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Sample records for attosecond time delays

  1. Attosecond time delay in the valence photoionization of C240 versus C60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Kele; Magrakvelidze, Maia; Anstine, Dylan; Chakraborty, Himadri; Madjet, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    We investigate effects of electron correlations on the attosecond time delay of the photoionization from HOMO and HOMO-1 electrons in C 240 . A comparison with earlier C 60 results assesses the molecular size effect. (paper)

  2. Attosecond delays in photoionization: time and quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maquet, Alfred; Caillat, Jérémie; Taïeb, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses topics regarding time measurements performed on quantum systems. The motivation is linked to the advent of ‘attophysics’ which makes feasible to follow the motion of electrons in atoms and molecules, with time resolution at the attosecond (1 as = 10 −18 s) level, i.e. at the natural scale for electronic processes in these systems. In this context, attosecondtime-delays’ have been recently measured in experiments on photoionization and the question arises if such advances could cast a new light on the still active discussion on the status of the time variable in quantum mechanics. One issue still debatable is how to decide whether one can define a quantum time operator with eigenvalues associated to measurable ‘time-delays’, or time is a parameter, as it is implicit in the Newtonian classical mechanics. One objective of this paper is to investigate if the recent attophysics-based measurements could shed light on this parameter–operator conundrum. To this end, we present here the main features of the theory background, followed by an analysis of the experimental schemes that have been used to evidence attosecondtime-delays’ in photoionization. Our conclusion is that these results reinforce the view that time is a parameter which cannot be defined without reference to classical mechanics. (tutorial)

  3. Extracting attosecond delays from spectrally overlapping interferograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Inga; Wörner, Hans Jakob

    2018-02-01

    Attosecond interferometry is becoming an increasingly popular technique for measuring the dynamics of photoionization in real time. Whereas early measurements focused on atomic systems with very simple photoelectron spectra, the technique is now being applied to more complex systems including isolated molecules and solids. The increase in complexity translates into an augmented spectral congestion, unavoidably resulting in spectral overlap in attosecond interferograms. Here, we discuss currently used methods for phase retrieval and introduce two new approaches for determining attosecond photoemission delays from spectrally overlapping photoelectron spectra. We show that the previously used technique, consisting in the spectral integration of the areas of interest, does in general not provide reliable results. Our methods resolve this problem, thereby opening the technique of attosecond interferometry to complex systems and fully exploiting its specific advantages in terms of spectral resolution compared to attosecond streaking.

  4. Attosecond Time Delay in Photoionization of Noble-Gas and Halogen Atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Wen Pi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast processes are now accessible on the attosecond time scale due to the availability of ultrashort XUV laser pulses. Noble-gas and halogen atoms remain important targets due to their giant dipole resonance and Cooper minimum. Here, we calculate photoionization cross section, asymmetry parameter and Wigner time delay using the time-dependent local-density approximation (TDLDA, which includes the electron correlation effects. Our results are consistent with experimental data and other theoretical calculations. The asymmetry parameter provides an extra layer of access to the phase information of the photoionization processes. We find that halogen atoms bear a strong resemblance on cross section, asymmetry parameter and time delay to their noble-gas neighbors. Our predicted time delay should provide a guidance for future experiments on those atoms and related molecules.

  5. Angular dependence of the attosecond time delay in the H 2 + ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheifets, Anatoli; Serov, Vladislav

    2016-05-01

    Angular dependence of attosecond time delay relative to polarization of light can now be measured using combination of RABBITT and COLTRIMS techniques. This dependence brings particularly useful information in molecules where it is sensitive to the orientation of the molecular axis. Here we extend the theoretical studies of and consider a molecular ion H2+in combination of an attosecond pulse train and a dressing IR field which is a characteristic set up of a RABBIT measurement. We solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation using a fast spherical Bessel transformation (SBT) for the radial variable, a discrete variable representation for the angular variables and a split-step technique for the time evolution. The use of SBT ensures correct phase of the wave function for a long time evolution which is especially important in time delay calculations. To speed up computations, we implement an expanding coordinate (EC) system which allows us to reach space sizes and time periods unavailable by other techniques. Australian Research Council DP120101805.

  6. High-order harmonic generation spectra and isolated attosecond pulse generation with a two-color time delayed pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Liqiang; Chu Tianshu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Investigation of HHG spectra and single isolated attosecond pulse generation. ► Irradiation from a model Ne atom by two-color time delayed pulse. ► Observation of time delay effect and relative phase effect. ► Revelation of the optimal condition for generating isolated attosecond pulse. ► Generation of a single isolated attosecond pulse of 45as. - Abstract: In this paper, we theoretically investigate the delay time effect on the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) when a model Ne atom is exposed to a two-color time delayed pulse, consisting of a 5fs/800 nm fundamental field and a 20fs/2000 nm controlling field. It shows that the HHG spectra are strongly sensitive to the delay time between the two laser fields, in particular, for the zero carrier-envelope phase (CEP) φ case (corresponding to the 800 nm fundamental field), the maximum cutoff energy has been achieved at zero delay time. However, with the introduction of the CEP (φ = 180°), the delay effect on HHG is changed, exhibiting a ‘U’ structure harmonic emission from −1 T to 1 T. In addition, the combinations of different controlling pulse frequencies and pulse intensities have also been considered, showing the similar results as the original controlling field case, but with some characteristics. Finally, by properly superposing the optimal harmonic spectrum, an isolated 45as pulse is generated without phase compensation.

  7. Attosecond Delays in Molecular Photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, Martin; Jordan, Inga; Baykusheva, Denitsa; von Conta, Aaron; Wörner, Hans Jakob

    2016-08-26

    We report measurements of energy-dependent photoionization delays between the two outermost valence shells of N_{2}O and H_{2}O. The combination of single-shot signal referencing with the use of different metal foils to filter the attosecond pulse train enables us to extract delays from congested spectra. Remarkably large delays up to 160 as are observed in N_{2}O, whereas the delays in H_{2}O are all smaller than 50 as in the photon-energy range of 20-40 eV. These results are interpreted by developing a theory of molecular photoionization delays. The long delays measured in N_{2}O are shown to reflect the population of molecular shape resonances that trap the photoelectron for a duration of up to ∼110 as. The unstructured continua of H_{2}O result in much smaller delays at the same photon energies. Our experimental and theoretical methods make the study of molecular attosecond photoionization dynamics accessible.

  8. Theory of attosecond delays in molecular photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykusheva, Denitsa; Wörner, Hans Jakob

    2017-03-28

    We present a theoretical formalism for the calculation of attosecond delays in molecular photoionization. It is shown how delays relevant to one-photon-ionization, also known as Eisenbud-Wigner-Smith delays, can be obtained from the complex dipole matrix elements provided by molecular quantum scattering theory. These results are used to derive formulae for the delays measured by two-photon attosecond interferometry based on an attosecond pulse train and a dressing femtosecond infrared pulse. These effective delays are first expressed in the molecular frame where maximal information about the molecular photoionization dynamics is available. The effects of averaging over the emission direction of the electron and the molecular orientation are introduced analytically. We illustrate this general formalism for the case of two polyatomic molecules. N 2 O serves as an example of a polar linear molecule characterized by complex photoionization dynamics resulting from the presence of molecular shape resonances. H 2 O illustrates the case of a non-linear molecule with comparably simple photoionization dynamics resulting from a flat continuum. Our theory establishes the foundation for interpreting measurements of the photoionization dynamics of all molecules by attosecond metrology.

  9. Attosecond time delays in the photoionization of noble gas atoms studied in TDLDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magrakvelidze, Maia; Chakraborty, Himadri; Madjet, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    We perform time-dependent local density functional calculations of the quantum phase and time delays of valence photoionization of noble gas atoms. Results may be accessed by XUV-IR interferometric metrology. (paper)

  10. Attosecond delay in the molecular photoionization of asymmetric molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Alexis; Ruiz, Camilo

    2018-02-19

    We report theoretical calculations of the delay in photoemission from CO with particular emphasis on the role of the ultrafast electronic bound dynamics. We study the delays in photoionization in the HOMO and HOMO-1 orbitals of the CO molecule by looking into the stereo Wigner time delay technique. That compares the delay in photoemission from electrons emitted to the left and right to extract structural and dynamical information of the ionization process. For this we apply two techniques: The attosecond streak camera and the time of flight technique. Although they should provide the same results we have found large discrepancies of up to 36 in the case of HOMO, while for the HOMO-1 we obtain the same results with the two techniques. We have found that the large time delays observed in the HOMO orbital with the streaking technique are a consequence of the resonant transition triggered by the streaking field. This resonant transition produces a bound electron wavepacket that modifies the measurements of delay in photoionization. As a result of this observation, our technique allows us to reconstruct the bound wavepacket dynamics induced by the streaking field. By measuring the expected value of the electron momentum along the polarization direction after the streaking field has finished, we can recover the relative phase between the complex amplitudes of the HOMO and LUMO orbitals. These theoretical calculations pave the way for the measurement of ultrafast bound-bound electron transitionsand its crucial role for the delay in photoemission observation.

  11. Attosecond time-energy structure of X-ray free-electron laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, N.; Hartmann, G.; Heider, R.; Wagner, M. S.; Ilchen, M.; Buck, J.; Lindahl, A. O.; Benko, C.; Grünert, J.; Krzywinski, J.; Liu, J.; Lutman, A. A.; Marinelli, A.; Maxwell, T.; Miahnahri, A. A.; Moeller, S. P.; Planas, M.; Robinson, J.; Kazansky, A. K.; Kabachnik, N. M.; Viefhaus, J.; Feurer, T.; Kienberger, R.; Coffee, R. N.; Helml, W.

    2018-04-01

    The time-energy information of ultrashort X-ray free-electron laser pulses generated by the Linac Coherent Light Source is measured with attosecond resolution via angular streaking of neon 1s photoelectrons. The X-ray pulses promote electrons from the neon core level into an ionization continuum, where they are dressed with the electric field of a circularly polarized infrared laser. This induces characteristic modulations of the resulting photoelectron energy and angular distribution. From these modulations we recover the single-shot attosecond intensity structure and chirp of arbitrary X-ray pulses based on self-amplified spontaneous emission, which have eluded direct measurement so far. We characterize individual attosecond pulses, including their instantaneous frequency, and identify double pulses with well-defined delays and spectral properties, thus paving the way for X-ray pump/X-ray probe attosecond free-electron laser science.

  12. Attosecond relative delay among xenon 5p, 5s, and 4d photoionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrakvelidze, Maia; Madjet, Mohamed; Chakraborty, Himadri

    2017-04-01

    Attosecond Wigner-Smith (WS) time delays of the photoemissions of Xe valence 5p, 5s, and core 4d electrons are investigated in details using the time-dependent local density approximation (TDLDA). Electron correlations determine the energy-dependent structures in ionization phases of the dipole channels and in the resulting WS delays at various shape resonances, induced by the collective motion of 4d electrons, and at various Cooper minima. We find that our calculation closely agrees with the streaking measurement for the delay of 4d relative to 5s, and predicts accelerated emission of 5p with respect to 4d as was experimentally observed at similar photon energies for Xe atoms adsorbed on the tungsten surface. This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation.

  13. Attosecond science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, D. M.

    2018-01-01

    Scientists have been developing sources of light with ever-shorter pulse durations, in order to study motion in systems ranging from a golfer's swing to the motion of atoms within molecules. The shortest pulses produced to date are under 60 attoseconds, i.e. ? s. One attosecond is to one second as one second is to the age of the universe. For comparison, the classical orbital period of an electron in a hydrogen atom is 150 attoseconds. Attosecond pulses were first produced in 2001. This article describes how attosecond pulses are generated and how they are measured. Some applications of attosecond pulses are described, such as measuring the delay in photoionisation, or observing molecular dissociation dynamics.

  14. Nondipole effects in attosecond photoelectron streaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiewanowski, Maciek; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2012-01-01

    The influence of nondipole terms on the time delay in photoionization by an extreme-ultraviolet attosecond pulse in the presence of a near-infrared femtosecond laser pulse from 1s, 2s, and 2p states in hydrogen is investigated. In this attosecond photoelectron streaking process, the relative...

  15. Assembly and application of an instrument for attosecond-time-resolved ionization chronoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uphues, T.

    2006-11-01

    In the framework of this thesis a new setup for attosecond time-resolved measurements has been built and observations of ionization dynamics in rare gas atoms have been made. This new technique is entitled Ionization Chronoscopy and gives further evidence that time-resolved experiments in the attosecond regime will become a powerful tool for investigations in atomic physics. (orig.)

  16. Photoemission and photoionization time delays and rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallmann, L.; Jordan, I.; Wörner, H. J.; Castiglioni, L.; Hengsberger, M.; Osterwalder, J.; Arrell, C. A.; Chergui, M.; Liberatore, E.; Rothlisberger, U.; Keller, U.

    2017-01-01

    Ionization and, in particular, ionization through the interaction with light play an important role in fundamental processes in physics, chemistry, and biology. In recent years, we have seen tremendous advances in our ability to measure the dynamics of photo-induced ionization in various systems in the gas, liquid, or solid phase. In this review, we will define the parameters used for quantifying these dynamics. We give a brief overview of some of the most important ionization processes and how to resolve the associated time delays and rates. With regard to time delays, we ask the question: how long does it take to remove an electron from an atom, molecule, or solid? With regard to rates, we ask the question: how many electrons are emitted in a given unit of time? We present state-of-the-art results on ionization and photoemission time delays and rates. Our review starts with the simplest physical systems: the attosecond dynamics of single-photon and tunnel ionization of atoms in the gas phase. We then extend the discussion to molecular gases and ionization of liquid targets. Finally, we present the measurements of ionization delays in femto- and attosecond photoemission from the solid–vacuum interface. PMID:29308414

  17. Photoemission and photoionization time delays and rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gallmann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ionization and, in particular, ionization through the interaction with light play an important role in fundamental processes in physics, chemistry, and biology. In recent years, we have seen tremendous advances in our ability to measure the dynamics of photo-induced ionization in various systems in the gas, liquid, or solid phase. In this review, we will define the parameters used for quantifying these dynamics. We give a brief overview of some of the most important ionization processes and how to resolve the associated time delays and rates. With regard to time delays, we ask the question: how long does it take to remove an electron from an atom, molecule, or solid? With regard to rates, we ask the question: how many electrons are emitted in a given unit of time? We present state-of-the-art results on ionization and photoemission time delays and rates. Our review starts with the simplest physical systems: the attosecond dynamics of single-photon and tunnel ionization of atoms in the gas phase. We then extend the discussion to molecular gases and ionization of liquid targets. Finally, we present the measurements of ionization delays in femto- and attosecond photoemission from the solid–vacuum interface.

  18. Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang He; Chini, Michael; Khan, Sabih D; Chen, Shouyuan; Gilbertson, Steve; Feng Ximao; Mashiko, Hiroki; Chang Zenghu

    2009-01-01

    The attosecond streaking technique is used for the characterization of isolated extreme ultraviolet (XUV) attosecond pulses. This type of measurement suffers from low photoelectron counts in the streaked spectrogram, and is thus susceptible to shot noise. For the retrieval of few- or mono-cycle attosecond pulses, high-intensity streaking laser fields are required, which cause the energy spectrum of above-threshold ionized (ATI) electrons to overlap with that of the streaked photoelectrons. It is found by using the principal component generalized projections algorithm that the XUV attosecond pulse can accurately be retrieved for simulated and experimental spectrograms with a peak value of 50 or more photoelectron counts. Also, the minimum streaking intensity is found to be more than 50 times smaller than that required by the classical streaking camera for retrieval of pulses with a spectral bandwidth supporting 90 as transform-limited pulse durations. Furthermore, spatial variation of the streaking laser intensity, collection angle of streaked electrons and time delay jitter between the XUV pulse and streaking field can degrade the quality of the streaked spectrogram. We find that even when the XUV and streaking laser focal spots are comparable in size, the streaking electrons are collected from a 4π solid angle, or the delay fluctuates by more than the attosecond pulse duration, the attosecond pulses can still be accurately retrieved. In order to explain the insusceptibility of the streaked spectrogram to these factors, the linearity of the streaked spectrogram with respect to the streaking field is derived under the saddle point approximation.

  19. EDITORIAL: Focus on Attosecond Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrauk, André D.; Krausz, Ferenc; Starace, Anthony F.

    2008-02-01

    Chelkowski and A D Bandrauk Broadband generation in a Raman crystal driven by a pair of time-delayed linearly chirped pulses Miaochan Zhi and Alexei V Sokolov Ultrafast nanoplasmonics under coherent control Mark I Stockman Attosecond pulse carrier-envelope phase effects on ionized electron momentum and energy distributions: roles of frequency, intensity and an additional IR pulse Liang-You Peng, Evgeny A Pronin and Anthony F Starace Angular encoding in attosecond recollision Markus Kitzler, Xinhua Xie, Stefan Roither, Armin Scrinzi and Andrius Baltuska Polarization-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy with high harmonics Y Mairesse, S Haessler, B Fabre, J Higuet, W Boutu, P Breger, E Constant, D Descamps, E Mével, S Petit and P Salières Macroscopic effects in attosecond pulse generation T Ruchon, C P Hauri, K Varjú, E Mansten, M Swoboda, R López-Martens and A L'Huillier Monitoring long-term evolution of molecular vibrational wave packet using high-order harmonic generation M Yu Emelin, M Yu Ryabikin and A M Sergeev Intense single attosecond pulses from surface harmonics using the polarization gating technique S G Rykovanov, M Geissler, J Meyer-ter-Vehn and G D Tsakiris Imaging of carrier-envelope phase effects in above-threshold ionization with intense few-cycle laser fields M F Kling, J Rauschenberger, A J Verhoef, E Hasović, T Uphues, D B Milošević, H G Muller and M J J Vrakking Self-compression of optical laser pulses by filamentation A Mysyrowicz, A Couairon and U Keller Towards efficient generation of attosecond pulses from overdense plasma targets N M Naumova, C P Hauri, J A Nees, I V Sokolov, R Lopez-Martens and G A Mourou Quantum-path control in high-order harmonic generation at high photon energies Xiaoshi Zhang, Amy L Lytle, Oren Cohen, Margaret M Murnane and Henry C Kapteyn Time-resolved mapping of correlated electron emission from helium atom in an intense laser pulse C Ruiz and A Becker Pump and probe ultrafast electron dynamics in LiH: a computational study

  20. Few-cycle isolated attosecond pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansone, G.; Benedetti, E.; Calegari, F.; Stagira, S.; Vozzi, C.; Silvestri De, S.; Nisoli, M.

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. In the last few years the field of attosecond science has shown impressive and rapid progress, mainly due to the introduction of novel experimental methods for the characterization of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses and attosecond electron wave packets. This development has been also triggered by significant improvements in the control of the electric field of the driving infrared pulses. Particularly interesting for the applications is the generation of isolated attosecond XUV pulses using few-cycle driving pulses. In this case significant progresses have been achieved thanks to the stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of amplified light pulses. In this work we demonstrate that the polarization gating (PG) method with few-cycle phase-stabilized driving pulses allows one to generate few-cycle isolated attosecond pulses tunable on a very broad spectral region. The PG method is based on temporal modulation of the ellipticity of a light pulse, which confines the XUV emission in the temporal gate where the polarization is close to linear. The time-dependent polarization of phase-stabilized sub-6-fs pulses, generated by the hollow fiber technique, has been obtained using two birefringent plates. It is possible to create a linear polarization gate, whose position is imposed by the intensity profile of the pulse whilst the emission time is linked to the CEP of the electric field. The pulses have been analyzed by using a flat-field spectrometer. Continuous XUV spectra, corresponding to the production of isolated attosecond pulses, have been generated for particular CEP values. Upon changing the rotation of the first plate it was possible to tune the XUV emission in a broad spectra range. We have then achieved a complete temporal characterization of the generated isolated attosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts (FROG CRAB). The measured parabolic phase

  1. Attosecond photoelectron spectroscopy of electron transport in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magerl, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of condensed matter systems in the attosecond regime promises new insights into excitation mechanisms and transient dynamics of electrons in solids. This timescale became accessible directly only recently with the development of the attosecond streak camera and of laser systems providing few-cycle, phase-controlled laser pulses in the near-infrared, which are used to generate isolated, sub-femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet pulses with a well-defined timing with respect to the near-infrared pulse. Employing these pulses, the attosecond streak camera offers time resolutions as short as a few 10 attoseconds. In the framework of this thesis, a new, versatile experimental apparatus combining attosecond pulse generation in gases with state of the art surface science techniques is designed, constructed, and commissioned. Employing this novel infrastructure and the technique of the attosecond transient recorder, we investigate transport phenomena occurring after photoexcitation of electrons in tungsten and rhenium single crystals and show that attosecond streaking is a unique method for resolving extremely fast electronic phenomena in solids. It is demonstrated that electrons originating from different energy levels, i.e. from the conduction band and the 4f core level, are emitted from the crystal surface at different times. The origin of this time delay, which is below 150 attoseconds for all studied systems, is investigated by a systematic variation of several experimental parameters, in particular the photon energy of the employed attosecond pulses. These experimental studies are complemented by theoretical studies of the group velocity of highly-excited electrons based on ab initio calculations. While the streaking technique applied on single crystals can provide only information about the relative time delay between two types of photoelectrons, the absolute transport time remains inaccessible. We introduce a scheme of a reference

  2. Attosecond photoelectron spectroscopy of electron transport in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magerl, Elisabeth

    2011-03-31

    Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of condensed matter systems in the attosecond regime promises new insights into excitation mechanisms and transient dynamics of electrons in solids. This timescale became accessible directly only recently with the development of the attosecond streak camera and of laser systems providing few-cycle, phase-controlled laser pulses in the near-infrared, which are used to generate isolated, sub-femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet pulses with a well-defined timing with respect to the near-infrared pulse. Employing these pulses, the attosecond streak camera offers time resolutions as short as a few 10 attoseconds. In the framework of this thesis, a new, versatile experimental apparatus combining attosecond pulse generation in gases with state of the art surface science techniques is designed, constructed, and commissioned. Employing this novel infrastructure and the technique of the attosecond transient recorder, we investigate transport phenomena occurring after photoexcitation of electrons in tungsten and rhenium single crystals and show that attosecond streaking is a unique method for resolving extremely fast electronic phenomena in solids. It is demonstrated that electrons originating from different energy levels, i.e. from the conduction band and the 4f core level, are emitted from the crystal surface at different times. The origin of this time delay, which is below 150 attoseconds for all studied systems, is investigated by a systematic variation of several experimental parameters, in particular the photon energy of the employed attosecond pulses. These experimental studies are complemented by theoretical studies of the group velocity of highly-excited electrons based on ab initio calculations. While the streaking technique applied on single crystals can provide only information about the relative time delay between two types of photoelectrons, the absolute transport time remains inaccessible. We introduce a scheme of a reference

  3. Theory of laser-assisted autoionization by attosecond light pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Z.X.; Lin, C.D.

    2005-01-01

    We present a quantum theory of the decay of an autoionizing state created in the attosecond xuv (extreme ultraviolet) pump and laser probe measurements within the strong field approximation employing resonance parameters from Fano's theory. From the electron spectra versus the pump-probe time delay, we show how the lifetimes of the resonances can be extracted directly from the time domain measurements

  4. Time-Delay Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Tinto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Equal-arm detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector. In this situation, much lower level secondary noises then set the overall performance. If, however, the two arms have different lengths (as will necessarily be the case with space-borne interferometers, the laser noise experiences different delays in the two arms and will hence not directly cancel at the detector. In order to solve this problem, a technique involving heterodyne interferometry with unequal arm lengths and independent phase-difference readouts has been proposed. It relies on properly time-shifting and linearly combining independent Doppler measurements, and for this reason it has been called time-delay interferometry (TDI. This article provides an overview of the theory, mathematical foundations, and experimental aspects associated with the implementation of TDI. Although emphasis on the application of TDI to the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA mission appears throughout this article, TDI can be incorporated into the design of any future space-based mission aiming to search for gravitational waves via interferometric measurements. We have purposely left out all theoretical aspects that data analysts will need to account for when analyzing the TDI data combinations.

  5. Coherent Electron Scattering Captured by an Attosecond Quantum Stroboscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauritsson, J.; Johnsson, P.; Mansten, E.; Swoboda, M.; Ruchon, T.; L'Huillier, A.; Schafer, K. J.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate a quantum stroboscope based on a sequence of identical attosecond pulses that are used to release electrons into a strong infrared (IR) laser field exactly once per laser cycle. The resulting electron momentum distributions are recorded as a function of time delay between the IR laser and the attosecond pulse train using a velocity map imaging spectrometer. Because our train of attosecond pulses creates a train of identical electron wave packets, a single ionization event can be studied stroboscopically. This technique has enabled us to image the coherent electron scattering that takes place when the IR field is sufficiently strong to reverse the initial direction of the electron motion causing it to rescatter from its parent ion

  6. Reconstruction of Attosecond Pulse Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairesse, Y.; Agostini, P.; Breger, P.; Carre, B.; Merdji, A.; Monchicourt, P.; Salieres, P.; Varju, K.; Gustafsson, E.; Johnsson, P.; Mauritsson, J.; Remetter, T.; L'Huillier, A.; Frasinski, L. J.

    2006-11-01

    We show that it is possible to completely reconstruct the intensity profile of the attosecond bursts emitted as a superposition of high harmonics from a series of RABBIT measurements carried out at different infrared intensities. The electric field can be recovered from a measurement of the central harmonic chirp. Timing, chirp and variations of the carrier-to-envelope phase of the attosecond bursts are accessible to the proposed method.

  7. Attosecond Coherent Control of the Photo-Dissociation of Oxygen Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Felix; Ray, Dipanwita; Wright, Travis; Shivaram, Niranjan; Bocharova, Irina; Slaughter, Daniel; Ranitovic, Predrag; Belkacem, Ali; Weber, Thorsten

    2016-05-01

    Attosecond Coherent Control has emerged in recent years as a technique to manipulate the absorption and ionization in atoms as well as the dissociation of molecules on an attosecond time scale. Single attosecond pulses and attosecond pulse trains (APTs) can coherently excite multiple electronic states. The electronic and nuclear wave packets can then be coupled with a second pulse forming multiple interfering quantum pathways. We have built a high flux extreme ultraviolet (XUV) light source delivering APTs based on HHG that allows to selectively excite neutral and ion states in molecules. Our beamline provides spectral selectivity and attosecond interferometric control of the pulses. In the study presented here, we use APTs, generated by High Harmonic Generation in a high flux extreme ultraviolet light source, to ionize highly excited states of oxygen molecules. We identify the ionization/dissociation pathways revealing vibrational structure with ultra-high resolution ion 3D-momentum imaging spectroscopy. Furthermore, we introduce a delay between IR pulses and XUV/IR pulses to constructively or destructively interfere the ionization and dissociation pathways, thus, enabling the manipulation of both the O2+and the O+ ion yields with attosecond precision. Supported by DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  8. Time Delay of CGM Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzeisen-Redeker, Günther; Schoemaker, Michael; Kirchsteiger, Harald; Freckmann, Guido; Heinemann, Lutz; del Re, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a powerful tool to support the optimization of glucose control of patients with diabetes. However, CGM systems measure glucose in interstitial fluid but not in blood. Rapid changes in one compartment are not accompanied by similar changes in the other, but follow with some delay. Such time delays hamper detection of, for example, hypoglycemic events. Our aim is to discuss the causes and extent of time delays and approaches to compensate for these. Methods: CGM data were obtained in a clinical study with 37 patients with a prototype glucose sensor. The study was divided into 5 phases over 2 years. In all, 8 patients participated in 2 phases separated by 8 months. A total number of 108 CGM data sets including raw signals were used for data analysis and were processed by statistical methods to obtain estimates of the time delay. Results: Overall mean (SD) time delay of the raw signals with respect to blood glucose was 9.5 (3.7) min, median was 9 min (interquartile range 4 min). Analysis of time delays observed in the same patients separated by 8 months suggests a patient dependent delay. No significant correlation was observed between delay and anamnestic or anthropometric data. The use of a prediction algorithm reduced the delay by 4 minutes on average. Conclusions: Prediction algorithms should be used to provide real-time CGM readings more consistent with simultaneous measurements by SMBG. Patient specificity may play an important role in improving prediction quality. PMID:26243773

  9. Theory of strong-field attosecond transient absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Mengxi; Chen, Shaohao; Camp, Seth; Schafer, Kenneth J; Gaarde, Mette B

    2016-01-01

    Attosecond transient absorption is one of the promising new techniques being developed to exploit the availability of sub-femtosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses to study the dynamics of the electron on its natural time scale. The temporal resolution in a transient absorption setup comes from the control of the relative delay and coherence between pump and probe pulses, while the spectral resolution comes from the characteristic width of the features that are being probed. In this review we focus on transient absorption scenarios where an attosecond pulse of XUV radiation creates a broadband excitation that is subsequently probed by a few cycle infrared (IR) laser. Because the attosecond XUV pulses are locked to the IR field cycle, the exchange of energy in the laser–matter interaction can be studied with unprecedented precision. We focus on the transient absorption by helium atoms of XUV radiation around the first ionization threshold, where we can simultaneoulsy solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the single atom response and the Maxwell wave equation for the collective response of the nonlinear medium. We use a time-domain method that allows us to treat on an equal footing all the different linear and nonlinear processes by which the medium can exchange energy with the fields. We present several simple models, based on a few-level system interacting with a strong IR field, to explain many of the novel features found in attosecond transient absorption spectrograms. These include the presence of light-induced states, which demonstrate the ability to probe the dressed states of the atom. We also present a time-domain interpretation of the resonant pulse propagation features that appear in absorption spectra in dense, macroscopic media. We close by reviewing several recent experimental results that can be explained in terms of the models we discuss. Our aim is to present a road map for understanding future attosecond transient absorption

  10. Control and dynamics of attosecond electron wave packets in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsson, P.; Remetter, T.; Varju, K.; L'Huillier; Lopez-Martens, R.; Valentin, C.; Balcou, P.; Kazamias, S.; Mauritsson, J.; Gaarde, M.B.; Schafer, K.J.; Mairess, Y.; Wabnitz, H.; Boutu, W.; Salieres, P.

    2005-01-01

    of 160 as duration. In the second experiment, we use these pulses to create electron wave packets of duration 180 as in argon and study the energy transfer from a strong infrared (IR) laser field to the ionized electrons as a function of the delay between the XUV and IR fields. At the zero crossings of the laser field, a significant energy (∼ 20 eV) is transferred from the IR field to the electrons resulting in dramatically enhanced above-threshold-ionization in conditions where the IR field alone does not induce any significant ionization of the medium. Further, by increasing the pulse length of the individual attosecond pulses, using a different thickness of the aluminum filter, a clear effect is seen in the delay-dependence of the photoelectron spectrum. In conclusion, the manipulations of the XUV amplitudes and phases that we have performed are the first step towards the production of arbitrary attosecond waveforms, which will facilitate broadband coherent control in the XUV range. Using these pulses as the injection mechanism of electron wave packets through ionization, we have studied the interaction between the EWPs and a strong IR field. With the pulse parameters used, the ionization is dominated by the APT, and tunable ATI plateaus appear as an effect of the dressing field. The strong delay dependence seen for these ATI spectra, is a direct consequence of the temporal localization of the EWPs to a time range much shorter than the period of the IR field. Because both the energy and duration of the EWPs can be varied independent of the IR laser, they should be very useful for the study and control of strong field processes. Refs. 2 (author)

  11. Time delayed Ensemble Nudging Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Zhe; Abarbanel, Henry

    Optimal nudging method based on time delayed embedding theory has shows potentials on analyzing and data assimilation in previous literatures. To extend the application and promote the practical implementation, new nudging assimilation method based on the time delayed embedding space is presented and the connection with other standard assimilation methods are studied. Results shows the incorporating information from the time series of data can reduce the sufficient observation needed to preserve the quality of numerical prediction, making it a potential alternative in the field of data assimilation of large geophysical models.

  12. Theory of attosecond absorption spectroscopy in krypton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Jan Conrad; Lindroth, Eva; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2012-01-01

    A theory for time-domain attosecond pump–attosecond probe photoabsorption spectroscopy is formulated and related to the atomic response. The theory is illustrated through a study of attosecond absorption spectroscopy in krypton. The atomic parameters entering the formulation such as energies...... of the hole in this manner. In a second example, a hole is created in an inner shell by the first pulse, and the second probe pulse couples an even more tightly bound state to that hole. The hole decays in this example by Auger electron emission, and the absorption spectroscopy follows the decay of the hole...

  13. Another definition for time delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narnhofer, H.

    1980-01-01

    Time delay is defined by geometrical considerations which work in classical as well as in quantum mechanics, and its connection with the S-matrix and the virial is proven for potentials with V(x vector) and x vector V(x vector) vanishing as rsup(-1-epsilon) for r -> infinity. (Author)

  14. 49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation... Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic... requirements of § 236.24 shall take into consideration the delay time. ...

  15. Decoherence in attosecond photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabst, Stefan; Greenman, Loren; Ho, Phay J; Mazziotti, David A; Santra, Robin

    2011-02-04

    The creation of superpositions of hole states via single-photon ionization using attosecond extreme-ultraviolet pulses is studied with the time-dependent configuration-interaction singles (TDCIS) method. Specifically, the degree of coherence between hole states in atomic xenon is investigated. We find that interchannel coupling not only affects the hole populations, but it also enhances the entanglement between the photoelectron and the remaining ion, thereby reducing the coherence within the ion. As a consequence, even if the spectral bandwidth of the ionizing pulse exceeds the energy splittings among the hole states involved, perfectly coherent hole wave packets cannot be formed. For sufficiently large spectral bandwidth, the coherence can only be increased by increasing the mean photon energy.

  16. Fundamentals of attosecond optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Zenghu

    2011-01-01

    Attosecond optical pulse generation, along with the related process of high-order harmonic generation, is redefining ultrafast physics and chemistry. A practical understanding of attosecond optics requires significant background information and foundational theory to make full use of these cutting-edge lasers and advance the technology toward the next generation of ultrafast lasers. Fundamentals of Attosecond Optics provides the first focused introduction to the field. The author presents the underlying concepts and techniques required to enter the field, as well as recent research advances th

  17. How to understand the tunneling in attosecond experiment?. Bohr-Einstein photon box Gedanken experiment, tunneling time and the wave particle duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullie, Ossama

    2018-02-01

    The measurement of the tunneling time (T-time) in today's attosecond and strong field (low-frequency) experiments, despite its controversial discussion, offers a fruitful opportunity to understand time measurement and the time in quantum mechanics. In addition, as we will see in this work, a related controversial issue is the particulate nature of the radiation. The T-time in attosecond experiment and its different aspects and models, is discussed in this work, especially in relation to my model of real T-time (Kullie, 2015), where a good agreement with the experiment and an intriguing similarity to the Bohr-Einstein photon box Gedanken experiment was found. The tunneling process itself is still not well understood, but I am arguing that a scattering mechanism (by the laser wave packet) offers a possibility to understand the tunneling process in the tunneling region. This is related to the question about the corpuscular nature of light which is widely discussed in modern quantum optics experiments.

  18. Attosecond control of orbital parity mix interferences and the relative phase of even and odd harmonics in an attosecond pulse train.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, G; Cao, W; Li, H; Wang, Z; Ben-Itzhak, I; Cocke, C L

    2012-08-24

    We experimentally demonstrate that atomic orbital parity mix interferences can be temporally controlled on an attosecond time scale. Electron wave packets are formed by ionizing argon gas with a comb of odd and even high-order harmonics, in the presence of a weak infrared field. Consequently, a mix of energy-degenerate even and odd parity states is fed in the continuum by one- and two-photon transitions. These interfere, leading to an asymmetric electron emission along the polarization vector. The direction of the emission can be controlled by varying the time delay between the comb and infrared field pulses. We show that such asymmetric emission provides information on the relative phase of consecutive odd and even order harmonics in the attosecond pulse train.

  19. Two-Electron Time-Delay Interference in Atomic Double Ionization by Attosecond Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, A.; Rescigno, T. N.; McCurdy, C. W.

    2009-01-01

    A two-color two-photon atomic double ionization experiment using subfemtosecond uv pulses can be designed such that the sequential two-color process dominates and one electron is ejected by each pulse. Nonetheless, ab initio calculations show that, for sufficiently short pulses, a prominent interference pattern in the joint energy distribution of the sequentially ejected electrons can be observed that is due to their indistinguishability and the exchange symmetry of the wave function.

  20. Two-electron time-delay interference in atomic double ionization by attosecond pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rescigno, Thomas N

    2009-10-04

    A two-color two-photon atomic double ionization experiment using subfemtosecond UV pulses can be designed such that the sequential two-color process dominates and one electron is ejected by each pulse. Nonetheless, ab initio calculations show that, for sufficiently short pulses, a prominent interference pattern in the joint energy distribution of the sequentially ejected electrons can be observed that is due to their indistinguishability and the exchange symmetry of the wave function.

  1. Ultra-short time sciences. From the atto-second to the peta-watts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This book presents the recent advances in the scientific and technical domains linked with ultra-short time physics. It deals first with the conceptual and technological aspects of ultra-intense and ultra-brief lasers. Then, it describes the different domains of research (atoms, molecules and aggregates; gaseous phase dynamics using the pump-probe technique; femto-chemistry in dense phase; condensed matter; plasma physics; consistent control; aerosols; functional femto-biology) and the different domains of application (medical diagnosis; ophthalmology; telecommunications; technological and industrial developments). A last part is devoted to the teaching of ultra-short time sciences. (J.S.)

  2. Attosecond electron dynamics in molecules and liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    WöRner, Hans Jakob

    The ultrafast motion of electrons and holes following light-matter interaction is fundamental to a broad range of chemical and biophysical processes. In this lecture, I will discuss some of our recent experiments that measure the atomic-scale motion of charge with attosecond temporal resolution (1 as = 10-18s). The first experiment is carried out on isolated, spatially oriented molecules in the gas phase. Using high-harmonic spectroscopy, we resolve the migration of an electron hole across the molecule with a resolution of 100 as and simultaneously demonstrate extensive control over charge migration. In the second class of experiments, we use an attosecond pulse train synchronized with a near-infrared laser pulse to temporally resolve the process of photoemission from molecules in the gas phase and from a liquid-water microjet, resolving electron transport through liquid water on the attosecond time scale.

  3. Dynamics of Nonlinear Time-Delay Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lakshmanan, Muthusamy

    2010-01-01

    Synchronization of chaotic systems, a patently nonlinear phenomenon, has emerged as a highly active interdisciplinary research topic at the interface of physics, biology, applied mathematics and engineering sciences. In this connection, time-delay systems described by delay differential equations have developed as particularly suitable tools for modeling specific dynamical systems. Indeed, time-delay is ubiquitous in many physical systems, for example due to finite switching speeds of amplifiers in electronic circuits, finite lengths of vehicles in traffic flows, finite signal propagation times in biological networks and circuits, and quite generally whenever memory effects are relevant. This monograph presents the basics of chaotic time-delay systems and their synchronization with an emphasis on the effects of time-delay feedback which give rise to new collective dynamics. Special attention is devoted to scalar chaotic/hyperchaotic time-delay systems, and some higher order models, occurring in different bran...

  4. Memorized discrete systems and time-delay

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert C J

    2017-01-01

    This book examines discrete dynamical systems with memory—nonlinear systems that exist extensively in biological organisms and financial and economic organizations, and time-delay systems that can be discretized into the memorized, discrete dynamical systems. It book further discusses stability and bifurcations of time-delay dynamical systems that can be investigated through memorized dynamical systems as well as bifurcations of memorized nonlinear dynamical systems, discretization methods of time-delay systems, and periodic motions to chaos in nonlinear time-delay systems. The book helps readers find analytical solutions of MDS, change traditional perturbation analysis in time-delay systems, detect motion complexity and singularity in MDS; and determine stability, bifurcation, and chaos in any time-delay system.

  5. Attosecond physics attosecond measurements and control of physical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Ricardo; Zaïr, Amelle

    2013-01-01

    Attophysics is an emerging field in physics devoted to the study and characterization of matter dynamics in the sub-femtosecond time scale. This book gives coverage of a broad set of selected topics in this field, exciting by their novelty and their potential impact. The book is written review-like. It also includes fundamental chapters as introduction to the field for non-specialist physicists. The book is structured in four sections: basics, attosecond pulse technology, applications to measurements and control of physical processes and future perspectives. It is a valuable reference tool for researchers in the field as well as a concise introduction to non-specialist readers.

  6. Reconstruction of Attosecond Pulse Trains Using an Adiabatic Phase Expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varju, K.; Gustafsson, E.; Johnsson, P.; Mauritsson, J.; L'Huillier, A.; Mairesse, Y.; Agostini, P.; Breger, P.; Carre, B.; Merdji, H.; Monchicourt, P.; Salieres, P.; Frasinski, L.J.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a new method to reconstruct the electric field of attosecond pulse trains. The phase of the high-order harmonic emission electric field is Taylor expanded around the maximum of the laser pulse envelope in the time domain and around the central harmonic in the frequency domain. Experimental measurements allow us to determine the coefficients of this expansion and to characterize the radiation with attosecond accuracy over a femtosecond time scale. The method gives access to pulse-to-pulse variations along the train, including the timing, the chirp, and the attosecond carrier envelope phase

  7. Fractional high-harmonic combs by attosecond-precision split-spectrum pulse control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laux Martin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Few-cycle laser fields enable pulse-shaping control of high-order harmonic generation by time delaying variable broadband spectral sections. We report the experimental generation of fractional (noninteger high-harmonic combs by the controlled interference of two attosecond pulse trains. Additionally the energy of the high harmonics is strongly tuned with the relative time delay. We quantify the tuning to directly result from the controlled variation of the instantaneous laser frequency at the shaped driver pulse intensity maximum.

  8. Time Delay Estimation Algoritms for Echo Cancellation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Sakhnov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The following case study describes how to eliminate echo in a VoIP network using delay estimation algorithms. It is known that echo with long transmission delays becomes more noticeable to users. Thus, time delay estimation, as a part of echo cancellation, is an important topic during transmission of voice signals over packetswitching telecommunication systems. An echo delay problem associated with IP-based transport networks is discussed in the following text. The paper introduces the comparative study of time delay estimation algorithm, used for estimation of the true time delay between two speech signals. Experimental results of MATLab simulations that describe the performance of several methods based on cross-correlation, normalized crosscorrelation and generalized cross-correlation are also presented in the paper.

  9. Time delays, population, and economic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Luca; Guerrini, Luca; Sodini, Mauro

    2018-05-01

    This research develops an augmented Solow model with population dynamics and time delays. The model produces either a single stationary state or multiple stationary states (able to characterise different development regimes). The existence of time delays may cause persistent fluctuations in both economic and demographic variables. In addition, the work identifies in a simple way the reasons why economics affects demographics and vice versa.

  10. Atomic and molecular phases through attosecond streaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Jan Conrad; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2011-01-01

    phase of the atomic or molecular ionization matrix elements from the two states through the interference from the two channels. The interference may change the phase of the photoelectron streaking signal within the envelope of the infrared field, an effect to be accounted for when reconstructing short...... pulses from the photoelectron signal and in attosecond time-resolved measurements....

  11. Attosecond control of dissociative ionization of O{sub 2} molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siu, W.; Kelkensberg, F.; Gademann, G. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rouzee, A.; Vrakking, M. J. J. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born Strasse 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Johnsson, P. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Physics, Lund University, Post Office Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Dowek, D. [Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires (UMR Universite Paris-Sud et CNRS, 8625), Batiment 351, Universite Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Lucchini, M.; Calegari, F. [Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie CNR-IFN, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); De Giovannini, U.; Rubio, A. [Nano-bio Spectroscopy Group, ETSF Scientific Development Centre, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Avenida Tolosa 72, E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Lucchese, R. R. [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, Post Office Box 30012, College Station, Texas 77842-3012 (United States); Kono, H. [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Lepine, F. [Universite Lyon 1/CNRS/LASIM, UMR 5579, 43 Boulevard Du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbane (France)

    2011-12-15

    We demonstrate that dissociative ionization of O{sub 2} can be controlled by the relative delay between an attosecond pulse train (APT) and a copropagating infrared (IR) field. Our experiments reveal a dependence of both the branching ratios between a range of electronic states and the fragment angular distributions on the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) to IR time delay. The observations go beyond adiabatic propagation of dissociative wave packets on IR-induced quasistatic potential energy curves and are understood in terms of an IR-induced coupling between electronic states in the molecular ion.

  12. Gravitational Lens Time Delays Using Polarization Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Biggs

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Gravitational lens time delays provide a means of measuring the expansion of the Universe at high redshift (and therefore in the ‘Hubble flow’ that is independent of local calibrations. It was hoped that many of the radio lenses found in the JVAS/CLASS survey would yield time delays as these were selected to have flat spectra and are dominated by multiple compact components. However, despite extensive monitoring with the Very Large Array (VLA, time delays have only been measured for three of these systems (out of 22. We have begun a programme to reanalyse the existing VLA monitoring data with the goal of producing light curves in polarized flux and polarization position angle, either to improve delay measurements or to find delays for new sources. Here, we present preliminary results on the lens system B1600+434 which demonstrate the presence of correlated and substantial polarization variability in each image.

  13. Attosecond-resolved photoionization of chiral molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, S; Comby, A; Clergerie, A; Caillat, J; Descamps, D; Dudovich, N; Fabre, B; Géneaux, R; Légaré, F; Petit, S; Pons, B; Porat, G; Ruchon, T; Taïeb, R; Blanchet, V; Mairesse, Y

    2017-12-08

    Chiral light-matter interactions have been investigated for two centuries, leading to the discovery of many chiroptical processes used for discrimination of enantiomers. Whereas most chiroptical effects result from a response of bound electrons, photoionization can produce much stronger chiral signals that manifest as asymmetries in the angular distribution of the photoelectrons along the light-propagation axis. We implemented self-referenced attosecond photoelectron interferometry to measure the temporal profile of the forward and backward electron wave packets emitted upon photoionization of camphor by circularly polarized laser pulses. We measured a delay between electrons ejected forward and backward, which depends on the ejection angle and reaches 24 attoseconds. The asymmetric temporal shape of electron wave packets emitted through an autoionizing state further reveals the chiral character of strongly correlated electronic dynamics. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  14. Chaos synchronization in time-delayed systems with parameter mismatches and variable delay times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahverdiev, E.M.; Nuriev, R.A.; Hashimov, R.H.; Shore, K.A.

    2004-06-01

    We investigate synchronization between two undirectionally linearly coupled chaotic nonidentical time-delayed systems and show that parameter mismatches are of crucial importance to achieve synchronization. We establish that independent of the relation between the delay time in the coupled systems and the coupling delay time, only retarded synchronization with the coupling delay time is obtained. We show that with parameter mismatch or without it neither complete nor anticipating synchronization occurs. We derive existence and stability conditions for the retarded synchronization manifold. We demonstrate our approach using examples of the Ikeda and Mackey Glass models. Also for the first time we investigate chaos synchronization in time-delayed systems with variable delay time and find both existence and sufficient stability conditions for the retarded synchronization manifold with the coupling-delay lag time. (author)

  15. Time delay of quantum scattering processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    The author presents various aspects of the theory of the time delay of scattering processes. The author mainly studies non-relativistic two-body scattering processes, first summarizing briefly the theory of simple scattering systems. (Auth.)

  16. Time delay in a multichannel formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberzettl, Helmut; Workman, Ron

    2007-01-01

    We reexamine the time-delay formalism of Wigner, Eisenbud, and Smith, which was developed to analyze both elastic and inelastic resonances. An error in the paper of Smith has propagated through the literature. We correct this error and show how the results of Eisenbud and Smith are related. We also comment on some recent time-delay studies, based on Smith's erroneous interpretation of the Eisenbud result

  17. Time delay interferometry with moving spacecraft arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinto, Massimo; Estabrook, F.B.; Armstrong, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Space-borne interferometric gravitational wave detectors, sensitive in the low-frequency (millihertz) band, will fly in the next decade. In these detectors the spacecraft-to-spacecraft light-travel-times will necessarily be unequal, time varying, and (due to aberration) have different time delays on up and down links. The reduction of data from moving interferometric laser arrays in solar orbit will in fact encounter nonsymmetric up- and down-link light time differences that are about 100 times larger than has previously been recognized. The time-delay interferometry (TDI) technique uses knowledge of these delays to cancel the otherwise dominant laser phase noise and yields a variety of data combinations sensitive to gravitational waves. Under the assumption that the (different) up- and down-link time delays are constant, we derive the TDI expressions for those combinations that rely only on four interspacecraft phase measurements. We then turn to the general problem that encompasses time dependence of the light-travel times along the laser links. By introducing a set of noncommuting time-delay operators, we show that there exists a quite general procedure for deriving generalized TDI combinations that account for the effects of time dependence of the arms. By applying our approach we are able to re-derive the 'flex-free' expression for the unequal-arm Michelson combinations X 1 , and obtain the generalized expressions for the TDI combinations called relay, beacon, monitor, and symmetric Sagnac

  18. Photoelectron spectrometer for attosecond spectroscopy of liquids and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, I.; Huppert, M.; Wörner, H. J., E-mail: hwoerner@ethz.ch [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, ETH Zurich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 2, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Brown, M. A. [Laboratory for Surface Science and Technology, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 5, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Bokhoven, J. A. van [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 1, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Laboratory for Catalysis and Sustainable Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2015-12-15

    A new apparatus for attosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids and gases is described. It combines a liquid microjet source with a magnetic-bottle photoelectron spectrometer and an actively stabilized attosecond beamline. The photoelectron spectrometer permits venting and pumping of the interaction chamber without affecting the low pressure in the flight tube. This pressure separation has been realized through a sliding skimmer plate, which effectively seals the flight tube in its closed position and functions as a differential pumping stage in its open position. A high-harmonic photon spectrometer, attached to the photoelectron spectrometer, exit port is used to acquire photon spectra for calibration purposes. Attosecond pulse trains have been used to record photoelectron spectra of noble gases, water in the gas and liquid states as well as solvated species. RABBIT scans demonstrate the attosecond resolution of this setup.

  19. Photoelectron spectrometer for attosecond spectroscopy of liquids and gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, I.; Huppert, M.; Wörner, H. J.; Brown, M. A.; Bokhoven, J. A. van

    2015-01-01

    A new apparatus for attosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids and gases is described. It combines a liquid microjet source with a magnetic-bottle photoelectron spectrometer and an actively stabilized attosecond beamline. The photoelectron spectrometer permits venting and pumping of the interaction chamber without affecting the low pressure in the flight tube. This pressure separation has been realized through a sliding skimmer plate, which effectively seals the flight tube in its closed position and functions as a differential pumping stage in its open position. A high-harmonic photon spectrometer, attached to the photoelectron spectrometer, exit port is used to acquire photon spectra for calibration purposes. Attosecond pulse trains have been used to record photoelectron spectra of noble gases, water in the gas and liquid states as well as solvated species. RABBIT scans demonstrate the attosecond resolution of this setup

  20. Photoelectron spectrometer for attosecond spectroscopy of liquids and gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, I.; Huppert, M.; Brown, M. A.; van Bokhoven, J. A.; Wörner, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    A new apparatus for attosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids and gases is described. It combines a liquid microjet source with a magnetic-bottle photoelectron spectrometer and an actively stabilized attosecond beamline. The photoelectron spectrometer permits venting and pumping of the interaction chamber without affecting the low pressure in the flight tube. This pressure separation has been realized through a sliding skimmer plate, which effectively seals the flight tube in its closed position and functions as a differential pumping stage in its open position. A high-harmonic photon spectrometer, attached to the photoelectron spectrometer, exit port is used to acquire photon spectra for calibration purposes. Attosecond pulse trains have been used to record photoelectron spectra of noble gases, water in the gas and liquid states as well as solvated species. RABBIT scans demonstrate the attosecond resolution of this setup.

  1. Delay time and tunneling transient phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Calderon, Gaston; Villavicencio, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    Analytic solutions to the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for cutoff wave initial conditions are used to investigate the time evolution of the transmitted probability density for tunneling. For a broad range of values of the potential barrier opacity α, we find that the probability density exhibits two evolving structures. One refers to the propagation of a forerunner related to a time domain resonance [Phys. Rev. A 64, 0121907 (2001)], while the other consists of a semiclassical propagating wave front. We find a regime where the forerunners are absent, corresponding to positive time delays, and show that this regime is characterized by opacities α c . The critical opacity α c is derived from the analytical expression for the delay time, which reflects a link between transient effects in tunneling and the delay time

  2. A continuous time Cournot duopoly with delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori, Luca; Guerrini, Luca; Sodini, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends the classical repeated duopoly model with quantity-setting firms of Bischi et al. (1998) by assuming that production of goods is subject to some gestation lags but exchanges take place continuously in the market. The model is expressed in the form of differential equations with discrete delays. By using some recent mathematical techniques and numerical experiments, results show some dynamic phenomena that cannot be observed when delays are absent. In addition, depending on the extent of time delays and inertia, synchronisation failure can arise even in the event of homogeneous firms.

  3. Global synchronization criteria with channel time-delay for chaotic time-delay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jitao

    2004-01-01

    Based on the Lyapunov stabilization theory, matrix measure, and linear matrix inequality (LMIs), this paper studies the chaos synchronization of time-delay system using the unidirectional linear error feedback coupling with time-delay. Some generic conditions of chaos synchronization with time-delay in the transmission channel is established. The chaotic Chua's circuit is used for illustration, where the coupling parameters are determined according to the criteria under which the global chaos synchronization of the time-delay coupled systems is achieved

  4. Time-delay analyzer with continuous discretization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayatyan, G.L.; Darbinyan, K.T.; Mkrtchyan, K.K.; Stepanyan, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    A time-delay analyzer is described which when triggered by a start pulse of adjustable duration performs continuous discretization of the analyzed signal within nearly 22 ns time intervals, the recording in a memory unit with following slow read-out of the information to the computer and its processing. The time-delay analyzer consists of four CAMAC-VECTOR systems of unit width. With its help one can separate comparatively short, small-amplitude rare signals against the background of quasistationary noise processes. 4 refs.; 3 figs

  5. The Strong Lensing Time Delay Challenge (2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kai; Dobler, G.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Treu, T.; Marshall, P. J.; Rumbaugh, N.; Linder, E.; Hojjati, A.

    2014-01-01

    Time delays between multiple images in strong lensing systems are a powerful probe of cosmology. At the moment the application of this technique is limited by the number of lensed quasars with measured time delays. However, the number of such systems is expected to increase dramatically in the next few years. Hundred such systems are expected within this decade, while the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is expected to deliver of order 1000 time delays in the 2020 decade. In order to exploit this bounty of lenses we needed to make sure the time delay determination algorithms have sufficiently high precision and accuracy. As a first step to test current algorithms and identify potential areas for improvement we have started a "Time Delay Challenge" (TDC). An "evil" team has created realistic simulated light curves, to be analyzed blindly by "good" teams. The challenge is open to all interested parties. The initial challenge consists of two steps (TDC0 and TDC1). TDC0 consists of a small number of datasets to be used as a training template. The non-mandatory deadline is December 1 2013. The "good" teams that complete TDC0 will be given access to TDC1. TDC1 consists of thousands of lightcurves, a number sufficient to test precision and accuracy at the subpercent level, necessary for time-delay cosmography. The deadline for responding to TDC1 is July 1 2014. Submissions will be analyzed and compared in terms of predefined metrics to establish the goodness-of-fit, efficiency, precision and accuracy of current algorithms. This poster describes the challenge in detail and gives instructions for participation.

  6. 4-channel time delayed pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, L.F.S.; Rossi, J.O.; Del Bosco, E.

    1987-02-01

    It is described the project of a 4-channel delayed pulse generator employed to trigger the plasma centrifuge experiment of the Laboratorio Associado de Plasmas. The circuit delivers pulses with amplitude of 15V, full width at half maximum of 50μs and rise time of 0.7μs. The maximum time delay is 100ms. There are two channels with a fine adjustment of 0-1ms. The system can be manually or automatically driven. (author) [pt

  7. Time-delayed autosynchronous swarm control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, James D; Bennet, Derek J; Dadzie, S Kokou

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a general Morse potential model of self-propelling particles is considered in the presence of a time-delayed term and a spring potential. It is shown that the emergent swarm behavior is dependent on the delay term and weights of the time-delayed function, which can be set to induce a stationary swarm, a rotating swarm with uniform translation, and a rotating swarm with a stationary center of mass. An analysis of the mean field equations shows that without a spring potential the motion of the center of mass is determined explicitly by a multivalued function. For a nonzero spring potential the swarm converges to a vortex formation about a stationary center of mass, except at discrete bifurcation points where the center of mass will periodically trace an ellipse. The analytical results defining the behavior of the center of mass are shown to correspond with the numerical swarm simulations.

  8. Communication key using delay times in time-delayed chaos synchronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chil-Min; Kye, Won-Ho; Rim, Sunghwan; Lee, Soo-Young

    2004-01-01

    We propose an efficient key scheme, which can generate a great number of communication keys, for communication using chaos synchronization. We have attained the keys from delay times of time-delay coupled chaotic systems. We explain the scheme and the efficiency by coupling Henon and logistic maps and illustrate them by coupling Navier-Stokes and Lorenz equations as a continuous system

  9. Moments of the Wigner delay times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkolaiko, Gregory; Kuipers, Jack

    2010-01-01

    The Wigner time delay is a measure of the time spent by a particle inside the scattering region of an open system. For chaotic systems, the statistics of the individual delay times (whose average is the Wigner time delay) are thought to be well described by random matrix theory. Here we present a semiclassical derivation showing the validity of random matrix results. In order to simplify the semiclassical treatment, we express the moments of the delay times in terms of correlation functions of scattering matrices at different energies. In the semiclassical approximation, the elements of the scattering matrix are given in terms of the classical scattering trajectories, requiring one to study correlations between sets of such trajectories. We describe the structure of correlated sets of trajectories and formulate the rules for their evaluation to the leading order in inverse channel number. This allows us to derive a polynomial equation satisfied by the generating function of the moments. Along with showing the agreement of our semiclassical results with the moments predicted by random matrix theory, we infer that the scattering matrix is unitary to all orders in the semiclassical approximation.

  10. Maximum likelihood window for time delay estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Sup; Yoon, Dong Jin; Kim, Chi Yup

    2004-01-01

    Time delay estimation for the detection of leak location in underground pipelines is critically important. Because the exact leak location depends upon the precision of the time delay between sensor signals due to leak noise and the speed of elastic waves, the research on the estimation of time delay has been one of the key issues in leak lovating with the time arrival difference method. In this study, an optimal Maximum Likelihood window is considered to obtain a better estimation of the time delay. This method has been proved in experiments, which can provide much clearer and more precise peaks in cross-correlation functions of leak signals. The leak location error has been less than 1 % of the distance between sensors, for example the error was not greater than 3 m for 300 m long underground pipelines. Apart from the experiment, an intensive theoretical analysis in terms of signal processing has been described. The improved leak locating with the suggested method is due to the windowing effect in frequency domain, which offers a weighting in significant frequencies.

  11. Information transfer via implicit encoding with delay time modulation in a time-delay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kye, Won-Ho, E-mail: whkye@kipo.go.kr [Korean Intellectual Property Office, Government Complex Daejeon Building 4, 189, Cheongsa-ro, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-20

    A new encoding scheme for information transfer with modulated delay time in a time-delay system is proposed. In the scheme, the message is implicitly encoded into the modulated delay time. The information transfer rate as a function of encoding redundancy in various noise scales is presented and it is analyzed that the implicit encoding scheme (IES) has stronger resistance against channel noise than the explicit encoding scheme (EES). In addition, its advantages in terms of secure communication and feasible applications are discussed. -- Highlights: ► We propose new encoding scheme with delay time modulation. ► The message is implicitly encoded with modulated delay time. ► The proposed scheme shows stronger resistance against channel noise.

  12. STEMI time delays: A clinical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. de Boer (Menko Jan); F. Zijlstra (Felix)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractSTEMI time delays have been introduced as a performance indicator or marker of quality of care. As they are only one part of a very complex medical process, one should be aware of concomitant issues that may be overlooked or even be more important with regard to clinical outcome of STEMI

  13. Kinematical vortices in double photoionization of helium by attosecond pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djiokap, J. M. Ngoko; Meremianin, A. V.; Manakov, N. L.; Hu, S. X.; Madsen, L. B.; Starace, Anthony F.

    2017-07-01

    Two-armed helical vortex structures are predicted in the two-electron momentum distributions produced in double photoionization (DPI) of the He atom by a pair of time-delayed elliptically polarized attosecond pulses with opposite helicities. These predictions are based upon both a first-order perturbation theory analysis and numerical solutions of the two-electron, time-dependent Schrödinger equation in six spatial dimensions. The helical vortex structures originate from Ramsey interference of a pair of ionized two-electron wave packets, each having a total angular momentum of unity, and appear in the sixfold differential DPI probability distribution for any energy partitioning between the two electrons. The vortex structures are exquisitely sensitive to the time delay between the two pulses, their relative phase, their ellipticity, and their handedness; moreover, they occur in a variety of electron detection geometries. However, the vortex structures only occur when the angular separation β =cos-1(p̂1.p̂2) between the electron momenta p1 and p2 is held fixed. The vortex structures can also be observed in the fourfold differential DPI probability distribution obtained by averaging the sixfold differential probability over the emission angles of one electron. Such kinematical vortices are a general phenomenon that may occur in any ionization process, initiated by two time-delayed short pulses with opposite ellipticities, for particular detection geometries.

  14. Multiphoton Processes and Attosecond Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Midorikawa, Katsumi; 12th International Conference on Multiphoton Processes; 3rd International Conference on Attosecond Physics

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in ultrashort pulsed laser technology have opened new frontiers in atomic, molecular and optical sciences. The 12th International Conference on Multiphoton Processes (ICOMP12) and the 3rd International Conference on Attosecond Physics (ATTO3), held jointly in Sapporo, Japan, during July 3-8, showcased studies at the forefront of research on multiphoton processes and attosecond physics. This book summarizes presentations and discussions from these two conferences.

  15. Attosecond interference control of XUV photoionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Wei; Lu Peixiang; Lan Pengfei; Li Yuhua; Wang Xinlin [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and School of Optoelectronics Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)], E-mail: lupeixiang@mail.hust.edu.cn

    2008-04-28

    The characterizing of attosecond pulses has great importance for the investigation of ultrafast phenomena. Here, we proposed a novel and efficient scheme for measuring attosecond XUV pulses, which is based on laser-dressed XUV photoionization. The ultrashort attosecond gating of photoionization leads to an interference structure in the photoelectron spectrum. Then the duration of the attosecond XUV pulse can be retrieved directly from the photoelectron spectrum with a rather high resolution.

  16. Attosecond interference control of XUV photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Wei; Lu Peixiang; Lan Pengfei; Li Yuhua; Wang Xinlin

    2008-01-01

    The characterizing of attosecond pulses has great importance for the investigation of ultrafast phenomena. Here, we proposed a novel and efficient scheme for measuring attosecond XUV pulses, which is based on laser-dressed XUV photoionization. The ultrashort attosecond gating of photoionization leads to an interference structure in the photoelectron spectrum. Then the duration of the attosecond XUV pulse can be retrieved directly from the photoelectron spectrum with a rather high resolution

  17. Measurement and Control of Attosecond Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-25

    highest power or the shortest duration attosecond pulses. Results: We have adapted the attosecond lighthouse to gases and confirmed isolated...simplifying attosecond metrology so it becomes more widely accessible. Result: This goal was completely accomplished. Aim 2: To exploit few- cycle ...μm driver. Aim 3: To compare attosecond gating methods, selecting the most efficient way to produce the highest power or the shortest duration

  18. Time averaging, ageing and delay analysis of financial time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherstvy, Andrey G.; Vinod, Deepak; Aghion, Erez; Chechkin, Aleksei V.; Metzler, Ralf

    2017-06-01

    We introduce three strategies for the analysis of financial time series based on time averaged observables. These comprise the time averaged mean squared displacement (MSD) as well as the ageing and delay time methods for varying fractions of the financial time series. We explore these concepts via statistical analysis of historic time series for several Dow Jones Industrial indices for the period from the 1960s to 2015. Remarkably, we discover a simple universal law for the delay time averaged MSD. The observed features of the financial time series dynamics agree well with our analytical results for the time averaged measurables for geometric Brownian motion, underlying the famed Black-Scholes-Merton model. The concepts we promote here are shown to be useful for financial data analysis and enable one to unveil new universal features of stock market dynamics.

  19. Generation of atto-second pulses on relativistic mirror plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincenti, H.

    2012-12-01

    When an ultra intense femtosecond laser (I > 10 16 W.cm -2 ) with high contrast is focused on a solid target, the laser field at focus is high enough to completely ionize the target surface during the rising edge of the laser pulse and form a plasma. This plasma is so dense (the electron density is of the order of hundred times the critical density) that it completely reflects the incident laser beam in the specular direction: this is the so-called 'plasma mirror'. When laser intensity becomes very high, the non-linear response of the plasma mirror to the laser field periodically deforms the incident electric field leading to high harmonic generation in the reflected beam. In the temporal domain this harmonic spectrum is associated to a train of atto-second pulses. The goals of my work were to get a better comprehension of the properties of harmonic beams produced on plasma mirrors and design new methods to control theses properties, notably in order to produce isolated atto-second pulses instead of trains. Initially, we imagined and modeled the first realistic technique to generate isolated atto-second on plasma mirrors. This brand new approach is based on a totally new physical effect: 'the atto-second lighthouse effect'. Its principle consists in sending the atto-second pulses of the train in different directions and selects one of these pulses by putting a slit in the far field. Despite its simplicity, this technique is very general and applies to any high harmonic generation mechanism. Moreover, the atto-second lighthouse effect has many other applications (e.g in metrology). In particular, it paves the way to atto-second pump-probe experiments. Then, we studied the spatial properties of these harmonics, whose control and characterization are crucial if one wants to use this source in future application experiments. For instance, we need to control very precisely the harmonic beam divergence in order to achieve the atto-second lighthouse effect and get

  20. Controlling flow time delays in flexible manufacturing cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, J.; Caprihan, R.; Bokhorst, J. A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Flow time delays in Flexible Manufacturing Cells (FMCs) are caused by transport and clamping/reclamping activities. This paper shows how dynamic scheduling parameters may control the flow times of jobs and the available task windows for flow time delays.

  1. Mapping the spectral phase of isolated attosecond pulses by extreme-ultraviolet emission spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Candong; Zeng, Zhinan; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan; Nisoli, Mauro

    2015-04-20

    An all-optical method is proposed for the measurement of the spectral phase of isolated attosecond pulses. The technique is based on the generation of extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) radiation in a gas by the combination of an attosecond pulse and a strong infrared (IR) pulse with controlled electric field. By using a full quantum simulation, we demonstrate that, for particular temporal delays between the two pulses, the IR field can drive back to the parent ions the photoelectrons generated by the attosecond pulse, thus leading to the generation of XUV photons. It is found that the generated XUV spectrum is notably sensitive to the chirp of the attosecond pulse, which can then be reliably retrieved. A classical quantum-path analysis is further used to quantitatively explain the main features exhibited in the XUV emission.

  2. Electron Interference in Molecular Circular Polarization Attosecond XUV Photoionization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Jun Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-center electron interference in molecular attosecond photoionization processes is investigated from numerical solutions of time-dependent Schrödinger equations. Both symmetric H\\(_2^+\\ and nonsymmetric HHe\\(^{2+}\\ one electron diatomic systems are ionized by intense attosecond circularly polarized XUV laser pulses. Photoionization of these molecular ions shows signature of interference with double peaks (minima in molecular attosecond photoelectron energy spectra (MAPES at critical angles \\(\\vartheta_c\\ between the molecular \\(\\textbf{R}\\ axis and the photoelectron momentum \\(\\textbf{p}\\. The interferences are shown to be a function of the symmetry of electronic states and the interference patterns are sensitive to the molecular orientation and pulse polarization. Such sensitivity offers possibility for imaging of molecular structure and orbitals.

  3. Time-delay interferometry for LISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinto, Massimo; Estabrook, F.B.; Armstrong, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) is a mission to detect and study low-frequency cosmic gravitational radiation through its influence on the phases or frequencies of laser beams exchanged between three remote spacecraft. We previously showed how, with lasers of identical frequencies on stationary spacecraft, the measurement of twelve time series of Doppler shifts could be combined to cancel exactly the phase noise of the lasers and the Doppler fluctuations due to noninertial motions of the six optical benches, while preserving gravitational wave signals. Here we generalize those results on gravitational wave detection with time-delay interferometry to the expected LISA instrument. The six lasers have different center frequencies (in the nominal LISA configuration these center frequencies may well differ by several hundred megahertz) and the distances between spacecraft pairs will change with time (these slowly varying orbital Doppler shifts are expected to be up to tens of megahertz). We develop time-delay data combinations which, as previously, preserve gravitational waves and exactly cancel the leading noise source (phase fluctuations of the six lasers); these data combinations then imply transfer functions for the remaining system noises. Using these, we plot frequency and phase power spectra for modeled system noises in the unequal Michelson combination X and the symmetric Sagnac combination ζ. Although optical bench noise can no longer be cancelled exactly, with the current LISA specifications it is suppressed to negligible levels. It is known that the presently anticipated laser center frequency differences and the orbital Doppler drifts introduce another source of phase noise, arising from the onboard oscillators required to track the photodetector fringes. For the presently planned mission, our analysis indeed demonstrates that noise from current-generation ultrastable oscillators would, if uncorrected, dominate the LISA noise budget. To meet the

  4. Time-delayed feedback control of diffusion in random walkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Hiroyasu; Takehara, Kohta; Kobayashi, Miki U.

    2017-07-01

    Time delay in general leads to instability in some systems, while specific feedback with delay can control fluctuated motion in nonlinear deterministic systems to a stable state. In this paper, we consider a stochastic process, i.e., a random walk, and observe its diffusion phenomenon with time-delayed feedback. As a result, the diffusion coefficient decreases with increasing delay time. We analytically illustrate this suppression of diffusion by using stochastic delay differential equations and justify the feasibility of this suppression by applying time-delayed feedback to a molecular dynamics model.

  5. Synchronization of delayed systems in the presence of delay time modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kye, Won-Ho; Choi, Muhan; Kim, Myung-Woon; Lee, Soo-Young; Rim, Sunghwan; Kim, Chil-Min; Park, Young-Jai

    2004-01-01

    We investigate synchronization in the presence of delay time modulation for application to communication. We have observed that the robust synchronization is established by a common delay signal and its threshold is presented using Lyapunov exponents analysis. The influence of the delay time modulation in chaotic oscillators is also discussed

  6. Spectral Caustics in Attosecond Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudovich N.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A unique type of singularity common in wave phenomena, known as caustics, links processes observed in many different branches of physics [1]. We investigate the role of caustics in attosecond science and in particular the physical process behind high harmonic generation. By exploiting singularities of the three-step model that describes HHG, we can manipulate and enhance specific features in the emitted harmonic spectrum. This new level of control holds promises in both scientific and technological aspects of attosecond science, and provides a deeper insight into the basic mechanism underlying the high harmonic generation process.

  7. Control of the launch of attosecond pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Wei; Lu Peixiang; Lan Pengfei; Wang Xinlin; Li Yuhua

    2007-01-01

    We propose an approach to steer the launch of attosecond (as) pulses with a high precision. We numerically demonstrate that by adding a weak second-harmonic (SH) field to the fundamental beam the ionization and recollision process of the electron will be perturbed, which can induce a variation of the emission time of high harmonics. Through modifying the relative intensity of the SH and fundamental fields, the launch of as pulses can be manipulated with a resolution less than 40 as. This will show significant potential for ultrafast optics

  8. The effects of the framing of time on delay discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHart, William Brady; Odum, Amy L

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of the framing of time on delay discounting. Delay discounting is the process by which delayed outcomes are devalued as a function of time. Time in a titrating delay discounting task is often framed in calendar units (e.g., as 1 week, 1 month, etc.). When time is framed as a specific date, delayed outcomes are discounted less compared to the calendar format. Other forms of framing time; however, have not been explored. All participants completed a titrating calendar unit delay-discounting task for money. Participants were also assigned to one of two delay discounting tasks: time as dates (e.g., June 1st, 2015) or time in units of days (e.g., 5000 days), using the same delay distribution as the calendar delay-discounting task. Time framed as dates resulted in less discounting compared to the calendar method, whereas time framed as days resulted in greater discounting compared to the calendar method. The hyperboloid model fit best compared to the hyperbola and exponential models. How time is framed may alter how participants attend to the delays as well as how the delayed outcome is valued. Altering how time is framed may serve to improve adherence to goals with delayed outcomes. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  9. Attosecond ionization gating for isolated attosecond electron wave packet and broadband attosecond xuv pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan Pengfei; Lu Peixiang; Cao Wei; Li Yuhua; Wang Xinlin

    2007-01-01

    An attosecond ionization gating is achieved using a few-cycle laser pulse in combination with its second harmonic. With this gating, the generation of the electron wave packet (EWP) is coherently controlled, and an isolated EWP of about 270 as is generated. An isolated broadband attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulse with a bandwidth of about 75 eV can also be generated using this gating, which can be used for EWP measurements as efficiently as a 50-as pulse, allowing one to measure a wide range of ultrafast dynamics not normally accessible before

  10. Survey of time preference, delay discounting models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Doyle

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper surveys over twenty models of delay discounting (also known as temporal discounting, time preference, time discounting, that psychologists and economists have put forward to explain the way people actually trade off time and money. Using little more than the basic algebra of powers and logarithms, I show how the models are derived, what assumptions they are based upon, and how different models relate to each other. Rather than concentrate only on discount functions themselves, I show how discount functions may be manipulated to isolate rate parameters for each model. This approach, consistently applied, helps focus attention on the three main components in any discounting model: subjectively perceived money; subjectively perceived time; and how these elements are combined. We group models by the number of parameters that have to be estimated, which means our exposition follows a trajectory of increasing complexity to the models. However, as the story unfolds it becomes clear that most models fall into a smaller number of families. We also show how new models may be constructed by combining elements of different models. The surveyed models are: Exponential; Hyperbolic; Arithmetic; Hyperboloid (Green and Myerson, Rachlin; Loewenstein and Prelec Generalized Hyperboloid; quasi-Hyperbolic (also known as beta-delta discounting; Benhabib et al's fixed cost; Benhabib et al's Exponential / Hyperbolic / quasi-Hyperbolic; Read's discounting fractions; Roelofsma's exponential time; Scholten and Read's discounting-by-intervals (DBI; Ebert and Prelec's constant sensitivity (CS; Bleichrodt et al.'s constant absolute decreasing impatience (CADI; Bleichrodt et al.'s constant relative decreasing impatience (CRDI; Green, Myerson, and Macaux's hyperboloid over intervals models; Killeen's additive utility; size-sensitive additive utility; Yi, Landes, and Bickel's memory trace models; McClure et al.'s two exponentials; and Scholten and Read's trade

  11. Delay-dependent exponential stability of cellular neural networks with time-varying delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiang; Wei Xiaopeng; Xu Jin

    2005-01-01

    The global exponential stability of cellular neural networks (CNNs) with time-varying delays is analyzed. Two new sufficient conditions ensuring global exponential stability for delayed CNNs are obtained. The conditions presented here are related to the size of delay. The stability results improve the earlier publications. Two examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained results

  12. Carrier-envelope phase-stabilized attosecond pulses from asymmetric molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan Pengfei; Lu Peixiang; Cao Wei; Li Yuhua; Wang Xinlin

    2007-01-01

    High-order harmonic generation from asymmetric molecules is investigated, and the concept of phase-stabilized infrared ultrashort laser pulses is extended to the extreme ultraviolet regime. It is shown that the ionization symmetry in consecutive half optical cycles is broken for asymmetric molecules, and both even and odd harmonics with comparable intensity are produced. In the time domain, only one attosecond pulse is generated in each cycle of the driving field, and the carrier-envelope phases of the attosecond pulses are equal. Consequently, a clean attosecond pulse train with the same carrier-envelope phase from pulse to pulse is obtained in the extreme ultraviolet regime

  13. Time-Delay System Identification Using Genetic Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Seested, Glen Thane

    2013-01-01

    Due to the unknown dead-time coefficient, the time-delay system identification turns to be a non-convex optimization problem. This paper investigates the identification of a simple time-delay system, named First-Order-Plus-Dead-Time (FOPDT), by using the Genetic Algorithm (GA) technique. The qual......Due to the unknown dead-time coefficient, the time-delay system identification turns to be a non-convex optimization problem. This paper investigates the identification of a simple time-delay system, named First-Order-Plus-Dead-Time (FOPDT), by using the Genetic Algorithm (GA) technique...

  14. Delay time and Hartman effect in strain engineered graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xi; Deng, Zhi-Yong; Ban, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Tunneling times, including group delay and dwell time, are studied for massless Dirac electrons transmitting through a one-dimensional barrier in strain-engineered graphene. The Hartman effect, the independence of group delay on barrier length, is induced by the strain effect, and associated with the transmission gap and the evanescent mode. The influence of barrier height/length and strain modulus/direction on the group delay is also discussed, which provides the flexibility to control the group delay with applications in graphene-based devices. The relationship between group delay and dwell time is finally derived to clarify the nature of the Hartman effect

  15. Lag synchronization of chaotic systems with time-delayed linear

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, the lag synchronization of chaotic systems with time-delayed linear terms via impulsive control is investigated. Based on the stability theory of impulsive delayed differential equations, some sufficient conditions are obtained guaranteeing the synchronized behaviours between two delayed chaotic systems.

  16. Tunable delay time and Hartman effect in graphene magnetic barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Yue; Wang, Lin-Jun; Chen, Xi

    2015-01-01

    Tunable group delay and Hartman effect have been investigated for massless Dirac electrons in graphene magnetic barriers. In the presence of magnetic field, dwell time is found to be equal to net group delay plus the group delay contributing from the lateral shifts. The group delay times are discussed in both cases of normal and oblique incidence, to clarify the nature of Hartman effect. In addition, the group delay in transmission can be modulated from subluminality to superluminality by adjusting the magnetic field, which may also lead to potential applications in graphene-based microelectronics

  17. Discrete-time BAM neural networks with variable delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-Ge; Tang, Mei-Lan; Martin, Ralph; Liu, Xin-Bi

    2007-07-01

    This Letter deals with the global exponential stability of discrete-time bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with variable delays. Using a Lyapunov functional, and linear matrix inequality techniques (LMI), we derive a new delay-dependent exponential stability criterion for BAM neural networks with variable delays. As this criterion has no extra constraints on the variable delay functions, it can be applied to quite general BAM neural networks with a broad range of time delay functions. It is also easy to use in practice. An example is provided to illustrate the theoretical development.

  18. Discrete-time BAM neural networks with variable delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinge; Tang Meilan; Martin, Ralph; Liu Xinbi

    2007-01-01

    This Letter deals with the global exponential stability of discrete-time bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with variable delays. Using a Lyapunov functional, and linear matrix inequality techniques (LMI), we derive a new delay-dependent exponential stability criterion for BAM neural networks with variable delays. As this criterion has no extra constraints on the variable delay functions, it can be applied to quite general BAM neural networks with a broad range of time delay functions. It is also easy to use in practice. An example is provided to illustrate the theoretical development

  19. Periodic flows to chaos in time-delay systems

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert C J

    2017-01-01

    This book for the first time examines periodic motions to chaos in time-delay systems, which exist extensively in engineering. For a long time, the stability of time-delay systems at equilibrium has been of great interest from the Lyapunov theory-based methods, where one cannot achieve the ideal results. Thus, time-delay discretization in time-delay systems was used for the stability of these systems. In this volume, Dr. Luo presents an accurate method based on the finite Fourier series to determine periodic motions in nonlinear time-delay systems. The stability and bifurcation of periodic motions are determined by the time-delayed system of coefficients in the Fourier series and the method for nonlinear time-delay systems is equivalent to the Laplace transformation method for linear time-delay systems. Facilitates discovery of analytical solutions of nonlinear time-delay systems; Illustrates bifurcation trees of periodic motions to chaos; Helps readers identify motion complexity and singularity; Explains pro...

  20. Attosecond pulse trains generated using two color laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauritsson, J.; Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA; Johnsson, P.; Gustafsson, E.; L'Hullier, A.; Schafer, K.J.; Gaarde, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. We present the generation of attosecond pulse trains from a superposition of an infrared (IR) laser field and its second harmonic. Our attosecond pulses are synthesized by selecting a number of synchronized harmonics generated in argon. By adding the second harmonic to the driving field the inversion symmetry of generation process is broken and both odd and even harmonics are generated. Consecutive half cycles in the two color field differ beyond the simple sign change that occurs in a one color field and have very different shapes and amplitudes. This sub-cycle structure of the field, which governs the generation of the attosecond pulses, depends strongly on the relative phase and intensity of the two fields, thereby providing additional control over the generation process. The generation of attosecond pulses is frequently described using the semi-classical three step model where an electron is: (1) ionized through tunneling ionization during one half cycle; (2) reaccelerated back towards the ion core by the next half cycle; where it (3) recombines with the ground-state releasing the access energy in a short burst of light. In the two color field the symmetry between the ionizing and reaccelerating field is broken, which leads to two possible scenarios: the electron can either be ionized during a strong half cycle and reaccelerated by a weaker field or vice versa. The periodicity is a full IR cycle in both cases and hence two trains of attosecond pulses are generated which are offset from each other. The generation efficiency, however, is very different for the two cases since it is determined mainly by the electric field strength at the time of tunneling and one of the trains will therefore dominate the other. We investigate experimentally both the spectral and temporal structure of the generated attosecond pulse trains as a function of the relative phase between the two driving fields. We find that for a wide range of

  1. Time-delayed chameleon: Analysis, synchronization and FPGA implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Karthikeyan; Jafari, Sajad; Laarem, Guessas

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we report a time-delayed chameleon-like chaotic system which can belong to different families of chaotic attractors depending on the choices of parameters. Such a characteristic of self-excited and hidden chaotic flows in a simple 3D system with time delay has not been reported earlier. Dynamic analysis of the proposed time-delayed systems are analysed in time-delay space and parameter space. A novel adaptive modified functional projective lag synchronization algorithm is derived for synchronizing identical time-delayed chameleon systems with uncertain parameters. The proposed time-delayed systems and the synchronization algorithm with controllers and parameter estimates are then implemented in FPGA using hardware-software co-simulation and the results are presented.

  2. Leveraging delay discounting for health: Can time delays influence food choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; French, Simone A; Olinger, Tamara; Bogucki, Michael; Janssen, Imke; Avery-Mamer, Elizabeth F; Powell, Lisa M

    2018-03-15

    Delay discounting, the tendency to choose smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards, is theorized to promote consumption of immediately rewarding but unhealthy foods at the expense of long-term weight maintenance and nutritional health. An untested implication of delay discounting models of decision-making is that selectively delaying access to less healthy foods may promote selection of healthier (immediately available) alternatives, even if they may be less desirable. The current study tested this hypothesis by measuring healthy versus regular vending machine snack purchasing before and during the implementation of a 25-s time delay on the delivery of regular snacks. Purchasing was also examined under a $0.25 discount on healthy snacks, a $0.25 tax on regular snacks, and the combination of both pricing interventions with the 25-s time delay. Across 32,019 vending sales from three separate vending locations, the 25-s time delay increased healthy snack purchasing from 40.1% to 42.5%, which was comparable to the impact of a $0.25 discount (43.0%). Combining the delay and the discount had a roughly additive effect (46.0%). However, the strongest effects were seen under the $0.25 tax on regular snacks (53.7%) and the combination of the delay and the tax (50.2%). Intervention effects varied substantially between vending locations. Importantly, time delays did not harm overall vending sales or revenue, which is relevant to the real-world feasibility of this intervention. More investigation is needed to better understand how the impact of time delays on food choice varies across populations, evaluate the effects of time delays on beverage vending choices, and extend this approach to food choices in contexts other than vending machines. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02359916. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Attosecond electron wave packet interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remetter, T.; Ruchon, T.; Johnsson, P.; Varju, K.; Gustafsson, E.

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. The well controlled generation and characterization of attosecond XUV light pulses provide an unprecedented tool to study electron wave packets (EWPs). Here a train of attosecond pulses is used to create and study the phase of an EWP in momentum space. There is a clear analogy between electronic wave functions and optical fields. In optics, methods like SPIDER or wave front shearing interferometry, allow to measure the spectral or spatial phase of a light wave. These two methods are based on the same principle: an interferogram is produced when recombining two sheared replica of a light pulse, spectrally (SPIDER) or spatially (wave front shearing interferometry). This enables the comparison of two neighbouring different spectral or spatial slices of the original wave packet. In the experiment, a train of attosecond pulses is focused in an Argon atomic gas jet. EWPs are produced from the single XUV photon ionization of Argon atoms. If an IR beam is synchronized to the EWPs, it is possible to introduce a shear in momentum space between two consecutive s wave packets. A Velocity Map Imaging Spectrometer (VMIS) enables us to detect the interference pattern. An analysis of the interferograms will be presented leading to a conclusion about the symmetry of the studied wave packet.

  4. Improving Delay-Range-Dependent Stability Condition for Systems with Interval Time-Varying Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Qian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the delay-range-dependent stability for systems with interval time-varying delay. Through defining the new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and estimating the derivative of the LKF by introducing new vectors, using free matrices and reciprocally convex approach, the new delay-range-dependent stability conditions are obtained. Two well-known examples are given to illustrate the less conservatism of the proposed theoretical results.

  5. Time-Delay Effects on Constitutive Gene Expression*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yan-Ling; Wang Dan; Tang Xu-Lei; Dong Jian-Min

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of constitutive gene expression with delayed mRNA degradation is investigated, where the intrinsic noise caused by the small number of reactant molecules is introduced. It is found that the oscillatory behavior claimed in previous investigations does not appear in the approximation of small time delay, and the steady state distribution still follows the Poisson law. Furthermore, we introduce the extrinsic noise induced by surrounding environment to explore the effects of this noise and time delay on the Fano factor. Based on a delay Langevin equation and the corresponding Fokker–Planck equation, the distribution of mRNA copy-number is achieved analytically. The time delay and extrinsic noise play similar roles in the gene expression system, that is, they are able to result in the deviation of the Fano factor from 1 evidently. The measured Fano factor for constitutive gene expression is slightly larger than 1, which is perhaps attributed to the time-delay effect. (paper)

  6. Stability analysis of linear switching systems with time delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ping; Zhong Shouming; Cui Jinzhong

    2009-01-01

    The issue of stability analysis of linear switching system with discrete and distributed time delays is studied in this paper. An appropriate switching rule is applied to guarantee the stability of the whole switching system. Our results use a Riccati-type Lyapunov functional under a condition on the time delay. So, switching systems with mixed delays are developed. A numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of our results.

  7. Time delay systems theory, numerics, applications, and experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Ersal, Tulga; Orosz, Gábor

    2017-01-01

    This volume collects contributions related to selected presentations from the 12th IFAC Workshop on Time Delay Systems, Ann Arbor, June 28-30, 2015. The included papers present novel techniques and new results of delayed dynamical systems. The topical spectrum covers control theory, numerical analysis, engineering and biological applications as well as experiments and case studies. The target audience primarily comprises research experts in the field of time delay systems, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students alike. .

  8. Measuring the electric field of few-cycle laser pulses by attosecond cross correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandrauk, Andre D.; Chelkowski, Szczepan; Shon, Nguyen Hong

    2002-01-01

    A new technique for directly measuring the electric field of linearly polarized few-cycle laser pulses is proposed. Based on the solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) for an H atom in the combined field of infrared (IR) femtosecond (fs) and ultraviolet (UV) attosecond (as) laser pulses we show that, as a function of the time delay between two pulses, the difference (or equivalently, asymmetry) of photoelectron signals in opposite directions (along the polarization vector of laser pulses) reproduces very well the profile of the electric field (or vector potential) in the IR pulse. Such ionization asymmetry can be used for directly measuring the carrier-envelope phase difference (i.e., the relative phase of the carrier frequency with respect to the pulse envelope) of the IR fs laser pulse

  9. Using Constant Time Delay to Teach Braille Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Jonathan; Ivy, Sarah; Hatton, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Constant time delay has been identified as an evidence-based practice to teach print sight words and picture recognition (Browder, Ahlbrim-Delzell, Spooner, Mims, & Baker, 2009). For the study presented here, we tested the effectiveness of constant time delay to teach new braille words. Methods: A single-subject multiple baseline…

  10. Robust control of time-delay chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Changchun; Guan Xinping

    2003-01-01

    Robust control problem of nonlinear time-delay chaotic systems is investigated. For such uncertain systems, we propose adaptive feedback controller and novel nonlinear feedback controller. They are both independent of the time delay and can render the corresponding closed-loop systems globally uniformly ultimately bounded stable. The simulations on controlling logistic system are made and the results show the controllers are feasible

  11. Goodwin accelerator model revisited with fixed time delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Akio; Merlone, Ugo; Szidarovszky, Ferenc

    2018-05-01

    Dynamics of Goodwin's accelerator business cycle model is reconsidered. The model is characterized by a nonlinear accelerator and an investment time delay. The role of the nonlinearity for the birth of persistent oscillations is fully discussed in the existing literature. On the other hand, not much of the role of the delay has yet been revealed. The purpose of this paper is to show that the delay really matters. In the original framework of Goodwin [6], it is first demonstrated that there is a threshold value of the delay: limit cycles arise for smaller values than the threshold and so do sawtooth oscillations for larger values. In the extended framework in which a consumption or saving delay, in addition to the investment delay, is introduced, three main results are demonstrated under assumption of the identical length of investment and consumption delays. The dynamics with consumption delay is basically the same as that of the single delay model. Second, in the case of saving delay, the steady state can coexist with the stable and unstable limit cycles in the stable case. Third, in the unstable case, there is an interval of delay in which the limit cycle or the sawtooth oscillation emerges depending on the choice of the constant initial function.

  12. Delay-Dependent Exponential Stability for Discrete-Time BAM Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Chen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the delay-dependent exponential stability for discrete-time BAM neural networks with time-varying delays. By constructing the new Lyapunov functional, the improved delay-dependent exponential stability criterion is derived in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI. Moreover, in order to reduce the conservativeness, some slack matrices are introduced in this paper. Two numerical examples are presented to show the effectiveness and less conservativeness of the proposed method.

  13. Analysis of Time Delay Simulation in Networked Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Nyan Phyo Aung; Zaw Min Naing; Hla Myo Tun

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a PD controller for the Networked Control Systems (NCS) with delay. The major challenges in this networked control system (NCS) are the delay of the data transmission throughout the communication network. The comparative performance analysis is carried out for different delays network medium. In this paper, simulation is carried out on Ac servo motor control system using CAN Bus as communication network medium. The True Time toolbox of MATLAB is used for simulation to analy...

  14. How can attosecond pulse train interferometry interrogate electron dynamics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, C. L.; Isinger, M.; Busto, D.; Guénot, D.; Nandi, S.; Zhong, S.; Dahlström, J. M.; Gisselbrecht, M.; l'Huillier, A.

    2018-04-01

    Light pulses of sub-100 as (1 as=10-18 s) duration, with photon energies in the extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) spectral domain, represent the shortest event in time ever made and controlled by human beings. Their first experimental observation in 2001 has opened the door to investigating the fundamental dynamics of the quantum world on the natural time scale for electrons in atoms, molecules and solids and marks the beginning of the scientific field now called attosecond science.

  15. Attosecond dynamics of electrons in molecules and liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woerner, Hans Jakob

    2016-05-01

    The ultrafast motion of electrons and holes following light-matter interaction is fundamental to a broad range of chemical and biophysical processes. In this lecture, I will discuss two recent experiments carried out in our group that measure the atomic-scale motion of charge with attosecond temporal resolution (1 as = 10-18 s). The first experiment is carried out on isolated, spatially oriented molecules in the gas phase. We advance high-harmonic spectroscopy to resolve spatially and temporally the migration of an electron hole immediately following ionization of iodoacetylene, while simultaneously demonstrating extensive control over the process. A multidimensional approach, based on the measurement of both even and odd harmonic orders, enables us to reconstruct both quantum amplitudes and phases of the electronic states with a resolution of ~ 100 as. We separately reconstruct quasi-field-free and laser-controlled charge migration as a function of the spatial orientation of the molecule and determine the shape of the hole created by ionization. The second experiment is carried out on a free-flowing microjet of liquid water. We use an attosecond pulse train synchronized with a near-infrared laser pulse to temporally resolve the process of photoemission from liquid water using the RABBIT technique. We measure a delay on the order of 50 as between electrons emitted from the HOMO of liquid water compared to that of gas-phase water and a substantially reduced modulation contrast of the corresponding sidebands. Since our measurements on solvated water molecules are referenced to isolated ones, the measured delays reflect (i) the photoionization delays caused by electron transport through the aqueous environment and (ii) the effect of solvation on the parent molecule. The relative modulation contrast, in turn, contains information on (iii) the modification of transition amplitudes and (iv) dephasing processes. These experiments make the liquid phase and its fascinating

  16. Managing contamination delay to improve Timing Speculation architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naga Durga Prasad Avirneni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Timing Speculation (TS is a widely known method for realizing better-than-worst-case systems. Aggressive clocking, realizable by TS, enable systems to operate beyond specified safe frequency limits to effectively exploit the data dependent circuit delay. However, the range of aggressive clocking for performance enhancement under TS is restricted by short paths. In this paper, we show that increasing the lengths of short paths of the circuit increases the effectiveness of TS, leading to performance improvement. Also, we propose an algorithm to efficiently add delay buffers to selected short paths while keeping down the area penalty. We present our algorithm results for ISCAS-85 suite and show that it is possible to increase the circuit contamination delay by up to 30% without affecting the propagation delay. We also explore the possibility of increasing short path delays further by relaxing the constraint on propagation delay and analyze the performance impact.

  17. Passivity analysis and synthesis for uncertain time-delay systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdi S. Mahmoud

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the robust passivity analysis and synthesis problems for a class of uncertain time-delay systems. This class of systems arises in the modelling effort of studying water quality constituents in fresh stream. For the analysis problem, we derive a sufficient condition for which the uncertain time-delay system is robustly stable and strictly passive for all admissible uncertainties. The condition is given in terms of a linear matrix inequality. Both the delay-independent and delay-dependent cases are considered. For the synthesis problem, we propose an observer-based design method which guarantees that the closed-loop uncertain time-delay system is stable and strictly passive for all admissible uncertainties. Several examples are worked out to illustrate the developed theory.

  18. Impulsive control of time-delay systems using delayed impulse and its application to impulsive master-slave synchronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jitao; Han Qinglong; Jiang Xiefu

    2008-01-01

    This Letter is concerned with impulsive control of a class of nonlinear time-delay systems. Some uniform stability criteria for the closed-loop time-delay system under delayed impulsive control are derived by using piecewise Lyapunov functions. Then the criteria are applied to impulsive master-slave synchronization of some secure communication systems with transmission delays and sample delays under delayed impulsive control. Two numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the derived results

  19. Diffraction and microscopy with attosecond electron pulse trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yuya; Baum, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Attosecond spectroscopy1-7 can resolve electronic processes directly in time, but a movie-like space-time recording is impeded by the too long wavelength ( 100 times larger than atomic distances) or the source-sample entanglement in re-collision techniques8-11. Here we advance attosecond metrology to picometre wavelength and sub-atomic resolution by using free-space electrons instead of higher-harmonic photons1-7 or re-colliding wavepackets8-11. A beam of 70-keV electrons at 4.5-pm de Broglie wavelength is modulated by the electric field of laser cycles into a sequence of electron pulses with sub-optical-cycle duration. Time-resolved diffraction from crystalline silicon reveals a propagates in space and time. This unification of attosecond science with electron microscopy and diffraction enables space-time imaging of light-driven processes in the entire range of sample morphologies that electron microscopy can access.

  20. Quadratic theory and feedback controllers for linear time delay systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.B.

    1976-01-01

    Recent research on the design of controllers for systems having time delays is discussed. Results for the ''open loop'' and ''closed loop'' designs will be presented. In both cases results for minimizing a quadratic cost functional are given. The usefulness of these results is not known, but similar results for the non-delay case are being routinely applied. (author)

  1. Attosecond physics at the nanoscale

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ciappina, Marcelo F.; Perez-Hernandez, J.A.; Landsman, A.S.; Okell, W.A.; Zherebtsov, S.; Foerg, B.; Schoetz, J.; Seiffert, L.; Fennel, T.; Shaaran, T.; Zimmermann, T.; Chacon, A.; Guichard, R.; Zair, A.; Tisch, J.W.G.; Marangos, J.P.; Witting, T.; Braun, A.; Maier, S. A.; Roso, L.; Krueger, M.; Hommelhoff, P.; Kling, M.F.; Krausz, F.; Lewenstein, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 5 (2017), 1-50, č. článku 054401. ISSN 0034-4885 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162; GA MŠk LQ1606 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : attosecond physics * plasmonic fields * strong field physics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Laser s OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 14.311, year: 2016

  2. Generalized Synchronization of Time-Delayed Discrete Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Jianyi; Min Lequan

    2009-01-01

    This paper establishes two theorems for two time-delayed (chaotic) discrete systems to achieve time-delayed generalized synchronization (TDGS). These two theorems uncover the general forms of two TDGS systems via a prescribed transformation. As examples, we convert the Lorenz three-dimensional chaotic map to an equal time-delayed system as the driving system, and construct the TDGS driven systems according to the Theorems 1 and 2. Numerical simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed theorems. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  3. Global chaos synchronization with channel time-delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Guoping; Zheng Weixing; Chen Guanrong

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses a practical issue in chaos synchronization where there is a time-delay in the receiver as compared with the transmitter. A new synchronization scheme and a general criterion for global chaos synchronization are proposed and developed from the approach of unidirectional linear error feedback coupling with time-delay. The chaotic Chua's circuit is used for illustration, where the coupling parameters are determined according to the criterion under which the global chaos synchronization of the time-delay coupled systems is achieved

  4. Study of calculated and measured time dependent delayed neutron yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldo, R.W.

    1980-05-01

    Time-dependent delayed neutron emission is of interest in reactor design, reactor dynamics, and nuclear physics studies. The delayed neutrons from neutron-induced fission of 232 U, 237 Np, 238 Pu, 241 Am, /sup 242m/Am, 245 Cm, and 249 Cf were studied for the first time. The delayed neutron emission from 232 Th, 233 U, 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu, and 242 Pu were measured as well. The data were used to develop an empirical expression for the total delayed neutron yield. The expression gives accurate results for a large variety of nuclides from 232 Th to 252 Cf. The data measuring the decay of delayed neutrons with time were used to derive another empirical expression predicting the delayed neutron emission with time. It was found that nuclides with similar mass-to-charge ratios have similar decay patterns. Thus the relative decay pattern of one nuclide can be established by any measured nuclide with a similar mass-to-charge ratio. A simple fission product yield model was developed and applied to delayed neutron precursors. It accurately predicts observed yield and decay characteristics. In conclusion, it is possible to not only estimate the total delayed neutron yield for a given nuclide but the time-dependent nature of the delayed neutrons as well. Reactors utilizing recycled fuel or burning actinides are likely to have inventories of fissioning nuclides that have not been studied until now. The delayed neutrons from these nuclides can now be incorporated so that their influence on the stability and control of reactors can be delineated. 8 figures, 39 tables

  5. Heterogeneity of time delays determines synchronization of coupled oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkoski, Spase; Spiegler, Andreas; Proix, Timothée; Aram, Parham; Temprado, Jean-Jacques; Jirsa, Viktor K

    2016-07-01

    Network couplings of oscillatory large-scale systems, such as the brain, have a space-time structure composed of connection strengths and signal transmission delays. We provide a theoretical framework, which allows treating the spatial distribution of time delays with regard to synchronization, by decomposing it into patterns and therefore reducing the stability analysis into the tractable problem of a finite set of delay-coupled differential equations. We analyze delay-structured networks of phase oscillators and we find that, depending on the heterogeneity of the delays, the oscillators group in phase-shifted, anti-phase, steady, and non-stationary clusters, and analytically compute their stability boundaries. These results find direct application in the study of brain oscillations.

  6. Electrically tunable photonic true-time-delay line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmenkov, Yuri O; Cruz, José Luis; Díez, Antonio; Andrés, Miguel V

    2010-08-16

    We present a new application of the acousto-optic superlattice modulation of a fiber Bragg grating based on the dynamic phase and group delay properties of this fiber-optic component. We demonstrate a tunable photonic true-time-delay line based on the group delay change of the light reflected from the grating sidebands. The delay is electrically tuned by adjusting the voltage applied to a piezoelectric transducer that generates the acoustic wave propagating along the grating. In our experiments, a true-time delay of 400 ps is continuously adjusted (300 ps within the 3 dB amplitude range of the first sideband), using a 12 cm long uniform grating.

  7. Molecular alignment dependent electron interference in attosecond ultraviolet photoionization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Jun Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present molecular photoionization processes by intense attosecond ultraviolet laser pulses from numerical solutions of time-dependent Schrödinger equations. Simulations preformed on a single electron diatomic H2+ show minima in molecular photoelectron energy spectra resulting from two center interference effects which depend strongly on molecular alignment. We attribute such sensitivity to the spatial orientation asymmetry of the photoionization process from the two nuclei. A similar influence on photoelectron kinetic energies is also presented.

  8. Molecular alignment dependent electron interference in attosecond ultraviolet photoionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Bandrauk, André D.

    2015-01-01

    We present molecular photoionization processes by intense attosecond ultraviolet laser pulses from numerical solutions of time-dependent Schrödinger equations. Simulations preformed on a single electron diatomic H2+ show minima in molecular photoelectron energy spectra resulting from two center interference effects which depend strongly on molecular alignment. We attribute such sensitivity to the spatial orientation asymmetry of the photoionization process from the two nuclei. A similar influence on photoelectron kinetic energies is also presented. PMID:26798785

  9. Delay-Dependent Guaranteed Cost Control of an Interval System with Interval Time-Varying Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Min

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the problem of the delay-dependent robust stability and guaranteed cost control for an interval system with time-varying delay. The interval system with matrix factorization is provided and leads to less conservative conclusions than solving a square root. The time-varying delay is assumed to belong to an interval and the derivative of the interval time-varying delay is not a restriction, which allows a fast time-varying delay; also its applicability is broad. Based on the Lyapunov-Ktasovskii approach, a delay-dependent criterion for the existence of a state feedback controller, which guarantees the closed-loop system stability, the upper bound of cost function, and disturbance attenuation lever for all admissible uncertainties as well as out perturbation, is proposed in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. The criterion is derived by free weighting matrices that can reduce the conservatism. The effectiveness has been verified in a number example and the compute results are presented to validate the proposed design method.

  10. Synchronization of nonidentical chaotic neural networks with leakage delay and mixed time-varying delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Jinde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, an integral sliding mode control approach is presented to investigate synchronization of nonidentical chaotic neural networks with discrete and distributed time-varying delays as well as leakage delay. By considering a proper sliding surface and constructing Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, as well as employing a combination of the free-weighting matrix method, Newton-Leibniz formulation and inequality technique, a sliding mode controller is designed to achieve the asymptotical synchronization of the addressed nonidentical neural networks. Moreover, a sliding mode control law is also synthesized to guarantee the reachability of the specified sliding surface. The provided conditions are expressed in terms of linear matrix inequalities, and are dependent on the discrete and distributed time delays as well as leakage delay. A simulation example is given to verify the theoretical results.

  11. Adaptive modification of the delayed feedback control algorithm with a continuously varying time delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyragas, V.; Pyragas, K.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple adaptive delayed feedback control algorithm for stabilization of unstable periodic orbits with unknown periods. The state dependent time delay is varied continuously towards the period of controlled orbit according to a gradient-descent method realized through three simple ordinary differential equations. We demonstrate the efficiency of the algorithm with the Roessler and Mackey-Glass chaotic systems. The stability of the controlled orbits is proven by computation of the Lyapunov exponents of linearized equations. -- Highlights: → A simple adaptive modification of the delayed feedback control algorithm is proposed. → It enables the control of unstable periodic orbits with unknown periods. → The delay time is varied continuously according to a gradient descend method. → The algorithm is embodied by three simple ordinary differential equations. → The validity of the algorithm is proven by computation of the Lyapunov exponents.

  12. Delay-Dependent Asymptotic Stability of Cohen-Grossberg Models with Multiple Time-Varying Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Liao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamical behavior of a class of Cohen-Grossberg models with multiple time-varying delays is studied in detail. Sufficient delay-dependent criteria to ensure local and global asymptotic stabilities of the equilibrium of this network are derived by constructing suitable Lyapunov functionals. The obtained conditions are shown to be less conservative and restrictive than those reported in the known literature. Some numerical examples are included to demonstrate our results.

  13. A Framework for telerobotics across the time delays of space

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposal will develop a novel intelligent time-delay mitigation framework to be used in bilateral space telerobotics. This framework will consist of master...

  14. Attosecond control of electron beams at dielectric and absorbing membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yuya; Baum, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Ultrashort electron pulses are crucial for time-resolved electron diffraction and microscopy of the fundamental light-matter interaction. In this work, we study experimentally and theoretically the generation and characterization of attosecond electron pulses by optical-field-driven compression and streaking at dielectric or absorbing interaction elements. The achievable acceleration and deflection gradient depends on the laser-electron angle, the laser's electric and magnetic field directions, and the foil orientation. Electric and magnetic fields have similar contributions to the final effect and both need to be considered. Experiments and theory agree well and reveal the optimum conditions for highly efficient, velocity-matched electron-field interactions in the longitudinal or transverse direction. We find that metallic membranes are optimum for light-electron control at mid-infrared or terahertz wavelengths, but dielectric membranes are excellent in the visible and near-infrared regimes and are therefore ideal for the formation of attosecond electron pulses.

  15. Time-delayed feedback control of coherence resonance chimeras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, Anna; Semenova, Nadezhda; Anishchenko, Vadim; Schöll, Eckehard

    2017-11-01

    Using the model of a FitzHugh-Nagumo system in the excitable regime, we investigate the influence of time-delayed feedback on noise-induced chimera states in a network with nonlocal coupling, i.e., coherence resonance chimeras. It is shown that time-delayed feedback allows for the control of the range of parameter values where these chimera states occur. Moreover, for the feedback delay close to the intrinsic period of the system, we find a novel regime which we call period-two coherence resonance chimera.

  16. Synchronization of Markovian jumping stochastic complex networks with distributed time delays and probabilistic interval discrete time-varying delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongjie; Yue Dong

    2010-01-01

    The paper investigates the synchronization stability problem for a class of complex dynamical networks with Markovian jumping parameters and mixed time delays. The complex networks consist of m modes and the networks switch from one mode to another according to a Markovian chain with known transition probability. The mixed time delays are composed of discrete and distributed delays, the discrete time delay is assumed to be random and its probability distribution is known a priori. In terms of the probability distribution of the delays, the new type of system model with probability-distribution-dependent parameter matrices is proposed. Based on the stochastic analysis techniques and the properties of the Kronecker product, delay-dependent synchronization stability criteria in the mean square are derived in the form of linear matrix inequalities which can be readily solved by using the LMI toolbox in MATLAB, the solvability of derived conditions depends on not only the size of the delay, but also the probability of the delay-taking values in some intervals. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Optical resonators for true-time-delay beam steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesell, Leslie H.; Evanko, Stephen M.

    1996-06-01

    Conventional true time delay beamforming and steering devices rely on switching between various lengths of delay line. Therefore only discrete delays are possible. Proposed is a new photonics concept for true time delay beamforming which provides a finely controlled continuum of delays with switching speeds on the order of 10's of nanoseconds or faster. The architecture uses an array of waveguide cavities with different resonate frequencies to channelize the signal. Each spectral component of the signal is phase shifted by an amount proportional to the frequency of that component and the desired time delay. These phase shifted spectral components are then summed to obtain the delayed signal. This paper provides an overview of the results of a Phase I SBIR contract where this concept has been refined and analyzed. The parameters for an operational system are determined and indication of the feasibility of this approach is given. Among the issues addressed are the requirements of the resonators and the methods necessary to implement fiber optic Bragg gratings as these resonators.

  18. Delayed biodiversity change: no time to waste

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Essl, F.; Dullinger, S.; Rabitsch, W.; Hulme, P. E.; Pyšek, Petr; Wilson, J. R. U.; Richardson, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 7 (2015), s. 375-378 ISSN 0169-5347 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biological invasions * global change * time lags Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 16.735, year: 2015

  19. Truncated predictor feedback for time-delay systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Bin

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a systematic approach to the design of predictor based controllers for (time-varying) linear systems with either (time-varying) input or state delays. Differently from those traditional predictor based controllers, which are infinite-dimensional static feedback laws and may cause difficulties in their practical implementation, this book develops a truncated predictor feedback (TPF) which involves only finite dimensional static state feedback. Features and topics: A novel approach referred to as truncated predictor feedback for the stabilization of (time-varying) time-delay systems in both the continuous-time setting and the discrete-time setting is built systematically Semi-global and global stabilization problems of linear time-delay systems subject to either magnitude saturation or energy constraints are solved in a systematic manner Both stabilization of a single system and consensus of a group of systems (multi-agent systems) are treated in a unified manner by applying the truncated pre...

  20. An adaptive robust controller for time delay maglev transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Reza Hamidi; Zarabadipour, Hassan; Shahnazi, Reza

    2012-12-01

    For engineering systems, uncertainties and time delays are two important issues that must be considered in control design. Uncertainties are often encountered in various dynamical systems due to modeling errors, measurement noises, linearization and approximations. Time delays have always been among the most difficult problems encountered in process control. In practical applications of feedback control, time delay arises frequently and can severely degrade closed-loop system performance and in some cases, drives the system to instability. Therefore, stability analysis and controller synthesis for uncertain nonlinear time-delay systems are important both in theory and in practice and many analytical techniques have been developed using delay-dependent Lyapunov function. In the past decade the magnetic and levitation (maglev) transportation system as a new system with high functionality has been the focus of numerous studies. However, maglev transportation systems are highly nonlinear and thus designing controller for those are challenging. The main topic of this paper is to design an adaptive robust controller for maglev transportation systems with time-delay, parametric uncertainties and external disturbances. In this paper, an adaptive robust control (ARC) is designed for this purpose. It should be noted that the adaptive gain is derived from Lyapunov-Krasovskii synthesis method, therefore asymptotic stability is guaranteed.

  1. Attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy of molecular hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín, Fernando; González-Castrillo, Alberto; Palacios, Alicia; Argenti, Luca; Cheng, Yan; Chini, Michael; Wang, Xiaowei; Chang, Zenghu

    2015-01-01

    We extend attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (ATAS) to the study of hydrogen molecules, demonstrating the potential of the technique to resolve – simultaneously and with state resolution – both the electronic and nuclear dynamics. (paper)

  2. Improved Criteria on Delay-Dependent Stability for Discrete-Time Neural Networks with Interval Time-Varying Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Kwon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the delay-dependent stability analysis for discrete-time neural networks with interval time-varying delays. Based on Lyapunov method, improved delay-dependent criteria for the stability of the networks are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs by constructing a suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and utilizing reciprocally convex approach. Also, a new activation condition which has not been considered in the literature is proposed and utilized for derivation of stability criteria. Two numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Complex Time-Delay Systems Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Atay, Fatihcan M

    2010-01-01

    Time delays in dynamical systems arise as an inevitable consequence of finite speeds of information transmission. Realistic models increasingly demand the inclusion of delays in order to properly understand, analyze, design, and control real-life systems. The goal of this book is to present the state-of-the-art in research on time-delay dynamics in the framework of complex systems and networks. While the mathematical theory of delay equations is quite mature, its application to the particular problems of complex systems and complexity is a newly emerging field, and the present volume aims to play a pioneering role in this perspective. The chapters in this volume are authored by renowned experts and cover both theory and applications in a wide range of fields, with examples extending from neuroscience and biology to laser physics and vehicle traffic. Furthermore, all chapters include sufficient introductory material and extensive bibliographies, making the book a self-contained reference for both students and ...

  4. Periodic solutions in reaction–diffusion equations with time delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Spatial diffusion and time delay are two main factors in biological and chemical systems. However, the combined effects of them on diffusion systems are not well studied. As a result, we investigate a nonlinear diffusion system with delay and obtain the existence of the periodic solutions using coincidence degree theory. Moreover, two numerical examples confirm our theoretical results. The obtained results can also be applied in other related fields

  5. Relativity time-delay experiments utilizing 'Mariner' spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, P. B.; Anderson, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Relativity predicts that the transit time of a signal propagated from the earth to a spacecraft and retransmitted back to earth ought to exhibit an additional, variable time delay. The present work describes some of the analytical techniques employed in experiments using Mariner spacecraft designed to test the accuracy of this prediction. Two types of data are analyzed in these relativity experiments; these include phase-coherent, two-way Doppler shift and round-trip, transit-time measurements. Results of Mariner 6 and 7 relativistic time-delay experiments are in agreement with Einstein's theory of general relativity with an uncertainty of 3%.

  6. Visual prediction: psychophysics and neurophysiology of compensation for time delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhawan, Romi

    2008-04-01

    A necessary consequence of the nature of neural transmission systems is that as change in the physical state of a time-varying event takes place, delays produce error between the instantaneous registered state and the external state. Another source of delay is the transmission of internal motor commands to muscles and the inertia of the musculoskeletal system. How does the central nervous system compensate for these pervasive delays? Although it has been argued that delay compensation occurs late in the motor planning stages, even the earliest visual processes, such as phototransduction, contribute significantly to delays. I argue that compensation is not an exclusive property of the motor system, but rather, is a pervasive feature of the central nervous system (CNS) organization. Although the motor planning system may contain a highly flexible compensation mechanism, accounting not just for delays but also variability in delays (e.g., those resulting from variations in luminance contrast, internal body temperature, muscle fatigue, etc.), visual mechanisms also contribute to compensation. Previous suggestions of this notion of "visual prediction" led to a lively debate producing re-examination of previous arguments, new analyses, and review of the experiments presented here. Understanding visual prediction will inform our theories of sensory processes and visual perception, and will impact our notion of visual awareness.

  7. Timing analysis of two-electron photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheifets, A S; Ivanov, I A; Bray, Igor

    2011-01-01

    We predict a significant delay of two-electron photoemission from the helium atom after absorption of an attosecond XUV pulse. We establish this delay by solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation and by subsequently tracing the field-free evolution of the two-electron wave packet. This delay can also be related to the energy derivative of the phase of the complex double-photoionization (DPI) amplitude which we evaluate by using the convergent close-coupling method. Our observations indicate that future attosecond time delay measurements on DPI of He can provide information on the absolute quantum phase and elucidate various mechanisms of this strongly correlated ionization process. (fast track communication)

  8. Experiments with arbitrary networks in time-multiplexed delay systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joseph D.; Schmadel, Don C.; Murphy, Thomas E.; Roy, Rajarshi

    2017-12-01

    We report a new experimental approach using an optoelectronic feedback loop to investigate the dynamics of oscillators coupled on large complex networks with arbitrary topology. Our implementation is based on a single optoelectronic feedback loop with time delays. We use the space-time interpretation of systems with time delay to create large networks of coupled maps. Others have performed similar experiments using high-pass filters to implement the coupling; this restricts the network topology to the coupling of only a few nearest neighbors. In our experiment, the time delays and coupling are implemented on a field-programmable gate array, allowing the creation of networks with arbitrary coupling topology. This system has many advantages: the network nodes are truly identical, the network is easily reconfigurable, and the network dynamics occur at high speeds. We use this system to study cluster synchronization and chimera states in both small and large networks of different topologies.

  9. Kalman filtering for time-delayed linear systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiao; WANG Wei

    2006-01-01

    This paper is to study the linear minimum variance estimation for discrete- time systems. A simple approach to the problem is presented by developing re-organized innovation analysis for the systems with instantaneous and double time-delayed measurements. It is shown that the derived estimator involves solving three different standard Kalman filtering with the same dimension as the original system. The obtained results form the basis for solving some complicated problems such as H∞ fixed-lag smoothing, preview control, H∞ filtering and control with time delays.

  10. Robust Moving Horizon H∞ Control of Discrete Time-Delayed Systems with Interval Time-Varying Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Yıldız Tascikaraoglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, design of a delay-dependent type moving horizon state-feedback control (MHHC is considered for a class of linear discrete-time system subject to time-varying state delays, norm-bounded uncertainties, and disturbances with bounded energies. The closed-loop robust stability and robust performance problems are considered to overcome the instability and poor disturbance rejection performance due to the existence of parametric uncertainties and time-delay appeared in the system dynamics. Utilizing a discrete-time Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, some delay-dependent linear matrix inequality (LMI based conditions are provided. It is shown that if one can find a feasible solution set for these LMI conditions iteratively at each step of run-time, then we can construct a control law which guarantees the closed-loop asymptotic stability, maximum disturbance rejection performance, and closed-loop dissipativity in view of the actuator limitations. Two numerical examples with simulations on a nominal and uncertain discrete-time, time-delayed systems, are presented at the end, in order to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  11. Introduction to Focus Issue: Time-delay dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erneux, Thomas; Javaloyes, Julien; Wolfrum, Matthias; Yanchuk, Serhiy

    2017-11-01

    The field of dynamical systems with time delay is an active research area that connects practically all scientific disciplines including mathematics, physics, engineering, biology, neuroscience, physiology, economics, and many others. This Focus Issue brings together contributions from both experimental and theoretical groups and emphasizes a large variety of applications. In particular, lasers and optoelectronic oscillators subject to time-delayed feedbacks have been explored by several authors for their specific dynamical output, but also because they are ideal test-beds for experimental studies of delay induced phenomena. Topics include the control of cavity solitons, as light spots in spatially extended systems, new devices for chaos communication or random number generation, higher order locking phenomena between delay and laser oscillation period, and systematic bifurcation studies of mode-locked laser systems. Moreover, two original theoretical approaches are explored for the so-called Low Frequency Fluctuations, a particular chaotical regime in laser output which has attracted a lot of interest for more than 30 years. Current hot problems such as the synchronization properties of networks of delay-coupled units, novel stabilization techniques, and the large delay limit of a delay differential equation are also addressed in this special issue. In addition, analytical and numerical tools for bifurcation problems with or without noise and two reviews on concrete questions are proposed. The first review deals with the rich dynamics of simple delay climate models for El Nino Southern Oscillations, and the second review concentrates on neuromorphic photonic circuits where optical elements are used to emulate spiking neurons. Finally, two interesting biological problems are considered in this Focus Issue, namely, multi-strain epidemic models and the interaction of glucose and insulin for more effective treatment.

  12. Generation of wideband chaos with suppressed time-delay signature by delayed self-interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anbang; Yang, Yibiao; Wang, Bingjie; Zhang, Beibei; Li, Lei; Wang, Yuncai

    2013-04-08

    We demonstrate experimentally and numerically a method using the incoherent delayed self-interference (DSI) of chaotic light from a semiconductor laser with optical feedback to generate wideband chaotic signal. The results show that, the DSI can eliminate the domination of laser relaxation oscillation existing in the chaotic laser light and therefore flatten and widen the power spectrum. Furthermore, the DSI depresses the time-delay signature induced by external cavity modes and improves the symmetry of probability distribution by more than one magnitude. We also experimentally show that this DSI signal is beneficial to the random number generation.

  13. Delay-dependent exponential stability for neural networks with discrete and distributed time-varying delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xunlin; Wang Youyi

    2009-01-01

    This Letter studies the exponential stability for a class of neural networks (NNs) with both discrete and distributed time-varying delays. Under weaker assumptions on the activation functions, by defining a more general type of Lyapunov functionals and developing a new convex combination technique, new less conservative and less complex stability criteria are established to guarantee the global exponential stability of the discussed NNs. The obtained conditions are dependent on both discrete and distributed delays, are expressed in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), and contain fewer decision variables. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness and the less conservatism of the proposed conditions.

  14. On the linearity of cross-correlation delay times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercerat, E. D.; Nolet, G.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the question whether a P-wave delay time Δ T estimated by locating the maximum of the cross-correlation function between data d(t) and a predicted test function s(t): γ (t) = ∫ t1t_2 s(τ ) d(τ -t) \\ {d}τ, provides an estimate of the Delta T that is (quasi-)linear with the relative velocity perturbation deltaln V_P}. Such linearity is intuitive if the data d(t) is an undeformed but delayed replica of the test signal, i.e. if d(t)=s(t-Delta T). Then the maximum of gamma (t) is shifted exactly by the delay Delta T, and linearity holds even for Delta T very large. In this case, we say that the body waves are in the ray theoretical regime and their delays, because of Fermat's Principle, depend quasi-linearly on the relative velocity (or slowness) perturbations deltaln V_P in the model. However, even if we correct for dispersion induced by the instrument response and by attenuation, body waves may show frequency dependent delay times that are caused by diffraction effects around lateral heterogeneities. It is not a-priori clear that linearity holds for Delta T, as is assumed in finite-frequency theory, if the waveforms of d(t) and s(t) differ substantially because of such dispersion. To test the linearity, we generate synthetic seismograms between two boreholes, and between the boreholes and the surface, in a 3D box of 200 × 120 × 120 m. The heterogeneity is a checkerboard with cubic anomalies of size 12 × 12 × 12 m. We test two different anomaly amplitudes: ± 2% and ± 5%, and measure Delta T using a test seismogram s(t) computed for an homogeneous medium. We also predict the delays for the 5% model from those in the 2% model by multiplying with 5/2. These predictions are in error by 10-20% of the delay, which is usually acceptable for tomography when compared with actual data errors. A slight bias in the prediction indicates that the Wielandt effect - the fact that negative delays suffer less wavefront healing than positive delays - is a

  15. Start time delays in operating room: Different perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthcare expenditure is a serious concern, with escalating costs failing to meet the expectations of quality care. The treatment capacities are limited in a hospital setting and the operating rooms (ORs. Their optimal utilization is vital in efficient hospital management. Starting late means considerable wait time for staff, patients and waste of resources. We planned an audit to assess different perspectives of the residents in surgical specialities and anesthesia and OR staff nurses so as to know the causative factors of operative delay. This can help develop a practical model to decrease start time delays in operating room (ORs. Aims: An audit to assess different perspectives of the Operating room (OR staff with respect to the varied causative factors of operative delay in the OR. To aid in the development of a practical model to decrease start time delays in ORs and facilitate on-time starts at Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma centre (JPNATC, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS, New Delhi. Methods: We prepared a questionnaire seeking the five main reasons of delay as per their perspective. Results: The available data was analysed. Analysis of the data demonstrated the common causative factors in start time operative delays as: a lack of proper planning, deficiencies in team work, communication gap and limited availability of trained supporting staff. Conclusions: The preparation of the equipment and required material for the OR cases must be done well in advance. Utilization of newer technology enables timely booking and scheduling of cases. Improved inter-departmental coordination and compliance with preanesthetic instructions needs to be ensured. It is essential that the anesthesiologists perform their work promptly, well in time . and supervise the proceedings as the OR manager. This audit is a step forward in defining the need of effective OR planning for continuous quality improvement.

  16. Singular perturbation methods for nonlinear dynamic systems with time delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, H.Y.; Wang, Z.H.

    2009-01-01

    This review article surveys the recent advances in the dynamics and control of time-delay systems, with emphasis on the singular perturbation methods, such as the method of multiple scales, the method of averaging, and two newly developed methods, the energy analysis and the pseudo-oscillator analysis. Some examples are given to demonstrate the advantages of the methods. The comparisons with other methods show that these methods lead to easier computations and higher accurate prediction on the local dynamics of time-delay systems near a Hopf bifurcation.

  17. Extracting the relevant delays in time series modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril

    1997-01-01

    selection, and more precisely stepwise forward selection. The method is compared to other forward selection schemes, as well as to a nonparametric tests aimed at estimating the embedding dimension of time series. The final application extends these results to the efficient estimation of FIR filters on some......In this contribution, we suggest a convenient way to use generalisation error to extract the relevant delays from a time-varying process, i.e. the delays that lead to the best prediction performance. We design a generalisation-based algorithm that takes its inspiration from traditional variable...

  18. Period doubling phenomenon in a class of time delay equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.R. de; Malta, C.P.

    1985-01-01

    The properties of the solution of a nonlinear time delayed differential equation (infinite dimension) as function of two parameters: the time delay tau and another parameter A (nonlinearity) are investigated. After a Hopf bifurcation period doubling may occur and is characterized by Feigenbaum's delta. A strange atractor is obtained after the period doubling cascade and the largest Lyapunov exponent is calculated indicating that the attractor has low dimension. The behaviour of this Liapunov exponent as function of tau is different from its behaviour as function of A. (Author) [pt

  19. Time delay correlations in chaotic scattering and random matrix approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, N.; Savin, D.V.; Sokolov, V.V.; Sommers, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    We study the correlations in the time delay a model of chaotic resonance scattering based on the random matrix approach. Analytical formulae which are valid for arbitrary number of open channels and arbitrary coupling strength between resonances and channels are obtained by the supersymmetry method. The time delay correlation function, through being not a Lorentzian, is characterized, similar to that of the scattering matrix, by the gap between the cloud of complex poles of the S-matrix and the real energy axis. 28 refs.; 4 figs

  20. Coherence resonance in an excitable system with time delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethia, Gautam C.; Kurths, Juergen; Sen, Abhijit

    2007-01-01

    We study the noise activated dynamics of a model excitable system that consists of a subcritical Hopf oscillator with a time delayed nonlinear feedback. The coherence of the noise driven pulses of the system exhibits a novel double peaked structure as a function of the noise amplitude. The two peaks correspond to separate optimal noise levels for excitation of single spikes and multiple spikes (bursts) respectively. The relative magnitudes of these peaks are found to be a sensitive function of time delay. The physical significance of our results and its practical implications in various real life systems are discussed

  1. Reconstruction of ensembles of coupled time-delay systems from time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysoev, I V; Prokhorov, M D; Ponomarenko, V I; Bezruchko, B P

    2014-06-01

    We propose a method to recover from time series the parameters of coupled time-delay systems and the architecture of couplings between them. The method is based on a reconstruction of model delay-differential equations and estimation of statistical significance of couplings. It can be applied to networks composed of nonidentical nodes with an arbitrary number of unidirectional and bidirectional couplings. We test our method on chaotic and periodic time series produced by model equations of ensembles of diffusively coupled time-delay systems in the presence of noise, and apply it to experimental time series obtained from electronic oscillators with delayed feedback coupled by resistors.

  2. Determination of Uncalibrated Phase Delays for Real-Time PPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinterberger, Fabian; Weber, Robert; Huber, Katrin; Lesjak, Roman

    2014-05-01

    Today PPP is a well-known technique of GNSS based positioning used for a wide range of post-processing applications. Using observations of a single GNSS receiver and applying precise orbit and clock information derived from global GNSS networks highly precise positions can be obtained. The atmospheric delays are usually mitigated by linear combination (ionosphere) and parameter estimation (troposphere). Within the last years also the demand for real-time PPP increased. In 2012, the IGS real-time working group started a pilot project to broadcast real-time precise orbits and clock correction streams. Nevertheless, real-time PPP is in its starting phase and currently only few applications make use of the technique although SSR-Messages are already implemented in RTCM3.1. The problems of still limited accuracy compared to Network-RTK as well as long convergence times might be solved by almost instantaneous integer ambiguity resolution at zero-difference level which is a major topic of current scientific investigations. Therefore a national consortium has carried out over the past 2 years the research project PPP-Serve (funded by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency - FFG), which aimed at the development of appropriate algorithms for real-time PPP with special emphasis on the ambiguity resolution of zero-difference observations. We have established a module which calculates based on GPS-reference station data-streams of a dense network (obtained from IGS via BKG) so-called wide-lane and narrow-lane satellite specific calibration phase delays. While the wide-lane phase delays are almost stable over longer periods, the estimation of narrow-lane phase delays has to be re-established every 24 hours. These phase-delays are submitted via a real-time module to the rover where they are used for point positioning via a PPP-model. This presentation deals with the process and obstacles of calculating the wide-lane and narrow-lane phase-delays (based on SD -observations between

  3. Optical True Time Delay for Phased Array Antennas Composed of 2×2 Optical MEMS Switches and Fiber Delay Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Back-Song; Lee; Jong-Dug; Shin; Boo-Gyoun; Kim

    2003-01-01

    We proposed an optical true time delay (TTD) for phased array antennas (PAAs) composed of 2×2 optical MEMS switches, single-mode fiber delay lines, and a fixed wavelength laser diode. A 3-bit TTD for 10 GHz PAAs was implemented with a time delay error less than ± 0.2 ps.

  4. Time delays across saddles as a test of modified gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magueijo, João; Mozaffari, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Modified gravity theories can produce strong signals in the vicinity of the saddles of the total gravitational potential. In a sub-class of these models, this translates into diverging time delays for echoes crossing the saddles. Such models arise from the possibility that gravity might be infrared divergent or confined, and if suitably designed they are very difficult to rule out. We show that Lunar Laser Ranging during an eclipse could probe the time-delay effect within metres of the saddle, thereby proving or excluding these models. Very Large Baseline Interferometry, instead, could target delays across the Jupiter–Sun saddle. Such experiments would shed light on the infrared behaviour of gravity and examine the puzzling possibility that there might be well-hidden regions of strong gravity and even singularities inside the solar system. (fast track communication)

  5. Two-actor conflict with time delay: A dynamical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qubbaj, Murad R.; Muneepeerakul, Rachata

    2012-11-01

    Recent mathematical dynamical models of the conflict between two different actors, be they nations, groups, or individuals, have been developed that are capable of predicting various outcomes depending on the chosen feedback strategies, initial conditions, and the previous states of the actors. In addition to these factors, this paper examines the effect of time delayed feedback on the conflict dynamics. Our analysis shows that under certain initial and feedback conditions, a stable neutral equilibrium of conflict may destabilize for some critical values of time delay, and the two actors may evolve to new emotional states. We investigate the results by constructing critical delay surfaces for different sets of parameters and analyzing results from numerical simulations. These results provide new insights regarding conflict and conflict resolution and may help planners in adjusting and assessing their strategic decisions.

  6. Low-complexity controllers for time-delay systems

    CERN Document Server

    Özbay, Hitay; Bonnet, Catherine; Mounier, Hugues

    2014-01-01

    This volume in the newly established series Advances in Delays and Dynamics (ADD@S) provides a collection of recent results on the design and analysis of Low Complexity Controllers for Time Delay Systems. A widely used indirect method to obtain low order controllers for time delay systems is to design a controller for the reduced order model of the plant. In the dual indirect approach, an infinite dimensional controller is designed first for the original plant model; then, the controller is approximated by keeping track of the degradation in performance and stability robustness measures. The present volume includes new techniques used at different stages of the indirect approach. It also includes new direct design methods for fixed structure and low order controllers. On the other hand, what is meant by low complexity controller is not necessarily low order controller. For example, Smith predictor or similar type of controllers include a copy of the plant internally in the controller, so they are technically ...

  7. Losing track of time through delayed body representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Thomas H; Steixner, Agnes; Boettger, Joachim; Villringer, Arno

    2015-01-01

    The ability to keep track of time is perceived as crucial in most human societies. However, to lose track of time may also serve an important social role, associated with recreational purpose. To this end a number of social technologies are employed, some of which may relate to a manipulation of time perception through a modulation of body representation. Here, we investigated an influence of real-time or delayed videos of own-body representations on time perception in an experimental setup with virtual mirrors. Seventy participants were asked to either stay in the installation until they thought that a defined time (90 s) had passed, or they were encouraged to stay in the installation as long as they wanted and after exiting were asked to estimate the duration of their stay. Results show that a modulation of body representation by time-delayed representations of the mirror-video displays influenced time perception. Furthermore, these time-delayed conditions were associated with a greater sense of arousal and intoxication. We suggest that feeding in references to the immediate past into working memory could be the underlying mental mechanism mediating the observed modulation of time perception. We argue that such an influence on time perception would probably not only be achieved visually, but might also work with acoustic references to the immediate past (e.g., with music).

  8. Losing track of time through delayed body representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hans Fritz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to keep track of time is perceived as crucial in most human societies. However, to lose track of time may also serve an important social role, associated with recreational purpose. To this end a number of social technologies are employed, some of which may relate to a manipulation of time perception through a modulation of body representation. Here we investigated an influence of real-time or delayed videos of own-body representations on time perception in an experimental setup with virtual mirrors. Seventy participants were asked to either stay in the installation until they thought that a defined time (90 s had passed, or they were encouraged to stay in the installation as long as they wanted and after exiting were asked to estimate the duration of their stay. Results show that a modulation of body representation by time-delayed representations of the mirror-video displays influenced time perception. Furthermore, these time-delayed conditions were associated with a greater sense of arousal and intoxication. We suggest that feeding in references to the immediate past into working memory could be the underlying mental mechanism mediating the observed modulation of time perception. We argue that such an influence on time perception would probably not only be achieved visually, but might also work with acoustic references to the immediate past (e.g., with music.

  9. On Tuning PI Controllers for Integrating Plus Time Delay Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Di Ruscio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Some analytical results concerning PI controller tuning based on integrator plus time delay models are worked out and presented. A method for obtaining PI controller parameters, Kp=alpha/(k*tau, and, Ti=beta*tau, which ensures a given prescribed maximum time delay error, dtau_max, to time delay, tau, ratio parameter delta=dau_max/tau, is presented. The corner stone in this method, is a method product parameter, c=alpha*beta. Analytical relations between the PI controller parameters, Ti, and, Kp, and the time delay error parameter, delta, is presented, and we propose the setting, beta=c/a*(delta+1, and, alpha=a/(delta+1, which gives, Ti=c/a*(delta+1*tau, and Kp=a/((delta+1*k*tau, where the parameter, a, is constant in the method product parameter, c=alpha*beta. It also turns out that the integral time, Ti, is linear in, delta, and the proportional gain, Kp, inversely proportional to, delta+1. For the original Ziegler Nichols (ZN method this parameter is approximately, c=2.38, and the presented method may e.g., be used to obtain new modified ZN parameters with increased robustness margins, also documented in the paper.

  10. Global synchronization for time-delay of WINDMI System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junxa; Lu Dianchen; Tian Lixin

    2006-01-01

    Considering a time-delay in the receiver as compared with the transmitter, we addresses a practical issue in chaos synchronization of WINDMI system which is based on the Lyapunov stabilization theory and matrix measure, such that the state of the slave system at time t is asymptotically synchronizing with the master at time t - τ. The Mathematical software is used to prove the effectiveness of this method

  11. A simple time-delayed method to control chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Maoyin; Zhou Donghua; Shang Yun

    2004-01-01

    Based on the adaptive iterative learning strategy, a simple time-delayed controller is proposed to stabilize unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) embedded in chaotic attractors. This controller includes two parts: one is a linear feedback part; the other is an adaptive iterative learning estimation part. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation show the effectiveness of this controller

  12. A time-delayed method for controlling chaotic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Maoyin; Zhou Donghua; Shang Yun

    2005-01-01

    Combining the repetitive learning strategy and the optimality principle, this Letter proposes a time-delayed method to control chaotic maps. This method can effectively stabilize unstable periodic orbits within chaotic attractors in the sense of least mean square. Numerical simulations of some chaotic maps verify the effectiveness of this method

  13. Partial synchronization in diffusively time-delay coupled oscillator networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steur, E.; Oguchi, T.; Leeuwen, van C.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2012-01-01

    We study networks of diffusively time-delay coupled oscillatory units and we show that networks with certain symmetries can exhibit a form of incomplete synchronization called partial synchronization. We present conditions for the existence and stability of partial synchronization modes in networks

  14. Time delay between cardiac and brain activity during sleep transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, X.; Arends, J.B.A.M.; Aarts, R.M.; Haakma, R.; Fonseca, P.; Rolink, J.

    2015-01-01

    Human sleep consists of wake, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, and non-REM (NREM) sleep that includes light and deep sleep stages. This work investigated the time delay between changes of cardiac and brain activity for sleep transitions. Here, the brain activity was quantified by

  15. Stability Criteria for Differential Equations with Variable Time Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schley, D.; Shail, R.; Gourley, S. A.

    2002-01-01

    Time delays are an important aspect of mathematical modelling, but often result in highly complicated equations which are difficult to treat analytically. In this paper it is shown how careful application of certain undergraduate tools such as the Method of Steps and the Principle of the Argument can yield significant results. Certain delay…

  16. Relation between Time Perspective and Delay Discounting: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuscher, Ursina; Mitchell, Suzanne H.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine the relation between delay discounting and future time perspective by reviewing how these concepts have been measured and quantified in order to assess their conceptual similarities. The extent to which the different measures are empirically related is reviewed by describing studies that have assessed both constructs…

  17. Integrated optical delay lines for time-division multiplexers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stopinski, S.T.; Malinowski, M.; Piramidowicz, R.; Kleijn, E.; Smit, M.K.; Leijtens, X.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a study of integrated optical delay lines (DLs) for application in optical time-division multiplexers. The investigated DLs are formed by spirally folded waveguides. The components were designed in a generic approach and fabricated in multi-project wafer runs on an

  18. Effect of Magnetic Activity on Ionospheric Time Delay at Low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E) using dual frequency (1575.42 and 1227.60 MHz) GPS measurements. Data from GSV4004A GPS Iono- spheric Scintillation and TEC monitor (GISTM) have been chosen to study these effects. This paper presents the results of ionospheric time delay during quiet and disturbed days for the year 2005. Results show that.

  19. Time-dependent delayed signatures from energetic photon interrogations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, Daren R.; Jones, James L.; Blackburn, Brandon W.; Haskell, Kevin J.; Johnson, James T.; Watson, Scott M.; Hunt, Alan W.; Spaulding, Randy; Harmon, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Pulsed photonuclear interrogation environments generated by 8-24 MeV electron linac are rich with time-dependent, material-specific, radiation signatures. Nitrogen-based explosives and nuclear materials can be detected by exploiting these signatures in different delayed-time regions. Numerical and experimental results presented in this paper show the unique time and energy dependence of these signatures. It is shown that appropriate delayed-time windows are essential to acquire material-specific signatures in pulsed photonuclear assessment environments. These developments demonstrate that pulsed, high-energy, photon-inspection environments can be exploited for time-dependent, material-specific signatures through the proper operation of specialized detectors and detection methods

  20. Comment on ‘Time delays in molecular photoionization’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykusheva, Denitsa; Wörner, Hans Jakob

    2017-04-01

    In a recent article by Hockett et al (2016 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 49 095602), time delays arising in the context of molecular single-photon ionization are investigated from a theoretical point of view. We argue that one of the central equations given in this article is incorrect and present a reformulation that is consistent with the established treatment of angle-dependent scattering delays (Eisenbud 1948 PhD Thesis Princeton University; Wigner 1955 Phys. Rev. 98 145-7 Smith 1960 Phys. Rev. 118 349-6 Nussenzveig 1972 Phys. Rev. D 6 1534-42).

  1. Arbitrary digital pulse sequence generator with delay-loop timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hošák, Radim; Ježek, Miroslav

    2018-04-01

    We propose an idea of an electronic multi-channel arbitrary digital sequence generator with temporal granularity equal to two clock cycles. We implement the generator with 32 channels using a low-cost ARM microcontroller and demonstrate its capability to produce temporal delays ranging from tens of nanoseconds to hundreds of seconds, with 24 ns timing granularity and linear scaling of delay with respect to the number of delay loop iterations. The generator is optionally synchronized with an external clock source to provide 100 ps jitter and overall sequence repeatability within the whole temporal range. The generator is fully programmable and able to produce digital sequences of high complexity. The concept of the generator can be implemented using different microcontrollers and applied for controlling of various optical, atomic, and nuclear physics measurement setups.

  2. A comparison of cosmological models using time delay lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Melia, Fulvio, E-mail: jjwei@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: xfwu@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: fmelia@email.arizona.edu [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2014-06-20

    The use of time-delay gravitational lenses to examine the cosmological expansion introduces a new standard ruler with which to test theoretical models. The sample suitable for this kind of work now includes 12 lens systems, which have thus far been used solely for optimizing the parameters of ΛCDM. In this paper, we broaden the base of support for this new, important cosmic probe by using these observations to carry out a one-on-one comparison between competing models. The currently available sample indicates a likelihood of ∼70%-80% that the R {sub h} = ct universe is the correct cosmology versus ∼20%-30% for the standard model. This possibly interesting result reinforces the need to greatly expand the sample of time-delay lenses, e.g., with the successful implementation of the Dark Energy Survey, the VST ATLAS survey, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. In anticipation of a greatly expanded catalog of time-delay lenses identified with these surveys, we have produced synthetic samples to estimate how large they would have to be in order to rule out either model at a ∼99.7% confidence level. We find that if the real cosmology is ΛCDM, a sample of ∼150 time-delay lenses would be sufficient to rule out R {sub h} = ct at this level of accuracy, while ∼1000 time-delay lenses would be required to rule out ΛCDM if the real universe is instead R {sub h} = ct. This difference in required sample size reflects the greater number of free parameters available to fit the data with ΛCDM.

  3. A comparison of cosmological models using time delay lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Melia, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    The use of time-delay gravitational lenses to examine the cosmological expansion introduces a new standard ruler with which to test theoretical models. The sample suitable for this kind of work now includes 12 lens systems, which have thus far been used solely for optimizing the parameters of ΛCDM. In this paper, we broaden the base of support for this new, important cosmic probe by using these observations to carry out a one-on-one comparison between competing models. The currently available sample indicates a likelihood of ∼70%-80% that the R h = ct universe is the correct cosmology versus ∼20%-30% for the standard model. This possibly interesting result reinforces the need to greatly expand the sample of time-delay lenses, e.g., with the successful implementation of the Dark Energy Survey, the VST ATLAS survey, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. In anticipation of a greatly expanded catalog of time-delay lenses identified with these surveys, we have produced synthetic samples to estimate how large they would have to be in order to rule out either model at a ∼99.7% confidence level. We find that if the real cosmology is ΛCDM, a sample of ∼150 time-delay lenses would be sufficient to rule out R h = ct at this level of accuracy, while ∼1000 time-delay lenses would be required to rule out ΛCDM if the real universe is instead R h = ct. This difference in required sample size reflects the greater number of free parameters available to fit the data with ΛCDM.

  4. Measurement of time delay for a prospectively gated CT simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goharian, M; Khan, R F H

    2010-04-01

    For the management of mobile tumors, respiratory gating is the ideal option, both during imaging and during therapy. The major advantage of respiratory gating during imaging is that it is possible to create a single artifact-free CT data-set during a selected phase of the patient's breathing cycle. The purpose of the present work is to present a simple technique to measure the time delay during acquisition of a prospectively gated CT. The time delay of a Philips Brilliance BigBore (Philips Medical Systems, Madison, WI) scanner attached to a Varian Real-Time Position Management (RPM) system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) was measured. Two methods were used to measure the CT time delay: using a motion phantom and using a recorded data file from the RPM system. In the first technique, a rotating wheel phantom was altered by placing two plastic balls on its axis and rim, respectively. For a desired gate, the relative positions of the balls were measured from the acquired CT data and converted into corresponding phases. Phase difference was calculated between the measured phases and the desired phases. Using period of motion, the phase difference was converted into time delay. The Varian RPM system provides an external breathing signal; it also records transistor-transistor logic (TTL) 'X-Ray ON' status signal from the CT scanner in a text file. The TTL 'X-Ray ON' indicates the start of CT image acquisition. Thus, knowledge of the start time of CT acquisition, combined with the real-time phase and amplitude data from the external respiratory signal, provides time-stamping of all images in an axial CT scan. The TTL signal with time-stamp was used to calculate when (during the breathing cycle) a slice was recorded. Using the two approaches, the time delay between the prospective gating signal and CT simulator has been determined to be 367 +/- 40 ms. The delay requires corrections both at image acquisition and while setting gates for the treatment delivery

  5. Measurement of time delay for a prospectively gated CT simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goharian M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For the management of mobile tumors, respiratory gating is the ideal option, both during imaging and during therapy. The major advantage of respiratory gating during imaging is that it is possible to create a single artifact-free CT data-set during a selected phase of the patient′s breathing cycle. The purpose of the present work is to present a simple technique to measure the time delay during acquisition of a prospectively gated CT. The time delay of a Philips Brilliance BigBore™ (Philips Medical Systems, Madison, WI scanner attached to a Varian Real-Time Position Management™ (RPM system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA was measured. Two methods were used to measure the CT time delay: using a motion phantom and using a recorded data file from the RPM system. In the first technique, a rotating wheel phantom was altered by placing two plastic balls on its axis and rim, respectively. For a desired gate, the relative positions of the balls were measured from the acquired CT data and converted into corresponding phases. Phase difference was calculated between the measured phases and the desired phases. Using period of motion, the phase difference was converted into time delay. The Varian RPM system provides an external breathing signal; it also records transistor-transistor logic (TTL ′X-Ray ON′ status signal from the CT scanner in a text file. The TTL ′X-Ray ON′ indicates the start of CT image acquisition. Thus, knowledge of the start time of CT acquisition, combined with the real-time phase and amplitude data from the external respiratory signal, provides time-stamping of all images in an axial CT scan. The TTL signal with time-stamp was used to calculate when (during the breathing cycle a slice was recorded. Using the two approaches, the time delay between the prospective gating signal and CT simulator has been determined to be 367 ± 40 ms. The delay requires corrections both at image acquisition and while setting gates for

  6. Measurement of time delay for a prospectively gated CT simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goharian, M.; Khan, R.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    For the management of mobile tumors, respiratory gating is the ideal option, both during imaging and during therapy. The major advantage of respiratory gating during imaging is that it is possible to create a single artifact-free CT data-set during a selected phase of the patient's breathing cycle. The purpose of the present work is to present a simple technique to measure the time delay during acquisition of a prospectively gated CT. The time delay of a Philips Brilliance BigBore (Philips Medical Systems, Madison, WI) scanner attached to a Varian Real-Time Position Management (RPM) system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) was measured. Two methods were used to measure the CT time delay: using a motion phantom and using a recorded data file from the RPM system. In the first technique, a rotating wheel phantom was altered by placing two plastic balls on its axis and rim, respectively. For a desired gate, the relative positions of the balls were measured from the acquired CT data and converted into corresponding phases. Phase difference was calculated between the measured phases and the desired phases. Using period of motion, the phase difference was converted into time delay. The Varian RPM system provides an external breathing signal; it also records transistor-transistor logic (TTL) 'X-Ray ON' status signal from the CT scanner in a text file. The TTL 'X-Ray ON' indicates the start of CT image acquisition. Thus, knowledge of the start time of CT acquisition, combined with the real-time phase and amplitude data from the external respiratory signal, provides time-stamping of all images in an axial CT scan. The TTL signal with time-stamp was used to calculate when (during the breathing cycle) a slice was recorded. Using the two approaches, the time delay between the prospective gating signal and CT simulator has been determined to be 367 ± 40 ms. The delay requires corrections both at image acquisition and while setting gates for the treatment delivery

  7. Delay-dependent asymptotic stability of a two-neuron system with different time delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Fenghua; Liao Xiaofeng; Zhang Wei

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a two-neuron system with time-delayed connections between neurons. Based on the construction of Lyapunov functionals, we obtain sufficient criteria to ensure local and global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium of the neural network. The obtained conditions are shown to be less conservative and restrictive than those reported in the literature. Some examples are included to illustrate our results

  8. Tunable Optical True-Time Delay Devices Would Exploit EIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Igor; DiDomenico, Leo; Lee, Hwang

    2004-01-01

    Tunable optical true-time delay devices that would exploit electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) have been proposed. Relative to prior true-time delay devices (for example, devices based on ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials) and electronically controlled phase shifters, the proposed devices would offer much greater bandwidths. In a typical envisioned application, an optical pulse would be modulated with an ultra-wideband radio-frequency (RF) signal that would convey the information that one seeks to communicate, and it would be required to couple differently delayed replicas of the RF signal to the radiating elements of a phased-array antenna. One or more of the proposed devices would be used to impose the delays and/or generate the delayed replicas of the RF-modulated optical pulse. The beam radiated or received by the antenna would be steered by use of a microprocessor-based control system that would adjust operational parameters of the devices to tune the delays to the required values. EIT is a nonlinear quantum optical interference effect that enables the propagation of light through an initially opaque medium. A suitable medium must have, among other properties, three quantum states (see Figure 1): an excited state (state 3), an upper ground state (state 2), and a lower ground state (state 1). These three states must form a closed system that exhibits no decays to other states in the presence of either or both of two laser beams: (1) a probe beam having the wavelength corresponding to the photon energy equal to the energy difference between states 3 and 1; and (2) a coupling beam having the wavelength corresponding to the photon energy equal to the energy difference between states 3 and 2. The probe beam is the one that is pulsed and modulated with an RF signal.

  9. Ignition delay time measurements of primary reference fuel blends

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbad, Mohammed

    2017-02-07

    Ignition delay times of four different primary reference fuels (PRF), mixtures of n-heptane and iso-octane, were measured behind reflected shock waves in a high-pressure shock tube facility. The PRFs were formulated to match the RON of two high-octane gasolines (RON 95 and 91) and two prospective low-octane naphtha fuels (RON 80 and 70). Experiments were carried out over a wide range of temperatures (700–1200K), pressures (10, 20, and 40bar) and equivalence ratios (0.5 and 1). Kinetic modeling predictions from four chemical kinetic mechanisms are compared with the experimental data. Ignition delay correlations are developed to reproduce the measured ignition delay times. Brute force sensitivity analyses are carried out to identify reactions that affect ignition delay times at specific temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio. The large experimental data set provided in the current work will serve as a benchmark for the validation of chemical kinetic mechanisms of primary reference fuel blends.

  10. Ignition delay time measurements of primary reference fuel blends

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbad, Mohammed; Javed, Tamour; Khaled, Fathi; Badra, Jihad; Farooq, Aamir

    2017-01-01

    Ignition delay times of four different primary reference fuels (PRF), mixtures of n-heptane and iso-octane, were measured behind reflected shock waves in a high-pressure shock tube facility. The PRFs were formulated to match the RON of two high-octane gasolines (RON 95 and 91) and two prospective low-octane naphtha fuels (RON 80 and 70). Experiments were carried out over a wide range of temperatures (700–1200K), pressures (10, 20, and 40bar) and equivalence ratios (0.5 and 1). Kinetic modeling predictions from four chemical kinetic mechanisms are compared with the experimental data. Ignition delay correlations are developed to reproduce the measured ignition delay times. Brute force sensitivity analyses are carried out to identify reactions that affect ignition delay times at specific temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio. The large experimental data set provided in the current work will serve as a benchmark for the validation of chemical kinetic mechanisms of primary reference fuel blends.

  11. Optimal control for parabolic-hyperbolic system with time delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalewski, A.

    1985-07-01

    In this paper we consider an optimal control problem for a system described by a linear partial differential equation of the parabolic-hyperbolic type with time delay in the state. The right-hand side of this equation and the initial conditions are not continuous functions usually, but they are measurable functions belonging to L 2 or Lsup(infinity) spaces. Therefore, the solution of this equation is given by a certain Sobolev space. The time delay in the state is constant, but it can be also a function of time. The control time T is fixed in our problem. Making use of the Milutin-Dubovicki theorem, necessary and sufficient conditions of optimality with the quadratic performance functional and constrained control are derived for the Dirichlet problem. The flow chart of the algorithm which can be used in the numerical solving of certain optimization problems for distributed systems is also presented. (author)

  12. Large Deviations for Two-Time-Scale Diffusions, with Delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushner, Harold J.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of large deviations for a two-time-scale reflected diffusion process, possibly with delays in the dynamical terms. The Dupuis-Ellis weak convergence approach is used. It is perhaps the most intuitive and simplest for the problems of concern. The results have applications to the problem of approximating optimal controls for two-time-scale systems via use of the averaged equation.

  13. Face to phase: pitfalls in time delay estimation from coherency phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campfens, S.F.; van der Kooij, Herman; Schouten, Alfred Christiaan

    2014-01-01

    Coherency phase is often interpreted as a time delay reflecting a transmission delay between spatially separated neural populations. However, time delays estimated from corticomuscular coherency are conflicting and often shorter than expected physiologically. Recent work suggests that

  14. Asymptotic stability of discrete-time systems with time-varying delay subject to saturation nonlinearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.-F.

    2009-01-01

    The asymptotic stability problem for discrete-time systems with time-varying delay subject to saturation nonlinearities is addressed in this paper. In terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), a delay-dependent sufficient condition is derived to ensure the asymptotic stability. A numerical example is given to demonstrate the theoretical results.

  15. Applying behavioral insights to delay school start times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl Malone, Susan; Ziporyn, Terra; Buttenheim, Alison M

    2017-12-01

    Healthy People 2020 established a national objective to increase the proportion of 9th-to-12th-grade students reporting sufficient sleep. A salient approach for achieving this objective is to delay middle and high school start times. Despite decades of research supporting the benefits of delayed school start times on adolescent sleep, health, and well-being, progress has been slow. Accelerating progress will require new approaches incorporating strategies that influence how school policy decisions are made. In this commentary, we introduce four strategies that influence decision-making processes and demonstrate how they can be applied to efforts aimed at changing school start time policies. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. All rights reserved.

  16. A new delay-independent condition for global robust stability of neural networks with time delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samli, Ruya

    2015-06-01

    This paper studies the problem of robust stability of dynamical neural networks with discrete time delays under the assumptions that the network parameters of the neural system are uncertain and norm-bounded, and the activation functions are slope-bounded. By employing the results of Lyapunov stability theory and matrix theory, new sufficient conditions for the existence, uniqueness and global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for delayed neural networks are presented. The results reported in this paper can be easily tested by checking some special properties of symmetric matrices associated with the parameter uncertainties of neural networks. We also present a numerical example to show the effectiveness of the proposed theoretical results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel delay-distribution-dependent stability analysis for continuous-time recurrent neural networks with stochastic delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shen-Quan; Feng Jian; Zhao Qing

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of delay-distribution-dependent stability is investigated for continuous-time recurrent neural networks (CRNNs) with stochastic delay. Different from the common assumptions on time delays, it is assumed that the probability distribution of the delay taking values in some intervals is known a priori. By making full use of the information concerning the probability distribution of the delay and by using a tighter bounding technique (the reciprocally convex combination method), less conservative asymptotic mean-square stable sufficient conditions are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Two numerical examples show that our results are better than the existing ones. (general)

  18. Macroscopic effects in attosecond pulse generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruchon, T; Varju, K; Mansten, E; Swoboda, M; L'Huillier, A; Hauri, C P; Lopez-Martens, R

    2008-01-01

    We examine how the generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in a partly ionized gas medium affect their strength and synchronization. The temporal properties of the resulting attosecond pulses generated in long gas targets can be significantly influenced by macroscopic effects, in particular by the intensity in the medium and the degree of ionization which control the dispersion. Under some conditions, the use of gas targets longer than the absorption length can lead to the generation of compressed attosecond pulses. We show these macroscopic effects experimentally, using a 6 mm-long argon-filled gas cell as the generating medium

  19. Macroscopic effects in attosecond pulse generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruchon, T; Varju, K; Mansten, E; Swoboda, M; L' Huillier, A [Department of Physics, Lund University, PO Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Hauri, C P; Lopez-Martens, R [Laboratoire d' Optique Appliquee, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees (ENSTA)-Ecole Polytechnique CNRS UMR 7639, 91761 Palaiseau (France)], E-mail: anne.lhuillier@fysik.lth.se

    2008-02-15

    We examine how the generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in a partly ionized gas medium affect their strength and synchronization. The temporal properties of the resulting attosecond pulses generated in long gas targets can be significantly influenced by macroscopic effects, in particular by the intensity in the medium and the degree of ionization which control the dispersion. Under some conditions, the use of gas targets longer than the absorption length can lead to the generation of compressed attosecond pulses. We show these macroscopic effects experimentally, using a 6 mm-long argon-filled gas cell as the generating medium.

  20. Effects of computing time delay on real-time control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kang G.; Cui, Xianzhong

    1988-01-01

    The reliability of a real-time digital control system depends not only on the reliability of the hardware and software used, but also on the speed in executing control algorithms. The latter is due to the negative effects of computing time delay on control system performance. For a given sampling interval, the effects of computing time delay are classified into the delay problem and the loss problem. Analysis of these two problems is presented as a means of evaluating real-time control systems. As an example, both the self-tuning predicted (STP) control and Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control are applied to the problem of tracking robot trajectories, and their respective effects of computing time delay on control performance are comparatively evaluated. For this example, the STP (PID) controller is shown to outperform the PID (STP) controller in coping with the delay (loss) problem.

  1. Identification of optimal inspection interval via delay-time concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco Ricardo Simões Gomes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of mathematical modeling aimed at managing maintenance based on the delay-time concept. The study scenario was the manufacturing sector of an industrial unit, which operates 24 hours a day in a continuous flow of production. The main idea was to use the concepts of this approach to determine the optimal time of preventive action by the maintenance department in order to ensure the greatest availability of equipment and facilities at appropriate maintenance costs. After a brief introduction of the subject, the article presents topics that illustrate the importance of mathematical modeling in maintenance management and the delay-time concept. It also describes the characteristics of the company where the study was conducted, as well as the data related to the production process and maintenance actions. Finally, the results obtained after applying the delay-time concept are presented and discussed, as well as the limitations of the article and the proposals for future research.

  2. Acceleration (Deceleration Model Supporting Time Delays to Refresh Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gerardo Carrillo González

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a mathematical model to regulate the acceleration (deceleration applied by self-driving vehicles in car-following situations. A virtual environment is designed to test the model in different circumstances: (1 the followers decelerate in time if the leader decelerates, considering a time delay of up to 5 s to refresh data (vehicles position coordinates required by the model, (2 with the intention of optimizing space, the vehicles are grouped in platoons, where 3 s of time delay (to update data is supported if the vehicles have a centre-to-centre spacing of 20 m and a time delay of 1 s is supported at a spacing of 6 m (considering a maximum speed of 20 m/s in both cases, and (3 an algorithm is presented to manage the vehicles’ priority at a traffic intersection, where the model regulates the vehicles’ acceleration (deceleration and a balance in the number of vehicles passing from each side is achieved.

  3. Hopf Bifurcation in a Cobweb Model with Discrete Time Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Gori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a cobweb model with discrete time delays that characterise the length of production cycle. We assume a market comprised of homogeneous producers that operate as adapters by taking the (expected profit-maximising quantity as a target to adjust production and consumers with a marginal willingness to pay captured by an isoelastic demand. The dynamics of the economy is characterised by a one-dimensional delay differential equation. In this context, we show that (1 if the elasticity of market demand is sufficiently high, the steady-state equilibrium is locally asymptotically stable and (2 if the elasticity of market demand is sufficiently low, quasiperiodic oscillations emerge when the time lag (that represents the length of production cycle is high enough.

  4. Time Delay Systems Methods, Applications and New Trends

    CERN Document Server

    Vyhlídal, Tomáš; Niculescu, Silviu-Iulian; Pepe, Pierdomenico

    2012-01-01

    This volume is concerned with the control and dynamics of time delay systems; a research field with at least six-decade long history that has been very active especially in the past two decades. In parallel to the new challenges emerging from engineering, physics, mathematics, and economics, the volume covers several new directions including topology induced stability, large-scale interconnected systems, roles of networks in stability, and new trends in predictor-based control and consensus dynamics. The associated applications/problems are described by highly complex models, and require solving inverse problems as well as the development of new theories, mathematical tools, numerically-tractable algorithms for real-time control. The volume, which is targeted to present these developments in this rapidly evolving field, captures a careful selection of the most recent papers contributed by experts and collected under five parts: (i) Methodology: From Retarded to Neutral Continuous Delay Models, (ii) Systems, S...

  5. Time Delay Estimation in Room Acoustic Environments: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benesty Jacob

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Time delay estimation has been a research topic of significant practical importance in many fields (radar, sonar, seismology, geophysics, ultrasonics, hands-free communications, etc.. It is a first stage that feeds into subsequent processing blocks for identifying, localizing, and tracking radiating sources. This area has made remarkable advances in the past few decades, and is continuing to progress, with an aim to create processors that are tolerant to both noise and reverberation. This paper presents a systematic overview of the state-of-the-art of time-delay-estimation algorithms ranging from the simple cross-correlation method to the advanced blind channel identification based techniques. We discuss the pros and cons of each individual algorithm, and outline their inherent relationships. We also provide experimental results to illustrate their performance differences in room acoustic environments where reverberation and noise are commonly encountered.

  6. EVOLVING TO TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE WITH SHORT DELAY TIMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bo; Chen Xuefei; Han Zhanwen; Meng Xiangcun

    2009-01-01

    The single-degenerate model is currently a favorable progenitor model for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Recent investigations on the white dwarf (WD) + He star channel of the single-degenerate model imply that this channel is noteworthy for producing SNe Ia. In this paper, we studied SN Ia birthrates and delay times of this channel via a detailed binary population synthesis approach. We found that the Galactic SN Ia birthrate from the WD + He star channel is ∼0.3 x 10 -3 yr -1 according to our standard model, and that this channel can explain SNe Ia with short delay times (∼4.5 x 10 7 -1.4 x 10 8 yr). Meanwhile, these WD + He star systems may be related to the young supersoft X-ray sources prior to SN Ia explosions.

  7. STRONG LENS TIME DELAY CHALLENGE. I. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobler, Gregory [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Rumbaugh, Nicholas [Department of Physics, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Treu, Tommaso; Liao, Kai [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Marshall, Phil [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, P.O. Box 20450, MS29, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Hojjati, Alireza [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Linder, Eric, E-mail: tt@astro.ucla.edu [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The time delays between point-like images in gravitational lens systems can be used to measure cosmological parameters. The number of lenses with measured time delays is growing rapidly; the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will monitor ∼10{sup 3} strongly lensed quasars. In an effort to assess the present capabilities of the community, to accurately measure the time delays, and to provide input to dedicated monitoring campaigns and future LSST cosmology feasibility studies, we have invited the community to take part in a ''Time Delay Challenge'' (TDC). The challenge is organized as a set of ''ladders'', each containing a group of simulated data sets to be analyzed blindly by participating teams. Each rung on a ladder consists of a set of realistic mock observed lensed quasar light curves, with the rungs' data sets increasing in complexity and realism. The initial challenge described here has two ladders, TDC0 and TDC1. TDC0 has a small number of data sets, and is designed to be used as a practice set by the participating teams. The (non-mandatory) deadline for completion of TDC0 was the TDC1 launch date, 2013 December 1. The TDC1 deadline was 2014 July 1. Here we give an overview of the challenge, we introduce a set of metrics that will be used to quantify the goodness of fit, efficiency, precision, and accuracy of the algorithms, and we present the results of TDC0. Thirteen teams participated in TDC0 using 47 different methods. Seven of those teams qualified for TDC1, which is described in the companion paper.

  8. Guaranteed cost control of time-delay chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ju H.; Kwon, O.M.

    2006-01-01

    This article studies a guaranteed cost control problem for a class of time-delay chaotic systems. Attention is focused on the design of memory state feedback controllers such that the resulting closed-loop system is asymptotically stable and an adequate level of performance is also guaranteed. Using the Lyapunov method and LMI (linear matrix inequality) framework, two criteria for the existence of the controller are derived in terms of LMIs. A numerical example is given to illustrate the proposed method

  9. Spectral sum rule for time delay in R2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, T.A.; Sinha, K.B.; Bolle, D.; Danneels, C.

    1985-01-01

    A local spectral sum rule for nonrelativistic scattering in two dimensions is derived for the potential class velement ofL 4 /sup // 3 (R 2 ). The sum rule relates the integral over all scattering energies of the trace of the time-delay operator for a finite region Σis contained inR 2 to the contributions in Σ of the pure point and singularly continuous spectra

  10. Disequilibrium dynamics in a Keynesian model with time delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Luca; Guerrini, Luca; Sodini, Mauro

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this research is to analyse a Keynesian goods market closed economy by considering a continuous-time setup with fixed delays. The work compares dynamic results based on linear and nonlinear adjustment mechanisms through which the aggregate supply (production) reacts to a disequilibrium in the goods market and consumption depends on income at a preceding date. Both analytical and geometrical (stability switching curves) techniques are used to characterise the stability properties of the stationary equilibrium.

  11. RATES AND DELAY TIMES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiter, Ashley J.; Belczynski, Krzysztof; Fryer, Chris

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the evolution of binary stars to calculate synthetic rates and delay times of the most promising Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) progenitors. We present and discuss evolutionary scenarios in which a white dwarf (WD) reaches the Chandrasekhar mass and potentially explodes in a SNe Ia. We consider Double Degenerate (DDS; merger of two WDs), Single Degenerate (SDS; WD accreting from H-rich companion), and AM Canum Venaticorum (AM CVn; WD accreting from He-rich companion) scenarios. The results are presented for two different star formation histories: burst (elliptical-like galaxies) and continuous (spiral-like galaxies). It is found that delay times for the DDS in our standard model (with common envelope efficiency α CE = 1) follow a power-law distribution. For the SDS we note a wide range of delay times, while AM CVn progenitors produce a short burst of SNe Ia at early times. The DDS median delay time falls between ∼0.5 and 1 Gyr; the SDS between ∼2 and 3 Gyr; and the AM CVn between ∼0.8 and 0.6 Gyr depending on the assumed α CE . For a Milky-Way-like (MW-like) galaxy, we estimate the rates of SNe Ia arising from different progenitors as: ∼10 -4 yr -1 for the SDS and AM CVn, and ∼10 -3 yr -1 for the DDS. We point out that only the rates for two merging carbon-oxygen WDs, the only systems found in the DDS, are consistent with the observed rates for typical MW-like spirals. We also note that DDS progenitors are the dominant population in elliptical galaxies. The fact that the delay time distribution for the DDS follows a power law implies more SNe Ia (per unit mass) in young rather than in aged populations. Our results do not exclude other scenarios, but strongly indicate that the DDS is the dominant channel generating SNe Ia in spiral galaxies, at least in the framework of our adopted evolutionary models. Since it is believed that WD mergers cannot produce a thermonuclear explosion given the current understanding of accreting WDs, either the

  12. Time domain passivity controller for 4-channel time-delay bilateral teleoperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, Joao; Schiele, Andre

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of the time-domain passivity control approach to a four-channel bilateral controller under the effects of time delays. Time-domain passivity control has been used successfully to stabilize teleoperation systems with position-force and position-position controllers; however, the performance with such control architectures is sub-optimal both with and without time delays. This work extends the network representation of the time-domain passivity controller to the four-channel architecture, which provides perfect transparency to the user without time delay. The proposed architecture is based on modelling the controllers as dependent voltage sources and using only series passivity controllers. The obtained results are shown on a one degree-of-freedom setup and illustrate the stabilization behaviour of the proposed controller when time delay is present in the communication channel.

  13. Attosecond Electron Wave Packet Dynamics in Strong Laser Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsson, P.; Remetter, T.; Varju, K.; L'Huillier, A.; Lopez-Martens, R.; Valentin, C.; Balcou, Ph.; Kazamias, S.; Mauritsson, J.; Gaarde, M. B.; Schafer, K. J.; Mairesse, Y.; Wabnitz, H.; Salieres, P.

    2005-01-01

    We use a train of sub-200 attosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses with energies just above the ionization threshold in argon to create a train of temporally localized electron wave packets. We study the energy transfer from a strong infrared (IR) laser field to the ionized electrons as a function of the delay between the XUV and IR fields. When the wave packets are born at the zero crossings of the IR field, a significant amount of energy (∼20 eV) is transferred from the field to the electrons. This results in dramatically enhanced above-threshold ionization in conditions where the IR field alone does not induce any significant ionization. Because both the energy and duration of the wave packets can be varied independently of the IR laser, they are valuable tools for studying and controlling strong-field processes

  14. Lag synchronization of chaotic systems with time-delayed linear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    delayed linear terms via impulsive control is investigated. Based on the stability theory of impulsive delayed differen- tial equations, some sufficient conditions are obtained guaranteeing the synchronized behaviours between two delayed chaotic ...

  15. Long-time behavior for suspension bridge equations with time delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Hye

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we consider suspension bridge equations with time delay of the form u_{tt}(x,t) + Δ ^2 u (x,t) + k u^+ (x,t) + a_0 u_t (x,t) + a_1 u_t (x, t- τ ) + f(u(x,t)) = g(x). Many researchers have studied well-posedness, decay rates of energy, and existence of attractors for suspension bridge equations without delay effects. But, as far as we know, there is no work about suspension equations with time delay. In addition, there are not many studies on attractors for other delayed systems. Thus we first provide well-posedness for suspension equations with time delay. And then show the existence of global attractors and the finite dimensionality of the attractors by establishing energy functionals which are related to the norm of the phase space to our problem.

  16. Generation of atto-second pulses in atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haessler, St.

    2009-12-01

    When a low-frequency laser pulse is focused to a high intensity into a gas, the electric field of the laser light may become of comparable strength to that felt by the electrons bound in an atom or molecule. A valence electron can then be 'freed' by tunnel ionization, accelerated by the strong oscillating laser field and can eventually re-collide and recombine with the ion. The gained kinetic energy is then released as a burst of coherent X-UV light and the macroscopic gas medium then becomes a source of X-UV light pulses of atto-second (1 as equals 10 -18 s) duration. This is the natural time-scale of electron dynamics in atoms and molecules. The largest part of this thesis deals with experiments where molecules are the harmonic generation medium and the re-colliding electron wave packet acts as a 'self-probe'. In several experiments, we demonstrate the potential of this scheme to observe or image ultra-fast intra-molecular electronic and nuclear dynamics. In particular, we have performed the first phase measurements of the high harmonic emission from aligned molecules and we have extracted the recombination dipole matrix element. This observable contains signatures of quantum interference between the continuum and bound parts of the total electronic wavefunction. It is shown how this quantum interference can be utilized to shape the atto-second light emission from the molecules. In a second part of this thesis, we use the well characterized coherent X-UV light emitted by rare gas atoms to photo-ionize molecules. Measuring the ejected photoelectron wave packet then allows to extract information on the photoionization process itself, and possibly about the initial bound and final continuum states of the electron. The last chapter of this manuscript describes studies of high harmonic and atto-second light pulse generation in a different medium: ablation plasmas. (author)

  17. Real-time pulse deinterleaving using digital delay line techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, L. F.; Palermo, T. J.

    This paper describes an implementation of a tracking pulse sorter based on predictive gating techniques. Real-time pulse sorters or pulse train gating devices have been utilized by the ELINT signal analyst for many years. The more elementary of these devices employed a retriggerable delay interval and an acceptance gate, which were used in predictive fashion to track pulse trains whose PRIs fall within the limits of the programmed delay interval. This design utilizes the pulse hit/miss history of individual track files in a variation of a sequential observer detection algorithm. Use of a digital delay line with pulse history allows multiple pulse trains to be tracked simultaneously and independently without interference. The design also provides flexibility in lock-on and track criteria to allow maintenance of acquisition probability and false alarm rate in dense signal environments and with low SNRs. The hardware provides time interval resolution to 12.5 nsec and covers a PRI range of 50 microsec to 50 msec.

  18. On the time delay between ultra-relativistic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleury, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The time delay between the receptions of ultra-relativistic particles emitted simultaneously is a useful observable for both fundamental physics and cosmology. The expression of the delay when the particles travel through an arbitrary spacetime has been derived recently by Fanizza et al., using a particular coordinate system and self-consistent assumptions. The present article shows that this formula enjoys a simple physical interpretation: the relative velocity between two ultra-relativistic particles is constant. This result reveals an interesting kinematical property of general relativity, namely that the tidal forces experienced by ultra-relativistic particles in the direction of their motion are much smaller than those experienced orthogonally to their motion.

  19. On the time delay between ultra-relativistic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleury, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.fleury@uct.ac.za [Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape, Robert Sobukwe Road, Bellville 7535 (South Africa)

    2016-09-10

    The time delay between the receptions of ultra-relativistic particles emitted simultaneously is a useful observable for both fundamental physics and cosmology. The expression of the delay when the particles travel through an arbitrary spacetime has been derived recently by Fanizza et al., using a particular coordinate system and self-consistent assumptions. The present article shows that this formula enjoys a simple physical interpretation: the relative velocity between two ultra-relativistic particles is constant. This result reveals an interesting kinematical property of general relativity, namely that the tidal forces experienced by ultra-relativistic particles in the direction of their motion are much smaller than those experienced orthogonally to their motion.

  20. Complex systems fractionality, time-delay and synchronization

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2012-01-01

    "Complex Systems: Fractionality, Time-delay and Synchronization" covers the most recent developments and advances in the theory and application of complex systems in these areas. Each chapter was written by scientists highly active in the field of complex systems. The book discusses a new treatise on fractional dynamics and control, as well as the new methods for differential delay systems and control. Lastly, a theoretical framework for the complexity and synchronization of complex system is presented. The book is intended for researchers in the field of nonlinear dynamics in mathematics, physics and engineering. It can also serve as a reference book for graduate students in physics, applied mathematics and engineering. Dr. Albert C.J. Luo is a Professor at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, USA. Dr. Jian-Qiao Sun is a Professor at the University of California, Merced, USA.

  1. Radar time delays in the dynamic theory of gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haranas I.I.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a new theory gravity called the dynamic theory, which is derived from thermodynamic principles in a five dimensional space, radar signals traveling times and delays are calculated for the major planets in the solar system, and compared to those of general relativity. This is done by using the usual four dimensional spherically symmetric space-time element of classical general relativistic gravity which has now been slightly modified by a negative inverse radial exponential term due to the dynamic theory of gravity potential.

  2. Time-delayed fronts from biased random walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort, Joaquim; Pujol, Toni

    2007-01-01

    We generalize a previous model of time-delayed reaction-diffusion fronts (Fort and Mendez 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 867) to allow for a bias in the microscopic random walk of particles or individuals. We also present a second model which takes the time order of events (diffusion and reproduction) into account. As an example, we apply them to the human invasion front across the USA in the 19th century. The corrections relative to the previous model are substantial. Our results are relevant to physical and biological systems with anisotropic fronts, including particle diffusion in disordered lattices, population invasions, the spread of epidemics, etc

  3. Hopf bifurcation of a free boundary problem modeling tumor growth with two time delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shihe

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a free boundary problem modeling tumor growth with two discrete delays is studied. The delays respectively represents the time taken for cells to undergo mitosis and the time taken for the cell to modify the rate of cell loss due to apoptosis. We show the influence of time delays on the Hopf bifurcation when one of delays as a bifurcation parameter.

  4. Finite-Time Stability for Fractional-Order Bidirectional Associative Memory Neural Networks with Time Delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Chang-Jin; Li Pei-Luan; Pang Yi-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with fractional-order bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with time delays. Applying Laplace transform, the generalized Gronwall inequality and estimates of Mittag–Leffler functions, some sufficient conditions which ensure the finite-time stability of fractional-order bidirectional associative memory neural networks with time delays are obtained. Two examples with their simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical findings. Our results are new and complement previously known results. (paper)

  5. Multiplicity counting from fission detector signals with time delay effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, L.; Pázsit, I.; Pál, L.

    2018-03-01

    In recent work, we have developed the theory of using the first three auto- and joint central moments of the currents of up to three fission chambers to extract the singles, doubles and triples count rates of traditional multiplicity counting (Pázsit and Pál, 2016; Pázsit et al., 2016). The objective is to elaborate a method for determining the fissile mass, neutron multiplication, and (α, n) neutron emission rate of an unknown assembly of fissile material from the statistics of the fission chamber signals, analogous to the traditional multiplicity counting methods with detectors in the pulse mode. Such a method would be an alternative to He-3 detector systems, which would be free from the dead time problems that would be encountered in high counting rate applications, for example the assay of spent nuclear fuel. A significant restriction of our previous work was that all neutrons born in a source event (spontaneous fission) were assumed to be detected simultaneously, which is not fulfilled in reality. In the present work, this restriction is eliminated, by assuming an independent, identically distributed random time delay for all neutrons arising from one source event. Expressions are derived for the same auto- and joint central moments of the detector current(s) as in the previous case, expressed with the singles, doubles, and triples (S, D and T) count rates. It is shown that if the time-dispersion of neutron detections is of the same order of magnitude as the detector pulse width, as they typically are in measurements of fast neutrons, the multiplicity rates can still be extracted from the moments of the detector current, although with more involved calibration factors. The presented formulae, and hence also the performance of the proposed method, are tested by both analytical models of the time delay as well as with numerical simulations. Methods are suggested also for the modification of the method for large time delay effects (for thermalised neutrons).

  6. Absorption dynamics and delay time in complex potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, Jorge; Romo, Roberto; Hernández-Maldonado, Alberto

    2018-05-01

    The dynamics of absorption is analyzed by using an exactly solvable model that deals with an analytical solution to Schrödinger’s equation for cutoff initial plane waves incident on a complex absorbing potential. A dynamical absorption coefficient which allows us to explore the dynamical loss of particles from the transient to the stationary regime is derived. We find that the absorption process is characterized by the emission of a series of damped periodic pulses in time domain, associated with damped Rabi-type oscillations with a characteristic frequency, ω = (E + ε)/ℏ, where E is the energy of the incident waves and ‑ε is energy of the quasidiscrete state of the system induced by the absorptive part of the Hamiltonian; the width γ of this resonance governs the amplitude of the pulses. The resemblance of the time-dependent absorption coefficient with a real decay process is discussed, in particular the transition from exponential to nonexponential regimes, a well-known feature of quantum decay. We have also analyzed the effect of the absorptive part of the potential on the dynamical delay time, which behaves differently from the one observed in attractive real delta potentials, exhibiting two regimes: time advance and time delay.

  7. New Results on Passivity Analysis of Stochastic Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delay and Leakage Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YaJun Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The passivity problem for a class of stochastic neural networks systems (SNNs with varying delay and leakage delay has been further studied in this paper. By constructing a more effective Lyapunov functional, employing the free-weighting matrix approach, and combining with integral inequality technic and stochastic analysis theory, the delay-dependent conditions have been proposed such that SNNs are asymptotically stable with guaranteed performance. The time-varying delay is divided into several subintervals and two adjustable parameters are introduced; more information about time delay is utilised and less conservative results have been obtained. Examples are provided to illustrate the less conservatism of the proposed method and simulations are given to show the impact of leakage delay on stability of SNNs.

  8. Patient delay is the main cause of treatment delay in acute limb ischemia: an investigation of pre- and in-hospital time delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Londero, Louise Skovgaard; Nørgaard, Birgitte; Houlind, Kim Christian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: The prognosis of acute limb ischemia is severe, with amputation rates of up to 25% and in-hospital mortality of 9-15%. Delay in treatment increases the risk of major amputation and may be present at different stages, including patient delay, doctors´ delay and waiting time...... in the emergency department. It is important to identify existing problems in order to reduce time delay. The aim of this study was to collect data for patients with acute limb ischemia and to evaluate the time delay between the different events from onset of symptoms to specialist evaluation and further treatment...... (median (range)) was identified. From onset of symptoms to first contact with a doctor the time for all patients were 24 (0-1200) hours. Thirty patients needed immediate intervention. In the group of fourteen patients who had immediate operation, the median time from vascular evaluation...

  9. The Hubble constant estimation using 18 gravitational lensing time delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaelani, Anton T.; Premadi, Premana W.

    2014-03-01

    Gravitational lens time delay method has been used to estimate the rate of cosmological expansion, called the Hubble constant, H0, independently of the standard candle method. This gravitational lensing method requires a good knowledge of the lens mass distribution, reconstructed using the lens image properties. The observed positions of the images, and the redshifts of the lens and the images serve as strong constraints to the lens equations, which are then solved as a set of simultaneous linear equations. Here we made use of a non-parametric technique to reconstruct the lens mass distribution, which is manifested in a linear equations solver named PixeLens. Input for the calculation is chosen based on prior known parameters obtained from analyzed result of the lens case observations, including time-delay, position angles of the images and the lens, and their redshifts. In this project, 18 fairly well studied lens cases are further grouped according to a number of common properties to examine how each property affects the character of the data, and therefore affects the calculation of H0. The considered lens case properties are lens morphology, number of image, completeness of time delays, and symmetry of lens mass distribution. Analysis of simulation shows that paucity of constraints on mass distribution of a lens yields wide range value of H0, which reflects the uniqueness of each lens system. Nonetheless, gravitational lens method still yields H0 within an acceptable range of value when compared to those determined by many other methods. Grouping the cases in the above manner allowed us to assess the robustness of PixeLens and thereby use it selectively. In addition, we use glafic, a parametric mass reconstruction solver, to refine the mass distribution of one lens case, as a comparison.

  10. COSMOLOGY FROM GRAVITATIONAL LENS TIME DELAYS AND PLANCK DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyu, S. H.; Treu, T.; Sonnenfeld, A.; Hilbert, S.; Spiniello, C.; Auger, M. W.; Collett, T.; Blandford, R. D.; Marshall, P. J.; Courbin, F.; Meylan, G.; Tewes, M.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Koopmans, L. V. E.

    2014-01-01

    Under the assumption of a flat ΛCDM cosmology, recent data from the Planck satellite point toward a Hubble constant that is in tension with that measured by gravitational lens time delays and by the local distance ladder. Prosaically, this difference could arise from unknown systematic uncertainties in some of the measurements. More interestingly—if systematics were ruled out—resolving the tension would require a departure from the flat ΛCDM cosmology, introducing, for example, a modest amount of spatial curvature, or a non-trivial dark energy equation of state. To begin to address these issues, we present an analysis of the gravitational lens RXJ1131–1231 that is improved in one particular regard: we examine the issue of systematic error introduced by an assumed lens model density profile. We use more flexible gravitational lens models with baryonic and dark matter components, and find that the exquisite Hubble Space Telescope image with thousands of intensity pixels in the Einstein ring and the stellar velocity dispersion of the lens contain sufficient information to constrain these more flexible models. The total uncertainty on the time-delay distance is 6.6% for a single system. We proceed to combine our improved time-delay distance measurement with the WMAP9 and Planck posteriors. In an open ΛCDM model, the data for RXJ1131–1231 in combination with Planck favor a flat universe with Ω k =0.00 −0.02 +0.01 (68% credible interval (CI)). In a flat wCDM model, the combination of RXJ1131–1231 and Planck yields w=−1.52 −0.20 +0.19 (68% CI)

  11. Implementation of time-delay interferometry for LISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinto, Massimo; Shaddock, Daniel A.; Sylvestre, Julien; Armstrong, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the baseline optical configuration for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission, in which the lasers are not free-running, but rather one of them is used as the main frequency reference generator (the master) and the remaining five as slaves, these being phase-locked to the master (the master-slave configuration). Under the condition that the frequency fluctuations due to the optical transponders can be made negligible with respect to the secondary LISA noise sources (mainly proof-mass and shot noises), we show that the entire space of interferometric combinations LISA can generate when operated with six independent lasers (the one-way method) can also be constructed with the master-slave system design. The corresponding hardware trade-off analysis for these two optical designs is presented, which indicates that the two sets of systems needed for implementing the one-way method, and the master-slave configuration, are essentially identical. Either operational mode could therefore be implemented without major implications on the hardware configuration. We then derive the required accuracies of armlength knowledge, time synchronization of the onboard clocks, sampling times and time-shifts needed for effectively implementing time-delay interferometry for LISA. We find that an armlength accuracy of about 16 meters, a synchronization accuracy of about 50 ns, and the time jitter due to a presently existing space qualified clock will allow the suppression of the frequency fluctuations of the lasers below to the level identified by the secondary noise sources. A new procedure for sampling the data in such a way to avoid the problem of having time shifts that are not integer multiples of the sampling time is also introduced, addressing one of the concerns about the implementation of time-delay interferometry

  12. A note on Burgers' equation with time delay: Instability via finite-time blow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Burgers' equation with time delay is considered. Using the Cole-Hopf transformation, the exact solution of this nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) is determined in the context of a (seemingly) well-posed initial-boundary value problem (IBVP) involving homogeneous Dirichlet data. The solution obtained, however, is shown to exhibit a delay-induced instability, suffering blow-up in finite-time

  13. Complex-Vector Time-Delay Control of Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, P. C.; Tang, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Precise controlling of current produced by power converters is an important topic that has attracted interests over the last few decades. With the recent proliferation of grid-tied converters where the control of power flow is indirectly governed by the accuracy of current tracking, motivation...... since only a small amount of memory space for storing time-delayed values and simple arithmetic computations are needed for its physical realization. In addition to that, other advantages of the scheme include its abilities to compensate for negative-sequence, load and grid harmonic components using...

  14. Topology Identification of General Dynamical Network with Distributed Time Delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao-Yan, Wu; Xin-Chu, Fu

    2009-01-01

    General dynamical networks with distributed time delays are studied. The topology of the networks are viewed as unknown parameters, which need to be identified. Some auxiliary systems (also called the network estimators) are designed to achieve this goal. Both linear feedback control and adaptive strategy are applied in designing these network estimators. Based on linear matrix inequalities and the Lyapunov function method, the sufficient condition for the achievement of topology identification is obtained. This method can also better monitor the switching topology of dynamical networks. Illustrative examples are provided to show the effectiveness of this method. (general)

  15. Real-time traffic signal optimization model based on average delay time per person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengpeng Jiao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Real-time traffic signal control is very important for relieving urban traffic congestion. Many existing traffic control models were formulated using optimization approach, with the objective functions of minimizing vehicle delay time. To improve people’s trip efficiency, this article aims to minimize delay time per person. Based on the time-varying traffic flow data at intersections, the article first fits curves of accumulative arrival and departure vehicles, as well as the corresponding functions. Moreover, this article transfers vehicle delay time to personal delay time using average passenger load of cars and buses, employs such time as the objective function, and proposes a signal timing optimization model for intersections to achieve real-time signal parameters, including cycle length and green time. This research further implements a case study based on practical data collected at an intersection in Beijing, China. The average delay time per person and queue length are employed as evaluation indices to show the performances of the model. The results show that the proposed methodology is capable of improving traffic efficiency and is very effective for real-world applications.

  16. Delay-dependent stability of neural networks of neutral type with time delay in the leakage term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaodi; Cao, Jinde

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the global asymptotic stability of neural networks of neutral type with mixed delays. The mixed delays include constant delay in the leakage term (i.e. 'leakage delay'), time-varying delays and continuously distributed delays. Based on the topological degree theory, Lyapunov method and linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach, some sufficient conditions are derived ensuring the existence, uniqueness and global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point, which are dependent on both the discrete and distributed time delays. These conditions are expressed in terms of LMI and can be easily checked by the MATLAB LMI toolbox. Even if there is no leakage delay, the obtained results are less restrictive than some recent works. It can be applied to neural networks of neutral type with activation functions without assuming their boundedness, monotonicity or differentiability. Moreover, the differentiability of the time-varying delay in the non-neutral term is removed. Finally, two numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method

  17. Effects of time delay on stochastic resonance of the stock prices in financial system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jiang-Cheng; Li, Chun; Mei, Dong-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The effect of time delay on stochastic resonance of the stock prices in finance system was investigated. The time delay is introduced into the Heston model driven by the extrinsic and intrinsic periodic information for stock price. The signal power amplification (SPA) was calculated by numerical simulation. The results indicate that an optimal critical value of delay time maximally enhances the reverse-resonance in the behaviors of SPA as a function of long-run variance of volatility or cross correlation coefficient between noises for both cases of intrinsic and extrinsic periodic information. Moreover, in both cases, being a critical value in the delay time, when the delay time takes value below the critical value, reverse-resonance increases with the delay time increasing, however, when the delay time takes value above the critical value, the reverse-resonance decrease with the delay time increasing. - Highlights: • The effects of delay time on stochastic resonance of the stock prices was investigated. • There is an optimal critical value of delay time maximally enhances the reverse-resonance • The reverse-resonance increases with the delay time increasing as the delay time takes value below the critical value • The reverse-resonance decrease with the delay time increasing as the delay time takes value above the critical value

  18. Effects of time delay on stochastic resonance of the stock prices in financial system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jiang-Cheng [Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 (China); Li, Chun [Department of Computer Science, Puer Teachers' College, Puer 665000 (China); Mei, Dong-Cheng, E-mail: meidch@ynu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 (China)

    2014-06-13

    The effect of time delay on stochastic resonance of the stock prices in finance system was investigated. The time delay is introduced into the Heston model driven by the extrinsic and intrinsic periodic information for stock price. The signal power amplification (SPA) was calculated by numerical simulation. The results indicate that an optimal critical value of delay time maximally enhances the reverse-resonance in the behaviors of SPA as a function of long-run variance of volatility or cross correlation coefficient between noises for both cases of intrinsic and extrinsic periodic information. Moreover, in both cases, being a critical value in the delay time, when the delay time takes value below the critical value, reverse-resonance increases with the delay time increasing, however, when the delay time takes value above the critical value, the reverse-resonance decrease with the delay time increasing. - Highlights: • The effects of delay time on stochastic resonance of the stock prices was investigated. • There is an optimal critical value of delay time maximally enhances the reverse-resonance • The reverse-resonance increases with the delay time increasing as the delay time takes value below the critical value • The reverse-resonance decrease with the delay time increasing as the delay time takes value above the critical value.

  19. Laryngeal sensation and pharyngeal delay time after (chemo)radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, Takashi; Fujimoto, Yasushi; Ozawa, Kikuko; Hiramatsu, Mariko; Suzuki, Atsushi; Nishio, Naoki; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between changes in laryngeal sensation and initiation of swallowing reflex or swallowing function before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. A prospective study was conducted in a tertiary referral university hospital. Thirteen patients who received (chemo)radiotherapy for treatment of laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer were included. Laryngeal sensation was evaluated at the tip of the epiglottis before and 1, 3 months, and 1 year after (chemo)radiotherapy. Videofluoroscopy was performed at the same time. Quantitative determinations included changes in laryngeal sensation, computed analysis of pharyngeal delay time, the distance and velocity of hyoid bone movement during the phase of hyoid excursion, and pharyngeal residue rate (the proportion of the bolus that was left as residue in the pharynx at the first swallow). Laryngeal sensation significantly deteriorated 1 month after (chemo)radiotherapy, but there was a tendency to return to pretreatment levels 1 year after treatment. Neither pharyngeal delay time nor displacement of the hyoid bone changed significantly before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. In addition, there was no significant difference in the mean velocity of hyoid bone movement and the amount of stasis in the pharynx at the first swallow before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. After (chemo)radiotherapy, laryngeal sensation deteriorated. But, in this study, videofluoroscopy showed that swallowing reflex and function were maintained.

  20. Laser plasma as a source of intense attosecond pulses via high-order harmonic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, T.

    2013-01-01

    The incredible progress in ultrafast laser technology and Ti:sapphire lasers have lead to many important applications, one of them being high-order harmonic generation (HHG). HHG is a source of coherent extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation, which has opened new frontiers in science by extending nonlinear optics and time-resolved spectroscopy to the XUV region, and pushing ultrafast science to the attosecond domain. Progress in attosecond science has revealed many new phenomena that have not been seen with femtosecond pulses. Clearly, the next frontier is to study nonlinear effects at the attosecond timescale and in the XUV. However, a problem with present-day attosecond pulses is that they are just too weak to induce measurable nonlinearities, which severely limits the application of this source. While HHG from solid targets has shown promise for higher conversion efficiency, there is no experiment so far that demonstrates isolated attosecond pulse generation. The generation of isolated, several 100-as pulses with few-µJ energy will enable us to enter a completely new phase in attoscience. In past works, we have demonstrated that high-order harmonics from lowly ionized plasma is a highly efficient method to generate coherent XUV pulses. For example, indium plasma has been shown to generate intense 13th harmonic of the Ti:sapphire laser, with conversion efficiency of 10-4. However, the quasi-monochromatic nature of indium harmonics would make it difficult to generate attosecond pulses. We have also demonstrated that one could increase the harmonic yield by using nanoparticle targets. Specifically, we showed that by using indium oxide nanoparticles or C60 film, we could obtain intense harmonics between wavelengths of 50 to 90 nm. The energy in each of these harmonic orders was measured to be a few µJ, which is sufficient for many applications. However, the problem of using nanoparticle or film targets is the rapid decrease in the harmonic intensity, due to the rapid

  1. Micromachined silicon parallel acoustic delay lines as time-delayed ultrasound detector array for real-time photoacoustic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y.; Chang, C.-C.; Wang, L. V.; Zou, J.

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports the development of a new 16-channel parallel acoustic delay line (PADL) array for real-time photoacoustic tomography (PAT). The PADLs were directly fabricated from single-crystalline silicon substrates using deep reactive ion etching. Compared with other acoustic delay lines (e.g., optical fibers), the micromachined silicon PADLs offer higher acoustic transmission efficiency, smaller form factor, easier assembly, and mass production capability. To demonstrate its real-time photoacoustic imaging capability, the silicon PADL array was interfaced with one single-element ultrasonic transducer followed by one channel of data acquisition electronics to receive 16 channels of photoacoustic signals simultaneously. A PAT image of an optically-absorbing target embedded in an optically-scattering phantom was reconstructed, which matched well with the actual size of the imaged target. Because the silicon PADL array allows a signal-to-channel reduction ratio of 16:1, it could significantly simplify the design and construction of ultrasonic receivers for real-time PAT.

  2. Micromachined silicon parallel acoustic delay lines as time-delayed ultrasound detector array for real-time photoacoustic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y; Chang, C-C; Zou, J; Wang, L V

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a new 16-channel parallel acoustic delay line (PADL) array for real-time photoacoustic tomography (PAT). The PADLs were directly fabricated from single-crystalline silicon substrates using deep reactive ion etching. Compared with other acoustic delay lines (e.g., optical fibers), the micromachined silicon PADLs offer higher acoustic transmission efficiency, smaller form factor, easier assembly, and mass production capability. To demonstrate its real-time photoacoustic imaging capability, the silicon PADL array was interfaced with one single-element ultrasonic transducer followed by one channel of data acquisition electronics to receive 16 channels of photoacoustic signals simultaneously. A PAT image of an optically-absorbing target embedded in an optically-scattering phantom was reconstructed, which matched well with the actual size of the imaged target. Because the silicon PADL array allows a signal-to-channel reduction ratio of 16:1, it could significantly simplify the design and construction of ultrasonic receivers for real-time PAT. (paper)

  3. On avian influenza epidemic models with time delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sanhong; Ruan, Shigui; Zhang, Xinan

    2015-12-01

    After the outbreak of the first avian influenza A virus (H5N1) in Hong Kong in 1997, another avian influenza A virus (H7N9) crossed the species barrier in mainland China in 2013 and 2014 and caused more than 400 human cases with a death rate of nearly 40%. In this paper, we take account of the incubation periods of avian influenza A virus and construct a bird-to-human transmission model with different time delays in the avian and human populations combining the survival probability of the infective avian and human populations at the latent time. By analyzing the dynamical behavior of the model, we obtain a threshold value for the prevalence of avian influenza and investigate local and global asymptotical stability of equilibria of the system.

  4. Bounds and enhancements for negative scattering time delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muga, J.G.; Egusquiza, I.L.; Damborenea, J.A.; Delgado, F.

    2002-01-01

    The time of passage of the transmitted wave packet in a tunneling collision of a quantum particle with a square potential barrier becomes independent of the barrier width in a range of barrier thickness. This is the Hartman effect, which has been frequently associated with 'superluminality'. A fundamental limitation on the effect is set by nonrelativistic 'causality conditions'. We demonstrate first that the causality conditions impose more restrictive bounds on the negative time delays (time advancements) when no bound states are present. These restrictive bounds are in agreement with a naive, and generally false, causality argument based on the positivity of the 'extrapolated phase time', one of the quantities proposed to characterize the duration of the barrier's traversal. Nevertheless, square wells may in fact lead to much larger advancements than square barriers. We point out that close to the thresholds of new bound states, the time advancement increases considerably, while, at the same time, the transmission probability is large, which facilitates the possible observation of the enhanced time advancement

  5. Delay 25 an ASIC for timing adjustment in LHC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furtado, H.; Schrader, J.H.R.; Marchioro, A.; Moreira, P.

    A five channel programmable delay line ASIC was designed featuring 4 channels that allow to phase delay periodic or non-periodic digital signals and a master channel that can be used to phase delay a clock signal. The master channel serves as a calibration reference guaranteeing independence from

  6. Mathematical model of tuberculosis epidemic with recovery time delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Taufiq; Chaniago, Natasya Ayuningtia; Munzir, Said; Halfiani, Vera; Ramli, Marwan

    2017-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious disease which can cause death. The disease is caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis which generally affects lungs and other organs such as lymph gland, intestine, kidneys, uterus, bone, and brain. The spread of TB occurs through the bacteria-contaminated air which is inhaled into the lungs. The symptoms of the TB patients are cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, appetite lose, weight lose, fever, cold, and fatigue. World Health Organization (WHO) reported that Indonesia placed the second in term of the most TB cases after India which has 23 % cases while China is reported to have 10 % cases in global. TB has become one of the greatest death threats in global. One way to countermeasure TB disease is by administering vaccination. However, a medication is needed when one has already infected. The medication can generally take 6 months of time which consists of two phases, inpatient and outpatient. Mathematical models to analyze the spread of TB have been widely developed. One of them is the SEIR type model. In this model the population is divided into four groups, which are suspectible (S), exposed (S), infected (I), recovered (R). In fact, a TB patient needs to undergo medication with a period of time in order to recover. This article discusses a model of TB spread with considering the term of recovery (time delay). The model is developed in SIR type where the population is divided into three groups, suspectible (S), infected (I), and recovered (R). Here, the vaccine is given to the susceptible group and the time delay is considered in the group undergoing the medication.

  7. Real-Time Tropospheric Delay Estimation using IGS Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stürze, Andrea; Liu, Sha; Söhne, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    The Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG) routinely provides zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) parameter for the assimilation in numerical weather models since more than 10 years. Up to now the results flowing into the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) or E-GVAP (EUMETNET EIG GNSS water vapour programme) analysis are based on batch processing of GPS+GLONASS observations in differential network mode. For the recently started COST Action ES1206 about "Advanced Global Navigation Satellite Systems tropospheric products for monitoring severe weather events and climate" (GNSS4SWEC), however, rapid updates in the analysis of the atmospheric state for nowcasting applications require changing the processing strategy towards real-time. In the RTCM SC104 (Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services, Special Committee 104) a format combining the advantages of Precise Point Positioning (PPP) and Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) is under development. The so-called State Space Representation approach is defining corrections, which will be transferred in real-time to the user e.g. via NTRIP (Network Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol). Meanwhile messages for precise orbits, satellite clocks and code biases compatible to the basic PPP mode using IGS products are defined. Consequently, the IGS Real-Time Service (RTS) was launched in 2013 in order to extend the well-known precise orbit and clock products by a real-time component. Further messages e.g. with respect to ionosphere or phase biases are foreseen. Depending on the level of refinement, so different accuracies up to the RTK level shall be reachable. In co-operation of BKG and the Technical University of Darmstadt the real-time software GEMon (GREF EUREF Monitoring) is under development. GEMon is able to process GPS and GLONASS observation and RTS product data streams in PPP mode. Furthermore, several state-of-the-art troposphere models, for example based on numerical weather prediction data, are implemented. Hence, it

  8. Finite-time stability of neutral-type neural networks with random time-varying delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M. Syed; Saravanan, S.; Zhu, Quanxin

    2017-11-01

    This paper is devoted to the finite-time stability analysis of neutral-type neural networks with random time-varying delays. The randomly time-varying delays are characterised by Bernoulli stochastic variable. This result can be extended to analysis and design for neutral-type neural networks with random time-varying delays. On the basis of this paper, we constructed suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional together and established a set of sufficient linear matrix inequalities approach to guarantee the finite-time stability of the system concerned. By employing the Jensen's inequality, free-weighting matrix method and Wirtinger's double integral inequality, the proposed conditions are derived and two numerical examples are addressed for the effectiveness of the developed techniques.

  9. Large-scale laser-microwave synchronization for attosecond photon science facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafak, Kemal

    2017-04-15

    Low-noise transfer of time and frequency standards over large distances provides high temporal resolution for ambitious scientific explorations such as sensitive imaging of astronomical objects using multi-telescope arrays, comparison of distant optical clocks or gravitational-wave detection using large laser interferometers. In particular, rapidly expanding photon science facilities such as X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) and attoscience centers have the most challenging synchronization requirements of sub-fs timing precision to generate ultrashort X-ray pulses for the benefit of creating super-microscopes with sub-atomic spatiotemporal resolution. The critical task in these facilities is to synchronize various pulsed lasers and microwave sources across multi-kilometer distances as required for seeded FELs and attosecond pump-probe experiments. So far, there has been no timing distribution system meeting this strict requirement. Therefore, insufficient temporal precision provided by the current synchronization systems hinders the development of attosecond hard X-ray photon science facilities. The aim of this thesis is to devise a timing distribution system satisfying the most challenging synchronization requirements in science mandated by the next-generation photon science facilities. Using the pulsed-optical timing distribution approach, attosecond timing precision is realized by thoroughly investigating and eliminating the remaining noise sources in the synchronization system. First, optical and microwave timing detection schemes are further developed to support long-term stable, attosecond-precision measurements. Second, the feasibility of the master laser to support a kilometer-scale timing network with attosecond precision is examined by experimentally characterizing its free-running timing jitter and improving its long-term frequency stability with a sophisticated environmental insulation. Third, nonlinear pulse propagation inside optical fibers is studied

  10. Large-scale laser-microwave synchronization for attosecond photon science facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafak, Kemal

    2017-04-01

    Low-noise transfer of time and frequency standards over large distances provides high temporal resolution for ambitious scientific explorations such as sensitive imaging of astronomical objects using multi-telescope arrays, comparison of distant optical clocks or gravitational-wave detection using large laser interferometers. In particular, rapidly expanding photon science facilities such as X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) and attoscience centers have the most challenging synchronization requirements of sub-fs timing precision to generate ultrashort X-ray pulses for the benefit of creating super-microscopes with sub-atomic spatiotemporal resolution. The critical task in these facilities is to synchronize various pulsed lasers and microwave sources across multi-kilometer distances as required for seeded FELs and attosecond pump-probe experiments. So far, there has been no timing distribution system meeting this strict requirement. Therefore, insufficient temporal precision provided by the current synchronization systems hinders the development of attosecond hard X-ray photon science facilities. The aim of this thesis is to devise a timing distribution system satisfying the most challenging synchronization requirements in science mandated by the next-generation photon science facilities. Using the pulsed-optical timing distribution approach, attosecond timing precision is realized by thoroughly investigating and eliminating the remaining noise sources in the synchronization system. First, optical and microwave timing detection schemes are further developed to support long-term stable, attosecond-precision measurements. Second, the feasibility of the master laser to support a kilometer-scale timing network with attosecond precision is examined by experimentally characterizing its free-running timing jitter and improving its long-term frequency stability with a sophisticated environmental insulation. Third, nonlinear pulse propagation inside optical fibers is studied

  11. Modelling biochemical networks with intrinsic time delays: a hybrid semi-parametric approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Rui

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents a method for modelling dynamical biochemical networks with intrinsic time delays. Since the fundamental mechanisms leading to such delays are many times unknown, non conventional modelling approaches become necessary. Herein, a hybrid semi-parametric identification methodology is proposed in which discrete time series are incorporated into fundamental material balance models. This integration results in hybrid delay differential equations which can be applied to identify unknown cellular dynamics. Results The proposed hybrid modelling methodology was evaluated using two case studies. The first of these deals with dynamic modelling of transcriptional factor A in mammalian cells. The protein transport from the cytosol to the nucleus introduced a delay that was accounted for by discrete time series formulation. The second case study focused on a simple network with distributed time delays that demonstrated that the discrete time delay formalism has broad applicability to both discrete and distributed delay problems. Conclusions Significantly better prediction qualities of the novel hybrid model were obtained when compared to dynamical structures without time delays, being the more distinctive the more significant the underlying system delay is. The identification of the system delays by studies of different discrete modelling delays was enabled by the proposed structure. Further, it was shown that the hybrid discrete delay methodology is not limited to discrete delay systems. The proposed method is a powerful tool to identify time delays in ill-defined biochemical networks.

  12. Isolated elliptically polarized attosecond soft X-ray with high-brilliance using polarization gating of harmonics from relativistic plasmas at oblique incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi-Yu; Li, Xiao-Ya; Li, Bo-Yuan; Chen, Min; Liu, Feng

    2018-02-19

    The production of intense isolated attosecond pulse is a major goal in ultrafast research. Recent advances in high harmonic generation from relativistic plasma mirrors under oblique incidence interactions gave rise to photon-rich attosecond pulses with circular or elliptical polarization. However, to achieve an isolated elliptical attosecond pulse via polarization gating using currently available long driving pulses remains a challenge, because polarization gating of high harmonics from relativistic plasmas is assumed only possible at normal or near-normal incidence. Here we numerically demonstrate a scheme around this problem. We show that via control of plasma dynamics by managing laser polarization, it is possible to gate an intense single attosecond pulse with high ellipticity extending to the soft X-ray regime at oblique incidence. This approach thus paves the way towards a powerful tool enabling high-time-resolution probe of dynamics of chiral systems and magnetic materials with current laser technology.

  13. Stochastic nonlinear time series forecasting using time-delay reservoir computers: performance and universality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryeva, Lyudmila; Henriques, Julie; Larger, Laurent; Ortega, Juan-Pablo

    2014-07-01

    Reservoir computing is a recently introduced machine learning paradigm that has already shown excellent performances in the processing of empirical data. We study a particular kind of reservoir computers called time-delay reservoirs that are constructed out of the sampling of the solution of a time-delay differential equation and show their good performance in the forecasting of the conditional covariances associated to multivariate discrete-time nonlinear stochastic processes of VEC-GARCH type as well as in the prediction of factual daily market realized volatilities computed with intraday quotes, using as training input daily log-return series of moderate size. We tackle some problems associated to the lack of task-universality for individually operating reservoirs and propose a solution based on the use of parallel arrays of time-delay reservoirs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Time delay between cardiac and brain activity during sleep transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xi; Arends, Johan B.; Aarts, Ronald M.; Haakma, Reinder; Fonseca, Pedro; Rolink, Jérôme

    2015-04-01

    Human sleep consists of wake, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, and non-REM (NREM) sleep that includes light and deep sleep stages. This work investigated the time delay between changes of cardiac and brain activity for sleep transitions. Here, the brain activity was quantified by electroencephalographic (EEG) mean frequency and the cardiac parameters included heart rate, standard deviation of heartbeat intervals, and their low- and high-frequency spectral powers. Using a cross-correlation analysis, we found that the cardiac variations during wake-sleep and NREM sleep transitions preceded the EEG changes by 1-3 min but this was not the case for REM sleep transitions. These important findings can be further used to predict the onset and ending of some sleep stages in an early manner.

  15. Reduced time delay for gravitational waves with dark matter emulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, S.; Kahya, E. O.; Woodard, R. P.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the implications for gravitational wave detectors of a class of modified gravity theories which dispense with the need for dark matter. These models, which are known as dark matter emulators, have the property that weak gravitational waves couple to the metric that would follow from general relativity without dark matter whereas ordinary particles couple to a combination of the metric and other fields which reproduces the result of general relativity with dark matter. We show that there is an appreciable difference in the Shapiro delays of gravitational waves and photons or neutrinos from the same source, with the gravitational waves always arriving first. We compute the expected time lags for GRB 070201, for SN 1987a and for Sco-X1. We estimate the probable error by taking account of the uncertainty in position, and by using three different dark matter profiles

  16. Time delayed K sup + N reactions and exotic baryon resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Kelkar, N G; Khemchandani, K P

    2003-01-01

    Evidence and hints, from both the theoretical and experimental sides, of exotic baryon resonances with B = S, have been with us for the last 30 years. The poor status of the general acceptance of these Z* resonances is partly due to the prejudice against penta-quark baryons and partly due to the opinion that a proof of the existence of exotic states must be rigorous. This can refer to the quality and amount of data gathered, and also to the analytical methods applied in the study of these resonances. It then seems mandatory that all possibilities and aspects be exploited. We do that by analysing the time delay in K sup + N scattering, encountering clear signals of the exotic Z* resonances close to the pole values found in partial wave analyses.

  17. Finite time synchronization of memristor-based Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with mixed delays

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chuan; Li, Lixiang; Peng, Haipeng; Yang, Yixian

    2017-01-01

    Finite time synchronization, which means synchronization can be achieved in a settling time, is desirable in some practical applications. However, most of the published results on finite time synchronization don't include delays or only include discrete delays. In view of the fact that distributed delays inevitably exist in neural networks, this paper aims to investigate the finite time synchronization of memristor-based Cohen-Grossberg neural networks (MCGNNs) with both discrete delay and di...

  18. Delay-Dependent Stability Criteria of Uncertain Periodic Switched Recurrent Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Yin

    2011-01-01

    uncertain periodic switched recurrent neural networks with time-varying delays. When uncertain discrete-time recurrent neural network is a periodic system, it is expressed as switched neural network for the finite switching state. Based on the switched quadratic Lyapunov functional approach (SQLF and free-weighting matrix approach (FWM, some linear matrix inequality criteria are found to guarantee the delay-dependent asymptotical stability of these systems. Two examples illustrate the exactness of the proposed criteria.

  19. Algebraic approach to time-delay data analysis for LISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhurandhar, S.V.; Nayak, K. Rajesh; Vinet, J.-Y.

    2002-01-01

    Cancellation of laser frequency noise in interferometers is crucial for attaining the requisite sensitivity of the triangular three-spacecraft LISA configuration. Raw laser noise is several orders of magnitude above the other noises and thus it is essential to bring it down to the level of other noises such as shot, acceleration, etc. Since it is impossible to maintain equal distances between spacecrafts, laser noise cancellation must be achieved by appropriately combining the six beams with appropriate time delays. It has been shown in several recent papers that such combinations are possible. In this paper, we present a rigorous and systematic formalism based on algebraic geometrical methods involving computational commutative algebra, which generates in principle all the data combinations canceling the laser frequency noise. The relevant data combinations form the first module of syzygies, as it is called in the literature of algebraic geometry. The module is over a polynomial ring in three variables, the three variables corresponding to the three time delays around the LISA triangle. Specifically, we list several sets of generators for the module whose linear combinations with polynomial coefficients generate the entire module. We find that this formalism can also be extended in a straightforward way to cancel Doppler shifts due to optical bench motions. The two modules are in fact isomorphic. We use our formalism to obtain the transfer functions for the six beams and for the generators. We specifically investigate monochromatic gravitational wave sources in the LISA band and carry out the maximization over linear combinations of the generators of the signal-to-noise ratios with the frequency and source direction angles as parameters

  20. Delay-Range-Dependent H∞ Control for Automatic Mooring Positioning System with Time-Varying Input Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Su

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the economy and security of the positioning system in semi-submersible platform, the paper presents a new scheme based on the mooring line switching strategy. Considering the input delay in switching process, H∞ control with time-varying input delay is designed to calculate the control forces to resist disturbing forces. In order to reduce the conservativeness, the information of the lower bound of delay is taken into account, and a Lyapunov function which contains the range of delay is constructed. Besides, the input constraint is considered to avoid breakage of mooring lines. The sufficient conditions for delay-range-dependent stabilization are derived in terms of LMI, and the controller is also obtained. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is illustrated by a realistic design example.

  1. Time-dependent solutions for stochastic systems with delays: Perturbation theory and applications to financial physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, T.D.

    2006-01-01

    First-order approximations of time-dependent solutions are determined for stochastic systems perturbed by time-delayed feedback forces. To this end, the theory of delay Fokker-Planck equations is applied in combination with Bayes' theorem. Applications to a time-delayed Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and the geometric Brownian walk of financial physics are discussed

  2. Discrete-time recurrent neural networks with time-varying delays: Exponential stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yurong; Wang, Zidong; Serrano, Alan; Liu, Xiaohui

    2007-01-01

    This Letter is concerned with the analysis problem of exponential stability for a class of discrete-time recurrent neural networks (DRNNs) with time delays. The delay is of the time-varying nature, and the activation functions are assumed to be neither differentiable nor strict monotonic. Furthermore, the description of the activation functions is more general than the recently commonly used Lipschitz conditions. Under such mild conditions, we first prove the existence of the equilibrium point. Then, by employing a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, a unified linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach is developed to establish sufficient conditions for the DRNNs to be globally exponentially stable. It is shown that the delayed DRNNs are globally exponentially stable if a certain LMI is solvable, where the feasibility of such an LMI can be easily checked by using the numerically efficient Matlab LMI Toolbox. A simulation example is presented to show the usefulness of the derived LMI-based stability condition

  3. Adaptive control of chaotic continuous-time systems with delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu-Chu; Gao, Furong

    1998-06-01

    A simple delay system governed by a first-order differential-delay equation may behave chaotically, but the conditions for the system to have such behaviors have not been well recognized. In this paper, a set of rules is postulated first for the conditions for the delay system to display chaos. A model-reference adaptive control scheme is then proposed to control the chaotic system state to converge to an arbitrarily given reference trajectory with certain and uncertain system parameters. Numerical examples are given to analyze the chaotic behaviors of the delay system and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive control scheme.

  4. Synthetic LISA: Simulating time delay interferometry in a model LISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallisneri, Michele

    2005-01-01

    We report on three numerical experiments on the implementation of Time-Delay Interferometry (TDI) for LISA, performed with Synthetic LISA, a C++/Python package that we developed to simulate the LISA science process at the level of scientific and technical requirements. Specifically, we study the laser-noise residuals left by first-generation TDI when the LISA armlengths have a realistic time dependence; we characterize the armlength-measurement accuracies that are needed to have effective laser-noise cancellation in both first- and second-generation TDI; and we estimate the quantization and telemetry bitdepth needed for the phase measurements. Synthetic LISA generates synthetic time series of the LISA fundamental noises, as filtered through all the TDI observables; it also provides a streamlined module to compute the TDI responses to gravitational waves according to a full model of TDI, including the motion of the LISA array and the temporal and directional dependence of the armlengths. We discuss the theoretical model that underlies the simulation, its implementation, and its use in future investigations on system-characterization and data-analysis prototyping for LISA

  5. Finite-Time Attractivity for Diagonally Dominant Systems with Off-Diagonal Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Doan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a notion of attractivity for delay equations which are defined on bounded time intervals. Our main result shows that linear delay equations are finite-time attractive, provided that the delay is only in the coupling terms between different components, and the system is diagonally dominant. We apply this result to a nonlinear Lotka-Volterra system and show that the delay is harmless and does not destroy finite-time attractivity.

  6. The relaxation time of processes in a FitzHugh-Nagumo neural system with time delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Ailing; Zeng Chunhua; Wang Hua

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the relaxation time (RT) of the steady-state correlation function in a FitzHugh-Nagumo neural system under the presence of multiplicative and additive white noises and time delay. The noise correlation parameter λ can produce a critical behavior in the RT as functions of the multiplicative noise intensity D, the additive noise intensity Q and the time delay τ. That is, the RT decreases as the noise intensities D and Q increase, and increases as the time delay τ increases below the critical value of λ. However, above the critical value, the RT first increases, reaches a maximum, and then decreases as D, Q and τ increase, i.e. a noise intensity D or Q and a time delay τ exist, at which the time scales of the relaxation process are at their largest. In addition, the additive noise intensity Q can also produce a critical behavior in the RT as a function of λ. The noise correlation parameter λ first increases the RT of processes, then decreases it below the critical value of Q. Above the critical value, λ increases it.

  7. New delay-dependent absolute stability criteria for Lur'e systems with time-varying delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yonggang; Bi, Weiping; Li, Wenlin

    2011-07-01

    In this article, the absolute stability problem is investigated for Lur'e systems with time-varying delay and sector-bounded nonlinearity. By employing the delay fractioning idea, the new augmented Lyapunov functional is first constructed. Then, by introducing some slack matrices and by reserving the useful term when estimating the upper bound of the derivative of Lyapunov functional, the new delay-dependent absolute stability criteria are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Several numerical examples are presented to show the effectiveness and the less conservativeness of the proposed method.

  8. Delay-Dependent Guaranteed Cost H∞ Control of an Interval System with Interval Time-Varying Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongke Shi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the problem of the delay-dependent robust stability and guaranteed cost H∞ control for an interval system with time-varying delay. The interval system with matrix factorization is provided and leads to less conservative conclusions than solving a square root. The time-varying delay is assumed to belong to an interval and the derivative of the interval time-varying delay is not a restriction, which allows a fast time-varying delay; also its applicability is broad. Based on the Lyapunov-Ktasovskii approach, a delay-dependent criterion for the existence of a state feedback controller, which guarantees the closed-loop system stability, the upper bound of cost function, and disturbance attenuation lever for all admissible uncertainties as well as out perturbation, is proposed in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. The criterion is derived by free weighting matrices that can reduce the conservatism. The effectiveness has been verified in a number example and the compute results are presented to validate the proposed design method.

  9. Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: high resolution imaging requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xiao-Lei; Liao, Kai [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xinjiekouwai Street, Beijing, 100875 (China); Treu, Tommaso; Agnello, Adriano [Department of Physics, University of California, Broida Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Auger, Matthew W. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Marshall, Philip J., E-mail: xlmeng919@gmail.com, E-mail: tt@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: aagnello@physics.ucsb.edu, E-mail: mauger@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: liaokai@mail.bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: dr.phil.marshall@gmail.com [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as ''Einstein Rings'' in high resolution images. The distortion of these arcs and counter-arcs, as measured over a large number of pixels, provides tight constraints on the difference between the gravitational potential between the quasar image positions, and thus on cosmology in combination with the measured time delay. We carry out a systematic exploration of the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope γ' of the total mass density profile ρ{sub tot}∝ r{sup −γ'} for the main deflector can be measured. Ideally, we require that the statistical error on γ' be less than 0.02, such that it is subdominant to other sources of random and systematic uncertainties. We find that survey data will likely have sufficient depth and resolution to meet the target only for the brighter gravitational lens systems, comparable to those discovered by the SDSS survey. For fainter systems, that will be discovered by current and future surveys, targeted follow-up will be required. However, the exposure time required with upcoming facilitites such as JWST, the Keck Next Generation

  10. Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: High resolution imaging requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xiao -Lei [Beijing Normal Univ., Beijing (China); Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Treu, Tommaso [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Agnello, Adriano [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Auger, Matthew W. [Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Liao, Kai [Beijing Normal Univ., Beijing (China); Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Marshall, Philip J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as ``Einstein Rings'' in high resolution images. The distortion of these arcs and counter-arcs, as measured over a large number of pixels, provides tight constraints on the difference between the gravitational potential between the quasar image positions, and thus on cosmology in combination with the measured time delay. We carry out a systematic exploration of the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope γ' of the total mass density profile ρtot∝ r–γ' for the main deflector can be measured. Ideally, we require that the statistical error on γ' be less than 0.02, such that it is subdominant to other sources of random and systematic uncertainties. We find that survey data will likely have sufficient depth and resolution to meet the target only for the brighter gravitational lens systems, comparable to those discovered by the SDSS survey. For fainter systems, that will be discovered by current and future surveys, targeted follow-up will be required. Furthermore, the exposure time required with upcoming facilitites such as JWST, the Keck Next Generation Adaptive

  11. Effect of Time Delay on Recognition Memory for Pictures: The Modulatory Role of Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the modulatory role of emotion in the effect of time delay on recognition memory for pictures. Participants viewed neutral, positive and negative pictures, and took a recognition memory test 5 minutes, 24 hours, or 1 week after learning. The findings are: 1) For neutral, positive and negative pictures, overall recognition accuracy in the 5-min delay did not significantly differ from that in the 24-h delay. For neutral and positive pictures, overall recognition accuracy in the 1-week delay was lower than in the 24-h delay; for negative pictures, overall recognition in the 24-h and 1-week delay did not significantly differ. Therefore negative emotion modulates the effect of time delay on recognition memory, maintaining retention of overall recognition accuracy only within a certain frame of time. 2) For the three types of pictures, recollection and familiarity in the 5-min delay did not significantly differ from that in the 24-h and the 1-week delay. Thus emotion does not appear to modulate the effect of time delay on recollection and familiarity. However, recollection in the 24-h delay was higher than in the 1-week delay, whereas familiarity in the 24-h delay was lower than in the 1-week delay. PMID:24971457

  12. Editorial Commentary: "Defer No Time, Delays Have Dangerous Ends" (Henry VI, Shakespeare): Delayed Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Has Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Mark G

    2018-06-01

    There continues to be controversy over the timing of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery. Early or delayed intervention after ACL injury is a topic that has not been settled. The issue is whether ACL tears should have surgery performed in an expedient manner. Or is delay an option with no repercussions to the health of the knee? My associates in nonsurgical specialties wave the New England Journal of Medicine to support their view that surgery is not needed. I routinely espouse the literature confirming that delay of surgery may cause future damage. It is now established that a failure to intervene in a timely manner does cause additional damage. I stand vindicated and can affirm to my colleagues that I have found the answer. There is no longer any doubt or equivocation. Delay in reconstructing an unstable knee does cause damage. Copyright © 2018 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Exponential Antisynchronization Control of Stochastic Memristive Neural Networks with Mixed Time-Varying Delays Based on Novel Delay-Dependent or Delay-Independent Adaptive Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The global exponential antisynchronization in mean square of memristive neural networks with stochastic perturbation and mixed time-varying delays is studied in this paper. Then, two kinds of novel delay-dependent and delay-independent adaptive controllers are designed. With the ability of adapting to environment changes, the proposed controllers can modify their behaviors to achieve the best performance. In particular, on the basis of the differential inclusions theory, inequality theory, and stochastic analysis techniques, several sufficient conditions are obtained to guarantee the exponential antisynchronization between the drive system and response system. Furthermore, two numerical simulation examples are provided to the validity of the derived criteria.

  14. Delay-Dependent Stability Criterion for Bidirectional Associative Memory Neural Networks with Interval Time-Varying Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju H.; Kwon, O. M.

    In the letter, the global asymptotic stability of bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with delays is investigated. The delay is assumed to be time-varying and belongs to a given interval. A novel stability criterion for the stability is presented based on the Lyapunov method. The criterion is represented in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI), which can be solved easily by various optimization algorithms. Two numerical examples are illustrated to show the effectiveness of our new result.

  15. Steady State Analysis of Stochastic Systems with Multiple Time Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W.; Sun, C. Y.; Zhang, H. Q.

    In this paper, attention is focused on the steady state analysis of a class of nonlinear dynamic systems with multi-delayed feedbacks driven by multiplicative correlated Gaussian white noises. The Fokker-Planck equations for delayed variables are at first derived by Novikov's theorem. Then, under small delay assumption, the approximate stationary solutions are obtained by the probability density approach. As a special case, the effects of multidelay feedbacks and the correlated additive and multiplicative Gaussian white noises on the response of a bistable system are considered. It is shown that the obtained analytical results are in good agreement with experimental results in Monte Carlo simulations.

  16. Probing the cosmic distance duality relation using time delay lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, Akshay; Mahajan, Shobhit; Mukherjee, Amitabha [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Jain, Deepak [Deen Dayal Upadhyaya College, University of Delhi, Sector-3, Dwarka, New Delhi 110078 (India); Holanda, R.F.L., E-mail: montirana1992@gmail.com, E-mail: djain@ddu.du.ac.in, E-mail: shobhit.mahajan@gmail.com, E-mail: amimukh@gmail.com, E-mail: holanda@uepb.edu.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, 49100-000, Aracaju—SE (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The construction of the cosmic distance-duality relation (CDDR) has been widely studied. However, its consistency with various new observables remains a topic of interest. We present a new way to constrain the CDDR η( z ) using different dynamic and geometric properties of strong gravitational lenses (SGL) along with SNe Ia observations. We use a sample of 102 SGL with the measurement of corresponding velocity dispersion σ{sub 0} and Einstein radius θ {sub E} . In addition, we also use a dataset of 12 two image lensing systems containing the measure of time delay Δ t between source images. Jointly these two datasets give us the angular diameter distance D {sub A} {sub ol} of the lens. Further, for luminosity distance, we use the 740 observations from JLA compilation of SNe Ia. To study the combined behavior of these datasets we use a model independent method, Gaussian Process (GP). We also check the efficiency of GP by applying it on simulated datasets, which are generated in a phenomenological way by using realistic cosmological error bars. Finally, we conclude that the combined bounds from the SGL and SNe Ia observation do not favor any deviation of CDDR and are in concordance with the standard value (η=1) within 2σ confidence region, which further strengthens the theoretical acceptance of CDDR.

  17. Finite time synchronization of memristor-based Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with mixed delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Finite time synchronization, which means synchronization can be achieved in a settling time, is desirable in some practical applications. However, most of the published results on finite time synchronization don’t include delays or only include discrete delays. In view of the fact that distributed delays inevitably exist in neural networks, this paper aims to investigate the finite time synchronization of memristor-based Cohen-Grossberg neural networks (MCGNNs) with both discrete delay and distributed delay (mixed delays). By means of a simple feedback controller and novel finite time synchronization analysis methods, several new criteria are derived to ensure the finite time synchronization of MCGNNs with mixed delays. The obtained criteria are very concise and easy to verify. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results. PMID:28931066

  18. Finite time synchronization of memristor-based Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with mixed delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan; Li, Lixiang; Peng, Haipeng; Yang, Yixian

    2017-01-01

    Finite time synchronization, which means synchronization can be achieved in a settling time, is desirable in some practical applications. However, most of the published results on finite time synchronization don't include delays or only include discrete delays. In view of the fact that distributed delays inevitably exist in neural networks, this paper aims to investigate the finite time synchronization of memristor-based Cohen-Grossberg neural networks (MCGNNs) with both discrete delay and distributed delay (mixed delays). By means of a simple feedback controller and novel finite time synchronization analysis methods, several new criteria are derived to ensure the finite time synchronization of MCGNNs with mixed delays. The obtained criteria are very concise and easy to verify. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results.

  19. Finite time synchronization of memristor-based Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with mixed delays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Chen

    Full Text Available Finite time synchronization, which means synchronization can be achieved in a settling time, is desirable in some practical applications. However, most of the published results on finite time synchronization don't include delays or only include discrete delays. In view of the fact that distributed delays inevitably exist in neural networks, this paper aims to investigate the finite time synchronization of memristor-based Cohen-Grossberg neural networks (MCGNNs with both discrete delay and distributed delay (mixed delays. By means of a simple feedback controller and novel finite time synchronization analysis methods, several new criteria are derived to ensure the finite time synchronization of MCGNNs with mixed delays. The obtained criteria are very concise and easy to verify. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results.

  20. Optical circular deflector with attosecond resolution for ultrashort electron beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel method using high-power laser as a circular deflector is proposed for the measurement of femtosecond (fs and sub-fs electron beam. In the scheme, the electron beam interacts with a laser pulse operating in a radially polarized doughnut mode (TEM_{01^{*}} in a helical undulator, generating angular kicks along the beam in two directions at the same time. The phase difference between the two angular kicks makes the beam form a ring after a propagation section with appropriate phase advance, which can reveal the current profile of the electron beam. Detailed theoretical analysis of the method and numerical results with reasonable parameters are both presented. It is shown that the temporal resolution can reach up to ∼100 attosecond, which is a significant improvement for the diagnostics of ultrashort electron beam.

  1. New Delay-Dependent Stability Criteria for Uncertain Neutral Systems with Mixed Time-Varying Delays and Nonlinear Perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Karimi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of stability analysis for a class of neutral systems with mixed time-varying neutral, discrete and distributed delays and nonlinear parameter perturbations is addressed. By introducing a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and combining the descriptor model transformation, the Leibniz-Newton formula, some free-weighting matrices, and a suitable change of variables, new sufficient conditions are established for the stability of the considered system, which are neutral-delay-dependent, discrete-delay-range-dependent, and distributed-delay-dependent. The conditions are presented in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs and can be efficiently solved using convex programming techniques. Two numerical examples are given to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  2. Generation of flat wideband chaos with suppressed time delay signature by using optical time lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ning; Wang, Chao; Xue, Chenpeng; Li, Guilan; Lin, Shuqing; Qiu, Kun

    2017-06-26

    We propose a flat wideband chaos generation scheme that shows excellent time delay signature suppression effect, by injecting the chaotic output of general external cavity semiconductor laser into an optical time lens module composed of a phase modulator and two dispersive units. The numerical results demonstrate that by properly setting the parameters of the driving signal of phase modulator and the accumulated dispersion of dispersive units, the relaxation oscillation in chaos can be eliminated, wideband chaos generation with an efficient bandwidth up to several tens of GHz can be achieved, and the RF spectrum of generated chaotic signal is nearly as flat as uniform distribution. Moreover, the periodicity of chaos induced by the external cavity modes can be simultaneously destructed by the optical time lens module, based on this the time delay signature can be completely suppressed.

  3. Anticontrol of chaos in continuous-time systems via time-delay feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Fan; Chen, Guanrong; Yu, Xinghuo

    2000-12-01

    In this paper, a systematic design approach based on time-delay feedback is developed for anticontrol of chaos in a continuous-time system. This anticontrol method can drive a finite-dimensional, continuous-time, autonomous system from nonchaotic to chaotic, and can also enhance the existing chaos of an originally chaotic system. Asymptotic analysis is used to establish an approximate relationship between a time-delay differential equation and a discrete map. Anticontrol of chaos is then accomplished based on this relationship and the differential-geometry control theory. Several examples are given to verify the effectiveness of the methodology and to illustrate the systematic design procedure. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  4. The effects of orbital motion on LISA time delay interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, Neil J; Hellings, Ronald W

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to eliminate laser phase noise in laser interferometer spaceborne gravitational wave detectors, several combinations of signals have been found that allow the laser noise to be cancelled out while gravitational wave signals remain. This process is called time delay interferometry (TDI). In the papers that defined the TDI variables, their performance was evaluated in the limit that the gravitational wave detector is fixed in space. However, the performance depends on certain symmetries in the armlengths that are available if the detector is fixed in space, but that will be broken in the actual rotating and flexing configuration produced by the LISA orbits. In this paper we investigate the performance of these TDI variables for the real LISA orbits. First, addressing the effects of rotation, we verify Daniel Shaddock's result that the Sagnac variables α (t), β (t) and γ (t) will not cancel out the laser phase noise, and we also find the same result for the symmetric Sagnac variable ζ (t). The loss of the latter variable would be particularly unfortunate since this variable also cancels out gravitational wave signal, allowing instrument noise in the detector to be isolated and measured. Fortunately, we have found a set of more complicated TDI variables, which we call Δ Sagnac variables, one of which accomplishes the same goal as ζ (t) to good accuracy. Finally, however, as we investigate the effects of the flexing of the detector arms due to non-circular orbital motion, we show that all variables, including the interferometer variables, X(t), Y(t) and Z(t), which survive the rotation-induced loss of direction symmetry, will not completely cancel laser phase noise when the armlengths are changing with time. This unavoidable problem will place a stringent requirement on laser stability of ∼5 Hz Hz -1/2

  5. Frequency chirp of harmonic and attosecond pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varju, K.; Johansson, P; L'Huillier, A.L.; Mairesse, Y.; Salieres, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We have explored in detail the first- and second-order variations of the atomic phase as a function of the laser intensity and harmonic order. This unravels the similitudes and differences existing between the chirp of individual harmonic pulses and the chirp of the attosecond pulses. We show that the two techniques XFROG and RABITT used to characterize the two chirps (respectively) converge to give the same information, namely the values of the mixed partial derivatives of the atomic phase. This underlines the common physical origin of all these phenomena and provides a unified frame for their description and understanding. Ref. 1 (author)

  6. Fundamental and Subharmonic Resonances of Harmonically Oscillation with Time Delay State Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. EL-Bassiouny

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Time delays occur in many physical systems. In particular, when automatic control is used with structural or mechanical systems, there exists a delay between measurement of the system state and corrective action. The concept of an equivalent damping related to the delay feedback is proposed and the appropriate choice of the feedback gains and the time delay is discussed from the viewpoint of vibration control. We investigate the fundamental resonance and subharmonic resonance of order one-half of a harmonically oscillation under state feedback control with a time delay. By using the multiple scale perturbation technique, the first order approximation of the resonances are derived and the effect of time delay on the resonances is investigated. The fixed points correspond to a periodic motion for the starting system and we show the external excitation-response and frequency-response curves. We analyze the effect of time delay and the other different parameters on these oscillations.

  7. Global dissipativity of continuous-time recurrent neural networks with time delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Xiaoxin; Wang Jun

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the global dissipativity of a general class of continuous-time recurrent neural networks. First, the concepts of global dissipation and global exponential dissipation are defined and elaborated. Next, the sets of global dissipativity and global exponentially dissipativity are characterized using the parameters of recurrent neural network models. In particular, it is shown that the Hopfield network and cellular neural networks with or without time delays are dissipative systems

  8. Charge migration induced by attosecond pulses in bio-relevant molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calegari, Francesca; Castrovilli, Mattea C; Nisoli, Mauro; Trabattoni, Andrea; Palacios, Alicia; Ayuso, David; Martín, Fernando; Greenwood, Jason B; Decleva, Piero

    2016-01-01

    After sudden ionization of a large molecule, the positive charge can migrate throughout the system on a sub-femtosecond time scale, purely guided by electronic coherences. The possibility to actively explore the role of the electron dynamics in the photo-chemistry of bio-relevant molecules is of fundamental interest for understanding, and perhaps ultimately controlling, the processes leading to damage, mutation and, more generally, to the alteration of the biological functions of the macromolecule. Attosecond laser sources can provide the extreme time resolution required to follow this ultrafast charge flow. In this review we will present recent advances in attosecond molecular science: after a brief description of the results obtained for small molecules, recent experimental and theoretical findings on charge migration in bio-relevant molecules will be discussed. (topical review)

  9. Projective synchronization of time-varying delayed neural network with adaptive scaling factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Dibakar; Banerjee, Santo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Projective synchronization in coupled delayed neural chaotic systems with modulated delay time is introduced. • An adaptive rule for the scaling factors is introduced. • This scheme is highly applicable in secure communication. -- Abstract: In this work, the projective synchronization between two continuous time delayed neural systems with time varying delay is investigated. A sufficient condition for synchronization for the coupled systems with modulated delay is presented analytically with the help of the Krasovskii–Lyapunov approach. The effect of adaptive scaling factors on synchronization are also studied in details. Numerical simulations verify the effectiveness of the analytic results

  10. Exponential stability of continuous-time and discrete-time bidirectional associative memory networks with delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Jinling; Cao Jinde

    2004-01-01

    First, convergence of continuous-time Bidirectional Associative Memory (BAM) neural networks are studied. By using Lyapunov functionals and some analysis technique, the delay-independent sufficient conditions are obtained for the networks to converge exponentially toward the equilibrium associated with the constant input sources. Second, discrete-time analogues of the continuous-time BAM networks are formulated and studied. It is shown that the convergence characteristics of the continuous-time systems are preserved by the discrete-time analogues without any restriction imposed on the uniform discretionary step size. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained results

  11. Delay time in a single barrier for a movable quantum shutter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The transient solution and delay time for a δ potential scatterer with a movable quantum shutter is calculated by solving analytically the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The delay time is analyzed as a function of the distance between the shutter and the potential barrier and also as a function of the distance between the potential barrier and the detector. In both cases, it is found that the delay time exhibits a dynamical behavior and that it tends to a saturation value Δt sat in the limit of very short distances, which represents the maximum delay produced by the potential barrier near the interaction region. The phase time τ θ , on the other hand, is not an appropriate time scale for measuring the time delay near the interaction region, except if the shutter is moved far away from the potential. The role played by the antibound state of the system on the behavior of the delay time is also discussed.

  12. A unified approach for impulsive lag synchronization of chaotic systems with time delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chuandong; Liao Xiaofeng; Zhang Rong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a unified approach for impulsive lag-synchronization of a class of chaotic systems with time delay by employing the stability theory of impulsive delayed differential equations. Three well-known delayed chaotic systems are presented to illustrate our results. Also, the estimates of the stable regions for these systems are given, respectively

  13. Finite-Time Stability of Large-Scale Systems with Interval Time-Varying Delay in Interconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. La-inchua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate finite-time stability of a class of nonlinear large-scale systems with interval time-varying delays in interconnection. Time-delay functions are continuous but not necessarily differentiable. Based on Lyapunov stability theory and new integral bounding technique, finite-time stability of large-scale systems with interval time-varying delays in interconnection is derived. The finite-time stability criteria are delays-dependent and are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities which can be solved by various available algorithms. Numerical examples are given to illustrate effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Investigation of attosecond ionization dynamics in gases and solids with intense few-cycle laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrofanov, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    Interaction of intense light fields with dielectric materials has fascinated scientists since the invention of pulsed lasers in the early sixties. Despite the many decades of research, the interest in the field keeps growing because of the potential technological applications of optical (meta-) materials and the prospects of light-controlled peta-Hertz electronics as well as the improving understanding of the fundamental processes behind light-matter interactions. The progress in the short-pulse laser technology that delivered ever-shorter light pulses was echoed by the discoveries of different progressively shorter time scales in the cycle of excitation and energy/charge relaxation in transparent solids, many parts of which are now well understood. The ultimate challenge lies in recovering the earliest stages of the dynamics which are linked to optical-field-ionization that proceeds within a fraction of an optical cycle. One of the complications of advancing the attosecond science to the bulk media is the problem of inducing and detecting a synchronized attosecond response. The charged particles spectroscopy, well developed in gaseous media during last decade and capable of reaching an attosecond temporal resolution cannot be used as an experimental tool for investigation since direct detection of charged particles is impossible in the volume of a solid material. However, solids are the natural place where electronic processes on the sub-femtosecond or attosecond time scale are expected. Very recently several methods for measuring attosecond dynamics in condensed media have been proposed utilizing optical fields in the transparency range of the material. In this thesis a method, suggested in our scientific group is presented. It is an all-optical method based on the detection of optical harmonics originating from ultrafast modulation of a free electron current due to ionization in the field of intense few-cycle laser pulses. This technique will allow retrieving

  15. Incorporation of Time Delayed Measurements in a Discrete-time Kalman Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Dall; Andersen, Nils Axel; Ravn, Ole

    1998-01-01

    In many practical systems there is a delay in some of the sensor devices, for instance vision measurements that may have a long processing time. How to fuse these measurements in a Kalman filter is not a trivial problem if the computational delay is critical. Depending on how much time...... using past and present estimates of the Kalman filter and calculating an optimal gain for this extrapolated measurement...... there is at hand, the designer has to make trade offs between optimality and computational burden of the filter. In this paper various methods in the literature along with a new method proposed by the authors will be presented and compared. The new method is based on “extrapolating” the measurement to present time...

  16. Finite-Time Stability for Fractional-Order Bidirectional Associative Memory Neural Networks with Time Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chang-Jin; Li, Pei-Luan; Pang, Yi-Cheng

    2017-02-01

    This paper is concerned with fractional-order bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with time delays. Applying Laplace transform, the generalized Gronwall inequality and estimates of Mittag-Leffler functions, some sufficient conditions which ensure the finite-time stability of fractional-order bidirectional associative memory neural networks with time delays are obtained. Two examples with their simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical findings. Our results are new and complement previously known results. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos.~61673008, 11261010, 11101126, Project of High-Level Innovative Talents of Guizhou Province ([2016]5651), Natural Science and Technology Foundation of Guizhou Province (J[2015]2025 and J[2015]2026), 125 Special Major Science and Technology of Department of Education of Guizhou Province ([2012]011) and Natural Science Foundation of the Education Department of Guizhou Province (KY[2015]482)

  17. Local Stability of AIDS Epidemic Model Through Treatment and Vertical Transmission with Time Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novi W, Cascarilla; Lestari, Dwi

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to explain stability of the spread of AIDS through treatment and vertical transmission model. Human with HIV need a time to positively suffer AIDS. The existence of a time, human with HIV until positively suffer AIDS can be delayed for a time so that the model acquired is the model with time delay. The model form is a nonlinear differential equation with time delay, SIPTA (susceptible-infected-pre AIDS-treatment-AIDS). Based on SIPTA model analysis results the disease free equilibrium point and the endemic equilibrium point. The disease free equilibrium point with and without time delay are local asymptotically stable if the basic reproduction number is less than one. The endemic equilibrium point will be local asymptotically stable if the time delay is less than the critical value of delay, unstable if the time delay is more than the critical value of delay, and bifurcation occurs if the time delay is equal to the critical value of delay.

  18. Towards attosecond X-ray pulses from the FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zholents, Alexander A.; Fawley, William M.

    2004-01-01

    The ability to study ultrafast phenomena has been recently advanced by the demonstrated production and measurement of a single, 650-attosecond (10 18 sec), VUV x-ray pulse[1] and, latter, a 250-attosecond pulse[2]. The next frontier is a production of the x-ray pulses with shorter wavelengths and in a broader spectral range. Several techniques for a generation of an isolated, attosecond duration, short-wavelength x-ray pulse based upon the ponderomotive laser acceleration [3], SASE and harmonic cascade FELs ([4] - [6]) had been already proposed. In this paper we briefly review a technique proposed in [5] and present some new results

  19. Stability Tests of Positive Fractional Continuous-time Linear Systems with Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kaczorek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Necessary and sufficient conditions for the asymptotic stability of positive fractional continuous-time linear systems with many delays are established. It is shown that: 1 the asymptotic stability of the positive fractional system is independent of their delays, 2 the checking of the asymptotic stability of the positive fractional systems with delays can be reduced to checking of the asymptotic stability of positive standard linear systems without delays.

  20. Passivity of memristive BAM neural networks with leakage and additive time-varying delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiping; Wang, Meiqi; Luo, Xiong; Li, Lixiang; Zhao, Wenbing; Liu, Linlin; Ping, Yuan

    2018-02-01

    This paper investigates the passivity of memristive bidirectional associate memory neural networks (MBAMNNs) with leakage and additive time-varying delays. Based on some useful inequalities and appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals (LKFs), several delay-dependent conditions for passivity performance are obtained in linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Moreover, the leakage delays as well as additive delays are considered separately. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate the feasibility of the theoretical results.

  1. Langevin approach to synchronization of hyperchaotic time-delay dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budini, Adrian A [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones CientIficas y Tecnicas, Centro Atomico Bariloche, Av. E Bustillo Km 9.5, (8400) Bariloche (Argentina); Consortium of the Americas for Interdisciplinary Science and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2008-11-07

    In this paper, we characterize the synchronization phenomenon of hyperchaotic scalar nonlinear delay dynamics in a fully-developed chaos regime. Our results rely on the observation that, in that regime, the stationary statistical properties of a class of hyperchaotic attractors can be reproduced with a linear Langevin equation, defined by replacing the nonlinear delay force by a delta-correlated noise. Therefore, the synchronization phenomenon can be analytically characterized by a set of coupled Langevin equations. We apply this formalism to study anticipated synchronization dynamics subject to external noise fluctuations as well as for characterizing the effects of parameter mismatch in a hyperchaotic communication scheme. The same procedure is applied to second-order differential delay equations associated with synchronization in electro-optical devices. In all cases, the departure with respect to perfect synchronization is measured through a similarity function. Numerical simulations in discrete maps associated with the hyperchaotic dynamics support the formalism.

  2. Regenerative memory in time-delayed neuromorphic photonic resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeira, B.; Avó, R.; Figueiredo, José M. L.; Barland, S.; Javaloyes, J.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a photonic regenerative memory based upon a neuromorphic oscillator with a delayed self-feedback (autaptic) connection. We disclose the existence of a unique temporal response characteristic of localized structures enabling an ideal support for bits in an optical buffer memory for storage and reshaping of data information. We link our experimental implementation, based upon a nanoscale nonlinear resonant tunneling diode driving a laser, to the paradigm of neuronal activity, the FitzHugh-Nagumo model with delayed feedback. This proof-of-concept photonic regenerative memory might constitute a building block for a new class of neuron-inspired photonic memories that can handle high bit-rate optical signals.

  3. Exponential stability of fuzzy cellular neural networks with constant and time-varying delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yanqing; Tang Wansheng

    2004-01-01

    In this Letter, the global stability of delayed fuzzy cellular neural networks (FCNN) with either constant delays or time varying delays is proposed. Firstly, we give the existence and uniqueness of the equilibrium point by using the theory of topological degree and the properties of nonsingular M-matrix and the sufficient conditions for ascertaining the global exponential stability by constructing a suitable Lyapunov functional. Secondly, the criteria for guaranteeing the global exponential stability of FCNN with time varying delays are given and the estimation of exponential convergence rate with regard to speed of vary of delays is presented by constructing a suitable Lyapunov functional

  4. Propagation of an attosecond pulse in a dense two-level medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xiaohong; Gong Shangqing; Yang Weifeng; Xu Zhizhan

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the propagation of attosecond pulse in a dense two-level medium by using an iterative predictor-corrector finite-difference time-domain method. We find when attosecond pulse is considered, that the standard area theorem will break down even for small area pulses: ideal self-induced transparency cannot occur even for a 2π pulse, while the pulses whose areas are not integer multiples of 2π, such as 1.8π and 2.2π pulses, cannot evolve to 2π pulses as predicted by the standard area theorem. Significantly higher spectra components can occur on all these small area propagating pulses due to strong carrier reshaping. Furthermore, these higher spectral components dependent sensitively on the pulse area: the larger the pulse area is, the more evident are these higher spectral components

  5. High Harmonic Radiation Generation and Attosecond pulse generation from Intense Laser-Solid Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Alexander Roy [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Krushelnick, Karl [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-09-08

    We have studied ion motion effects in high harmonic generation, including shifts to the harmonics which result in degradation of the attosecond pulse train, and how to mitigate them. We have examined the scaling with intensity of harmonic emission. We have also switched the geometry of the interaction to measure, for the first time, harmonics from a normal incidence interaction. This was performed by using a special parabolic reflector with an on axis hole and is to allow measurements of the attosecond pulses using standard techniques. Here is a summary of the findings: First high harmonic generation in laser-solid interactions at 1021 Wcm-2, demonstration of harmonic focusing, study of ion motion effects in high harmonic generation in laser-solid interactions, and demonstration of harmonic amplification.

  6. Attosecond Charge Migration with TDDFT: Accurate Dynamics from a Well-Defined Initial State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Adam; Hernandez, Samuel; Mauger, François; Abanador, Paul M; LaMaster, Daniel J; Gaarde, Mette B; Schafer, Kenneth J; Lopata, Kenneth

    2017-09-07

    We investigate the ability of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) to capture attosecond valence electron dynamics resulting from sudden X-ray ionization of a core electron. In this special case the initial state can be constructed unambiguously, allowing for a simple test of the accuracy of the dynamics. The response following nitrogen K-edge ionization in nitrosobenzene shows excellent agreement with fourth-order algebraic diagrammatic construction (ADC(4)) results, suggesting that a properly chosen initial state allows TDDFT to adequately capture attosecond charge migration. Visualizing hole motion using an electron localization picture (ELF), we provide an intuitive chemical interpretation of the charge migration as a superposition of Lewis dot resonance structures.

  7. Generation and Characterization of Attosecond Pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian A. Walmsley; Robert W. Boyd

    2006-04-24

    The research undertaken in this project has been directed toward the area of attoscience, in particular the problem of attosecond metrology. That is, the accurate determination of the electric field of attosecond XUV radiation. This outstanding problem has been identified as a critical technology for further development of the field, and our research adds to the area by providing the first method for characterization using the harmonic radiation itself as a tool. The technical effectiveness of this approach is very high, since it is vastly easier to detect XUV radiation directly than via the spectrum of photoelectrons liberated from atoms by it. This means that the experimental data rate can be much higher in principle using all-optical detection that electron detection, which will greatly aid the utility of harmonic XUV sources in attoscience applications. There are as yet no direct public benefits from this area of scientific research, though access to material structural dynamics on unprecedented brief timescales are expected to yield significant benefits for the future.

  8. Time delays between core power production and external detector response from Monte Carlo calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    One primary concern for design of safety systems for reactors is the time response of external detectors to changes in the core. This paper describes a way to estimate the time delay between the core power production and the external detector response using Monte Carlo calculations and suggests a technique to measure the time delay. The Monte Carlo code KENO-NR was used to determine the time delay between the core power production and the external detector response for a conceptual design of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor. The Monte Carlo estimated time delay was determined to be about 10 ms for this conceptual design of the ANS reactor

  9. Noise-induced coherence in bistable systems with multiple time delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yu; Dong, Shi-Hai; Lozada-Cassou, M.

    2004-01-01

    We study the correlation properties of noise-driven bistable systems with multiple time-delay feedbacks. For small noisy perturbation and feedback magnitude, we derive the autocorrelation function and the power spectrum based on the two-state model with transition rates depending on the earlier states of the system. A comparison between the single and double time delays reveals that the auto correlation functions exhibit exponential decay with small undulation for the double time delays, in contrast with the remarkable oscillatory behavior at small time lags for the single time delay

  10. A delay-dependent approach to robust control for neutral uncertain neural networks with mixed interval time-varying delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Chien-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of delay-dependent global robust stabilization for discrete, distributed and neutral interval time-varying delayed neural networks described by nonlinear delay differential equations of the neutral type. The parameter uncertainties are norm bounded. The activation functions are assumed to be bounded and globally Lipschitz continuous. Using a Lyapunov functional approach and linear matrix inequality (LMI) techniques, the stability criteria for the uncertain neutral neural networks with interval time-varying delays are established in the form of LMIs, which can be readily verified using the standard numerical software. An important feature of the result reported is that all the stability conditions are dependent on the upper and lower bounds of the delays. Another feature of the results lies in that it involves fewer free weighting matrix strategy, and upper bounds of the inner product between two vectors are not introduced to reduce the conservatism of the criteria. Two illustrative examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and the reduced conservatism of the proposed method

  11. Firing patterns transition and desynchronization induced by time delay in neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shoufang; Zhang, Jiqian; Wang, Maosheng; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2018-06-01

    We used the Hindmarsh-Rose (HR) model (Hindmarsh and Rose, 1984) to study the effect of time delay on the transition of firing behaviors and desynchronization in neural networks. As time delay is increased, neural networks exhibit diversity of firing behaviors, including regular spiking or bursting and firing patterns transitions (FPTs). Meanwhile, the desynchronization of firing and unstable bursting with decreasing amplitude in neural system, are also increasingly enhanced with the increase of time delay. Furthermore, we also studied the effect of coupling strength and network randomness on these phenomena. Our results imply that time delays can induce transition and desynchronization of firing behaviors in neural networks. These findings provide new insight into the role of time delay in the firing activities of neural networks, and can help to better understand the firing phenomena in complex systems of neural networks. A possible mechanism in brain that can cause the increase of time delay is discussed.

  12. H∞ state estimation for discrete-time memristive recurrent neural networks with stochastic time-delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjian; Wang, Zidong; Shen, Bo; Alsaadi, Fuad E.

    2016-07-01

    This paper deals with the robust H∞ state estimation problem for a class of memristive recurrent neural networks with stochastic time-delays. The stochastic time-delays under consideration are governed by a Bernoulli-distributed stochastic sequence. The purpose of the addressed problem is to design the robust state estimator such that the dynamics of the estimation error is exponentially stable in the mean square, and the prescribed ? performance constraint is met. By utilizing the difference inclusion theory and choosing a proper Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, the existence condition of the desired estimator is derived. Based on it, the explicit expression of the estimator gain is given in terms of the solution to a linear matrix inequality. Finally, a numerical example is employed to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed estimation approach.

  13. Exponential stability for stochastic delayed recurrent neural networks with mixed time-varying delays and impulses: the continuous-time case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karthik Raja, U; Leelamani, A; Raja, R; Samidurai, R

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the exponential stability for a class of stochastic neural networks with time-varying delays and impulsive effects is considered. By constructing suitable Lyapunov functionals and by using the linear matrix inequality optimization approach, we obtain sufficient delay-dependent criteria to ensure the exponential stability of stochastic neural networks with time-varying delays and impulses. Two numerical examples with simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained results over those already existing in the literature. (paper)

  14. Stability of time-delay systems via Lyapunov functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Alastruey

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a Lyapunov function candidate is introduced for multivariable systems with inner delays, without assuming a priori stability for the nondelayed subsystem. By using this Lyapunov function, a controller is deduced. Such a controller utilizes an input–output description of the original system, a circumstance that facilitates practical applications of the proposed approach.

  15. Travelling wave solutions for some time-delayed equations through factorizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, E.S.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we use factorization method to find explicit particular travelling wave solutions for the following important nonlinear second-order partial differential equations: The generalized time-delayed Burgers-Huxley, time-delayed convective Fishers, and the generalized time-delayed Burgers-Fisher. Using the particular solutions for these equations we find the general solutions, two-parameter solution, as special cases

  16. Synchronization of time-delayed systems with chaotic modulation and cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Santo

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method of synchronization between two time-delayed systems where the delay times are modulated by a common chaotic signal of the driving system. The technique is well applied to two identical autonomous continuous-time-delayed systems with numerical simulations. Finally, a new method of encryption is generated for digital messages. This method is illustrated with two different encryption processes for text as well as picture messages.

  17. Relativistic time delays in the Dirac approach to nucleon-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.

    1993-01-01

    In connection with a characteristic feature of the effective optical potential in the Dirac approach two types of time delays are considered in the relativistic eikonal approximation. One is obtained from the scattering amplitude and the other given by the wave packet motion in the interaction region. These time delays turn out to differ in sign at intermediate energies, in contrast to the agreement between corresponding nonrelativistic time delays. (orig.)

  18. CAN LARGE TIME DELAYS OBSERVED IN LIGHT CURVES OF CORONAL LOOPS BE EXPLAINED IN IMPULSIVE HEATING?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lionello, Roberto; Linker, Jon A.; Mikić, Zoran; Alexander, Caroline E.; Winebarger, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    The light curves of solar coronal loops often peak first in channels associated with higher temperatures and then in those associated with lower temperatures. The delay times between the different narrowband EUV channels have been measured for many individual loops and recently for every pixel of an active region observation. The time delays between channels for an active region exhibit a wide range of values. The maximum time delay in each channel pair can be quite large, i.e., >5000 s. These large time delays make-up 3%–26% (depending on the channel pair) of the pixels where a trustworthy, positive time delay is measured. It has been suggested that these time delays can be explained by simple impulsive heating, i.e., a short burst of energy that heats the plasma to a high temperature, after which the plasma is allowed to cool through radiation and conduction back to its original state. In this paper, we investigate whether the largest observed time delays can be explained by this hypothesis by simulating a series of coronal loops with different heating rates, loop lengths, abundances, and geometries to determine the range of expected time delays between a set of four EUV channels. We find that impulsive heating cannot address the largest time delays observed in two of the channel pairs and that the majority of the large time delays can only be explained by long, expanding loops with photospheric abundances. Additional observations may rule out these simulations as an explanation for the long time delays. We suggest that either the time delays found in this manner may not be representative of real loop evolution, or that the impulsive heating and cooling scenario may be too simple to explain the observations, and other potential heating scenarios must be explored

  19. Synchronization of Different Fractional Order Time-Delay Chaotic Systems Using Active Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianeng Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chaos synchronization of different fractional order time-delay chaotic systems is considered. Based on the Laplace transform theory, the conditions for achieving synchronization of different fractional order time-delay chaotic systems are analyzed by use of active control technique. Then numerical simulations are provided to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the developed method. At last, effects of the fraction order and the time delay on synchronization are further researched.

  20. The effect of visual-motion time delays on pilot performance in a pursuit tracking task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G. K., Jr.; Riley, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    A study has been made to determine the effect of visual-motion time delays on pilot performance of a simulated pursuit tracking task. Three interrelated major effects have been identified: task difficulty, motion cues, and time delays. As task difficulty, as determined by airplane handling qualities or target frequency, increases, the amount of acceptable time delay decreases. However, when relatively complete motion cues are included in the simulation, the pilot can maintain his performance for considerably longer time delays. In addition, the number of degrees of freedom of motion employed is a significant factor.

  1. Stability analysis of fractional-order Hopfield neural networks with time delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hu; Yu, Yongguang; Wen, Guoguang

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates the stability for fractional-order Hopfield neural networks with time delays. Firstly, the fractional-order Hopfield neural networks with hub structure and time delays are studied. Some sufficient conditions for stability of the systems are obtained. Next, two fractional-order Hopfield neural networks with different ring structures and time delays are developed. By studying the developed neural networks, the corresponding sufficient conditions for stability of the systems are also derived. It is shown that the stability conditions are independent of time delays. Finally, numerical simulations are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results obtained in this paper. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A new delay line loops shrinking time-to-digital converter in low-cost FPGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jie, E-mail: zhangjie071063@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Geodesy and Earth’s Dynamics, Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, CAS, Wuhan, China, 430077 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, 100049 (China); Zhou, Dongming [State Key Laboratory of Geodesy and Earth’s Dynamics, Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, CAS, Wuhan, China, 430077 (China)

    2015-01-21

    The article provides the design and test results of a new time-to-digital converter (TDC) based on delay line loops shrinking method and implemented in a low-cost field programmable gate array (FPGA) device. A technique that achieves high resolution with low cost and flexibility is presented. The technique is based on two delay line loops which are used to directly shrink the measured time interval in the designed TDC, and the resolution is dependent on the difference between the entire delay times of the two delay line loops. In order to realize high resolution and eliminate temperature influence, the two delay line loops consist of the same delay cells with the same number. A delay-locked loop (DLL) is used to stabilize the resolution against process variations and ambient conditions. Meanwhile, one method is used to accurately evaluate the resolution of the implemented TDC. The converter has been implemented in a general-propose FPGA device (Actel SmartFusion A2F200M3). A single shot resolution of the implemented converter is 63.3 ps and the measurement standard deviation is about 61.7 ps within the measurement range of 5 ns. - Highlights: • We provide a new FPGA-integrated time-to-digital converter based on delay line loops method which used two delay line loops to directly shrink time intervals with only rising edges. • The two delay line loops consist of the same delay cells with the same number and symmetrical structure. • The resolution is dependent on the difference between the entire delays of the two delay line loops. • We use delay-locked loop to stabilize the resolution against temperature and supply voltage.

  3. A new delay line loops shrinking time-to-digital converter in low-cost FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    The article provides the design and test results of a new time-to-digital converter (TDC) based on delay line loops shrinking method and implemented in a low-cost field programmable gate array (FPGA) device. A technique that achieves high resolution with low cost and flexibility is presented. The technique is based on two delay line loops which are used to directly shrink the measured time interval in the designed TDC, and the resolution is dependent on the difference between the entire delay times of the two delay line loops. In order to realize high resolution and eliminate temperature influence, the two delay line loops consist of the same delay cells with the same number. A delay-locked loop (DLL) is used to stabilize the resolution against process variations and ambient conditions. Meanwhile, one method is used to accurately evaluate the resolution of the implemented TDC. The converter has been implemented in a general-propose FPGA device (Actel SmartFusion A2F200M3). A single shot resolution of the implemented converter is 63.3 ps and the measurement standard deviation is about 61.7 ps within the measurement range of 5 ns. - Highlights: • We provide a new FPGA-integrated time-to-digital converter based on delay line loops method which used two delay line loops to directly shrink time intervals with only rising edges. • The two delay line loops consist of the same delay cells with the same number and symmetrical structure. • The resolution is dependent on the difference between the entire delays of the two delay line loops. • We use delay-locked loop to stabilize the resolution against temperature and supply voltage

  4. Delay-dependent exponential stability analysis of bi-directional associative memory neural networks with time delay: an LMI approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chuandong; Liao Xiaofeng; Zhang Rong

    2005-01-01

    For bi-directional associative memory (BAM) neural networks (NNs) with different constant or time-varying delays, the problems of determining the exponential stability and estimating the exponential convergence rate are investigated in this paper. An approach combining the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional with the linear matrix inequality (LMI) is taken to study the problems, which provide bounds on the interconnection matrix and the activation functions, so as to guarantee the system's exponential stability. Some criteria for the exponential stability, which give information on the delay-dependent property, are derived. The results obtained in this paper provide one more set of easily verified guidelines for determining the exponential stability of delayed BAM (DBAM) neural networks, which are less conservative and less restrictive than the ones reported so far in the literature. Some typical examples are presented to show the application of the criteria obtained in this paper

  5. Connecting Lab-Based Attosecond Science with FEL research

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    In the last few years laboratory-scale femtosecond laser-based research using XUV light has developed dramatically following the successful development of attosecond laser pulses by means of high-harmonic generation. Using attosecond laser pulses, studies of electron dynamics on the natural timescale that electronic processes occur in atoms, molecules and solids can be contemplated, providing unprecedented insight into the fundamental role that electrons play in photo-induced processes. In my talk I will briefly review the present status of the attosecond science research field in terms of present and foreseen capabilities, and discuss a few recent applications, including a first example of the use of attosecond laser pulses in molecular science. In addition, I will discuss very recent results of experiments where photoionization of dynamically aligned molecules is investigated using a high-harmonics XUV source. Photoionization of aligned molecules becomes all the more interesting if the experiment is perfo...

  6. Linear time delay methods and stability analyses of the human spine. Effects of neuromuscular reflex response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Timothy C; Granata, Kevin P; Madigan, Michael L; Hendricks, Scott L

    2008-08-01

    Linear stability methods were applied to a biomechanical model of the human musculoskeletal spine to investigate effects of reflex gain and reflex delay on stability. Equations of motion represented a dynamic 18 degrees-of-freedom rigid-body model with time-delayed reflexes. Optimal muscle activation levels were identified by minimizing metabolic power with the constraints of equilibrium and stability with zero reflex time delay. Muscle activation levels and associated muscle forces were used to find the delay margin, i.e., the maximum reflex delay for which the system was stable. Results demonstrated that stiffness due to antagonistic co-contraction necessary for stability declined with increased proportional reflex gain. Reflex delay limited the maximum acceptable proportional reflex gain, i.e., long reflex delay required smaller maximum reflex gain to avoid instability. As differential reflex gain increased, there was a small increase in acceptable reflex delay. However, differential reflex gain with values near intrinsic damping caused the delay margin to approach zero. Forward-dynamic simulations of the fully nonlinear time-delayed system verified the linear results. The linear methods accurately found the delay margin below which the nonlinear system was asymptotically stable. These methods may aid future investigations in the role of reflexes in musculoskeletal stability.

  7. Regenerative memory in time-delayed neuromorphic photonic resonators

    OpenAIRE

    Romeira, B.; Avó, R.; Figueiredo, José M. L.; Barland, S.; Javaloyes, J.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a photonic regenerative memory based upon a neuromorphic oscillator with a delayed self-feedback (autaptic) connection. We disclose the existence of a unique temporal response characteristic of localized structures enabling an ideal support for bits in an optical buffer memory for storage and reshaping of data information. We link our experimental implementation, based upon a nanoscale nonlinear resonant tunneling diode driving a laser, to the paradigm of neuronal activity, the...

  8. Stability analysis for discrete-time stochastic memristive neural networks with both leakage and probabilistic delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjian; Wang, Zidong; Shen, Bo; Huang, Tingwen; Alsaadi, Fuad E

    2018-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the globally exponential stability problem for a class of discrete-time stochastic memristive neural networks (DSMNNs) with both leakage delays as well as probabilistic time-varying delays. For the probabilistic delays, a sequence of Bernoulli distributed random variables is utilized to determine within which intervals the time-varying delays fall at certain time instant. The sector-bounded activation function is considered in the addressed DSMNN. By taking into account the state-dependent characteristics of the network parameters and choosing an appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, some sufficient conditions are established under which the underlying DSMNN is globally exponentially stable in the mean square. The derived conditions are made dependent on both the leakage and the probabilistic delays, and are therefore less conservative than the traditional delay-independent criteria. A simulation example is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed stability criterion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. General relation between the group delay and dwell time in multicomponent electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Feng; Lu, Junqiang

    2016-10-01

    For multicomponent electron scattering states, we derive a general relation between the Wigner group delay and the Bohmian dwell time. It is found that the definition of group delay should account for the phase of the spinor wave functions of propagating modes. The difference between the group delay and dwell time comes from both the interference delay and the decaying modes. For barrier tunneling of helical electrons on a surface of topological insulators, our calculations including the trigonal-warping term show that the decaying modes can contribute greatly to the group delay. The derived relation between the group delay and the dwell time is helpful to unify the two definitions of tunneling time in a quite general situation.

  10. Consensus of discrete-time multi-agent systems with adversaries and time delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiming; He, Xiongxiong; Liu, Shuai; Xie, Lihua

    2014-05-01

    This paper studies the resilient asymptotic consensus problem for discrete-time multi-agent systems in the presence of adversaries and transmission delays. The network is assumed to have ? loyal agents and ? adversarial agents, and each loyal agent in the network has no knowledge of the network topology other than an upper bound on the number of adversarial agents in its neighborhood. For the considered networked system, only locally delayed information is available for each loyal agent, and also the information flow is directed and a control protocol using only local information is designed to guarantee the realization of consensus with respect to communication graph, which satisfies a featured network robustness. Numerical examples are finally given to demonstrate the effectiveness of theoretical results.

  11. Generation of isolated attosecond pulses using a plasmonic funnel-waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Joonhee; Kim, Seungchul; Park, In-Yong; Lee, Dong-Hyub; Han, Seunghwoi; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically investigated the possibility of generating attosecond pulses by means of plasmonic field enhancement induced in a nano-structured metallic funnel-waveguide. This study was motivated by our recent experimental demonstration of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) pulses using the same type of three-dimensional waveguides. Here, with emphasis on generation of isolated attosecond pulses, the finite-domain time-difference method was used to analyze the funnel-waveguide with respect to the geometry-dependent plasmonic features such as the field enhancement factor, enhanced plasmonic field profile and hot-spot location. Then an extended semi-classical model of high-order harmonic generation was adopted to predict the EUV spectra generated from the funnel-waveguide in consideration of the spatial inhomogeneity of the plasmonic field within the hot-spot volume. Our simulation finally proved that isolated attosecond pulses can be produced at fast repetition rates directly from a few-cycle femtosecond laser or by synthesizing a two-color laser consisting of two multi-cycle pulses of cross-polarized configuration. (paper)

  12. Robust Stabilization of Discrete-Time Systems with Time-Varying Delay: An LMI Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter J. S. Leite

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sufficient linear matrix inequality (LMI conditions to verify the robust stability and to design robust state feedback gains for the class of linear discrete-time systems with time-varying delay and polytopic uncertainties are presented. The conditions are obtained through parameter-dependent Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals and use some extra variables, which yield less conservative LMI conditions. Both problems, robust stability analysis and robust synthesis, are formulated as convex problems where all system matrices can be affected by uncertainty. Some numerical examples are presented to illustrate the advantages of the proposed LMI conditions.

  13. Time delay and noise explaining the behaviour of the cell growth in fermentation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayuobi, Tawfiqullah; Rosli, Norhayati; Bahar, Arifah; Salleh, Madihah Md

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes to investigate the interplay between time delay and external noise in explaining the behaviour of the microbial growth in batch fermentation process. Time delay and noise are modelled jointly via stochastic delay differential equations (SDDEs). The typical behaviour of cell concentration in batch fermentation process under this model is investigated. Milstein scheme is applied for solving this model numerically. Simulation results illustrate the effects of time delay and external noise in explaining the lag and stationary phases, respectively for the cell growth of fermentation process

  14. Time delay and noise explaining the behaviour of the cell growth in fermentation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuobi, Tawfiqullah; Rosli, Norhayati; Bahar, Arifah; Salleh, Madihah Md

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes to investigate the interplay between time delay and external noise in explaining the behaviour of the microbial growth in batch fermentation process. Time delay and noise are modelled jointly via stochastic delay differential equations (SDDEs). The typical behaviour of cell concentration in batch fermentation process under this model is investigated. Milstein scheme is applied for solving this model numerically. Simulation results illustrate the effects of time delay and external noise in explaining the lag and stationary phases, respectively for the cell growth of fermentation process.

  15. Time delay and noise explaining the behaviour of the cell growth in fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayuobi, Tawfiqullah; Rosli, Norhayati [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Salleh, Madihah Md [Department of Biotechnology Industry, Faculty of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-02-03

    This paper proposes to investigate the interplay between time delay and external noise in explaining the behaviour of the microbial growth in batch fermentation process. Time delay and noise are modelled jointly via stochastic delay differential equations (SDDEs). The typical behaviour of cell concentration in batch fermentation process under this model is investigated. Milstein scheme is applied for solving this model numerically. Simulation results illustrate the effects of time delay and external noise in explaining the lag and stationary phases, respectively for the cell growth of fermentation process.

  16. Mean Square Exponential Stability of Stochastic Switched System with Interval Time-Varying Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manlika Rajchakit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with mean square exponential stability of switched stochastic system with interval time-varying delays. The time delay is any continuous function belonging to a given interval, but not necessary to be differentiable. By constructing a suitable augmented Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional combined with Leibniz-Newton’s formula, a switching rule for the mean square exponential stability of switched stochastic system with interval time-varying delays and new delay-dependent sufficient conditions for the mean square exponential stability of the switched stochastic system are first established in terms of LMIs. Numerical example is given to show the effectiveness of the obtained result.

  17. Bifurcation and stability of an improved time-delayed fluid flow model in internet congestion control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Liang, Liu; Jie, Zhu; Xiao-Shu, Luo

    2009-01-01

    Based on the fluid flow time-delayed model proposed by Misra et al in internet congestion control, one modified time-delayed model is presented, where the influence of the communication delay on the router queue length is investigated in detail. The main advantage of the new model is that its stability domain is larger even without an extra controller. By linear stability analysis and numerical simulation, the effectiveness and feasibility of the novel model in internet congestion control are verified

  18. Bifurcation and stability of an improved time-delayed fluid flow model in internet congestion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Liang; Zhu, Jie; Luo, Xiao-Shu

    2009-09-01

    Based on the fluid flow time-delayed model proposed by Misra et al in internet congestion control, one modified time-delayed model is presented, where the influence of the communication delay on the router queue length is investigated in detail. The main advantage of the new model is that its stability domain is larger even without an extra controller. By linear stability analysis and numerical simulation, the effectiveness and feasibility of the novel model in internet congestion control are verified.

  19. Finite-time and fixed-time synchronization analysis of inertial memristive neural networks with time-varying delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ruoyu; Cao, Jinde; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2018-02-01

    This paper investigates the finite-time synchronization and fixed-time synchronization problems of inertial memristive neural networks with time-varying delays. By utilizing the Filippov discontinuous theory and Lyapunov stability theory, several sufficient conditions are derived to ensure finite-time synchronization of inertial memristive neural networks. Then, for the purpose of making the setting time independent of initial condition, we consider the fixed-time synchronization. A novel criterion guaranteeing the fixed-time synchronization of inertial memristive neural networks is derived. Finally, three examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of our main results.

  20. Effect of time delay on the upper bound of the time derivative of information entropy in a stochastic dynamical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Min-Min; Mei Dong-Cheng; Wang Can-Jun

    2011-01-01

    The effects of the time delay on the upper bound of the time derivative of information entropy are investigated in a time-delayed dynamical system driven by correlated noise. Using the Markov approximation of the stochastic delay differential equations and the Schwartz inequality principle, we obtain an analytical expression for the upper bound U B (t) of the time derivative of the information entropy. The results show that there is a critical value of τ (delay time), and U B (t) presents opposite behaviours on difference sides of the critical value. For the case of the weak additive noise, τ can induce a reentrance transition. Delay time τ also causes a reversal behaviour in U B (t)-λ plot, where λ denotes the degree of the correlation between the two noises. (general)

  1. Efficiency of performing pulmonary procedures in a shared endoscopy unit: procedure time, turnaround time, delays, and procedure waiting time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Akash; Lee, Mui Yok; Wang, Chunhong; Hussein, Nurmalah B M; Selvi, Kalai; Tee, Augustine

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of performing pulmonary procedures in the endoscopy unit in a large teaching hospital. A prospective study from May 20 to July 19, 2013, was designed. The main outcome measures were procedure delays and their reasons, duration of procedural steps starting from patient's arrival to endoscopy unit, turnaround time, total case durations, and procedure wait time. A total of 65 procedures were observed. The most common procedure was BAL (61%) followed by TBLB (31%). Overall procedures for 35 (53.8%) of 65 patients were delayed by ≥ 30 minutes, 21/35 (60%) because of "spillover" of the gastrointestinal and surgical cases into the time block of pulmonary procedure. Time elapsed between end of pulmonary procedure and start of the next procedure was ≥ 30 minutes in 8/51 (16%) of cases. In 18/51 (35%) patients there was no next case in the room after completion of the pulmonary procedure. The average idle time of the room after the end of pulmonary procedure and start of next case or end of shift at 5:00 PM if no next case was 58 ± 53 minutes. In 17/51 (33%) patients the room's idle time was >60 minutes. A total of 52.3% of patients had the wait time >2 days and 11% had it ≥ 6 days, reason in 15/21 (71%) being unavailability of the slot. Most pulmonary procedures were delayed due to spillover of the gastrointestinal and surgical cases into the block time allocated to pulmonary procedures. The most common reason for difficulty encountered in scheduling the pulmonary procedure was slot unavailability. This caused increased procedure waiting time. The strategies to reduce procedure delays and turnaround times, along with improved scheduling methods, may have a favorable impact on the volume of procedures performed in the unit thereby optimizing the existing resources.

  2. Travelling Solitary Wave Solutions for Generalized Time-delayed Burgers-Fisher Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xijun; Han Libo; Li Xi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, travelling wave solutions for the generalized time-delayed Burgers-Fisher equation are studied. By using the first-integral method, which is based on the ring theory of commutative algebra, we obtain a class of travelling solitary wave solutions for the generalized time-delayed Burgers-Fisher equation. A minor error in the previous article is clarified. (general)

  3. A New Method for Calibrating the Time Delay of a Piezoelectric Probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bengt Hurup

    1974-01-01

    A simple method for calibrating the time delay of a piezoelectric probe of the type often used in plasma physics is described.......A simple method for calibrating the time delay of a piezoelectric probe of the type often used in plasma physics is described....

  4. A dynamic IS-LM business cycle model with two time delays in capital accumulation equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lujun; Li, Yaqiong

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, we analyze a augmented IS-LM business cycle model with the capital accumulation equation that two time delays are considered in investment processes according to Kalecki's idea. Applying stability switch criteria and Hopf bifurcation theory, we prove that time delays cause the equilibrium to lose or gain stability and Hopf bifurcation occurs.

  5. The generalized correlation method for estimation of time delay in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostic, Lj.

    1981-01-01

    The generalized correlation estimation is developed for determining time delay between signals received at two spatially separated sensors in the presence of uncorrelated noise in a power plant. This estimator can be realized as a pair of receiver prefilters followed by a cross correlator. The time argument at which the correlator achieves a maximum is the delay estimate. (author)

  6. Relations between Self Regulation, Future Time Perspective and the Delay of Gratification in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Suleyman

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted on 508 (331 female, 144 male) first grade university students in order to investigate the relations between self regulation, the future time perspectives, and the delay of gratification in the academic field. A future time perspective scale, an academic delay of gratification scale and a motivational strategies for…

  7. Graphical Evaluation of Time-Delay Compensation Techniques for Digitally Controlled Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Minghui; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2018-01-01

    A main design constraint of the digitally controlled power electronics converters is the time delay of control systems, which may lead to the reduced control loop bandwidth and even unstable dynamics. Numerous time-delay compensation methods have been developed, of which the model-free schemes...

  8. Super-transient scaling in time-delay autonomous Boolean network motifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Huys, Otti, E-mail: otti.dhuys@phy.duke.edu; Haynes, Nicholas D. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Lohmann, Johannes [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Gauthier, Daniel J. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Autonomous Boolean networks are commonly used to model the dynamics of gene regulatory networks and allow for the prediction of stable dynamical attractors. However, most models do not account for time delays along the network links and noise, which are crucial features of real biological systems. Concentrating on two paradigmatic motifs, the toggle switch and the repressilator, we develop an experimental testbed that explicitly includes both inter-node time delays and noise using digital logic elements on field-programmable gate arrays. We observe transients that last millions to billions of characteristic time scales and scale exponentially with the amount of time delays between nodes, a phenomenon known as super-transient scaling. We develop a hybrid model that includes time delays along network links and allows for stochastic variation in the delays. Using this model, we explain the observed super-transient scaling of both motifs and recreate the experimentally measured transient distributions.

  9. Electrical Activity in a Time-Delay Four-Variable Neuron Model under Electromagnetic Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keming Tang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of electromagnetic induction on the electrical activity of neuron, the variable for magnetic flow is used to improve Hindmarsh–Rose neuron model. Simultaneously, due to the existence of time-delay when signals are propagated between neurons or even in one neuron, it is important to study the role of time-delay in regulating the electrical activity of the neuron. For this end, a four-variable neuron model is proposed to investigate the effects of electromagnetic induction and time-delay. Simulation results suggest that the proposed neuron model can show multiple modes of electrical activity, which is dependent on the time-delay and external forcing current. It means that suitable discharge mode can be obtained by selecting the time-delay or external forcing current, which could be helpful for further investigation of electromagnetic radiation on biological neuronal system.

  10. Stochastic resonance in a time-delayed asymmetric bistable system with mixed periodic signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong-Feng, Guo; Wei, Xu; Liang, Wang

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the phenomenon of stochastic resonance in an asymmetric bistable system with time-delayed feedback and mixed periodic signal by using the theory of signal-to-noise ratio in the adiabatic limit. A general approximate Fokker–Planck equation and the expression of the signal-to-noise ratio are derived through the small time delay approximation at both fundamental harmonics and mixed harmonics. The effects of the additive noise intensity Q, multiplicative noise intensity D, static asymmetry r and delay time τ on the signal-to-noise ratio are discussed. It is found that the higher mixed harmonics and the static asymmetry r can restrain stochastic resonance, and the delay time τ can enhance stochastic resonance. Moreover, the longer the delay time τ is, the larger the additive noise intensity Q and the multiplicative noise intensity D are, when the stochastic resonance appears. (general)

  11. New distributions of the statistical time delay of electrical breakdown in nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic, V Lj; Gocic, S R; Stamenkovic, S N

    2006-01-01

    Two new distributions of the statistical time delay of electrical breakdown in nitrogen are reported in this paper. The Gaussian and Gauss-exponential distributions of statistical time delay have been obtained on the basis of thousands of time delay measurements on a gas tube with a plane-parallel electrode system. Distributions of the statistical time delay are theoretically founded on binomial distribution for the occurrence of initiating electrons and described by using simple analytical and numerical models. The shapes of distributions depend on the electron yields in the interelectrode space originating from residual states. It is shown that a distribution of the statistical time delay changes from exponential and Gauss-exponential to Gaussian distribution due to the influence of residual ionization

  12. Generalized synchronization-based multiparameter estimation in modulated time-delayed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dibakar; Bhattacharyya, Bidyut K.

    2011-09-01

    We propose a nonlinear active observer based generalized synchronization scheme for multiparameter estimation in time-delayed systems with periodic time delay. A sufficient condition for parameter estimation is derived using Krasovskii-Lyapunov theory. The suggested tool proves to be globally and asymptotically stable by means of Krasovskii-Lyapunov method. With this effective method, parameter identification and generalized synchronization of modulated time-delayed systems with all the system parameters unknown, can be achieved simultaneously. We restrict our study for multiple parameter estimation in modulated time-delayed systems with single state variable only. Theoretical proof and numerical simulation demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed technique. The block diagram of electronic circuit for multiple time delay system shows that the method is easily applicable in practical communication problems.

  13. From dynamical systems with time-varying delay to circle maps and Koopman operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, David; Otto, Andreas; Radons, Günter

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of the retarded access by a time-varying delay on the dynamics of delay systems. We show that there are two universality classes of delays, which lead to fundamental differences in dynamical quantities such as the Lyapunov spectrum. Therefore, we introduce an operator theoretic framework, where the solution operator of the delay system is decomposed into the Koopman operator describing the delay access and an operator similar to the solution operator known from systems with constant delay. The Koopman operator corresponds to an iterated map, called access map, which is defined by the iteration of the delayed argument of the delay equation. The dynamics of this one-dimensional iterated map determines the universality classes of the infinite-dimensional state dynamics governed by the delay differential equation. In this way, we connect the theory of time-delay systems with the theory of circle maps and the framework of the Koopman operator. In this paper, we extend our previous work [A. Otto, D. Müller, and G. Radons, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 044104 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.044104] by elaborating the mathematical details and presenting further results also on the Lyapunov vectors.

  14. Estimation of time- and state-dependent delays and other parameters in functional differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, K. A.

    1990-01-01

    A parameter estimation algorithm is developed which can be used to estimate unknown time- or state-dependent delays and other parameters (e.g., initial condition) appearing within a nonlinear nonautonomous functional differential equation. The original infinite dimensional differential equation is approximated using linear splines, which are allowed to move with the variable delay. The variable delays are approximated using linear splines as well. The approximation scheme produces a system of ordinary differential equations with nice computational properties. The unknown parameters are estimated within the approximating systems by minimizing a least-squares fit-to-data criterion. Convergence theorems are proved for time-dependent delays and state-dependent delays within two classes, which say essentially that fitting the data by using approximations will, in the limit, provide a fit to the data using the original system. Numerical test examples are presented which illustrate the method for all types of delay.

  15. Neural Network Based Finite-Time Stabilization for Discrete-Time Markov Jump Nonlinear Systems with Time Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the finite-time stabilization problem for discrete-time Markov jump nonlinear systems with time delays and norm-bounded exogenous disturbance. The nonlinearities in different jump modes are parameterized by neural networks. Subsequently, a linear difference inclusion state space representation for a class of neural networks is established. Based on this, sufficient conditions are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities to guarantee stochastic finite-time boundedness and stochastic finite-time stabilization of the closed-loop system. A numerical example is illustrated to verify the efficiency of the proposed technique.

  16. High-throughput beamline for attosecond pulses based on toroidal mirrors with microfocusing capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frassetto, F.; Poletto, L., E-mail: poletto@dei.unipd.it [National Research Council, Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies, via Trasea 7, 35131 Padova (Italy); Trabattoni, A.; Anumula, S.; Sansone, G. [Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Calegari, F. [National Research Council, Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Nisoli, M. [Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); National Research Council, Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-10-15

    We have developed a novel attosecond beamline designed for attosecond-pump/attosecond probe experiments. Microfocusing of the Extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) radiation is obtained by using a coma-compensated optical configuration based on the use of three toroidal mirrors controlled by a genetic algorithm. Trains of attosecond pulses are generated with a measured peak intensity of about 3 × 10{sup 11} W/cm{sup 2}.

  17. High-throughput beamline for attosecond pulses based on toroidal mirrors with microfocusing capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frassetto, F.; Poletto, L.; Trabattoni, A.; Anumula, S.; Sansone, G.; Calegari, F.; Nisoli, M.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a novel attosecond beamline designed for attosecond-pump/attosecond probe experiments. Microfocusing of the Extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) radiation is obtained by using a coma-compensated optical configuration based on the use of three toroidal mirrors controlled by a genetic algorithm. Trains of attosecond pulses are generated with a measured peak intensity of about 3 × 10 11 W/cm 2

  18. System of delay difference equations with continuous time with lag function between two known functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajnalka Péics

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The asymptotic behavior of solutions of the system of difference equations with continuous time and lag function between two known real functions is studied. The cases when the lag function is between two linear delay functions, between two power delay functions and between two constant delay functions are observed and illustrated by examples. The asymptotic estimates of solutions of the considered system are obtained.

  19. A dynamic P53-MDM2 model with time delay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihalas, Gh.I. [Department of Biophysics and Medical Informatics, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Piata Eftimie Murgu, nr. 3, 300041 Timisoara (Romania)]. E-mail: mihalas@medinfo.umft.ro; Neamtu, M. [Department of Forecasting, Economic Analysis, Mathematics and Statistics, West University of Timisoara, Str. Pestalozzi, nr. 14A, 300115 Timisoara (Romania)]. E-mail: mihaela.neamtu@fse.uvt.ro; Opris, D. [Department of Applied Mathematics, West University of Timisoara, Bd. V. Parvan, nr. 4, 300223 Timisoara (Romania)]. E-mail: opris@math.uvt.ro; Horhat, R.F. [Department of Biophysics and Medical Informatics, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Piata Eftimie Murgu, nr. 3, 300041 Timisoara (Romania)]. E-mail: rhorhat@yahoo.com

    2006-11-15

    Specific activator and repressor transcription factors which bind to specific regulator DNA sequences, play an important role in gene activity control. Interactions between genes coding such transcription factors should explain the different stable or sometimes oscillatory gene activities characteristic for different tissues. Starting with the model P53-MDM2 described into [Mihalas GI, Simon Z, Balea G, Popa E. Possible oscillatory behaviour in P53-MDM2 interaction computer simulation. J Biol Syst 2000;8(1):21-9] and the process described into [Kohn KW, Pommier Y. Molecular interaction map of P53 and MDM2 logic elements, which control the off-on switch of P53 in response to DNA damage. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005;331:816-27] we enveloped a new model of this interaction. Choosing the delay as a bifurcation parameter we study the direction and stability of the bifurcating periodic solutions. Some numerical examples are finally given for justifying the theoretical results.

  20. A dynamic P53-MDM2 model with time delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalas, Gh.I.; Neamtu, M.; Opris, D.; Horhat, R.F.

    2006-01-01

    Specific activator and repressor transcription factors which bind to specific regulator DNA sequences, play an important role in gene activity control. Interactions between genes coding such transcription factors should explain the different stable or sometimes oscillatory gene activities characteristic for different tissues. Starting with the model P53-MDM2 described into [Mihalas GI, Simon Z, Balea G, Popa E. Possible oscillatory behaviour in P53-MDM2 interaction computer simulation. J Biol Syst 2000;8(1):21-9] and the process described into [Kohn KW, Pommier Y. Molecular interaction map of P53 and MDM2 logic elements, which control the off-on switch of P53 in response to DNA damage. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005;331:816-27] we enveloped a new model of this interaction. Choosing the delay as a bifurcation parameter we study the direction and stability of the bifurcating periodic solutions. Some numerical examples are finally given for justifying the theoretical results

  1. Stability of Nonlinear Systems with Unknown Time-varying Feedback Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunodkar, Apurva A.; Akella, Maruthi R.

    2013-12-01

    This paper considers the problem of stabilizing a class of nonlinear systems with unknown bounded delayed feedback wherein the time-varying delay is 1) piecewise constant 2) continuous with a bounded rate. We also consider application of these results to the stabilization of rigid-body attitude dynamics. In the first case, the time-delay in feedback is modeled specifically as a switch among an arbitrarily large set of unknown constant values with a known strict upper bound. The feedback is a linear function of the delayed states. In the case of linear systems with switched delay feedback, a new sufficiency condition for average dwell time result is presented using a complete type Lyapunov-Krasovskii (L-K) functional approach. Further, the corresponding switched system with nonlinear perturbations is proven to be exponentially stable inside a well characterized region of attraction for an appropriately chosen average dwell time. In the second case, the concept of the complete type L-K functional is extended to a class of nonlinear time-delay systems with unknown time-varying time-delay. This extension ensures stability robustness to time-delay in the control design for all values of time-delay less than the known upper bound. Model-transformation is used in order to partition the nonlinear system into a nominal linear part that is exponentially stable with a bounded perturbation. We obtain sufficient conditions which ensure exponential stability inside a region of attraction estimate. A constructive method to evaluate the sufficient conditions is presented together with comparison with the corresponding constant and piecewise constant delay. Numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the theoretical results of this paper.

  2. Stability Analysis and H∞ Model Reduction for Switched Discrete-Time Time-Delay Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Fan Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of exponential stability and H∞ model reduction of a class of switched discrete-time systems with state time-varying delay. Some subsystems can be unstable. Based on the average dwell time technique and Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF approach, sufficient conditions for exponential stability with H∞ performance of such systems are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. For the high-order systems, sufficient conditions for the existence of reduced-order model are derived in terms of LMIs. Moreover, the error system is guaranteed to be exponentially stable and an H∞ error performance is guaranteed. Numerical examples are also given to demonstrate the effectiveness and reduced conservatism of the obtained results.

  3. Consensus Analysis of Second-Order Multiagent Systems with General Topology and Time Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the consensus of second-order multiagent systems with general topology and time delay based on the nearest neighbor rule. By using the Laplace transform technique, it is proved that the second-order multi-agent system in the presence of time-delay can reach consensus if the network topology contains a globally reachable node and time delay is bounded. The bound of time-delay only depends on eigenvalues of the Laplacian matrix of the system. The main contribution of this paper is that the accurate state of the consensus center and the upper bound of the communication delay to make the agents reach consensus are given. Some numerical simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical results.

  4. Hydrodynamic Cucker-Smale model with normalized communication weights and time delay

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Young-Pil; Haskovec, Jan

    2017-01-01

    with time delayed non-local alignment forces. We resort to its Lagrangian formulation and prove the existence of its global in time classical solutions. Moreover, we derive a sufficient condition for the asymptotic flocking behavior of the solutions. Finally

  5. Time-delayed feedback technique for suppressing instabilities in time-periodic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaabani-Ardali, Léopold; Sipp, Denis; Lesshafft, Lutz

    2017-11-01

    A numerical method is presented that allows to compute time-periodic flow states, even in the presence of hydrodynamic instabilities. The method is based on filtering nonharmonic components by way of delayed feedback control, as introduced by Pyragas [Phys. Lett. A 170, 421 (1992), 10.1016/0375-9601(92)90745-8]. Its use in flow problems is demonstrated here for the case of a periodically forced laminar jet, subject to a subharmonic instability that gives rise to vortex pairing. The optimal choice of the filter gain, which is a free parameter in the stabilization procedure, is investigated in the context of a low-dimensional model problem, and it is shown that this model predicts well the filter performance in the high-dimensional flow system. Vortex pairing in the jet is efficiently suppressed, so that the unstable periodic flow state in response to harmonic forcing is accurately retrieved. The procedure is straightforward to implement inside any standard flow solver. Memory requirements for the delayed feedback control can be significantly reduced by means of time interpolation between checkpoints. Finally, the method is extended for the treatment of periodic problems where the frequency is not known a priori. This procedure is demonstrated for a three-dimensional cubic lid-driven cavity in supercritical conditions.

  6. Dynamics of Time Delay-Induced Multiple Synchronous Behaviors in Inhibitory Coupled Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Huaguang; Zhao, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    The inhibitory synapse can induce synchronous behaviors different from the anti-phase synchronous behaviors, which have been reported in recent studies. In the present paper, synchronous behaviors are investigated in the motif model composed of reciprocal inhibitory coupled neurons with endogenous bursting and time delay. When coupling strength is weak, synchronous behavior appears at a single interval of time delay within a bursting period. When coupling strength is strong, multiple synchronous behaviors appear at different intervals of time delay within a bursting period. The different bursting patterns of synchronous behaviors, and time delays and coupling strengths that can induce the synchronous bursting patterns can be well interpreted by the dynamics of the endogenous bursting pattern of isolated neuron, which is acquired by the fast-slow dissection method, combined with the inhibitory coupling current. For an isolated neuron, when a negative impulsive current with suitable strength is applied at different phases of the bursting, multiple different bursting patterns can be induced. For a neuron in the motif, the inhibitory coupling current, of which the application time and strength is modulated by time delay and coupling strength, can cause single or multiple synchronous firing patterns like the negative impulsive current when time delay and coupling strength is suitable. The difference compared to the previously reported multiple synchronous behaviors that appear at time delays wider than a period of the endogenous firing is discussed. The results present novel examples of synchronous behaviors in the neuronal network with inhibitory synapses and provide a reasonable explanation. PMID:26394224

  7. On the synchronization of neural networks containing time-varying delays and sector nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, J.-J.; Lin, J.-S.; Hung, M.-L.; Liao, T.-L.

    2007-01-01

    We present a systematic design procedure for synchronization of neural networks subject to time-varying delays and sector nonlinearity in the control input. Based on the drive-response concept and the Lyapunov stability theorem, a memoryless decentralized control law is proposed which guarantees exponential synchronization even when input nonlinearity is present. The supplementary requirement that the time-derivative of time-varying delays must be smaller than one is released for the proposed control scheme. A four-dimensional Hopfield neural network with time-varying delays is presented as the illustrative example to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization scheme

  8. Discrete-Time Sliding-Mode Control of Uncertain Systems with Time-Varying Delays via Descriptor Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maode Yan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of robust discrete-time sliding-mode control (DT-SMC design for a class of uncertain linear systems with time-varying delays. By applying a descriptor model transformation and Moon's inequality for bounding cross terms, a delay-dependent sufficient condition for the existence of stable sliding surface is given in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. Based on this existence condition, the synthesized sliding mode controller can guarantee the sliding-mode reaching condition of the specified discrete-time sliding surface for all admissible uncertainties and time-varying delays. An illustrative example verifies the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Rank One Strange Attractors in Periodically Kicked Predator-Prey System with Time-Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenjie; Lin, Yiping; Dai, Yunxian; Zhao, Huitao

    2016-06-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of the problem of rank one strange attractor in a periodically kicked predator-prey system with time-delay. Our discussion is based on the theory of rank one maps formulated by Wang and Young. Firstly, we develop the rank one chaotic theory to delayed systems. It is shown that strange attractors occur when the delayed system undergoes a Hopf bifurcation and encounters an external periodic force. Then we use the theory to the periodically kicked predator-prey system with delay, deriving the conditions for Hopf bifurcation and rank one chaos along with the results of numerical simulations.

  10. Using Video to Bridge the Gap Between Problem Behavior and a Delayed Time-out Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppage, Sara; Meindl, James N

    2017-09-01

    Treatment plans focused on problem behavior often include punishment contingencies to decrease problem behavior. Immediate punishers are typically more effective than delayed punishers, but immediate delivery of a punisher is not always possible. Strategies need to be developed to increase the suppressive effects of delayed punishers. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of a treatment package involving replaying a video recording of problem behavior immediately before delivering a 15 min delayed time-out. This treatment package may prove to be an accessible and inexpensive strategy when using delayed punishers.

  11. Smart Telerobotic Surveillance System via Internet with Reduced Time Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashesh Vasalya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work provides an imperial solution to the problems faced by man while enduring hazardous tasks like handling and disposal of nuclear wastes, monitoring nuclear power plants, mining operations etc .which have to be aborted if expertise group running it is unavailable or on a run. This paper presents a distributed platform that allows the special group of user to control a gadget (possibly a robot through internet as a medium. An advanced version of this technology is capable of transmitting graphic images and other surrounding information as required, via internet back to the user to facilitate the effective monitoring of the existent situation using appropriate software tools. The project uses the SRV-1 Mobile Surveillance Robot which is a fully integrated system standard designed and other related technology for surveillance purposes. It is driven via web browser using JAVA based control applications with live video feeds. Specialised user group will be given separate account from where they can control and monitor the system even when they are not present at the site. End user will be connected to the gadget (robot through a central server which acts as a single channel for both sending and receiving information. But the subject of remote control over the internet has some possible anomalies namely network freezing, delay between host and recipient, congested network and many others. This system enables asynchronous object passing so that network bandwidth is used effectively and such parameters as the network condition and server states have less effect on the system. To resolve this issue, a fuzzy logic controller is used to control the robot’s motion along a predefined path with the necessary manipulation of the normal course. The robot was first modelled in Matlab Simulink and the fuzzy logic rules were optimized for the best results possible. In accordance with the fuzzy rules developed the fuzzy interference system generates the

  12. Estimation of time-delayed mutual information and bias for irregularly and sparsely sampled time-series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albers, D.J.; Hripcsak, George

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Time-delayed mutual information for irregularly sampled time-series. ► Estimation bias for the time-delayed mutual information calculation. ► Fast, simple, PDF estimator independent, time-delayed mutual information bias estimate. ► Quantification of data-set-size limits of the time-delayed mutual calculation. - Abstract: A method to estimate the time-dependent correlation via an empirical bias estimate of the time-delayed mutual information for a time-series is proposed. In particular, the bias of the time-delayed mutual information is shown to often be equivalent to the mutual information between two distributions of points from the same system separated by infinite time. Thus intuitively, estimation of the bias is reduced to estimation of the mutual information between distributions of data points separated by large time intervals. The proposed bias estimation techniques are shown to work for Lorenz equations data and glucose time series data of three patients from the Columbia University Medical Center database.

  13. Robust H∞ Control of Neutral System with Time-Delay for Dynamic Positioning Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the input time-delay existing in most thrust systems of the ships, the robust H∞ controller is designed for the ship dynamic positioning (DP system with time-delay. The input delay system is turned to a neutral time-delay system by a state-derivative control law. The less conservative result is derived for the neutral system with state-derivative feedback by the delay-decomposition approach and linear matrix inequality (LMI. Finally, the numerical simulations demonstrate the asymptotic stability and robustness of the controller and verify that the designed DP controller is effective in the varying environment disturbances of wind, waves, and ocean currents.

  14. Finite-Time Stabilization and Adaptive Control of Memristor-Based Delayed Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leimin; Shen, Yi; Zhang, Guodong

    Finite-time stability problem has been a hot topic in control and system engineering. This paper deals with the finite-time stabilization issue of memristor-based delayed neural networks (MDNNs) via two control approaches. First, in order to realize the stabilization of MDNNs in finite time, a delayed state feedback controller is proposed. Then, a novel adaptive strategy is applied to the delayed controller, and finite-time stabilization of MDNNs can also be achieved by using the adaptive control law. Some easily verified algebraic criteria are derived to ensure the stabilization of MDNNs in finite time, and the estimation of the settling time functional is given. Moreover, several finite-time stability results as our special cases for both memristor-based neural networks (MNNs) without delays and neural networks are given. Finally, three examples are provided for the illustration of the theoretical results.Finite-time stability problem has been a hot topic in control and system engineering. This paper deals with the finite-time stabilization issue of memristor-based delayed neural networks (MDNNs) via two control approaches. First, in order to realize the stabilization of MDNNs in finite time, a delayed state feedback controller is proposed. Then, a novel adaptive strategy is applied to the delayed controller, and finite-time stabilization of MDNNs can also be achieved by using the adaptive control law. Some easily verified algebraic criteria are derived to ensure the stabilization of MDNNs in finite time, and the estimation of the settling time functional is given. Moreover, several finite-time stability results as our special cases for both memristor-based neural networks (MNNs) without delays and neural networks are given. Finally, three examples are provided for the illustration of the theoretical results.

  15. Gain scheduling for non-linear time-delay systems using approximated model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, H.T.; Lim, J.T

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigate a regulation problem of non-linear systems driven by an exogenous signal and time-delay in the input. In order to compensate for the input delay, they propose a reduction transformation containing the past information of the control input. Then, by utilising the Euler

  16. Absolute stability of nonlinear systems with time delays and applications to neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzhi Liu

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, absolute stability of nonlinear systems with time delays is investigated. Sufficient conditions on absolute stability are derived by using the comparison principle and differential inequalities. These conditions are simple and easy to check. In addition, exponential stability conditions for some special cases of nonlinear delay systems are discussed. Applications of those results to cellular neural networks are presented.

  17. Exponential stability of switched linear systems with time-varying delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satiracoo Pairote

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We use a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional approach to establish the exponential stability of linear systems with time-varying delay. Our delay-dependent condition allows to compute simultaneously the two bounds that characterize the exponential stability rate of the solution. A simple procedure for constructing switching rule is also presented.

  18. Global exponential stability of BAM neural networks with time-varying delays and diffusion terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Li; Zhou Qinghua

    2007-01-01

    The stability property of bidirectional associate memory (BAM) neural networks with time-varying delays and diffusion terms are considered. By using the method of variation parameter and inequality technique, the delay-independent sufficient conditions to guarantee the uniqueness and global exponential stability of the equilibrium solution of such networks are established

  19. Global exponential stability of BAM neural networks with time-varying delays and diffusion terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Li; Zhou, Qinghua

    2007-11-01

    The stability property of bidirectional associate memory (BAM) neural networks with time-varying delays and diffusion terms are considered. By using the method of variation parameter and inequality technique, the delay-independent sufficient conditions to guarantee the uniqueness and global exponential stability of the equilibrium solution of such networks are established.

  20. Robust stability of bidirectional associative memory neural networks with time delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju H.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the Lyapunov Krasovskii functionals combined with linear matrix inequality approach, a novel stability criterion is proposed for asymptotic stability of bidirectional associative memory neural networks with time delays. A novel delay-dependent stability criterion is given in terms of linear matrix inequalities, which can be solved easily by various optimization algorithms.

  1. Robust stability of bidirectional associative memory neural networks with time delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ju H.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals combined with linear matrix inequality approach, a novel stability criterion is proposed for asymptotic stability of bidirectional associative memory neural networks with time delays. A novel delay-dependent stability criterion is given in terms of linear matrix inequalities, which can be solved easily by various optimization algorithms

  2. An overview of the recent advances in delay-time-based maintenance modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenbin

    2012-01-01

    Industrial plant maintenance is an area which has enormous potential to be improved. It is also an area attracted significant attention from mathematical modellers because of the random phenomenon of plant failures. This paper reviews the recent advances in delay-time-based maintenance modelling, which is one of the mathematical techniques for optimising inspection planning and related problems. The delay-time is a concept that divides a plant failure process into two stages: from new until the point of an identifiable defect, and then from this point to failure. The first stage is called the normal working stage and the second stage is called the failure delay-time stage. If the distributions of the two stages can be quantified, the relationship between the number of failures and the inspection interval can be readily established. This can then be used for optimizing the inspection interval and other related decision variables. In this review, we pay particular attention to new methodological developments and industrial applications of the delay-time-based models over the last few decades. The use of the delay-time concept and modeling techniques in other areas rather than in maintenance is also reviewed. Future research directions are also highlighted. - Highlights: ► Reviewed the recent advances in delay-time-based maintenance models and applications. ► Compared the delay-time-based models with other models. ► Focused on methodologies and applications. ► Pointed out future research directions.

  3. Effects of delayed polymerization time and bracket manipulation on orthodontic resin modified glass ionomer adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Danielle Wiggins

    This study examined the effect of varying delayed polymerization times in combination with bracket manipulation on shear bond strength (SBS), degree of conversion (DC), and adhesive remnant index (ARI) score when using a resin modified glass ionomer (RMGI) adhesive. Specimens were divided into three groups of clinically relevant delay times (0.5, 2, and 4-min) to simulate the delay that frequently occurs between bracket placement and manipulation and subsequent light curing. Based on an analysis of variance (alpha=.05), the SBS was not significantly different between the three groups. While one of the goals of this study was to be the first study to quantify DC of RMGI using Raman microspectroscopy, several challenges, including weak peak signal with and without fluorescence, were encountered and as a result, DC could not be determined. A significant difference (pbracket with increasing delay time. A Spearman correlation between SBS and ARI indicated no positive association between SBS and ARI measures across delay times. The results of this study suggest that clinically relevant delay times of 0.5, 2, and 4-min do not negatively impact the SBS of a RMGI adhesive. However, with increasing delay time, the results suggest that more adhesive might remain on the bracket during debonding. With more adhesive remaining on the bracket, this could be beneficial in that less adhesive needs to be removed from enamel by grinding at the time of bracket removal when orthodontic treatment is completed.

  4. Time delay effects on large-scale MR damper based semi-active control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Y-J; Agrawal, A K; Dyke, S J

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed investigation on the robustness of large-scale 200 kN MR damper based semi-active control strategies in the presence of time delays in the control system. Although the effects of time delay on stability and performance degradation of an actively controlled system have been investigated extensively by many researchers, degradation in the performance of semi-active systems due to time delay has yet to be investigated. Since semi-active systems are inherently stable, instability problems due to time delay are unlikely to arise. This paper investigates the effects of time delay on the performance of a building with a large-scale MR damper, using numerical simulations of near- and far-field earthquakes. The MR damper is considered to be controlled by four different semi-active control algorithms, namely (i) clipped-optimal control (COC), (ii) decentralized output feedback polynomial control (DOFPC), (iii) Lyapunov control, and (iv) simple-passive control (SPC). It is observed that all controllers except for the COC are significantly robust with respect to time delay. On the other hand, the clipped-optimal controller should be integrated with a compensator to improve the performance in the presence of time delay. (paper)

  5. A Fast Time-Delay Calculation Method in Through-Wall-Radar Detection Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In TWR (Through Wall Radar signal processing procedure, time delay estimation is one of the key steps in target localization and high resolution imaging. In time domain imaging procedure such as back projection imaging algorithm, round trip propagation time delay at the path of “transmitter-target-receiver” needs to be calculated for each pixel in imaging region. In typical TWR scenario, transmitter and receiver are at one side and targets at the other side of a wall. Based on two-dimensional searching algorithm or solving two variables equation of four times, traditional time delay calculation algorithms are complex and time consuming, and cannot be used to real-time imaging procedure. In this paper, a new fast time-delay (FTD algorithm is presented. Because of that incident angle at one side equals to refracting angle at the other side, an equation of lateral distance through the wall can be established. By solving this equation, the lateral distance can be obtained and total propagation time delay can be calculated subsequently. Through processing simulation data, the result shows that new algorithm can be applied effectively to real-time time-delay calculation in TWR signal processing.

  6. Reflection of attosecond x-ray free electron laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Chapman, Henry N.

    2007-01-01

    In order to utilize hard x-ray free electron lasers (XFEL's) when they are extended to attosecond pulse lengths, it is necessary to choose optical elements with minimal response time. Specular grazing-incidence optics made of low-Z materials are popular candidates for reflectors since they are likely to withstand x-ray damage and provide sufficiently large reflectivities. Using linear-optics reflection theory, we calculated the transient reflectivity of a delta-function electric pulse from a homogenous semi-infinite medium as a function of angle of incidence for s- and p-polarized light. We specifically considered the pulse response of beryllium, diamond, silicon carbide, and silicon, all of which are of relevance to the XFEL's that are currently being built. We found that the media emit energy in a damped oscillatory way, and that the impulse-response times are shorter than 0.3 fs for normal incidence. For grazing incidence, the impulse-response time is substantially shorter, making grazing-incidence mirrors a good choice for deep subfemtosecond reflective optics

  7. The rates and time-delay distribution of multiply imaged supernovae behind lensing clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Hjorth, Jens; Richard, Johan

    2012-11-01

    Time delays of gravitationally lensed sources can be used to constrain the mass model of a deflector and determine cosmological parameters. We here present an analysis of the time-delay distribution of multiply imaged sources behind 17 strong lensing galaxy clusters with well-calibrated mass models. We find that for time delays less than 1000 days, at z = 3.0, their logarithmic probability distribution functions are well represented by P(log Δt) = 5.3 × 10-4Δttilde beta/M2502tilde beta, with tilde beta = 0.77, where M250 is the projected cluster mass inside 250 kpc (in 1014M⊙), and tilde beta is the power-law slope of the distribution. The resultant probability distribution function enables us to estimate the time-delay distribution in a lensing cluster of known mass. For a cluster with M250 = 2 × 1014M⊙, the fraction of time delays less than 1000 days is approximately 3%. Taking Abell 1689 as an example, its dark halo and brightest galaxies, with central velocity dispersions σ>=500kms-1, mainly produce large time delays, while galaxy-scale mass clumps are responsible for generating smaller time delays. We estimate the probability of observing multiple images of a supernova in the known images of Abell 1689. A two-component model of estimating the supernova rate is applied in this work. For a magnitude threshold of mAB = 26.5, the yearly rate of Type Ia (core-collapse) supernovae with time delays less than 1000 days is 0.004±0.002 (0.029±0.001). If the magnitude threshold is lowered to mAB ~ 27.0, the rate of core-collapse supernovae suitable for time delay observation is 0.044±0.015 per year.

  8. Identification of fractional-order systems with time delays using block pulse functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yinggan; Li, Ning; Liu, Minmin; Lu, Yao; Wang, Weiwei

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a novel method based on block pulse functions is proposed to identify continuous-time fractional-order systems with time delays. First, the operational matrices of block pulse functions for fractional integral operator and time delay operator are derived. Then, these operational matrices are applied to convert the continuous-time fractional-order systems with time delays to an algebraic equation. Finally, the system's parameters along with the differentiation orders and the time delays are all simultaneously estimated through minimizing a quadric error function. The proposed method reduces the computation complexity of the identification process, and also it does not require the system's differentiation orders to be commensurate. The effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by several numerical examples.

  9. MDCT urography: retrospective determination of optimal delay time after intravenous contrast administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meindl, Thomas; Coppenrath, Eva; Kahlil, Rami; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Mueller-Lisse, U.G.; Mueller-Lisse, Ulrike L.

    2006-01-01

    The optimal delay time after intravenous (i.v.) administration of contrast medium (CM) for opacifcation of the upper urinary tract (UUT) for multidetector computed tomography urography (MDCTU) was investigated. UUT opacification was retrospectively evaluated in 36 four-row MDCTU examinations. Single- (n=10) or dual-phase (n=26) MDCTU was performed with at least 5-min delay after i.v. CM. UUT was divided into four sections: intrarenal collecting system (IRCS), proximal, middle and distal ureter. Two independent readers rated UUT opacification: 1, none; 2, partial; 3, complete. Numbers and percentages of scores, and the 5%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 95% percentiles of delay time were calculated for each UUT section. After removing diseased segments, 344 segments were analysed. IRCS, proximal and middle ureter were completely opacified in 94% (81/86), 93% (80/86) and 77% (66/86) of cases, respectively. Median delay time was 15 min for complete opacification. The distal ureter was completely opacified in 37% (32/86) of cases and not opacified in 26% (22/86). Median delay time for complete opacification was 11 min with 25% and 75% percentiles of 10 and 16 min, respectively. At MDCTU, opacification of the IRCS, proximal and middle ureter was hardly sensitive to delay time. Delay times between 10 and 16 min were favourable in the distal ureter. (orig.)

  10. Analysis of Distributed Consensus Time Synchronization with Gaussian Delay over Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Gang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents theoretical results on the convergence of the distributed consensus timing synchronization (DCTS algorithm for wireless sensor networks assuming general Gaussian delay between nodes. The asymptotic expectation and mean square of the global synchronization error are computed. The results lead to the definition of a time delay balanced network in which average timing consensus between nodes can be achieved despite random delays. Several structured network architectures are studied as examples, and their associated simulation results are used to validate analytical findings.

  11. Wigner-Smith delay times and the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian for the HOCl molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, A.M.; Reichl, L.E.

    2013-01-01

    We construct the scattering matrix for a two-dimensional model of a Cl atom scattering from an OH dimer. We show that the scattering matrix can be written in terms of a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian whose complex energy eigenvalues can be used to compute Wigner-Smith delay times for the Cl-OH scattering process. We compute the delay times for a range of energies, and show that the scattering states with the longest delay times are strongly influenced by unstable periodic orbits in the classical dynamics. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Globally Asymptotic Stability of Stochastic Nonlinear Systems with Time-Varying Delays via Output Feedback Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhu Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of globally asymptotic stability for a class of stochastic nonlinear systems with time-varying delays. By the backstepping method and Lyapunov theory, we design a linear output feedback controller recursively based on the observable linearization for a class of stochastic nonlinear systems with time-varying delays to guarantee that the closed-loop system is globally asymptotically stable in probability. In particular, we extend the deterministic nonlinear system to stochastic nonlinear systems with time-varying delays. Finally, an example and its simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical results.

  13. Academic delay of gratification, self-efficacy, and time management among academically unprepared college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bembenutty, Héfer

    2009-04-01

    This study examined the associations between academic delay of gratification, self-efficacy beliefs, and time management among academically unprepared college students participating in a summer-immersion program. This study also examined whether the relation of self-efficacy with time management is mediated by academic delay of gratification. Analysis indicated that self-efficacy was directly associated with time management, as delay of gratification served to mediate this effect partially. Self-efficacy emerged as the strongest positive predictor of academic achievement.

  14. The transition between monostable and bistable states induced by time delay in intracellular calcium oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Wei-Long

    2013-01-01

    The revised role of the time delay of active processes with colored noises of transmission of intracellular Ca 2+ in intracellular calcium oscillation (ICO) is investigated by means of a first-order algorithm based on stochastic simulation. The simulation results indicate that time delay induces a double critical phenomenon and a transition between the monostable and bistable states of the ICO system. In addition, as the time delay increases, for a cytosolic Ca 2+ concentration with weak colored noises there appears a calcium burst, and the Ca 2+ concentration of the calcium store shows nonmonotonic variation. (paper)

  15. Wigner-Eisenbud-Smith photoionization time delay due to autoioinization resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, P. C.; Kumar, A.; Varma, H. R.; Banerjee, S.; Manson, Steven T.; Dolmatov, V. K.; Kheifets, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    An empirical ansatz for the complex photoionization amplitude and Wigner-Eisenbud-Smith time delay in the vicinity of a Fano autoionization resonance are proposed to evaluate and interpret the time delay in the resonant region. The utility of this expression is evaluated in comparison with accurate numerical calculations employing the ab initio relativistic random phase approximation and relativistic multichannel quantum defect theory. The indisputably good qualitative agreement (and semiquantitative agreement) between corresponding results of the proposed model and results produced by the ab initio theories proves the usability of the model. In addition, the phenomenology of the time delay in the vicinity of multichannel autoionizing resonances is detailed.

  16. Relativistic effects in photoionization time delay near the Cooper minimum of noble-gas atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Soumyajit; Mandal, Ankur; Jose, Jobin; Varma, Hari R.; Deshmukh, P. C.; Kheifets, A. S.; Dolmatov, V. K.; Manson, S. T.

    2014-11-01

    Time delay of photoemission from valence n s , n p3 /2 , and n p1 /2 subshells of noble-gas atoms is theoretically scrutinized within the framework of the dipole relativistic random phase approximation. The focus is on the variation of time delay in the vicinity of the Cooper minima in photoionization of the outer subshells of neon, argon, krypton, and xenon, where the corresponding dipole matrix element changes its sign while passing through a node. It is revealed that the presence of the Cooper minimum in one photoionization channel has a strong effect on time delay in other channels. This is shown to be due to interchannel coupling.

  17. Robustness Analysis of Hybrid Stochastic Neural Networks with Neutral Terms and Time-Varying Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmei Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the robustness of global exponential stability of hybrid stochastic neural networks subject to neutral terms and time-varying delays simultaneously. Given globally exponentially stable hybrid stochastic neural networks, we characterize the upper bounds of contraction coefficients of neutral terms and time-varying delays by using the transcendental equation. Moreover, we prove theoretically that, for any globally exponentially stable hybrid stochastic neural networks, if additive neutral terms and time-varying delays are smaller than the upper bounds arrived, then the perturbed neural networks are guaranteed to also be globally exponentially stable. Finally, a numerical simulation example is given to illustrate the presented criteria.

  18. Operation Modes and Control Schemes for Internet-Based Teleoperation System with Time Delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾庆军; 宋爱国

    2003-01-01

    Teleoperation system plays an important role in executing task under hazard environment. As the computer networks such as the Internet are being used as the communication channel of teleoperation system, varying time delay causes the overall system unstable and reduces the performance of transparency. This paper proposed twelve operation modes with different control schemes for teleoperation on the Internet with time delay. And an optimal operation mode with control scheme was specified for teleoperation with time delay, based on the tradeoff between passivity and transparency properties. It experimentally confirmed the validity of the proposed optimal mode and control scheme by using a simple one DOF master-slave manipulator system.

  19. Moving source localization with a single hydrophone using multipath time delays in the deep ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Rui; Yang, Kunde; Ma, Yuanliang; Yang, Qiulong; Li, Hui

    2014-08-01

    Localizing a source of radial movement at moderate range using a single hydrophone can be achieved in the reliable acoustic path by tracking the time delays between the direct and surface-reflected arrivals (D-SR time delays). The problem is defined as a joint estimation of the depth, initial range, and speed of the source, which are the state parameters for the extended Kalman filter (EKF). The D-SR time delays extracted from the autocorrelation functions are the measurements for the EKF. Experimental results using pseudorandom signals show that accurate localization results are achieved by offline iteration of the EKF.

  20. Coherent control of atto-second emission from aligned molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutu, W; Haessler, S; Merdji, H; Breger, P; Monchicourt, P; Carre, B; Salieres, P [CEA Saclay, DSM, Serv Photons Atomes Mol, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Waters, G [Univ Reading, JJ Thomson Phys Lab, Reading RG6 6AF, Berks, (United Kingdom); Stankiewicz, M [Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Phys, PL-30059 Krakow, (Poland); Frasinski, L J [Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol and Med, Blackett Lab, London SW7 2BW, (United Kingdom); Taieb, R; Caillat, J; Maquet, A [Univ Paris 06, UMR 7614, Lab Chim Phys Matiere Rayonnement, F-75231 Paris 05, (France); Taieb, R; Caillat, J; Maquet, A [LCPMR, UMR 7614, CNRS, F-75005 Paris, (France)

    2008-07-01

    Controlling atto-second electron wave packets and soft X-ray pulses represents a formidable challenge of general implication to many areas of science. A strong laser field interacting with atoms or molecules drives ultrafast intra-atomic/molecular electron wave packets on a sub femtosecond timescale, resulting in the emission of atto-second bursts of extreme-ultraviolet light. Controlling the intra-atomic/molecular electron dynamics enables steering of the atto-second emission. Here, we carry out a coherent control in linear molecules, where the interaction of the laser-driven electron wave packet with the core leads to quantum interferences. We demonstrate that these interferences can be finely controlled by turning the molecular axis relative to the laser polarization, that is, changing the electron re-collision angle. The wave-packet coulombic distortion modifies the spectral phase jump measured in the extreme-ultraviolet emission. Our atto-second control of the interference results in atto-second pulse shaping, useful for future applications in ultrafast coherent control of atomic and molecular processes. (authors)

  1. Longitudinal Outcomes of Start Time Delay on Sleep, Behavior, and Achievement in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Pamela V.; Onyper, Serge V.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To establish whether sleep, health, mood, behavior, and academics improved after a 45-minute delay in high school start time, and whether changes persisted longitudinally. Methods: We collected data from school records and student self-report across a number of domains at baseline (May 2012) and at two follow-up time points (November 2012 and May 2013), at a public high school in upstate New York. Students enrolled during academic years (AY) 2011–2012 and 2012–2013 completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; the DASS-21; the “Owl-Lark” Scale; the Daytime Sleepiness Index; and a brief self-report of health. Reports from school records regarding attendance, tardiness, disciplinary violations, and academic performance were collected for AY 2010–2011 through 2013–2014. Results: Students delayed but did not extend their sleep period; we found lasting improvements in tardiness and disciplinary violations after the start-time delay, but no changes to other variables. At the first follow-up, students reported 20 minutes longer sleep, driven by later rise times and stable bed times. At the second follow-up, students maintained later rise times but delayed bedtimes, returning total sleep to baseline levels. A delay in rise time, paralleling the delay in the start time that occurred, resulted in less tardiness and decreased disciplinary incidents, but larger improvements to sleep patterns may be necessary to affect health, attendance, sleepiness, and academic performance. Conclusions: Later start times improved tardiness and disciplinary issues at this school district. A delay in start time may be a necessary but not sufficient means to increase sleep time and may depend on preexisting individual differences. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 267. Citation: Thacher PV, Onyper SV. Longitudinal outcomes of start time delay on sleep, behavior, and achievement in high school. SLEEP 2016;39(2):271–281. PMID

  2. Incorporating time-delays in S-System model for reverse engineering genetic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Ahsan Raja; Chetty, Madhu; Vinh, Nguyen Xuan

    2013-06-18

    In any gene regulatory network (GRN), the complex interactions occurring amongst transcription factors and target genes can be either instantaneous or time-delayed. However, many existing modeling approaches currently applied for inferring GRNs are unable to represent both these interactions simultaneously. As a result, all these approaches cannot detect important interactions of the other type. S-System model, a differential equation based approach which has been increasingly applied for modeling GRNs, also suffers from this limitation. In fact, all S-System based existing modeling approaches have been designed to capture only instantaneous interactions, and are unable to infer time-delayed interactions. In this paper, we propose a novel Time-Delayed S-System (TDSS) model which uses a set of delay differential equations to represent the system dynamics. The ability to incorporate time-delay parameters in the proposed S-System model enables simultaneous modeling of both instantaneous and time-delayed interactions. Furthermore, the delay parameters are not limited to just positive integer values (corresponding to time stamps in the data), but can also take fractional values. Moreover, we also propose a new criterion for model evaluation exploiting the sparse and scale-free nature of GRNs to effectively narrow down the search space, which not only reduces the computation time significantly but also improves model accuracy. The evaluation criterion systematically adapts the max-min in-degrees and also systematically balances the effect of network accuracy and complexity during optimization. The four well-known performance measures applied to the experimental studies on synthetic networks with various time-delayed regulations clearly demonstrate that the proposed method can capture both instantaneous and delayed interactions correctly with high precision. The experiments carried out on two well-known real-life networks, namely IRMA and SOS DNA repair network in

  3. Dynamic IQC-Based Control of Uncertain LFT Systems With Time-Varying State Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chengzhi; Wu, Fen

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a new exact-memory delay control scheme for a class of uncertain systems with time-varying state delay under the integral quadratic constraint (IQC) framework. The uncertain system is described as a linear fractional transformation model including a state-delayed linear time-invariant (LTI) system and time-varying structured uncertainties. The proposed exact-memory delay controller consists of a linear state-feedback control law and an additional term that captures the delay behavior of the plant. We first explore the delay stability and the L 2 -gain performance using dynamic IQCs incorporated with quadratic Lyapunov functions. Then, the design of exact-memory controllers that guarantee desired L 2 -gain performance is examined. The resulting delay control synthesis conditions are formulated in terms of linear matrix inequalities, which are convex on all design variables including the scaling matrices associated with the IQC multipliers. The IQC-based exact-memory control scheme provides a novel approach for delay control designs via convex optimization, and advances existing control methods in two important ways: 1) better controlled performance and 2) simplified design procedure with less computational cost. The effectiveness and advantages of the proposed approach have been demonstrated through numerical studies.

  4. Recent Progress in Stability and Stabilization of Systems with Time-Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdi S. Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper overviews the research investigations pertaining to stability and stabilization of control systems with time-delays. The prime focus is the fundamental results and recent progress in theory and applications. The overview sheds light on the contemporary development on the linear matrix inequality (LMI techniques in deriving both delay-independent and delay-dependent stability results for time-delay systems. Particular emphases will be placed on issues concerned with the conservatism and the computational complexity of the results. Key technical bounding lemmas and slack variable introduction approaches will be presented. The results will be compared and connections of certain delay-dependent stability results are also discussed.

  5. A Heterogeneous Agent Model of Asspet Price with Three Time Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Matsumoto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a continuous-time heterogeneous agent model ofa ...nancial market with one risky asset, two types of agents (i.e., thefundamentalists and the chartists, and three time delays. The chartistdemand is determined through a nonlinear function of the di¤erence be-tween the current price and a weighted moving average of the delayedprices whereas the fundamentalist demand is governed by the di¤erencebetween the current price and the fundamental value. The asset price dy-namics is described by a nonlinear delay di¤erential equation. Two mainresults are analytically and numerically shown:(i the delay destabilizes the market price and generates cyclic oscillationsaround the equilibrium;(ii under multiple delays, stability loss and gain repeatedly occurs as alength of the delay increases.

  6. Instability in time-delayed switched systems induced by fast and random switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yao; Lin, Wei; Chen, Yuming; Wu, Jianhong

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we consider a switched system comprising finitely or infinitely many subsystems described by linear time-delayed differential equations and a rule that orchestrates the system switching randomly among these subsystems, where the switching times are also randomly chosen. We first construct a counterintuitive example where even though all the time-delayed subsystems are exponentially stable, the behaviors of the randomly switched system change from stable dynamics to unstable dynamics with a decrease of the dwell time. Then by using the theories of stochastic processes and delay differential equations, we present a general result on when this fast and random switching induced instability should occur and we extend this to the case of nonlinear time-delayed switched systems as well.

  7. The influences of delay time on the stability of a market model with stochastic volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang-Cheng; Mei, Dong-Cheng

    2013-02-01

    The effects of the delay time on the stability of a market model are investigated, by using a modified Heston model with a cubic nonlinearity and cross-correlated noise sources. These results indicate that: (i) There is an optimal delay time τo which maximally enhances the stability of the stock price under strong demand elasticity of stock price, and maximally reduces the stability of the stock price under weak demand elasticity of stock price; (ii) The cross correlation coefficient of noises and the delay time play an opposite role on the stability for the case of the delay time τo. Moreover, the probability density function of the escape time of stock price returns, the probability density function of the returns and the correlation function of the returns are compared with other literatures.

  8. Reduction of dispersive ground-roll using time delay spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter Møller; Larsen, Henrik C

    1992-01-01

    Velocity filtering seismic traces requires fulfilment of the sampling theorem in the time domain and in the space domain. Since the latter condition is seldom met in exploration seismics, a method based on τ-p transformation combined with time varying filtering is proposed for solving the problem...

  9. Attosecond polarization control in atomic RABBITT-like experiments assisted by a circularly polarized laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, D. I. R.; Fojón, O. A.

    2017-12-01

    We study theoretically the single ionization of noble gas atoms by the combined action of an attosecond pulse train with linear polarization and an assistant laser field with circular polarization. We employ a non-perturbative model that under certain approximations gives closed-form expressions for the angular distributions of photoelectrons. Interestingly, our model allow us to interpret these angular distributions as two-centre interferences where the orientation and the modulus of the separation vector between the virtual emitters is governed by the assistant laser field. Additionally, we show that such a configuration of light fields is similar to the polarization control technique, where both the attosecond pulse train and the assistant laser field have linear polarizations whose relative orientation may be controlled. Moreover, in order to compare our results with the available experimental data, we obtain analytical expressions for the cross sections integrated over the photoelectron emission angles. By means of these expressions, we define the ‘magic time’ as the delay for which the total cross sections for atomic targets exhibit the same functional form as the one of the monochromatic photoionization of diatomic molecular targets.

  10. Lesions Responsible for Delayed Oral Transit Time in Post-stroke Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyun Im; Yoon, Seo Yeon; Yi, Tae Im; Jeong, Yoon Jeong; Cho, Tae Hwan

    2017-10-11

    Some stroke patients show oral phase dysphagia, characterized by a markedly prolonged oral transit time that hinders oral feeding. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical characteristics and lesions responsible for delayed swallowing. We reviewed 90 patients with stroke. The oral processing time plus the postfaucial aggregation time required to swallow semisolid food was assessed. The patients were divided into two groups according to oral transit time, and we analyzed the differences in characteristics such as demographic factors, lesion factors, and cognitive function. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the predictors of delayed oral transit time. Lesion location and volume were measured on brain magnetic resonance images. We generated statistic maps of lesions related to delayed oral phase in swallowing using voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM). The group of patients who showed delayed oral transit time had significantly low cognitive function. Also, in a regression model, delayed oral phase was predicted with low K-MMSE (Korean version of the Mini Mental Status Exam). Using VLSM, we found the lesion location to be associated with delayed oral phase after adjusting for K-MMSE score. Although these results did not reach statistical significance, they showed the lesion pattern with predominant distribution in the left frontal lobe. Delayed oral phase in post-stroke patients was not negligible clinically. Patients' cognitive impairments affect the oral transit time. When adjusting it, we found a trend that the lesion responsible for delayed oral phase was located in the left frontal lobe, though the association did not reach significance. The delay might be related to praxis function.

  11. Stochastic resonance in a bistable system subject to multi-time-delayed feedback and aperiodic signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianlong; Zeng Lingzao

    2010-01-01

    We discuss in detail the effects of the multi-time-delayed feedback driven by an aperiodic signal on the output of a stochastic resonance (SR) system. The effective potential function and dynamical probability density function (PDF) are derived. To measure the performance of the SR system in the presence of a binary random signal, the bit error rate (BER) defined by the dynamical PDF is employed, as is commonly used in digital communications. We find that the delay time, strength of the feedback, and number of time-delayed terms can change the effective potential function and the effective amplitude of the signal, and then affect the BER of the SR system. The numerical simulations strongly support the theoretical results. The goal of this investigation is to explore the effects of the multi-time-delayed feedback on SR and give a guidance to nonlinear systems in the application of information processing.

  12. Cucker-Smale model with normalized communication weights and time delay

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Young-Pil; Haskovec, Jan

    2017-01-01

    We study a Cucker-Smale-type system with time delay in which agents interact with each other through normalized communication weights. We construct a Lyapunov functional for the system and provide sufficient conditions for asymptotic flocking, i

  13. Multiple-parameter bifurcation analysis in a Kuramoto model with time delay and distributed shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ben; Zhang, Jiaming; Wei, Junjie

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, time delay effect and distributed shear are considered in the Kuramoto model. On the Ott-Antonsen's manifold, through analyzing the associated characteristic equation of the reduced functional differential equation, the stability boundary of the incoherent state is derived in multiple-parameter space. Moreover, very rich dynamical behavior such as stability switches inducing synchronization switches can occur in this equation. With the loss of stability, Hopf bifurcating coherent states arise, and the criticality of Hopf bifurcations is determined by applying the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. On one hand, theoretical analysis indicates that the width of shear distribution and time delay can both eliminate the synchronization then lead the Kuramoto model to incoherence. On the other, time delay can induce several coexisting coherent states. Finally, some numerical simulations are given to support the obtained results where several bifurcation diagrams are drawn, and the effect of time delay and shear is discussed.

  14. Online Identification of Multivariable Discrete Time Delay Systems Using a Recursive Least Square Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saïda Bedoui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of simultaneous identification of linear discrete time delay multivariable systems. This problem involves both the estimation of the time delays and the dynamic parameters matrices. In fact, we suggest a new formulation of this problem allowing defining the time delay and the dynamic parameters in the same estimated vector and building the corresponding observation vector. Then, we use this formulation to propose a new method to identify the time delays and the parameters of these systems using the least square approach. Convergence conditions and statistics properties of the proposed method are also developed. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed method. An application of the developed approach to compact disc player arm is also suggested in order to validate simulation results.

  15. Positive Almost Periodic Solutions for a Time-Varying Fishing Model with Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with a time-varying fishing model with delay. By means of the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory, we prove that it has at least one positive almost periodic solution.

  16. Analog measurement of delayed antiproton annihilation time spectra in a high intensity pulsed antiproton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niestroj, A.; Hayano, R.S.; Ishikawa, T.; Tamura, H.; Torii, H.A.; Morita, N.; Yamazaki, T.; Sugai, I.; Nakayoshi, K.; Horvath, D.; Eades, J.; Widmann, E.

    1996-01-01

    An analog detection system has been developed to measure delayed antiproton annihilation time spectra for laser resonance spectroscopy of metastable antiprotonic helium atoms using the high-intensity pulsed beam of antiprotons from LEAR at CERN. (orig.)

  17. Delay times between harvesting or collection of food products and consumption for use in radiological assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A L; Sherwood, J C

    2009-01-01

    From a radiological protection point of view, the inclusion of delay times when carrying out assessments of dose from consumption of foods should be considered. A review of delay times has been carried out to update a report published in 1983, to take account of changes and modernisations in industrial food processes, together with changes in diet and popularity of different foods in the United Kingdom. The new review considered more foods and data for existing foods have been reconsidered to check whether manufacturing processes or procedures have changed the shelf-life of any products. For some foods there have been changes made to the recommended delay times because of changes in manufacture or handling of the fresh foodstuff. A discussion is also included on the appropriate use of delay times in dose assessments.

  18. A note on chaotic synchronization of time-delay secure communication systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Demin; Wang Zidong; Zhou Jie; Fang Jianan; Ni Jinjin

    2008-01-01

    In a real world, the signals are often transmitted through a hostile environment, and therefore the secure communication system has attracted considerable research interests. In this paper, the observer-based chaotic synchronization problem is studied for a class of time-delay secure communication systems. The system under consideration is subject to delayed state and nonlinear disturbances. The time-delay is allowed to be time-varying, and the nonlinearities are assumed to satisfy global Lipschitz conditions. The problem addressed is the design of a synchronization scheme such that, for the admissible time-delay as well as nonlinear disturbances, the response system can globally synchronize the driving system. An effective algebraic matrix inequality approach is developed to solve the chaotic synchronization problem. A numerical example is presented to show the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed secure communication scheme

  19. Effects of Noise and Time Delay Upon Active Control of Combustion Instabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zinn, Ben

    2001-01-01

    To improve the performance of practical active control system (ACS) for unstable combustors, the effects of system noise and ACS time delay upon combustion instabilities and the ACS performance were studied...

  20. Time delay induced different synchronization patterns in repulsively coupled chaotic oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chenggui; Yi, Ming; Shuai, Jianwei

    2013-09-01

    Time delayed coupling plays a crucial role in determining the system's dynamics. We here report that the time delay induces transition from the asynchronous state to the complete synchronization (CS) state in the repulsively coupled chaotic oscillators. In particular, by changing the coupling strength or time delay, various types of synchronous patterns, including CS, antiphase CS, antiphase synchronization (ANS), and phase synchronization, can be generated. In the transition regions between different synchronous patterns, bistable synchronous oscillators can be observed. Furthermore, we show that the time-delay-induced phase flip bifurcation is of key importance for the emergence of CS. All these findings may light on our understanding of neuronal synchronization and information processing in the brain.

  1. H ∞ synchronization of the coronary artery system with input time-varying delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiao-Meng; Zhao Zhan-Shan; Sun Lian-Kun; Zhang Jing

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the H ∞ synchronization of the coronary artery system with input delay and disturbance. We focus on reducing the conservatism of existing synchronization strategies. Base on the triple integral forms of the Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional (LKF), we utilize single and double integral forms of Wirtinger-based inequality to guarantee that the synchronization feedback controller has good performance against time-varying delay and external disturbance. The effectiveness of our strategy can be exhibited by simulations under the different time-varying delays and different disturbances. (paper)

  2. Dual-anticipating, dual and dual-lag synchronization in modulated time-delayed systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Dibakar; Chowdhury, A. Roy

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, dual synchronization in modulated time delay system using delay feedback controller is proposed. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, we suggest a general method to achieve the dual-anticipating, dual, dual-lag synchronization of time-delayed chaotic systems and we find both its existing and sufficient stability conditions. Numerically it is shown that the dual synchronization is also possible when driving system contain two completely different systems. Effect of parameter mismatch on dual synchronization is also discussed. As an example, numerical simulations for the Mackey-Glass and Ikeda systems are conducted, which is in good agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  3. Projective Synchronization in Modulated Time-Delayed Chaotic Systems Using an Active Control Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Cun-Fang; Wang Ying-Hai

    2011-01-01

    Projective synchronization in modulated time-delayed systems is studied by applying an active control method. Based on the Lyapunov asymptotical stability theorem, the controller and sufficient condition for projective synchronization are calculated analytically. We give a general method with which we can achieve projective synchronization in modulated time-delayed chaotic systems. This method allows us to adjust the desired scaling factor arbitrarily. The effectiveness of our method is confirmed by using the famous delay-differential equations related to optical bistable or hybrid optical bistable devices. Numerical simulations fully support the analytical approach. (general)

  4. Discrete-time bidirectional associative memory neural networks with variable delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Jinling; Cao Jinde; Ho, Daniel W.C.

    2005-01-01

    Based on the linear matrix inequality (LMI), some sufficient conditions are presented in this Letter for the existence, uniqueness and global exponential stability of the equilibrium point of discrete-time bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with variable delays. Some of the stability criteria obtained in this Letter are delay-dependent, and some of them are delay-independent, they are less conservative than the ones reported so far in the literature. Furthermore, the results provide one more set of easily verified criteria for determining the exponential stability of discrete-time BAM neural networks

  5. Discrete-time bidirectional associative memory neural networks with variable delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, variable delays [rapid communication] J.; Cao, J.; Ho, D. W. C.

    2005-02-01

    Based on the linear matrix inequality (LMI), some sufficient conditions are presented in this Letter for the existence, uniqueness and global exponential stability of the equilibrium point of discrete-time bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with variable delays. Some of the stability criteria obtained in this Letter are delay-dependent, and some of them are delay-independent, they are less conservative than the ones reported so far in the literature. Furthermore, the results provide one more set of easily verified criteria for determining the exponential stability of discrete-time BAM neural networks.

  6. Volkov transform generalized projection algorithm for attosecond pulse characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keathley, P D; Bhardwaj, S; Moses, J; Laurent, G; Kärtner, F X

    2016-01-01

    An algorithm for characterizing attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses that is not bandwidth-limited, requires no interpolation of the experimental data, and makes no approximations beyond the strong-field approximation is introduced. This approach fully incorporates the dipole transition matrix element into the retrieval process. Unlike attosecond retrieval methods such as phase retrieval by omega oscillation filtering (PROOF), or improved PROOF, it simultaneously retrieves both the attosecond and infrared (IR) pulses, without placing fundamental restrictions on the IR pulse duration, intensity or bandwidth. The new algorithm is validated both numerically and experimentally, and is also found to have practical advantages. These include an increased robustness to noise, and relaxed requirements for the size of the experimental dataset and the intensity of the streaking pulse. (paper)

  7. Atto-second control of collective electron motion in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borot, Antonin; Malvache, Arnaud; Chen, Xiaowei; Jullien, Aurelie; Lopez-Martens, Rodrigo; Geindre, Jean-Paul; Audebert, Patrick; Mourou, Gerard; Quere, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    Today, light fields of controlled and measured waveform can be used to guide electron motion in atoms and molecules with atto-second precision. Here, we demonstrate atto-second control of collective electron motion in plasmas driven by extreme intensity (approximate to 10 18 W cm -2 ) light fields. Controlled few-cycle near-infrared waves are tightly focused at the interface between vacuum and a solid-density plasma, where they launch and guide sub-cycle motion of electrons from the plasma with characteristic energies in the multi-kilo-electron-volt range-two orders of magnitude more than has been achieved so far in atoms and molecules. The basic spectroscopy of the coherent extreme ultraviolet radiation emerging from the light-plasma interaction allows us to probe this collective motion of charge with sub-200 as resolution. This is an important step towards atto-second control of charge dynamics in laser-driven plasma experiments. (authors)

  8. Attosecond experiments on plasmonic nanostructures principles and experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Schötz, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Johannes Schötz presents the first measurements of optical electro-magnetic near-fields around nanostructures with subcycle-resolution. The ability to measure and understand light-matter interactions on the nanoscale is an important component for the development of light-wave-electronics, the control and steering of electron dynamics with the frequency of light, which promises a speed-up by several orders of magnitude compared to conventional electronics. The experiments presented here on metallic nanotips, widely used in experiments and applications, do not only demonstrate the feasibility of attosecond streaking as a unique tool for fundamental studies of ultrafast nanophotonics but also represent a first important step towards this goal. Contents Electron Scattering in Solids Attosecond Streaking from Metal Nanotips Target Groups Lecturers and students of physics, especially in the area of nanophotonics and attosecond physics About the Author Johannes Schötz received his Master's degree in physics and cu...

  9. Completion time reduction in instantly decodable network coding through decoding delay control

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.

    2014-12-01

    For several years, the completion time and the decoding delay problems in Instantly Decodable Network Coding (IDNC) were considered separately and were thought to completely act against each other. Recently, some works aimed to balance the effects of these two important IDNC metrics but none of them studied a further optimization of one by controlling the other. In this paper, we study the effect of controlling the decoding delay to reduce the completion time below its currently best known solution. We first derive the decoding-delay-dependent expressions of the users\\' and their overall completion times. Although using such expressions to find the optimal overall completion time is NP-hard, we use a heuristic that minimizes the probability of increasing the maximum of these decoding-delay-dependent completion time expressions after each transmission through a layered control of their decoding delays. Simulation results show that this new algorithm achieves both a lower mean completion time and mean decoding delay compared to the best known heuristic for completion time reduction. The gap in performance becomes significant for harsh erasure scenarios.

  10. Completion time reduction in instantly decodable network coding through decoding delay control

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.; Sorour, Sameh; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2014-01-01

    For several years, the completion time and the decoding delay problems in Instantly Decodable Network Coding (IDNC) were considered separately and were thought to completely act against each other. Recently, some works aimed to balance the effects of these two important IDNC metrics but none of them studied a further optimization of one by controlling the other. In this paper, we study the effect of controlling the decoding delay to reduce the completion time below its currently best known solution. We first derive the decoding-delay-dependent expressions of the users' and their overall completion times. Although using such expressions to find the optimal overall completion time is NP-hard, we use a heuristic that minimizes the probability of increasing the maximum of these decoding-delay-dependent completion time expressions after each transmission through a layered control of their decoding delays. Simulation results show that this new algorithm achieves both a lower mean completion time and mean decoding delay compared to the best known heuristic for completion time reduction. The gap in performance becomes significant for harsh erasure scenarios.

  11. Determination of time delay between ventricles contraction using impedance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowska, M; Poliński, A; Wtorek, J

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a novel approach to assessment of ventricular dyssynchrony basing on multichannel electrical impedance measurements. Using a proper placement of electrodes, the sensitivity approach allows estimating time difference between chambers contraction from over determined nonlinear system of equations. The theoretical considerations which include Finite Element Method simulations were verified using measurements on healthy 28 year's old woman. The nonlinear least squares method was applied to obtain a time difference between heart chambers contraction. The obtained value was in a good agreement with theoretical values found in literature.

  12. Lyapunov matrices approach to the parametric optimization of time-delay systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duda Józef

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper a Lyapunov matrices approach to the parametric optimization problem of time-delay systems with a P-controller is presented. The value of integral quadratic performance index of quality is equal to the value of Lyapunov functional for the initial function of the time-delay system. The Lyapunov functional is determined by means of the Lyapunov matrix

  13. Hopf bifurcation of a ratio-dependent predator-prey system with time delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, Canan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a ratio dependent predator-prey system with time delay where the dynamics is logistic with the carrying capacity proportional to prey population. By considering the time delay as bifurcation parameter, we analyze the stability and the Hopf bifurcation of the system based on the normal form approach and the center manifold theory. Finally, we illustrate our theoretical results by numerical simulations.

  14. Photonic-Enabled RF Canceller with Tunable Time-Delay Taps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-05

    Photonic -Enabled RF Canceller with Tunable Time-Delay Taps Kenneth E. Kolodziej, Sivasubramaniam Yegnanarayanan, Bradley T. Perry MIT Lincoln...canceller design that uses photonics and a vector modulator architecture to provide a high number of canceller taps with tunable time-delays, which allow...microwave photonics , RF cancellation. I. INTRODUCTION In-Band Full-Duplex (IBFD) technologies are being consid- ered for 5th generation (5G) wireless

  15. Dynamics and control of a financial system with time-delayed feedbacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.-C.

    2008-01-01

    Complex behaviors in a financial system with time-delayed feedbacks are discussed in this study via numerical modeling. The system shows complex dynamics such as periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic behaviors. Both period doubling and inverse period doubling routes were found in this system. This paper also shows that the attractor merging crisis is a fundamental feature of nonlinear financial systems with time-delayed feedbacks. Control of the deterministic chaos in the financial system can be realized using Pyragas feedbacks

  16. On a new time-delayed feedback control of chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Lixin; Xu Jun; Sun Mei; Li Xiuming

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, using the idea of the successive dislocation feedback method, a new time-delayed feedback control method called the successive dislocation time-delayed feedback control (SDTDFC) is designed. Firstly, the idea of SDTDFC is introduced. Then some analytic sufficient conditions of the chaos control from the SDTDFC approach are derived for stabilization. Finally, some established results are further clarified via a case study of the Lorenz system with the numerical simulations.

  17. Validation of real-time zenith tropospheric delay estimation with TOMION software within WAGNSS networks

    OpenAIRE

    Graffigna, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    The TOmographic Model of the IONospheric electron content (TOMION) software implements a simultaneous precise geodetic and ionospheric modeling, which can be used to test new approaches for real-time precise GNSS modeling (positioning, ionospheric and tropospheric delays, clock errors, among others). In this work, the software is used to estimate the Zenith Tropospheric Delay (ZTD) emulating real time and its performance is evaluated through a comparative analysis with a built-in GIPSY estima...

  18. Global exponential stability of uncertain fuzzy BAM neural networks with time-varying delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Ali, M.; Balasubramaniam, P.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy model representation is extended to the stability analysis for uncertain Bidirectional Associative Memory (BAM) neural networks with time-varying delays using linear matrix inequality (LMI) theory. A novel LMI-based stability criterion is obtained by LMI optimization algorithms to guarantee the exponential stability of uncertain BAM neural networks with time-varying delays which are represented by TS fuzzy models. Finally, the proposed stability conditions are demonstrated with numerical examples.

  19. A delay-dependent LMI approach to dynamics analysis of discrete-time recurrent neural networks with time-varying delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Qiankun; Wang, Zidong

    2007-01-01

    In this Letter, the analysis problem for the existence and stability of periodic solutions is investigated for a class of general discrete-time recurrent neural networks with time-varying delays. For the neural networks under study, a generalized activation function is considered, and the traditional assumptions on the boundedness, monotony and differentiability of the activation functions are removed. By employing the latest free-weighting matrix method, an appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional is constructed and several sufficient conditions are established to ensure the existence, uniqueness, and globally exponential stability of the periodic solution for the addressed neural network. The conditions are dependent on both the lower bound and upper bound of the time-varying time delays. Furthermore, the conditions are expressed in terms of the linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), which can be checked numerically using the effective LMI toolbox in MATLAB. Two simulation examples are given to show the effectiveness and less conservatism of the proposed criteria

  20. Delayed High School Starting Times. Information Capsule. Volume 0908

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2009-01-01

    Educators around the nation are considering pushing high school starting times back until later in the morning, based on evidence suggesting that amount of sleep and circadian rhythms play a part in adolescents' academic performance. While research confirms that adolescents do not get enough sleep and that insufficient sleep can negatively…

  1. Bounded Delay Timing Analysis of a Class of CSP Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgaard, Henrik; Burns, Steven M.

    1997-01-01

    We describe an algebraic technique for performing timing analysis of a class of asynchronous circuits described as CSP programs (including Martin's probe operator) with the restrictions that there is no OR-causality and that guard selection is either completely free or mutually exclusive...

  2. Time delay for resonant vibrational excitation in electron--molecule collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauyacq, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of the time delay associated with vibrational excitation in electron--molecule collision is presented. It consists of a direct study of the time dependence of the process for three model systems. An electron wave packet, that is narrow in time, is sent on the target and the amplitudes in the different inelastic channels are studied as functions of time. The time delay is found to correspond to very different time effects: broadenings, shifts in time of the wave packet, but also complex distortions that cannot be represented by a time delay. The direct analysis of the scattered wave also provides new insights into the vibrational excitation process. It should be a useful tool to analyze complex collision processes

  3. Decentralized H∞ Control of Interconnected Systems with Time-varying Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Zouhri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the problem of delay dependent stability/stabilization of interconnected systems with time-varying delays. The approach is based on a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional. A decentralized delay-dependent stability analysis is performed to characterize linear matrix inequalities (LMIs based on the conditions under which every local subsystem of the linear interconnected delay system is asymptotically stable. Then we design a decentralized state-feedback stabilization scheme such that the family of closedloop feedback subsystems enjoys the delay-dependent asymptotic stability for each subsystem. The decentralized feedback gains are determined by convex optimization over LMIs. All the developed results are tested on a representative example and compared with some recent previous ones.

  4. Linear matrix inequality approach for synchronization control of fuzzy cellular neural networks with mixed time delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramaniam, P.; Kalpana, M.; Rakkiyappan, R.

    2012-01-01

    Fuzzy cellular neural networks (FCNNs) are special kinds of cellular neural networks (CNNs). Each cell in an FCNN contains fuzzy operating abilities. The entire network is governed by cellular computing laws. The design of FCNNs is based on fuzzy local rules. In this paper, a linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach for synchronization control of FCNNs with mixed delays is investigated. Mixed delays include discrete time-varying delays and unbounded distributed delays. A dynamic control scheme is proposed to achieve the synchronization between a drive network and a response network. By constructing the Lyapunov—Krasovskii functional which contains a triple-integral term and the free-weighting matrices method an improved delay-dependent stability criterion is derived in terms of LMIs. The controller can be easily obtained by solving the derived LMIs. A numerical example and its simulations are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  5. Longitudinal Outcomes of Start Time Delay on Sleep, Behavior, and Achievement in High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Pamela V; Onyper, Serge V

    2016-02-01

    To establish whether sleep, health, mood, behavior, and academics improved after a 45-minute delay in high school start time, and whether changes persisted longitudinally. We collected data from school records and student self-report across a number of domains at baseline (May 2012) and at two follow-up time points (November 2012 and May 2013), at a public high school in upstate New York. Students enrolled during academic years (AY) 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; the DASS-21; the "Owl-Lark" Scale; the Daytime Sleepiness Index; and a brief self-report of health. Reports from school records regarding attendance, tardiness, disciplinary violations, and academic performance were collected for AY 2010-2011 through 2013-2014. Students delayed but did not extend their sleep period; we found lasting improvements in tardiness and disciplinary violations after the start-time delay, but no changes to other variables. At the first follow-up, students reported 20 minutes longer sleep, driven by later rise times and stable bed times. At the second follow-up, students maintained later rise times but delayed bedtimes, returning total sleep to baseline levels. A delay in rise time, paralleling the delay in the start time that occurred, resulted in less tardiness and decreased disciplinary incidents, but larger improvements to sleep patterns may be necessary to affect health, attendance, sleepiness, and academic performance. Later start times improved tardiness and disciplinary issues at this school district. A delay in start time may be a necessary but not sufficient means to increase sleep time and may depend on preexisting individual differences. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 267. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  6. Amplitude and phase control of attosecond light pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Martens, Rodrigo; Varju, Katalin; Johnsson, Per; Mauritsson, Johan; Persson, Anders; Svanberg, Sune; Wahlstroem, Claes-Goeran; L'Huillier, Anne; Mairesse, Yann; Salieres, Pascal; Gaarde, Mette B.; Schafer, Kenneth J.

    2005-01-01

    We report the generation, compression, and delivery on target of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses using external amplitude and phase control. Broadband harmonic radiation is first generated by focusing an infrared laser with a carefully chosen intensity into a gas cell containing argon atoms. The emitted light then goes through a hard aperture and a thin aluminum filter that selects a 30-eV bandwidth around a 30-eV photon energy and synchronizes all of the components, thereby enabling the formation of a train of almost Fourier-transform-limited single-cycle 170 attosecond pulses. Our experiment demonstrates a practical method for synthesizing and controlling attosecond waveforms

  7. Secondary-electron cascade in attosecond photoelectron spectroscopy from metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Jan Conrad; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2009-01-01

    an analytical model based on an approximate solution to Boltzmann's transport equation to account for the amount and energy distribution of these secondary electrons. Our theory is in good agreement with the electron spectrum found in a recent attosecond streaking experiment. To suppress the background and gain......Attosecond spectroscopy is currently restricted to photon energies around 100 eV. We show that under these conditions, electron-electron scatterings, as the photoelectrons leave the metal, give rise to a tail of secondary electrons with lower energies and hence a significant background. We develop...

  8. Hopf bifurcation analysis of Chen circuit with direct time delay feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai-Peng, Ren; Wen-Chao, Li; Ding, Liu

    2010-01-01

    Direct time delay feedback can make non-chaotic Chen circuit chaotic. The chaotic Chen circuit with direct time delay feedback possesses rich and complex dynamical behaviours. To reach a deep and clear understanding of the dynamics of such circuits described by delay differential equations, Hopf bifurcation in the circuit is analysed using the Hopf bifurcation theory and the central manifold theorem in this paper. Bifurcation points and bifurcation directions are derived in detail, which prove to be consistent with the previous bifurcation diagram. Numerical simulations and experimental results are given to verify the theoretical analysis. Hopf bifurcation analysis can explain and predict the periodical orbit (oscillation) in Chen circuit with direct time delay feedback. Bifurcation boundaries are derived using the Hopf bifurcation analysis, which will be helpful for determining the parameters in the stabilisation of the originally chaotic circuit

  9. Effects of stochastic time-delayed feedback on a dynamical system modeling a chemical oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Ochoa, Héctor O.; Perales, Gualberto Solís; Epstein, Irving R.; Femat, Ricardo

    2018-05-01

    We examine how stochastic time-delayed negative feedback affects the dynamical behavior of a model oscillatory reaction. We apply constant and stochastic time-delayed negative feedbacks to a point Field-Körös-Noyes photosensitive oscillator and compare their effects. Negative feedback is applied in the form of simulated inhibitory electromagnetic radiation with an intensity proportional to the concentration of oxidized light-sensitive catalyst in the oscillator. We first characterize the system under nondelayed inhibitory feedback; then we explore and compare the effects of constant (deterministic) versus stochastic time-delayed feedback. We find that the oscillatory amplitude, frequency, and waveform are essentially preserved when low-dispersion stochastic delayed feedback is used, whereas small but measurable changes appear when a large dispersion is applied.

  10. Symmetry, Hopf bifurcation, and the emergence of cluster solutions in time delayed neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Campbell, Sue Ann

    2017-11-01

    We consider the networks of N identical oscillators with time delayed, global circulant coupling, modeled by a system of delay differential equations with Z N symmetry. We first study the existence of Hopf bifurcations induced by the coupling time delay and then use symmetric Hopf bifurcation theory to determine how these bifurcations lead to different patterns of symmetric cluster oscillations. We apply our results to a case study: a network of FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons with diffusive coupling. For this model, we derive the asymptotic stability, global asymptotic stability, absolute instability, and stability switches of the equilibrium point in the plane of coupling time delay (τ) and excitability parameter (a). We investigate the patterns of cluster oscillations induced by the time delay and determine the direction and stability of the bifurcating periodic orbits by employing the multiple timescales method and normal form theory. We find that in the region where stability switching occurs, the dynamics of the system can be switched from the equilibrium point to any symmetric cluster oscillation, and back to equilibrium point as the time delay is increased.

  11. Stability and oscillation of two coupled Duffing equations with time delay state feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bassiouny, A F

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical study of the simultaneous principal parametric resonances of two coupled Duffing equations with time delay state feedback. The concept of an equivalent damping related to the delay feedback is proposed and the appropriate choice of the feedback gains and the time delay is discussed from the viewpoint of vibration control. The method of multiple scales is used to determine a set of ordinary differential equations governing the modulation of the amplitudes and phases of the two modes. The first order approximation of the resonances are derived and the effect of time delay on the resonances is investigated. The fixed points correspond to a periodic motion for the starting system and we show the frequency-response curves. We analyse the effect of time delay and the other different parameters on these oscillations. The stability of the fixed points is examined by using the variational method. Numerical solutions are carried out and graphical representations of the results are presented and discussed. Increasing in the time delay τ given decreasing and increasing in the regions of definition and stability respectively and the first mode has decreased magnitudes. The multivalued solutions disappear when decreasing the coefficients of cubic nonlinearities of the second mode α 3 and the detuning parameter σ 2 respectively. Both modes shift to the left for increasing linear feedback gain v 1 and the coefficient of parametric excitation f 1 respectively

  12. Symmetry, Hopf bifurcation, and the emergence of cluster solutions in time delayed neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Campbell, Sue Ann

    2017-11-01

    We consider the networks of N identical oscillators with time delayed, global circulant coupling, modeled by a system of delay differential equations with ZN symmetry. We first study the existence of Hopf bifurcations induced by the coupling time delay and then use symmetric Hopf bifurcation theory to determine how these bifurcations lead to different patterns of symmetric cluster oscillations. We apply our results to a case study: a network of FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons with diffusive coupling. For this model, we derive the asymptotic stability, global asymptotic stability, absolute instability, and stability switches of the equilibrium point in the plane of coupling time delay (τ) and excitability parameter (a). We investigate the patterns of cluster oscillations induced by the time delay and determine the direction and stability of the bifurcating periodic orbits by employing the multiple timescales method and normal form theory. We find that in the region where stability switching occurs, the dynamics of the system can be switched from the equilibrium point to any symmetric cluster oscillation, and back to equilibrium point as the time delay is increased.

  13. Measurement of time delays in gated radiotherapy for realistic respiratory motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chugh, Brige P.; Quirk, Sarah; Conroy, Leigh; Smith, Wendy L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Gated radiotherapy is used to reduce internal motion margins, escalate target dose, and limit normal tissue dose; however, its temporal accuracy is limited. Beam-on and beam-off time delays can lead to treatment inefficiencies and/or geographic misses; therefore, AAPM Task Group 142 recommends verifying the temporal accuracy of gating systems. Many groups use sinusoidal phantom motion for this, under the tacit assumption that use of sinusoidal motion for determining time delays produces negligible error. The authors test this assumption by measuring gating time delays for several realistic motion shapes with increasing degrees of irregularity. Methods: Time delays were measured on a linear accelerator with a real-time position management system (Varian TrueBeam with RPM system version 1.7.5) for seven motion shapes: regular sinusoidal; regular realistic-shape; large (40%) and small (10%) variations in amplitude; large (40%) variations in period; small (10%) variations in both amplitude and period; and baseline drift (30%). Film streaks of radiation exposure were generated for each motion shape using a programmable motion phantom. Beam-on and beam-off time delays were determined from the difference between the expected and observed streak length. Results: For the system investigated, all sine, regular realistic-shape, and slightly irregular amplitude variation motions had beam-off and beam-on time delays within the AAPM recommended limit of less than 100 ms. In phase-based gating, even small variations in period resulted in some time delays greater than 100 ms. Considerable time delays over 1 s were observed with highly irregular motion. Conclusions: Sinusoidal motion shapes can be considered a reasonable approximation to the more complex and slightly irregular shapes of realistic motion. When using phase-based gating with predictive filters even small variations in period can result in time delays over 100 ms. Clinical use of these systems for patients

  14. Measurement of time delays in gated radiotherapy for realistic respiratory motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Brige P.; Quirk, Sarah; Conroy, Leigh; Smith, Wendy L., E-mail: Wendy.Smith@albertahealthservices.ca [Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Gated radiotherapy is used to reduce internal motion margins, escalate target dose, and limit normal tissue dose; however, its temporal accuracy is limited. Beam-on and beam-off time delays can lead to treatment inefficiencies and/or geographic misses; therefore, AAPM Task Group 142 recommends verifying the temporal accuracy of gating systems. Many groups use sinusoidal phantom motion for this, under the tacit assumption that use of sinusoidal motion for determining time delays produces negligible error. The authors test this assumption by measuring gating time delays for several realistic motion shapes with increasing degrees of irregularity. Methods: Time delays were measured on a linear accelerator with a real-time position management system (Varian TrueBeam with RPM system version 1.7.5) for seven motion shapes: regular sinusoidal; regular realistic-shape; large (40%) and small (10%) variations in amplitude; large (40%) variations in period; small (10%) variations in both amplitude and period; and baseline drift (30%). Film streaks of radiation exposure were generated for each motion shape using a programmable motion phantom. Beam-on and beam-off time delays were determined from the difference between the expected and observed streak length. Results: For the system investigated, all sine, regular realistic-shape, and slightly irregular amplitude variation motions had beam-off and beam-on time delays within the AAPM recommended limit of less than 100 ms. In phase-based gating, even small variations in period resulted in some time delays greater than 100 ms. Considerable time delays over 1 s were observed with highly irregular motion. Conclusions: Sinusoidal motion shapes can be considered a reasonable approximation to the more complex and slightly irregular shapes of realistic motion. When using phase-based gating with predictive filters even small variations in period can result in time delays over 100 ms. Clinical use of these systems for patients

  15. Delay of Gratification, Delay Discounting and their Associations with Age, Episodic Future Thinking, and Future Time Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars M. Göllner

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The delay of gratification (DoG in children is widely investigated with an experimental procedure originally called the “marshmallow test,” whereas the studies on self-regulation (SR in adolescents and adults usually use self-report questionnaires. Delay discounting (DD measures simplify the DoG procedure and focus on monetary rewards. The aim of this study was to investigate age differences in DoG and DD from childhood to old age using a test that is suitable for both children and adults. Furthermore, investigations were conducted on the association between DoG/DD and two future orientation constructs [future time perspective (FTP and episodic future thinking (EFT] as well as age differences in these constructs. Participants from five age groups (9–14, 18–25, 35–55, 65–80, 80+ participated in the study (N = 96. While we found no age difference for DoG, DD was the lowest [i.e., self-control (SC was the highest] in young/middle adults; however, it was the highest (i.e., SC was the lowest in children and old/oldest adults. Furthermore, we found significant age differences for DD and FTP. As predicted, there were strong correlations between DoG and FTP and between DD and FTP, but not between DoG/DD and EFT. These results indicate that age differences in SR vary across the measures used. Individuals who generally think and act in a future-oriented manner have a stronger ability to delay gratification.

  16. Delay of Gratification, Delay Discounting and their Associations with Age, Episodic Future Thinking, and Future Time Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göllner, Lars M; Ballhausen, Nicola; Kliegel, Matthias; Forstmeier, Simon

    2017-01-01

    The delay of gratification (DoG) in children is widely investigated with an experimental procedure originally called the "marshmallow test," whereas the studies on self-regulation (SR) in adolescents and adults usually use self-report questionnaires. Delay discounting (DD) measures simplify the DoG procedure and focus on monetary rewards. The aim of this study was to investigate age differences in DoG and DD from childhood to old age using a test that is suitable for both children and adults. Furthermore, investigations were conducted on the association between DoG/DD and two future orientation constructs [future time perspective (FTP) and episodic future thinking (EFT)] as well as age differences in these constructs. Participants from five age groups (9-14, 18-25, 35-55, 65-80, 80+) participated in the study ( N = 96). While we found no age difference for DoG, DD was the lowest [i.e., self-control (SC) was the highest] in young/middle adults; however, it was the highest (i.e., SC was the lowest) in children and old/oldest adults. Furthermore, we found significant age differences for DD and FTP. As predicted, there were strong correlations between DoG and FTP and between DD and FTP, but not between DoG/DD and EFT. These results indicate that age differences in SR vary across the measures used. Individuals who generally think and act in a future-oriented manner have a stronger ability to delay gratification.

  17. Transit time corrected arterial spin labeling technique aids to overcome delayed transit time effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Tae Jin; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Yoo, Roh-Eul; Kang, Kyung Mi; Choi, Seung Hong; Kim, Ji-hoon; Park, Sun-Won; Hwang, Moonjung; Lebel, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of transit time corrected cerebral blood flow (CBF) maps based on multi-phase arterial spin labeling MR perfusion imaging (ASL-MRP). The Institutional Review Board of our hospital approved this retrospective study. Written informed consent was waived. Conventional and multi-phase ASL-MRPs and dynamic susceptibility contrast MR perfusion imaging (DSC-MRP) were acquired for 108 consecutive patients. Vascular territory-based volumes of interest were applied to CBF and time to peak (TTP) maps obtained from DSC-MRP and CBF maps obtained from conventional and multi-phase ASL-MRPs. The concordances between normalized CBF (nCBF) from DSC-MRP and nCBF from conventional and transition time corrected CBF maps from multi-phase ASL-MRP were evaluated using Bland-Altman analysis. In addition, the dependence of difference between nCBF (ΔnCBF) values obtained from DSC-MRP and conventional ASL-MRP (or multi-phase ASL-MRP) on TTP obtained from DSC-MRP was also analyzed using regression analysis. The values of nCBFs from conventional and multi-phase ASL-MRPs had lower values than nCBF based on DSC-MRP (mean differences, 0.08 and 0.07, respectively). The values of ΔnCBF were dependent on TTP values from conventional ASL-MRP technique (F = 5.5679, P = 0.0384). No dependency of ΔnCBF on TTP values from multi-phase ASL-MRP technique was revealed (F = 0.1433, P > 0.05). The use of transit time corrected CBF maps based on multi-phase ASL-MRP technique can overcome the effect of delayed transit time on perfusion maps based on conventional ASL-MRP. (orig.)

  18. Transit time corrected arterial spin labeling technique aids to overcome delayed transit time effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Tae Jin; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Yoo, Roh-Eul; Kang, Kyung Mi; Choi, Seung Hong; Kim, Ji-hoon [Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sun-Won [Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Moonjung [GE Healthcare Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lebel, R.M. [GE Healthcare Canada, Calgary (Canada)

    2018-03-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of transit time corrected cerebral blood flow (CBF) maps based on multi-phase arterial spin labeling MR perfusion imaging (ASL-MRP). The Institutional Review Board of our hospital approved this retrospective study. Written informed consent was waived. Conventional and multi-phase ASL-MRPs and dynamic susceptibility contrast MR perfusion imaging (DSC-MRP) were acquired for 108 consecutive patients. Vascular territory-based volumes of interest were applied to CBF and time to peak (TTP) maps obtained from DSC-MRP and CBF maps obtained from conventional and multi-phase ASL-MRPs. The concordances between normalized CBF (nCBF) from DSC-MRP and nCBF from conventional and transition time corrected CBF maps from multi-phase ASL-MRP were evaluated using Bland-Altman analysis. In addition, the dependence of difference between nCBF (ΔnCBF) values obtained from DSC-MRP and conventional ASL-MRP (or multi-phase ASL-MRP) on TTP obtained from DSC-MRP was also analyzed using regression analysis. The values of nCBFs from conventional and multi-phase ASL-MRPs had lower values than nCBF based on DSC-MRP (mean differences, 0.08 and 0.07, respectively). The values of ΔnCBF were dependent on TTP values from conventional ASL-MRP technique (F = 5.5679, P = 0.0384). No dependency of ΔnCBF on TTP values from multi-phase ASL-MRP technique was revealed (F = 0.1433, P > 0.05). The use of transit time corrected CBF maps based on multi-phase ASL-MRP technique can overcome the effect of delayed transit time on perfusion maps based on conventional ASL-MRP. (orig.)

  19. Construction delays causing risks on time and cost - a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidambaram Ramanathan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There is an increase in the number of construction projects experiencing extensive delays leading to exceeding initial time and cost budget.  This paper reviews 41 studies around the world which surveyed the delay factors and classified them into Groups.  The main purpose of this paper is to review literature, each of which have categorized the causes that are responsible for time delays and cost overrun in projects. The collected list has 113 causes for delays categorized in to 18 different groups.  Most of the researches have analysed the responses from the Questionnaire survey.    The collected data are used to rank the problem.  The data are further used to investigate and analyse Important Index, Frequency Index, Severity Index, Relative Important Index, Relative Importance Weight, Weighted Average, Mean, Standard Deviation and Variance.  The collective comparison has revealed that the ranking given by all the researchers is not the same.  Further each and every study has different rank ratings for the different group of the delays.  This review paper attempts to provide an updated compilation of the earlier studies on ranking of the delay causers, which are never similar and constant for universal projects.  It is concluded that a separate study is required for identifying the factors causing delay for projects operated in Sabah, East Malaysia.

  20. Constructing Hopf bifurcation lines for the stability of nonlinear systems with two time delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguimdo, Romain Modeste

    2018-03-01

    Although the plethora real-life systems modeled by nonlinear systems with two independent time delays, the algebraic expressions for determining the stability of their fixed points remain the Achilles' heel. Typically, the approach for studying the stability of delay systems consists in finding the bifurcation lines separating the stable and unstable parameter regions. This work deals with the parametric construction of algebraic expressions and their use for the determination of the stability boundaries of fixed points in nonlinear systems with two independent time delays. In particular, we concentrate on the cases for which the stability of the fixed points can be ascertained from a characteristic equation corresponding to that of scalar two-delay differential equations, one-component dual-delay feedback, or nonscalar differential equations with two delays for which the characteristic equation for the stability analysis can be reduced to that of a scalar case. Then, we apply our obtained algebraic expressions to identify either the parameter regions of stable microwaves generated by dual-delay optoelectronic oscillators or the regions of amplitude death in identical coupled oscillators.

  1. Analysis of actuator delay and its effect on uncertainty quantification for real-time hybrid simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Xu, Weijie; Guo, Tong; Chen, Kai

    2017-10-01

    Uncertainties in structure properties can result in different responses in hybrid simulations. Quantification of the effect of these uncertainties would enable researchers to estimate the variances of structural responses observed from experiments. This poses challenges for real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS) due to the existence of actuator delay. Polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) projects the model outputs on a basis of orthogonal stochastic polynomials to account for influences of model uncertainties. In this paper, PCE is utilized to evaluate effect of actuator delay on the maximum displacement from real-time hybrid simulation of a single degree of freedom (SDOF) structure when accounting for uncertainties in structural properties. The PCE is first applied for RTHS without delay to determine the order of PCE, the number of sample points as well as the method for coefficients calculation. The PCE is then applied to RTHS with actuator delay. The mean, variance and Sobol indices are compared and discussed to evaluate the effects of actuator delay on uncertainty quantification for RTHS. Results show that the mean and the variance of the maximum displacement increase linearly and exponentially with respect to actuator delay, respectively. Sensitivity analysis through Sobol indices also indicates the influence of the single random variable decreases while the coupling effect increases with the increase of actuator delay.

  2. A data analysis method for identifying deterministic components of stable and unstable time-delayed systems with colored noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patanarapeelert, K. [Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Frank, T.D. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Str. 9, 48149 Muenster (Germany)]. E-mail: tdfrank@uni-muenster.de; Friedrich, R. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Str. 9, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Beek, P.J. [Faculty of Human Movement Sciences and Institute for Fundamental and Clinical Human Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, Van der Boechorststraat 9, 1081 BT Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tang, I.M. [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2006-12-18

    A method is proposed to identify deterministic components of stable and unstable time-delayed systems subjected to noise sources with finite correlation times (colored noise). Both neutral and retarded delay systems are considered. For vanishing correlation times it is shown how to determine their noise amplitudes by minimizing appropriately defined Kullback measures. The method is illustrated by applying it to simulated data from stochastic time-delayed systems representing delay-induced bifurcations, postural sway and ship rolling.

  3. Factors influencing delay time and coronary arterial density during coronary angiography with DSCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lijun Tang; Xiaomei Zhu; Yi Xu; Tongfu Yu; Hai Xu; Jinhua Tang; Dehang Wang; Dogra, Vikram

    2011-01-01

    Background: CT angiography (CTA) plays an important role in diagnosing coronary arterial disease. Delay time and density of the coronary arteries related with patient-specific factors are essential for getting an optimal CTA image. Purpose: To investigate various factors influencing delay time and coronary arterial density during coronary CTA with dual source CT. Material and Methods: One hundred and sixteen consecutive subjects who underwent cardiac DSCT with retrospective ECG-gating were included. Factors including gender, age, height, weight, transversal cardiac diameter (TCD), transversal thoracic diameter (TTD), heart rate (HR), body surface area (BSA = [weight x height/3600]1/2) and cardiothoracic ratio (CTR = TCD/TTD) were recorded, measured and calculated before administration of contrast media during coronary CT angiography. Delay time was determined as duration from the beginning of the injection to the density in the descending aorta at the level of right main pulmonary artery reaching a threshold of 100 HU. Coronary arterial density was measured at the mid portion of the right coronary artery. Regression analysis and stepwise regression analysis were used to investigate the influence of these factors on delay time and coronary arterial density. Results: Delay time decreased with an increasing HR and it was shorter in women than men. Delay time increased with an increasing TCD. Delay time could be predicted by the formula: DT = 16.651-0.110 x HR + 1.902 x gender + 0.394 x TCD (where DT is abbreviation for delay time, gender is 0 for women and 1 for men). Coronary arterial density decreased with an increasing HR and weight. Coronary arterial density could be predicted by the formula: CAD = 923.42-4.099 x HR-3.293 x weight (CAD = coronary arterial density). There was no relationship between the other factors mentioned above and delay time or coronary arterial density. Conclusion: Delay time is influenced by HR, gender and TCD. Coronary arterial density

  4. Factors influencing delay time and coronary arterial density during coronary angiography with DSCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lijun; Zhu, Xiaomei; Xu, Yi; Yu, Tongfu; Xu, Hai; Tang, Jinhua; Dogra, Vikram; Wang, Dehang

    2011-02-01

    CT angiography (CTA) plays an important role in diagnosing coronary arterial disease. Delay time and density of the coronary arteries related with patient-specific factors are essential for getting an optimal CTA image. To investigate various factors influencing delay time and coronary arterial density during coronary CTA with dual source CT. One hundred and sixteen consecutive subjects who underwent cardiac DSCT with retrospective ECG-gating were included. Factors including gender, age, height, weight, transversal cardiac diameter (TCD), transversal thoracic diameter (TTD), heart rate (HR), body surface area (BSA = [weight × height/3600](1/2)) and cardiothoracic ratio (CTR = TCD/TTD) were recorded, measured and calculated before administration of contrast media during coronary CT angiography. Delay time was determined as duration from the beginning of the injection to the density in the descending aorta at the level of right main pulmonary artery reaching a threshold of 100 HU. Coronary arterial density was measured at the mid portion of the right coronary artery. Regression analysis and stepwise regression analysis were used to investigate the influence of these factors on delay time and coronary arterial density. Delay time decreased with an increasing HR and it was shorter in women than men. Delay time increased with an increasing TCD. Delay time could be predicted by the formula: DT = 16.651-0.110 × HR + 1.902 × gender + 0.394 × TCD (where DT is abbreviation for delay time, gender is 0 for women and 1 for men). Coronary arterial density decreased with an increasing HR and weight. Coronary arterial density could be predicted by the formula: CAD = 923.42-4.099 × HR-3.293 × weight (CAD = coronary arterial density). There was no relationship between the other factors mentioned above and delay time or coronary arterial density. Delay time is influenced by HR, gender and TCD. Coronary arterial density also changes with HR and weight. So HR, gender, TCD and

  5. State estimation for discrete-time Markovian jumping neural networks with mixed mode-dependent delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yurong; Wang Zidong; Liu Xiaohui

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter, we investigate the state estimation problem for a new class of discrete-time neural networks with Markovian jumping parameters as well as mode-dependent mixed time-delays. The parameters of the discrete-time neural networks are subject to the switching from one mode to another at different times according to a Markov chain, and the mixed time-delays consist of both discrete and distributed delays that are dependent on the Markovian jumping mode. New techniques are developed to deal with the mixed time-delays in the discrete-time setting, and a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional is put forward to reflect the mode-dependent time-delays. Sufficient conditions are established in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) that guarantee the existence of the state estimators. We show that both the existence conditions and the explicit expression of the desired estimator can be characterized in terms of the solution to an LMI. A numerical example is exploited to show the usefulness of the derived LMI-based conditions

  6. H∞ Consensus for Multiagent Systems with Heterogeneous Time-Varying Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply the linear matrix inequality method to consensus and H∞ consensus problems of the single integrator multiagent system with heterogeneous delays in directed networks. To overcome the difficulty caused by heterogeneous time-varying delays, we rewrite the multiagent system into a partially reduced-order system and an integral system. As a result, a particular Lyapunov function is constructed to derive sufficient conditions for consensus of multiagent systems with fixed (switched topologies. We also apply this method to the H∞ consensus of multiagent systems with disturbances and heterogeneous delays. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the theoretical results.

  7. Global exponential stability for discrete-time neural networks with variable delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wuhua; Lu Xiaomei; Liang Dongying

    2006-01-01

    This Letter provides new exponential stability criteria for discrete-time neural networks with variable delays. The main technique is to reduce exponential convergence estimation of the neural network solution to that of one component of the corresponding solution by constructing Lyapunov function based on M-matrix. By introducing the tuning parameter diagonal matrix, the delay-independent and delay-dependent exponential stability conditions have been unified in the same mathematical formula. The effectiveness of the new results are illustrated by three examples

  8. New Results on Robust Model Predictive Control for Time-Delay Systems with Input Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problem of model predictive control for a class of nonlinear systems subject to state delays and input constraints. The time-varying delay is considered with both upper and lower bounds. A new model is proposed to approximate the delay. And the uncertainty is polytopic type. For the state-feedback MPC design objective, we formulate an optimization problem. Under model transformation, a new model predictive controller is designed such that the robust asymptotical stability of the closed-loop system can be guaranteed. Finally, the applicability of the presented results are demonstrated by a practical example.

  9. Robust L2-L∞ Filtering of Time-Delay Jump Systems with Respect to the Finite-Time Interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuping He

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studied the problem of stochastic finite-time boundedness and disturbance attenuation for a class of linear time-delayed systems with Markov jumping parameters. Sufficient conditions are provided to solve this problem. The L2-L∞ filters are, respectively, designed for time-delayed Markov jump linear systems with/without uncertain parameters such that the resulting filtering error dynamic system is stochastically finite-time bounded and has the finite-time interval disturbance attenuation γ for all admissible uncertainties, time delays, and unknown disturbances. By using stochastic Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional approach, it is shown that the filter designing problem is in terms of the solutions of a set of coupled linear matrix inequalities. Simulation examples are included to demonstrate the potential of the proposed results.

  10. How many segments are necessary to characterize delayed colonic transit time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchoucha, Michel; Devroede, Ghislain; Bon, Cyriaque; Raynaud, Jean-Jacques; Bejou, Bakhtiar; Benamouzig, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Measuring colonic transit time with radiopaque markers is simple, inexpensive, and very useful in constipated patients. Yet, the algorithm used to identify colonic segments is subjective, rather than founded on prior experimentation. The aim of the present study is to describe a rational way to determine the colonic partition in the measurement of colonic transit time. Colonic transit time was measured in seven segments: ascending colon, hepatic flexure, right and left transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, and rectosigmoid in 852 patients with functional bowel and anorectal disorders. An unsupervised algorithm for modeling Gaussian mixtures served to estimate the number of subgroups from this oversegmented colonic transit time. After that, we performed a k-means clustering that separated the observations into homogenous groups of patients according to their oversegmented colonic transit time. The Gaussian mixture followed by the k-means clustering defined 4 populations of patients: "normal and fast transit" (n = 548) and three groups of patients with delayed colonic transit time "right delay" (n = 82) in which transit is delayed in the right part of the colon, "left delay" (n = 87) with transit delayed in the left part of colon and "outlet constipation" (n = 135) for patients with transit delayed in the terminal intestine. Only 3.7 % of patients were "erroneously" classified in the 4 groups recognized by clustering. This unsupervised analysis of segmental colonic transit time shows that the classical division of the colon and the rectum into three segments is sufficient to characterize delayed segmental colonic transit time.

  11. Application of Time-Delay Absorber to Suppress Vibration of a Dynamical System to Tuned Excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ganaini, W A A; El-Gohary, H A

    2014-08-01

    In this work, we present a comprehensive investigation of the time delay absorber effects on the control of a dynamical system represented by a cantilever beam subjected to tuned excitation forces. Cantilever beam is one of the most widely used system in too many engineering applications, such as mechanical and civil engineering. The main aim of this work is to control the vibration of the beam at simultaneous internal and combined resonance condition, as it is the worst resonance case. Control is conducted via time delay absorber to suppress chaotic vibrations. Time delays often appear in many control systems in the state, in the control input, or in the measurements. Time delay commonly exists in various engineering, biological, and economical systems because of the finite speed of the information processing. It is a source of performance degradation and instability. Multiple time scale perturbation method is applied to obtain a first order approximation for the nonlinear differential equations describing the system behavior. The different resonance cases are reported and studied numerically. The stability of the steady-state solution at the selected worst resonance case is investigated applying Runge-Kutta fourth order method and frequency response equations via Matlab 7.0 and Maple11. Time delay absorber is effective, but within a specified range of time delay. It is the critical factor in selecting such absorber. Time delay absorber is better than the ordinary one as from the effectiveness point of view. The effects of the different absorber parameters on the system behavior and stability are studied numerically. A comparison with the available published work showed a close agreement with some previously published work.

  12. A frequency-domain method for solving linear time delay systems with constant coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Mengshi; Chen, Wei; Song, Hanwen; Xu, Jian

    2018-03-01

    In an active control system, time delay will occur due to processes such as signal acquisition and transmission, calculation, and actuation. Time delay systems are usually described by delay differential equations (DDEs). Since it is hard to obtain an analytical solution to a DDE, numerical solution is of necessity. This paper presents a frequency-domain method that uses a truncated transfer function to solve a class of DDEs. The theoretical transfer function is the sum of infinite items expressed in terms of poles and residues. The basic idea is to select the dominant poles and residues to truncate the transfer function, thus ensuring the validity of the solution while improving the efficiency of calculation. Meanwhile, the guideline of selecting these poles and residues is provided. Numerical simulations of both stable and unstable delayed systems are given to verify the proposed method, and the results are presented and analysed in detail.

  13. Exponential stability of uncertain stochastic neural networks with mixed time-delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zidong; Lauria, Stanislao; Fang Jian'an; Liu Xiaohui

    2007-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the global exponential stability analysis problem for a class of stochastic neural networks with mixed time-delays and parameter uncertainties. The mixed delays comprise discrete and distributed time-delays, the parameter uncertainties are norm-bounded, and the neural networks are subjected to stochastic disturbances described in terms of a Brownian motion. The purpose of the stability analysis problem is to derive easy-to-test criteria under which the delayed stochastic neural network is globally, robustly, exponentially stable in the mean square for all admissible parameter uncertainties. By resorting to the Lyapunov-Krasovskii stability theory and the stochastic analysis tools, sufficient stability conditions are established by using an efficient linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach. The proposed criteria can be checked readily by using recently developed numerical packages, where no tuning of parameters is required. An example is provided to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed criteria

  14. Memory State Feedback RMPC for Multiple Time-Delayed Uncertain Linear Systems with Input Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Wei Qin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the problem of asymptotic stabilization for a class of discrete-time multiple time-delayed uncertain linear systems with input constraints. Then, based on the predictive control principle of receding horizon optimization, a delayed state dependent quadratic function is considered for incorporating MPC problem formulation. By developing a memory state feedback controller, the information of the delayed plant states can be taken into full consideration. The MPC problem is formulated to minimize the upper bound of infinite horizon cost that satisfies the sufficient conditions. Then, based on the Lyapunov-Krasovskii function, a delay-dependent sufficient condition in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI can be derived to design a robust MPC algorithm. Finally, the digital simulation results prove availability of the proposed method.

  15. Time-delay interferometric ranging for space-borne gravitational-wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinto, Massimo; Vallisneri, Michele; Armstrong, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Space-borne interferometric gravitational-wave detectors, sensitive in the low-frequency (mHz) band, will fly in the next decade. In these detectors, the spacecraft-to-spacecraft light-travel times will necessarily be unequal and time varying, and (because of aberration) will have different values on up- and down-links. In such unequal-armlength interferometers, laser-phase noise will be canceled by taking linear combinations of the laser-phase observables measured between pairs of spacecraft, appropriately time shifted by the light propagation times along the corresponding arms. This procedure, known as time-delay interferometry (TDI), requires an accurate knowledge of the light-time delays as functions of time. Here we propose a high-accuracy technique to estimate these time delays, and we study its use in the context of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. We refer to this ranging technique, which relies on the TDI combinations themselves, as time-delay interferometric ranging (TDIR). For every TDI combination, we show that, by minimizing the rms power in that combination (averaged over integration times ∼10 4 s) with respect to the time-delay parameters, we obtain estimates of the time delays accurate enough to cancel laser noise to a level well below the secondary noises. Thus TDIR allows the implementation of TDI without the use of dedicated interspacecraft ranging systems, with a potential simplification of the LISA design. In this paper we define the TDIR procedure formally, and we characterize its expected performance via simulations with the Synthetic LISA software package

  16. Global Stability of Polytopic Linear Time-Varying Dynamic Systems under Time-Varying Point Delays and Impulsive Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de la Sen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the stability properties of a class of dynamic linear systems possessing several linear time-invariant parameterizations (or configurations which conform a linear time-varying polytopic dynamic system with a finite number of time-varying time-differentiable point delays. The parameterizations may be timevarying and with bounded discontinuities and they can be subject to mixed regular plus impulsive controls within a sequence of time instants of zero measure. The polytopic parameterization for the dynamics associated with each delay is specific, so that (q+1 polytopic parameterizations are considered for a system with q delays being also subject to delay-free dynamics. The considered general dynamic system includes, as particular cases, a wide class of switched linear systems whose individual parameterizations are timeinvariant which are governed by a switching rule. However, the dynamic system under consideration is viewed as much more general since it is time-varying with timevarying delays and the bounded discontinuous changes of active parameterizations are generated by impulsive controls in the dynamics and, at the same time, there is not a prescribed set of candidate potential parameterizations.

  17. Robust convergence of Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with time-varying delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Wenjun; Ma Deyi; Liang Jinling

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, robust convergence is studied for the Cohen-Grossberg neural networks (CGNNs) with time-varying delays. By applying the differential inequality and the Lyapunov method, some delay-independent conditions are derived ensuring the robust CGNNs to converge, globally, uniformly and exponentially, to a ball in the state space with a pre-specified convergence rate. Finally, the effectiveness of our results are verified by an illustrative example.

  18. On global exponential stability of high-order neural networks with time-varying delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baoyong; Xu Shengyuan; Li Yongmin; Chu Yuming

    2007-01-01

    This Letter investigates the problem of stability analysis for a class of high-order neural networks with time-varying delays. The delays are bounded but not necessarily differentiable. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory together with the linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach and the use of Halanay inequality, sufficient conditions guaranteeing the global exponential stability of the equilibrium point of the considered neural networks are presented. Two numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed stability criteria

  19. On global exponential stability of high-order neural networks with time-varying delays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Baoyong [School of Automation, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu (China)]. E-mail: baoyongzhang@yahoo.com.cn; Xu Shengyuan [School of Automation, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu (China)]. E-mail: syxu02@yahoo.com.cn; Li Yongmin [School of Automation, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu (China) and Department of Mathematics, Huzhou Teacher' s College, Huzhou 313000, Zhejiang (China)]. E-mail: ymlwww@163.com; Chu Yuming [Department of Mathematics, Huzhou Teacher' s College, Huzhou 313000, Zhejiang (China)

    2007-06-18

    This Letter investigates the problem of stability analysis for a class of high-order neural networks with time-varying delays. The delays are bounded but not necessarily differentiable. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory together with the linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach and the use of Halanay inequality, sufficient conditions guaranteeing the global exponential stability of the equilibrium point of the considered neural networks are presented. Two numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed stability criteria.

  20. Global exponential stability of reaction-diffusion recurrent neural networks with time-varying delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Jinling; Cao Jinde

    2003-01-01

    Employing general Halanay inequality, we analyze the global exponential stability of a class of reaction-diffusion recurrent neural networks with time-varying delays. Several new sufficient conditions are obtained to ensure existence, uniqueness and global exponential stability of the equilibrium point of delayed reaction-diffusion recurrent neural networks. The results extend and improve the earlier publications. In addition, an example is given to show the effectiveness of the obtained result

  1. Improved result on stability analysis of discrete stochastic neural networks with time delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhengguang; Su Hongye; Chu Jian; Zhou Wuneng

    2009-01-01

    This Letter investigates the problem of exponential stability for discrete stochastic time-delay neural networks. By defining a novel Lyapunov functional, an improved delay-dependent exponential stability criterion is established in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach. Meanwhile, the computational complexity of the newly established stability condition is reduced because less variables are involved. Numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness and the benefits of the proposed method.

  2. Cracking chaos-based encryption systems ruled by nonlinear time delay differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udaltsov, Vladimir S.; Goedgebuer, Jean-Pierre; Larger, Laurent; Cuenot, Jean-Baptiste; Levy, Pascal; Rhodes, William T.

    2003-01-01

    We report that signal encoding with high-dimensional chaos produced by delayed feedback systems with a strong nonlinearity can be broken. We describe the procedure and illustrate the method with chaotic waveforms obtained from a strongly nonlinear optical system that we used previously to demonstrate signal encryption/decryption with chaos in wavelength. The method can be extended to any systems ruled by nonlinear time-delayed differential equations

  3. Reliable Memory Feedback Design for a Class of Nonlinear Fuzzy Systems with Time-varying Delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Qing Wang; Dong-Hua Zhou; Li-Heng Liu

    2007-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the robust reliable memory controller design for a class of fuzzy uncertain systems with time-varying delay. The system under consideration is more general than those in other existent works. The controller, which is dependent on the magnitudes and derivative of the delay, is proposed in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI). The closed-loop system is asymptotically stable for all admissible uncertainties as well as actuator faults. A numerical example is presented for illustration.

  4. On exponential stability of bidirectional associative memory neural networks with time-varying delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ju H.; Lee, S.M.; Kwon, O.M.

    2009-01-01

    For bidirectional associate memory neural networks with time-varying delays, the problems of determining the exponential stability and estimating the exponential convergence rate are investigated by employing the Lyapunov functional method and linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique. A novel criterion for the stability, which give information on the delay-dependent property, is derived. A numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained results.

  5. Global asymptotic stability of hybrid bidirectional associative memory neural networks with time delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arik, Sabri

    2006-01-01

    This Letter presents a sufficient condition for the existence, uniqueness and global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with distributed time delays. The results impose constraint conditions on the network parameters of neural system independently of the delay parameter, and they are applicable to all bounded continuous non-monotonic neuron activation functions. The results are also compared with the previous results derived in the literature

  6. Global robust stability of bidirectional associative memory neural networks with multiple time delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senan, Sibel; Arik, Sabri

    2007-10-01

    This correspondence presents a sufficient condition for the existence, uniqueness, and global robust asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for bidirectional associative memory neural networks with discrete time delays. The results impose constraint conditions on the network parameters of the neural system independently of the delay parameter, and they are applicable to all bounded continuous nonmonotonic neuron activation functions. Some numerical examples are given to compare our results with the previous robust stability results derived in the literature.

  7. Global asymptotic stability of hybrid bidirectional associative memory neural networks with time delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arik, Sabri

    2006-02-01

    This Letter presents a sufficient condition for the existence, uniqueness and global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with distributed time delays. The results impose constraint conditions on the network parameters of neural system independently of the delay parameter, and they are applicable to all bounded continuous non-monotonic neuron activation functions. The results are also compared with the previous results derived in the literature.

  8. Global exponential stability for reaction-diffusion recurrent neural networks with multiple time varying delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, X.; Cui, B.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of exponential stability for recurrent neural networks with multiple time varying delays and reaction-diffusion terms. The activation functions are supposed to be bounded and globally Lipschitz continuous. By means of Lyapunov functional, sufficient conditions are derived, which guarantee global exponential stability of the delayed neural network. Finally, a numerical example is given to show the correctness of our analysis. (author)

  9. Second-order contributions to relativistic time delay in the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, G.W.; Matzner, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Using a parametrized expansion of the solar metric to second order in the Newtonian potential, we calculate the relativistic delay in the round-trip travel time of a radar signal reflected from a nearby planet. We find that one second-order contribution to the delay is on the order of ten nanoseconds, which is comparable to the uncertainties in present-day experiments involving the Viking spacecraft

  10. Influence of time delay on fractional-order PI-controlled system for a second-order oscillatory plant model with time delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadalla Talar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at presenting the influence of an open-loop time delay on the stability and tracking performance of a second-order open-loop system and continuoustime fractional-order PI controller. The tuning method of this controller is based on Hermite- Biehler and Pontryagin theorems, and the tracking performance is evaluated on the basis of two integral performance indices, namely IAE and ISE. The paper extends the results and methodology presented in previous work of the authors to analysis of the influence of time delay on the closed-loop system taking its destabilizing properties into account, as well as concerning possible application of the presented results and used models.

  11. Superluminal and negative delay times in isotropic-anisotropic one-dimensional photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchani, N.; El Moussaouy, A.; Aynaou, H.; El Hassouani, Y.; El Boudouti, E. H.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we investigate the possibility of superluminal and negative delay times for electromagnetic wave propagation in a linear and passive periodic structure consisting of alternating isotropic and anisotropic media. This phenomenon is due to the birefringence of the anisotropic layers of the structure. By adjusting the orientations of these layers, the delay times of transmitted waves can be controlled from subluminality to superluminality and vice versa. Numerical results indicate that the apparent superluminal propagation of light occurs inside the photonic band-gaps when the principal axes of the anisotropic layers are parallel or perpendicular to the fixed axes. For other orientations of these layers, tunneling and superluminal regimes appear inside the photonic bandgaps and in the allowed bands for frequencies close to the transmission minima. The effect of the number of unit cells of the photonic crystal structure on the propagation of light with superluminal and negative delay times is also investigated. We show that the structure exhibits the Hartman effect in which the tunneling delay time of the electromagnetic wave through the photonic band-gap of the structure converges asymptotically to a finite value with increasing the number of layers. The Green's function approach has been used to derive the transmission and reflection coefficients, the density of states, and the delay times of electromagnetic waves propagating through the structure. The control of the magnitude and the sign of the delay time of light propagation represent a key point in slow and fast light technologies. The proposed structure in this study represents a new system for controlling the delay times of wave propagation without a need of active or non-linear media as well as lossy or asymmetric periodic structures.

  12. Effects of partial time delays on phase synchronization in Watts-Strogatz small-world neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaojuan; Perc, Matjaž; Kurths, Jürgen

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we study effects of partial time delays on phase synchronization in Watts-Strogatz small-world neuronal networks. Our focus is on the impact of two parameters, namely the time delay τ and the probability of partial time delay pdelay, whereby the latter determines the probability with which a connection between two neurons is delayed. Our research reveals that partial time delays significantly affect phase synchronization in this system. In particular, partial time delays can either enhance or decrease phase synchronization and induce synchronization transitions with changes in the mean firing rate of neurons, as well as induce switching between synchronized neurons with period-1 firing to synchronized neurons with period-2 firing. Moreover, in comparison to a neuronal network where all connections are delayed, we show that small partial time delay probabilities have especially different influences on phase synchronization of neuronal networks.

  13. Critical capacity, travel time delays and travel time distribution of rapid mass transit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legara, Erika Fille; Monterola, Christopher; Lee, Kee Khoon; Hung, Gih Guang

    2014-07-01

    We set up a mechanistic agent-based model of a rapid mass transit system. Using empirical data from Singapore's unidentifiable smart fare card, we validate our model by reconstructing actual travel demand and duration of travel statistics. We subsequently use this model to investigate two phenomena that are known to significantly affect the dynamics within the RTS: (1) overloading in trains and (2) overcrowding in the RTS platform. We demonstrate that by varying the loading capacity of trains, a tipping point emerges at which an exponential increase in the duration of travel time delays is observed. We also probe the impact on the rail system dynamics of three types of passenger growth distribution across stations: (i) Dirac delta, (ii) uniform and (iii) geometric, which is reminiscent of the effect of land use on transport. Under the assumption of a fixed loading capacity, we demonstrate the dependence of a given origin-destination (OD) pair on the flow volume of commuters in station platforms.

  14. The effects of resonances on time delay estimation for water leak detection in plastic pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Fabrício C. L.; Brennan, Michael J.; Joseph, Phillip F.; Gao, Yan; Paschoalini, Amarildo T.

    2018-04-01

    In the use of acoustic correlation methods for water leak detection, sensors are placed at pipe access points either side of a suspected leak, and the peak in the cross-correlation function of the measured signals gives the time difference (delay) between the arrival times of the leak noise at the sensors. Combining this information with the speed at which the leak noise propagates along the pipe, gives an estimate for the location of the leak with respect to one of the measurement positions. It is possible for the structural dynamics of the pipe system to corrupt the time delay estimate, which results in the leak being incorrectly located. In this paper, data from test-rigs in the United Kingdom and Canada are used to demonstrate this phenomenon, and analytical models of resonators are coupled with a pipe model to replicate the experimental results. The model is then used to investigate which of the two commonly used correlation algorithms, the Basic Cross-Correlation (BCC) function or the Phase Transform (PHAT), is more robust to the undesirable structural dynamics of the pipe system. It is found that time delay estimation is highly sensitive to the frequency bandwidth over which the analysis is conducted. Moreover, it is found that the PHAT is particularly sensitive to the presence of resonances and can give an incorrect time delay estimate, whereas the BCC function is found to be much more robust, giving a consistently accurate time delay estimate for a range of dynamic conditions.

  15. A Method to Determine Oscillation Emergence Bifurcation in Time-Delayed LTI System with Single Lag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xiaodan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One type of bifurcation named oscillation emergence bifurcation (OEB found in time-delayed linear time invariant (abbr. LTI systems is fully studied. The definition of OEB is initially put forward according to the eigenvalue variation. It is revealed that a real eigenvalue splits into a pair of conjugated complex eigenvalues when an OEB occurs, which means the number of the system eigenvalues will increase by one and a new oscillation mode will emerge. Next, a method to determine OEB bifurcation in the time-delayed LTI system with single lag is developed based on Lambert W function. A one-dimensional (1-dim time-delayed system is firstly employed to explain the mechanism of OEB bifurcation. Then, methods to determine the OEB bifurcation in 1-dim, 2-dim, and high-dimension time-delayed LTI systems are derived. Finally, simulation results validate the correctness and effectiveness of the presented method. Since OEB bifurcation occurs with a new oscillation mode emerging, work of this paper is useful to explore the complex phenomena and the stability of time-delayed dynamic systems.

  16. Two time-delay dynamic model on the transmission of malicious signals in wireless sensor network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keshri, Neha; Mishra, Bimal Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Role of time delay to reduce the adversary effect in WSN is explored. • Model with two time delays is proposed to analyse spread of malicious signal in WSN. • Dynamical behaviour of worm-free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium is shown. • Threshold condition for switch of stability are obtained analytically. • Relation between stability and the two time delays is also explored. - Abstract: Deployed in a hostile environment, motes of a Wireless sensor network (WSN) could be easily compromised by the attackers because of several constraints such as limited processing capabilities, memory space, and limited battery life time etc. While transmitting the data to their neighbour motes within the network, motes are easily compromised due to resource constraints. Here time delay can play an efficient role to reduce the adversary effect on motes. In this paper, we propose an epidemic model SEIR (Susceptible–Exposed–Infectious–Recovered) with two time delays to describe the transmission dynamics of malicious signals in wireless sensor network. The first delay accounts for an exposed (latent) period while the second delay is for the temporary immunity period due to multiple worm outbreaks. The dynamical behaviour of worm-free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium is shown from the point of stability which switches under some threshold condition specified by the basic reproduction number. Our results show that the global properties of equilibria also depends on the threshold condition and that latent and temporary immunity period in a mote does not affect the stability, but they play a positive role to control malicious attack. Moreover, numerical simulations are given to support the theoretical analysis

  17. High level harmonic radiation: atto-second impulse generation, application to coherent radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacev, Milutin

    2003-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis is dedicated to the characterization and optimization of the unique properties of high order harmonic generation in a rare gas: high brilliance, short pulse duration (femtosecond to atto-second, 1 as = 10"-"1"8 s and good mutual coherence. In the first part of this work, we concentrate on the exploitation of a scaling law using a high-energy laser loosely focused inside an extended gaseous medium. For the first time, the generated harmonic energy exceeds the 1 μJ level per laser pulse using the fifteenth harmonic order at a wavelength of 53 nm. The conversion efficiency reaches 4.10"-"5, which results from the combination of a strong dipolar response and a good phase matching within a generating volume that is extended by self guiding of the generating laser pulse. In the second part, our interest is devoted to the temporal profile of the harmonic emission and its atto-second structure. We first demonstrate the feasibility of a spatial/spectral selection of the contributions associated to the two main electronic trajectories, allowing thereby the generation of regular atto-second pulse trains. We then characterize such a pulse train by the measurement of the relative phases of consecutive harmonics. Finally, we describe an original technique for the temporal confinement of the harmonic emission by manipulating the ellipticity of the generating laser beam. In the third part, our interest is dedicated to the mutual coherence properties of the harmonic emission. We first demonstrate the precise control of the relative phase of the harmonic pulses by multiple beam interference in the XUV. This frequency-domain interferometry using four phase-locked temporally separated pulses shows an extreme sensitivity to the relative phase of the pulses on an atto-second time scale. We then measure the first order autocorrelation trace of the harmonic beam thanks to the generation of two harmonic sources mutually coherent and spatially separated

  18. Next Generation Driver for Attosecond and Laser-plasma Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, D E; Borot, A; Cardenas, D E; Marcus, G; Gu, X; Herrmann, D; Xu, J; Tan, J; Kormin, D; Ma, G; Dallari, W; Tsakiris, G D; Földes, I B; Chou, S-W; Weidman, M; Bergues, B; Wittmann, T; Schröder, H; Tzallas, P; Charalambidis, D; Razskazovskaya, O; Pervak, V; Krausz, F; Veisz, L

    2017-07-12

    The observation and manipulation of electron dynamics in matter call for attosecond light pulses, routinely available from high-order harmonic generation driven by few-femtosecond lasers. However, the energy limitation of these lasers supports only weak sources and correspondingly linear attosecond studies. Here we report on an optical parametric synthesizer designed for nonlinear attosecond optics and relativistic laser-plasma physics. This synthesizer uniquely combines ultra-relativistic focused intensities of about 10 20  W/cm 2 with a pulse duration of sub-two carrier-wave cycles. The coherent combination of two sequentially amplified and complementary spectral ranges yields sub-5-fs pulses with multi-TW peak power. The application of this source allows the generation of a broad spectral continuum at 100-eV photon energy in gases as well as high-order harmonics in relativistic plasmas. Unprecedented spatio-temporal confinement of light now permits the investigation of electric-field-driven electron phenomena in the relativistic regime and ultimately the rise of next-generation intense isolated attosecond sources.

  19. When should we recommend use of dual time-point and delayed time-point imaging techniques in FDG PET?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Gang [Philadelphia VA Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Torigian, Drew A.; Alavi, Abass [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Zhuang, Hongming [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2013-05-15

    FDG PET and PET/CT are now widely used in oncological imaging for tumor characterization, staging, restaging, and response evaluation. However, numerous benign etiologies may cause increased FDG uptake indistinguishable from that of malignancy. Multiple studies have shown that dual time-point imaging (DTPI) of FDG PET may be helpful in differentiating malignancy from benign processes. However, exceptions exist, and some studies have demonstrated significant overlap of FDG uptake patterns between benign and malignant lesions on delayed time-point images. In this review, we summarize our experience and opinions on the value of DTPI and delayed time-point imaging in oncology, with a review of the relevant literature. We believe that the major value of DTPI and delayed time-point imaging is the increased sensitivity due to continued clearance of background activity and continued FDG accumulation in malignant lesions, if the same diagnostic criteria (as in the initial standard single time-point imaging) are used. The specificity of DTPI and delayed time-point imaging depends on multiple factors, including the prevalence of malignancies, the patient population, and the cut-off values (either SUV or retention index) used to define a malignancy. Thus, DTPI and delayed time-point imaging would be more useful if performed for evaluation of lesions in regions with significant background activity clearance over time (such as the liver, the spleen, the mediastinum), and if used in the evaluation of the extent of tumor involvement rather than in the characterization of the nature of any specific lesion. Acute infectious and non-infectious inflammatory lesions remain as the major culprit for diminished diagnostic performance of these approaches (especially in tuberculosis-endemic regions). Tumor heterogeneity may also contribute to inconsistent performance of DTPI. The authors believe that selective use of DTPI and delayed time-point imaging will improve diagnostic accuracy and

  20. Cucker-Smale model with normalized communication weights and time delay

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Young-Pil

    2017-03-06

    We study a Cucker-Smale-type system with time delay in which agents interact with each other through normalized communication weights. We construct a Lyapunov functional for the system and provide sufficient conditions for asymptotic flocking, i.e., convergence to a common velocity vector. We also carry out a rigorous limit passage to the mean-field limit of the particle system as the number of particles tends to infinity. For the resulting Vlasov-type equation we prove the existence, stability and large-time behavior of measure-valued solutions. This is, to our best knowledge, the first such result for a Vlasov-type equation with time delay. We also present numerical simulations of the discrete system with few particles that provide further insights into the flocking and oscillatory behaviors of the particle velocities depending on the size of the time delay.