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Sample records for attitudes perceived vulnerability

  1. Perceived Vulnerability to Disease Predicts Environmental Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Kubiatko, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Investigating predictors of environmental attitudes may bring valuable benefits in terms of improving public awareness about biodiversity degradation and increased pro-environmental behaviour. Here we used an evolutionary approach to study environmental attitudes based on disease-threat model. We hypothesized that people vulnerable to diseases may…

  2. Condom attitudes, perceived vulnerability, and sexual risk behaviors of young Latino male urban street gang members: Implications for HIV prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, RA; Lee, SJ; Stover, GN; Barkley, TW

    2009-01-01

    We examined condom attitudes, perceived vulnerability to HIV, HIV testing experiences, and sexual and substance use risk behaviors of 161 active Latino male gang members, aged 18-26 years old, living in Los Angeles, California. Gang members reported negative condom attitudes and a perceived vulnerability to HIV. The majority (53%) of gang members reported unprotected vaginal intercourse (UVI) in the previous 12 months. Multivariate analyses indicated that participants who engaged in the follo...

  3. Self-esteem, political efficacy, and perceived parental attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Okçu, Tuba Nur; Okcu, Tuba Nur

    2007-01-01

    This thesis proposes to test the following three hypotheses: perceived political efficacy positively correlates with self-esteem; self-esteem positively correlates with perceived democratic parental attitude; and, lastly, self-esteem negatively correlates with perceived protective-demanding and perceived authoritarian parental attitudes. Two questionnaires (Q1 and Q2), each measure perceived political efficacy, selfesteem,and perceived parental attitudes. In Q2, the items of self-esteem and p...

  4. Perceived organizational support and attitudes toward organizational change : the moderating role of perceived supervisor support

    OpenAIRE

    Nordli, Jo Andreas; Blom, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Research on organizational change has identified the crucial role of the employees in whether or not a change initiative is successful. Due to the calling for more research on antecedents to change attitudes, the purpose of this study was to investigate perceived organizational support as an antecedent to attitudes toward organizational change, and whether such a relationship would be moderated by perceived supervisor support. The results from two cross-sectional surveys among 258 employees i...

  5. Self-perceived origins of attitudes toward homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Jason D; Kersey, Megan; Kimberly, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Undergraduate students (N = 417) at a large southern university responded to open-ended questions designed to assess self-perceived origins of attitudes toward homosexuality and circumstances that may prompt a shift in attitudes. Inductively coded responses pointed to a positive correlation between attitudes toward homosexuality and experience interacting with gay men or lesbians; this is discussed in the context of Allport's (1954 ) contact hypothesis and Herek's (1984 , 1986 ) theory of functional attitudes. Implications are discussed for education and intervention efforts aimed at facilitating understanding and tolerance of gay men and lesbians.

  6. Perceived Vulnerability to Heart Disease in Patients with Familial Hypercholesterolemia: A Qualitative Interview Study

    OpenAIRE

    Frich, Jan C; Ose, Leiv; Malterud, Kirsti; Fugelli, Per

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE Knowledge about the ways patients perceive their vulnerability to disease is important for communication with patients about risk and preventive health measures. This interview study aimed to explore how patients with a diagnosis of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia understand and perceive their vulnerability to coronary heart disease.

  7. Parental overprotection and its relation to perceived child vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1997-04-01

    A study of 280 parents with a child age 5-10 years examined the relation between and correlates of parental overprotection (less education, younger child age, being an only child) and parental perception of increased child vulnerability (history of life-threatening illness, child medical condition, first child). One-third of parents who considered their child vulnerable were also considered overprotective. PMID:9142367

  8. Perceived intergroup threat and attitudes of host community members toward immigrant acculturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florack, Arnd; Piontkowski, Ursula; Rohmann, Anette; Balzer, Tanja; Perzig, Steffi

    2003-10-01

    The authors expected the extent to which host community members (a) perceive immigrants as threatening, (b) believe that the immigrants are able to assimilate to the host community (permeability), and (c) consider their presence in the host community as legitimate to predict attitudes towards immigrant acculturation. The authors designed Study 1 to examine attitudes of Germans toward Turkish immigrants. Participants were 227 German white-collar and blue-collar workers. As expected, ethnocentric acculturation attitudes positively correlated with perceived threat and negatively correlated with perceived legitimacy and perceived permeability. However, only perceived threat contributed uniquely to the prediction of the attitudes. In Study 2, the authors applied an experimental manipulation of perceived threat. Before answering attitude questions, participants read magazine articles with a threatening, enriching, or irrelevant content. The manipulation had the predicted impact on the self-reported attitudes toward immigrants. However, the salience of threatening or enriching aspects of the Turkish culture did not affect implicitly measured attitudes. PMID:14609057

  9. Parental stress and perceived vulnerability at 5 and 10 years after pediatric SCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijmoet-Wiersma, C M J; Egeler, R M; Koopman, H M; Bresters, D; Norberg, A L; Grootenhuis, M A

    2010-06-01

    With the aim of assessing parental stress after SCT, 73 parents of children and adolescents who underwent SCT 5 or 10 years ago responded to questionnaires on general distress (General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)), disease-related stress (Pediatric Inventory for Parents-short form (PIP-SF)) and perceptions of child vulnerability (Child Vulnerability Scale (CVS)). General distress scores were comparable with the reference groups, but 40% of the mothers at 5 years after SCT reported increased stress levels as compared with 26% in the community-based reference group. Disease-related stress was comparable with the reference group of parents of children who were just off cancer treatment, 5 years after SCT. At 10 years after SCT, scores were lower than the reference group. Perceived child vulnerability did diminish over time, but remained high in parents of SCT survivors, compared with parents of healthy children: 96% of the parents at 5 years after SCT and 76% of the parents at 10 years after SCT scored above the cutoff point. Perceived vulnerability was found to be a predictor for parental disease-related stress. To conclude, although most parents of SCT survivors are resilient, the majority of parents perceive their child to be much more vulnerable as compared with parents of healthy children. This perception is associated with disease-related stress and may induce overprotective parenting. PMID:19881554

  10. Differences in health care utilization between parents who perceive their child as vulnerable versus overprotective parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1996-06-01

    While a parental perception of child vulnerability to illness/injury is often used interchangeably with parental overprotection, research suggests that they are independent constructs. We hypothesized more frequent pediatric nonwell-child visits for perceived child vulnerability, but not for parental overprotection. The parents of 300 children, ages 2-5 years, enrolled in a health maintenance organization, were sampled. For children without medical conditions, there were no differences in nonwell-child care visits between the high perceived vulnerability and high parental protection groups (Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test, WRST, P = .31). As expected, high parental protection was not significantly associated with increased nonwell-child care visits compared with the low parental protection group (WRST, P = .14). These findings suggest that markers other than health care utilization are required to identify these forms of parent-child relationship disorders. PMID:8782954

  11. A Prospective Study of Return to Work Across Health Conditions : Perceived Work Attitude, Self-efficacy and Perceived Social Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Sandra; Reneman, Michiel F.; Bultmann, Ute; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to conduct subgroup-analyses in a prospective cohort of workers on long-term sickness absence to investigate whether associations between perceived work attitude, self-efficacy and perceived social support and time to RTW differ across different health con

  12. Perceived Quality and Attitude Toward Tea & Coffee by Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Islam Md. Monirul; Jang Hui Han, PhD.

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to determine the consumers’ perception and attitude toward Tea and Coffee. Total 100 South Korean consumers participated as respondents in this study. Fishbien’s Multi-attribute attitude model and t-test were used to measure hypothesis and compare attitude toward Tea and Coffee. Findings indicate that consumer attitudes toward Coffee and Tea differed significantly among consumers in Korea. Consumers had an overall more positive attitude towards Coffee compare...

  13. Relationships among Perceived Computer Literacy Skills, Computer Attitudes, and Computer Self-Efficacy Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Akarsu, Bayram; Akbıyık, Cenk

    2013-01-01

    Relationships among perceived computer literacy skills, computer attitudes, and computer self-efficacy levels of teacher candidates were investigated in this study. The research was conducted as a quantitative case study with125 teacher candidates enrolled in various disciplines. The data was collected by various tools such as computer usage questionnaire, computer attitude scale, and computer self-efficacy scale. According to the findings teacher candidates perceive themselves as moderately ...

  14. Perceived realism moderates the relation between sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes in Dutch adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Doornwaard, Suzan M; Rommes, Els; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined whether the development of sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes would be more strongly interrelated when adolescents perceived sexualized media images as highly realistic. We used data from a three-wave longitudinal sample of 444 Dutch adolescents aged 13-16 years at baseline. Results from parallel process latent growth modeling multigroup analyses showed that higher initial levels of sexualized media consumption were associated with higher initial level of permissive sexual attitudes. Moreover, increases of sexualized media consumption over time were associated with increases of permissive sexual attitudes over time. Considering the moderation by perceived realism, we found these effects only for those who perceived sexualized media as more realistic. Findings for male and female adolescents were similar except for the relations between initial levels and subsequent development. Among male adolescents who perceived sexualized media images to be realistic, higher initial levels of permissive sexual attitudes were related to subsequent less rapid development of sexualized media consumption. For male adolescents who perceived sexualized media to be less realistic, higher initial levels of sexualized media consumption were related to a subsequent less rapid development of permissive sexual attitudes. These relations were not found for female adolescents. Overall, our results suggest that, in male and female adolescents, those with a high level of perceived realism showed a correlated development of sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes. These findings point to a need for extended information on how to guide adolescents in interpreting and handling sexualized media in everyday life.

  15. Parental Communication and Perceived Parental Attitudes about Sexuality among Turkish College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2012-01-01

    This current study was conducted to examine parental communication and perceived parental attitudes about sexuality with respect to gender among Turkish college students. Moreover, attitudes toward premarital sexuality with respect to gender were explored. A demographic data form, premarital sexual permissiveness scale, parental communication…

  16. Perceived Neighborhood Social Disorder and Residents' Attitudes toward Reporting Child Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Enrique; Herrero, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to explore the relationship between perceived neighborhood social disorder and attitudes toward reporting child physical abuse. Method: Data from a national probabilistic sample (N = 9,759) were used. Responses about the perception of neighborhood social disorder, perceived frequency of child physical abuse in Spanish…

  17. Perceived Neighborhood Social Disorder and Attitudes toward Reporting Domestic Violence against Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Enrique; Herrero, Juan

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to explore the relationship between perceived neighborhood social disorder and attitudes toward reporting domestic violence against women. Data from a national representative sample (N = 14,994) of Spaniards 18 years old and older were used. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that perceived neighborhood social…

  18. Stereotype Threat Vulnerability: A Psychometric Investigation of the Social Identities and Attitudes Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Leann V.; Cokley, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the psychometric properties of the Social Identities and Attitudes Scale developed by Picho and Brown, which captures an individual's vulnerability to Stereotype Threat effects. Confirmatory factor analyses and group invariance tests conducted on a diverse sample of 516 college students revealed adequate reliability and…

  19. The role of social support in students' perceived abilities and attitudes toward math and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Lindsay; Barth, Joan M; Guadagno, Rosanna E; Smith, Gabrielle P A; McCallum, Debra M

    2013-07-01

    Social cognitive models examining academic and career outcomes emphasize constructs such as attitude, interest, and self-efficacy as key factors affecting students' pursuit of STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) courses and careers. The current research examines another under-researched component of social cognitive models: social support, and the relationship between this component and attitude and self-efficacy in math and science. A large cross-sectional design was used gathering data from 1,552 participants in four adolescent school settings from 5th grade to early college (41 % female, 80 % white). Students completed measures of perceived social support from parents, teachers and friends as well as their perceived ability and attitudes toward math and science. Fifth grade and college students reported higher levels of support from teachers and friends when compared to students at other grade levels. In addition, students who perceived greater social support for math and science from parents, teachers, and friends reported better attitudes and had higher perceptions of their abilities in math and science. Lastly, structural equation modeling revealed that social support had both a direct effect on math and science perceived abilities and an indirect effect mediated through math and science attitudes. Findings suggest that students who perceive greater social support for math and science from parents, teachers, and friends have more positive attitudes toward math and science and a higher sense of their own competence in these subjects.

  20. Perceived neighborhood social disorder and attitudes toward domestic violence against women among Latin-American immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asur Fuente

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we explore the relationship between perceived neighbourhood social disorder (perceived crime and insecurity in residential areas and attitudes toward domestic violence against women in Latin-American population in Spain (N =350. Perceived severity of incidents of domestic violence, its acceptability, victim-blaming attitudes and knowing victims of domestic violence are analyzed among immigrant population. Results show that the perception of neighbourhood social disorder is associated with a lower perceived severity of incidents of domestic violence, with greater acceptability of violence, and higher degree of victim-blaming. Also, those residents of disorder neighbourhoods also know more victims of domestic violence. These results suggest the social characteristics in residential areas, such as disorder and deprivation, configure an impoverished social context that might favour attitudes that condone domestic violence against women.

  1. How children with facial differences are perceived by non-affected children and adolescents: perceiver effects on stereotypical attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masnari, Ornella; Schiestl, Clemens; Weibel, Lisa; Wuttke, Franziska; Landolt, Markus A

    2013-09-01

    Children with a facial difference are presumed to be at risk of social stigmatization. The purposes of this study were twofold: (1) to assess the effect of facial differences on social perceptions by unaffected children and adolescents; and (2) to identify perceiver characteristics that predict stereotypical attitudes toward facial differences. Participants were 344 non-affected children and adolescents, ages 8-17 years. Participants rated digitally altered images of 12 children depicted either with or without a facial difference. Results show that participants attributed less favorable characteristics to children with a facial difference than to those without. Moreover, participants reported less willingness to interact with or befriend a child with a facial difference. Significant predictors of low discriminative attitudes were older participant age and previous contact with someone with a facial difference. Our data call attention to the need for public education programs targeted at reducing negative attitudes toward facial differences.

  2. Importance of perceived similarity in improving children's attitudes toward mentally retarded peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siperstein, G N; Chatillon, A C

    1982-03-01

    Effects of perceived similarity on fifth- and sixth-grade children's attitudes toward mentally retarded peers were examined. Children were selected from schools that contained segregated classes of retarded pupils (exposed setting) and schools that had no retarded pupils enrolled (nonexposed). Attitudes were defined in terms of children's affective feelings and behavioral intentions. Results showed that children responded more positively toward a retarded target who was depicted as similar to them than toward one who was not. Unexpectedly, the positive effects of perceived similarity were observed only among children in the exposed schools. Also, girls were more positive toward a female target than boys were to a male target, regardless of whether the target was perceived as similar. The importance of developing strategies based on theories of interpersonal attraction to improve children's attitudes toward their retarded peers was discussed.

  3. Investigating the Influence of Perceived Value on Users' Attitudes toward Internet Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Kaffashpour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the influence of perceived value on users’ attitudes, considering the role of gender. The statistical population of this study includes master and Ph.D. students of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Using Cochran formula and classified random sampling, a sample of 252 people has been selected from the population. Data collection tools include standard questionnaire of Docoffe (1996 and Zhang and Wung (2005 whose validity and consistency were confirmed. Collected data has been analyzed by Smart PLS software. Findings imply that perceived value of users on entertainment and awareness as two prevalent strategies in web advertisements are positively and significantly correlated with the attitudes toward internet advertisement. Also, it has been found that gender has a moderating influence on the relationship between perceived value of awareness and entertainment and attitude.

  4. Investigating the Influence of Perceived Value on Users\\' Attitudes toward Internet Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    azar kaffashpur

    2011-12-01

    This paper aims to investigate the influence of perceived value on users’ attitudes, considering the role of gender. The statistical population of this study includes master and Ph.D. students of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Using Cochran formula and classified random sampling, a sample of 252 people has been selected from the population. Data collection tools include standard questionnaire of Docoffe (1996 and Zhang and Wung (2005 whose validity and consistency were confirmed. Collected data has been analyzed by Smart PLS software. Findings imply that perceived value of users on entertainment and awareness as two prevalent strategies in web advertisements are positively and significantly correlated with the attitudes toward internet advertisement. Also, it has been found that gender has a moderating influence on the relationship between perceived value of awareness and entertainment and attitude.

  5. Importance of perceived similarity in improving children's attitudes toward mentally retarded peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siperstein, G N; Chatillon, A C

    1982-03-01

    Effects of perceived similarity on fifth- and sixth-grade children's attitudes toward mentally retarded peers were examined. Children were selected from schools that contained segregated classes of retarded pupils (exposed setting) and schools that had no retarded pupils enrolled (nonexposed). Attitudes were defined in terms of children's affective feelings and behavioral intentions. Results showed that children responded more positively toward a retarded target who was depicted as similar to them than toward one who was not. Unexpectedly, the positive effects of perceived similarity were observed only among children in the exposed schools. Also, girls were more positive toward a female target than boys were to a male target, regardless of whether the target was perceived as similar. The importance of developing strategies based on theories of interpersonal attraction to improve children's attitudes toward their retarded peers was discussed. PMID:7124799

  6. Graduating BSW student attitudes towards vulnerable populations and their preferences towards interventions to serve them

    OpenAIRE

    Tim G. Reutebuch

    2006-01-01

    A one-time cross-sectional survey was administered to 78 fourth-year social work students at the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater campus during the2000 /2001 academic year to explore graduating seniors’ attitudes towards poverty, delinquency and the elderly as well as students’ preferred interventions towards these vulnerable populations in the United States. Additional survey items included student perceptions towards individually-oriented versus socially-oriented goals of the social work ...

  7. Trust, Perceived Risk, and Attitudes Toward Food Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eiser, J.R.; Miles, S.; Frewer, L.J.

    2002-01-01

    There is substantial empirical evidence that both trust and risk perceptions influence public acceptance of new technologies. We reanalyzed 3 studies (on food technology) to compare whether (a) both trust and perceived risk are independently and directly associated with acceptance, or (b) the relati

  8. Employee Perceived Training Effectiveness Relationship to Employee Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahinidis, Alexandros G.; Bouris, John

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between perceived employee training effectiveness and job satisfaction, motivation and commitment. Design/methodology/approach: The study examined the responses of 134 employees and lower managers, of five large Greek organizations, after they had completed a training program.…

  9. Perceived Quality and Attitude Toward Tea & Coffee by Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Md. Monirul

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to determine the consumers’ perception and attitude towardTea and Coffee. Total 100 South Korean consumers participated as respondents in this study.Fishbien’s Multi-attribute attitude model and t-test were used to measure hypothesis and compareattitude toward Tea and Coffee. Findings indicate that consumer attitudes toward Coffee and Teadiffered significantly among consumers in Korea. Consumers had an overall more positiveattitude towards Coffee compared with Tea with regards to availability, different flavor, andenvironment of shop attributes. In contrast, mean value and t-value indicate that there were nosignificant differences in aspects of freshness, habitual facts, and status, but correlation valueindicate that there were some differences with regards to freshness and status. Findings of thisstudy are only related to the consumers from South Korea, study period was September 2010 toJanuary 2012, and maybe it is not generalized to other nationalities or countries. The researchhints that the Tea Company should give attention to its marketing strategy on enhancing theattributes of “different flavor”, “availability” and "good environment of shop". This study fills a gapin the literature on coffee and tea in business research.

  10. Physical Attrativeness, Perceived Attitude Similarity, and Academic Achievement as Contributors to Interpersonal Attraction among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavior, Norman N.; Dokecki, Paul R.

    1973-01-01

    Fifth- and eleventh-grade males and females who knew each other ( knowers'') judged classmates' photographs on physical attractiveness, perceived attitude similarity, and interpersonal attraction. Nonknowers'' (male and female classmates in different schools in the same grades) judged the same photographs on physical attractiveness. (Editor)

  11. Perceived social norms, expectations, and attitudes toward corporal punishment among an urban community sample of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine A; Hamvas, Lauren; Rice, Janet; Newman, Denise L; DeJong, William

    2011-04-01

    Despite the fact that corporal punishment (CP) is a significant risk factor for increased aggression in children, child physical abuse victimization, and other poor outcomes, approval of CP remains high in the United States. Having a positive attitude toward CP use is a strong and malleable predictor of CP use and, therefore, is an important potential target for reducing use of CP. The Theory of Planned Behavior suggests that parents' perceived injunctive and descriptive social norms and expectations regarding CP use might be linked with CP attitudes and behavior. A random-digit-dial telephone survey of parents from an urban community sample (n = 500) was conducted. Perceived social norms were the strongest predictors of having positive attitudes toward CP, as follows: (1) perceived approval of CP by professionals (β = 0.30), (2) perceived descriptive norms of CP use (β = 0.22), and (3) perceived approval of CP by family and friends (β = 0.19); also, both positive (β = 0.13) and negative (β = -0.13) expected outcomes for CP use were strong predictors of these attitudes. Targeted efforts are needed to both assess and shift the attitudes and practices of professionals who influence parents regarding CP use; universal efforts, such as public education campaigns, are needed to educate parents and the general public about the high risk/benefit ratio for using CP and the effectiveness of non-physical forms of child discipline. PMID:21336503

  12. Consumer Perceived Risk, Attitude and Online Shopping Behaviour; Empirical Evidence from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sylvester, Michele; Zakuan, Norhayati; Ismail, Khalid; Mat Ali, Kamarudin

    2014-06-01

    The development of e-commerce has increased the popularity of online shopping worldwide. In Malaysia, it was reported that online shopping market size was RM1.8 billion in 2013 and it is estimated to reach RM5 billion by 2015. However, online shopping was rated 11th out of 15 purposes of using internet in 2012. Consumers' perceived risks of online shopping becomes a hot topic to research as it will directly influence users' attitude towards online purchasing, and their attitude will have significant impact to the online purchasing behaviour. The conceptualization of consumers' perceived risk, attitude and online shopping behaviour of this study provides empirical evidence in the study of consumer online behaviour. Four types of risks - product risk, financial, convenience and non-delivery risks - were examined in term of their effect on consumers' online attitude. A web-based survey was employed, and a total of 300 online shoppers of a Malaysia largest online marketplace participated in this study. The findings indicated that product risk, financial and non-delivery risks are hazardous and negatively affect the attitude of online shoppers. Convenience risk was found to have positive effect on consumers' attitude, denoting that online buyers of this site trusted the online seller and they encountered less troublesome with the site. It also implies that consumers did not really concern on non-convenience aspect of online shopping, such as handling of returned products and examine the quality of products featured in the online seller website. The online buyers' attitude was significantly and positively affects their online purchasing behaviour. The findings provide useful model for measuring and managing consumers' perceived risk in internet-based transaction to increase their involvement in online shopping and to reduce their cognitive dissonance in the e-commerce setting.

  13. Attitude and Impact of Perceived Depression in the Workplace

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    Yuan-Pang Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Information concerning the occurrence and consequences of depression in the workplace is scarce. This study estimates how workers perceive depression, to investigate depression-related disabilities, and management of depression in the workplace. This investigation is based on a cross-sectional web-based survey of 1,000 workers recruited from online sources. The participants were Brazilian workers, aged 16–64 years, current workers and managers, or who have worked within the past year. Subjects answered a 13-item questionnaire about depression, its related consequences in the workplace, and available resources to handle depression. Common symptoms attributable to depression were crying, loss of interest, and sadness. Almost one in five participants reported having ever been labeled by a doctor/medical professional as suffering from depression. However, the majority of ever-depressed workers (73.5% remained working. Performance-related impairments were reported by around 60% of depressed workers who continued working. Over half of them also complained about cognitive symptoms (concentration difficulties, indecisiveness, forgetfulness. One in three workers had taken off work due to depression (mean 65.7 out-of-role days, with these periods being lengthier for men than women. Managers underestimated the number of days out-of-role (29.5 days. The findings suggested that identification and management of symptoms of depression should be set as a priority in worker’s health care.

  14. [Attitude and perceived control of the elderly towards the consumption of anxiolytic, sedative and hypnotic medications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guindon, Marilyn; Cappeliez, Philippe

    2011-03-01

    This study examines the importance of variables from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (i.e., attitudes toward behaviour, subjective norms, and perceived control) for the prediction of consumption of anxiolytic and sedative-hypnotic (ASH) medications in a sample of older persons, aged 69 years on average, 62 consumers and 92 non-consumers. A favourable attitude toward ASH and a sense of having less control regarding these drugs predict both current usage and intention to continue. Perceived control predicts intention to start consumption of ASH in current non-consumers. This study underlines the importance of considering the role of the older person's decisional power in the consumption of these medications. PMID:21470438

  15. Implicit racial attitudes influence perceived emotional intensity on other-race faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiandong; Chen, Guowei; Wang, Zhaoquan; Hu, Chao S; Hu, Xiaoqing; Fu, Genyue

    2014-01-01

    An ability to accurately perceive and evaluate out-group members' emotions plays a critical role in intergroup interactions. Here we showed that Chinese participants' implicit attitudes toward White people bias their perception and judgment of emotional intensity of White people's facial expressions such as anger, fear and sadness. We found that Chinese participants held pro-Chinese/anti-White implicit biases that were assessed in an evaluative implicit association test (IAT). Moreover, their implicit biases positively predicted the perceived intensity of White people's angry, fearful and sad facial expressions but not for happy expressions. This study demonstrates that implicit racial attitudes can influence perception and judgment of a range of emotional expressions. Implications for intergroup interactions were discussed. PMID:25153836

  16. Implicit racial attitudes influence perceived emotional intensity on other-race faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiandong Wang

    Full Text Available An ability to accurately perceive and evaluate out-group members' emotions plays a critical role in intergroup interactions. Here we showed that Chinese participants' implicit attitudes toward White people bias their perception and judgment of emotional intensity of White people's facial expressions such as anger, fear and sadness. We found that Chinese participants held pro-Chinese/anti-White implicit biases that were assessed in an evaluative implicit association test (IAT. Moreover, their implicit biases positively predicted the perceived intensity of White people's angry, fearful and sad facial expressions but not for happy expressions. This study demonstrates that implicit racial attitudes can influence perception and judgment of a range of emotional expressions. Implications for intergroup interactions were discussed.

  17. Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiac Preventive Care: Nurses’ Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceived Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Sit, Janet W. H.; Chow, Meyrick C.M.; Fung Hung; Lok Tim Li; Oi Sze Cheng; Shiu Keung Lai

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), a clustering of specific risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, is considered a growing worldwide epidemic. Effective cardiac preventive care requires nurses to know about the risk factors, assessment components and management of MetSyn. This study aimed to examine the metabolic syndrome knowledge level of registered nurses and explore their attitudes and perceived barriers towards related cardiac preventive care. Three hundred and twenty four nurs...

  18. Attitudes, norms and perceived behavioural control: explaining fertility intentions in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Billari, Francesco C.; Philipov, Dimiter; Testa, Maria Rita

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In this article, we study fertility decision-making through timing parity-progression intentions. The theoretical framework builds on Ajzen?s social-psychological ?Theory of Planned Behavior?: intentions are seen as directly dependent on three components: attitudes, norms and perceived behavioural control. We study the case of Bulgaria, a ?lowest-low? fertility country. In 2002, a sample survey containing a specially designed module was conducted. This module included an i...

  19. Perceived Social Norms, Expectations, and Attitudes toward Corporal Punishment among an Urban Community Sample of Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Catherine A; Hamvas, Lauren; Rice, Janet; Newman, Denise L.; DeJONG, WILLIAM

    2011-01-01

    Despite the fact that corporal punishment (CP) is a significant risk factor for increased aggression in children, child physical abuse victimization, and other poor outcomes, approval of CP remains high in the United States. Having a positive attitude toward CP use is a strong and malleable predictor of CP use and, therefore, is an important potential target for reducing use of CP. The Theory of Planned Behavior suggests that parents’ perceived injunctive and descriptive social norms and expe...

  20. Does perceived social support and parental attitude relate to alexithymia? A study in Finnish late adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karukivi, Max; Joukamaa, Matti; Hautala, Lea; Kaleva, Olli; Haapasalo-Pesu, Kirsi-Maria; Liuksila, Pirjo-Riitta; Saarijärvi, Simo

    2011-05-15

    The aim of the present study was to explore the associations of perceived social support and parental attitude with alexithymia in a Finnish adolescent population sample. Of the initial sample of 935 adolescents, 729 (78%) answered the questionnaire and formed the final sample. The mean age of the subjects was 19 years (range 17-21 years). The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) was used for assessment of alexithymia. Perceived social support from family, friends, and significant other people was measured using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Perceived parental care and overprotection were assessed using the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and separately for mother and father. After controlling for the sociodemographic factors, alexithymia was significantly associated with a lower degree of experienced social support and higher parental overprotection both in females and males. Maternal overprotection was associated (poverprotective parental attitudes as a possible risk factor for development of alexithymia. However, to assess causality, we need longitudinal studies. The results also emphasize the need for further studies to establish the significance of peer relationships in the development of alexithymia. PMID:21185086

  1. Personal and Perceived Peer Use of and Attitudes Toward Alcohol Among University and College Students in Seven EU Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAlaney, J.; Helmer, S. M.; Stock, C.;

    2015-01-01

    be delivered using personalized online feedback. This article reports baseline alcohol use and attitudes data for university students across Europe collected as part of the Social Norms Intervention for the prevention of Polydrug usE project (Project SNIPE). Method: Students from universities in Belgium...... agreed to participate. Results: Overall, respondents reported both perceived alcohol use and perceived acceptance of alcohol use among their peers that were higher than their own use or acceptance. Perceived peers' behaviors and attitudes were found to be predictive of personal behaviors and attitudes...... that the perceived norm is predictive of personal behavior and attitudes, this research provides support to the view that the social norms approach may be a viable method to reduce alcohol consumption among students at European universities....

  2. Attitudes toward noise, perceived hearing symptoms, and reported use of hearing protection among college students: Influence of youth culture

    OpenAIRE

    Jo Anne G. Balanay; Kearney, Gregory D

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the attitude toward noise, perceived hearing symptoms, noisy activities that were participated in, and factors associated with hearing protection use among college students. A 44-item online survey was completed by 2,151 college students (aged 17 years and above) to assess the attitudes toward noise, perceived hearing symptoms related to noise exposure, and use of hearing protection around noisy activities. Among the participants, 39.6% experienced at l...

  3. Parents' perceived vulnerability and perceived control in preventing Meningococcal C infection: a large-scale interview study about vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    van der Wal Gerrit; Hirasing Remy A; Henneman Lidewij; Timmermans Danielle RM

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Parents' reported ambivalence toward large-scale vaccination programs for childhood diseases may be related to their perception of the risks of side-effects or safety of vaccination and the risk of contracting the disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate parents' perceptions of their child's risk contracting a Meningococcal C infection and parents' perceived control in preventing infection in relation to their evaluation of the safety, effectiveness and usefulness of ...

  4. Ethnic Identity and Its Relationship to Self-Esteem, Perceived Efficacy and Prosocial Attitudes in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emilie Phillips; Walker, Katrina; Fields, Laurie; Brookins, Craig C.; Seay, Robert C.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the relationship of ethnic identity to self-esteem, perceived self-efficacy, and prosocial attitudes in early adolescents (N=100) from different ethnic backgrounds. Self-esteem and ethnic identity factors emerged as related and provided evidence of efficacy-mediated effects on prosocial attitudes. (Author/MKA)

  5. Influence of Workers¡¯ Attitude towards Time and Work on Perceived Job Performance in Private and Public Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin O. Omolayo; Adedayo A. Oluwafemi

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to find out the influence of workers¡¯ attitude towards time and work on perceived job performance in private and public sectors. One hundred and eighty (180) workers drawn from five (5) different organizations, three (3) from private sector and two (2) from public sector in Ado-Ekiti and Ibadan metropolis were used as samples. Three instruments were used namely Time Attitude Scale (TAS) to measure the attitude of workers toward time; Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnai...

  6. Graduating BSW student attitudes towards vulnerable populations and their preferences towards interventions to serve them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim G. Reutebuch

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A one-time cross-sectional survey was administered to 78 fourth-year social work students at the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater campus during the2000 /2001 academic year to explore graduating seniors’ attitudes towards poverty, delinquency and the elderly as well as students’ preferred interventions towards these vulnerable populations in the United States. Additional survey items included student perceptions towards individually-oriented versus socially-oriented goals of the social work profession, preferences regarding place of employment, and types of services, interventions and practices preferred. After calculating mean scores, ANOVA tests revealed statistically significant findings in student ideologies and practice preferences. The potential impact of these findings on social work education and practice will be discussed.

  7. Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiac Preventive Care: Nurses’ Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceived Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet W.H. Sit

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetSyn, a clustering of specific risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, is considered a growing worldwide epidemic. Effective cardiac preventive care requires nurses to know about the risk factors, assessment components and management of MetSyn. This study aimed to examine the metabolic syndrome knowledge level of registered nurses and explore their attitudes and perceived barriers towards related cardiac preventive care. Three hundred and twenty four nurses completed the questionnaires. Findings suggested that while nurses possessed an understanding of MetSyn risk factors and management goals, knowledge on its diagnostic components and therapeutic lifestyle intervention was insufficient. Nurses’ positive attitudes towards their role in providing MetSyn related cardiac preventive care were revealed. However, nurses generally felt that the major barrier to fulfilling this intended role is their inadequate knowledge.

  8. The relationship between knowledge of hiv, self-perceived vulnerability and sexual risk behavior among community clinic workers in chile

    OpenAIRE

    Cabieses, Baltica; Ferrer, Lilian; Villarroel, Luis; Tunstall, Helena; Norr, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Objective Testing the hypothesis of an association between knowledge and sexual risk behaviour (SRB) amongst community-clinic workers in Chile, explained by the confounding effect of self-perceived vulnerability to HIV. Methods A cross-sectional survey was analyzed; it was nested within a quasiexperimental study of 720 community-clinic workers in Santiago. The SRB score combined the number of sexual partners and condom use (coded as “high”/”low” SRB). Knowledge of HIV (a 25-item index) was co...

  9. Relationship between knowledge of hiv, self-perceived vulnerability and sexual risk behaviours among community clinic workers in chile

    OpenAIRE

    Cabieses Valdes, Baltica; Ferrer Lagunas, Lilian; Villarroel del Pino, Luis; Tunstall, Helena; Norr, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis of an association between knowledge and sexual risk behaviours (SRB) among community-clinic workers in Chile, explained by the confounding effect of self-perceived vulnerability to HIV. Methods: Analysis of a cross-sectional survey, nested within a quasi-experimental study of 720 community-clinic workers in Santiago. The SRB score combined number of sexual partners and condom use, coded as “high”/“low” SRB. The Knowledge of HIV, a 25-item index, was coded as ...

  10. Vulnerable Women’s Self-Care Needs in Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Concerning Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimohammadi, Nasrollah; Baghersad, Zahra; Boroumandfar, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vulnerable women are prone to sexually transmitted diseases (STD) due to their special conditions and poor knowledge about these diseases in the society. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the vulnerable women’s self-care needs in knowledge, attitude and practice concerning STD. Methods: This is a cross-sectional-descriptive study conducted in 2014. The data collection was carried out using a self-administered structured questionnaire. 120 vulnerable women referring to centers affiliated to health and well-being center in Isfahan participated in this study. They were selected through proportional rationing sampling and filled out a researcher developed questionnaire containing information on personal characteristics, self-care knowledge, attitude, and practice needs toward the STD. The data were analyzed using statistical methods including Spearman & Pearson correlation co-efficient, independent t-test and ANOVA. All analyses were carried out using SPSS, 20. Results: Based on the results, most of the subjects mentioned that their priorities of self-care needs in domains of knowledge, attitude and practice were “familiarization with the types and contamination ways of sexually transmitted diseases” (57.9%); “diagnosis of STD only makes us anxious” (24.8), and “the method of washing the genital area before and after intercourse” 41.3%), respectively. There was a significant association among marital status, education, history of addiction, and self-care needs in domains of knowledge, attitude and practice (Peducational programs should be designed and administrated by the experts, based on vulnerable women’s self-care needs concerning their knowledge, attitude and practice to prevent and control STD in vulnerable individuals.

  11. Vulnerable Populations Perceive Their Health as at Risk from Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Akerlof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is already taking a toll on human health, a toll that is likely to increase in coming decades. The relationship between risk perceptions and vulnerability to climate change’s health threats has received little attention, even though an understanding of the dynamics of adaptation among particularly susceptible populations is becoming increasingly important. We demonstrate that some people whose health will suffer the greatest harms from climate change—due to social vulnerability, health susceptibility, and exposure to hazards—already feel they are at risk. In a 2013 survey we measured Maryland residents’ climate beliefs, health risk perceptions, and household social vulnerability characteristics, including medical conditions (n = 2126. We paired survey responses with secondary data sources for residence in a floodplain and/or urban heat island to predict perceptions of personal and household climate health risk. General health risk perceptions, political ideology, and climate beliefs are the strongest predictors. Yet, people in households with the following characteristics also see themselves at higher risk: members with one or more medical conditions or disabilities; low income; racial/ethnic minorities; and residence in a floodplain. In light of these results, climate health communication among vulnerable populations should emphasize protective actions instead of risk messages.

  12. Vulnerable Populations Perceive Their Health as at Risk from Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, Karen L; Delamater, Paul L; Boules, Caroline R; Upperman, Crystal R; Mitchell, Clifford S

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is already taking a toll on human health, a toll that is likely to increase in coming decades. The relationship between risk perceptions and vulnerability to climate change's health threats has received little attention, even though an understanding of the dynamics of adaptation among particularly susceptible populations is becoming increasingly important. We demonstrate that some people whose health will suffer the greatest harms from climate change-due to social vulnerability, health susceptibility, and exposure to hazards-already feel they are at risk. In a 2013 survey we measured Maryland residents' climate beliefs, health risk perceptions, and household social vulnerability characteristics, including medical conditions (n = 2126). We paired survey responses with secondary data sources for residence in a floodplain and/or urban heat island to predict perceptions of personal and household climate health risk. General health risk perceptions, political ideology, and climate beliefs are the strongest predictors. Yet, people in households with the following characteristics also see themselves at higher risk: members with one or more medical conditions or disabilities; low income; racial/ethnic minorities; and residence in a floodplain. In light of these results, climate health communication among vulnerable populations should emphasize protective actions instead of risk messages. PMID:26690184

  13. Validation of the knowledge, attitude and perceived practice of asthma instrument among community pharmacists using Rasch analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Waqas; Hussein, Maryam S E; Ahmad, Sohail; Mamat, Mohd N; Ismail, Nahlah E

    2015-10-01

    There is no instrument which collectively assesses the knowledge, attitude and perceived practice of asthma among community pharmacists. Therefore, this study aimed to validate the instrument which measured the knowledge, attitude and perceived practice of asthma among community pharmacists by producing empirical evidence of validity and reliability of the items using Rasch model (Bond & Fox software®) for dichotomous and polytomous data. This baseline study recruited 33 community pharmacists from Penang, Malaysia. The results showed that all PTMEA Corr were in positive values, where an item was able to distinguish between the ability of respondents. Based on the MNSQ infit and outfit range (0.60-1.40), out of 55 items, 2 items from the instrument were suggested to be removed. The findings indicated that the instrument fitted with Rasch measurement model and showed the acceptable reliability values of 0.88 and 0.83 and 0.79 for knowledge, attitude and perceived practice respectively.

  14. The contribution of perceived parental and familial characteristics to attitudes toward accompanied driving among young drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit

    2011-09-01

    One of the main requirements of the graduated driving licensing system in Israel is that new drivers be accompanied by an experienced driver (usually one of their parents) for the first three months after receipt of their license. The current series of studies examined the associations between young drivers' attitudes toward accompanied driving (ATAD) and their perception of their parents' driving styles and parenting modes, as well as dynamic of their family. Young drivers completed questionnaires assessing their ATAD, and either perceived parental driving style (Study 1, n=100), perceived parenting style (Study 2, n=120), or perceived family dynamic (Study 3, n=254). The results indicated significant associations between the young drivers' ATAD of tension, relatedness, avoidance, disapproval, and anxiety, and their own perceptions of the characteristic driving styles of their parents (risky, anxious, angry, and careful). They also indicated significant relationship between youngsters' ATAD and their perceptions of their parents' parenting modes (responsive, demanding, and autonomy-granting). Finally, the results indicated significant negative associations between ATAD of tension, avoidance, disapproval, and anxiety, and family cohesion and adaptability, and a positive association between these two and relatedness. The results are discussed in respect to the relationship between the parental model and the young drivers' ATAD in particular, and risk management in general, and practical implications of these results are offered. PMID:21658499

  15. No matter of etiology: biogenetic, psychosocial and vulnerability-stress causal explanations fail to improve attitudes towards schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlier, Björn; Schmick, Sylvia; Lincoln, Tania Marie

    2014-03-30

    Many anti-stigma campaigns emphasize biogenetic causes to convey that schizophrenia is an "illness like others". A growing body of studies shows that although biogenetic explanations reduce blame, they tend to reinforce prognostic pessimism and harsher treatment of people with schizophrenia. In contrast, psychosocial explanations attenuate prognostic pessimism and perceived otherness, but seem less suitable to reduce blame. We hypothesized that a vulnerability-stress model that combines biogenetic and psychosocial explanations would yield clearer stigma-reducing effects than the mono-causal models. In an online-experiment, 416 participants from the general population randomly received either a vulnerability-stress, biogenetic, psychosocial or control-intervention, which consisted of information text and video presentation of a case-example. Causal beliefs, stereotypes and desired social distance were assessed by self-report. Baseline causal beliefs were weakly associated with stereotypes. The vulnerability-stress intervention did not reduce stigma more effectively than the biogenetic or psychosocial intervention and was less effective in reducing perceived blame than the biogenetic intervention. Compared to the control-intervention, no intervention showed significant stigma-reducing effects, but the psychosocial and vulnerability-stress conditions both increased blame. We found no evidence for vulnerability-stress explanations as a mean to reduce stigma. We propose further research to identify more effective ways to tackle stigma.

  16. Exploring Pre-Service Teachers' Perceived Teaching-Efficacy, Attitudes and Concerns about Inclusive Education in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, M. Tariq; Sharma, Umesh; Deppeler, Joanne M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on pre-service teachers' preparedness for inclusive education in Bangladesh through measuring their perceived teaching-efficacy, concerns and attitudes towards inclusive education and identifying predictor variables that contribute to those three variables. Using two standardized scales with 1,623 pre-service teachers from 16…

  17. Attitudes to Technology, Perceived Computer Self-Efficacy and Computer Anxiety as Predictors of Computer Supported Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Vehbi; Yesilyurt, Etem

    2013-01-01

    There is a large body of research regarding computer supported education, perceptions of computer self-efficacy, computer anxiety and the technological attitudes of teachers and teacher candidates. However, no study has been conducted on the correlation between and effect of computer supported education, perceived computer self-efficacy, computer…

  18. Attitudes and perceived barriers of tertiary level health professionals towards incident reporting in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Raees Malik

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: A limited framework of incident reporting exists in most of the health care system in Pakistan. This poses a risk to the patient population and therefore there is a need to find the causes behind the lack of such a system in healthcare settings in Pakistan. Aims: To determine the attitudes and perceived barriers towards incident reporting among tertiary care health professionals in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: The study was done in Shifa International Hospitals and consisted of a questionnaire given to 217 randomly selected doctors and nurses. Mean ± SD of continuous variables and frequency (percentage % of categorical variables are presented. Chi square statistical analysis was used to test the significance of association among doctors and nurses with various outcome variables (motivators to report, perceived barriers, preferred person to report and patient’s outcome that influence reporting behaviors. P value of <0.05 was considered significant. Student doctors and student nurses were not included in the study. Results: Unlike consultant, registrars, medical officers and nurses (more than 95% are willing to report, only 20% of house officers will report the incident happened through them. Sixty nine percent of doctors and 67% of nurses perceive ‘administration sanction’ as a common barrier to incident reporting. Sixty percent of doctors and 80% of nurses would prefer reporting to the head of the department. Conclusions: By giving immunity from administrative sanction, providing prompt feedback and assurance that the incident reporting will be used to make changes in the system, there is considerable willingness of doctors and nurses to take time out of their busy schedules to submit reports.

  19. Impact of an Oral Health Education Workshop on Parents’ Oral Health Knowledge, Attitude, and Perceived Behavioral Control among African Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Amin; Pawan Nyachhyon; Maryam Elyasi; Muhammed Al-Nuaimi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the impact of an educational workshop on parental knowledge, attitude, and perceived behavioral control regarding their child’s oral health. Materials and Methods. A one-time oral health education workshop including audio/visual and hands-on components was conducted by a trained dentist and bilingual community workers in community locations. Participants were African parents of children who had lived in Canada for less than ten years. The impact of the workshop was evalua...

  20. Nursing Practice, Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceived Barriers to Evidence-Based Practice at an Academic Medical Center

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Caroline E.; Wickline, Mary; Ecoff, Laurie; Glaser, Dale

    2009-01-01

    Aim. This paper is a report of a study describing nurses‘ practices, knowledge, and attitudes related to evidence-based nursing, and the relation of perceived barriers to and facilitators of evidence-based practice. Background. Evidence-based practice has been recognized by the healthcare community as the gold standard for the provision of safe and compassionate healthcare. Barriers and facilitators for the adoption of evidence-based practice in nursing have been identified by resear...

  1. Impact of an Oral Health Education Workshop on Parents’ Oral Health Knowledge, Attitude, and Perceived Behavioral Control among African Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Amin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the impact of an educational workshop on parental knowledge, attitude, and perceived behavioral control regarding their child’s oral health. Materials and Methods. A one-time oral health education workshop including audio/visual and hands-on components was conducted by a trained dentist and bilingual community workers in community locations. Participants were African parents of children who had lived in Canada for less than ten years. The impact of the workshop was evaluated by a questionnaire developed based on the theory of planned behavior. Results. A total of 105 parents participated in this study. Participants were mainly mothers (mean age 35.03±5.4 years who came to Canada as refugee (77.1% and had below high school education (70%. Paired t-test showed a significant difference in participants’ knowledge of caries, preventive measures, and benefits of regular dental visits after the workshop (P value<0.05. A significant improvement was also found in parental attitudes toward preventive measures and their perceived behavioral control (P<0.05. Parents’ intention to take their child to a dentist within six months significantly altered after the workshop (P value<0.05. Conclusions. A one-time hands-on training was effective in improving parental knowledge, attitude, perceived behavioral control, and intention with respect to their child’s oral health and preventive dental visits in African immigrants.

  2. Does a Well-Informed Employee Have a More Positive Attitude Toward Change? The Mediating Role of Psychological Contract Fulfillment, Trust, and Perceived Need for Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den Sjoerd; Schalk, René; Assen, Marcel A.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the mediating role of psychological contract fulfillment, trust, and perceived need for change in the relationship between change information and employee attitude toward organizational change. As one of the first studies inorganizational change research, attitude toward change w

  3. Does a well-informed employee have a more positive attitude toward change? : The mediating role of psychological contract fulfillment, trust, and perceived need for change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, S.R.H.; Schalk, R.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the mediating role of psychological contract fulfillment, trust, and perceived need for change in the relationship between change information and employee attitude toward organizational change. As one of the first studies in organizational change research, attitude toward change

  4. Does a Well-Informed Employee Have a More Positive Attitude Toward Change? The Mediating Role of Psychological Contract Fulfillment, Trust, and Perceived Need for Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Sjoerd; Schalk, René; van Assen, Marcel A L M

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the mediating role of psychological contract fulfillment, trust, and perceived need for change in the relationship between change information and employee attitude toward organizational change. As one of the first studies in organizational change research, attitude toward change

  5. Explicit Rap Music Lyrics and Attitudes toward Rape: The Perceived Effects on African American College Students' Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Bruce H.; Thomas-Gunnar, Cynthia A.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the effects of rap music on the attitudes and behaviors of students in historically black colleges. Interviews with 38 females indicate that they find explicit lyrics inappropriate and harmful to society, but they feel that rap music accurately represents some of the realities of gender relations between black males and females. (SLD)

  6. Self-perceived Age and Attitudes Toward Marketing of Older Consumers in China

    OpenAIRE

    Ying, Bin; Yao, Rui

    2010-01-01

    Understanding consumer psychological characteristics and their impact on consumer behavior is an important foundation for business marketing strategies. Self-perceived age has a great impact on older consumers’ behavior. This article defines the gray market in China, investigates the factors that affect the differences between older consumers’ self-perceived age and life age, and analyzes the influence of self-perceived age on older Chinese consumers’ behavior. In this study, 1,120 older cons...

  7. Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion, Perceived Adequacy of Support and Classroom Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsen, Jeremy J.; Ewing, Donna L.; Kwoka, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Inclusive education has become a cornerstone of many government policies in an increasing number of countries, yet teachers have been found to hold mixed attitudes towards its implementation and usefulness. This article, using English terminology and thinking, aims to extend previous research on the effect of teacher attitudes towards inclusion in…

  8. Male Perpetration of Teen Dating Violence: Associations with Neighborhood Violence Involvement, Gender Attitudes, and Perceived Peer and Neighborhood Norms

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Elizabeth; Silverman, Jay G.; RAJ, Anita; Decker, Michele R.; Miller, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to examine the link between male perpetration of teen dating violence (TDV) and neighborhood violence, as well as associations with gender attitudes and perceived peer and neighborhood norms related to violence among a sample of urban adolescent boys. Participants of this cross-sectional study (N = 275) were between the ages of 14 and 20 years and recruited from urban community health centers. Crude and adjusted logistic and linear regression models were used to examine TDV pe...

  9. Self-perceived Age and Attitudes Toward Marketing of Older Consumers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Bin; Yao, Rui

    2010-09-01

    Understanding consumer psychological characteristics and their impact on consumer behavior is an important foundation for business marketing strategies. Self-perceived age has a great impact on older consumers' behavior. This article defines the gray market in China, investigates the factors that affect the differences between older consumers' self-perceived age and life age, and analyzes the influence of self-perceived age on older Chinese consumers' behavior. In this study, 1,120 older consumers were randomly selected from six cities in China. Findings show that over half of the respondents feel younger than their actual life age. Related marketing strategies are discussed.

  10. The Multimedia Expanse: Students' perceived learning outcome from, and attitudes toward, multimodal and traditional lectures

    OpenAIRE

    Skaar, Øystein Olav

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine students' attitudes toward multimodal presentations (AtMP) and traditional lectures (AtTL). A literature review of current research on this topic suggests that students generally have more positive attitudes toward the former rather than the latter, but few of these studies has a focal point on different study programmes and students within hard and soft sciences. Similarly, media literacy and technology ambivalence is seldom seen in relation with stud...

  11. Caregivers' Attitude towards People with Mental Illness and Perceived Stigma: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Tertiary Hospital in Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipika Neupane

    Full Text Available Mental illness is stigmatized in most of the communities and people with such illness are often subjected to defame. Stigma impairs an individual's and their caregiver's physical, social and emotional wellbeing, and health-seeking behavior. Sufficient literature on how often the caregivers of people with mental illness from low and middle-income countries are stigmatized and how they perceive people with mental illness is unavailable. In this study, we examined caregivers' attitude towards people with mental illness and perceived stigma.We conducted face-to-face interviews with 170 caregivers in an outpatient clinic of a hospital in Nepal using a structured questionnaire. We calculated median and inter-quartile range of the attitude and perceived stigma scores. To assess the correlates, Kruskal Wallis H test and Mann Whitney U test were carried out.Overall median score for the domains: attitude (score range: 18-90 and perceived stigma (score range: 12-60 were 42 and 28 respectively, inter-quartile range being 8 each. Attitude score differed significantly by the sex of caregiver (p<0.05, educational status of caregiver (p<0.001, sex of patient (p<0.05 and type of mental illness (p<0.05. Perceived stigma score varied significantly by caregiver's sex (p<0.05, marital status (p<0.001, educational status (p<0.001, occupation (p<0.05, relation with the patient (p<0.005 and use of alternative treatment modalities (p<0.05.Sex of participant, educational status, sex of patient and type of mental illness were the correlates of attitude towards mental illness. Similarly, sex of participant, marital status, educational status, occupation, caregiver's relation with patient and use of alternative treatment modalities were correlates of perceived stigma. Findings of this study suggest that interventions targeting these high-risk populations might be beneficial to help build a positive attitude and overcome the perceived social stigma.

  12. Chocolate cake. Guilt or celebration? Associations with healthy eating attitudes, perceived behavioural control, intentions and weight-loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijer, Roeline G; Boyce, Jessica A

    2014-03-01

    Food and eating are often associated with ambivalent feelings: pleasure and enjoyment, but also worry and guilt. Guilt has the potential to motivate behaviour change, but may also lead to feelings of helplessness and loss of control. This study firstly examined whether a default association of either 'guilt' or 'celebration' with a prototypical forbidden food item (chocolate cake) was related to differences in attitudes, perceived behavioural control, and intentions in relation to healthy eating, and secondly whether the default association was related to weight change over an 18month period (and short term weight-loss in a subsample of participants with a weight-loss goal). This study did not find any evidence for adaptive or motivational properties of guilt. Participants associating chocolate cake with guilt did not report more positive attitudes or stronger intentions to eat healthy than did those associating chocolate cake with celebration. Instead, they reported lower levels of perceived behavioural control over eating and were less successful at maintaining their weight over an 18month period. Participants with a weight-loss goal who associated chocolate cake with guilt were less successful at losing weight over a 3month period compared to those associating chocolate cake with celebration.

  13. Individual attitudes and perceived social norms: Reports on HIV/AIDS-related stigma among service providers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Wu, Zunyou; Lin, Chunqing; Wen, Yi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined HIV/AIDS-related stigma among Chinese service providers by comparing their personal attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS with their perception of social norms related to people living with HIV/AIDS. We randomly selected three provincial hospitals, four city/prefecture hospitals, 10 county hospitals, 18 township health clinics, and 54 village clinics from Yunnan, China. Doctors and nurses were randomly sampled proportionally to the doctor-nurse ratio of each hospital or clinic. Lab technicians were over-sampled in order to include an adequate representation in the analysis. A total of 1,101 service providers participated in a voluntary, anonymous survey where demographic characteristics, individual attitude and perceived social norms toward people living with HIV/AIDS, discrimination intent at work, general prejudicial attitude and knowledge on HIV/AIDS were measured. A majority of the sample demonstrated a similarity between their personal views and what they thought most people in society believe. Multiple logistic regressions revealed that participants who were younger or reported personal contact with people living with HIV/AIDS were significantly more likely to report personal attitudes toward the population that were more liberal than their perceived social norms. Holding a more liberal personal attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS than perceived social norms was significantly and negatively related to the level of discrimination intent at work, perceived discrimination at interpersonal level and the level of general prejudicial attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Results underscored the importance of understanding social norms and personal attitudes in studying HIV-related stigma and called for the incorporation of existing human capital into future HIV stigma reduction programs. Cette étude a examiné le VIH/SIDA lié à stigmatisation parmi les agences chinoises fournissant des soins en comparant leurs attitudes

  14. Male perpetration of teen dating violence: associations with neighborhood violence involvement, gender attitudes, and perceived peer and neighborhood norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R; Miller, Elizabeth

    2011-04-01

    This study aims to examine the link between male perpetration of teen dating violence (TDV) and neighborhood violence, as well as associations with gender attitudes and perceived peer and neighborhood norms related to violence among a sample of urban adolescent boys. Participants of this cross-sectional study (N = 275) were between the ages of 14 and 20 years and recruited from urban community health centers. Crude and adjusted logistic and linear regression models were used to examine TDV perpetration in relation to (a) neighborhood violence involvement, (b) perceptions of peer violence, (c) perceptions of neighborhood violence, and (d) gender attitudes. Slightly more than one in four (28%) boys reported at least one form of TDV perpetration; among boys who have ever had sex, almost half (45%) reported at least one form of TDV perpetration. In logistic and linear regression models adjusted for demographics, boys who reported TDV perpetration were more likely to report involvement in neighborhood violence (odds ratio (OR) = 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.7-5.5), beliefs that their friends have perpetrated TDV (OR = 2.7; 95%CI = 1.4-5.1), perceptions of violent activity within their neighborhood (OR = 3.0; 95%CI = 1.4-6.3), and greater support of traditional gender norms (β = 3.2, p = 0.002). The findings suggest that efforts are needed to address boys' behaviors related to the perpetration of multiple forms of violence and require explicit efforts to reduce perceived norms of violence perpetration as well as problematic gender attitudes (e.g., increasing support for gender equity) across boys' life contexts. PMID:21311987

  15. Attitudes toward noise, perceived hearing symptoms, and reported use of hearing protection among college students: Influence of youth culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanay, Jo Anne G; Kearney, Gregory D

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the attitude toward noise, perceived hearing symptoms, noisy activities that were participated in, and factors associated with hearing protection use among college students. A 44-item online survey was completed by 2,151 college students (aged 17 years and above) to assess the attitudes toward noise, perceived hearing symptoms related to noise exposure, and use of hearing protection around noisy activities. Among the participants, 39.6% experienced at least one hearing symptom, with ear pain as the most frequently reported (22.5%). About 80% of the participants were involved in at least one noise activity, out of which 41% reported the use of hearing protection. A large majority of those with ear pain, hearing loss, permanent tinnitus, and noise sensitivity was involved in attending a sporting event, which was the most reported noisy activity. The highest reported hearing protection use was in the use of firearms, and the lowest in discos/ dances. The reported use of hearing protection is associated with having at least one hearing symptom but the relationship is stronger with tinnitus, hearing loss, and ear pain (χ² = 30.5-43.5, P< 0.01) as compared to noise sensitivity (χ² = 3.8, P= 0.03); it is also associated with anti-noise attitudes, particularly in youth social events. Universities and colleges have important roles in protecting young adults' hearing by integrating hearing conservation topic in the college curriculum, promoting hearing health by student health services, involving student groups in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) awareness and prevention, and establishing noise level limitations for all on-campus events.

  16. Evidence-based practice in radiology: Knowledge, attitude and perceived barriers to practice among residents in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: We examinted the attitude, knowledge and perceived barriers to evidence-based practice of radiology (EBPR) among residents in radiology. Study design and setting: We used the McColl questionnaire (1) and the BARRIERS scale (2) to assess the issues among radiology trainees attending an annual refresher course. Ninety six residents from 32 medical colleges from Southern India attended the course. Results: Eighty (83.3%) residents, 55 male and 25 female of age range 24–34 years, consented and returned the questionnaire. The majority of the participants had a positive attitude towards EBPR. However, 45% were unaware of sources for evidence based literature although many had access to Medline (45%) and the internet (80%). The majority (70%) were aware of the common technical terms (e.g. odds ratio, absolute and relative risk) but other complex details (e.g. meta-analysis, clinical effectiveness, confidence interval, publication bias and number needed to treat) were poorly understood. Though majority of residents (59%) were currently following guidelines and protocols laid by colleagues within their departments, 70% of residents were interested in learning the skills of EBPR and were willing to appraise primary literature or systematic reviews by themselves. Insufficient time on the job to implement new ideas (70.1%); relevant literature is not being complied in one place (68.9%); not being able to understand statistical methods (68.5%) were considered to be the major barriers to EBPR. Training in critical appraisal significantly influence usage of bibliographic databases (p < 0.0001). Attitude of collegues (p = 0.006) influenced attitude of the trainees towards EBPR. Those with higher knowledge scores (p = 0.02) and a greater awareness of sources for seeking evidence based literature (p = 0.05) held stronger beliefs that EBPR significantly improved patient care. Conclusions: The large knowledge gap related to EBPR suggests the need to incorporate structured

  17. Evidence-based practice in radiology: Knowledge, attitude and perceived barriers to practice among residents in radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anuradha, Chandramohan, E-mail: anuradhachandramohan@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632 004 (India); Jacob, K.S., E-mail: ksjacob@cmcvellore.ac.in [Department of Psychiatry, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632 004 (India); Specialist Mental Health Service for Older People, Suite 106, 64–68 Derby Street, Kingswood, Penrith 2750 (Australia); Shyamkumar, N.K., E-mail: aparnashyam@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632 004 (India); Sridhar, Gibikote, E-mail: gibikote@cmcvellore.ac.in [Department of Radiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632 004 (India)

    2013-05-15

    Aim: We examinted the attitude, knowledge and perceived barriers to evidence-based practice of radiology (EBPR) among residents in radiology. Study design and setting: We used the McColl questionnaire (1) and the BARRIERS scale (2) to assess the issues among radiology trainees attending an annual refresher course. Ninety six residents from 32 medical colleges from Southern India attended the course. Results: Eighty (83.3%) residents, 55 male and 25 female of age range 24–34 years, consented and returned the questionnaire. The majority of the participants had a positive attitude towards EBPR. However, 45% were unaware of sources for evidence based literature although many had access to Medline (45%) and the internet (80%). The majority (70%) were aware of the common technical terms (e.g. odds ratio, absolute and relative risk) but other complex details (e.g. meta-analysis, clinical effectiveness, confidence interval, publication bias and number needed to treat) were poorly understood. Though majority of residents (59%) were currently following guidelines and protocols laid by colleagues within their departments, 70% of residents were interested in learning the skills of EBPR and were willing to appraise primary literature or systematic reviews by themselves. Insufficient time on the job to implement new ideas (70.1%); relevant literature is not being complied in one place (68.9%); not being able to understand statistical methods (68.5%) were considered to be the major barriers to EBPR. Training in critical appraisal significantly influence usage of bibliographic databases (p < 0.0001). Attitude of collegues (p = 0.006) influenced attitude of the trainees towards EBPR. Those with higher knowledge scores (p = 0.02) and a greater awareness of sources for seeking evidence based literature (p = 0.05) held stronger beliefs that EBPR significantly improved patient care. Conclusions: The large knowledge gap related to EBPR suggests the need to incorporate structured

  18. Perceived social support systems’ and depression’s effects on attitudes regarding coping strategies for the disease in patients with epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Unalan, Demet; Soyuer, Ferhan; Basturk, Mustafa; Ersoy, Ali O.; Elmali, Ferhan; OZTURK, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the perceived social support systems’, and depression’s effects on attitudes regarding coping strategies for the disease in patients with epilepsy. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 182 epileptic patients who applied to the Neurology Polyclinics of the Faculty of Medicine at Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey between November 2011 and November 2012. As data collection tools, we used the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Systems, B...

  19. Attitudes and attitude change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    attitude theory. Why is this important? Attitudinal concepts can be found in every area of marketing. Concepts like ad liking, brand attitude, quality perception, product preference, perceived benefit, perceived risk, perceived value, and customer satisfaction can all be understood as particular types...... of attitudes. This is the reason why a thorough understanding of attitudes is one of the most important skills a marketer can have. That same is true in related areas such as communications research: concepts like public opinion, corporate reputation, and corporate image are nothing more than particular types...

  20. Getting Vaccinated against HPV: Attitudes, Intentions and Perceived Barriers of Female Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sloane C.; Vail-Smith, Karen; White, David M.; Baker, Elizabeth; Mitchell, Terri

    2010-01-01

    This study examines college women's intention to receive the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine and their perceived barriers to being vaccinated. The study reports findings from an online questionnaire completed by 856 undergraduate women enrolled in a required personal health course at a large (27,000 plus) southeastern university. The majority…

  1. An Assessment of Perceived Emotional Intelligence and Eating Attitudes among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Michele L.; Jacobs, Sue C.; Page, Kyle S.; Porras, Claudia V.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Disordered eating patterns continue to surface on college campuses. Studies are needed to examine the potential influence of emotional intelligence on disordered eating behavior. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess relationships between perceived emotional intelligence factors and eating disorder symptoms among male and…

  2. Sexual Preference Similarity, Attitude Similarity, and Perceived Counselor Credibility and Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Donald R.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Examined the effect of membership group and attitudinal similarity on perceived counselor credibility and attractiveness. Homosexual men (N=84) rated the counselor's credibility and attractiveness after listening to a recorded counseling interview. The counselor was rated more expert, trustworthy, and attractive when he stated a sexual preference…

  3. Perceived fairness of employee drug testing as a predictor of employee attitudes and job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovsky, M A; Cropanzano, R

    1991-10-01

    Although management of drug testing programs is becoming a critical organizational issue, no systematic conceptual framework has been applied to the study of employee reactions to drug testing. In this study an organizational justice framework was used to explain and predict the relationships among two types of justice (procedural justice and outcome fairness) employee attitudes (job satisfaction, commitment, and management trust), and behavior (turnover intentions and performance). Survey data from 195 employees in a pathology laboratory indicated that justice predicts employee attitudes and performance. Specifically, procedural justice, but not outcome fairness, predicted all 5 criterion variables. These results demonstrate the importance of procedural justice perceptions for predicting employee reactions to drug testing programs. PMID:1960142

  4. Internet adoption in the newsroom: Journalists' use of the Internet explained by attitudes and perceived functions

    OpenAIRE

    Hermans, E.A.H.M.; Vergeer, M.R.M.; Pleijter, A.R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Journalists differ in the degree to which they have adopted the Internet professionally. While earlier studies were predominantly descriptive, this study explains why journalists differ in the amount (time spent on the Internet) and nature (diversity of Internet applications) of their use of the Internet. Based on a random sample of members of the Dutch Association of Journalists, results indicate that the digital divide in terms of demographic characteristics is absent. The perceived functio...

  5. The Effectiveness of Healthy Behavior Training Program in Changing Attitude of Students towards Substance Abuse and Reduction of Addiction Vulnerability Level

    OpenAIRE

    Afsar Khalili S; Zohreh S Chavoshzadeh; Mohammad hasan Radmanesh; Mahdi Mehdi Afkhami A

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was developing the healthy behavior to change the attitude of students in order to decrease their tendency towards substance abuse and Reduction of Addiction Vulnerability Level. Method: This research was carried out by two methods of descriptive-analytic and quasi experimental design. First, 60 students of Shahid Beheshti University were selected randomly (of 2000 students) from the University dormitory. Then, half of the students received the developing ...

  6. Individual attitudes and perceived social norms: Reports on HIV/AIDS-related stigma among service providers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Wu, Zunyou; Lin, Chunqing; Wen, Yi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined HIV/AIDS-related stigma among Chinese service providers by comparing their personal attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS with their perception of social norms related to people living with HIV/AIDS. We randomly selected three provincial hospitals, four city/prefecture hospitals, 10 county hospitals, 18 township health clinics, and 54 village clinics from Yunnan, China. Doctors and nurses were randomly sampled proportionally to the doctor-nurse ratio of each hospital or clinic. Lab technicians were over-sampled in order to include an adequate representation in the analysis. A total of 1,101 service providers participated in a voluntary, anonymous survey where demographic characteristics, individual attitude and perceived social norms toward people living with HIV/AIDS, discrimination intent at work, general prejudicial attitude and knowledge on HIV/AIDS were measured. A majority of the sample demonstrated a similarity between their personal views and what they thought most people in society believe. Multiple logistic regressions revealed that participants who were younger or reported personal contact with people living with HIV/AIDS were significantly more likely to report personal attitudes toward the population that were more liberal than their perceived social norms. Holding a more liberal personal attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS than perceived social norms was significantly and negatively related to the level of discrimination intent at work, perceived discrimination at interpersonal level and the level of general prejudicial attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Results underscored the importance of understanding social norms and personal attitudes in studying HIV-related stigma and called for the incorporation of existing human capital into future HIV stigma reduction programs. Cette étude a examiné le VIH/SIDA lié à stigmatisation parmi les agences chinoises fournissant des soins en comparant leurs attitudes

  7. Perceptions of others' political affiliation are moderated by individual perceivers' own political attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John Paul; Rule, Nicholas O

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that perceivers can accurately extract information about perceptually ambiguous group memberships from facial information alone. For example, people demonstrate above-chance accuracy in categorizing political ideology from faces. Further, they ascribe particular personality traits to faces according to political party (e.g., Republicans are dominant and mature, Democrats are likeable and trustworthy). Here, we report three studies that replicated and extended these effects. In Study 1a, we provide evidence that, in addition to showing accuracy in categorization, politically-conservative participants expressed a bias toward categorizing targets as outgroup members. In Study 1b, we replicate this relationship with a larger sample and a stimulus set consisting of faces of professional politicians. In Study 2, we find that trait ascriptions based on target political affiliation are moderated by perceiver political ideology. Specifically, although Democrats are stereotyped as more likeable and trustworthy, conservative participants rated faces that were categorized as Republicans in Study 1a as more likeable and trustworthy than faces categorized as Democrats. Thus, this paper joins a growing literature showing that it is critical to consider perceiver identity in examining perceptions of identities and traits from faces. PMID:24781819

  8. Perceptions of others' political affiliation are moderated by individual perceivers' own political attitudes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paul Wilson

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that perceivers can accurately extract information about perceptually ambiguous group memberships from facial information alone. For example, people demonstrate above-chance accuracy in categorizing political ideology from faces. Further, they ascribe particular personality traits to faces according to political party (e.g., Republicans are dominant and mature, Democrats are likeable and trustworthy. Here, we report three studies that replicated and extended these effects. In Study 1a, we provide evidence that, in addition to showing accuracy in categorization, politically-conservative participants expressed a bias toward categorizing targets as outgroup members. In Study 1b, we replicate this relationship with a larger sample and a stimulus set consisting of faces of professional politicians. In Study 2, we find that trait ascriptions based on target political affiliation are moderated by perceiver political ideology. Specifically, although Democrats are stereotyped as more likeable and trustworthy, conservative participants rated faces that were categorized as Republicans in Study 1a as more likeable and trustworthy than faces categorized as Democrats. Thus, this paper joins a growing literature showing that it is critical to consider perceiver identity in examining perceptions of identities and traits from faces.

  9. The role of contact and perceived attitudes of surroundings in children’s acceptance of “different” peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maričić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with Croatian fourth grade students (N=691 that were divided into two groups. The characters presented in vignettes had some type of stigmatizing feature (e.g., Roma nationality, wheelchair usage, or being overweight in the experimental group, while these features were left out in the comparison group. The first goal was to examine the impact of each stigmatizing feature on the non-acceptance of the described characters. The second goal was to analyze the relationship between the non-acceptance of the stigmatized character and children’s established contact with people with similar features, as well as the relationship between the afore-mentioned and the perceived attitudes of parents and friends. Roma ethnicity had a significant influence on non-acceptance of the character, while contact was related to an increase in the level of non-acceptance of the Roma character. Negative perceived opinions of friends regarding individuals with stigmatizing features (regardless of the type were related to a lower level of acceptance of that character.

  10. Oral health-related knowledge, attitudes and habits in relation to perceived oral symptoms among 12-year-old school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Kivelä, Johanna; Pienihäkkinen, Kaisu; Lahti, Satu; Merne-Grafström, Marina

    2016-07-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to investigate oral health-related knowledge, attitudes and habits and their relationship to perceived oral symptoms among 12-year-olds and differences between boys and girls. Material and methods The study population consisted of children (n = 588) in 15 randomly selected elementary schools in Turku, Finland. Associations between oral health-related habits, knowledge and attitudes with perceived oral symptoms and gender differences were evaluated with χ(2)-test, Mann-Whitney U-test and logistic regression analysis. Results Oral health promoting habits but not knowledge or attitudes associated significantly with absence of oral symptoms. Girls reported a higher percentage of several health promotional habits than boys. Girls reported more frequently gingival bleeding and less frequently dental calculus than boys did. The most common oral symptom was gingival bleeding. Conclusions The present findings suggest some gender-related differences in oral health habits, attitudes, as well as perceived oral symptoms in 12-year-olds. There seems, however, not to be gender differences in relation to knowledge or the association of health habits with perceived oral symptoms. It is important to maintain health promotion at schools and additional efforts should be aimed at translating knowledge into action. PMID:26881848

  11. An Assessment of the Influence of Perceived Enjoyment and Attitude on the Intention to Use Technology among Pre-Service Teachers: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Timothy; Noyes, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the influence of perceived enjoyment on pre-service teachers' intention to use technology, in addition to re-appraising the role of attitude toward use in the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM; Davis, Bagozzi, & Warshaw, 1989). One hundred and fifty-three participants in Singapore completed a survey questionnaire measuring their…

  12. The impact of an immunization training certificate program on the perceived knowledge, skills and attitudes of pharmacy students toward pharmacy-based immunizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcum ZA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the impact of a national immunization training certificate program on the perceived knowledge, skills and attitudes of pharmacy students toward pharmacy-based immunizations.Methods: The study design utilized a pre- and post-survey administered to pharmacy students before and after the American Pharmacists Association’s (APhA Pharmacy-Based Immunization Delivery program. The primary outcome explored was a change in the perceived knowledge, skills, and attitudes of the pharmacy students. A five-point Likert scale (i.e. strongly agree = 5, strongly disagree = 1 was used for measuring the main outcomes, which was summated by adding the individual item scores in each section to form a composite score for each outcome. Results: The certificate training program resulted in a significant improvement in knowledge (38.5% increase in score, p<0.001 and skills (34.5% increase in score, p<0.001, but not attitudes (1% increase in score, p=0.210.Conclusions: The national immunization training certificate program had a positive impact on the perceived knowledge and skills of pharmacy students. However, no change was observed regarding students’ perceived attitudes toward pharmacy-based immunizations.

  13. Effects That Facebook-Based Online Peer Assessment with Micro-Teaching Videos Can Have on Attitudes toward Peer Assessment and Perceived Learning from Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guan-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects that Facebook-based online peer assessment with micro-teaching videos can have on attitudes toward peer assessment and perceived learning from peer assessment. The study recruited a sample of 31 university students who were enrolled in a teacher-training course. Using assessees' microteaching videos, the…

  14. Protean Career Attitude, Competency Development & Career Success: A Mediating Effect of Perceived Employability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Zafar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Universities built for the purpose of earning profit have sprung up in nearly every nook and cranny of Pakistan. Education has become an industry. Therefore competition is stiff in the university business. The very nature of contract between the employee and employer is changing and organization cannot guarantee the worker lifetime employment through vertical progressions. Instead the employees have to mold themselves into a “protean career attitude” by taking care of his or her employment needs and assure their “employability” by “developing the competencies” in shape of KSAO’s. The present study shows the relationship of various variables like Protean Career Attitude, Competency Development and Employability with success of academicians in their careers. A close-ended questionnaire is built to measure the variables and to test the hypothesis. Punjab is taken as a sample, data Analysis is done through factor analysis, descriptive statistics and hierarchical regression analysis.

  15. Better view on attitudes and perceived parental reactions behind waterpipe smoking among Iranian students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Roohafza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because of the increasing usage of waterpipe globally, we need to know more about the different factors related to waterpipe and cigarette smoking. Therefore, the present study aims at gaining more insight on waterpipe and cigarette smoking based on perceived parental reaction and appeal and repellent of smoking among adolescents. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey entitled "Isfahan Tobacco Use Prevention Program" (ITUPP was conducted among 5,500 adolescents in Isfahan Province, Iran in 2010 using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. Demographic factors, cigarette and waterpipe smoking status, appeal and repellent of smoking, perceived parental reactions, and the main reasons behind the increase in waterpipe smoking were measured. Chi-square, univariate logistic regression, and multiple logistic regression were used. For all analyses, we defined statistical significance a priori with a two-tailed alpha of 0.05. Statistical analyses were conducted using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 15. Results: 50% of the sample was female and 89% lived in urban areas. The average age of the respondents was 14.37 ± 1. 70 years. While a majority of cigarette smokers (70.9% were waterpipe smokers, only 35.7% of waterpipe smokers smoked cigarettes. The incidence of smoking was high in those who expected less extensive parental reaction with odds ratio (OR = 1.89 [95% confidence interval (CI: 1.35-2.63] (P < 0.001 among cigarette smokers and OR = 2.75 (95% CI: 2.16-3.50 (P < 0.001 among waterpipe smokers. "Taste" was rated the most attractive feature by waterpipe and cigarette smokers 2.83-fold (95% CI: 2.06, 3.90 (P < 0.001. Most waterpipe smokers compared to nonsmokers believed that the main reason behind waterpipe popularity was habit. Conclusion: The factors related to waterpipe smoking were different from those in cigarette smoking; so we need to implement different interventions to overcome the

  16. Perceived risks and risk attitudes in southern Russia in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M. [Stockholm School of Economics (Sweden). Center for Risk Research; Rumyantseva, G.M.; Martyvshov, A.N. [The Serbsky Research Institute, Moscow, (Russian Federation)

    1993-10-01

    The present study was conducted within the framework of the Joint Study Project 2 (JSP2), a research project involving the European Community and the Commonwealth of Independent States. The task involved the investigation of public reactions to radioactive contamination due to the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The here presented field-work was designed as a pilot investigation in a series of studies aimed at contributing to the understanding of social and psychological factors relevant to the design of countermeasures in the case of a future nuclear accident. The report presents questionnaire data collected from people living in Novozybkov and its surroundings in Russia, in the summer of 1992. The chosen areas had an overall surface contamination level of 15-40 Ci/km{sup 2}. The results showed that the respondents recalled the date of the accident surprisingly well. They often indicated that they had heard the first news of the accident via TV, radio or rumors. They often reported the content of that information to have been related to an explosion or a fire at a nuclear plant. They indicated that they at the time had a rather modest reaction to the news. Current worries especially concerned health risks due to the radioactive contamination, although the respondents also emphasized that ordinary life was filled with worries. Middle-aged persons and parents often indicated the highest personal worry. Risk ratings related to radiation and radioactive contamination were high. Ratings of perceived change in risk level since the accident of a variety of hazards showed an overall increase. 27 refs, 23 figs, 23 tabs.

  17. Education in mental health promotion and its impact on the participants' attitudes and perceived mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaras Vlassis D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the promotion of mental health (MHP through education and training is widely accepted, there is scarce evidence for its effectiveness in the literature from outcome studies worldwide. The present study aimed to assess the effect of a three-semester MHP educational program on the recipients' opinions towards mental illness and on their own self-assessed health. Methods Respondents were 78 attendees who completed the assessment battery at the first (baseline and the last session (end of the training course. They were primary care physicians or other professionals, or key community agents, working in the greater Athens area. The course consisted of 44 sessions (4 h each, over a 3-semester period, focusing on the principles and methods of mental health promotion, the main aspects of major psychiatric disorders, and on relevant to health skills. Assessment instruments included the Opinion about Mental Illness (OMI scale and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28. Results The mean scores of three OMI factors, that is, social discrimination, social restriction and social integration, and the two GHQ-28 subscales, that is, anxiety/insomnia and social dysfunction, were significantly improved by the end of the training course. Conclusions The results of this study provide evidence, with limitations, for the short-term effectiveness of the implemented educational MHP program on an adult group of recipients-key agents in their community. Because interventions for strengthening positive opinions about mental illness and enhancing self-assessed health constitute priority aims of mental health promotion, it would be beneficial to further investigate the sustainability of the observed positive changes. In addition it would be useful to examine (a the possible interplay between the two outcome measures, that is, the effect of opinions of recipients about mental health on their perceived health, and (b the applicability of this

  18. Perceived risks and risk attitudes in southern Russia in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted within the framework of the Joint Study Project 2 (JSP2), a research project involving the European Community and the Commonwealth of Independent States. The task involved the investigation of public reactions to radioactive contamination due to the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The here presented field-work was designed as a pilot investigation in a series of studies aimed at contributing to the understanding of social and psychological factors relevant to the design of countermeasures in the case of a future nuclear accident. The report presents questionnaire data collected from people living in Novozybkov and its surroundings in Russia, in the summer of 1992. The chosen areas had an overall surface contamination level of 15-40 Ci/km2. The results showed that the respondents recalled the date of the accident surprisingly well. They often indicated that they had heard the first news of the accident via TV, radio or rumors. They often reported the content of that information to have been related to an explosion or a fire at a nuclear plant. They indicated that they at the time had a rather modest reaction to the news. Current worries especially concerned health risks due to the radioactive contamination, although the respondents also emphasized that ordinary life was filled with worries. Middle-aged persons and parents often indicated the highest personal worry. Risk ratings related to radiation and radioactive contamination were high. Ratings of perceived change in risk level since the accident of a variety of hazards showed an overall increase. 27 refs, 23 figs, 23 tabs

  19. Attitudes toward and perceived psychosocial impact of female circumcision as practiced among the Bedouin-Arabs of the Negev.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Krenawi, A; Wiesel-Lev, R

    1999-01-01

    The present pilot study examines attitudes toward and the perceived psychosocial impact of circumcision as practiced among the Bedouin-Arabs of the Negev, Israel. A convenience sample of 24 women participated in the study: 12 who had experienced the ritual, and 12 who had not, but who had witnessed or been told about the practice of the ritual on women in their extended families. Two research instruments were used: a structured questionnaire, and a semi-structured open-ended interview. Data showed differences in subject responses depending on the research tools. The structured questionnaire revealed that women who had experienced the circumcision gave legitimization and cognitive rationalization to it. In contrast, the semi-structured interview revealed that these same subjects reported insult: traumatization, direct negative influences, and narcissistic insult, and described emotional difficulties during the research interviews. The findings indicated that they had difficulties in mother-daughter relationships and trust. Implications of the ritual on the continuity of polygamy and marital/sexual problems are discussed.

  20. First- and higher-order models of attitudes, normative influence, and perceived behavioural control in the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D

    2005-12-01

    The present study examined the validity of an augmented version of Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behaviour (TPB), adopting second-order latent factors to explain relationships between the differentiated components of the theory constructs. This model was tested on data from two independent samples, for exercise and dieting behaviours, respectively. The affective and instrumental attitude, injunctive and descriptive norms, and perceived controllability and self-efficacy constructs all exhibited discriminant validity in the first instance. First- and second-order confirmatory factor analyses exhibited satisfactory fit with the observed data from both samples. There were no substantial differences in the fit indices across the first- and second-order models, and the second-order models exhibited the most optimal parsimony-corrected fit indices. The higher-order models could therefore not be rejected on the grounds of inferior fit or parsimony. First- and second-order structural equation models accounted for significant variance in intentions and behaviour. These results corroborate Ajzen's (2002a) and Bagozzi, Lee, and van Loo's (2001) premise that recent augmentations of the TPB that differentiate the model components can be subsumed by global, higher-order factors while still making the distinction at the subordinate level.

  1. The influence of perceived behaviour control, attitude and empowerment on reported condom use and intention to use condoms among adolescents in rural Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kalolo, Albino; Kibusi, Stephen Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the declining trends of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), unsafe sexual behaviours among adolescents still represent a public health challenge. It is important to understand factors acting at different levels to influence sexual behaviour among adolescents. This study examined the influence of perceived behaviour control, subjective norms, attitudes and empowerment on intention to use condoms and reported use of condoms among adolesce...

  2. Promoting healthy eating standards on children through CSR educational programs: An evaluation of impact on eating preferences, attitude towards the brand and perceived brand reputation

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Miguel Araújo Avelino de Sousa

    2013-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics The purpose of this research is to evaluate the influence of brand sponsored education interventions on children’s eating preferences, attitude towards the brand and perceived brand reputation. An experiment was conducted, involving 122 third grade children who where invited to participate in a fictional brand sponsored nutrition ed...

  3. Assessment of Nurses’ Knowledge, Attitude, and Perceived Barriers to Expressed Pressure Ulcer Prevention Practice in Addis Ababa Government Hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebe Dilie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although pressure ulcer development is now generally considered as an indicator for quality of nursing care, questions and concerns about situations in which they are unavoidable remain. Awareness about the significance of the problem, positive attitude towards prevention, and an adequate level of knowledge are cornerstones to effectively prevent pressure ulcers. Objective. To assess nurses’ knowledge, attitudes, and perceived barriers to expressed pressure ulcer prevention practice in Addis Ababa government hospitals. Methods and Materials. This is a cross-sectional study by design. A total of 217 eligible nurses participated in the study and data were collected through pretested self-administered questionnaire. Results. When queried, 61.2% of the respondents had adequate knowledge on pressure ulcer prevention practices, while 68.4% had favorable attitudes towards prevention practices. Moreover, 67.3% of participants had good pressure ulcer prevention practices. Conclusion and Recommendation. More than half of the nurses were found to have adequate knowledge about pressure ulcer prevention and their attitude towards it was overall favorable. Expressed pressure ulcer prevention practice was affected by the participant’s level of knowledge, attitude, and barriers of care. To provide effective prevention of pressure ulcer, nurses’ level of knowledge and attitude should be enhanced besides resolving these barriers.

  4. Attitudes, Interests, and Perceived Self-efficacy toward Science of Middle School Minority Female Students: Considerations for their Low Achievement and Participation in STEM Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowey, Ana Lucrecia

    The under participation of minority females in STEM fields has been a chronic problem in the United States, mainly when it is analyzed through the lens of their relative representation in the population. The results of the first or quantitative phase, of this two phase sequential, mixed method study, revealed academic achievement or performance in science accounted for most of the variance of mean scores for students' attitudes and interests in science as measured by the TOSRA Likert-scale survey, when compared to the degree of parent education and ethnicity/ racial background. Additionally, this study investigated possible sources of perceived self-efficacy in eighteen seventh grade Hispanic female students by conducting personal semi-structured interviews. The purpose of this study was to explore if middle school female student ethnic/racial backgrounds and academic performance influence their attitudes and interests toward science and to study the possible effects external (family, school, peers, and community) and internal factors may have for Hispanic student self-efficacy toward science. The results revealed that of the five ethnic/racial groups studied, Asian/Filipino female students expressed higher positive attitudes and interests toward science, than the rest of the student ethnic groups studied, followed by the Hispanic student group. The results indicated that students' perceived encouragement from their mothers, regardless of the mother's degree of education, as being the main source of these girls' perceived self-efficacy in science. However, the lack of perceived school-related, peer-related, and community-related support was evident. These results are encouraging because they demonstrate how verbal persuasion, in the form of encouragement and support, fosters perceived self-efficacy for minority female students.

  5. Tendency toward Weight Loss among Iranian Adolescent Girls: Study on Perceived Weight, Ideal Body Mass Index and Attitude toward Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Farid

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Adolescents’ perception of their weight is a strong factor in shaping dietary habits and weight control and management. Among non-overweight and overweight adolescents, both overestimation and underestimation of weight status are associated with harmful effects. This study aimed to examine the relationship between perceived weight and attitude toward eating disorders among adolescent girls living in Karaj, Iran. Materials and Methods Involving a two-stage random sampling, this cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 537 high school girls 14-18 years of age living in Karaj. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 was employed to screen for attitude toward eating disorders. Also, anthropometric measurements (weight and height, perceived and the ideal weights of the participants were assessed.  Results The average age of girls participating in the study was 16.12±1.20. According to the results, 70% of girls had normal body mass index. It was found that the ideal weight of 55% of the girls in the normal body mass index group fell under the lower than normal boundary. Moreover, the prevalence of eating disorders was estimated to be 23.6%. The attitude toward eating disorder was significantly correlated with body mass index of participants and their self-concept (P

  6. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS, attitudes towards sexual risk behaviour and perceived behavioural control among college students in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Faimau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the knowledge of HIV/AIDS, attitudes towards risky sexual behaviour and perceived behavioural control among students in Botswana. Data were collected from 445 students randomly selected from the University of Botswana and Boitekanelo College. Hundred and seventy three males and 272 females participated in the study. The study established that although more than 90% of students correctly identified routes of HIV transmission, misconceptions regarding HIV/AIDS still exist. This includes the belief that people can be infected with HIV because of witchcraft and that only people who have sex with gay or homosexual partners can be infected with HIV. Majority of students were aware of various sexual risks. However, the percentage of students who indicated that “it is difficult to ask my partner to use a condom” was still relatively high (13.5% based on the assumption that students are supposed to know the consequences of sexual risky behaviour. It was also found that male students were 3.48 times more likely to negotiate sex than their female counterparts (OR = 3.48, 95% CI: 1.09 − 11.13 and students who were 18 years and below were more likely to negotiate sex than students above 18 years of age (OR = 2.78, 95% CI: 1.42 − 18.32. Christians are four times less likely to negotiate sex compared to non-Christians (OR = 0.219, 95% CI: 0.095 − 0.506. More than 80% of students were comfortable discussing HIV or sex and sexuality with their friends, boyfriends/girlfriends or partners but uncomfortable discussing the same issues with their parents.

  7. Determinants of risk behaviour: effects of perceived risks and risk attitude on farmer's adoption of risk management strategies

    OpenAIRE

    van Winsen, F.; de Mey, Yann; Lauwers, L.; Van Passel, Steven; Vancauteren, Mark; Wauters, E.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of risk perception and risk attitude for understanding individual’s risk behaviour are independently well described in literature, but rarely combined in an integrated approach. In this study, we propose a model assuming the choice to implement certain risk management strategies to be directly driven by both perceptions of risks and risk attitude. Other determinants influence the intention to apply different risk strategies mainly indirectly, mediated by risk perception and ris...

  8. The impact of CPR and AED training on healthcare professionals' self-perceived attitudes to performing resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Källestedt Marie-Louise

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare professionals have shown concern about performing mouth-to-mouth ventilation due to the risks to themselves with the procedure. However, little is known about healthcare professionals' fears and attitudes to start CPR and the impact of training. Objective To examine whether there were any changes in the attitudes among healthcare professionals to performing CPR from before to after training. Methods Healthcare professionals from two Swedish hospitals were asked to answer a questionnaire before and after training. The questions were relating to physical and mental discomfort and attitudes to CPR. Statistical analysis used was generalized McNemar's test. Results Overall, there was significant improvement in 10 of 11 items, reflecting various aspects of attitudes to CPR. All groups of health care professionals (physicians, nurses, assistant nurses, and "others" = physiotherapists, occupational therapists, social welfare officers, psychologists, biomedical analysts felt more secure in CPR knowledge after education. In other aspects, such as anxiety prior to a possible cardiac arrest, only nurses and assistant nurses improved. The concern about being infected, when performing mouth to mouth ventilation, was reduced with the most marked reduction in physicians (75%; P Conclusion In this hospital-based setting, we found a positive outcome of education and training in CPR concerning healthcare professionals' attitudes to perform CPR. They felt more secure in their knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In some aspects of attitudes to resuscitation nurses and assistant nurses appeared to be the groups that were most markedly influenced. The concern of being infected by a disease was low.

  9. Speech-Language Pathologists' Knowledge of Genetics: Perceived Confidence, Attitudes, Knowledge Acquisition and Practice-Based Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramontana, G. Michael; Blood, Ingrid M.; Blood, Gordon W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine (a) the general knowledge bases demonstrated by school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the area of genetics, (b) the confidence levels of SLPs in providing services to children and their families with genetic disorders/syndromes, (c) the attitudes of SLPs regarding genetics and communication…

  10. Parental communication and perceived parental attitudes about sexuality among Turkish college students / Türk üniversite öğrencileri arasında cinsellikle ilgili konularda anne ve babayla iletişim ve algılanan anne baba tutumları

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursel TOPKAYA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis current study was conducted to examine parental communication and perceived parental attitudes about sexuality with respect to gender among Turkish college students. Moreover, attitudes toward premarital sexuality with respect to gender were explored. A demographic data form, premarital sexual permissiveness scale, parental communication about sexuality scale and parental attitudes about sexuality scale were administered to 366 (217 female and 148 male college students, aged 18 to 26. The results indicated that females held more conservative premarital sexual attitudes than males; females talked to their mothers, while males talked to their fathers more about sexuality issues. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that gender was significant on the perceived maternal attitudes about sexuality, whereas perceived paternal attitudes about sexuality were not found to be significant with respect to gender. Future research is needed to explore variables that may contribute to the differences in parental communication and perceived parental attitudes about sexuality.

  11. The Impact of Students' Perceived Emotional Intelligence, Social Attitudes and Teacher Expectations on Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Morales, M. Isabel; Lopez-Zafra, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to analyze the role that Perceived Emotional Intelligence and social competences have on academic performance. Furthermore, we analyze the role of teacher's expectancies on performance in secondary school students. Method: One hundred ninety three students (50.7% male and 49.3 % female) from the first…

  12. Vulnerable Genders, Vulnerable Loves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleicher, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    This chapter analyses religious reflections on vulnerable genders and vulnerable loves from the Hebrew Bible to early Rabbinic literature. It is based on theories by inter alia Donna Haraway on complex identities, Turner and Maryanski on love as a prerequisite for survival, Michel Foucault...

  13. Individual attitudes and perceived social norms: Reports on HIV/AIDS-related stigma among service providers in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Wu, Zunyou; Lin, Chunqing; Wen, Yi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined HIV/AIDS-related stigma among Chinese service providers by comparing their personal attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS with their perception of social norms related to people living with HIV/AIDS. We randomly selected three provincial hospitals, four city/prefecture hospitals, 10 county hospitals, 18 township health clinics, and 54 village clinics from Yunnan, China. Doctors and nurses were randomly sampled proportionally to the doctor-nurse ratio of each hospita...

  14. The impact of employees‟ personality traits in perceiving leadership styles and organizational attitude in Saudi Banking context

    OpenAIRE

    Almandeel, Seita Mandeel

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores the influence of employees‟ personality types (Neuroticism (N), Openness to Experience (O), Conscientiousness (C), Agreeableness (A) and Extraversion (E)) on leadership styles (Transformational, Transactional and Avoidant) and on employees‟ attitudes to their organisation (Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention) in banks in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The objectives of this thesis are to identify the impact of personality traits on: perceptions of Leadership behaviour, ...

  15. Differences in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and perceived risks regarding colorectal cancer screening among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese sub-groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, T Domi; Carney, Patricia A; Lee-Lin, Frances; Mori, Motomi; Chen, Zunqiu; Leung, Holden; Lau, Christine; Lieberman, David A

    2014-04-01

    Asian ethnic subgroups are often treated as a single demographic group in studies looking at cancer screening and health disparities. To evaluate knowledge and health beliefs associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) and CRC screening among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese subgroups, a survey assessed participants' demographic characteristics, healthcare utilization, knowledge, beliefs, attitudes associated with CRC and CRC screening. Exploratory factor analysis identified six factors accounting >60 % of the total variance in beliefs and attitudes. Cronbach's alpha coefficients assessed internal consistency. Differences among Asian subgroups were assessed using a Chi square, Fisher's exact, or Kruskal-Wallis test. Pearson's correlation coefficient assessed an association among factors. 654 participants enrolled: 238 Chinese, 217 Korean, and 199 Vietnamese. Statistically significant differences existed in demographic and health care provider characteristics, knowledge, and attitude/belief variables regarding CRC. These included knowledge of CRC screening modalities, reluctance to discuss cancer, belief that cancer is preventable by diet and lifestyle, and intention to undergo CRC screening. Chinese subjects were more likely to use Eastern medicine (52 % Chinese, 25 % Korean, 27 % Vietnamese; p Vietnamese; p Vietnamese subjects were less likely to consider CRC screening (95 % Chinese, 95 % Korean, 80 % Vietnamese; p health beliefs among Asian subgroups. Understanding these differences will enable clinicians to deliver tailored, effective health messages to improve CRC screening and other health behaviors.

  16. A comparison of stigmatizing attitudes toward persons with schizophrenia in four stakeholder groups: perceived likelihood of violence and desire for social distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dorn, Richard A; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Elbogen, Eric B; Swartz, Marvin S

    2005-01-01

    This study compared four stakeholder groups regarding the presence of stigmatizing attitudes toward a hypothetical person diagnosed with schizophrenia. Participants included consumers with schizophrenia (n = 104), family members of those with schizophrenia or other severe mental illness (n = 83), mental health clinicians (n = 85), and members of the general public (n = 59); all participants resided in North Carolina. The purpose of the analyses was to investigate whether mental health stakeholder groups differed from the general public and from each other in terms of key attitudes associated with stigmatization of persons with schizophrenia, that is, perceived likelihood of violent behavior, the desire for social distance, and the causes of the illness. Analysis of variance results with follow-up Scheffé tests indicated no statistically significant differences between the mental health stakeholder groups and members of the general public in the likelihood of violence or the desire for social distance. However, there was more variation between both the mental health stakeholder groups and the general public and within the mental health stakeholder groups in the perceptions of the causes of the mental illness. Throughout the analyses, the consumers tended to have the most negative views of the illness. Implications for future stigma research and education are discussed. PMID:16247858

  17. The Moderating Effects of Corporate Image on the Relationship between Perceived Justice Dimensions and Consumer Attitudes and Repurchase Intentions from Online Shopping in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Ghalandari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of perceived justice dimensions on consumer attitude (Satisfaction with the recovery, overall firm satisfaction and trust and repurchase intentions by considering the role of corporate image. Totally, 400 questionnaires were distributed to university students, that 380 questionnaires were used for the final analysis, which the results from analysis of them based on simple linear regression and multiple hierarchical regression show that distributive justice has a positive influence on satisfaction with the recovery and consumers’ trust; Procedural justice has a positive influence on satisfaction with the recovery, overall firm satisfaction and repurchase intentions; Interactional justice has a positive influence on satisfaction with the recovery, consumers’ trust and repurchase intentions; Satisfaction with the recovery has a positive influence on consumers’ trust, overall firm satisfaction and repurchase intentions; Consumers’ trust has a positive influence on repurchase intentions; Overall firm satisfaction has a positive influence on repurchase intentions. The study also showed that corporate image plays a moderating role in the relationship between perceived justice dimensions and overall firm satisfaction, consumers’ trust and repurchase intentions; also corporate image plays a moderating role in the relationship between interactional justice and satisfaction with the recovery. However, the moderating role of corporate image was not found in the relationship between distributive justice, procedural justice and satisfaction with the recovery.

  18. The Relationship Between Perceived Influence Measures and Member Attitudes of (A) Policy Agreement, (B) Superior-Subordiante Relations, and (C) Peer Relations in Selected Community College Departments in Maryland -- A Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Gordon

    An investigation was made of influence in 77 academic departments of 11 community colleges in Maryland. The purposes of the investigation were to examine the relationship of perceived measures of influence to member attitudes of (a) policy agreement, (b) superior-subordinate relations, (c) peer relations; to examine the aslopes of the distribution…

  19. Vulnerable bodies, vulnerable systems

    OpenAIRE

    Philippopoulos-Mihalopoulos, Andreas; Webb, Tom

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we examine the concept of vulnerability as it relates to the materiality of systems, the exclusion of human physical corporeality, and social exclusion in Luhmann’s theory of social autopoiesis. We ask whether a concept of vulnerability can be included in autopoiesis in order to better conceptualise social exclusion and the excluded, with a view to understanding how, if at all, the dangers posed by this exclusion are mitigated by autopoietic processes. We are emphatically not re...

  20. Perceived attitudes and benefits towards teaching evidence based practice among physiotherapy lecturers at tertiary institutions in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Frantz

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Evidence-based practice (EBP is gaining momentum in the physiotherapy profession. The main focus of EBP, however, has been in clinical practiceand in the move towards global EBP, very little attention has been given tothe contents of physiotherapy education programs. There is very limitedinformation regarding the attitudes of health professional lecturers, especially physiotherapists, towards the teaching of evidence based practice.The aim of this study was to determine the attitudes of lecturers and use ofevidence in teaching among physiotherapists at tertiary institutions in South Africa. The study employed a within stage mixed model approach. The study population consisted of all physiotherapy lecturers at the 8 training institutions in South Africa. Out of 76 physiotherapy lecturers at the 8 insti-tutions, the response rate to the questionnaire was 47% (35. Respondents identified that teaching EBP depends on personal experience, current literature, and availability of time, current practice patterns and CPD courses. Barriers toincluding evidence in the content of what is being taught were mainly time constraints, accessibility of journals, work-load and knowledge on how to obtain the evidence. Facilitators to including evidence in subject content were adequateresources and a well equipped library, the environment and departmental support/encouragement. Teaching EBPrequires the integration of factors such as research evidence, clinical expertise and patient values. Although the majority of respondents in the current study demonstrated a positive attitude towards teaching EBP, they reported finding it difficult to implement it in practice due to several identified barriers. It can only be to the benefit of lecturers, studentsand patients if university departments create favourable circumstances for lecturers to facilitate teaching of EBP.

  1. Perceived challenges and attitudes to regimen and product selection from Italian haemophilia treaters: the 2013 AICE survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, M; Coppola, A; Rocino, A; Zanon, E; Morfini, M; Accorsi, Arianna; Aru, Anna Brigida; Biasoli, Chiara; Cantori, Isabella; Castaman, Giancarlo; Cesaro, Simone; Ciabatta, Carlo; De Cristofaro, Raimondo; Delios, Grazia; Di Minno, Giovanni; D'Incà, Marco; Dragani, Alfredo; Ettorre, Cosimo Pietro; Gagliano, Fabio; Gamba, Gabriella; Gandini, Giorgio; Giordano, Paola; Giuffrida, Gaetano; Gresele, Paolo; Latella, Caterina; Luciani, Matteo; Margaglione, Maurizio; Marietta, Marco; Mazzucconi, Maria Gabriella; Messina, Maria; Molinari, Angelo Claudio; Notarangelo, Lucia Dora; Oliovecchio, Emily; Peyvandi, Flora; Piseddu, Gavino; Rossetti, Gina; Rossi, Vincenza; Santagostino, Elena; Schiavoni, Mario; Schinco, Piercarla; Serino, Maria Luisa; Tagliaferri, Annarita; Testa, Sophie

    2014-03-01

    Despite great advances in haemophilia care in the last 20 years, a number of questions on haemophilia therapy remain unanswered. These debated issues primarily involve the choice of the product type (plasma-derived vs. recombinant) for patients with different characteristics: specifically, if they were infected by blood-borne virus infections, and if they bear high or low risk of inhibitor development. In addition, the most appropriate treatment regimen in non-inhibitor and inhibitor patients compel physicians operating at the haemophilia treatment centres (HTCs) to take important therapeutic decisions, which are often based on their personal clinical experience rather than on evidence-based recommendations from published literature data. To know the opinion on the most controversial aspects in haemophilia care of Italian expert physicians, who are responsible for common clinical practice and therapeutic decisions, we have conducted a survey among the Directors of HTCs affiliated to the Italian Association of Haemophilia Centres (AICE). A questionnaire, consisting of 19 questions covering the most important topics related to haemophilia treatment, was sent to the Directors of all 52 Italian HTCs. Forty Directors out of 52 (76.9%) responded, accounting for the large majority of HTCs affiliated to the AICE throughout Italy. The results of this survey provide for the first time a picture of the attitudes towards clotting factor concentrate use and product selection of clinicians working at Italian HTCs. PMID:24533954

  2. A holistic approach to education programs in thalassemia for a multi-ethnic population: consideration of perspectives, attitudes, and perceived needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; George, Elizabeth; Tan, Jin-Ai Mary Anne

    2011-06-01

    Hemoglobin disorders which include thalassemias are the most common heritable disorders. Effective treatment is available, and these disorders can be avoided as identification of carriers is achievable using simple hematological tests. An in-depth understanding of the awareness, attitudes, perceptions, and screening reservations towards thalassemia is necessary, as Malaysia has a multi-ethnic population with different religious beliefs. A total of 13 focus group discussions (70 participants) with members of the general lay public were conducted between November 2008 and January 2009. Lack of knowledge and understanding about thalassemia leads to general confusions over differences between thalassemia carriers and thalassemia major, inheritance patterns, and the physical and psychologically impact of the disorder in affected individuals and their families. Although most of the participants have not been tested for thalassemia, a large majority expressed willingness to be screened. Views on prenatal diagnosis and termination of fetuses with thalassemia major received mixed opinions from participants with different religions and practices. Perceived stigma and discrimination attached to being a carrier emerged as a vital topic in some group discussions where disparity in the answers exhibited differences in levels of participants' literacy and ethnic origins. The two most common needs identified from the discussion were information and screening facilities. Participants' interest in knowing the severity of the disease and assessing their risk of getting the disorder may imply the health belief model as a possible means of predicting thalassemia public screening services. Findings provide valuable insights for the development of more effective educational, screening, and prenatal diagnostic services in the multi-ethnic Asian society.

  3. Vulnerability of the Vulnerability Thesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Frank W.

    1996-01-01

    Reexamines Callahan's book, "Education and the Cult of Efficiency" (1962), and his vulnerability thesis regarding school superintendents, discussing recommendations it made and highlighting public education in the 1990s. Callahan's recommendations were well-received but not well-heeded, and the vulnerability thesis did not provide the stimulus for…

  4. 大学生心理求助态度与领悟社会支持的关系%Attitude towards seeking professional psychological help and perceived social support in college students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑾; 刘新民; 穆露露; 刘培培; 何佩佩

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解大学生专业心理求助态度的特点及与领悟社会支持的关系,为大学生心理求助能力的培养及高校心理健康教育机制的完善提供参考。方法:用自编一般情况量表、寻求专业性心理帮助的态度问卷( ATSPPH)和领悟社会支持量表(PSSS)分别对898名在校大学生进行测验和比较。结果:①不同性别大学生在心理求助态度总分及对耻辱的忍受性维度上的差异有统计学意义,总体而言女生比男生求助态度更积极。②有求助经历的大学生心理求助态度比没有求助经历的积极。③大学生专业心理求助态度与领悟社会支持呈正相关( r=0.148,P<0.01)。结论:大学生心理求助态度有待改善;领悟社会支持水平对大学生心理求助态度有一定的影响,大学生领悟到社会支持越多,其求助态度越积极。%Objective:To understand the characteristics of the attitude towards seeking professional psychological help and perceived social support in col-lege students in order to supply evidence for cultivating their competence in psychological help-seeking and improving the mechanisms of mental health ed-ucation in higher institutions.Methods:We conducted a survey on 898 college students using self-developed general questionnaire,Attitude Toward See-king Professional Psychological Help Scale ( ATSPPH ) and Perceived Social Support Scale ( PSSS ) .The investigation findings were analyzed and com-pared.Results::①The difference was significant concerning the scoring on help-seeking attitudes and tolerance to stigma in students of different genders , and the male students appeared more positive than females in general;② Students with help-seeking experiences looked more willingly to seek psychologi-cal help than those without any attempt;③Students′attitude toward seeking professional psychological help was positively correlated with their perceived social support

  5. Consumers’ attitudes towards green food in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrea, Toula; Grunert, Klaus G; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios;

    Green food is perceived by Chinese consumers as environmentally friendly and safe to consume. Through a Value-Attitude model, the paper examines the degree to which attitudes towards green food is determined by consumers’ values and their general attitudes towards environment and technology....... The link between collectivism, attitudes towards environment and attitudes towards green food is the strongest one. Collectivism also influences attitudes towards technology, which in turn influence attitudes towards green food. However, the lack of significant relationship between individualism...

  6. The HOT (Healthy Outcome for Teens) project. Using a web-based medium to influence attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and intention for obesity and type 2 diabetes prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Henna; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen; Castelli, Darla M; Scherer, Jane A

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) constructs (behavioral belief, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, knowledge and behavioral intention) regarding preventive behaviors for obesity and type 2 diabetes will change favorably after completing the web-based intervention, HOT (Healthy Outcome for Teens) project, grounded in the TPB; and that passive online learning (POL) group will improve more than the active online learning (AOL) group. The secondary hypothesis was to determine to what extent constructs of the TPB predict intentions. 216 adolescents were recruited, 127 randomly allocated to the treatment group (AOL) and 89 to the control group (POL). The subjects completed a TPB questionnaire pre and post intervention. Both POL and AOL groups showed significant improvements from pretest to posttest survey. However, the results indicated no significant difference between POL and AOL for all constructs except behavioral belief. Correlational analysis indicated that all TPB constructs were significantly correlated with intentions for pretest and posttest for both groups. Attitude and behavioral control showed strongest correlations. Regression analysis indicated that TPB constructs were predictive of intentions and the predictive power improved post intervention. Behavioral control consistently predicted intentions for all categories and was the strongest predictor for pretest scores. For posttest scores, knowledge and attitude were the strongest predictors for POL and AOL groups respectively. Thus, HOT project improved knowledge and the TPB constructs scores for targeted behaviors, healthy eating and physical activity, for prevention of obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:24099704

  7. Predicting Pre-Service Teachers' Preparedness for Inclusive Education: Bangladeshi Pre-Service Teachers' Attitudes and Perceived Teaching-Efficacy for Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, M. Tariq; Deppeler, Joanne M.; Sharma, Umesh

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on the second phase of a larger study, which investigated the preparedness of pre-service teachers to teach in inclusive classrooms in Bangladesh. Phase 1 employed two standardised scales that were used with 1623 pre-service teachers from 16 teacher education institutions to measure their attitudes and perceived…

  8. Mental Health Nurses’ Attitudes and Perceived Self-Efficacy toward inpatient aggression: A Cross-Sectional Study of Associations with nurse-related characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaeghe, Sofie; Duprez, Veerle; Beeckman, Dimitri; Leys, Joris; Meijel, Berno van; Hecke, Ann van

    2014-01-01

    An adequate level of self-efficacy and a positive attitude toward aggression are important to decrease the severity and number of aggressive incidents and to increase staff competence to intervene in a professional and therapeutic manner toward aggressive incidents. This will lead to improved qualit

  9. The Role of Parental Stress, Mother's Childhood Abuse and Perceived Consequences of Violence in Predicting Attitudes and Attribution in Favor of Corporal Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Marie-Eve; Chamberland, Claire

    2009-01-01

    We investigate maternal attitudes toward corporal punishment and the attribution of blame to the child on the basis of data gathered from a population survey of a representative sample of mothers and mother figures. A total of 3,148 women living at least half of the time with a child participated in a telephone survey. The independent variables…

  10. Attitudes, subjective norms, and intention to perform routine oral examination for oropharyngeal candidiasis as perceived by primary health-care providers in Nairobi Province

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koyio, L.N.; Kikwilu, E.N.; Mulder, J.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To assess attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions of primary health-care (PHC) providers in performing routine oral examination for oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) during outpatient consultations. Methods: A 47-item Theory of Planned Behaviour-based questionnaire was developed and ad

  11. The Role of Pre-Game Learning Attitude in the Prediction to Competitive Anxiety, Perceived Utility of Pre-Game Learning of Game, and Gameplay Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jon-Chao; Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Liu, Yeu-Ting; Lin, Pei-Hsin; Chen, Yi-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Educational games can be viewed in two ways, "learning to play" or "playing to learn." The Chinese Idiom String Up Game was specifically designed to examine the effect of "learning to play" on the interrelatedness of players' gameplay interest, competitive anxiety, and perceived utility of pre-game learning (PUPGL).…

  12. Redistributing vulnerabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Jens; Padmawati, Retna Siwi

    2015-01-01

    attention to the social processes whereby vulnerability is modified and renegotiated during the post-disaster period where resources for disaster alleviation and reconstruction enter local communities. Specifically, we explore the social dynamics of house damage classification in the wake of the 2006...... Central Java earthquake, and we explore relations between citizens and the state during post-disaster house reconstruction. We argue that disastrous outcomes of catastrophic events do not follow pre-existing fault lines of vulnerability in a simple or predictable manner, and that the social process...

  13. Perfectionism and attitudes towards doping in junior athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Daniel J; Stoeber, Joachim; Passfield, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Recent theory and research suggest that perfectionism is a personal factor contributing to athletes' vulnerability to doping (using banned substances/drugs to enhance sporting performance). So far, however, no study has examined what aspects of perfectionism suggest a vulnerability in junior athletes. Employing a cross-sectional design, this study examined perfectionism and attitudes towards doping in 129 male junior athletes (mean age 17.3 years) differentiating four aspects of perfectionism: perfectionistic strivings, perfectionistic concerns, parental pressure to be perfect, and coach pressure to be perfect. In the bivariate correlations, only parental pressure showed a positive relationship with positive doping attitudes. In a multiple regression analysis controlling for the overlap between the four aspects, perfectionistic strivings additionally showed a negative relationship. Moreover, a structural equation model examining the relationships between all variables suggested that coach pressure had a negative indirect effect on attitudes towards doping via perfectionistic strivings. The findings indicate that perceived parental pressure to be perfect may be a factor contributing to junior athletes' vulnerability to doping, whereas perfectionistic strivings may be a protective factor. PMID:26177255

  14. Assessing vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellmuth, M.; Kabat, P.

    2003-01-01

    It is in the shantytowns and rural villages of the Third World that floods and droughts strike hardest and deepest. Vulnerability to the vagaries of climate depends not only on location, but, crucially, on the capacity of the victims to cope with the impacts of extreme weather. So, where are the peo

  15. Intimate partner violence against women in west Ethiopia: a qualitative study on attitudes, woman’s response, and suggested measures as perceived by community members

    OpenAIRE

    Abeya Sileshi; Afework Mesganaw; Yalew Alemayeh

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Intimate partner violence against women is more prevalent in Ethiopia and among the highest in the world. This study was aimed to explore the attitudes of the community on intimate partner violence against women, the strategies women are using after the violence act, and suggested measures to stop or reduce the act in East Wollega Zone. Methods A total of 12 focus group discussions involving 55 men and 60 women were conducted from December, 2011 to January, 2012. Discuss...

  16. Investigating multiple components of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived control: an examination of the theory of planned behaviour in the exercise domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Courneya, Kerry S

    2003-03-01

    The presence of two subcomponents within each theory of planned behaviour (TPB) concept of attitude (affective and instrumental), subjective norm (injunctive and descriptive), and PBC (self-efficacy and controllability) has been widely supported. However, research has not examined whether the commonality of variance between these components (i.e. a general factor) or the specificity of variance within the subcomponents influences intention and behaviour. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the optimal conceptualization of either two subcomponents or a general common factor for each TPB concept within an omnibus model. Further, to test whether conceptualizations may differ by population even within the same behavioural domain, we examined these research questions with 300 undergraduates (M age = 20) and 272 cancer survivors (M age = 61) for exercise behaviour. Results identified that a general subjective norm factor was an optimal predictive conceptualization over two separate injunctive and descriptive norm components. In contrast, a specific self-efficacy component, and not controllability or a general factor of PBC, predicted intention optimally for both samples. Finally, optimal models of attitude differed between the populations, with a general factor best predicting intention for undergraduates but only affective attitude influencing intention for cancer survivors. The findings of these studies underscore the possibility for optimal tailored interventions based on population and behaviour. Finally, a discussion of the theoretical ambiguity of the PBC concept led to suggestions for future research and possible re-conceptualization.

  17. Assessing vulnerability of urban African communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson Nyed, Patrik; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Herslund, Lise Byskov

    2014-01-01

    East African cities are in the process of assessing their vulnerabilities to climate change, but face difficulties in capturing the complexity of the various facets of vulnerability. This holistic approach, captures four different dimensions of vulnerability to flooding - Assets, Institutions......, Attitudes and the Physical environment, with Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, as a case city. The methodology is actively involving the expertise of the stakeholders, and uses GIS to analyze and compile the data. The final output is presented as a comprehensible map, delineating the varying vulnerability to...

  18. 消费者对药品的感知风险与风险态度研究%A Study on Consumers’Drug Perceived Risk and Risk Attitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑适; 秦明; 王志刚

    2016-01-01

    消费者对药品的感知风险与风险态度之间存在显著负相关关系。在感知风险方面,消费者对药品的感知风险与对毒胶囊事件说法的认识、宗教信仰以及相关信息搜索具有显著正相关关系,与相关部门处理措施的满意度和专业背景具有显著负相关关系;在风险态度方面,消费者对药品的风险态度与其宗教信仰、体检频率具有显著正相关关系,与个人卫生习惯、医疗保险具有显著负相关关系。因此,在药品危机恢复阶段,管理部门、行业协会、药品生产者应采取积极有效的措施进行善后处理,重塑公众信任,指导消费者安全用药、合理用药;强化媒体作为主要的社会监督力量在药品安全事件中的作用;消费者应客观、科学地认识药品安全事件,避免陷入恐慌。%The correlation between perceived risk and risk attitude of drugs is significantly negative. In terms of perceived risk,there is a significant positive correlation between the perceived risk on drugs and knowledge of poison capsule,religion and related information search,while the effect of government measures satisfaction and professional background is opposite. In terms of risk attitude,religion,physical examination frequency has a significant positive impact on it,while personal habit and medical insurance are showing the negative impact. So,at the recovery stage of drug crisis,first,the related governments,industrial associations and drug producers should adopt the effective afterward measures,rebuild public trust,and lead the consumers to take medicine safely and rationally;second,they should strengthen the social supervisor role of media in drug safety;and third, the consumers should fully understand the implication of drug safety and avoid to be in panic.

  19. Does the Arrangement of Embedded Text Versus Linked Text in Homework Systems Make a Difference in Students Impressions, Attitudes, and Perceived Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumalt, Caitlin J.; Williamson, Vickie M.

    2016-10-01

    Students in a first-semester general chemistry course at a large southwestern university completed a 3-week homework assignment using MindTap, a Cengage Learning product. MindTap is the first major electronic system that has homework questions embedded in the text, such that students read a short section of the textbook and then answer a question set. Prior to MindTap, electronic homework systems were stand-alone or contained questions with links to the textbook. Next, students completed two 2-week homework assignments in Online Web Learning (OWL) version 1 also from Cengage Learning. The OWL system shows homework questions with a link to the textbook in a separate window. Both the MindTap and OWL systems contain the same or similar questions. After the students used both homework systems, a survey was given that included Likert-scaled and open-response questions that dealt with students' perceived level of understanding using the different systems, how easy the systems were to use, and the advantages/disadvantages of each system. A delayed survey was given at the end of the second semester of general chemistry, during which students had used OWL for the complete semester. This paper investigates the effects of the arrangement (embedded vs. linked) on student preferences and perceived learning in this pilot study with a 300-person class. Based on the results of the study, it was found that students perceived that they learn more with MindTap and prefer the embedded text in MindTap over the linked text in OWL.

  20. Does the Arrangement of Embedded Text Versus Linked Text in Homework Systems Make a Difference in Students Impressions, Attitudes, and Perceived Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumalt, Caitlin J.; Williamson, Vickie M.

    2016-05-01

    Students in a first-semester general chemistry course at a large southwestern university completed a 3-week homework assignment using MindTap, a Cengage Learning product. MindTap is the first major electronic system that has homework questions embedded in the text, such that students read a short section of the textbook and then answer a question set. Prior to MindTap, electronic homework systems were stand-alone or contained questions with links to the textbook. Next, students completed two 2-week homework assignments in Online Web Learning (OWL) version 1 also from Cengage Learning. The OWL system shows homework questions with a link to the textbook in a separate window. Both the MindTap and OWL systems contain the same or similar questions. After the students used both homework systems, a survey was given that included Likert-scaled and open-response questions that dealt with students' perceived level of understanding using the different systems, how easy the systems were to use, and the advantages/disadvantages of each system. A delayed survey was given at the end of the second semester of general chemistry, during which students had used OWL for the complete semester. This paper investigates the effects of the arrangement (embedded vs. linked) on student preferences and perceived learning in this pilot study with a 300-person class. Based on the results of the study, it was found that students perceived that they learn more with MindTap and prefer the embedded text in MindTap over the linked text in OWL.

  1. Vulnerable Hunter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md.Asha Begum

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This project "VULNERABLE HUNTER" application main aim is to detect risk in our mobile applications. This application contains modules like Fetch Application, Generate Score, Uninstall and Display Graph. Through this application it detects risk so that this application is very useful to smart phone users Now-a-days so many people are using smart phones and people are crazy about new apps. But by installing all the applications into our mobile may reduce its performance. Some apps contain more risk. But user may not know the effects that are caused by the app which is installed until the performance of mobile is reduced. With the prosperity of the Android app economy, many apps have been published and sold in various markets. However, short development applications and insufficient security development apps have led to many vulnerable apps. So to reduce these type of problems Vulnerable Hunter is proposed. Through the proposed application user can see which application is risky and then the user may uninstall that application. The main advantage of designing this app is without internet also the users will use this application. Users also feel more convenient to work with mobile apps.

  2. Impact of a Booklet about Diabetes Genetic Susceptibility and Its Prevention on Attitudes towards Prevention and Perceived Behavioral Change in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Their Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakazu Nishigaki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Offspring of type 2 diabetic patients are at a high risk of type 2 diabetes. Information on diabetes genetic susceptibility and prevention should be supplied to the offspring. Methods. A six-page booklet on diabetes genetic susceptibility and prevention was distributed to 173 patients who ere ordered to hand it to their offspring. The patients answered a self-administered questionnaire on booklet delivery and attitudinal and behavioral changes toward diabetes and its prevention in themselves and their offspring. Results. Valid responses were obtained from 130 patients. Forty-nine patients had actually handed the booklet. Booklet induces more relief than anxiety. From the patient's view, favorable attitudinal and/or behavioral changes occurred in more than half of the offspring who were delivered the booklet. Conclusion. The booklet worked effectively on attitudes and behaviors toward diabetes and its prevention both in patients and their offspring. However, the effectiveness of patients as information deliverers was limited.

  3. Attitudes Toward Single Parenthood

    OpenAIRE

    Pećnik, Ninoslava; Raboteg-Šarić, Zora

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the family structure produce different social reactions, and the negative attitude of society towards single parent families can generate social vulnerability of this group. (The lack of) understanding of the environment influences not only the behaviour of other persons toward single parents and their children, but also their attitudes and personal experience of single parenthood. In order to improve the insight into the experience of new forms of family in our society, a survey o...

  4. Models of Social Vulnerability to Disasters*

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the bases of theory in the evaluation of social vulnerability to disasters. Vulnerability is shown to be the vital component of risk and the principal element of disaster impacts. Perception is a key process in decision making in disasters. It is affected by culture and symbolism, which are analysed in the context of disaster risk. A model of cultural metamorphosis is used to explain changes and discrepancies in attitudes to disaster and recovery processes. The response t...

  5. College Student Attitudes Toward Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo, Michael F.; Bittner, John R.

    1970-01-01

    Questionnaire attempts to determine attitudes in effort to learn how students perceive danger, or lack of it, in the use of marihuana. Tabulated responses are presented, and while no conclusions are drawn several interpretations are suggested. (Author/CJ)

  6. Computing Educator Attitudes about Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Settle, Amber; Sedlak, Brian

    2016-01-01

    While motivation is of great interest to computing educators, relatively little work has been done on understanding faculty attitudes toward student motivation. Two previous qualitative studies of instructor attitudes found results identical to those from other disciplines, but neither study considered whether instructors perceive student motivation to be more important in certain computing classes. In this work we present quantitative results about the perceived importance of student motivat...

  7. Perceived Convenience, Compatibility, and Media Richness Contribute Significantly toDedicated E-book Reader Acceptance. A Review of: Lai, J.-Y., & Chang, C.-Y. (2011). User attitudes toward dedicated e-book readers for reading: The effects of convenience, compatibility and media richness. Online Information Review, 35(4), 558-580.

    OpenAIRE

    Theresa S. Arndt

    2012-01-01

    Objective – Investigates the effects ofperceived convenience, compatibility andmedia richness on users’ attitudes towarddedicated e-book readers.Design – Convenience sample survey.Setting – Taiwanese university.Subjects – A total of 288 students at the seniorsecondary (5%), four-year university (78%),and graduate student (17%) levels. Malefemaleparticipation was approximately equal.Methods – Students completed a 23-itemsurvey on dedicated e-book readers, withquestions on perceived usefulness,...

  8. Teacher Educators' Attitude towards Computer: Perspective Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Ataur

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how teacher educators perceive the attitude towards use of computer technology in Teachers' Training Colleges in Bangladesh. This study investigated teacher educators' computer attitudes by using the valid and reliable instruments of Loyd and Gressard's (1984) Computer Attitude Scale (CAS). The data was collected through …

  9. Assessment of social support and its association to depression, self-perceived health and chronic diseases in elderly individuals residing in an area of poverty and social vulnerability in rio de janeiro city, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria T S Lino

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Social support (SS influences the elderly ability to cope with the losses of ageing process. This study was aimed at assessing SS among elderly users of a primary healthcare unit in a poor and violent area of Rio de Janeiro City, and at verifying its association with depression, self-perceived health (SPH, marital status and chronic illnesses. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed based on a convenience sample of 180 individuals aged 60 years or older. SS was measured with part of the Brazilian version of Medical Outcomes Study's SS scale, and SPH and depression were assessed, respectively, through one question and the Brazilian version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. SS medians were calculated for the categories of SPH, depression, marital status and chronic illnesses variables, and differences were evaluated with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Additionally, Pearson's chi-square test and logistic regression were employed to identify unadjusted and adjusted associations between SS and those variables. RESULTS: The participant's mean age was 73 years old, and level of education was 3 years of school education on average. They were predominantly females (73.3%, and non-married (55.0%. Among them, 74.4% perceived their SS as satisfactory, 55.0% perceived their health as good, 27.8% were diagnosed with major depression and 83.3% had hypertension. Especially for those depressed and with bad SPH, the medians of SS measure were much lower than for others, reaching an unsatisfactory level. Moreover, controlling for other factors, non-depressed individuals were more likely (OR = 2.32 to have satisfactory SS. CONCLUSION: in the violent and poor area explored in this research low SS is highly prevalent in the elderly. Depressed individuals are more likely to have low SS and this condition should be investigated in depressed elderly. The reduced scale is useful for low education

  10. Vulnerabilities and responsibilities: dealing with monsters in computer security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, W.; Consoli, L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze information security assessment in terms of cultural categories and virtue ethics, in order to explain the cultural origin of certain types of security vulnerabilities, as well as to enable a proactive attitude towards preventing such vulnerabilities

  11. Vulnerability to Poverty and Vulnerability to Climate Change : Conceptual Framework, Measurement and Synergies in Policy

    OpenAIRE

    K. S. Kavi Kumar; Richard J.T. Klein; Cezar Ionescu; Jochen Hinkel; Rupert Klein

    2007-01-01

    This paper attempts to compare the concepts and metrics related to vulnerability notion as used in the poverty literature with those in the filed of climate change. Such comparison could shed light on the understanding of the perceived and real differences between the two fields and also help to identify possible policy synergies between the climate change and poverty communities. The analysis shows that while vulnerability concepts in both the disciplines are defendable, broader policy relev...

  12. The power of change: interpersonal attraction as a function of attitude similarity and attitude alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Chelsea A; Davis, Jody L; Green, Jeffrey D

    2013-01-01

    Does attitude alignment predict attraction? Would you like a stranger more who shifts her/his attitudes to more closely align with yours? In pairs, participants (N = 77) discussed social issues about which they disagreed and received false feedback on whether the partner engaged in attitude alignment (shifted her/his attitudes toward the participant's attitude) following discussion. Participants also received false feedback about the proportion of similarity to the partner on a set of issues (i.e., 25%, 50%, or 75%). Participants reported greater attraction to partners who engaged in attitude alignment and who were more similar. Moreover, similarity and attitude alignment interacted. Similarity predicted attraction when attitude alignment did not occur, but did not predict attraction when attitude alignment did occur. Finally, partner attitude alignment led to participant attitude alignment, and perceived reasoning ability mediated the attitude alignment-attraction relationship.

  13. The power of change: interpersonal attraction as a function of attitude similarity and attitude alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Chelsea A; Davis, Jody L; Green, Jeffrey D

    2013-01-01

    Does attitude alignment predict attraction? Would you like a stranger more who shifts her/his attitudes to more closely align with yours? In pairs, participants (N = 77) discussed social issues about which they disagreed and received false feedback on whether the partner engaged in attitude alignment (shifted her/his attitudes toward the participant's attitude) following discussion. Participants also received false feedback about the proportion of similarity to the partner on a set of issues (i.e., 25%, 50%, or 75%). Participants reported greater attraction to partners who engaged in attitude alignment and who were more similar. Moreover, similarity and attitude alignment interacted. Similarity predicted attraction when attitude alignment did not occur, but did not predict attraction when attitude alignment did occur. Finally, partner attitude alignment led to participant attitude alignment, and perceived reasoning ability mediated the attitude alignment-attraction relationship. PMID:24236381

  14. Nature and operation of attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajzen, I

    2001-01-01

    This survey of attitude theory and research published between 1996 and 1999 covers the conceptualization of attitude, attitude formation and activation, attitude structure and function, and the attitude-behavior relation. Research regarding the expectancy-value model of attitude is considered, as are the roles of accessible beliefs and affective versus cognitive processes in the formation of attitudes. The survey reviews research on attitude strength and its antecedents and consequences, and covers progress made on the assessment of attitudinal ambivalence and its effects. Also considered is research on automatic attitude activation, attitude functions, and the relation of attitudes to broader values. A large number of studies dealt with the relation between attitudes and behavior. Research revealing additional moderators of this relation is reviewed, as are theory and research on the link between intentions and actions. Most work in this context was devoted to issues raised by the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior. The present review highlights the nature of perceived behavioral control, the relative importance of attitudes and subjective norms, the utility of adding more predictors, and the roles of prior behavior and habit. PMID:11148298

  15. Common Control System Vulnerability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent Nelson

    2005-12-01

    The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an

  16. Assessing and mapping people's perceptions of vulnerability to landslides in Bududa, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Wanasolo, Isaac

    2012-01-01

    This study explores people’s vulnerability to landslides in Bududa, Uganda and how people perceive their vulnerability to such disasters in the face of a blatant government declaration that the area is risk prone and unsafe for human settlement. The study then explores GIS capabilities to map such perceptions and how ensuing maps can be used to communicate people’s perceptions of vulnerability to landslides. Specifically examined are people’s perceived causes of landslides, how people interpr...

  17. Software Vulnerability Taxonomy Consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polepeddi, S

    2004-12-08

    In today's environment, computers and networks are increasing exposed to a number of software vulnerabilities. Information about these vulnerabilities is collected and disseminated via various large publicly available databases such as BugTraq, OSVDB and ICAT. Each of these databases, individually, do not cover all aspects of a vulnerability and lack a standard format among them, making it difficult for end-users to easily compare various vulnerabilities. A central database of vulnerabilities has not been available until today for a number of reasons, such as the non-uniform methods by which current vulnerability database providers receive information, disagreement over which features of a particular vulnerability are important and how best to present them, and the non-utility of the information presented in many databases. The goal of this software vulnerability taxonomy consolidation project is to address the need for a universally accepted vulnerability taxonomy that classifies vulnerabilities in an unambiguous manner. A consolidated vulnerability database (CVDB) was implemented that coalesces and organizes vulnerability data from disparate data sources. Based on the work done in this paper, there is strong evidence that a consolidated taxonomy encompassing and organizing all relevant data can be achieved. However, three primary obstacles remain: lack of referencing a common ''primary key'', un-structured and free-form descriptions of necessary vulnerability data, and lack of data on all aspects of a vulnerability. This work has only considered data that can be unambiguously extracted from various data sources by straightforward parsers. It is felt that even with the use of more advanced, information mining tools, which can wade through the sea of unstructured vulnerability data, this current integration methodology would still provide repeatable, unambiguous, and exhaustive results. Though the goal of coalescing all available data

  18. Software Vulnerability Taxonomy Consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polepeddi, Sriram S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2004-12-07

    In today's environment, computers and networks are increasing exposed to a number of software vulnerabilities. Information about these vulnerabilities is collected and disseminated via various large publicly available databases such as BugTraq, OSVDB and ICAT. Each of these databases, individually, do not cover all aspects of a vulnerability and lack a standard format among them, making it difficult for end-users to easily compare various vulnerabilities. A central database of vulnerabilities has not been available until today for a number of reasons, such as the non-uniform methods by which current vulnerability database providers receive information, disagreement over which features of a particular vulnerability are important and how best to present them, and the non-utility of the information presented in many databases. The goal of this software vulnerability taxonomy consolidation project is to address the need for a universally accepted vulnerability taxonomy that classifies vulnerabilities in an unambiguous manner. A consolidated vulnerability database (CVDB) was implemented that coalesces and organizes vulnerability data from disparate data sources. Based on the work done in this paper, there is strong evidence that a consolidated taxonomy encompassing and organizing all relevant data can be achieved. However, three primary obstacles remain: lack of referencing a common ''primary key'', un-structured and free-form descriptions of necessary vulnerability data, and lack of data on all aspects of a vulnerability. This work has only considered data that can be unambiguously extracted from various data sources by straightforward parsers. It is felt that even with the use of more advanced, information mining tools, which can wade through the sea of unstructured vulnerability data, this current integration methodology would still provide repeatable, unambiguous, and exhaustive results. Though the goal of coalescing all available data

  19. A Cognitive Vulnerability Model of Sleep and Mood in Adolescents under Naturalistically Restricted and Extended Sleep Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Bei; Wiley, Joshua F.; Allen, Nicholas B.; Trinder, John

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: School terms and vacations represent naturally occurring periods of restricted and extended sleep opportunities. A cognitive model of the relationships among objective sleep, subjective sleep, and negative mood was tested across these periods, with sleep-specific (i.e., dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep) and global (i.e., dysfunctional attitudes) cognitive vulnerabilities as moderators. Design: Longitudinal study over the last week of a school term (Time-E), the following 2-w vacation (Time-V), and the first week of the next term (Time-S). Setting: General community. Participants: 146 adolescents, 47.3% male, mean age = 16.2 years (standard deviation ± 1 year). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Objective sleep was measured continuously by actigraphy. Sociodemographics and cognitive vulnerabilities were assessed at Time-E; subjective sleep, negative mood (anxiety and depressive symptoms), and academic stress were measured at each time point. Controlling for academic stress and sex, subjective sleep quality mediated the relationship between objective sleep and negative mood at all time points. During extended (Time-V), but not restricted (Time-E and Time-S) sleep opportunity, this mediation was moderated by global cognitive vulnerability, with the indirect effects stronger with higher vulnerability. Further, at Time-E and Time-V, but not Time-S, greater sleep-specific and global cognitive vulnerabilities were associated with poorer subjective sleep quality and mood, respectively. Conclusions: Results highlighted the importance of subjective sleep perception in the development of sleep related mood problems, and supported the role of cognitive vulnerabilities as potential mechanisms in the relationships between objective sleep, subjective sleep, and negative mood. Adolescents with higher cognitive vulnerability are more susceptible to perceived poor sleep and sleep related mood problems. These findings have practical

  20. Livelihood vulnerability index analysis: An approach to study vulnerability in the context of Bihar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri .

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability is the capacity to anticipate, cope with, resist and recover from the impact of natural disasters. Floods add to the distressed conditions of the poor and vulnerable people in Bihar. Floods have a different impact on households depending on differences in their livelihood choices. Therefore, in order to identify the variability in vulnerability of affected households, the livelihood vulnerability index (LVI of Hahn, Riederer and Foster was modified according to the context of the study area. The LVI aims to identify sources and forms of vulnerability that are specific to the context in order to design context-specific resilience measures. However, vulnerability and resilience are not interdependent but discrete entities. The study was conducted in the seven blocks of Bhagalpur district in the state of Bihar. Naugachia was found to be the least vulnerable because of better access to basic amenities and livelihood strategies, whilst Kharik was found to be highly vulnerable in respect to other blocks because of high sensitivity and less adaptive strategy. The study also revealed that better access to resources does not necessarily mean that households are adopting resilience measures because of apathetic or indifferent attitudes.

  1. An Investigation of User Perceptions and Attitudes towards Learning Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Siong-Hoe; Woods, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    This study empirically evaluates the technology acceptance model drawn from Information Systems (IS) literature to investigate how user beliefs and attitudes influence learning-object use among higher education learners by evaluating the relationships between perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, attitude, behavioural intentions and actual…

  2. Browsers' Perceived Attitude, Evaluation and the Impact on Network Deduction in Mega Event: A Case Study of 2010 Shanghai Network World Expo%重大事件网络演绎中浏览者感知态度、评价及其影响——以上海网络世博会为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王朝辉; 陆林; 夏巧云; 刘玲玉

    2012-01-01

    The study on mega-event and its impact are the focuses of geography of tourism and tourism science while the study on consumer behavior is the important aspect of behavioral geography. As a new deduction form, Shanghai Network World Expo offers a new research object and field for the academic study on mega-event impact. Based on the SPSS18. 0 and AMOS17.0, the article makes an analysis on browsers' sur- vey data in 2010 Shanghai Network World Expo and constructs the measurement model of mega-event net- work tourists' perceived attitude. The SEM is constructed to explore the relationship between network brows- ers' perceived attitude and evaluate the impact on their behaviors. The result shows that: 1) The utilitarian and hedonic dimensions are the two measurement dimensions to construct the network tourists' perceived attitude. 2) In general, network tourists' consuming perceived attitude is strong, with the ten measurement indicators reaching the satisfying level; network tourists' perception of utilitarian dimension is stronger than that of he- donic dimension; the perceived attitude of the female is higher than that of male in both dimensions; the per- ception of utilitarian dimension of the unmarried group is higher than that of married group; tourists who have visited the expo have much higher perception of utilitarian dimension than' those who have not yet. 3) The per- ceived evaluation is the intermediate variable between the network tourists' perceived attitude and their behav- iors. The network tourists' perceived attitude indirectly influences the tourists' network behaviors and behav- ioral intentions to the Expo through their perceived evaluation. 4) The hedonic dimension in the network tour- ists' consuming perception attitude has a direct and significant impact on their behaviors and intentions to the Expo while the impact of utilitarian dimension is not obvious. The study greatly expands the research filed and

  3. The CLEM model: Path analysis of the mediating effects of attitudes and motivational beliefs on the relationship between perceived learning environment and course performance in an undergraduate nonmajor biology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partin, Matthew L.

    The problem addressed in this study stems from three crises currently faced by post-secondary science educators in the United States: relatively low scientific literacy among students entering college, the need for more students to pursue science related careers, and poor attitudes among students toward studying science. In this dissertation the following questions are addressed: Is there a relationship between students' perceptions of their learning environment and course performance, and what roles do motivation and attitudes play in mediating that relationship? This study also examines the effects of gender and ethnicity on motivation, attitudes, and course performance. The purpose of this study is to test a path model describing the mediating effects of motivation and attitudes on constructivist learning environments and course performance. The following study considers contemporary understanding of teaching and learning as well as motivation and attitudes to suggest a direction for future reform efforts and to guide post-secondary science education instructors and leaders in the design of constructivist learning environments for undergraduate nonmajor biology courses. This study concludes that, although the classroom learning environment has a small direct effect on course performance, there is a moderate total effect on self-efficacy and intrinsic goal orientation. The classroom learning environment also had a moderate indirect effect on attitudes toward biology. Furthermore, attitudes have a moderate direct effect on course performance and self-efficacy has a strong direct effect on both course performance and attitudes toward biology. Self-efficacy seems to be particularly important; however, each of these constructs is important in its own right and instructors in higher education should strive to enhance each of them among their students. If students are to learn using constructivist methods they need the proper motivation and positive attitudes to

  4. The attitude towards people of other nations through the prism of the attitude to yourself

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Konyukh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of theoretical analysis and empirical investigation of the relationship between self-attitude and attitude towards other people, including representatives of other nationalities. Self-attitude is viwed as a stable, emotionally charged of your own self. The interdependance of self-attitude indicators with the features of ethnic tolerance and the character of other individuals' attitude in complicated situations has been researched. Individuals with different self-image are shown to perceive their opponents just as they perceive their own personality. Perception and emotional attitude both to their own ethnic group and other ethnicities is closely related to the attitude of the individual to himself, and common factors in predisposition to criticism and condescension towards themselves and others.

  5. Media Use and Perceived Risk as Predictors of Marijuana Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Christopher E.; Hong, Traci

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the influence of media use and perceived risk on marijuana use outcomes. Methods: With survey data from 750 US young adults, structural equation modeling tested how attitudes, behaviors, and behavioral intention specific to marijuana use are influenced by perceived personal and societal risk of marijuana use, media campaign…

  6. Why Does Mentoring Work? The Role of Perceived Organizational Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranik, Lisa E.; Roling, Elizabeth A.; Eby, Lillian T.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the mediating role of perceived organizational support in the relationship between mentoring support received and work attitudes. Perceived organizational support partly mediated the relationship between specific types of mentoring support and job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment. Specifically, sponsorship,…

  7. Predicting patient attitudes to asthma medication.

    OpenAIRE

    Osman, L M; Russell, I.T.; Friend, J. A.; Legge, J. S.; Douglas, J G

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Studies of patient attitudes to asthma and its control have focused on crisis action, and little attention has been paid to attitudes to regular preventive medication. It is not clear whether attitudes to regular medication are related to the degree of distress or interference with life perceived by patients as being caused by their asthma. For this reason this study examined how far dislike of medication related to dislike of other aspects of interference of asthma with daily lif...

  8. Perceived Satisfaction, Perceived Usefulness and Interactive Learning Environments as Predictors to Self-Regulation in e-Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Shu-Sheng; Huang, Hsiu-Mei

    2013-01-01

    The research purpose is to investigate learner self-regulation in e-learning environments. In order to better understand learner attitudes toward e-learning, 196 university students answer a questionnaire survey after use an e-learning system few months. The statistical results showed that perceived satisfaction, perceived usefulness, and…

  9. Perceived Convenience, Compatibility, and Media Richness Contribute Significantly toDedicated E-book Reader Acceptance. A Review of: Lai, J.-Y., & Chang, C.-Y. (2011. User attitudes toward dedicated e-book readers for reading: The effects of convenience, compatibility and media richness. Online Information Review, 35(4, 558-580.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa S. Arndt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – Investigates the effects ofperceived convenience, compatibility andmedia richness on users’ attitudes towarddedicated e-book readers.Design – Convenience sample survey.Setting – Taiwanese university.Subjects – A total of 288 students at the seniorsecondary (5%, four-year university (78%,and graduate student (17% levels. Malefemaleparticipation was approximately equal.Methods – Students completed a 23-itemsurvey on dedicated e-book readers, withquestions on perceived usefulness, perceivedease of use, intention to use, convenience,compatibility, and media richness. Data wasanalyzed using the partial least squaresstatistical technique.Main Results – Users state an increasedintention to use dedicated e-book readers ifthey perceive the technology to be compatiblewith what they desire in a “book,” if the devicedelivers rich media content, and if the device isconvenient. Compatibility was found tosignificantly affect perceived ease of use, andwas found to be the strongest influence onintent to use a dedicated e-book reader.Compatibility, media richness andconvenience also increased the perceivedusefulness of dedicated e-book readers.Conclusion – Users will prefer dedicated e-book readers that are compatible with their preferences in a “book,” that deliver media-rich content, and that they find convenient. The study has implications for the design and development of e-book reading devices.

  10. Perceived Threat, Risk Perception, and Efficacy Beliefs Related to SARS and Other (Emerging) Infectious Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Zwart, Onno; Veldhuijzen, Irene; Elam, Gillian;

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the levels of perceived threat, perceived severity, perceived vulnerability, response efficacy, and self-efficacy for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and eight other diseases in five European and three Asian countries. METHOD: A computer-assisted phone survey was conduc...

  11. Superintendent Vulnerability and Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Phyllis

    1996-01-01

    Examined Callahan's vulnerability thesis to determine its ability to explain the mobility of superintendents in Texas between 1985 and 1990. Questionnaire and interview data indicated that, at least in Texas where superintendent mobility reached 50% in that time period, vulnerability did not appear to account for much of superintendent mobility.…

  12. Peran Sikap, Nornma Subjektif, dan Perceived Behavioral Control terhadap Intensi Membeli Pakaian Bekas

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Fatimah

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the role of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control toward purchase intention of used clothing. This study used the quantitative approach and involved 297 respondents as subject and selected using incidental sampling. The data was collected by the scale of attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and scale of intention based on Theory of Planned Behavior by Ajzen (2005). The results showed that attitudes, subje...

  13. Perceived Disgust and Personal Experiences are Associated with Acceptance of Dissections in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol; Leskova, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Animal dissections are essential parts of anatomy/zoology courses, but their effectiveness is influenced by student attitudes and emotions. Here we examined attitudes toward dissections in 397 prospective biology teachers enrolling two Slovak universities. Perceived disgust of dissections negatively correlated with other attitudes toward…

  14. Belief in a just world lowers perceived intention of corruption: the mediating role of perceived punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bao-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Xiao; Kou, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Corruption can be unfair and detrimental to societies; however, little is known regarding how individuals perceive corruption. We aim to understand how psychological factors, such as lay belief of the world, influence perceived intention of corruptive behavior. As corruption undermines justice, we hypothesize that belief in a just world to others (BJW-others) reduces perceived intention of corruptive behaviors. We conducted two correlational studies and one experimental study in China. Using hypothetical scenarios, perception toward bribery taking and nepotistic practices were assessed. In Study 1 and Study 2, we consistently found that BJW-others negatively predicted perceived intention of corruption, and this pattern was mediated by perceived likelihood of punishment. We further replicate this result in Study 3 by priming BJW-others, demonstrating its causal effect. The results indicate that BJW as one lay belief can be important in influencing people's attitudes toward corruption. Implications for future research and anti-corruption policies are also discussed.

  15. Belief in a just world lowers perceived intention of corruption: the mediating role of perceived punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bao-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Xiao; Kou, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Corruption can be unfair and detrimental to societies; however, little is known regarding how individuals perceive corruption. We aim to understand how psychological factors, such as lay belief of the world, influence perceived intention of corruptive behavior. As corruption undermines justice, we hypothesize that belief in a just world to others (BJW-others) reduces perceived intention of corruptive behaviors. We conducted two correlational studies and one experimental study in China. Using hypothetical scenarios, perception toward bribery taking and nepotistic practices were assessed. In Study 1 and Study 2, we consistently found that BJW-others negatively predicted perceived intention of corruption, and this pattern was mediated by perceived likelihood of punishment. We further replicate this result in Study 3 by priming BJW-others, demonstrating its causal effect. The results indicate that BJW as one lay belief can be important in influencing people's attitudes toward corruption. Implications for future research and anti-corruption policies are also discussed. PMID:24835428

  16. Belief in a just world lowers perceived intention of corruption: the mediating role of perceived punishment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Yu Bai

    Full Text Available Corruption can be unfair and detrimental to societies; however, little is known regarding how individuals perceive corruption. We aim to understand how psychological factors, such as lay belief of the world, influence perceived intention of corruptive behavior. As corruption undermines justice, we hypothesize that belief in a just world to others (BJW-others reduces perceived intention of corruptive behaviors. We conducted two correlational studies and one experimental study in China. Using hypothetical scenarios, perception toward bribery taking and nepotistic practices were assessed. In Study 1 and Study 2, we consistently found that BJW-others negatively predicted perceived intention of corruption, and this pattern was mediated by perceived likelihood of punishment. We further replicate this result in Study 3 by priming BJW-others, demonstrating its causal effect. The results indicate that BJW as one lay belief can be important in influencing people's attitudes toward corruption. Implications for future research and anti-corruption policies are also discussed.

  17. Employees' Perceptions of the Opportunities to Utilize Their Competences: Exploring the Role of Perceived Competence Mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Perceived competence mobilization is the degree to which employees perceive that they have adequate opportunities to utilize their competences in their current jobs. The findings of the research reported here suggest that employees' perceived competence mobilization is associated with a number of favourable employee attitudes, including intrinsic…

  18. Selective vulnerability in brain hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervos-Navarro, J.; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1991-01-01

    Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis......Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis...

  19. Arizona - Social Vulnerability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Social Vulnerability Index is derived from the 2000 US Census data. The fields included are percent minority, median household income, age (under 18 and over...

  20. Web Application Vulnerabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Bhanu

    2014-01-01

    Web application security has been a major issue in information technology since the evolvement of dynamic web application. The main objective of this project was to carry out a detailed study on the top three web application vulnerabilities such as injection, cross site scripting, broken authentication and session management, present the situation where an application can be vulnerable to these web threats and finally provide preventative measures against them. ...

  1. Understanding attitudes and their effects on nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Bob

    2015-12-01

    Attitudes are of crucial importance in nursing. Attitudes help us to understand how people perceive issues and processes in care and determine what they deem important, good, relevant and appropriate. We should understand attitudes if we are to provide collaborative, patient-centred care; however, they are poorly understood. This article enables the reader to examine attitudes and their constituent beliefs and values. It explores the function of attitudes, considers how they are formed and reflects on the process of attitude change, examining how persuasion can be used to enable individuals to revisit behaviours that seem problematic or less effective.

  2. Facility Environmental Vulnerability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From mid-April through the end of June 2001, a Facility Environmental Vulnerability Assessment (FEVA) was performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The primary goal of this FEVA was to establish an environmental vulnerability baseline at ORNL that could be used to support the Laboratory planning process and place environmental vulnerabilities in perspective. The information developed during the FEVA was intended to provide the basis for management to initiate immediate, near-term, and long-term actions to respond to the identified vulnerabilities. It was expected that further evaluation of the vulnerabilities identified during the FEVA could be carried out to support a more quantitative characterization of the sources, evaluation of contaminant pathways, and definition of risks. The FEVA was modeled after the Battelle-supported response to the problems identified at the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This FEVA report satisfies Corrective Action 3A1 contained in the Corrective Action Plan in Response to Independent Review of the High Flux Isotope Reactor Tritium Leak at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE) ORNL Site Office Manager on April 16, 2001. This assessment successfully achieved its primary goal as defined by Laboratory management. The assessment team was able to develop information about sources and pathway analyses although the following factors impacted the team's ability to provide additional quantitative information: the complexity and scope of the facilities, infrastructure, and programs; the significantly degraded physical condition of the facilities and infrastructure; the large number of known environmental vulnerabilities; the scope of legacy contamination issues [not currently addressed in the Environmental Management (EM) Program]; the lack of facility process and environmental pathway analysis performed by the accountable line management or facility owner; and poor

  3. Facility Environmental Vulnerability Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.

    2001-07-09

    From mid-April through the end of June 2001, a Facility Environmental Vulnerability Assessment (FEVA) was performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The primary goal of this FEVA was to establish an environmental vulnerability baseline at ORNL that could be used to support the Laboratory planning process and place environmental vulnerabilities in perspective. The information developed during the FEVA was intended to provide the basis for management to initiate immediate, near-term, and long-term actions to respond to the identified vulnerabilities. It was expected that further evaluation of the vulnerabilities identified during the FEVA could be carried out to support a more quantitative characterization of the sources, evaluation of contaminant pathways, and definition of risks. The FEVA was modeled after the Battelle-supported response to the problems identified at the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This FEVA report satisfies Corrective Action 3A1 contained in the Corrective Action Plan in Response to Independent Review of the High Flux Isotope Reactor Tritium Leak at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE) ORNL Site Office Manager on April 16, 2001. This assessment successfully achieved its primary goal as defined by Laboratory management. The assessment team was able to develop information about sources and pathway analyses although the following factors impacted the team's ability to provide additional quantitative information: the complexity and scope of the facilities, infrastructure, and programs; the significantly degraded physical condition of the facilities and infrastructure; the large number of known environmental vulnerabilities; the scope of legacy contamination issues [not currently addressed in the Environmental Management (EM) Program]; the lack of facility process and environmental pathway analysis performed by the accountable line management or facility owner; and

  4. Youth Vulnerability and Susceptibility to Credit Card Misuse and Indebtedness: A Cross-Country Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Awanis, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Vulnerable consumers are likely to fall victim to negative marketplace outcomes due to the secondary effects of marketing practices. In particular, credit card targeting directed towards young people elicits ethical criticisms because of the perceived vulnerability of the target segment, the targeting efforts that are deemed more predatory than informative, and the stigmatising protectionist policies that limit the youths’ financial freedom. Vulnerable consumers are often overlooked in market...

  5. Faculty attitudes about interprofessional education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary L. Beck Dallaghan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interprofessional education (IPE is an important component to training health care professionals. Research is limited in exploring the attitudes that faculty hold regarding IPE and what barriers they perceive to participating in IPE. The purpose of this study was to identify faculty attitudes about IPE and to identify barriers to participating in campus-wide IPE activities. Methods: A locally used questionnaire called the Nebraska Interprofessional Education Attitudes Scale (NIPEAS was used to assess attitudes related to interprofessional collaboration. Questions regarding perceived barriers were included at the end of the questionnaire. Descriptive and non-parametric statistics were used to analyze the results in aggregate as well as by college. In addition, open-ended questions were analyzed using an immersion/crystallization framework to identify themes. Results: The results showed that faculty had positive attitudes of IPE, indicating that is not a barrier to participating in IPE activities. Most common barriers to participation were scheduling conflicts (x24,285=19.17, p=0.001, lack of department support (4,285=10.09, p=0.039, and lack of awareness of events (x24,285=26.38, p=0.000. Narrative comments corroborated that scheduling conflicts are an issue because of other priorities. Those who commented also added to the list of barriers, including relevance of the activities, location, and prior negative experiences. Discussion: With faculty attitudes being positive, the exploration of faculty's perceived barriers to IPE was considered even more important. Identifying these barriers will allow us to modify our IPE activities from large, campus-wide events to smaller activities that are longitudinal in nature, embedded within current curriculum and involving more authentic experiences.

  6. Faculty attitudes about interprofessional education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck Dallaghan, Gary L.; Hoffman, Erin; Lyden, Elizabeth; Bevil, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background Interprofessional education (IPE) is an important component to training health care professionals. Research is limited in exploring the attitudes that faculty hold regarding IPE and what barriers they perceive to participating in IPE. The purpose of this study was to identify faculty attitudes about IPE and to identify barriers to participating in campus-wide IPE activities. Methods A locally used questionnaire called the Nebraska Interprofessional Education Attitudes Scale (NIPEAS) was used to assess attitudes related to interprofessional collaboration. Questions regarding perceived barriers were included at the end of the questionnaire. Descriptive and non-parametric statistics were used to analyze the results in aggregate as well as by college. In addition, open-ended questions were analyzed using an immersion/crystallization framework to identify themes. Results The results showed that faculty had positive attitudes of IPE, indicating that is not a barrier to participating in IPE activities. Most common barriers to participation were scheduling conflicts (χ4,2852=19.17, p=0.001), lack of department support (χ4,2852=10.09, p=0.039), and lack of awareness of events (χ4,2852=26.38, p=0.000). Narrative comments corroborated that scheduling conflicts are an issue because of other priorities. Those who commented also added to the list of barriers, including relevance of the activities, location, and prior negative experiences. Discussion With faculty attitudes being positive, the exploration of faculty's perceived barriers to IPE was considered even more important. Identifying these barriers will allow us to modify our IPE activities from large, campus-wide events to smaller activities that are longitudinal in nature, embedded within current curriculum and involving more authentic experiences. PMID:27357910

  7. The role of quality of care and attitude towards disability in the relationship between severity of disability and quality of life: findings from a cross-sectional survey among people with physical disability in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Qiao-Lan; Tian, Qi; Hao, Chun; Gu, Jing; Lucas-Carrasco, Ramona; Tao, Jian-Ting; Liang, Zuo-Yi; Chen, Xin-Lin; Fang, Ji-Qian; Ruan, Jian-Hua; Ai, Qiu-Xiang; Hao, Yuan-Tao

    2014-01-01

    Background People with physical disability (PWPD) is the largest subgroup of people with disability (PWD) in China, but few studies have been conducted among this vulnerable population. The objective of this study was to investigate the level of quality of life (QoL), self-perceived quality of care and support (QOCS), severity of disability and personal attitude towards disability among people with physical disability in China, as well as to identify how QoL can be affected by severity of dis...

  8. The role of quality of care and attitude towards disability in the relationship between severity of disability and quality of life: findings from a cross-sectional survey among people with physical disability in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Qiao-Lan; Tian, Qi; Hao, Chun; Gu, Jing; Lucas-Carrasco, Ramona; Tao, Jian-Ting; Liang, Zuo-Yi; Chen, Xin-Lin; Fang, Ji-Qian; Ruan, Jian-Hua; Ai, Qiu-Xiang; Hao, Yuan-Tao

    2014-01-01

    Background: People with physical disability (PWPD) is the largest subgroup of people with disability (PWD) in China, but few studies have been conducted among this vulnerable population. The objective of this study was to investigate the level of quality of life (QoL), self-perceived quality of care and support (QOCS), severity of disability and personal attitude towards disability among people with physical disability in China, as well as to identify how QoL can be affected by severity of di...

  9. Adolescents' reported hearing symptoms and attitudes toward loud music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landälv, Daniel; Malmström, Lennart; Widén, Stephen E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the adolescents' attitudes toward loud music in relation to a set of self-perceived auditory symptoms and psychological variables such as norms, preparedness to take risks and risk-judgment in noisy situations. A questionnaire on hearing and preventive behavior was distributed to 281 upper secondary school students aged 15-19 years. The questionnaire included youth attitude to noise scale, questions about perceived hearing symptoms such as tinnitus and sound sensitivity and finally statements on perceived behavioral norms regarding hearing protection use, risk-taking and risk-judgment in noisy settings. Self-perceived auditory symptoms such as sound sensitivity and permanent tinnitus had a significant relationship with less tolerant attitudes toward loud music. Permanent tinnitus and sound sensitivity together accounted for 15.9% of the variation in attitudes toward loud music. Together with the psychological variables norms, preparedness to take risks and risk-judgment 48.0% of the variation in attitudes could be explained. Although perceived hearing symptoms (sound sensitivity and permanent tinnitus) was associated with less tolerant attitudes toward loud music, psychological variables such as norms, preparedness to take risks and risk-judgment were found to be more strongly associated with attitudes toward loud music and should therefore be considered more in future preventive work. Health promotive strategies should focus on changing not merely individual attitudes, but also societal norms and regulations in order to decrease noise induced auditory symptoms among adolescents.

  10. Adolescents′ reported hearing symptoms and attitudes toward loud music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Landälv

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the adolescents′ attitudes toward loud music in relation to a set of self-perceived auditory symptoms and psychological variables such as norms, preparedness to take risks and risk-judgment in noisy situations. A questionnaire on hearing and preventive behavior was distributed to 281 upper secondary school students aged 15-19 years. The questionnaire included youth attitude to noise scale, questions about perceived hearing symptoms such as tinnitus and sound sensitivity and finally statements on perceived behavioral norms regarding hearing protection use, risk-taking and risk-judgment in noisy settings. Self-perceived auditory symptoms such as sound sensitivity and permanent tinnitus had a significant relationship with less tolerant attitudes toward loud music. Permanent tinnitus and sound sensitivity together accounted for 15.9% of the variation in attitudes toward loud music. Together with the psychological variables norms, preparedness to take risks and risk-judgment 48.0% of the variation in attitudes could be explained. Although perceived hearing symptoms (sound sensitivity and permanent tinnitus was associated with less tolerant attitudes toward loud music, psychological variables such as norms, preparedness to take risks and risk-judgment were found to be more strongly associated with attitudes toward loud music and should therefore be considered more in future preventive work. Health promotive strategies should focus on changing not merely individual attitudes, but also societal norms and regulations in order to decrease noise induced auditory symptoms among adolescents.

  11. Energy vulnerability relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, B.R.; Boesen, J.L.

    1998-02-01

    The US consumption of crude oil resources has been a steadily growing indicator of the vitality and strength of the US economy. At the same time import diversity has also been a rapidly developing dimension of the import picture. In the early 1970`s, embargoes of crude oil from Organization of Producing and Exporting Countries (OPEC) created economic and political havoc due to a significant lack of diversity and a unique set of economic, political and domestic regulatory circumstances. The continued rise of imports has again led to concerns over the security of our crude oil resource but threats to this system must be considered in light of the diversity and current setting of imported oil. This report develops several important issues concerning vulnerability to the disruption of oil imports: (1) The Middle East is not the major supplier of oil to the United States, (2) The US is not vulnerable to having its entire import stream disrupted, (3) Even in stable countries, there exist vulnerabilities to disruption of the export stream of oil, (4) Vulnerability reduction requires a focus on international solutions, and (5) DOE program and policy development must reflect the requirements of the diverse supply. Does this increasing proportion of imported oil create a {open_quotes}dependence{close_quotes}? Does this increasing proportion of imported oil present a vulnerability to {open_quotes}price shocks{close_quotes} and the tremendous dislocations experienced during the 1970`s? Finally, what is the vulnerability of supply disruptions from the current sources of imported oil? If oil is considered to be a finite, rapidly depleting resource, then the answers to these questions must be {open_quotes}yes.{close_quotes} However, if the supply of oil is expanding, and not limited, then dependence is relative to regional supply sources.

  12. Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan describes the Department of Energy`s response to the vulnerabilities identified in the Plutonium Working Group Report which are a result of the cessation of nuclear weapons production. The responses contained in this document are only part of an overall, coordinated approach designed to enable the Department to accelerate conversion of all nuclear materials, including plutonium, to forms suitable for safe, interim storage. The overall actions being taken are discussed in detail in the Department`s Implementation Plan in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1. This is included as Attachment B.

  13. Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan describes the Department of Energy's response to the vulnerabilities identified in the Plutonium Working Group Report which are a result of the cessation of nuclear weapons production. The responses contained in this document are only part of an overall, coordinated approach designed to enable the Department to accelerate conversion of all nuclear materials, including plutonium, to forms suitable for safe, interim storage. The overall actions being taken are discussed in detail in the Department's Implementation Plan in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1. This is included as Attachment B

  14. SOCIAL COMPETENCE AND PSYCHOLOGICAL VULNERABILITY: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF FLOURISHING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Recep

    2015-10-01

    This study examined whether flourishing mediated the social competence and psychological vulnerability. Participants were 259 university students (147 women, 112 men; M age = 21.3 yr., SD = 1.7) who completed the Turkish versions of the Perceived Social Competence Scale, the Flourishing Scale, and the Psychological Vulnerability Scale. Mediation models were tested using the bootstrapping method to examine indirect effects. Consistent with the hypotheses, the results indicated a positive relationship between social competence and flourishing, and a negative relationship between social competence and psychological vulnerability. Results of the bootstrapping method revealed that flourishing significantly mediated the relationship between social competence and psychological vulnerability. The significance and limitations of the results were discussed. PMID:26340049

  15. Looming vulnerability to threat: a cognitive paradigm for anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskind, J H

    1997-08-01

    The concept that perceived threat or danger is a cognitive antecedent of anxiety is central in clinical psychology, personality psychology, and social psychology. The aim in the current article is to review this concept and present a new conception called the looming vulnerability model. Looming vulnerability is conceptualized as an important cognitive component of threat or danger that elicits anxiety, sensitizes the individual to signs of movement and threat, biases cognitive processing, and makes the anxiety more persistent and less likely to habituate. In addition, it is postulated as a principal theme that discriminates anxiety and focal fears from depression. The looming vulnerability model integrates a disparate collection of findings and integrates the conceptualization of anxiety and fear with ethological and developmental observations. The social-cognitive and evolutionary basis of the sense of looming vulnerability are discussed, as well as its roots in cognitive schemata (fear scripts), its state elicitation by several potential classes of antecedent conditions, and possible treatment implications.

  16. Faculty Attitudes toward Male Revenue and Nonrevenue Student-Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrom, Cathy McHugh; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study of attitudes of a random sample of faculty at a major, public, research university in the East indicated that faculty perceived male revenue and nonrevenue athletes negatively in situations dealing with athletic competence, special services, and recognition. (JPS)

  17. Perceived Peers' Internet Overuse Behavior, Attitude on Internet Overuse, Pressures of Internet Using and College Students' Internet Addiction%同伴网络过度使用行为和态度、网络使用同伴压力与大学生网络成瘾的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锦涛; 陈超; 刘凤娥; 邓林园; 方晓义

    2012-01-01

    Based on Bandura theory of social learning and related theories about effect of peer norms, a cross- sectional study was conducted in Beijing to explore the relationship between Perceived Peers' Internet Overuse Behavior, attitude on Internet Overuse, pressures of Internet using and College students' Internet addiction. 3049 college students from two universities in Beijing city were invited to fulfill the questionnaire about the peers' Internet overuse behaviors, attitude on Internet overuse, pressures when they using Internet and Internet addiction level. Structural equation model were used to explore the affect mechanism of peers' pressures on the relationship between peers' Internet overuse behavior and attitude and Internet addiction. The results showed that: (1) Compared to Internet non-addicts, Internet addicts among college students perceived more Internet overuse behaviors and higher pressure from peers, and more positive attitudes about Internet overuse. (2) College students perceived peers' Internet overuse behaviors and attitude on Internet overuse; pressures of Internet using were positively correlated to Internet addiction. (3) Peers' lnternet overuse behaviors not only have a direct effect on college students' Internet addiction, but also have an indirect effect on Internet addiction through peers' pressure; meanwhile, Peers' attitude on Internet overuse can' t predict college students' Internet addiction directly, but have an indirect effect on Internet addiction through peers' pressure. Conclusion: Peers' pressure play a partial mediation effect on the relationship between Peers' Internet overuse behaviors and college students' Internet addiction level. Meanwhile, peers' pressures play a full mediation effect on the relationship between Peers' attitude on Internet overuse and college students' Internet addiction level.%基于社会学习理论和同伴规范影响理论,通过整群取样的方法从北京市两所高校中共选取3068名大一

  18. Clinicians’ Attitudes Toward Therapeutic Alliance in ETherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Madalina, Sucala; Julie B., Schnur; Emily H., Brackman; Michael J., Constantino; Guy H., Montgomery

    2013-01-01

    Although therapeutic alliance is a crucial factor in face-to-face therapies, no data exist on clinicians’ attitudes towards alliance in E-therapy. The study explored clinicians’ perceived importance of alliance in E-therapy, clinicians’ confidence in their skills to develop alliance in E-therapy, and whether attitudes towards alliance in E-therapy are associated with intended E-therapy practice. Clinicians (n=106) responded to an online survey. The majority of clinicians considered alliance t...

  19. Learning Chemistry at the University level : Student attitudes, motivation, and design of the learning environment

    OpenAIRE

    Anders Berg

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of the research this thesis is based upon was to study students’ attitudes towards learning chemistry at university level and their motivation from three perspectives. How can students’ attitudes towards learning chemistry be assessed? How can these attitudes be changed? How are learning situations experienced by students with different attitude positions? An attitude questionnaire, assessing views of knowledge, learning assessments, laboratory activities, and perceived roles...

  20. Does exposure to music videos predict adolescents’ sexual attitudes?

    OpenAIRE

    Beentjes, J.W.J.; Konig, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether exposure to music videos predicts adolescents' sexual attitudes when controlled for relevant characteristics of individuals and their social environment. Sexual attitudes are related to their music video use (i.e. exposure to music videos, peer group talk about music videos, and perceived realism of these videos), personal factors and the sexual norms they perceive in their social environment (i.e. sexual norms of their parents and friends). A survey among Dutc...

  1. Vulnerable pregnant women in antenatal practice: caregiver's perception of workload, associated burden and agreement with objective caseload, and the influence of a structured organization of antenatal risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, N. de; Venekamp, A.A.; Torij, H.W.; Lambregtse - Berg, M.P. van den; Bonsel, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy care for vulnerable women is often perceived as a burden by caregivers as vulnerable clients require complex case management, additional time, and more often show adverse perinatal outcomes. Vulnerable clients bring about additional work strain for the caregiver, especially when the worklo

  2. Beyond 'vulnerable groups': contexts and dynamics of vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Zarowsky; S. Haddad; V.K. Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews approaches to vulnerability in public health, introducing a series of 10 papers addressing vulnerability in health in Africa. We understand vulnerability as simultaneously a condition and a process. Social inequalities are manifest in and exacerbate three key dimensions of vulnera

  3. Perceived Achievement Limitations and Deviance-Proneness among Rural Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookherjee, Harsha N.

    The study's purpose was to determine the degree to which homogeneous rural youths living in an economically impoverished region might be vulnerable to anomia, powerlessness, and deviance given varying levels of perceived limitations in opportunity and self-ability. Comparative data relative to earlier studies in rural areas was also provided.…

  4. Attitudes toward vaccination and the H1N1 vaccine: poor people's unfounded fears or legitimate concerns of the elite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti-Watel, Patrick; Raude, Jocelyn; Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Constant, Aymery; Verger, Pierre; Beck, François

    2014-05-01

    In 2009-2010, the H1N1 episode occurred in a general context of decreasing public confidence in vaccination. We assumed opposition to vaccination in general to be an 'unfounded fear', reflecting ignorance and perceived vulnerability among low-socioeconomic status (SES) people, and opposition to the H1N1 vaccine a 'legitimate concern' reflecting the elite's commitment to 'risk culture' in a 'risk society'. We indirectly tested these assumptions by investigating the socioeconomic profiles associated with opposition to vaccination in general and opposition to the H1N1 vaccine specifically. Our second aim was to determine whether or not opposition to the H1N1 vaccine fuelled opposition to vaccination in general. We used data from a telephone survey conducted in 2009-2010 among a random sample of French people aged 15-79 (N = 9480). Attitudes toward vaccination in general and toward the H1N1 vaccine specifically varied significantly between October 2009 and June 2010 with strong correlation being observed between these attitudes throughout the whole period. In multivariable analysis attitudes toward vaccination in general remained a significant predictor of attitudes to the H1N1 vaccine and vice versa, for distinct profiles as follows: males, older people, low-SES people for opposition to vaccination in general, versus females, people aged 35-49 and those with an intermediate SES for opposition to the H1N1 vaccine. Results also differed regarding indicators of social vulnerability, proximity to preventive medicine and vaccination history. The first profile supported the "unfounded fears expressed by low-SES people" hypothesis, while the second echoed previous work related to middle-classes' "healthism". Opposition to vaccination should not be reduced to irrational reactions reflecting ignorance or misinformation and further research is needed to acquire a greater understanding of the motives of opponents.

  5. Fuzzy vulnerability matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The so-called vulnerability matrix is used in the evaluation part of the probabilistic safety assessment for a nuclear power plant, during the containment event trees calculations. This matrix is established from what is knows as Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement. This matrix is usually established with numerical values obtained with traditional arithmetic using the set theory. The representation of this matrix with fuzzy numbers is much more adequate, due to the fact that the Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement are better represented with linguistic variables, such as 'highly probable', 'probable', 'impossible', etc. In the present paper a methodology to obtain a Fuzzy Vulnerability Matrix is presented, starting from the recommendations on the Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement. (author)

  6. The space of vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Sgarbi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Archi-tecture has lost the reference to its prop “Archi” to develop mostly its “Tecture”: a deceitful form of nihilism, which has given full credit to a hurricane of instruments for which we know no purpose. Any distinction between city and architecture is purely contingent. Contingency is relevant but only in so far as it makes one lose any sense of scale. Many of our cities do not work because our style of life eradicates the sense of hospitality. The city becomes the place where we un-learn how to live together. Hospitality is vulnerability – the construction of vulnerability is the true beauty, the only deterrent against stupidity. Learn to live with the others, to approximate the alterity and its unpredictability. The basic tools of conviviality are the common goods of inter-disciplinarity. Learn to cultivate and educate yourself to phenomenal incompleteness.

  7. Tsunami Risk and Vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Khomarudin, Muhammad Rokhis

    2010-01-01

    The research focuses on providing reliable spatial information in support of tsunami risk and vulnerability assessment within the framework of the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) project. It contributes to three major components of the project: (1) the provision of spatial information on surface roughness as an important parameter for tsunami inundation modeling and hazard assessment; (2) the modeling of population distribution, which is an essential factor in tsunami ...

  8. Student Attitudes toward Biliteracy in a Dual Immersion Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerena, Linda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess students' attitudes toward several aspects of biliteracy within the context of a dual immersion program. Attitudes toward perceived competencies in reading in two languages, along with the social and personal values of literacy in each language (English and Spanish), and the personal and social value of…

  9. Engineering Faculty Attitudes to General Chemistry Courses in Engineering Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garip, Mehmet; Erdil, Erzat; Bilsel, Ayhan

    2006-01-01

    A survey on the attitudes of engineering faculty to chemistry, physics, and mathematics was conducted with the aim of clarifying the attitudes of engineering faculty to chemistry courses in relation to engineering education or curricula and assessing their expectations. The results confirm that on the whole chemistry is perceived as having a…

  10. In-Service Science Teachers' Attitude towards Information Communication Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibirige, I.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the attitude of in-service science teachers towards information communication technology (ICT) in education. The study explores the relationship between in-service teachers and four independent variables: their attitudes toward computers; their cultural perception of computers; their perceived computer…

  11. Mapping Vulnerability to Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Heltberg, Rasmus; Bonch-Osmolovskiy, Misha

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a methodology for regional disaggregated estimation and mapping of the areas that are ex-ante the most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and variability and applies it to Tajikistan, a mountainous country highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. The authors construct the vulnerability index as a function of exposure to climate variability and natura...

  12. Peran Sikap, Norma Subjektif, dan Perceived Behavioral Control terhadap Intensi Menggunakan Jasa Klinik Kecantikan

    OpenAIRE

    Rethiza, Rizqa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine the role of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control of the intention of using homeschooling as educational way and the role of each aspect on the intention of using homeschooling service. This study used the quantitative approach using one hundred thirdty two people in Medan City as subject and selected using convenience sampling. The data was displayed through the scale of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behav...

  13. A Study On Students' Attitude Towards Online Shopping In India

    OpenAIRE

    Vipul Patel

    2012-01-01

    To ensure the success of online business, it is important for the retailers to understand their targeted customers. The aim of this study examines the significance of attitude toward online shopping. The objective of the study was to determine relationship between utilitarian orientation, hedonic orientation and perceived benefits with attitude toward online shopping. A five-level Likert scale was used to determine students' attitudes towards online shopping. A self-administered que...

  14. Framing (implicitly) matters: the role of religion in attitudes toward immigrants and Muslims in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joel; Antalíková, Radka

    2014-12-01

    Denmark is currently experiencing the highest immigration rate in its modern history. Population surveys indicate that negative public attitudes toward immigrants actually stem from attitudes toward their (perceived) Islamic affiliation. We used a framing paradigm to investigate the explicit and implicit attitudes of Christian and Atheist Danes toward targets framed as Muslims or as immigrants. The results showed that explicit and implicit attitudes were more negative when the target was framed as a Muslim, rather than as an immigrant. Interestingly, implicit attitudes were qualified by the participants' religion. Specifically, analyses revealed that Christians demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward immigrants than Muslims. Conversely, Atheists demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward Muslims than Atheists. These results suggest a complex relationship between religion, and implicit and explicit prejudice. Both the religious affiliation of the perceiver and the perceived religious affiliation of the target are key factors in social perception.

  15. Vulnerability assessment of atmospheric environment driven by human impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Shen, Jing; Ding, Feng; Li, Yu; He, Li

    2016-11-15

    Atmospheric environment quality worsening is a substantial threat to public health worldwide, and in many places, air pollution due to the intensification of the human activity is increasing dramatically. However, no studies have been investigated the integration of vulnerability assessment and atmospheric environment driven by human impacts. The objective of this study was to identify and prioritize the undesirable environmental changes as an early warning system for environment managers and decision makers in term of human, atmospheric environment, and social economic elements. We conduct a vulnerability assessment method of atmospheric environment associated with human impact, this method integrates spatial context of Geographic Information System (GIS) tool, multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method, ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operators under the Exposure-Sensitivity- Adaptive Capacity (ESA) framework. Decision makers can find out relevant vulnerability assessment results with different vulnerable attitudes. In the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China, we further applied this developed method and proved it to be reliable and consistent with the China Environmental Status Bulletin. Results indicate that the vulnerability of atmospheric environment in the BTH region is not optimistic, and environment managers should do more about air pollution. Thus, the most appropriate strategic decision and development program of city or state can be picked out assisting by the vulnerable results. PMID:27424115

  16. Vulnerability assessment of atmospheric environment driven by human impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Shen, Jing; Ding, Feng; Li, Yu; He, Li

    2016-11-15

    Atmospheric environment quality worsening is a substantial threat to public health worldwide, and in many places, air pollution due to the intensification of the human activity is increasing dramatically. However, no studies have been investigated the integration of vulnerability assessment and atmospheric environment driven by human impacts. The objective of this study was to identify and prioritize the undesirable environmental changes as an early warning system for environment managers and decision makers in term of human, atmospheric environment, and social economic elements. We conduct a vulnerability assessment method of atmospheric environment associated with human impact, this method integrates spatial context of Geographic Information System (GIS) tool, multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method, ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operators under the Exposure-Sensitivity- Adaptive Capacity (ESA) framework. Decision makers can find out relevant vulnerability assessment results with different vulnerable attitudes. In the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China, we further applied this developed method and proved it to be reliable and consistent with the China Environmental Status Bulletin. Results indicate that the vulnerability of atmospheric environment in the BTH region is not optimistic, and environment managers should do more about air pollution. Thus, the most appropriate strategic decision and development program of city or state can be picked out assisting by the vulnerable results.

  17. Student Athletes' Perceived Barriers to and Preferences for Seeking Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Renee L.; Levy, Jacob J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate attitudes of intercollegiate student athletes regarding their use of counseling services. The authors assessed student athletes' perceived barriers to seeking counseling services and their preferred characteristics of a helping professional. Several barriers to counseling were identified. Results…

  18. Determinants of Student Attitudes toward Team Exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinig, Bruce A.; Horowitz, Ira; Whittenburg, Gene

    2014-01-01

    We examine how student attitudes toward their group, learning method, and perceived development of professional skills are initially shaped and subsequently evolve through multiple uses of team exams. Using a Tobit regression model to analyse a sequence of 10 team quizzes given in a graduate-level tax accounting course, we show that there is an…

  19. Vulnerable population and health status in a neighbourhood in Zaragoza (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Palacio, I; Gil-Lacruz, M; Gil-Lacruz, A I

    2012-11-01

    This paper aims to identify the inter-relationships between the social factors that influence epidemiological patterns in the city neighbourhood of Casablanca, Zaragoza (Spain). Data for a cross-sectional survey were collected between January 2008 and April 2008 from a representative random sample of 1032 residents aged more than 15 years. The study interview contained information scales on healthcare behaviours, treatment evaluation, the number of medical consultations in the weeks pervious to the interview and the perceived health status of the respondents, using The Health Perception Questionnaire. The global index (continuous variable) allowed inferences to be made on the individual's perception of his/her own health. The assessment of social vulnerability was based on the occupational, educational and economic conditions of the interviewees. An individual was considered to belong to a vulnerable subeconomic group if he/she had a personal income of 6000 euros or less; or had no formal education or had been educated up to primary school level only; or was not in paid employment at the time of the interview. A descriptive and comparative analysis of the vulnerable and non-vulnerable population groups for perceived and diagnosed health variables was undertaken using parametric and non-parametric tests. A total of 550 interviewees (53.3%) were considered vulnerable people. Low level of instruction (primary or no education) was the main characteristic of this group (356 subjects, 64.7% of those identified as vulnerable). Binary logistic regression was used to analyse the association between belonging to the vulnerable group and a number of health variables adjusted for gender, age and area of residence. The vulnerable group had worse levels of perceived health even when controlled for gender and area of residence. In Casablanca, the place of residence is an important social stratification indicator reflected in the characteristics of the vulnerable population group

  20. How Perceived Exposure to Environmental Harm Influences Environmental Behavior in Urban China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiaodong; Peterson, M. Nils; Hull, Vanessa; Lu, Chuntian; Hong, Dayong; Liu, Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Rapid environmental degradation in China makes understanding how perceived exposure to environmental harm influences environmental attitudes and participation in pro-environmental behaviors among the Chinese people crucial. We used a nation-wide survey dataset in urban China to test two hypotheses: experiencing environmental harm directly affects environmental behavior; environmental attitudes mediate the relationship between experiencing environmental harm and environmental behavior. We foun...

  1. Beyond 'vulnerable groups': contexts and dynamics of vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarowsky, Christina; Haddad, Slim; Nguyen, Vinh-Kim

    2013-03-01

    This paper reviews approaches to vulnerability in public health, introducing a series of 10 papers addressing vulnerability in health in Africa. We understand vulnerability as simultaneously a condition and a process. Social inequalities are manifest in and exacerbate three key dimensions of vulnerability: the initial level of wellbeing, the degree of exposure to risk, and the capacity to manage risk effectively. We stress the dynamic interactions linking material and social deprivation, poverty, powerlessness and ill health: risks or shocks and their health impacts are intimately interconnected and reinforce each other in a cycle which in the absence of effective interventions, increases vulnerability. An inductive process which does not begin with an a priori definition or measurement of 'vulnerability' and which does not assume the existence of fixed 'vulnerable groups' allowed us both to re-affirm core aspects of existing conceptual frameworks, and to engage in new ways with literature specifically addressing vulnerability and resilience at the population level as well as with literature - for example in ecology, and on the concept of frailty in research on aging - with which researchers on health and poverty in Africa may not be familiar. We invite conceptual and empirical work on vulnerability in complex systems frameworks. These perspectives emphasize contexts and nonlinear causality thus supporting analyses of vulnerability and resilience as both markers and emergent properties of dynamic interactions. We accept a working definition of vulnerability, and recognize that some definable groups of people are more likely than others to suffer harm from exposure to health risks. But we suggest that the real work - at both intellectual and policy/political levels - lies in understanding and responding to the dynamics, meanings and power relations underlying actual instances and processes of vulnerability and harm.

  2. Beyond 'vulnerable groups': contexts and dynamics of vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarowsky, Christina; Haddad, Slim; Nguyen, Vinh-Kim

    2013-03-01

    This paper reviews approaches to vulnerability in public health, introducing a series of 10 papers addressing vulnerability in health in Africa. We understand vulnerability as simultaneously a condition and a process. Social inequalities are manifest in and exacerbate three key dimensions of vulnerability: the initial level of wellbeing, the degree of exposure to risk, and the capacity to manage risk effectively. We stress the dynamic interactions linking material and social deprivation, poverty, powerlessness and ill health: risks or shocks and their health impacts are intimately interconnected and reinforce each other in a cycle which in the absence of effective interventions, increases vulnerability. An inductive process which does not begin with an a priori definition or measurement of 'vulnerability' and which does not assume the existence of fixed 'vulnerable groups' allowed us both to re-affirm core aspects of existing conceptual frameworks, and to engage in new ways with literature specifically addressing vulnerability and resilience at the population level as well as with literature - for example in ecology, and on the concept of frailty in research on aging - with which researchers on health and poverty in Africa may not be familiar. We invite conceptual and empirical work on vulnerability in complex systems frameworks. These perspectives emphasize contexts and nonlinear causality thus supporting analyses of vulnerability and resilience as both markers and emergent properties of dynamic interactions. We accept a working definition of vulnerability, and recognize that some definable groups of people are more likely than others to suffer harm from exposure to health risks. But we suggest that the real work - at both intellectual and policy/political levels - lies in understanding and responding to the dynamics, meanings and power relations underlying actual instances and processes of vulnerability and harm. PMID:23549696

  3. CONCEPT ANALYSIS OF PERCEIVED CONTROL

    OpenAIRE

    Mardiyono Mardiyono; Praneed Songwathana; Wongchan Petpichetchian

    2011-01-01

    Background. Perceived control is a personality characteristic that contributes psychological adjustment. It was derived from various theories, so that definitions of perceived control were ambiguous meaning. Disclosing concept of perceived control is required.Objective. The analysis aims to identify definition and use of perceived control, examine the basic attributes of perceived control, and the measurements of perceived control.Method. Databases searched for electronic journals and books t...

  4. Open Source Vulnerability Database Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake Kouns

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the Open Source Vulnerability Database (OSVDB project which manages a global collection of computer security vulnerabilities, available for free use by the information security community. This collection contains information on known security weaknesses in operating systems, software products, protocols, hardware devices, and other infrastructure elements of information technology. The OSVDB project is intended to be the centralized global open source vulnerability collection on the Internet.

  5. Community vulnerability to climate change in the context of other exposure-sensitivities in Kugluktuk, Nunavut

    OpenAIRE

    Prno, Jason; Bradshaw, Ben; Wandel, Johanna; Pearce, Tristan; Smit, Barry; Tozer, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Climate change in the Canadian north is, and will be, managed by communities that are already experiencing social, political, economic and other environmental changes. Hence, there is a need to understand vulnerability to climate change in the context of multiple exposure-sensitivities at the community level. This paper responds to this perceived knowledge need based on a case study of the community of Kugluktuk in Nunavut, Canada. An established approach for vulnerability assessment is used ...

  6. Intention, perceived control, and weight loss: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifter, D E; Ajzen, I

    1985-09-01

    Success at attempted weight reduction among college women was predicted on the basis of a theory of planned behavior. At the beginning of a 6-week period, participants expressed their attitudes, subjective norms, perceived control, and intentions with respect to losing weight. In addition, the extent to which they had made detailed weight reduction plans was assessed, as were a number of general attitudes and personality factors. In support of the theory, intentions to lose weight were accurately predicted on the basis of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived control; perceived control and intentions were together moderately successful in predicting the amount of weight that participants actually lost over the 6-week period. Actual weight loss was also found to increase with development of a plan and with ego strength, factors that were assumed to increase control over goal attainment. Other factors, such as health locus of control, perceived competence, and action control, were found to be unrelated to weight reduction. PMID:4045706

  7. Four questions on European consumers' attitudes to the use of genetic modification in food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone; Scholderer, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    Four questions on European consumers' attitudes to the use of genetic modification (GM) in food production are posed and answered: (1) how negative are consumer attitudes to GM applications in food production? (2) How do these attitudes affect perception of and preference for products involving GM...... guide the perception of food products involving the use of GM and lead to a range of sweeping negative associations which overshadow potential benefits perceived, that these negative attitudes are embedded in a system of more general attitudes, especially attitude to nature, to technology...... applications? (3) How deeply rooted are these attitudes? (4) Will the attitudes change due to more information andyor product experience? Drawing on two major studies researching these questions, it is concluded that consumer attitudes towards GM in food production are negative, that these negative attitudes...

  8. Correlates of Perceived Smoking Prevalence Among Korean American Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrada, Christian J; Unger, Jennifer B; Huh, Jimi

    2016-10-01

    Perceived smoking prevalence, a strong predictor of actual smoking behavior, may be influenced by the ethnicity and gender of the reference group presented to Korean American emerging adults. Self-identifying Korean and Korean Americans aged 18-25 (N = 475), were invited to complete a 15-20 min online survey about their attitudes towards smoking. Predictors of perceived smoking prevalence were evaluated separately for four reference groups: Caucasian Americans, Korean Americans in general, Korean American men, and Korean American women. Respondents' smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for all reference groups except Caucasian Americans, even among light smokers. Father's smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for Korean American men, only among females respondents. Findings suggest that ethnicity and gender of both the reference group and respondents influence smoking rate estimates. Tailoring intervention content to the target population's gender and ethnicity may be a way to enhance smoking prevention strategies. PMID:27075031

  9. Perceived overqualification and its outcomes: the moderating role of empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Berrin; Bauer, Talya N

    2009-03-01

    Research shows that perceived overqualification is related to lower job attitudes and greater withdrawal behaviors but to higher supervisor ratings of performance. Drawing upon relative deprivation theory, the authors proposed and tested empowerment as a moderator of the relationship between perceived overqualification and job satisfaction, intentions to remain, voluntary turnover, and objective sales performance to examine if negative outcomes could be lessened while stimulating even higher performance. Hierarchical linear modeling results from a sample of 244 sales associates working in 25 stores of a Turkish retail chain show that empowerment ameliorated the negative effects of perceived overqualification on job satisfaction, intentions to remain, and voluntary turnover. Empowerment did not affect the positive relationship between perceived overqualification and objective sales performance. PMID:19271809

  10. Perceived positions determine crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maus, Gerrit W; Fischer, Jason; Whitney, David

    2011-01-01

    Crowding is a fundamental bottleneck in object recognition. In crowding, an object in the periphery becomes unrecognizable when surrounded by clutter or distractor objects. Crowding depends on the positions of target and distractors, both their eccentricity and their relative spacing. In all previous studies, position has been expressed in terms of retinal position. However, in a number of situations retinal and perceived positions can be dissociated. Does retinal or perceived position determine the magnitude of crowding? Here observers performed an orientation judgment on a target Gabor patch surrounded by distractors that drifted toward or away from the target, causing an illusory motion-induced position shift. Distractors in identical physical positions led to worse performance when they drifted towards the target (appearing closer) versus away from the target (appearing further). This difference in crowding corresponded to the difference in perceived positions. Further, the perceptual mislocalization was necessary for the change in crowding, and both the mislocalization and crowding scaled with drift speed. The results show that crowding occurs after perceived positions have been assigned by the visual system. Crowding does not operate in a purely retinal coordinate system; perceived positions need to be taken into account.

  11. Perceived positions determine crowding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit W Maus

    Full Text Available Crowding is a fundamental bottleneck in object recognition. In crowding, an object in the periphery becomes unrecognizable when surrounded by clutter or distractor objects. Crowding depends on the positions of target and distractors, both their eccentricity and their relative spacing. In all previous studies, position has been expressed in terms of retinal position. However, in a number of situations retinal and perceived positions can be dissociated. Does retinal or perceived position determine the magnitude of crowding? Here observers performed an orientation judgment on a target Gabor patch surrounded by distractors that drifted toward or away from the target, causing an illusory motion-induced position shift. Distractors in identical physical positions led to worse performance when they drifted towards the target (appearing closer versus away from the target (appearing further. This difference in crowding corresponded to the difference in perceived positions. Further, the perceptual mislocalization was necessary for the change in crowding, and both the mislocalization and crowding scaled with drift speed. The results show that crowding occurs after perceived positions have been assigned by the visual system. Crowding does not operate in a purely retinal coordinate system; perceived positions need to be taken into account.

  12. HIV vulnerability and condom use among migrant women factory workers in Puebla, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Tamil; Pelcastre, Blanca Estela

    2010-06-01

    International migration is associated with increased HIV vulnerability, but little is known about the vulnerability of internal migrants. This qualitative study explored perceptions of HIV and condom use among Mexican migrant female factory workers. Migration and male sexual infidelity contributed to increased HIV vulnerability and unprotected sex was ubiquitous. The dominant cultural discourse that dichotomizes "good" (monogamous) and "bad" (sexually stigmatized) women, and male partner's resistance, were barriers to condom use. Women's positive attitudes toward the dual protection (pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections) offered by condoms and sexual agency expressed by refusing unwanted sexual contact are resources for HIV prevention.

  13. Processes underlying the effects of adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material: the role of perceived realism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Peter; P.M. Valkenburg

    2010-01-01

    Although research has repeatedly demonstrated a link between adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) and sexual attitudes, the processes underlying this association are not well understood. More specifically, studies have pointed to a mediating role of perceived realism,

  14. Food Poisioning Typicality in Food Safety Vulnerable Area of Indonesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AdilBasukiAhza

    2001-01-01

    Food poisoning characteristics and patterns were studied in six vulnerable provinces of Indonesia to identify the typicality of food poisonings.Units of analysis were district level,gender,type of food,and place of events,using the data of incidence of food poisoning from 1987to 1998 period(ten year),Multivariate analysis and bi-plot technique were used to characterize the vulnerability of the areas based on the following variables:(1) time of symptom perceived,(2) number of cases for each kind of poison,(3) incidence of chemicals poisoning,and (4)incidence the microbial poisonings,It was found that the three provinces most vulnerable to food poisoning are Central Java,West Java and Jogyakarta.The causes of food poisoning incidence are microbial poisonings(49.36%),chemicals(24.50%),natural toxicant(4.66%),and other causes or indications(21.37%),The poisoning symptoms were perceived within 1.0-144 hrs with incubation time of 0.08 to 33.00 hrs after food intake,depedn on the type of poison.The type of foods that caused poisoning are family prepared foods(30.57%),preserved food(industrial products) (29.94%),food from catering services(21.66%),traditional foods(10.83%) and street foods(7.00%),WOmen are more vulnerable(67.84)than men(32.16%),The most vulnerable places for food poisoning are respectively at home(family)(44.16%),at workplaces (16.23%),party venue(14.29%),school(12.99%),and in public places(12.34%).The results lead to the urgent needs of a better formulation,more stringent food control policy and regulation at district levels,the use of different approach towards a more locally oriented food poisoning safety measures and actions.

  15. Attitudes toward Counterfeit Products and Generation Differentia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Heidarzadeh Hanzaee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given growth in international trade in counterfeit products and whereas Consumers are the actual forces behind this counterfeiting trade, so, the study focuses on the demand side of counterfeiting, identifying and examining factors influencing on attitude of consumers of non-deceptive counterfeiting in terms of differences generations in Iran, second most populous country among the countries of Middle East. In this study, based on the four generation and the revolution in Iran, the generations are divided into two generations: combination generation and Y generation and also,Conceptual framework of the study emphasizes that Perceived Risk, Risk Averseness, Price-Quality preference, Subjective Norm, Integrity, Personal Gratification could affect on attitudes toward counterfeit products. Results of SEM from samples of combination generation (52.43% and Y generation (47.57 indicate that perceived risk and risk averseness have negative impact on attitudes toward counterfeit products and Personal Gratification no impact on it under both of generations but other variables have differences impacts on attitudes. Also in both of generations, the results indicated that attitudes toward counterfeit products are positively related to behavior intentions. Drawing on the results of the research, the researchers suggest that it may be necessary for the marketing practices for these two generations differ.

  16. Rape Myth Consistency and Gender Differences in Perceiving Rape Victims: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, Jericho M; Smith, Sara J; Klausing, Cathleen D; Saucier, Donald A

    2016-02-01

    An overview discusses feminist analyses of oppression, attitudes toward rape victims, and previously studied predictors of individuals' attitudes toward rape victims. To better understand such attitudes, this meta-analysis examines the moderating influences of various rape victim, perpetrator, and crime characteristics' rape myth consistency on gender differences in individuals' perceptions of rape victims (i.e., victim responsibility and blame attributions and rape minimizing attitudes). Consistent with feminist theoretical predictions, results indicated that, overall, men perceived rape victims more negatively than women did. However, this sex difference was moderated by the rape myth consistency within the rape vignettes. Implications for research are discussed. PMID:26446194

  17. Targeting the vulnerable in emergency situations: who is vulnerable?

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, A

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emergencies such as wars and natural disasters increase the vulnerability of affected populations and expose these populations to risks such as disease, violence, and hunger. Emergency public health interventions aim to mitigate these effects by providing basic minimum requirements, reducing vulnerability, and reducing exposure to risk. Targeted services are generally aimed at children under 5. Mortality rates among young children are higher than the crude mortality rate (CMR) amo...

  18. Safeguard Vulnerability Analysis Program (SVAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report gives an overview of the Safeguard Vulnerability Analysis Program (SVAP) developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. SVAP was designed as an automated method of analyzing the safeguard systems at nuclear facilities for vulnerabilities relating to the theft or diversion of nuclear materials. SVAP addresses one class of safeguard threat: theft or diversion of nuclear materials by nonviolent insiders, acting individually or in collusion. SVAP is a user-oriented tool which uses an interactive input medium for preprocessing the large amounts of safeguards data. Its output includes concise summary data as well as detailed vulnerability information

  19. Poverty and Vulnerability - An Interdisciplinary Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Makoka, Donald; Kaplan, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the concepts of poverty and vulnerability as well as the interconnections and differences between them using an interdisciplinary approach. While poverty is a static concept, vulnerability has a forward-looking dimension. We, therefore, review the methodologies that different disciplines use to measure poverty and vulnerability. In particular, the differences between vulnerability to natural disasters, vulnerability to climate change, as well as vulnerability to poverty a...

  20. Pervasive Vulnerabilities: Sexual Harassment in School. Adolescent Cultures, School, and Society. Volume 54

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Regina; Liston, Delores D.

    2012-01-01

    "Pervasive Vulnerabilities" explores the beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors of adolescent girls and boys and female teachers in order to expose the continuing persistence of sexual harassment in the United States. The book addresses the sexual double standard that continues to hold girls and women accountable for male sexual aggression, and…

  1. A Mobile Banking Adoption Model in the Jordanian Market: An Integration of TAM with Perceived Risks and Perceived Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasawneh MH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although consumer perceptions of the risks of adopting e-banking have been studied by many researchers, the perceived risk variable has only been examined as a single construct, which fails to reveal the actual attributes of perceived risk and clarify why consumers refuse to use such banking services. In order to provide a more comprehensive clarification of the perceived risks of adopting m-banking in Jordan, a more in-depth study of the characteristics of the perceived risks was conducted. The current research is designed to integrate the five dimensions of the perceived risk with the TAM in order to present a more comprehensive model of m-banking acceptance and adoption in Jordan. As such, a conceptual model and 8 hypotheses are tested with a sample of 404 mobile phone users, and analysed quantitatively. The findings of the current study provided support for the research model and for most of the hypotheses regarding the relationship among the model’s variables. In particular, the research model presented in this paper is unique in that it synergistically combines the TAM variables along with perceived benefits, the various dimensions of perceived risks, attitude and behavioral intention in evaluating the decision to adopt m-Banking.

  2. Region 9 - Social Vulnerability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Social Vulnerability Index is derived from the 2000 US Census data. The fields included are percent minority, median household income, age (under 18 and over...

  3. CDC's Social Vulnerability Index (SVI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Social vulnerability refers to the resilience of communities when confronted by external stresses on human health, stresses such as natural or human-caused...

  4. Karst groundwaters vulnerability assessment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Vlaicu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A major socio-economic and scientific issue is represented by karst hydrostructures vulnerability mapping, which qualitatively and quantitatively highlights their exposure degree. Two research trends have been developed, one taking into account the environment features exclusively – the aquifer and protective cover type, permeability, aquifer depth, recharge rate, etc. (intrinsic vulnerability, the other focused on the types and quantities of pollutants (specific vulnerability. MAGIERA (2000 described and compared 69 methods, grouped in 5 types: hydrogeological complex and setting methods, index models and analogical relations (AF, AVI, Ekv, ΔhT’, parametric system models (DRASTIC, DWSAP, SINTACS, EPPNA, GOD, EPIK, REKS, PI, GSI, GLA, mathematical models (VULK, FAVA and statistical methods (CALVUL. However, it is also possible to classify the methods on the basis of other criteria, such as scale (local, regional, national, aim (land use planning, protection zoning, site assessment and target (source or resource vulnerability.

  5. Perceived and actual similarities in biological and adoptive families: does perceived similarity bias genetic inferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarr, S; Scarf, E; Weinberg, R A

    1980-09-01

    Critics of the adoption method to estimate the relative effects of genetic and environmental differences on behavioral development claim that important biases are created by the knowledge of biological relatedness or adoptive status. Since the 1950s, agency policy has led to nearly all adopted children knowing that they are adopted. To test the hypothesis that knowledge of biological or adoptive status influences actual similarity, we correlated absolute differences in objective test scores with ratings of similarity by adolescents and their parents in adoptive and biological families. Although biological family members see themselves as more similar than adoptive family members, there are also important generational and gender differences in perceived similarity that cut across family type. There is moderate agreement among family members on the degree of perceived similarity, but there is no correlation between perceived and actual similarity in intelligence or temperament. However, family members are more accurate about shared social attitudes. Knowledge of adoptive or biological relatedness is related to the degree of perceived similarity, but perceptions of similarity are not related to objective similarities and thus do not constitute a bias in comparisons of measured differences in intelligence or temperament in adoptive and biological families.

  6. Vulnerability Assessments in Ethical Hacking

    OpenAIRE

    Ashiqur Rahman ,; Md. SarwarAlam Rasel; Asaduzzaman Noman; Shakh Md. Alimuzjaman Alim

    2016-01-01

    Ethical hackers use the same methods and techniques to test and bypass a system's defenses as their less-principled counterparts, but rather than taking advantage of any vulnerabilities found, they document them and provide actionable advice on how to fix them so the organization can improve its overall security. The purpose of ethical hacking is to evaluate the security of a network or system's infrastructure. It entails finding and attempting to exploit any vulnerabilities to de...

  7. Estrés laboral en profesores de enseñanza secundaria: examinando el papel de las conductas y/o actitudes problemáticas de los alumnos y la dificultad percibida en el manejo de conflictos. Occupational stress in secondary school teachers: examining the role of students’ disruptive behaviour and/or attitudes and the perceived difficulty in conflict management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Santiago

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    En este trabajo se examina, en función de distintas variables sociodemográficas y ocupacionales (sexo, edad, experiencia profesional, ciclo de docencia, no sólo el papel de las conductas y/o actitudes problemáticas de los alumnos, sino también las dificultades percibidas por los profesores en el manejo de conflictos. Los resultados obtenidos, a partir de una muestra de 1.386 docentes de ESO, permiten concluir que ambos tipos de estresores diferencian válidamente en función de las variables sociodemográficas y ocupacionales. Concretamente, el estrés asociado a los problemas de comportamiento de los alumnos y a las dificultades del docente en el manejo de conflictos, incide en mayor medida en las profesoras, en los docentes de segundo ciclo y en aquellas etapas intermedias de la profesión. En definitiva, si estos hallazgos se ratifican en futuras investigaciones, se trataría de diseñar programas preventivos y/o de intervención que sean sensibles a estos factores de riesgo.

    Palabras clave: Estrés, profesores, conductas problema alumnos, manejo conflictos.

    This study examines not only the role of students’ disruptive behaviour and/or attitudes but also the difficulties perceived by teachers in managing conflicts as a function of the different sociodemographic and occupational variables (gender, age, professional experience, teaching cycle. The results obtained from a sample consisting in 1386 ESO teachers allow us to conclude that both types of stressors validly discriminate as a function of sociodemographic and occupational variables. Specifically, the stress associated to students’ disruptive behaviour and to the difficulties faced by teachers in managing conflict has a greater incidence on female teachers, on second cycle teachers and on intermediate stages in the profession. If these findings are corroborated by further research, it would be important to design prevention and/or intervention programmes that are

  8. Factors influencing stakeholders attitudes toward genetically modified aedes mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Latifah; Hashim, Hasrizul

    2015-06-01

    Dengue fever is a debilitating and infectious disease that could be life-threatening. It is caused by the dengue virus which affects millions of people in the tropical area. Currently, there is no cure for the disease as there is no vaccine available. Thus, prevention of the vector population using conventional methods is by far the main strategy but has been found ineffective. A genetically modified (GM) mosquito is among the favoured alternatives to curb dengue fever in Malaysia. Past studies have shown that development and diffusion of gene technology products depends heavily upon public acceptance. The purpose of this study is to identify the relevant factors influencing stakeholders' attitudes toward the GM Aedes mosquito and to analyse the relationships between all the factors using the structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 509 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Results of the survey have confirmed that public perception towards complex issues such as gene technology should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The perceived benefit-perceived risk balance is very important in determining the most predominant predictor of attitudes toward a GM mosquito. In this study the stakeholders perceived the benefit of the GM mosquito as outweighing its risk, translating perceived benefit as the most important direct predictor of attitudes toward the GM mosquito. Trust in key players has a direct influence on attitudes toward the GM mosquito while moral concern exhibited an indirect influence through perceived benefits. Other factors such as attitudes toward technology and nature were also indirect predictors of attitudes toward the GM mosquito while religiosity and engagement did not exhibited any significant roles. The research findings serve as a useful database to understand public acceptance and the social construct of public attitudes towards the GM mosquito to combat dengue. PMID:24906652

  9. Visualizing disaster attitudes resulting from terrorist activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Halimahtun M; Helander, Martin G; Hood, Nilwan A

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze people's attitudes to disasters by investigating how people feel, behave and think during disasters. We focused on disasters induced by humans, such as terrorist attacks. Two types of textual information were collected - from Internet blogs and from research papers. The analysis enabled forecasting of attitudes for the design of proactive disaster advisory scheme. Text was analyzed using a text mining tool, Leximancer. The outcome of this analysis revealed core themes and concepts in the text concerning people's attitudes. The themes and concepts were sorted into three broad categories: Affect, Behaviour, and Cognition (ABC), and the data was visualized in semantic maps. The maps reveal several knowledge pathways of ABC for developing attitudinal ontologies, which describe the relations between affect, behaviour and cognition, and the sequence in which they develop. Clearly, terrorist attacks induced trauma and people became highly vulnerable.

  10. Attitude theory applied to in-store and online shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Dijst, M.J.; Farag, S.; Schwanen, T.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether our understanding of adoption of e-shopping and instore shopping could be advanced through the application of attitude theory. A shortcoming of the analytical frameworks and models featured in attitude theory is that they do not address the issue of what causes the variation in psychological constructs such as perceived behavioural control. A simplified version of the Extended Model of Goal-directed Behaviour (EMGB) (Perugini & Conner, 2000) was therefor...

  11. Beyond individualised teaching - A Relational Construction of Pedagogical Attitude

    OpenAIRE

    Aspelin, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Teaching is today often described as a matter of adjusting to the individual lives of students. Building on the premises of three educational theories, mainly Martin Buber’s concept of ‘inclusion’, the article aims to confront this idea and show how pedagogical attitude can be perceived from a relational perspective. A model is constructed in which pedagogical attitude is understood as three different types of teacher-student relationships: a) an asymmetric inter-subjective relationship; b) a...

  12. Consumer attitudes and expectations of organic wine

    OpenAIRE

    Stolz, Hanna; Schmid, Otto

    2008-01-01

    Within the European Union-funded research project ORWINE (Organic viticulture and wine-making) a qualitative consumer study was carried out in 2006 in the four case study countries Italy, France, Germany and Switzerland. The aim of the study was to identify consumers’ attitudes and expectations of organic wine. In all case study countries, organic wine has a positive image regarding grape production and wine processing. Furthermore, organic wine is perceived as being healthier compared to con...

  13. Attitudes towards inclusive education in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Gorban, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The paper looks at the factors affecting people’s attitudes towards inclusive education — a practice of educating children with special needs jointly with the «ordinary» children. The analysis uses the data from a pilot survey in four Russian regions which covered people with three different types of disability, as well as general population and shows that in general, people with different types of disability are perceiving the idea of inclusive education differently. The level of education a...

  14. Labeling Genetically Modified Food Products: Attitudes among the consumers in the United States and United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Rimal, Arbindra; Moon, Wanki; Balasubramanian, Siva K.

    2005-01-01

    Eight perceived attributes of agro-biotechnology were identified to be associated with consumers' attitude toward existing practices of GM food labeling. The perceived negative attributes, particularly health risk from GM food, played a dominant role in shaping the overall attitude toward GM labeling. Female and older respondents were more likely to be concerned about the existing GM labeling practices than male and younger respondents. Consumers with college education were less likely to be ...

  15. Predicting Intention to Take Protective Measures During Haze: The Roles of Efficacy, Threat, Media Trust, and Affective Attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Trisha T C; Bautista, John Robert

    2016-07-01

    The annual Southeast Asian haze pollution raises public health concerns in this region. Based on a modified extended parallel process model, this study examines efficacy (self-efficacy and response efficacy) and perceived threat (susceptibility and severity) and incorporates new constructs of media trust and affective attitude. Results from a Web survey of 410 undergraduate students in Singapore show that response efficacy to seek haze-related information mediates the association between perceived self-efficacy and intention to take protective measures during haze. Moreover, self-efficacy is negatively associated with affective attitude (e.g., fear and worry) toward haze-related health problems. Next, perceived severity and perceived susceptibility are positively associated with response efficacy and affective attitude. Affective attitude toward haze is a stronger predictor than response efficacy for behavioral intention. Finally, trust in new media is positively associated with young Singaporeans' affective attitude, which positively affects their behavioral intention to take protective measures. PMID:27315440

  16. Predicting Intention to Take Protective Measures During Haze: The Roles of Efficacy, Threat, Media Trust, and Affective Attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Trisha T C; Bautista, John Robert

    2016-07-01

    The annual Southeast Asian haze pollution raises public health concerns in this region. Based on a modified extended parallel process model, this study examines efficacy (self-efficacy and response efficacy) and perceived threat (susceptibility and severity) and incorporates new constructs of media trust and affective attitude. Results from a Web survey of 410 undergraduate students in Singapore show that response efficacy to seek haze-related information mediates the association between perceived self-efficacy and intention to take protective measures during haze. Moreover, self-efficacy is negatively associated with affective attitude (e.g., fear and worry) toward haze-related health problems. Next, perceived severity and perceived susceptibility are positively associated with response efficacy and affective attitude. Affective attitude toward haze is a stronger predictor than response efficacy for behavioral intention. Finally, trust in new media is positively associated with young Singaporeans' affective attitude, which positively affects their behavioral intention to take protective measures.

  17. Public and Private Language Ideologies as Reflected in Language Attitudes on the Island of Korčula

    OpenAIRE

    Sujoldžić, Anita; Šimičić, Lucija

    2013-01-01

    Since languages are such powerful means of group identification, they may be considered as constitutive of communities. Attitudes expressed toward certain linguistic varieties may thus be perceived as attitudes held toward respective community-members. However, as attitudes are not always easily accessible, and are rarely one-dimensional but rather multi-layered, an insight into overt (publicly proclaimed) and covert (privately held) ideologies can enhance understanding of language attitudes ...

  18. CUSTOMER-PERCEIVED INSECURITY OF ONLINE SHOPPING ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matea Matic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer-perceived insecurity of online shopping environment has become one of the major obstacles to the growth of electronic commerce. The main purpose of this study was to examine the influence of insecurity of Internet usage towards online purchase decision as well as consumers’ attitudes and intentions towards online purchasing. The data was collected through survey questionnaire using the purposive sample of 253 Croatian students from the University of Dubrovnik. Research results indicate a significant relationship between the insecurity of Internet usage and online purchase decision. Additionally, a significant relationship was found between the insecurity of Internet usage and consumers’ attitudes and intentions towards online purchasing. The overall analysis reveals that consumers have positive attitudes and intentions towards online purchasing whilst insecurity towards online purchasing lowers when online purchases are made more frequently.

  19. Extending overjustification: the effect of perceived reward-giver intention on response to rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forehand, M R

    2000-12-01

    The perceived intention model incorporates a new moderator, beliefs about reward-giver intention, into the overjustification paradigm. In 2 simulated shopping studies featuring products paired with promotional rewards, consumers who believed the marketer was promotion focused (reward used to encourage purchase) reported lower purchase intentions and brand attitudes for promoted products after promotion, whereas consumers who believed the marketer was reward focused (promotion used to distribute the reward) showed no attitude change. Promotion-focus beliefs lowered attitudes by heightening the contingency between the promotion and purchase and thereby increasing the perceived causal role of the reward. This effect was contingent on initial behavior--postpromotion attitude change occurred for consumers who actively engaged in product decisions but not for consumers who passively observed the choice sets. PMID:11125656

  20. Transgender youth: invisible and vulnerable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Arnold H; D'Augelli, Anthony R

    2006-01-01

    This study used three focus groups to explore factors that affect the experiences of youth (ages 15 to 21) who identify as transgender. The focus groups were designed to probe transgender youths' experiences of vulnerability in the areas of health and mental health. This involved their exposure to risks, discrimination, marginalization, and their access to supportive resources. Three themes emerged from an analysis of the groups' conversations. The themes centered on gender identity and gender presentation, sexuality and sexual orientation, and vulnerability and health issues. Most youth reported feeling they were transgender at puberty, and they experienced negative reactions to their gender atypical behaviors, as well as confusion between their gender identity and sexual orientation. Youth noted four problems related to their vulnerability in health-related areas: the lack of safe environments, poor access to physical health services, inadequate resources to address their mental health concerns, and a lack of continuity of caregiving by their families and communities. PMID:16893828

  1. CONCEPT ANALYSIS OF PERCEIVED CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiyono Mardiyono

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Perceived control is a personality characteristic that contributes psychological adjustment. It was derived from various theories, so that definitions of perceived control were ambiguous meaning. Disclosing concept of perceived control is required.Objective. The analysis aims to identify definition and use of perceived control, examine the basic attributes of perceived control, and the measurements of perceived control.Method. Databases searched for electronic journals and books that were published from 1994 to 2010 were analyzed.Result. Perceived control is personal belief that refers to controllability on behalf of one’s self and ability to control threats or events. The use of perceived control includes maternal, pediatric, medical, surgical, psychiatric, community nursing, and pain management. Perceived control was composed of two dimensions: belief about controllability and belief about ability to control to threats.Conclusion. Instrument of Anxiety Control Questionnaire most closely corresponds to two dimensions: belief about controllability and ability to control. Defining attributes and dimensions of perceived control are useful for developing tool.Keywords: perceived control, controllability, ability to control, and agency

  2. A THEORY OF CONSUMER’S PERCEIVED RISK UNDER THE HALO EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian-Laurenţiu FLOREA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite being largely tackled by a manifold of sciences, perceived risk is still a rather unclear concept concerning its formation and update. In today’s economy, where poor purchase decisions are so easy to make, consumers have developed mental shields residing in actions based on perceived risk. This paper develops and tests a theory of perceived risk formation under the halo effect, based on correlation analysis in two forms: rankings individuals on their contribution to the correlations increase and partial correlations. Both internal and external halo effects were found, emerging from the perceived risk component – functional risk, financial risk, social risk, physical risk, psychological risk and time risk –, brand attitude, product category attitude, consumer’s regret, others’ regret expressed through word-of-mouth, recency, and awareness of awareness. The intricate halo that was revealed needs further attention from the scientific community in order to better delimit halo sources and, eventually, to explain its variability.

  3. Jail Inmates' Perceived and Anticipated Stigma: Implications for Post-release Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kelly; Stuewig, Jeffrey; Tangney, June

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that offenders perceive stigma, but the accuracy of these perceptions has not been assessed, nor their impact on successful reintegration. In a longitudinal study, jail inmates (N = 168) reported perceptions of stigma toward criminals and anticipated stigma just prior to release. A diverse college sample completed a parallel survey assessing stigmatizing attitudes toward criminals. Inmates' perceived stigma was significantly higher than students' stigmatizing attitudes. Perceived stigma positively predicted post-release employment for African-American inmates, but not for Caucasians. Anticipated stigma negatively predicted arrests for Caucasian inmates, but not for African Americans. Perceived and anticipated stigma may have different implications for reintegration, and these implications may vary across race. PMID:25045324

  4. Chronic stress-induced hippocampal vulnerability: the glucocorticoid vulnerability hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Cheryl D

    2008-01-01

    The hippocampus, a limbic structure important in learning and memory, is particularly sensitive to chronic stress and to glucocorticoids. While glucocorticoids are essential for an effective stress response, their oversecretion was originally hypothesized to contribute to age-related hippocampal degeneration. However, conflicting findings were reported on whether prolonged exposure to elevated glucocorticoids endangered the hippocampus and whether the primate hippocampus even responded to glucocorticoids as the rodent hippocampus did. This review discusses the seemingly inconsistent findings about the effects of elevated and prolonged glucocorticoids on hippocampal health and proposes that a chronic stress history, which includes repeated elevation of glucocorticoids, may make the hippocampus vulnerable to potential injury. Studies are described to show that chronic stress or prolonged exposure to glucocorticoids can compromise the hippocampus by producing dendritic retraction, a reversible form of plasticity that includes dendritic restructuring without irreversible cell death. Conditions that produce dendritic retraction are hypothesized to make the hippocampus vulnerable to neurotoxic or metabolic challenges. Of particular interest is the finding that the hippocampus can recover from dendritic retraction without any noticeable cell loss. When conditions surrounding dendritic retraction are present, the potential for harm is increased because dendritic retraction may persist for weeks, months or even years, thereby broadening the window of time during which the hippocampus is vulnerable to harm, called the 'glucocorticoid vulnerability hypothesis'. The relevance of these findings is discussed with regard to conditions exhibiting parallels in hippocampal plasticity, including Cushing's disease, major depressive disorder (MDD), and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

  5. Attachment Predicts College Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Skills for Working with Infants, Toddlers, and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallotton, Claire D.; Torquati, Julia; Ispa, Jean; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel; Henk, Jennifer; Fusaro, Maria; Peterson, Carla A.; Roggman, Lori A.; Stacks, Ann M.; Cook, Gina; Brophy-Herb, Holly

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Adults' attitudes about attachment relationships are central to how they perceive and respond to children. However, little is known about how attachment styles are related to teachers' attitudes toward and interactions with infants and toddlers. From a survey of 207 students taking early childhood (EC) courses at 4 U.S.…

  6. Protean Attitude and Career Success: The Mediating Role of Self-Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Ans; Soens, Nele

    2008-01-01

    A protean career attitude is considered as an important determinant of career success in the contemporary career era. In this article we test a model in which we specify the relationships between protean career attitude, career self-management behaviors, career insight, and career success outcomes (career satisfaction and perceived employability).…

  7. Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes of Preservice and Inservice Teachers in Educational Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkharusi, Hussain; Kazem, Ali Mahdi; Al-Musawai, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Optimal outcomes of the educational assessment of students require that teachers should have adequate knowledge of, strong skills in, and favourable attitudes toward educational measurement. The present study investigated differences between preservice and inservice teachers' knowledge of, perceived skills in, and attitudes toward educational…

  8. Ethnic Differences in Parental Attitudes and Beliefs about Being Overweight in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigwell, J.; Watson, P. M.; Murphy, R. C.; Stratton, G.; Cable, N. T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between ethnic background and parental views of healthy body size, concerns surrounding overweight and attitudes to perceived causes of overweight in childhood. Method: A self-report questionnaire was designed to explore parental attitudes towards childhood weight. Sampling deliberately…

  9. Managing a network vulnerability assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Peltier, Thomas R; Blackley, John A

    2003-01-01

    Managing a Network Vulnerability Assessment provides a formal framework for finding and eliminating network security threats, ensuring that no vulnerabilities are overlooked. This thorough overview focuses on the steps necessary to successfully manage an assessment, including the development of a scope statement, the understanding and proper use of assessment methodology, the creation of an expert assessment team, and the production of a valuable response report. The book also details what commercial, freeware, and shareware tools are available, how they work, and how to use them.

  10. Vulnerability in north- central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Milhøj, Anders; Nguyen, Thao Phuong

    2015-01-01

    a long term negative effect of floods. The research showed that a high impact of natural disasters is correlated with decreases in income over time. As the disaster relief offered by the authorities is marginal compared to economic losses, some households react by increasing off-farm incomes (including...... the impact of flooding in the provinces. The article ends by looking at the vulnerability-resilience debate concluding that the poorer households could enter a vulnerability loop, unless new strategies to cope with natural hazards are suggested....

  11. Flood insurance in Canada: implications for flood management and residential vulnerability to flood hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulahen, Greg

    2015-03-01

    Insurance coverage of damage caused by overland flooding is currently not available to Canadian homeowners. As flood disaster losses and water damage claims both trend upward, insurers in Canada are considering offering residential flood coverage in order to properly underwrite the risk and extend their business. If private flood insurance is introduced in Canada, it will have implications for the current regime of public flood management and for residential vulnerability to flood hazards. This paper engages many of the competing issues surrounding the privatization of flood risk by addressing questions about whether flood insurance can be an effective tool in limiting exposure to the hazard and how it would exacerbate already unequal vulnerability. A case study investigates willingness to pay for flood insurance among residents in Metro Vancouver and how attitudes about insurance relate to other factors that determine residential vulnerability to flood hazards. Findings indicate that demand for flood insurance is part of a complex, dialectical set of determinants of vulnerability.

  12. Peran Sikap, Norma Subjektif, dan Perceived Behavioral Control (PBC) terhadap Intensi Menggunakan Homeschooling sebagai Jalur Pendidikan

    OpenAIRE

    Surbakti, Ratri Pramuwidyandari

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine the role of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control of the intention of using homeschooling as educational way and the role of each aspect on the intention of using homeschooling service. This study used the quantitative approach method using one hundred people in Medan City as subject and selected using convenience sampling. The data was displayed through the scale of attitude toward homechooling, subjective norm toward homechool...

  13. Improving Communicative Competence with "Clickers": Acceptance/Attitudes among Nigerian Primary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbatogun, Alaba Olaoluwakotansibe

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the predictive power of teachers' perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEU), behavioural intention (BI) to use personal response system (PRS) and computer experience (CE) on teachers' acceptance and attitude towards using PRS in improving communicative competence in the classroom where English is taught…

  14. Correlates of Couples’ Perceived Similarity at the Initiation Stage and Currently

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Sprecher

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although prior research (Montoya, Horton, & Kirchner, 2008 has indicated that perceived similarity is more important than actual similarity as a predictor of satisfaction and attraction, there is a lack of research on factors associated with couples’ perceptions of similarity in their relationship. In the present study, a sample of couples (both partners provided ratings of the degree to which they perceived similarity in six areas (background characteristics, attitudes and beliefs, leisure pursuits and interests, communication style, personality, and physical attributes for two stages in their relationship: currently and at the initiation stage (viewed retrospectively. The couples perceived greater similarity for the current stage of their relationship than for the beginning stage of their relationship. Factors found to be associated with perceived similarity included positive social network reactions, overlap in social networks (predictor of current perceived similarity only, perceived compatibility, and satisfaction and commitment (examined only for current perceived similarity. Of the various types of perceived similarity considered in this study, similarity in attitudes and beliefs was most consistently associated with the various predictor variables. Implications of these results for enhancing couple relationships are discussed.

  15. Students’ Perceived Level of English Proficiency in Secondary Schools in Dodoma, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Lazarus Ndiku Makewa; Elizabeth Role; Ellen Tuguta

    2013-01-01

    This paper looked at students’ perceived level of English proficiency among Dodoma secondary schools in Tanzania. Factors like attitude, anxiety, classroom activities, motivation, and learning resources were considered as influencing English learning. The study was guided by three theories: Input Hypothesis, Inter-language and Vygotsky’s theory of value. Correlation design was used to describe the association between the student and teacher-related factors and students’ perceived level of E...

  16. Teachers’ attitudes towards adolescent sexuality and life skills education in rural South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kelley Alison; Harrison, Abigail

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of 43 teachers and school administrators towards sex education, young people’s sexuality and their communities in 19 secondary schools in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and how these attitudes affect school-based HIV prevention and sex education. In interviews, teachers expressed judgemental attitudes towards young people’s sexuality and pregnant students, and focused on girls’ perceived irresponsible behaviour instead of strategies to minimise HIV ri...

  17. Cognitive vulnerability and dental fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer A John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cognitive Vulnerability Model proposes that perceptions of certain characteristics of a situation are critical determinants of fear. Although the model is applicable to all animal, natural environment and situational fears, it has not yet been applied specifically to dental fear. This study therefore aimed to examine the association between dental fear and perceptions of dental visits as uncontrollable, unpredictable and dangerous. Methods The study used a clustered, stratified national sample of Australians aged 15 years and over. All participants were asked in a telephone interview survey to indicate their level of dental fear. Participants who received an oral examination were subsequently provided with a self-complete questionnaire in which they rated their perceptions of uncontrollability, unpredictability and dangerousness associated with dental visiting. Results 3937 participants were recruited. Each of the three vulnerability-related perceptions was strongly associated with the prevalence of high dental fear. In a logistic regression analysis, uncontrollability and dangerousness perceptions were significantly associated with high dental fear after controlling for age and sex. However, unpredictability perceptions did not have a statistically significant independent association with dental fear after controlling for all other variables. Conclusion Results are mostly consistent with the Cognitive Vulnerability Model of the etiology of fear, with perceptions of uncontrollability, unpredictability and dangerousness each showing a strong bivariate relationship with high dental fear prevalence. However, more extensive measures of vulnerability perceptions would be valuable in future investigations.

  18. Attributions and Attitudes of Mothers and Fathers in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hassan, Suha; Takash, Hanan

    2011-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study examined mean level similarities and differences as well as correlations between mothers' and fathers' attributions regarding successes and failures in caregiving situations and progressive versus authoritarian attitudes in Jordan. DESIGN: Interviews were conducted with both mothers and fathers in 112 families. RESULTS: There were no significant main effects of gender on any of the constructs of interest. Mothers and fathers reported similar levels of attributions regarding uncontrollable success, adult-controlled failure, and child-controlled failure in the same family. Regarding attitudes, mothers and fathers reported greater progressive attitudes than authoritarian attitudes. Large, significant correlations were found for concordance between parents in the same family on all seven attributions and attitudes examined; all remained significant after controlling for parents' age, education, and possible social desirability bias. Significant positive correlations were found for mothers' and fathers' attributions regarding uncontrollable success, adult-controlled failure, child-controlled failure, perceived control over failure, progressive attitudes, authoritarian attitudes, and modernity of attitudes. CONCLUSIONS: This study concluded that in Jordan mothers and fathers hold similar levels of attributions and attitudes.

  19. Perceived racism and suicide ideation: mediating role of depression but moderating role of religiosity among African American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rheeda L; Salami, Temilola K; Carter, Sierra E; Flowers, Kelci

    2014-10-01

    Suicide is a public health problem for African Americans who are young and of working age. The purpose of this study was to examine mediated and moderated effects of perceived racism on suicide ideation in a community sample of 236 African American men and women. Measures of suicide ideation, depression symptoms, intrinsic/extrinsic religiosity, and perceived racism were administered. Perceived racial discrimination was directly and indirectly associated with suicide ideation. For participants who reported low levels of extrinsic religiosity, the mediated effect of perceived racism (via depression symptoms) was significant. These findings provide some insight into suicide vulnerability for specific subgroups of African Americans.

  20. Perceived racism and suicide ideation: mediating role of depression but moderating role of religiosity among African American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rheeda L; Salami, Temilola K; Carter, Sierra E; Flowers, Kelci

    2014-10-01

    Suicide is a public health problem for African Americans who are young and of working age. The purpose of this study was to examine mediated and moderated effects of perceived racism on suicide ideation in a community sample of 236 African American men and women. Measures of suicide ideation, depression symptoms, intrinsic/extrinsic religiosity, and perceived racism were administered. Perceived racial discrimination was directly and indirectly associated with suicide ideation. For participants who reported low levels of extrinsic religiosity, the mediated effect of perceived racism (via depression symptoms) was significant. These findings provide some insight into suicide vulnerability for specific subgroups of African Americans. PMID:24690042

  1. Determinants of Physiological and Perceived Physiological Stress Reactivity in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, B.E.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Euser, A.S.; Tulen, J.H.M.; Franken, I.H.A.; Huizink, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAims:Abnormal physiological stress reactivity is increasingly investigated as a vulnerability marker for various physical and psychological health problems. However, studies are inconsistent in taking into account potential covariates that may influence the developing stress system. We systematically tested determinants (individual, developmental, environmental and substance use-related) of physiological and perceived physiological stress reactivity. We also examined the relation ...

  2. Bingeing, Purging, and Estimates of Parental Attitudes regarding Female Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Brett; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Studies the relationship between perceived parental attitudes about female achievement and bingeing and purging. Surveys 326 female college students. Concludes that some eating disorders are related to feelings that being female is a disadvantage in some areas of intellectual/professional achievement. (FMW)

  3. Parents' Attitudes toward Comprehensive and Inclusive Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Christina R.; Tasker, Timothy B.; Horn, Stacey S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Parents are sometimes perceived as barriers to providing comprehensive and inclusive sexuality education to young people. However, little is known about parents' actual attitudes towards providing such broad information to young people. The purpose of this paper is to examine two different approaches to measuring parents' attitudes…

  4. Parents' Attitudes and Expectations about Children's Cross-Gender Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandnabba, N. Kenneth; Ahlberg, Christian

    1999-01-01

    Assessed parents' attitudes toward cross-gender behavior of boys and girls. Responses of 224 white Finnish parents of 5-year olds reveal that cross-gender boys are regarded more negatively than cross-gender girls. Men perceived more societal acceptance of cross-gender boys than did women. It is thought that cross-gender boys were more likely to…

  5. Understanding Public Attitudes in Britain towards Faith Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Ben

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed analysis of different aspects of public attitudes towards faith schools in Britain. It examines two questions relating to government policy on this issue and two questions that ask about the perceived outcomes of this type of school. After discussing existing public opinion on this issue it uses data from the British…

  6. Adolescents' Attitudes toward Wheelchair Users: A Provincial Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Kelly P.

    2010-01-01

    The study aims were to examine (i) adolescents' attitudes towards family members who use a wheelchair in relation to other health problems and conditions, and (ii) the association between perceived wheelchair stigma and socio-demographic factors. Data were based on surveys from 2790 seventh to 12th grade students derived from the 2007 cycle of the…

  7. Characterization of Vulnerable and Resilient Spanish Adolescents in Their Developmental Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Carmen; García-Moya, Irene; Rivera, Francisco; Ramos, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Research on resilience and vulnerability can offer very valuable information for optimizing design and assessment of interventions and policies aimed at fostering adolescent health. This paper used the adversity level associated with family functioning and the positive adaptation level, as measured by means of a global health score, to distinguish four groups within a representative sample of Spanish adolescents aged 13–16 years: maladaptive, resilient, competent and vulnerable. The aforementioned groups were compared in a number of demographic, school context, peer context, lifestyles, psychological and socioeconomic variables, which can facilitate or inhibit positive adaptation in each context. In addition, the degree to which each factor tended to associate with resilience and vulnerability was examined. The majority of the factors operated by increasing the likelihood of good adaptation in resilient adolescents and diminishing it in vulnerable ones. Overall, more similarities than differences were found in the factors contributing to explaining resilience or vulnerability. However, results also revealed some differential aspects: psychological variables showed a larger explicative capacity in vulnerable adolescents, whereas factors related to school and peer contexts, especially the second, showed a stronger association with resilience. In addition, perceived family wealth, satisfaction with friendships and breakfast frequency only made a significant contribution to the explanation of resilience. The current study provides a highly useful characterization of resilience and vulnerability phenomena in adolescence. PMID:27458397

  8. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another. PMID:26966228

  9. Perceiving persons and groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D L; Sherman, S J

    1996-04-01

    This article analyzes the similarities and differences in forming impressions of individuals and in developing conceptions of groups. In both cases, the perceiver develops a mental conception of the target (individual or group) on the basis of available information and uses that information to make judgments about that person or group. However, a review of existing evidence reveals differences in the outcomes of impressions formed of individual and group targets, even when those impressions are based on the very same behavioral information. A model is proposed to account for these differences. The model emphasizes the role of differing expectancies of unity and coherence in individual and group targets, which in turn engage different mechanisms for processing information and making judgments. Implications of the model are discussed.

  10. Perceiving persons and groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D L; Sherman, S J

    1996-04-01

    This article analyzes the similarities and differences in forming impressions of individuals and in developing conceptions of groups. In both cases, the perceiver develops a mental conception of the target (individual or group) on the basis of available information and uses that information to make judgments about that person or group. However, a review of existing evidence reveals differences in the outcomes of impressions formed of individual and group targets, even when those impressions are based on the very same behavioral information. A model is proposed to account for these differences. The model emphasizes the role of differing expectancies of unity and coherence in individual and group targets, which in turn engage different mechanisms for processing information and making judgments. Implications of the model are discussed. PMID:8637962

  11. Nursing students′ attitude toward suicide prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Nebhinani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preventing suicide depends upon different health professionals′ knowledge regarding suicide, attitude toward suicide attempters, skills to assess and manage suicidal risk. Objectives: This study was aimed to assess the attitude of nursing students toward suicide prevention. Materials and Methods: 308 nursing students were recruited from the two institutions through total enumeration method. Attitude toward suicide prevention scale was administered. Study design was cross-sectional. Results: Majority were single females, from urban locality, who were pursuing BSc Nursing with the mean age of 20 years. Only minority had previous exposure to suicide prevention programs or workshops. Nearly half of the subjects had positive attitude toward working with suicidal patients. Again half of the subjects considered unemployment and poverty as main causes of suicide and were quite hopeless about it and they also perceived that most of the suicidal people would not reveal their suicidal plans to others. Conclusions: Merely half of the students had positive attitude toward working with suicidal patients. Hence, there is strong need to organize more educational and training programs on suicide prevention so that these budding health professionals could be more equipped and trained to manage these suicidal patients.

  12. Decision-making competence predicts domain-specific risk attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Joshua A; Ceschi, Andrea; Randolph, Caleb

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making competence (DMC) reflects individual differences in rational responding across several classic behavioral decision-making tasks. Although it has been associated with real-world risk behavior, less is known about the degree to which DMC contributes to specific components of risk attitudes. Utilizing a psychological risk-return framework, we examined the associations between risk attitudes and DMC. Italian community residents (n = 804) completed an online DMC measure, using a subset of the original Adult-DMC battery. Participants also completed a self-reported risk attitude measure for three components of risk attitudes (risk-taking, risk perceptions, and expected benefits) across six risk domains. Overall, greater performance on the DMC component scales were inversely, albeit modestly, associated with risk-taking tendencies. Structural equation modeling results revealed that DMC was associated with lower perceived expected benefits for all domains. In contrast, its association with perceived risks was more domain-specific. These analyses also revealed stronger indirect effects for the DMC → expected benefits → risk-taking path than the DMC → perceived risk → risk-taking path, especially for behaviors that may be considered more maladaptive in nature. These results suggest that DMC performance differentially impacts specific components of risk attitudes, and may be more strongly related to the evaluation of expected value of a specific behavior.

  13. Decision-Making Competence Predicts Domain-Specific Risk Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua eWeller

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Decision Making Competence (DMC reflects individual differences in rational responding across several classic behavioral decision-making tasks. Although it has been associated with real-world risk behavior, less is known about the degree to which DMC contributes to specific components of risk attitudes. Utilizing a psychological risk-return framework, we examined the associations between risk attitudes and DMC. Italian community residents (n = 804 completed an online DMC measure, using a subset of the original Adult-DMC battery (A-DMC; Bruine de Bruin, Parker, & Fischhoff, 2007. Participants also completed a self-reported risk attitude measure for three components of risk attitudes (risk-taking, risk perceptions, and expected benefits across six risk domains. Overall, greater performance on the DMC component scales were inversely, albeit modestly, associated with risk-taking tendencies. Structural equation modeling results revealed that DMC was associated with lower perceived expected benefits for all domains. In contrast, its association with perceived risks was more domain-specific. These analyses also revealed stronger indirect effects for the DMC  expected benefits  risk-taking than the DMC  perceived risk  risk-taking path, especially for risk behaviors that may be considered more antisocial in nature. These results suggest that DMC performance differentially impacts specific components of risk attitudes, and may be more strongly related to the evaluation of expected value of the given behavior.

  14. Minorities' acculturation and social adjustment: The moderator role of meta-perceptions of majority's acculturation attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    António, João H C; Monteiro, Maria Benedicta

    2015-12-01

    Two studies addressed the role of Black meta-perception of acculturation attitudes on the relation between minority acculturation attitudes and their social adjustment (school achievement and perceived quality of intergroup relations). Participants in both studies were Black Lusophone adolescents living in Portugal. Study 1 (N = 140) indicated that participants' attitude regarding the host culture was positively correlated with their school achievement and to their evaluation of intergroup relations. It also indicated that participants' meta-perception of majority attitude add to the explained variance of participants' social adjustment. Study 2 (N = 62) manipulated the perceived majority high/low support of immigrants' learning the host culture. The dependent variable (DV) was perceived quality of intergroup relations. Only in the low support condition were participants' attitudes towards the host culture positively related to perceived quality of Black-White relationships. These results suggest that perceived social context is central to understand the relationship between minority adolescents' acculturation attitudes and key dimensions of their adjustment to host societies.

  15. Minorities' acculturation and social adjustment: The moderator role of meta-perceptions of majority's acculturation attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    António, João H C; Monteiro, Maria Benedicta

    2015-12-01

    Two studies addressed the role of Black meta-perception of acculturation attitudes on the relation between minority acculturation attitudes and their social adjustment (school achievement and perceived quality of intergroup relations). Participants in both studies were Black Lusophone adolescents living in Portugal. Study 1 (N = 140) indicated that participants' attitude regarding the host culture was positively correlated with their school achievement and to their evaluation of intergroup relations. It also indicated that participants' meta-perception of majority attitude add to the explained variance of participants' social adjustment. Study 2 (N = 62) manipulated the perceived majority high/low support of immigrants' learning the host culture. The dependent variable (DV) was perceived quality of intergroup relations. Only in the low support condition were participants' attitudes towards the host culture positively related to perceived quality of Black-White relationships. These results suggest that perceived social context is central to understand the relationship between minority adolescents' acculturation attitudes and key dimensions of their adjustment to host societies. PMID:26351246

  16. Assessing European wild fire vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, F.; Oliveira, S.; Barredo, J. I.; Camia, A.; Ayanz, J. San Miguel; Pettenella, D.; Mavsar, R.

    2012-04-01

    Wild fire vulnerability is a measure of potential socio-economic damage caused by a fire in a specific area. As such it is an important component of long-term fire risk management, helping policy-makers take informed decisions about adequate expenditures for fire prevention and suppression, and to target those regions at highest risk. This paper presents a first approach to assess wild fire vulnerability at the European level. A conservative approach was chosen that assesses the cost of restoring the previous land cover after a potential fire. Based on the CORINE Land Cover, a restoration cost was established for each land cover class at country level, and an average restoration time was assigned according to the recovery capacity of the land cover. The damage caused by fire was then assessed by discounting the cost of restoring the previous land cover over the restoration period. Three different vulnerability scenarios were considered assuming low, medium and high fire severity causing different levels of damage. Over Europe, the potential damage of wild land fires ranges from 10 - 13, 732 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for low fire severity, 32 - 45,772 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for medium fire severity and 54 - 77,812 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for high fire severity. The least vulnerable are natural grasslands, moors and heathland and sclerophyllous vegetation, while the highest cost occurs for restoring broad-leaved forest. Preliminary validation comparing these estimates with official damage assessments for past fires shows reasonable results. The restoration cost approach allows for a straightforward, data extensive assessment of fire vulnerability at European level. A disadvantage is the inherent simplification of the evaluation procedure with the underestimation of non-markets goods and services. Thus, a second approach has been developed, valuing individual wild land goods and services and assessing their annual flow which is lost for a certain period of time in case of a fire event. However

  17. The role of perceived control over anxiety in prospective symptom reports across the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Jennifer N; Rohan, Kelly J; Nillni, Yael I; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    The present investigation tested the role of psychological vulnerabilities to anxiety in reported menstrual symptom severity. Specifically, the current study tested the incremental validity of perceived control over anxiety-related events in predicting menstrual symptom severity, controlling for the effect of anxiety sensitivity, a documented contributor to menstrual distress. It was expected that women with lower perceived control over anxiety-related events would report greater menstrual symptom severity, particularly in the premenstrual phase. A sample of 49 normally menstruating women, aged 18-47 years, each prospectively tracked their menstrual symptoms for one cycle and completed the Anxiety Control Questionnaire (Rapee, Craske, Brown, & Barlow Behav Ther 27:279-293. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7894(96)80018-9 , 1996) in their follicular and premenstrual phases. A mixed model analysis revealed perceived control over anxiety-related events was a more prominent predictor of menstrual symptom severity than anxiety sensitivity, regardless of the current cycle phase. This finding provides preliminary evidence that perceived control over anxiety-related events is associated with the perceived intensity of menstrual symptoms. This finding highlights the role of psychological vulnerabilities in menstrual distress. Future research should examine whether psychological interventions that target cognitive vulnerabilities to anxiety may help reduce severe menstrual distress. PMID:25269759

  18. Perceived benefits and barriers of physical activity: A social marketing formative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Kubacki, Krzysztof; Gruneklee, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain formative research insights that can be used to design social marketing campaigns. One thousand four hundred fifty-nine people participated in an online survey. Factor analysis was undertaken to establish perceived benefits and barriers, and indexes were created for barriers, benefits, and healthy living knowledge. Four attitude groups were formed and analysis of variance was undertaken to explore group differences. Consumers with high perceived barriers report less physical activity than consumers with low perceived barriers to exercise. The current study provides evidence to suggest that exchange theory can offer important insights to inform social marketing intervention planning. PMID:27210584

  19. Perceived benefits and barriers of physical activity: A social marketing formative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Kubacki, Krzysztof; Gruneklee, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain formative research insights that can be used to design social marketing campaigns. One thousand four hundred fifty-nine people participated in an online survey. Factor analysis was undertaken to establish perceived benefits and barriers, and indexes were created for barriers, benefits, and healthy living knowledge. Four attitude groups were formed and analysis of variance was undertaken to explore group differences. Consumers with high perceived barriers report less physical activity than consumers with low perceived barriers to exercise. The current study provides evidence to suggest that exchange theory can offer important insights to inform social marketing intervention planning.

  20. Impact of cultural factors on attitude toward using ERP systems in public hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Escobar-Rodríguez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main problems that arise in adopting most enterprise resources planning (ERP strategies come from organizational, rather than technical, issues, for example, social and cultural barriers, and user resistance. This paper analyzes the impact of cultural factors on user attitudes toward ERP use in public hospitals and identifying influencing factors. The theoretical grounding for this research is the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM. The proposed model has six constructs (“resistance to be controlled”, “resistance to change”, “perceived risks”, “perceived usefulness”, “perceived ease of use”, and “attitude toward using”, and nine hypotheses have been generated from the connections between these six constructs. Results suggest important practical implications for attitude toward using ERP and to develop an understanding about how to improve this attitude in hospitals.

  1. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  2. Trajectory of adolescent cannabis use on addiction vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Yasmin L; Michaelides, Michael; Miller, Michael L; Jutras-Aswad, Didier

    2014-01-01

    The adolescent brain is a period of dynamic development making it vulnerable to environmental factors such as drug exposure. Of the illicit drugs, cannabis is most used by teenagers since it is perceived by many to be of little harm. This perception has led to a growing number of states approving its legalization and increased accessibility. Most of the debates and ensuing policies regarding cannabis were done without consideration of its impact on one of the most vulnerable population, namely teens, or without consideration of scientific data. We provide an overview of the endocannabinoid system in relation to adolescent cannabis exposure and provide insights regarding factors such as genetics and behavioral traits that confer risk for subsequent addiction. While it is clear that more systematic scientific studies are needed to understand the long-term impact of adolescent cannabis exposure on brain and behavior, the current evidence suggests that it has a far-reaching influence on adult addictive behaviors particularly for certain subsets of vulnerable individuals. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'.

  3. Medical students' attitudes towards overweight and obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birte Pantenburg

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Studies from the USA have identified medical students as a major source of stigmatizing attitudes towards overweight and obese individuals. As data from Europe is scarce, medical students' attitudes were investigated at the University of Leipzig in Leipzig, Germany. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey containing an experimental manipulation consisting of a pair of vignettes depicting an obese and a normal weight 42-year-old woman, respectively. Vignettes were followed by the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS, a semantic differential assessing weight related attitudes. In case of the overweight vignette a panel of questions on causal attribution for the overweight preceded administration of the FPS. SUBJECTS: 671 medical students were enrolled at the University of Leipzig from May to June 2011. RESULTS: The overweight vignette was rated significantly more negative than the normal weight vignette (mean FPS score 3.65±0.45 versus 2.54±0.38, p<0.001. A higher proportion of students had negative attitudes towards the overweight as compared to the normal weight individual (98.9% versus 53.7%, p<0.001. A "positive energy balance" was perceived as the most relevant cause for the overweight, followed by "negligent personality trait", "societal and social environment" and "biomedical causes". Attributing a "positive energy balance" or "negligent personality trait" as relevant cause for the overweight was positively associated with negative attitudes. CONCLUSION: The results of this study confirm and complement findings from other countries, mainly the USA, and indicate that weight bias in the health care setting may be a global issue. Stigmatizing attitudes towards overweight and obesity are prevalent among a sample of medical students at the University of Leipzig. Negative attitudes arise on the basis of holding the individual accountable for the excess weight. They call for bringing the topic of overweight and obesity more into the focus of the medical

  4. Vulnerable groups in urban labour processes.

    OpenAIRE

    Standing G

    1987-01-01

    Explores the concept of workers' economic vulnerability, covering insecurity of income, employment and working conditions. Discusses vulnerability of workers by sector and by labour status and identifies susceptible groups (labour circulants, young workes and women).

  5. Climate vulnerability, communities' resilience and child labour

    OpenAIRE

    Boutin, Delphine

    2014-01-01

    This article clarifies and quantifies the causal impact of climate change vulnerability on child labour incidence and intensity. For this purpose, we create an index of vulnerability to climate change, composed of biophysical vulnerability and communities' resilience. Both, participation to economic activities and to household chores have been taken into account. We find that climate vulnerability negatively affects child labour incidence and intensity, while has no significant impact on hous...

  6. Vulnerability to Poverty: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Daisy Das; Ratul Mahanta

    2015-01-01

    There has been no consensus over the concept and measurement of vulnerability to poverty (VP). Many scholars bring in different perspectives to discuss various conceptual and measurement issues. This paper summarizes the available economic literature on the definitions and measurements of VP. Despite a lack of agreement, the concept of VP essentially captures the dynamic aspects of poverty, which are extremely important for formulating appropriate and effective poverty alleviation policies. T...

  7. Soil vulnerability for cesium transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Sweeck, Lieve

    2011-07-01

    The recent events at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan have raised questions about the accumulation of radionuclides in soils and the possible impacts on agriculture surrounding nuclear power plants. This article summarizes the knowledge gained after the nuclear power plant accident in Chernobyl, Ukraine, on how soil parameters influence soil vulnerability for radiocesium bioavailability, discusses some potential agrochemical countermeasures, and presents some predictions of radiocesium crop concentrations for areas affected by the Fukushima accident. PMID:21608116

  8. Vulnerability Assessments in Ethical Hacking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiqur Rahman ,

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethical hackers use the same methods and techniques to test and bypass a system's defenses as their less-principled counterparts, but rather than taking advantage of any vulnerabilities found, they document them and provide actionable advice on how to fix them so the organization can improve its overall security. The purpose of ethical hacking is to evaluate the security of a network or system's infrastructure. It entails finding and attempting to exploit any vulnerabilities to determine whether unauthorized access or other malicious activities are possible. Vulnerabilities tend to be found in poor or improper system configuration, known and unknown hardware or software flaws, and operational weaknesses in process or technical countermeasures. One of the first examples of ethical hacking occurred in the 1970s, when the United States government used groups of experts called "red teams" to hack its own computer systems. It has become a sizable sub-industry within the information security market and has expanded to also cover the physical and human elements of an organization's defenses. A successful test doesn't necessarily mean a network or system is 100% secure, but it should be able to withstand automated attacks and unskilled hackers.

  9. Prisoners as research participants: current practice and attitudes in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Anna; Rid, Annette; Davies, Hugh; Draper, Heather

    2016-04-01

    The use of prisoners as research participants is controversial. Efforts to protect them in response to past exploitation and abuse have led to strict regulations and reluctance to involve them as participants. Hence, prisoners are routinely denied the opportunity to participate in research. In the absence of comprehensive information regarding prisoners' current involvement in research, we examined UK prisoners' involvement through review of research applications to the UK National Research Ethics Service. We found that prisoners have extremely limited access to research participation. This analysis was augmented by a survey of those involved in research and research governance (UK researchers and Research Ethics Committee members). Our results suggest that pragmatic concerns regarding the perceived burden of including prisoners are far more prominent in motivating their exclusion than ethical concerns or knowledge of regulations. While prisoners may remain a vulnerable research population due to constraints upon their liberty and autonomy and the coercive nature of the prison environment, routine exclusion from participation may be disadvantageous. Rigorous ethical oversight and the shift in the prevailing attitude towards the risks and benefits of participation suggest that it may be time for research to be more accessible to prisoners in line with the principle of equivalence in prison healthcare. We suggest the necessary first step in this process is a re-examination of current guidance in the UK and other countries with exclusions. PMID:24958334

  10. Perceived financial retirement preparedness and its correlates: a national study in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segel-Karpas, Dikla; Werner, Perla

    2014-01-01

    Studies suggest that a large proportion of adults do not manage to save enough for retirement. Correlates of retirement saving behaviors have yet to be fully understood. The goal of this study was to examine perceived financial preparedness for retirement and its correlates. We studied the effect of perceived financial knowledge and involvement, social and institutional support, and attitudes toward retirement in a national sample of 227 non-retired Israeli adults (mean age = 44; 53% female; 81% Jewish). Results indicated that only about 20% perceived themselves as financially prepared for retirement. The main correlates of financial preparedness were financial knowledge and involvement in financial activities. The results show that a large proportion of the Israeli population feel underprepared for retirement. Those who perceive themselves as having high levels of financial knowledge are less predisposed to feel underprepared. Future research should examine the relationship between perceived financial preparedness and actual savings.

  11. Intention to Use Smartphone Through Perceived Compatibility, Perceived Usefulness, and Perceived Ease of Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harries Arizonia Ismail

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to test the influence of perceived compatibility perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and intention to use smartphone using five hypotheses. Purposive sampling was used as the technique of sample collection. There are representative samples that are 92 respondents, consists of lecturers, students, and employees from AKI University in Semarang city. The data had been analyzed by using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM and it was processed using AMOS program version 16.0. The result of the hypothesis shows that there is a positive and significant influence on perceived compatibility toward perceived usefulness, perceived compatibility toward perceived ease of use, perceived ease of use toward perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use toward intention to use. However, perceived usefulness toward intention to use is not significant. It can be caused that reason of owning smartphones is only a prestige and the users do not understand benefit of it’s features.Tujuan penelitian ini menguji pengaruh persepsi kesesuaian, persepsi kemanfaatan, persepsi kemudahan dan minat penggunaan smartphone. Teknik pengambilan sampel menggunakan purposive sampling. Jumlah sampel sebanyak 92 responden yang terdiri dari dosen, mahasiswa dan karyawan universitas AKI di kota Semarang. Data dianalisis menggunakan Structural Equation Modelling (SEM dan diolah dengan program AMOS versi 16.0. Hasil pengujian hipotesis menunjukkan pengaruh positif dan signifikan pada persepsi kesesuaian terhadap persepsi kemanfaatan, persepsi kesesuaian terhadap persepsi kemudahan penggunaan, persepsi kemudahan penggunaan terhadap persepsi kemanfaatan dan persepsi kemudahan penggunaan terhadap minat penggunaan. Namun demikian, pengaruh persepsi kemanfaatan terhadap minat penggunaan hasil dinyatakan tidak signifikan. Hal ini dikarenakan responden hanya menggunakan smartphones untuk prestis.JEL Classification: M3, M31

  12. Students' Perceived Level of English Proficiency in Secondary Schools in Dodoma, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makewa, Lazarus Ndiku; Role, Elizabeth; Tuguta, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    This paper looked at students' perceived level of English proficiency among Dodoma secondary schools in Tanzania. Factors like attitude, anxiety, classroom activities, motivation, and learning resources were considered as influencing English learning. The study was guided by three theories: Input Hypothesis, Inter-language and Vygotsky's theory of…

  13. Development of a Scale to Measure Learners' Perceived Preferences and Benefits of Data-Driven Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Atsushi; Chujo, Kiyomi; Yokota, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    In spite of researchers' and practitioners' increasing attention to data-driven learning (DDL) and increasing numbers of DDL studies, a multi-item scale to measure learners' attitude toward DDL has not been developed thus far. In the present study, we developed and validated a psychometric scale to measure learners' perceived preferences and…

  14. Teacher Factors and Perceived Assessment Practices Needs of Social Studies Teachers in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekuri, Emmanuel Etta; Egbai, Julius Michael; Ita, Caroline Iserome

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated perceived assessment practices needs among social studies teachers in Cross River State, Nigeria, in relation to some teacher factors (attitude towards social studies, sex, teaching experience and educational qualification). Subjects who participated in this study were 297 social studies teachers (144 males and 153 females)…

  15. Perceived Convenience in an Extended Technology Acceptance Model: Mobile Technology and English Learning for College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Cheng; Yan, Chi-Fang; Tseng, Ju-Shih

    2012-01-01

    Since convenience is one of the features for mobile learning, does it affect attitude and intention of using mobile technology? The technology acceptance model (TAM), proposed by David (1989), was extended with perceived convenience in the present study. With regard to English language mobile learning, the variables in the extended TAM and its…

  16. An Exploratory Factor Analysis Examining Traits, Perceived Fit and Job Satisfaction in Employed College Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, John R.

    2011-01-01

    This study is an analysis of 24 variables associated with employee attitudes, behaviors and outcomes. A total of 140 college graduates participated in the study. Utilizing exploratory factor analysis (EFA) techniques, the research examined relationships among the following variables: perceived fit, job satisfaction, cognitive ability, vocational…

  17. Examining the Role of Perceived Leader Behavior on Temporary Employees' Organizational Commitment and Citizenship Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djibo, Idriss J. A.; Desiderio, Katie P.; Price, Noriece M.

    2010-01-01

    The attention given to the contingent segment of the workforce has significantly increased over the past decade. Investigative topics include the correlates of temporary employee work attitudes and behaviors. This study used a correlational design to examine leader behaviors outlined by the path-goal theory of leadership, as perceived by temporary…

  18. Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    Large scale disasters can cause devastating impacts in terms of population displacement. Between 2008 and 2013, on average 27 million people were displaced annually by disasters (Yonetani 2014). After large events such as hurricane Katrina or the Port-au-Prince earthquake, images of inadequate public shelter and concerns about large scale and often inequitable migration have been broadcast around the world. Population displacement can often be one of the most devastating and visible impacts of a natural disaster. Despite the importance of population displacement in disaster events, measures to understand the socio-economic vulnerability of a community often use broad metrics to estimate the total socio-economic risk of an event rather than focusing on the specific impacts that a community faces in a disaster. Population displacement is complex and multi-causal with the physical impact of a disaster interacting with vulnerability arising from the response, environmental issues (e.g., weather), cultural concerns (e.g., expectations of adequate shelter), and many individual factors (e.g., mobility, risk perception). In addition to the complexity of the causes, population displacement is difficult to measure because of the wide variety of different terms and definitions and its multi-dimensional nature. When we speak of severe population displacement, we may refer to a large number of displaced people, an extended length of displacement or associated difficulties such as poor shelter quality, risk of violence and crime in shelter communities, discrimination in aid, a lack of access to employment or other difficulties that can be associated with large scale population displacement. We have completed a thorough review of the literature on disaster population displacement. Research has been conducted on historic events to understand the types of negative impacts associated with population displacement and also the vulnerability of different groups to these impacts. We

  19. Elementary teachers' attitudes toward science and the teaching of science and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Rita P.

    2009-10-01

    Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine the relationship between teachers' attitudes, beliefs, and their perceptions of students' attitudes about Science and Technology (S&T), gender differences in students' patterns of S&T learning, and teachers' perceptions of scientists and S&T A sample of 50 grade 4 to 8 teachers completed an original questionnaire and 10 of those participants were subsequently interviewed. The quantitative results suggested that teachers that perceive their students' attitudes as positive and hold no prejudices about scientists or negative opinions about S&T tend to perceive no gender differences in students' attitudes. The qualitative analyses concerning teachers' beliefs about scientists/S&T principally confirmed all quantitative findings. The further exploration of the relationships between teachers' attitudes and their beliefs concerning scientists/S&T, however, indicated that the results are two-edged.

  20. A new model of how celebrity endorsements work : attitude toward the endorsement as a mediator of celebrity source and endorsement effects

    OpenAIRE

    Bergkvist, Lars; Hjalmarson, Hanna; Mägi, Anne W.

    2016-01-01

    This research introduces attitude towards the endorsement as a mediating variable in the relationships between celebrity source and endorsement factors and brand attitude. It also includes perceived celebrity motive, a variable rarely studied in the previous literature, as an endorsement factor. In a survey study, respondents evaluated four celebrity endorsement campaigns. Mediation analyses show that attitude towards the endorsement mediates the effects of three variables on brand attitude; ...

  1. Perceived Neighborhood Violence and Use of Verbal Aggression, Corporal Punishment, and Physical Abuse by a National Sample of Parents in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstok, Zeev; Straus, Murray A.

    2011-01-01

    This study, based on an ecological perspective, examined the relation of perceived neighborhood violence, child misbehavior, parental attitudes to aggressive discipline tactics, and the actual use of aggressive discipline tactics. Research questions were: To what extent is perceived neighborhood violence associated with aggressive discipline by…

  2. Vulnerability assessment of urban ecosystems driven by water resources, human health and atmospheric environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jing; Lu, Hongwei; Zhang, Yang; Song, Xinshuang; He, Li

    2016-05-01

    As ecosystem management is a hotspot and urgent topic with increasing population growth and resource depletion. This paper develops an urban ecosystem vulnerability assessment method representing a new vulnerability paradigm for decision makers and environmental managers, as it's an early warning system to identify and prioritize the undesirable environmental changes in terms of natural, human, economic and social elements. The whole idea is to decompose a complex problem into sub-problem, and analyze each sub-problem, and then aggregate all sub-problems to solve this problem. This method integrates spatial context of Geographic Information System (GIS) tool, multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method, ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operators, and socio-economic elements. Decision makers can find out relevant urban ecosystem vulnerability assessment results with different vulnerable attitude. To test the potential of the vulnerability methodology, it has been applied to a case study area in Beijing, China, where it proved to be reliable and consistent with the Beijing City Master Plan. The results of urban ecosystem vulnerability assessment can support decision makers in evaluating the necessary of taking specific measures to preserve the quality of human health and environmental stressors for a city or multiple cities, with identifying the implications and consequences of their decisions.

  3. The Study of Relation Amon g Personality Characteristics, Perceived Risks And Repurchasing Behaviours Of Consumers: A Research Of Hotel Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Temeloğlu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Preference is the main problem of consumers’ attitude. Consumers perceive some risks and be undecisive while making purchasing preference. The main responsibilities of operating is prevent perceiving risks. Besides, personality features are nor the same for every consumer. In this way, hotel operating endeavor for knowing personality features of consumers, that can help decrease perceiving risks of tourist s. The aim this work is designating variety of perceiving risks to personality features of consumers who purchase those touristic products. Related to this, it is exposed if there is a relation between personality features and perceived risk of purchasing. In this study, Çanakkale and Balıkesir that operate in four and five star hotels 398 domestic tourists staying in a hotel completed the questionnaire. As a result of research, personality characteristics and perceived risk; personality characteristics and attitudes; perceived risk with re-purchase behavior and re-purchasing behavior with the attitude it has been found that there is a relationship between significant and positive directional.

  4. Perceived Behavioral Changes in Early Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Souza Lima

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired behavioral changes have essentially been described in advanced multiple sclerosis (MS. The present study was designed to determine whether behavioral modifications specifically related to the MS pathological process could be identified in the initial phase of the disease, as compared to control patients with chronic, relapsing and progressive inflammatory disorders not involving the central nervous system (CNS. Eighty-eight early MS patients (Expanded Disability Status Scale score ≤ 2.5 and 48 controls were tested. Perceived changes by informants in behavioral control, goal-directed behavior, decision making, emotional expression, insight and interpersonal relationships were assessed using the Iowa Scale of Personality Change (ISPC. Executive behavioral disturbances were screened using the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX. The mean change between the premorbid and postmorbid ISPC ratings was similar in the MS [12.2 (SD 15.6] and in the control [11.5 (SD 15.1] group. The perceived behavioral changes (PBCs most frequently reported in both groups were lack of stamina, lability/moodiness, anxiety, vulnerability to stress and irritability. Pathological scores in the DEX were also similar in both groups. Correlations between PBCs and DEX scores were different in MS and control groups. MS patients with cognitive impairment had a marginally higher number of PBCs than control patients (p = 0.056 and a significantly higher DEXp score (p = 0.04. These results suggest that (1 PBCs occurring in early MS patients were not different from those induced by comparable chronic non-CNS disorders, (2 qualitative differences in the relationship between behavioral symptoms and executive-behavioral changes may exist between MS and control groups, and (3 behavioral symptoms seem associated with cognitive deficits in MS. We further plan to assess these observations longitudinally.

  5. Behind the stage of deliberate self-persuasion: When changes in valence of associations to an attitude object predict attitude change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tong; Lord, Charles G; Yoke, Kristin

    2015-12-01

    Modern theory and research on evaluative processes, combined with a comprehensive review of deliberate self-persuasion (Maio & Thomas, 2007, Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull., 11, 46), suggest two types of strategies people can use to construct new, more desired attitudes. Epistemic strategies change the perceived valence of associations activated by the attitude object. Teleologic strategies, in contrast, keep undesired associations from being activated in the first place, thus obviating the need to change their perceived valence. Change in perceived valence of associations therefore might predict attitude change better when people pursue epistemic than teleologic strategies for deliberate self-persuasion. This hypothesis gained convergent support from three studies in which use of epistemic versus teleologic strategies was measured as an individual difference (Study 1) and manipulated (studies 2 and 3). The results of these studies supported the theoretical distinction between the two strategies and suggested further research directions. PMID:25877227

  6. Evaluating the Characteristics of Social Vulnerability to Wildfire: Demographics, Perceptions, and Parcel Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paveglio, Travis B; Prato, Tony; Edgeley, Catrin; Nalle, Darek

    2016-09-01

    A large body of research focuses on identifying patterns of human populations most at risk from hazards and the factors that help explain performance of mitigations that can help reduce that risk. One common concept in such studies is social vulnerability-human populations' potential exposure to, sensitivity from and ability to reduce negative impacts from a hazard. While there is growing interest in social vulnerability for wildfire, few studies have critically evaluated the characteristics that scholars often indicate influence social vulnerability to that hazard. This research utilizes surveys, wildfire simulations, and GIS data to test the relationships between select demographic, perceptual and parcel characteristics of property owners against empirically simulated metrics for wildfire exposure or wildfire-related damages and their performance of mitigation actions. Our results from Flathead County, MT, USA, suggest that parcel characteristics such as property value, building value, and the year structures were built explaining a significant amount of the variance in elements of social vulnerability. Demographic characteristics commonly used in social vulnerability analysis did not have significant relationships with measures of wildfire exposure or vulnerability. Part-time or full-time residency, age, perceived property risk, and year of development were among the few significant determinants of residents' performance of fuel reduction mitigations, although the significance of these factors varied across the levels of fuel reduction performed by homeowners. We use these and other results to argue for a renewed focus on the finer-scale characteristics that expose some populations to wildfire risk more than others. PMID:27272166

  7. Evaluating the Characteristics of Social Vulnerability to Wildfire: Demographics, Perceptions, and Parcel Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paveglio, Travis B; Prato, Tony; Edgeley, Catrin; Nalle, Darek

    2016-09-01

    A large body of research focuses on identifying patterns of human populations most at risk from hazards and the factors that help explain performance of mitigations that can help reduce that risk. One common concept in such studies is social vulnerability-human populations' potential exposure to, sensitivity from and ability to reduce negative impacts from a hazard. While there is growing interest in social vulnerability for wildfire, few studies have critically evaluated the characteristics that scholars often indicate influence social vulnerability to that hazard. This research utilizes surveys, wildfire simulations, and GIS data to test the relationships between select demographic, perceptual and parcel characteristics of property owners against empirically simulated metrics for wildfire exposure or wildfire-related damages and their performance of mitigation actions. Our results from Flathead County, MT, USA, suggest that parcel characteristics such as property value, building value, and the year structures were built explaining a significant amount of the variance in elements of social vulnerability. Demographic characteristics commonly used in social vulnerability analysis did not have significant relationships with measures of wildfire exposure or vulnerability. Part-time or full-time residency, age, perceived property risk, and year of development were among the few significant determinants of residents' performance of fuel reduction mitigations, although the significance of these factors varied across the levels of fuel reduction performed by homeowners. We use these and other results to argue for a renewed focus on the finer-scale characteristics that expose some populations to wildfire risk more than others.

  8. Symbian `vulnerability' and Mobile Threats

    CERN Document Server

    Gharibi, Wajeb

    2012-01-01

    Modern technologies are becoming ever more integrated with each other. Mobile phones are becoming increasing intelligent, and handsets are growing ever more like computers in functionality. We are entering a new era - the age of smart houses, global advanced networks which encompass a wide range of devices, all of them exchanging data with each other. Such trends clearly open new horizons to malicious users, and the potential threats are self evident. In this paper, we study and discuss one of the most famous mobile operating systems 'Symbian'; its vulnerabilities and recommended protection technologies.

  9. The aspect of personnel metal attitude in the production safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence of an accident could always be traced to component/system failures and/or human error. The two factors are closely related to competency of the personnel's involved, in which mental attitude is a decisive factor. Furthermore mental attitude could be viewed as an element of Safety (S) Culture. Consequently, S. Culture could might created or at lea ts, be enhanced by the introduction of appropriate values, norms, as well as attitudes. The ABC and TBC of safety norm have been discussed briefly. Whereas mental attitude has been defined and discussed in detail and graded into six levels, namely: attending, responding, complying, accepting, preferring, and integrating. To assure highest level of safety, personnel must achieve integrating level of attitude, in the sense that he would merely do an action on the basis of safety values and/or norms prevailing in the system, not due to external pressure. Furthermore, considering the work as a physical and an emotional activity resulting in stress and strain on the body, Karate exercises have been promoted as an alternative for enhancing mental attitude by means of reducing personnel vulnerability to strain and stress. This method is accomplished by exploiting Roux's Low of conditioning effect and by implementation of an in-depth understanding on the spiritual aspect of Karate. It is concluded that in the field of production safety, there is a positive correlation between Karate, mental attitude, competence, performance, quality, and safety

  10. Explicating the role of sexual coercion and vulnerability alcohol expectancies in rape attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starfelt, Louise C; Young, Ross McD; White, Katherine M; Palk, Gavan R M

    2015-07-01

    Despite evidence suggesting that alcohol expectancies may influence people's rape perceptions, no study to date has measured context-specific expectancies comprehensively. This study represents an initial investigation of the role of sexual coercion and vulnerability alcohol expectancies in young Australian adults' rape blame attributions. Using a vignette method, it was hypothesized that participants' stronger expectancy endorsement would predict lesser perpetrator blame and greater victim blame. Participants (n = 210; 34.9% males; 18-25 years) read a hypothetical rape scenario and rated dimensions of blameworthiness attributed to the intoxicated sexual perpetrator and victim. Participants completed the Sexual Coercion and Sexual Vulnerability subscales of the Drinking Expectancy Sexual Vulnerabilities Questionnaire for the targets self, men, and women in addition to measures of traditional gender role attitudes and rape myth acceptance. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that, as expected, stronger sexual coercion expectancy predicted lower perpetrator blame and greater victim blame. Self-oriented expectancy predicted evaluations of the perpetrator whereas other-oriented expectancy predicted victim evaluations. These effects were robust after controlling for gender role attitudes and rape myth acceptance. Alcohol expectancies appear to be part of a network of beliefs and attitudes which perpetuate biased rape attributions and may be useful to challenge in altering rape perceptions. PMID:25228594

  11. What is the influence of self-image and perceived parenting role expectations on adolescent fathers' perceived role performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones

    2000-05-01

    Background: "Adolescent pregnancy is one of the most pressing, persistent, and poignant problems facing society" (Yoos, 1987, p. 247). Manitoba's teen pregnancy rates are among the highest in Canada. Yet, little is known about adolescent fathers and their parenting involvement. The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to explore variables which may influence teen fathers' participation in parenting.Methods: A convenience sample of 30 adolescent fathers, whose partners were attending an Adolescent Prenatal Clinic, completed two questionnaires: Offer Self-Image-Revised, and Perceived Parenting Role Performance. Guided by family role theory, four hypotheses were examined utilizing a quantitative research method.Results: Data analysis revealed that 30% of these respondents had a low to very low self-image. Pearson's correlation coefficient, which facilitated hypotheses testing, failed to validate a relationship between teen fathers' perceived role performance and self-image, and perceived parenting role expectations. Nevertheless, a moderate negative correlation was noted between teen fathers' self-image and their perceived parenting role expectations (r = -.35, p adolescence with the responsibilities of fatherhood increase their vulnerability to parenting failure.

  12. Northern European adolescent attitudes toward dating violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Erica; Holdsworth, Emma; Leen, Eline; Sorbring, Emma; Helsing, Bo; Jaans, Sebastian; Awouters, Valère

    2013-01-01

    A focus group methodology was used to examine attitudes toward dating violence among 86 adolescents (aged 12-17) from four northern European countries (England, Sweden, Germany, and Belgium). Four superordinate themes were identified from thematic analyses: gender identities, television as the educator, perceived acceptability of dating violence, and the decision to seek help/tell someone. Although violence in relationships was generally not condoned, when violence was used by females, was unintended (despite its consequences), or was in retaliation for infidelity, violence was perceived as acceptable. Adolescents indicated that their views were stereotypical and based solely on stereotypical television portrayals of violence in relationships. Stereotypical beliefs and portrayals generate barriers for victimized males to seek help because of fear of embarrassment. PMID:24047043

  13. Lateral Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Tina; Dickel, Nina; Liersch, Benjamin; Rees, Jonas; Süssenbach, Philipp; Bohner, Gerd

    2015-08-01

    The authors propose a framework distinguishing two types of lateral attitude change (LAC): (a) generalization effects, where attitude change toward a focal object transfers to related objects, and (b) displacement effects, where only related attitudes change but the focal attitude does not change. They bring together examples of LAC from various domains of research, outline the conditions and underlying processes of each type of LAC, and develop a theoretical framework that enables researchers to study LAC more systematically in the future. Compared with established theories of attitude change, the LAC framework focuses on lateral instead of focal attitude change and encompasses both generalization and displacement. Novel predictions and designs for studying LAC are presented.

  14. Pharmacy students' attitudes toward pharmaceutical care in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Hajj MS

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Maguy Saffouh El Hajj,1 Ayat S Hammad,1 Hebatalla M Afifi2 1College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; 2National Centre for Cancer Care and Research (NCCCR, Doha, Qatar Objectives: The study objectives were to investigate Qatar pharmacy students’ attitudes toward pharmaceutical care (PC, to identify the factors that influence their attitudes, and to recognize their perceived barriers for PC provision. Methods: A cross-sectional and online survey of Qatar pharmacy students was conducted. Results: Over 4 weeks, 46 surveys were submitted (88% response rate. All respondents agreed that the pharmacist’s primary responsibility is to prevent and resolve medication therapy problems. Most respondents believed that PC provision is professionally rewarding and that all pharmacists should provide PC (93% and 91% of respondents, respectively. Highly perceived barriers for PC provision included lack of access to patient information (76%, inadequate drug information sources (55%, and time constraints (53%. Professional year and practical experience duration were inversely significantly associated with four and five statements, respectively, out of the 13 Standard Pharmaceutical Care Attitudes Survey statements, including the statements related to the value of PC, and its benefit in improving patient health and pharmacy practitioners’ careers. Conclusion: Qatar pharmacy students had positive attitudes toward PC. Efforts should be exerted to overcome their perceived barriers. Keywords: Qatar, pharmaceutical care, pharmacy, student

  15. Scenarios for coastal vulnerability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Robert J.; Woodroffe, Colin D.; Burkett, Virginia; Hay, John; Wong, Poh Poh; Nurse, Leonard; Wolanski, Eric; McLusky, Donald S.

    2011-01-01

    Coastal vulnerability assessments tend to focus mainly on climate change and especially on sea-level rise. Assessment of the influence of nonclimatic environmental change or socioeconomic change is less well developed and these drivers are often completely ignored. Given that the most profound coastal changes of the twentieth century due to nonclimate drivers are likely to continue through the twenty-first century, this is a major omission. It may result in not only overstating the importance of climate change but also overlooking significant interactions of climate change and other drivers. To support the development of policies relating to climate change and coastal management, integrated assessments of climatic change in coastal areas are required, including the effects of all the relevant drivers. This chapter explores the development of scenarios (or "plausible futures") of relevant climate and nonclimate drivers that can be used for coastal analysis, with an emphasis on the nonclimate drivers. It shows the importance of analyzing the impacts of climate change and sea-level rise in a broader context of coastal change and all its drivers. This will improve the analysis of impacts, key vulnerabilities, and adaptation needs and, hence, inform climate and coastal policy. Stakeholder engagement is important in the development of scenarios, and the underlying assumptions need to be explicit, transparent, and open to scientific debate concerning their uncertainties/realism and likelihood.

  16. CSRF Vulnerabilities and Defensive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali D. Kombade

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Web applications are now part of day to day life due to their user friendly environment as well as advancement of technology to provide internet facilities, but these web applications brought lot of threats with them and these threats are continuously growing, one of the these threat is Cross Site Request Forgery(CSRF. CSRF attack is immerged as serious threat to web applications which based on the vulnerabilities present in the normal request response pattern of HTTP protocol. It is difficult to detect and hence it is present in most of the existing web applications. CSRF attack occurs when a malicious web site causes a user’s web browser to perform an unwanted action on a trusted site. It is listed in OWASP’s top ten Web Application attacks list. In this survey paper we will study CSRF attack, CSRF vulnerabilities and its defensive measures. We have compared various defense mechanisms to analyse the best defense mechanism. This study will help us to build strong and robust CSRF protection mechanism.

  17. Dynamics of immune system vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, Sean P.

    The adaptive immune system can be viewed as a complex system, which adapts, over time, to reflect the history of infections experienced by the organism. Understanding its operation requires viewing it in terms of tradeoffs under constraints and evolutionary history. It typically displays "robust, yet fragile" behavior, meaning common tasks are robust to small changes but novel threats or changes in environment can have dire consequences. In this dissertation we use mechanistic models to study several biological processes: the immune response, the homeostasis of cells in the lymphatic system, and the process that normally prevents autoreactive cells from entering the lymphatic system. Using these models we then study the effects of these processes interacting. We show that the mechanisms that regulate the numbers of cells in the immune system, in conjunction with the immune response, can act to suppress autoreactive cells from proliferating, thus showing quantitatively how pathogenic infections can suppress autoimmune disease. We also show that over long periods of time this same effect can thin the repertoire of cells that defend against novel threats, leading to an age correlated vulnerability. This vulnerability is shown to be a consequence of system dynamics, not due to degradation of immune system components with age. Finally, modeling a specific tolerance mechanism that normally prevents autoimmune disease, in conjunction with models of the immune response and homeostasis we look at the consequences of the immune system mistakenly incorporating pathogenic molecules into its tolerizing mechanisms. The signature of this dynamic matches closely that of the dengue virus system.

  18. Adolescent Self-Perceptions and Attitudes toward School as Determinants of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Risk Estimates and Normative Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Bryan E.

    2011-01-01

    Grounded in symbolic interactionism and drawing on data gathered in the 2007 Monitoring the Future Study (n = 2,201), this research examines how self-esteem and perceived intelligence, as well as attitudes and behaviors related to school environments, associate with perceptions of anabolic-androgenic steroids. With perceived risk and…

  19. Cockpit management attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, R L

    1984-10-01

    Distinctions are drawn between personality traits and attitudes. The stability of the personality and the malleability of attitudes are stressed. These concepts are related to pilot performance, especially in the areas of crew coordination and cockpit resource management. Airline pilots were administered a Cockpit Management Attitudes questionnaire; empirical data from that survey are reported and implications of the data for training in crew coordination are discussed.

  20. Accent Imitation Positively Affects Language Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patti eAdank

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available People in conversation tend to accommodate the way they speak. It has been assumed that this tendency to imitate each other’s speech patterns serves to increase liking between partners in a conversation. Previous experiments examined the effect of perceived social attractiveness on the tendency to imitate someone else’s speech and found that vocal imitation increased when perceived attractiveness was higher. The present experiment extends this research by examining the inverse relationship and examines how overt vocal imitation affects attitudes. Participants listened to sentences spoken by two speakers of a regional accent (Glaswegian of English. They vocally repeated (speaking in their own accent without imitating the sentences spoken by a Glaswegian speaker, and subsequently imitated sentences spoken by a second Glaswegian speaker (order counterbalanced across participants. After each repeating or imitation session, participants completed a questionnaire probing the speakers’ perceived power, competence, and social attractiveness. Imitating had a positive effect on the perceived social attractiveness of the speaker compared to repeating. These results are interpreted in light of Communication Accommodation Theory.

  1. Evidence that the type of person affects the strength of the perceived behavioural control-intention relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeran, Paschal; Trafimow, David; Finlay, Krystina A; Norman, Paul

    2002-06-01

    This study examined the role of person type in explaining the relationship between perceived behavioural control and behavioural intentions. Participants (N = 187) completed measures of the theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) variables regarding 30 behaviours. Within-participants analyses demonstrated that intentions were more strongly predicted by perceived behavioural control (PBC) than a combination of attitudes and subjective norms among a minority of the sample. When these 'PBC controlled' participants were considered separately, the effects for perceived behavioural control obtained in previous between-participants analyses were augmented. Conversely, when these participants were excluded from the sample, the effects of perceived behavioural control were reduced. PBC control was also modestly associated with dispositional measures of perceived controllability. Overall, the findings indicate that the strength of the perceived behavioural control-intention relationship depends not only on the type of behaviour but also on the type of person. PMID:12133227

  2. Using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) to Evaluate the Vulnerabilities with ICT Assets Disposal Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeboah-Boateng, Ezer Osei

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the possible vulnerabilities of ICT assets disposal policies and the associated impact that can affect the SMEs. A poorly implemented policy or unenforced policy is “potentially the weakest link” in the cyber-security chain. Do SMEs have an idea of vulnerabilities or threats...... due to assets disposal? In the event of breaches, the SMEs pay for the cost of notifying the concerned stakeholders, compensate affected parties, invest in improved mitigation technologies and also may be subjected to unwarranted public scrutiny. ICT assets at the end-of-useful life span usually have...... data left on the hard disk drives or storage media, which is a source of data confidentiality vulnerability. SMEs were surveyed in developing economies on their assets disposal policies. The perceived correlations were analyzed using fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs) to ascertain if any cyber...

  3. Unfavorable attitudes toward receiving methadone maintenance therapy and associated factors among the inmates using intravenous heroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Tsai, Jih-Jin; Wang, Peng-Wei; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Liu, Shu-Chun; Wang, Shu-Hui; Wang, Chao-Ching

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine unfavorable attitudes toward receiving methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) and associated factors among inmates using intravenous heroin in Taiwan. A total of 315 inmates using intravenous heroin were recruited. Their unfavorable attitudes toward receiving MMT after discharge from prison were evaluated using the Client Attitudes Toward Methadone Programs Scale. The associations of unfavorable attitudes toward receiving MMT with sociodemographic and drug-using characteristics, human immunodeficiency virus serostatus, perceived family support, and depression were examined using multiple regression analysis. The results of this study showed that the mean score of unfavorable attitudes toward receiving MMT, determined on the Client Attitudes Toward Methadone Programs Scale, was 9.918 (standard deviation=2.277, range=5-20). Heroin-using inmates who were young, started using heroin earlier, perceived many advantages and few disadvantages of heroin use, had never received MMT, and had severe depression, had unfavorable attitudes toward receiving MMT. Based on the results of this study, we suggest that inmates who have the factors associated with unfavorable attitudes toward receiving MMT should receive intervention and motivational interviewing to improve their attitudes toward MMT and to increase their opportunity to receive MMT after discharge from prison. PMID:21329889

  4. INFLUENCE OF PRODUCT ATTRIBUTES AND HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS ON CONSUMERS' ATTITUDE TOWARD AND PURHCASE PATTERN OF IN-SHELL PEANUTS

    OpenAIRE

    Rimal, Arbindra; Fletcher, Stanley M.

    2000-01-01

    A nationwide household survey was used to examine U.S. consumers' attitude and purchase behavior toward in-shell peanuts. Fishbein's multiattribute model was the basis for evaluating the effects of perceived product attributes on attitudes toward in-shell peanuts. Consumer purchase behavior was analyzed using a count data model. The results suggest that attitudes toward in-shell peanuts were influenced by attributes such as fat, taste, and healthiness, and that taste was the only attribute in...

  5. Assessing human vulnerability: Daytime residential distribution as a vulnerability indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokesch, Karin; Promper, Catrin; Papathoma-Köhle, Maria; Glade, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Natural hazard risk management is based on detailed information on potential impacts of natural hazards. Especially concerning fast onset hazards such as flash floods, earthquakes but also debris flows and landslides, knowing potential hotspots of impact to both, assets and human lives is essential. This information is important for emergency management and decision making in the response phase of the disaster management cycle. Emergency managers are in need of information regarding not only the number of humans being potentially affected but also the respective vulnerability of the group affected based on characteristics such as age, income, health condition, mobility, etc. regarding a certain hazard. The analysis presented focuses on the distribution of the population, assuming a certain pattern of people in a certain radius of action. The method applied is based on a regular pattern of movement of different groups of people and a pattern of presence in certain units, e.g. schools, businesses or residential buildings. The distribution is calculated on a minimum of available data including the average household size, as well as information on building types. The study area is located in the Southwest of Lower Austria, Austria. The city of Waidhofen/Ybbs can be regarded as a regional center providing basic infrastructure, shops and schools. The high concentration of buildings combining shops and residential units leads to a high damage potential throughout the whole study area. The presented results indicate the population distribution within the study area on an average working day. It is clear that explicitly high numbers of people are located in specific buildings (e.g. schools and hospitals) which also include highly vulnerable groups especially to fast onset hazards. The results provide emergency services with the information that they need in order to intervene directly where large numbers of victims or people that need to be evacuated are located. In this

  6. Reframing vulnerability: Mozambican refugees' access to state-funded pensions in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Enid J

    2009-09-01

    Researchers at the South African Medical Research Council/University of the Witwatersrand Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt) fieldsite in rural South Africa consider Mozambican residents more vulnerable than others in the local population. These self-settled refugees, many of whom are still not South African citizens, primarily came to South Africa in the 1980s during the Mozambican Civil War. This perceived economic vulnerability is rooted in their difficulties in accessing social grants, until recently legally available only to those with South African citizenship documentation. This paper focuses on semi-structured interviews with 30 'older' women of Mozambican-descent living in the Agincourt area. These interviews highlight three important aspects of vulnerability; the respondents: (1) perceive a risk of deportation despite their having lived in the country for 20 years, (2) are unable to easily access social grants, namely the state-funded old-age pension, and (3) struggle to make ends meet when faced with daily needs and crisis situations. All three of these vulnerabilities were mediated to some extent by these women's resourcefulness. They generated ties to South Africa through obtaining identification-documents, used these documents to access pensions, and used the pensions to help them sustain their multigenerational households. PMID:19142721

  7. The perceived influence of cigarette advertisements and smoking susceptibility among seventh graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzekowski, D L; Flora, J A; Feighery, E; Schooler, C

    1999-01-01

    A perceptual bias, the third person effect, has been observed where individuals believe themselves to differ from others regarding the perceived influence of media messages. Given the frequency with which youth encounter prosmoking messages and the reported negative effects of these messages, it is of value to study whether youth perceive cigarette advertisements to influence themselves and their friends and peers. This study examined the associations between exposure to social and information prosmoking environments, the perceived influence of cigarette advertisements on self, best friends, and other youth, and smoking susceptibility. A sample of 571 seventh graders completed surveys on tobacco advertisements and promotions. Using Student's-t, chi-square, ANOVA tests and proportional odds models, we found significant associations between perceived influence of cigarette advertisements and exposure to social and information prosmoking environments as well as smoking susceptibility. These data suggest that youth be taught that everyone is vulnerable to the tobacco industry's strategies and be given skills to resist prosmoking advertising.

  8. An holistic view on aquifer vulnerability based on a distinction of different types of vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela; Franchino, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    AN HOLISTIC VIEW ON AQUIFER VULNERABILITY BASED ON A DISTINCTION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF VULNERABILITY D.A. De Luca1 , M. Lasagna1, E. Franchino1 1Department of Earth Sciences, University of Turin The concept of vulnerability is certainly useful in the field of groundwater protection. Nevertheless, within the scientific community, the definition of groundwater vulnerability is still debatable and not clear and conclusive. This is probably due to the fact that researchers often have very different experiences and education. A positive effect of it is a constant exchange of ideas, but there are also negative consequences and difficulties in deepening the issue. The different approaches are very important but they are usable only if the concept of vulnerability is standardized: thus, for the sake of clarity, a number of definitions should be laid down, based on the different types of vulnerability. These definitions can then provide the necessary holistic view for the aquifer vulnerability assessment. Nowadays vulnerability methods focus on the degree of vulnerability and the parameters needed for its evaluation, often neglecting to clarify what is the type of vulnerability the proposed methods are referred. The type of vulnerability, indeed, is both logically and hierarchically superior to the degree of vulnerability. More specifically the type of vulnerability represents the evaluation of the hydrogeological conditions considered in the vulnerability assessment and able to influence the way in which the contamination can take place. Currently the only distinction, based on of the type of vulnerability, is referred to intrinsic and specific vulnerability. Intrinsic vulnerability assesses the susceptibility of the receptor based on the natural properties of the land and subsurface; specific vulnerability also includes properties of the analyzed contaminant. This distinction is useful but not exhaustive. In addition to this, e.g., a distinction of vertical vulnerability

  9. Metadata for selecting or submitting generic seismic vulnerability functions via GEM's vulnerability database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor

    2013-01-01

    This memo lays out a procedure for the GEM software to offer an available vulnerability function for any acceptable set of attributes that the user specifies for a particular building category. The memo also provides general guidelines on how to submit the vulnerability or fragility functions to the GEM vulnerability repository, stipulating which attributes modelers must provide so that their vulnerability or fragility functions can be queried appropriately by the vulnerability database. An important objective is to provide users guidance on limitations and applicability by providing the associated modeling assumptions and applicability of each vulnerability or fragility function.

  10. A healthy mistrust: how worldview relates to attitudes about breast cancer screening in a cross-sectional survey of low-income women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariff-Marco Salma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perceived racial discrimination is one factor which may discourage ethnic minorities from using healthcare. However, existing research only partially explains why some persons do accept health promotion messages and use preventive care, while others do not. This analysis explores 1 the psychosocial characteristics of those, within disadvantaged groups, who identify their previous experiences as racially discriminatory, 2 the extent to which perceived racism is associated with broader perspectives on societal racism and powerlessness, and 3 how these views relate to disadvantaged groups' expectation of mistreatment in healthcare, feelings of mistrust, and motivation to use care. Methods Using survey data from 576 African-American women, we explored the prevalence and predictors of beliefs and experiences related to social disengagement, racial discrimination, desired and actual racial concordance with medical providers, and fear of medical research. We then used both sociodemographic characteristics, and experiences and attitudes about disadvantage, to model respondents' scores on an index of personal motivation to receive breast cancer screening, measuring screening knowledge, rejection of fatalistic explanatory models of cancer, and belief in early detection, and in collaborative models of patient-provider responsibility. Results Age was associated with lower motivation to screen, as were depressive symptoms, anomie, and fear of medical research. Motivation was low among those more comfortable with African-American providers, regardless of current provider race. However, greater awareness of societal racism positively predicted motivation, as did talking to others when experiencing discrimination. Talking was most useful for women with depressive symptoms. Conclusion Supporting the Durkheimian concepts of both anomic and altruistic suicide, both disengagement (depression, anomie, vulnerability to victimization, and

  11. Secure Web Development Based on Vulnerabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Daljit Kaur Dr. Parminder Kaur

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an effort to develop secure web applications based on known vulnerabilities. It has been seen that in the rapid race of developing web applications in minimum time and budget, security is given least importance as consequence of which web applications are developed and hosted with number of vulnerabilities in them. And in this race, one thing is constant that attackers take advantage of weaknesses existing in technology for financial gain and theft of intellectual property. In this proposed method of secure web development, most common vulnerabilities and their occurrence in development process is discussed. Mapping vulnerabilities to the actions needed to take during development process may help developers to understand vulnerability and avoid vulnerabilities in application.

  12. Vulnerability and resilience: a critical nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, Mianna

    2016-02-01

    Not all forms of human fragility or vulnerability are unavoidable. Sometimes we knowingly and intentionally impose conditions of vulnerability on others; and sometimes we knowingly and intentionally enter into and assume conditions of vulnerability for ourselves (for example, when we decide to trust or forgive, enter into intimate relationships with others, become a parent, become a subject of medical or psychotherapeutic treatment, and the like). In this article, I propose a presently overlooked basis on which one might evaluate whether the imposition or assumption of vulnerability is acceptable, and on which one might ground a significant class of vulnerability-related obligations. Distinct from existing accounts of the importance of promoting autonomy in conditions of vulnerability, this article offers a preliminary exploration of the nature, role, and importance of resilience promotion, its relationship to autonomy promotion, and its prospects for improving human wellbeing in autonomy inhibiting conditions. PMID:26965682

  13. Optimal redundancy against disjoint vulnerabilities in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Sebastian M; Zlatić, Vinko

    2015-01-01

    Redundancy is commonly used to guarantee continued functionality in networked systems. However, often many nodes are vulnerable to the same failure or adversary. A "backup" path is not sufficient if both paths depend on nodes which share a vulnerability.For example, if two nodes of the Internet cannot be connected without using routers belonging to a given untrusted entity, then all of their communication-regardless of the specific paths utilized-will be intercepted by the controlling entity.In this and many other cases, the vulnerabilities affecting the network are disjoint: each node has exactly one vulnerability but the same vulnerability can affect many nodes. To discover optimal redundancy in this scenario, we describe each vulnerability as a color and develop a "color-avoiding percolation" which uncovers a hidden color-avoiding connectivity. We present algorithms for color-avoiding percolation of general networks and an analytic theory for random graphs with uniformly distributed colors including critic...

  14. Assessing the Security Vulnerabilities of Correctional Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, G.S.; Spencer, D.S.

    1998-10-27

    The National Institute of Justice has tasked their Satellite Facility at Sandia National Laboratories and their Southeast Regional Technology Center in Charleston, South Carolina to devise new procedures and tools for helping correctional facilities to assess their security vulnerabilities. Thus, a team is visiting selected correctional facilities and performing vulnerability assessments. A vulnerability assessment helps to identi~ the easiest paths for inmate escape, for introduction of contraband such as drugs or weapons, for unexpected intrusion fi-om outside of the facility, and for the perpetration of violent acts on other inmates and correctional employees, In addition, the vulnerability assessment helps to quantify the security risks for the facility. From these initial assessments will come better procedures for performing vulnerability assessments in general at other correctional facilities, as well as the development of tools to assist with the performance of such vulnerability assessments.

  15. The Relationship between Participation in Decision Making, and Supervisor\\\\\\'s Perceived Support with Organizational Citizenship Behaviors among Employees, with Emphasis on the Mediating Role of Procedural and Perceived Distributive Justices

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Introduction   Among different organizational variables, social exchange theory has had an effective role in explaining and perceiving organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and organizational justice. Exchange of justice is an important aspect of social exchange theory. A number of studies have investigated the relationship between perceived organizational justice and employees' attitudes. However, the issue that is examined in organizational justice and OCB is how employees should be tre...

  16. Perceptions about prenatal care: views of urban vulnerable groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatcher Barbara

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, infant mortality rates remain more than twice as high for African Americans as compared to other racial groups. Lack of adherence to prenatal care schedules in vulnerable, hard to reach, urban, poor women is associated with high infant mortality, particularly for women who abuse substances, are homeless, or live in communities having high poverty and high infant mortality. This issue is of concern to the women, their partners, and members of their communities. Because they are not part of the system, these womens' views are often not included in other studies. Methods This qualitative study used focus groups with four distinct categories of people, to collect observations about prenatal care from various perspectives. The 169 subjects included homeless women; women with current or history of substance abuse; significant others of homeless women; and residents of a community with high infant mortality and poverty indices, and low incidence of adequate prenatal care. A process of coding and recoding using Ethnograph and counting ensured reliability and validity of the process of theme identification. Results Barriers and motivators to prenatal care were identified in focus groups. Pervasive issues identified were drug lifestyle, negative attitudes of health care providers and staff, and non-inclusion of male partners in the prenatal experience. Conclusions Designing prenatal care relevant to vulnerable women in urban communities takes creativity, thoughtfulness, and sensitivity. System changes recommended include increased attention to substance abuse treatment/prenatal care interaction, focus on provider/staff attitudes, and commitment to inclusion of male partners.

  17. Attributions and Attitudes of Mothers and Fathers in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombi, Anna Silvia; Pastorelli, Concetta; Bacchini, Dario; Di Giunta, Laura; Miranda, Maria C; Zelli, Arnaldo

    2011-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study examined mean level similarities and differences as well as correlations between mothers' and fathers' attributions regarding successes and failures in caregiving situations and progressive versus authoritarian attitudes. DESIGN: Interviews were conducted with both mothers and fathers in 177 Italian families from Rome and Naples. RESULTS: Fathers' attributions reflected higher perceived control over failure than did mothers' attributions, whereas mothers reported attitudes that were more progressive than did fathers. Only the difference in progressive attitudes remained significant after controlling for parents' age, education, and possible social desirability bias. Site differences emerged for four of the seven attributions and attitudes examined; three remained significant after controlling for parents' age, education, and possible social desirability bias. Medium effect sizes were found for concordance between parents in the same family for authoritarian attitudes and modernity of attitudes after controlling for parents' age, education, and possible social desirability bias. CONCLUSIONS: This work elucidates ways that parent gender and cultural context relate to attributions regarding parents' success and failure in caregiving situations and to progressive versus authoritarian parenting attitudes.

  18. Nuclear Molecular Imaging for Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaques

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Soo Jin; Paeng, Jin Chul

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease as well as a lipid disorder. Atherosclerotic plaque formed in vessel walls may cause ischemia, and the rupture of vulnerable plaque may result in fatal events, like myocardial infarction or stroke. Because morphological imaging has limitations in diagnosing vulnerable plaque, molecular imaging has been developed, in particular, the use of nuclear imaging probes. Molecular imaging targets various aspects of vulnerable plaque, such as inflammatory cell...

  19. The Moderated Influence of Perceived Behavioral Control on Intentions Among the General U.S. Population: Implications for Public Communication Campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Lourdes S; Lewis, Nehama

    2016-09-01

    This study reports results from a large population-based survey of U.S. adults showing perceived behavioral control (PBC) moderations of associations between (a) attitude and intention and (b) perceived norms and intention to engage in 6 health behaviors. Results are based on data collected from a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults ages 40-70 (N = 2,489) and extend understanding of how behavioral theory can be used to guide the design and evaluation of health communication campaigns. Ordinary least squares regression analyses show evidence of a significant positive PBC moderation of (a) attitude and intention and (b) perceived norms and intention such that attitude or perceived norms toward the behavior is more strongly associated with behavioral intention among participants reporting higher levels of PBC. Implications for message design and the evaluation of communication campaigns are discussed. PMID:27565188

  20. Vulnerability analysis of three remote voting methods

    CERN Document Server

    Enguehard, Chantal

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses three methods of remote voting in an uncontrolled environment: postal voting, internet voting and hybrid voting. It breaks down the voting process into different stages and compares their vulnerabilities considering criteria that must be respected in any democratic vote: confidentiality, anonymity, transparency, vote unicity and authenticity. Whether for safety or reliability, each vulnerability is quantified by three parameters: size, visibility and difficulty to achieve. The study concludes that the automatisation of treatments combined with the dematerialisation of the objects used during an election tends to substitute visible vulnerabilities of a lesser magnitude by invisible and widespread vulnerabilities.

  1. Mining Bug Databases for Unidentified Software Vulnerabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Jason Wright; Miles McQueen

    2012-06-01

    Identifying software vulnerabilities is becoming more important as critical and sensitive systems increasingly rely on complex software systems. It has been suggested in previous work that some bugs are only identified as vulnerabilities long after the bug has been made public. These vulnerabilities are known as hidden impact vulnerabilities. This paper discusses the feasibility and necessity to mine common publicly available bug databases for vulnerabilities that are yet to be identified. We present bug database analysis of two well known and frequently used software packages, namely Linux kernel and MySQL. It is shown that for both Linux and MySQL, a significant portion of vulnerabilities that were discovered for the time period from January 2006 to April 2011 were hidden impact vulnerabilities. It is also shown that the percentage of hidden impact vulnerabilities has increased in the last two years, for both software packages. We then propose an improved hidden impact vulnerability identification methodology based on text mining bug databases, and conclude by discussing a few potential problems faced by such a classifier.

  2. Vulnerable participants in health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Nanna, Kappel

    2011-01-01

    Ethical guidelines for conducting research are embedded in the Helsinki declaration of 1964. We contend that these abstract and intentionally universal guidelines need to be appropriated for social and health care research in which purpose and methods often deviate from medical research....... The guidelines appear to be instrumental and over simplistic representations of the often ´messy´ realities surrounding the research process which is often guided by relational and local negotiations of ethical solutions. Vulnerable participants, for instance, challenge both professional and research ethics...... and leave both professionals and researchers in ethical and moral dilemmas. In the article we specifically focus on the methodological challenges of obtaining informed consent from drug users and terminally ill cancer patients in our PhD-research. The question is how you can illuminate the needs...

  3. Parental stress and perceived vulnerability at 5 and 10 years after pediatric SCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M.J. Vrijmoet-Wiersma; R.M. Egeler; H.M. Koopman; D. Bresters; A.L. Norberg; M.A. Grootenhuis

    2010-01-01

    With the aim of assessing parental stress after SCT, 73 parents of children and adolescents who underwent SCT 5 or 10 years ago responded to questionnaires on general distress (General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)), disease-related stress (Pediatric Inventory for Parents-short form (PIP-SF)) and perce

  4. Language Learners' Acculturation Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieyan, Vahid; Orang, Maryam; Bijami, Maryam; Nejad, Maryam Sharafi; Eng, Lin Siew

    2014-01-01

    Learning a language involves knowledge of both linguistic competence and cultural competence. Optimal development of linguistic competence and cultural competence, however, requires a high level of acculturation attitude toward the target language culture. To this end, the present study explored the acculturation attitudes of 70 Iranian…

  5. Asymmetrical international attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oudenhoven, JP; Askevis-Leherpeux, F; Hannover, B; Jaarsma, R; Dardenne, B

    2002-01-01

    In general, attitudes towards nations have a fair amount of reciprocity: nations either like each other are relatively indifferent to each other or dislike each other Sometimes, however international attitudes are asymmetrical. In this study, we use social identity theory in order to explain asymmet

  6. Adolescent Attitudes about Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershner, Ruth

    1996-01-01

    A very significant problem in society is adolescent rape victimization and the growing number of adolescent perpetrators. This paper examines adolescent attitudes about rape in order to develop curricular materials. It is found that adolescents exhibit conservative attitudes about gender roles, general rape myths, and victim issues. (Author)

  7. Hierarchical Models of Attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Srinivas K.; LaBarbera, Priscilla A.

    1985-01-01

    The application and use of hierarchical models is illustrated, using the example of the structure of attitudes toward a new product and a print advertisement. Subjects were college students who responded to seven-point bipolar scales. Hierarchical models were better than nonhierarchical models in conceptualizing attitude but not intention. (GDC)

  8. Pornography and Attitude Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Douglas H.; Wehmer, Gerald

    1971-01-01

    The results indicate that a voluntary three hour exposure to erotic pictures, some of which have been defined as being legally obscene," does not lead to a change in a person's attitudes toward such materials or in attitudes toward their censorship. (Author)

  9. Measuring Attitude Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Deborah S.; Kristiansen, Connie M.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the Attitude Functions Inventory (AFI), which assesses the extent to which a person's attitude fulfills each of four psychological functions. Reports findings of a study, involving 249 undergraduates, that tested the construct validity of the AFI. Suggests that the AFI provides conceptually meaningful measures of the functions of…

  10. Individual Attitudes Towards Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2007 wave of the Pew Global Attitudes Project, this paper finds statistically significant and economically large Stolper-Samuelson effects in individuals’ preference formation towards trade policy. High-skilled individuals are substantially more pro-trade than low-skilled individuals......-Ohlin model in shaping free trade attitudes, relative to existing literature....

  11. Determinants of physiological and perceived physiological stress reactivity in children and adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany E Evans

    Full Text Available AIMS: Abnormal physiological stress reactivity is increasingly investigated as a vulnerability marker for various physical and psychological health problems. However, studies are inconsistent in taking into account potential covariates that may influence the developing stress system. We systematically tested determinants (individual, developmental, environmental and substance use-related of physiological and perceived physiological stress reactivity. We also examined the relation between physiological and perceived physiological stress reactivity. METHOD: In a stratified sample of 363 children (7-12 years and 344 adolescents (13-20 years from the general population, we examined cortisol, heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia and perceived physiological stress reactivity to a psychosocial stress procedure. RESULTS: Using multivariate linear regression models, we found that individual, developmental, environmental and substance use-related factors were related to each of the stress response indices. These determinant factors were different for each of the stress reactivity indices, and different in children versus adolescents. Perceived physiological stress reactivity predicted cortisol reactivity in adolescents only. All other relations between perceived physiological and physiological stress reactivity were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: As physiological stress variables are often examined as vulnerability markers for the development of health problems, we maintain that it is essential that future studies take into consideration factors that may account for found relations. Our study provides an overview and indication of which variables should be considered in the investigation of the relation between physiological stress indices and illness.

  12. Attitudes and persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crano, William D; Prislin, Radmila

    2006-01-01

    Study of attitudes and persuasion remains a defining characteristic of contemporary social psychology. This review outlines recent advances, with emphasis on the relevance of today's work for perennial issues. We reiterate the distinction between attitude formation and change, and show its relevance for persuasion. Single- and dual-process models are discussed, as are current views on dissonance theory. Majority and minority influence are scrutinized, with special emphasis on integrative theoretical innovations. Attitude strength is considered, and its relevance to ambivalence and resistance documented. Affect, mood, and emotion effects are reviewed, especially as they pertain to fear arousal and (un)certainty. Finally, we discuss attitude-behavior consistency, perhaps the reason for our interest in attitudes in the first place, with emphasis on self-interest and the theory of planned behavior. Our review reflects the dynamism and the reach of the area, and suggests a sure and sometimes rapid accumulation of knowledge and understanding. PMID:16318599

  13. Pink triangles: antecedents and consequences of perceived workplace discrimination against gay and lesbian employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragins, B R; Cornwell, J M

    2001-12-01

    A model of perceived sexual orientation discrimination was tested in a national sample of 534 gay and lesbian employees. The effects of legislation, organizational policies and practices, and work group composition on perceived sexual orientation discrimination were examined, as well as the attitudinal and organizational outcomes associated with discrimination. Gay employees were more likely to report discrimination when employed in groups that were primarily heterosexual and in organizations that lacked supportive policies and were not covered by protective legislation. Disclosure of sexual orientation at work was related to discrimination and antecedent variables. Perceived discrimination was associated with negative work attitudes and fewer promotions. Organizational policies and practices had the strongest impact on perceived discrimination and were directly related to outcomes. PMID:11768065

  14. An examination of the role of perceived support and employee commitment in employee-customer encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, Christian; Bentein, Kathleen; Michon, Richard; Chebat, Jean-Charles; Tremblay, Michel; Fils, Jean-François

    2007-07-01

    The authors examined the relationships between perceived organizational support, organizational commitment, commitment to customers, and service quality in a fast-food firm. The research design matched customer responses with individual employees' attitudes, making this study a true test of the service provider-customer encounter. On the basis of a sample of matched employee-customer data (N = 133), hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed that perceived organizational support had both a unit-level and an employee-level effect on 1 dimension of service quality: helping behavior. Contrary to affective organizational commitment, affective commitment to customers enhanced service quality. The 2 sub-dimensions of continuance commitment to the organization--perceived high sacrifice and perceived lack of alternatives--exerted effects opposite in sign: The former fostered service quality, whereas the latter reduced it. The implications of these findings are discussed within the context of research on employee-customer encounters.

  15. Comparing perceived public stigma and personal stigma of mental health treatment seeking in a young adult sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; Paves, Andrew P

    2014-09-30

    Perceived public stigma regarding seeking mental health treatment can be a barrier to accessing services for young adults. While factors associating with personal stigma regarding how one would view and treat others have been identified, the discrepancies between perceived and personal stigma have received less research attention. We designed the current study to expand on previous research and examine the discrepancies between perceived public stigma and personal stigma among a sample of 386 primarily White and Asian college students. Participants completed surveys of mental health symptoms, treatment experience and attitudes, perceived public, and personal stigma. Overall, participants generally reported greater perceived public stigma than personal stigma; an effect that was particularly evident for women and those with mental health symptoms. The majority of participants disagreed with items assessing personal stigma. Negative attitudes toward treatment and anxiety symptoms associated with perceived public stigma, while male gender, Asian ethnicity, and negative attitudes toward treatment associated with personal stigma. Findings have implications for interventions and marketing programs to help change perceptions about mental health stigma to encourage utilization of services for those young people who could benefit from care.

  16. Self-perceived facture risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothmann, M J; Ammentorp, J; Bech, M;

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY: This Danish cross-sectional study (n=20,905) showed that women aged 65-81 years generally underestimated fracture risk compared to absolute risk estimated by the FRAX® algorithm. Significant association was found between risk factors (e.g., previous fracture, parental hip fracture......, and self-rated heath) and self-perceived fracture risk. Although women recognized the importance of some fracture risk factors, a number of significant risk factors appeared to be less well known. INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to investigate women's self-perceived fracture risk and potential...... factors associated with this and to compare self-perceived risk with absolute fracture risk estimated by FRAX® in women aged 65-80 years. METHODS: Data from 20,905 questionnaires from the ROSE study were analyzed. The questionnaire included 25 items on osteoporosis, risk factors for fractures, and self...

  17. Non-smoking youths' "perceived" addiction to tobacco is associated with their susceptibility to future smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Richardson, Chris G; Ratner, Pamela A; Johnson, Joy L

    2009-12-01

    Smoking initiation places adolescents at risk for adult onset diseases, including heart disease, respiratory illness, and cancer. Adolescents that smoke have levels of 'perceived' tobacco addiction that are associated with several measures of nicotine dependence. Nonsmoking adolescents also report feeling addicted to tobacco even with minimal or no prior tobacco use, suggesting some vulnerability to tobacco use. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between perceived tobacco addiction and smoking susceptibility among adolescents with very minimal tobacco use. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of data obtained from 5155 nonsmokers who completed the British Columbia Youth Survey of Smoking and Health II, a school-based survey conducted during 2004. Measures included demographics, tobacco use (ever puffed a cigarette), substance use (marijuana and alcohol), exposure to family members' smoking in the home, peers' tobacco use, depressive symptoms, perceived physical and mental addiction to tobacco, and smoking susceptibility. The adolescents who were most susceptible to smoking were female, younger and in a lower school grade; had ever puffed a cigarette, had used alcohol or marijuana; had family members or peers who smoked; had higher depression scores, and higher perceived physical and mental addiction to tobacco. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, perceived mental addiction but not perceived physical addiction to tobacco was significantly associated with smoking susceptibility. Understanding factors associated with smoking initiation, and ways to identify "at- risk" adolescents can enhance early intervention and prevention programs. Perceived mental addiction to tobacco appears to be an important indicator of smoking susceptibility. PMID:19643546

  18. Predicting Vulnerability Risks Using Software Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumani, Yaman

    2012-01-01

    Software vulnerabilities have been regarded as one of the key reasons for computer security breaches that have resulted in billions of dollars in losses per year (Telang and Wattal 2005). With the growth of the software industry and the Internet, the number of vulnerability attacks and the ease with which an attack can be made have increased. From…

  19. IT Security Vulnerability and Incident Response Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hafkamp, W.H.M.; Paulus, S.; Pohlman, N.; Reimer, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarises the results of a Dutch PhD research project on IT security vulnerability and incident response management, which is supervised by the University of Twente in the Netherlands and which is currently in its final stage. Vulnerabilities are ‘failures or weaknesses in computer (appl

  20. Callahan's Vulnerability Thesis and "Dissatisfaction Theory."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannaccone, Laurence

    1996-01-01

    In discussing school superintendent vulnerability, the paper addresses diverse meanings among scholars of Callahan's vulnerability thesis, highlighting other articles within this theme issue. The paper reflects on discussions of Callahan's "Education and the Cult of Efficacy" before its 1962 publication and investigates the relation between…

  1. Evaluating the Characteristics of Social Vulnerability to Wildfire: Demographics, Perceptions, and Parcel Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paveglio, Travis B.; Prato, Tony; Edgeley, Catrin; Nalle, Darek

    2016-09-01

    A large body of research focuses on identifying patterns of human populations most at risk from hazards and the factors that help explain performance of mitigations that can help reduce that risk. One common concept in such studies is social vulnerability—human populations' potential exposure to, sensitivity from and ability to reduce negative impacts from a hazard. While there is growing interest in social vulnerability for wildfire, few studies have critically evaluated the characteristics that scholars often indicate influence social vulnerability to that hazard. This research utilizes surveys, wildfire simulations, and GIS data to test the relationships between select demographic, perceptual and parcel characteristics of property owners against empirically simulated metrics for wildfire exposure or wildfire-related damages and their performance of mitigation actions. Our results from Flathead County, MT, USA, suggest that parcel characteristics such as property value, building value, and the year structures were built explaining a significant amount of the variance in elements of social vulnerability. Demographic characteristics commonly used in social vulnerability analysis did not have significant relationships with measures of wildfire exposure or vulnerability. Part-time or full-time residency, age, perceived property risk, and year of development were among the few significant determinants of residents' performance of fuel reduction mitigations, although the significance of these factors varied across the levels of fuel reduction performed by homeowners. We use these and other results to argue for a renewed focus on the finer-scale characteristics that expose some populations to wildfire risk more than others.

  2. Attitude of the population of Slovenian alpine tourist resorts toward tourism and its impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Cigale

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to fnd out how the local inhabitants perceive positive and negative tourism impacts in Slovenian alpine areas and how this perception infuence their attitude toward tourism. A questionnaire survey was undertaken in fve different tourist resorts. Despite the differences between resorts there are many similarities in perception of tourism impacts. In all cases positive attitudes toward tourism prevail. In general the economic impacts were perceived as the most important and the socio-cultural impacts as the least important.

  3. Eating disorders - knowledge, attitudes, management and clinical experience of Norwegian dentists

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Ann-Katrin; Johansson, Anders; Nohlert, Eva; Norring, Claes; Åstrøm, Anne N; Tegelberg, Åke

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitudes and clinical experience with regard to patients with eating disorders (ED) among Norwegian dentists. Methods In 2010, a questionnaire was sent to all dentists in Norway (N = 4282) comprising 33 questions related to demographics of the participating dentists, their knowledge of ED (general and oral health aspects), clinical experience, attitudes and perceived management preferences. Results The participation rate was ...

  4. Eating disorders - knowledge, attitudes, management and clinical experience of Norwegian dentists

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Ann-Katrin; Johansson, Anders; Nohlert, Eva; Norring, Claes; Åstrøm, Anne N; Tegelberg, Åke

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitudes and clinical experience with regard to patients with eating disorders (ED) among Norwegian dentists. Methods: In 2010, a questionnaire was sent to all dentists in Norway (N = 4282) comprising 33 questions related to demographics of the participating dentists, their knowledge of ED (general and oral health aspects), clinical experience, attitudes and perceived management preferences. Results: The participation rate w...

  5. Reproductive Health and Reproductive Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Žikić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive health represents, almost to an equal extent, a socio-cultural and a medical fact. What influences it, both positively and negatively, stems from the ways in which we culturally cognize and act with regard to reproductive behavior. These thoughts and actions are conditioned by a culturally contextualized conceptualization of human physiology which is, in turn, based on the conceptualization of sexuality, and especially, the normativization of gender roles. Therefore, reproductive health is, above all, female health, when viewed as a socio-cultural category, meaning that reproductive vulnerability mostly refers to those factors that negatively influence female reproductive health. These factors are social – they negatively influence reproductive health through the institutional and legally normative aspects, they are economic – they decrease the number of those who, in a certain socio-cultural context, have timely access to quality medical care, and they are cultural – they reinforce modes of thinking and behavior which do not take into consideration the right of every human being to his or her own sexual and reproductive life, but rather insist on conforming individual sexuality and reproductive desires and capacities to the dominant cultural norm.

  6. Attitudes Towards Immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Roland Munch, Jakob; Schroll, Sanne;

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we re-examine the role of economic self-interest in shaping people's attitudes towards immigration, using data from the European Social Survey 2002/2003. Compared to the existing literature, there are two main contributions of the present paper. First, we develop a more powerful test...... of the hypothesis that a positive relationship between education and attitudes towards immigration reflects economic self-interest in the labour market. Second, we develop an alternativeand more direct test of whether economic self-interest mattersfor people's attitudes towards immigration. We find...

  7. Attitudes Towards Immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Schroll, Sanne;

    In this paper, we re-examine the role of economic self-interest in shaping people’s attitudes towards immigration, using data from the European Social Survey 2002/2003. Compared to the existing literature, there are two main contributions of the present paper. First, we develop a more powerful test...... of the hypothesis that a positive relationship between education and attitudes towards immigration reflects economic self-interest in the labour market. Second, we develop an alternative and more direct test of whether economic self-interest matters for people’s attitudes towards immigration. We find...

  8. Attitudes toward straight, gay male, and transsexual parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Brittany A; Zinner, Leah

    2015-01-01

    This study examined American attitudes toward transsexual and gay male parenting, compared to straight parenting. After reporting levels of transphobia, participants read a vignette regarding a couple seeking child adoption. Individuals high in transphobia perceived nontraditional couples as more emotionally unstable than straight couples and were less willing to grant custody of a child to the nontraditional couples vs. the straight couples. In addition, the transsexual couple faced more prejudice and discrimination than the gay male couple. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  9. Modeling nurses' attitude toward using automated unit-based medication storage and distribution systems: an extension of the technology acceptance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Rodríguez, Tomás; Romero-Alonso, María Mercedes

    2013-05-01

    This article analyzes the attitude of nurses toward the use of automated unit-based medication storage and distribution systems and identifies influencing factors. Understanding these factors provides an opportunity to explore actions that might be taken to boost adoption by potential users. The theoretical grounding for this research is the Technology Acceptance Model. The Technology Acceptance Model specifies the causal relationships between perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, attitude toward using, and actual usage behavior. The research model has six constructs, and nine hypotheses were generated from connections between these six constructs. These constructs include perceived risks, experience level, and training. The findings indicate that these three external variables are related to the perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of automated unit-based medication storage and distribution systems, and therefore, they have a significant influence on attitude toward the use of these systems.

  10. Nuclear Waste Risk Perceptions and Attitudes in Siting a Final Repository for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper does the following: Describes the time trends between 2001 and 2005 in terms of policy intention, perceived risk, trust and attitude Analyzes the relationships between policy attitude - the major dependent variable - and the explanatory variables of perceived risk, trust and attitude. Determines whether policy attitude variation across time, municipalities and genders can be accounted for by variation in perceived risk, trust and attitude. Random samples of 2000 persons living in Oesthammar and Oskarshamn were approached with a mailed questionnaire in 2005 (as was done in 2005). After two reminders, 888 had returned filled out questionnaires, yielding a total response rate of 50 percent, taking into account that some persons had moved without giving a forwarding address to the post office, and that some were unable to answer due to illness or old age. (1). There was a substantially more positive attitude to a local SNF repository in 2005 than in 2001, after an intervening period of phase 2 site investigation. This was true for men and women, both municipalities and with all the response measures analyzed. Men were more positive than women, and had developed more strongly in the positive direction than women had. The attitude in Oskarshamn was somewhat more positive than in Oesthammar. (2). Policy intention was well accounted for by the explanatory variables used here, close to 64 percent of the variance. The most important explanatory variables were epistemic trust, attitude to the repository and social trust, in that order. The differences among these three variables were small with regard to explanatory power. (3) Variation in policy attitude across time, municipalities and gender was reduced in an analysis of covariance with risk, trust and attitude as controlling factors. Hence, these factors explain a large fraction of the variation in policy attitude as observed here. Yet, the time trend was not fully explained and gender variability remained to

  11. Nuclear Waste Risk Perceptions and Attitudes in Siting a Final Repository for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, Lennart [Stockholm School of Economics (Sweden). Center for Risk Research

    2006-09-15

    The paper does the following: Describes the time trends between 2001 and 2005 in terms of policy intention, perceived risk, trust and attitude Analyzes the relationships between policy attitude - the major dependent variable - and the explanatory variables of perceived risk, trust and attitude. Determines whether policy attitude variation across time, municipalities and genders can be accounted for by variation in perceived risk, trust and attitude. Random samples of 2000 persons living in Oesthammar and Oskarshamn were approached with a mailed questionnaire in 2005 (as was done in 2005). After two reminders, 888 had returned filled out questionnaires, yielding a total response rate of 50 percent, taking into account that some persons had moved without giving a forwarding address to the post office, and that some were unable to answer due to illness or old age. (1). There was a substantially more positive attitude to a local SNF repository in 2005 than in 2001, after an intervening period of phase 2 site investigation. This was true for men and women, both municipalities and with all the response measures analyzed. Men were more positive than women, and had developed more strongly in the positive direction than women had. The attitude in Oskarshamn was somewhat more positive than in Oesthammar. (2). Policy intention was well accounted for by the explanatory variables used here, close to 64 percent of the variance. The most important explanatory variables were epistemic trust, attitude to the repository and social trust, in that order. The differences among these three variables were small with regard to explanatory power. (3) Variation in policy attitude across time, municipalities and gender was reduced in an analysis of covariance with risk, trust and attitude as controlling factors. Hence, these factors explain a large fraction of the variation in policy attitude as observed here. Yet, the time trend was not fully explained and gender variability remained to

  12. The effect of perceived discrimination on the health of immigrant workers in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Gil-González Diana; Ronda-Pérez Elena; Agudelo-Suárez Andrés A; Vives-Cases Carmen; García Ana M; Ruiz-Frutos Carlos; Felt Emily; Benavides Fernando G

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Discrimination is an important determinant of health inequalities, and immigrants may be more vulnerable to certain types of discrimination than the native-born. This study analyses the relationship between immigrants' perceived discrimination and various self-reported health indicators. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted (2008) amongst a non-random sample of 2434 immigrants from Ecuador, Morocco, Romania and Colombia in four Spanish cities: Barcelona, Huelva, ...

  13. Feelings of burden and perceived social support among relatives of hemodialysis patients

    OpenAIRE

    SEZEN ADEM; SENYURT AHMET Y.; DIKMEN AHMET C.; TAPAN BIRKAN; SEZEN ERENGÜL

    2015-01-01

    Caregivers are vulnerable to physical, psychological, and economical problems. Caregivers of hemodialysis patients should deal with economical difficulties due to job loss, or social life difficulties due to time strain of dialysis treatment. It is a fact that caregivers of hemodialysis patients suffer from caregiver burden. Our study aims to discover risk and protective factors of caregiver burden. For this aim, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), Ways of Coping Quest...

  14. Perceived barriers in accessing food among recent Latin American immigrants in Toronto

    OpenAIRE

    Vahabi Mandana; Damba Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective In Canada, recent immigrant households experience more food insecurity than the general population, but limited information is available about the personal, cultural, and social factors that contribute to this vulnerability. This study focused on recent Latin American (LA) immigrants to explore their perceived barriers in acquiring safe, nutritious, and culturally-appropriate food. Design A cross-sectional mixed-method design was applied to collect information from a conven...

  15. The Effects of Urban Consumer Perceptions on Attitudes for Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, R. Wes; Han, Jae-Hwan

    2005-01-01

    The effects of consumer perceptions on attitudes toward the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s current labeling policy for GM foods are examined. Results show that as beliefs regarding potential adverse effects of GM crops on wildlife and the environment increase, consumers are less likely to support the FDA's current labeling policy. The perceived safety of GM foods was also found to be important. As consumers perceive GM foods to be safe (unsafe), they are more (less) likely...

  16. Perceived religious discrimination as predictor of work engagement, with specific reference to the Rastafari religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freda van der Walt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although perceived religious discrimination has been studied in the past, much remains unknown about the topic. The focus of this study was the Rastafari religion, because this religious group has up to now been excluded from research studies. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with a sample of 80 employees belonging to the Rastafari religion, chosen from organisations in two provinces in South Africa. The findings emanating from the quantitative research study indicated that, on average, the respondents perceived to be discriminated against. Furthermore, a positive relationship was established between perceived religious discrimination and work engagement. These findings advanced the understanding of perceived religious discrimination, and the impact that it may have on work engagement, particularly with reference to the Rastafari religion.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The article contributes to the interdisciplinary discourse regarding perceived religious discrimination, with specific reference to the Rastafari religion which is a minority religious group in South Africa. Perceived religious discrimination is discussed and investigated in the context of the workplace, and the aim was to establish whether perceived religious discrimination influences work-related attitudes, such as work engagement. Because previous studies have associated perceived discrimination with less job involvement and career satisfaction, fewer career prospects, greater work conflict, lower feelings of power, decreased job prestige, and less organisational citizenship behaviour (Thomas 2008:80, it was expected that perceived religious discrimination would have a negative influence on work engagement. The findings show that religion possibly provides individuals with the necessary personal resources to persevere when faced with religious discrimination, and sustain performance as well as attain success within the context of the

  17. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-01-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats’ impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on “predation awareness” campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom. PMID:26306163

  18. Perceived Attractiveness and Classroom Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algozzine, Bob

    1977-01-01

    Adams and Cohen (1974) demonstrated that facial attractiveness was a salient factor in differential student-teacher interactions. This research investigates further the interaction between teachers and children perceived to be attractive or unattractive by those teachers. It was hypothesized that attractive children would exhibit more "positive,"…

  19. Perceiving Tonal Structure in Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, Carol L.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses research that may broaden understanding of how music of other styles and cultures is perceived and remembered. Experiments examined serve to isolate similarities and differences that exist across musical cultures and characterize their psychological effects and to study perception of compositional styles in Western music outside the…

  20. The study of perceived adverse effects of digital piracy and involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kos Koklic, M.; Vida, I.; Bajde, Domen;

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we focus on two sets of expected negative consequences of engaging in digital piracy among the seldom studied adult computer users rather than student population. We delve into the role of perceived risk and moral intensity as drivers of consumers' attitudes and behavioural...... a random sample of adult consumers using structural equations modelling. The results of this cross-sectional study show unfailing support for the relationships proposed in our model. Our findings suggest that, in addition to perceived risk, moral intensity (i.e. the expected consequences for others), has...

  1. Dental students' attitudes toward tobacco cessation counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Patrick L; Davis, Elaine L; McCall, W D

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine if level of education, gender, and tobacco history affected attitudes of dental students toward tobacco cessation counseling. A secondary objective was to examine the psychometric properties of the survey instrument. First- and fourth-year dental students at one school of dental medicine completed a survey examining attitudes toward tobacco cessation and perceived barriers to performing tobacco cessation counseling in a dental setting. Analyses were conducted to determine whether there were differences in attitudes by gender, level of education, or personal and family tobacco use. A main effect for education level was discovered. Fourth-year students were more likely than first-year students to consider the prescription of nicotine gum and transdermal patches to be within the scope and responsibility of the dental profession. No significant differences were seen with regard to gender or students' personal and family tobacco histories. Dental students were in general agreement that tobacco cessation counseling is within the responsibility of the dental profession, is within the scope of dental practice, and can be effective. Psychometric analysis revealed reliability of the survey instrument.

  2. College Students' Attitudes toward Date Rape and Date Rape Backlash: Implications for Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Susan; Bower, Douglas J.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed college students regarding their acceptance of rape-myth beliefs expounded by the date rape backlash movement. Results indicated that gender, adversarial attitudes toward sexual relationships, political and sex role views, perception of false accusation vulnerability, academic honorary membership, Greek affiliation, and knowledge of a…

  3. Between Consumerism and Protectionism: Attitudes towards Children, Consumption and the Media in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Margit; Kalmus, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    This study measures attitudes towards children's vulnerability or empowerment within consumer culture, based on data from a representative population survey (N = 1475) conducted in Estonia in 2005. The study use indices comprised of assessments of consumption practices and assertions pertaining to the "endangered vs empowered child" debate in…

  4. Regulatory fit effects on perceived fiscal exchange and tax compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Susanne; Mannetti, Lucia; Hölzl, Erik; Kirchler, Erich

    2010-04-01

    Paying taxes can be considered a contribution to the welfare of a society. But even though tax payments are redistributed to citizens in the form of public goods and services, taxpayers often do not perceive many benefits from paying taxes. Information campaigns about the use of taxes for financing public goods and services could increase taxpayers' understanding of the importance of taxes, strengthen their perception of fiscal exchange and consequently also increase tax compliance. Two studies examined how fit between framing of information and taxpayers' regulatory focus affects perceived fiscal exchange and tax compliance. Taxpayers should perceive the exchange between tax payments and provision of public goods and services as higher if information framing suits their regulatory focus. Study 1 supported this hypothesis for induced regulatory focus. Study 2 replicated the findings for chronic regulatory focus and further demonstrated that regulatory fit also affects tax compliance. The results provide further evidence for findings from previous studies concerning regulatory fit effects on tax attitudes and extend these findings to a context with low tax morale.

  5. Regulatory fit effects on perceived fiscal exchange and tax compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Susanne; Mannetti, Lucia; Hölzl, Erik; Kirchler, Erich

    2010-04-01

    Paying taxes can be considered a contribution to the welfare of a society. But even though tax payments are redistributed to citizens in the form of public goods and services, taxpayers often do not perceive many benefits from paying taxes. Information campaigns about the use of taxes for financing public goods and services could increase taxpayers' understanding of the importance of taxes, strengthen their perception of fiscal exchange and consequently also increase tax compliance. Two studies examined how fit between framing of information and taxpayers' regulatory focus affects perceived fiscal exchange and tax compliance. Taxpayers should perceive the exchange between tax payments and provision of public goods and services as higher if information framing suits their regulatory focus. Study 1 supported this hypothesis for induced regulatory focus. Study 2 replicated the findings for chronic regulatory focus and further demonstrated that regulatory fit also affects tax compliance. The results provide further evidence for findings from previous studies concerning regulatory fit effects on tax attitudes and extend these findings to a context with low tax morale. PMID:20890461

  6. Energy policy options--from the perspective of public attitudes and risk perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study a representative sample (N=797) of the Swedish population was surveyed, with regard to attitudes related to energy policy issues (e.g., environmental attitudes, risk perceptions, and attitudes towards different energy production systems), and self-reported electricity saving behavior. These factors were considered relevant in a Swedish energy policy context, due to the planned phase-out of nuclear power. Citizens' attitudes have traditionally been important factors in energy policy-making, especially nuclear policy. One of the conditions for a successful phase-out is decreased levels of electricity consumption among households and in industry, in order to compensate for the loss in energy production. Respondents reported positive attitudes to the environment in general and to electricity saving, while the attitudes to nuclear power as an energy production system in Sweden were relatively negative. Perceived risk was an important predictor of these attitudes and it was concluded that it is important to investigate factors behind this variable. The relationship between attitudes towards electricity saving and electricity saving behavior was weak. It is suggested that a contribution of psychological knowledge in energy conservation campaigns could be to elaborate on people's willingness to be public-spirited citizens in combination with their pro-environmental attitudes. Viklund (1999, Electricity saving: Attitudes and behavior of Swedish households. Center for Risk Research, Stockholm.) presented more data from the survey referred to here

  7. [Social, individual and programmatic vulnerability among the elderly in the community: data from the FIBRA Study conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Natália Oliveira; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2012-08-01

    Sociocultural and economic conditions interact with biological processes throughout the course of life determining vulnerability or resilience in old age. The scope of this study was to investigate relationships between social vulnerability (gender, age and income); individual vulnerability (comorbidities, signs and symptoms, functional ability, perceived social support and perceived health), and programmatic vulnerability (indices of dependence on the public health system, social vulnerability and access to health services) in a sample of individuals aged 65 and more. 688 elderly people were interviewed in a single data gathering session in their homes in 88 selected urban census sectors in Campinas. 470 of the interviewees were women, with more comorbidities and more signals and symptoms, though more socially engaged in AADL and IADL than men. Mean age was 72.28 ± 5.41; mean family income = 4.72 ± 5.28 minimum wages. The variables with most explanatory power over the joint variation of the data were access and use of health services, levels of social vulnerability and dependence on public healthcare services, and family income. Social conditions as well as family income coexist with individual vulnerability in old age. PMID:22899153

  8. [Social, individual and programmatic vulnerability among the elderly in the community: data from the FIBRA Study conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Natália Oliveira; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2012-08-01

    Sociocultural and economic conditions interact with biological processes throughout the course of life determining vulnerability or resilience in old age. The scope of this study was to investigate relationships between social vulnerability (gender, age and income); individual vulnerability (comorbidities, signs and symptoms, functional ability, perceived social support and perceived health), and programmatic vulnerability (indices of dependence on the public health system, social vulnerability and access to health services) in a sample of individuals aged 65 and more. 688 elderly people were interviewed in a single data gathering session in their homes in 88 selected urban census sectors in Campinas. 470 of the interviewees were women, with more comorbidities and more signals and symptoms, though more socially engaged in AADL and IADL than men. Mean age was 72.28 ± 5.41; mean family income = 4.72 ± 5.28 minimum wages. The variables with most explanatory power over the joint variation of the data were access and use of health services, levels of social vulnerability and dependence on public healthcare services, and family income. Social conditions as well as family income coexist with individual vulnerability in old age.

  9. Attitudes to audit

    OpenAIRE

    Waters, W. H. R.; Kelly, J.; Lunn, J E

    1983-01-01

    An exercise in audit was arranged jointly by the Local Medical Committee and the Royal College of General Practitioners in the Doncaster area. This was followed up by a questionnaire enquiring about attitudes to the audit.

  10. Variable Attitude Test Stand

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Variable Attitude Test Stand designed and built for testing of the V-22 tilt rotor aircraft propulsion system, is used to evaluate the effect of aircraft flight...

  11. Attitudes towards Immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Klemmensen, Robert; Nørgaard, Asbjørn Sonne

    2016-01-01

    This article examines if deep-seated psychological differences add to the explanation of attitudes toward immigration. We explore whether the Big Five personality traits matter for immigration attitudes beyond the traditional situational factors of economic and cultural threat and analyze how...... individuals with different personalities react when confronted with the same situational triggers. Using a Danish survey experiment, we show that different personality traits have different effects on opposition toward immigration. We find that Openness has an unconditional effect on attitudes toward...... high on Conscientiousness are more sensitive to the skill level of immigrants. The results imply that personality is important for attitudes toward immigration, and in the conclusion, we further discuss how the observed conditional and unconditional effects of personality make sense theoretically....

  12. Vulnerability, Health Agency and Capability to Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straehle, Christine

    2016-01-01

    One of the defining features of the capability approach (CA) to health, as developed in Venkatapuram's book Health Justice, is its aim to enable individual health agency. Furthermore, the CA to health hopes to provide a strong guideline for assessing the health-enabling content of social and political conditions. In this article, I employ the recent literature on the liberal concept of vulnerability to assess the CA. I distinguish two kinds of vulnerability. Considering circumstantial vulnerability, I argue that liberal accounts of vulnerability concerned with individual autonomy, align with the CA to health. Individuals should, as far as possible, be able to make health-enabling decisions about their lives, and their capability to do so should certainly not be hindered by public policy. The CA to health and a vulnerability-based analysis then work alongside to define moral responsibilities and designate those who hold them. Both approaches demand social policy to address circumstances that hinder individuals from taking health-enabling decisions. A background condition of vulnerability, on the other hand, even though it hampers the capability for health, does not warrant the strong moral claim proposed by the CA to health to define health as a meta-capability that should guide social policy. Nothing in our designing social policy could change the challenge to health agency when we deal with background conditions of vulnerability.

  13. Determining Vulnerability Importance in Environmental Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of vulnerability has been used to describe the susceptibility of physical, biotic, and social systems to harm or hazard. In this sense, it is a tool that reduces the uncertainties of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) since it does not depend exclusively on the value assessments of the evaluator, but rather is based on the environmental state indicators of the site where the projects or activities are being carried out. The concept of vulnerability thus reduces the possibility that evaluators will subjectively interpret results, and be influenced by outside interests and pressures during projects. However, up until now, EIA has been hindered by a lack of effective methods. This research study analyzes the concept of vulnerability, defines Vulnerability Importance and proposes its inclusion in qualitative EIA methodology. The method used to quantify Vulnerability Importance is based on a set of environmental factors and indicators that provide a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. The results obtained in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method since there is a direct relation between this value and the environmental state of the departments analyzed. - Research Highlights: ► The concept of vulnerability could be considered defining Vulnerability Importance included in qualitative EIA methodology. ► The use of the concept of environmental vulnerability could reduce the subjectivity of qualitative methods of EIA. ► A method to quantify the Vulnerability Importance proposed provides a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. ► Results in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method.

  14. Attitudes towards immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose;

    2008-01-01

    Using the European Social Survey 2002/3, we develop a new test of whether economic self-interest influences people's attitudes towards immigration, exploiting that people have widely different perceptions of the consequences of immigration......Using the European Social Survey 2002/3, we develop a new test of whether economic self-interest influences people's attitudes towards immigration, exploiting that people have widely different perceptions of the consequences of immigration...

  15. Stimulating an Inquiring Attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarrete Sonya Patricia

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the first year experience of teaching Science combined with English in the preschool section with ages between 4 and 6 in the Gimnasio Campestre. A brief theoretical framework is exposed based on inquiring attitudes and theoretical models about this. Then a proposal is presented which was applied to these children; the purpose is to show a new methodology where students will acquire an inquiring attitude through a Science class taught in English.

  16. Consumers’ Attitude towards Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Uchenna Cyril Eze; Chai Har Lee

    2012-01-01

    Advertising is a growing business and with advances in the Internet technology, the dynamics and landscape ofthe business has changed as well. Prior findings on consumers’ attitude towards advertising are mixed. Thispaper is an attempt to examine young adults’ attitude towards advertising. We conceptualized a framework toexamine the influence of six independent variables namely consumer manipulation, product information,hedonic/pleasure, economic condition, social integration, and materialism...

  17. Attitudes and Beliefs in Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Pohořelá, Denisa

    2011-01-01

    Bachelor thesis of name „Attitudes and Belief in Advertising“ considers determination of general attitude towards advertising and testing of factors which effect advertising message´s consignee. Belief in advertising has character of general attitude or attitude towards brand. My bachelor abstract recognizes particulary these general attitudes. Working factors in advertising are: relation, politics, sex, symbolism, family. For this purpose questionnaire research was chosen. A part ...

  18. Students’ online purchasing behavior in Malaysia: Understanding online shopping attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Zendehdel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies examining the factors that affect the online purchasing behavior of consumers are rare, despite the prospective advance of e-commerce in Malaysia. The present study examines particular factors that influence the attitude of potential consumers to purchase online by using the attributes from the diffusion of innovations theory of Rogers, the attribute of perception of risk, and the subjective norms toward online purchasing. Consumers’ perceived risks of online shopping have become a vital subject in research because they directly influence users’ attitude toward online purchasing. The structural equation modeling method was used to analyze the data gathered on students using e-commerce, and, thus, to validate the model. According to the results, consumers’ attitude toward online purchasing affects the intention toward online purchasing. The other influential factors are compatibility, relative advantage, and subjective norm.

  19. Attitude, interest, and motivation for adoption and foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyebjee, Tyzoon

    2003-01-01

    This survey compares prospective foster and adoptive parents' attitudes, willingness, and motivations, and discusses implications for media campaigns. The results show that demographic profiles of targets for adoption and foster placements are the same, an opportunity exists to shape positive attitudes toward foster care in immigrant populations, the most compelling way to attract parents is to focus on the child in need, and testimonials of personal experiences of foster and adoptive parents should address perceived barriers to adopting or fostering. Political, religious, and environmental ideology were unrelated to attitudes or willingness to adopt or foster. Respondents with strong identifications with gay or lesbian lifestyles exhibited a higher than average willingness to adopt or foster. PMID:14736030

  20. DOE contractor vulnerability analysis: DPA or MAIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two vulnerability analysis techniques, Diversion Path Analysis (DPA) and Matrix Analysis of the Insider Threat (MAIT), were applied by EG and G Idaho, Inc. Safeguards and Security to the same item accountable SNM storage area at INEL. Technical and cost data for each methodology were collected and compared. A recommendation that MAIT be utilized for future vulnerability analyses of item accountable SNM storage and use areas operated by EG and G Idaho for DOE-ID resulted. Unclassified results of the two techniques and MAIT/DPA technical and cost comparisons will be presented which show that MAIT can be used for vulnerability analyses to comply with Department of Energy (DOE) requirements

  1. Perceived Participation in Decision Making, Satisfaction, and Militancy of Teachers, Principals, and Central Office Staff in Tennessee Public School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Pamela; And Others

    Researchers looked at participation in decision-making as perceived by 2,056 teachers, principals, central office personnel, and superintendents in Tennessee. They also looked at both satisfaction in relation to six decision categories and attitudes toward unionization. Teachers' self-perceptions of participation in policy decision-making…

  2. Active Defending and Passive Bystanding Behavior in Bullying: The Role of Personal Characteristics and Perceived Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzoli, Tiziana; Gini, Gianluca

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the role of pro-victim attitudes, personal responsibility, coping responses to observations of bullying, and perceived peer normative pressure in explaining defending the victim and passive bystanding behavior in bullying. A total of 462 Italian early adolescents (mean age = 13.4 years, SD = 9 months) participated in the study.…

  3. Transdisciplinary knowledge integration : cases from integrated assessment and vulnerability assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinkel, J.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: climate change, integrated assessment, knowledge integration, transdisciplinary research, vulnerability, vulnerability assessment. This thesis explores how transdisciplinary knowledge integration can be facilitated in the context of integrated assessments and vulnerability assessments of

  4. Measuring the Perceived Reality of Television: Perceived Plausibility, Perceived Superficiality and the Degree of Personal Utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, William R.; And Others

    A tool was devised to measure the perceived reality of television, an important variable in understanding how television influences an individual's perception of social reality. This was accomplished by using a research plan that allowed university subjects to generate the measures used for tapping the "reality" of television content. University…

  5. Moderating Effect of Accompaniment on the Relationship Between Online Perceived Quality and Perceived Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozha Erragcha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to highlight the impact of the mediating effect of the perceived value on the influence of perceived quality of the purchase-site on the buying intention, Moreover; our goal is to study the moderating effect of accompaniment on the relationship between the perceived quality on perceived value web site. The data-gathering was carried out through an experimentation conducted an online-trading site for a laptop purchase. The findings reveal that the perceived quality partially influence the perceived value. The latter exerts a positive effect upon the buying intention. Accompaniment moderates the relationship between the perceived quality and the perceived value.

  6. The Effect of an Interdisciplinary Community Health Project on Student Attitudes toward Community Health, People Who Are Indigent and Homeless, and Team Leadership Skill Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Molly A.; Lyons, Kevin J.; Miller, Kathleen Swenson; Cornman-Levy, Diane

    2003-01-01

    A study of 22 health occupations students examined whether participation in an interdisciplinary community health empowerment project with urban homeless and formerly homeless people changed their attitudes about community health practice, attitudes toward people who are indigent and homeless, and perceived leadership skills. Posttests revealed a…

  7. First Impressions on the Scene: The Influence of the Immediate Reference Group on Incoming First-Year Students' Alcohol Behavior and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Justin F.; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Pedersen, Eric R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined incoming first-year students' normative perceptions of alcohol use and alcohol-related attitudes of other students of the same gender living on their residence hall floor. Male and female residents overestimated the alcohol use behavior and related attitudes among their floormates. Results also showed that perceived norms were…

  8. Perceived health in the Portuguese population aged ? 35

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo de Figueiredo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To evaluate the exploratory relationship between determinants of health, life satisfaction, locus of control, attitudes and behaviors and health related quality of life in an adult population. METHODS : Observational study (analytical and cross-sectional with a quantitative methodological basis. The sample was composed oy 1,214 inhabitants aged ≥ 35 in 31 civil parishes in the County of Coimbra, Portugal, 2011-2012. An anonymous and voluntary health survey was conducted, which collected the following information: demographic, clinical record, health and lifestyle behaviors; health related quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study, Short Form-36; health locus of control; survey of health attitudes and behavior, and quality of life index. Pearson’s Linear Correlation, t-Student, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney; One-way ANOVA; Brown-Forsythe’s F; Kruskal-Wallis; Multiple Comparisons: Tukey (HSD, Games-Howell and Conover were used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS : Health related quality of life was shown to be lower in females, in older age groups, in obese/overweight individuals, widows, unassisted, those living alone, living in rural/suburban areas, those who did not work and with a medium-low socioeconomic level. Respondents with poor/very poor self-perceived health (p < 0.0001, with chronic disease (p < 0.0001, who consumed < 3 meals per day (p ≤ 0.01, who were sedentary, who slept ≤ 6 h/day and had smoked for several years revealed the worst health results. Health related quality of life was positively related with a bigger internal locus, with better health attitudes and behaviors (physical exercise, health and nutritional care, length of dependence and with different areas of life satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS : Better health related quality of life was associated with certain social, psychological, family and health characteristics, a satisfactory lifestyle, better socioeconomic conditions and a good internal locus of control over

  9. Mental vulnerability and survival after cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakaya, Naoki; Bidstrup, Pernille E; Eplov, Lene F;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that personality traits affect survival after cancer, but studies have produced inconsistent results. This study examined the association between mental vulnerability and survival after cancer in Denmark in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Between 1976...... of cancer diagnosis until 2003 identified 382 deaths. Mental vulnerability scores were divided into 4 approximately equal-sized groups. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Multivariate HR for all-cause mortality for persons...... in the highest category of mental vulnerability compared with those at the lowest was 1.1 (95% confidence interval = 0.9-1.5). CONCLUSION: We found no support for the hypothesis that mental vulnerability is associated with survival after cancer diagnosis....

  10. Aquifer vulnerability for Colorado and New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey Data Series provides raster data representing an estimate of aquifer vulnerability calculated for each 30-meter raster cell. Depth to...

  11. The vulnerability of Palestinian refugees from Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Morrison

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available While Syrian nationals may eventually return to their home country, the future for Palestinians from Syria is increasingly uncertain. Meanwhile they are more vulnerable than, and treated worse than, most other refugees from the Syrian conflict.

  12. Salt vulnerability assessment methodology for urban streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, A. R.; Gharabaghi, B.; McBean, E. A.

    2014-09-01

    De-icing agents such as road salts while used for winter road maintenance can cause negative effects on urban stream water quality and drinking water supplies. A new methodology using readily available spatial data to identify Salt Vulnerable Areas (SVAs) for urban streams is used to prioritize implementation of best management practices. The methodology calculates the probable chloride concentration statistics at specified points in the urban stream network and compares the results with known aquatic species exposure tolerance limits to characterize the vulnerability scores. The approach prioritizes implementation of best management practices to areas identified as vulnerable to road salt. The vulnerability assessment is performed on seven sites in four watersheds in the Greater Toronto Area and validated using the Hanlon Creek watershed in Guelph. The mean annual in-stream chloride concentration equation uses readily available spatial data - with province-wide coverage - that can be easily used in any urban watershed.

  13. CDC's Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) Mapping Dashboard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The interactive maps are visual representations of the Social Vulnerability Index (SVI). Data were extracted from the US Census and the American Community Survey.

  14. Violence and vulnerabilities: Afghans in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa Alimia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Given that the majority of Afghans who live in Pakistan today are unlikely to return to Afghanistan, more needs to be done to address their vulnerabilities and protect them from harassment and violence.

  15. [Aged woman's vulnerability related to AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carla Marins; Lopes, Fernanda Maria do Valle Martins; Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa

    2010-09-01

    This article is a systhematic literature review including the period from 1994 to 2009, whose objective was to discuss the aged woman's vulnerability in relation to Acquired Imunodeficiency Syndrome (Aids). The search for scientific texts was accomplished in the following databases: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE). The descriptors used were vulnerability, woman and Aids. Eighteen texts were analyzed, including articles in scientific journals, thesis and dissertations. As a conclusion, it was noted that aged women and vulnerability to Aids are directly related, through gender characteristics including submission and that were built historical and socially. We consider as fundamental the development of studies which may generate publications accessible to women, in order to help them see themselves as persons vulnerable to Aids contagion just for being women.

  16. International note: Are Emirati parents' attitudes toward mathematics linked to their adolescent children's attitudes toward mathematics and mathematics achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Khine, Myint Swe; Melkonian, Michael; Welch, Anita G; Al Nuaimi, Samira Ahmed; Rashad, Fatimah F

    2015-10-01

    Drawing on data from the 2012 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and employing multilevel modeling as an analytic strategy, this study examined the relations of adolescent children's perceptions of their parents' attitudes towards mathematics to their own attitudes towards mathematics and mathematics achievement among a sample of 5116 adolescents from 384 schools in the United Arab Emirates. The results of this cross-sectional study revealed that adolescents who perceived that their parents liked mathematics and considered mathematics was important for their children not only to study but also for their career tended to report higher levels of intrinsic and instrumental motivation to learn mathematics, mathematics self-concept and self-efficacy, and mathematics work ethic. Moreover, adolescents who perceived that their parents liked mathematics and considered mathematics was important for their children's career tended to report positive intentions and behaviors toward mathematics. However, adolescents who perceived that their parents considered mathematics was important for their children's career tended to report higher levels of mathematics anxiety. Finally, adolescents who perceived that their parents considered mathematics was important for their children to study performed significantly better on the mathematics assessment than did their peers whose parents disregarded the importance of learning mathematics.

  17. International note: Are Emirati parents' attitudes toward mathematics linked to their adolescent children's attitudes toward mathematics and mathematics achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Khine, Myint Swe; Melkonian, Michael; Welch, Anita G; Al Nuaimi, Samira Ahmed; Rashad, Fatimah F

    2015-10-01

    Drawing on data from the 2012 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and employing multilevel modeling as an analytic strategy, this study examined the relations of adolescent children's perceptions of their parents' attitudes towards mathematics to their own attitudes towards mathematics and mathematics achievement among a sample of 5116 adolescents from 384 schools in the United Arab Emirates. The results of this cross-sectional study revealed that adolescents who perceived that their parents liked mathematics and considered mathematics was important for their children not only to study but also for their career tended to report higher levels of intrinsic and instrumental motivation to learn mathematics, mathematics self-concept and self-efficacy, and mathematics work ethic. Moreover, adolescents who perceived that their parents liked mathematics and considered mathematics was important for their children's career tended to report positive intentions and behaviors toward mathematics. However, adolescents who perceived that their parents considered mathematics was important for their children's career tended to report higher levels of mathematics anxiety. Finally, adolescents who perceived that their parents considered mathematics was important for their children to study performed significantly better on the mathematics assessment than did their peers whose parents disregarded the importance of learning mathematics. PMID:26189150

  18. Thinking Aloud Influences Perceived Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Holmegaard, Kristin Due

    2015-01-01

    a person is already attending, there is evidence that thinking aloud does not influence thought and behavior. Method: In an experiment, 16 thinking-aloud participants and 16 control participants solved a code-breaking task 24 times each. Participants estimated task duration. The 24 trials involved two......Objective: We investigate whether thinking aloud influences perceived time. Background: Thinking aloud is widely used in usability evaluation, yet it is debated whether thinking aloud influences thought and behavior. If thinking aloud is restricted to the verbalization of information to which...... levels of time constraint (timed, untimed) and resulted in two levels of success (solved, unsolved). Results: The ratio of perceived time to clock time was lower for thinking-aloud than control participants. Participants overestimated time by an average of 47% (thinking aloud) and 94% (control...

  19. Perceived social isolation and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, John T; Hawkley, Louise C

    2009-10-01

    Social species, from Drosophila melanogaster to Homo sapiens, fare poorly when isolated. Homo sapiens, an irrepressibly meaning-making species, are, in normal circumstances, dramatically affected by perceived social isolation. Research indicates that perceived social isolation (i.e. loneliness) is a risk factor for, and may contribute to, poorer overall cognitive performance, faster cognitive decline, poorer executive functioning, increased negativity and depressive cognition, heightened sensitivity to social threats, a confirmatory bias in social cognition that is self-protective and paradoxically self-defeating, heightened anthropomorphism and contagion that threatens social cohesion. These differences in attention and cognition impact on emotions, decisions, behaviors and interpersonal interactions that can contribute to the association between loneliness and cognitive decline and between loneliness and morbidity more generally. PMID:19726219

  20. Exploring sexual practices of South African soldiers to determine their vulnerability to the human immune-deficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela De Jong

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Although HIV occurs in all social groups in South African society, certain populations are more vulnerable to HIV through risky behaviour patterns. Of relevance to the present study are the high risk situations that deployed soldiers are exposed to. Three issues indicated the necessity for a study of this kind to be conducted; (a the statistics pointing to a higher incidence of HIV infections among military personnel than among the general population, (b military personnel’s unique vulnerability profile, and (c the South African National Defence Force’s (SANDF increasing participation in international peacekeeping missions. The knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning HIV/AIDS of deployed soldiers were analysed. Results indicated that soldiers were taking sexual risks, although they had high levels of knowledge and had healthy attitudes concerning HIV/AIDS.

  1. Perceived risks as adoption barriers of Facebook commerce : Exploring Facebook users’ perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Valles, Carlos; Petrova, Antoniya

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to explore and analyze perceptions and attitudes of Facebook users as consumers and merchants; investigate which perceived risks, if any, function as adoption barriers of f-commerce. Methodology: The study adopts a mixed method approach. It uses the Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation technique (ZMET method) and focus groups to explore consumers’ perceptions and their mental maps. In-depth interviews with SMEs were also part of the qualitative design. A surve...

  2. Perceived barriers to success for resident physicians interested in immigrant and refugee health

    OpenAIRE

    Alpern, Jonathan D.; Davey, Cynthia S.; Song, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Cross-cultural care is recognized by the ACGME as an important aspect of US residency training. Resident physicians' preparedness to deliver cross-cultural care has been well studied, while preparedness to provide care specifically to immigrant and refugee populations has not been. Methods We administered a survey in October 2013 to 199 residents in Internal Medicine, Pediatrics, and Medicine/Pediatrics at the University of Minnesota, assessing perceived knowledge, attitudes, and e...

  3. Secure Web Development Based on Vulnerabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. Daljit Kaur Dr. Parminder Kaur

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an effort to develop secure web applications based on known vulnerabilities. It has been seen that in the rapid race of developing web applications in minimum time and budget, security is given least importance as consequence of which web applications are developed and hosted with number of vulnerabilities in them. And in this race, one thing is constant that attackers take advantage of weaknesses existing in technology for financial gain and theft of intellectual property. In t...

  4. Vulnerabilities in snakebites in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Rita Bertolozzi; Camila Morato da Conceição Scatena; Francisco Oscar de Siqueira França

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe elements of vulnerability of victims of snakebite. METHODS This qualitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study had, as theoretical framework, the concept of vulnerability in individual, social, and programmatic dimensions. We interviewed 21 patients admitted into a hospital specialized in the care of accidents caused by venomous animals. The interviews were analyzed according to a discourse analysis technique. RESULTS Patients were mainly young men, living in r...

  5. Earthquake vulnerability evaluation Faizabad district of Kermanshah

    OpenAIRE

    Saba Naderi; Yasmin Kolyai; Sirus Rezaei

    2014-01-01

    This paper as examplehas been studied Faizabad district of Kermanshah and to reach its main purpose, which is reducing the damagecaused by the earthquake on the Faizabad district is been providedand in subsidiary purposes part the research is tried identify factors influence in vulnerability earthquakes,pay to provide the factors required; All these factors havean impact on reducing earthquake vulnerability. This data using geological data, soil texture, getting satelliteimages and layering o...

  6. Climate challenges, vulnerabilities, and food security

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret C. Nelson; Ingram, Scott E.; Dugmore, Andrew J.; Streeter, Richard; Matthew A. Peeples; McGovern, Thomas H.; Hegmon, Michelle; Arneborg, Jette; Keith W. Kintigh; Brewington, Seth; Spielmann, Katherine A.; Simpson, Ian A; Strawhacker, Colleen; Comeau, Laura E. L.; Torvinen, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Climate-induced disasters are impacting human well-being in ever-increasing ways. Disaster research and management recognize and emphasize the need to reduce vulnerabilities, although extant policy is not in line with this realization. This paper assesses the extent to which vulnerability to food shortage, as a result of social, demographic, and resource conditions at times of climatic challenge, correlates with subsequent declines in social and food security. Extreme climate challenges are i...

  7. Perceived interpersonal relations in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Hakelind, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    The general objective of this thesis was to examine aspects of adolescents perceived interpersonal relations, in view of the association between adolescents’ interpersonal problems and self-concepts, and considering influential factors such as behavioural problems, depression, perceptions of parental rearing styles, type of relationships and sex. All of the studies examined participants from the four-year longitudinal research project in Umeå, which was designed to investigate the psychic hea...

  8. How pupils perceive media violence

    OpenAIRE

    Cvek, Mihaela; Pšunder, Majda

    2015-01-01

    In the modern information society media has become an integral part of peoples' and pupils' everyday life. Along with the many positive effects of this, there are also numerous negative ones, such as violence. Violence in the media influences the receivers - pupils. The most alarming consequences of pupils' frequent contact with media violence are imitation and apathy . Our survey, carried out on pupils from the 4th-8th grades of different primary schools in Slovenia, shows how they perceive ...

  9. Perceived Displacement explains Wolfpack Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matúš eŠimkovic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of perceived displacement of moving agent-like stimuli on the performance in dynamic interactive tasks. In order to reliably measure perceived displacement we utilize multiple tasks with different task demands. The perceived center of an agent’s body is displaced in the direction in which the agent is facing and this perceived displacement is larger than the theoretical position of the center of mass would predict. Furthermore, the displacement in the explicit judgment is dissociated from the displacement obtained by the implicit measures. By manipulating the location of the pivot point, we show that it is not necessary to postulate orientation as an additional cue utilized by perception, as has been suggested by earlier studies. These studies showed that the agent’s orientation influences the detection of chasing motion and the detection-related performance in interactive tasks. This influence has been labeled wolfpack effect. In one of the demonstrations of the wolfpack effect participants control a green circle on a display with a computer mouse. It has been shown that participants avoid display areas withagents pointing towards the green circle. Participants do so in favor of areas where the agents point in the direction perpendicular to the circle. We show that this avoidance behavior arises because the agent’s pivot point selected by the earlier studies is different from where people locate the center of agent’s body. As a consequence, the nominal rotation confounds rotation and translation. We show that the avoidance behavior disappears once the pivot point is set to the center of agent’s body.

  10. Rockfall vulnerability assessment for reinforced concrete buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Mavrouli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The vulnerability of buildings to the impact of rockfalls is a topic that has recently attracted increasing attention in the scientific literature. The quantification of the vulnerability, when based on empirical or heuristic approaches requires data recorded from historical rockfalls, which are not always available. This is the reason why appropriate alternatives are required. The use of analytical and numerical models can be one of them. In this paper, a methodology is proposed for the analytical evaluation of the vulnerability of reinforced concrete buildings. The vulnerability is included in the risk equation by incorporating the uncertainty of the impact location of the rock block and the subsequent damage level. The output is a weighted vulnerability that ranges from 0 to 1 and expresses the potential damage that a rock block causes to a building in function of its velocity and size. The vulnerability is calculated by the sum of the products of the probability of block impact on each element of the building and its associated damage state, the latter expressed in relative recovery cost terms. The probability of exceeding a specific damage state such as non-structural, local, partial, extensive or total collapse is also important for the quantification of risk and to this purpose, several sets of fragility curves for various rock diameters and increasing velocities have been prepared. An example is shown for the case of a simple reinforced concrete building and impact energies from 0 to 4075 kJ.

  11. Environmental Attitudes and Environmental Behavior—Which Is the Horse and Which Is the Cart?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Trop

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article challenges the prevailing perception in the field of environmental education that acquisition of environmental behavior is an ultimate goal of the educational process, in comparison to acquisition of environmental attitudes, which is perceived as a minor goal. The article presents a compilation of results obtained from two studies that shed new light on the relationship between influences on environmental attitudes and influences on environmental behavior. The results suggest that: (a among adults, the strategies required for influencing attitudes are different from those required for influencing behaviors; (b the mechanisms for achieving influence among children are different from those among adults; and (c conventional educational approaches, such as behavior modification, can influence behavior more easily than they can influence attitudes. The results provide grounds for questioning the prevailing belief that individual acquisition of responsible environmental behavior can drive changes on the global political scale. We suggest increasing the focus of environmental education on construction of attitudes.

  12. Populism vs. elitism: social consensus and social status as bases of attitude certainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prislin, Radmila; Shaffer, Emily; Crowder, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of social consensus and social status on attitude certainty that is conceptualized multi-dimensionally as perceived clarity and correctness of one's attitude. In a mock opinion exchange about a social issue, participants were either supported (high consensus) or opposed (low consensus) by most of the confederates. They were informed that their opinion (high status) or their opponents' opinion (low status) had the alleged psychological significance indicative of future success. Post-experimental attitude clarity was significantly greater when attitudinal position was associated with high rather than low status. Attitude correctness was interactively affected by social status and social consensus. Supporting the compensatory effect hypothesis, attitude correctness was comparable across the levels of social consensus as long as they were associated with high status, and across the levels of social status as long as they were associated with high social consensus. PMID:22558827

  13. Perceived competency towards preventive dentistry among dental graduates: the need for curriculum change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arheiam Arheiam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A previous study has shown that dental practitioners in Benghazi believed that the less prevention-oriented education system is one of the barriers to applying preventive dentistry. Objective: To assess attitudes and perceived competence of the dental graduates in Benghazi towards prevention and early management of dental caries. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was conducted among internship students attending the Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry in Faculty of Dentistry, Benghazi, Libya. The participants were asked to provide demographic information, to respond to statements about their attitudes towards preventive dentistry, and to answer questions regarding their perceived competence in applying preventive dentistry procedures. Results: Data from 108 Libyan dental graduates were analysed for this study, of which 64% of them were females and 42.1% of them passed their final year with grade: acceptable. The most acknowledged aspects of preventive dentistry were being useful and essential to the community (95.4 and 90.8%, respectively. The percentage of participants expressing a proficiency in providing oral hygiene instructions was the highest (95.4%. There were differences between study subgroups in their perceived competence of preventive dental practices by gender and academic performance (p≤0.05. Conclusion: This study highlighted that the currently implemented undergraduate education programme in Benghazi dental school does not provide dentists with the required attitude and skills to fulfil their role in providing preventive-oriented health services.

  14. Social norms and attitudes linked to waterpipe use in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Rima; Khalil, Joanna; Fouad, Fouad; Hammal, Fadi; Jarallah, Yara; Abu Farhat, Hala; Ayad, Maha; Nakkash, Rima

    2013-12-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is on the rise globally, particularly among vulnerable populations such as youth and women. Increasing knowledge about toxicant yield from waterpipe tobacco and deleterious health effects points to the potential for a health epidemic. WTS is often viewed as a safe alternative to cigarette smoking. Though the original objective of the research was to explore the social norms and attitudes that lead to waterpipe being a more acceptable form of tobacco smoking for women than cigarettes in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, the use of a qualitative research methodology resulted in rich data that helped to understand more generally the phenomenon of waterpipe smoking. Both focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews were used. Participants were recruited to represent genders, various age groups, socioeconomic status, waterpipe smoking status, and residents of urban and rural areas. A total of 81 FGDs and 38 in-depth interviews were conducted in 2007. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the transcripts. A total of ten themes emerged: socio-cultural norms, gender differences, motivation to smoke, sensory characteristics of waterpipe, metaphors, consumerism, indicators of dependence, comparison between cigarettes and waterpipe, health effect of smoking, and intervention. Results indicated that WTS has socio-cultural dynamics associated with it that are far more pronounced than health considerations. An increased socio-cultural acceptability, the perceived reduced harm and the advent of the fruity Moassel tobacco are among the many reasons for WTS acceptability. Findings point to the need for a unified strategy to address this health issue at all levels of the ecological framework and have important implications for future policy and practice. PMID:24331890

  15. Measuring Attitudes Toward Inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Kunz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The considerable worldwide demand for an inclusive education system has driven Switzerland to reconsider the approach of segregated schooling for children with Special Educational Needs (SEN. Recently, an agreement was signed among the states with the intention to adopt a more inclusive practice in school. There is evidence suggesting that an inclusive practice established at policy level is not enough, as many times it becomes teacher’s effort to translate the policies in classroom setting. The effectiveness of inclusive practices can be tightly related to the attitude of teachers, parents and students to inclusion of children with SEN in mainstreaming classes. Attitude towards inclusion is an observable construct but it presents difficulties in terms of measurement. For this purpose, in order to evaluate the attitude to inclusion of teachers, parents and students, an American Scale, the 11-items Parent Attitude to Inclusion (Palmer et al., 1998a, 1998b, 2001 and the version for teachers (Stanley, Grimbeek, Bryer, Beamisch, 2003; Bryer, Grimbeek, Beamish, Stanley, 2004, has been slightly modified and translated into German language. The resulting scales have been used to collect data in Switzerland in two regions. Results show that the German version of the scale can be potentially used for reliable measurement of attitudes toward inclusion in German speaking countries.

  16. Drought vulnerability assesssment and mapping in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Yasmina; Lahlou, Ouiam; Bennasser Alaoui, Si; Naumann, Gustavo; Barbosa, Paulo; Vogt, Juergen

    2014-05-01

    Drought vulnerability assessment and mapping in Morocco Authors: Yasmina Imani 1, Ouiam Lahlou 1, Si Bennasser Alaoui 1 Paulo Barbosa 2, Jurgen Vogt 2, Gustavo Naumann 2 1: Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II (IAV Hassan II), Rabat Morocco. 2: European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Environment and Sustainability (IES), Ispra, Italy. In Morocco, nearly 50% of the population lives in rural areas. They are mostly small subsistent farmers whose production depends almost entirely on rainfall. They are therefore very sensitive to drought episodes that may dramatically affect their incomes. Although, as a consequence of the increasing frequency, length and severity of drought episodes in the late 90's, the Moroccan government decided, to move on from a crisis to a risk management approach, drought management remains in practice mainly reactive and often ineffective. The lack of effectiveness of public policy is in part a consequence of the poor understanding of drought vulnerability at the rural community level, which prevents the development of efficient mitigation actions and adaptation strategies, tailored to the needs and specificities of each rural community. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess and map drought vulnerability at the rural commune level in the Oum Er-Rbia basin which is a very heterogeneous basin, showing a big variability of climates, landscapes, cropping systems and social habits. Agricultural data collected from the provincial and local administrations of Agriculture and socio-economic data from the National Department of Statistics were used to compute a composite vulnerability index (DVI) integrating four different components: (i) the renewable natural capacity, (ii) the economic capacity, (iii) human and civic resources, and (iv) infrastructure and technology. The drought vulnerability maps that were derived from the computation of the DVI shows that except very specific areas, most of the Oum er Rbia

  17. Perceived Social Support Mediating the Relationship between Perceived Stress and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Sarwat; Rashid, Safia

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to examine the mediating effect of perceived social support between perceived stress and job satisfaction among employees. A conveniently selected sample of 280 employees provided the information on Perceived Social Support Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and Job Satisfaction Survey. Employing Regression analyses,…

  18. The 2-year stability of parental perceptions of child vulnerability and parental overprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1996-08-01

    Clinicians often identify parent-child relationships that are believed to be problematic for the child's future emotional growth, yet there are minimal outcome data on which to base anticipatory guidance. This 2-year follow-up study examined the stability and child behavioral correlates of parental perceptions of increased child vulnerability and parental overprotection. Of 192 potential participants, 114 parents (93% mothers, 86% white, 75% married, 90% middle-upper socioeconomic status) with children age 4 to 7 years successfully completed the Parent Protection Scale, Child Vulnerability Scale, Child Behavior Checklist 4-18, and the Parental Bonding Instrument. The 2-year stability of high parental overprotection was 37%; for high parental perception of child vulnerability, it was 31%. High perceived vulnerability at enrollment was significantly associated with both internalizing (somatic complaints, anxious/depressed) and externalizing (aggressive) behaviors at follow-up. A history of overprotection in the parent's childhood was not associated with current parental report of overprotective behaviors toward the child. PMID:8856517

  19. The gender gap in suicide and premature death or: why are men so vulnerable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria

    2003-02-01

    Suicide and premature death due to coronary heart disease, violence, accidents, drug or alcohol abuse are strikingly male phenomena, particularly in the young and middle-aged groups. Rates of offending behaviour, conduct disorders, suicide and depression are even rising, and give evidence to a high gender-related vulnerability of young men. In explaining this vulnerability, the gender perspective offers an analytical tool to integrate structural and cultural factors. It is shown that traditional masculinity is a key risk factor for male vulnerability promoting maladaptive coping strategies such as emotional unexpressiveness, reluctance to seek help, or alcohol abuse. This basic male disposition is shown to increase psychosocial stress due to different societal conditions: to changes in male gender-role, to postmodern individualism and to rapid social change in Eastern Europe and Russia. Relying on empirical data and theoretical explanations, a gender model of male vulnerability is proposed. It is concluded that the gender gap in suicide and premature death can most likely be explained by perceived reduction in social role opportunities leading to social exclusion.

  20. Consumers' Perceived Quality, Perceived Value and Perceived Risk Towards Purchase Decision on Automobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: As the level of competition keep on increasing in Malaysia automobile market, it is essential for every automobile producer companies to understand customer insight in order to further increase their share of wallet. Thus, they need to understand what factors might influence their customers’ decision in purchasing an automobile. Therefore, the objectives of this research is to study the relationships of perceived quality, perceived value and perceived risk that will affect on Malaysia consumer purchase decision towards cars. Approach: Survey using convenience sampling was done at Klang Valley to customers’ age between 23-65 years old and above. Questionnaires were distributed to 200 respondents at the sampling location. Results: All the 200 sets of data were reliable where Cronbach’s alpha is more than 0.6. Pearson correlation also showed the strength of the relationship between those variables and normality assumption was meet. Results from multiple regression analysis showed the positive association between the three factors mentioned previously with purchase decision. Conclusion/Recommendations: The results from this research provide a platform for Malaysia automobile makers to understand consumer behavior and how it affects their purchase decision. In order to ensure that the findings of sample are representative and conclusive, future research should be include with larger number of respondents.

  1. Attitudes of the selfless

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zettler, Ingo; Hilbig, B.E.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on political orientations, which can be understood as one's left- versus right-wing attitude, has shown that some personality factors yield explanatory power. In the current work, we consider the role of altruism - a personality construct which does not exclusively map onto one...... association between altruism and left-wing attitudes, and altruism was found to account for substantial variance in political orientation after controlling for the HEXACO factors of personality. We conclude that altruism is an important construct which deserves attention whenever political attitudes or other...... to explain unique variance in political orientation beyond the 'Big Six' broad dimensions as it relates to aspects not covered by the latter. Both hypotheses were tested in a web-based questionnaire study (N = 137). Besides replicating findings of previous research, results corroborated a strong positive...

  2. AIRSHIP ATTITUDE TRACKING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-liang; SHAN Xue-xiong

    2006-01-01

    The attitude tracking control problem for an airship with parameter uncertainties and external disturbances was considered in this paper. The mathematical model of the airship attitude is a multi-input/multi-output uncertain nonlinear system. Based on the characteristics of this system, a design method of robust output tracking controllers was adopted based on the upper-bounds of the uncertainties. Using the input/output feedback linearization approach and Liapunov method, a control law was designed, which guarantees that the system output exponentially tracks the given desired output. The controller is easy to compute and complement. Simulation results show that, in the closed-loop system, precise attitude control is accomplished in spite of the uncertainties and external disturbances in the system.

  3. Glacier loss and emerging hydrologic vulnerabilities in the Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, B. G.; McKenzie, J. M.; Baraer, M.; Lagos, P.; Lautz, L.; Carey, M.; Bury, J.; Crumley, R.; Wigmore, O.; Somers, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    Accelerating glacier recession in the tropical Andes is transforming downstream hydrology, while increasing demands for water by end-users (even beyond the watershed limits) is complicating the assessment of vulnerability. Future scenarios of hydro-climatic vulnerability require a better understanding of coupled hydrologic and human systems, involving both multiscale process studies and more robust models of glacier-climate interactions. We synthesize research in two proglacial valleys of glacierized mountain ranges in different regions of Peru that are both in proximity to growing water usage from urban sectors, agriculture, hydroelectric generation, and mining. In both the Santa River watershed draining the Cordillera Blanca and the Shullcas River watershed below Hyuatapallana Mountain in Junin, glaciers have receded over 25% since the 1980s. Historical runoff and glacier data, combined with glacier-climate modeling, show a long-term decrease in discharge resulting from a net loss of stored water. We find evidence that this altered hydrology is transforming proglacial wetland ecology and water quality, even while water resource use has intensified. Beyond glaciers, our results show that over 60% of the dry season base flow in each watershed is groundwater sourced from heterogeneous aquifers. Municipal water supply in Huancayo already relies on 18 groundwater wells. Perceptions of water availability and actual water use practices remain relatively divorced from the actual water resources provided from each mountain range. Critical changes in glacier volume and water supply are not perceived or acknowledged consistently amongst different water users, nor reflected in water management decisions. In order to identify, understand, model, and adapt to climate-glacier-water changes, it is vital to integrate the analysis of water availability and groundwater processes (the domain of hydrologists) with that of water use (the focus for social scientists). Attention must be

  4. The Influence of Tobacco Countermarketing Ads on College Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Hoefer, Rebecca; Hyland, Andrew; Rivard, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine which antitobacco messages were perceived effective in changing college students' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about tobacco use. Participants: College students (n = 1,020) were surveyed before and after viewing 4 30-second antitobacco advertisements in 1 of 3 theme categories--social norms, health consequences, or…

  5. High School Teachers' Attitudes toward the Inclusion of Students with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieran, Laura Perran

    2012-01-01

    Few researchers have examined teachers' perceptions of the inclusion of students with autism spectrum disorders at the high school level. The purpose of this mixed methods sequential explanatory study was to examine teachers' attitudes and perceived needs in teaching high school students with high-functioning autism (HFA). Cognitive constructivism…

  6. Effect of Middle School Students' Motivation to Learn Technology on Their Attitudes toward Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuksoo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of motivation to learn technology, as perceived by South Korean middle school students, on their attitudes toward engineering. Using the instruments of Glynn et al. (2011) and Lee (2008), the study focused on eighth and ninth grade students in four middle schools located in South Korea's…

  7. Myers-Briggs Attitude Typology: The Influence of Birth Order with Other Family Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansbury, Virginia K.; Coll, Kenneth M.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the influence of birth order with parenting style, age spacing, gender, and socioeconomic status on the Myers-Briggs attitude scales of Extroversion/Introversion and Judging/Perceiving. Results indicate that age spacing interacted with birth order to influence Extroversion/Introversion scores. Parenting style and gender interacted…

  8. Weight Control Beliefs, Body Shape Attitudes, and Physical Activity among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Scott B.; Rhea, Deborah J.; Greenleaf, Christy A.; Judd, Doryce E.; Chambliss, Heather O.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Relatively little is known about how perceived weight controllability influences important psychological health factors among adolescents. Thus, the purpose of this study is to explore adolescents' weight controllability beliefs and how those beliefs influence weight-related attitudes and behaviors. Methods: Adolescents (N = 369, mean…

  9. Is There Concordance in Attitudes and Beliefs between Parents and Scientists about Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Ruth L.; Harris, Mark J.; Ballan, Michelle S.; Fischbach, Gerald D.; Link, Bruce G.

    2016-01-01

    There is no reported investigation comparing concordance in attitudes and beliefs about autism spectrum disorder between parents of children with autism spectrum disorder and scientists who research autism spectrum disorder. To investigate the level of concordance between these groups on causes of autism, priorities of research, perceived stigma,…

  10. Attitudes and Beliefs regarding Classroom Management Style: Differences between Male and Female Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nancy K.; Yin, Zenong

    Teachers perceive classroom management to be one of the most enduring and widespread problems in education. This paper presents findings of a study that continued efforts to refine the Attitudes and Beliefs on Classroom Control (ABCC) Inventory. Formerly called the Inventory of Classroom Management Style, the ABCC is an instrument designed to…

  11. Explaining Cross-Country Differences in Attitudes towards Immigration in the EU-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchow-Moller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Schroll, Sanne; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we use data from the first two rounds of the European Social Survey to analyze the extent to which differences in average attitudes towards immigration across the EU-15 countries may be explained by differences in socioeconomic characteristics and individually perceived consequences of immigration, using an extension of a…

  12. Environmental Attitudes and Behaviour of Secondary School Students in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kara K. W.

    1996-01-01

    Describes an investigation into the environmental attitudes of students in Hong Kong and their readiness to engage in pro-environmental behavior that could involve change in personal lifestyle. Students' over-optimism towards technological development and the perceived importance of the benefits of modern consumer goods were major factors that…

  13. Feminism between the Sheets: Sexual Attitudes among Feminists, Nonfeminists, and Egalitarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.; Zucker, Alyssa N.

    2007-01-01

    To better understand the relation of feminist identification to sexuality, we compared the attitudes of feminist, egalitarian, and nonfeminist undergraduate women (N= 342) in five domains: (a) erotophilia (one's positive affective or evaluative responses to sexual stimuli), (b) sexual assertiveness, (c) perceived self-efficacy for safer sex, (d)…

  14. Physical Attractiveness, Attitude Similarity, and Length of Acquaintance as Contributors to Interpersonal Attraction Among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavior, Norman; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Tenth and twelfth grade males and females who knew each other judged, within grade levels, their classmates on physical attractiveness (PA), perceived attitude similarity (PAS), and interpersonal attraction (IA). Regression analyses supported the hypotheses that PA and PAS are positively correlated. (Author)

  15. Manifestations of nationalist attitudes: Domestic music listening, participation in national celebrations, and far right voting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuleman, R.; Lubbers, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution, we aim to develop an understanding of the behavioural manifestations of nationalism. Building on social identity theory and ethnic competition theory, we examine to what extent nationalist attitudes and perceived cultural ethnic threat are related to domestic music listening, p

  16. The Teaching Researcher: Faculty Attitudes towards the Teaching and Research Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpay, E.; Verschoor, R.

    2014-01-01

    Results from a survey on faculty attitudes towards the teaching and research roles are presented. Attention is given to: (i) the perceived value of teaching (and teaching achievements) relative to research, (ii) approaches for research and teaching integration, (iii) the satisfaction gained from typical work tasks, and (iv) the importance of…

  17. HIV/AIDS Stigmatizing Attitudes among Young People in Swaziland: Individual and Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buseh, Aaron G.; Park, Chang Gi; Stevens, Patricia E.; McElmurry, Beverly J.; Kelber, Sheryl T.

    2006-01-01

    A major shortcoming to the understanding and development of HIV/AIDS programs to mitigate social stigma is the paucity of research pertaining to how young people in sub-Saharan African countries perceive those infected with HIV, and how these stigmatizing attitudes are formed, projected and reinforced. The purpose of this study was to examine…

  18. Attitudes towards Older People and Managers' Intention to Hire Older Workers: A Taiwanese Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Luo; Kao, Shu-Fang; Hsieh, Ying-Hui

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine attitudinal barriers to the managerial intention to hire older workers (aged 60 and above). Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from a sample of managers with hiring power (N = 305). We found that (a) positive attitudes towards older people in general, perceived subjective norm, personal…

  19. Outcomes of a Curriculum-Based Anti-Bullying Intervention Program on Students' Attitudes and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Eleni; Didaskalou, Eleni; Vlachou, Anastasia

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine the short-term and long-term effects of a curriculum-based anti-bullying intervention program on students' attitudes towards bullying, intentions to intervene in bully-victim problems, perceived efficacy of intervening and actual intervening behavior. The intervention program was applied in primary schools and…

  20. Explaining Cross-Country Differences in Attitudes Towards Immigration in the EU-15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Schroll, Sanne;

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we use data from the first two rounds of the European Social Survey to analyze the extent to which differences in average attitudes towards immigration across the EU-15 countries may be explained by differences in socioeconomic characteristics and individually perceived consequence...

  1. Social Identity Complexity, Cross-Ethnic Friendships, and Intergroup Attitudes in Urban Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knifsend, Casey A.; Juvonen, Jaana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated contextual antecedents (i.e., cross-ethnic peers and friends) and correlates (i.e., intergroup attitudes) of social identity complexity in seventh grade. Social identity complexity refers to the perceived overlap among social groups with which youth identify. Identifying mostly with out-of-school sports, religious…

  2. ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE USE OF LEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad A. A.TRAYEK

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning management system (LMS is a learning platform for both full time and distant learning students at the International Islamic University in Malaysia (IIUM. LMS becomes a tool for IIUM to disseminate information and learning resources to the students. The objectives of this study were to Ø investigate students' attitudes toward the use of LMS, Ø to verify the impact of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use on attitude towards use of learning management system, Ø to examine the differences in attitudes toward the use of LMS between distance learning and full time students. There were 120 (70 full time and 50 distance learning students at the Institute of Education responded for the study. The collected data was analysed using descriptive statistics, t-test and Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA. The results of the study showed that perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness determine students' attitudes toward the use of LMS. However, this study did not find any significant differences between distance learning and full time students. According to the findings the study recommended that the University should continue using LMS because it is useful for both distance learning and full time students. Further suggestions are made to customize and upgrade the LMS suitable for innovative teaching and learning.

  3. Teachers' Attitudes toward Different Types of Bullying and Victimization in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duy, Baki

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, attitudes of elementary school teachers toward different types of bullying (verbal, physical, and relational) were investigated. Six written vignettes describing all types of bullying were given to 405 elementary school teachers (F = 218; M = 187). Results indicated that teachers perceived relational bullying, specifically,…

  4. Perceived control and communication about sex: a study of South African families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnight, Bradley; Salama, Christina; Grim, Elizabeth C; Anthony, Elizabeth R; Armistead, Lisa; Cook, Sarah L; Skinner, Donald; Toefy, Yoesrie

    2014-01-01

    Caregiver-youth communication about sex protects youth against HIV/AIDS, and caregivers who believe that sex knowledge is important are more likely to talk to their youth about sex. However, caregivers who experience barriers to communication about sex may not talk to their youth about sex even if the caregiver believes that sex education is important. The Theory of Planned Behaviour predicts that an actor has perceived control is necessary for behavioural change. This study therefore hypothesised that caregivers' perceived control moderates the relationship between caregiver attitudes about youth sex knowledge and caregiver-youth communication about sex. Results from a sample of 99 female South African caregivers of adolescent (10-14 year old) youth supported our hypothesis, indicating that caregiver attitudes about providing youth with sex knowledge positively predict communication about sex only when caregivers have perceived control. This finding illustrates the importance of perceived control in predicting caregiver-youth communication, and therefore has implications for family-based interventions aimed at improving caregiver-youth communication about sex. PMID:25174513

  5. Sports participation, perceived neighborhood safety, and individual cognitions: how do they interact?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackenbach Johan P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the interaction between individual and environmental determinants of physical activity, although this may be important information for the development of effective interventions. The goal of this paper is to investigate whether perceived neighborhood safety modifies associations between individual cognitions and sports participation. Methods Cross-sectional data were obtained from residents (age 25-75 of 87 neighborhoods in the city of Eindhoven, who participated in the Dutch GLOBE study in 2004 (N = 2474. We used multilevel logistic regression to analyze the interactions between perceived neighborhood safety and individual cognitions (attitude, self-efficacy, social influence, and intention on sports participation (yes/no. Results In its association with sports participation, perceived neighborhood safety interacted significantly with self-efficacy and attitude (p Conclusions Associations between individual cognitions and sports participation depend on neighborhood circumstances, such as perceived neighborhood safety. Interventions to promote sports participation in adults should take the interaction between environmental and individual characteristics into account. More research is needed to find out the causal pathways in individual-environment interactions.

  6. Prediction of leisure-time walking: an integration of social cognitive, perceived environmental, and personality factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanchard Chris M

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Walking is the primary focus of population-based physical activity initiatives but a theoretical understanding of this behaviour is still elusive. The purpose of this study was to integrate personality, the perceived environment, and planning into a theory of planned behaviour (TPB framework to predict leisure-time walking. Methods Participants were a random sample (N = 358 of Canadian adults who completed measures of the TPB, planning, perceived neighbourhood environment, and personality at Time 1 and self-reported walking behaviour two months later. Results Analyses using structural equation modelling provided evidence that leisure-time walking is largely predicted by intention (standardized effect = .42 with an additional independent contribution from proximity to neighbourhood retail shops (standardized effect = .18. Intention, in turn, was predicted by attitudes toward walking and perceived behavioural control. Effects of perceived neighbourhood aesthetics and walking infrastructure on walking were mediated through attitudes and intention. Moderated regression analysis showed that the intention-walking relationship was moderated by conscientiousness and proximity to neighbourhood recreation facilities but not planning. Conclusion Overall, walking behaviour is theoretically complex but may best be addressed at a population level by facilitating strong intentions in a receptive environment even though individual differences may persist.

  7. Students’ Perceived Level of English Proficiency in Secondary Schools in Dodoma, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarus Ndiku Makewa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper looked at students’ perceived level of English proficiency among Dodoma secondary schools in Tanzania. Factors like attitude, anxiety, classroom activities, motivation, and learning resources were considered as influencing English learning. The study was guided by three theories: Input Hypothesis, Inter-language and Vygotsky’s theory of value. Correlation design was used to describe the association between the student and teacher-related factors and students’ perceived level of English proficiency. Purposive sampling was used to select 300 form three students. Questionnaires were used to collect data from the participants. Reliability of the research instrument was determined by conducting a pilot study. Pearson Descriptive statistics and Kendall’s Tau-b were used to analyze the data. The study revealed that the students’ perceived level of proficiency in spoken English was average. The findings indicated a significant positive correlation between perceived English proficiency and attitude toward the English language, classroom activities, teacher motivation, and classroom environment. It is suggested that further studies integrate qualitative research methods to the research design in order to get an in-depth understanding of students’ perception on English proficiency.

  8. Measuring the perceived uncertainty of scientific evidence and its relationship to engagement with science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retzbach, Joachim; Otto, Lukas; Maier, Michaela

    2016-08-01

    Many scholars have argued for the need to communicate openly not only scientific successes to the public but also limitations, such as the tentativeness of research findings, in order to enhance public trust and engagement. Yet, it has not been quantitatively assessed how the perception of scientific uncertainties relates to engagement with science on an individual level. In this article, we report the development and testing of a new questionnaire in English and German measuring the perceived uncertainty of scientific evidence. Results indicate that the scale is reliable and valid in both language versions and that its two subscales are differentially related to measures of engagement: Science-friendly attitudes were positively related only to 'subjectively' perceived uncertainty, whereas interest in science as well as behavioural engagement actions and intentions were largely uncorrelated. We conclude that perceiving scientific knowledge to be uncertain is only weakly, but positively related to engagement with science. PMID:25814513

  9. Measuring the perceived uncertainty of scientific evidence and its relationship to engagement with science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retzbach, Joachim; Otto, Lukas; Maier, Michaela

    2016-08-01

    Many scholars have argued for the need to communicate openly not only scientific successes to the public but also limitations, such as the tentativeness of research findings, in order to enhance public trust and engagement. Yet, it has not been quantitatively assessed how the perception of scientific uncertainties relates to engagement with science on an individual level. In this article, we report the development and testing of a new questionnaire in English and German measuring the perceived uncertainty of scientific evidence. Results indicate that the scale is reliable and valid in both language versions and that its two subscales are differentially related to measures of engagement: Science-friendly attitudes were positively related only to 'subjectively' perceived uncertainty, whereas interest in science as well as behavioural engagement actions and intentions were largely uncorrelated. We conclude that perceiving scientific knowledge to be uncertain is only weakly, but positively related to engagement with science.

  10. Ripple Effects: An Exclusive Host National Context Produces More Perceived Discrimination among Immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kristina Bakkær

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the perceived discrimination of immigrants; a group for whom experiences of discrimination can be damaging for their long-term commitment and identification with the national core group. Taking its point of departure in the literature on national identity, the article argues...... that perceived discrimination should be strongest among immigrants in host national societies with an exclusive self-image. This hypothesis is examined by use of multilevel regressions on cross-national survey data from 18 Western European countries. It is found that where exclusive attitudes are widespread...... in the host population, the percentage of immigrants who perceive themselves to be part of a group discriminated against is significantly greater, all else being equal. In addition, there is a cross-level interaction effect of host national inclusivity and ethnic minority identity which suggests...

  11. Attitudes towards documentary soundstracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Iben

    2010-01-01

    Musical experience is often related to an emotional and imaginative engagement of the listener. Discourses of journalistic documentaries relate primarily to inferential knowledge systems in which the uses of background music as a communicative device become an object of epistemological critique....... By listening to different voices - primarily from four focus group interviews - the article will discuss attitudes towards musical soundtracks in documentaries, attitudes being negotiated between emotional immersion and critical reflection, with the concept of manipulation as an underlying theme. In the end......, the article will argue for the need for an acoustemological approach (Feld, 1996) to study the epistemological potential of sound in audiovisual media....

  12. Combinators for Paraconsistent Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen

    2001-01-01

    In order to analyse the semantics of natural language sentences a translation into a partial type logic using lexical and logical combinators is presented. The sentences cover a fragment of English with propositional attitudes like knowledge, belief and assertion. A combinator is a closed term...... used for embedded sentences expressing propositional attitudes, thereby allowing for inconsistency without explosion (also called paraconsistency), and is based on a few key equalities for the connectives giving four truth values (truth, falsehood, and undefinedness with negative and positive polarity......; only the first truth value is designated, i.e. yields the logical truths)....

  13. Attitude that Matters

    OpenAIRE

    Tiina Purhonen

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I compare the operativity of radical avant-garde and new dialogical art forms from one selected viewpoint. I discuss the issue of the artist's attitude as a significance-producing element in the artwork. For decades, artist-issued interpretation of art has been problematic. Thus it is interesting to question the significance of the strong definition of the artist's attitude, inherent in the theories of the new dialogical art. New dialogical art-forms are for example new genre...

  14. Spacecraft Attitude Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas

    determination based on simple, reliable sensors. Meeting these objectives with a single vector magnetometer is difficult and requires temporal fusion of data in order to avoid local observability problems. In order to guaranteed globally nonsingular solutions, quaternions are generally the preferred attitude...... is a detailed study of the influence of approximations in the modeling of the system. The quantitative effects of errors in the process and noise statistics are discussed in detail. The third contribution is the introduction of these methods to the attitude determination on-board the Ørsted satellite...

  15. Stakeholders' attitude to genetically modified foods and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Latifah; Jahi, Jamaluddin Md; Nor, Abd Rahim Md

    2013-01-01

    Public acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods has to be adequately addressed in order for their potential economic and social benefits to be realized. The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of the Malaysian public toward GM foods (GM soybean and GM palm oil) and GM medicine (GM insulin). A survey was carried out using self-constructed multidimensional instrument measuring attitudes towards GM products. The respondents (n = 1017) were stratified according to stakeholders' groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey show that the overall attitude of the Malaysian stakeholders towards GM products was cautious. Although they acknowledged the presence of moderate perceived benefits associated with GM products surveyed and were moderately encouraging of them, they were also moderately concerned about the risks and moral aspects of the three GM products as well as moderately accepting the risks. Attitudes towards GM products among the stakeholders were found to vary not according to the type of all GM applications but rather depend on the intricate relationships between the attitudinal factors and the type of gene transfers involved. Analyses of variance showed significant differences in the six dimensions of attitude towards GM products across stakeholders' groups.

  16. Stakeholders' attitude to genetically modified foods and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Latifah; Jahi, Jamaluddin Md; Nor, Abd Rahim Md

    2013-01-01

    Public acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods has to be adequately addressed in order for their potential economic and social benefits to be realized. The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of the Malaysian public toward GM foods (GM soybean and GM palm oil) and GM medicine (GM insulin). A survey was carried out using self-constructed multidimensional instrument measuring attitudes towards GM products. The respondents (n = 1017) were stratified according to stakeholders' groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey show that the overall attitude of the Malaysian stakeholders towards GM products was cautious. Although they acknowledged the presence of moderate perceived benefits associated with GM products surveyed and were moderately encouraging of them, they were also moderately concerned about the risks and moral aspects of the three GM products as well as moderately accepting the risks. Attitudes towards GM products among the stakeholders were found to vary not according to the type of all GM applications but rather depend on the intricate relationships between the attitudinal factors and the type of gene transfers involved. Analyses of variance showed significant differences in the six dimensions of attitude towards GM products across stakeholders' groups. PMID:24381520

  17. Stakeholders’ Attitude to Genetically Modified Foods and Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifah Amin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Public acceptance of genetically modified (GM foods has to be adequately addressed in order for their potential economic and social benefits to be realized. The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of the Malaysian public toward GM foods (GM soybean and GM palm oil and GM medicine (GM insulin. A survey was carried out using self-constructed multidimensional instrument measuring attitudes towards GM products. The respondents (n=1017 were stratified according to stakeholders’ groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey show that the overall attitude of the Malaysian stakeholders towards GM products was cautious. Although they acknowledged the presence of moderate perceived benefits associated with GM products surveyed and were moderately encouraging of them, they were also moderately concerned about the risks and moral aspects of the three GM products as well as moderately accepting the risks. Attitudes towards GM products among the stakeholders were found to vary not according to the type of all GM applications but rather depend on the intricate relationships between the attitudinal factors and the type of gene transfers involved. Analyses of variance showed significant differences in the six dimensions of attitude towards GM products across stakeholders’ groups.

  18. 6 CFR 27.215 - Security vulnerability assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-risk, the facility must complete a Security Vulnerability Assessment. A Security Vulnerability... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security vulnerability assessments. 27.215... provided in § 27.235, a covered facility must complete the Security Vulnerability Assessment through...

  19. Young Adults' Perceived Purposes of Emerging Adulthood: Implications for Cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Adam A; Willoughby, Brian J; Nelson, Larry J

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated associations between young adults' perceived purposes of emerging adulthood and their attitudes toward and participation in cohabitation. In a sample of 775 never married individuals, ages 18-29 (69% female, 69% white) from the United States, young people's perceptions of this period of life were associated with their acceptance of cohabitation, their reasoning for accepting cohabitation, and the likelihood of cohabiting. Results showed that the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was negatively associated with acceptance of cohabitation whereas the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to take risks was positively associated with acceptance of cohabitation. The perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was associated with an increased likelihood of having cohabited while the perception that emerging adulthood is a time of possibilities was associated with a decreased likelihood of having cohabited. Implications for future research are discussed.

  20. Young Adults' Perceived Purposes of Emerging Adulthood: Implications for Cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Adam A; Willoughby, Brian J; Nelson, Larry J

    2016-05-18

    The authors investigated associations between young adults' perceived purposes of emerging adulthood and their attitudes toward and participation in cohabitation. In a sample of 775 never married individuals, ages 18-29 (69% female, 69% white) from the United States, young people's perceptions of this period of life were associated with their acceptance of cohabitation, their reasoning for accepting cohabitation, and the likelihood of cohabiting. Results showed that the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was negatively associated with acceptance of cohabitation whereas the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to take risks was positively associated with acceptance of cohabitation. The perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was associated with an increased likelihood of having cohabited while the perception that emerging adulthood is a time of possibilities was associated with a decreased likelihood of having cohabited. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:26645897