways. This article addresses the question to what extent the relationship potentials - also against the background of modernisation processes within society (e.g. increasing demands as to mobility, problems in reconciling family and work - are transformed into actual support by grandparents for the grandchildren’s generation. The analyses are based on data from the parents of the primary respondents (“anchor persons” in the German Family Panel (Beziehungs- und Familienpanel - pairfam, 2nd wave 2009/2010, parents’ questionnaire with a grandchild aged between 8 and 15. The significance of various factors influencing the strength of relationships between grandparents and their grandchildren is empirically examined. Firstly, social-structural characteristics and family-related attitudes on the part of the members of the various generations are considered, and secondly, various family members’ personal and social resources. All in all, it is revealed that grandparent-grandchild relationships are largely independent from personal resources such as employment status, but that they are associated with social resources, that is the relationships between grandparents and parents, as well as with grandparents’ partnership status. Moreover, there are pronounced regional differences (i.e., stronger grandparent

  19. Review: Burden on Family Caregivers Caring for Patients with Schizophrenia and Its Related Factors

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    Imas Rafiyah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Family caregiver is the most important person who cares for patient with schizophrenia. However when care is provided for long time, he/she may experiences the burden.Purpose: The purpose was to review concept and factors related to burden on family caregivers caring for patients with schizophrenia.Method: A literatures were searched from databases: Pubmed, CINAHL, and Science Direct. Key words used to retrieve literature include caregiver burden and schizophrenia. Searching was limited in English language, full text, and the year of publication from 2000 to 2009 was used.Results: Twenty two studies were reviewed in this paper. The result showed that the caregivers caring for patients with schizophrenia experience burden. Burden was defined as a negative impact of caring for the impaired person experienced by caregiver on their activity (objective burden or feeling (subjective burden that involves emotional, physical health, social life, and financial status. Factors related to burden on family caregiver were grouped into: 1 caregiver‟s factors included age, gender, educational level, income, health status, and spent time per day, knowledge of schizophrenia, culture, and coping; 2 patient‟s factors included age, clinical symptoms, and disability in daily life; 3 environmental factors included mental health service and social support.Conclusion: Definition of burden have quite same meaning and mostly factors focus on the patient‟s symptoms, demographic factors of caregiver, and time spent per day. Most of studies cannot be generalized due to small sample used in the study and that too conducted in western countries. For further research, the correlation between burden and resources of family caregiver should be investigated particularly in eastern country.Key words: burden on family caregiver, caring, schizophrenia.

  20. Attributes of a good nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin Er, Rahime; Sehiralti, Mine; Akpinar, Aslihan

    2017-03-01

    The opinions of students regarding the attributes of a good nurse can make a major contribution to the planning and the conducting of professional education. There are few studies which aim at identifying the qualifications of a good nurse from the perspectives of nursing students. To determine the opinions of first- and fourth-year nursing students concerning the 'attributes of a good nurse', and whether and how their views change depending on their year of study. Descriptive research. Participants and research context: This study was conducted in the nursing department of a vocational school of health in the 2010/2011 academic year. The study participants consisted of first-year and intern students. A survey form was used to identify characteristics of participants, and students were asked the following open-ended question about their opinions related to the attributes of a good nurse. Ethical considerations: The permission was taken from the school administration. Informed consent was obtained, and anonymity was ensured for participating students. A total of 120 students participated in this study. Most frequently expressed attributes were 'professional competence' in first-year and 'responsibility' in fourth-year students. While first-year students placed a greater emphasis on the attributes of 'geniality', 'patience', 'calmness', 'love of nursing', 'loyalty to nursing' and 'not attaching importance to material values', fourth-year students emphasized the attributes of 'empathy', 'honesty', 'responsibility' and 'scientific curiosity' significantly more. Fourth-year students placed a greater emphasis on the attributes which the students are expected to acquire through a nursing program and clinical experience. However, they mentioned the attributes related to a good nurse-patient relationship and communication significantly less. Appropriate ethical training methods and good role models can help students acquire attributes that are important for the nursing

  1. History of a prolific family: the Hes/Hey-related genes of the annelid Platynereis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazave, Eve; Guillou, Aurélien; Balavoine, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    The Hes superfamily or Hes/Hey-related genes encompass a variety of metazoan-specific bHLH genes, with somewhat fuzzy phylogenetic relationships. Hes superfamily members are involved in a variety of major developmental mechanisms in metazoans, notably in neurogenesis and segmentation processes, in which they often act as direct effector genes of the Notch signaling pathway. We have investigated the molecular and functional evolution of the Hes superfamily in metazoans using the lophotrochozoan Platynereis dumerilii as model. Our phylogenetic analyses of more than 200 Metazoan Hes/Hey-related genes revealed the presence of five families, three of them (Hes, Hey and Helt) being pan-metazoan. Those families were likely composed of a unique representative in the last common metazoan ancestor. The evolution of the Hes family was shaped by many independent lineage specific tandem duplication events. The expression patterns of 13 of the 15 Hes/Hey-related genes in Platynereis indicate a broad functional diversification. Nevertheless, a majority of these genes are involved in two crucial developmental processes in annelids: neurogenesis and segmentation, resembling functions highlighted in other animal models. Combining phylogenetic and expression data, our study suggests an unusual evolutionary history for the Hes superfamily. An ancestral multifunctional annelid Hes gene may have undergone multiples rounds of duplication-degeneration-complementation processes in the lineage leading to Platynereis, each gene copies ensuring their maintenance in the genome by subfunctionalisation. Similar but independent waves of duplications are at the origin of the multiplicity of Hes genes in other metazoan lineages.

  2. Basic auditory processing is related to familial risk, not to reading fluency: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakvoort, Britt; van der Leij, Aryan; Maurits, Natasha; Maassen, Ben; van Zuijen, Titia L

    2015-02-01

    Less proficient basic auditory processing has been previously connected to dyslexia. However, it is unclear whether a low proficiency level is a correlate of having a familial risk for reading problems, or whether it causes dyslexia. In this study, children's processing of amplitude rise time (ART), intensity and frequency differences was measured with event-related potentials (ERPs). ERP components of interest are components reflective of auditory change detection; the mismatch negativity (MMN) and late discriminative negativity (LDN). All groups had an MMN to changes in ART and frequency, but not to intensity. Our results indicate that fluent readers at risk for dyslexia, poor readers at risk for dyslexia and fluent reading controls have an LDN to changes in ART and frequency, though the scalp activation of frequency processing was different for familial risk children. On intensity, only controls showed an LDN. Contrary to previous findings, our results suggest that neither ART nor frequency processing is related to reading fluency. Furthermore, our results imply that diminished sensitivity to changes in intensity and differential lateralization of frequency processing should be regarded as correlates of being at familial risk for dyslexia, that do not directly relate to reading fluency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Marketing de banana: preferências do consumidor quanto aos atributos de qualidade dos frutos Marketing of banana: consumer preferences relating to fruit quality attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando César Akira Urbano Matsuura

    2004-04-01

    das Almas town, Bahia State considering the fruit quality attributes of fresh mature banana. The methodology used was descriptive research for statistical method. The data were collected by questionnaire, in the form of personal interview with 400 people. The quality attributes (variables questioned and appraised were related with the appearance, color, texture, aroma, flavor and shelf-life of the banana fruits. In agreement with the consumers' preference, the fruit of ideal mature banana should present characteristics like hand contends 10 to 12 fingers (fruits, fingers of medium or big size, medium diameter, present angularity, absence of black spots in the peel, color of the pulp light or medium yellow, firm texture, aroma and flavor of medium intensity, medium sweet and shelf-useful of 7 to 10 days in natural conditions. The flavor, shelf-life and appearance of the banana fruits are considered the most important attributes at the purchase, according the consumers.

  4. 'Women now wear trousers': men's perceptions of family planning in the context of changing gender relations in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Mellissa; Dworkin, Shari L; Zakaras, Jennifer M; Onono, Maricianah; Oyier, Beryl; Cohen, Craig R; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Grossman, Daniel; Newmann, Sara J

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequity has been closely linked with unmet need for family planning among women in sub-Saharan Africa but the factors related to male family planning disapproval are not well-understood. This qualitative study explored men's perspectives of gender roles and cultural norms as they pertain to family planning. Twelve small group meetings were held with 106 married men in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Shifting gender relations made the definitions of manhood more tenuous than ever. Men's previous identities as sole breadwinners, which gave them significant control over decision-making, were being undermined by women's increasing labour force participation. While many men viewed family planning positively, fears that family planning would lead to more female sexual agency and promiscuity or that male roles would be further jeopardised were widespread and were major deterrents to male family planning approval. By addressing such fears, gender-sensitive programmes could help more men to accept family planning. Increased family planning education for men is needed to dispel misconceptions regarding family planning side-effects. Focusing on the advantages of family planning, namely financial benefits and reduced conflict among couples, could resonate with men. Community leaders, outreach workers and healthcare providers could help shift men's approval of joint decision-making around family size to other reproductive domains, such as family planning use.

  5. Intersectional perspectives on family involvement in nursing home care: rethinking relatives' position as a betweenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Jessica; Emami, Azita; Eriksson, Lars E; Eriksson, Henrik

    2014-09-01

    This study seeks to understand, in the context of intersectional theory, the roles of family members in nursing home care. The unique social locus at which each person sits is the result of the intersection of gender, status, ethnicity and class; it is situational, shifting with the context of every encounter. A content analysis of 15 qualitative interviews with relatives of nursing home residents in Sweden was used to gain a perspective on the relationships between relatives and residents, relatives and the nursing home as an institution, and relatives and the nursing home staff. We sought to understand these relationships in terms of gendered notions of the family and the residents, which are handed down from generation to generation and thus condition who and how relatives should be involved in care, and the ways in which relationships change as care moves from home to nursing home. It requires knowledge and awareness that the nursing home culture is based on intersectional power structures in order for relatives to be involved in nursing home care in alternative and individual ways. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Family relations, stressful events and internalizing symptoms in adolescence: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Adriana Raquel Binsfeld; Teodoro, Maycoln Leoni Martins; Falcke, Denise

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine how emotional and behavioral problems of parents and children and the characteristics of family relationships can be predictors of internalizing symptoms manifested by children after one year. This was a quantitative research study, of the longitudinal type, with a one year interval between the first and second evaluation. Participants were 139 adolescents, and their parents, with ages ranged from 11 to 16 years (M age = 12.90, SD = 1.07). The instruments used were: a Socio-Demographic Data Sheet, Youth Self-Report of 11 to 18 years old (YSR), Adult Self-Report of 18 to 59 years old (ASR), Familiogram (FG), the Family Climate Inventory (FCI) and Inventory of Stressful Events in Adolescence (ISEA). Results indicated that family relationships did not have a significant explanatory power in relation to internalizing symptoms of the adolescent after a year. Based on this study, it is possible to think that during adolescence, the power of the family to influence becomes more restricted in comparison with social and peer influence.

  7. Longitudinal relations between adolescents' materialism and prosocial behavior toward family, friends, and strangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhixu; Fu, Xinyuan; Yu, Xiaoxia; Lv, Yichen

    2018-01-01

    The present study examines the short-term changes and longitudinal relations between adolescents' materialism and prosocial behavior toward family, friends, and strangers over a year. A total of 434 Chinese adolescents (mean age at Time 1 = 11.27; 54% girls) participated in the two time points. From 6th grade to 7th grade, boys' and girls' materialism increased, whereas their prosocial behavior toward family, friends, and strangers declined, despite the stable trend in boys' prosocial behavior toward strangers. Furthermore, a cross-lagged model was conducted and the results showed that, adolescent materialism was associated longitudinally with decreased prosocial behavior toward friends and strangers, but not toward family. However, earlier prosocial behavior toward family, friends, and strangers were not associated with subsequent adolescent materialism. The findings point toward an understanding of materialism as a precursor rather than an outcome or byproduct to prosocial behavior. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Toward understanding family-related characteristics of young adults with sickle-cell disease or sickle-cell trait in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Patricia E; Gallo, Agatha M; Molokie, Robert; Thompson, Alexis A; Suarez, Marie L; Yao, Yingwei; Dallas, Constance M; Wilkie, Diana J

    2016-06-01

    To describe the family-related characteristics of young adults with sickle-cell disease or sickle-cell trait prior to taking part in a randomised controlled trial on sickle-cell reproductive health education. There is a critical need for educational programmes that target the reproductive needs of young adults with sickle-cell disease or trait. However, little is known about the family-related characteristics (i.e., demographic attributes and reproductive health behaviours) in which these young adults live. A descriptive cross-sectional analysis. At study enrolment, 234 young adults (mean age = 25·9 years, 65% female) completed the SCKnowIQ questionnaire. Descriptive statistics depict the demographic attributes and reproductive health behaviours of young adults with sickle-cell disease (n = 138) or trait (n = 96). For group comparisons, independent t tests or Fisher's tests were used, as appropriate. Young adults with sickle-cell trait had significantly higher education, income and health insurance than those with sickle-cell disease. Both groups believed that sickle-cell disease was a severe condition. A majority of young adults with sickle-cell disease (65%) had no children compared to 42% of those with sickle-cell trait. Most young adults (85% sickle-cell disease, 82% sickle-cell trait) were not planning a pregnancy in the next six months, and many used condoms, withdrawal or oral contraceptives. Socioeconomic disparities exist between young adults with sickle-cell disease and sickle-cell trait. Future research that advances education about how and when to communicate appropriate genetic risk information to partners and children especially for young adults with sickle-cell trait would be beneficial. Awareness of the similarities and differences in the family-related characteristics among young adults with sickle-cell disease or trait can allow for more tailored reproductive education. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Role salience and anticipated work--family relations among young adults with and without hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Most, Tova; Michael, Rinat

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of hearing status on role salience and anticipated work-family relations among 101 unmarried young adults aged 20-33 years: 35 with hearing loss (19 hard of hearing and 16 deaf) and 66 hearing. Participants completed the Life Role Salience scale, anticipated conflictual relations scale, anticipated facilitory relations scale, and a background questionnaire. The deaf participants demonstrated a significantly higher level of commitment to work but anticipated the significantly lowest level of conflict. Hearing status was a significant variable in predicting anticipated conflictual relations among all participants. Mode of communication was a significant predictor of conflictual relations among the hearing loss group. Implications for theory and practice were discussed.

  10. The association of poor economic condition and family relations in childhood with late-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krsteska, Roza; Pejoska, Vesna Gerazova

    2013-09-01

    Late-life depression encompasses both patients with late-life onset of depression (>60 years) and older adults with a prior and current history of depression. The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of the economic condition and family relations in childhood as risk factors for late-life depression. This was an analytical cross-sectional study comprising 120 subjects, 60 patients with unipolar depression and 60 subjects without depressive disorders, diagnosed in accordance with the 10-th International Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders. All participants in the study were above the age of 60 and there was no significant statistical difference in the sex proportion in both groups (p>0.05). Data for the examination were taken from a self-reported questionnaire designed for our aim. The Geriatric Depression Scale was used to measure depressive symptoms. Our results have shown that severe financial difficulties are important events in childhood and are risk factors for depression in the elderly (Chi-square=12.68, df=2, p=0.0018). Our investigation has found the association of family relations with late-life depression. In fact, conflictual relations in the family were more common in the experimental group than in the control group (Chi-square=14.32, df=3, p=0.0025). Furthermore, father's addiction to alcohol in childhood was associated with depression in later life (p=0.013). The difference in childhood emotional neglect and unequal treatment between siblings in both groups was insufficient to be confirmed statistically, but the examinees with this trauma had a threefold higher chance of having depression later in life (Odds ratio=3.04, 95% CL0.92 family conflicts during childhood are associated with late-life depression. Father's addiction to alcohol and parents' negative personal character traits are associated with depression in the elderly.

  11. Family relations, sense of coherence, happiness and perceived health in retired Taiwanese: Analysis of a conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hui-Hsun; Lee, Tony Szu-Hsien

    2018-01-01

    A growing awareness of the rapidly increasing aged population in the world has led to growing attention to mental health in late life. Happiness has been emphasized as an important indicator of physical health and is predicted by a sense of coherence. However, the mechanism of influence of family relations on sense of coherence, happiness and perceived health is unknown. The present study aimed to analyze a conceptual model of the relationships among family relations, sense of coherence, happiness and perceived health in retired persons. A total of 142 retired participants were recruited from social service centers in Taipei, Taiwan. A structured questionnaire measuring the relationships among family relations, sense of coherence, happiness and perceived health was filled in by each respondent. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The results showed that family relations is positively correlated with happiness, sense of coherence and perceived health. The results also showed that good family relations and a sense of coherence predict greater happiness. The results from structure equation modeling showed that the relationship between family relations and perceived health is completely mediated by happiness and a sense of coherence, but only the indirect effect of happiness is significant. The results also showed that family relations is partially mediated by the sense of coherence to happiness. In caring for retired older people, medical professionals need to increase their family relations and sense of coherence simultaneously, and then promote happiness in their interventions. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 154-160. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  12. The Influence of Family Relations on Trajectories of Cigarette and Alcohol Use from Early to Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Leslie Morrison; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; Peck, Stephen; Malanchuk, Oksana

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines growth curve trajectories of cigarette and alcohol use from 13 to 19 years, and investigates how family relations (i.e., decision-making opportunities, negative family interactions, and positive identification with parents) relate to contemporaneous and predictive alcohol and cigarette use during adolescence. Data came…

  13. Effects of family interventions on burden of relatives of psychiatric patients in The Netherlands: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, H.; Cuijpers, P.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the effects of psychoeducational family support groups in the Netherlands on relatives' burden were investigated, using a quasi-experimental design. The experimental group consisted of 119 participants of 19 family support groups, the control group of 45 relatives of once-only

  14. The Dyadic Effects of Family Cohesion and Communication on Health-Related Quality of Life: The Moderating Role of Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung-Won; Shon, En-Jung

    2017-01-20

    Spouses' ability to care for survivors can be particularly challenging because patients and spouses are interdependent and mutually influence one another. Family functioning such as family cohesion and communication may play a primary role in improving the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of couples, given that cancer can influence family dynamics. The aims of this study were to investigate the mediating effect of family communication on the relationship between family cohesion and HRQOL and examine the moderating effect of sex on this relationship among cancer survivor-spouse dyads. A total of 91 cancer survivors with a diagnosis of breast, colorectal, or prostate cancer and their spouses were recruited from the University Hospital Registry in Cleveland, Ohio. The dyadic data were analyzed using structural equation modeling with the actor-partner interdependence mediation model. Findings demonstrated that the spouses' own perceived family communication mediated the associations between their own family cohesion and physical HRQOL and between the survivors' family cohesion and physical HRQOL. The spouse actor effects between family communication and HRQOL significantly differed by sex. Enhancing family cohesion and communication within the family can improve the spouses' HRQOL. Findings regarding sex differences serve as a rationale for gender-based approaches to improving HRQOL in survivorship care in the family context. Couple- and/or family-based interventions should be designed to enhance family cohesion and improve family communication skills for effective adjustments within couples and families. Supportive care within the family context can be promoted to address the diverse challenges of survivorship care.

  15. From the family universe to the outside world: family relations, school attitude, and perception of racism in Caribbean and Filipino adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Cécile; Hassan, Ghayda; Measham, Toby; Moreau, Nicolas; Lashley, Myrna; Castro, Thelma; Blake, Caminee; McKenzie, Georges

    2009-09-01

    Caribbean and Filipino immigrant families in Canada have much in common: the women have often immigrated as domestic workers, first-generation children may be separated from their parents for long periods, and they must deal with negative stereotypes of their ethnic group. This transcultural study looks at the associations between family relations and adolescents' perceptions of both their own group and the host society, and analyzes how these affect their mental health. The results suggest that family cohesion plays a key role in shaping adolescents' perceptions of racism in the host country and in promoting a positive appraisal of their own community, thus highlighting the need for a systemic understanding of family and intergroup relations.

  16. Community, family, and subjective socioeconomic status: Relative status and adolescent health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quon, Elizabeth C; McGrath, Jennifer J

    2015-06-01

    Relative socioeconomic status (SES) may be an important social determinant of health. The current study aimed to examine how relative SES, as measured by subjective SES, income inequality, and individual SES relative to others in the community, is associated with a wide range of adolescent health outcomes, after controlling for objective family SES. Adolescents (13-16 years; N = 2,199) from the Quebec Child and Adolescent Health and Social Survey were included. Socioeconomic measures included adolescents' subjective SES; parental education and household income; community education/employment, income, and poverty rate; and community income inequality. Health outcomes included self-rated health, mental health problems, dietary and exercise health behaviors, substance-related health behaviors, reported physical health, and biomarkers of health. Best-fitting multilevel regression models (participants nested within schools) were used to test associations. Findings indicated that lower subjective SES was associated with poorer health outcomes. After accounting for family SES, lower community education/employment had an additional negative effect on health, while lower community income had a protective effect for certain health outcomes. There was less evidence for an independent effect of income inequality. Findings highlight the importance of measures of relative SES that span across a number of levels and contexts, and provide further understanding into the socioeconomic gradient in adolescence. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Identification and sequence analysis of six new members of the NIMA-related kinase family in Chlamydomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Brian A; Wagner, James J D; Quarmby, Lynne M

    2004-01-01

    The NIMA kinases are an evolutionarily conserved protein family with enigmatic roles in the regulation of mitosis. We report six new members of this family in Chlamydomonas, in addition to the previously identified NIMA-related kinase, Fa2p. Chlamydomonas NIMA-related kinases (CNKs) 1-6 were sequenced from subclones generated by RT-PCR using information from EST libraries and the recently sequenced Chlamydomonas genome. Phylogenetic and bioinformatic approaches were used to determine the relationships of the six new members with known members of the NIMA-related kinase family. Although humans express at least eleven NIMA-related kinases, the eukaryotic microbes that have been studied to date express only one or two members of the family. Thus, the discovery that Chlamydomonas expresses a total of at least seven NIMA-related kinases is intriguing. Our analyses suggest that members of this family may play roles in the assembly and function of cilia.

  18. Measuring Limit-Setting Practices Used by Family Members Towards Relatives with Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrum, Travis; Walk, Marlene; Solomon, Phyllis L

    2016-09-01

    Family members often set limits with relatives with psychiatric disorders (PD), however, no scale currently exists measuring the use of such limit-setting practices. The present article describes the development and results of a new measure, the Family Limit-Setting Scale (FLSS). Via a national online survey, the FLSS was completed by 573 adults residing in the U.S. who report having an adult relative with PD. We conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, examined internal consistencies and other indicators of construct validity, and performed invariance analyses assessing the generality of the optimal factor model to men, women, Caucasian respondents, and non-Caucasian respondents. Results indicate that the FLSS has an acceptable two factor structure (routine limit-setting and crisis prevention limit-setting) with both factors being highly generalizable to all groups of respondents examined. Internal consistencies and other indicators provide additional evidence of the FLSS' construct validity. Use of the FLSS will enable the conduction of quantitative research in this area. In addition, this measure may be employed in education/support organizations for families with a member with mental illness in an effort to identify persons using high levels of limit-setting practices who may benefit from extra support and/or guidance.

  19. Bidirectional associations between coparenting relations and family member anxiety: a review and conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdandžić, Mirjana; de Vente, Wieke; Feinberg, Mark E; Aktar, Evin; Bögels, Susan M

    2012-03-01

    Research into anxiety has largely ignored the dynamics of family systems in anxiety development. Coparenting refers to the quality of coordination between individuals responsible for the upbringing of children and links different subsystems within the family, such as the child, the marital relationship, and the parents. This review discusses the potential mechanisms and empirical findings regarding the bidirectional relations of parent and child anxiety with coparenting. The majority of studies point to bidirectional associations between greater coparenting difficulties and higher levels of anxiety. For example, the few available studies suggest that paternal and perhaps maternal anxiety is linked to lower coparental support. Also, research supports the existence of inverse links between coparenting quality and child anxiety. A child's reactive temperament appears to have adverse effects on particularly coparenting of fathers. A conceptual model is proposed that integrates the role of parental and child anxiety, parenting, and coparenting, to guide future research and the development of clinical interventions. Future research should distinguish between fathers' and mothers' coparenting behaviors, include parental anxiety, and investigate the coparental relationship longitudinally. Clinicians should be aware of the reciprocal relations between child anxiety and coparenting quality, and families presenting for treatment who report child (or parent) anxiety should be assessed for difficulties in coparenting. Clinical approaches to bolster coparenting quality are called for.

  20. Are the expectations of families the same as those of teachers in relation to immigrant students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intxausti, Nahia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe future expectations of immigrant families and classroom teachers about students of Primary Education in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country. First generation transnational immigrant settlement in the last decade highlights the need to pay attention to the processes of incorporation of their children. Expectations with respect to academic and professional achievements, language learning and development of social relationships of 302 immigrant families and their form tutor are studied. Results indicate a direct relationship between the expectations of families and teachers in academic achievement when it comes to college expectations and Secondary Education. It highlights, simultaneously, a direct positive relationship between teachers’ and families’ expectations towards Basque and English achievement, being highest the families’ ones towards Basque achievement, and very similar in the case of English achievement. The families’ and teachers’ expectations regarding professional achievement, Spanish language learning, the maintenance of the language of origin as well as the development of social relations are not directly related.

  1. Moral injury: a mechanism for war-related psychological trauma in military family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, William P; Litz, Brett T

    2013-12-01

    Recent research has provided compelling evidence of mental health problems in military spouses and children, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), related to the war-zone deployments, combat exposures, and post-deployment mental health symptoms experienced by military service members in the family. One obstacle to further research and federal programs targeting the psychological health of military family members has been the lack of a clear, compelling, and testable model to explain how war-zone events can result in psychological trauma in military spouses and children. In this article, we propose a possible mechanism for deployment-related psychological trauma in military spouses and children based on the concept of moral injury, a model that has been developed to better understand how service members and veterans may develop PTSD and other serious mental and behavioral problems in the wake of war-zone events that inflict damage to moral belief systems rather by threatening personal life and safety. After describing means of adapting the moral injury model to family systems, we discuss the clinical implications of moral injury, and describe a model for its psychological treatment.

  2. Towards relational recovery: Nurses' practices with consumers and families with dependent children in mental health inpatient units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kim; Isobel, Sophie

    2017-07-18

    Facilitating parent-child and family connections during parental hospitalization provides important opportunities for mental health services to support individual and family recovery. Nurses are often the primary point of contact for families in the inpatient context. They play an integral role in the care provision of consumers and families and in supporting consumers' recovery. The aim of the present qualitative study was to explore nurses' practice with families in inpatient mental health settings in the context of designated family rooms. Three themes were derived from the thematic analysis of semistructured interviews with 20 nurses from four mental health inpatient units. Nurses experienced tensions within their roles in balancing safety and risk, a lack of confidence in family-focused practices in relation to role expectations, and challenges in juggling nursing care ideals with the contemporary realities of inpatient practice. A family-centred relational recovery approach is recommended for mental health services, which is underpinned by family-focused policies and processes, and supported at an organizational, managerial, and local-unit level. At an individual level, nurses need professional development on the models of care they practice in, explicit role clarity on their practice with families, and education on evidence-based brief family interventions. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  3. Providing therapy to children and families in foster care: a systemic-relational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Catherine

    2011-12-01

    Foster care is a system created to protect children from an unsafe home environment yet multiple foster home placements, conflictual or nonexistent relationships between foster parents and birth parents, long, drawn out court battles, and living in an on-going state of not knowing when or if they will be going home are just some of the challenges many children in care are expected to manage. This paper presents a guide for therapists working with families involved in foster care. Utilizing ideas from the postmodern therapies and structural family therapy, suggestions will be provided about who needs to talk to whom about what, when to have these necessary conversations, and how to talk to people in a way that mobilizes adults to take action for the children, with the goal of minimizing postplacement trauma, strengthening and repairing relational bonds, and moving children out of foster care and into permanent homes as quickly as possible.

  4. Neighborhoods, Family, and Substance Use: Comparisons of the Relations across Racial and Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonsun; Harachi, Tracy W; Catalano, Richard F

    2006-12-01

    This study examines how substance use among adolescents is related to several risk and protective factors derived from two ecological contexts: the neighborhood and the family. It explicitly investigates how the relationships between substance use and the factors vary across different racial and ethnic groups. Findings suggest many common correlates and processes of substance use for adolescents, regardless of race or ethnicity, including that neighborhood safety is associated with substance use. There are also some racial and ethnic group differences in relationships, including that low attachment to and lack of social opportunities in neighborhoods more strongly predict substance use among whites than among other racial and ethnic groups and that family management decreases the relationship between neighborhood safety and substance use among African Americans. A better understanding of the associations among factors that influence substance use across racial and ethnic subgroups can help effectively target preventive interventions for different groups.

  5. Child language and parent discipline mediate the relation between family income and false belief understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Virginia; Logan, Jessica A R; Blosser, Daniel F; Duffy, Kaylin

    2017-06-01

    Achieving false belief understanding is an important cognitive milestone that allows children to understand that thoughts and reality can differ. Researchers have found that low-income children score significantly lower than middle-income children on false belief understanding but have not examined why this difference exists. We hypothesized that children's language and parent discipline mediate the income-false belief relation. Participants were 174 3- to 6-year-olds. False belief understanding was significantly correlated with family income, children's vocabulary, parents' self-reported discussion of children's behavior, discussion of emotions, and power assertion. Family income had a significant indirect effect on false belief understanding through children's vocabulary and parent discipline when examined independently, but only through children's vocabulary when using parallel multiple mediation. This study contributes to our knowledge of individual differences in false belief understanding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Relations between life satisfaction, family and friendship satisfaction and religiosity in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doralúcia Gil da Silva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to discuss relations between life satisfaction, family and friendship satisfaction and religiosity in a sample of adolescents. A record of sociodemographic data, a Multidimensional Scale of Life Satisfaction and a Positive and Negative Affect Scale were applied in 420 students (M= 14.91 years old; SD=1.65 from public schools of Porto Alegre. The results indicated that adolescents who reported having religion had higher life satisfaction, subjective well-being, and family and friendship satisfaction, all with significant differences. Religiosity and interpersonal relationships are factors that can act in a positive way and increase well-being perception by the adolescent. Implications about the form of to assess subjective well-being, as well as religiosity, are discussed.

  7. Health-related quality of life in food hypersensitive schoolchildren and their families: parents' perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marklund Birgitta

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background About 20% of schoolchildren and adolescents in Sweden suffer from perceived food hypersensitivity (e.g. allergy or intolerance. Our knowledge of how child food hypersensitivity affects parents HRQL and what aspects of the hypersensitivity condition relate to HRQL deterioration in the family is limited. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate the parent-reported HRQL in families with a schoolchild considered to be food hypersensitive. The allergy-associated parameters we operated with were number of offending food items, adverse food reactions, additional hypersensitivity, allergic diseases and additional family members with food hypersensitivity. These parameters, along with age and gender were assessed in relation to child, parent and family HRQL. Methods In May 2004, a postal questionnaire was distributed to parents of 220 schoolchildren with parent-reported food hypersensitivity (response rate 74%. Two questionnaires were used: CHQ-PF28 and a study-specific questionnaire including questions on allergy-associated parameters. In order to find factors that predict impact on HRQL, stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were carried out. Results An important predictor of low HRQL was allergic disease (i.e. asthma, eczema, rhino conjunctivitis in addition to food hypersensitivity. The higher the number of allergic diseases, the lower the physical HRQL for the child, the lower the parental HRQL and the more disruption in family activities. Male gender predicted lower physical HRQL than female gender. If the child had sibling(s with food hypersensitivity this predicted lower psychosocial HRQL for the child and lower parental HRQL. Food-induced gastro-intestinal symptoms predicted lower parental HRQL while food-induced breathing difficulties predicted higher psychosocial HRQL for the child and enhanced HRQL with regards to the family's ability to get along. Conclusion The variance in the child's physical HRQL was to a

  8. Alcohol tax policy in relation to hospitalization from alcohol-attributed diseases in Taiwan: a nationwide population analysis of data from 1996 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Ming; Liao, Chen-Mao

    2013-09-01

    The effects of alcohol taxes and prices on drinking and mortality are well established, but the effects of alcohol taxes on measures of alcohol-related morbidity from noninjury health outcomes have not been fully elucidated. We assess the 2 opposing effects of alcohol tax policy interventions (tax rate increase in 2002 and decrease in 2009) on alcohol-attributed diseases (AADs) in Taiwan. Admissions data from 1996 to 2010 were retrieved from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) claims file and analyzed in this study. Data on 430,388 men and 34,874 women aged 15 or above who had an admission due to an AAD were collected. An interrupted time series analysis examining the effects of the implementation of alcohol tax policy on quarterly age- and sex-specific incidence rates of hospitalization for AADs was employed. The same method was also used to analyze hospitalizations for alcoholic liver disease. The teen/adult groups all showed significant (p tax increase. In contrast, a 17.4% increase in the same rate was seen in the first quarter of 2010 for this group. A similar pattern was presented for the AIRH for alcoholic liver disease among women. The effect of tax intervention was not significant among the elderly. This study provides evidence that alcohol taxation in response to international trade liberalization has resulted in an immediate reduction of AADs in Taiwan. The policy of increasing alcohol tax rates may have favorable influences on the time trend for the rate of AADs, most notably among young and middle-aged men and women. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  9. Evolutionary History of Chemosensory-Related Gene Families across the Arthropoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyun, Seong-Il; Soh, Ho Young; Posavi, Marijan; Munro, James B; Hughes, Daniel S T; Murali, Shwetha C; Qu, Jiaxin; Dugan, Shannon; Lee, Sandra L; Chao, Hsu; Dinh, Huyen; Han, Yi; Doddapaneni, HarshaVardhan; Worley, Kim C; Muzny, Donna M; Park, Eun-Ok; Silva, Joana C; Gibbs, Richard A; Richards, Stephen; Lee, Carol Eunmi

    2017-08-01

    Chemosensory-related gene (CRG) families have been studied extensively in insects, but their evolutionary history across the Arthropoda had remained relatively unexplored. Here, we address current hypotheses and prior conclusions on CRG family evolution using a more comprehensive data set. In particular, odorant receptors were hypothesized to have proliferated during terrestrial colonization by insects (hexapods), but their association with other pancrustacean clades and with independent terrestrial colonizations in other arthropod subphyla have been unclear. We also examine hypotheses on which arthropod CRG family is most ancient. Thus, we reconstructed phylogenies of CRGs, including those from new arthropod genomes and transcriptomes, and mapped CRG gains and losses across arthropod lineages. Our analysis was strengthened by including crustaceans, especially copepods, which reside outside the hexapod/branchiopod clade within the subphylum Pancrustacea. We generated the first high-resolution genome sequence of the copepod Eurytemora affinis and annotated its CRGs. We found odorant receptors and odorant binding proteins present only in hexapods (insects) and absent from all other arthropod lineages, indicating that they are not universal adaptations to land. Gustatory receptors likely represent the oldest chemosensory receptors among CRGs, dating back to the Placozoa. We also clarified and confirmed the evolutionary history of antennal ionotropic receptors across the Arthropoda. All antennal ionotropic receptors in E. affinis were expressed more highly in males than in females, suggestive of an association with male mate-recognition behavior. This study is the most comprehensive comparative analysis to date of CRG family evolution across the largest and most speciose metazoan phylum Arthropoda. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  10. Child Sexual Abuse Attributions Among Undergraduate Psychology Students in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Russell; Teng Sze Wei, Stephanie

    2017-10-01

    Experimental vignettes were used to investigate attributions relating to child sexual abuse with a focus on the degree of blame allocated to the family and to society, factors thought to be particularly relevant in a collectivist society. One hundred and sixty-two undergraduates in Singapore evaluated media reports describing a case of child sexual abuse. A 2 x 2 x 2 between-subjects design manipulated victim sex, perpetrator sex, and victim-perpetrator relationship. Participants rated the vignettes on degree of blame and prevention potential and rated the abusiveness of the case. Individualism and collectivism attitudes of the participants were also measured. While the highest blame ratings were attributed to perpetrators, significantly more blame was attributed to the family and to society than to the victim. The demonstration of the present attributions of blame to family and to society is a timely finding given recent recommendations to broaden approaches to child abuse prevention by moving away from a reliance on school based child protection programs, which leave the onus on the child to prevent and report abuse, toward a public health approach, which is particularly inclusive of parent and community education approaches . Allocation of some blame to victims, in spite of their status as children, while not a unique finding in victimology research, emphasizes the challenges still to be faced in encouraging the reporting of child sexual abuse.

  11. Positive and negative effects of family involvement on work-related burnout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelhuis, Lieke L. ten; Lippe, Tanja van der; Kluwer, Esther S.; Flap, Henk

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to explain the influence of family involvement on feelings of burnout among employees who combine work and family tasks. As proxies for family involvement, we used the family structure (partner, number and age of children) and family tasks (e.g. hours spent on household chores). We compared

  12. Positive and Negative Effects of Family Involvement on Work-Related Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brummelhuis, Lieke L.; van der Lippe, Tanja; Kluwer, Esther S.; Flap, Henk

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to explain the influence of family involvement on feelings of burnout among employees who combine work and family tasks. As proxies for family involvement, we used the family structure (partner, number and age of children) and family tasks (e.g. hours spent on household chores). We compared conflict theory and enrichment theory, and…

  13. Family-Related Opinions and Stressful Situations Associated with Psychological Distress in Women Undergoing Infertility Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiro Takaki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540 at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%. The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6. The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p < 0.05 and independently high: those with more frequent miscarriage/stillbirth/abortions, those with repeated miscarriages as the cause of infertility, those with infertility of unknown causes, those living with no child, those having a low joint income with their partner, those with the opinion that “women should devote themselves to their household duties” those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that “married life without children is favorable” and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment.

  14. Effect of psychosocial stressors on patients with Crohn's disease: threatening life experiences and family relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonim-Nevo, Vered; Sarid, Orly; Friger, Michael; Schwartz, Doron; Chernin, Elena; Shahar, Ilana; Sergienko, Ruslan; Vardi, Hillel; Rosenthal, Alexander; Mushkalo, Alexander; Dizengof, Vitaly; Ben-Yakov, Gil; Abu-Freha, Naim; Munteanu, Daniella; Gaspar, Nava; Eidelman, Leslie; Segal, Arik; Fich, Alexander; Greenberg, Dan; Odes, Shmuel

    2016-09-01

    Threatening life experiences and adverse family relations are major psychosocial stressors affecting mental and physical health in chronic illnesses, but their influence in Crohn's disease (CD) is unclear. We assessed whether these stressors would predict the psychological and medical condition of CD patients. Consecutive adult CD patients completed a series of instruments including demography, Patient Harvey-Bradshaw Index (P-HBI), Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (SIBDQ), short-form survey instrument (SF-36), brief symptom inventory (BSI), family assessment device (FAD), and list of threatening life experiences (LTE). Associations of FAD and LTE with P-HBI, SIBDQ, SF-36, and BSI were examined by multiple linear and quantile regression analyses. The cohort included 391 patients, mean age 38.38±13.95 years, 59.6% women, with intermediate economic status. The median scores were as follows: P-HBI 4 (2-8), FAD 1.67 (1.3-2.1), LTE 1 (0-3), SF-36 physical health 43.75 (33.7-51.0), SF-36 mental health 42.99 (34.1-51.9), and BSI-Global Severity Index 0.81 (0.4-1.4). The SIBDQ was 47.27±13.9. LTE was associated with increased P-HBI in all quantiles and FAD in the 50% quantile. FAD and LTE were associated with reduced SIBDQ (Pfamily relations were less healthy both physically and mentally. Physicians offering patients sociopsychological therapy should relate to threatening life experiences and family relations.

  15. Family-based risk factors for non-suicidal self-injury: Considering influences of maltreatment, adverse family-life experiences, and parent-child relational risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jodi; Bureau, Jean-François; Yurkowski, Kim; Fournier, Tania Renaud; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Cloutier, Paula

    2016-06-01

    The current investigation addressed the potential for unique influences of perceived childhood maltreatment, adverse family-life events, and parent-child relational trauma on the lifetime occurrence and addictive features of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Participants included 957 undergraduate students (747 females; M = 20.14 years, SD = 3.88) who completed online questionnaires regarding the key variables under study. Although self-injuring youth reported more experiences with each family-based risk factor, different patterns of association were found when lifetime engagement in NSSI or its addictive features were under study. Perceived parent-child relational trauma was uniquely linked with NSSI behavior after accounting for perceived childhood maltreatment; adverse family-life events had an additional unique association. In contrast, perceived paternal maltreatment was uniquely related with NSSI's addictive features. Findings underline the importance of studying inter-related family-based risk factors of NSSI simultaneously for a comprehensive understanding of familial correlates of NSSI behavior and its underlying features. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Chinese American immigrant parents' emotional expression in the family: Relations with parents' cultural orientations and children's emotion-related regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephen H; Zhou, Qing; Main, Alexandra; Lee, Erica H

    2015-10-01

    The present study examined 2 measures of Chinese American immigrant parents' emotional expression in the family context: self-reported emotional expressivity and observed emotional expression during a parent-child interaction task. Path analyses were conducted to examine the concurrent associations between measures of emotional expression and (a) parents' American and Chinese cultural orientations in language proficiency, media use, and social affiliation domains, and (b) parents' and teachers' ratings of children's emotion-related regulation. Results suggested that cultural orientations were primarily associated with parents' self-reported expressivity (rather than observed emotional expression), such that higher American orientations were generally associated with higher expressivity. Although parents' self-reported expressivity was only related to their own reports of children's regulation, parents' observed emotional expression was related to both parents' and teachers' reports of children's regulation. These results suggest that self-reported expressivity and observed emotional expression reflect different constructs and have differential relations to parents' cultural orientations and children's regulation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Fertility differences among developing countries: are they still related to family planning program efforts and social settings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anrudh K; Ross, John A

    2012-03-01

    In many developing countries, fertility has declined steadily in recent decades, while the average strength of family planning programs has increased and social conditions have improved. However, it is unclear whether the synergistic effect of family planning programs and social settings on fertility, first identified in the 1970s, still holds. Data from 40 developing countries in which Demographic and Health Surveys were conducted in 2003-2010 were used to examine associations among socioeconomic conditions, family planning program effort strength and fertility. Cross-tabulations and multiple regression analyses were conducted. Variation among countries in scores on the Family Planning Program Effort Index, but not on the Human Development Index, has diminished since the 1970s. On average, fertility levels were lower among countries with better social settings or stronger family planning programs than among those with poorer settings or weaker programs; they were lowest in the presence of both good social settings and strong programs. In addition, fertility was positively associated with infant mortality and negatively associated with female education, but not associated with poverty. About half of the 2.3-birth difference in fertility between countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and those elsewhere can be attributed to differences in program efforts and social settings. Policies focused on improving levels of female education, reducing infant mortality and improving family planning services can be expected to have mutually reinforcing effects on fertility decline.

  18. Parenting stress in pediatric IBD: relations with child psychopathology, family functioning, and disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Wendy N; Graef, Danielle M; Schuman, Shana S; Janicke, David M; Hommel, Kevin A

    2013-05-01

    Parenting stress in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been under-examined. Data validating use of the Pediatric Inventory for Parents (PIP), a measure of parenting stress associated with caring for a chronically ill child, in chronic diseases with intermittent, unpredictable disease courses, such as IBD, are needed. This study presents validity data in support of the PIP in pediatric IBD and examines relations between parenting stress and important psychosocial and medical outcomes. Adolescents (N = 130) with IBD and their caregivers across 3 sites completed measures of parenting stress, family functioning, and emotional/behavioral functioning. Disease severity was also assessed for each participant. The PIP demonstrates excellent internal consistency. Parenting stress was significantly higher among those with unhealthy general family functioning and those with children with borderline or clinically elevated internalizing symptoms. Caregiving stress was greater among parents of youth with more active Crohn's disease. Results supported the reliability and validity of the PIP for assessing caregiving stress in pediatric IBD. Routine assessment of parenting stress is recommended, particularly among parents reporting unhealthy family functioning and parents of youth with borderline or clinically elevated internalizing symptoms and more active disease.

  19. Risk factors in past histories and familial episodes related to development of testicular germ cell tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanto, Satoru; Hiramatsu, Masayoshi; Suzuki, Kenichi; Ishidoya, Shigeto; Saito, Hideo; Yamada, Shigeyuki; Satoh, Makoto; Saito, Seiichi; Fukuzaki, Atsushi; Arai, Yoichi

    2004-08-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to examine the host factors of 240 testicular germ cell tumor patients. This study was performed to address a new theory proposed by Skakkebaek called testicular dysgenesis syndrome which claims that cryptorchism, hypospadias, poor semen quality and testicular germ cell tumors are symptoms of an underlying testicular dysgenesis in uterus. The past health histories and familial episodes of 240 testicular germ cell tumor patients were examined. The past health histories included cryptorchism, hypospadias, infertility, atrophic testis and inguinal hernia. Of the 240 patients, 13 (5.4%) had a history of cryptorchism or orchidopexy. Two (0.8%) showed existence of hypospadias or had experienced urethroplasty. Among 129 married couples, 104 (80.6%) couples were fertile. Three (1.3%) patients developed testicular tumors after they were diagnosed as infertile or came to the hospital with the complaints of infertility. Four (1.7%) had contralateral atrophic testis. 19 (7.9%) had experienced inguinal herniorrhaphy before age 15. Three (1.3%) had testicular germ cell tumor patients among their family or relatives. The testicular germ cell tumor patients showed a considerable incidence of complications such as cryptorchism, hypospadias and incomplete closure of processus vaginalis. Cryptorchism, perinatal factors and familial factors could be risks for developing testicular germ cell tumors.

  20. Family environment patterns in families with bipolar children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardinelli, Cecilia; Hatch, John P; Olvera, Rene L; Fonseca, Manoela; Caetano, Sheila C; Nicoletti, Mark; Pliszka, Steven; Soares, Jair C

    2008-04-01

    We studied the characteristics of family functioning in bipolar children and healthy comparison children. We hypothesized that the family environment of bipolar children would show greater levels of dysfunction as measured by the Family Environment Scale (FES). We compared the family functioning of 36 families that included a child with DSM-IV bipolar disorder versus 29 comparison families that included only healthy children. All subjects and their parents were assessed with the K-SADS-PL interview. The parents completed the FES to assess their current family functioning. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to compare the family environment of families with and without offspring with bipolar disorder. Parents of bipolar children reported lower levels of family cohesion (pfamilies where a parent had a history of mood disorders compared to families where parents had no history of mood disorders. Length of illness in the affected child was inversely associated with family cohesion (r=-0.47, p=0.004). Due to the case-control design of the study, we cannot comment on the development of these family problems or attribute their cause specifically to child bipolar disorder. Families with bipolar children show dysfunctional patterns related to interpersonal interactions and personal growth. A distressed family environment should be addressed when treating children with bipolar disorder.

  1. Family perspectives in lynch syndrome becoming a family at risk, patterns of communication and influence on relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartuma, Katarina; Nilbert, Mef; Carlsson, Christina

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of individuals are diagnosed with hereditary cancer. Though increased levels of anxiety and depression have been demonstrated around the time of genetic counselling, most individuals handle life at increased risk well. Data have, however, been collected on individual basis, which...... led us to focus on family perspectives of hereditary cancer....

  2. Disability, family and technical aids: a study of how disabling/enabling experiences come about in hybrid family relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, van der H.M.; Hoogsteyns, M.

    2014-01-01

    Research regarding disabling situations generally focuses on disabling situations within a public society ‘out there’. In our research, however, the intimate family setting itself appears central to the emergence of dis/enabling experiences. Moreover, the relationships that shaped these experiences

  3. Disability, family and technical aids: a study of how disabling/enabling experiences come about in hybrid family relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, Hilje; Hoogsteyns, Maartje

    2014-01-01

    Research regarding disabling situations generally focuses on disabling situations within a public society 'out there'. In our research, however, the intimate family setting itself appears central to the emergence of dis/enabling experiences. Moreover, the relationships that shaped these experiences

  4. Relatives' emotional involvement moderates the effects of family therapy for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredman, Steffany J; Baucom, Donald H; Boeding, Sara E; Miklowitz, David J

    2015-02-01

    The "critical comments" dimension of the expressed emotion (EE) construct has been found to predict the illness course of patients with bipolar disorder, but less is known about the "emotional overinvolvement" component. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether relatives' observed appropriate and inappropriate emotional involvement (intrusiveness, self-sacrifice, and distress about patients' well-being) moderated the effectiveness of a family-based intervention for bipolar disorder. 108 patients with bipolar disorder (mean age = 35.61 years, SD = 10.07; 57% female) and their relatives (62% spouses) from 2 clinical trials completed 10-min problem-solving interactions prior to being treated with pharmacotherapy plus family-based therapy (FBT) or brief psychoeducation (crisis management [CM]). Patients were interviewed every 3-6 months over 2 years to assess mood symptoms. When relatives showed low levels of inappropriate self-sacrifice, CM and FBT were both associated with improvements in patients' manic symptoms over 2 years. When relatives showed high levels, patients in CM became more manic over time, whereas patients in FBT became less manic. Group differences in mania trajectories were also observed at high levels of inappropriate emotional response but not at low. When relatives showed high levels of appropriate self-sacrifice, patients in both groups became less depressed. At low levels of appropriate self-sacrifice, patients in CM did not improve, whereas patients in FBT became less depressed. Future studies of bipolar disorder should consider the prognostic value of the amount and appropriateness of relatives' emotional involvement with patients in addition to their critical behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Eating-related distress and need for nutritional support of families of advanced cancer patients: a nationwide survey of bereaved family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Koji; Maeda, Isseki; Morita, Tatsuya; Okajima, Yoshiro; Hama, Takashi; Aoyama, Maho; Kizawa, Yoshiyuki; Tsuneto, Satoru; Shima, Yasuo; Miyashita, Mitsunori

    2016-12-01

    A number of advanced cancer patients are suffering from physical and psychosocial burdens because of cancer cachexia, and these burdens also greatly impact on their family members and relationships between patients and family members. It is necessary to consider the psychosocial impact of cancer cachexia on family members of advanced cancer patients. A cross-sectional anonymous nationwide survey was conducted involving 925 bereaved family members of cancer patients who had been admitted to 133 inpatient hospices throughout Japan. A total of 702 bereaved family members returned the questionnaires (response rate, 75.9%). Concerning eating-related distress, 'I served what the patient wanted without consideration of calories and nutritional composition' was highest (75.1%), and 'I tried making many kinds of meals for the patient' and 'I was concerned about planning meals for the patient every day' followed (63.0% and 59.4%, respectively). The top 5 of the 19 items were categorized as 'fighting back'. Need for nutritional support was high (72.2%), and need for explanations about the reasons for anorexia and weight loss of patients was moderate (41.4%). Explanatory factor analysis of eating-related distress identified the following four domains: (factor 1) feeling that family members forced the patient to eat to avoid death, (factor 2) feeling that family members made great efforts to help the patient eat, (factor 3) feeling that eating was a cause of conflicts between the patient and family members, and (factor 4) feeling that correct information was insufficient. Results of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that spouse, fair/poor mental status, factors 1, and 4 were identified as independent determinants of major depression {odds ratio [OR] 3.27 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-8.60], P  = 0.02; OR 4.50 [95% CI 2.46-8.25], P  nutritional support.

  6. All in the family: correlations between parents' and adolescent siblings' weight and weight-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Meyer, Craig; MacLehose, Richard F; Crichlow, Renee; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-04-01

    To examine whether and how parents' and adolescent siblings' weight and weight-related behaviors are correlated. Results will inform which family members may be important to include in adolescent obesity prevention interventions. Data from two linked population-based studies, EAT 2010 and F-EAT, were used for cross-sectional analyses. Parents (n = 58; 91% females; mean age = 41.7 years) and adolescent siblings (sibling #1 n = 58, 50% girls, mean age = 14.3 years; sibling #2 n = 58, 64% girls, mean age = 14.8 years) were socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse. Some weight-related behaviors between adolescent siblings were significantly positively correlated (i.e., fast food consumption, breakfast frequency, sedentary patterns, p siblings' same behaviors. Some of the significant correlations found between adolescent siblings' weight-related behaviors were statistically different from correlations between parents' and adolescent siblings' weight-related behaviors. Although not consistently, adolescent siblings' weight-related behaviors were significantly correlated as compared with parents' and adolescent siblings' weight-related behaviors. It may be important to consider including siblings in adolescent obesity prevention interventions or in recommendations healthcare providers give to adolescents regarding their weight and weight-related behaviors. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  7. Personal Attributes and Computer Writing Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Randolph T.; Pearce, C. Glenn

    1995-01-01

    Analyzed 17 personal attributes of 160 undergraduate students who wrote reports on a computer or by hand, and compared differences in the quality of computer and handwritten reports with each student's personal attributes. Concludes that some attributes do relate to computer writing quality. (JMV)

  8. Attribution Theory in Sport: Problems and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullin, Christine; Mills, Brett D.

    This paper reviews the development of attribution theory as it relates to sport from Fritz Heider's original model of attribution theory in 1958 to the present. The original model explains that individuals use four attribution factors to interpret and predict the outcome of an event--ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck. Bernard Weiner built…

  9. Attributional Style and Depression in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Several etiologic theories have been proposed to explain depression in the general population. Studying these models and modifying them for use in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population may allow us to better understand depression in MS. According to the reformulated learned helplessness (LH) theory, individuals who attribute negative events to internal, stable, and global causes are more vulnerable to depression. This study differentiated attributional style that was or was not related to MS in 52 patients with MS to test the LH theory in this population and to determine possible differences between illness-related and non-illness-related attributions. Patients were administered measures of attributional style, daily stressors, disability, and depressive symptoms. Participants were more likely to list non-MS-related than MS-related causes of negative events on the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ), and more-disabled participants listed significantly more MS-related causes than did less-disabled individuals. Non-MS-related attributional style correlated with stress and depressive symptoms, but MS-related attributional style did not correlate with disability or depressive symptoms. Stress mediated the effect of non-MS-related attributional style on depressive symptoms. These results suggest that, although attributional style appears to be an important construct in MS, it does not seem to be related directly to depressive symptoms; rather, it is related to more perceived stress, which in turn is related to increased depressive symptoms. PMID:24453767

  10. Physical and Psychological Health of Family Carers Co-Residing with an Adult Relative with an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Jillian M.; Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Providing long-term care to an adult relative with intellectual disability can impact negatively on caregivers' health and well-being. Methods: Data were collected via online and postal questionnaires on 110 family carers' physical and psychological health, family stress and perceived positive gains from caring. Psychological…

  11. The Relations between Contextual Risk, Earned Income, and the School Adjustment of Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Brian P.; Brown, Eleanor D.; Izard, Carroll E.

    2004-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the relations between multiple risk indexes representing contextual adversity, income-to-needs ratios, and the elementary school adjustment of children from economically disadvantaged families. The results provide evidence for volatility in family circumstances over 2-year intervals from preschool to 5th grade, for…

  12. Is there a time for everything? Attitudes related to women's sequencing of career and family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, S E

    1992-03-01

    Attitudes affecting career and family choices are examined in a sample of 203 US university business students, both male and female. 4 sequencing patterns were examined: the timing of marriage and career, simultaneously balancing career and family, the timing of career and children, and the choice of career with no children. Opinions were sought about women's careers before marriage, careers before children, the ability to balance children and career, and no children with a career. The results of the intercorrelation matrix analysis showed that age, marital status, and number of children were significantly correlated at a low level. Age and race were related to the belief that women should have careers before marriage. Gender is related to the beliefs about women's career before children, no children with a career, and the ability to balance a career and children. Multiple regression resulted in gender differences: women were significantly less likely to believe in no children with a career (t = 4.40, p 0.001). Women were also more likely to believe that career comes before having children (t = 2.15, p .05) and that women can successfully balance a career and children (t = 3.27, p .001). Race and attitudes were also significantly related to sequencing career and marriage (t = 2.64, p .01). The belief that women should establish their careers before marriage was more likely to occur among minorities, which was an unexpected finding. The implication is that men are more traditional in their beliefs about working women and marriage. Additional research is suggested on the examination of the relationship between race, nationality, and attitudes about the sequencing of career and marriage. An instrument that measures women's development and the factors influencing sequencing decisions at different career stages is needed. Questions remain unanswered about whether women desiring children choose less demanding careers, whether women's choice of career or employer is

  13. Calcitonin gene-related peptide induced migraine attacks in patients with and without familial aggregation of migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Song; Christensen, Anne Francke; Liu, Marie Louise

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcitonin gene-related peptide provokes migraine attacks in 65% of patients with migraine without aura. Whether aggregation of migraine in first-degree relatives (family load) or a high number of risk-conferring single nucleotide polymorphisms contributes to migraine susceptibility...... to calcitonin gene-related peptide infusion in migraine patients is unknown. We hypothesized that genetic enrichment plays a role in triggering of migraine and, therefore, migraine without aura patients with high family load would report more migraine attacks after calcitonin gene-related peptide infusion than...... patients with low family load. METHODS: We allocated 40 previously genotyped migraine without aura patients to receive intravenous infusion of 1.5 µg/min calcitonin gene-related peptide and recorded migraine attacks including headache characteristics and associated symptoms. Information of familial...

  14. Automatic Ability Attribution after Failure: A Dual Process View of Achievement Attribution

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaki, Michiko; Murayama, Kou

    2013-01-01

    Causal attribution has been one of the most influential frameworks in the literature of achievement motivation, but previous studies considered achievement attribution as relatively deliberate and effortful processes. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that people automatically attribute their achievement failure to their ability, but reduce the ability attribution in a controlled manner. To address this hypothesis, we measured participants’ causal attribution belief for their tas...

  15. Linking Family Characteristics with Poor Peer Relations: The Mediating Role of Conduct Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Karen Linn; Smoot, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Parent, teacher, and peer ratings were collected for 75 grade school boys to test the hypothesis that certain family interaction patterns would be associated with poor peer relations. Path analyses provided support for a mediational model, in which punitive and ineffective discipline was related to child conduct problems in home and school settings which, in turn, predicted poor peer relations. Further analyses suggested that distinct subgroups of boys could be identified who exhibited conduct problems at home only, at school only, in both settings, or in neither setting. Boys who exhibited cross-situational conduct problems were more likely to experience multiple concurrent problems (e.g., in both home and school settings) and were more likely than any other group to experience poor peer relations. However, only about one-third of the boys with poor peer relations in this sample exhibited problem profiles consistent with the proposed model (e.g., experienced high rates of punitive/ineffective home discipline and exhibited conduct problems in home and school settings), suggesting that the proposed model reflects one common (but not exclusive) pathway to poor peer relations. PMID:1865049

  16. Intimate partner violence against women and its related immigration stressors in Pakistani immigrant families in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Z; Faist, Thomas; Kraemer, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of intimate partner violence against women and its related immigration stressors in Pakistani immigrant families in Germany. Drawing on 32 in-depth interviews with Pakistani women in three cities in Germany, we found that psychological violence was the commonly reported violence among the study participants. The data showed that the process of immigration exacerbated tensions between spouses because of various immigration stressors such as threats to cultural identity, children's socialization, and social isolation. In order to cope with the stressful spousal relations, women applied various indigenous strategies, but avoided seeking help from the host country's formal care-providing institutions. This study also debunks some stereotypes and popular media clichés about the "victimhood of women from conservative developing countries" and provides an understanding of the issue of intimate partner violence within an immigration context. Further research with a larger sample will be helpful to understand immigration-induced stress and intimate partner violence in immigrant families.

  17. Parent Involvement in School Conceptualizing Multiple Dimensions and Their Relations with Family and Demographic Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Gwynne O; Lengua, Liliana J; McMahon, Robert J

    2000-11-01

    Parent involvement (PI) in school is associated with more positive academic performance and social competence in children. However, there are inadequacies in current measures of PI and a need for a better understanding of predictors of PI. In this study, measures were obtained from a normative sample of 387 children in kindergarten and first grade from high-risk neighborhoods in 4 different sites. First, a confirmatory factor analysis of a theoretical factor model of PI identified 6 reliable multiple-reporter PI factors: Parent-Teacher Contact, Parent Involvement at School, Quality of Parent-Teacher Relationship, Teacher's Perception of the Parent, Parent Involvement at Home, and Parent Endorsement of School. Next, the relations among 3 specific family and demographic risk factors-parental education level, maternal depression, and single-parent status-and these 6 PI factors were examined using path analyses in structural equation modeling. Results indicated that the 3 risk factors were differentially associated with the 6 PI factors: Parental education was significantly associated with 4 PI outcomes, maternal depression was significantly associated with 5 PI outcomes, and single-parent status was significantly associated with 3 PI outcomes. No significant ethnic group differences between African American and Caucasian families were found in these relations.

  18. Sympathovagal imbalance contributes to prehypertension status and cardiovascular risks attributed by insulin resistance, inflammation, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in first degree relatives of type 2 diabetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Krushna Pal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Though cardiovascular (CV risks are reported in first-degree relatives (FDR of type 2 diabetics, the pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to these risks are not known. We investigated the association of sympathovagal imbalance (SVI with CV risks in these subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Body mass index (BMI, basal heart rate (BHR, blood pressure (BP, rate-pressure product (RPP, spectral indices of heart rate variability (HRV, autonomic function tests, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, lipid profile, inflammatory markers, oxidative stress (OS marker, rennin, thyroid profile and serum electrolytes were measured and analyzed in subjects of study group (FDR of type 2 diabetics, n = 72 and control group (subjects with no family history of diabetes, n = 104. RESULTS: BMI, BP, BHR, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, inflammatory and OS markers, renin, LF-HF (ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power of HRV, a sensitive marker of SVI were significantly increased (p<0.0001 in study group compared to the control group. SVI in study group was due to concomitant sympathetic activation and vagal inhibition. There was significant correlation and independent contribution of markers of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation and OS to LF-HF ratio. Multiple-regression analysis demonstrated an independent contribution of LF-HF ratio to prehypertension status (standardized beta 0.415, p<0.001 and bivariate logistic-regression showed significant prediction (OR 2.40, CI 1.128-5.326, p = 0.002 of LF-HF ratio of HRV to increased RPP, the marker of CV risk, in study group. CONCLUSION: SVI in FDR of type 2 diabetics occurs due to sympathetic activation and vagal withdrawal. The SVI contributes to prehypertension status and CV risks caused by insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation and oxidative stress in FDR of type 2 diabetics.

  19. THE RELATIONS OF DIVIDENDS, DEBT AND BOARD OF DIRECTORS WITH PERFORMANCE: A COMPARISON BETWEEN FAMILY AND NON FAMILY FIRMS

    OpenAIRE

    Kreuzberg, Fernanda; Cunha, Paulo Roberto da; Popik, Fabiane

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work is to identify the relationship of dividend payments, debt level and the board of directors with the financial performance of companies familiar and no familiar. We conclude that family firms do not have higher levels of dividend payments to remain effective in controlling agency problems II. To mitigate agency problems I see companies no familiar presence of a high number of independent directors on the board, as an essential mechanism for agency problems.Keywords:...

  20. Relations in the family of patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis and recommendations for therapeutic interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Sukhova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A family is a social group that satisfies the most important needs and fulfils diverse functions. Patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis are not emotionally supported by their family members and hence experience anger and exasperation. The functioning of 30 families of patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis was psychologically studied using the family environment scale. The findings were compared with those of 100 standard families. Six out of 10 items showed significant differences, the other 4 items also displayed dissimilarities, but the latter were insignificant. The families of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were dysfunctional. The social climate of the family had established well before infiltrative tuberculosis was diagnosed in its member. The dissimilarities from the standard families are due to the social characteristics of family members, such as low income, alcohol abuse, and imprisonment. The specific features of the social climate of a family provide an explanation for no moral support to the patient.

  1. Remission of Maternal Depression: Relations to Family Functioning and Youth Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Cynthia Ewell; Webster, Melissa C.; Weissman, Myrna M.; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Wickramaratne, Priya J.; Talati, Ardesheer; Rush, A. John; Hughes, Carroll W.; Garber, Judy; Malloy, Erin; Cerda, Gabrielle; Kornstein, Susan G.; Alpert, Jonathan E.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Fava, Maurizio; King, Cheryl A.

    2009-01-01

    Family functioning and parenting were hypothesized to mediate the relation between remission of maternal depression and children's psychosocial adjustment. Participants were 114 mother-child dyads participating in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression Child 3-month follow-up. All mothers had been diagnosed with major depressive disorder and were treated initially with citalopram; 33% of mothers experienced remission of depressive symptoms. Youth ranged in age from 7 to 17. Remission of maternal depression was associated with changes in children's reports of their mothers' warmth/acceptance, which in turn partially mediated the relation between maternal depression remission and youth internalizing symptoms, accounting for 22.9% of the variance. PMID:18991123

  2. Belief attribution despite verbal interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgeot d'Arc, Baudouin; Ramus, Franck

    2011-05-01

    False-belief (FB) tasks have been widely used to study the ability of individuals to represent the content of their conspecifics' mental states (theory of mind). However, the cognitive processes involved are still poorly understood, and it remains particularly debated whether language and inner speech are necessary for the attribution of beliefs to other agents. We present a completely nonverbal paradigm consisting of silent animated cartoons in five closely related conditions, systematically teasing apart different aspects of scene analysis and allowing the assessment of the attribution of beliefs, goals, and physical causation. In order to test the role of language in belief attribution, we used verbal shadowing as a dual task to inhibit inner speech. Data on 58 healthy adults indicate that verbal interference decreases overall performance, but has no specific effect on belief attribution. Participants remained able to attribute beliefs despite heavy concurrent demands on their verbal abilities. Our results are most consistent with the hypothesis that belief attribution is independent from inner speech.

  3. Gender and Family Disparities in Suicide Attempt and Role of Socioeconomic, School, and Health-Related Difficulties in Early Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kénora Chau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide attempt (SA is common in early adolescence and the risk may differ between boys and girls in nonintact families partly because of socioeconomic, school, and health-related difficulties. This study explored the gender and family disparities and the role of these covariates. Questionnaires were completed by 1,559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France including sex, age, socioeconomic factors (family structure, nationality, parents’ education, father’s occupation, family income, and social support, grade repetition, depressive symptoms, sustained violence, sexual abuse, unhealthy behaviors (tobacco/alcohol/cannabis/hard drug use, SA, and their first occurrence over adolescent’s life course. Data were analyzed using Cox regression models. SA affected 12.5% of girls and 7.2% of boys (P<0.001. The girls living with parents divorced/separated, in reconstructed families, and with single parents had a 3-fold higher SA risk than those living in intact families. Over 63% of the risk was explained by socioeconomic, school, and health-related difficulties. No family disparities were observed among boys. Girls had a 1.74-time higher SA risk than boys, and 45% of the risk was explained by socioeconomic, school, and mental difficulties and violence. SA prevention should be performed in early adolescence and consider gender and family differences and the role of socioeconomic, school, and health-related difficulties.

  4. Association of family stressful life-change events and health-related quality of life in fifth-grade children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Tumaini R; Elliott, Marc N; Wallander, Jan L; Cuccaro, Paula; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Corona, Rosalie; Saunders, Ann E; Schuster, Mark A

    2011-04-01

    To examine the association of recent family-related stressful life-change events (SLEs) with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in fifth graders. Population-based, cross-sectional survey. Three US metropolitan areas; 2004-2006. A total of 5147 fifth graders and their parents. Nine recent family-related SLEs: a parent's death, another family member's death, a family member's injury/illness, a family member's alcohol/drug problems, loss of a pet, recent change of residence, addition of a new baby or child to the household, parental separation, and parental divorce. The HRQOL measured using the 23-item Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Twenty-four percent of children had no reported recent SLEs; 33% had 1, 25% had 2, 12% had 3, and 6% had 4 or more. Mean HRQOL scores (total, physical, and psychosocial scales) were lower for children with more SLEs. The mean total HRQOL score was 80.4 (95% confidence interval, 79.4-81.3) for children with no recent SLEs and 71.8 (70.2-73.5) for children with 4 or more SLEs (P positive HRQOL. By incorporating the needs of families as part of comprehensive, high-quality care, health care professionals can identify these types of family-level needs and assist families in accessing community resources for support.

  5. Three exploratory studies of relations between young adults' preference for activities involving a specific sense modality and sensory attributes of early memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, A S; Stuve, M

    2001-04-01

    Three studies explored whether young adults' preference for using a sense modality, e.g., hearing, correlated with presence or clarity of attributes of that sense modality in earliest memories from childhood, elementary school, or high school. In Study 1, 75 graduates or seniors in fine arts, fashion merchandising, music, conducting, or dance showed no greater frequency or clarity of any modality's sensory attributes. In Study 2, 213 beginning university students' ratings of current importance of activities emphasizing a sense modality correlated with sensory contents of recollections only for smell and taste. In Study 3, 102 beginning students' ratings of current enjoyment in using a sense modality and sensory contents of recollections were correlated and involved every modality except vision.

  6. Relational technologies as instruments of care in the Family Health Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Tatiana Fernandes Kerches de; Amendola, Fernanda; Trovo, Monica Martins

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to identify the relational technologies used by Family Health Strategy nurses in their daily work when treating patients. Descriptive and cross-sectional study with qualitative approach; conducted between May and July 2015, in three Basic Health Units of the Southern Region of the Municipality of São Paulo, with 19 nurses of the Family Health Strategy. Data were collected through a semi-structured interview, and the speeches were fully transcribed and analyzed according to the technique of content analysis. From the speeches of the participants, three categories emerged, showing the unawareness of the concept, but the valorization of its use; which are the relational technologies used by the participating nurses (communication, listening, empathy and welcoming reception), as well as the report of barriers to the use of relational technologies. Although the nurses value the use of relational technologies, the participants denoted unawareness of the nomenclature and its associated concepts, suggesting superficiality in the understanding and use of these instruments in the context of care in the Family Health Strategy. Identificar as tecnologias relacionais utilizadas por enfermeiros de Estratégia Saúde da Família em seu cotidiano de trabalho no atendimento aos usuários. Estudo descritivo, transversal, com abordagem qualitativa; desenvolvido entre maio e julho de 2015, em três Unidades Básicas de Saúde da Região Sul do Município de São Paulo, com 19 enfermeiros da Estratégia Saúde da Família. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista semiestruturada, e os discursos foram transcritos na íntegra, analisados segundo a técnica de análise de conteúdo. Das falas dos participantes, surgiram três categorias, que evidenciam o desconhecimento do conceito, mas valorização do uso; quais são as tecnologias relacionais utilizadas pelos enfermeiros participantes (comunicação, escuta, empatia e acolhimento), além do relato de barreiras

  7. Sick building syndrome in relation to building dampness in multi-family residential buildings in Stockholm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engvall, K; Norrby, C; Norbäck, D

    2001-05-01

    The aim was to study relationships between symptoms compatible with sick building syndrome (SBS) on one hand, and different indicators of building dampness in Swedish multi-family buildings on the other. In Stockholm, 609 multi-family buildings with 14,235 dwellings were identified, and selected by stratified random sampling. The response rate was 77%. Information on weekly symptoms, age, gender, population density in the apartment, water leakage during the past 5 years, mouldy odour, condensation on windows, and high air humidity in the bathroom was assessed by a postal questionnaire. In addition, independent information on building characteristics was gathered from the building owners, and the central building register in Stockholm. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied, and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were calculated, adjusted for age and gender, population density, and selected building characteristics. Condensation on windows, high air humidity in the bathroom, mouldy odour, and water leakage was reported from 9.0%, 12.4%, 7.7% and 12.7% of the dwellings, respectively. In total 28.5% reported at least one sign of dampness. All indicators of dampness were related to an increase of all types of symptoms, significant even when adjusted for age, gender, population density, type of ventilation system, and ownership of the building. A combination of mouldy odour and signs of high air humidity was related to an increased occurrence of all types of symptoms (OR = 3.7-6.0). Similar findings were observed for a combination of mouldy odour and structural building dampness (water leakage) (OR = 2.9 5.2). In addition, a dose-response relationship between symptoms and number of signs of dampness was observed. In dwellings with all four dampness indicators, OR was 6.5, 7.1, 19.9, 5.8, 6.1, 9.4, 15.0 for ocular, nasal, throat, dermal symptoms, cough, headache and tiredness, respectively. Signs of high air humidity, as well as of structural building dampness, are

  8. The Relation of Work, Family Balance, and Life Quality of Nurses Working at Teaching Hospitals of Kerman-Iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sedoughi, Zeynab; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Shahraki, Sedigheh Khodabaneh; Anari, Seyed Hossein Saberi; Amiresmaili, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    .... Regarding the importance of nurses’ role in health system, the present study aimed to study the relation of work-family balance and quality of life of nurses working at selected Iranian teaching hospitals. Methods...

  9. HIV-Related Sexual Risk among African American Men Preceding Incarceration: Associations with Support from Significant Others, Family, and Friends

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coatsworth, Ashley M; Scheidell, Joy D; Wohl, David A; Whitehead, Nicole E; Golin, Carol E; Judon-Monk, Selena; Khan, Maria R

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the association between social support received from significant others, family, and friends and HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among African American men involved in the criminal justice system...

  10. Blogging Family-like Relations when Visiting Theme and Amusement Parks: The Use of Children in Displays Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Li Lindgren

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper combines sociological perspectives on family display, internet studies on family and private photography and a child studies perspective on the display of children. The paper proposes that blogging practices related to visits to theme and amusement parks in Sweden provide a new arena for people to display family-like relationships. In the different displays, adults mainly use pictures of children in the blogs to demonstrate their ability to perform family-like relationships. The paper suggests that this form of child-centred display, a visualized child-centredness, done during the park visit as well as in the blogging, is part of the construction of contemporary childhoods and what it means to be a child today and has not been theorized in earlier research on the display of family-like relations.

  11. Atributos de solo e cultura espacialmente distribuídos relacionados ao rendimento do milho Spatially varied soil and crop attributes related to corn yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Nogara Neto

    2011-06-01

    insumos sejam aplicados nas dosagens adequadas em partes específicas da gleba, e não uniformemente em toda a gleba, alterando positivamente a produtividade dessas partes. Quando as tomadas de decisão sobre o manejo são auxiliadas por ferramentas estatísticas apropriadas, a agricultura de precisão é viável tecnicamente para o manejo de atributos químicos do solo, proporcionando assim a otimização no uso de insumos e, potencialmente, contribuindo para o rendimento economicamente ideal.Precision agriculture can increase efficiency and sustainability of grain crops in Brazil, especially in support of soil and crop management. In this study the importance of spatially-variable soil and crop attributes on the variability of grain crop yield and the use of this information to improve management decisions was examined. The study used data from the 2005/6 corn growing season of a 18 ha commercial field on a clayey Latossolo Bruno (FAO: Ferralsol. Soil (0-0.10 m layer and crop properties were sampled at a density of two per ha. Spatially distributed crop yield was determined with a grain sensor on the harvester. Yield variability (average of 12.4 Mg ha-1, amplitude between 11.1 and 14.0 Mg ha-1 was related to the soil properties - P Mehlich, Mg2+, sum of bases and Ca:Mg, Mg:K and Mg:CEC ratios - but not with crop attributes, according to the results of a Spearman correlation matrix. Regression analysis identified a critical value of Magnesium saturation (Mg:CEC of 0.10, and a critical Mg:K ratio of 2.3, as the most significant soil properties. Below the critical values, yields were reduced. Cluster analysis confirmed the results obtained by the two previous statistical techniques, and their combined interpretation supported the conclusion that P and Mg were the two nutrients for which spatial management is most needed. Compared to the traditional fixed-rate, whole-field application, using variable rate application would require, for the whole field, 6.6 Mg of additional

  12. Family Caregivers' Experiences of Caring for a Relative With Younger Onset Dementia: A Qualitative Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabote, Christy Joy; Bramble, Marguerite; McCann, Damhnat

    2015-08-01

    Family caregiving for people with younger onset dementia affects everyone in the family unit. This article presents findings of a qualitative systematic review exploring the experiences of family caregivers of persons with younger onset dementia. A systematic search resulted in the inclusion of five relevant articles, and two groups within the family unit were identified-child caregivers and adult and spousal caregivers. Using the thematic synthesis approach, five themes emerged: dementia damage, grief for loss of relationship, changes in family roles, positive and negative impacts of family caregiving, and transition to formal care. The review findings support increasing evidence that despite the stress of caring for a person with dementia damage, family members have the capacity to cope, adapt, and grow through their experiences. Nurses can assist families to identify their unique strengths and enhance family resiliency so they can navigate the "lonely road" of younger onset dementia. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Smoking in European adolescents: relation between media influences, family affluence, and migration background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D; Engels, Rutger C M E; Florek, Ewa; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-10-01

    Seeing smoking depictions in movies has been identified as a determinant of smoking in adolescents. Little is known about how such media influences interact with other social risk factors. Differences in smoking rates in different socio-economic status groups might be explainable by differences in media exposure. There might also be differences in the average response to movie smoking exposure. We tested this hypothesis within a cross-national study conducted in six European countries. A total of 16,551 pupils from Germany, Iceland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, and Scotland with a mean age of 13.4years (SD=1.18) were recruited from 114 state funded schools. Using previously validated methods, exposure to smoking depictions in movies was estimated for each student and related to ever smoking. The analysis was stratified by level of family affluence (low, medium, high) and migration history of parents (yes vs. no), controlling for a number of covariates like age, gender, school performance, television screen time, sensation seeking and rebelliousness and smoking within the social environment (peers, parents, siblings). We found a significant association for each category of family affluence and ethnicity between ever smoking and movie smoking exposure, also significant adjusted odds ratios for age, school performance, sensation seeking, peer smoking, mother smoking, and sibling smoking. This relationship between movie smoking and adolescent smoking was not moderated by family affluence or ethnicity. Although we used a very broad measure of economic status and migration history, the results suggest that the effects of exposure to movie smoking can be generalized to the population of youths across European countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evolutionary Influences on Attribution and Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie Brown

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary theory was applied to Reeder and Brewer's schematic theory and Trafimow's affect theory to extend this area of research with five new predictions involving affect and ability attributions, comparing morality and ability attributions, gender differences, and reaction times for affect and attribution ratings. The design included a 2 (Trait Dimension Type: HR, PR × 2 (Behavior Type: morality, ability × 2 (Valence: positive, negative × 2 (Replication: original, replication × 2 (Sex: female or male actor × 2 (Gender: female or male participant × 2 (Order: attribution portion first, affect portion first mixed design. All factors were within participants except the order and participant gender. Participants were presented with 32 different scenarios in which an actor engaged in a concrete behavior after which they made attributions and rated their affect in response to the behavior. Reaction times were measured during attribution and affect ratings. In general, the findings from the experiment supported the new predictions. Affect was related to attributions for both morality and ability related behaviors. Morality related behaviors received more extreme attribution and affect ratings than ability related behaviors. Female actors received stronger attribution and affect ratings for diagnostic morality behaviors compared to male actors. Male and female actors received similar attribution and affect ratings for diagnostic ability behaviors. Diagnostic behaviors were associated with lower reaction times than non-diagnostic behaviors. These findings demonstrate the utility of evolutionary theory in creating new hypotheses and empirical findings in the domain of attribution.

  15. Identification of DPPA4 and DPPA2 as a novel family of pluripotency-related oncogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Po-Yuan; Varlakhanova, Natalia V; Knoepfler, Paul S

    2013-11-01

    In order to identify novel pluripotency-related oncogenes, an expression screen for oncogenic foci-inducing genes within a retroviral human embryonic stem cell cDNA library was conducted. From this screen, we identified not only known oncogenes but also intriguingly the key pluripotency factor, DPPA4 (developmental pluripotency-associated four) that encodes a DNA binding SAP domain-containing protein. DPPA4 has not been previously identified as an oncogene but is highly expressed in embryonal carcinomas, pluripotent germ cell tumors, and other cancers. DPPA4 is also mutated in some cancers. In direct transformation assays, we validated that DPPA4 is an oncogene in both mouse 3T3 cells and immortalized human dermal fibroblasts. Overexpression of DPPA4 generates oncogenic foci (sarcoma cells) and causes anchorage-independent growth. The in vitro transformed cells also give rise to tumors in immunodeficient mice. Furthermore, functional analyses indicate that both the DNA-binding SAP domain and the histone-binding C-terminal domain are critical for the oncogenic transformation activity of DPPA4. Downregulation of DPPA4 in E14 mouse embryonic stem cells and P19 mouse embryonic carcinoma cells causes decreased cell proliferation in each case. In addition, DPPA4 overexpression induces cell proliferation through genes related to regulation of G1/S transition. Interestingly, we observed similar findings for family member DPPA2. Thus, we have identified a new family of pluripotency-related oncogenes consisting of DPPA2 and DPPA4. Our findings have important implications for stem cell biology and tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2013 AlphaMed Press.

  16. Calcitonin gene-related peptide induced migraine attacks in patients with and without familial aggregation of migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Song; Christensen, Anne Francke; Liu, Marie Louise; Janjooa, Benjamin Naveed; Olesen, Jes; Ashina, Messoud

    2017-02-01

    Background Calcitonin gene-related peptide provokes migraine attacks in 65% of patients with migraine without aura. Whether aggregation of migraine in first-degree relatives (family load) or a high number of risk-conferring single nucleotide polymorphisms contributes to migraine susceptibility to calcitonin gene-related peptide infusion in migraine patients is unknown. We hypothesized that genetic enrichment plays a role in triggering of migraine and, therefore, migraine without aura patients with high family load would report more migraine attacks after calcitonin gene-related peptide infusion than patients with low family load. Methods We allocated 40 previously genotyped migraine without aura patients to receive intravenous infusion of 1.5 µg/min calcitonin gene-related peptide and recorded migraine attacks including headache characteristics and associated symptoms. Information of familial aggregation was obtained by telephone interview of first-degree relatives using a validated semi-structured questionnaire. Results Calcitonin gene-related peptide infusion induced a migraine-like attack in 75% (12 out of 16) of patients with high family load compared to 52% (12 out of 23) with low family load ( P = 0.150). In addition, we found that the migraine response after calcitonin gene-related peptide was not associated with specific or a high number of risk-conferring single nucleotide polymorphisms of migraine without aura. Conclusion We found no statistical association between familial aggregation of migraine and hypersensitivity to calcitonin gene-related peptide infusion in migraine without aura patients. We also demonstrated that the currently known single nucleotide polymorphisms conferring risk of migraine without aura have no additive effect on calcitonin gene-related peptide induced migraine-like attacks.

  17. Early childhood externalising behaviour problems: child, parenting, and family-related predictors over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Lewis, Lauren R; Baghurst, Peter A; Sawyer, Michael G; Prior, Margot R; Clark, Jennifer J; Arney, Fiona M; Carbone, Josephine A

    2006-12-01

    This study examined the dynamic relationships between child, parenting, and family-related predictor variables and early childhood externalising behaviour problems. A community sample of 395 Australian children was followed longitudinally, and assessed at 4 and 6 years with the Child Behavior Checklist, Teacher Report Form, and standard measures of parenting, temperament, and familial adversity. Variables based on the average scores across the two assessments and the change in scores between assessments were utilised as predictors of parent-reported and teacher-reported externalising behaviour problems at age 6. It was hypothesised that both higher average scores and more detrimental changes in scores, would independently predict externalising problems at age 6. Multivariable analyses found that the presence of parent-reported child externalising problems in six-year-olds were predicted by: (i) the presence of parent-reported child externalising problems at age 4, (ii) higher average "teacher-reported child externalising behaviour," "inflexible temperament," "non-persistent temperament," and "over-reactive parenting," and (iii) an increased "inflexible temperament" score between age 4 and age 6. The presence of teacher-reported child externalising problems at age 6 was predicted by higher average "parent-reported child externalising behaviour," and "over-reactive parenting." The results provide further evidence of the adverse impact of continuing high levels of temperament difficulties and over-reactive parenting on externalising behaviour in early childhood. However, contrary to expectations, the contribution of including the dynamic change scores was limited.

  18. Exploration of Individual and Family Factors Related to Community Reintegration in Veterans With Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Helene; Winter, Laraine; Robinson, Keith; True, Gala; Piersol, Catherine; Vause-Earland, Tracey; Iacovone, Dolores Blazer; Holbert, Laura; Newhart, Brian; Fishman, Deborah; Short, Thomas H

    2015-01-01

    Community reintegration (CR) poses a major problem for military veterans who have experienced a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Factors contributing to CR after TBI are poorly understood. To address the gap in knowledge, an ecological framework was used to explore individual and family factors related to CR. Baseline data from an intervention study with 83 veterans with primarily mild to moderate TBI were analyzed. Instruments measured CR, depressive symptoms, physical health, quality of the relationship with the family member, and sociodemographics. Posttraumatic stress disorder and TBI characteristics were determined through record review. Five variables that exhibited significant bivariate relationships with CR (veteran rating of quality of relationship, physical functioning, bodily pain, posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis, and depressive symptoms) were entered into hierarchical regression analysis. In the final analysis, the five variables together accounted for 35% of the variance, but only depression was a significant predictor of CR, with more depressed veterans exhibiting lower CR. Efforts to support CR of Veterans with TBI should carefully assess and target depression, a modifiable factor. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. [Effects of family and peer support upon the stages of health-related behavior in adolescent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Mingzhu; Xu, Liangwen; Huang, Xianhong; Gu, Fang; Qu, Xuping; Xu, Ming; Luo, Xiangxiang

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the stages of health-related behaviors, family and peer support situation about adolescent in Wuhan, and to provide evidence for health intervention and health promotion. Based on the principle of multi-stage stratified cluster sampling, extracted two junior middle school and two high school in two cities in Wuhan from March 2012 to May. A total of 1 200 students, which were part of the first and second grade class in middle school and high school, toke as the investigation object. The study surveyed following content, including the demographic situation, adolescent health-related behavior (physical activity, sedentary behavior, high-fat diet behavior, fruit and vegetable intaking behavior), stages of adolescent health related behavior (precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance) and adolescent support got from family and peer. The questionnaire was distributed in 1 200 copies, the valid questionnaires were 1 052 and the effective rate was 87.67%. Using χ² test to compare the different stages of change in health related behavior, t test was used to compare different groups of social support and