WorldWideScience

Sample records for attitudes perceived vulnerability

  1. Perceived Vulnerability to Disease Predicts Environmental Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Kubiatko, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Investigating predictors of environmental attitudes may bring valuable benefits in terms of improving public awareness about biodiversity degradation and increased pro-environmental behaviour. Here we used an evolutionary approach to study environmental attitudes based on disease-threat model. We hypothesized that people vulnerable to diseases may…

  2. Grandiose and Vulnerable Narcissism, Materialism, Money Attitudes, and Consumption Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilch, Irena; Górnik-Durose, Małgorzata E

    2017-02-17

    Narcissism is increasingly being investigated in the context of consumer attitudes and behavior. Previous research showed that narcissism is reflected in materialistic tendencies and money-related attitudes. However, almost all of these studies concerned the grandiose type of narcissism. We examined relationships of both grandiose and vulnerable narcissism with materialism, money attitudes, and consumption preferences in a nonstudent sample. The results showed that the two types of narcissism are equally associated with materialism and a tendency to conspicuous (public) consumption. Differences between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism with regard to money attitudes were observed. Materialism mediated most of the relationships between narcissism, money attitudes, and consumption preferences, but the patterns of mediation were different for grandiose and vulnerable subtypes. Mutual suppression occurred when grandiose narcissism and materialism predicted anxiety associated with money and when vulnerable narcissism and materialism predicted money perceived as a source of evil. The results suggested that not only grandiose, but also vulnerable narcissists may be prone to excessive consumption and that this can be explained by their materialistic tendencies.

  3. Perceived usefulness and culture as predictors of teachers attitudes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived usefulness and culture as predictors of teachers attitudes towards ... perceived usefulness, perceived cultural relevance, perceived competence and access to ... and senior phase, completed the Attitudes Towards Computer Scale.

  4. Parents' perceived vulnerability and perceived control in preventing Meningococcal C infection: a large-scale interview study about vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Wal Gerrit

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents' reported ambivalence toward large-scale vaccination programs for childhood diseases may be related to their perception of the risks of side-effects or safety of vaccination and the risk of contracting the disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate parents' perceptions of their child's risk contracting a Meningococcal C infection and parents' perceived control in preventing infection in relation to their evaluation of the safety, effectiveness and usefulness of vaccination. Methods In a large-scale interview study, a random sample of parents was interviewed after their children had received vaccination against Meningococcal C in a catch-up campaign. Questions were asked about the perceived relative vulnerability of their child contracting an infection, perceived control in preventing an infection, and parents' evaluation of the safety, usefulness and effectiveness of vaccination. Results 61% of 2910 (N = 1763 parents who were approached participated. A higher perceived relative vulnerability of their own child contracting the disease was related to a more positive evaluation of the vaccination campaign, while a lower perceived vulnerability did not result in a more negative evaluation. A higher perceived control in being able to prevent an infection was, however, related to a more critical attitude toward the safety, usefulness and effectiveness of vaccination. Conclusion Perceived relative vulnerability contracting an infection and parents' perceived control in preventing an infection seem to influence parents' evaluation of the vaccination programme. Future studies should determine if, and under which circumstances, these perceptions also affect parents' vaccination behaviour and would be relevant to be taken into account when educating parents about vaccination.

  5. Primary School Teachers' Knowledge, Attitude and Perceived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study endeavored to investigate primary school teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and perceived practices of continuous assessment (CA). Ninety-five primary school teachers from three primary schools in West Gojjam, Ethiopia, were randomly selected for the study. Questionnaire, interviews and content analyses were ...

  6. Self-esteem, political efficacy, and perceived parental attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Okçu, Tuba Nur; Okcu, Tuba Nur

    2007-01-01

    This thesis proposes to test the following three hypotheses: perceived political efficacy positively correlates with self-esteem; self-esteem positively correlates with perceived democratic parental attitude; and, lastly, self-esteem negatively correlates with perceived protective-demanding and perceived authoritarian parental attitudes. Two questionnaires (Q1 and Q2), each measure perceived political efficacy, selfesteem,and perceived parental attitudes. In Q2, the items of self-esteem and p...

  7. Gender Identity Salience and Perceived Vulnerability to Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.T.L.R. Sweldens (Steven); S. Puntoni (Stefano); N.T. Tavassoli (Nader)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractContrary to predictions based on cognitive accessibility, heightened gender identity salience resulted in lower perceived vulnerability and reduced donation behavior to identity-specific risks (e.g., breast cancer). No such effect was manifest with identity-neutral risks. Establishing

  8. Perceived vulnerability as a common basis of moral emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijker, Anton J M

    2010-06-01

    It is theorized that many moral emotions are triggered when a mechanism for (parental) care is activated by perceived vulnerability, and changes in the care object's well-being are subsequently evaluated and causally attributed. Participants reported different moral emotions (tenderness, concern, sympathy, guilt, and moral anger) in relation to different photographs of males and females widely differing in age. Using variation between emotion objects, it was shown that emotional reactions were highly intercorrelated and strongly related to perceived vulnerability and aroused protective tendency; with children and elderly arousing the strongest, and adult males the weakest, emotions. Moreover, these intercorrelations largely disappeared when vulnerability and protective tendency were statistically controlled. Theoretical implications are discussed.

  9. Perceived parental rearing behaviours, responsibility attitudes and life events as predictors of obsessive compulsive symptomatology: test of a cognitive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haciomeroglu, Bikem; Karanci, A Nuray

    2014-11-01

    It is important to investigate the role of cognitive, developmental and environmental factors in the development and maintenance of Obsessive Compulsive Symptomatology (OCS). The main objective of this study was to examine the vulnerability factors of OCS in a non-clinical sample. On the basis of Salkovskis' cognitive model of OCD, the study aimed to investigate the role of perceived parental rearing behaviours, responsibility attitudes, and life events in predicting OCS. Furthermore, the mediator role of responsibility attitudes in the relationship between perceived parental rearing behaviours and OCS was examined. Finally, the specificity of these variables to OCS was evaluated by examining the relationship of the same variables with depression and trait anxiety. A total of 300 university students (M = 19.55±1.79) were administered the Padua Inventory-Washington State University Revision, Responsibility Attitudes Scale, s-EMBU (My memories of upbringing), Life Events Inventory for University Students, Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Form. Regression analysis revealed that perceived mother overprotection, responsibility attitudes and life events significantly predicted OCS. Furthermore, responsibility attitudes mediated the relationship between perceived mother overprotection and OCS. The predictive role of perceived mother overprotection and the mediator role responsibility attitudes were OCS specific. The findings of the present study supported that perceived mother over-protection as a developmental vulnerability factor significantly contributed to the explanation of a cognitive vulnerability factor (namely responsibility attitudes), and perceived maternal overprotection had its predictive role for OCS through responsibility attitudes.

  10. Turkish high school students' attitudes toward addictive substances: association with perceived parental attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustüner, Mehmet; Aksoy, Kasim; Ozer, Niyazi

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is twofold: 1) to determine attitudes of high school students toward addictive substances; and 2) to determine students' attitudes toward addictive substances in terms of some variables including gender, grade, and perceived parental attitudes. To this end, Addictive Substances Attitudes Scale and Parental Attitudes Scale were given to a sample of 745 high school students (F = 330, M = 415) chosen by purposive sampling method. Results showed that compared to the males, females had more negative attitudes toward addictive substances. And compared to students from the upper grades, students from lower grades had more negative attitudes toward addictive substances. It is also found that students' attitudes toward addictive substances correlate with perceived parental attitudes. The correlation is low and positive for perceived democratic parental attitudes (r = .29), negative and low for perceived authoritarian parental attitudes (r = -.27).

  11. Perceived Coach Attitudes and Behaviors Scale: Development and Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üzüm, Hanifi; Karli, Ünal; Yildiz, Nuh Osman

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a scale, which will serve to determine how attitudes and behaviors of the coaches are perceived by the athletes. The scale, named as "Perceived Coach Attitudes and Behaviors Scale" (PCABS) was developed through various processes including exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Following the…

  12. Perceived usefulness and culture as predictors of teachers attitudes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sumaya Laher

    2015-11-24

    Nov 24, 2015 ... qualitative study on four secondary school teachers, from two schools, found a ... ceived usefulness and perceived cultural relevance predicted attitudes .... relevance, ET com- petence, ET access and personal characteristics.

  13. Parental overprotection and its relation to perceived child vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1997-04-01

    A study of 280 parents with a child age 5-10 years examined the relation between and correlates of parental overprotection (less education, younger child age, being an only child) and parental perception of increased child vulnerability (history of life-threatening illness, child medical condition, first child). One-third of parents who considered their child vulnerable were also considered overprotective.

  14. Effects of perceived parental attitudes on children's views of smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Candan; Kahraman, Seniha; Bektas, Murat

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of perceived parental attitudes on children's discernment of cigarettes. The study sample consisted of 250 children attending grades 6, 7 and 8. Data were collected via a socio-demographic survey questionnaire, the Parental Attitude Scale (PAS) and the Decisional Balance Scale (DBS). Data analysis covered percentages, medians, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc tests using a statistical package. There were 250 participants; 117 were male, 133 were female. The mean age was 13.1 ± 0.98 for the females and 13.3 ± 0.88 for the males. A statistically significant difference was found in the children's mean scores for 'pros' subscale on the Decisional Balance Scale (DBS) according to perceived parental attitudes (F=3.172, p=0.025). There were no statistically significant differences in the DBS 'cons' subscale scores by perceived parental attitudes. It was determined that while perceived parental attitudes affect children's views on advantages of smoking, they have no effect on children's views on its disadvantages.

  15. Perceived vulnerability to aids among rural Black South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Almost a third (30%) worried about getting AIDS and even more (40%) thought they will get AIDS. There were important age- and gender-related differences regarding vulnerability and fears about AIDS, which have relevant implications for AIDS education addressing developmentally appropriate concerns. Journal of Child ...

  16. The effect of online source type on review attitude through perceived expertise and perceived trustworthiness: a suppression situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study suggests that online source types (typical consumer vs. expert source) can induce differential effects on two dimensions of source credibility - perceived source expertise and perceived source trustworthiness - and, hence, on messages attitudes. This was tested for online product

  17. Attitudes and perceived risk of cannabis use in Irish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, P; Bradley, C

    2016-08-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the developed world and its use is associated with several adverse physical and mental health effects and negative social outcomes. Earlier use of cannabis increases the risk of adverse effects. Attitudes and perceived risk towards drugs are regarded as strong influences in determining whether or not a person uses cannabis, but there is little existing research on Irish teenagers' attitudes to the risks of this drug. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study using a structured, anonymous questionnaire. The study was undertaken in nine public and private secondary schools in Cork City and suburbs. Students aged 15-18 and in fourth, fifth or sixth year of school were included. Of the 507 participating students, 39.3 % (n = 199) reported previous cannabis use. There were significantly lower levels of perceived risk of cannabis among those who had used the drug compared with those who had not, for all categories of risk (p < 0.01). Attitudes towards cannabis were more liberal among males and those with previous use of the drug. A minority of students (n = 92; 18.2 %) support legalisation of cannabis. The majority of teenagers (n = 382; 75.8 %) believe that they are not given enough information about the drug. Cannabis use is very widespread among teenagers in Cork. There are relatively low levels of perceived risk of mental and physical health problems with use of the drug. Attitudes towards cannabis are associated with personal use of the drug and gender.

  18. Parental stress and perceived vulnerability at 5 and 10 years after pediatric SCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijmoet-Wiersma, C M J; Egeler, R M; Koopman, H M; Bresters, D; Norberg, A L; Grootenhuis, M A

    2010-06-01

    With the aim of assessing parental stress after SCT, 73 parents of children and adolescents who underwent SCT 5 or 10 years ago responded to questionnaires on general distress (General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)), disease-related stress (Pediatric Inventory for Parents-short form (PIP-SF)) and perceptions of child vulnerability (Child Vulnerability Scale (CVS)). General distress scores were comparable with the reference groups, but 40% of the mothers at 5 years after SCT reported increased stress levels as compared with 26% in the community-based reference group. Disease-related stress was comparable with the reference group of parents of children who were just off cancer treatment, 5 years after SCT. At 10 years after SCT, scores were lower than the reference group. Perceived child vulnerability did diminish over time, but remained high in parents of SCT survivors, compared with parents of healthy children: 96% of the parents at 5 years after SCT and 76% of the parents at 10 years after SCT scored above the cutoff point. Perceived vulnerability was found to be a predictor for parental disease-related stress. To conclude, although most parents of SCT survivors are resilient, the majority of parents perceive their child to be much more vulnerable as compared with parents of healthy children. This perception is associated with disease-related stress and may induce overprotective parenting.

  19. Differences in health care utilization between parents who perceive their child as vulnerable versus overprotective parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1996-06-01

    While a parental perception of child vulnerability to illness/injury is often used interchangeably with parental overprotection, research suggests that they are independent constructs. We hypothesized more frequent pediatric nonwell-child visits for perceived child vulnerability, but not for parental overprotection. The parents of 300 children, ages 2-5 years, enrolled in a health maintenance organization, were sampled. For children without medical conditions, there were no differences in nonwell-child care visits between the high perceived vulnerability and high parental protection groups (Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test, WRST, P = .31). As expected, high parental protection was not significantly associated with increased nonwell-child care visits compared with the low parental protection group (WRST, P = .14). These findings suggest that markers other than health care utilization are required to identify these forms of parent-child relationship disorders.

  20. Environmental vulnerability in public perceptions and attitudes : The case of Israel's urban centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drori, Israel

    Objective. This article investigates how urban environmental vulnerability to hazards reflects in the perceptions and attitudes of the public in three major cities in Israel: Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, and Haifa. Our central argument is that the differences between the residents' perceptions and attitudes

  1. Perceived cultural attitudes toward homosexuality and their effects on Iranian and American sexual minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireshghi, Sholeh I; Matsumoto, David

    2008-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between three mental health constructs and perceived cultural attitudes toward homosexuality among lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals. Specifically, differences in perceived cultural attitudes and depression, self-esteem, and perceived stress between 49 Iranians and 47 Americans were compared. It was hypothesized that (a) perceived cultural attitudes toward homosexuality would be more negative among Iranians than Americans; (b) perceived cultural attitudes would be related to depression, self-esteem, and perceived stress; and (c) that Iranian participants' scores on the depression, self-esteem, and perceived stress measures would reflect poorer mental health than that of their American counterparts. Results indicated more negative perceptions of cultural attitudes toward homosexuality among Iranians. Contrary to prediction, however, no difference was found in levels of depression, self-esteem, and perceived stress among American and Iranian participants. Findings are discussed in terms of cultural and familial differences with regard to sexual orientation disclosure.

  2. Nurses' attitude and perceived barriers to pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etafa, Werku; Argaw, Zeleke; Gemechu, Endalew; Melese, Belachew

    2018-01-01

    The presence or absence of pressure ulcers has been generally regarded as a performance measure of quality nursing care and overall patient health. The aim of this study- wasto explorenurses' attitude about pressure ulcer prevention'and to identify staff nurses' perceived barriers to pressure ulcer prevention public hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A self-reported multi-center institutional based cross sectional study design was employed to collect data from staff nurses ( N  = 222) working in six (6) selected public hospitals in Addis Ababa, from April 01-28/2015. Majority of the nurses had ( n  = 116, 52.2%) negative attitude towards pressure ulcer prevention. The mean scores of the test for all participants was 3.09out of 11(SD =0.92, range = 1-5). Similarly, the study revealed several barriers need to be resolved to put in to practice the strategies of pressure ulcer prevention; Heavy workload and inadequate staff (lack of tie) (83.1%), shortage of resources/equipment (67.7%) and inadequate training (63.2%) were among the major barriers identified in the study. The study finding suggests that Addis Ababa nurses have negative attitude to pressure ulcer prevention. Also several barriers exist for implementing pressure ulcer prevention protocols in public hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Suggestion for improving this situation is attractive.

  3. Parental overprotection, perceived child vulnerability, and parenting stress: a cross-illness comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullmann, Stephanie E; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Ryan, Jamie L; Fedele, David A; Rambo, Philip L; Chaney, John M; Mullins, Larry L

    2010-12-01

    The current study sought to investigate differences in parenting capacity variables across four disease groups. Parents (N = 425), the majority of whom were mothers, of children with either cancer, asthma, Type 1 diabetes, or cystic fibrosis, completed measures of parental overprotection, perceived child vulnerability, and parenting stress. After controlling for significant demographic variables, parents of children with cystic fibrosis and asthma reported higher perceived child vulnerability than parents of children with either diabetes or cancer, while parents of children with asthma and diabetes reported higher parenting stress than parents of children with cancer or cystic fibrosis. No differences between disease groups were found for parental overprotection. The current study provides support for an illness-specific approach to understanding parenting capacity variables in the context of childhood chronic illnesses.

  4. Public attitudes toward health information exchange: perceived benefits and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitropoulos, Linda; Patel, Vaishali; Scheffler, Scott A; Posnack, Steve

    2011-12-01

    To characterize consumers' attitudes regarding the perceived benefits of electronic health information exchange (HIE), potential HIE privacy and security concerns, and to analyze the intersection of these concerns with perceived benefits. A cross-sectional study. A random-digit-dial telephone survey of English-speaking adults was conducted in 2010. Multivariate logistic regression models examined the association between consumer characteristics and concerns related to the security of electronic health records (EHRs) and HIE. A majority of the 1847 respondents reported they were either "very" or "somewhat" concerned about privacy of HIE (70%), security of HIE (75%), or security of EHRs (82%). Concerns were significantly higher (P security, and 60% would permit HIE for treatment purposes even if the physician might not be able to protect their privacy all of the time. Over half (52%) wanted to choose which providers access and share their data. Greater participation by consumers in determining how HIE takes place could engender a higher degree of trust among all demographic groups, regardless of their varying levels of privacy and security concerns. Addressing the specific privacy and security concerns of minorities, individuals 40 to 64 years old, and employed individuals will be critical to ensuring widespread consumer participation in HIE.

  5. Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taback, I.

    1979-01-01

    The discussion of vulnerability begins with a description of some of the electrical characteristics of fibers before definiting how vulnerability calculations are done. The vulnerability results secured to date are presented. The discussion touches on post exposure vulnerability. After a description of some shock hazard work now underway, the discussion leads into a description of the planned effort and some preliminary conclusions are presented.

  6. Stereotype Threat Vulnerability: A Psychometric Investigation of the Social Identities and Attitudes Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Leann V.; Cokley, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the psychometric properties of the Social Identities and Attitudes Scale developed by Picho and Brown, which captures an individual's vulnerability to Stereotype Threat effects. Confirmatory factor analyses and group invariance tests conducted on a diverse sample of 516 college students revealed adequate reliability and…

  7. Gender-role's attitude, perceived similarity, and sexual prejudice against gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel; Martínez, Carmen; Paterna, Consuelo

    2010-11-01

    Two hundred and twenty-six heterosexual participants (115 women and 111 men) were asked to indicate their attitude toward gender-roles, their perceived similarities with gay men, and their attitude toward gay men (i.e., sexual prejudice). As expected, male participants showed more sexual prejudice than female participants, and perceived dissimilarities were related to a greater sexual prejudice. Support for gender-roles was related to sexual prejudice for male participants, but not for female participants. More interestingly, the three-way interaction suggested that perceived similarities moderated the link between gender-roles and sexual prejudice among heterosexual men, but not among heterosexual women. Attitude in favor of traditional gender-roles was related to sexual prejudice for male participants who perceived gay men as different, but not for those who perceived gay men as similar. These findings are discussed in terms of the defensive function of men's attitude toward homosexuality as a result of threat to masculinity.

  8. The effect of perceived person-job fit on employee attitudes toward change in trauma centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatzick, Christopher D; Zatzick, Douglas F

    2013-01-01

    Employee attitudes toward change are critical for health care organizations implementing new procedures and practices. When employees are more positive about the change, they are likely to behave in ways that support the change, whereas when employees are negative about the change, they will resist the changes. This study examined how perceived person-job (demands-abilities) fit influences attitudes toward change after an externally mandated change. Specifically, we propose that perceived person-job fit moderates the negative relationship between individual job impact and attitudes toward change. We examined this issue in a sample of Level 1 trauma centers facing a regulatory mandate to develop an alcohol screening and brief intervention program. A survey of 200 providers within 20 trauma centers assessed perceived person-job fit, individual job impact, and attitudes toward change approximately 1 year after the mandate was enacted. Providers who perceived a better fit between their abilities and the new job demands were more positive about the change. Further, the impact of the alcohol screening and brief intervention program on attitudes toward change was mitigated by perceived fit, where the relationship between job impact and change attitudes was more negative for providers who perceived a worse fit as compared with those who perceived a better fit. Successful implementation of changes to work processes and procedures requires provider support of the change. Management can enhance this support by improving perceived person-job fit through ongoing training sessions that enhance providers' abilities to implement the new procedures.

  9. A qualitative study into the perceived barriers of accessing healthcare among a vulnerable population involved with a community centre in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Siân; Daniels, Katy; Fioratou, Evridiki

    2018-04-03

    Minority vulnerable communities, such as the European Roma, often face numerous barriers to accessing healthcare services, resulting in negative health outcomes. Both these barriers and outcomes have been reported extensively in the literature. However, reports on barriers faced by European non-Roma native communities are limited. The "Health Care Access Barriers" (HCAB) model identifies pertinent financial, structural and cognitive barriers that can be measured and potentially modified. The present study thus aims to explore the barriers to accessing healthcare for a vulnerable population of mixed ethnicity from a charity community centre in Romania, as perceived by the centre's family users and staff members, and assess whether these reflect the barriers identified from the HCAB model. Eleven community members whose children attend the centre and seven staff members working at the centre participated in face-to-face semi-structured interviews, exploring personal experiences and views on accessing healthcare. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using an initial deductive and secondary inductive approach to identify HCAB themes and other emerging themes and subthemes. Identified themes from both groups aligned with HCAB's themes of financial, structural and cognitive barriers and emergent subthemes important to the specific population were identified. Specifically, financial barriers related mostly to health insurance and bribery issues, structural barriers related mostly to service availability and accessibility, and cognitive barriers related mostly to healthcare professionals' attitudes and discrimination and the vulnerable population's lack of education and health literacy. A unique theme of psychological barriers emerged from both groups with associated subthemes of mistrust, hopelessness, fear and anxiety of this vulnerable population. The current study highlights healthcare access barriers to a vulnerable non-Roma native population involved with a

  10. Perceiving political polarization in the United States: party identity strength and attitude extremity exacerbate the perceived partisan divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Jacob; Van Boven, Leaf; Chambers, John R; Judd, Charles M

    2015-03-01

    An important component of political polarization in the United States is the degree to which ordinary people perceive political polarization. We used over 30 years of national survey data from the American National Election Study to examine how the public perceives political polarization between the Democratic and Republican parties and between Democratic and Republican presidential candidates. People in the United States consistently overestimate polarization between the attitudes of Democrats and Republicans. People who perceive the greatest political polarization are most likely to report having been politically active, including voting, trying to sway others' political beliefs, and making campaign contributions. We present a 3-factor framework to understand ordinary people's perceptions of political polarization. We suggest that people perceive greater political polarization when they (a) estimate the attitudes of those categorized as being in the "opposing group"; (b) identify strongly as either Democrat or Republican; and (c) hold relatively extreme partisan attitudes-particularly when those partisan attitudes align with their own partisan political identity. These patterns of polarization perception occur among both Democrats and Republicans. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. The Effects of Perceived Parental Behaviors, Attitudes, and Substance-Use on Adolescent Attitudes toward and Intent To Use Psychoactive Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichman, Meir; Kefir, Ester

    2000-01-01

    Examines how adolescents perceive the role of parents influencing their decision to use psychoactive substances. Perceived parental rejection, acceptance, and attitudes significantly differentiated between adolescents who reported favorable attitudes toward and high intent to use substances, and those who expressed less favorable attitudes. The…

  12. Perceived realism moderates the relation between sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes in Dutch adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Doornwaard, Suzan M; Rommes, Els; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined whether the development of sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes would be more strongly interrelated when adolescents perceived sexualized media images as highly realistic. We used data from a three-wave longitudinal sample of 444 Dutch adolescents aged 13-16 years at baseline. Results from parallel process latent growth modeling multigroup analyses showed that higher initial levels of sexualized media consumption were associated with higher initial level of permissive sexual attitudes. Moreover, increases of sexualized media consumption over time were associated with increases of permissive sexual attitudes over time. Considering the moderation by perceived realism, we found these effects only for those who perceived sexualized media as more realistic. Findings for male and female adolescents were similar except for the relations between initial levels and subsequent development. Among male adolescents who perceived sexualized media images to be realistic, higher initial levels of permissive sexual attitudes were related to subsequent less rapid development of sexualized media consumption. For male adolescents who perceived sexualized media to be less realistic, higher initial levels of sexualized media consumption were related to a subsequent less rapid development of permissive sexual attitudes. These relations were not found for female adolescents. Overall, our results suggest that, in male and female adolescents, those with a high level of perceived realism showed a correlated development of sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes. These findings point to a need for extended information on how to guide adolescents in interpreting and handling sexualized media in everyday life.

  13. Spatially Representing Vulnerability to Extreme Rain Events Using Midwestern Farmers' Objective and Perceived Attributes of Adaptive Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardezi, Maaz; Arbuckle, J Gordon

    2017-11-29

    Potential climate-change-related impacts to agriculture in the upper Midwest pose serious economic and ecological risks to the U.S. and the global economy. On a local level, farmers are at the forefront of responding to the impacts of climate change. Hence, it is important to understand how farmers and their farm operations may be more or less vulnerable to changes in the climate. A vulnerability index is a tool commonly used by researchers and practitioners to represent the geographical distribution of vulnerability in response to global change. Most vulnerability assessments measure objective adaptive capacity using secondary data collected by governmental agencies. However, other scholarship on human behavior has noted that sociocultural and cognitive factors, such as risk perceptions and perceived capacity, are consequential for modulating people's actual vulnerability. Thus, traditional assessments can potentially overlook people's subjective perceptions of changes in climate and extreme weather events and the extent to which people feel prepared to take necessary steps to cope with and respond to the negative effects of climate change. This article addresses this knowledge gap by: (1) incorporating perceived adaptive capacity into a vulnerability assessment; (2) using spatial smoothing to aggregate individual-level vulnerabilities to the county level; and (3) evaluating the relationships among different dimensions of adaptive capacity to examine whether perceived capacity should be integrated into vulnerability assessments. The result suggests that vulnerability assessments that rely only on objective measures might miss important sociocognitive dimensions of capacity. Vulnerability indices and maps presented in this article can inform engagement strategies for improving environmental sustainability in the region. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Parental Communication and Perceived Parental Attitudes about Sexuality among Turkish College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2012-01-01

    This current study was conducted to examine parental communication and perceived parental attitudes about sexuality with respect to gender among Turkish college students. Moreover, attitudes toward premarital sexuality with respect to gender were explored. A demographic data form, premarital sexual permissiveness scale, parental communication…

  15. Protean and Boundaryless Career Attitudes and Organizational Commitment: The Effects of Perceived Supervisor Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak-Otluoglu, K. Ovgu

    2012-01-01

    Despite the traditional sentiment that protean and boundaryless career attitudes indicate a decline in organizational commitment, little empirical evidence is available. The present study examined the relation of protean and boundaryless career attitudes to organizational commitment and whether the perceived supervisor support moderated these…

  16. Vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Issa, Sahar; van der Molen, Irna; Stel, Nora

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews the literature on vulnerability. Together with Chapter 3, that offers a literature review specifically focused on resilience, it lays the conceptual foundations for the empirical chapters in this edited volume. Vulnerability symbolizes the susceptibility of a certain system to

  17. The relationship of parental overprotection, perceived vulnerability, and parenting stress to behavioral, emotional, and social adjustment in children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletti, Christina J M; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Carpentier, Melissa Y; Page, Melanie C; McNall-Knapp, René Y; Meyer, William H; Chaney, John M; Mullins, Larry L

    2008-08-01

    To examine the relationship of self-reported parental overprotection, perceived child vulnerability, and parenting stress to parent-reported behavioral, emotional, and social adjustment of children currently on treatment for cancer. Parents of 62 children (34 boys, 28 girls) currently on treatment for cancer were recruited from an outpatient pediatric cancer clinic. Children ranged in age from 2 to 12 years; age at diagnosis ranged from 1.33 to 11.83 years. Higher levels of parenting stress, but not parental overprotection or perceived child vulnerability, were associated with poorer behavioral and social adjustment. Higher levels of perceived child vulnerability and parenting stress, but not parental overprotection, were independently associated with poorer emotional adjustment. Specific parenting variables appear to be related to specific adjustment outcomes in children with cancer. Longitudinal follow-up of these children is necessary to determine the developmental trajectory of parent variables and long-term child outcomes.

  18. Teacher Attitudes, Perceived Influences, and Self-Reported Classroom Behaviors Related to School Nutrition Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Beverly Lawler

    2010-01-01

    This study determined attitudes of kindergarten through fifth grade teachers about school nutrition environments, their perceived influence on school nutrition environments, and self-reported classroom behaviors. Specific objectives were to: (a) identify perceived factors that influence the school nutrition environment, according to teachers…

  19. The role of social support in students' perceived abilities and attitudes toward math and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Lindsay; Barth, Joan M; Guadagno, Rosanna E; Smith, Gabrielle P A; McCallum, Debra M

    2013-07-01

    Social cognitive models examining academic and career outcomes emphasize constructs such as attitude, interest, and self-efficacy as key factors affecting students' pursuit of STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) courses and careers. The current research examines another under-researched component of social cognitive models: social support, and the relationship between this component and attitude and self-efficacy in math and science. A large cross-sectional design was used gathering data from 1,552 participants in four adolescent school settings from 5th grade to early college (41 % female, 80 % white). Students completed measures of perceived social support from parents, teachers and friends as well as their perceived ability and attitudes toward math and science. Fifth grade and college students reported higher levels of support from teachers and friends when compared to students at other grade levels. In addition, students who perceived greater social support for math and science from parents, teachers, and friends reported better attitudes and had higher perceptions of their abilities in math and science. Lastly, structural equation modeling revealed that social support had both a direct effect on math and science perceived abilities and an indirect effect mediated through math and science attitudes. Findings suggest that students who perceive greater social support for math and science from parents, teachers, and friends have more positive attitudes toward math and science and a higher sense of their own competence in these subjects.

  20. The relationship between perceived stress and computer technology attitude: an application on health sciences students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyurek, Pakize; Oztasan, Nuray; Kilic, Ibrahim

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is to define attitudes of students in health sciences towards perceived personal stress and computer technologies, and to present the relationship between stress and computer technology attitudes. In this scope, this study has a descriptive nature and thus a questionnaire has been applied on 764 students from Afyon Kocatepe University Health Sciences High School, Turkey for data gathering. Descriptive statistics, independent samples, t test, one way ANOVA, and regression analysis have been used for data analysis. In the study, it is seen that female (=3,78) have a more positive attitude towards computer technology than male students (=3,62). according to the results of regression analysis of the study, the regression model between computer technology attitude (CTA) and perceived stress (PS) has been found meaningful (F=16,291; ptechnology attitude and perceived stress (when computer technology altitude increases, perceived stress decreases), and an increase of one unit in computer attitude results in 0.275 decrease in perceived stress. it can be concluded that correct and proper use of computer technologies can be accepted as a component of overcoming stress methods.

  1. Perceived usefulness and culture as predictors of teachers attitudes towards educational technology in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Anne Hart

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of educational technology (ET worldwide is increasing rapidly, and South Africa is no exception. Grouped amongst the emerging economies of the world, South Africa's information and communication technology (ICT infrastructure is often mentioned as one of the key factors leading to the growth of the country. Integrating ICT into education has become a priority for the South African government. However, it is necessary to move beyond merely providing physical access to ICT's in order for integration to be successful. The integration of ET in schools is greatly influenced by teachers' attitudes towards the technology. The aim of this study was to investigate teachers' attitudes towards educational technology and the factors that are thought to influence teachers' attitudes, namely, perceived usefulness, perceived cultural relevance, perceived competence and access to ET. A convenience sample of 117 teachers in the Johannesburg area, from both public and private schools, across foundation, intermediate and senior phase, completed the Attitudes Towards Computer Scale. Teachers' attitudes were generally positive. The strongest predictor of teachers' attitudes was perceived usefulness followed by perceived cultural relevance. Thus, it is evident that when integrating ET into schools, attention must be paid to teachers perceptions of the utility of ET in order for integration to be successful. Having access to ET and the competence to use ET are not enough for the successful integration of ET in schools.

  2. Perceived usefulness and culture as predictors of teachers attitudes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sumaya Laher

    2015-11-24

    Nov 24, 2015 ... encourages creativity and promotes higher-order learning (Chai, Hong & Teo ... Teacher attitudes towards educational technology in. South Africa. Govender ..... As is evident from the demographic profile and scores on the ET ...

  3. A multicentric study of disease-related stress, and perceived vulnerability, in parents of children with congenital cardiac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijmoet-Wiersma, C. M. Jantien; Ottenkamp, Jaap; van Roozendaal, Matty; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Koopman, Hendrik M.

    2009-01-01

    Parents of children with congenitally malformed hearts can suffer from stress as a result of the medical condition of their child. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to describe levels of parental stress, and perceived vulnerability, in parents of children who underwent major cardiac surgery,

  4. Seeing Red: Anger Increases How Much Republican Identification Predicts Partisan Attitudes and Perceived Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Michaela; Van Boven, Leaf; Park, Bernadette; Pizzi, William T.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of incidental anger on perceived and actual polarization between Democrats and Republicans in the context of two national tragedies, Hurricane Katrina (Study 1) and the mass shooting that targeted Representative Gabrielle Giffords in Arizona (Study 2). We hypothesized that because of its relevance to intergroup conflict, incidental anger exacerbates the political polarization effects of issue partisanship (the correlation between partisan identification and partisan attitudes), and, separately, the correlation between conservative partisan identification and perceived polarization between Democrats and Republicans. We further hypothesized that these effects would be strongest for Republican identification because Republican leaders were targets of public criticism in both tragedies and because conservative (Republican) ideology tends to be more sensitive to threat. In the studies, participants first completed an emotion induction procedure by recalling autobiographical events that made them angry (Studies 1 & 2), sad (Studies 1 & 2), or that involved recalling emotionally neutral events (Study 2). Participants later reported their attitudes regarding the two tragedies, their perceptions of the typical Democrat’s and Republican’s attitudes on those issues, and their identification with the Democratic and Republican parties. Compared with incidental sadness (Studies 1 and 2) and a neutral condition (Study 2), incidental anger exacerbated the associations between Republican identification and partisan attitudes, and, separately between Republican identification and perceived polarization between the attitudes of Democrats and Republicans. We discuss implications for anger’s influence on political attitude formation and perceptions of group differences in political attitudes. PMID:26407321

  5. The Relationship Between Perceived Health, Health Attitudes, and Healthy Offerings for Seniors at a Family Restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sangtak

    2009-01-01

    Personal health can influence all aspects of customer behavior and this influence is more manifest within the senior market segment. Health issues also greatly impact the restaurant industry. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate how health status and health attitude influence family restaurant selection criteria. In order to measure selfrated health status and health attitude for seniors, the Health Perceptions Questionnaire(HPQ) and the Perceived Health competence Scale (P...

  6. Perceived social stigma and attitudes towards seeking therapy in training: a cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digiuni, Malena; Jones, Fergal W; Camic, Paul M

    2013-06-01

    Given the potential value of undergoing psychological therapy when training as a therapist, it is important to understand what influences students' decisions regarding seeking therapy. The study examined the relationship between clinical psychology students' perception of the social stigma attached to receiving therapy and their attitudes toward seeking therapy. Students from Argentina (n = 121), England (n = 211), and the United States (n = 130) completed measures of demographic characteristics, perceived social stigma, attitudes, and other variables associated with therapy-seeking. The results revealed significant cross-national differences, with Argentinean students showing the lowest levels of perceived social stigma for receiving therapy, followed by English and Americans. English students showed relatively less positive attitudes toward seeking therapy than their Argentinean and American counterparts. Social stigma predicted students' attitudes toward seeking therapy among English and American but not Argentinean students. The relationship between perceived social stigma and attitudes was moderated by nationality. Implications for training are discussed, including English and American clinical psychology courses encouraging their students to reflect on the effect of perceived social stigma on their decision-making.

  7. Relationship of order and number of siblings to perceived parental attitudes in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, T; Sugawara, M; Shima, S; Toda, M A

    1998-06-01

    Despite the increasingly recognized link between perceived parenting behavior and the onset of psychopathology in adults, studies of the possible determinants of perceptions of parenting behavior are rare. In a sample of 1,145 pregnant Japanese women, correlations were examined between the numbers and sexes of siblings and perceived rearing practices, as rated by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI; Parker, Tupling, & Brown, 1979). The participants with more elder sisters viewed their parents' attitudes as less caring, whereas those with more brothers, particularly younger brothers, viewed their parents' attitudes as less overprotective. However, the proportion of the variance of all the PBI scores explained by different types of siblings was very small.

  8. Effects of perceived smoking-cancer relationship and cardiovascular health attitudes on childrens' views of smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektas, Ilknur; Bektas, Murat; Selekoğlu, Yasemin; Kudubes, Aslı Akdeniz; Altan, Sema Sal; Ayar, Dijle

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted with the aim of determining how students' perceived smoking-cancer relationship and cardiovascular health attitudes affect childrens' views of smoking. The sample of this descriptive-cross sectional study comprised 574 subjects between the ages of 11-15. The data were collected using the Children's Cardiovascular Health Promotion Attitude Scale and the Children's Decisional Balance Measure for Assessing and Predicting Smoking Status. Correlation and logistic regression were used for analysis. It was determined that a statistically significant relationship exists between the attitudes of children towards smoking and their ideas about the relationship of smoking with cancer, which is negative and low (r=-0.223). There was also a statistically significant relationship between their attitudes towards cardiovascular health and their attitudes towards smoking, again at a low level (r=0.257). It was determined that children with ideas about smoking and cancer were 9.4 times less likely to have positive/negative attitudes towards smoking, while positive attitudes towards cardiovascular health made negative attitudes towards smoking 3.9 times less likely. It was determined that the attitudes of students towards cardiovascular health and their perceptions of smoking and cancer reduced the positive perceptions towards smoking.

  9. Perceived vulnerability moderates the relations between the use of protective behavioral strategies and alcohol use and consequences among high-risk young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Tracey A; Fairlie, Anne M; Litt, Dana M; Waldron, Katja A; Lewis, Melissa A

    2018-06-01

    Drinking protective behavioral strategies (PBS) have been associated with reductions in alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences in young adults. PBS subscales, Limiting/Stopping (LS), Manner of Drinking (MOD), and Serious Harm Reduction (SHR), have been examined in the literature; LS, MOD, and SHR have mixed support as protective factors. Understanding moderators between PBS and alcohol use and related consequences is an important development in PBS research in order to delineate when and for whom PBS use is effective in reducing harm from alcohol use. Perceptions of vulnerability to negative consequences, included in health-risk models, may be one such moderator. The current study examined whether two types of perceived vulnerability (perceived vulnerability when drinking; perceived vulnerability in uncomfortable/unfamiliar situations) moderated the relations between LS, MOD, SHR strategies and alcohol use and related negative consequences. High-risk young adults (N = 400; 53.75% female) recruited nationally completed measures of PBS, alcohol use and related consequences, and measures of perceived vulnerability. Findings demonstrated that perceived vulnerability when drinking moderated the relations between MOD strategies and alcohol use. The interactions between perceived vulnerability when drinking and PBS did not predict alcohol-related consequences. Perceived vulnerability in unfamiliar/uncomfortable social situations moderated relations between MOD strategies and both alcohol use and related negative consequences; no other significant interactions emerged. Across both perceived vulnerability types and MOD strategies, those with the highest levels of perceived vulnerability and who used MOD strategies the most had the greatest decrements in alcohol use and related negative consequences. Prevention and intervention implications are discussed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Managerial attitudes and perceived barriers regarding evidence-based practice : An international survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barends, Eric; Villanueva, Josh; Rousseau, Denise M.; Briner, Rob B.; Jepsen, Denise M.; Houghton, Edward; Ten Have, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) in management is still in its infancy. Several studies suggest that managers in businesses and other organizations do not consult the scientific evidence when making decisions. To facilitate its uptake, we need to better understand practitioner attitudes and perceived

  11. Multicultural attitudes mediate the relation between personality and perceived ethnic outgroup distance in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stupar, S.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Te Lindert, A.; Fontaine, J. R. J.

    2014-01-01

    We focus in the current study on associations between personality, multicultural attitudes, and perceived ethnic outgroup distance in the Netherlands. Data were collected among four different ethnic groups (from low to high in terms of ethnic hierarchy): Turkish/Moroccan-Dutch,

  12. Physical Attrativeness, Perceived Attitude Similarity, and Academic Achievement as Contributors to Interpersonal Attraction among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavior, Norman N.; Dokecki, Paul R.

    1973-01-01

    Fifth- and eleventh-grade males and females who knew each other ( knowers'') judged classmates' photographs on physical attractiveness, perceived attitude similarity, and interpersonal attraction. Nonknowers'' (male and female classmates in different schools in the same grades) judged the same photographs on physical attractiveness. (Editor)

  13. Knowledge and Perceived Social Norm Predict Parents' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Ming; Sin, Kuen-Fung; Yang, Lan; Forlin, Chris; Ho, Fuk-Chuen

    2015-01-01

    Parents are key stakeholders in education and their support is pivotal to policy implementation. Through a large-scale survey, the present study investigated the validity of a structural model describing the relationship between attitude, knowledge, and perceived social norm among parents of children with special needs. Results revealed that…

  14. The relationship between parental overprotection and health-related quality of life in pediatric cancer: the mediating role of perceived child vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullmann, Stephanie E; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Meyer, William H; McNall-Knapp, Rene Y; Mullins, Larry L

    2010-11-01

    The current study sought to examine the relation of parental overprotection and perceived child vulnerability to parent-reported health-related quality of life in parents of children with cancer. Parents (N = 89) of children who had been diagnosed with cancer completed measures of parental overprotection, perceived child vulnerability, and parent-proxy report of health-related quality of life. After controlling for theoretically relevant covariates, parental overprotection and perceived child vulnerability were both found to be significantly related to child health-related quality of life. Additional analyses revealed that perceived child vulnerability mediated the relationship between overprotective parenting behaviors and the child's health-related quality of life. The findings highlight the need to assess for these discrete parenting variables in parents of children with cancer and to develop interventions to target parental perceptions of vulnerability.

  15. Perceived social norms, expectations, and attitudes toward corporal punishment among an urban community sample of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine A; Hamvas, Lauren; Rice, Janet; Newman, Denise L; DeJong, William

    2011-04-01

    Despite the fact that corporal punishment (CP) is a significant risk factor for increased aggression in children, child physical abuse victimization, and other poor outcomes, approval of CP remains high in the United States. Having a positive attitude toward CP use is a strong and malleable predictor of CP use and, therefore, is an important potential target for reducing use of CP. The Theory of Planned Behavior suggests that parents' perceived injunctive and descriptive social norms and expectations regarding CP use might be linked with CP attitudes and behavior. A random-digit-dial telephone survey of parents from an urban community sample (n = 500) was conducted. Perceived social norms were the strongest predictors of having positive attitudes toward CP, as follows: (1) perceived approval of CP by professionals (β = 0.30), (2) perceived descriptive norms of CP use (β = 0.22), and (3) perceived approval of CP by family and friends (β = 0.19); also, both positive (β = 0.13) and negative (β = -0.13) expected outcomes for CP use were strong predictors of these attitudes. Targeted efforts are needed to both assess and shift the attitudes and practices of professionals who influence parents regarding CP use; universal efforts, such as public education campaigns, are needed to educate parents and the general public about the high risk/benefit ratio for using CP and the effectiveness of non-physical forms of child discipline.

  16. Pharmacists’ Attitudes and Perceived Barriers about Community Pharmacy-Based Cardiovascular Risk Screening Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jahangard-Rafsanjani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Background: Community pharmacies are considered as ideal settings to provide cardiovascular risk screening (CRS. However, little is known about pharmacists’ views on providing such services in developing countries including Iran. In the present study, we evaluated the pharmacists’ attitudes and perceived barriers to providing CRS services. Methods:In a cross-sectional study, a questionnaire in three sections was developed by the investigators (attitudes, perceived barriers, and demographics. Five likert items (5 points bipolar scale were designed to evaluate pharmacists’ attitudes about their professional role in providing CRS services in community pharmacies. Seven likert items were designed to assess the pharmacists’ perceived importance of possible barriers to providing the services. The study tool was distributed among a convenient sample of 500 pharmacists, who had participated in a national continuing education event. Results:The response rate was 44% and descriptive statistics and Chi squared test were used to analyze data. Results showed that 70.4% participants had an overall positive attitude to providing CRS services. Pharmacists who were pharmacy owner and pharmacist-in-charge simultaneously were more positive about providing CRS services. Lack of regulatory policy and compensation mechanism, limited physical space in pharmacy and time limitation were reported to be the most important barriers to providing CRS services (> 50% rated as highly important. Low human resource and time limitation were significantly associated with negative attitudes (P: 0.02 and 0.001, respectively.Conclusion:The Iranian pharmacists’ attitudes seem to be positive about providing CRS services; however, their perceived barriers should be addressed prior to CRS service implementation.

  17. Consumer Perceived Risk, Attitude and Online Shopping Behaviour; Empirical Evidence from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sylvester, Michele; Zakuan, Norhayati; Ismail, Khalid; Mat Ali, Kamarudin

    2014-06-01

    The development of e-commerce has increased the popularity of online shopping worldwide. In Malaysia, it was reported that online shopping market size was RM1.8 billion in 2013 and it is estimated to reach RM5 billion by 2015. However, online shopping was rated 11th out of 15 purposes of using internet in 2012. Consumers' perceived risks of online shopping becomes a hot topic to research as it will directly influence users' attitude towards online purchasing, and their attitude will have significant impact to the online purchasing behaviour. The conceptualization of consumers' perceived risk, attitude and online shopping behaviour of this study provides empirical evidence in the study of consumer online behaviour. Four types of risks - product risk, financial, convenience and non-delivery risks - were examined in term of their effect on consumers' online attitude. A web-based survey was employed, and a total of 300 online shoppers of a Malaysia largest online marketplace participated in this study. The findings indicated that product risk, financial and non-delivery risks are hazardous and negatively affect the attitude of online shoppers. Convenience risk was found to have positive effect on consumers' attitude, denoting that online buyers of this site trusted the online seller and they encountered less troublesome with the site. It also implies that consumers did not really concern on non-convenience aspect of online shopping, such as handling of returned products and examine the quality of products featured in the online seller website. The online buyers' attitude was significantly and positively affects their online purchasing behaviour. The findings provide useful model for measuring and managing consumers' perceived risk in internet-based transaction to increase their involvement in online shopping and to reduce their cognitive dissonance in the e-commerce setting.

  18. Attitude and Impact of Perceived Depression in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Pang Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Information concerning the occurrence and consequences of depression in the workplace is scarce. This study estimates how workers perceive depression, to investigate depression-related disabilities, and management of depression in the workplace. This investigation is based on a cross-sectional web-based survey of 1,000 workers recruited from online sources. The participants were Brazilian workers, aged 16–64 years, current workers and managers, or who have worked within the past year. Subjects answered a 13-item questionnaire about depression, its related consequences in the workplace, and available resources to handle depression. Common symptoms attributable to depression were crying, loss of interest, and sadness. Almost one in five participants reported having ever been labeled by a doctor/medical professional as suffering from depression. However, the majority of ever-depressed workers (73.5% remained working. Performance-related impairments were reported by around 60% of depressed workers who continued working. Over half of them also complained about cognitive symptoms (concentration difficulties, indecisiveness, forgetfulness. One in three workers had taken off work due to depression (mean 65.7 out-of-role days, with these periods being lengthier for men than women. Managers underestimated the number of days out-of-role (29.5 days. The findings suggested that identification and management of symptoms of depression should be set as a priority in worker’s health care.

  19. Do the Psychological Constructs of Attitude, Perceived Norm, and Perceived Behavioral Control Explain a Woman's Intention to Use Mobile Business Applications, across Cultures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Deirdre Elyse

    2015-01-01

    A reasoned action approach (RAA) was used to assess the importance of psychological factors (attitude, perceived norm, and perceived behavioral control) in forming a woman's intention to use mobile technology, specifically mobile business applications. This study also examined whether the significance of these factors varied across cultures. An…

  20. FACEBOOK ADVERTISING: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TYPES OF MESSAGE, BRAND ATTITUDE AND PERCEIVED BUYING RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGDAN ANASTASIEI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We are witnessing a spectacular growth in electronic commerce in recent years, although we cannot say that it has been without obstacles. Among the barriers mentioned by the literature are the lack of trust in online brands, the perceived purchase risk, the perception of the type of promotional message. More often than not, commercial Facebook posts influence brand image and brand trust, which can lead to an increased buying intention. Our research attempted to determine whether the type of commercial Facebook posts (paid or unpaid and the type of post content (rational or emotional influence message credibility, attitude towards the advertised brand and perceived purchase risk. The type of post appeared not to influence any of these variables, while the type of message significantly influenced the credibility and the perceived risk. The rational message generated more credibility, while the perceived purchase risk is higher for the emotional messages.

  1. Fundamental motor skills, nutritional status, perceived competence, and school performance of Brazilian children in social vulnerability: Gender comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Glauber Carvalho; Valentini, Nadia Cristina; Nobre, Francisco Salviano Sales

    2018-06-01

    Being at risk or in social vulnerability situations can affect important aspects of child development. The aim of this study was to investigate fundamental motor skills (locomotor and object control) and school (writing, arithmetic, reading) performances, the perceived competence and the nutritional status of girls and boys living in social vulnerability in the poorest regions of Brazil. Two hundred eleven (211) children (87 girls, 41%), 7-10-year-old (M = 8.3, SD = 0.9), from public schools in Ceará (Brazil), living in social vulnerability, participated in the study. Children were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development - 2, the Body Mass Index (BMI), the Self-Perception Profile for Children, and the School Performance Test. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), adjusted for age, did not show any significant effect for locomotion. There was an effect of gender on the object control. Boys showed higher scores in striking, kicking, throwing, and rolling a ball. Quade's nonparametric analysis showed no difference in BMI between the genders. Most children presented healthy weight. The MANCOVA showed no effect of gender on children's scores on perceived competence on the subscales; moderate scores were found for most children. There were no gender effects on school performance; both boys and girls demonstrated inferior performance. Boys and girls in social vulnerability showed inferior performance in most motor skills, moderate perceived competence and inferior school performance. These results reveal that the appropriate development of these children is at risk and that intervention strategies should be implemented to compensate the difficulties presented. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pharmacists' Attitudes and Perceived Barriers to Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Tessa J; Hohmann, Lindsey A; McFarland, Stuart J; Teeter, Benjamin S; Westrick, Salisa C

    2017-08-07

    Use of non-traditional settings such as community pharmacies has been suggested to increase human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake and completion rates. The objectives of this study were to explore HPV vaccination services and strategies employed by pharmacies to increase HPV vaccine uptake, pharmacists' attitudes towards the HPV vaccine, and pharmacists' perceived barriers to providing HPV vaccination services in community pharmacies. A pre-piloted mail survey was sent to 350 randomly selected community pharmacies in Alabama in 2014. Measures included types of vaccines administered and marketing/recommendation strategies, pharmacists' attitudes towards the HPV vaccine, and perceived system and parental barriers. Data analysis largely took the form of descriptive statistics. 154 pharmacists completed the survey (response rate = 44%). The majority believed vaccination is the best protection against cervical cancer (85.3%), HPV is a serious threat to health for girls (78.8%) and boys (55.6%), and children should not wait until they are sexually active to be vaccinated (80.1%). Perceived system barriers included insufficient patient demand (56.5%), insurance plans not covering vaccination cost (54.8%), and vaccine expiration before use (54.1%). Respondents also perceived parents to have inadequate education and understanding about HPV infection (86.6%) and vaccine safety (78.7%). Pharmacists have positive perceptions regarding the HPV vaccine. Barriers related to system factors and perceived parental concerns must be overcome to increase pharmacist involvement in HPV vaccinations.

  3. Associations among attitudes, perceived difficulty of learning science, gender, parents' occupation and students' scientific competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, ShaoHui; Wang, Zuhao; Liu, Xiufeng; Zhu, Lei

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the associations among students' attitudes towards science, students' perceived difficulty of learning science, gender, parents' occupations and their scientific competencies. A sample of 1591 (720 males and 871 females) ninth-grade students from 29 junior high schools in Shanghai completed a scientific competency test and a Likert scale questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis revealed that students' general interest of science, their parents' occupations and perceived difficulty of science significantly associated with their scientific competencies. However, there was no gender gap in terms of scientific competencies.

  4. Validity and Reliability of Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior Assessment Tool Among Vulnerable Women Concerning Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Boroumandfar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study aimed to design and evaluate the content and face validity, and reliability of knowledge, attitude, and behavior questionnaire on preventive behaviors among vulnerable women concerning sexually transmitted diseases (STDs.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in two phases of an action research. In the first phase, to explain STDs preventive domains, 20 semi- structured interviews were conducted with the vulnerable women, residing at women prison and women referred to counseling centers. After analyzing content of interviews, three domains were identified: improve their knowledge, modify their attitude and change their behaviors. In the second phase, the questionnaire was designed and tested in a pilot study. Then, its content validity was evaluated. Face validity and reliability of the questionnaire were assessed by test re- test method and Cronbach alpha respectively.Results: Index of content validity in each three domain of the questionnaire (knowledge, attitude and behavior concerning STDs was obtained over 0.6. Overall content validity index was 0.86 in all three domains of the questionnaire. The Cronbach’s alpha as reliability of questionnaire was 0.80 for knowledge, 0.79 for attitude and 0.85 for behavior.Conclusion: The results showed that the designed questionnaire was a valid and reliable tool to measure knowledge, attitude and behavior of vulnerable women, predisposed to risk of STDs.

  5. Consumers' choice of drinking water: Is it dependent upon perceived quality, convenience, price and attitude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Nabsiah Abdul; Cheng, Patrick Tan Foon; Abustan, Ismail; Nee, Goh Yen

    2017-10-01

    Tap water is one of the many sources of water that the public as consumers can choose for drinking. This study hypothesized that perceived quality, convenience, price and environmental attitude would determine consumers's choice of drinking water following the Attribution Theory as the underlying model. A survey was carried out on Malaysia's public at large. From 301 usable data, the PLS analysis revealed that only perceived quality, convenience and price attributed towards the public's choice of drinking water while attitude was not significant. The findings are beneficial for the water sector industry, particularly for drinking water operators, state governments, and alternative drinking water manufacturers like bottled water companies. The ability to identify factors for why consumers in the marketplace choose the source of their drinking water would enable the operators to plan and strategize tactics that can disseminate accurate knowledge about the product that can motivate marketability of drinking water in Malaysia.

  6. Perceived Social Norms, Expectations, and Attitudes toward Corporal Punishment among an Urban Community Sample of Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Catherine A.; Hamvas, Lauren; Rice, Janet; Newman, Denise L.; DeJong, William

    2011-01-01

    Despite the fact that corporal punishment (CP) is a significant risk factor for increased aggression in children, child physical abuse victimization, and other poor outcomes, approval of CP remains high in the United States. Having a positive attitude toward CP use is a strong and malleable predictor of CP use and, therefore, is an important potential target for reducing use of CP. The Theory of Planned Behavior suggests that parents’ perceived injunctive and descriptive social norms and expe...

  7. Nurses' Perceived Skills and Attitudes About Updated Safety Concepts: Impact on Medication Administration Errors and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Gail E; Dietrich, Mary; Norman, Linda; Barnsteiner, Jane; Mion, Lorraine

    Approximately a quarter of medication errors in the hospital occur at the administration phase, which is solely under the purview of the bedside nurse. The purpose of this study was to assess bedside nurses' perceived skills and attitudes about updated safety concepts and examine their impact on medication administration errors and adherence to safe medication administration practices. Findings support the premise that medication administration errors result from an interplay among system-, unit-, and nurse-level factors.

  8. Pharmacists’ Attitudes and Perceived Barriers to Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Services

    OpenAIRE

    Hastings, Tessa J.; Hohmann, Lindsey A.; McFarland, Stuart J.; Teeter, Benjamin S.; Westrick, Salisa C.

    2017-01-01

    Use of non-traditional settings such as community pharmacies has been suggested to increase human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake and completion rates. The objectives of this study were to explore HPV vaccination services and strategies employed by pharmacies to increase HPV vaccine uptake, pharmacists’ attitudes towards the HPV vaccine, and pharmacists’ perceived barriers to providing HPV vaccination services in community pharmacies. A pre-piloted mail survey was sent to 350 randomly...

  9. Palliative care knowledge, attitudes and perceived self-competence of nurses working in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ly Thuy; Yates, Patsy; Osborne, Yvonne

    2014-09-01

    To explore palliative care knowledge, attitudes and perceived self-competence of nurses working in oncology settings in Hanoi, Vietnam. The study employed a cross-sectional descriptive survey design. The self-administered questionnaires consisted of three validated instruments: the Expertise and Insight Test for Palliative Care, the Attitude Toward Care of the Dying Scale B and the Palliative Care Nursing Self Competence Scale. The sample consisted of 251 nurses caring for cancer patients in three oncology hospitals in Vietnam. The responses identified low scores in nurses' palliative care knowledge related to pain and other symptom management and psychological and spiritual aspects. Nurses' responses reflected discomfort in communicating about death and establishing therapeutic relationship with oncology patients who require palliative care. Additionally, nurses reported low scores in perceived self-competence when providing pain management and addressing social and spiritual domains of palliative care. The findings also revealed that nurses who had higher palliative care knowledge scores demonstrated attitudes which were more positive and expressed greater perceived self-competence. Nurses working in oncology wards need more education to develop their knowledge and skills of palliative care, especially in the areas of pain management, psychological and spiritual care, and communication.

  10. Muslim Scholars' Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceived Barriers Towards Polio Immunization in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram; Salman, Saad; Ayub, Maria; Aqeel, Talieha; Haq, Noman-Ul; Saleem, Fahad; Khan, Muhammad Ubaid

    2017-04-01

    Pakistan is one of the two countries where polio remains endemic. Among multiple reasons of polio prevalence, false religious beliefs are accounted as major barriers towards polio immunization in Pakistan. Within this context, religious scholars are now engaged in polio immunization campaigns to dismantle the myths and battle the resurgence of polio in Pakistan. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitudes and perceived barriers of Muslim scholars towards polio immunization in Pakistan. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey of Muslim scholars was conducted in Quetta and Peshawar divisions of Pakistan. From October to December 2015, a convenience sample of 770 Muslim scholars was recruited from the local mosques and religious institutions to participate in this study. Knowledge, attitudes, and perceived barriers were assessed by using self-administered, anonymous and pretested questionnaire. Descriptive and regression analyses were used to express the results with p polio with a mean score of 7.16 ± 2.12 (based on 14 questions). Knowledge gaps were identified about the transmission (32.6 %) and consequences of poliovirus (39.9 %). Overall, 527 (68.4 %) participants showed positive attitudes towards polio immunization with a mean attitude score of 27.35 ± 2.68 (based on nine statements). The majority of participants agreed on the need of depoliticizing polio immunization issues (87.1 %), while reservations were noted about their willingness to participate in future polio immunization programs (44.6 %). Security (75.8 %) and vaccine management issues (64 %) were reported by the participants as the major barriers towards polio immunization in Pakistan. The findings showed poor knowledge of Muslim scholars towards polio; however, their attitudes were positive towards polio immunization. More studies are required to assess the knowledge and attitudes of Muslim scholars at the national level to validate the findings of this study.

  11. Does perceived social support and parental attitude relate to alexithymia? A study in Finnish late adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karukivi, Max; Joukamaa, Matti; Hautala, Lea; Kaleva, Olli; Haapasalo-Pesu, Kirsi-Maria; Liuksila, Pirjo-Riitta; Saarijärvi, Simo

    2011-05-15

    The aim of the present study was to explore the associations of perceived social support and parental attitude with alexithymia in a Finnish adolescent population sample. Of the initial sample of 935 adolescents, 729 (78%) answered the questionnaire and formed the final sample. The mean age of the subjects was 19 years (range 17-21 years). The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) was used for assessment of alexithymia. Perceived social support from family, friends, and significant other people was measured using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Perceived parental care and overprotection were assessed using the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and separately for mother and father. After controlling for the sociodemographic factors, alexithymia was significantly associated with a lower degree of experienced social support and higher parental overprotection both in females and males. Maternal overprotection was associated (poverprotective parental attitudes as a possible risk factor for development of alexithymia. However, to assess causality, we need longitudinal studies. The results also emphasize the need for further studies to establish the significance of peer relationships in the development of alexithymia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A model for the development of mothers' perceived vulnerability of preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Sarah McCue; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Kerker, Bonnie D; Lilo, Emily; Leibovitz, Ann; St John, Nick; Shaw, Richard J

    2015-06-01

    Some mothers of preterm infants continue to view them as vulnerable after their health has improved. These exaggerated perceptions of vulnerability lead to poor parent-child interactions and, subsequently, to adverse child outcomes. However, there is no theoretical model to explain why these exaggerated perceptions develop in only some mother-child dyads. Data for this study come from a randomized trial of an intervention to reduce distress in mothers of preterm infants. A total of 105 mothers older than 18 years of infants aged 25-34 weeks, weighing >600 g and with clinically significant anxiety, depression, or trauma symptoms, were recruited and randomized. Women were assessed at baseline, after intervention, and at 6 months after birth. The outcome for these analyses was perceptions of infant vulnerability as measured by the Vulnerable Baby Scale (VBS) at 6 months after birth. A theoretical model developed from the extant literature was tested using the MacArthur Mediator-Moderator Approach. A dysfunctional coping style, high depression, anxiety, or trauma symptoms in response to the preterm birth, and low social support were related to 6-month VBS scores. Maternal response to trauma was directly related to VBS, and an important precursor of maternal response to trauma was a dysfunctional coping style. This model suggests that maternal responses to trauma are critical in the formation of exaggerated perceptions of vulnerability as are dysfunctional coping styles and low social support. Women with these characteristics should be targeted for intervention to prevent poor parenting practices that result from exaggerated perceptions of vulnerability.

  13. Perceived stress and eating behaviors by sex, obesity status, and stress vulnerability: findings from the vitamins and lifestyle (VITAL) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Wendy E; Beresford, Shirley A A; McGregor, Bonnie A; White, Emily

    2014-11-01

    Stress has been associated with eating patterns in human studies with differences due to the type and duration of stressor, type of food, and individual susceptibility factors. Laboratory and smaller epidemiological studies have reported stress-associated preferences for foods high in sugar and fat; associations have been found more consistently among women and people who are obese. Larger studies are needed to sufficiently test these relationships. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between self-reported amount of stress and dietary nutrient intakes (percentage energy from fat, carbohydrates, added sugar) and dietary behaviors (number of eating occasions and servings of fruits and vegetables, high-fat snacks, fast-food items, and sweetened drinks) by sex, obesity status, and stress vulnerability. Linear regression was used to estimate associations of perceived stress with eating patterns among 65,235 older adults while adjusting for demographic factors, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol intake, number of comorbidities, and other relevant covariates. Higher perceived stress was associated with greater intake of energy from fat, high-fat snacks, and fast-food items as well as lower intake of energy from carbohydrates (all P for trend ≤0.002). Among those with high perceived stress vulnerability, perceived stress was associated with fewer eating occasions (P for interaction stress arising from everyday experiences among an older, mostly white population. These findings have public health implications and suggest that stress may be important to consider in programs promoting healthy eating. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Vulnerable Populations Perceive Their Health as at Risk from Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, Karen L; Delamater, Paul L; Boules, Caroline R; Upperman, Crystal R; Mitchell, Clifford S

    2015-12-04

    Climate change is already taking a toll on human health, a toll that is likely to increase in coming decades. The relationship between risk perceptions and vulnerability to climate change's health threats has received little attention, even though an understanding of the dynamics of adaptation among particularly susceptible populations is becoming increasingly important. We demonstrate that some people whose health will suffer the greatest harms from climate change-due to social vulnerability, health susceptibility, and exposure to hazards-already feel they are at risk. In a 2013 survey we measured Maryland residents' climate beliefs, health risk perceptions, and household social vulnerability characteristics, including medical conditions (n = 2126). We paired survey responses with secondary data sources for residence in a floodplain and/or urban heat island to predict perceptions of personal and household climate health risk. General health risk perceptions, political ideology, and climate beliefs are the strongest predictors. Yet, people in households with the following characteristics also see themselves at higher risk: members with one or more medical conditions or disabilities; low income; racial/ethnic minorities; and residence in a floodplain. In light of these results, climate health communication among vulnerable populations should emphasize protective actions instead of risk messages.

  15. Vulnerable Populations Perceive Their Health as at Risk from Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, Karen L.; Delamater, Paul L.; Boules, Caroline R.; Upperman, Crystal R.; Mitchell, Clifford S.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is already taking a toll on human health, a toll that is likely to increase in coming decades. The relationship between risk perceptions and vulnerability to climate change’s health threats has received little attention, even though an understanding of the dynamics of adaptation among particularly susceptible populations is becoming increasingly important. We demonstrate that some people whose health will suffer the greatest harms from climate change—due to social vulnerability, health susceptibility, and exposure to hazards—already feel they are at risk. In a 2013 survey we measured Maryland residents’ climate beliefs, health risk perceptions, and household social vulnerability characteristics, including medical conditions (n = 2126). We paired survey responses with secondary data sources for residence in a floodplain and/or urban heat island to predict perceptions of personal and household climate health risk. General health risk perceptions, political ideology, and climate beliefs are the strongest predictors. Yet, people in households with the following characteristics also see themselves at higher risk: members with one or more medical conditions or disabilities; low income; racial/ethnic minorities; and residence in a floodplain. In light of these results, climate health communication among vulnerable populations should emphasize protective actions instead of risk messages. PMID:26690184

  16. Vulnerable Populations Perceive Their Health as at Risk from Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Akerlof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is already taking a toll on human health, a toll that is likely to increase in coming decades. The relationship between risk perceptions and vulnerability to climate change’s health threats has received little attention, even though an understanding of the dynamics of adaptation among particularly susceptible populations is becoming increasingly important. We demonstrate that some people whose health will suffer the greatest harms from climate change—due to social vulnerability, health susceptibility, and exposure to hazards—already feel they are at risk. In a 2013 survey we measured Maryland residents’ climate beliefs, health risk perceptions, and household social vulnerability characteristics, including medical conditions (n = 2126. We paired survey responses with secondary data sources for residence in a floodplain and/or urban heat island to predict perceptions of personal and household climate health risk. General health risk perceptions, political ideology, and climate beliefs are the strongest predictors. Yet, people in households with the following characteristics also see themselves at higher risk: members with one or more medical conditions or disabilities; low income; racial/ethnic minorities; and residence in a floodplain. In light of these results, climate health communication among vulnerable populations should emphasize protective actions instead of risk messages.

  17. Perceived competence and attitudes towards patients with suicidal behaviour: a survey of general practitioners, psychiatrists and internists

    OpenAIRE

    Grimholt, Tine K; Haavet, Ole R; Jacobsen, Dag; Sandvik, Leiv; Ekeberg, Oivind

    2014-01-01

    Background Competence and attitudes to suicidal behaviour among physicians are important to provide high-quality care for a large patient group. The aim was to study different physicians’ attitudes towards suicidal behaviour and their perceived competence to care for suicidal patients. Methods A random selection (n = 750) of all registered General Practitioners, Psychiatrists and Internists in Norway ...

  18. Stuck in the catch 22: attitudes towards smoking cessation among populations vulnerable to social disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateman, Kelsey; Ford, Pauline; Fizgerald, Lisa; Mutch, Allyson; Yuke, Kym; Bonevski, Billie; Gartner, Coral

    2016-06-01

    To explore how smoking and smoking cessation is perceived within the context of disadvantage, across a broad cross-section of defined populations vulnerable to social disadvantage. Qualitative focus groups with participants recruited through community service organizations (CSO). Metropolitan and regional settings in Queensland, Australia. Focus groups were held at the respective CSO facilities. Fifty-six participants across nine focus groups, including people living with mental illness, people experiencing or at risk of homelessness (adult and youth populations), people living with HIV, people living in a low-income area and Indigenous Australians. Thematic, in-depth analysis of focus group discussions. Participant demographic information and smoking history was recorded. Smoking behaviour, smoking identity and feelings about smoking were reflective of individual circumstances and social and environmental context. Participants felt 'trapped' in smoking because they felt unable to control the stressful life circumstances that triggered and sustained their smoking. Smoking cessation was viewed as an individual's responsibility, which was at odds with participants' statements about the broader factors outside of their own control that were responsible for their smoking. Highly disadvantaged smokers' views on smoking involve contradictions between feeling that smoking cessation involves personal responsibility, while at the same time feeling trapped by stressful life circumstances. Tobacco control programmes aiming to reduce smoking among disadvantaged groups are unlikely to be successful unless the complex interplay of social factors is carefully considered. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Interprofessional education for first year psychology students: career plans, perceived relevance and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lynne D; Forman, Dawn

    2015-05-01

    Undergraduate psychology students have been largely excluded from interprofessional education (IPE) initiatives. In contrast to many health professions, undergraduate psychology students do not engage in work placements as part of their degree, and many enter careers outside the health care context. However, the collaborative skills gained through an IPE experience may well be beneficial to students who work in this wider context. This research examines whether undergraduate psychology students' views of IPE vary according to their planned career directions, and if so, whether the perceived relevance of IPE mediates the relationships. A sample of 188 Australian university undergraduate psychology students completed an online questionnaire following completion of a first-year IPE health sciences program. Path analysis indicated that psychology students' attitudes towards IPE are associated with both professional identification and practitioner orientation, fully mediated through the perceived relevance of IPE to future career and study plans. Stronger professional identification and practitioner orientation were associated with greater perceived relevance and more positive and less negative attitudes towards IPE. Placing a stronger emphasis on the generalizability of IP skills taught may increase students' awareness of the relevance outside of the health context, reducing disengagement of students planning alternative careers.

  20. Residents' Attitude, Knowledge, and Perceived Preparedness Toward Caring for Patients from Diverse Sociocultural Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jessie Kimbrough; Cooper, Lisa A; Green, Alexander R; Bertram, Amanda; Wright, Letitia; Matusko, Niki; McCullough, Wayne; Sisson, Stephen D

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Training residents to deliver care to increasingly diverse patients in the United States is an important strategy to help alleviate racial and ethnic disparities in health outcomes. Cross-cultural care training of residents continues to present challenges. This study sought to explore the associations among residents' cross-cultural attitudes, preparedness, and knowledge about disparities to better elucidate possible training needs. Methods: This cross-sectional study used web-based questionnaires from 2013 to 2014. Eighty-four internal medicine residency programs with 954 residents across the United States participated. The main outcome was perceived preparedness to care for sociocultural diverse patients. Key Results: Regression analysis showed attitude toward cross-cultural care (beta coefficient [β]=0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.49-0.64, p attitude toward cross-cultural care and their level of exposure to patients from diverse sociocultural backgrounds. Future studies should examine the role of residents' cross-cultural care-related attitudes on their ability to care for diverse patients.

  1. Predicting anti-fat attitudes: individual differences based on actual and perceived body size, weight importance, entity mindset, and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Shannon Rich; Rosen, Lisa H

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relative impact of actual and perceived weight, weight importance, entity mindset, and ethnicity on anti-fat attitudes as well as to examine whether certain variables play the role of mediator. Participants included a multiethnic U.S. sample of 923 female undergraduates who completed a series of measures online. Lower BMI, higher perceived weight, higher importance of weight, endorsement of an entity mindset, and identification as White as compared to Black, Hispanic, or Asian predicted higher overall anti-fat attitudes. Examination of the individual Antifat Attitudes Questionnaire subscales (i.e. dislike, fear of fat, and willpower) using Relative Weight Analysis suggested that weight importance is an important predictor of multiple aspects of anti-fat attitudes. In addition, weight importance mediated the relationship between perceived weight and fear of fat as well as the relationship between ethnicity and dislike. Implications of findings and future research directions are discussed.

  2. Personal and Perceived Peer Use of and Attitudes Toward Alcohol Among University and College Students in Seven EU Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAlaney, J.; Helmer, S. M.; Stock, C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to explore perceptions of peer substance use and related attitudes among European students. Challenging perceptions about peer substance use has become the basis of a form of prevention and intervention known as the social norms approach, which can...... be delivered using personalized online feedback. This article reports baseline alcohol use and attitudes data for university students across Europe collected as part of the Social Norms Intervention for the prevention of Polydrug usE project (Project SNIPE). Method: Students from universities in Belgium...... agreed to participate. Results: Overall, respondents reported both perceived alcohol use and perceived acceptance of alcohol use among their peers that were higher than their own use or acceptance. Perceived peers' behaviors and attitudes were found to be predictive of personal behaviors and attitudes...

  3. The relationship between EFL Teachers’ Attitudes towards CLT and Perceived Difficulties of Implementing CLT in Language Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrak Rahimi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the relationship between EFL teachers’ attitudes towards CLT and perceived difficulties of implementing CLT in language classes. Two hundred and three EFL teachers participated in the study. Their attitudes towards CLT and their perceptions of the problems of implementing CLT were assessed by two questionnaires. The results of the descriptive statistics showed that EFL teachers had positive attitudes towards CLT in general and group work in communicative classes in particular. Further, while EFL teachers generally did not find much difficulty in implementing CLT in language classes, they found the difficulties the educational system creates as a major obstacle to use CLT. Moreover, CLT attitudes and perceived difficulties of CLT implementation were not found to be related; however, when subscales of CLT attitudes and perceived difficulties questionnaires were considered, three correlations were found to be statistically significant. Difficulties caused by students in communicative classes were found to be inversely and significantly related to (a attitudes to CLT as a whole (r=-.160, p<.05 and (b attitudes towards group/pair work in CLT (r=-.156, p<.05. Further, attitudes towards the role of teacher in a communicative class were found to be positively related to difficulties inherent in the CLT method itself (r= .181, p<.01.

  4. The relationship of parental overprotection, perceived child vulnerability, and parenting stress to uncertainty in youth with chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Larry L; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Pai, Ahna L Hoff; Carpentier, Melissa Y; Gillaspy, Stephen; Cheek, Jeff; Page, Melanie

    2007-09-01

    To examine the relationship of parent-reported overprotection (OP), perceived child vulnerability (PCV), and parenting stress (PS) to youth-reported illness uncertainty, and to explore potential developmental differences. Eighty-two children and 82 adolescents (n = 164) diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) or asthma, completed a measure of illness uncertainty, while their parents completed measures of OP, PCV, and PS. After controlling for demographic and illness parameters, both PCV and PS significantly predicted youth illness uncertainty in the combined sample. Within the child group, only PS significantly predicted illness uncertainty, whereas only PCV significantly predicted uncertainty for adolescents. Specific parenting variables are associated with youth-reported illness uncertainty; however, their relationship varies according to developmental level. Although OP has been identified as a predictor of child psychological outcomes in other studies, it does not appear to be associated with illness uncertainty in youth with DM1 or asthma.

  5. Clinical Skills Performed By Iranian Emergency Nurses: Perceived Competency Levels and Attitudes Toward Expanding Professional Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassankhani, Hadi; Hasanzadeh, Firooz; Powers, Kelly A; Dadash Zadeh, Abbas; Rajaie, Rouzbeh

    2018-03-01

    Emergency nurses play an important role in the care of critically ill and injured patients, and their competency to perform clinical skills is vital to safe and effective patient care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of clinical skills performed and perceived competency levels among Iranian emergency nurses. In addition, attitudes toward expanding the professional roles of Iranian emergency nurses were also assessed. In this descriptive correlational study, 319 emergency nurses from 30 hospitals in northwest Iran participated. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used to present the findings. Overall competency of the emergency nurses was 73.31 ± 14.2, indicating a good level of perceived competence. The clinical skills most frequently performed were in the domains of organizational and workload competencies (3.43 ± 0.76), diagnostic function (3.25 ± 0.82), and the helping role (3.17 ± 0.83). A higher level of perceived competence was found for skills within these domains. Less frequently, participants performed skills within the domains of effective management of rapidly changing situations (2.70 ± 0.94) and administering and monitoring therapeutic interventions (2.60 ± 0.97); a lower perceived level of competence was noted for these clinical skills. There was a significant correlation between frequency of performing clinical skills and perceived competency level (r = 0.651, P skills. This has implications for nurse managers and educators who may consider offering more frequent experiential and educational opportunities to emergency nurses. Expansion of nurses' roles could also result in increased experience in clinical skills and higher levels of competency. Research is needed to investigate nurses' clinical competence using direct and observed measures. Copyright © 2017 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Interreligious contact, perceived group threat, and perceived discrimination: Predicting negative attitudes among religious minorities and majorities in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanas, A.M.; Sterkens, C.J.A.; Scheepers, P.L.H.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between interreligious contact and negative attitudes toward the religious outgroup among minority Christians and majority Muslims in Indonesia. It answers two research questions: Does interreligious contact reduce negative outgroup attitudes equally for minority

  7. Qatar pharmacists' understanding, attitudes, practice and perceived barriers related to providing pharmaceutical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hajj, Maguy Saffouh; Al-Saeed, Hassna Sohil; Khaja, Maryam

    2016-04-01

    Pharmaceutical care (PC) is the philosophy of practice that includes identifying and resolving medication therapy problems to improve patient outcomes. The study objectives were to examine the extent of pharmaceutical care practice and the barriers to pharmaceutical care provision as perceived by Qatar pharmacists and to assess their level of understanding of pharmaceutical care and their attitudes about pharmaceutical care provision. Setting Qatar pharmacies. A cross sectional survey of all pharmacists in Qatar was made. Consenting pharmacists were given the option to complete the survey either online using an online software or as paper by fax or by hand. 1. Extent of pharmaceutical care practice in Qatar. 2. Barriers to pharmaceutical care provision in Qatar. 3. Qatar pharmacists' level of understanding of pharmaceutical care. 4. Qatar pharmacists' attitudes toward pharmaceutical care provision. Over 8 weeks, 274 surveys were collected (34 % response rate). More than 80 % of respondents had correct understanding of the aim of PC and of the pharmacist role in PC. However, only 47 % recognized the patient role in PC and only 35 % were aware of the differences between clinical pharmacy and PC. Yet, more than 80 % believed that they could be advocates when it comes to patients' medications and health matters. Concerning their practice, respondents reported spending little time on PC activities. Offering feedback to the physician about the patient progress was always or most of the time performed by 21 % of respondents. The top perceived barriers for PC provision included inconvenient access to patient medical information (78 %) and lack of staff and time (77 and 74 % respectively). Although PC is not incorporated into pharmacy practice, Qatar pharmacists showed positive attitudes toward PC provision. Further work should focus on improving their PC understanding and on overcoming all barriers.

  8. The Impact of Privacy Concerns and Perceived Vulnerability to Risks on Users Privacy Protection Behaviors on SNS: A Structural Equation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Noora Sami Al-Saqer; Mohamed E. Seliaman

    2016-01-01

    This research paper investigates Saudi users’ awareness levels about privacy policies in Social Networking Sites (SNSs), their privacy concerns and their privacy protection measures. For this purpose, a research model that consists of five main constructs namely information privacy concern, awareness level of privacy policies of social networking sites, perceived vulnerability to privacy risks, perceived response efficacy, and privacy protecting behavior was developed. An online survey questi...

  9. Sustained helping without obligation: motivation, longevity of service, and perceived attitude change among AIDS volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoto, A M; Snyder, M

    1995-04-01

    A conceptual framework that identifies psychological and behavioral features associated with antecedents, experiences, and consequences of volunteerism is presented, and an inventory that measures 5 specific motivations for AIDS volunteerism is developed and cross-validated. Then a field study of 116 AIDS volunteers is presented in which a helping disposition, volunteer motivations, and social support (as antecedents), and personal satisfaction and organizational integration (as experiences) are used to predict duration of service over 2 1/2 years. Structural equation analyses indicate that dispositional helping influences satisfaction and integration but not duration of service, whereas greater motivation and less social support predict longer active volunteer service. The model is generalized to the prediction of perceived attitude change. Implications for conceptualizations of motivation, theoretical issues in helping, and practical concerns of volunteer organizations are discussed.

  10. Infants with atopic dermatitis: maternal hopelessness, child-rearing attitudes and perceived infant temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli-Pott, U; Darui, A; Beckmann, D

    1999-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common disease of childhood. It frequently starts in the first year of life. There is agreement on the existence of psychological influences on this disease. Although some studies in this field examine aspects of the parent-child relationship, studies concerning early infancy are very rare. The present study was conducted in order to find out whether maternal characteristics relevant to the mother-infant relationship, i.e. depressiveness/hopelessness, child-rearing attitudes and perceived infant behaviour, associated with infant AD. Two cohorts (3- to 4-month- and 10- to 12-month-old infants), each with 20 infants suffering from AD, and 20 healthy infants were recruited. AD infants were further divided into subgroups according to the diagnostic criteria: atopic family history, itching and characteristic locations of eczema. After a paediatric examination of the infant, mothers completed standardized questionnaires concerning depressiveness/hopelessness, child-rearing attitudes and perception of infant behaviour. Varying with different diagnostic features of the infants' AD, mothers of AD infants described themselves as more depressive/hopeless, as more anxious/overprotective and characterized their infant as less frequently positive and more frequently negative in its emotional behaviour compared to the control group. The results underline the importance of psychological support for mothers of infants with AD.

  11. Death Attitudes and Changes in Existential Outlook in Parents of Vulnerable Newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study is an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model analysis of the relation of death attitudes with changes in outlook in 59 parent couples of neonatal intensive care newborns. Death attitudes effects with changes in outlook were mostly intrapersonal and they mainly occurred in fathers, though between gender differences were not usually significant. Death avoidance and neutral death acquiescence were positive predictors of positive changes in outlook, and fear of death and neutral death acquiescence were respective positive and inverse predictors of negative changes. Multidimensional measures of death attitudes and personal change should be used when studying these domains of psychological functioning.

  12. Perceived Public Stigma and the Willingness to Seek Counseling: The Mediating Roles of Self-Stigma and Attitudes toward Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, David L.; Wade, Nathaniel G.; Hackler, Ashley H.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the mediating effects of the self-stigma associated with seeking counseling and attitudes toward seeking counseling on the link between perceived public stigma and willingness to seek counseling for psychological and interpersonal concerns. Structural equation modeling of data from 676 undergraduates indicated that the link…

  13. The Effect of School and Teacher Themed Movies on Pre-Service Teachers' Professional Attitudes and Perceived Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskaya, Alper; Unlu, Ihsan; Akar, M. Said; Ozturan Sagirli, Meryem

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of school and teacher themed movies on pre-service teachers' attitudes towards their profession and their perceived self-efficacy. As qualitative and quantitative research approaches were employed during data collection procedure, mixed methodology was adopted in this study. In the study, one of…

  14. Exploring Pre-Service Teachers' Perceived Teaching-Efficacy, Attitudes and Concerns about Inclusive Education in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, M. Tariq; Sharma, Umesh; Deppeler, Joanne M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on pre-service teachers' preparedness for inclusive education in Bangladesh through measuring their perceived teaching-efficacy, concerns and attitudes towards inclusive education and identifying predictor variables that contribute to those three variables. Using two standardized scales with 1,623 pre-service teachers from 16…

  15. Associations among Attitudes, Perceived Difficulty of Learning Science, Gender, Parents' Occupation and Students' Scientific Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, ShaoHui; Wang, Zuhao; Liu, Xiufeng; Zhu, Lei

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the associations among students' attitudes towards science, students' perceived difficulty of learning science, gender, parents' occupations and their scientific competencies. A sample of 1591 (720 males and 871 females) ninth-grade students from 29 junior high schools in Shanghai completed a scientific competency test and…

  16. Adolescent Gambling-Oriented Attitudes Mediate the Relationship Between Perceived Parental Knowledge and Adolescent Gambling : Implications for Prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canale, Natale; Vieno, Alessio; ter Bogt, Tom; Pastore, Massimiliano; Siciliano, Valeria; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Although substantial research has provided support for the association between parental practices and adolescent gambling, less is known about the role of adolescent attitudes in this relationship. The primary purpose of this study was to test an integrative model linking perceived parental

  17. Perceived competence and attitudes towards patients with suicidal behaviour: a survey of general practitioners, psychiatrists and internists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimholt, Tine K; Haavet, Ole R; Jacobsen, Dag; Sandvik, Leiv; Ekeberg, Oivind

    2014-05-08

    Competence and attitudes to suicidal behaviour among physicians are important to provide high-quality care for a large patient group. The aim was to study different physicians' attitudes towards suicidal behaviour and their perceived competence to care for suicidal patients. A random selection (n = 750) of all registered General Practitioners, Psychiatrists and Internists in Norway received a questionnaire. The response rate was 40%. The Understanding of Suicidal Patients Scale (USP; scores scales were used to measure self-perceived competence, level of commitment, empathy and irritation felt towards patients with somatic and psychiatric diagnoses. Questions about training were included. The physicians held positive attitudes towards suicide attempters (USP = 20.3, 95% CI: 19.6-20.9). Internists and males were significantly less positive. There were no significant differences in the physicians in their attitudes toward suicide in case of incurable illness according to specialty. The physicians were most irritated and less committed to substance misuse patients. Self perceived competence was relatively high. Forty-three percent had participated in courses about suicide assessment and treatment. The physicians reported positive attitudes and relatively high competence. They were least committed to treat patients with substance misuse. None of the professional groups thought that patients with incurable illness should be given help to commit suicide. Further customized education with focus on substance misuse might be useful.

  18. Attitudes and perceived barriers influencing incident reporting by nurses and their correlation with reported incidents: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Wing Mei; Koh, Serena Siew Lin; Chow, Yeow Leng

    Clinical incident reporting is an integral feature of risk management system in the healthcare sector. By reporting clinical incidents, nurses allow for learning from errors, identification of error patterns and development of error preventive strategies. The need to understand attitudes to reporting, perceived barriers and incident reporting patterns by nurses are the core highlights of this review. INCLUSION CRITERIA: This review considered descriptive quantitative studies that examined nurses' attitudes or perceived barriers towards incident reporting.The participants in this review were nurses working in acute care settings or step-down care settings. Studies that included non-nursing healthcare personnel were excluded.This review considered studies which examined nurses' attitudes towards incident reporting, perceived barriers and incident reporting practices.The outcomes of interest were the attitudes that nurses have towards incident reporting, perceived barriers and the types of reported incidents in correlation with nurses' attitudes and barriers. A three-step search strategy was utilised in this review. An initial limited search of CINAHL and MEDLINE was undertaken. Search strategies were then developed using identified keywords and index terms. Lastly, the reference lists of all identified articles were examined. All searches were limited to studies published in English, between 1991 and 2010. The studies were independently assessed by two reviewers using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist for Descriptive/ Case Series studies. The reviewers extracted data independently from included studies using the Joanna Briggs Institute Data Extraction Form for Descriptive/ Case Series studies. Due to the descriptive nature of the study designs, statistical pooling was not possible. Therefore, the findings of this systematic review are presented in a narrative summary. Fifty-five papers were identified from the searches based on their titles and

  19. Australian midwives knowledge, attitude and perceived learning needs around perinatal mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Yvonne L; Kelly, Georgina; Dragovic, Milan; Butt, Janice; Whittaker, Pamela; Badcock, Johanna C

    2015-01-01

    a cross sectional survey was undertaken to explore midwives' knowledge of, and attitudes towards, mental health disorders in childbearing women vis-à-vis their perceived mental health learning needs. a 50.1% response rate included 238 midwives employed in the only public tertiary maternity hospital in Western Australia from March to June 2013. The survey comprised a mixture of custom-designed questions and vignettes presenting various disorders. Only 37.6% of midwives felt well-equipped to support women, whilst 50.2% reported insufficient access to information. Demand was highest for education on: personality disorders (77.8%); the impact of childbearing on mental health disorders (74.2%); and skills for handling stress and aggression (57.8%). Knowledge scores were variable: on average eight out of a maximum 13 questions were answered correctly, but few (2.7%) answered more than 11 correctly, and 3.7% scored ≤4 correct. Across disorders, recognition from vignettes was highest for depression (93.9%), and lowest for schizophrenia (65.6%). Surprisingly, there were no associations between general knowledge scores and previous mental health experience, recent professional development, or access to information around mental health. The majority endorsed positive beliefs about midwives' role in mental health assessment, and belief in women's recovery (83.5%), however, cluster analysis of warmth and competence ratings revealed negative stereotyping of mental health disorders. Midwives accept it is their role to assess the mental health status of women but many feel ill-equipped to do so and express a strong desire for further knowledge and skills across a range of perinatal mental health topics. Attitudes to recovery are positive but negative stereotypes exist; therefore awareness of potential bias is important to negate their influence on care. Learning needs may change due to trends in clinical practice. Strategies are needed to recognise negative beliefs and to

  20. Smoking cessation treatment by Dutch respiratory nurses: reported practice, attitudes and perceived effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, D; van Litsenburg, W; van Duurling, R; van Schayck, C P; Wesseling, G J

    2008-01-01

    To describe Dutch respiratory nurses' current smoking cessation practices, attitudes and beliefs, and to compare these with a survey from the year 2000, before the national introduction of a protocol for the treatment of nicotine and tobacco addiction (the L-MIS protocol). Questionnaire survey among all 413 registered respiratory nurses in the Netherlands in 2006. The response rate was 62%. Seventy-seven percent of the respondents reported to have "fairly good" or "good" knowledge of all steps of the L-MIS protocol. Seven out of 10 behavioural techniques for smoking cessation from the protocol were used by more than 94% of the respondents. Seventy-four percent of the respiratory nurses recommended the use of either nicotine replacement therapy (70%) or bupropion (44%). Almost two-thirds (65% of 254) perceived lack of patient's motivation as the most important barrier for smoking cessation treatment; a four-fold increase compared to the year 2000. We conclude that respiratory nurses are compliant with the L-MIS protocol. They offer intensive support and use behavioural techniques for smoking cessation more frequently than evidence-based pharmacological aids for smoking cessation. Perceived lack of patient's motivation forms the most important threat to respiratory nurses' future smoking cessation activities. International guidelines acknowledge that respiratory patients have a more urgent need to stop smoking but have more difficulty doing so. They should be offered the most intensive smoking cessation counselling in combination with pharmacotherapy. This kind of counselling may be more feasible for respiratory nurses than for physicians who often lack time. Their efforts could be increased by reimbursing pharmacological aids for smoking cessation and by developing simple tools to systematically assess motivation to quit and psychiatric co-morbidity in smoking patients.

  1. Who Is Responsible for Vulnerable Pupils? The Attitudes of Teacher Candidates in Serbia and Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecek, Mojca; Macura-Milovanovic, Suncica

    2012-01-01

    In the ongoing trend towards inclusive education, initial teacher education programmes must ensure that prospective teachers are prepared to teach all pupils effectively. The study presented in this paper aimed to explore the attitudes of teacher candidates in Serbia and Slovenia towards responsibility for the teaching and learning of vulnerable…

  2. Nonlinearities in personalization-privacy paradox in mHealth adoption: the mediating role of perceived usefulness and attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Guo, Xitong; Guo, Feng; Lai, Kee-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Personalization in healthcare refers to individualizing services and products based on patients' health conditions and interests. In order to deliver highly personalized offerings, mHealth providers need to use patients' health information, which provokes patients' concerns over personal health information leakage. So the personalization-privacy paradox is an important issue in the mHealth context. To gain a better understanding of this paradox, we take the personalization and privacy paradox factors as independent variables, incorporating the nonlinear relationships between personalization and privacy, and take attitude and perceived usefulness as middle variables to study mHealth adoption. The hypothesized model is tested through an empirical research of a 489-respondent sample in China. PLS is used for data analysis. (1) Personalization and privacy are found to influence mHealth adoption intention via attitude and perceived usefulness; (2) there is a substitution relationship, also called negative synergy between personalization and privacy in mHealth contexts; (3) attitude mediates the effect of perceived usefulness on intention, indicating a significant role of attitude.

  3. Impact of an e-learning program regarding patients' harmful alcohol consumption on the knowledge, attitudes and perceived competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Eva; Hahn, Sabine; Metzenthin, Petra

    2018-01-24

    Background: Harmful alcohol consumption is associated with approximately 1600 deaths in Switzerland annually, and is the third-largest risk factor for various diseases worldwide. It has been shown that through early identification of problematic drinking behaviours along with preventive intervention, alcohol-related illnesses and mortality can be reduced. Therefore, nurses play a crucial role for patients with alcohol problems. However, the most common reasons for nurses not providing preventive intervention are a lack of knowledge, personal attitudes and uncertainty. Learning programs hold the potential for influencing these factors. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of an e-learning program regarding patients’ harmful alcohol consumption on the knowledge, attitudes and perceived competencies of nurses in an acute care hospital. Method: A pretest-posttest-study was conducted with 33 registered nurses prior to and upon completion of the e-learning program. Data was collected from December 2013 to March 2014 using a literature-based questionnaire. Results: It was shown that knowledge and perceived competencies significantly improved from pre-test to post-test. No significant differences were measured with regard to the attitudes. Conclusions: The results suggest that the alcohol e-learning program could be used to enhance nurses’ knowledge and perceived competencies, both of which are related to the reduction of uncertainty and improvement of confidence. To foster non-judgemental attitudes towards affected people, classroom courses are recommended in addition to the e-learning program and the implementation of directives.

  4. Evidence-based surgery: knowledge, attitudes, and perceived barriers among surgical trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rohin; Perakath, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude of surgical trainees toward evidence-based medicine (EBM) and their perceived barriers to its practice. The McColl questionnaire and the BARRIERS scale were modified and incorporated into a single questionnaire, which was administered to all surgical trainees attending a Continuing Surgical Education meeting. Department of Surgery, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India. One hundred ten surgical trainees from 22 medical colleges. In all, 84.5% (93/110) trainees returned the questionnaire. The attitudes toward EBM were welcoming, although individual participants reported they welcomed EBM more than their colleagues did. Participants agreed that EBM was useful in everyday practice and that it improved patient care. About 50% of actual practice was considered evidence based. In all, 12.6% (10/89) of participants had received formal training in EBM, and 64.3% (54/84) of participants were aware of the Cochrane database of systemic reviews, but only 35.7% (30/84) read it regularly. Also, 67.8% (61/90) of respondents used protocols and guidelines developed by colleagues. However, 61.5% (56/91) of participants were interested in learning the skills of EBM. The terms absolute risk, relative risk, and clinical effectiveness were understood by >80% of respondents, whereas publication bias, confidence interval, and heterogeneity were poorly understood. The major barriers to practice of EBM were the inability to understand statistical analysis, inadequate facilities for implementation, lack of a single compiled source of literature, relevant literature not being readily available, and insufficient time on the job. Surgical trainees have a positive attitude towards EBM and have some familiarity with the common terms used in EBM. There is a need to increase awareness of, and provide access to, available sources of medical literature. Formal training in EBM, as well as basic statistical analysis, should form a part

  5. Using visual art and collaborative reflection to explore medical attitudes toward vulnerable persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Monica; Nixon, Lara; Rosenal, Tom; Jackson, Roberta; Pereles, Laurie; Mitchell, Ian; Bendiak, Glenda; Hughes, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Vulnerable persons often face stigma-related barriers while seeking health care. Innovative education and professional development methods are needed to help change this. We describe an interdisciplinary group workshop designed around a discomfiting oil portrait, intended to trigger provocative conversations among health care students and practitioners, and we present our mixed methods analysis of participant reflections. After the workshop, participants were significantly more likely to endorse the statements that the observation and interpretive skills involved in viewing visual art are relevant to patient care and that visual art should be used in medical education to improve students' observational skills, narrative skills, and empathy with their patients. Subsequent to the workshop, significantly more participants agreed that art interpretation should be required curriculum for health care students. Qualitative comments from two groups from two different education and professional contexts were examined for themes; conversations focused on issues of power, body image/self-esteem, and lessons for clinical practice. We argue that difficult conversations about affective responses to vulnerable persons are possible in a collaborative context using well-chosen works of visual art that can stand in for a patient.

  6. Using visual art and collaborative reflection to explore medical attitudes toward vulnerable persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Kidd

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vulnerable persons often face stigma-related barriers while seeking health care. Innovative education and professional development methods are needed to help change this. Method: We describe an interdisciplinary group workshop designed around a discomfiting oil portrait, intended to trigger provocative conversations among health care students and practitioners, and we present our mixed methods analysis of participant reflections. Results: After the workshop, participants were significantly more likely to endorse the statements that the observation and interpretive skills involved in viewing visual art are relevant to patient care and that visual art should be used in medical education to improve students’ observational skills, narrative skills, and empathy with their patients.  Subsequent to the workshop, significantly more participants agreed that art interpretation should be required curriculum for health care students. Qualitative comments from two groups from two different education and professional contexts were examined for themes; conversations focused on issues of power, body image/self-esteem, and lessons for clinical practice.    Conclusions: We argue that difficult conversations about affective responses to vulnerable persons are possible in a collaborative context using well-chosen works of visual art that can stand in for a patient.

  7. Parent and Self-Report Ratings on the Perceived Levels of Social Vulnerability of Adults with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, Emma; Fisher, Marisa H.

    2016-01-01

    The current study took a multi-informant approach to compare parent to self-report ratings of social vulnerability of adults with Williams syndrome (WS). Participants included 102 pairs of adults with WS and their parents. Parents completed the "Social Vulnerability Questionnaire" and adults with WS completed an adapted version of the…

  8. Impact of an Oral Health Education Workshop on Parents’ Oral Health Knowledge, Attitude, and Perceived Behavioral Control among African Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Amin; Pawan Nyachhyon; Maryam Elyasi; Muhammed Al-Nuaimi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the impact of an educational workshop on parental knowledge, attitude, and perceived behavioral control regarding their child’s oral health. Materials and Methods. A one-time oral health education workshop including audio/visual and hands-on components was conducted by a trained dentist and bilingual community workers in community locations. Participants were African parents of children who had lived in Canada for less than ten years. The impact of the workshop was evalua...

  9. Perceived smoking norms, socioenvironmental factors, personal attitudes and adolescent smoking in China: a mediation analysis with longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinguang; Stanton, Bonita; Fang, Xiaoyi; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Jintao; Liu, Hongjie; Yang, Hongmei

    2006-04-01

    To gather information on inter-relationships among risk factors affecting adolescent smoking for tobacco control in China, the world's largest tobacco producer and consumer. Longitudinal data were collected six months apart in 2003 from 813 students in grades 7, 8, 10, and 11 from two schools in Beijing, China. Linear regression was used to assess both the direct effect from predictor variables (smoking among influential others, pro-tobacco media, and attitudes toward smoking) on cigarette use and the indirect effect mediated through the perceived smoking norms (percentage of smokers among peers). Among the 803 subjects (mean age of 15.5 years, SD = 1.7; 52.1% female), 18.3% of males and 1.7% of females smoked in the past 30 days. Smoking among influential others (best friends, father, mother, male teachers, female teachers, and adults in general) and perceived positive psychological and social rewards from smoking at baseline were associated with number of cigarettes smoked at follow-up, whereas exposure to pro-tobacco media was not significantly associated with smoking. The mediated effect was greater for adult smoking (70% to 90%) than for best friend smoking (11% to 16%). Smoking among influential others and attitudes toward smoking influence adolescent smoking both directly and indirectly. The finding of the indirect effect mediated through perceived smoking norms expands our knowledge on smoking etiology. Effective adolescent smoking intervention programs in China need to include a component targeting adult smoking to reduce perceived smoking norms.

  10. Does a Well-Informed Employee Have a More Positive Attitude Toward Change? The Mediating Role of Psychological Contract Fulfillment, Trust, and Perceived Need for Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Sjoerd; Schalk, René; van Assen, Marcel A L M

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the mediating role of psychological contract fulfillment, trust, and perceived need for change in the relationship between change information and employee attitude toward organizational change. As one of the first studies in organizational change research, attitude toward change

  11. Health behaviours in emerging adulthood: Their relationship with perceived maternal and paternal parental attitudes and the mediating role of self-efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Jankowska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The present research examined the mediating role of self-efficacy in the association between perceived maternal and paternal parental attitudes and health behaviours of males and females in emerging adulthood. Parental attitudes shape children’s self-esteem, positive self-image, and self-competence. This may affect their physical health and health behaviours throughout their lives. Participants and procedure A total of 147 (mean age: 19.70, SD = 0.85, 68.7% females participants took part in the study. They completed several questionnaires measuring health behaviours, perceived parental attitudes, and self-efficacy: the Inventory of Health Behaviours, the Retrospective Assessment of Parental Attitude, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Results We found that that female participants exhibited healthier eating habits but lower self-efficacy than male participants did. Accepting and autonomy granting maternal and paternal parental attitudes predicted a positive health attitude (of both male and female participants, preventive behaviours (of male participants, and healthy eating habits (of male participants. As predicted, emerging adults’ self-efficacy mediated the relationship between their health behaviours and perceived parental attitudes. However, the mediation patterns were different for female and male participants. Conclusions The quality of perceived parental attitudes and self-efficacy are important for health-related lifestyle choices among emerging adults. Mothers and fathers may play different roles in the formation of health behaviours.

  12. Shame, perceived knowledge and satisfaction associated with mental health as predictors of attitude patterns towards help-seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüsch, N; Müller, M; Ajdacic-Gross, V; Rodgers, S; Corrigan, P W; Rössler, W

    2014-06-01

    Aims. To examine stigma- and knowledge-related barriers to help-seeking among members of the general population. Methods. In a representative survey of young to middle-aged Swiss adults (n = 8875), shame about a potential own mental illness, perceived knowledge about and satisfaction with one's mental health, psychiatric symptoms and attitudes towards help-seeking were assessed. Results. A latent profile analysis of all participants yielded two groups with different attitudes towards help-seeking. Relative to the majority, a one-in-four subgroup endorsed more negative attitudes towards seeking professional help, including psychiatric medication, and was characterized by more shame, less perceived knowledge, higher satisfaction with their mental health, younger age, male gender and lower education. Among participants with high symptom levels (n = 855), a third subgroup was reluctant to seek help in their private environment and characterized by high symptoms as well as low satisfaction with their mental health. Conclusions. Shame as an emotional proxy of self-stigma as well as poor subjective mental health literacy may be independent barriers to help-seeking. Interventions to increase mental health service use could focus on both variables and on those individuals with more negative views about professional help, in the general public as well as among people with a current mental illness.

  13. Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion, Perceived Adequacy of Support and Classroom Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsen, Jeremy J.; Ewing, Donna L.; Kwoka, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Inclusive education has become a cornerstone of many government policies in an increasing number of countries, yet teachers have been found to hold mixed attitudes towards its implementation and usefulness. This article, using English terminology and thinking, aims to extend previous research on the effect of teacher attitudes towards inclusion in…

  14. Effects of Attitudes toward Women and Women in Management on Perceived Communication Competencies of Women Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman-Fink, Cynthia; Wheeless, Virginia Eman

    A study examined the relationship among attitudes toward women in general, attitudes toward women as managers, and perceptions of the communication competencies of women managers. Subjects, 178 employees from various types of organizations, completed the Positive Regard Scale (PRS), the Women as Managers Scale (WAMS), and the Communication…

  15. How do young people in Cambodia perceive the impact of societal attitudes, media and religion on suicidal behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegannathan, Bhoomikumar; Kullgren, Gunnar; Dahlblom, Kjerstin

    2016-03-01

    Young people in low and middle income countries (LMICs) in societal transitions with rapidly changing norms face an increased risk of suicide. This study explores how young people in Cambodia understand the impact on suicidal behaviour from societal attitudes, media and religion. Focus group discussions were held with school students from a suburban area. Thematic analysis was used to interpret the data. Participants perceived the prevailing suicide-stigmatizing societal attitudes, the double-edged media and suicide-ambiguity in Buddhist religion as challenging. Globalization was recognized as contradicting with traditional Cambodian norms and values. Suicide prevention programmes should take into consideration the complex picture of suicide that young people are exposed to. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Perceived Risk Influence on the Consumer Attitude to Private Labels in the Product’s Life Cycle Growth Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Horvat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the relationship between purchasing risk associated with private labels and consumer attitudes towards private labels in different product categories in the growth stage of the product life cycle. The first part of the paper is devoted to a brief literature review of the relevant constructs. The second part describes the research and summarizes its results. Descriptive research was conducted on the Croatian market relating to private labels in three different product categories in the growth stage of the product life cycle: liquid soap, chocolate and facial care products. The results confirm negative correlation between perceived risk and attitudes towards private labels in all analysed categories.

  17. Ethnic identity and its relationship to self-esteem, perceived efficacy and prosocial attitudes in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E P; Walker, K; Fields, L; Brookins, C C; Seay, R C

    1999-12-01

    This study examined the relationship of ethnic identity to self-esteem, perceived self-efficacy and prosocial attitudes. The sample included 100 male and female early adolescents, ranging from 11 to 13 years old, from different racial/ethnic backgrounds. Structural equations modeling was used to examine the latent structure of the multi-dimensional constructs and their interrelationships. Self-esteem and ethnic identity factors emerged which were related and which evidenced efficacy-mediated effects upon prosocial attitudes. The findings suggested that ethnic identity and self-esteem are distinct but related contributors to young people's perceptions of their ability to achieve academically, to find meaningful careers and to value prosocial means of goal attainment. Copyright 1999 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

  18. Caregivers' Attitude towards People with Mental Illness and Perceived Stigma: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Tertiary Hospital in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Dipika; Dhakal, Sarmila; Thapa, Sabita; Bhandari, Parash Mani; Mishra, Shiva Raj

    2016-01-01

    Mental illness is stigmatized in most of the communities and people with such illness are often subjected to defame. Stigma impairs an individual's and their caregiver's physical, social and emotional wellbeing, and health-seeking behavior. Sufficient literature on how often the caregivers of people with mental illness from low and middle-income countries are stigmatized and how they perceive people with mental illness is unavailable. In this study, we examined caregivers' attitude towards people with mental illness and perceived stigma. We conducted face-to-face interviews with 170 caregivers in an outpatient clinic of a hospital in Nepal using a structured questionnaire. We calculated median and inter-quartile range of the attitude and perceived stigma scores. To assess the correlates, Kruskal Wallis H test and Mann Whitney U test were carried out. Overall median score for the domains: attitude (score range: 18-90) and perceived stigma (score range: 12-60) were 42 and 28 respectively, inter-quartile range being 8 each. Attitude score differed significantly by the sex of caregiver (pattitude towards mental illness. Similarly, sex of participant, marital status, educational status, occupation, caregiver's relation with patient and use of alternative treatment modalities were correlates of perceived stigma. Findings of this study suggest that interventions targeting these high-risk populations might be beneficial to help build a positive attitude and overcome the perceived social stigma.

  19. Caregivers’ Attitude towards People with Mental Illness and Perceived Stigma: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Tertiary Hospital in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Dipika; Dhakal, Sarmila; Thapa, Sabita; Bhandari, Parash Mani; Mishra, Shiva Raj

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental illness is stigmatized in most of the communities and people with such illness are often subjected to defame. Stigma impairs an individual’s and their caregiver’s physical, social and emotional wellbeing, and health-seeking behavior. Sufficient literature on how often the caregivers of people with mental illness from low and middle-income countries are stigmatized and how they perceive people with mental illness is unavailable. In this study, we examined caregivers’ attitude towards people with mental illness and perceived stigma. Methods We conducted face-to-face interviews with 170 caregivers in an outpatient clinic of a hospital in Nepal using a structured questionnaire. We calculated median and inter-quartile range of the attitude and perceived stigma scores. To assess the correlates, Kruskal Wallis H test and Mann Whitney U test were carried out. Results Overall median score for the domains: attitude (score range: 18–90) and perceived stigma (score range: 12–60) were 42 and 28 respectively, inter-quartile range being 8 each. Attitude score differed significantly by the sex of caregiver (pattitude towards mental illness. Similarly, sex of participant, marital status, educational status, occupation, caregiver’s relation with patient and use of alternative treatment modalities were correlates of perceived stigma. Findings of this study suggest that interventions targeting these high-risk populations might be beneficial to help build a positive attitude and overcome the perceived social stigma. PMID:27336391

  20. Self-perceived Age and Attitudes Toward Marketing of Older Consumers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Understanding consumer psychological characteristics and their impact on consumer behavior is an important foundation for business marketing strategies. Self-perceived age has a great impact on older consumers’ behavior. This article defines the gray market in China, investigates the factors that affect the differences between older consumers’ self-perceived age and life age, and analyzes the influence of self-perceived age on older Chinese consumers’ behavior. In this study, 1,120 older consumers were randomly selected from six cities in China. Findings show that over half of the respondents feel younger than their actual life age. Related marketing strategies are discussed. PMID:20835378

  1. Chocolate cake. Guilt or celebration? Associations with healthy eating attitudes, perceived behavioural control, intentions and weight-loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijer, Roeline G; Boyce, Jessica A

    2014-03-01

    Food and eating are often associated with ambivalent feelings: pleasure and enjoyment, but also worry and guilt. Guilt has the potential to motivate behaviour change, but may also lead to feelings of helplessness and loss of control. This study firstly examined whether a default association of either 'guilt' or 'celebration' with a prototypical forbidden food item (chocolate cake) was related to differences in attitudes, perceived behavioural control, and intentions in relation to healthy eating, and secondly whether the default association was related to weight change over an 18month period (and short term weight-loss in a subsample of participants with a weight-loss goal). This study did not find any evidence for adaptive or motivational properties of guilt. Participants associating chocolate cake with guilt did not report more positive attitudes or stronger intentions to eat healthy than did those associating chocolate cake with celebration. Instead, they reported lower levels of perceived behavioural control over eating and were less successful at maintaining their weight over an 18month period. Participants with a weight-loss goal who associated chocolate cake with guilt were less successful at losing weight over a 3month period compared to those associating chocolate cake with celebration. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Illicit substance use among university students from seven European countries: a comparison of personal and perceived peer use and attitudes towards illicit substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, S M; Mikolajczyk, R T; McAlaney, J; Vriesacker, B; Van Hal, G; Akvardar, Y; Guillen-Grima, F; Salonna, F; Stock, C; Dempsey, R C; Bewick, B M; Zeeb, H

    2014-10-01

    To compare European students' personal use and approval of illicit substance use with their perceptions of peer behaviours and attitudes, and investigate whether perceptions of peer norms are associated with personal use of illicit substances and attitudes. This study used baseline data from the Social Norms Intervention for the prevention of Polydrug usE (SNIPE) project involving 4482 students from seven European countries in 2012. Students completed an online survey which included questions on personal and perceived peer illicit substance use and personal and perceived peer attitude towards illicit substances. 8.3% of students reported having used illicit substances at least once in their life. 49.7% of students perceived that the majority of their peers have used illicit substances more frequently than themselves. The perception was significantly associated with higher odds for personal illicit substance use (OR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.53-2.54). The perception that the majority of peers approve illicit substance use was significantly associated with higher odds for personal approval of illicit substance use (OR: 3.47, 95% CI: 2.73-4.41). Students commonly perceived that their peers used illicit subtances more often than themselves. We found an association between the perceived peer norms/attitudes and reported individual behaviour/attitudes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fostering LGBTQ Advocacy in School Psychology as Adult Education: Shaping Attitudes, Beliefs, and Perceived Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Elana C.

    2013-01-01

    School psychologists are adult learners. They support children and youth within the K-12 system who are facing academic, emotional, behavioral, or systematic barriers to education. Among the most vulnerable are lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth, and school psychologists need to learn to be LGBTQ competent. The purpose of…

  4. Caregivers' Attitude towards People with Mental Illness and Perceived Stigma: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Tertiary Hospital in Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipika Neupane

    Full Text Available Mental illness is stigmatized in most of the communities and people with such illness are often subjected to defame. Stigma impairs an individual's and their caregiver's physical, social and emotional wellbeing, and health-seeking behavior. Sufficient literature on how often the caregivers of people with mental illness from low and middle-income countries are stigmatized and how they perceive people with mental illness is unavailable. In this study, we examined caregivers' attitude towards people with mental illness and perceived stigma.We conducted face-to-face interviews with 170 caregivers in an outpatient clinic of a hospital in Nepal using a structured questionnaire. We calculated median and inter-quartile range of the attitude and perceived stigma scores. To assess the correlates, Kruskal Wallis H test and Mann Whitney U test were carried out.Overall median score for the domains: attitude (score range: 18-90 and perceived stigma (score range: 12-60 were 42 and 28 respectively, inter-quartile range being 8 each. Attitude score differed significantly by the sex of caregiver (p<0.05, educational status of caregiver (p<0.001, sex of patient (p<0.05 and type of mental illness (p<0.05. Perceived stigma score varied significantly by caregiver's sex (p<0.05, marital status (p<0.001, educational status (p<0.001, occupation (p<0.05, relation with the patient (p<0.005 and use of alternative treatment modalities (p<0.05.Sex of participant, educational status, sex of patient and type of mental illness were the correlates of attitude towards mental illness. Similarly, sex of participant, marital status, educational status, occupation, caregiver's relation with patient and use of alternative treatment modalities were correlates of perceived stigma. Findings of this study suggest that interventions targeting these high-risk populations might be beneficial to help build a positive attitude and overcome the perceived social stigma.

  5. Perceived Parental Attitudes of Gender Expansiveness: Development and Preliminary Factor Structure of a Self-Report Youth Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Marco A; Chen, Diane; Garofalo, Robert; Forbes, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Parental acceptance of gender identity/expression in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ+) youth moderates the effects of minority stress on mental health outcomes. Given this association, mental health clinicians of gender-expansive adolescents often assess the degree to which these youth perceive their parents/primary caregivers as accepting or nonaffirming of their gender identity and expression. While existing measures may reliably assess youth's perceptions of general family support, no known tool aids in the assessment an adolescent's perceived parental support related to adolescent gender-expansive experiences. Methods: To provide both clinicians and researchers with an empirically derived tool, the current study used factor analysis to explore an underlying factor structure of a brief questionnaire developed by subject-matter experts and pertaining to multiple aspects of perceived parental support in gender-expansive adolescents and young adults. Respondents were gender-expansive adolescents and young adults seeking care in an interdisciplinary gender-health clinic within a pediatric academic medical center in the Midwestern United States. Results: Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a 14-item questionnaire comprised of two subscales assessing perceived parental nonaffirmation and perceived parental acceptance. Internal consistency and construct validity results provided support for this new questionnaire. Conclusion: This study provides preliminary evidence of the factor structure, reliability and validity of the Parental Attitudes of Gender Expansiveness Scale for Youth (PAGES-Y). These findings demonstrate both the clinical and research utility of the PAGES-Y, a tool that can yield a more nuanced understanding of family-related risk and protective factors in gender-expansive adolescents.

  6. Male perpetration of teen dating violence: associations with neighborhood violence involvement, gender attitudes, and perceived peer and neighborhood norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R; Miller, Elizabeth

    2011-04-01

    This study aims to examine the link between male perpetration of teen dating violence (TDV) and neighborhood violence, as well as associations with gender attitudes and perceived peer and neighborhood norms related to violence among a sample of urban adolescent boys. Participants of this cross-sectional study (N = 275) were between the ages of 14 and 20 years and recruited from urban community health centers. Crude and adjusted logistic and linear regression models were used to examine TDV perpetration in relation to (a) neighborhood violence involvement, (b) perceptions of peer violence, (c) perceptions of neighborhood violence, and (d) gender attitudes. Slightly more than one in four (28%) boys reported at least one form of TDV perpetration; among boys who have ever had sex, almost half (45%) reported at least one form of TDV perpetration. In logistic and linear regression models adjusted for demographics, boys who reported TDV perpetration were more likely to report involvement in neighborhood violence (odds ratio (OR) = 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.7-5.5), beliefs that their friends have perpetrated TDV (OR = 2.7; 95%CI = 1.4-5.1), perceptions of violent activity within their neighborhood (OR = 3.0; 95%CI = 1.4-6.3), and greater support of traditional gender norms (β = 3.2, p = 0.002). The findings suggest that efforts are needed to address boys' behaviors related to the perpetration of multiple forms of violence and require explicit efforts to reduce perceived norms of violence perpetration as well as problematic gender attitudes (e.g., increasing support for gender equity) across boys' life contexts.

  7. The effect of using in computer skills on teachers’ perceived self-efficacy beliefs towards technology integration, attitudes and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badrie Mohammad Nour ELDaou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The current study analyzesthe relationship between the apparentteacher’s Self-efficacyand attitudes towardsintegrating technology into classroom teaching, self-evaluation reportsand computer performance results. Pre-post measurement of the Computer Technology Integration Survey (CTIS (Wang et al, 2004 was used to determine theconfidence level with of 60 science teachers and 12 mixed-major teachers enrolled at the Lebanese University, Faculty of Education in the academic year 2011-2012. Pre –post measurement onteachers’attitudes towards usingtechnologywas examined using an opened and a closed questionnaire.Teachers’ performance was measured by means of their Activeinspire projects results using active boards after their third practice of training in computer skills and Activeinspire program. To accumulate data on teachers’ self-report, this study uses Robert Reasoner's five components: feeling of security, feeling of belonging, feeling of identity, feeling of goal, and self-actualization which teachers used to rate themselves (Reasoner,1983. The study acknowledged probable impacts of computer training skills on teachers ‘self-evaluation report, effectiveness of computer technology skills, and evaluations of self-efficacy attitudes toward technology integration. Pearson correlation revealed a strong relationship r= 0.99 between the perceived self-efficacy towards technology incorporation and teachers’ self-evaluation report. Also, the findings of this research revealed that 82.7% of teachers earned high computer technology scores on their Activeinspire projects and 33.3% received excellent grades on computer performance test. Recommendations and potential research were discussed

  8. Attitudes towards income inequality : ‘Winners’ versus ‘losers’ of the perceived meritocracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roex, Karlijn; Huijts, T.; Sieben, I.J.P.

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with a higher social position are more tolerant of current income inequality than individuals with a lower social position. Besides this, attitudes towards income inequality are influenced by inequality-legitimising myths in a given society. Little is known about how these two factors

  9. Community College Faculty Members' Perceived Multicultural Teaching Competence and Attitudes Regarding Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fittz, Mia Web

    2015-01-01

    This study utilized the Survey of Community College Faculty (SCCF), a combined survey of the Multicultural Teaching Scale (MTS) and Pluralism and Diversity Attitude Assessment (PADAA) that framed the research. The MTS assessed self-reported cultural competencies categorized into five dimensions: (a) Content Integration, (b) Knowledge Construction,…

  10. Evidence-based practice in radiology: Knowledge, attitude and perceived barriers to practice among residents in radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anuradha, Chandramohan, E-mail: anuradhachandramohan@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632 004 (India); Jacob, K.S., E-mail: ksjacob@cmcvellore.ac.in [Department of Psychiatry, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632 004 (India); Specialist Mental Health Service for Older People, Suite 106, 64–68 Derby Street, Kingswood, Penrith 2750 (Australia); Shyamkumar, N.K., E-mail: aparnashyam@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632 004 (India); Sridhar, Gibikote, E-mail: gibikote@cmcvellore.ac.in [Department of Radiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632 004 (India)

    2013-05-15

    Aim: We examinted the attitude, knowledge and perceived barriers to evidence-based practice of radiology (EBPR) among residents in radiology. Study design and setting: We used the McColl questionnaire (1) and the BARRIERS scale (2) to assess the issues among radiology trainees attending an annual refresher course. Ninety six residents from 32 medical colleges from Southern India attended the course. Results: Eighty (83.3%) residents, 55 male and 25 female of age range 24–34 years, consented and returned the questionnaire. The majority of the participants had a positive attitude towards EBPR. However, 45% were unaware of sources for evidence based literature although many had access to Medline (45%) and the internet (80%). The majority (70%) were aware of the common technical terms (e.g. odds ratio, absolute and relative risk) but other complex details (e.g. meta-analysis, clinical effectiveness, confidence interval, publication bias and number needed to treat) were poorly understood. Though majority of residents (59%) were currently following guidelines and protocols laid by colleagues within their departments, 70% of residents were interested in learning the skills of EBPR and were willing to appraise primary literature or systematic reviews by themselves. Insufficient time on the job to implement new ideas (70.1%); relevant literature is not being complied in one place (68.9%); not being able to understand statistical methods (68.5%) were considered to be the major barriers to EBPR. Training in critical appraisal significantly influence usage of bibliographic databases (p < 0.0001). Attitude of collegues (p = 0.006) influenced attitude of the trainees towards EBPR. Those with higher knowledge scores (p = 0.02) and a greater awareness of sources for seeking evidence based literature (p = 0.05) held stronger beliefs that EBPR significantly improved patient care. Conclusions: The large knowledge gap related to EBPR suggests the need to incorporate structured

  11. Evidence-based practice in radiology: Knowledge, attitude and perceived barriers to practice among residents in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anuradha, Chandramohan; Jacob, K.S.; Shyamkumar, N.K.; Sridhar, Gibikote

    2013-01-01

    Aim: We examinted the attitude, knowledge and perceived barriers to evidence-based practice of radiology (EBPR) among residents in radiology. Study design and setting: We used the McColl questionnaire (1) and the BARRIERS scale (2) to assess the issues among radiology trainees attending an annual refresher course. Ninety six residents from 32 medical colleges from Southern India attended the course. Results: Eighty (83.3%) residents, 55 male and 25 female of age range 24–34 years, consented and returned the questionnaire. The majority of the participants had a positive attitude towards EBPR. However, 45% were unaware of sources for evidence based literature although many had access to Medline (45%) and the internet (80%). The majority (70%) were aware of the common technical terms (e.g. odds ratio, absolute and relative risk) but other complex details (e.g. meta-analysis, clinical effectiveness, confidence interval, publication bias and number needed to treat) were poorly understood. Though majority of residents (59%) were currently following guidelines and protocols laid by colleagues within their departments, 70% of residents were interested in learning the skills of EBPR and were willing to appraise primary literature or systematic reviews by themselves. Insufficient time on the job to implement new ideas (70.1%); relevant literature is not being complied in one place (68.9%); not being able to understand statistical methods (68.5%) were considered to be the major barriers to EBPR. Training in critical appraisal significantly influence usage of bibliographic databases (p < 0.0001). Attitude of collegues (p = 0.006) influenced attitude of the trainees towards EBPR. Those with higher knowledge scores (p = 0.02) and a greater awareness of sources for seeking evidence based literature (p = 0.05) held stronger beliefs that EBPR significantly improved patient care. Conclusions: The large knowledge gap related to EBPR suggests the need to incorporate structured

  12. Exploring undergraduate students' attitudes towards interprofessional learning, motivation-to-learn, and perceived impact of learning conflict resolution skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergoot, Sonya; Sarris, Aspa; Kirby, Neil; Ward, Helena

    2018-03-01

    Conflict resolution skills are important for all healthcare professionals as conflict and mis-communication can have detrimental effects on decision-making, potentially impacting significantly on patient care, morbidity, and mortality. Interprofessional learning (IPL) has been found to increase collaboration and improve collegial relationships and hence may be an appropriate way to increase conflict resolution skills among healthcare graduates. This study examined transference of conflict resolution skills, motivation-to-learn, and attitudes to IPL of medical (n = 52) and nursing (n = 74) undergraduate students who undertook an IPL conflict resolution program. Results indicated that motivation-to-learn, attitudes to IPL, and transfer of conflict resolution skills were significantly related to each other, even when controlling for other variables, such as age and gender. When comparing the two groups, undergraduate nursing students were found to have statistically higher motivation-to-learn and transference of conflict resolution skills, and reported a more positive attitude to IPL than medical students. Some of these differences may be attributed to lack of clinical placements for medical students in the first half of their degree at their university, giving them less opportunity to apply the conflict resolution skills taught, as well as less contextual relevance. This may potentially affect their motivation-to-learn and attitude to IPL thus impacting on how they perceive the relevance of learning conflict resolution skills. Without the contextual relevancy of placements at the time of learning for medical students, the newly acquired conflict resolution skills are less likely to transfer to practice in an optimal fashion.

  13. Getting Vaccinated against HPV: Attitudes, Intentions and Perceived Barriers of Female Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sloane C.; Vail-Smith, Karen; White, David M.; Baker, Elizabeth; Mitchell, Terri

    2010-01-01

    This study examines college women's intention to receive the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine and their perceived barriers to being vaccinated. The study reports findings from an online questionnaire completed by 856 undergraduate women enrolled in a required personal health course at a large (27,000 plus) southeastern university. The majority…

  14. The Impact of Students' Perceived Emotional Intelligence, Social Attitudes and Teacher Expectations on Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Morales, M. Isabel; Lopez-Zafra, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to analyze the role that Perceived Emotional Intelligence and social competences have on academic performance. Furthermore, we analyze the role of teacher's expectancies on performance in secondary school students. Method: One hundred ninety three students (50.7% male and 49.3 % female) from the first and…

  15. Assessment of Nurses’ Knowledge, Attitude, and Perceived Barriers to Expressed Pressure Ulcer Prevention Practice in Addis Ababa Government Hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Abebe Dilie; Daniel Mengistu

    2015-01-01

    Background. Although pressure ulcer development is now generally considered as an indicator for quality of nursing care, questions and concerns about situations in which they are unavoidable remain. Awareness about the significance of the problem, positive attitude towards prevention, and an adequate level of knowledge are cornerstones to effectively prevent pressure ulcers. Objective. To assess nurses’ knowledge, attitudes, and perceived barriers to expressed pressure ulcer prevention practi...

  16. The impact of perceived brand value on consumer attitude and purchase intention

    OpenAIRE

    Lindartaitė, Grėtė

    2017-01-01

    The authors affirm, that a consumer‘s apprehensible brand value has a great influence on consumer‘s purchase intention. It was established, that consumer‘s point of view starts to develop gradually and outward factors decide an purchase intention. Consumer‘s purchase intention is desribed as a very important factor which appears from a consumer and a specific brand value, their interrelations, believes, attitude to it and consumer‘s cherished values and emotions. The results of analysed empir...

  17. The effects of perceived phenotypic racial stereotypicality and social identity threat on racial minorities' attitudes about police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Kimberly Barsamian; Lee, J Katherine; Renauer, Brian; Henning, Kris R; Stewart, Greg

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the role of perceived phenotypic racial stereotypicality and race-based social identity threat on racial minorities' trust and cooperation with police. We hypothesize that in police interactions, racial minorities' phenotypic racial stereotypicality may increase race-based social identity threat, which will lead to distrust and decreased participation with police. Racial minorities (Blacks, Latinos, Native Americans, and multi-racials) and Whites from a representative random sample of city residents were surveyed about policing attitudes. A serial multiple mediation model confirmed that racial minorities' self-rated phenotypic racial stereotypicality indirectly affected future cooperation through social identity threat and trust. Due to the lack of negative group stereotypes in policing, the model did not hold for Whites. This study provides evidence that phenotypic stereotypicality influences racial minorities' psychological experiences interacting with police.

  18. FACEBOOK ADVERTISING: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TYPES OF MESSAGE, BRAND ATTITUDE AND PERCEIVED BUYING RISK

    OpenAIRE

    BOGDAN ANASTASIEI; NICOLETA DOSPINESCU

    2017-01-01

    We are witnessing a spectacular growth in electronic commerce in recent years, although we cannot say that it has been without obstacles. Among the barriers mentioned by the literature are the lack of trust in online brands, the perceived purchase risk, the perception of the type of promotional message. More often than not, commercial Facebook posts influence brand image and brand trust, which can lead to an increased buying intention. Our research attempted to determine whether t...

  19. Perceptions of others' political affiliation are moderated by individual perceivers' own political attitudes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paul Wilson

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that perceivers can accurately extract information about perceptually ambiguous group memberships from facial information alone. For example, people demonstrate above-chance accuracy in categorizing political ideology from faces. Further, they ascribe particular personality traits to faces according to political party (e.g., Republicans are dominant and mature, Democrats are likeable and trustworthy. Here, we report three studies that replicated and extended these effects. In Study 1a, we provide evidence that, in addition to showing accuracy in categorization, politically-conservative participants expressed a bias toward categorizing targets as outgroup members. In Study 1b, we replicate this relationship with a larger sample and a stimulus set consisting of faces of professional politicians. In Study 2, we find that trait ascriptions based on target political affiliation are moderated by perceiver political ideology. Specifically, although Democrats are stereotyped as more likeable and trustworthy, conservative participants rated faces that were categorized as Republicans in Study 1a as more likeable and trustworthy than faces categorized as Democrats. Thus, this paper joins a growing literature showing that it is critical to consider perceiver identity in examining perceptions of identities and traits from faces.

  20. Perceptions of others' political affiliation are moderated by individual perceivers' own political attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John Paul; Rule, Nicholas O

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that perceivers can accurately extract information about perceptually ambiguous group memberships from facial information alone. For example, people demonstrate above-chance accuracy in categorizing political ideology from faces. Further, they ascribe particular personality traits to faces according to political party (e.g., Republicans are dominant and mature, Democrats are likeable and trustworthy). Here, we report three studies that replicated and extended these effects. In Study 1a, we provide evidence that, in addition to showing accuracy in categorization, politically-conservative participants expressed a bias toward categorizing targets as outgroup members. In Study 1b, we replicate this relationship with a larger sample and a stimulus set consisting of faces of professional politicians. In Study 2, we find that trait ascriptions based on target political affiliation are moderated by perceiver political ideology. Specifically, although Democrats are stereotyped as more likeable and trustworthy, conservative participants rated faces that were categorized as Republicans in Study 1a as more likeable and trustworthy than faces categorized as Democrats. Thus, this paper joins a growing literature showing that it is critical to consider perceiver identity in examining perceptions of identities and traits from faces.

  1. Perceptions of Others' Political Affiliation Are Moderated by Individual Perceivers' Own Political Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John Paul; Rule, Nicholas O.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that perceivers can accurately extract information about perceptually ambiguous group memberships from facial information alone. For example, people demonstrate above-chance accuracy in categorizing political ideology from faces. Further, they ascribe particular personality traits to faces according to political party (e.g., Republicans are dominant and mature, Democrats are likeable and trustworthy). Here, we report three studies that replicated and extended these effects. In Study 1a, we provide evidence that, in addition to showing accuracy in categorization, politically-conservative participants expressed a bias toward categorizing targets as outgroup members. In Study 1b, we replicate this relationship with a larger sample and a stimulus set consisting of faces of professional politicians. In Study 2, we find that trait ascriptions based on target political affiliation are moderated by perceiver political ideology. Specifically, although Democrats are stereotyped as more likeable and trustworthy, conservative participants rated faces that were categorized as Republicans in Study 1a as more likeable and trustworthy than faces categorized as Democrats. Thus, this paper joins a growing literature showing that it is critical to consider perceiver identity in examining perceptions of identities and traits from faces. PMID:24781819

  2. Individual attitudes and perceived social norms: Reports on HIV/AIDS-related stigma among service providers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Wu, Zunyou; Lin, Chunqing; Wen, Yi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined HIV/AIDS-related stigma among Chinese service providers by comparing their personal attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS with their perception of social norms related to people living with HIV/AIDS. We randomly selected three provincial hospitals, four city/prefecture hospitals, 10 county hospitals, 18 township health clinics, and 54 village clinics from Yunnan, China. Doctors and nurses were randomly sampled proportionally to the doctor-nurse ratio of each hospital or clinic. Lab technicians were over-sampled in order to include an adequate representation in the analysis. A total of 1,101 service providers participated in a voluntary, anonymous survey where demographic characteristics, individual attitude and perceived social norms toward people living with HIV/AIDS, discrimination intent at work, general prejudicial attitude and knowledge on HIV/AIDS were measured. A majority of the sample demonstrated a similarity between their personal views and what they thought most people in society believe. Multiple logistic regressions revealed that participants who were younger or reported personal contact with people living with HIV/AIDS were significantly more likely to report personal attitudes toward the population that were more liberal than their perceived social norms. Holding a more liberal personal attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS than perceived social norms was significantly and negatively related to the level of discrimination intent at work, perceived discrimination at interpersonal level and the level of general prejudicial attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Results underscored the importance of understanding social norms and personal attitudes in studying HIV-related stigma and called for the incorporation of existing human capital into future HIV stigma reduction programs. Cette étude a examiné le VIH/SIDA lié à stigmatisation parmi les agences chinoises fournissant des soins en comparant leurs attitudes

  3. Attributing Responsibility, Sexist Attitudes, Perceived Social Support, and Self-Esteem in Aggressors Convicted for Gender-Based Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Molina, Mónica; Moreno-Manso, Juan Manuel; Guerrero-Barona, Eloísa; Cruz-Márquez, Beatriz

    2017-06-01

    This work analyzes how the assumption of responsibility by aggressors convicted for gender-based violence is related to sexist attitudes, self-esteem and perceived functional social support. Similarly, the predictive capacity of these variables is studied with respect to the aggressors' minimization of the harm done and a lack of attributing responsibility to themselves. The participants in the research were males condemned to prison sentences for crimes related with gender-based violence in Spain. The instruments applied were the Attribution of Responsibility and Minimization of Harm Scale, the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE), the Functional Social Support Questionnaire (FSSQ), and the Social Desirability Scale (SDS). The study concludes that sexist attitudes are related with a greater lack of attribution of responsibility, as well as with a greater tendency to minimize the harm done by the aggression. In addition, the aggressors with low self-esteem use self-defense as a strategy to justify the violence. Similarly, the presence of an adequate social support network for the aggressor increases the attribution of responsibility on the part of those convicted for gender-based violence.

  4. The Effect of Using in Computer Skills on Teachers’ Perceived Self-Efficacy Beliefs Towards Technology Integration, Attitudes and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badrie Mohammad Nour EL-Daou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study analyzes the relationship between the apparent teacher’s Self-efficacy and attitudes towards integrating technology into classroom teaching, self- evaluation reports and computer performance results. Pre-post measurement of the Computer Technology Integration Survey (CTIS (Wang et al,2004 was used to determine the confidence level with of 60 science teachers and 12 mixed-major teachers enrolled at the Lebanese University, Faculty of Education in the academic year 2011-2012. Pre –post measurement on teachers’ attitudes towards using technology was examined using an opened and a closed questionnaire. Teachers’ performance was measured by means of their Activeinspire projects results using active boards after their third practice of training in computer skills and Activeinspire program. To accumulate data on teachers’ self-report, this study uses Robert Reasoner's five components: feeling of security, feeling of belonging, feeling of identity, feeling of goal, and self-actualization which teachers used to rate themselves (Reasoner,1983. The study acknowledged probable impacts of computer training skills on teachers ‘self-evaluation report, effectiveness of computer technology skills, and evaluations of self-efficacy attitudes toward technology integration. Pearson correlation revealed a strong relationship r = 0.99 between the perceived self-efficacy towards technology incorporation and teachers’ self-evaluation report. Also, the findings of this research revealed that 82.7% of teachers earned high computer technology scores on their Activeinspire projects and 33.3% received excellent grades on computer performance test. Recommendations and potential research were discussed.

  5. Effects That Facebook-Based Online Peer Assessment with Micro-Teaching Videos Can Have on Attitudes toward Peer Assessment and Perceived Learning from Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guan-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects that Facebook-based online peer assessment with micro-teaching videos can have on attitudes toward peer assessment and perceived learning from peer assessment. The study recruited a sample of 31 university students who were enrolled in a teacher-training course. Using assessees' microteaching videos, the…

  6. The impact of an immunization training certificate program on the perceived knowledge, skills and attitudes of pharmacy students toward pharmacy-based immunizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcum ZA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the impact of a national immunization training certificate program on the perceived knowledge, skills and attitudes of pharmacy students toward pharmacy-based immunizations.Methods: The study design utilized a pre- and post-survey administered to pharmacy students before and after the American Pharmacists Association’s (APhA Pharmacy-Based Immunization Delivery program. The primary outcome explored was a change in the perceived knowledge, skills, and attitudes of the pharmacy students. A five-point Likert scale (i.e. strongly agree = 5, strongly disagree = 1 was used for measuring the main outcomes, which was summated by adding the individual item scores in each section to form a composite score for each outcome. Results: The certificate training program resulted in a significant improvement in knowledge (38.5% increase in score, p<0.001 and skills (34.5% increase in score, p<0.001, but not attitudes (1% increase in score, p=0.210.Conclusions: The national immunization training certificate program had a positive impact on the perceived knowledge and skills of pharmacy students. However, no change was observed regarding students’ perceived attitudes toward pharmacy-based immunizations.

  7. Impact of critical care environment on burnout, perceived quality of care and safety attitude of the nursing team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirardello, Edinêis de Brito

    2017-06-05

    assess the perception of the nursing team about the environment of practice in critical care services and its relation with the safety attitude, perceived quality of care and burnout level. cross-sectional study involving 114 nursing professionals from the intensive care unit of a teaching hospital. The following instruments were used: Nursing Work Index-Revised, Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Safety Attitude Questionnaire. the professionals who perceived greater autonomy, good relationships with the medical team and better control over the work environment presented lower levels of burnout, assessed the quality of care as good and reported a positive perception on the safety attitude for the domain job satisfaction. the findings evidenced that environments favorable to these professionals' practice result in lower levels of burnout, a better perceived quality of care and attitudes favorable to patient safety. avaliar a percepção da equipe de enfermagem sobre o ambiente da prática em unidades de cuidados críticos e sua relação com atitude de segurança, percepção da qualidade do cuidado e nível de burnout. estudo transversal com a participação de 114 profissionais de enfermagem da unidade de terapia intensiva de um hospital de ensino. Foram utilizados os instrumentos: Nursing Work Index-Revised, Inventário de Burnout de Maslach e o Questionário de Atitudes de Segurança. os profissionais que perceberam maior autonomia, boas relações com a equipe médica e melhor controle sobre o ambiente de trabalho, apresentaram menores níveis de burnout, avaliaram como boa a qualidade do cuidado e relataram uma percepção positiva da atitude de segurança para o domínio satisfação no trabalho. os achados evidenciaram que ambientes favoráveis à prática desses profissionais resultam em menores níveis de burnout, melhor percepção da qualidade do cuidado e atitudes favoráveis à segurança do paciente. evaluar la percepción del equipo de enfermer

  8. Perceived discrimination and sexual precursor behaviors in Mexican American preadolescent girls: The role of psychological distress, sexual attitudes, and marianismo beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Delida; Whittaker, Tiffany A; Hamilton, Emma; Zayas, Luis H

    2016-07-01

    This study explored the relation between perceived discrimination and sexual precursor behaviors among 205 Mexican American preadolescent middle school girls. In addition, this study examined whether psychological distress and sexual attitudes mediated and whether marianismo beliefs moderated this relation. A categorical confirmatory factor analysis (CCFA) of the Marianismo Beliefs Scale (MBS) was conducted to test the factor structure with a preadolescent Mexican American population (ages 11-14). A path analysis of analytic models was then performed to examine the hypothesized relations between perceived discrimination, psychological distress, sexual attitudes, marianismo beliefs, and sexual precursor behaviors. Results of the CCFA did not support the original 5-factor structure of the MBS for preadolescent Latina girls. However, a revised version of the MBS indicated an acceptable model fit, and findings from the path analysis indicated that perceived discrimination was both directly and indirectly linked to sexual precursor behaviors via psychological distress. Marianismo was not found to moderate the relation between perceived discrimination and sexual risk behaviors, however certain marianismo pillars were significantly negatively linked with sexual attitudes and precursor behaviors. This study underscores the importance of psychological distress in the perceived discrimination and sexual precursor link as well as the compensatory aspects of marianismo against sexual precursor behaviors in Mexican American preadolescent girls. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Better view on attitudes and perceived parental reactions behind waterpipe smoking among Iranian students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Roohafza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because of the increasing usage of waterpipe globally, we need to know more about the different factors related to waterpipe and cigarette smoking. Therefore, the present study aims at gaining more insight on waterpipe and cigarette smoking based on perceived parental reaction and appeal and repellent of smoking among adolescents. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey entitled "Isfahan Tobacco Use Prevention Program" (ITUPP was conducted among 5,500 adolescents in Isfahan Province, Iran in 2010 using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. Demographic factors, cigarette and waterpipe smoking status, appeal and repellent of smoking, perceived parental reactions, and the main reasons behind the increase in waterpipe smoking were measured. Chi-square, univariate logistic regression, and multiple logistic regression were used. For all analyses, we defined statistical significance a priori with a two-tailed alpha of 0.05. Statistical analyses were conducted using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 15. Results: 50% of the sample was female and 89% lived in urban areas. The average age of the respondents was 14.37 ± 1. 70 years. While a majority of cigarette smokers (70.9% were waterpipe smokers, only 35.7% of waterpipe smokers smoked cigarettes. The incidence of smoking was high in those who expected less extensive parental reaction with odds ratio (OR = 1.89 [95% confidence interval (CI: 1.35-2.63] (P < 0.001 among cigarette smokers and OR = 2.75 (95% CI: 2.16-3.50 (P < 0.001 among waterpipe smokers. "Taste" was rated the most attractive feature by waterpipe and cigarette smokers 2.83-fold (95% CI: 2.06, 3.90 (P < 0.001. Most waterpipe smokers compared to nonsmokers believed that the main reason behind waterpipe popularity was habit. Conclusion: The factors related to waterpipe smoking were different from those in cigarette smoking; so we need to implement different interventions to overcome the

  10. Teachers’ knowledge, perceived teaching efficacy, and attitudes regarding students with ADHD: a cross-cultural comparison of teachers in South Korea and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The purpose of this study was to investigate cross-cultural similarities and differences between Korean and German teachers in terms of knowledge, perceived teaching efficacy (PTE, and attitudes regarding students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, as well as to evaluate how teachers’ experiences influence their attitudes through knowledge and perceived teaching efficacy, based on three components of attitudes within a culture as well as across cultures. Participants and procedure Participants were teachers from Korea (n = 639 and Germany (n = 317. Through disproportional stratified sampling, matched samples of 264 Korean and 264 German teachers were obtained. The Kos questionnaire was slightly modified for the two countries due to different cultural backgrounds, by conducting translation/back-translation, item review, and a pilot study. The survey instrument was distributed from September 2012 to December 2013. SPSS 22.0 and AMOS 22.0 were used to analyze the data. Results Korean teachers showed higher knowledge than German teachers. German teachers were found to have a greater PTE as well as more favorable attitudes compared to Korean teachers. Both Korean and German teachers’ experience led to their attitudes through knowledge and PTE. Also, the ways in which these variables have an influence on teachers’ attitudes differ between Korea and Germany. Conclusions This investigation proved the cross-cultural differences of all research variables (experience, knowledge, PTE, attitudes as well as the research model (knowledge and PTE as mediators based on attitude theory. This study can be a preliminary resource to develop an ADHD management manual based on theoretical and cultural perspectives in both countries, so that both Korean and German teachers can be prepared for students with ADHD in their daily classroom practice.

  11. Exploring Attitudes, Perceived Norms, and Personal Agency: Insights Into Theory-Based Messages to Encourage Park-Based Physical Activity in Low-Income Urban Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groshong, Lisa; Stanis, Sonja A Wilhelm; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Hipp, J Aaron; Besenyi, Gina M

    2017-02-01

    Public parks hold promise for promoting population-level PA, but studies show a significant portion of park use is sedentary. Past research has documented the effectiveness of message-based strategies for influencing diverse behaviors in park settings and for increasing PA in nonpark contexts. Therefore, to inform message-based interventions (eg, point-ofdecision prompts) to increase park-based PA, the purpose of this study was to elicit insights about key attitudes, perceived norms, and personal agency that affect park use and park-based PA in low-income urban neighborhoods. This study used 6 focus groups with youth and adults (n = 41) from low-income urban areas in Kansas City, MO, to examine perceptions of key attitudinal outcomes and motivations, perceived norms, key referents, and personal agency facilitators and constraints that affect park use and park-based PA. Participant attitudes reflected the importance of parks for mental and physical health, with social interaction and solitude cited as key motivations. Of 10 themes regarding perceived norms, influential others reflected participants' ethnic makeup but little consensus emerged among groups. Social and safety themes were cited as both facilitators and constraints, along with park offerings and setting. Information about attitudes, perceived norms, and personal agency can increase understanding of theoretically derived factors that influence park-based PA and help park and health professionals create communication strategies to promote PA.

  12. Perceived risks and risk attitudes in southern Russia in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M.

    1993-10-01

    The present study was conducted within the framework of the Joint Study Project 2 (JSP2), a research project involving the European Community and the Commonwealth of Independent States. The task involved the investigation of public reactions to radioactive contamination due to the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The here presented field-work was designed as a pilot investigation in a series of studies aimed at contributing to the understanding of social and psychological factors relevant to the design of countermeasures in the case of a future nuclear accident. The report presents questionnaire data collected from people living in Novozybkov and its surroundings in Russia, in the summer of 1992. The chosen areas had an overall surface contamination level of 15-40 Ci/km 2 . The results showed that the respondents recalled the date of the accident surprisingly well. They often indicated that they had heard the first news of the accident via TV, radio or rumors. They often reported the content of that information to have been related to an explosion or a fire at a nuclear plant. They indicated that they at the time had a rather modest reaction to the news. Current worries especially concerned health risks due to the radioactive contamination, although the respondents also emphasized that ordinary life was filled with worries. Middle-aged persons and parents often indicated the highest personal worry. Risk ratings related to radiation and radioactive contamination were high. Ratings of perceived change in risk level since the accident of a variety of hazards showed an overall increase. 27 refs, 23 figs, 23 tabs

  13. Education in mental health promotion and its impact on the participants' attitudes and perceived mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaras Vlassis D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the promotion of mental health (MHP through education and training is widely accepted, there is scarce evidence for its effectiveness in the literature from outcome studies worldwide. The present study aimed to assess the effect of a three-semester MHP educational program on the recipients' opinions towards mental illness and on their own self-assessed health. Methods Respondents were 78 attendees who completed the assessment battery at the first (baseline and the last session (end of the training course. They were primary care physicians or other professionals, or key community agents, working in the greater Athens area. The course consisted of 44 sessions (4 h each, over a 3-semester period, focusing on the principles and methods of mental health promotion, the main aspects of major psychiatric disorders, and on relevant to health skills. Assessment instruments included the Opinion about Mental Illness (OMI scale and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28. Results The mean scores of three OMI factors, that is, social discrimination, social restriction and social integration, and the two GHQ-28 subscales, that is, anxiety/insomnia and social dysfunction, were significantly improved by the end of the training course. Conclusions The results of this study provide evidence, with limitations, for the short-term effectiveness of the implemented educational MHP program on an adult group of recipients-key agents in their community. Because interventions for strengthening positive opinions about mental illness and enhancing self-assessed health constitute priority aims of mental health promotion, it would be beneficial to further investigate the sustainability of the observed positive changes. In addition it would be useful to examine (a the possible interplay between the two outcome measures, that is, the effect of opinions of recipients about mental health on their perceived health, and (b the applicability of this

  14. Perceived risks and risk attitudes in southern Russia in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, B M [Stockholm School of Economics (Sweden). Center for Risk Research; Rumyantseva, G M; Martyvshov, A N [The Serbsky Research Institute, Moscow, (Russian Federation)

    1993-10-01

    The present study was conducted within the framework of the Joint Study Project 2 (JSP2), a research project involving the European Community and the Commonwealth of Independent States. The task involved the investigation of public reactions to radioactive contamination due to the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The here presented field-work was designed as a pilot investigation in a series of studies aimed at contributing to the understanding of social and psychological factors relevant to the design of countermeasures in the case of a future nuclear accident. The report presents questionnaire data collected from people living in Novozybkov and its surroundings in Russia, in the summer of 1992. The chosen areas had an overall surface contamination level of 15-40 Ci/km{sup 2}. The results showed that the respondents recalled the date of the accident surprisingly well. They often indicated that they had heard the first news of the accident via TV, radio or rumors. They often reported the content of that information to have been related to an explosion or a fire at a nuclear plant. They indicated that they at the time had a rather modest reaction to the news. Current worries especially concerned health risks due to the radioactive contamination, although the respondents also emphasized that ordinary life was filled with worries. Middle-aged persons and parents often indicated the highest personal worry. Risk ratings related to radiation and radioactive contamination were high. Ratings of perceived change in risk level since the accident of a variety of hazards showed an overall increase. 27 refs, 23 figs, 23 tabs.

  15. Breastfeeding knowledge, attitude, perceived behavior, and intention among female undergraduate university students in the Middle East: the case of Lebanon and Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamade, Haya; Naja, Farah; Keyrouz, Sarah; Hwalla, Nahla; Karam, Jeanette; Al-Rustom, Lea; Nasreddine, Lara

    2014-06-01

    The Middle East has one of the lowest rates of exclusive breastfeeding in the world, highlighting the need to promote breastfeeding in this region. Young adults represent a key population of interest, since decisions about infant-feeding appear to be made before children are even conceived. To examine breastfeeding knowledge, attitude, and perceived behavior among female undergraduate students in Lebanon and Syria and determine factors associated with intention to breastfeed in this population. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010/11 in Damascus and Beirut. Four universities were selected in each city. A multicomponent questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of participants (n = 194 from Beirut and n = 199 from Damascus). The questionnaire included breastfeeding knowledge (measured by the Infant Feeding Knowledge Test Form), attitude (Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale), perceived behavior (Breastfeeding Behavior Questionnaire), and intention (Infant Feeding Intention Scale). Factors associated with intention to breastfeed were examined by multivariate linear regression analysis. The participants had an average breastfeeding knowledge level (mean score, 10.39 +/- 2.09) and neutral perceived behavior (mean score, 22.00 +/- 3.68), while having relatively positive attitudes (mean score, 58.12 +/- 6.49). Knowledge gaps and negative perceptions were identified, particularly linked to breastfeeding in public and among working mothers. Breastfeeding intention was found to be significantly associated with knowledge and attitude in Lebanon (beta = 0.103 and beta = 0.230, respectively), and with perceived behavior in Syria (beta = -0.135). By revealing specific knowledge gaps and misconceptions and identifying country-specific disparities in the predictors of the intention to breastfeed, the findings of this study may provide a basis for devising culture-specific interventions aimed at promoting breastfeeding.

  16. "I can do it": does confidence and perceived ability in learning new ICT skills predict pre-service health professionals' attitude towards engaging in e-healthcare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Mary K; Nguyen, Melanie; Lowe, Robyn; Nagarajan, Srivalli V; Lincoln, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    There are many factors affecting health professionals' willingness to engage in e-health. One of these factors is whether health professionals perceive themselves to be able to learn new skills, and have the confidence in mastering these new Information and Communication Technology (ICT) skills. This study examined how health students' confidence and perceived ability for learning new ICT skills affect their attitude towards engaging in e-health. A survey was conducted to explore students' attitude towards using e-health and their perceived self-efficacy and confidence to learn new ICT skills. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between confidence and self-efficacy, and attitude towards engaging in e-health controlling for participants' age, gender, and prior IT learning experience. The three scales measuring attitude, confidence and self-efficacy showed good internal consistency with respective Cronbach's Alpha scores of 0.835, 0.761 and 0.762. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant relationship between confidence, self-efficacy and prior IT learning experiences with attitude towards e-health after adjusting for the effect of each other (F3,350=17.20,p<0.001). Self-efficacy and confidence in learning new ICT skills together with previous ICT training either at or outside their university studies are significant factors associated with students' attitude towards using e-health. Enhancing students' level of self-efficacy in learning new ICT skills may be the key to the success of implementation of e-health initiatives.

  17. Japanese Resident Physicians' Attitudes, knowledge, and Perceived Barriers on the Practice of Evidence Based Medicine: a Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emura Sei SE

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence based medicine plays a crucial role as a tool that helps integrate research evidence into clinical practice. However, few reports have yet to examine its application in daily practice among resident physicians in Japan. The aim of this study was to assess the attitudes towards and knowledge of EBM among resident physicians in Japanese and determine perceived barriers to its use. Findings A cross-sectional, self-administered anonymous questionnaire was distributed to 60 resident staffs at Saga University Hospital in Japan. Forty residents completed and returned the questionnaire. Fifty four percent of respondents understood the basic terminology of EBM, 3% could explain this to others, and 41% indicated they would like to understand the terminology more. Thirteen percent admitted having a good understanding of EBM basic skills. Fifty respondents indicated having read EBM sources, but only 3% indicated that they use these sources in clinical decision making. The most prominent barriers of EBM application revealed in this study were insufficient time to access the sources, a lack of native language references, and insufficient basic EBM skills, but not scepticism about the EBM concept. Conclusions In general, respondents positively welcomed EBM, and moderately understood and knew basic EBM skill; however, barriers in its application were shown to exist.

  18. Physical activity and mental disorders: a case-control study on attitudes, preferences and perceived barriers in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpiniello, Bernardo; Primavera, Diego; Pilu, Alessandra; Vaccargiu, Nicola; Pinna, Federica

    2013-12-01

    Mentally ill people experience greater difficulty than the general population in exercising regularly. We aimed to evaluate attitudes displayed and barriers perceived towards physical activity in a sample of psychiatric patients. A total of 138 (M = 48, F = 90) patients attending a community mental health centre were compared with a control group made up of 138 subjects not affected by mental disorders matched for gender, mean age and education. Both groups underwent a self-administered questionnaire. Patients reported a more sedentary lifestyle in terms of weekly physical activities and daily hours of exercise; their body mass index (BMI) was significantly higher compared with the BMI of controls (p barriers to physical activity; moreover, stating how feeling sad or "distressed" reduced their propensity to physical exercise (p = 0.002). A higher number of patients (p physical activity, and the experiencing of scarce enjoyment (p barriers may limit regular physical activity in subjects affected by mental disorders; these barriers should be taken into account and appropriately addressed.

  19. The Mediating Effect of Self-Esteem and Learning Attitude on the Relationship between Middle School Students’ Perceived Parenting Style and School Life Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Soo Youn, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Thisstudyexaminedthe effect ofmiddle school students’perceived parentingstyle on their schoollifeadjustment focusing on the mediation effect of self-esteem andlearning attitude.The author carried outanalysis ofcovariancestructure using the 1stwave(2010) data ofKorean Children and Youth PanelSurvey(KCYPS)conducted by the National Youth Policy Instituteandconsists of2,351first yearmiddle schoolstudents and their parents.The results indicated that whenmiddle school...

  20. THE MEDIATING EFFECT OF SELF-ESTEEM AND LEARNING ATTITUDE ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS’ PERCEIVED PARENTING STYLE AND SCHOOL LIFE ADJUSTMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Soo Youn

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of middle school students’ perceived parenting style on their school life adjustment focusing on the mediation effect of selfesteem and learning attitude. The author carried out analysis of covariance structure using the 1st wave(2010) data of Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey(KCYPS) conducted by the National Youth Policy Institute and consists of 2,351 first year middle school students and their parents. The results indicated that when middle school studen...

  1. Communicating Earthquake Preparedness: The Influence of Induced Mood, Perceived Risk, and Gain or Loss Frames on Homeowners' Attitudes Toward General Precautionary Measures for Earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Michèle; Stauffacher, Michael; Matthes, Jörg; Wiemer, Stefan

    2018-04-01

    Despite global efforts to reduce seismic risk, actual preparedness levels remain universally low. Although earthquake-resistant building design is the most efficient way to decrease potential losses, its application is not a legal requirement across all earthquake-prone countries and even if, often not strictly enforced. Risk communication encouraging homeowners to take precautionary measures is therefore an important means to enhance a country's earthquake resilience. Our study illustrates that specific interactions of mood, perceived risk, and frame type significantly affect homeowners' attitudes toward general precautionary measures for earthquakes. The interdependencies of the variables mood, risk information, and frame type were tested in an experimental 2 × 2 × 2 design (N = 156). Only in combination and not on their own, these variables effectively influence attitudes toward general precautionary measures for earthquakes. The control variables gender, "trait anxiety" index, and alteration of perceived risk adjust the effect. Overall, the group with the strongest attitudes toward general precautionary actions for earthquakes are homeowners with induced negative mood who process high-risk information and gain-framed messages. However, the conditions comprising induced negative mood, low-risk information and loss-frame and induced positive mood, low-risk information and gain-framed messages both also significantly influence homeowners' attitudes toward general precautionary measures for earthquakes. These results mostly confirm previous findings in the field of health communication. For practitioners, our study emphasizes that carefully compiled communication measures are a powerful means to encourage precautionary attitudes among homeowners, especially for those with an elevated perceived risk. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. 'Before reaching the last mile'- Knowledge, attitude, practice and perceived barriers related to tuberculosis directly observed therapy among ASHA workers in Central India: A mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akash Ranjan; Pakhare, Abhijit; Kokane, Arun M; Shewade, Hemant Deepak; Chauhan, Ashish; Singh, Abhishek; Gangwar, Arti; Thakur, Prahlad Singh

    2017-12-01

    Community-based direct observed treatment (DOT) providers are an important bridge for the national tuberculosis programme in India to reach the unreached. The present study has explored the knowledge, attitude, practice and barriers perceived by the community-based DOT providers. Mixed-methods study design was used among 41 community-based DOT providers (Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHAs)) working in 67 villages from a primary health center in Raisen district of Madhya Pradesh, India. The cross-sectional quantitative component assessed the knowledge and practices and three focus-group discussions explored the attitude and perceived barriers related to DOT provision. 'Adequate knowledge' and 'satisfactory practice' related to DOT provision was seen in 14 (34%) and 13 (32%) ASHAs respectively. Only two (5%) received any amount of honorarium for completion of DOT in last 3years. The focus-group discussions revealed unfavourable attitude; inadequate training and supervision, non-payment of honorarium, issues related to assured services after referral and patient related factors as the barriers to satisfactory practice of DOT. Study revealed inadequate knowledge and unsatisfactory practice related to DOT provision among ASHAs. Innovations addressing the perceived barriers to improve practice of DOT provision by ASHAs are urgently required. Copyright © 2017 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Attitudes, Interests, and Perceived Self-efficacy toward Science of Middle School Minority Female Students: Considerations for their Low Achievement and Participation in STEM Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowey, Ana Lucrecia

    The under participation of minority females in STEM fields has been a chronic problem in the United States, mainly when it is analyzed through the lens of their relative representation in the population. The results of the first or quantitative phase, of this two phase sequential, mixed method study, revealed academic achievement or performance in science accounted for most of the variance of mean scores for students' attitudes and interests in science as measured by the TOSRA Likert-scale survey, when compared to the degree of parent education and ethnicity/ racial background. Additionally, this study investigated possible sources of perceived self-efficacy in eighteen seventh grade Hispanic female students by conducting personal semi-structured interviews. The purpose of this study was to explore if middle school female student ethnic/racial backgrounds and academic performance influence their attitudes and interests toward science and to study the possible effects external (family, school, peers, and community) and internal factors may have for Hispanic student self-efficacy toward science. The results revealed that of the five ethnic/racial groups studied, Asian/Filipino female students expressed higher positive attitudes and interests toward science, than the rest of the student ethnic groups studied, followed by the Hispanic student group. The results indicated that students' perceived encouragement from their mothers, regardless of the mother's degree of education, as being the main source of these girls' perceived self-efficacy in science. However, the lack of perceived school-related, peer-related, and community-related support was evident. These results are encouraging because they demonstrate how verbal persuasion, in the form of encouragement and support, fosters perceived self-efficacy for minority female students.

  4. Tendency toward Weight Loss among Iranian Adolescent Girls: Study on Perceived Weight, Ideal Body Mass Index and Attitude toward Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Farid

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Adolescents’ perception of their weight is a strong factor in shaping dietary habits and weight control and management. Among non-overweight and overweight adolescents, both overestimation and underestimation of weight status are associated with harmful effects. This study aimed to examine the relationship between perceived weight and attitude toward eating disorders among adolescent girls living in Karaj, Iran. Materials and Methods Involving a two-stage random sampling, this cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 537 high school girls 14-18 years of age living in Karaj. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 was employed to screen for attitude toward eating disorders. Also, anthropometric measurements (weight and height, perceived and the ideal weights of the participants were assessed.  Results The average age of girls participating in the study was 16.12±1.20. According to the results, 70% of girls had normal body mass index. It was found that the ideal weight of 55% of the girls in the normal body mass index group fell under the lower than normal boundary. Moreover, the prevalence of eating disorders was estimated to be 23.6%. The attitude toward eating disorder was significantly correlated with body mass index of participants and their self-concept (P

  5. A qualitative study exploring nurses’ attitudes, confidence, and perceived barriers to implementing a traumatic brain injury nursing chart in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Wynveen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Africa, traumatic brain injuries frequently result from road traffic injuries and assaults. Despite limited resources and the high costs of life-saving neurosurgical interventions, secondary brain injury prevention has the potential for improving outcomes. However, nurses and other medical personnel infrequently monitor vital signs, blood sugar, and pulse oximetry and only sporadically re-assess neurological status. Methods: In one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, 27 nurses from Mulago Hospital’s emergency centre, a tertiary care trauma hospital in Kampala, Uganda, provided feedback regarding a traumatic brain injury-focused education session and use of a nursing chart for detecting secondary brain injury. The interviews explored the nurses’ confidence and perceived barriers to long-term chart implementation and traumatic brain injury care, as well as their ideas for improving this intervention. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and coded using ATLAS.ti: Qualitative Data Analysis and Research Software (Cleverbridge, Inc., Chicago, USA and Microsoft Word and Excel (Microsoft Office, Redmond, USA for thematic content analysis. Results: Key findings identified in the interviews included the nurses’ attitudes toward the chart and their feelings of increased confidence in assessing and caring for these patients. The main barriers to continuous implementation included inadequate staffing and resources. Conclusion: Nurses were receptive to the education session and nursing chart, and felt that it increased their confidence and improved their ability to care for traumatic brain injured patients. However, lack of supplies, overwhelming numbers of patients, and inadequate staffing interfered with consistent monitoring of patients. The nurses offered various suggestions for improving traumatic brain injury care that should be further investigated. More research is needed to assess the applicability of a standardised

  6. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS, attitudes towards sexual risk behaviour and perceived behavioural control among college students in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Faimau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the knowledge of HIV/AIDS, attitudes towards risky sexual behaviour and perceived behavioural control among students in Botswana. Data were collected from 445 students randomly selected from the University of Botswana and Boitekanelo College. Hundred and seventy three males and 272 females participated in the study. The study established that although more than 90% of students correctly identified routes of HIV transmission, misconceptions regarding HIV/AIDS still exist. This includes the belief that people can be infected with HIV because of witchcraft and that only people who have sex with gay or homosexual partners can be infected with HIV. Majority of students were aware of various sexual risks. However, the percentage of students who indicated that “it is difficult to ask my partner to use a condom” was still relatively high (13.5% based on the assumption that students are supposed to know the consequences of sexual risky behaviour. It was also found that male students were 3.48 times more likely to negotiate sex than their female counterparts (OR = 3.48, 95% CI: 1.09 − 11.13 and students who were 18 years and below were more likely to negotiate sex than students above 18 years of age (OR = 2.78, 95% CI: 1.42 − 18.32. Christians are four times less likely to negotiate sex compared to non-Christians (OR = 0.219, 95% CI: 0.095 − 0.506. More than 80% of students were comfortable discussing HIV or sex and sexuality with their friends, boyfriends/girlfriends or partners but uncomfortable discussing the same issues with their parents.

  7. Voice problems of group fitness instructors: diagnosis, treatment, perceived and experienced attitudes and expectations of the industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbach, Anna F

    2013-11-01

    To determine the anatomical and physiological nature of voice problems and their treatment in those group fitness instructors (GFIs) who have sought a medical diagnosis; the impact of voice disorders on quality of life and their contribution to activity limitations and participation restrictions; and the perceived attitudes and level of support from the industry at large in response to instructor's voice disorders and need for treatment. Prospective self-completion questionnaire design. Thirty-eight individuals (3 males and 35 females) currently active in the Australian fitness industry who had been diagnosed with a voice disorder completed an online self-completion questionnaire administered via SurveyMonkey. Laryngeal pathology included vocal fold nodules (N = 24), vocal fold cysts (N = 2), vocal fold hemorrhage (N = 1), and recurrent chronic laryngitis (N = 3). Eight individuals reported vocal strain and muscle tension dysphonia without concurrent vocal fold pathology. Treatment methods were variable, with 73.68% (N = 28) receiving voice therapy alone, 7.89% (N = 3) having voice therapy in combination with surgery, and 10.53% (N = 4) having voice therapy in conjunction with medication. Three individuals (7.89%) received no treatment for their voice disorder. During treatment, 82% of the cohort altered their teaching practices. Half of the cohort reported that their voice problems led to social withdrawal, decreased job satisfaction, and emotional distress. Greater than 65% also reported being dissatisfied with the level of industry and coworker support during the period of voice recovery. This study identifies that GFIs are susceptible to a number of voice disorders that impact their social and professional lives, and there is a need for more proactive training and advice on voice care for instructors, as well as those in management positions within the industry to address mixed approaches and opinions regarding the importance of voice care. Copyright © 2013

  8. The self-perceived knowledge, skills and attitudes of Australian practice nurses in providing nutrition care to patients with chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Louise; Leveritt, Michael D; Desbrow, Ben; Ball, Lauren E

    2014-04-01

    Nutrition is important for the management of chronic diseases. While practice nurses have numerous roles in primary care, the expectations on practice nurses to provide nutrition care for chronic disease management are increasing. The self-perceived knowledge, skills and attitudes of practice nurses in providing nutrition care has not been widely investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the perceptions of Australian practice nurses on the provision of nutrition care for chronic disease management, including specific nutrition-related activities. A cross-sectional online survey was completed by 181 Australian practice nurses in 2013. Descriptive analyses were conducted on each survey item. The survey sample was tested for representation of the Australian practice nurse workforce, and associations between respondents' demographic characteristics and responses to survey items were explored. Almost all practice nurses (89%) felt it was important to address diet whenever they cared for a patient. Over half of practice nurses (61%) were unsure if their practices were effective in increasing patients' compliance with nutritional recommendations. Nearly all practice nurses (98%) perceived further education on nutrition would assist them in their role. Practice nurses perceive they have an important role and favourable attitudes towards providing nutrition care; however, further training and education to enhance their self-perceived effectiveness is warranted. Future research should clarify whether an increase in nutrition-focused training results in improved effectiveness of nutrition care provided by practice nurses in terms of patient health outcomes.

  9. Reflections on attitudes, experiences, and vulnerability of intimate partner violence among Southeast Asian college women living in United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongpriwan, Vipavee; Buseh, Aaron; Arunothong, Wachiraporn

    2015-12-01

    To provide culturally sensitive intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention programs for ethnic groups, a basic foundational understanding of Southeast Asian (SEA) women living in the United States is vital. The purpose of this study was to describe SEA college women's perceptions of IPV and how the women recognize their vulnerability to such violent situations. Qualitative methods using focus group discussions were employed to elicit participants' perceptions. Participants included 18 SEA college women, ages 18-34 (Mean=22; SD=7.22). Transcriptions were analyzed using a content analysis approach. Five themes emerged: recognition of IPV; perception of individual vulnerability to IPV; experience and responses to IPV; help seeking and support system; and strategies used for prevention of IPV. Findings yielded an understanding of intertwined issues of cultural norms associated with IPV, social and economic disparities, and challenges for IPV prevention in SEA communities. Culturally sensitive prevention programs will be more effective by reforming cultural values, while at the same time promoting non-violent relationships and increasing access to services. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Vulnerable Genders, Vulnerable Loves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleicher, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    This chapter analyses religious reflections on vulnerable genders and vulnerable loves from the Hebrew Bible to early Rabbinic literature. It is based on theories by inter alia Donna Haraway on complex identities, Turner and Maryanski on love as a prerequisite for survival, Michel Foucault...... on gathering knowledge and its often unpremeditated effect of recognition and inclusion, and Judith Butler on cultural intelligibility and subversion from within. With these theories as a departing point for the analysis, the chapter links the vulnerability of complex identities with the vulnerability...... of cultures which leads to the overall understanding that culture can accommodate complex identities associated with individual and cultural vulnerability as long as the overall survival of the culture is not threatened. This understanding questions the feasibility of the ethical position of thinkers...

  11. The effect of a multifaceted evidence-based practice programme for nurses on knowledge, skills, attitudes, and perceived barriers: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Goot, Wieke E; Keers, Joost C; Kuipers, Ruud; Nieweg, Roos M B; de Groot, Martijn

    2018-04-01

    The Dutch professional nursing standard of 2012 stipulates that Dutch nursing practices are to be evidence-based. Not all practicing nurses can satisfy these requirements, therefore, an educational programme about Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) was developed for a Dutch teaching hospital. The aim of this study was to measure the effects of a six month in-house EBP programme on knowledge, skills, attitudes, and perceived barriers of nurses (four European Credits equals two US Credit Hours). A multiple-cohort study was conducted with a pre-post-test design. In the period of 2011-2015, a total of 58 nurses (9 cohorts) followed the programme. Baseline and follow-up assessments consisted of three questionnaires each: the Dutch Modified Fresno, the two subscales of the McColl questionnaire, and the BARRIER scale to assess knowledge and skills, attitudes, and perceived barriers, respectively. Fifty nurses completed both assessments. The results demonstrated that actual knowledge and skills significantly increased by approximately 40%. Self-perceived knowledge increased significantly, while attitudes towards EBP remained (moderately) positive. Perceived barriers did not notably change except for the Research subscale which received many "no opinion" responses prior to the programme but fewer afterwards. Our multifaceted in-house EBP programme led to a significant improvement of approximately 40% in EBP knowledge and skills of participating nurses. Most nurses who followed the EBP programme are currently applying their knowledge and skills in practice. Managerial support and allocated time for EBP are important facilitators for its implementation. Furthermore, to maintain and expand nurses' EBP knowledge and skills and translate them into practice, follow-up interventions, such as journal clubs, may well be beneficial. Based on the positive results of our programme, we will implement it throughout the hospital with an emphasis on training more groups of nurses. Copyright

  12. Reproductive management of dairy herds in New Zealand: attitudes, priorities and constraints perceived by farmers managing seasonal-calving, pasture-based herds in four regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlie, T S; Weir, A M; Tarbotton, I; Morton, J M; Heuer, C; McDougall, S

    2011-01-01

    To examine attitudes, priorities, and constraints pertaining to herd reproductive management perceived by farmers managing seasonal-calving, pasture-based dairy herds in four regions of New Zealand, and to explore how these varied with demographic and biophysical factors. Key decision makers (KDM) on 133 dairy herds in four dairy regions (Waikato, Taranaki, and north and south Canterbury) were interviewed between May and July 2009. They were asked to provide demographic and biophysical data about the farm, and to rate their attitude in relation to their own personality traits, management issues and priorities, and likely constraints affecting reproductive performance in their herds. Associations between demographic factors and attitudes, priorities and constraints were analysed using univariable and multivariable proportional-odds regression models. Farms in the regions studied in the South Island were larger, had larger herds and more staff than farms in the regions studied in the North Island. The farms in the South Island were more likely to be owned by a corporation, managed by younger people or people who had more education, and the herds were more likely to be fed a higher percentage of supplementary feed. The majority of KDM rated the current genetics, milksolids performance and reproductive performance of their herds as high or very high, and >70% believed that the reproductive performance had remained the same or improved over the preceding 3 years. Despite this, improving reproductive performance was the most highly rated priority for the next 3 years. The constraints considered most likely to have affected reproductive performance in the last 2 years were anoestrous cows, protracted calving periods, and low body condition scores; those considered least likely were artificial breeding and heat detection. Of the variables examined related to attitudes, priorities and likely constraints, there were significant differences between region for 10/40, and with

  13. The Nation and the Family: The Impact of National Identification and Perceived Importance of Family Values on Homophobic Attitudes in Lithuania and Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Juliet R H; Kalinauskaite, Monika; Hopkins, Nick

    The meanings attached to the nation can be consequential for group members' attitudes and beliefs. We examined how national identity definition can influence the extent of individuals' homophobia with 159 Lithuanian and 176 Scottish university students who completed a questionnaire which measured their national identification, homophobia, and the extent to which they felt traditional family values were central to their nation's identity. Consistent with nation-wide differences in the significance given to the family, Lithuanian participants perceived family values to be more important for their national identity and expressed higher levels of homophobia than did Scottish participants. Moreover, the relationship between level of national identification and homophobia was stronger in Lithuania than in Scotland. Analyses revealed that the perceived importance of family values helped explain the difference between homophobia levels in Lithuania and Scotland. In both sites we found an indirect effect of national identification on homophobia via the perceived importance of family values, but this effect was significantly stronger for Lithuanian participants. These findings illustrate the ways in which identification with the nation is relevant to attitudes concerning sexuality, and how this varies according to national context. Our work indicates that LGBT rights campaigns should be informed by the knowledge that homophobia may be perpetuated by national valorisation of the family.

  14. Parental overprotection engenders dysfunctional attitudes about achievement and dependency in a gender-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Shibuya, Naoshi; Sadahiro, Ryoichi; Enokido, Masanori

    2013-12-24

    It has been suggested that dysfunctional attitudes, cognitive vulnerability to depression, have developmental origins. The present study examined the effects of parental rearing on dysfunctional attitudes in three areas of life with special attention to gender specificity. The subjects were 665 Japanese healthy volunteers. Dysfunctional attitudes were assessed by the 24-item Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, which has the Achievement, Dependency and Self-control subscales. Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument, which has the Care and Protection subscales. Higher scores of the Achievement (β = 0.293, p overprotection engenders dysfunctional attitudes about achievement and dependency in a gender-specific manner.

  15. Relations Of Peer -Victimization Exposure In Adolescents With The Perceived Social Support, Parental Attitude, School Success, School Change And Area Of Residence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşah Tura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is made to determine the predictive powers of the perceived social support, parental attitude, school success, school change and living in different area of residences variables in the students of 8.grade who are exposed to peer-victimization. T he data of the research has been procured from 550 students who are the eighth-grader in Diyarbakır and Kocaeli. The data related to the predicted variable has been collected by using Peer-victimization Scale (Mynard & Joseph, 2000 and the data related to the predictor variables has been gathered by using the Perceived Social Support Scale – Revised Form (Yıldırım, 2004, the Parental Attitude Scale (Lamborn, Mounts, Steinberg & Dornbush, 1991 and the Personal Information Form prepared by the researcher. The statistical analysis of the gathered data has been performed in computer by using SPSS 11.5 packaged software. Multiple Regression Analysis is used in determining the variables predicting peer-victimization exposure which is the purpose of the study. On the other hand, the Stepwise Regression Analysis is implemented in order to determine the explanatory variables having high correlation coefficient and the predicted variable. The findings obtained by the research can be summarized as the following: School success, perceived social support and authoritarian parental attitude are the variables predicting the peer-victimization exposure. It has been found out that the other variables in the analysis do not predict the exposure of the students to the peer-victimization. The findings obtained in the research are discussed and commented and suggestions have been made based on the facts.

  16. The influence of perceived behaviour control, attitude and empowerment on reported condom use and intention to use condoms among adolescents in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalolo, Albino; Kibusi, Stephen Matthew

    2015-11-13

    Despite the declining trends of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), unsafe sexual behaviours among adolescents still represent a public health challenge. It is important to understand factors acting at different levels to influence sexual behaviour among adolescents. This study examined the influence of perceived behaviour control, subjective norms, attitudes and empowerment on intention to use condoms and reported use of condoms among adolescents in rural Tanzania. We used a questionnaire to collect data from 403 adolescents aged 14 through 19 years from nine randomly selected secondary schools in the Newala district located in the Southern part of Tanzania. The self-administered questionnaire collected information on sexual practices and factors such as attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behaviour control and empowerment. Binary logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with intention to use and reported use of condoms. Sexually active adolescents constituted 40.6 % of the sample, among them 49.7 % did not use a condom at last sexual intercourse and 49.8 % had multiple sex partners. Many (85 %) of sexually active respondents had their sexual debut between the ages of 14 to 17 years. Girls became sexually active earlier than boys. Perceived behaviour control predicted intentions to use condoms (AOR = 3.059, 95 % CI 1.324-7.065), thus demonstrating its importance in the decision to use a condom. Empowerment (odds ratio = 3.694, 95 % CI 1.295-10.535) and a positive attitude (AOR = 3.484, 95 % CI 1.132-10.72) predicted reported condom use, thus turning the decision to actions. Subjective norms had only indirect effects on intention and reported use of condoms. The findings suggest that unsafe sex practices are prevalent among school adolescents in rural areas of Tanzania. Perceived behaviour control and positive attitudes predict intensions to use condoms whereas empowerment

  17. The Mediating Effect of Self-Esteem and Learning Attitude on the Relationship between Middle School Students’ Perceived Parenting Style and School Life Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Youn, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thisstudyexaminedthe effect ofmiddle school students’perceived parentingstyle on their schoollifeadjustment focusing on the mediation effect of self-esteem andlearning attitude.The author carried outanalysis ofcovariancestructure using the 1stwave(2010 data ofKorean Children and Youth PanelSurvey(KCYPSconducted by the National Youth Policy Instituteandconsists of2,351first yearmiddle schoolstudents and their parents.The results indicated that whenmiddle school studentsperceived their parents’parenting style positively, thelevelof their self-esteem andself-directedlearningattitudewere high,and this,in turn,had positive effects on their school lifeadjustment. Especially, self-esteem andlearning attitudemediated the effect ofmiddle school students’perceived parenting style on school life adjustment. Theseresults demonstrate that the mothers’ affectionate,monitoryandrationalparentingstyle will contribute greatly to the successfulstudents’school lifewith a sense ofself-esteem andself-directedlearningattitude.

  18. Perceived genetic knowledge, attitudes towards genetic testing, and the relationship between these among patients with a chronic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morren, M.; Rijken, M.; Baanders, A.N.; Bensing, J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Genetics increasingly permeate everyday medicine. When patients want to make informed decisions about genetic testing, they require genetic knowledge. This study examined the genetic knowledge and attitudes of patients with chronic diseases, and the relationship between both. In addition,

  19. Perceived genetic knowledge, attitudes toward genetic testing, and the relationship between these among patients with a chronic disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morren, M.; Rijken, M.; Baanders, A.N.; Bensing, J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Genetics increasingly permeate everyday medicine. When patients want to make informed decisions about genetic testing, they require genetic knowledge. This study examined the genetic knowledge and attitudes of patients with chronic diseases, and the relationship between both. In addition,

  20. Attitudes Toward Integration as Perceived by Preservice Teachers Enrolled in an Integrated Mathematics, Science, and Technology Teacher Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Donna F.; White, Arthur L.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the purpose of the Master of Education (M. Ed.) Program in Integrated Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education (MSAT Program) at The Ohio State University and discusses preservice teachers' attitudes and perceptions toward integrated curriculum. (Contains 35 references.) (YDS)

  1. The Effect of Perceived Parental Attitudes and Birth Order of University Students on the Development of Their Self-Compassion

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Mehmet Taki; Kesici, Şahin

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between the self-compassion level of university students and their parents’ parental attitudes. In the present study, it was aimed to find out whether there were significant differences between the university students’ self-compassion development, their parents’ attitude and their birth order (first, middle or last born). The data of the study was collected through survey method through a quantitative research understanding. T-test...

  2. Self-Reevaluation and Anticipated Regret Did Not Change Attitude, Nor Perceived Distance in an Online Context

    OpenAIRE

    Crutzen, Rik; Cyr, Dianne; Taylor, Sarah E.; Lim, Eric; Ruiter, Robert A. C.

    2017-01-01

    Internet-delivered interventions can be effective in changing behavior, but more research is needed on effective elements of behavior change interventions. Moreover, although anonymity is one of the advantages of using an online context, it might also increase the perceived distance between the participant and the intervention. Hence, the current study investigated whether the behavior change methods of self-reevaluation and anticipated regret can be used to narrow the perceived distance and,...

  3. Japanese Pupils’ Attribution of their Perceived Mathematics Performance and the Relationships Between their Attribution of Mathematics Performance and their Affective Attitudes Promoted by Different Teaching Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Saeki

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This research used a questionnaire survey to explore the relationship between pupils’ attribution of their perceived mathematics performance and their affective attitudes towards mathematics learning as promoted by the different teaching methods they were exposed to in their mathematics classes. Both 5th and 8th graders attributed their success in learning mathematics to effort, although support from the teacher and support at home were also perceived as important factors in their success. The 5th graders and 8th graders overall gave effort-based attributions in the case of failure, while for 5th graders, ability was regarded as being as important as effort, in attributing failure in mathematics learning. Pupils who attributed their success in mathematics learning to effort, support at school and home, preferred teacher explanation and reading a textbook as learning strategies, while those attributing it to their ability preferred Individual work. Where pupils attributed success to luck, this seemed to have a negative effect on their affective attitudes towards mathematics learning as promoted by different teaching methods, while attributing failure to luck seemed to have positive effect. Attributing failure to poor teaching seemed to have a negative effect on their perception of teacher explanation. The relationships between pupil effort or ability based attributions of failure and their preference for different teaching methods were not clear. Adopting various teaching methods in mathematics classes would seem to support pupils who have different attribution styles.

  4. Why Some Employees Adopt or Resist Reorganization of Work Practices in Health Care: Associations between Perceived Loss of Resources, Burnout, and Attitudes to Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl-Ardy Dubois

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, successive work reorganization initiatives have been implemented in many healthcare settings. The failure of many of these change efforts has often been attributed in the prominent management discourse to change resistance. Few studies have paid attention to the temporal process of workers’ resource depletion/accumulation over time and its links with workers’ psychological states and reactions to change. Drawing upon the conservation of resources theory, this study examines associations between workers’ perceptions of loss of resources, burnout, and attitudes to change. The study was conducted in five health and social service centres in Quebec, in units where a work reorganization project was initiated. A prospective longitudinal design was used to assess workers’ perceptions at two time points 12 months apart. Our findings are consistent with the conservation of resources theory. The analysis of latent differences scores between times 1 and 2 showed that the perceived loss of resources was associated with emotional exhaustion, which, in turn, was negatively correlated with commitment to change and positively correlated with cynicism. In confirming the temporal relationship between perceived loss of resources, occupational burnout, and attitude to change, this research offers a new perspective to explain negative and positive reactions to change implementation.

  5. College Students' Perceived and Personal Mental Health Stigma: The Influence on Help-Seeking Attitudes and Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompeo, Alyson

    2014-01-01

    Despite being vulnerable to mental health problems, college students are a population that is especially influenced by perceptions of peer mental health stigmatization (Quinn, Wilson, MacIntyre, & Tinklin, 2009), a known barrier to seeking mental health services (Corrigan, 2004a; Komiya, Good, & Sherrod, 2000; Vogel, Wade, & Haake,…

  6. The impact of CPR and AED training on healthcare professionals' self-perceived attitudes to performing resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Källestedt Marie-Louise

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare professionals have shown concern about performing mouth-to-mouth ventilation due to the risks to themselves with the procedure. However, little is known about healthcare professionals' fears and attitudes to start CPR and the impact of training. Objective To examine whether there were any changes in the attitudes among healthcare professionals to performing CPR from before to after training. Methods Healthcare professionals from two Swedish hospitals were asked to answer a questionnaire before and after training. The questions were relating to physical and mental discomfort and attitudes to CPR. Statistical analysis used was generalized McNemar's test. Results Overall, there was significant improvement in 10 of 11 items, reflecting various aspects of attitudes to CPR. All groups of health care professionals (physicians, nurses, assistant nurses, and "others" = physiotherapists, occupational therapists, social welfare officers, psychologists, biomedical analysts felt more secure in CPR knowledge after education. In other aspects, such as anxiety prior to a possible cardiac arrest, only nurses and assistant nurses improved. The concern about being infected, when performing mouth to mouth ventilation, was reduced with the most marked reduction in physicians (75%; P Conclusion In this hospital-based setting, we found a positive outcome of education and training in CPR concerning healthcare professionals' attitudes to perform CPR. They felt more secure in their knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In some aspects of attitudes to resuscitation nurses and assistant nurses appeared to be the groups that were most markedly influenced. The concern of being infected by a disease was low.

  7. Personal and perceived peer use and attitudes towards the use of nonmedical prescription stimulants to improve academic performance among university students in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, S M; Pischke, C R; Van Hal, G; Vriesacker, B; Dempsey, R C; Akvardar, Y; Guillen-Grima, F; Salonna, F; Stock, C; Zeeb, H

    2016-11-01

    Overestimations of non-prescribed stimulant use of peers are well documented in the USA and have also been identified as predictive of personal stimulant consumption. This study aimed to examine whether overestimations of peer use and approval of the use are associated with personal use and attitude towards the use of non-prescribed stimulants among European university students. The EU funded 'Social Norms Intervention for the prevention of Polydrug usE (SNIPE)' study was conducted in seven European countries. In a web-based questionnaire, 4482 students were asked about their personal use and their attitude towards non-prescribed stimulant use, as well as the perceived peer use and peer attitude. 59% of students thought that the majority of their peers used non-prescribed stimulants more frequently than themselves, and only 4% thought that the use of the majority was lower than their personal use. The perception that the majority of peers had used non-prescribed stimulants at least once was significantly associated with higher odds for personal use of non-prescribed stimulants (OR: 3.30, 95% CI: 2.32-4.71). In addition, the perception that the majority of peers approved of the non-prescribed use of stimulants was associated with a 4.03 (95% CI: 3.35-4.84) times higher likelihood for personal approval. European university students generally perceived the non-prescribed use of stimulants of peers to be higher than their personal use. This perception, as well as a perception of higher approval in the peer group, was associated with a higher likelihood of personal non-prescribed stimulant medication use and approval. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. "It's not smoke. It's not tar. It's not 4000 chemicals. Case closed": Exploring attitudes, beliefs, and perceived social norms of e-cigarette use among adult users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Blair N; Johnson, Sarah E; Tessman, Greta K; Tworek, Cindy; Alexander, Jennifer; Dickinson, Denise M; Rath, Jessica; Green, Kerry M

    2016-02-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is rapidly increasing among adults in the U.S. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore consumer perceptions about e-cigarettes, including knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and perceived social norms. A total of 14 focus groups (N=116) were conducted with current adult e-cigarette users in five U.S. cities from March through May, 2014. Focus groups were segmented by age (young adults aged 18-29 and older adults aged 30 and older) as well as by e-cigarette use status (exclusive e-cigarette users and non-exclusive e-cigarette users). Focus group discussions lasted approximately 60-min and were audio-recorded and transcribed; data were analyzed using a phenomenological approach. Participants expressed many positive attitudes towards e-cigarettes and simultaneously reported a lack of information and knowledge about the products. Focus group participants overwhelmingly felt as though the ingredients of e-cigarettes were likely less harmful than conventional cigarettes. Additionally, many described positive reactions from family and friends, especially when e-cigarettes were used in place of conventional cigarettes. Findings from this qualitative study provide insight into consumer knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about e-cigarettes increasing our understanding of why and how they are being used. Such information will help provide insight into the potential public health impact of these emerging products. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Attitudes, beliefs, and perceived norms about corporal punishment and related training needs among members of the "American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine A; Fleckman, Julia M; Lee, Shawna J

    2017-09-01

    Hitting children for disciplinary purposes (i.e., spanking or corporal punishment [CP]) is a strong risk factor for child physical abuse and is highly prevalent in the U.S. Yet, little is currently known about the relevant attitudes, beliefs, or training needs of key professionals who often advise parents regarding child discipline strategies. A survey of the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children (APSAC) membership, comprised of mental health professionals, physicians, child welfare professionals, and other professionals in the child maltreatment field, was conducted to assess attitudes, beliefs, perceived norms, training needs, and motivations to change norms regarding CP (N=571, response rate=51%). Most respondents agreed that spanking is a bad disciplinary technique (82%), is harmful for children (74%), and leads to negative outcomes (M=3.0, SD=0.6) more frequently than positive outcomes (M=2.1, SD=0.6; t=20.8; p<0.0001) for children. Professionals reported perceiving that their colleagues' level of endorsement of CP (M=2.4, SD=1.0) was higher than their own (M=1.9, SD=1.0; t(568)=-10.7, p<0.0001) though still below the midpoint. Professionals reported high levels of preparedness to effectively advise parents on non-physical child discipline strategies, but reported perceiving lower levels of preparedness amongst their colleagues. They reported highly valuing giving such advice to parents and being very motivated to participate in activities designed to change social norms regarding CP. Most APSAC members are poised to change these norms and, in doing so, to help reduce rates of child physical abuse in the U.S. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Speech-Language Pathologists' Knowledge of Genetics: Perceived Confidence, Attitudes, Knowledge Acquisition and Practice-Based Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramontana, G. Michael; Blood, Ingrid M.; Blood, Gordon W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine (a) the general knowledge bases demonstrated by school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the area of genetics, (b) the confidence levels of SLPs in providing services to children and their families with genetic disorders/syndromes, (c) the attitudes of SLPs regarding genetics and communication…

  11. A Graduate Course on Inclusion: Four Elementary/General Music Educators' Perceived Attitudes and Applications in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Giovanna Adelia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine four elementary/general music educators (EGME) enrolled in a music and special education graduate course, on their attitudes toward teaching children with disabilities and how they applied knowledge gained from the course in their classrooms. Data collection began on the first class session, February 9th,…

  12. Differences in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and perceived risks regarding colorectal cancer screening among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese sub-groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, T Domi; Carney, Patricia A; Lee-Lin, Frances; Mori, Motomi; Chen, Zunqiu; Leung, Holden; Lau, Christine; Lieberman, David A

    2014-04-01

    Asian ethnic subgroups are often treated as a single demographic group in studies looking at cancer screening and health disparities. To evaluate knowledge and health beliefs associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) and CRC screening among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese subgroups, a survey assessed participants' demographic characteristics, healthcare utilization, knowledge, beliefs, attitudes associated with CRC and CRC screening. Exploratory factor analysis identified six factors accounting >60 % of the total variance in beliefs and attitudes. Cronbach's alpha coefficients assessed internal consistency. Differences among Asian subgroups were assessed using a Chi square, Fisher's exact, or Kruskal-Wallis test. Pearson's correlation coefficient assessed an association among factors. 654 participants enrolled: 238 Chinese, 217 Korean, and 199 Vietnamese. Statistically significant differences existed in demographic and health care provider characteristics, knowledge, and attitude/belief variables regarding CRC. These included knowledge of CRC screening modalities, reluctance to discuss cancer, belief that cancer is preventable by diet and lifestyle, and intention to undergo CRC screening. Chinese subjects were more likely to use Eastern medicine (52 % Chinese, 25 % Korean, 27 % Vietnamese; p Vietnamese; p Vietnamese subjects were less likely to consider CRC screening (95 % Chinese, 95 % Korean, 80 % Vietnamese; p < 0.0001). Important differences exist in knowledge, attitudes, and health beliefs among Asian subgroups. Understanding these differences will enable clinicians to deliver tailored, effective health messages to improve CRC screening and other health behaviors.

  13. Ethnicity as a moderator of how parents' attitudes and perceived stigma influence intentions to seek child mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Erlanger A; Jensen-Doss, Amanda; Heffer, Robert W

    2015-10-01

    Research has identified several variables that affect utilization of mental health services. However, more could be explored regarding ethnic differences among parents seeking help for their children. In our study, 238 caregivers were recruited from the southern United States to examine ethnic differences in intentions to access child mental health services with the Parental Attitudes Toward Psychological Services Inventory (Turner, 2012) as the primary measure. Group comparisons indicated that African-American parents reported less positive attitudes and more stigma than European-American or Hispanic-American parents. Moderation analyses found (a) attitudes were associated with a higher level of parental help-seeking intention among European Americans, but not among African Americans or Hispanic Americans and (b) stigma was associated with a lower parent-reported likelihood of help-seeking for Hispanic Americans, but not for European Americans or African Americans. Ethnicity deferentially impacts attitudes and stigma associated with seeking mental health services. Public education efforts to increase service use should be tailored toward under-served groups to be more effective. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Speech-language pathologists' knowledge of genetics: perceived confidence, attitudes, knowledge acquisition and practice-based variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramontana, G Michael; Blood, Ingrid M; Blood, Gordon W

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine (a) the general knowledge bases demonstrated by school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the area of genetics, (b) the confidence levels of SLPs in providing services to children and their families with genetic disorders/syndromes, (c) the attitudes of SLPs regarding genetics and communication disorders, (d) the primary sources used by SLPs to learn about genetic disorders/syndromes, and (e) the association between general knowledge, confidence, attitudes, the number of years of experience working as an SLP, and the number of children currently provided services with genetic disorders/syndromes on SLPs' caseloads. Survey data from a nationwide sample of 533 SLPs was analyzed. Results showed SLPs earned a median knowledge score about genetics of 66% correct responses. Their mean confidence and attitude ratings were in the "unsure" categories while they reported they learned about genetics from three main sources, (a) self-study via web and internet-based searches, (b) on-the-job training and (c) popular press magazines and newspapers. Analyses revealed that Confidence summary scores, Attitude Summary scores, the number of children with genetic disorders/syndromes on SLPs' caseloads are positively associated with the ratings of participants with the highest Knowledge scores. Readers will be able to (a) explain the important links between developmental and communication disabilities and genetics, (b) describe the associations between knowledge about genetics and confidence, attitudes, and the number of children with genetic disorders/syndromes on their caseloads, and (c) outline the clinical and theoretical implications of the results from this study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Attitudes and Perspectives of Teacher Performers on Pedagogy and Perceived Student Learning in the Elementary and Secondary School Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, John L.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the lives of three active music teacher performers and how their performing experience impacted pedagogy and perceived student learning in the classroom. At the time of data collection, one participant was a full-time elementary school music teacher, and the other two participants were full-time secondary school music…

  16. The impact of employees‟ personality traits in perceiving leadership styles and organizational attitude in Saudi Banking context

    OpenAIRE

    Almandeel, Seita Mandeel

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores the influence of employees‟ personality types (Neuroticism (N), Openness to Experience (O), Conscientiousness (C), Agreeableness (A) and Extraversion (E)) on leadership styles (Transformational, Transactional and Avoidant) and on employees‟ attitudes to their organisation (Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention) in banks in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The objectives of this thesis are to identify the impact of personality traits on: perceptions of Leadership behaviour, ...

  17. Abnormal eating attitudes and behaviours and perceived parental control: a study of white British and British-Asian school girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, A; Adam-Saib, S

    2001-09-01

    Previous studies have found significantly higher scores on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) which measures eating disorders among second-generation British-Asian schoolgirls in comparison to their White counterparts. Further, high EAT-26 scores (an indication of unhealthy eating attitudes and behaviours) are positively associated with parental overprotection scores on the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). This study aimed to replicate and extend previous findings, comparing British-Asian schoolgirls to White schoolgirls and consider 'intra-Asian' differences on the same measures, including factor scores. Participants completed three questionnaires: EAT-26, PBI and BSS (Body Satisfaction Scale). There were 168 participants: 46 White, 40 Indian, 44 Pakistani and 38 Bengali. Previous findings were supported; the Asian scores were significantly higher than the White scores on the EAT-26 and PBI, but not the BSS. The Bengali sample had significantly higher EAT-26 total and 'oral control' scores than the other groups. There were no intra-Asian differences for the overprotection scores. PBI scores were not associated with EAT-26 scores. The BSS score was the only significant predictor of EAT scores, when entered into a regression along with PBI scores and the body mass index. Results demonstrated sociocultural factors in the development of eating disorders. The results suggest that there are important psychological differences between second-generation migrants from different countries on the Indian subcontinent. In line with previous studies, significant differences were found between the four ethnic groups, parenting styles, but these did not relate to actual eating disorders.

  18. Attitude Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Lauren C; Krosnick, Jon A

    2017-01-03

    Attitude strength has been the focus of a huge volume of research in psychology and related sciences for decades. The insights offered by this literature have tremendous value for understanding attitude functioning and structure and for the effective application of the attitude concept in applied settings. This is the first Annual Review of Psychology article on the topic, and it offers a review of theory and evidence regarding one of the most researched strength-related attitude features: attitude importance. Personal importance is attached to an attitude when the attitude is perceived to be relevant to self-interest, social identification with reference groups or reference individuals, and values. Attaching personal importance to an attitude causes crystallizing of attitudes (via enhanced resistance to change), effortful gathering and processing of relevant information, accumulation of a large store of well-organized relevant information in long-term memory, enhanced attitude extremity and accessibility, enhanced attitude impact on the regulation of interpersonal attraction, energizing of emotional reactions, and enhanced impact of attitudes on behavioral intentions and action. Thus, important attitudes are real and consequential psychological forces, and their study offers opportunities for addressing behavioral change.

  19. Self-perceived attitudes toward interprofessional collaboration and interprofessional education among different health care professionals in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Sebastian Felix Nepomuk; Giesler, Marianne; Heinzmann, Andrea; Krüger, Marcus; Straub, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) is the basis for interprofessional collaboration (IPC) in health care systems. It has beneficial effects for both patients and health care professionals. IPC is paramount for adequate care of patients and their families, especially in pediatrics. To determine the attitudes of medical doctors (n=121), nurses (n=15), psychologists (n=14), and social workers (n=19) toward IPE and IPC in a tertiary pediatric university teaching hospital, as well as the inpatient and outpatient settings in pediatrics, we developed a questionnaire with 21 items in four categories based on established questionnaires. All participants worked as part of interprofessional teams, and the overwhelming majority valued IPC highly. Most competencies important for IPC were acquired on the job. There was a substantial lack of interprofessional education, especially for medical doctors and psychologists. IPE still needs to be established as part of the undergraduate curriculum at German universities.

  20. Knowledge, attitude and perceived stigma towards tuberculosis among pastoralists; Do they differ from sedentary communities? A comparative cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezawit Temesgen Sima

    Full Text Available Ethiopia is ninth among the world high tuberculosis (TB burden countries, pastoralists being the most affected population. However, there is no published report whether the behavior related to TB are different between pastoralist and the sedentary communities. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to assess the pastoralist community knowledge, attitude and perceived stigma towards tuberculosis and their health care seeking behavior in comparison to the neighboring sedentary communities and this may help to plan TB control interventions specifically for the pastoralist communities.A community-based cross-sectional survey was carried out from September 2014 to January 2015, among 337 individuals from pastoralist and 247 from the sedentary community of Kereyu district. Data were collected using structured questionnaires. Three focus group discussions were used to collect qualitative data, one with men and the other with women in the pastoralist and one with men in the sedentary groups. Data were analyzed using Statistical Software for Social Science, SPSS V 22 and STATA.A Lower proportion of pastoralists mentioned bacilli (bacteria as the cause of PTB compared to the sedentary group (63.9% vs. 81.0%, p<0.01, respectively. However, witchcraft was reported as the causes of TB by a higher proportion of pastoralists than the sedentary group (53.6% vs.23.5%, p<0.01, respectively. Similarly, a lower proportion of pastoralists indicated PTB is preventable compared to the sedentary group (95.8% vs. 99.6%, p<0.01, respectively. Moreover, majority of the pastoralists mentioned that most people would reject a TB patient in their community compared to the sedentary group (39.9% vs. 8.9%, p<0.001, respectively, and the pastoralists expressed that they would be ashamed/embarrassed if they had TB 68% vs.36.4%, p<0.001, respectively.The finding indicates that there is a lower awareness about TB, a negative attitude towards TB patients and a higher perceived

  1. Employee's perceived exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, passive smoking risk beliefs and attitudes towards smoking: a case study in a university setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duaso, M J; De Irala, J; Canga, N

    2006-02-01

    Despite the growing literature on workplace smoking policies, few studies have focused on the implementation of such policies in university settings. Smoking in the workplace is still very common in many countries, including Spain. While the law is about to change and more non-smoking policies are to be implemented, it is not clear what kind of restrictions Spanish workers would find acceptable. This study investigated perceived exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), passive smoking risks beliefs and attitudes towards smoking at the University of Navarra (Spain). A questionnaire was sent by E-mail to 641 randomly selected employees and a response rate of 70.4% was obtained. The survey results suggest that 27.3% of the university employees were smokers and 26.6% were exposed to ETS on a daily basis. The majority of respondents (81.7%) supported a restrictive non-smoking policy. Acceptance among active smokers was significantly lower (59.2 versus 89.3%). Smoking prohibition with the provision of smoking areas was the most favored option (46.9%). Results suggest that employees are ready to restrict smoking in the university, but there was not enough support for a total ban. Employers considering adopting a ban on smoking should be encouraged to conduct a similar survey to identify potential barriers to policy implementation.

  2. Knowledge, Attitude, and Perceived Confidence in the Management of Medical Emergencies in the Dental Office: A Survey among the Dental Students and Interns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albelaihi, Haifa Fahad; Alweneen, Athar Ibrahim; Ettish, Abeer; Alshahrani, Faleh Ali

    2017-01-01

    Many situations in the dental office can provoke medical emergencies. Lack of training and inability to overcome the medical emergencies can lead to serious consequences and legal actions. The aim of the study is to investigate and assess the knowledge, attitude, and perceived confidence of dental students and interns in the management of medical emergency. A self-administered structured questionnaire was distributed to 153 of the undergraduate dental students and interns in Qassim province. Questionnaire consisted of nineteen questions pertaining to knowledge and awareness regarding syncope, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), intravenous drugs, measuring vital signs, and handling situation of aspiration of a foreign body, bleeding, and choking. Data were analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0. Fifty-seven percent was the response rate received from the questionnaire. Eighty-nine percent and 30% of the participants inquired about the medical history and vital signs before dental treatment, respectively. Only 37% of participants were confident to handle any medical emergency in the dental office. Seventy percent knew the correct location of chest compression and 67% were familiar about the right compression ventilation ratio showing significant difference between academic years and interns ( P = 0.003). Females were significantly more aware about the management of bleeding after extraction than the males (65%, and 47%, respectively; P = 0.035). Thirty-five percent and 53% chose the correct management to relieve choking in responsive and unresponsive adult or child, respectively. A total of 28% of the participants reported syncope as the most common emergency situation. Participants were lacking confidence in handling medical emergencies even though the majority of them inquired the medical history. Most of them have a good knowledge regarding CPR, but regarding airway obstruction, the knowledge was not at an acceptable level

  3. Redistributing vulnerabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Jens; Padmawati, Retna Siwi

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the social distribution of vulnerability in a given society may turn hazardous events into disasters. This distributional approach draws attention to continuities that explain catastrophes by virtue of the workings of society prior to the event. In this paper, we draw...... attention to the social processes whereby vulnerability is modified and renegotiated during the post-disaster period where resources for disaster alleviation and reconstruction enter local communities. Specifically, we explore the social dynamics of house damage classification in the wake of the 2006...... Central Java earthquake, and we explore relations between citizens and the state during post-disaster house reconstruction. We argue that disastrous outcomes of catastrophic events do not follow pre-existing fault lines of vulnerability in a simple or predictable manner, and that the social process...

  4. Parental communication and perceived parental attitudes about sexuality among Turkish college students / Türk üniversite öğrencileri arasında cinsellikle ilgili konularda anne ve babayla iletişim ve algılanan anne baba tutumları

    OpenAIRE

    Nursel TOPKAYA

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACTThis current study was conducted to examine parental communication and perceived parental attitudes about sexuality with respect to gender among Turkish college students. Moreover, attitudes toward premarital sexuality with respect to gender were explored. A demographic data form, premarital sexual permissiveness scale, parental communication about sexuality scale and parental attitudes about sexuality scale were administered to 366 (217 female and 148 male) college students, aged 18 ...

  5. Violent or Tolerant Attitudes toward Deviation from Gender Norms? Insights from Israelite and Early Jewish Religion into the Uneven Distribution of Vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleicher, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Through an analysis of how Israelite and early Jewish texts have promoted five gender norms to secure cultural survival, this chapter argues that gender deviation is tolerated if deviation contributes to preventing loss of land and the weakening of cultural boundaries. In the transition from...... is any sign of culture pushing aside its categories, norms, and boundaries in situations where cultural survival or salvation is being threatened. Based on these insights from Jewish history, this paper criticises the encouragement of Judith Butler in Precarious Life to admit to the face of deviant...... others, especially of those who seem to pose a threat, as a strategy to reduce violence and make the distribution of intelligibility, vulnerability, and ‘mournability’ more even — not because I do not share Butler’s objectives of reducing violence against deviant others, but because the strategy runs...

  6. Assessing vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellmuth, M.; Kabat, P.

    2003-01-01

    It is in the shantytowns and rural villages of the Third World that floods and droughts strike hardest and deepest. Vulnerability to the vagaries of climate depends not only on location, but, crucially, on the capacity of the victims to cope with the impacts of extreme weather. So, where are the

  7. Attitude extremity, consensus and diagnosticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.; Ester, P.; van der Linden, J.

    1983-01-01

    Studied the effects of attitude extremity on perceived consensus and willingness to ascribe trait terms to others with either pro- or antinuclear attitudes. 611 Ss rated their attitudes toward nuclear energy on a 5-point scale. Results show that attitude extremity affected consensus estimates. Trait

  8. Vulnerable Hunter

    OpenAIRE

    Md.Asha Begum; Y.VishnuPriya; V.ManoranjanBabu; ,O.Srinivasu

    2016-01-01

    This project "VULNERABLE HUNTER" application main aim is to detect risk in our mobile applications. This application contains modules like Fetch Application, Generate Score, Uninstall and Display Graph. Through this application it detects risk so that this application is very useful to smart phone users Now-a-days so many people are using smart phones and people are crazy about new apps. But by installing all the applications into our mobile may reduce its performance. Some apps c...

  9. Residents’ Attitudes towards Sustainable Tourism Development in a Historical-Cultural Village: Influence of Perceived Impacts, Sense of Place and Tourism Development Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the residents’ support for sustainable tourism development in a destination that is in the initial tourism development stage. Residents’ perception of sustainable tourism development potential, sense of place, perceived tourism impacts, and tourism development support were involved in this study. A total of 331 completed questionnaire surveys were collected in Luozhou, a historical-cultural village in China. The empirical data were analyzed using a structural equation modeling (SEM technique, and the results revealed that perceived collective benefits had a significant positive effect on tourism development support, whereas the other three perceived impacts’ influence were not significant. The relationship between residents’ sense of place and perceived collective and personal benefits, perceived personal costs and tourism development support, were significant. Additionally, residents’ perceptions of tourism development potential had a significant influence on perceived impact and tourism development support except for perceived personal benefits. Some practical implications of those findings for tourism planning and development are also discussed.

  10. Assessing vulnerability of urban African communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson Nyed, Patrik; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Herslund, Lise Byskov

    2014-01-01

    East African cities are in the process of assessing their vulnerabilities to climate change, but face difficulties in capturing the complexity of the various facets of vulnerability. This holistic approach, captures four different dimensions of vulnerability to flooding - Assets, Institutions......, Attitudes and the Physical environment, with Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, as a case city. The methodology is actively involving the expertise of the stakeholders, and uses GIS to analyze and compile the data. The final output is presented as a comprehensible map, delineating the varying vulnerability...

  11. Modelling self-assessed vulnerability to HIV and its associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Globally, individuals' self-assessment of vulnerability to HIV infection is important to maintain safer sexual behaviour and reduce risky behaviours. However, determinants of self-perceived risk of HIV infection are not well documented and differ. We assessed the level of self-perceived vulnerability to HIV ...

  12. The HOT (Healthy Outcome for Teens) project. Using a web-based medium to influence attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and intention for obesity and type 2 diabetes prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Henna; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen; Castelli, Darla M; Scherer, Jane A

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) constructs (behavioral belief, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, knowledge and behavioral intention) regarding preventive behaviors for obesity and type 2 diabetes will change favorably after completing the web-based intervention, HOT (Healthy Outcome for Teens) project, grounded in the TPB; and that passive online learning (POL) group will improve more than the active online learning (AOL) group. The secondary hypothesis was to determine to what extent constructs of the TPB predict intentions. 216 adolescents were recruited, 127 randomly allocated to the treatment group (AOL) and 89 to the control group (POL). The subjects completed a TPB questionnaire pre and post intervention. Both POL and AOL groups showed significant improvements from pretest to posttest survey. However, the results indicated no significant difference between POL and AOL for all constructs except behavioral belief. Correlational analysis indicated that all TPB constructs were significantly correlated with intentions for pretest and posttest for both groups. Attitude and behavioral control showed strongest correlations. Regression analysis indicated that TPB constructs were predictive of intentions and the predictive power improved post intervention. Behavioral control consistently predicted intentions for all categories and was the strongest predictor for pretest scores. For posttest scores, knowledge and attitude were the strongest predictors for POL and AOL groups respectively. Thus, HOT project improved knowledge and the TPB constructs scores for targeted behaviors, healthy eating and physical activity, for prevention of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Transforming vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia S; Zhang, Xinwei Esther; Meleis, Afaf I

    2003-11-01

    Asian American immigrant women engaged in filial caregiving are at special risk for health problems due to complex contextual factors related to immigration, cultural traditions, and role transition. This study examines the experience of two groups of immigrant Asian American women who are caring for older parents. A total of 41 women (22 Chinese American and 19 Filipino American) were interviewed in a study based on Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory methodology. The women were determined to be loyal to their traditional culture, which included strong filial values, while adapting to a new culture. Through the struggle of meeting role expectations and coping with paradox, the women mobilized personal and family resources to transform vulnerability into strength and well-being.

  14. Attitudes, subjective norms, and intention to perform routine oral examination for oropharyngeal candidiasis as perceived by primary health-care providers in Nairobi Province

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koyio, L.N.; Kikwilu, E.N.; Mulder, J.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To assess attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions of primary health-care (PHC) providers in performing routine oral examination for oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) during outpatient consultations. Methods: A 47-item Theory of Planned Behaviour-based questionnaire was developed and

  15. The Role of Parental Stress, Mother's Childhood Abuse and Perceived Consequences of Violence in Predicting Attitudes and Attribution in Favor of Corporal Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Marie-Eve; Chamberland, Claire

    2009-01-01

    We investigate maternal attitudes toward corporal punishment and the attribution of blame to the child on the basis of data gathered from a population survey of a representative sample of mothers and mother figures. A total of 3,148 women living at least half of the time with a child participated in a telephone survey. The independent variables…

  16. The Role of Pre-Game Learning Attitude in the Prediction to Competitive Anxiety, Perceived Utility of Pre-Game Learning of Game, and Gameplay Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jon-Chao; Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Liu, Yeu-Ting; Lin, Pei-Hsin; Chen, Yi-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Educational games can be viewed in two ways, "learning to play" or "playing to learn." The Chinese Idiom String Up Game was specifically designed to examine the effect of "learning to play" on the interrelatedness of players' gameplay interest, competitive anxiety, and perceived utility of pre-game learning (PUPGL).…

  17. Why and when do learning goal orientation and attitude decrease with aging? : The role of perceived remaining time and work centrality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, T.A.M.; Zacher, H.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted two studies to improve our understanding of why and when older workers are focused on learning. Based on socioemotional selectivity theory, which proposes that goal focus changes with age and the perception of time, we hypothesized and found that older workers perceive their remaining

  18. The Nation and the Family: The Impact of National Identification and Perceived Importance of Family Values on Homophobic Attitudes in Lithuania and Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Wakefield, Juliet R. H.; Kalinauskaite, Monika; Hopkins, Nick

    2016-01-01

    The meanings attached to the nation can be consequential for group members’ attitudes and beliefs. We examined how national identity definition can influence the extent of individuals’ homophobia with 159 Lithuanian and 176 Scottish university students who completed a questionnaire which measured their national identification, homophobia, and the extent to which they felt traditional family values were central to their nation’s identity. Consistent with nation-wide differences in the signific...

  19. A Scoping Review of Maternal and Child Health Clinicians Attitudes, Beliefs, Practice, Training and Perceived Self-Competence in Environmental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamin Daddy Massaquoi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinicians regularly assess, diagnose and manage illnesses which are directly or indirectly linked to environmental exposures. Yet, various studies have identified gaps in environmental assessment in routine clinical practice. This review assessed clinicians’ environmental health practices, attitudes and beliefs, and competencies and training. Relevant articles were sought using a systematic search strategy using five databases, grey literature and a hand search. Search strategies and protocols were developed using tailored mesh terms and keywords. 43 out of 11,291 articles were eligible for inclusion. Clinicians’ attitudes and beliefs towards environmental health and routine clinical practice were generally positive, with most clinicians believing that environmental hazards affect human health. However, with the exception of tobacco smoke exposure, environmental health assessment was infrequently part of routine clinical practice. Clinicians’ self-competence in environmental assessment was reported to be inadequate. Major challenges were the time required to complete an assessment, inadequate training and concerns about negative patients’ responses. Clinicians have strong positive attitudes and beliefs about the importance of environmental health assessments. However, more concerted and robust strategies will be needed to support clinicians in assuming their assessment and counselling roles related to a wider range of environmental hazards.

  20. Applicability of vulnerability maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, L.J.; Gosk, E.

    1989-01-01

    A number of aspects to vulnerability maps are discussed: the vulnerability concept, mapping purposes, possible users, and applicability of vulnerability maps. Problems associated with general-type vulnerability mapping, including large-scale maps, universal pollutant, and universal pollution scenario are also discussed. An alternative approach to vulnerability assessment - specific vulnerability mapping for limited areas, specific pollutant, and predefined pollution scenario - is suggested. A simplification of the vulnerability concept is proposed in order to make vulnerability mapping more objective and by this means more comparable. An extension of the vulnerability concept to the rest of the hydrogeological cycle (lakes, rivers, and the sea) is proposed. Some recommendations regarding future activities are given

  1. Vulnerability and social justice as factors in emergent U.S. nanotechnology risk perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Joseph; Satterfield, Terre; Harthorn, Barbara Herr

    2011-11-01

    As an emerging domain of risk research, nanotechnologies engender novel research questions, including how new technologies are encountered given different framing and contextual detail. Using data from a recent U.S. national survey of perceived risks (N= 1,100), risk versus benefit framings and the specific social positions from which people encounter or perceive new technologies are explored. Results indicate that vulnerability and attitudes toward environmental justice significantly influenced risk perceptions of nanotechnology as a broad class, while controlling for demographic and affective factors. Comparative analyses of different examples of nanotechnology applications demonstrated heightened ambivalence across acceptability when risk versus benefit information was provided with application descriptions (described in short vignettes as compared to the general category "nanotechnology," absent of risk or benefit information). The acceptability of these nano-specific vignettes varied significantly in only some cases given indexes of vulnerability and attitudes toward environmental justice. However, experimental narrative analyses, using longer, more comprehensive descriptive passages, show how assessments of risks and benefits are tied to the systematically manipulated psychometric qualities of the application (its invasiveness and controllability), risk messaging from scientists, and the social implications of the technology with regard to justice. The article concludes with discussion of these findings for risk perception research and public policy related to nanotechnology and possibly other emerging technologies. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Vulnerability to Peer Influence: A Moderated Mediation Study of Early Adolescent Alcohol Use Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucco, Elisa M.; Colder, Craig R.; Wieczorek, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Affiliation with deviant peers is a correlate of adolescent alcohol use; however, the mechanism accounting for this association remains unclear, particularly with respect to initiation of alcohol use in early adolescence. This prospective study examines perceived peer attitudes and use as a mediator between peer delinquency and initiation of alcohol use, and how parenting may moderate vulnerability to this risk pathway. Participants included 371 11–13 year-old adolescents (55.5% female, 83.0% Caucasian). Results suggested that high levels of peer delinquency prospectively predicted perceived peer approval and use of alcohol and that peer approval and use of alcohol prospectively predicted initiation of alcohol use. Thus, reinforcement and modeling alcohol use appear to be important mechanisms by which delinquent peers influence the initiation of drinking. There was no support for parental warmth or control as moderators of peer influence. PMID:21420241

  3. Residents’ Attitudes towards Sustainable Tourism Development in a Historical-Cultural Village: Influence of Perceived Impacts, Sense of Place and Tourism Development Potential

    OpenAIRE

    He Zhu; Jiaming Liu; Zongcai Wei; Weiheng Li; Lei Wang

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to assess the residents’ support for sustainable tourism development in a destination that is in the initial tourism development stage. Residents’ perception of sustainable tourism development potential, sense of place, perceived tourism impacts, and tourism development support were involved in this study. A total of 331 completed questionnaire surveys were collected in Luozhou, a historical-cultural village in China. The empirical data were analyzed using a structural equatio...

  4. SUSTAINABLE FOOD CONSUMPTION: EXPLORING THE CONSUMER ATTITUDE – BEHAVIOUR GAP

    OpenAIRE

    I. VERMEIR; W. VERBEKE

    2004-01-01

    Although public interest in sustainability increases and consumer attitudes are mainly positive, behavioural patterns are not univocally consistent with attitudes. The presumed gap between favourable attitude towards sustainable behaviour and behavioural intention to purchase sustainable food products is investigated in this study. The impact of involvement, perceived availability, certainty, perceived consumer effectiveness (PCE), values, and social norms on consumers’ attitudes and intentio...

  5. Physiotherapists' attitudes toward circuit class therapy and 7 day per week therapy is influenced by normative beliefs, past experience, and perceived control: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kessel, Gisela; Hillier, Susan; English, Coralie

    2017-11-01

    Attitudes are recognized as influencing research implementation. However, little is known about the process by which physiotherapists' attitudes and beliefs shape their use of 7-day per week therapy and circuit class therapy research findings. Understanding beliefs may assist in addressing barriers to research uptake. Fifteen physiotherapists from six rehabilitation centers who ranged in seniority, experience, and education levels consented to be interviewed. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using a qualitative content analysis drawing on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Participants felt that they had autonomy in adopting new approaches when the evidence was supported by social norms. Participants believed that 7-day per week therapy delivers a seamless service that increases physiotherapy time, which helps maintain patient improvement, but needs to accommodate patient choice and expectations. Circuit class therapy was viewed positively as it provides more physiotherapy time, increases patient social interaction, and motivation. However, this was qualified by a belief that patients would not receive individualized, quality of movement focused therapy, particularly for patients with limited capacities. Implementation of a new approach depends on the past experience, coherence with individual beliefs regarding important elements of therapy content, and opportunities to control barriers to implementation.

  6. Impact of a Booklet about Diabetes Genetic Susceptibility and Its Prevention on Attitudes towards Prevention and Perceived Behavioral Change in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Their Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakazu Nishigaki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Offspring of type 2 diabetic patients are at a high risk of type 2 diabetes. Information on diabetes genetic susceptibility and prevention should be supplied to the offspring. Methods. A six-page booklet on diabetes genetic susceptibility and prevention was distributed to 173 patients who ere ordered to hand it to their offspring. The patients answered a self-administered questionnaire on booklet delivery and attitudinal and behavioral changes toward diabetes and its prevention in themselves and their offspring. Results. Valid responses were obtained from 130 patients. Forty-nine patients had actually handed the booklet. Booklet induces more relief than anxiety. From the patient's view, favorable attitudinal and/or behavioral changes occurred in more than half of the offspring who were delivered the booklet. Conclusion. The booklet worked effectively on attitudes and behaviors toward diabetes and its prevention both in patients and their offspring. However, the effectiveness of patients as information deliverers was limited.

  7. Attitudes and attitude change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohner, Gerd; Dickel, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Attitudes and attitude change remain core topics of contemporary social psychology. This selective review emphasizes work published from 2005 to 2009. It addresses constructionist and stable-entity conceptualizations of attitude, the distinction between implicit and explicit measures of attitude, and implications of the foregoing for attitude change. Associative and propositional processes in attitude change are considered at a general level and in relation to evaluative conditioning. The role of bodily states and physical perceptions in attitude change is reviewed. This is followed by an integrative perspective on processing models of persuasion and the consideration of meta-cognitions in persuasion. Finally, effects of attitudes on information processing, social memory, and behavior are highlighted. Core themes cutting across the areas reviewed are attempts at integrative theorizing bringing together formerly disparate phenomena and viewpoints.

  8. Consumers’ attitudes towards green food in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrea, Toula; Grunert, Klaus G; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    Green food is perceived by Chinese consumers as environmentally friendly and safe to consume. Through a Value-Attitude model, the paper examines the degree to which attitudes towards green food is determined by consumers’ values and their general attitudes towards environment and technology....... The link between collectivism, attitudes towards environment and attitudes towards green food is the strongest one. Collectivism also influences attitudes towards technology, which in turn influence attitudes towards green food. However, the lack of significant relationship between individualism...... and attitudes towards technology points towards the belief of Chinese people that technology is a positive determinant of food safety, and that interest in technology steams from altruistic predispositions....

  9. Predicting Help-Seeking Attitudes Toward Mental Health Services Among American Indian Older Adults: Is Andersen's Behavioral Model a Good Fit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Soonhee; Burnette, Catherine E; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Martin, James I; Lawler, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    American Indian (AI) older adults are vulnerable to mental health disparities, yet very little is known about the factors associated with help-seeking for mental health services among them. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of Andersen's Behavioral Model in explaining AI older adults' help-seeking attitudes toward professional mental health services. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine predisposing, enabling, and need variables as predictors of help-seeking attitudes toward mental health services in a sample of 233 AI older adults from the Midwest. The model was found to have limited utility in the context of older AI help-seeking attitudes, as the proportion of explained variance was low. Gender, perceived stigma, social support, and physical health were significant predictors, whereas age, perceived mental health, and health insurance were not. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Attitudes Toward Older Workers and Human Resource Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Kluge, Annette; Krings, Franciska

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes towards older employees, perceived age discrimination, and HR practices (personnel development and reward) in 240 employees. Attitudes toward older employees were largely positive, thus supporting the notion that attitudes toward older employees are becoming increasingly positive. Older employees' attitudes towards older employees were more positive, but younger employees' attitudes were still favorable. Moreover, older and younger employees reported benefiti...

  11. Assessment of social support and its association to depression, self-perceived health and chronic diseases in elderly individuals residing in an area of poverty and social vulnerability in rio de janeiro city, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria T S Lino

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Social support (SS influences the elderly ability to cope with the losses of ageing process. This study was aimed at assessing SS among elderly users of a primary healthcare unit in a poor and violent area of Rio de Janeiro City, and at verifying its association with depression, self-perceived health (SPH, marital status and chronic illnesses. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed based on a convenience sample of 180 individuals aged 60 years or older. SS was measured with part of the Brazilian version of Medical Outcomes Study's SS scale, and SPH and depression were assessed, respectively, through one question and the Brazilian version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. SS medians were calculated for the categories of SPH, depression, marital status and chronic illnesses variables, and differences were evaluated with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Additionally, Pearson's chi-square test and logistic regression were employed to identify unadjusted and adjusted associations between SS and those variables. RESULTS: The participant's mean age was 73 years old, and level of education was 3 years of school education on average. They were predominantly females (73.3%, and non-married (55.0%. Among them, 74.4% perceived their SS as satisfactory, 55.0% perceived their health as good, 27.8% were diagnosed with major depression and 83.3% had hypertension. Especially for those depressed and with bad SPH, the medians of SS measure were much lower than for others, reaching an unsatisfactory level. Moreover, controlling for other factors, non-depressed individuals were more likely (OR = 2.32 to have satisfactory SS. CONCLUSION: in the violent and poor area explored in this research low SS is highly prevalent in the elderly. Depressed individuals are more likely to have low SS and this condition should be investigated in depressed elderly. The reduced scale is useful for low education

  12. College Student Attitudes Toward Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo, Michael F.; Bittner, John R.

    1970-01-01

    Questionnaire attempts to determine attitudes in effort to learn how students perceive danger, or lack of it, in the use of marihuana. Tabulated responses are presented, and while no conclusions are drawn several interpretations are suggested. (Author/CJ)

  13. Attitudes and attitude change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    An attitude can be defined as the evaluation of an object as positive or negative. The term "object" in this definition should be understood in a broad sense; an attitude object may be any concrete or abstract entity that is in some way represented in our thoughts and memory. In other words......, attitude objects are simply the things we like or dislike. Consumer researchers are mainly interested in attitude objects of two classes, products and services, including the attributes, issues, persons, communications, situations, and behaviours related to them. Research on consumer attitudes takes two...... perspectives: Understanding attitude structure: how is an attitude cognitively represented in a consumer's mind, including its components (intra-attitudinal structure) and its associations with other psychological variables (inter-attitudinal structure)? Understanding information processing: what...

  14. Attitudes and Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracin, Dolores; Shavitt, Sharon

    2018-01-04

    This review covers research on attitudes and attitude change published between 2010 and 2017. We characterize this period as one of significant progress toward an understanding of how attitudes form and change in three critical contexts. The first context is the person, as attitudes change in connection to values, general goals, language, emotions, and human development. The second context is social relationships, which link attitude change to the communicator of persuasive messages, social media, and culture. The third context is sociohistorical and highlights the influence of unique events, including sociopolitical, economic, and climatic occurrences. In conclusion, many important recent findings reflect the fact that holism, with a focus on situating attitudes within their personal, social, and historical contexts, has become the zeitgeist of attitude research during this period.

  15. Computing Educator Attitudes about Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Settle, Amber; Sedlak, Brian

    2016-01-01

    While motivation is of great interest to computing educators, relatively little work has been done on understanding faculty attitudes toward student motivation. Two previous qualitative studies of instructor attitudes found results identical to those from other disciplines, but neither study considered whether instructors perceive student motivation to be more important in certain computing classes. In this work we present quantitative results about the perceived importance of student motivat...

  16. spatially identifying vulnerable areas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The model structure is aimed at understanding the critical vulnerable factors that ... This paper incorporates multiple criteria and rank risk factors. ..... In terms of quantifying vulnerable areas within the country, the analysis is done based on 9 ...

  17. Fuzzing and Vulnerabilities Search

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Evgenyevich Kirillov; Nikolai Petrovich Lavrentiev

    2013-01-01

    Fuzzing for vulnerabilities can be very effective if we know the input data format. This work contains description of network message format recovery algorithm and the usage of restored data model in fuzzing and vulnerabilities search.

  18. Fuzzing and Vulnerabilities Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Evgenyevich Kirillov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzing for vulnerabilities can be very effective if we know the input data format. This work contains description of network message format recovery algorithm and the usage of restored data model in fuzzing and vulnerabilities search.

  19. What Does Vulnerability Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parley, Fiona F

    2011-01-01

    Protection of those deemed vulnerable has received increasing attention since 2000. This article reports on care staff views of vulnerability using original data from a research study (Parley. "Vulnerability and abuse: an exploration of views of care staff working with people who have learning disabilities," PhD Thesis, 2007) in which care staff…

  20. Adirondack tourism: perceived consequences of acid rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, W.C.

    1984-03-01

    This report seeks to place in perspective the perceived effects of acid precipitation on the tourist industry in the Adirondacks. The 9375-square mile park is host to almost nine million tourists annually, not including seasonal residents. Since the park was established almost 100 years ago, there have been many changes in tourist characteristics, available recreational facilities, kinds of activities, accessibility of the area, and land use and resource management policies. The tourist industry has been influenced by both controllable and uncontrollable factors. At present the overwhelming majority of recreational opportunities and natural resources important to the Adirondack tourist industry are relatively unaffected by acid precipitation. Fishing, a significant component of the tourist industry, is the most vulnerable, but any presumed adverse economic effect has to be weighed against the location of the impacted waters, total Adirondack fishing habitat, substitution available, habitat usage, fisherman characteristics, resource management, and the declining importance of fishing as an Adirondack recreational attraction. Concern is expressed as to whether present minimal acidification impacts are the precursor of major future impacts on Adirondack terrestrial and aquatic environments, and ultimately tourism. Tourism in the Adirondacks is increasing, while many other regional employment sectors are declining. It is becoming a more stable multiseason industry. Its future growth and character will be affected by government, private organization, business community, and resident controversies regarding land use and resource management attitudes, policies, budgets, and regulations. The acid precipitation issue is only one of many related controversies. 65 references, 2 figures.

  1. Teacher Educators' Attitude towards Computer: Perspective Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Ataur

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how teacher educators perceive the attitude towards use of computer technology in Teachers' Training Colleges in Bangladesh. This study investigated teacher educators' computer attitudes by using the valid and reliable instruments of Loyd and Gressard's (1984) Computer Attitude Scale (CAS). The data was collected through …

  2. Consumers’ Attitudes towards Green Food production in China: A test of the values-attitudes hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Perrea, Toula; Grunert, Klaus G.; Krystallis, Athanasios; Zhou, Yanfeng

    2011-01-01

    Green food is perceived by Chinese consumers as environmentally friendly and safe to consume. Through a hierarchical values-attitudes model, the paper examines the degree to which attitudes towards green food is determined by consumers’ values and their general attitudes towards environment and nature and technological progress. The link between collectivism, attitudes towards environment and nature, and attitudes towards green food is the strongest link of the hierarchical model. However, co...

  3. Nature and operation of attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajzen, I

    2001-01-01

    This survey of attitude theory and research published between 1996 and 1999 covers the conceptualization of attitude, attitude formation and activation, attitude structure and function, and the attitude-behavior relation. Research regarding the expectancy-value model of attitude is considered, as are the roles of accessible beliefs and affective versus cognitive processes in the formation of attitudes. The survey reviews research on attitude strength and its antecedents and consequences, and covers progress made on the assessment of attitudinal ambivalence and its effects. Also considered is research on automatic attitude activation, attitude functions, and the relation of attitudes to broader values. A large number of studies dealt with the relation between attitudes and behavior. Research revealing additional moderators of this relation is reviewed, as are theory and research on the link between intentions and actions. Most work in this context was devoted to issues raised by the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior. The present review highlights the nature of perceived behavioral control, the relative importance of attitudes and subjective norms, the utility of adding more predictors, and the roles of prior behavior and habit.

  4. Attitudes towards poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Derdziuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Poverty, perceived as a lack of basic consumer goods, gives rise to a whole range of outcomes which affect not only the material dimension of human existence, but also influence social relations and references to spiritual values. Attitudes which could be associated with involuntary and unacceptable poverty include: doubt in the Divine Providence, bitterness, jealousy and envy, blaming others, lack of gratitude and in perceiving good, laziness, lack of initiative, escalating demands, gluttony and greed as well as meanness. However, joy, peace, freedom and solidarity with the poor, as well as work and enterprise, are symptoms of evangelical attitudes of the poor in spirit. Attitudes to poverty point to a wide range of human behaviours towards possessions and in effect, reveal an individual’s sense of value.

  5. The power of change: interpersonal attraction as a function of attitude similarity and attitude alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Chelsea A; Davis, Jody L; Green, Jeffrey D

    2013-01-01

    Does attitude alignment predict attraction? Would you like a stranger more who shifts her/his attitudes to more closely align with yours? In pairs, participants (N = 77) discussed social issues about which they disagreed and received false feedback on whether the partner engaged in attitude alignment (shifted her/his attitudes toward the participant's attitude) following discussion. Participants also received false feedback about the proportion of similarity to the partner on a set of issues (i.e., 25%, 50%, or 75%). Participants reported greater attraction to partners who engaged in attitude alignment and who were more similar. Moreover, similarity and attitude alignment interacted. Similarity predicted attraction when attitude alignment did not occur, but did not predict attraction when attitude alignment did occur. Finally, partner attitude alignment led to participant attitude alignment, and perceived reasoning ability mediated the attitude alignment-attraction relationship.

  6. VULNERABILITY OF COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARMEAN ANDREEA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In present, the study of vulnerability of companies is increasing in every field due to the unstable economic environment influences. The object of this research is to define and identify vulnerabilities of companies and the establishment of evaluation methods at their level. This article emphasizes the importance and usefulness of one of the best known model in this way, from our point of view, namely Băileşteanu, Negrila Pattern. This pattern covers both external factors and internal ones, that increase vulnerabilities of companies, and fit the companies in which the state of vulnerability are (vitality, viability, vulnerability, high vulnerability, difficulty and high difficulty, with a matrix. The result of the research is that any company belonging to any field, can be analyzed using this model, and assigned to one of the conditions defined within.

  7. HIV/AIDS Related Knowledge and Perceived Risk Associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    knowledge base of policy-relevant evidence that would provide new ... coded as 1, and negative attitudes as 0. The questions ..... decision making and vulnerability to STD and HIV/AIDS ... Framing HIV prevention discourse to encompass the ...

  8. Automated Software Vulnerability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Emre C.; Kil, Chongkyung; Ning, Peng

    Despite decades of research, software continues to have vulnerabilities. Successful exploitations of these vulnerabilities by attackers cost millions of dollars to businesses and individuals. Unfortunately, most effective defensive measures, such as patching and intrusion prevention systems, require an intimate knowledge of the vulnerabilities. Many systems for detecting attacks have been proposed. However, the analysis of the exploited vulnerabilities is left to security experts and programmers. Both the human effortinvolved and the slow analysis process are unfavorable for timely defensive measure to be deployed. The problem is exacerbated by zero-day attacks.

  9. Perceived knowledge and perceived risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Much discussion in the area of radioactive waste management has centered on the topic of siting waste facilities in the face of public opposition. Waste managers frequently believe that the public perceives risks associated with radioactive waste as much higher than objective risk. Previous research on this topic confirms that waste managers and the public view the risks differently. The scientific literature in this area has been focused on factors that shape risk perception such as how risk perception varies by group and associations among different types of perceived risk. Research in the area of natural hazards and emergency response has focused on how the public obtains information and how that information is interpreted. In addition, much attention has been given to public involvement and public information programs. Critical to each of these research areas is the role of perception of how informed an individual is on a given risk versus how the individual rates a given risk. This paper seeks to do three things: Look at perception of health risk of radioactive waste in the context of other things related to nuclear technology and radioactivity; Investigate the relationship between perceived knowledge and perceived risk; and Determine social and psychological consequences of perceived risk

  10. Perceived Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ost, David H.

    1995-01-01

    Perceived risk is a function of information, knowledge, values, and perception. This exercise is designed to illustrate that in many situations there is no correct answer, only best-alternative choices. The exercise has five parts in which students work in groups of five. (LZ)

  11. Perception of vulnerability among mothers of healthy infants in a middle-income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, D G; Ertem, I O; Karaaslan, T; Forsyth, B W

    2009-11-01

    Although four decades have passed since the concept of 'vulnerable children' has been introduced into paediatric literature, research on vulnerability is limited to high-income, Western countries. To adapt and adopt practices that have been advised for paediatricians to prevent 'the vulnerable child syndrome', information is needed also on the prevalence and correlates of perceived vulnerability in children in low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries. To determine the rate and correlates of the perception of vulnerability among healthy young children in a healthy population of children in Ankara, Turkey. In this cross-sectional observational study, participants comprised of a 'prescriptive sample' of healthy, thriving children with no known health risk for vulnerability. Maternal perception of child vulnerability was assessed using the Child Vulnerability Scale (CVS). Potential risks factors for vulnerability including history of threatened abortion during pregnancy, child gender, birth order, maternal and paternal age and education were collected using a structured questionnaire. A total of 519 children - 264 boys (50.9%) and 255 girls (49.1%) - comprised the sample. The internal consistency of the CVS was 0.71. Item-total scale correlations were 0.30 or above for all of the eight items. The median CVS score of the sample was 2.0 and 30 mothers (5.8%) were found to perceive their children as vulnerable. None of the socio-demographic variables that were investigated were found to be associated with high vulnerability scores. This study is the first to examine maternal perceived vulnerability of healthy children in a middle-income country. The findings imply that a high proportion of healthy children are perceived as vulnerable by their mothers and that previously studied socio-demographic factors do not explain perceived vulnerability. The results of this study may provide a comparison point for studies on childhood vulnerability in LAMI countries.

  12. Why Does Mentoring Work? The Role of Perceived Organizational Support

    OpenAIRE

    Baranik, Lisa; Roling, Elizabeth A; Eby, Lillian T

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the mediating role of perceived organizational support in the relationship between mentoring support received and work attitudes. Perceived organizational support partly mediated the relationship between specific types of mentoring support and job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment. Specifically, sponsorship, exposure and visibility, and role-modeling appear to be related to job satisfaction and organizational commitment through perceived organizational ...

  13. Vulnerability of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkovski, Igor; Biey, Mario; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2011-01-01

    We consider normalized average edge betweenness of a network as a metric of network vulnerability. We suggest that normalized average edge betweenness together with is relative difference when certain number of nodes and/or edges are removed from the network is a measure of network vulnerability, called vulnerability index. Vulnerability index is calculated for four synthetic networks: Erdős-Rényi (ER) random networks, Barabási-Albert (BA) model of scale-free networks, Watts-Strogatz (WS) model of small-world networks, and geometric random networks. Real-world networks for which vulnerability index is calculated include: two human brain networks, three urban networks, one collaboration network, and two power grid networks. We find that WS model of small-world networks and biological networks (human brain networks) are the most robust networks among all networks studied in the paper.

  14. Vulnerability and self-perceived health status among light and heavy smokers: the relationship to short-term fear appeal tobacco control messages Vulnerabilidade e percepção de saúde auto-referida entre fumantes leves e pesados: a relação com mensagens anti-fumo voltadas para o apelo ao medo imediato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Salem Szklo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available It is important to stimulate smokers to acquire some level of risk perception associated with their current behavior in order to motivate smoking cessation. The present article attempts to understand how the content of short-term fear appeal government tobacco messages may interact with different levels of daily cigarette consumption in order to affect smokers' vulnerabilities, expressed by self-perceived health status. A Poisson model was used to estimate the prevalence ratio of fair or poor self-perceived health status (FPHS according to daily cigarette consumption. We also calculated the proportions of smokers who stated that selected health warning pictures on cigarette packets encourage people to quit smoking, stratified by self-perceived health status and daily cigarette consumption. The proportion of smokers with FPHS was 25% higher among those who smoked > 20 cigarettes/day (p = 0.01. Among smokers with FPHS, heavy smokers showed the highest proportions of responses in favor of selected warning pictures most closely related to losses in ordinary daily living, such as shortness of breath and being bothered by cigarette addiction. Short-term loss-framed tobacco control messages seem to have raised awareness of vulnerability among heavier smokers.É importante incentivar os fumantes a adquirir algum nível de percepção do risco associado ao seu comportamento atual, para motivá-los a parar de fumar. O artigo procura elucidar em que medida o conteúdo do apelo ao medo imediato contido em mensagens anti-fumo nas campanhas governamentais pode interagir com o consumo diário de cigarros, no sentido de afetar as vulnerabilidades dos fumantes, expressas pela percepção de saúde auto-referida. Um modelo de Poisson foi utilizado para estimar a razão de prevalências de percepção de saúde auto-referida regular ou ruim, segundo consumo diário de cigarros. Calculou-se também a proporção de fumantes que afirmou que mensagens anti

  15. County Population Vulnerability

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This layer summarizes the social vulnerability index for populations within each county in the United States at scales 1:3m and below. It answers the question...

  16. Web Application Vulnerabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Bhanu

    2014-01-01

    Web application security has been a major issue in information technology since the evolvement of dynamic web application. The main objective of this project was to carry out a detailed study on the top three web application vulnerabilities such as injection, cross site scripting, broken authentication and session management, present the situation where an application can be vulnerable to these web threats and finally provide preventative measures against them. ...

  17. Discrimination, vulnerability, and justice in the face of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, Terre A; Mertz, C K; Slovic, Paul

    2004-02-01

    Recent research finds that perceived risk is closely associated with race and gender. In surveys of the American public a subset of white males stand out for their uniformly low perceptions of environmental health risks, while most nonwhite and nonmale respondents reveal higher perceived risk. Such findings have been attributed to the advantageous position of white males in American social life. This article explores the linked possibility that this demographic pattern is driven not simply by the social advantages or disadvantages embodied in race or gender, but by the subjective experience of vulnerability and by sociopolitical evaluations pertaining to environmental injustice. Indices of environmental injustice and social vulnerability were developed as part of a U.S. National Risk Survey (n= 1,192) in order to examine their effect on perceived risk. It was found that those who regarded themselves as vulnerable and supported belief statements consistent with the environmental justice thesis offered higher risk ratings across a range of hazards. Multivariate analysis indicates that our measures of vulnerability and environmental injustice predict perceived risk but do not account for all of the effects of race and gender. The article closes with a discussion of the implications of these findings for further work on vulnerability and risk, risk communication, and risk management practices generally.

  18. Selective vulnerability in brain hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervos-Navarro, J.; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1991-01-01

    Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis......Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis...

  19. Perceived Threat, Risk Perception, and Efficacy Beliefs Related to SARS and Other (Emerging) Infectious Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Zwart, Onno; Veldhuijzen, Irene; Elam, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the levels of perceived threat, perceived severity, perceived vulnerability, response efficacy, and self-efficacy for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and eight other diseases in five European and three Asian countries. METHOD: A computer-assisted phone survey was conduc......PURPOSE: To study the levels of perceived threat, perceived severity, perceived vulnerability, response efficacy, and self-efficacy for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and eight other diseases in five European and three Asian countries. METHOD: A computer-assisted phone survey...... was conducted among 3,436 respondents. The questionnaire focused on perceived threat, vulnerability, severity, response efficacy, and self-efficacy related to SARS and eight other diseases. RESULTS: Perceived threat of SARS in case of an outbreak in the country was higher than that of other diseases. Perceived...... vulnerability of SARS was at an intermediate level and perceived severity was high compared to other diseases. Perceived threat for SARS varied between countries in Europe and Asia with a higher perceived severity of SARS in Europe and a higher perceived vulnerability in Asia. Response efficacy and self...

  20. Parental perceptions of child vulnerability, overprotection, and parental psychological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M

    1998-01-01

    While a parental perception of child vulnerability to illness/injury is often used interchangeably with parental overprotection, research suggests that these constructs are independent. Distinct parental psychological characteristics were hypothesized for each construct. The parents of 871 children, ages 22-72 months, completed a four-part protocol (clinical background data, Child Vulnerability Scale, Parent Protection Scale, and Brief Symptom Inventory). A distinct parent symptom profile was found for perceived child vulnerability (somatization, obsessive-compulsiveness, and anxiety). Overprotection was associated with phobic anxiety, psychoticism, and paranoid ideation. These findings provide further support for the differentiation of these constructs.

  1. American attitudes toward nudges

    OpenAIRE

    Janice Y. Jung; Barbara A. Mellers

    2016-01-01

    To successfully select and implement nudges, policy makers need a psychological understanding of who opposes nudges, how they are perceived, and when alternative methods (e.g., forced choice) might work better. Using two representative samples, we examined four factors that influence U.S. attitudes toward nudges – types of nudges, individual dispositions, nudge perceptions, and nudge frames. Most nudges were supported, although opt-out defaults for organ donations were op...

  2. Seychelles, a vulnerable or resilient SIDS? A local perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Philpot

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses perceptions of residents of the Seychelles in the western Indian Ocean in relation to a long-running debate over small island developing states (SIDS as to whether they are vulnerable or resilient. The results of data obtained from 25 key informant interviews and 70 household surveys conducted in 2013 showed that respondents perceived their country to be both vulnerable and resilient. Moreover, the data revealed that the relationship between vulnerability and resilience was complex, and that five interpretations of that relationship were evident: conflict, compromise, complementarity, symbiosis and transformation. Also, the conceptual distance between the two terms – vulnerability and resilience – was shown to be closer than may be commonly assumed. Finally, the paper questions whether the debate over vulnerability versus resilience is rightly confined to SIDS or could be equally applied to other states.

  3. attitude of secondary school students towards guidance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth Egbochuku

    gender and school location significantly influenced students' attitude towards guidance ... students respond and perceive guidance and counselling services will, to ... counsellors will be appointed in post-primary institutions and tertiary levels.

  4. Vulnerabilities and responsibilities: dealing with monsters in computer security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Consoli, L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze information security assessment in terms of cultural categories and virtue ethics, in order to explain the cultural origin of certain types of security vulnerabilities, as well as to enable a proactive attitude towards preventing such

  5. The CLEM model: Path analysis of the mediating effects of attitudes and motivational beliefs on the relationship between perceived learning environment and course performance in an undergraduate nonmajor biology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partin, Matthew L.

    The problem addressed in this study stems from three crises currently faced by post-secondary science educators in the United States: relatively low scientific literacy among students entering college, the need for more students to pursue science related careers, and poor attitudes among students toward studying science. In this dissertation the following questions are addressed: Is there a relationship between students' perceptions of their learning environment and course performance, and what roles do motivation and attitudes play in mediating that relationship? This study also examines the effects of gender and ethnicity on motivation, attitudes, and course performance. The purpose of this study is to test a path model describing the mediating effects of motivation and attitudes on constructivist learning environments and course performance. The following study considers contemporary understanding of teaching and learning as well as motivation and attitudes to suggest a direction for future reform efforts and to guide post-secondary science education instructors and leaders in the design of constructivist learning environments for undergraduate nonmajor biology courses. This study concludes that, although the classroom learning environment has a small direct effect on course performance, there is a moderate total effect on self-efficacy and intrinsic goal orientation. The classroom learning environment also had a moderate indirect effect on attitudes toward biology. Furthermore, attitudes have a moderate direct effect on course performance and self-efficacy has a strong direct effect on both course performance and attitudes toward biology. Self-efficacy seems to be particularly important; however, each of these constructs is important in its own right and instructors in higher education should strive to enhance each of them among their students. If students are to learn using constructivist methods they need the proper motivation and positive attitudes to

  6. Energy vulnerability relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, B.R.; Boesen, J.L.

    1998-02-01

    The US consumption of crude oil resources has been a steadily growing indicator of the vitality and strength of the US economy. At the same time import diversity has also been a rapidly developing dimension of the import picture. In the early 1970`s, embargoes of crude oil from Organization of Producing and Exporting Countries (OPEC) created economic and political havoc due to a significant lack of diversity and a unique set of economic, political and domestic regulatory circumstances. The continued rise of imports has again led to concerns over the security of our crude oil resource but threats to this system must be considered in light of the diversity and current setting of imported oil. This report develops several important issues concerning vulnerability to the disruption of oil imports: (1) The Middle East is not the major supplier of oil to the United States, (2) The US is not vulnerable to having its entire import stream disrupted, (3) Even in stable countries, there exist vulnerabilities to disruption of the export stream of oil, (4) Vulnerability reduction requires a focus on international solutions, and (5) DOE program and policy development must reflect the requirements of the diverse supply. Does this increasing proportion of imported oil create a {open_quotes}dependence{close_quotes}? Does this increasing proportion of imported oil present a vulnerability to {open_quotes}price shocks{close_quotes} and the tremendous dislocations experienced during the 1970`s? Finally, what is the vulnerability of supply disruptions from the current sources of imported oil? If oil is considered to be a finite, rapidly depleting resource, then the answers to these questions must be {open_quotes}yes.{close_quotes} However, if the supply of oil is expanding, and not limited, then dependence is relative to regional supply sources.

  7. Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan describes the Department of Energy's response to the vulnerabilities identified in the Plutonium Working Group Report which are a result of the cessation of nuclear weapons production. The responses contained in this document are only part of an overall, coordinated approach designed to enable the Department to accelerate conversion of all nuclear materials, including plutonium, to forms suitable for safe, interim storage. The overall actions being taken are discussed in detail in the Department's Implementation Plan in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1. This is included as Attachment B

  8. Detecting C Program Vulnerabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Anton, Ermakov; Natalia, Kushik

    2011-01-01

    C/C++ language is widely used for developing tools in various applications, in particular, software tools for critical systems are often written in C language. Therefore, the security of such software should be thoroughly tested, i.e., the absence of vulnerabilities has to be confirmed. When detecting C program vulnerabilities static source code analysis can be used. In this paper, we present a short survey of existing software tools for such analysis and show that for some kinds of C code vu...

  9. The attitude towards people of other nations through the prism of the attitude to yourself

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Konyukh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of theoretical analysis and empirical investigation of the relationship between self-attitude and attitude towards other people, including representatives of other nationalities. Self-attitude is viwed as a stable, emotionally charged of your own self. The interdependance of self-attitude indicators with the features of ethnic tolerance and the character of other individuals' attitude in complicated situations has been researched. Individuals with different self-image are shown to perceive their opponents just as they perceive their own personality. Perception and emotional attitude both to their own ethnic group and other ethnicities is closely related to the attitude of the individual to himself, and common factors in predisposition to criticism and condescension towards themselves and others.

  10. Mental health nursing and physical health care: a cross-sectional study of nurses' attitudes, practice, and perceived training needs for the physical health care of people with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Debbie; Haddad, Mark; Gray, Richard; Gournay, Kevin

    2013-10-01

    Mental health nurses have a key role in improving the physical health of people with a serious mental illness, however, there have been few studies of their attitudes or the extent of their involvement in this work. The aim of this study was to examine mental health nurses' attitudes to physical health care and explore associations with their practice and training. A postal questionnaire survey including the Physical Health Attitude Scale for mental health nurses (PHASe) was used within a UK mental health trust. The 52% (n = 585) of staff who responded reported varying levels of physical health practice; this most frequently involved providing dietary and exercise advice and less frequently included advice regarding cancer screening and smoking cessation. Having received post-registration physical health-care training and working in inpatient settings was associated with greater reported involvement. More positive attitudes were also evident for nurses who had attended post-registration physical health training or had an additional adult/general nursing qualification. Overall, the attitudes of mental health nurses towards physical health care appear positive and the willingness of nurses to take on these roles needs to be recognized. However, there are areas where nurses in our sample were more ambivalent such as cancer screening and smoking cessation. © 2012 The Authors; International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  11. General vulnerability to stuttering: The experience of stuttering and conditions bringing about invulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, P M; Kalinowski, J S

    2016-08-01

    General vulnerability to stuttering is the broad awareness of stuttering and the ever-present, experiential sense of a person who stutters (PWS). It is defined by stuttering in all its forms and the awareness of its presence, both in moments of stuttering and moments of perceivably fluent speech. Under the heading of general vulnerability to stuttering is specific vulnerability to stuttering, which includes the actual events of stuttering (i.e., overt symptoms, covert symptoms, subperceptual stuttering, and anticipation of stuttering). The differentiation between the two is that specific vulnerability requires a specific moment of stuttering where general vulnerability does not. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of Perceived Organizational Support and Discretionary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Perceived Organizational Support and Discretionary Treatment on Work Attitude of Industrial Workers. AI Alarape, FM Akinlabi. Abstract. No Abstract Available African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues Vol.5(1) 2000: 23-36. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  13. Perceived competency towards preventive dentistry among dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A previous study has shown that dental practitioners in Benghazi believed that the less prevention-oriented education system is one of the barriers to applying preventive dentistry. Objective: To assess attitudes and perceived competence of the dental graduates in Benghazi towards prevention and early ...

  14. Maintaining dignity in vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente

    2016-01-01

    to understand the meaning of the narrated text. Results. The meaning of maintaining dignity was constituted in a sense of vulnerability to the self, and elucidated in three major interrelated themes: Being involved as a human being, being involved as the person one is and strives to become, and being involved...

  15. Anaphylaxis vulnerable groups

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    Age groups vulnerable to serious attacks of anaphylaxis include infants, teenagers, pregnant women, and the elderly. Concomitant diseases, such as severe or uncontrolled asthma, cardiovascular disease, mastocytosis or clonal mast cell disorders and the concurrent use of some medications such as beta adrenergic ...

  16. Recognizing Risk and Vulnerability in Research Ethics: Imagining the "What Ifs?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Elizabeth; Friedland, Judith

    2017-04-01

    Research ethics committees (RECs) may misunderstand the vulnerability of participants, given their distance from the field. What RECs identify as the vulnerabilities that were not adequately recognized in protocols and how they attempt to protect the perceived vulnerability of participants and mitigate risks were examined using the response letters sent to researchers by three university-based RECs. Using a critical qualitative method informed by feminist ethics, we identified an overarching theme of recognizing and responding to cascading vulnerabilities and four subthemes: identifying vulnerable groups, recognizing potentially risky research, imagining the "what ifs," and mitigating perceived risks. An ethics approach that is up-close, as opposed to distant, is needed to foster closer relationships among participants, researchers, and RECs and to understand participant vulnerability and strength better.

  17. Behavioral immune system and ingroup derogation: the effects of infectious diseases on ingroup derogation attitudes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wu

    Full Text Available From evolutionary reasoning, we derived a novel hypothesis that ingroup derogation is an evolved response of behavioral immune system which follows the smoke detector principle and the functional flexibility principle. This hypothesis was tested and supported across three experiments. In Experiment 1, participants' group membership was manipulated by using a minimal group paradigm. The results indicated that mere social categorization alone - a heuristic cue that implies the differentiation between "us" and "them" - was sufficient to elicit ingroup derogation among Chinese participants, and, such an intergroup bias was positively associated with the perceived vulnerability to diseases, which was also more consistently associated with ingroup attitudes. Experiment 2 extended and partially replicated Experiment 1 by showing that when there were cues of diseases in the immediate physical environment, Chinese participants exaggerated their attitudes of ingroup derogation. The results also showed that this effect was mainly driven by outgroup attraction. Experiment 3 changed the method of disease manipulation, and found that Chinese participants responded more strongly to disease cues originating from ingroup members and that they endorsed more ingroup derogation attitudes even when the ingroup and outgroup members were both displaying cues of diseases. Taken together, these results reveal the previously unexplored effects of infectious diseases on ingroup derogation attitudes, and suggest an interesting linkage between the evolved behavioral immune system and the ingroup derogation.

  18. Perceived Convenience, Compatibility, and Media Richness Contribute Significantly toDedicated E-book Reader Acceptance. A Review of: Lai, J.-Y., & Chang, C.-Y. (2011. User attitudes toward dedicated e-book readers for reading: The effects of convenience, compatibility and media richness. Online Information Review, 35(4, 558-580.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa S. Arndt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – Investigates the effects ofperceived convenience, compatibility andmedia richness on users’ attitudes towarddedicated e-book readers.Design – Convenience sample survey.Setting – Taiwanese university.Subjects – A total of 288 students at the seniorsecondary (5%, four-year university (78%,and graduate student (17% levels. Malefemaleparticipation was approximately equal.Methods – Students completed a 23-itemsurvey on dedicated e-book readers, withquestions on perceived usefulness, perceivedease of use, intention to use, convenience,compatibility, and media richness. Data wasanalyzed using the partial least squaresstatistical technique.Main Results – Users state an increasedintention to use dedicated e-book readers ifthey perceive the technology to be compatiblewith what they desire in a “book,” if the devicedelivers rich media content, and if the device isconvenient. Compatibility was found tosignificantly affect perceived ease of use, andwas found to be the strongest influence onintent to use a dedicated e-book reader.Compatibility, media richness andconvenience also increased the perceivedusefulness of dedicated e-book readers.Conclusion – Users will prefer dedicated e-book readers that are compatible with their preferences in a “book,” that deliver media-rich content, and that they find convenient. The study has implications for the design and development of e-book reading devices.

  19. Mangrove vulnerability index using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Mohd Zulkifli Mohd; Ahmad, Fatimah Shafinaz; Ibrahim, Nuremira

    2018-02-01

    Climate change, particularly its associated sea level rise, is major threat to mangrove coastal areas, and it is essential to develop ways to reduce vulnerability through strategic management planning. Environmental vulnerability can be understood as a function of exposure to impacts and the sensitivity and adaptive capacity of ecological systems towards environmental tensors. Mangrove vulnerability ranking using up to 14 parameters found in study area, which is in Pulau Kukup and Sg Pulai, where 1 is low vulnerability and 5 is very high vulnerability. Mangrove Vulnerability Index (MVI) is divided into 3 main categories Physical Mangrove Index (PMI), Biological Mangrove Index (BMI) and Hazard Mangrove Index (HMI).

  20. The CLEM Model: Path Analysis of the Mediating Effects of Attitudes and Motivational Beliefs on the Relationship between Perceived Learning Environment and Course Performance in an Undergraduate Non-Major Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partin, Matthew L.; Haney, Jodi J.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the following questions were addressed in an undergraduate non-major biology course using a large lecture format: Is there a relationship between students' perceptions of their learning environment and course performance, and what roles do motivation and attitudes play in mediating that relationship? The purpose of this study was to…

  1. Why Does Mentoring Work? The Role of Perceived Organizational Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranik, Lisa E.; Roling, Elizabeth A.; Eby, Lillian T.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the mediating role of perceived organizational support in the relationship between mentoring support received and work attitudes. Perceived organizational support partly mediated the relationship between specific types of mentoring support and job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment. Specifically, sponsorship,…

  2. Media Use and Perceived Risk as Predictors of Marijuana Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Christopher E.; Hong, Traci

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the influence of media use and perceived risk on marijuana use outcomes. Methods: With survey data from 750 US young adults, structural equation modeling tested how attitudes, behaviors, and behavioral intention specific to marijuana use are influenced by perceived personal and societal risk of marijuana use, media campaign…

  3. University students’ differences on attitudes towards computer use. Comparison with students’ attitudes towards physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Bebetsos, Evangelos; Antoniou, Panagiotis

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to discover the differences on attitudes of Greek Physical Education students towards the subject of computers, in comparison with their involvement in physical activities (PA). The sample consisted of 165 freshmen students, 93 males and 72 females. They completed the “Computer Attitude Scale” questionnaire (Selwyn, 1997) of 21 items which consist four factors (affect, perceived usefulness, perceived control and behavioural) Additionally, each student received a dia...

  4. The space of vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Sgarbi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Archi-tecture has lost the reference to its prop “Archi” to develop mostly its “Tecture”: a deceitful form of nihilism, which has given full credit to a hurricane of instruments for which we know no purpose. Any distinction between city and architecture is purely contingent. Contingency is relevant but only in so far as it makes one lose any sense of scale. Many of our cities do not work because our style of life eradicates the sense of hospitality. The city becomes the place where we un-learn how to live together. Hospitality is vulnerability – the construction of vulnerability is the true beauty, the only deterrent against stupidity. Learn to live with the others, to approximate the alterity and its unpredictability. The basic tools of conviviality are the common goods of inter-disciplinarity. Learn to cultivate and educate yourself to phenomenal incompleteness.

  5. Fuzzy vulnerability matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, Jorge H.; Rivera, S.S.

    2000-01-01

    The so-called vulnerability matrix is used in the evaluation part of the probabilistic safety assessment for a nuclear power plant, during the containment event trees calculations. This matrix is established from what is knows as Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement. This matrix is usually established with numerical values obtained with traditional arithmetic using the set theory. The representation of this matrix with fuzzy numbers is much more adequate, due to the fact that the Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement are better represented with linguistic variables, such as 'highly probable', 'probable', 'impossible', etc. In the present paper a methodology to obtain a Fuzzy Vulnerability Matrix is presented, starting from the recommendations on the Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement. (author)

  6. Perceived Satisfaction, Perceived Usefulness and Interactive Learning Environments as Predictors to Self-Regulation in e-Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Shu-Sheng; Huang, Hsiu-Mei

    2013-01-01

    The research purpose is to investigate learner self-regulation in e-learning environments. In order to better understand learner attitudes toward e-learning, 196 university students answer a questionnaire survey after use an e-learning system few months. The statistical results showed that perceived satisfaction, perceived usefulness, and…

  7. VT - Vermont Social Vulnerability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Social vulnerability refers to the resilience of communities when responding to or recovering from threats to public health. The Vermont Social Vulnerability Index...

  8. SOCIAL COMPETENCE AND PSYCHOLOGICAL VULNERABILITY: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF FLOURISHING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Recep

    2015-10-01

    This study examined whether flourishing mediated the social competence and psychological vulnerability. Participants were 259 university students (147 women, 112 men; M age = 21.3 yr., SD = 1.7) who completed the Turkish versions of the Perceived Social Competence Scale, the Flourishing Scale, and the Psychological Vulnerability Scale. Mediation models were tested using the bootstrapping method to examine indirect effects. Consistent with the hypotheses, the results indicated a positive relationship between social competence and flourishing, and a negative relationship between social competence and psychological vulnerability. Results of the bootstrapping method revealed that flourishing significantly mediated the relationship between social competence and psychological vulnerability. The significance and limitations of the results were discussed.

  9. Perceptions of vulnerability to a future outbreak: a study of horse managers affected by the first Australian equine influenza outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A growing body of work shows the benefits of applying social cognitive behavioural theory to investigate infection control and biosecurity practices. Protection motivation theory has been used to predict protective health behaviours. The theory outlines that a perception of a lack of vulnerability to a disease contributes to a reduced threat appraisal, which results in poorer motivation, and is linked to poorer compliance with advised health protective behaviours. This study, conducted following the first-ever outbreak of equine influenza in Australia in 2007, identified factors associated with horse managers’ perceived vulnerability to a future equine influenza outbreak. Results Of the 200 respondents, 31.9% perceived themselves to be very vulnerable, 36.6% vulnerable and 31.4% not vulnerable to a future outbreak of equine influenza. Multivariable logistic regression modelling revealed that managers involved in horse racing and those on rural horse premises perceived themselves to have low levels of vulnerability. Managers of horse premises that experienced infection in their horses in 2007 and those seeking infection control information from specific sources reported increased levels of perceived vulnerability to a future outbreak. Conclusion Different groups across the horse industry perceived differing levels of vulnerability to a future outbreak. Increased vulnerability contributes to favourable infection control behaviour and hence these findings are important for understanding uptake of recommended infection control measures. Future biosecurity communication strategies should be delivered through information sources suitable for the horse racing and rural sectors. PMID:23902718

  10. Perceptions of vulnerability to a future outbreak: a study of horse managers affected by the first Australian equine influenza outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemann, Kathrin; Firestone, Simon M; Taylor, Melanie R; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; Ward, Michael P; Dhand, Navneet K

    2013-07-31

    A growing body of work shows the benefits of applying social cognitive behavioural theory to investigate infection control and biosecurity practices. Protection motivation theory has been used to predict protective health behaviours. The theory outlines that a perception of a lack of vulnerability to a disease contributes to a reduced threat appraisal, which results in poorer motivation, and is linked to poorer compliance with advised health protective behaviours. This study, conducted following the first-ever outbreak of equine influenza in Australia in 2007, identified factors associated with horse managers' perceived vulnerability to a future equine influenza outbreak. Of the 200 respondents, 31.9% perceived themselves to be very vulnerable, 36.6% vulnerable and 31.4% not vulnerable to a future outbreak of equine influenza. Multivariable logistic regression modelling revealed that managers involved in horse racing and those on rural horse premises perceived themselves to have low levels of vulnerability. Managers of horse premises that experienced infection in their horses in 2007 and those seeking infection control information from specific sources reported increased levels of perceived vulnerability to a future outbreak. Different groups across the horse industry perceived differing levels of vulnerability to a future outbreak. Increased vulnerability contributes to favourable infection control behaviour and hence these findings are important for understanding uptake of recommended infection control measures. Future biosecurity communication strategies should be delivered through information sources suitable for the horse racing and rural sectors.

  11. Perceived Disgust and Personal Experiences are Associated with Acceptance of Dissections in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol; Leskova, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Animal dissections are essential parts of anatomy/zoology courses, but their effectiveness is influenced by student attitudes and emotions. Here we examined attitudes toward dissections in 397 prospective biology teachers enrolling two Slovak universities. Perceived disgust of dissections negatively correlated with other attitudes toward…

  12. HEPA Filter Vulnerability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GUSTAVSON, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    This assessment of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter vulnerability was requested by the USDOE Office of River Protection (ORP) to satisfy a DOE-HQ directive to evaluate the effect of filter degradation on the facility authorization basis assumptions. Within the scope of this assessment are ventilation system HEPA filters that are classified as Safety-Class (SC) or Safety-Significant (SS) components that perform an accident mitigation function. The objective of the assessment is to verify whether HEPA filters that perform a safety function during an accident are likely to perform as intended to limit release of hazardous or radioactive materials, considering factors that could degrade the filters. Filter degradation factors considered include aging, wetting of filters, exposure to high temperature, exposure to corrosive or reactive chemicals, and exposure to radiation. Screening and evaluation criteria were developed by a site-wide group of HVAC engineers and HEPA filter experts from published empirical data. For River Protection Project (RPP) filters, the only degradation factor that exceeded the screening threshold was for filter aging. Subsequent evaluation of the effect of filter aging on the filter strength was conducted, and the results were compared with required performance to meet the conditions assumed in the RPP Authorization Basis (AB). It was found that the reduction in filter strength due to aging does not affect the filter performance requirements as specified in the AB. A portion of the HEPA filter vulnerability assessment is being conducted by the ORP and is not part of the scope of this study. The ORP is conducting an assessment of the existing policies and programs relating to maintenance, testing, and change-out of HEPA filters used for SC/SS service. This document presents the results of a HEPA filter vulnerability assessment conducted for the River protection project as requested by the DOE Office of River Protection

  13. [Adolescent vulnerabilities and radicalisation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenjalley, Adrien; Radjack, Rahmeth; Ludot, Maude; Touhami, Fatima; Moro, Marie Rose

    2017-10-01

    Radicalisation resonates with the psychological vulnerabilities of adolescents. The ups and downs encountered as they attempt to construct their identity and their need to dominate favour the destructive nature of young people lacking a sense of filiation and belonging. An adolescent's engagement corresponds to a search for limits, with an adherence to religious values and to a group to establish self-esteem. Subjectification, authorising the adolescent to separate themselves from their parents and their values through a period of crisis must be supported. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Classification of vulnerability information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    The current upgrading of security measures at sensitive Department of Energy (DOE) facilities reflects the continuing concern over possible terrorist and other criminal acts against these facilities. Security reviews are periodically conducted at DOE facilities, deficiencies are identified, and corrective actions are recommended. While security upgrades are initiated as soon as possible, the process of securing funding and the construction or other activities necessary to complete upgrades can cause delays in correcting security vulnerabilities. Details of security weaknesses at important DOE facilities are classified in order to deny valuable information to terrorists and other malefactors

  15. Belief in a Just World Lowers Perceived Intention of Corruption: The Mediating Role of Perceived Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bao-yu; Liu, Xiao-xiao; Kou, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Corruption can be unfair and detrimental to societies; however, little is known regarding how individuals perceive corruption. We aim to understand how psychological factors, such as lay belief of the world, influence perceived intention of corruptive behavior. As corruption undermines justice, we hypothesize that belief in a just world to others (BJW-others) reduces perceived intention of corruptive behaviors. We conducted two correlational studies and one experimental study in China. Using hypothetical scenarios, perception toward bribery taking and nepotistic practices were assessed. In Study 1 and Study 2, we consistently found that BJW-others negatively predicted perceived intention of corruption, and this pattern was mediated by perceived likelihood of punishment. We further replicate this result in Study 3 by priming BJW-others, demonstrating its causal effect. The results indicate that BJW as one lay belief can be important in influencing people’s attitudes toward corruption. Implications for future research and anti-corruption policies are also discussed. PMID:24835428

  16. Belief in a just world lowers perceived intention of corruption: the mediating role of perceived punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bao-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Xiao; Kou, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Corruption can be unfair and detrimental to societies; however, little is known regarding how individuals perceive corruption. We aim to understand how psychological factors, such as lay belief of the world, influence perceived intention of corruptive behavior. As corruption undermines justice, we hypothesize that belief in a just world to others (BJW-others) reduces perceived intention of corruptive behaviors. We conducted two correlational studies and one experimental study in China. Using hypothetical scenarios, perception toward bribery taking and nepotistic practices were assessed. In Study 1 and Study 2, we consistently found that BJW-others negatively predicted perceived intention of corruption, and this pattern was mediated by perceived likelihood of punishment. We further replicate this result in Study 3 by priming BJW-others, demonstrating its causal effect. The results indicate that BJW as one lay belief can be important in influencing people's attitudes toward corruption. Implications for future research and anti-corruption policies are also discussed.

  17. Belief in a just world lowers perceived intention of corruption: the mediating role of perceived punishment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Yu Bai

    Full Text Available Corruption can be unfair and detrimental to societies; however, little is known regarding how individuals perceive corruption. We aim to understand how psychological factors, such as lay belief of the world, influence perceived intention of corruptive behavior. As corruption undermines justice, we hypothesize that belief in a just world to others (BJW-others reduces perceived intention of corruptive behaviors. We conducted two correlational studies and one experimental study in China. Using hypothetical scenarios, perception toward bribery taking and nepotistic practices were assessed. In Study 1 and Study 2, we consistently found that BJW-others negatively predicted perceived intention of corruption, and this pattern was mediated by perceived likelihood of punishment. We further replicate this result in Study 3 by priming BJW-others, demonstrating its causal effect. The results indicate that BJW as one lay belief can be important in influencing people's attitudes toward corruption. Implications for future research and anti-corruption policies are also discussed.

  18. Knowledge, perception and attitude towards human papillomavirus among pre-university students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwang, Ng Beng; Yee, Choy Mun; Shan, Lim Pei; Teik, Chew Kah; Chandralega, Kampan Nirmala; Abdul Kadir, Abdul Karim

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the knowledge, perception and attitudes towards human papilloma virus (HPV) among pre-university students in Malaysia. In this cross sectional study, between November 2013 to March 2014, in a public university, a convenient sampling method was used. A total of 716 respondents were recruited and interviewed with a set of standard questionnaires for assessment of knowledge, perception and attitudes towards HPV and predictor variables associated with level of knowledge. Almost half (48.9%) of the respondents scored less than 5 and were categorised as having poor knowledge. Three hundred and twelve (43.6%) respondents had moderate knowledge and only 54 (7.5%) respondents exhibited good knowledge with the score of 11 and above. Only 142 (20%) students perceived themselves to be vulnerable to HPV infection though 560 (78.2%) students thought that HPV infection is a serious disease. Perceived benefits and desire to be vaccinated were significantly associated with gender (p=0.000) and knowledge of HPV vaccine and cervical cancer (p=0.000). The level of knowledge regarding HPV among the pre-university students was low. However, student intention for vaccination increased with increasing level of knowledge. Thus, efforts to improve knowledge and awareness should be prioritised to increase uptake of the HPV vaccination programme and hence reduce morbidity and mortality from consequences of HPV infection, including cervical carcinoma.

  19. Vulnerable pregnant women in antenatal practice : Caregiver's perception of workload, associated burden and agreement with objective caseload, and the influence of a structured organisation of antenatal risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Nynke; Venekamp, Angélica A; Torij, Hanneke W; Lambregtse-Van den Berg, Mijke P; Bonsel, Gouke J

    INTRODUCTION: pregnancy care for vulnerable women is often perceived as a burden by caregivers as vulnerable clients require complex case management, additional time, and more often show adverse perinatal outcomes. Vulnerable clients bring about additional work strain for the caregiver, especially

  20. Vulnerability assessment of atmospheric environment driven by human impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Shen, Jing; Ding, Feng; Li, Yu; He, Li

    2016-11-15

    Atmospheric environment quality worsening is a substantial threat to public health worldwide, and in many places, air pollution due to the intensification of the human activity is increasing dramatically. However, no studies have been investigated the integration of vulnerability assessment and atmospheric environment driven by human impacts. The objective of this study was to identify and prioritize the undesirable environmental changes as an early warning system for environment managers and decision makers in term of human, atmospheric environment, and social economic elements. We conduct a vulnerability assessment method of atmospheric environment associated with human impact, this method integrates spatial context of Geographic Information System (GIS) tool, multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method, ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operators under the Exposure-Sensitivity- Adaptive Capacity (ESA) framework. Decision makers can find out relevant vulnerability assessment results with different vulnerable attitudes. In the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China, we further applied this developed method and proved it to be reliable and consistent with the China Environmental Status Bulletin. Results indicate that the vulnerability of atmospheric environment in the BTH region is not optimistic, and environment managers should do more about air pollution. Thus, the most appropriate strategic decision and development program of city or state can be picked out assisting by the vulnerable results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Faculty attitudes about interprofessional education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary L. Beck Dallaghan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interprofessional education (IPE is an important component to training health care professionals. Research is limited in exploring the attitudes that faculty hold regarding IPE and what barriers they perceive to participating in IPE. The purpose of this study was to identify faculty attitudes about IPE and to identify barriers to participating in campus-wide IPE activities. Methods: A locally used questionnaire called the Nebraska Interprofessional Education Attitudes Scale (NIPEAS was used to assess attitudes related to interprofessional collaboration. Questions regarding perceived barriers were included at the end of the questionnaire. Descriptive and non-parametric statistics were used to analyze the results in aggregate as well as by college. In addition, open-ended questions were analyzed using an immersion/crystallization framework to identify themes. Results: The results showed that faculty had positive attitudes of IPE, indicating that is not a barrier to participating in IPE activities. Most common barriers to participation were scheduling conflicts (x24,285=19.17, p=0.001, lack of department support (4,285=10.09, p=0.039, and lack of awareness of events (x24,285=26.38, p=0.000. Narrative comments corroborated that scheduling conflicts are an issue because of other priorities. Those who commented also added to the list of barriers, including relevance of the activities, location, and prior negative experiences. Discussion: With faculty attitudes being positive, the exploration of faculty's perceived barriers to IPE was considered even more important. Identifying these barriers will allow us to modify our IPE activities from large, campus-wide events to smaller activities that are longitudinal in nature, embedded within current curriculum and involving more authentic experiences.

  2. Employees' Perceptions of the Opportunities to Utilize Their Competences: Exploring the Role of Perceived Competence Mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Perceived competence mobilization is the degree to which employees perceive that they have adequate opportunities to utilize their competences in their current jobs. The findings of the research reported here suggest that employees' perceived competence mobilization is associated with a number of favourable employee attitudes, including intrinsic…

  3. Assessing flash flood vulnerability using a multi-vulnerability approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karagiorgos Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of flood risk assessment, while the understanding of hazard and exposure has significantly improved over the last years, knowledge on vulnerability remains one of the challenges. Current approaches in vulnerability research are characterised by a division between social scientists and natural scientists. In order to close this gap, we present an approach that combines information on physical and social vulnerability in order to merge information on the susceptibility of elements at risk and society. With respect to physical vulnerability, the study is based on local-scale vulnerability models using nonlinear regression approaches. Modified Weibull distributions were fit to the data in order to represent the relationship between process magnitude and degree of loss. With respect to social vulnerability we conducted a door-to-door survey which resulted in particular insights on flood risk awareness and resilience strategies of exposed communities. In general, both physical and social vulnerability were low in comparison with other European studies, which may result from (a specific building regulations in the four Mediterranean test sites as well as general design principles leading to low structural susceptibility of elements at risk, and (b relatively low social vulnerability of citizens exposed. As a result it is shown that a combination of different perspectives of vulnerability will lead to a better understanding of exposure and capacities in flood risk management.

  4. Personal and Perceived Depression Stigma among Arab Adolescents: Associations with Depression Severity and Personal Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardas, Latefa Ali; Silva, Susan G; Smoski, Moria J; Noonan, Devon; Simmons, Leigh Ann

    2017-10-01

    In Arab communities, the selection, utilization, and attitudes towards mental health services are substantially affected by existing mental illness stigma. However, little is known about how the stigma of depression manifests among Arab adolescents, which makes it difficult to design, implement, and disseminate effective anti-stigma interventions for this vulnerable population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine levels of depression stigma among Arab adolescents. The specific aims were to (1) describe the severity of personal and perceived depression stigma among Arab adolescents and its relationship to severity of depression, and (2) determine characteristics associated with severity of depression stigma among Arab adolescents. This study was conducted in Jordan, a Middle Eastern Arab country. A nationally representative, school-based survey was utilized. A total of 2349 Jordanian adolescents aged 12-17 completed and returned the survey packets, which included measures on individual characteristics, depression severity, and depression stigma. The majority of the adolescents (88%) reported scores indicating moderate to high depression stigma. Adolescents reported higher rates of perceived stigma than personal stigma. Depression stigma was not significantly associated with severity of depression, but with adolescent's sex, age, region of residence, parents' education, and history of mental health problem. This is the first Arab study to isolate the influence of adolescent depression and personal characteristics on personal and perceived depression stigmas, and highlight the presence of these distinctions early in adolescence. Such distinction can inform the design and implementation of policies and interventions to reduce both personal and perceived stigma. The study provides important recommendations on when, how, and why to utilize school settings for anti-depression stigma interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Country Stakes in Climate Change Negotiations. Two Dimensions of Vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buys, P.; Deichmann, U.; Meisner, C.; That, Thao Ton; Wheeler, D.

    2007-01-01

    Using a comprehensive geo-referenced database of indicators relating to global change and energy, the paper assesses countries' likely attitudes with respect to international treaties that regulate carbon emissions. The authors distinguish between source and impact vulnerability and classify countries according to these dimensions. The findings show clear differences in the factors that determine likely negotiating positions. This analysis and the resulting detailed, country level information help to explain the incentives required to make the establishment of such agreements more likely.

  6. "Show me the money": vulnerability to gambling moderates the attractiveness of money versus suspense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Cheryl; Wilson, Timothy D; McRae, Kaichen; Gilbert, Daniel T

    2013-10-01

    Do people take risks to obtain rewards or experience suspense? We hypothesized that people vulnerable to gambling are motivated more by the allure of winning money whereas people less vulnerable to gambling are motivated more by the allure of suspense. Consistent with this hypothesis, participants with high scores on a subscale of the Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Survey--a measure of vulnerability to gambling--reported more of a motivation to earn money (pilot study), were more likely to accept a certain or near-certain amount of money than to gamble for that same amount (Studies 1-2), and worked harder to earn money (Study 3). People vulnerable to gambling also made more accurate predictions about how much they would gamble. People less vulnerable to gambling, in contrast, gambled more than people vulnerable to gambling, but did not know that they would.

  7. Open Source Vulnerability Database Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake Kouns

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the Open Source Vulnerability Database (OSVDB project which manages a global collection of computer security vulnerabilities, available for free use by the information security community. This collection contains information on known security weaknesses in operating systems, software products, protocols, hardware devices, and other infrastructure elements of information technology. The OSVDB project is intended to be the centralized global open source vulnerability collection on the Internet.

  8. Motherhood, Marketization, and Consumer Vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Andrea; Prothero, Andrea; Sørensen, Elin

    2010-01-01

    This article explores consumer vulnerability and the role of public policy by focusing on new mothers. Developing the consumer vulnerability model of Baker, Gentry, and Rittenburg, the authors consider how medical contexts, political and legal factors, economic resources, societal prescriptions...... a time of physical and psychological changes in mothers-to-be. This article illustrates that the extended market logic dominating contemporary mothering environments both contributes to and has the potential to exacerbate new mothers’ vulnerability, raising important challenges for public policy, both...

  9. Perceived barriers to implementing screening and brief intervention for alcohol consumption by adolescents in hospital emergency department in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcón, María; Navarro-Zaragoza, Javier; García-Rodríguez, Rosa María; Nova-López, Daniel; González-Navarro, María Dulce; Mercadal, María; García-Algar, Oscar; Luna Ruiz-Cabello, Aurelio

    2017-07-14

    Screening for alcohol consumption in adolescents is widely justified in the health care field because of the particular vulnerability of this population, which starts drinking alcohol at a very early age and frequently consumes high levels of the same. Hospital emergency departments (ED) could be a good venue to manage early detection and carry out brief intervention (BI) programmes. The aim of this study was to identify perceived barriers for medical staff of three hospitals in Spain to successfully implement a protocol for alcohol detection and BI for minors in the ED. Exploratory qualitative analysis using focus groups with semi-structured, flexible and open-ended questions to explore beliefs, attitudes, and barriers perceived by professionals to screening alcohol consumption and implementing BI in adolescents attended at the ED. The main perceived barriers by health professionals were lack of time, work overload, mistrust, lack of validated and simple screening tools, lack of training/awareness and legal concerns about informed consent and confidentiality. Barriers to screening and intervention in ED are similar to those described previously. It is necessary to improve organization of time allocated for medical consultations, avoid limiting ED resources, motivate staff and provide appropriate training.

  10. Network Vulnerability and Risk Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alward, Randy G; Carley, Kathleen M; Madsen, Fredrik; Taylor, Vincent K; Vandenberghe, Grant

    2006-01-01

    .... The break out group discussed vulnerability presentation needs common across various application domains, particularly in support of network discovery and network analysis tasks in those domains...

  11. Understanding consumer attitudes toward food technologies in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Spencer; Annou, Mamane; Cranfield, John; Ryks, Joanne

    2008-12-01

    This article reports a study on consumer attitudes to 21 food and nonfood technologies in Canada. The study involves repertory grid interviews with 36 food consumers, the data from which are analyzed using generalized Procrustes analysis. Results highlight the role of perceived risk and perceived benefit in determining the acceptability of the technologies, with individual technologies lying along a continuum between the two. For technology as a whole and the 21 specific technologies, the perceived risk and perceived benefit constructs were the dominant determinants of consumer acceptability. While perceptions of perceived risk and perceived benefit differed between individual respondents, there were very limited consistent relations with a range of sociodemographic variables.

  12. Ambiguity attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trautmann, Stefan; van de Kuilen, Gijs; Keren, Gideon; Wu, George

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews the experimental literature on ambiguity attitudes, focusing on three topics. First, it considers various approaches to operationalize ambiguity in experiments. Second, the chapter reviews basic findings in the field regarding the prevalence of ambiguity aversion and ambiguity

  13. British women's attitudes to surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poote, A E; van den Akker, O B A

    2009-01-01

    There has been little interest in the research literature on public opinions regarding assisted conception and surrogacy, particularly in European countries, despite the growing evidence showing that problems in adaptation and coping may be related to perceived normative values. This study investigated British women's attitudes to surrogacy using components of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Questionnaires on attitudes to surrogacy and reasons for parenthood were completed by 187 women from the general public. Significant socio-demographic differences were found between women who were possibly willing (n = 76) and those who were unwilling (n = 111) to become surrogate mothers. General attitudes to surrogacy also differed between groups (P = 0.000). This study supported the predictive utility of components of the TPB, and differentiated adequately between groups on attitudes to recruitment for surrogacy (P = 0.000), the consequences of surrogacy (P = 0.000), factors that induce people to become surrogates (P = 0.000), social support (P = 0.000), having personal control (P = 0.002) and reasons for parenthood (P = 0.000). Age (P = 0.000), attitudes to advertising (P = 0.02) and the consequences of surrogacy (P = 0.05) predicted (un)willingness to become a potential surrogate mother. Further research is needed with larger sample sizes of potential surrogates to determine whether the predictive attitudes reported here translate to actual behaviours. The larger group which was not interested in considering becoming a surrogate scored significantly more negatively on all attitudes towards surrogacy. The negative attitudes reported by the 'unwilling to consider being a surrogate' group may reflect attitudes held by the majority of the population and are likely to be influenced by reports of stigma associated with surrogacy.

  14. Applying a Comprehensive Contextual Climate Change Vulnerability Framework to New Zealand's Tourism Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Debbie

    2015-03-01

    Conceptualisations of 'vulnerability' vary amongst scholarly communities, contributing to a wide variety of applications. Research investigating vulnerability to climate change has often excluded non-climatic changes which may contribute to degrees of vulnerability perceived or experienced. This paper introduces a comprehensive contextual vulnerability framework which incorporates physical, social, economic and political factors which could amplify or reduce vulnerability. The framework is applied to New Zealand's tourism industry to explore its value in interpreting a complex, human-natural environment system with multiple competing vulnerabilities. The comprehensive contextual framework can inform government policy and industry decision making, integrating understandings of climate change within the broader context of internal and external social, physical, economic, and institutional stressors.

  15. Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression in Canadian and Chinese Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Eberhart, Nicole K.; Abela, John R. Z.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to compare diathesis-stress and transactional models of cognitive vulnerability to depression in samples of Canadian (n = 118) and Chinese (n = 405) adolescents. We utilized a six-month multi-wave, longitudinal design in order to examine whether (a) perceived control moderated the association between the occurrence of dependent interpersonal stressors and subsequent increases in depressive symptoms (i.e., a diathesis-stress perspective) and (b) dependent inte...

  16. Does Exposure to Music Videos Predict Adolescents' Sexual Attitudes?

    OpenAIRE

    Beentjes, J.W.J.; Konig, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether exposure to music videos predicts adolescents' sexual attitudes when controlled for relevant characteristics of individuals and their social environment. Sexual attitudes are related to their music video use (i.e. exposure to music videos, peer group talk about music videos, and perceived realism of these videos), personal factors and the sexual norms they perceive in their social environment (i.e. sexual norms of their parents and friends). A survey among Dutc...

  17. Promoting Teachers' Positive Attitude towards Web Use: A Study in Web Site Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Yavuz; Bayramoglu, Yusuf

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine effects of a compact training for developing web sites on teachers' web attitude, as composed of: web self efficacy, perceived web enjoyment, perceived web usefulness and behavioral intention to use the web. To measure the related constructs, the Web Attitude Scale was adapted into Turkish and tested with a…

  18. Safeguard Vulnerability Analysis Program (SVAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, F.M.; Dittmore, M.H.; Orvis, W.J.; Wahler, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the Safeguard Vulnerability Analysis Program (SVAP) developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. SVAP was designed as an automated method of analyzing the safeguard systems at nuclear facilities for vulnerabilities relating to the theft or diversion of nuclear materials. SVAP addresses one class of safeguard threat: theft or diversion of nuclear materials by nonviolent insiders, acting individually or in collusion. SVAP is a user-oriented tool which uses an interactive input medium for preprocessing the large amounts of safeguards data. Its output includes concise summary data as well as detailed vulnerability information

  19. Principles of Security Vulnerability Analysis of stationary industrial installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borysiewicz, M.

    2006-01-01

    Security and safety have been key priorities at facilities that manufacture, store, use, or handle hazardous chemicals, after the terrorist attacks on the United States of September 11, 2001. Security improvements may be needed, especially at sites that pose a more attractive target to terrorists due to their economic importance, perceived level of consequences, and other factors. The first step in the process of managing security risks is to identify and analyze the threats and the vulnerabilities facing a facility by conducting a Security Vulnerability Analysis (SVA). The SVA is a systematic process that evaluates the likelihood that a threat against a facility will be successful. It considers the potential severity of consequences to the facility itself, to the surrounding community and on the energy supply chain. The objective of conducting a SVA is to identify security hazards, threats, and vulnerabilities facing a facility, and to evaluate the countermeasures to provide for the protection of the public, workers, national interests, the environment, and the company. With this information security risks can be assessed and strategies can be formed to reduce vulnerabilities as required. SVA is a tool to assist management in making decisions on the need for countermeasures to address the threats and vulnerabilities. The paper provides an overview of fundamental steps of SVA for stationary industrial installations. (author)

  20. Adolescents' Perceptions of Their Fathers' Involvement: Significance to School Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Buchanan, Ann; Bream, Victoria

    2002-01-01

    Based on data from 2,722 British adolescents, this study explores whether perceived father involvement can be associated with school attitudes. Multiple regression analysis showed that both father involvement and mother involvement contributed significantly and independently to positive school attitudes. Furthermore, the association between father…

  1. Childhood Discipline as Precursor of Teacher Attitudes toward Pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Louise H.; Murphy, Sam

    The study determined the correlation among education students' perceptions of their own childhood discipline and their adult attitudes toward teaching and toward children. Data analysis indicated that those students who perceived their own childhood discipline as rigid and punitive tended to hold highly negative attitudes toward children, but did…

  2. Do public attitudes affect conservation effort? Using a questionnaire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally, amphibians are among the least appreciated vertebrates and are often negatively perceived by the general public. Such attitudes are particularly prevalent in South Africa, where fear, superstitions and myths associated with frogs are pervasive in some cultures. These attitudes could have harmful consequences ...

  3. In-Service Science Teachers' Attitude towards Information Communication Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibirige, I.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the attitude of in-service science teachers towards information communication technology (ICT) in education. The study explores the relationship between in-service teachers and four independent variables: their attitudes toward computers; their cultural perception of computers; their perceived computer…

  4. Engineering Faculty Attitudes to General Chemistry Courses in Engineering Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garip, Mehmet; Erdil, Erzat; Bilsel, Ayhan

    2006-01-01

    A survey on the attitudes of engineering faculty to chemistry, physics, and mathematics was conducted with the aim of clarifying the attitudes of engineering faculty to chemistry courses in relation to engineering education or curricula and assessing their expectations. The results confirm that on the whole chemistry is perceived as having a…

  5. Vulnerability Identification Errors in Security Risk Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Taubenberger, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    At present, companies rely on information technology systems to achieve their business objectives, making them vulnerable to cybersecurity threats. Information security risk assessments help organisations to identify their risks and vulnerabilities. An accurate identification of risks and vulnerabilities is a challenge, because the input data is uncertain. So-called ’vulnerability identification errors‘ can occur if false positive vulnerabilities are identified, or if vulnerabilities remain u...

  6. Poverty and Vulnerability - An Interdisciplinary Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Makoka, Donald; Kaplan, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the concepts of poverty and vulnerability as well as the interconnections and differences between them using an interdisciplinary approach. While poverty is a static concept, vulnerability has a forward-looking dimension. We, therefore, review the methodologies that different disciplines use to measure poverty and vulnerability. In particular, the differences between vulnerability to natural disasters, vulnerability to climate change, as well as vulnerability to poverty a...

  7. Stability of risk attitudes and media coverage of economic news

    OpenAIRE

    Tausch, Franziska; Zumbuehl, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of exogenous changes in individuals' perceived economic environment on their self-stated risk attitudes by exploiting changes in media coverage of economic news. We use information on risk attitudes from the German Socioeconomic Panel and combine it with data on the average daily frequency of economic news reports during the year and the month preceding the date of the risk attitude elicitation. Using fixed effects regressions we observe effects of both long...

  8. CDC's Social Vulnerability Index (SVI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Social vulnerability refers to the resilience of communities when confronted by external stresses on human health, stresses such as natural or human-caused...

  9. Southern African Coastal vulnerability assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rautenbach, C

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available or business. The CSIR coastal systems group uses specialist skills in coastal engineering, geographic engineering systems and numerical modelling to assess and map vulnerable coastal ecosystems to develop specific adaptation measures and coastal protection...

  10. CALTRANS CLIMATE CHANGE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The following report was developed for the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) to summarize a vulnerability assessment conducted for assets in Caltrans District 4. The assessment was developed to specifically identify the potential eff...

  11. Network Vulnerability and Risk Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alward, Randy G; Carley, Kathleen M; Madsen, Fredrik; Taylor, Vincent K; Vandenberghe, Grant

    2006-01-01

    To help understand a network and its ability to continue operating when under attack, the break out group discussed issues that need to be considered when presenting network vulnerability information...

  12. Vulnerability Assessments in Ethical Hacking

    OpenAIRE

    Ashiqur Rahman ,; Md. SarwarAlam Rasel; Asaduzzaman Noman; Shakh Md. Alimuzjaman Alim

    2016-01-01

    Ethical hackers use the same methods and techniques to test and bypass a system's defenses as their less-principled counterparts, but rather than taking advantage of any vulnerabilities found, they document them and provide actionable advice on how to fix them so the organization can improve its overall security. The purpose of ethical hacking is to evaluate the security of a network or system's infrastructure. It entails finding and attempting to exploit any vulnerabilities to de...

  13. Software Design Level Security Vulnerabilities

    OpenAIRE

    S. Rehman; K. Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Several thousand software design vulnerabilities have been reported through established databases. But they need to be structured and classified to be optimally usable in the pursuit of minimal and effective mitigation mechanism. In order we developed a criterion set for a communicative description of the same to serve the purpose as a taxonomic description of security vulnerabilities, arising in the design phase of Software development lifecycle. This description is a part of an effort to id...

  14. The geological attitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, J.G.C.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses geological activity which takes place mainly in response to industrial and social pressures. Past geological reaction to these pressures profoundly altered popular conceptions of time, the Church, man, and the balance of nature. The present-day circumstances of geology are not essentially different from those of the past. Petroleum geology in North American illustrates the role of technology in determining the style and scope of geological work. Peaks of activity cluster obviously on the introduction from time to time of new instrumental capabilities (geophysical apparatus, for example), although not infrequently such activity is testing concepts or relationships perceived long before. Organic metamorphism and continental drift provide two examples. The petroleum industry now faces the dilemma of satisfying predicted demands for fuel, without doing irreparable injury to its environment of operation. Awareness of man's place in nature, which is a fundamental perception of geology, governs the geological attitude

  15. Children and the New 3 Rs (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle): Attitudes toward the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkus, Amy J.; Musser, Lynn M.

    This study examined the relationship between children's environmental attitudes and their perceived competence and locus of control. The study sample consisted of 171 children in grades 3, 4, and 5. Children completed the Children's Attitudes Toward the Environment Scale (CATES) and the Janus Environmental Attitudes Scale (JEAS), which assessed…

  16. Framing (implicitly) matters: the role of religion in attitudes toward immigrants and Muslims in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joel; Antalíková, Radka

    2014-12-01

    Denmark is currently experiencing the highest immigration rate in its modern history. Population surveys indicate that negative public attitudes toward immigrants actually stem from attitudes toward their (perceived) Islamic affiliation. We used a framing paradigm to investigate the explicit and implicit attitudes of Christian and Atheist Danes toward targets framed as Muslims or as immigrants. The results showed that explicit and implicit attitudes were more negative when the target was framed as a Muslim, rather than as an immigrant. Interestingly, implicit attitudes were qualified by the participants' religion. Specifically, analyses revealed that Christians demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward immigrants than Muslims. Conversely, Atheists demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward Muslims than Atheists. These results suggest a complex relationship between religion, and implicit and explicit prejudice. Both the religious affiliation of the perceiver and the perceived religious affiliation of the target are key factors in social perception. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Moral Reasoning and Attitudes towards Refugees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kutlaca, Maja; Kuppens, T.; Blikmans, Martijn; Gootjes, Frank

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the moral underpinnings of attitudes towards refugees, by applying insights from moral reasoning theories. We created and in two pilot studies validated a short self-report measure of two moral reasoning styles. Next, we used this measure to investigate perceived threats,

  18. The concept of 'vulnerability' in research ethics: an in-depth analysis of policies and guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken-Roche, Dearbhail; Bell, Emily; Macdonald, Mary Ellen; Racine, Eric

    2017-02-07

    The concept of vulnerability has held a central place in research ethics guidance since its introduction in the United States Belmont Report in 1979. It signals mindfulness for researchers and research ethics boards to the possibility that some participants may be at higher risk of harm or wrong. Despite its important intended purpose and widespread use, there is considerable disagreement in the scholarly literature about the meaning and delineation of vulnerability, stemming from a perceived lack of guidance within research ethics standards. The aim of this study was to assess the concept of vulnerability as it is employed in major national and international research ethics policies and guidelines. We conducted an in-depth analysis of 11 (five national and six international) research ethics policies and guidelines, exploring their discussions of the definition, application, normative justification and implications of vulnerability. Few policies and guidelines explicitly defined vulnerability, instead relying on implicit assumptions and the delineation of vulnerable groups and sources of vulnerability. On the whole, we found considerable richness in the content on vulnerability across policies, but note that this relies heavily on the structure imposed on the data through our analysis. Our results underscore a need for policymakers to revisit the guidance on vulnerability in research ethics, and we propose that a process of stakeholder engagement would well-support this effort.

  19. Is perceived dysphonia related to perceived healthiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryn, Youri; Debo, Kim

    2015-10-01

    Literature has shown that voice-disordered persons are at higher risk for negative attitudes on several personality and physical appearance traits than vocally normal persons. This study investigated general perceptions of health in subjects with various degrees of dysphonia. Recordings from 100 normophonic and dysphonic subjects were auditorily rated on dysphonia severity by five experienced clinicians and on degree of healthiness/unhealthiness by seven unexperienced listeners. Results revealed strong correlation between auditory ratings of dysphonia severity and unhealthiness severity. Dysphonic subjects are rated significantly unhealthier than normophonic subjects, and the receiver-operating characteristics curve showed that even slight dysphonia induces negative attributions of unhealthiness. This study provides additional evidence for the negative attitudes with which dysphonic speakers are confronted, especially in terms of health.

  20. Pervasive Vulnerabilities: Sexual Harassment in School. Adolescent Cultures, School, and Society. Volume 54

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Regina; Liston, Delores D.

    2012-01-01

    "Pervasive Vulnerabilities" explores the beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors of adolescent girls and boys and female teachers in order to expose the continuing persistence of sexual harassment in the United States. The book addresses the sexual double standard that continues to hold girls and women accountable for male sexual aggression, and…

  1. Perceived age discrimination in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippon, Isla; Kneale, Dylan; de Oliveira, Cesar; Demakakos, Panayotes; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    to examine perceived age discrimination in a large representative sample of older adults in England. this cross-sectional study of over 7,500 individuals used data from the fifth wave of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a longitudinal cohort study of men and women aged 52 years and older in England. Wave 5 asked respondents about the frequency of five everyday discriminatory situations. Participants who attributed any experiences of discrimination to their age were treated as cases of perceived age discrimination. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratios of experiencing perceived age discrimination in relation to selected sociodemographic factors. approximately a third (33.3%) of all respondents experienced age discrimination, rising to 36.8% in those aged 65 and over. Perceived age discrimination was associated with older age, higher education, lower levels of household wealth and being retired or not in employment. The correlates of age discrimination across the five discriminatory situations were similar. understanding age discrimination is vital if we are to develop appropriate policies and to target future interventions effectively. These findings highlight the scale of the challenge of age discrimination for older adults in England and illustrate that those groups are particularly vulnerable to this form of discrimination.

  2. Need for cognition and attitudes toward immigrants among russian students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei A. Shchebetenko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The author examined how need for cognition may contribute to the attitudes toward immigrants among Russian students. It was shown that although need for cognition may not correlate with attitude toward immigrants directly it might either interact with other factors or influence several relations of attitudes. Specifically, low need for cognition may facilitate the application of immigrants' ethnicity as a cue for the attitudes toward immigrants. On the contrary, those participants having highneed for cognition probably may not use immigrants ethnicity as a cue for attitudes. Additionally, need for cognition might make attitudes toward immigrants more positive among Russian women comparing with Russian men. Furthermore, a positive correlation between perceived stereotypicity and attitude toward immigrants was eliminated among lowneed for cognition participants. Moreover, this correlation has become even negative among lowneed for cognition males. The results of the study are discussed.

  3. The SAVI vulnerability assessment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winblad, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    The assessment model ''Systematic Analysis of Vulnerability to Intrusion'' (SAVI) presented in this report is a PC-based path analysis model. It can provide estimates of protection system effectiveness (or vulnerability) against a spectrum of outsider threats including collusion with an insider adversary. It calculates one measure of system effectiveness, the probability of interruption P(I), for all potential adversary paths. SAVI can perform both theft and sabotage vulnerability analyses. For theft, the analysis is based on the assumption that adversaries should be interrupted either before they can accomplish removal of the target material from its normal location or removal from the site boundary. For sabotage, the analysis is based on the assumption that adversaries should be interrupted before completion of their sabotage task

  4. New approach to analyzing vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Callaghan, P.B.; Carlson, R.L.; Riedeman, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has recently completed construction of the Fuel Cycle Plant (FCP) at Richland, Washington. At start-up the facility will fabricate driver fuel for the Fast Flux Test Facility in the Secure Automated Fabrication line. After construction completion, but before facility certification, the Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operation Office requested that a vulnerability analysis be performed which assumed multiple insiders as a threat to the security system. A unique method of analyzing facility vulnerabilities was developed at the Security Applications Center (SAC), which is managed by WHC for DOE. The method that was developed verifies a previous vulnerability assessment, as well as introducing a modeling technique which analyzes security alarms in relation to delaying factors and possible insider activities. With this information it is possible to assess the relative strength or weakness of various possible routes to and from a target within a facility

  5. Europe's vulnerability to energy crises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    The growing dependency of Europe as a whole on energy imports and anticipated further increases in energy prices reinforce the concerns about meeting the energy demand in the future. The objective of the Study is to identify the threats leading to potential energy crises and suggest solutions for facing, in an appropriate way, the related key challenges. In addition, the Study intends to develop a number of indicators effective enough to assess the level of different types of vulnerability, as well the overall vulnerability of a country or region, including threats to physical disruption, higher energy prices etc. The use of vulnerability indicators is highly recommended for all WEC-European countries, as well as to policy makers and market players.

  6. Study of eating attitudes and behaviours in junior college students in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendulkar, Prajakta; Krishnadas, Rajeev; Durge, Vijay; Sharma, Sumit; Nayak, Sapna; Kamat, Sanjeev; Dhavale, Hemangee

    2006-10-01

    Eating disorders have been described as possible 'culture-bound syndromes', with roots in Western cultural values and conflicts. They may, in fact, be more prevalent within various non-Western cultural groups than previously recognised, as Western values become more widely accepted. Cross-cultural experiences suggest that cultural change itself may be associated with increased vulnerability to eating disorders, especially when Western values about physical aesthetics are involved. to assess the eating attitudes and behaviours among adolescents in the urban ethnic city, Mumbai, a survey was conducted amongst 451 college students. the study, based in four junior colleges, comprised 451 subjects who completed a semi-structured questionnaire, a 26-item Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) and the Personal Assessment Inventory (IPAT). the results revealed faulty eating habits in 13.3% of the subjects. A statistically significant proportion perceived them-selves to have problems with eating, substance use, dieting and exercise practices, resorting to extreme measures to achieve weight loss. A high rate of faulty eating habits was observed in males. Higher scores on depression and suicidal ideation were reported in the population with faulty eating habits. a significant percentage of college-going populations in urban settings probably have faulty eating habits.

  7. Vulnerability in north- central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Milhøj, Anders; Nguyen, Thao Phuong

    2015-01-01

    This article examines changes in livelihood strategies in response to flooding. It does so on the basis of a household survey which was undertaken in three provinces in north central Vietnam. All households in the survey were regularly affected by flooding, but only poor households experience a l...... the impact of flooding in the provinces. The article ends by looking at the vulnerability-resilience debate concluding that the poorer households could enter a vulnerability loop, unless new strategies to cope with natural hazards are suggested....

  8. Managing a network vulnerability assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Peltier, Thomas R; Blackley, John A

    2003-01-01

    Managing a Network Vulnerability Assessment provides a formal framework for finding and eliminating network security threats, ensuring that no vulnerabilities are overlooked. This thorough overview focuses on the steps necessary to successfully manage an assessment, including the development of a scope statement, the understanding and proper use of assessment methodology, the creation of an expert assessment team, and the production of a valuable response report. The book also details what commercial, freeware, and shareware tools are available, how they work, and how to use them.

  9. Physical Education Experimental Program to Test the Effect on Perceived Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edin Brankovic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The first purpose of this study was to test effect of multidisciplinary and holistic experimental program (EP in physical education program effect on the soul need perceived competence. The second purpose of this study was to analyse the relationship between attitudes of perceived competence in the experimental group before and after the application of program, mostly due the theoretical reason that perceived competence is predictor of Flow. The data was collected from 74 students of the 8th grade of elementary schools randomly divided in two groups (experimental: 53; control: 21. The system of variables consisted of perceived competence scale items. The t-test analysis was applied to test perceived competence attitudes before and after the EP. The experimental group attitudes of perceived competence after the EP were significantly more positive than before participation in it, while control group attitudes of perceived competence decreased after participation in the regular school program. The current findings support the authors’ hypothesis that the holistic program has significant effect on the soul need perceived competence which is closest predictor of Flow. This study applied multidisciplinary EP which was designed on growth-mind set practices and sparks findings–both connected to flow experience and intrinsic motivation–to suggest future comprehensive program that could be potentially used as a regular tool for achieving both, Flow and intrinsic motivation. Findings with certainty provide a basis for future necessary qualitative research of the program effects on the intrinsic motivation.

  10. Municipal vulnerability to climate change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mambo, Julia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available South Africa, like the rest of Africa, is considered highly vulnerable to climate change and variability as well as to global change. Climate change is and will continue to be an issue of concern in the development of the country. South Africa faces...

  11. Autonomy, Vulnerability, Recognition, and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, J.H.; Honneth, A.

    2005-01-01

    One of liberalism’s core commitments is to safeguarding individuals’ autonomy. And a central aspect of liberal social justice is the commitment to protecting the vulnerable. Taken together, and combined with an understanding of autonomy as an acquired set of capacities to lead one’s own life,

  12. Decision Vulnerability Analysis (DVA) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    31 14 Graphical Representation of the Summary Judgments of the Effectiveness, Vulnerability, and Understanding of the Subsystems’ as Judged by...posed several challenges. Numerous organizational typologies have been suggested over the years ( Robbins , 1994), and these typologies are often based...structure and functioning from a typology perspective ( Robbins , 1994), excerpts from a task analysis that described how the analysts currently performed

  13. 1C software vulnerabilities description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov Oleg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the vulnerability of the application solution based on the “1C: Enterprise 8” platform, which can be used by only built-in tools of the platform. Possible threats and attack algorithm are described.

  14. Underground Economics for Vulnerability Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allodi, L.

    The estimation of vulnerability risk is at the core of any IT security management strategy. Among technical and infrastructural metrics of risk, attacker economics represent an emerging new aspect that several risk assessment methodologies propose to consider (e.g., based on game theory). Yet the

  15. Trust, Endangerment and Divine Vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mikkel Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Faith is trusting God in the midst of endangerment. Yet, human experience of excessive suffering has challenged any spontaneous trust in God. In this article, I reconsider the idea of faith as trust in God, adding an emphasis on the divine vulnerability in the incarnation, and I develop a more...

  16. Physical Education Experimental Program to Test the Effect on Perceived Competence

    OpenAIRE

    Edin Brankovic; Muriz Hadzikadunic

    2017-01-01

    The first purpose of this study was to test effect of multidisciplinary and holistic experimental program (EP) in physical education program effect on the soul need perceived competence. The second purpose of this study was to analyse the relationship between attitudes of perceived competence in the experimental group before and after the application of program, mostly due the theoretical reason that perceived competence is predictor of Flow. The data was collected from 74 students of the 8th...

  17. Measuring Attitudes Towards Telepresence Robots

    OpenAIRE

    M Tsui, Katherine; Desai, Munjal; A. Yanco, Holly; Cramer, Henriette; Kemper, Nicander

    2011-01-01

    Studies using Nomura et al.’s “Negative Attitude toward Robots Scale” (NARS) [1] as an attitudinal measure have featured robots that were perceived to be autonomous, indepen- dent agents. State of the art telepresence robots require an explicit human-in-the-loop to drive the robot around. In this paper, we investigate if NARS can be used with telepresence robots. To this end, we conducted three studies in which people watched videos of telepresence robots (n=70), operated te...

  18. Maternal mental health symptoms are positively related to emotional and restrained eating attitudes in a statewide sample of mothers participating in a supplemental nutrition program for women, infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Jillian A; Hurley, Kristen M; Caulfield, Laura E; Black, Maureen M

    2017-01-01

    Postpartum, low-income mothers are at risk for mental health symptoms and obesity, and disordered eating attitudes may be associated with both mental health and obesity in this vulnerable population. The study objective is to determine whether higher levels of mental health symptoms are associated with increased odds of emotional and restrained eating attitudes in this sample of Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) participants. Data on 711 mothers of infants Maternal mental health symptoms were measured on continuous scales for depression (PRIME-MD), stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and anxiety (Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory). Emotional and restrained eating attitudes were measured with questions adapted from the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used. Obesity [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30] was explored as a moderating variable. Mothers reporting higher levels of depression symptoms [odds ratio (OR) = 3.93, 95%CI: 2.71-5.69], anxiety symptoms (OR = 1.96, 95%CI: 1.47-2.65), stress symptoms (OR = 2.09, 95%CI: 1.67-2.61) and high overall mental health symptomatology (OR = 3.51, 95%CI: 2.43-5.3) had increased odds of emotional eating attitudes. There were significant associations between symptoms of depression (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.12-2.25) and increased odds of restrained eating attitudes. Obesity did not moderate the association. Mothers with mental health symptoms are at risk for disordered eating attitudes, which may increase risk of poor diet. These findings underscore the need for greater focus on addressing maternal mental health status and eating attitudes in the postpartum period. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Perceived job image among police officers in Singapore: factorial dimensions and differential effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, V K; Teo, T S; See, S K

    2000-12-01

    The authors examined the perceived job image of police officers in Singapore and its differential effects on their work-related attitudes (e.g., job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and intention to quit). The authors obtained data from questionnaire surveys and focus-group interviews. Perceived job image consisted of 4 dimensions: (a) prestige, (b) integrity, (c) competence, and (d) nonroutine job nature. Results of hierarchical regression analyses suggested that the first 2 dimensions of the perceived job image construct were salient in affecting the police officers' work-related attitudes.

  20. Vulnerability of damage-accumulating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Niels C.

    1996-01-01

    Disastrous failures have shown that systems can be highly vulnerable. Quantified vulnerability can help designers and regulators to decide how much vulnerability is tolerable. Vulnerability of a system to a specified disturbance is defined as the ratio of the probability of failure of the disturbed system to the probability of failure of the undisturbed system. This vulnerability can be specialized to particular system types. It is adapted here to systems that are expected to deteriorate while in service due to processes such as fatigue, creep, corrosion, aging, neglect or insufficient maintenance. Application is illustrated by vulnerability to fatigue under constant and variable stress

  1. Impact of management attitudes on perceived thermal comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, T.; Franchimon, F.; Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the influence of some organizational and management characteristics on the perception of indoor environment qualities such as thermal comfort and related stress. Methods One open office in each of three organizations in Eindhoven was studied. An office environment

  2. [Perceived risks of food contaminants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Severine; Lohmann, Mark; Epp, Astrid; Böl, Gaby-Fleur

    2017-07-01

    Food contaminants can pose a serious health threat. In order to carry out adequate risk communication measures, the subjective risk perception of the public must be taken into account. In this context, the breadth of the topic and insufficient terminological delimitations from residues and food additives make an elaborate explanation of the topic to consumers indispensable. A representative population survey used language adequate for lay people and a clear definition of contaminants to measure risk perceptions with regard to food contaminants among the general public. The study aimed to assess public awareness of contaminants and the perceived health risks associated with them. In addition, people's current knowledge and need for additional information, their attitudes towards contaminants, views on stakeholder accountability, as well as compliance with precautionary measures, such as avoiding certain foods to reduce health risks originating from contaminants, were assessed. A representative sample of 1001 respondents was surveyed about food contaminants via computer-assisted telephone interviewing. The majority of respondents rated contaminants as a serious health threat, though few of them spontaneously mentioned examples of undesirable substances in foods that fit the scientific or legal definition of contaminants. Mercury and dioxin were the most well-known contaminants. Only a minority of respondents was familiar with pyrrolizidine alkaloids. The present findings highlight areas that require additional attention and provide implications for risk communication geared to specific target groups.

  3. Perceived consequences of hypothetical identity-inconsistent sexual experiences: effects of perceiver's sex and sexual identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preciado, Mariana A; Johnson, Kerri L

    2014-04-01

    Most people organize their sexual orientation under a single sexual identity label. However, people may have sexual experiences that are inconsistent with their categorical sexual identity label. A man might identify as heterosexual but still experience some attraction to men; a woman might identify as lesbian yet enter into a romantic relationship with a man. Identity-inconsistent experiences are likely to have consequences. In the present study, we examined lay perceptions of the consequences of identity-inconsistent sexual experiences for self-perceived sexuality and for social relationships among a sexually diverse sample (N = 283). We found that the perceived consequences of identity-inconsistent experiences for self-perception, for social stigmatization, and for social relationships varied as a function of participant sex, participant sexual identity (heterosexual, gay, lesbian), and experience type (fantasy, attraction, behavior, love). We conclude that not all identity-inconsistent sexual experiences are perceived as equally consequential and that the perceived consequences of such experiences vary predictably as a function of perceiver sex and sexual identity. We discuss the role lay perceptions of the consequences of identity-inconsistent sexual experiences may play in guiding attitudes and behavior.

  4. Assessing European wild fire vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, F.; Oliveira, S.; Barredo, J. I.; Camia, A.; Ayanz, J. San Miguel; Pettenella, D.; Mavsar, R.

    2012-04-01

    Wild fire vulnerability is a measure of potential socio-economic damage caused by a fire in a specific area. As such it is an important component of long-term fire risk management, helping policy-makers take informed decisions about adequate expenditures for fire prevention and suppression, and to target those regions at highest risk. This paper presents a first approach to assess wild fire vulnerability at the European level. A conservative approach was chosen that assesses the cost of restoring the previous land cover after a potential fire. Based on the CORINE Land Cover, a restoration cost was established for each land cover class at country level, and an average restoration time was assigned according to the recovery capacity of the land cover. The damage caused by fire was then assessed by discounting the cost of restoring the previous land cover over the restoration period. Three different vulnerability scenarios were considered assuming low, medium and high fire severity causing different levels of damage. Over Europe, the potential damage of wild land fires ranges from 10 - 13, 732 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for low fire severity, 32 - 45,772 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for medium fire severity and 54 - 77,812 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for high fire severity. The least vulnerable are natural grasslands, moors and heathland and sclerophyllous vegetation, while the highest cost occurs for restoring broad-leaved forest. Preliminary validation comparing these estimates with official damage assessments for past fires shows reasonable results. The restoration cost approach allows for a straightforward, data extensive assessment of fire vulnerability at European level. A disadvantage is the inherent simplification of the evaluation procedure with the underestimation of non-markets goods and services. Thus, a second approach has been developed, valuing individual wild land goods and services and assessing their annual flow which is lost for a certain period of time in case of a fire event. However

  5. Determinants of stakeholders' attitudes towards biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Latifah; Hashim, Hasrizul; Mahadi, Zurina; Ibrahim, Maznah; Ismail, Khaidzir

    2017-01-01

    Concern about the inevitable depletion of global energy resources is rising and many countries are shifting their focus to renewable energy. Biodiesel is one promising energy source that has garnered much public attention in recent years. Many believe that this alternative source of energy will be able to sustain the need for increased energy security while at the same time being friendly to the environment. Public opinion, as well as proactive measures by key players in industry, may play a decisive role in steering the direction of biodiesel development throughout the world. Past studies have suggested that public acceptance of biofuels could be shaped by critical consideration of the risk-benefit perceptions of the product, in addition to the impact on the economy and environment. The purpose of this study was to identify the relevant factors influencing stakeholders' attitudes towards biodiesel derived from crops such as palm oil for vehicle use, as well as to analyse the interrelationships of these factors in an attitude model. A survey of 509 respondents, consisting of various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia, was undertaken. The results of the study have substantiated the premise that the most important direct predictor of attitude to biodiesel is the perceived benefits ( β  = 0.80, p  < 0.001). Attitude towards biodiesel also involves the interplay between other factors, such as engagement to biotechnology, trust of key players, attitude to technology, and perceived risk. Although perceived benefit has emerged as the main predictor of public support of biodiesel, the existence of other significant interactions among variables leads to the conclusion that public attitude towards biodiesel should be seen as a multi-faceted process and should be strongly considered prior to its commercialisation.

  6. Parental attitudes and aggression in the Emo subculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chęć, Magdalena; Potemkowski, Andrzej; Wąsik, Marta; Samochowiec, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    A better functioning of adolescents involves proper relationships with parents, whereas negative relationships lead to aggressive behaviour. Young members of Emo subculture, characterised by deep emotional sensitivity, are particularly vulnerable to parental influence. The aim was to specify a relationship between parental attitudes and aggression among adolescents from the Emo subculture in comparison with a control group. 3,800 lower secondary school students took part in the introductory research. A target group constituted 41 people from the Emo subculture as well as a control group involving 48 people. A screening survey, the Parental Attitudes Scale, the Aggression Questionnaire and the author's questionnaire including questions concerning the functioning in the Emo subculture were used in the study. The results obtained in the research study suggest that there is a relationship between the indicated improper parental attitudes and aggressive behaviour among adolescents from the Emo subculture in comparison with the control group. In the Emo subculture, teenagers'aggressive behaviour is related to improper parental attitudes. It has been stated that mother's attitudes, irrespective of subculture, are much more strongly associated with the aggression among adolescents than father's attitudes. Moreover, aggressive behaviour in the Emo subculture occurs when father displays an excessively demanding attitude. A reduction of the level of almost all kinds of aggression manifested among teenagers from the Emo subculture is associated with mothers' attitude of acceptance. Mothers' autonomous attitude leads to an increase in the aggression in this group, whereas an inconsistent attitude of mothers fosters an increase in aggression among all teenagers.

  7. Women's attitudes toward practicing cytomegalovirus prevention behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Thackeray

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV infection causes severe disabilities and developmental delays. Women's awareness of CMV is low. Only about half of healthcare providers report counseling women about behaviors to reduce CMV risk and public health education is limited. Routine CMV counseling is not recommend. Providers may lack time to counsel women; other conditions may take priority for counseling; there may be a perception that women are reluctant to follow advice. This cross-sectional descriptive study examined women's attitudes toward CMV prevention behaviors. Data were collected from an online panel of 840 U.S. women 18–40 years of age, who had a child <5 years of age, and were pregnant or planning a pregnancy in the next 12 months. Questions assessed CMV awareness, frequency of past behaviors that transmit CMV, and attitudes toward eight CMV prevention behaviors. Only 15.5% of women were somewhat or very familiar with CMV. Very few women (6.1% reported hearing from their provider about CMV. Women held positive attitudes toward the CMV prevention behaviors and perceived them as feasible. Least positive attitudes were toward not kissing a child on the lips and not sharing foods. Predictors of positive attitudes were CMV awareness, past behavior, talking to a healthcare provider, and perceived risk reduction. Healthcare providers and public health practitioners should collaborate to increase CMV awareness. Encouraging behaviors to reduce saliva sharing may result in greater gains in reducing CMV infection.

  8. Development and Psychometric Analysis of a Nurses’ Attitudes and Skills Safety Scale: Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Gail E.; Dietrich, Mary; Norman, Linda; Barnsteiner, Jane; Mion, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Health care organizations have incorporated updated safety principles in the analysis of errors and in norms and standards. Yet no research exists that assesses bedside nurses’ perceived skills or attitudes toward updated safety concepts. The aims of this study were to develop a scale assessing nurses’ perceived skills and attitudes toward updated safety concepts, determine content validity, and examine internal consistency of the scale and subscales. Understanding nurses’ perceived skills and attitudes about safety concepts can be used in targeting strategies to enhance their safety practices. PMID:27479518

  9. Development and Psychometric Analysis of a Nurses' Attitudes and Skills Safety Scale: Initial Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Gail E; Dietrich, Mary; Norman, Linda; Barnsteiner, Jane; Mion, Lorraine

    Health care organizations have incorporated updated safety principles in the analysis of errors and in norms and standards. Yet no research exists that assesses bedside nurses' perceived skills or attitudes toward updated safety concepts. The aims of this study were to develop a scale assessing nurses' perceived skills and attitudes toward updated safety concepts, determine content validity, and examine internal consistency of the scale and subscales. Understanding nurses' perceived skills and attitudes about safety concepts can be used in targeting strategies to enhance their safety practices.

  10. Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-04

    May 1, 2006)”, http://www.mod.go.jp/e/d_policy/dp13.html (accessed 1 April 2009). 6 ibid 7 Hongo , Jun. “Japan, U.S. sign accord on forces,” The...Jacobs, G. Keith. "Guam Becoming US Pacific Linchpin." Asia-Pacific Defence Reporter 29 (2003): 38-39. Jun, Hongo . "Japan, U.S. sign accord on forces

  11. Vulnerable participants in health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Nanna, Kappel

    2011-01-01

    Ethical guidelines for conducting research are embedded in the Helsinki declaration of 1964. We contend that these abstract and intentionally universal guidelines need to be appropriated for social and health care research in which purpose and methods often deviate from medical research. The guid......Ethical guidelines for conducting research are embedded in the Helsinki declaration of 1964. We contend that these abstract and intentionally universal guidelines need to be appropriated for social and health care research in which purpose and methods often deviate from medical research...... and problems of vulnerable patients and - at the same time - respect their integrity without exposing them unnecessarily? The article illuminates the interactional construction of roles and relationships and how they affect the contextual construction of vulnerability. In this respect we demonstrate...

  12. VULNERABILITY OF PART TIME EMPLOYEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Dimitriu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The employee who concluded a part-time contract is the employee whose normal working hours, calculated weekly or as monthly average, is lower than the number of normal working hours of a comparable full-time employee. Part-time workers generally have the same legal status as full time workers. In fact, the vulnerability of this category of workers is not necessarily legal but rather economic: income - in proportion to the work performed, may be insufficient to cover the needs of living. However, such vulnerability may also have a certain cultural component: in some societies, professional identity is determined by the length of working hours. Also, part time work may hide many types of indirect discrimination.As a result, the part-time contract requires more than a protective legislation: it requires a strategy. This paper proposes a number of milestones of such a strategy, as well as some concrete de lege ferenda proposals.

  13. Groundwater vulnerability map for South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chiedza Musekiwa

    Coastal vulnerability is the degree to which a coastal system is susceptible to, ... methods, indicator-based approaches, GIS-based decision support systems and ..... E 2005, 'Coastal Vulnerability and Risk Parameters', European Water, vol.

  14. Climate change & extreme weather vulnerability assessment framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The Federal Highway Administrations (FHWAs) Climate Change and Extreme Weather Vulnerability : Assessment Framework is a guide for transportation agencies interested in assessing their vulnerability : to climate change and extreme weather event...

  15. Aircraft vulnerability analysis by modelling and simulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Willers, CJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available attributable to misuse of the weapon or to missile performance restrictions. This paper analyses some of the factors affecting aircraft vulnerability and demonstrates a structured analysis of the risk and aircraft vulnerability problem. The aircraft...

  16. Helping air quality managers identify vulnerable communities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, C

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available population exposure and vulnerability risk prioritisation model is proposed for potential use by air quality managers in conjunction with their air quality management plans. The model includes factors such as vulnerability caused by poverty, respiratory...

  17. Psychological and audiological correlates of perceived tinnitus severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsson, S I; Hallberg, L R; Axelsson, A

    1992-01-01

    Beliefs and attitudes towards tinnitus have been found to play an important role in the process of rehabilitation. The relationship between audiological, psychological and psychosomatic factors (self-assessment of vertigo and headache and the perceived severity of tinnitus) was investigated in a clinical population of 163 subjects. Audiological descriptives comprised pure-tone average (dB HL), etiology of hearing loss, duration of tinnitus and tinnitus localisation. Perceived severity of tinnitus was assessed with a questionnaire focusing on tinnitus impact on aspects of quality of life, concentration and sleep. A 28-item handicap and support questionnaire was used and factor analysed, resulting in three factors: perceived attitudes, social support and disability/handicap. Tinnitus severity was significantly related to perceived attitudes. The influence of social support on tinnitus severity did not seem to be crucial. The results showed that significantly more women than men complained about vertigo. Unilateral tinnitus localisation was also more prevalent in females. The subjects with multiple tinnitus localisations were older and had significantly more sleep disturbance than subjects with tinnitus localized to the ears only. In accordance with previously reported observations, the frequency of headaches was strongly correlated with the severity of tinnitus.

  18. Spatial differences in drought vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perčec Tadić, M.; Cindić, K.; Gajić-Čapka, M.; Zaninović, K.

    2012-04-01

    Drought causes the highest economic losses among all hydro-meteorological events in Croatia. It is the most frequent hazard, which produces the highest damages in the agricultural sector. The climate assessment in Croatia according to the aridity index (defined as the ratio of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration) shows that the susceptibility to desertification is present in the warm part of the year and it is mostly pronounced in the Adriatic region and the eastern Croatia lowland. The evidence of more frequent extreme drought events in the last decade is apparent. These facts were motivation to study the drought risk assessment in Croatia. One step in this issue is the construction of the vulnerability map. This map is a complex combination of the geomorphologic and climatological inputs (maps) that are presumed to be natural factors which modify the amount of moisture in the soil. In this study, the first version of the vulnerability map is followed by the updated one that additionally includes the soil types and the land use classes. The first input considered is the geomorphologic slope angle calculated from the digital elevation model (DEM). The SRTM DEM of 100 m resolution is used. The steeper slopes are more likely to lose water and to become dryer. The second climatological parameter, the solar irradiation map, gives for the territory of Croatia the maximum irradiation on the coast. The next meteorological parameter that influences the drought vulnerability is precipitation which is in this assessment included through the precipitation variability expressed by the coefficient of variation. Larger precipitation variability is related with the higher drought vulnerability. The preliminary results for Croatia, according to the recommended procedure in the framework of Drought Management Centre for Southeastern Europe (DMCSEE project), show the most sensitive areas to drought in the southern Adriatic coast and eastern continental lowland.

  19. Virtuous aging and existential vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laceulle, Hanne

    2017-12-01

    In its efforts to overcome problematic views that associate aging with inevitable decline, contemporary gerontology shows a tendency to focus predominantly on age-related vulnerabilities that science may try to remedy and control. However, gerontology should also offer languages to address vulnerabilities that cannot be remedied because they intrinsically belong to the human condition. After all, these are increasingly radically encountered in later life and should therefore be reflected upon in the study of aging. Humanistic gerontology seems to be the most promising field to look for languages capable of contemplating such existential vulnerabilities. The potential contribution of philosophy in this field remains underdeveloped so far, however. This article therefore aims to introduce insights from the philosophical tradition to (humanistic) gerontology. More specifically, it focuses on the tradition of virtue ethics, arguing that virtue is a particularly relevant notion to explore in dealing with existential vulnerability in later life. The notion of virtue is clarified by discussing a selection of philosophical perspectives on this topic, by Aristotle, MacIntyre and Swanton. Next a brief overview will be given of some of the ways the notion of virtue has found its way into gerontological discourse so far. The article ends with an analysis of the merits of virtue-ethical discourse for the study of aging and later life, and pleads for more inclusion of philosophical ideas such as virtue in gerontology, as these can enrich our conceptual frameworks and help us relate to deep existential questions regarding the experience of aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Urban Vulnerability Assessment Using AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rezaei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Physical expansion of urban areas and cities is of great importance nowadays. Irreparable damages will thus be caused by lack of proper planning against natural disasters. Crisis management will therefore guide through prevention, preparedness, disaster relief, and recovery by planning an appropriate program. Methodology. Principal processes of crisis management against earthquake in Iran were evaluated and discussed. Multicriteria earthquake crisis management was then proposed by means of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Vulnerability of 19 urban areas in Qazvin city was studied and analyzed as a case study. Three main criteria were considered as “physical dimensions and physical vulnerability texture,” “the amount of urban texture responsibility to aid after crisis,” and “possibility of city reversibility after the crisis.” These criteria were divided into 20 subcriteria which were prioritized by a questionnaire survey. Findings. “High population density,” “urban texture of old and repairable buildings,” “lack of relief and medical services,” “a few organic texture areas,” “sidewalks with less than 6 meters width in the region,” and “lack of open spaces in the area” were concluded to be the most important reasons causing high vulnerability of urban texture in Qazvin city.

  1. Enhancing protection for vulnerable waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Irena F.; Lane, Charles R.; Serran, Jacqueline N.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Basu, Nandita B.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Christensen, Jay R.; Cohen, Matthew J.; Craft, Christopher; D'Amico, Ellen; Dekeyser, Edward; Fowler, Laurie; Golden, Heather E.; Jawitz, James W.; Kalla, Peter; Kirkman, L. Katherine; Lang, Megan; Leibowitz, Scott G.; Lewis, David B.; Marton, John; McLaughlin, Daniel L.; Raanan-Kiperwas, Hadas; Rains, Mark C.; Rains, Kai C.; Smith, Lora

    2017-11-01

    Governments worldwide do not adequately protect their limited freshwater systems and therefore place freshwater functions and attendant ecosystem services at risk. The best available scientific evidence compels enhanced protections for freshwater systems, especially for impermanent streams and wetlands outside of floodplains that are particularly vulnerable to alteration or destruction. New approaches to freshwater sustainability -- implemented through scientifically informed adaptive management -- are required to protect freshwater systems through periods of changing societal needs. One such approach introduced in the US in 2015 is the Clean Water Rule, which clarified the jurisdictional scope for federally protected waters. However, within hours of its implementation litigants convinced the US Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit to stay the rule, and the subsequently elected administration has now placed it under review for potential revision or rescission. Regardless of its outcome at the federal level, policy and management discussions initiated by the propagation of this rare rulemaking event have potential far-reaching implications at all levels of government across the US and worldwide. At this timely juncture, we provide a scientific rationale and three policy options for all levels of government to meaningfully enhance protection of these vulnerable waters. A fourth option, a 'do-nothing' approach, is wholly inconsistent with the well-established scientific evidence of the importance of these vulnerable waters.

  2. Legislative vulnerability of minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Carlos Eduardo Artiaga; Silva, Ana Paula da; Bittar, Cléria Maria Lôbo

    2017-12-01

    Minorities are in an inferior position in society and therefore vulnerable in many aspects. This study analyzes legislative vulnerability and aims to categorize as "weak" or "strong" the protection conferred by law to the following minorities: elderly, disabled, LGBT, Indians, women, children/ adolescents and black people. In order to do so, it was developed a documental research in 30 federal laws in which legal provisions were searched to protect minorities. Next, the articles were organized in the following categories: civil, criminal, administrative, labor and procedural, to be analyzed afterwards. Legal protection was considered "strong" when there were legal provisions that observed the five categories and "weak" when it did not meet this criterion. It was noted that six groups have "strong" legislative protection, which elides the assertion that minorities are outside the law. The exception is the LGBT group, whose legislative protection is weak. In addition, consecrating rights through laws strengthens the institutional channels for minorities to demand their rights. Finally, it was observed that the legislative protection granted tominorities is not homogeneous but rather discriminatory, and there is an interference by the majority group in the rights regulation of vulnerable groups.

  3. PORT SECURITY-Threats and Vulnerabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kusi, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to identify the threats and the vulnerabilities concerning Takoradi port, and finally recommend measure to overcome the identified threats and vul-nerabilities. Various categories of potential threats and vulnerabilities have been studied throughout the literature review. However, because each port presents a unique sets of threats and vulnerabilities, there was a need to look critically into how Takoradi port operations are being conducted in other to ide...

  4. Correlates of Perceived Smoking Prevalence Among Korean American Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrada, Christian J; Unger, Jennifer B; Huh, Jimi

    2016-10-01

    Perceived smoking prevalence, a strong predictor of actual smoking behavior, may be influenced by the ethnicity and gender of the reference group presented to Korean American emerging adults. Self-identifying Korean and Korean Americans aged 18-25 (N = 475), were invited to complete a 15-20 min online survey about their attitudes towards smoking. Predictors of perceived smoking prevalence were evaluated separately for four reference groups: Caucasian Americans, Korean Americans in general, Korean American men, and Korean American women. Respondents' smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for all reference groups except Caucasian Americans, even among light smokers. Father's smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for Korean American men, only among females respondents. Findings suggest that ethnicity and gender of both the reference group and respondents influence smoking rate estimates. Tailoring intervention content to the target population's gender and ethnicity may be a way to enhance smoking prevention strategies.

  5. Nephrologists between power and vulnerability in times of technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Viscarra Obregón

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The doctor-patient relationship is often discussed from the perspective of patient vulnerability. Little attention is given to the vulnerability of nephrologists in their professional practice, a reality often affected by profound cultural transformation arising from technological development. Nephrology is based on research and procedure instrumentalization, both permeated with technology. In addition, the relationship between nephrologists and institutions is governed by market rules. Recent data showed a shortage of new nephrologists and the need to improve the technical training of new professionals, foster the establishment of interventional nephrology, and attract more graduating physicians to this medical specialty. Bioethics offers a different perspective on the issue, since it takes the subjective concerns of medical doctors and the social environments they participate in into consideration in order to enhance their ethical autonomy. These ideas may be discussed as part of undergraduate or specialization programs, thus reinforcing the acknowledgement of vulnerability as a condition and of the relevance of adopting a reflective attitude toward the events of everyday life that interact with the morality of nephrologists, so that risks are adequately faced having bioethical parameters as a reference.

  6. Investigating vulnerability to eating disorders: biases in emotional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, A; Harmer, C J; Cooper, M J

    2010-04-01

    Biases in emotional processing and cognitions about the self are thought to play a role in the maintenance of eating disorders (EDs). However, little is known about whether these difficulties exist pre-morbidly and how they might contribute to risk. Female dieters (n=82) completed a battery of tasks designed to assess the processing of social cues (facial emotion recognition), cognitions about the self [Self-Schema Processing Task (SSPT)] and ED-specific cognitions about eating, weight and shape (emotional Stroop). The 26-item Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26; Garner et al. 1982) was used to assess subclinical ED symptoms; this was used as an index of vulnerability within this at-risk group. Regression analyses showed that biases in the processing of both neutral and angry faces were predictive of our measure of vulnerability (EAT-26). In the self-schema task, biases in the processing of negative self descriptors previously found to be common in EDs predicted vulnerability. Biases in the processing of shape-related words on the Stroop task were also predictive; however, these biases were more important in dieters who also displayed biases in the self-schema task. We were also able to demonstrate that these biases are specific and separable from more general negative biases that could be attributed to depressive symptoms. These results suggest that specific biases in the processing of social cues, cognitions about the self, and also about eating, weight and shape information, may be important in understanding risk and preventing relapse in EDs.

  7. Cotton genetic resources and crop vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    A report on the genetic vulnerability of cotton was provided to the National Genetic Resources Advisory Council. The report discussed crop vulnerabilities associated with emerging diseases, emerging pests, and a narrowing genetic base. To address these crop vulnerabilities, the report discussed the ...

  8. Animal models to study plaque vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schapira, K.; Heeneman, S.; Daemen, M. J. A. P.

    2007-01-01

    The need to identify and characterize vulnerable atherosclerotic lesions in humans has lead to the development of various animal models of plaque vulnerability. In this review, current concepts of the vulnerable plaque as it leads to an acute coronary event are described, such as plaque rupture,

  9. Self-Regulation and Implicit Attitudes Toward Physical Activity Influence Exercise Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padin, Avelina C; Emery, Charles F; Vasey, Michael; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2017-08-01

    Dual-process models of health behavior posit that implicit and explicit attitudes independently drive healthy behaviors. Prior evidence indicates that implicit attitudes may be related to weekly physical activity (PA) levels, but the extent to which self-regulation attenuates this link remains unknown. This study examined the associations between implicit attitudes and self-reported PA during leisure time among 150 highly active young adults and evaluated the extent to which effortful control (one aspect of self-regulation) moderated this relationship. Results indicated that implicit attitudes toward exercise were unrelated to average workout length among individuals with higher effortful control. However, those with lower effortful control and more negative implicit attitudes reported shorter average exercise sessions compared with those with more positive attitudes. Implicit and explicit attitudes were unrelated to total weekly PA. A combination of poorer self-regulation and negative implicit attitudes may leave individuals vulnerable to mental and physical health consequences of low PA.

  10. Relationship between Community Collectivization and Financial Vulnerability of Female Sex Workers in Southern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangram Kishor Patel

    Full Text Available Studies exploring the linkages between financial vulnerabilities and community collectivization of female sex workers (FSWs are scarce in India despite having potential policy implications. To fill this gap in the literature, this study attempts to understand the financial vulnerabilities among FSWs and assess the relationship between community collectivization and financial vulnerabilities in southern India.Data were drawn from a cross-sectional, behavioral tracking survey (BTS-2014, conducted among FSWs (N = 2400 in Andhra Pradesh, a southern state of India under the Avahan-India AIDS initiative program. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated through multivariate logistic regression, to assess the independent relationships of the degree of community collectivization indicators with financial vulnerability indicators, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics.Most FSWs (87% reported having either one or more financial vulnerability and nearly one-fifth had a high financial vulnerability. The risk of facing financial vulnerability was significantly lower among FSWs with a high degree of perceived collective efficacy (15% vs 31%; AOR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.3-0.5 and collective agency (4% vs 21%; AOR: 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1-0.3 as compared to their respective counterparts, after controlling for their individual socio-demographic characteristics. FSWs with a high degree of collective efficacy are also less likely to report different components of financial vulnerability (e.g. income, saving, expenditure, and debt.This study finding suggests that community-led interventions such as improving collectivization are promising strategies to address financial vulnerabilities and a path to a sustainable reduction of HIV risk. This study calls for further evidence-based research and measurement of the effects of community-led approaches in addressing the financial vulnerabilities of the key population at risk for HIV.

  11. Relationship between Community Collectivization and Financial Vulnerability of Female Sex Workers in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sangram Kishor; Prabhakar, Parimi; Jain, Anrudh Kumar; Saggurti, Niranjan; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra

    2016-01-01

    Studies exploring the linkages between financial vulnerabilities and community collectivization of female sex workers (FSWs) are scarce in India despite having potential policy implications. To fill this gap in the literature, this study attempts to understand the financial vulnerabilities among FSWs and assess the relationship between community collectivization and financial vulnerabilities in southern India. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional, behavioral tracking survey (BTS)-2014, conducted among FSWs (N = 2400) in Andhra Pradesh, a southern state of India under the Avahan-India AIDS initiative program. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated through multivariate logistic regression, to assess the independent relationships of the degree of community collectivization indicators with financial vulnerability indicators, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics. Most FSWs (87%) reported having either one or more financial vulnerability and nearly one-fifth had a high financial vulnerability. The risk of facing financial vulnerability was significantly lower among FSWs with a high degree of perceived collective efficacy (15% vs 31%; AOR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.3-0.5) and collective agency (4% vs 21%; AOR: 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1-0.3) as compared to their respective counterparts, after controlling for their individual socio-demographic characteristics. FSWs with a high degree of collective efficacy are also less likely to report different components of financial vulnerability (e.g. income, saving, expenditure, and debt). This study finding suggests that community-led interventions such as improving collectivization are promising strategies to address financial vulnerabilities and a path to a sustainable reduction of HIV risk. This study calls for further evidence-based research and measurement of the effects of community-led approaches in addressing the financial vulnerabilities of the key population at risk for HIV.

  12. Rape Myth Consistency and Gender Differences in Perceiving Rape Victims: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, Jericho M; Smith, Sara J; Klausing, Cathleen D; Saucier, Donald A

    2016-02-01

    An overview discusses feminist analyses of oppression, attitudes toward rape victims, and previously studied predictors of individuals' attitudes toward rape victims. To better understand such attitudes, this meta-analysis examines the moderating influences of various rape victim, perpetrator, and crime characteristics' rape myth consistency on gender differences in individuals' perceptions of rape victims (i.e., victim responsibility and blame attributions and rape minimizing attitudes). Consistent with feminist theoretical predictions, results indicated that, overall, men perceived rape victims more negatively than women did. However, this sex difference was moderated by the rape myth consistency within the rape vignettes. Implications for research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Attitude Ambivalence, Social Norms, and Behavioral Intentions: Developing Effective Antitobacco Persuasive Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, Zachary P.; Crano, William D.; Niedbala, Elizabeth M.

    2018-01-01

    This study assessed the moderating effects of attitude ambivalence on the relationship between social norms, attitudes, and behavioral intentions to use tobacco. It was predicted that people would use social norms to reduce attitude ambivalence, and that reduced ambivalence would lead to changes in attitudes and behavioral intentions. To test this hypothesis, participants (N =152) were exposed to persuasive communications designed to influence attitude ambivalence and perceived social norms regarding tobacco use. Analysis indicated that providing a social norm antagonistic to tobacco use significantly reduced ambivalence among participants reading the ambivalence message (p changes in tobacco attitudes from pre- to postpersuasive communications demonstrated a significant decrease in tobacco attitudes only for participants reading the ambivalence message who were provided with the antitobacco use norm (p changes in attitudes toward tobacco. These results point to the important role of social norms in mediating the effects of attitude ambivalence on subsequent behavior in preventative programs targeting tobacco use. PMID:26460476

  14. Attitude ambivalence, social norms, and behavioral intentions: Developing effective antitobacco persuasive communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, Zachary P; Crano, William D; Niedbala, Elizabeth M

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the moderating effects of attitude ambivalence on the relationship between social norms, attitudes, and behavioral intentions to use tobacco. It was predicted that people would use social norms to reduce attitude ambivalence, and that reduced ambivalence would lead to changes in attitudes and behavioral intentions. To test this hypothesis, participants (N = 152) were exposed to persuasive communications designed to influence attitude ambivalence and perceived social norms regarding tobacco use. Analysis indicated that providing a social norm antagonistic to tobacco use significantly reduced ambivalence among participants reading the ambivalence message (p attitudes from pre- to postpersuasive communications demonstrated a significant decrease in tobacco attitudes only for participants reading the ambivalence message who were provided with the antitobacco use norm (p attitudes toward tobacco. These results point to the important role of social norms in mediating the effects of attitude ambivalence on subsequent behavior in preventative programs targeting tobacco use. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    Large scale disasters can cause devastating impacts in terms of population displacement. Between 2008 and 2013, on average 27 million people were displaced annually by disasters (Yonetani 2014). After large events such as hurricane Katrina or the Port-au-Prince earthquake, images of inadequate public shelter and concerns about large scale and often inequitable migration have been broadcast around the world. Population displacement can often be one of the most devastating and visible impacts of a natural disaster. Despite the importance of population displacement in disaster events, measures to understand the socio-economic vulnerability of a community often use broad metrics to estimate the total socio-economic risk of an event rather than focusing on the specific impacts that a community faces in a disaster. Population displacement is complex and multi-causal with the physical impact of a disaster interacting with vulnerability arising from the response, environmental issues (e.g., weather), cultural concerns (e.g., expectations of adequate shelter), and many individual factors (e.g., mobility, risk perception). In addition to the complexity of the causes, population displacement is difficult to measure because of the wide variety of different terms and definitions and its multi-dimensional nature. When we speak of severe population displacement, we may refer to a large number of displaced people, an extended length of displacement or associated difficulties such as poor shelter quality, risk of violence and crime in shelter communities, discrimination in aid, a lack of access to employment or other difficulties that can be associated with large scale population displacement. We have completed a thorough review of the literature on disaster population displacement. Research has been conducted on historic events to understand the types of negative impacts associated with population displacement and also the vulnerability of different groups to these impacts. We

  16. Processes underlying the effects of adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material: the role of perceived realism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although research has repeatedly demonstrated a link between adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) and sexual attitudes, the processes underlying this association are not well understood. More specifically, studies have pointed to a mediating role of perceived realism,

  17. Estrés laboral en profesores de enseñanza secundaria: examinando el papel de las conductas y/o actitudes problemáticas de los alumnos y la dificultad percibida en el manejo de conflictos. Occupational stress in secondary school teachers: examining the role of students’ disruptive behaviour and/or attitudes and the perceived difficulty in conflict management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Santiago

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    En este trabajo se examina, en función de distintas variables sociodemográficas y ocupacionales (sexo, edad, experiencia profesional, ciclo de docencia, no sólo el papel de las conductas y/o actitudes problemáticas de los alumnos, sino también las dificultades percibidas por los profesores en el manejo de conflictos. Los resultados obtenidos, a partir de una muestra de 1.386 docentes de ESO, permiten concluir que ambos tipos de estresores diferencian válidamente en función de las variables sociodemográficas y ocupacionales. Concretamente, el estrés asociado a los problemas de comportamiento de los alumnos y a las dificultades del docente en el manejo de conflictos, incide en mayor medida en las profesoras, en los docentes de segundo ciclo y en aquellas etapas intermedias de la profesión. En definitiva, si estos hallazgos se ratifican en futuras investigaciones, se trataría de diseñar programas preventivos y/o de intervención que sean sensibles a estos factores de riesgo.

    Palabras clave: Estrés, profesores, conductas problema alumnos, manejo conflictos.

    This study examines not only the role of students’ disruptive behaviour and/or attitudes but also the difficulties perceived by teachers in managing conflicts as a function of the different sociodemographic and occupational variables (gender, age, professional experience, teaching cycle. The results obtained from a sample consisting in 1386 ESO teachers allow us to conclude that both types of stressors validly discriminate as a function of sociodemographic and occupational variables. Specifically, the stress associated to students’ disruptive behaviour and to the difficulties faced by teachers in managing conflict has a greater incidence on female teachers, on second cycle teachers and on intermediate stages in the profession. If these findings are corroborated by further research, it would be important to design prevention and/or intervention programmes that are

  18. Attitudes towards mental health, mental health research and digital interventions by young adults with type 1 diabetes: A qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Janine; Proudfoot, Judy; Vatiliotis, Veronica; Verge, Charles; Holmes-Walker, Deborah J; Campbell, Lesley; Wilhelm, Kay; Moravac, Catherine; Indu, Pillaveetil S; Bridgett, Madeleine

    2018-06-01

    Young people with type 1 diabetes are at increased risk of mental disorders. Whereas treatment need is high, difficulty recruiting young people with type 1 diabetes into psychosocial studies complicates development, testing and dissemination of these interventions. Interviews with young adults with type 1 diabetes were conducted to examine attitudes towards mental health and mental health research, including barriers and motivators to participation in mental health studies and preferred sources of mental health support. The interviews were audio-taped, transcribed and evaluated via thematic analysis. Young adults with type 1 diabetes were recruited via social media channels of 3 advocacy organizations. A total of 31 young adults (26 females and 5 males) with an average age of 22 years were interviewed between October 2015 and January 2016. Participants were largely unaware of their increased vulnerability to common mental health problems and knew little about mental health research. Major barriers to participation included perceived stigma and lifestyle issues and low levels of trust in researchers. Opportunities to connect with peers and help others were described as key motivators. Psychological distress was considered normal within the context of diabetes. A need for some level of human contact in receiving psychosocial support was expressed. Findings provide valuable insights into the complex dynamics of engaging young adults with type 1 diabetes in mental health studies. Interviewees provided practical suggestions to assist investigation and delivery of psychosocial interventions for this vulnerable group. © 2018 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Knowledge and perception about climate change and human health: findings from a baseline survey among vulnerable communities in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Md Iqbal; Rahman, Md Bayzidur; Smith, Wayne; Lusha, Mirza Afreen Fatima; Azim, Syed; Milton, Abul Hasnat

    2016-03-15

    Bangladesh is one of the countries most vulnerable to climate change (CC). A basic understanding of public perception on vulnerability, attitude and the risk in relation to CC and health will provide strategic directions for government policy, adaptation strategies and development of community-based guidelines. The objective of this study was to collect community-based data on peoples' knowledge and perception about CC and its impact on health. In 2012, a cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 6720 households of 224 enumeration areas of rural villages geographically distributed in seven vulnerable districts of Bangladesh, with total population of 19,228,598. Thirty households were selected randomly from each enumeration area using the household listing provided by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS). Information was collected from all the 6720 research participants using a structured questionnaire. An observation checklist was used by the interviewers to collect household- and community-related information. In addition, we selected the head of each household as the eligible participant for an interview. Evidence of association between sociodemographic variables and knowledge of CC was explored by cross-tabulation and measured using chi-square tests. Logistic regression models were used to further explore the predictors of knowledge. The study revealed that the residents of the rural communities selected for this study largely come from a low socioeconomic background: only 9.6% had postsecondary education or higher, the majority worked as day labourer or farmer (60%), and only 10% earned a monthly income above BDT 12000 (equivalent to US $150 approx.). The majority of the participants (54.2%) had some knowledge about CC but 45.8% did not (p change of climate (83.2%). Among all the respondents (n = 6720), 94.5% perceived change in climate and extreme weather events. Most of them (91.9%) observed change in rainfall patterns in the last 10 years, and 97

  20. Internet Pornography Use, Perceived Addiction, and Religious/Spiritual Struggles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Joshua B; Exline, Julie J; Pargament, Kenneth I; Volk, Fred; Lindberg, Matthew J

    2017-08-01

    Prior work has demonstrated that religious beliefs and moral attitudes are often related to sexual functioning. The present work sought to examine another possibility: Do sexual attitudes and behaviors have a relationship with religious and spiritual functioning? More specifically, do pornography use and perceived addiction to Internet pornography predict the experience of religious and spiritual struggle? It was expected that feelings of perceived addiction to Internet pornography would indeed predict such struggles, both cross-sectionally and over time, but that actual pornography use would not. To test these ideas, two studies were conducted using a sample of undergraduate students (N = 1519) and a sample of adult Internet users in the U.S. (N = 713). Cross-sectional analyses in both samples found that elements of perceived addiction were related to the experience of religious and spiritual struggle. Additionally, longitudinal analyses over a 1-year time span with a subset of undergraduates (N = 156) and a subset of adult web users (N = 366) revealed that perceived addiction to Internet pornography predicted unique variance in struggle over time, even when baseline levels of struggle and other related variables were held constant. Collectively, these findings identify perceived addiction to Internet pornography as a reliable predictor of religious and spiritual struggle.

  1. Factors influencing stakeholders attitudes toward genetically modified aedes mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Latifah; Hashim, Hasrizul

    2015-06-01

    Dengue fever is a debilitating and infectious disease that could be life-threatening. It is caused by the dengue virus which affects millions of people in the tropical area. Currently, there is no cure for the disease as there is no vaccine available. Thus, prevention of the vector population using conventional methods is by far the main strategy but has been found ineffective. A genetically modified (GM) mosquito is among the favoured alternatives to curb dengue fever in Malaysia. Past studies have shown that development and diffusion of gene technology products depends heavily upon public acceptance. The purpose of this study is to identify the relevant factors influencing stakeholders' attitudes toward the GM Aedes mosquito and to analyse the relationships between all the factors using the structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 509 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Results of the survey have confirmed that public perception towards complex issues such as gene technology should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The perceived benefit-perceived risk balance is very important in determining the most predominant predictor of attitudes toward a GM mosquito. In this study the stakeholders perceived the benefit of the GM mosquito as outweighing its risk, translating perceived benefit as the most important direct predictor of attitudes toward the GM mosquito. Trust in key players has a direct influence on attitudes toward the GM mosquito while moral concern exhibited an indirect influence through perceived benefits. Other factors such as attitudes toward technology and nature were also indirect predictors of attitudes toward the GM mosquito while religiosity and engagement did not exhibited any significant roles. The research findings serve as a useful database to understand public acceptance and the social construct of public attitudes towards the GM mosquito to combat dengue.

  2. Obesity as a perceived social signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasee Mankar

    Full Text Available Fat accumulation has been classically considered as a means of energy storage. Obese people are theorized as metabolically 'thrifty', saving energy during times of food abundance. However, recent research has highlighted many neuro-behavioral and social aspects of obesity, with a suggestion that obesity, abdominal obesity in particular, may have evolved as a social signal. We tested here whether body proportions, and abdominal obesity in particular, are perceived as signals revealing personality traits. Faceless drawings of three male body forms namely lean, muscular and feminine, each with and without abdominal obesity were shown in a randomized order to a group of 222 respondents. A list of 30 different adjectives or short descriptions of personality traits was given to each respondent and they were asked to allocate the most appropriate figure to each of them independently. The traits included those directly related to physique, those related to nature, attitude and moral character and also those related to social status. For 29 out of the 30 adjectives people consistently attributed specific body forms. Based on common choices, the 30 traits could be clustered into distinct 'personalities' which were strongly associated with particular body forms. A centrally obese figure was perceived as "lethargic, greedy, political, money-minded, selfish and rich". The results show that body proportions are perceived to reflect personality traits and this raises the possibility that in addition to energy storage, social selection may have played some role in shaping the biology of obesity.

  3. Residential proximinity, perceived and acceptable risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, G.O.

    1984-01-01

    This paper focuses on the relationship between the life experiences associated with residential proximity, and the perception and acceptability of the risks associated with generating electricity in nuclear power plants. Perceived risk is operationally defined in terms of estimated likelihood of occurrence, while acceptability of nuclear power is defined in terms of people's favorable or unfavorable opinions regarding nuclear power plants. In the context of a simple social-structural model of perceived and acceptable risk, four potential explanations for enhanced acceptability among those residentially proximate with nuclear facilities are examined: residents, through the experience of living with hazard, are reinforced toward assigning lower probabilities to the potential risks associated with nuclear facilities; the cognitive dissonance created by the acceptance of the risks associated with nuclear power is decreased by reducing perceived risk; nuclear neighbors are predisposed toward, educated about, and/or economically dependent upon nuclear power hence the more favorable attitudes toward it; nearby residents are systematically more altruistic--other oriented--than the general population and thus more willing to bear the risks associated with nuclear power

  4. Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs related to hypertension and hyperlipidemia self-management among African-American men living in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Everett; Ponder, Monica; Bernard, Stephanie

    2017-05-01

    Perceptions of illness affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) self-management. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding hypertension and hyperlipidemia management among 34 African-American men with hypertension and/or hyperlipidemia, age 40-65, living in the Southeastern United States. In-person focus groups were conducted using semi-structured interview questions informed by the Health Belief Model (HBM). Participants had a high level of knowledge about hypertension self-management, but less about cholesterol self-management. Perceived severity of both conditions was acknowledged, though participants perceived hypertension as more severe. Barriers to self-management included medication side effects and unhealthy dietary patterns. Facilitators included social support, positive healthcare experiences, and the value placed on family. Cultural implications highlighted the importance of food in daily life and social settings. Participants expressed how notions of masculinity affected self-management-noting the impact of feelings of vulnerability and perceived lack of control stemming from diagnosis and treatment expectations. The findings highlight gaps in knowledge of hyperlipidemia versus hypertension, and the impact of cultural context and perceptions on engagement in self-management behaviors. Public health practitioners and healthcare providers serving African-American men should address cultural factors and notions of masculinity which can hinder effective disease management among this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Memory Vulnerability Diagnosis for Binary Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Feng-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability diagnosis is important for program security analysis. It is a further step to understand the vulnerability after it is detected, as well as a preparatory step for vulnerability repair or exploitation. This paper mainly analyses the inner theories of major memory vulnerabilities and the threats of them. And then suggests some methods to diagnose several types of memory vulnerabilities for the binary programs, which is a difficult task due to the lack of source code. The diagnosis methods target at buffer overflow, use after free (UAF and format string vulnerabilities. We carried out some tests on the Linux platform to validate the effectiveness of the diagnosis methods. It is proved that the methods can judge the type of the vulnerability given a binary program.

  6. Beyond individualised teaching : a relational construction of pedagogical attitude

    OpenAIRE

    Aspelin, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Teaching is today often described as a matter of adjusting to the individual lives of students. Building on the premises of three educational theories, mainly Martin Buber’s concept of ‘inclusion’, the article aims to confront this idea and show how pedagogical attitude can be perceived from a relational perspective. A model is constructed in which pedagogical attitude is understood as three different types of teacher-student relationships: a) an asymmetric inter-subjective relationship; b) a...

  7. Right about others, wrong about ourselves? Actual and perceived self-other differences in resistance to persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Karen M; Sutton, Robbie M

    2004-12-01

    The third-person effect (TPE) is the tendency for people to perceive the media as more influential on others than on themselves. This study introduced a new methodological paradigm for measuring the TPE and examined whether the effect stems from an overestimation of the persuasibility of others, an underestimation of the persuasibility of the self, both, or neither. In three studies, we compared ratings of: (a) current self attitudes (both baseline and post-persuasion), (b) current others' attitudes (both baseline and post-persuasion), (c) retrospective self attitudes, and (d) retrospective others' attitudes. We also measured traditional third-person perception ratings of perceived influence. Rather than overestimating others' attitude change, we found evidence that people underestimated the extent to which their own attitudes had, or would have, changed.

  8. Third sector primary care for vulnerable populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, P; Dowell, A; Woodward, A

    2001-12-01

    This paper aims to describe and explain the development of third sector primary care organisations in New Zealand. The third sector is the non-government, non-profit sector. International literature suggests that this sector fulfils an important role in democratic societies with market-based economies, providing services otherwise neglected by the government and private for-profit sectors. Third sector organisations provided a range of social services throughout New Zealand's colonial history. However, it was not until the 1980s that third sector organisations providing comprehensive primary medical and related services started having a significant presence in New Zealand. In 1994 a range of union health centres, tribally based Mäori health providers, and community-based primary care providers established a formal network -- Health Care Aotearoa. While not representing all third sector primary care providers in New Zealand, Health Care Aotearoa was the best-developed example of a grouping of third sector primary care organisations. Member organisations served populations that were largely non-European and lived in deprived areas, and tended to adopt population approaches to funding and provision of services. The development of Health Care Aotearoa has been consistent with international experience of third sector involvement -- there were perceived "failures" in government policies for funding primary care and private sector responses to these policies, resulting in lack of universal funding and provision of primary care and continuing patient co-payments. The principal policy implication concerns the role of the third sector in providing primary care services for vulnerable populations as a partial alternative to universal funding and provision of primary care. Such an alternative may be convenient for proponents of reduced state involvement in funding and provision of health care, but may not be desirable from the point of view of equity and social cohesion

  9. Attitudes toward unauthorized immigrants, authorized immigrants, and refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kate E; Marx, David M

    2013-07-01

    Rates of human migration are steadily rising and have resulted in significant sociopolitical debates over how to best respond to increasing cultural diversity and changing migration patterns. Research on prejudicial attitudes toward immigrants has focused on the attitudes and beliefs that individuals in the receiving country hold about immigrants. The current study enhances this literature by examining how young adults view authorized and unauthorized immigrants and refugees. Using a between-groups design of 191 undergraduates, we found that participants consistently reported more prejudicial attitudes, greater perceived realistic threats, and greater intergroup anxiety when responding to questions about unauthorized compared with authorized immigrants. Additionally, there were differences in attitudes depending on participants' generational status, with older-generation participants reporting greater perceived realistic and symbolic threat, prejudice, and anxiety than newer-generation students. In some instances, these effects were moderated by participant race/ethnicity and whether they were evaluating authorized or unauthorized immigrants. Lastly, perceived realistic threat, symbolic threat, and intergroup anxiety were significant predictors of prejudicial attitudes. Overall, participants reported positive attitudes toward refugees and resettlement programs in the United States. These findings have implications for future research and interventions focused on immigration and prejudice toward migrant groups. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Dynamics of immune system vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, Sean P.

    The adaptive immune system can be viewed as a complex system, which adapts, over time, to reflect the history of infections experienced by the organism. Understanding its operation requires viewing it in terms of tradeoffs under constraints and evolutionary history. It typically displays "robust, yet fragile" behavior, meaning common tasks are robust to small changes but novel threats or changes in environment can have dire consequences. In this dissertation we use mechanistic models to study several biological processes: the immune response, the homeostasis of cells in the lymphatic system, and the process that normally prevents autoreactive cells from entering the lymphatic system. Using these models we then study the effects of these processes interacting. We show that the mechanisms that regulate the numbers of cells in the immune system, in conjunction with the immune response, can act to suppress autoreactive cells from proliferating, thus showing quantitatively how pathogenic infections can suppress autoimmune disease. We also show that over long periods of time this same effect can thin the repertoire of cells that defend against novel threats, leading to an age correlated vulnerability. This vulnerability is shown to be a consequence of system dynamics, not due to degradation of immune system components with age. Finally, modeling a specific tolerance mechanism that normally prevents autoimmune disease, in conjunction with models of the immune response and homeostasis we look at the consequences of the immune system mistakenly incorporating pathogenic molecules into its tolerizing mechanisms. The signature of this dynamic matches closely that of the dengue virus system.

  11. Vulnerable to HIV / AIDS. Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, I

    1998-01-01

    This special report discusses the impact of globalization, patterns of migration in Southeast Asia, gender issues in migration, the links between migration and HIV/AIDS, and spatial mobility and social networks. Migrants are particularly marginalized in countries that blame migrants for transmission of infectious and communicable diseases and other social ills. Effective control of HIV/AIDS among migrant and native populations requires a multisectoral approach. Programs should critically review the privatization of health care services and challenge economic models that polarize the rich and the poor, men and women, North and South, and migrant and native. Programs should recognize the equality between locals and migrants in receipt of health services. Countermeasures should have input from migrants in order to reduce the conditions that increase vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. Gender-oriented research is needed to understand women's role in migration. Rapid assessment has obscured the human dimension of migrants' vulnerability to HIV. Condom promotion is not enough. Migration is a major consequence of globalization, which holds the promise, real or imagined, of prosperity for all. Mass migration can be fueled by explosive regional developments. In Southeast Asia, migration has been part of the process of economic development. The potential to emigrate increases with greater per capita income. "Tiger" economies have been labor importers. Safe sex is not practiced in many Asian countries because risk is not taken seriously. Migrants tend to be used as economic tools, without consideration of social adjustment and sex behavior among singles.

  12. Vulnerability of network of networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.

    2014-10-01

    Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.

  13. Development and validation of 26-item dysfunctional attitude scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Amrollah; Samouei, Rahele; Mousavii, Sayyed Ghafour; Bornamanesh, Ali Reza

    2013-06-01

    Dysfunctional Attitude Scale is one of the most common instruments used to assess cognitive vulnerability. This study aimed to develop and validate a short form of Dysfunctional Attitude Scale appropriate for an Iranian clinical population. Participants were 160 psychiatric patients from medical centers affiliated with Isfahan Medical University, as well as 160 non-patients. Research instruments were clinical interviews based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV-TR, Dysfunctional Attitude Scale and General Heath Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Data was analyzed using multicorrelation calculations and factor analysis. Based on the results of factor analysis and item-total correlation, 14 items were judged candidates for omission. Analysis of the 26-item Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS-26) revealed a Cronbach's alpha of 0.92. Evidence for the concurrent criterion validity was obtained through calculating the correlation between the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale and psychiatric diagnosis (r = 0.55), GHQ -28 (r = 0.56) and somatization, anxiety, social dysfunction, and depression subscales (0.45,0.53,0.48, and 0.57, respectively). Factor analysis deemed a four-factor structure the best. The factors were labeled as success-perfectionism, need for approval, need for satisfying others, and vulnerability-performance evaluation. The results showed that the Iranian version of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS-26) bears satisfactory psychometric properties suggesting that this cognitive instrument is appropriate for use in an Iranian cultural context. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Vulnerability assessment of urban ecosystems driven by water resources, human health and atmospheric environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jing; Lu, Hongwei; Zhang, Yang; Song, Xinshuang; He, Li

    2016-05-01

    As ecosystem management is a hotspot and urgent topic with increasing population growth and resource depletion. This paper develops an urban ecosystem vulnerability assessment method representing a new vulnerability paradigm for decision makers and environmental managers, as it's an early warning system to identify and prioritize the undesirable environmental changes in terms of natural, human, economic and social elements. The whole idea is to decompose a complex problem into sub-problem, and analyze each sub-problem, and then aggregate all sub-problems to solve this problem. This method integrates spatial context of Geographic Information System (GIS) tool, multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method, ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operators, and socio-economic elements. Decision makers can find out relevant urban ecosystem vulnerability assessment results with different vulnerable attitude. To test the potential of the vulnerability methodology, it has been applied to a case study area in Beijing, China, where it proved to be reliable and consistent with the Beijing City Master Plan. The results of urban ecosystem vulnerability assessment can support decision makers in evaluating the necessary of taking specific measures to preserve the quality of human health and environmental stressors for a city or multiple cities, with identifying the implications and consequences of their decisions.

  15. Parenting styles perceived by teenagers and school achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Mónica; Paz, Telma

    2015-01-01

    Parenting styles (PS) are parents’ attitudes towards their child overall development and education. By setting family climate and parents’ behaviors, PS have been a focus on development psychology and family studies, namely, in relation to child outcomes. This cross-sectional study analyzes the impact of perceived PS by adolescents on their school achievement. 110 boys and 118 girls from the 5th to 9th school level, (M= 12.60, SD= 1.82) from a public school...

  16. How employees perceive risks and safety in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barny, M.-H.; Brenot, J.; Moreau, A.

    1992-01-01

    Employees of the French centre of Saclay have been interviewed twice in November 1984 and March 1987 about their risks at the workplace, their views on safety, their protective attitudes, and also about the Chernobyl accident in the second survey. Perceived risks are compared, safety measures and protection teams are judged, importance of the Chernobyl accident is appreciated. Differences in perception between the various professional groups are pointed out. The main results are briefly presented hereafter. (author)

  17. VULNERABILITY, AUTHENTICITY, AND INTER-SUBJECTIVE CONTACT: PHILOSOPHICAL PRINCIPLES OF INTEGRATIVE PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Erskine

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Philosophical principles of a relationally focused Integrative Psychotherapy are described through the concepts of vulnerability, authenticity, and inter-subjective contact. Eight principles or therapist attitudes are outlined with clinical examples that illustrate the philosophy. These philosophical principles provide the foundation for a theory of methods. This article is based on a keynote address given at the 6th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference, Grantham, UK, July 11-14, 2013.

  18. VULNERABILITY, AUTHENTICITY, AND INTER-SUBJECTIVE CONTACT: PHILOSOPHICAL PRINCIPLES OF INTEGRATIVE PSYCHOTHERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Richard G. Erskine

    2013-01-01

    The Philosophical principles of a relationally focused Integrative Psychotherapy are described through the concepts of vulnerability, authenticity, and inter-subjective contact. Eight principles or therapist attitudes are outlined with clinical examples that illustrate the philosophy. These philosophical principles provide the foundation for a theory of methods. This article is based on a keynote address given at the 6th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference, Granth...

  19. An holistic view on aquifer vulnerability based on a distinction of different types of vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela; Franchino, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    AN HOLISTIC VIEW ON AQUIFER VULNERABILITY BASED ON A DISTINCTION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF VULNERABILITY D.A. De Luca1 , M. Lasagna1, E. Franchino1 1Department of Earth Sciences, University of Turin The concept of vulnerability is certainly useful in the field of groundwater protection. Nevertheless, within the scientific community, the definition of groundwater vulnerability is still debatable and not clear and conclusive. This is probably due to the fact that researchers often have very different experiences and education. A positive effect of it is a constant exchange of ideas, but there are also negative consequences and difficulties in deepening the issue. The different approaches are very important but they are usable only if the concept of vulnerability is standardized: thus, for the sake of clarity, a number of definitions should be laid down, based on the different types of vulnerability. These definitions can then provide the necessary holistic view for the aquifer vulnerability assessment. Nowadays vulnerability methods focus on the degree of vulnerability and the parameters needed for its evaluation, often neglecting to clarify what is the type of vulnerability the proposed methods are referred. The type of vulnerability, indeed, is both logically and hierarchically superior to the degree of vulnerability. More specifically the type of vulnerability represents the evaluation of the hydrogeological conditions considered in the vulnerability assessment and able to influence the way in which the contamination can take place. Currently the only distinction, based on of the type of vulnerability, is referred to intrinsic and specific vulnerability. Intrinsic vulnerability assesses the susceptibility of the receptor based on the natural properties of the land and subsurface; specific vulnerability also includes properties of the analyzed contaminant. This distinction is useful but not exhaustive. In addition to this, e.g., a distinction of vertical vulnerability

  20. CUSTOMER-PERCEIVED INSECURITY OF ONLINE SHOPPING ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matea Matic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer-perceived insecurity of online shopping environment has become one of the major obstacles to the growth of electronic commerce. The main purpose of this study was to examine the influence of insecurity of Internet usage towards online purchase decision as well as consumers’ attitudes and intentions towards online purchasing. The data was collected through survey questionnaire using the purposive sample of 253 Croatian students from the University of Dubrovnik. Research results indicate a significant relationship between the insecurity of Internet usage and online purchase decision. Additionally, a significant relationship was found between the insecurity of Internet usage and consumers’ attitudes and intentions towards online purchasing. The overall analysis reveals that consumers have positive attitudes and intentions towards online purchasing whilst insecurity towards online purchasing lowers when online purchases are made more frequently.

  1. Assessing the Security Vulnerabilities of Correctional Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, G.S.; Spencer, D.S.

    1998-10-27

    The National Institute of Justice has tasked their Satellite Facility at Sandia National Laboratories and their Southeast Regional Technology Center in Charleston, South Carolina to devise new procedures and tools for helping correctional facilities to assess their security vulnerabilities. Thus, a team is visiting selected correctional facilities and performing vulnerability assessments. A vulnerability assessment helps to identi~ the easiest paths for inmate escape, for introduction of contraband such as drugs or weapons, for unexpected intrusion fi-om outside of the facility, and for the perpetration of violent acts on other inmates and correctional employees, In addition, the vulnerability assessment helps to quantify the security risks for the facility. From these initial assessments will come better procedures for performing vulnerability assessments in general at other correctional facilities, as well as the development of tools to assist with the performance of such vulnerability assessments.

  2. Drug abuse: vulnerability and transition to addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moal, M

    2009-05-01

    Intrinsic vulnerability is central to the transition of recreational drug use to misuse. Several factors contribute to vulnerability, inherent or acquired, and they account for the huge individual differences observed concerning the propensity to enter in the addiction process. Some of the multifactional causes for a vulnerable phenotype will be examined: genetic factors, age and gender influences, various comorbidities and epidemiological observations. Stress-induced vulnerability will be particularly reviewed because it provides a good model for a pathophysiological research and for relating environmental events to biological consequences of drug vulnerability, namely through the striato-cortical dopamine system. Experimental studies are generally blind concerning these historical factors that contribute vulnerability and a critical evaluation of current animal models is needed. The transition of the last stage of the process, addiction, is conceptualized as a progression from homeostasis to allostasis and then, to pathology.

  3. Vulnerability and resilience: a critical nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, Mianna

    2016-02-01

    Not all forms of human fragility or vulnerability are unavoidable. Sometimes we knowingly and intentionally impose conditions of vulnerability on others; and sometimes we knowingly and intentionally enter into and assume conditions of vulnerability for ourselves (for example, when we decide to trust or forgive, enter into intimate relationships with others, become a parent, become a subject of medical or psychotherapeutic treatment, and the like). In this article, I propose a presently overlooked basis on which one might evaluate whether the imposition or assumption of vulnerability is acceptable, and on which one might ground a significant class of vulnerability-related obligations. Distinct from existing accounts of the importance of promoting autonomy in conditions of vulnerability, this article offers a preliminary exploration of the nature, role, and importance of resilience promotion, its relationship to autonomy promotion, and its prospects for improving human wellbeing in autonomy inhibiting conditions.

  4. Determinants of consumer attitudes and purchase intentions with regard to genetically modifed foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    2001-01-01

    of the technology. Purchase decisions with regard to the two product examples were almost exclusively determined by attitudes towards purchasing the products. These were, in turn, significantly influenced by the overall attitude towards genetic modification in food production through their effects on beliefs held...... which was carried out in Denmark, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom to investigate the formation of consumer attitudes towards genetic modification in food production and of purchase decisions with regard to genetically modified yoghurt and beer. Altogether, 2031 consumers were interviewed...... consumers. Across countries, the attitude towards genetic modification in food production was deeply embedded in more general attitudes held by the consumers, in particular attitude towards nature and attitude towards technology. These general attitudes were found to influence perceived risks and benefits...

  5. Explicating the role of sexual coercion and vulnerability alcohol expectancies in rape attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starfelt, Louise C; Young, Ross McD; White, Katherine M; Palk, Gavan R M

    2015-07-01

    Despite evidence suggesting that alcohol expectancies may influence people's rape perceptions, no study to date has measured context-specific expectancies comprehensively. This study represents an initial investigation of the role of sexual coercion and vulnerability alcohol expectancies in young Australian adults' rape blame attributions. Using a vignette method, it was hypothesized that participants' stronger expectancy endorsement would predict lesser perpetrator blame and greater victim blame. Participants (n = 210; 34.9% males; 18-25 years) read a hypothetical rape scenario and rated dimensions of blameworthiness attributed to the intoxicated sexual perpetrator and victim. Participants completed the Sexual Coercion and Sexual Vulnerability subscales of the Drinking Expectancy Sexual Vulnerabilities Questionnaire for the targets self, men, and women in addition to measures of traditional gender role attitudes and rape myth acceptance. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that, as expected, stronger sexual coercion expectancy predicted lower perpetrator blame and greater victim blame. Self-oriented expectancy predicted evaluations of the perpetrator whereas other-oriented expectancy predicted victim evaluations. These effects were robust after controlling for gender role attitudes and rape myth acceptance. Alcohol expectancies appear to be part of a network of beliefs and attitudes which perpetuate biased rape attributions and may be useful to challenge in altering rape perceptions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Methods to Secure Databases Against Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    for several languages such as C, C++, PHP, Java and Python [16]. MySQL will work well with very large databases. The documentation references...using Eclipse and connected to each database management system using Python and Java drivers provided by MySQL , MongoDB, and Datastax (for Cassandra...tiers in Python and Java . Problem MySQL MongoDB Cassandra 1. Injection a. Tautologies Vulnerable Vulnerable Not Vulnerable b. Illegal query

  7. attitudes of teachers towards

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Ethiopia. A limited understanding of the concept disability, negative attitudes towards .... impairment and mental retardation in ... on the attitudes of the people” Taking part ... feelings about inclusion. ... Brahmnorwich(2002) , younger teachers.

  8. Community perspectives on research consent involving vulnerable children in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeman, Rachel; Kamaara, Eunice; Kamanda, Allan; Ayuku, David; Nyandiko, Winstone; Atwoli, Lukoye; Ayaya, Samuel; Gisore, Peter; Scanlon, Michael; Braitstein, Paula

    2012-10-01

    Involving vulnerable pediatric populations in international research requires culturally appropriate ethical protections. We sought to use mabaraza, traditional East African community assemblies, to understand how a community in western Kenya viewed participation of children in health research and informed consent and assent processes. Results from 108 participants revealed generally positive attitudes towards involving vulnerable children in research, largely because they assumed children would directly benefit. Consent from parents or guardians was understood as necessary for participation while gaining child assent was not. They felt other caregivers, community leaders, and even community assemblies could participate in the consent process. Community members believed research involving orphans and street children could benefit these vulnerable populations, but would require special processes for consent.

  9. Ransomware - Threats Vulnerabilities And Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Shah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Attack methodologies transform with the transforming dynamics of technology. Consequently it becomes imperative that individuals and organization implement the highest levels of security within their devices and infrastructure for optimal protection against these rapidly evolving attacks. Ransomware is one such attack that never fails to surprise in terms of its ability to identify vulnerabilities and loopholes in technology. This paper discusses the categories of ransomware its common attack vectors and provides a threat landscape with the aim to highlight the true potential and destructive nature of such malware based attacks. In this paper we also present the most current ransomware attack that is still a potential threat and also provide recommendations and strategies for prevention and protection against these attacks. A novel solution is also discussed that could be further worked upon in the future by other researchers and vendors of security devices.

  10. Proliferation Vulnerability Red Team report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, J.P.; Barnard, R.W.; Bennett, D.E. [and others

    1996-10-01

    This report is the product of a four-month independent technical assessment of potential proliferation vulnerabilities associated with the plutonium disposition alternatives currently under review by DOE/MD. The scope of this MD-chartered/Sandia-led study was limited to technical considerations that could reduce proliferation resistance during various stages of the disposition processes below the Stored Weapon/Spent Fuel standards. Both overt and covert threats from host nation and unauthorized parties were considered. The results of this study will be integrated with complementary work by others into an overall Nonproliferation and Arms Control Assessment in support of a Secretarial Record of Decision later this year for disposition of surplus U.S. weapons plutonium.

  11. Attitudes of college music students towards noise in youth culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesky, Kris; Pair, Marla; Lanford, Scott; Yoshimura, Eri

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of a hearing loss prevention program within a college may be dependent on attitudes among students majoring in music. The purpose of this study was to assess the attitudes of music majors toward noise and to compare them to students not majoring in music. Participants ( N = 467) filled out a questionnaire designed to assess attitudes toward noise in youth culture and attitudes toward influencing their sound environment. Results showed that students majoring in music have a healthier attitude toward sound compared to students not majoring in music. Findings also showed that music majors are more aware and attentive to noise in general, likely to perceive sound that may be risky to hearing as something negative, and are more likely to carry out behaviors to decrease personal exposure to loud sounds. Due to these differences, music majors may be more likely than other students to respond to and benefit from a hearing loss prevention program.

  12. Attitudes toward Professional Psychological Help Seeking in South Asian Students: Role of Stigma and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Prerna G.; Metz, Kristina; Carlson, Cindy I.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined (a) the roles of perceived and personal stigma on attitudes toward professional psychological help seeking and (b) the effects of these constructs across gender in South Asians. Personal stigma and being male was negatively associated with attitudes toward professional psychological help seeking; no difference in the…

  13. Ethnic Differences in Parental Attitudes and Beliefs about Being Overweight in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigwell, J.; Watson, P. M.; Murphy, R. C.; Stratton, G.; Cable, N. T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between ethnic background and parental views of healthy body size, concerns surrounding overweight and attitudes to perceived causes of overweight in childhood. Method: A self-report questionnaire was designed to explore parental attitudes towards childhood weight. Sampling deliberately…

  14. Attachment Predicts College Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Skills for Working with Infants, Toddlers, and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallotton, Claire D.; Torquati, Julia; Ispa, Jean; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel; Henk, Jennifer; Fusaro, Maria; Peterson, Carla A.; Roggman, Lori A.; Stacks, Ann M.; Cook, Gina; Brophy-Herb, Holly

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Adults' attitudes about attachment relationships are central to how they perceive and respond to children. However, little is known about how attachment styles are related to teachers' attitudes toward and interactions with infants and toddlers. From a survey of 207 students taking early childhood (EC) courses at 4 U.S.…

  15. High School Pupils' Attitudes and Self-Efficacy of Using Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, Kleopatra; Gialamas, Vasilis

    2017-01-01

    This paper regards a study aiming to investigate junior high school pupils' attitudes and self-efficacy of using mobile devices. A 25-item questionnaire was administered to 260 pupils aged 12-15 years old, in Greece. Pupils' attitudes were positive, and four factors were extracted, "perceived usefulness", "affection",…

  16. ICMPv6 RA Flooding Vulnerability Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linas Jočys

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ICMPv6 is the newest version of internet control message protocol, whose main purpose is to send error message indicating packet processing failure. It is know that ICMPv6 is technologically vulnerable. One of those vulnerabilities is the ICMPv6 RA flooding vulnerability, which can lead to systems in Local Area Network slow down or full stop. This paper will discuss Windows (XP, 7, 8.1 and Linux Ubuntu 14 operating systems resistance to RA flooding attack research and countermeasures to minimize this vulnerability.

  17. Vulnerability maps for Druzba crude oil pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladik, P.; Hosnedl, P.; Buresova, H.; Corbet, J.

    2012-01-01

    Maps of risk for individual environmental aspects within the protection zone of the Czech part of the Druzba crude oil pipeline (505.7 km) were developed based on a modified 'H and V index' method. Risk data were added into a GIS of the Druzba pipeline so that the system could be used as conceptual material in the field of environmental protection (a base for the new SCADA system). Considered environmental aspects were assessed in terms of their vulnerability. The criteria were defined as the vulnerability of the aquatic environment (surface waters and ground waters), the vulnerability of soil environment and the vulnerability of biotic components of the environment. (authors)

  18. Commercial Air Carrier Vulnerabilities to Information Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shelburn, Bryan H

    2002-01-01

    .... The increasing dependence of government and industry on information technology has created critical vulnerabilities that can be exploited by degrading or destroying the use of information systems...

  19. Mining Bug Databases for Unidentified Software Vulnerabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Jason Wright; Miles McQueen

    2012-06-01

    Identifying software vulnerabilities is becoming more important as critical and sensitive systems increasingly rely on complex software systems. It has been suggested in previous work that some bugs are only identified as vulnerabilities long after the bug has been made public. These vulnerabilities are known as hidden impact vulnerabilities. This paper discusses the feasibility and necessity to mine common publicly available bug databases for vulnerabilities that are yet to be identified. We present bug database analysis of two well known and frequently used software packages, namely Linux kernel and MySQL. It is shown that for both Linux and MySQL, a significant portion of vulnerabilities that were discovered for the time period from January 2006 to April 2011 were hidden impact vulnerabilities. It is also shown that the percentage of hidden impact vulnerabilities has increased in the last two years, for both software packages. We then propose an improved hidden impact vulnerability identification methodology based on text mining bug databases, and conclude by discussing a few potential problems faced by such a classifier.

  20. Extending overjustification: the effect of perceived reward-giver intention on response to rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forehand, M R

    2000-12-01

    The perceived intention model incorporates a new moderator, beliefs about reward-giver intention, into the overjustification paradigm. In 2 simulated shopping studies featuring products paired with promotional rewards, consumers who believed the marketer was promotion focused (reward used to encourage purchase) reported lower purchase intentions and brand attitudes for promoted products after promotion, whereas consumers who believed the marketer was reward focused (promotion used to distribute the reward) showed no attitude change. Promotion-focus beliefs lowered attitudes by heightening the contingency between the promotion and purchase and thereby increasing the perceived causal role of the reward. This effect was contingent on initial behavior--postpromotion attitude change occurred for consumers who actively engaged in product decisions but not for consumers who passively observed the choice sets.

  1. Attitudes of Jordanian Adolescent Students Toward Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Baker, Nesrin N.; Al-Ali, Nahla; Al-Ajlouni, Ranyah

    2018-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a serious public health problem especially among adolescents. Understanding adolescents’ attitudes toward obesity and healthy lifestyle is a crucial step to develop effective health programs to treat and prevent obesity. Objectives: To examine the attitudes toward overweight and obesity among Jordanian adolescent students and to identify the components of obesity prevention program that the students perceive as important. Methods: A sample of 1000 students in 8th to 10th grades was randomly selected from 16 schools in Irbid, Jordan. A self-reported questionnaire including attitude related questions was used in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Results: Generally, the students expressed positive attitudes toward obesity; which means that their attitudes were consistent with societal norms in terms of health and social functioning (mean= 3.5, SD=0.39). Furthermore, the students expressed positive attitudes toward lifestyle; which means that their attitudes were consistent with healthy behaviors (mean=3.7, SD=0.58). However, boys had significantly more positive attitudes than girls (p=0.04). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 23.8%, while obese and non-obese students had similar attitudes toward lifestyle and obesity. Finally, around 20% to 30% of students desired a prevention program out of school time shared with their families and friends and involves eating healthy food and getting more exercise. Conclusion: More efforts are needed to build effective obesity prevention programs that focus on eating healthy diet and getting more exercise considering gender differences. PMID:29456780

  2. Attitudes of Jordanian Adolescent Students Toward Overweight and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Baker, Nesrin N; Al-Ali, Nahla; Al-Ajlouni, Ranyah

    2018-01-01

    Obesity is a serious public health problem especially among adolescents. Understanding adolescents' attitudes toward obesity and healthy lifestyle is a crucial step to develop effective health programs to treat and prevent obesity. To examine the attitudes toward overweight and obesity among Jordanian adolescent students and to identify the components of obesity prevention program that the students perceive as important. A sample of 1000 students in 8 th to 10 th grades was randomly selected from 16 schools in Irbid, Jordan. A self-reported questionnaire including attitude related questions was used in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Generally, the students expressed positive attitudes toward obesity; which means that their attitudes were consistent with societal norms in terms of health and social functioning (mean= 3.5, SD=0.39). Furthermore, the students expressed positive attitudes toward lifestyle; which means that their attitudes were consistent with healthy behaviors (mean=3.7, SD=0.58). However, boys had significantly more positive attitudes than girls (p =0.04). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 23.8%, while obese and non-obese students had similar attitudes toward lifestyle and obesity. Finally, around 20% to 30% of students desired a prevention program out of school time shared with their families and friends and involves eating healthy food and getting more exercise. More efforts are needed to build effective obesity prevention programs that focus on eating healthy diet and getting more exercise considering gender differences.

  3. CONCEPT ANALYSIS OF PERCEIVED CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiyono Mardiyono

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Perceived control is a personality characteristic that contributes psychological adjustment. It was derived from various theories, so that definitions of perceived control were ambiguous meaning. Disclosing concept of perceived control is required.Objective. The analysis aims to identify definition and use of perceived control, examine the basic attributes of perceived control, and the measurements of perceived control.Method. Databases searched for electronic journals and books that were published from 1994 to 2010 were analyzed.Result. Perceived control is personal belief that refers to controllability on behalf of one’s self and ability to control threats or events. The use of perceived control includes maternal, pediatric, medical, surgical, psychiatric, community nursing, and pain management. Perceived control was composed of two dimensions: belief about controllability and belief about ability to control to threats.Conclusion. Instrument of Anxiety Control Questionnaire most closely corresponds to two dimensions: belief about controllability and ability to control. Defining attributes and dimensions of perceived control are useful for developing tool.Keywords: perceived control, controllability, ability to control, and agency

  4. Perceptions about prenatal care: views of urban vulnerable groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatcher Barbara

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, infant mortality rates remain more than twice as high for African Americans as compared to other racial groups. Lack of adherence to prenatal care schedules in vulnerable, hard to reach, urban, poor women is associated with high infant mortality, particularly for women who abuse substances, are homeless, or live in communities having high poverty and high infant mortality. This issue is of concern to the women, their partners, and members of their communities. Because they are not part of the system, these womens' views are often not included in other studies. Methods This qualitative study used focus groups with four distinct categories of people, to collect observations about prenatal care from various perspectives. The 169 subjects included homeless women; women with current or history of substance abuse; significant others of homeless women; and residents of a community with high infant mortality and poverty indices, and low incidence of adequate prenatal care. A process of coding and recoding using Ethnograph and counting ensured reliability and validity of the process of theme identification. Results Barriers and motivators to prenatal care were identified in focus groups. Pervasive issues identified were drug lifestyle, negative attitudes of health care providers and staff, and non-inclusion of male partners in the prenatal experience. Conclusions Designing prenatal care relevant to vulnerable women in urban communities takes creativity, thoughtfulness, and sensitivity. System changes recommended include increased attention to substance abuse treatment/prenatal care interaction, focus on provider/staff attitudes, and commitment to inclusion of male partners.

  5. A vulnerability-centric requirements engineering framework : Analyzing security attacks, countermeasures, and requirements based on vulnerabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elahi, G.; Yu, E.; Zannone, N.

    2010-01-01

    Many security breaches occur because of exploitation of vulnerabilities within the system. Vulnerabilities are weaknesses in the requirements, design, and implementation, which attackers exploit to compromise the system. This paper proposes a methodological framework for security requirements

  6. Nursing students’ attitude toward suicide prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebhinani, Naresh; Mamta; Gaikwad, Achla D.; Tamphasana, L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Preventing suicide depends upon different health professionals’ knowledge regarding suicide, attitude toward suicide attempters, skills to assess and manage suicidal risk. Objectives: This study was aimed to assess the attitude of nursing students toward suicide prevention. Materials and Methods: 308 nursing students were recruited from the two institutions through total enumeration method. Attitude toward suicide prevention scale was administered. Study design was cross-sectional. Results: Majority were single females, from urban locality, who were pursuing BSc Nursing with the mean age of 20 years. Only minority had previous exposure to suicide prevention programs or workshops. Nearly half of the subjects had positive attitude toward working with suicidal patients. Again half of the subjects considered unemployment and poverty as main causes of suicide and were quite hopeless about it and they also perceived that most of the suicidal people would not reveal their suicidal plans to others. Conclusions: Merely half of the students had positive attitude toward working with suicidal patients. Hence, there is strong need to organize more educational and training programs on suicide prevention so that these budding health professionals could be more equipped and trained to manage these suicidal patients. PMID:25013311

  7. Nursing students' attitude toward suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebhinani, Naresh; Mamta; Gaikwad, Achla D; Tamphasana, L

    2013-07-01

    Preventing suicide depends upon different health professionals' knowledge regarding suicide, attitude toward suicide attempters, skills to assess and manage suicidal risk. This study was aimed to assess the attitude of nursing students toward suicide prevention. 308 nursing students were recruited from the two institutions through total enumeration method. Attitude toward suicide prevention scale was administered. Study design was cross-sectional. Majority were single females, from urban locality, who were pursuing BSc Nursing with the mean age of 20 years. Only minority had previous exposure to suicide prevention programs or workshops. Nearly half of the subjects had positive attitude toward working with suicidal patients. Again half of the subjects considered unemployment and poverty as main causes of suicide and were quite hopeless about it and they also perceived that most of the suicidal people would not reveal their suicidal plans to others. Merely half of the students had positive attitude toward working with suicidal patients. Hence, there is strong need to organize more educational and training programs on suicide prevention so that these budding health professionals could be more equipped and trained to manage these suicidal patients.

  8. Teachers' attitudes and beliefs about homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Testor, Carles; Behar, Julia; Davins, Montse; Conde Sala, José Luís; Castillo, José A; Salamero, Manel; Alomar, Elisabeth; Segarra, Sabina

    2010-05-01

    Schools play a key role in transmitting attitudes towards sexual diversity. Many studies stress the importance of teachers' and other professionals' attitudes towards gay men and/or lesbian women. This study evaluates attitudes and prejudices toward homosexuality in a sample of 254 elementary and high school teachers in Barcelona and its surrounding area. The results obtained using a scale of overt and subtle prejudice and a scale of perceived discrepancy of values indicate that discrepancy between likely behavior and personal values was significantly greater in women, those who hold religious beliefs, churchgoers and people without any gay or lesbian acquaintances. Approximately 88% of the teachers showed no type of prejudiced attitudes towards gay men and lesbian women. The experience of proximity to gay men and/or lesbian women reduces not only the discrepancy between personal values and likely behavior but also the presence of homophobic prejudice. It would be advisable to expand specific teacher training in the subject of sexual diversity in order to reduce prejudicial attitudes, thus fostering non-stereotyped knowledge of homosexuality.

  9. Overall Justice of Organization: from Decision Fairness to Positive Attitude of Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazauskaitė-Zabielskė Jurgita

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an empirical study aimed at analysing the antecedents and role of perceived overall justice in organization. The results of the study show overall justice to be predicted by perceived fairness of various human resource management decisions, and to be related to attitudes towards job, supervisor, and organization.

  10. Modeling Coastal Vulnerability through Space and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Thomas; Meixler, Marcia S

    2016-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems experience a wide range of stressors including wave forces, storm surge, sea-level rise, and anthropogenic modification and are thus vulnerable to erosion. Urban coastal ecosystems are especially important due to the large populations these limited ecosystems serve. However, few studies have addressed the issue of urban coastal vulnerability at the landscape scale with spatial data that are finely resolved. The purpose of this study was to model and map coastal vulnerability and the role of natural habitats in reducing vulnerability in Jamaica Bay, New York, in terms of nine coastal vulnerability metrics (relief, wave exposure, geomorphology, natural habitats, exposure, exposure with no habitat, habitat role, erodible shoreline, and surge) under past (1609), current (2015), and future (2080) scenarios using InVEST 3.2.0. We analyzed vulnerability results both spatially and across all time periods, by stakeholder (ownership) and by distance to damage from Hurricane Sandy. We found significant differences in vulnerability metrics between past, current and future scenarios for all nine metrics except relief and wave exposure. The marsh islands in the center of the bay are currently vulnerable. In the future, these islands will likely be inundated, placing additional areas of the shoreline increasingly at risk. Significant differences in vulnerability exist between stakeholders; the Breezy Point Cooperative and Gateway National Recreation Area had the largest erodible shoreline segments. Significant correlations exist for all vulnerability (exposure/surge) and storm damage combinations except for exposure and distance to artificial debris. Coastal protective features, ranging from storm surge barriers and levees to natural features (e.g. wetlands), have been promoted to decrease future flood risk to communities in coastal areas around the world. Our methods of combining coastal vulnerability results with additional data and across multiple time

  11. Exclusion as a Criterion for Selecting Socially Vulnerable Population Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Anatol’evna Shabunova

    2016-05-01

    characterized by the situation and state of exception that is linked to social status and self-perception of human rights and expressed through the senses of inferiority, anger, fear, despair, depression, shame. The status of social exclusion has many criteria: poverty, limited opportunities for employment and education, lack of access to social and community networks and activities, inability to plan one’s own life. The explanatory concept of social exclusion is based on the construction of the attitude toward socially vulnerable layers as the devalued social status. The barrier of social inclusion consists in the formation of a negative image of a representative of this category of the population in the eyes of more secure population groups; and the reason for this phenomenon lies in individual characteristics of an individual: lack of purpose, apathy, laziness, low motivation to labor and training, and bad habits. The prevailing social stereotype contributes to the stratification of entire families, including children, who are in advance deprived of the most important economic, political and cultural resources of society, and have no opportunities for the upward mobility. If no measures are taken to overcome social exclusion, it can lead to the fact that part of the population will fall out of social development and slip into a state of stagnation and complete social dependence. The concept of social inclusion shifts the priorities of state social policy from the allocation of social transfers to actively changing the mindset in society

  12. PERUSAHAAN TIDAK ADIL KEPADA SAYA! : GAMBARAN PERCEIVED JUSTICE PADA SITUASI PERUBAHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Elisabeth

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Employees perceive the fairness of organization’s systems and procedure is called perceived justice. Some studies indicated that perceived justice affects many organizational attitudes and behaviors, such as job satisfaction, absenteeism, counterproductive behavior, and turnover. Therefore, organization needs to give attention on employees’ perceived justice. This study was taken in PT. EFG, where its employees have been complaining about  many changes happened. This study was conducted with mixed method approach. Quantiative data was collected through 114 online questionnaires. The questionnaire measures three dimensions which are distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice. Qualitative data was collected through interview to five participants with high and low intensity of perceived justice. The findings show that supervisor play an important role in  determining other employees’ procedural and interactional justice. Other factors such as characteristics, previous experiences, perception about change and coworkers also affect employees’ perceived justice. 

  13. A THEORY OF CONSUMER’S PERCEIVED RISK UNDER THE HALO EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian-Laurenţiu FLOREA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite being largely tackled by a manifold of sciences, perceived risk is still a rather unclear concept concerning its formation and update. In today’s economy, where poor purchase decisions are so easy to make, consumers have developed mental shields residing in actions based on perceived risk. This paper develops and tests a theory of perceived risk formation under the halo effect, based on correlation analysis in two forms: rankings individuals on their contribution to the correlations increase and partial correlations. Both internal and external halo effects were found, emerging from the perceived risk component – functional risk, financial risk, social risk, physical risk, psychological risk and time risk –, brand attitude, product category attitude, consumer’s regret, others’ regret expressed through word-of-mouth, recency, and awareness of awareness. The intricate halo that was revealed needs further attention from the scientific community in order to better delimit halo sources and, eventually, to explain its variability.

  14. Promoting individual learning for trainees with perceived high helplessness: experiences of a safety training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Fariba; Khodabakhsh, Mohamad Reza

    2014-01-01

    The article arises from a research project investigating the effectiveness of safety training on changing attitudes toward safety issues. Followed by the training intervention was observed that employees' helplessness decreased. The researchers have come to the idea of investigating how safety training can reduce perceived helplessness. Thus, this research examined the effectiveness of safety training on reducing employees' helplessness with attention to the mediating role of attitude toward safety issues. The current study was an experimental study with the control group. A total of 204 (101 experimental group and 103 control group) completed safety attitude questionnaire and perceived helplessness before a safety training course including four 90-min sessions over 4 consecutive days in Esfahan Steel Company in 2012 between October and December. Only members of the experimental group participated in this course. These questionnaires, approximately 30 days later, again were run on members of both groups. Data were analyzed using descriptive indexes, t-, and F-test. RESULTS by comparing the two groups showed that safety training was effective only on individuals with perceived low helplessness (p = 0.02). In individuals with perceived high helplessness, safety training only with changing safety attitudes can reduce the perceived helplessness.

  15. Using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) to Evaluate the Vulnerabilities with ICT Assets Disposal Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeboah-Boateng, Ezer Osei

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the possible vulnerabilities of ICT assets disposal policies and the associated impact that can affect the SMEs. A poorly implemented policy or unenforced policy is “potentially the weakest link” in the cyber-security chain. Do SMEs have an idea of vulnerabilities or threats...... due to assets disposal? In the event of breaches, the SMEs pay for the cost of notifying the concerned stakeholders, compensate affected parties, invest in improved mitigation technologies and also may be subjected to unwarranted public scrutiny. ICT assets at the end-of-useful life span usually have...... data left on the hard disk drives or storage media, which is a source of data confidentiality vulnerability. SMEs were surveyed in developing economies on their assets disposal policies. The perceived correlations were analyzed using fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs) to ascertain if any cyber...

  16. Discriminatory Attitudes toward Intercultural Communication in Domestic and Overseas Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from social identity theory and its categorization process, the present study crossexamines Japanese students' contrastively different attitudes toward Asians and European (-looking) people in two different contexts: (1) Japanese students in the overseas English language school context who perceive a sense of solidarity with other Asian,…

  17. Doctors' attitudes and practices regarding smoking cessation during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Objective. To investigate the current smoking cessation practices and attitudes of doctors working in the public antenatal services, as well as their perceived barriers to addressing the issue in the context of routine care. Study design. The study was qualitative, consisting of 14 semistructured, one-to-one interviews ...

  18. Job satisfaction and attitudes towards nursing care among nurses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have shown that job dissatisfaction can intensify emotional exhaustion, and this can influence nurses to perceive their work as tiresome and repetitive, leading to frustration and discouragement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction and attitude towards nursing care at ...

  19. Science Teacher Attitudes toward Inquiry-Based Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBiase, Warren; McDonald, Judith R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine teachers' attitudes, values, and beliefs about inquiry. The participants of this study were 275 middle grade and secondary science teachers from four districts in North Carolina. Issues such as class size, accountability, curricular demands, and administrative support are perceived as constraints,…

  20. Attitude of antenatal patients in Enugu toward HIV screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reason for declining HIV Screening was that AIDS has no known cure, followed by fear of positive result. Conclusion: The awareness and attitude of Nigeria pregnant women towards HIV Screening and uptake of the test is good. Educational level has a significant effect on the uptake and perceived benefit of the test.

  1. Print and Internet Catalog Shopping: Assessing Attitudes and Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasarathy, Leo R.; Jones, Joseph M.

    2000-01-01

    Findings of an empirical study that compared individuals' attitudes and intentions to shop using print and Internet catalogs suggest that individuals perceived differences between the two catalog media on the shopping factors of reliability, tangibility, and consumer risk. Product value, pre-order information, post-selection information, shopping…

  2. Parents' Attitudes toward Comprehensive and Inclusive Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Christina R.; Tasker, Timothy B.; Horn, Stacey S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Parents are sometimes perceived as barriers to providing comprehensive and inclusive sexuality education to young people. However, little is known about parents' actual attitudes towards providing such broad information to young people. The purpose of this paper is to examine two different approaches to measuring parents' attitudes…

  3. The influence of relationship intention on cell phone users' attitudes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kirstam

    2014-09-01

    Sep 1, 2014 ... service failures do occur, customers' attitudes towards complaining .... a restaurant might switch to another restaurant in future, but a perceived health ...... Marketing Research: an Applied Orientation (5th edition). .... feedback received by service employees: a social capital perspective', Journal of Service.

  4. Perceptions, attitudes and beliefs of adults in a Nigerian community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceptions, attitudes and beliefs of adults in a Nigerian community about cleft lip and palate. ... Attempted abortion and smoking by the mother during pregnancy were perceived to cause CLP by 36.3% and 33.3% respectively while an “Act of God” was believed to be the aetiology by 23%. A small percentage (17%) ...

  5. Spacecraft Attitude Determination with Earth Albedo Corrected Sun Sensor Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhanderi, Dan

    -Method, Extended Kalman Filter, and Unscented Kalman Filter algorithms are presented and the results are compared. Combining the Unscented Kalman Filter with Earth albedo and enhanced Sun sensor modeling allows for three-axis attitude determination from Sun sensor only, which previously has been perceived...

  6. Awareness of Implicit Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Adam; Judd, Charles M.; Hirsh, Holen K.; Blair, Irene V.

    2013-01-01

    Research on implicit attitudes has raised questions about how well people know their own attitudes. Most research on this question has focused on the correspondence between measures of implicit attitudes and measures of explicit attitudes, with low correspondence interpreted as showing that people have little awareness of their implicit attitudes. We took a different approach and directly asked participants to predict their results on upcoming IAT measures of implicit attitudes toward five different social groups. We found that participants were surprisingly accurate in their predictions. Across four studies, predictions were accurate regardless of whether implicit attitudes were described as true attitudes or culturally learned associations (Studies 1 and 2), regardless of whether predictions were made as specific response patterns (Study 1) or as conceptual responses (Studies 2–4), and regardless of how much experience or explanation participants received before making their predictions (Study 4). Study 3 further suggested that participants’ predictions reflected unique insight into their own implicit responses, beyond intuitions about how people in general might respond. Prediction accuracy occurred despite generally low correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of attitudes, as found in prior research. All together, the research findings cast doubt on the belief that attitudes or evaluations measured by the IAT necessarily reflect unconscious attitudes. PMID:24294868

  7. IT Security Vulnerability and Incident Response Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hafkamp, W.H.M.; Paulus, S.; Pohlman, N.; Reimer, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarises the results of a Dutch PhD research project on IT security vulnerability and incident response management, which is supervised by the University of Twente in the Netherlands and which is currently in its final stage. Vulnerabilities are ‘failures or weaknesses in computer

  8. Vulnerability, Borderline Personality Disorders. Clinical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Borderline personality disorder and vulnerability are difficult to assess and are rather elusive to define. A case study material is presented from a cognitive analytical model. An attempt of the dominant features of cognitive analytical therapy and discussion of vulnerability in relation to personality disorder is provided.

  9. Managing Risk, Reducing Vulnerability and Enhancing Productivity ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Managing Risk, Reducing Vulnerability and Enhancing Productivity under a Changing Climate. The countries of the Greater Horn of Africa are particularly vulnerable to drought, exacerbated by widespread poverty and dependence on rainfed agriculture. Even with normal rainfall, the region does not produce enough food to ...

  10. Reducing vulnerability among pastoralists in Northern Kenya

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CCAA

    vulnerability among pastoralist communities in Mandera and Turkana in Northern Kenya, led by the Kenyan NGO ... to understand how people have experienced droughts and other ... norms and gender roles may make them more or less vulnerable, ... and see direct impacts on the resources they depend on for their.

  11. The politics of vulnerability and resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frerks, G.E.; Warner, J.F.; Weijs, B.

    2011-01-01

    Much conceptual confusion exists over the concepts of vulnerability and (social) resilience, reinforced by the different paradigms (the article identifies four) and disciplinary traditions underlying their use. While since the 1980s the social construction of "vulnerability" as a driver for disaster

  12. Climate change vulnerability assessment in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binita KC; J. Marshall Shepherd; Cassandra Johnson Gaither

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is occurring in the Southeastern United States, and one manifestation is changes in frequency and intensity of extreme events. A vulnerability assessment is performed in the state of Georgia (United States) at the county level from 1975 to 2012 in decadal increments. Climate change vulnerability is typically measured as a function of exposure to physical...

  13. Predicting Vulnerability Risks Using Software Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumani, Yaman

    2012-01-01

    Software vulnerabilities have been regarded as one of the key reasons for computer security breaches that have resulted in billions of dollars in losses per year (Telang and Wattal 2005). With the growth of the software industry and the Internet, the number of vulnerability attacks and the ease with which an attack can be made have increased. From…

  14. Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change: Agricultural ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-21

    Apr 21, 2016 ... Much of this biodiversity is highly vulnerable to climate change. ... an astonishing range of life forms found nowhere else on the planet. ... As well as improving information on climate change vulnerabilities, ... They also note negative effects on traditional knowledge, which is seen as losing its sacred power.

  15. Method of Pentest Synthesis and Vulnerability Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Hahanova Irina Vitalyevna

    2012-01-01

    The structural method for penetration test generation and vulnerability simulation for infrastructure of telecommunication hardwaresoftware information cybernetic systems (CS), focused to protect against unauthorized access the services defined in the system specification by means of penetrating through legal interfaces of component interaction, which have vulnerabilities, is proposed. A protection service infrastructure is created with cybersystem and maintains it during the life cycle, serv...

  16. Current diagnostic modalities for vulnerable plaque detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Schaar (Johannes); F. Mastik (Frits); E.S. Regar (Eveline); C.A. den Uil (Corstiaan); F.J.H. Gijsen (Frank); J.J. Wentzel (Jolanda); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); A.F.W. van der Steen (Ton)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractRupture of vulnerable plaques is the main cause of acute coronary syndrome and myocardial infarction. Identification of vulnerable plaques is therefore essential to enable the development of treatment modalities to stabilize such plaques. Several diagnostic methods are currently tested

  17. Attitude of physiotherapy students in Nigeria toward persons with disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent-Onabajo, Grace O; Malgwi, Wasinda S

    2015-01-01

    Attitudes of students of health care professions, such as physiotherapy, toward persons with disability may influence their attitude and practice post-qualification. To examine attitudes toward persons with disability among undergraduate physiotherapy students in Universities in Nigeria. The 30-item Attitudes toward Disabled Persons--Form A (ATDP-A) scale was used to assess the attitudes of penultimate and final year physiotherapy students in 3 Nigerian universities. Overall and item-by-item analyzes of responses to the ATDP-A scale were carried out. Differences in attitude by sex, age, year and university of study were also examined using independent t-test and one-way ANOVA. One hundred and sixty-nine students with a male majority (56.2%) participated in the study. Mean score on the ATDP-A was 94.95 ± 17.50 with more students (60.4%) having a score >90 which depicts positive attitude. Item-by-item analysis of responses to the 30 items on the ATDP-A showed that negative attitudes were preponderant on items relating to the emotional component of the personality of persons with disability. Only age of students and their university of study however resulted in statistically significant differences in attitudes and older students reported better attitudes toward persons with disability. Although the overall attitude of the physiotherapy students was positive, negative stereotypes and discriminatory tendencies were observed in issues relating to the perceived emotional capacity of persons with disabilities. Educational strategies capable of effecting more positive attitudes in physiotherapy students in Nigeria toward persons with disability are urgently needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Decision-Making Competence Predicts Domain-Specific Risk Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua eWeller

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Decision Making Competence (DMC reflects individual differences in rational responding across several classic behavioral decision-making tasks. Although it has been associated with real-world risk behavior, less is known about the degree to which DMC contributes to specific components of risk attitudes. Utilizing a psychological risk-return framework, we examined the associations between risk attitudes and DMC. Italian community residents (n = 804 completed an online DMC measure, using a subset of the original Adult-DMC battery (A-DMC; Bruine de Bruin, Parker, & Fischhoff, 2007. Participants also completed a self-reported risk attitude measure for three components of risk attitudes (risk-taking, risk perceptions, and expected benefits across six risk domains. Overall, greater performance on the DMC component scales were inversely, albeit modestly, associated with risk-taking tendencies. Structural equation modeling results revealed that DMC was associated with lower perceived expected benefits for all domains. In contrast, its association with perceived risks was more domain-specific. These analyses also revealed stronger indirect effects for the DMC  expected benefits  risk-taking than the DMC  perceived risk  risk-taking path, especially for risk behaviors that may be considered more antisocial in nature. These results suggest that DMC performance differentially impacts specific components of risk attitudes, and may be more strongly related to the evaluation of expected value of the given behavior.

  19. Parent Attitudes Toward Pain Management for Childhood Immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Mark; Wallace, Dustin P; Williams, Kristi; Parker, JoLynn; Schurman, Jennifer V

    2016-08-01

    Evidence-based pain-limiting strategies for pediatric immunizations remain underutilized, with barriers identified to date mostly pertaining to health care providers and systems of care. The present study sought to quantify and investigate parent attitudes toward pain management as another potential barrier to the routine use of pain-mitigating strategies during immunizations. Questionnaires measuring parent attitudes, willingness to pay, and perceived barriers for using pain management for immunizations were completed by 259 parent/guardians of children ages 0 to 5 years attending appointments at an urban primary care clinic in the Midwestern United States. Parent attitudes toward pain management for immunization were relatively normally distributed and varied from strongly positive to negative, with 33% of parents disagreeing that they were concerned about the pain their child may experience and 50% agreeing that there are no lasting negative effects from immunization pain. Negative parent attitudes were associated with willingness to spend less in money or time for pain management and with greater perceived significance of cost, time, and other barriers for using pain-mitigating strategies. Some parents perceive limited value in trying to reduce pain during immunizations such that they may be hesitant to invest much time or effort in interventions. Greater success of translating evidence-based pain management into practice therefore may require accounting for differences in parent attitudes by tailoring educational efforts and pain management options accordingly.

  20. The moderating role of perceived organisational support in breaking the silence of public accountants

    OpenAIRE

    Alleyne, Philmore; Hudaib, Mohammad; Haniffa, Roszaini

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey with public accountants in Barbados on their intention to report a superior’s unethical behaviour. Specifically, it investigates to what extent perceived organisational support (POS) in audit organisations would moderate Barbadian public accountants’ intentions to blow the whistle internally and externally. Results indicate that internal whistle-blowing intentions are significantly influenced by all five individual antecedents (attitudes, perceived b...

  1. Pengaruh Perceived Quality, Perceived Sacrifice Dan Perceived Value Terhadap Customer Satisfaction Di Informa Innovative Furnishing Pakuwon City Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Saputro, Daniel Krisno

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa pengaruh dari Perceived Quality, Perceived Sacrifice dan Perceived Value terhadap Customer Satisfaction di Informa Innovative Furnishing Pakuwon City Surabaya. Variabel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah perceived quality, perceived sacrifice dan perceived value. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan menyebarkan kuesioner kepada 100 orang konsumen di Informa Pakuwon City. Alat analisa yang digunakan adalah analisa regresi linear berganda.Hasil d...

  2. Pengaruh Perceived Quality, Perceived Sacrifice, Perceived Value, Dan Price Fairness Terhadap Customer Satisfaction Taman Sari Rasa Waterpark Cilacap

    OpenAIRE

    Rifqi, Viola Amdya; Endratno, Hermin

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dan menganalisis pengaruh perceived quality, perceived sacrifice, perceived value, dan price fairness terhadap customer satisfaction Taman Sari Rasa Waterpark Cilacap. Dimana variabel independen dalam penelitian ini adalah perceived quality, perceived sacrifice, perceived value, dan price fairness, sedangkan variabel dependen dalam penelitian ini adalah customer satisfaction.Analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini menggunakan uji v...

  3. Vulnerabilities Classification for Safe Development on Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luis D. M. Ferreira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The global sales market is currently led by devices with the Android operating system. In 2015, more than 1 billion smartphones were sold, of which 81.5% were operated by the Android platform. In 2017, it is estimated that 267.78 billion applications will be downloaded from Google Play. According to Qian, 90% of applications are vulnerable, despite the recommendations of rules and standards for the safe software development. This study presents a classification of vulnerabilities, indicating the vulnerability, the safety aspect defined by the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards (Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas - ABNT norm NBR ISO/IEC 27002 which will be violated, which lines of code generate the vulnerability and what should be done to avoid it, and the threat agent used by each of them. This classification allows the identification of possible points of vulnerability, allowing the developer to correct the identified gaps.

  4. Correlates of Couples’ Perceived Similarity at the Initiation Stage and Currently

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Sprecher

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although prior research (Montoya, Horton, & Kirchner, 2008 has indicated that perceived similarity is more important than actual similarity as a predictor of satisfaction and attraction, there is a lack of research on factors associated with couples’ perceptions of similarity in their relationship. In the present study, a sample of couples (both partners provided ratings of the degree to which they perceived similarity in six areas (background characteristics, attitudes and beliefs, leisure pursuits and interests, communication style, personality, and physical attributes for two stages in their relationship: currently and at the initiation stage (viewed retrospectively. The couples perceived greater similarity for the current stage of their relationship than for the beginning stage of their relationship. Factors found to be associated with perceived similarity included positive social network reactions, overlap in social networks (predictor of current perceived similarity only, perceived compatibility, and satisfaction and commitment (examined only for current perceived similarity. Of the various types of perceived similarity considered in this study, similarity in attitudes and beliefs was most consistently associated with the various predictor variables. Implications of these results for enhancing couple relationships are discussed.

  5. Feeling conflicted and seeking information: when ambivalence enhances and diminishes selective exposure to attitude-consistent information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Vanessa; Wegener, Duane T; Clark, Jason K; Fabrigar, Leandre R; Smith, Steven M; Durso, Geoffrey R O

    2013-06-01

    To date, little research has examined the impact of attitudinal ambivalence on attitude-congruent selective exposure. Past research would suggest that strong/univalent rather than weak/ambivalent attitudes should be more predictive of proattitudinal information seeking. Although ambivalent attitude structure might weaken the attitude's effect on seeking proattitudinal information, we believe that conflicted attitudes might also motivate attitude-congruent selective exposure because proattitudinal information should be effective in reducing ambivalence. Two studies provide evidence that the effects of ambivalence on information choices depend on amount of issue knowledge. That is, ambivalence motivates attitude-consistent exposure when issue knowledge is relatively low because less familiar information is perceived to be effective at reducing ambivalence. Conversely, when knowledge is relatively high, more unambivalent (univalent) attitudes predicted attitude-consistent information seeking.

  6. Perceived racism and suicide ideation: mediating role of depression but moderating role of religiosity among African American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rheeda L; Salami, Temilola K; Carter, Sierra E; Flowers, Kelci

    2014-10-01

    Suicide is a public health problem for African Americans who are young and of working age. The purpose of this study was to examine mediated and moderated effects of perceived racism on suicide ideation in a community sample of 236 African American men and women. Measures of suicide ideation, depression symptoms, intrinsic/extrinsic religiosity, and perceived racism were administered. Perceived racial discrimination was directly and indirectly associated with suicide ideation. For participants who reported low levels of extrinsic religiosity, the mediated effect of perceived racism (via depression symptoms) was significant. These findings provide some insight into suicide vulnerability for specific subgroups of African Americans. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.

  7. Minorities' acculturation and social adjustment: The moderator role of meta-perceptions of majority's acculturation attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    António, João H C; Monteiro, Maria Benedicta

    2015-12-01

    Two studies addressed the role of Black meta-perception of acculturation attitudes on the relation between minority acculturation attitudes and their social adjustment (school achievement and perceived quality of intergroup relations). Participants in both studies were Black Lusophone adolescents living in Portugal. Study 1 (N = 140) indicated that participants' attitude regarding the host culture was positively correlated with their school achievement and to their evaluation of intergroup relations. It also indicated that participants' meta-perception of majority attitude add to the explained variance of participants' social adjustment. Study 2 (N = 62) manipulated the perceived majority high/low support of immigrants' learning the host culture. The dependent variable (DV) was perceived quality of intergroup relations. Only in the low support condition were participants' attitudes towards the host culture positively related to perceived quality of Black-White relationships. These results suggest that perceived social context is central to understand the relationship between minority adolescents' acculturation attitudes and key dimensions of their adjustment to host societies. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  8. Vulnerability on the streets: female sex workers and HIV risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyett, P M; Warr, D J

    1997-10-01

    In-depth interviews were conducted with 24 purposively selected female sex workers who were perceived to be vulnerable to risks associated with their lifestyle and occupation. Brothel workers were found to be considerably less exposed to risk than the women working on the streets. Client resistance was the major obstacle to women maintaining safe sex practices. Physical threats and coercion from clients, the absence of legal protection for street workers, the workers' extreme social isolation and lack of community support added to the difficulties experienced by women in their attempts to insist on condoms for all sex services. Youth, homelessness and heavy drug use had contributed to women being at times even more vulnerable because they had less capacity to manage situations of potential violence or STD risk. Whether through sex work or in their private relationships, HIV remains a risk for some of these women. This study highlights the dangers associated with illegal sex work. While decriminalization of prostitution would reduce some of the dangers to which women were exposed and increase women's capacity to insist on safe sex practices, it is also important for community education programmes to address men's failure to accept responsibility for condom use when seeking the services of sex workers.

  9. Perceived service quality, perceived value, overall satisfaction and happiness of outlook for long-term care institution residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jesun; Hsiao, Chih-Tung; Glen, Robert; Pai, Jar-Yuan; Zeng, Sin-Huei

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the psychometric properties and relationships of perceived service quality, perceived value and overall satisfaction for residents with respect to their long-term care institutions. The five-point Likert scale questionnaire administered through facetoface interviews. Fourteen long-term care institutions located in central and southern Taiwan stratified according to services and accommodation population. One hundred and eighty long-term institutional care residents. Perceived service quality (the SERVPERF model), perceived value and overall satisfaction (models based on the literature on perceived value and satisfaction). Student's t-test on institutional location shows a significant difference between overall satisfaction for central and southern institution long-term care recipients. The correlation test revealed that the higher a resident's level of education, the higher the scores for perceived value. The factor loading results of confirmation factor analysis show acceptable levels of reliability and index-of-model fits for perceived service, perceived value and overall satisfaction. In addition, the results suggest that an additional construct, a positive attitude (happiness of outlook) towards long-term care institutions, is also an important factor in residents' overall satisfaction. The primary goal of long-term institutional care policy in Taiwan, as in other countries, is to provide residents with practical, cost-effective but high-quality care. On the basis of the results of in-depth interviews with long-term institutional care residents, this study suggests long-term care institutions arrange more family visit days to increase the accessibility and interaction of family and residents and thereby increase the happiness of outlook of the residents. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Antecedents of Looming Cognitive Style: Associations With Reported Perceived Parenting and Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan-Atalay, Ayşe; Ayvaşık, Halise Belgin

    2018-01-01

    Looming Cognitive Style, which was proposed as cognitive vulnerability model specific for anxiety disorders, suggests that anxiety-prone individuals have a tendency to perceive threats and dangers as getting closer, becoming larger, and more agonizing every passing minute. Yet, very few studies focused on the family-related variables that are associated with development of Looming Cognitive Style. This study aims to investigate the relationship of Looming Cognitive Style with measures perceived parenting and attachment. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 389 university students aged between 18 and 35 as participants. The participants were assessed through Looming Cognitive Style, perceived parenting, attachment anxiety, and avoidance. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated Looming Cognitive Style to be significantly predicted by maternal overprotection and anxiety dimension of attachment. The results are important in understanding how parenting-related variables are related to development of cognitive vulnerabilities specific to anxiety disorders.

  11. The aspect of personnel metal attitude in the production safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyosukarto, Priyanto M.

    2002-01-01

    The occurrence of an accident could always be traced to component/system failures and/or human error. The two factors are closely related to competency of the personnel's involved, in which mental attitude is a decisive factor. Furthermore mental attitude could be viewed as an element of Safety (S) Culture. Consequently, S. Culture could might created or at lea ts, be enhanced by the introduction of appropriate values, norms, as well as attitudes. The ABC and TBC of safety norm have been discussed briefly. Whereas mental attitude has been defined and discussed in detail and graded into six levels, namely: attending, responding, complying, accepting, preferring, and integrating. To assure highest level of safety, personnel must achieve integrating level of attitude, in the sense that he would merely do an action on the basis of safety values and/or norms prevailing in the system, not due to external pressure. Furthermore, considering the work as a physical and an emotional activity resulting in stress and strain on the body, Karate exercises have been promoted as an alternative for enhancing mental attitude by means of reducing personnel vulnerability to strain and stress. This method is accomplished by exploiting Roux's Low of conditioning effect and by implementation of an in-depth understanding on the spiritual aspect of Karate. It is concluded that in the field of production safety, there is a positive correlation between Karate, mental attitude, competence, performance, quality, and safety

  12. Core attitudes of professionals in palliative care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steffen T; Ramsenthaler, Christina; Bausewein, Claudia; Krischke, Norbert; Geiss, Gerlinde

    2009-08-01

    Self-awareness of one's own reactions towards patients and their relatives is of paramount importance for all professionals in palliative care. 'Core attitude' describes the way in which a person perceives himself and the world, and forms the basis for his actions and thoughts. The aim of this study is to explore what core attitude means for palliative care professionals and whether there is a specific core attitude in palliative care. Qualitative study with 10 face-to-face in-depth interviews with experts in palliative care (nurses, physicians, social workers, psychologists, chaplain) in Germany. Core attitude in palliative care can be best described with the following three domains: 1) personal characteristics; 2) experience of care; and 3) competence in care. Authenticity is the most important characteristic of professionals, along with honesty and mindfulness. Core attitude primarily becomes apparent in the relationship with the patient. Perception and listening are key competences. The experts emphasized the universality of the core attitude in the care of ill people. They stressed the importance and relevance of teaching core attitudes in palliative care education. In the field of palliative care, core attitude consists predominately of authenticity, manifests itself in relationships, and requires a high degree of perceptiveness.

  13. Stress Tests and Vulnerability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, A.; Lorenz, P.

    2012-01-01

    After the accident in Fukushima, nuclear safety as topic in anti-nuclear work has gained importance within the Joint Project countries. Therefore, nuclear safety and in particular the activities of the European stress tests were chosen to be the main focus of the Joint Project 2011/2012 as well as the common theme of the national projects. This brochure describes: A) Vulnerability Assessment A critical review of the EU Nuclear Stress Tests in Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania and Ukraine is presented in chapter 1. The review details the main weaknesses identified within the stress tests. Important shortcomings not mentioned in the stress tests reports are also discussed. These evaluations do not claim to be exhaustive, but the findings contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of safety and risk of nuclear power plants in Europe. B) Transparency of the stress tests In chapter 2 the experience of the Joint Project NGOs concerning transparency of the stress tests is presented. The information is not meant to be an evaluation of the transparency of the stress tests in general – such an evaluation is not possible within the scope of this brochure. The evaluation aims to show activities concerning stress tests and how they were conceived by the JP NGOs. Some recommendations for improvement are given. C) Safety focus Within the main topic “nuclear safety” of the Joint Project 2011/2012 the NGOs of each JP country selected a special safety relevant topic, which is/was of particular interest in their country: Bulgaria: The short story of Belene NPP – The victory – Key points of the campaign against the nuclear power plant Romania: Risks of the CANDU reactor design Czech Republic: Results of the conference “Power Plant Load Testing: Safety Inspection or Propaganda?“ Slovakia: Safety deficits of the NPP Mochovce These safety relevant issues are discussed in separate sections within the brochure at hand. (author)

  14. Stress Tests and Vulnerability Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, A. [Austrian Institute of Ecology, Vienna (Austria); Lorenz, P. [ed.; Becker, O. [eds.; Weber, U. [Austrian Institute of Ecology, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-07-01

    After the accident in Fukushima, nuclear safety as topic in anti-nuclear work has gained importance within the Joint Project countries. Therefore, nuclear safety and in particular the activities of the European stress tests were chosen to be the main focus of the Joint Project 2011/2012 as well as the common theme of the national projects. This brochure describes: A) Vulnerability Assessment A critical review of the EU Nuclear Stress Tests in Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania and Ukraine is presented in chapter 1. The review details the main weaknesses identified within the stress tests. Important shortcomings not mentioned in the stress tests reports are also discussed. These evaluations do not claim to be exhaustive, but the findings contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of safety and risk of nuclear power plants in Europe. B) Transparency of the stress tests In chapter 2 the experience of the Joint Project NGOs concerning transparency of the stress tests is presented. The information is not meant to be an evaluation of the transparency of the stress tests in general – such an evaluation is not possible within the scope of this brochure. The evaluation aims to show activities concerning stress tests and how they were conceived by the JP NGOs. Some recommendations for improvement are given. C) Safety focus Within the main topic “nuclear safety” of the Joint Project 2011/2012 the NGOs of each JP country selected a special safety relevant topic, which is/was of particular interest in their country: Bulgaria: The short story of Belene NPP – The victory – Key points of the campaign against the nuclear power plant Romania: Risks of the CANDU reactor design Czech Republic: Results of the conference “Power Plant Load Testing: Safety Inspection or Propaganda?“ Slovakia: Safety deficits of the NPP Mochovce These safety relevant issues are discussed in separate sections within the brochure at hand. (author)

  15. Vulnerability of intertropical littoral areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manighetti, Isabelle; De Wit, Rutger; Duvail, Stéphanie; Seyler, Patrick

    2017-10-01

    The coastal zone is of very high importance for human development and human wellbeing. Half of the global urban population lives in the coastal zone, where it has access to both continental and marine ecosystem services and to maritime transport. These urban populations coexist with rural and traditional coastal populations, some of which still possess good traditional ecological knowledge of the coastal ecosystems. Marine biodiversity and favourable environmental conditions sustain fisheries and aquaculture, represent a source of inspiration for humankind and provide numerous opportunities for recreation and tourism. In addition, coastal areas provide nursery functions for juvenile fish and invertebrates, which is important for the fish and crayfish stocks exploited offshore. Located at the interface between marine energy and continental processes, the coastal landscapes are dynamic environments. Nevertheless, the destruction of habitats and the increasing exploitation of the coastal zone represent serious threats to the ecosystems. Moreover, human land use and modifications in the watersheds have strong impacts on the coastal zone primarily by contributing to their pollution and nutrient over-enrichment. Damming and creation of reservoirs upstream also heavily modify the hydrology of the watersheds and often dramatically reduce the delivery of sediments to the coastal zone. In addition to these regional and local anthropogenic impacts, the coastal zone is vulnerable to global change among which sea level rise and climate change are particularly important drivers. Many coastal zones extend along giant faults and subduction zones, which makes them particularly exposed to earthquakes and tsunami hazards. Other forms of natural hazards are caused by hurricanes and cyclones that develop at sea and whose trajectories often hit the coastlines.

  16. Groundwater vulnerability mapping of Qatar aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baalousha, Husam Musa

    2016-12-01

    Qatar is one of the most arid countries in the world with limited water resources. With little rainfall and no surface water, groundwater is the only natural source of fresh water in the country. Whilst the country relies mainly on desalination of seawater to secure water supply, groundwater has extensively been used for irrigation over the last three decades, which caused adverse environmental impact. Vulnerability assessment is a widely used tool for groundwater protection and land-use management. Aquifers in Qatar are carbonate with lots of fractures, depressions and cavities. Karst aquifers are generally more vulnerable to contamination than other aquifers as any anthropogenic-sourced contaminant, especially above a highly fractured zone, can infiltrate quickly into the aquifer and spread over a wide area. The vulnerability assessment method presented in this study is based on two approaches: DRASTIC and EPIK, within the framework of Geographical Information System (GIS). Results of this study show that DRASTIC vulnerability method suits Qatar hydrogeological settings more than EPIK. The produced vulnerability map using DRASTIC shows coastal and karst areas have the highest vulnerability class. The southern part of the country is located in the low vulnerability class due to occurrence of shale formation within aquifer media, which averts downward movement of contaminants.

  17. Vulnerability, Health Agency and Capability to Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straehle, Christine

    2016-01-01

    One of the defining features of the capability approach (CA) to health, as developed in Venkatapuram's book Health Justice, is its aim to enable individual health agency. Furthermore, the CA to health hopes to provide a strong guideline for assessing the health-enabling content of social and political conditions. In this article, I employ the recent literature on the liberal concept of vulnerability to assess the CA. I distinguish two kinds of vulnerability. Considering circumstantial vulnerability, I argue that liberal accounts of vulnerability concerned with individual autonomy, align with the CA to health. Individuals should, as far as possible, be able to make health-enabling decisions about their lives, and their capability to do so should certainly not be hindered by public policy. The CA to health and a vulnerability-based analysis then work alongside to define moral responsibilities and designate those who hold them. Both approaches demand social policy to address circumstances that hinder individuals from taking health-enabling decisions. A background condition of vulnerability, on the other hand, even though it hampers the capability for health, does not warrant the strong moral claim proposed by the CA to health to define health as a meta-capability that should guide social policy. Nothing in our designing social policy could change the challenge to health agency when we deal with background conditions of vulnerability. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A measure of vulnerability and damage tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Niels C.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present probabilistic definitions of 'vulnerability' and 'damage tolerance'. A new measure of damage is also proposed. Disastrous failures, such as of the Titanic or the Chernobyl reactor, have revealed that some systems can be highly vulnerable. A seemingly insignificant damage can reduce such a system's resistance severely. Attempts to write design code requirements for damage tolerance or structural integrity have not been successful so far. One reason is that these ideas have not been defined with the necessary precision. The suggested definitions aim to be general, applicable to all engineered systems, and readily specializable to particular system types. Vulnerability is defined as the ratio of the failure probability of the damaged system to the failure probability of the undamaged system. It is argued that 'vulnerability' and 'damage tolerance' are complementary concepts. Damage tolerance is defined as the reciprocal of vulnerability. Vulnerability and damage tolerance both concern hypothetical future damage. A damage factor, applicable for the analysis of an existing structure in an assessed state of damage, is defined analogous to vulnerability. Application is illustrated by examples

  19. Pengaruh Perceived Quality dan Perceived Value terhadap Purchase Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Saputri, Stella Meiliana; Kurniawati

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh perceived quality dan perceived valueterhadap purchase intention. Data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah dataprimer.Data dikumpulkan langsung melalui penyebaran kuisioner kepada 160responden.Teknik pengambilan sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah dengan menggunakanpurposive sampling.Uji instrumen data menggunakan validitas dan reliabilitas.Uji hipotesismenggunakan Structure Equation Model (SEM).Hasil pengujian hipotesa menunjukkanterda...

  20. Perceived Threat and Perceived Neglect: Couples' Underlying Concerns during Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The Couples Underlying Concern Inventory assesses 2 fundamental types of distress that couples experience during interpersonal conflict. "Perceived threat" involves a perception that one's partner is blaming and controlling the self. "Perceived neglect" involves a perception that one's partner is failing to make desired contributions or…