WorldWideScience

Sample records for attitudes of the public

  1. The 41st Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushaw, William J.; McNee, John A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors report the findings of the 41st Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools. The annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools is unique because it's not an advocacy poll, but rather a thoughtful study of Americans' current perceptions of their public schools. Each…

  2. Etiology and attitudes: beliefs about the origins of homosexuality and their implications for public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overby, L Marvin

    2014-01-01

    Using survey data from the 2008 election cycle, this article updates and extends analysis of public attitudes regarding various aspects of homosexuality. Continued expansion of public belief in a biological root to homosexuality is found, and variations in such opinions are explored. Public attitudes toward the emerging issue of gay adoption is also examined, finding both similarities with and important differences from attitudes toward same-sex civil unions, although both are profoundly influenced by underlying attitudes regarding the causes of homosexuality.

  3. The 33rd Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes Toward the Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Lowell C.; Gallup, Alec M.

    2001-01-01

    Presents results of the 33rd Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll on the public's attitudes toward the public schools. Includes a summary of key findings and tables showing percentage distributions of responses to each question. (PKP)

  4. Putting the "Public" First in Public Relations: An Exploratory Study of Municipal Employee Public Service Attitudes, Job Satisfaction and Communication Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Dennis W.

    A study was conducted to determine (1) which actions municipal employees consider important to a city's overall public relations effort, (2) the attitudes of city employees toward public service activities, (3) the relationship between attitude and job satisfaction, and (4) ways to improve employee attitudes and, perhaps, public service…

  5. The 38th Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Lowell C.; Gallup, Alec M.

    2006-01-01

    Rose and Gallup report on the results of the 38th Annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitude Toward the Public Schools. This year's survey examined No Child Left Behind and the public's perception of the law, the appropriate role of standardized testing, the achievement gap between white students and black and Hispanic students, the…

  6. The 39th Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Lowell C.; Gallup, Alec M.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors report the results of the 39th Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the public's attitudes toward the public schools. This year's report examined the public's assessment of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and its principal strategy, standardized testing. The authors include a summary of key findings and tables showing…

  7. Critical review of the United Kingdom's "gold standard" survey of public attitudes to science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin K; Jensen, Eric A

    2016-02-01

    Since 2000, the UK government has funded surveys aimed at understanding the UK public's attitudes toward science, scientists, and science policy. Known as the Public Attitudes to Science series, these surveys and their predecessors have long been used in UK science communication policy, practice, and scholarship as a source of authoritative knowledge about science-related attitudes and behaviors. Given their importance and the significant public funding investment they represent, detailed academic scrutiny of the studies is needed. In this essay, we critically review the most recently published Public Attitudes to Science survey (2014), assessing the robustness of its methods and claims. The review casts doubt on the quality of key elements of the Public Attitudes to Science 2014 survey data and analysis while highlighting the importance of robust quantitative social research methodology. Our analysis comparing the main sample and booster sample for young people demonstrates that quota sampling cannot be assumed equivalent to probability-based sampling techniques.

  8. Make Teaching More Professional: The 47th Annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Joshua P.

    2015-01-01

    Americans want higher professional requirements for teachers and believe teacher pay is too low, but they don't like tenure, according to the newest PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes To­ward the Public Schools. Public school parents trust and have confidence in the nation's teachers, and they said communicating with their child's teacher…

  9. The structure and strength of public attitudes towards wind farm development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, David Charles

    A growing social science literature seeks to understand why, despite broad public support for wind energy, proposals for specific projects are often met with strong local opposition. This gap between general and specific attitudes is viewed as a significant obstacle to the deployment of wind energy technologies. This dissertation applies theoretical perspectives and methodological tools from social psychology to provide insights on the structure and strength of attitudes towards the potential development of commercial wind farm in three coastal areas of Michigan. A survey of attitudes was completed by 375 residents in these communities and structural equation modeling was used to explore the relationship among variables. The analysis found that attitudes towards wind farm development are shaped by anticipated economic benefits to the community, but expectations of economic benefit are driven by personal values. Social psychology has long recognized that all attitudes are not created equal. Weak attitudes are fleeting and prone to change, while strong attitudes are stable over time and resistant to change. There are two fundamental paths to strong attitudes: repeated experience with an attitude object or the application of deeply held principles or values to that object. Structural equation models were also used to understand the strength of attitudes among the survey respondents. Both the anticipated effects of wind farm development and personal values were found to influence the strength of attitudes towards wind farms. However, while expectations that wind farm development will have positive effects on the economy bolster two measures of attitude strength (collective identity and importance), these expectations are associated with a decline in a third measure (confidence). A follow-up survey asking identical questions was completed by completed by 187 respondents to the initial survey. Linear regressions models were used to determine the effects of attitude

  10. The 34th Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Lowell C.; Gallup, Alec M.

    2002-01-01

    Results of the 34th Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the public's attitudes toward the public schools. Reports, for example, that school-age parents continue to regard local schools favorably, 71 percent of whom give the school attended by their oldest child a grade of A or B. (PKP)

  11. Public Attitudes towards Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities as Measured by the Concept of Social Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene; Burge, Philip; Brown, Hilary K.; Arsenault, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Background: While current practices strive to include individuals with intellectual disabilities in community opportunities, stigmatizing attitudes held by the public can be a barrier to achieving true social inclusion. Methods: A sample of 625 community members completed the Social Distance Subscale of the Multidimensional Attitude Scale on…

  12. Changing Expectations of College: The 47th Annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phi Delta Kappan, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This installment reporting on the 47th Annual PDK/Gallup Poll of American's Attitudes Toward the Public Schools focuses on American's views of the value of a high school and a college education and the affordability of college. It is the first year the poll included enough respondents to be able to break out sentiments of specific demographic…

  13. Drivers of Public Attitudes towards Small Wind Turbines in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatchley, Cerian; Paton, Heather; Robertson, Emma; Minderman, Jeroen; Hanley, Nicholas; Park, Kirsty

    2016-01-01

    Small Wind Turbines (SWTs) are a growing micro-generation industry with over 870,000 installed units worldwide. No research has focussed on public attitudes towards SWTs, despite evidence the perception of such attitudes are key to planning outcomes and can be a barrier to installations. Here we present the results of a UK wide mail survey investigating public attitudes towards SWTs. Just over half of our respondents, who were predominantly older, white males, felt that SWTs were acceptable across a range of settings, with those on road signs being most accepted and least accepted in hedgerows and gardens. Concern about climate change positively influenced how respondents felt about SWTs. Respondent comments highlight visual impacts and perceptions of the efficiency of this technology are particularly important to this sector of the UK public. Taking this into careful consideration, alongside avoiding locating SWTs in contentious settings such as hedgerows and gardens where possible, may help to minimise public opposition to proposed installations.

  14. What Do Librarians Think about Marketing? A Survey of Public Librarians' Attitudes toward the Marketing of Library Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shontz, Marilyn L.; Parker, Jon C.; Parker, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify attitudes of public librarians toward the marketing of library services and relate these attitudes to selected independent variables. A questionnaire was mailed to individual members of the New Jersey Library Association. Although most of the respondents had generally positive attitudes toward library…

  15. Do Online Comments Influence the Public's Attitudes Toward an Organization? Effects of Online Comments Based on Individuals' Prior Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Kang Hoon; Lee, Moon J

    2015-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of reading different types of online comments about a company on people's attitude change based on individual's prior attitude toward the company. Based on Social Judgment Theory, several hypotheses were tested. The results showed that the effects of online comments interact with individuals' prior attitudes toward a corporation. People with a strong negative attitude toward a corporation were less influenced by other's online comments than people with a neutral attitude in general. However, people with a prior negative attitude were more affected by refutational two-sided comments than one-sided comments. The results suggest that the effects of user generated content should be studied in a holistic manner, not only by investigating the effects of online content itself, but also by examining how others' responses to the content shape or change individuals' attitudes based on their prior attitudes.

  16. Attitudes to biotechnology: estimating the opinions of a better-informed public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgis, Patrick; Cooper, Helen; Fife-Schaw, Chris

    2005-04-01

    Public familiarity with basic scientific concepts and principles has been proposed as essential for effective democratic decision-making (Miller, 1998). Empirical research, however, finds that public 'scientific literacy' is generally low, falling well short of what normative criteria would consider 'acceptable.' This has prompted calls to better engage, educate and inform the public on scientific matters, with the additional, usually implicit assumption that a knowledgeable citizenry should express more supportive and favourable attitudes toward science. Research investigating the notion that 'to know science is to love it' has provided only weak empirical support and has itself been criticised for representing science and technology as a unified and homogenous entity. In practice, it is argued, how knowledge impacts on the favourability of attitudes will depend on a multiplicity of actors, not the least of which is the particular area of science in question and the technologies to which it gives rise (Evans & Durant, 1992). This article uses a new method for examining the knowledge-attitude nexus on a prominent area of 21st century science--biotechnology. The idea that greater scientific knowledge can engender change in the favourability of attitudes toward specific areas of science is investigated using data from the 2000 British Social Attitudes Survey and the 1999 Wellcome Consultative Panel on Gene Therapy. Together the surveys measure public opinion on particular applications of genetic technologies, including gene therapy and the use of genetic data, as well as more general attitudes towards genetic research. We focus our analysis on how two different measures of knowledge impact on these attitudes; one a more general measure of scientific knowledge, the other relating specifically to knowledge of modern genetic science. We investigate what impact these knowledge domains have on attitudes toward biotechnology using a regression-based modelling technique

  17. Public attitudes to the promotion of genomic crop studies in Japan: correlations between genomic literacy, trust, and favourable attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, Izumi; Tanzawa, Tetsuro; Watanabe, Maiko; Maeda, Tadahiko; Muto, Kaori; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Nagai, Akiko; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2012-05-01

    This study aimed to assess public attitudes in Japan to the promotion of genomic selection in crop studies and to examine associated factors. We analysed data from a nationwide opinion survey. A total of 4,000 people were selected from the Japanese general population by a stratified two-phase sampling method, and 2,171 people participated by post; this survey asked about the pros and cons of crop-related genomic studies promotion, examined people's scientific literacy in genomics, and investigated factors thought to be related to genomic literacy and attitude. The relationships were examined using logistic regression models stratified by gender. Survey results showed that 50.0% of respondents approved of the promotion of crop-related genomic studies, while 6.7% disapproved. No correlation was found between literacy and attitude towards promotion. Trust in experts, belief in science, an interest in genomic studies and willingness to purchase new products correlated with a positive attitude towards crop-related genomic studies.

  18. Measurement Integrity of Scores from the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales: The Attitudes of Public School Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Bruce; And Others

    The Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales (E. Fennema and J. A. Sherman, 1976) are among the most popular measures used in studies of attitudes toward mathematics. However, the measurement integrity of the scores has not yet been established conclusively. Measurement integrity was explored by using data from 174 elementary school teachers…

  19. Student Attitudes Towards Public Funding Of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stine, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Research in astronomy is strongly dependent on public (taxpayer) dollars. In this study we examine the attitudes of college students toward funding of astronomy projects. A survey was given to 269 college students prior to taking an introductory astronomy course. Students were given a short test designed to examine misconceptions about astronomy. They were then asked about their willingness to support public funding for astronomy projects. Students with fundamental misconceptions about mundane topics such as the cause of the seasons and phases of the moon were less than half as likely to support public funding of astronomy projects. Results are also reported showing the relationship between a willingness to fund projects and whether the students had experiences including reading books or magazines on astronomy, exposure to astronomy in high school, and using a telescope.

  20. The Role of Public and Self-Stigma in Predicting Attitudes toward Group Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, David L.; Shechtman, Zipora; Wade, Nathaniel G.

    2010-01-01

    Public and self-stigmas have been implicated as factors in the underutilization of individual counseling. However, group counseling is also underutilized, and yet scholars know very little about the role of different types of stigma on attitudes toward seeking group counseling. Therefore, the current study examined the relationships between public…

  1. Navigating a sea of values: Understanding public attitudes toward the ocean and ocean energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Jonathan Charles

    In examining ocean values and beliefs, this study investigates the moral and ethical aspects of the relationships that exist between humans and the marine environment. In short, this dissertation explores what the American public thinks of the ocean. The study places a specific focus upon attitudes to ocean energy development. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, this research: elicits mental models that exist in society regarding the ocean; unearths what philosophies underpin people's attitudes toward the ocean and offshore energy development; assesses whether these views have any bearing on pro-environmental behavior; and gauges support for offshore drilling and offshore wind development. Despite the fact that the ocean is frequently ranked as a second-tier environmental issue, Americans are concerned about the state of the marine environment. Additionally, the data show that lack of knowledge, rather than apathy, prevents people from undertaking pro-environmental action. With regard to philosophical beliefs, Americans hold slightly more nonanthropocentric than anthropocentric views toward the environment. Neither anthropocentrism nor nonanthropocentrism has any real impact on pro-environmental behavior, although nonanthropocentric attitudes reduce support for offshore wind. This research also uncovers two gaps between scientific and public perceptions of offshore wind power with respect to: 1) overall environmental effects; and 2) the size of the resource. Providing better information to the public in the first area may lead to a shift toward offshore wind support among opponents with nonanthropocentric attitudes, and in both areas, is likely to increase offshore wind support.

  2. [Knowledge and attitude of the general public regarding symptoms, etiology and possible treatments of depressive illnesses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaus, D; Stefanek, J; Hasford, J; Hegerl, U

    2002-07-01

    Within the German research network on depression, the Nuremberg Alliance against Depression aims at informing the public about depressive illness and preventing suicidality by carrying out a city-wide information campaign. Before the prevention program started, public attitudes and knowledge had been assessed in a public opinion survey in Nuremberg and in a control region. A total of 1426 randomly chosen inhabitants of Nuremberg and Würzburg completed a computer-assisted telephone interview during November and December 2000. They were asked about their knowledge and attitudes towards symptoms, causes, and treatment of depression. No relevant differences between Nuremberg and Würzburg were found. Depression is regarded as a serious illness. People seemed to be more knowledgeable as compared to the results of earlier surveys, but there are still important information deficits. This is especially true for males over 60, who show unfavorable attitudes. Eighty percent of the population consider antidepressants to be addictive, and 69% were convinced that the use of antidepressants would lead to personality changes. Future information campaigns should aim at describing depression as an often chronic disease similar to hypertonia or diabetes. Public knowledge about antidepressants must be improved.

  3. Public perceptions of industrial risks: the context of public attitudes toward radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, T.C.

    1981-06-01

    A survey was made to determine the public risk perception of several industrial hazards. A free response approach was used in order for respondents to generate their own alternatives. The general class of hazard investigated here included all hazardous industrial facilities. The free response survey was used to study public perception of: (a) the closeness of the nearest hazardous industrial facility (as estimated by the respondent); (b) the sort of facility it is; (c) the sorts of risk associated with it; and (d) the persons placed at risk by it. Respondents also identified the risks of, and the persons placed at risk by, both a toxic chemical disposal facility and a nuclear waste disposal facility. Results of this study thus can inform us of the unprompted concerns of the public regarding a wide variety of industrial facilities.

  4. Public attitudes towards prevention of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sikorski

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate obesity prevention support in the German general public and to assess determinants of general prevention support as well as support of specific prevention measures. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional analysis of a telephone based representative German study (3,003 subjects (52.8% women, mean age 51.9, s.d.  = 18.0, range 18-97 years. Likert scale-based questions on general prevention support and support of specific measures were used. Furthermore willingness to take part in preventive programs and willingness to pay were assessed. Stigmatizing attitudes were assessed with the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS. Causation of obesity was differentiated in three dimensions (internal, e.g. lack of exercise; external, e.g. social surroundings; and genetic factors. RESULTS: Obesity prevention was perceived as possible (98.2%, however, almost exclusively lifestyle changes were named. Participants with higher stigmatizing attitudes were less likely to believe obesity prevention is possible. The majority of participants would take part in preventive programs (59.6% and pay at least partially themselves (86.9%. Factor analysis revealed three dimensions of preventive measures: promoting healthy eating, restrictive and financial, governmental prevention efforts. In regard to these, promoting healthy eating was the most supported measure. Higher age, female gender and external causation were associated with higher support for all three dimensions of preventive measures. Only for governmental regulation, higher age was associated with lower support. CONCLUSION: Obesity prevention support in Germany is high. Structural prevention efforts are supported by the majority of the general public in Germany. The vast majority proclaims willingness to pay themselves for programs of weight gain prevention. This could be an indication of higher perceived self-responsibility in the German system but also for risen "fear of fat" in the population due

  5. Who is willing to pay for science? On the relationship between public perception of science and the attitude to public funding of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Ana; Moreno, Carolina; Luján, José Luis

    2012-02-01

    This article examines the relationship between the general public's understanding of science and the attitude towards public funding of scientific research. It applies a multivariate and discriminant analysis (Wilks' Lambda), in addition to a more commonly used bivariate analysis (Cramer's V), to data compiled from the Third National Survey on the Social Perception of Science and Technology in Spain (FECYT, 2006). The general conclusion is that the multivariate analysis produces information complementary to the bivariate analysis, and that the variables commonly applied in public perception studies have limited predictive value with respect to the attitude towards public funding of scientific research.

  6. FACOTRS TO DETERMINE RISK PERCEPTION OF CLIMATE CHANGE, AND ATTITUDE TOWARD ADAPTATION POLICY OF THE PUBLIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Kenshi; Sugimoto, Takuya; Kubota, Hiromi; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Tanaka, Mitsuru

    This study clarifies the factors to determine risk perception of climate change and attitudes toward adaptation policy by analyzing the data collecting from Internet survey to the general public. The results indicate the followings: 1) more than 70% people perceive some sort of risk of climate change, and most people are awaken to wind and flood damage. 2) most people recognize that mitigation policy is much more important than adaptation policy, whereas most people assume to accept adaptation policy as self-reponsibility, 3) the significant factors to determinane risk perception of climate chage and attitude towerd adaptation policy are cognition of benefits on the policy and procedural justice in the policy process in addion to demographics such as gender, experience of disaster, intension of inhabitant.

  7. Food allergy knowledge, attitudes and beliefs: Focus groups of parents, physicians and the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnathan Julia A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food allergy prevalence is increasing in US children. Presently, the primary means of preventing potentially fatal reactions are avoidance of allergens, prompt recognition of food allergy reactions, and knowledge about food allergy reaction treatments. Focus groups were held as a preliminary step in the development of validated survey instruments to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public. Methods Eight focus groups were conducted between January and July of 2006 in the Chicago area with parents of children with food allergy (3 groups, physicians (3 groups, and the general public (2 groups. A constant comparative method was used to identify the emerging themes which were then grouped into key domains of food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Results Parents of children with food allergy had solid fundamental knowledge but had concerns about primary care physicians' knowledge of food allergy, diagnostic approaches, and treatment practices. The considerable impact of children's food allergies on familial quality of life was articulated. Physicians had good basic knowledge of food allergy but differed in their approach to diagnosis and advice about starting solids and breastfeeding. The general public had wide variation in knowledge about food allergy with many misconceptions of key concepts related to prevalence, definition, and triggers of food allergy. Conclusion Appreciable food allergy knowledge gaps exist, especially among physicians and the general public. The quality of life for children with food allergy and their families is significantly affected.

  8. Strategies for changing negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People's Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumin X

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xie Shumin,1 Stephanie Mu-Lian Woo,2 Zhang Lei3 1Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, People's Republic of China; 2Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA; 3Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China Abstract: In recent decades, the demand for organ transplantation has risen rapidly worldwide, due to an increased incidence of vital organ failure. However, the scarcity of organs appropriate for transplantation has led to an organ shortage crisis. This article retrospectively reviews strategies to change negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People's Republic of China. We strongly believe that efforts to publicize knowledge of organ donation, promote family discussions, train medical staff and students, establish incentive systems, and implement regulatory oversight may combat unfavorable Chinese public opinion toward organ donation and transplantation, thus potentially increasing the organ donation rate in the People's Republic of China. Keywords: influencing factors, attitudes, organ transplantation, organ failure

  9. Americans Put Teacher Quality on Center Stage: The 46th Annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushaw, William J.; Calderon, Valerie J.

    2014-01-01

    In this, the second installment of a two-part report of the 46th annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes Toward the Public Schools, the report unveils what Americans are thinking about public schools--in particular their views of teachers and the classrooms where they work. Some findings were surprising, others were not. For example,…

  10. Public attitude in the city of Belgrade towards invasive alien plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomićević Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are seen as a major threat to biodiversity at a global level, while the number of new invasions is increasing at an alarming rate. Raising the awareness of the public, academic world and policy makers about the dangers caused by invasive species, is essential for the creation of the support needed to implement and coordinate the policies necessary to address this problem. The aim of this study is to determine the level of local public awareness of the existence of these plant species, examine the public attitude towards alien invasive plant species and willingness to get involved in the prevention of their spreading. The survey was conducted in four nurseries on the territory of the City of Belgrade and the investigation dealt only with alien invasive woody plant species. Thirty customers were questioned in each of the four nurseries. The results show that local public is uninformed on the issue of invasive plant species. It is necessary to constantly and intensively raise their awareness of this issue, as well as the awareness of harmful consequences that may occur due to the uncontrolled spreading of alien invasive species. This refers not only to the population that visits the nurseries and buys the plants there and to those employed in plant production and selling, but also to the whole local public and decision makers.

  11. Agriculture and the European public: Agendas, attitudes, and the management of issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    attitudes towards specific agricultural issues are embedded in systems of more general socio-political attitudes and values, and identifies the psychological processes through which issues rise or fall on individual agendas. Finally, recommendations are outlined as to how agricultural researchers, producers...

  12. A quantitative examination of public school student attitudes toward science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchman, Matthew

    There is a deficit of male and female students entering the fields of math and science, and the need for highly educated individuals in these areas is expected to increase. While various factors may play a role in creating this deficit, there is a lack of research on one factor, that of student attitudes toward science. The theories of social aspects, how children learn and how teachers teach provided the framework for an examination of public school student attitudes toward science. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a significant difference in attitudes toward science in Grades 4-12 based on gender and grade level. Using a quantitative one-shot case study preexperimental design, the study described the relationships in student attitudes toward science and how those relationships change with grade and gender. This study investigated the relationship in attitudes toward science in different grade levels, the relationship in male and female attitudes toward science in different grade levels, and the difference in attitudes toward science between male and female students. The Kruskal-Wallis test and the nonparametric independent samples test for gender differences were performed to examine grade level, gender, and attitudes toward science. The convenience sample of 1,008 students was drawn from a population of approximately 1,200 students enrolled in Grades 4 through 12 in a rural, public school district in the northeastern United States. The data analysis revealed no difference in male attitudes toward science, but did reveal a significant difference in female attitudes toward science between different grade levels, (H(8) = 32.773, p career options for underrepresented groups.

  13. Comparison of attitudes toward disability and people with disability among caregivers, the public, and people with disability: findings from a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background A negative attitude toward disability is one of the potential barriers for people with disability (PWD) to achieve social equality. Although numerous studies have investigated attitudes toward disability, few have evaluated personal attitudes toward disability among PWD, and made comparisons with attitudes of healthy respondents. This study was to investigate and compare the attitudes of PWD, caregivers, and the public toward disability and PWD in China, to identify discrepancies i...

  14. ATTITUDES OF VEGETABLE FARMERS TOWARDS PUBLIC AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tala Qtaishat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Among vegetable farmers in Jordan, there are conflicting attitudes towards the extension activities provided by the public sector. Some farmers accept and adopt the recommendations of these activities; on the other hand, some people are not satisfied and consider these activities a waste of time for both the farmers and the government. This situation has serious impacts on the quality, duration and efficiency of the extension activities provided by government related agencies. Also, the situation will end in providing low-quality agricultural extension services to the farmers or providing these services in a non-productive manner. The actual attitudes of vegetable farmers towards Public Agricultural Extension Services (PAES in the Dear Alla Area of Jordan were investigated in this study. A total of 80 vegetable farmers were selected for the study. A questionnaire consisting of two main parts was used for data collection; the first part was related to personal and socio-economic characteristics of the sample individuals. The second part was related to extension activities. A five-point Likert-type scale was used as an instrument to gather primary data. The farmers rated their attitudes toward Public Agricultural Extension Services (PAES through 10 statements related carefully to the Public Agricultural Extension Services. Data analysis was done in two sections, consisting of data description and data inferential analysis. The results of the study revealed that the farmers’ overall attitude towards the public agricultural extension activities was negative. The farmers’ attitudes according to age, experience, educational level and frequency and type of contact with public extension services were also negative. The negative attitude of the participant farmers towards the Public Agricultural Extension Services means that the farmers were not satisfied with these services. Identifying the sources and types of public extension programs, the

  15. Cross Sectional Attitudes of Public Sculpture Matrix in Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Akintunde Akintonde

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Public outdoor sculpture practice in the Southwestern Nigeria entails different types of attitudes. These attitudes are discernable from the stage of commissioning of work, its conceptualization to the display and uses in the public sphere generated diverse fundamental, constant technical issues. Some are explicitly alluring while others are absurd, fleeting and injurious to the practice. However, whatever attitude advanced in the public outdoor sculpture practice, it has not been discussed cross sectionally. The inadequate scholarship attention on the attitudinal issues in outdoor sculpture certainly created art historical gap apt to make the study of contemporary Nigeria art incoherent. Apparently, attitudinal studies certainly involve psychological measurement - a type of instrument that does not required descriptive survey. For this reason, the study was based on qualitative methods. The study categorised various attitudes in outdoor sculpture practice in the studied area into pre-unveiling, unveiling and post unveiling stages and critically examined them. Some attitudes in the practice of the art were observed to be stimulant for advancement; invariably others are clearly incongruous to the spirit of typical Yoruba societal value orientation in orderliness, therefore degrading and detrimental to the development of the outdoor sculpture in the public sphere.

  16. Does media coverage influence public attitudes towards welfare recipients? The impact of the 2011 English riots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; de Vries, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Following the shooting of Mark Duggan by police on 4 August 2011, there were riots in many large cities in the UK. As the rioting was widely perceived to be perpetrated by the urban poor, links were quickly made with Britain's welfare policies. In this paper, we examine whether the riots, and the subsequent media coverage, influenced attitudes toward welfare recipients. Using the British Social Attitudes survey, we use multivariate difference-in-differences regression models to compare attitudes toward welfare recipients among those interviewed before (pre-intervention: i.e. prior to 6 August) and after (post-intervention: 10 August-10 September) the riots occurred (N = 3,311). We use variation in exposure to the media coverage to test theories of media persuasion in the context of attitudes toward welfare recipients. Before the riots, there were no significant differences between newspaper readers and non-readers in their attitudes towards welfare recipients. However, after the riots, attitudes diverged. Newspaper readers became more likely than non-readers to believe that those on welfare did not really deserve help, that the unemployed could find a job if they wanted to and that those on the dole were being dishonest in claiming benefits. Although the divergence was clearest between right-leaning newspaper and non-newspaper readers, we do not a find statistically significant difference between right- and left-leaning newspapers. These results suggest that media coverage of the riots influenced attitudes towards welfare recipients; specifically, newspaper coverage of the riots increased the likelihood that readers of the print media expressed negative attitudes towards welfare recipients when compared with the rest of the population.

  17. Try It Again, Uncle Sam: The 46th Annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools. [Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushaw, William J.; Calderon, Valerie J.

    2014-01-01

    The 46th Annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools reveals that Americans say they know a lot more this year about the Common Core State Standards than they indicated a year ago, and they like it a lot less. Americans also say local school boards should have the greatest influence in deciding what is taught in…

  18. Oral Care during Pregnancy: Attitudes of Brazilian Public Health Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Martins Paiva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available There is little information about health professionals’ behavior regarding oral health care during pregnancy. We evaluated attitudes of obstetricians/gynecologists, nurses, and dentists working at a public community service towards pregnant women’s oral health. Health professionals responded to a self-applied questionnaire. Cluster analysis identified two clusters of respondents; Chi-square, Student’s t test, and logistic regression were used to compare the two clusters in terms of the independent variables. Respondents were categorized into cluster 1 ‘less favorable’ (n = 159 and cluster 2 ‘more favorable’ (n = 124 attitudes. Professionals that had attended a residency or specialization program (OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.15–3.77, p = 0.016 and worked exclusively at the public service (OR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.10–4.20, p = 0.025 presented more favorable attitudes. Obstetricians/gynecologists (OR = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.09–0.54, p = 0.001 and nurses (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.29–0.86, p = 0.013 showed less favorable attitudes than dentists. Health care providers’ attitudes regarding pregnant women’s oral health were related to their occupation, qualification, and dedication to the public service.

  19. The Effects of Public and Individual Language Attitudes on Intra-Speaker Variation: A Case Study of Style-Shifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Campoy, Juan Manuel; Cutillas-Espinosa, Juan Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The present study focuses on the language attitudes underlying patterns of stylistic variation in the speech of a female former President of the Spanish local Government of Murcia. We build on previous quantitative work demonstrating that this speaker shows unexpectedly high usage levels for nonstandard Murcian Spanish features in public speech,…

  20. Resistance to agricultural biotechnology: the importance of distinguishing between weak and strong public attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerni, Philipp

    2013-10-01

    Empirical research shows that European governments and retailers are unlikely to be directly punished by taxpayers and consumers if they move away from their anti-GMO positions and policies. However, it is ultimately not the weak attitudes of taxpayers and consumers that matter to governments and retailers but the strong attitudes of the noisy anti-biotech movement. (Image: Highway signs: ©maxmitzu - Fotolia.com; woman and balance: ©lassedesignen - Fotolia.com).

  1. Determinants of public attitudes to genetically modified salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifah Amin

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country.

  2. Determinants of public attitudes to genetically modified salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country.

  3. The stigmatizing effect of visual media portrayals of obese persons on public attitudes: does race or gender matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Luedicke, Joerg; Heuer, Chelsea A

    2013-01-01

    Overweight and obese persons are frequently stigmatized in news media. The present study is the first to systematically compare public reactions to positive and negative images of obese persons accompanying news reports on obesity (while manipulating gender and race of the target)and their effects on generalized attitudes and social distance toward obese persons. The authors conducted 3 randomized experimental studies using online surveys to assess public perceptions of positive versus stereotypical images of obese adults (who varied by gender and race) accompanying a neutral news report about obesity. The sample included 1,251 adults, who were recruited through a national survey panel during May of 2010. Participants who viewed negative, stereotypical images of obese targets increased social distance, antifat attitudes, and ratings of laziness and dislike toward obese persons, whereas positive, nonstereotypical images induced more positive attitudes. These findings remained consistent when accounting for sociodemographic variables. African American female obese targets portrayed in images evoked higher ratings of dislike and social distance compared with Caucasian targets, but ratings were similar for male and female targets. This study provides evidence that images of obese person accompanying written media influence public attitudes toward obese people, and may reinforce weight stigmatization if images contain stereotypical portrayals of obese persons. Implications for efforts to report about obesity in the news media are discussed.

  4. The Impact of Suicide Prevention Public Service Announcements on Help-Seeking Attitudes: The Message Makes a Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Klimes-Dougan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Suicide continues to be one of the most serious public health challenges. Public service announcements are frequently used to address this challenge, but are rarely sufficiently evaluated to determine if they meet the intended goals, or are associated with potential iatrogenic effects. Although it is challenging to assess the relative impact of different PSA modalities, our group previously noted that one billboard message failed to show the same benefits as one TV ad (e.g., Klimes-Dougan & Lee, 2010. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings to test critical aspects of suicide prevention billboard messaging. Although both simulated billboard messages presented had identical supporting messages, we predicted that the more personal billboard message, focused on saving one’s life, would cause more favorable help-seeking attitudes than the message focused on suicide. Young adult university students (N = 785 were randomly assigned to one of three conditions; one of two billboard simulations or a TV ad simulation. Help-seeking attitudes, maladaptive coping and reports of concern and distress were evaluated. The results of this study suggest some relative benefits in endorsement of favorable help-seeking attitudes for one of the billboard conditions - Stop depression from taking another life. Although further research is needed to determine what methods will alter the risk for suicide in the population, the results of this study provide a useful first step showing that some billboard messaging may favorably influence help-seeking attitudes.

  5. Possible Biases of Researchers’ Attitudes Toward Video Games: Publication Trends Analysis of the Medical Literature (1980–2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovner, Mitchell; Appel, David Ian; Abrams, Aaron W; Rotem, Michal; Bloch, Yuval

    2016-01-01

    Background The study of video games is expanding, and so is the debate regarding their possible positive and deleterious effects. As controversies continue, several researchers have expressed their concerns about substantial biases existing in the field, which might lead to the creation of a skewed picture, both in the professional and in the lay literature. However, no study has tried to examine this issue quantitatively. Objective The objective of our study was to examine possible systematic biases in the literature, by analyzing the publication trends of the medical and life sciences literature regarding video games. Methods We performed a complete and systematic PubMed search up to December 31, 2013. We assessed all 1927 articles deemed relevant for their attitude toward video games according to the focus, hypothesis, and authors’ interpretation of the study results, using a 3-category outcome (positive, negative, and neutral). We assessed the prevalence of different attitudes for possible association with year of publication, location of researchers, academic discipline, methodological research, and centrality of the publishing journals. Results The attitude toward video games presented in publications varied by year of publication, location, academic discipline, and methodological research applied (Pvideo games. Readers, both lay and professional, should weigh these contextual variables when interpreting studies’ results, in light of the possible bias they carry. The results also support a need for a more balanced, open-minded approach toward video games, as it is likely that this complex phenomenon carries novel opportunities as well as new hazards. PMID:27430187

  6. Value predispositions as perceptual filters: Comparing of public attitudes toward nanotechnology in the United States and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xuan; Ho, Shirley S; Brossard, Dominique; Xenos, Michael A; Scheufele, Dietram A; Anderson, Ashley A; Hao, Xiaoming; He, Xiaoyu

    2015-07-01

    This study compares public attitudes toward nanotechnology in the United States and Singapore, using large-scale survey data in both countries. Results indicate that Singaporeans tend to be more knowledgeable about and familiar with nanotechnology than the U.S. public. Singaporeans tend to perceive greater benefits and fewer potential risks of nanotechnology, and to indicate greater support for government funding for nanotechnology than the U.S. public. Between the two countries, perceived familiarity with nanotechnology and the benefits and risks of the emerging technology tend to be interpreted differently through the lens of value predispositions (religiosity and deference to scientific authority) and therefore they indirectly affect public support. Specifically, the U.S. public tends to use religiosity to interpret benefits and Singaporeans are inclined to use religiosity to think about risks. Deference to scientific authority also moderates the impact of perceived familiarity with nanotechnology on funding support for the technology among the U.S. public.

  7. Public Attitudes on the Ethics of Deceptively Planting False Memories to Motivate Healthy Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Shari R.; Roche, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Summary Researchers have proposed that planting false memories could have positive behavioral consequences. The idea of deceptively planting ‘beneficial’ false memories outside of the laboratory raises important ethical questions, but how might the general public appraise this moral dilemma? In two studies, participants from the USA and UK read about a fictional ‘false‐memory therapy’ that led people to adopt healthy behaviors. Participants then reported their attitudes toward the acceptability of this therapy, via scale‐rating (both studies) and open‐text (study 2) responses. The data revealed highly divergent responses to this contentious issue, ranging from abject horror to unqualified enthusiasm. Moreover, the responses shed light on conditions that participants believed would make the therapy less or more ethical. Whether or not deceptively planting memories outside the lab could ever be justifiable, these studies add valuable evidence to scientific and societal debates on neuroethics, whose relevance to memory science is increasingly acute. Copyright © 2016 The Authors Applied Cognitive Psychology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:28111495

  8. 75 FR 4042 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Public Perceptions and Attitudes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... Public Perceptions and Attitudes About Hawaiian Monk Seals AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take...-gathering activity is to gain a better understanding of public knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, values,...

  9. An empirical analysis of the public's attitudes toward advertising hospital services: a comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, H Ronald; Freeman, Gordon L

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates current opinions about hospital advertising and compares them to the attitudes expressed 25 years ago. It replicates a survey done in 1985, using the same questionnaire and population to compare responses longitudinally. The study indicates some changes in the public's opinions of hospital advertising. Although the image of hospitals remains positive, most of the 2010 respondents' opinions were rather mixed regarding whether it is proper for hospitals to advertise. The study also confirmed that the quality of service and reputation of hospitals remain more important to the public than price.

  10. An Exploration of Public Attitudes Toward LGBTI Rights in the Gauteng City-Region of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, Faraaz; Trangoš, Guy

    2016-10-01

    South Africa's legal framework on the rights of sexual minorities is one of the most progressive in the world. Despite this, discrimination and violence against gay and lesbian people continues to be a challenge. Using large-scale survey data gathered in the Gauteng City-Region, this study examines public attitudes related to homosexuality. Most respondents to the survey felt that sexual minorities should have equal rights. However, a considerable proportion of respondents also held negative views toward gay and lesbian individuals, with close to two fifths of respondents believing that homosexuality is against the values of their community, and over 12% of participants holding the view that it is acceptable to be violent toward gays and lesbians. Further analysis also consists of an examination of responses cross-tabulated with the variables of race, gender, age, and education, revealing that younger, well-educated South Africans tend to be the most tolerant, but also exhibiting large variances in attitudes within groups.

  11. Temporal changes in the attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas among adults in the Capital Region of Denmark from 2007 to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Maja; Helbech, Bodil; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The population's attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas is important for their passing, implementation and compliance. Smoking bans are believed to reduce the social acceptability of smoking, and once people experience them, public support increases - also among pre-ban sceptics....... This study aimed to examine the temporal changes in public attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas from 2007 to 2010 and whether these changes differed across educational attainment, smoking status and intention to quit among smokers. Methods: Data from two surveys among adults (aged 25-79 years...... attainment, smoking status and intention to quit smoking in restaurants and across smoking status for smoking bans in workplaces and bars. Conclusions: The results of this study show that the public's attitude towards smoking in public arenas has changed after the implementation of a comprehensive smoking...

  12. Towards an understanding of British public attitudes concerning human cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Richard; Barnett, Julie; Cooper, Helen; Coyle, Adrian; Moran-Ellis, Jo; Senior, Victoria; Walton, Chris

    2007-07-01

    The ability of scientists to apply cloning technology to humans has provoked public discussion and media coverage. The present paper reports on a series of studies examining public attitudes to human cloning in the UK, bringing together a range of quantitative and qualitative methods to address this question. These included a nationally representative survey, an experimental vignette study, focus groups and analyses of media coverage. Overall the research presents a complex picture of attitude to and constructions of human cloning. In all of the analyses, therapeutic cloning was viewed more favourably than reproductive cloning. However, while participants in the focus groups were generally negative about both forms of cloning, and this was also reflected in the media analyses, quantitative results showed more positive responses. In the quantitative research, therapeutic cloning was generally accepted when the benefits of such procedures were clear, and although reproductive cloning was less accepted there was still substantial support. Participants in the focus groups only differentiated between therapeutic and reproductive cloning after the issue of therapeutic cloning was explicitly raised; initially they saw cloning as being reproductive cloning and saw no real benefits. Attitudes were shown to be associated with underlying values associated with scientific progress rather than with age, gender or education, and although there were a few differences in the quantitative data based on religious affiliation, these tended to be small effects. Likewise in the focus groups there was little direct appeal to religion, but the main themes were 'interfering with nature' and the 'status of the embryo', with the latter being used more effectively to try to close down further discussion. In general there was a close correspondence between the media analysis and focus group responses, possibly demonstrating the importance of media as a resource, or that the media reflect

  13. Public attitudes towards and demand for hydrogen and fuel cell vehicles. A review of the evidence and methodological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetano Roche, Maria [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Energy and Environment, PO BOX 100480, 42004 Wuppertal (Germany); Department of Geography and Environment, London School of Economics and Political Science (United Kingdom); Mourato, Susana [Department of Geography and Environment, London School of Economics and Political Science (United Kingdom); Fischedick, Manfred; Pietzner, Katja; Viebahn, Peter [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Energy and Environment, PO BOX 100480, 42004 Wuppertal (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    It is now widely recognized that effective communication and demand-side policies for alternative energy require sound knowledge of preferences and determinants of demand of the public and consumers. To date, public attitudes towards new transport technologies have been studied under very different conceptual frameworks. This paper gives an overview of the various conceptual frameworks and methodologies used, where four main approaches can be distinguished: general attitudinal surveys, risk perception studies, non-market economic valuation studies, and other approaches such as those based on semiotic theory. We then review the findings of the recent literature on acceptance, attitudes and preferences for hydrogen and fuel cell end-use technologies, focusing on vehicles. These studies are then contrasted with related research into alternative fuel vehicles. The paper finally discusses the main trends in research and avenues for further work in this field. We recommend, among other things, the use of approaches that build knowledge and familiarity with the technology prior to the exploration of attitudes, and the set up of studies that take a whole-systems perspective of hydrogen technologies and that look at hydrogen in the context of other competing clean technologies. (author)

  14. Public attitudes towards and demand for hydrogen and fuel cell vehicles: A review of the evidence and methodological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetano Roche, Maria, E-mail: maria.yetano@wupperinst.or [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Energy and Environment, PO BOX 100480, 42004 Wuppertal (Germany) and Department of Geography and Environment; London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE (United Kingdom); Mourato, Susana [Department of Geography and Environment, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE (United Kingdom); Fischedick, Manfred; Pietzner, Katja; Viebahn, Peter [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Energy and Environment, PO BOX 100480, 42004 Wuppertal (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    It is now widely recognized that effective communication and demand-side policies for alternative energy require sound knowledge of preferences and determinants of demand of the public and consumers. To date, public attitudes towards new transport technologies have been studied under very different conceptual frameworks. This paper gives an overview of the various conceptual frameworks and methodologies used, where four main approaches can be distinguished: general attitudinal surveys, risk perception studies, non-market economic valuation studies, and other approaches such as those based on semiotic theory. We then review the findings of the recent literature on acceptance, attitudes and preferences for hydrogen and fuel cell end-use technologies, focusing on vehicles. These studies are then contrasted with related research into alternative fuel vehicles. The paper finally discusses the main trends in research and avenues for further work in this field. We recommend, among other things, the use of approaches that build knowledge and familiarity with the technology prior to the exploration of attitudes, and the set up of studies that take a whole-systems perspective of hydrogen technologies and that look at hydrogen in the context of other competing clean technologies.

  15. Assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practices about public health nutrition among students of the University of Medicine in Tirana, Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanda Hyska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: the aim of this survey was twofold: (i: to assess medical students’ knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding nutrition in general, in order to identify their level of competences in the field of nutrition which will be useful in their future role of providers/health care professionals, and; (ii to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the discipline of public health nutrition in order to identify the needs for improving the curriculum of this subject in all the branches of the University of Medicine in Tirana. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in June-July 2013 including a representative sample of 347 students at the University of Medicine in Tirana, Albania (61% females and 39% males; overall mean age: 23±2 years; response rate: 87%. A nutritional questionnaire, adopted according to the models used in previous international studies, was used to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices among the university students. Results: Overall, about one third of the students was not satisfied with the quality and quantity of nutritional education and demanded a more scientifically rigorous curriculum. In general, students’ knowledge about infant feeding practices was adequate. However, there were gaps in the students’ knowledge regarding the commencement of breastfeeding, or the duration of exclusive breast-feeding. Furthermore, there was evidence of an insufficient level of knowledge among students regarding diet and nutrition in general and their health impact, especially on development and prevention of chronic diseases. Conclusion: This survey identified significant gaps in the current curriculum of public health nutrition at the University of Medicine in Tirana. Our findings suggest the need for intervention programs to improve both the quantitative and the qualitative aspects of nutrition curricula in all the branches of the University of Medicine Tirana, in accordance with the

  16. Public Attitudes toward Animal Research: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth H. Ormandy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of public attitudes toward animal research is important given recent developments in animal research (e.g., increasing creation and use of genetically modified animals, and plans for progress in areas such as personalized medicine, and the shifting relationship between science and society (i.e., a move toward the democratization of science. As such, public engagement on issues related to animal research, including exploration of public attitudes, provides a means of achieving socially acceptable scientific practice and oversight through an understanding of societal values and concerns. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore public attitudes toward animal use, and more specifically the use of animals in research. This paper reviews relevant literature using three categories of influential factors: personal and cultural characteristics, animal characteristics, and research characteristics. A critique is given of survey style methods used to collect data on public attitudes, and recommendations are given on how best to address current gaps in public attitudes literature.

  17. Attitudes to biotechnology: estimating the opinions of a better-informed public

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Public familiarity with basic scientific concepts and principles has been proposed as essential for effective democratic decision-making ( Miller, 1998). Empirical research, however, finds that public 'scientific literacy' is generally low, falling well short of what normative criteria would consider 'acceptable'. This has prompted calls to better engage, educate and inform the public on scientific matters, with the additional, usually implicit assumption that a knowledgeable citizenry should...

  18. IT Governance and the Public Sector: A Survey of Perceptions, Attitudes, and Knowledge of Federal Public Sector IT Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David P.

    2013-01-01

    IT governance has become an important topic as both public and private organizations struggle to meet the challenge of aligning complex IT systems with operational needs. Without effective IT governance, organizations fail to gain strategic benefits that come by the proper strategic alignment of IT resources with the larger organizational mission.…

  19. Changing public attitudes to antibiotic prescribing: can the internet help?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Madle

    2004-02-01

    Conclusions Health information websites can play a significant role in influencing public knowledge and attitudes. Further research is needed to investigate how people learn from these interventions and to determine their long-term impact on public attitudes and subsequent behaviour.

  20. Attitudes of the selfless

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zettler, Ingo; Hilbig, B.E.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on political orientations, which can be understood as one's left- versus right-wing attitude, has shown that some personality factors yield explanatory power. In the current work, we consider the role of altruism - a personality construct which does not exclusively map onto one...... of the broad personality dimensions typically studied. Altruism was predicted to relate to left-wing attitudes due to an overlap regarding concerns for social equality, and a discrepancy between well-known attributes of right-wingers and altruistic individuals, respectively. Moreover, altruism was expected...... association between altruism and left-wing attitudes, and altruism was found to account for substantial variance in political orientation after controlling for the HEXACO factors of personality. We conclude that altruism is an important construct which deserves attention whenever political attitudes or other...

  1. Knowledge, attitude, and practices concerning presence of molds in foods among members of the general public in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matumba, Limbikani; Monjerezi, Maurice; Kankwamba, Henry; Njoroge, Samuel M C; Ndilowe, Peter; Kabuli, Hilda; Kambewa, Daimon; Njapau, Henry

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of the public in Malawi on issues related to molds in foodstuffs. A survey involving structured questionnaire was conducted with 805 respondents from seven districts of Malawi. Descriptive statistics, t tests, and analyses of variance were calculated. A majority of respondents recognized that molds were dangerous to human health (88%); however, about 50% of respondents were not informed that mold toxins are thermally stable and that they are not destroyable by normal cooking processes. About 33% of the respondents asserted that they buy moldy maize, while approximately 20% of respondents reported that they consume moldy fruits having discarded moldy fraction. There were significant differences in knowledge scores among different demographic groups. Females had significantly (p public's knowledge about health risks associated with spoilage molds in food and prevention and management options.

  2. Surveys of public knowledge and attitudes with regard to antibiotics in Poland: Did the European Antibiotic Awareness Day campaigns change attitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazińska, Beata; Strużycka, Izabela; Hryniewicz, Waleria

    2017-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health problem. Monitoring the level of knowledge regarding antibiotics is a part of the European Union Community strategy against antimicrobial resistance. Objective To assess knowledge by the general public in Poland regarding antibiotics, AMR, and the impact of the European Antibiotic Awareness Day campaigns. Methods The repeated cross-sectional study was developed and carried out among the general public in Poland (in 5 waves between 2009 and 2011, embracing a total of 5004 respondents). The survey was based on a self-designed questionnaire, and carried out by Millward Brown SMG/KRC, using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews (CATI). Results A high percentage of Polish adults had used antibiotics within the 12 months preceding their participation in the study (38%). Statistically relevant differences were observed regarding the respondents’ gender, age, education and employment status. The majority of the antibiotics used were prescribed by physicians (90%). In all five waves, 3% of the respondents purchased an antibiotic without a prescription. Prescriptions were mostly obtained from a general practitioner. The prevailing reasons for taking antibiotics were the common cold, sore throat, cough and flu. Approximately 40% of the respondents expected a prescription for an antibiotic against the flu. The vast majority knew that antibiotics kill bacteria (80%) but at the same time 60% of respondents believed antibiotics kill viruses. Physicians, pharmacists, hospital staff and nurses were mentioned as the most trustworthy sources of information. A third of the respondents declared to have come across information on the prudent use of antibiotics in the preceding 12 months. In the fifth wave, nearly half of the participants (48%), who had come across information about antibiotics in the preceding 12 months declared that the information resulted in a change in their attitude towards antibiotic use. Conclusion

  3. The State of Public Opinion Research on Attitudes and Understanding of Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besley, John C.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a critical and global overview of current research into public opinion about science and technology (S&T). Although several sets of high-quality data exist, there remains a lack of international coordination and irregular release of new data in forms that can be widely used. The article highlights a range of key…

  4. Attitudes and action: public opinion and the occurrence of international terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Alan B; Malecková, Jitka

    2009-09-18

    The predictors of terrorism are unclear. This paper examines the effect of public opinion in one country toward another country on the number of terrorist attacks perpetrated by people or groups from the former country against targets in the latter country. Public opinion was measured by the percentage of people in Middle Eastern and North African countries who disapprove of the leadership of nine world powers. Count models for 143 pairs of countries were used to estimate the effect of public opinion on terrorist incidents, controlling for other relevant variables and origin-country fixed effects. We found a greater incidence of international terrorism when people of one country disapprove of the leadership of another country.

  5. Public Attitudes toward Juveniles Who Commit Crimes: The Relationship between Assessments of Adolescent Development and Attitudes toward Severity of Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Terrence T.; Trzcinski, Eileen; Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors used a statewide survey to investigate the extent to which beliefs regarding the age at which youth reach maturity, the role of peer influences, and other factors, such as abuse during childhood, are associated with measures of how harshly juveniles should be treated by the justice system. The results of this study…

  6. The role of scientific knowledge in shaping public attitudes to GM technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Henrik Ole; Sandøe, Peter; Lassen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Depending on the perceived balance of risk and benefit, and on the perceived unnaturalness, some applications of gene technology appear more acceptable to the public than others. This study asks whether a person’s knowledge of biology affects their assessment of these factors differently. A rando...

  7. Attitudes of Mexican American and Anglo American Parents towards Public Education in a Rural Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Troy C.; Ferrin, Scott Ellis

    2001-01-01

    A study investigated attitudes and participation of 40 Mexican American and Anglo-American parents in a rural Utah elementary school. Influenced by differing culture, religion, educational attainment, socioeconomic status, and background, the two groups had different attitudes toward and participation in the public school system and thus different…

  8. ATTITUDE OF PLUS TWO STUDENTS TOWARDS PUBLIC EXAMINATION IN RELATION TO PARENTAL PRESSURE

    OpenAIRE

    S. Vinolin Chrysolyte; Dr. B. William Dharma Raja

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the attitude of plus two students towards public examination and its relationship with parental pressure. The sample of the study comprised of 386 plus two students from Tirunelveli district. The authors employed survey method for collecting the data and they were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. It was found that there is a significant relation between the attitude of students towards +2 public examination and parental pressure.

  9. Public Attitudes toward Animal Research: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ormandy, Elisabeth H.; Schuppli, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Public engagement on issues related to animal research, including exploration of public attitudes, provides a means of achieving socially acceptable scientific practice and oversight through an understanding of societal values and concerns. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore public attitudes toward animal use, and more specifically the use of animals in research. This paper reviews relevant literature using three categories of influential factors: personal and cult...

  10. Understanding attitudes towards the use of animals in research using an online public engagement tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuppli, Catherine A; Molento, Carla F M; Weary, Daniel M

    2015-04-01

    Using an online public engagement experiment, we probed the views of 617 participants on the use of pigs as research animals (to reduce agricultural pollution or to improve organ transplant success in humans) with and without genetic modification and using different numbers of pigs. In both scenarios and across demographics, level of opposition increased when the research required the use of GM corn or GM pigs. Animal numbers had little effect. A total of 1037 comments were analyzed to understand decisions. Participants were most concerned about the impact of the research on animal welfare. Genetic modification was viewed as an intervention in nature and there was worry about unpredictable consequences. Both opponents and supporters sought assurances that concerns were addressed. Governing bodies for animal research should make efforts to document and mitigate consequences of GM and other procedures, and increase efforts to maintain a dialogue with the public around acceptability of these procedures.

  11. Public attitudes and beliefs about genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condit, Celeste M

    2010-01-01

    The existing research base on public attitudes about genetics shows that people's attitudes vary according to the specific technologies and purposes to which genetic knowledge is applied. Genetic testing is viewed highly favorably, genetically modified food is viewed with ambivalence, and cloning is viewed negatively. Attitudes are favorable for uses that maintain a perceived natural order and unfavorable for uses that are perceived to change it. Public concerns about control of genetic information and eugenics are evident, but their strength and relevance to policy preference are unclear. The pattern of attitudes can be explained by theories of attitude formation, and the existing base of information can be deepened and given more explanatory and predictive power by integrating future research into the various traditions that theorize attitude formation.

  12. Development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys: assessing knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongracic Jacqueline A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents of children with food allergy, primary care physicians, and members of the general public play a critical role in the health and well-being of food-allergic children, though little is known about their knowledge and perceptions of food allergy. The purpose of this paper is to detail the development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among these three populations. Methods From 2006–2008, parents of food-allergic children, pediatricians, family physicians, and adult members of the general public were recruited to assist in survey development. Preliminary analysis included literature review, creation of initial content domains, expert panel review, and focus groups. Survey validation included creation of initial survey items, expert panel ratings, cognitive interviews, reliability testing, item reduction, and final validation. National administration of the surveys is ongoing. Results Nine experts were assembled to oversee survey development. Six focus groups were held: 2/survey population, 4–9 participants/group; transcripts were reviewed via constant comparative methods to identify emerging themes and inform item creation. At least 220 participants per population were recruited to assess the relevance, reliability, and utility of each survey item as follows: cognitive interviews, 10 participants; reliability testing ≥ 10; item reduction ≥ 50; and final validation, 150 respondents. Conclusion The Chicago Food Allergy Research surveys offer validated tools to assess food allergy knowledge and perceptions among three distinct populations: a 42 item parent tool, a 50 item physician tool, and a 35 item general public tool. No such tools were previously available.

  13. Perception of police on discrimination in Serbia - results of the survey on the attitudes of public order and traffic police officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekavica Radomir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the results of the research on the attitudes of the public order and traffic police officers in seven regional police departments in Serbia - Belgrade, Novi Sad, Subotica, Novi Sad, Niš, Kragujevac and Zaječar. The subject of the research is the analysis of the police attitudes on discrimination, recognition of its essence, the scope of vulnerability of particular social groups and recognition of the hate speech. Also, the subject of the research is: determination of relationship with measures which should improve the position of vulnerable groups and the relationship with the institutions in terms of their responsibility for the appearance of discrimination and its impact on the reduction, then the personal experience of discrimination and analysis of attitudes regarding certain claims of stereotypical character. The results of this research are given in the comparative analysis with the results of the research on the attitudes of members of the criminal police conducted in 2014, so we have indication of perception of discrimination by the police in all three key operating police areas. In regard to some issues, a comparative analysis of the results from the survey of citizens’ attitudes towards discrimination conducted in 2013 by CESID is provided. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije: Kriminalitet u Srbiji i instrumenti državne reakcije

  14. Validation and Exploration of Instruments for Assessing Public Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Fen; Lin, Huann-shyang; Wu, Yi-ying

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop instruments that assess public knowledge of nanotechnology (PKNT), public attitudes toward nanotechnology (PANT) and conduct a pilot study for exploring the relationship between PKNT and PANT. The PKNT test was composed of six scales involving major nanotechnology concepts, including size and scale,…

  15. Attitudes and Perceptions of the Brazilian Public Health System by Transgender Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Bones Rocha

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe how transgender people perceive services offered by the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS. This qualitative study, using the phenomenological technique, is based on eight semi-structured interviews conducted with individuals whose gender identity and/or gender expression differs from the sex they were assigned at birth. Each interview was evaluated by two interviewers and a content analysis performed by all members of the research group. The analysis identified the following categories as having high relevance to the participants’ experiences: homophobia, receptiveness, and humanization, access to health care, and suggestions to improve the SUS. Information shared by participants emphasized their belief that health care professionals are not adequately prepared to assist transgendered individuals and that health care providers should use a more sensitive approach towards them. A recurrent theme was the need to use appropriate and socially acceptable terminology when providing health care services in order to facilitate transgendered individuals' inclusive treatment. Despite the effort of Brazilian authorities, there is a need for significant improvement in health care practices in order to comply with SUS quality standards. This study highlights the importance of qualitative investigations to improve planning and to help define public health policies with the goal of including the most vulnerable and marginalized groups of the population. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902281

  16. Vox populismus: a populist radical right attitude among the public?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooduijn, M.

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, populist radical right (PRR) parties have been electorally very successful in Western Europe. Various scholars have argued that these parties share an ideological core that consists of a specific form of nationalism (nativism), in combination with two other attitudes (author

  17. The public and professionals reason similarly about the management of non-native invasive species: a quantitative investigation of the relationship between beliefs and attitudes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Fischer

    Full Text Available Despite continued critique of the idea of clear boundaries between scientific and lay knowledge, the 'deficit-model' of public understanding of ecological issues still seems prevalent in discourses of biodiversity management. Prominent invasion biologists, for example, still argue that citizens need to be educated so that they accept scientists' views on the management of non-native invasive species. We conducted a questionnaire-based survey with members of the public and professionals in invasive species management (n = 732 in Canada and the UK to investigate commonalities and differences in their perceptions of species and, more importantly, how these perceptions were connected to attitudes towards species management. Both native and non-native mammal and tree species were included. Professionals tended to have more extreme views than the public, especially in relation to nativeness and abundance of a species. In both groups, species that were perceived to be more abundant, non-native, unattractive or harmful to nature and the economy were more likely to be regarded as in need of management. While perceptions of species and attitudes towards management thus often differed between public and professionals, these perceptions were linked to attitudes in very similar ways across the two groups. This suggests that ways of reasoning about invasive species employed by professionals and the public might be more compatible with each other than commonly thought. We recommend that managers and local people engage in open discussion about each other's beliefs and attitudes prior to an invasive species control programme. This could ultimately reduce conflict over invasive species control.

  18. The roles of users personal characteristics and organisational support in the attitude towards using ERP systems in a Spanish public hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Rodriguez, Tomas; Bartual-Sopena, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Enterprise resources planning (ERP) systems enable central and integrative control over all processes throughout an organisation by ensuring one data entry point and the use of a common database. T his paper analyses the attitude of healthcare personnel towards the use of an ERP system in a Spanish public hospital, identifying influencing factors. This research is based on a regression analysis of latent variables using the optimisation technique of partial least squares. We propose a research model including possible relationships among different constructs using the technology acceptance model. Our results show that the personal characteristics of potential users are key factors in explaining attitude towards using ERP systems.

  19. Public attitudes and risk perception toward land application of biosolids within the south-eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kevin G; Robinson, Carolyn H; Raup, Lauren A; Markum, Travis R

    2012-05-15

    A descriptive-correlational study of biosolids recycling was conducted in the south-eastern United States to assess current knowledge, attitudes and risk perceptions of participants in two communities that land apply biosolids as part of their waste management programs. One community, Amelia County VA, has been outspoken against biosolids recycling in the past, whereas the second community, Knoxville, TN region, has voiced few concerns about biosolids recycling. Additionally, gender differences within the entire study population were assessed. A 45-question telephone survey, utilizing a 4-point Likert scale, was developed and administered to 311 randomly selected adults in the two regions. Commonalities identified during the study revealed key risk perceptions by the public regarding biosolids regulations, treatment, and application. Given current perceptions and knowledge, respondents felt that the benefits derived from biosolids recycling do not offset the perceived health and safety risks. However, as distance between application and personal property increased, a decrease in opposition of biosolids reuse became evident for all respondents. Survey participants were dissatisfied with the level of stakeholder involvement in research and decision-making processes concerning biosolids. The outspoken Amelia County residents perceived greater health risks due to inadequate treatment of biosolids and odorous emissions during the application process than the less engaged Knox Metro respondents. Significant gender differences were observed with sampled females perceiving greater risks to health and safety from biosolids recycling than males. There was also indication that decisions and risks were not sufficiently communicated to the public, leading to respondents being inadequately informed about biosolids land application in both communities. Community-specific outreach programs must address these public risk perceptions and the differences in perception caused by

  20. Construct and Concurrent Validity of a Prototype Questionnaire to Survey Public Attitudes toward Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Reichel, Isabella K.; Yaruss, J. Scott; Lubker, Bobbie Boyd

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Construct validity and concurrent validity were investigated in a prototype survey instrument, the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Experimental Edition" (POSHA-E). The POSHA-E was designed to measure public attitudes toward stuttering within the context of eight other attributes, or "anchors," assumed to range from negative…

  1. A Regional Study of Attitudes toward Public Schools, Private Schools and Tuition Tax Credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, John H.; Woodson, Marvin C., Jr.

    A questionnaire survey of 982 people in 4 shopping malls in the Piedmont region of South Carolina sought to assess public attitudes about the quality of public and private schools, proposed federal tuition tax credit legislation, tax support for private schools, and outcomes should tuition tax credits be adopted. Respondents were asked to "grade"…

  2. Public Attitudes toward Human Genetic Manipulation: A Revitalization of Eugenics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veglia, Geremia; And Others

    The purpose of this investigation was to measure the attitudes of college students across the United States concerning the possible use of genetic manipulation, especially in terms of enhancing human physical and intellectual characteristics. The instrument used was divided into three general areas of inquiry: the first, designed to measure the…

  3. An Investigation into the Effect of Respondent Gender, Victim Age, and Perpetrator Treatment on Public Attitudes towards Sex Offenders, Sex Offender Treatment, and Sex Offender Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Paul; Hirst, Lindsay; Davies, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    In this study the authors examine the effect respondent gender, victim age, and offender treatment programs have upon public attitudes towards sex offenders. A community sample of 235 participants were asked to read a hypothetical vignette involving the sexual assault of a 10-, 15-, or 20-year-old female by a 35-year-old male who subsequently…

  4. Evidence-based practice implementation: The impact of public versus private sector organization type on organizational support, provider attitudes, and adoption of evidence-based practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommerfeld David H

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this study is to extend research on evidence-based practice (EBP implementation by examining the impact of organizational type (public versus private and organizational support for EBP on provider attitudes toward EBP and EBP use. Both organization theory and theory of innovation uptake and individual adoption of EBP guide the approach and analyses in this study. We anticipated that private sector organizations would provide greater levels of organizational support for EBPs leading to more positive provider attitudes towards EBPs and EBP use. We also expected attitudes toward EBPs to mediate the association of organizational support and EBP use. Methods Participants were mental health service providers from 17 communities in 16 states in the United States (n = 170. Path analyses were conducted to compare three theoretical models of the impact of organization type on organizational support for EBP and of organizational support on provider attitudes toward EBP and EBP use. Results Consistent with our predictions, private agencies provided greater support for EBP implementation, and staff working for private agencies reported more positive attitudes toward adopting EBPs. Organizational support for EBP partially mediated the association of organization type on provider attitudes toward EBP. Organizational support was significantly positively associated with attitudes toward EBP and EBP use in practice. Conclusion This study offers further support for the importance of organizational context as an influence on organizational support for EBP and provider attitudes toward adopting EBP. The study demonstrates the role organizational support in provider use of EBP in practice. This study also suggests that organizational support for innovation is a malleable factor in supporting use of EBP. Greater attention should be paid to organizational influences that can facilitate the dissemination and implementation of EBPs in

  5. Public attitudes towards psychiatry and psychiatric treatment at the beginning of the 21st century: a systematic review and meta‐analysis of population surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermeyer, Matthias C.; van der Auwera, Sandra; Carta, Mauro G.; Schomerus, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Public attitudes towards psychiatry are crucial determinants of help‐seeking for mental illness. It has been argued that psychiatry as a discipline enjoys low esteem among the public, and a “crisis” of psychiatry has been noted. We conducted a systematic review and meta‐analysis of population studies examining public attitudes towards various aspects of psychiatric care. Our search in PubMed, Web of Science, PsychINFO and bibliographies yielded 162 papers based on population surveys conducted since 2000 and published no later than 2015. We found that professional help for mental disorders generally enjoys high esteem. While general practitioners are the preferred source of help for depression, mental health professionals are the most trusted helpers for schizophrenia. If respondents have to rank sources of help, they tend to favor mental health professionals, while open questions yield results more favorable to general practitioners. Psychiatrists and psychologists/psychotherapists are equally recommended for the treatment of schizophrenia, while for depression psychologists/psychotherapists are more recommended, at least in Europe and America. Psychotherapy is consistently preferred over medication. Attitudes towards seeking help from psychiatrists or psychologists/psychotherapists as well as towards medication and psychotherapy have markedly improved over the last twenty‐five years. Biological concepts of mental illness are associated with stronger approval of psychiatric help, particularly medication. Self‐stigma and negative attitudes towards persons with mental illness decrease the likelihood of personally considering psychiatric help. In conclusion, the public readily recommends psychiatric help for the treatment of mental disorders. Psychotherapy is the most popular method of psychiatric treatment. A useful strategy to further improve the public image of psychiatry could be to stress that listening and understanding are at the core of psychiatric

  6. A Quantitative Examination of Public School Student Attitudes toward Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchman, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    There is a deficit of male and female students entering the fields of math and science, and the need for highly educated individuals in these areas is expected to increase. While various factors may play a role in creating this deficit, there is a lack of research on one factor, that of student attitudes toward science. The theories of social…

  7. Public Perception of CCS Technology. The Effects of Information on Attitude; Percepcion Publica de la Tecnologia de CAC. El Efecto de la Informacion en la Actitud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltra, C.; Marin, R.; Sala, R.

    2011-11-10

    This report examines the public perception of Carbon Capture and Storage technology and the impacts of information on perception. We analyze, from an electronic questionnaire with technical and contextual information, dimensions such as the initial reaction to the technology, the acceptance of CO{sub 2} storage, the perception of risk of storage and the degree of antagonism toward the organizations involved. The determinants of attitudes and reactions to CCS are also analyzed. A favorable initial reaction to CCS is found after some information and contextualization of CCS as well as significant risk perception. The type of information transmitted appears to influence the attitude of participants to the technology. The broader positive impact on attitude occurs when transmitting the idea of CO{sub 2} as a natural resource. (Author) 4 refs.

  8. Awareness, attitudes, and practices related to the swine influenza pandemic among the Saudi public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Jumah Mohammad A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During an infectious disease outbreak, it is critical to learn as much as possible about the concerns, knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of the public. Such information can be crucial to the improvement of communication efforts by public health officials and clinicians. The aim of this study was to identify awareness, attitudes, and practices related to influenza A (H1N1 among the Saudi public. Methods A cross-sectional study of 1,548 adult subjects recruited from various shopping malls in Riyadh and Jeddah was conducted. All of the subjects were interviewed using a questionnaire that tested their knowledge, attitudes, and use of precautionary measures in relation to the H1N1 influenza pandemic. Results More than half (54.3%, 840/1548 of the participants showed high concern, 43.7%(677/1548 showed a low level of knowledge, and 60.8%(941/1548 had taken minimal or no precautionary measures. After adjusting for other variables, education level was the only significant predictor of the level of concern (p Conclusions High concern did not translate into a higher compliance with precautionary recommendations, possibly due to the low level of knowledge about the disease among the public. Frequent communication between physicians and the public is recommended to help dispel myths about the disease and to spread better information about the role that the public can play in limiting the spread of the disease.

  9. Individualism, acceptance and differentiation as attitude traits in the public's response to vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velan, Baruch; Boyko, Valentina; Lerner-Geva, Liat; Ziv, Arnona; Yagar, Yaakov; Kaplan, Giora

    2012-09-01

    The attitude of the general public to vaccination was evaluated through a survey conducted on a representative sample of the Israeli population (n = 2,018), in which interviewees were requested to express their standpoints regarding five different vaccination programs. These included: pandemic influenza vaccination, seasonal influenza vaccination, travel vaccines, Human Papilloma Virus vaccine and childhood vaccinations. Analysis of the responses reveal three major attitude traits: a) acceptance, characterized by the opinion that targets should be vaccinated; b) individualism, characterized by the opinion that vaccination should be left to personal choice; and c) differentiation, characterized by the tendency to express different attitudes when addressing different vaccination programs. Interestingly, direct opposition to vaccination was found to be a minor attitude trait in this survey. Groups within the population could be defined according to their tendency to assume these different attitudes as Acceptors, Judicious-acceptors, Differentiators, Soft-individualists, and Hard-individualists. These groups expressed different standpoints on all five vaccination programs as well as on other health recommendations, such as screening for early detection of cancer. Attitude traits could be also correlated, to a certain extent, with actual compliance with vaccination programs. Interestingly, attitudes to vaccination were not correlated with social profiles related to income or education, although younger individuals exhibited higher degrees of individualism and differentiation. Taken together, all this is in accordance with the current social settings, underlining the individual's tendency for critical evaluation and self-stirring. This should be taken into consideration by health authorities involved in vaccination programs.

  10. Public attitudes toward programs of large-scale technological changes: Some reflections and policy prescriptions, appendix E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shostak, A. B.

    1973-01-01

    The question of how ready the public is for the implementation of large-scale programs of technological change is considered. Four vital aspects of the issue are discussed which include: (1) the ways in which the public mis-perceives the change process, (2) the ways in which recent history impacts on public attitudes, (3) the ways in which the public divides among itself, and (4) the fundamentals of public attitudes towards change. It is concluded that nothing is so critical in the 1970's to securing public approval for large-scale planned change projects as is securing the approval by change-agents of the public.

  11. The Attitudes of Public School Administrators toward the Hiring of Women Technology Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedras, Melvin J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Responses from 61 of 75 Idaho sprints and 105 of 148 principals show that, despite awareness of the need for more female technology education teachers, few administrators (male or female) would hire women over equally qualified men. Administrators were not well informed about teaching opportunities for women nor about female students preparing for…

  12. Attitudes toward Euthanasia in Hong Kong--A Comparison between Physicians and the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Alice Ming-lin; Fok, Shiu-yeu

    2005-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a cross-sectional study that compared the attitudes of 618 respondents of a general household survey and a random sample of 1,197 physicians toward different types of euthanasia in Hong Kong. The general public was found to agree with active euthanasia and non-voluntary euthanasia and was neutral about passive…

  13. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of the general public toward sun exposure and protection: A national survey in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlGhamdi, Khalid M; AlAklabi, Aeed S; AlQahtani, Abdulla Z

    2016-11-01

    Background: Many international studies have been conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures. However, there are scarce data on these factors from the Middle East. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the KAP of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures among Saudis. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a specially designed questionnaire was conducted on a stratified random sample of the general population in the five geographical regions of Saudi Arabia (central, eastern, northern, southern, and western). Data were collected between October 2010 and March 2011. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to relate the use of sunscreen and skin cancer awareness with various socio-demographic variables. Results: The questionnaire was distributed to 2900 Saudis. A total of 2622 questionnaires were completed, returned, and included in the data analysis, corresponding to a response rate of 90.4%. The mean (SD) age of respondents was 27.8 ± 9.7 years. Fifty percent (1301/1601) of the respondents were males. Fifty-five percent (1406/2544) were aware of the association between sun exposure and skin cancer. Female, young and student respondents were more likely to be aware of the connection between sun exposure and skin cancer (p Protective clothes were the most commonly used sun protection measure as reported by more than 90% of our participants. Conclusion: This study has shown that sun awareness and protection are generally inadequate in the Saudi population and suggests the need for health education programs.

  14. Nuclear energy and the public : risk perception, attitudes and behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    What is the basic message which can be derived from the results of the survey? First, it appears impossible to persuade the anti-nuclear activists to give up their views and change their attitude. But one can require them to develop alternative plans for the future supply of energy which will demonstrate the consequences that would arise if nuclear energy were not to be developed. But the main activity should be to reassure those already convinced and to continue the dialogue with those still...

  15. The role of the media in influencing public attitudes to penicillin during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shama, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Penicillin's trajectory towards becoming an effective antibacterial chemotherapeutic agent took place during World War II. Its strategic military value was immediately recognised by the Allies, and mass production was undertaken with the prime objective of meeting the needs of the armed forces. News of its development came to be widely reported on in the media and is examined here. These reports frequently combined accounts of penicillin's prodigious clinical effectiveness with the fact that it was to remain unavailable to the civilian population essentially until the war had ended. More penicillin was to be made available to the civilian population in the United States than in Britain, but the sense that it was severely rationed remained as high. It was in response to this that the idea of "homemade penicillin" was hatched. News of this was also widely promulgated by both the British and American media. Although the numbers treated with penicillin produced in this way was never to be significant, knowledge of the existence of such endeavours may have served to assuage in some measure the feelings of frustration felt by the civilian population at penicillin's non-availability.

  16. Keep Those Kids Out: Nativism and Attitudes toward Access to Public Education for the Children of Undocumented Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Theresa; Burson, Karlye

    2017-01-01

    Despite the 1982 "Plyler v. Doe" decision guaranteeing education for undocumented children, access appears to be under threat as some states and localities reconsider existing policy. The basis of these attitudes should be better understood. We are unaware of research that has examined nativist sentiment as a predictor of attitudes…

  17. Measuring the ability to interpret medical information among the Japanese public and the relationship with inappropriate purchasing attitudes of health-related goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Sakai, Michi; Fukui, Tsuguya; Shimbo, Takuro

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the relationship with uncritical purchasing attitudes toward health-related goods, the authors devised a test for ability to interpret medical information (TAIMI) among the Japanese public, designed to measure numeracy, literacy, and also critical appraising skills. An online survey was conducted, and 6047 participants were randomly chosen from the Japanese public and 36 physicians. TAIMI score for the public was 3.9±1.7 (mean±standard deviation); the physicians' was higher at 6.2±1.3 (Ppurchasing health-related goods in response to exaggerated advertising than the higher-scoring one (Ppurchasing attitudes.

  18. Principals' attitudes regarding inclusion of children with autism in Pennsylvania public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrocks, Judy L; White, George; Roberts, Laura

    2008-09-01

    This study sought to identify the attitudes that principals held regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities, and the relationship between their attitudes and their placement recommendations for children with autism and to identify the relationship between specific demographic factors and attitudes toward inclusion and placement. A stratified random sample was drawn from the active list of 3,070 principals in the Pennsylvania public schools. From 1,500 surveys, 571 principal responses were received. The most significant factor in predicting both a positive attitude toward inclusion of children with disabilities and higher recommendations of placements for children with autism was the principal's belief that children with autism could be included in a regular education classroom.

  19. Public Attitudes to and Awareness of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, Tian P. S.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Assessed public attitude toward, and awareness of possible problems and risks associated with, the consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. Results indicated a high awareness of the problem, knowledge of the specific effects to the offspring, and of quantities and frequency of consumption of alcohol which would have teratogenic effects were…

  20. Public Attitudes towards Intellectual Disability: A Multidimensional Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, D.; Rivard, M.; Crocker, A. G.; Boursier, C. P.; Caron, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Public attitudes towards persons with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have a significant effect on potential community integration. A better understanding of these can help target service provision and public awareness programmes. Objectives: The objective of the present study is threefold: (1) describe public attitudes towards persons…

  1. Impact of cultural factors on attitude toward using ERP systems in public hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Escobar-Rodríguez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main problems that arise in adopting most enterprise resources planning (ERP strategies come from organizational, rather than technical, issues, for example, social and cultural barriers, and user resistance. This paper analyzes the impact of cultural factors on user attitudes toward ERP use in public hospitals and identifying influencing factors. The theoretical grounding for this research is the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM. The proposed model has six constructs (“resistance to be controlled”, “resistance to change”, “perceived risks”, “perceived usefulness”, “perceived ease of use”, and “attitude toward using”, and nine hypotheses have been generated from the connections between these six constructs. Results suggest important practical implications for attitude toward using ERP and to develop an understanding about how to improve this attitude in hospitals.

  2. Attitudes toward Merit Pay for Instructional Personnel: A Survey of Florida Public District Policy Makers and Administrators. The Relationship of Expectancy Work Motivation, Selected Situational Variables and Locus of Control to Teacher Job Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegman, John R.; Binnie, David G.

    1985-01-01

    This research bulletin contains parts of two studies dealing with the persistent problem of developing effective teachers and stimulating effective teaching. The study reported in "Attitudes toward Merit Pay for Instructional Personnel" (John Weigman) was conducted to survey, analyze, and compare the attitudes of Florida public school…

  3. The change of European landscapes: human-nature relationships, public attitudes towards rewilding, and the implications for landscape management in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Nicole; Wallner, Astrid; Hunziker, Marcel

    2009-07-01

    The rewilding of landscapes is one of the most important and intensively discussed landscape changes occurring in Switzerland, as the need for agricultural and forest land is decreasing. To ensure that decisions concerning future landscape management will be supported by the public, it is crucial to take public opinion into account. Hence the present study aims to assess the public attitudes towards nature and "rewilding" processes. In order to analyze these attitudes, we sent a standardized questionnaire to 4000 randomly selected households throughout Switzerland. A cluster analysis led to a typology with four different types of human-nature relationship ("nature lovers", "nature sympathizers", "nature-connected users" and "nature controllers") that each characterize a particular attitude towards nature. These human-nature relationship types differ in their attitudes towards rewilding as well, allowing a rough classification of the sample into wilderness opponents (51.1%) and wilderness proponents (49.9%). However both groups agree with regard to their opinion concerning the rules and regulations that should apply in future wilderness areas. The parallels of the human-nature relationship typology of this survey with other typologies, and the implications for further research are discussed. We can conclude that, due to the differences concerning the attitudes towards wilderness between the human-nature relationship types, between the rural and urban dwellers, and between the language regions, a uniform strategy for the designation and management of wilderness areas in Switzerland is not possible. We recommend that, when managing landscape change, all stakeholders are included in a participatory process and we advise a thorough assessment of the attitudes of the involved persons towards nature and rewilding at the start of such processes. Such an assessment would facilitate the identification of well-defined target groups allowing specific interventions and

  4. Measuring the ability to interpret medical information among the Japanese public and the relationship with inappropriate purchasing attitudes of health-related goods.

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Sakai, Michi; Fukui, Tsuguya; Shimbo, Takuro

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the relationship with uncritical purchasing attitudes toward health-related goods, the authors devised a test for ability to interpret medical information (TAIMI) among the Japanese public, designed to measure numeracy, literacy, and also critical appraising skills. An online survey was conducted, and 6047 participants were randomly chosen from the Japanese public and 36 physicians. TAIMI score for the public was 3.9±1.7 (mean±standard deviation); the physicians' was higher at ...

  5. Public Understanding of and Attitudes towards Science & Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Daguang

    2005-01-01

    @@ China Association for Science and Technology (CAST) began the research and survey of the Chinese Public Understanding of Science and Technology at the beginning of the 1990s with the help of Prof. Jon D. Miller, then Director of US National Public Opinion Research Center and Longitudinal Studies of the Youth at the Illinois University.

  6. Gender Difference in Achievement and Attitude of Public Secondary School Students towards Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwatelure, Temitayo Abayomi

    2015-01-01

    This research focuses on the gender difference in attitude and academic performance of students in selected public secondary schools in Akoko Land. The population for this study was made up of all the Junior Secondary Schools Three (JSS3) students in Akoko Land. Three hypotheses were raised to guide this study. 1626 student, (810 males, 816…

  7. Public awareness, behaviours and attitudes towards domestic wastewater treatment systems in the Republic of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, O.; Hynds, P. D.

    2014-10-01

    Numerous studies have highlighted and quantified the role of domestic wastewater treatment systems (DWWTSs) as significant sources of human-specific aquatic contaminants in both developed and developing regions, particularly with respect to private and municipal groundwater supplies. However, from a socio-hydrological perspective, little work has focused on these systems and the potential environmental and human burden posed. This is of particular relevance in the Republic of Ireland, where approximately one third of the population is serviced by DWWTSs. The objective of the current study was to examine levels of awareness and subsequent behavioural tendencies among owners and users of DWWTSs in the Republic of Ireland, particularly in light of recent and future (national and EU) legislative amendments. Structured questionnaires were completed bi-modally with 1106 Irish respondents. Analysis identified a number of significant knowledge gaps which currently exist among DWWTS users in Ireland. These were associated with environmentally inadvisable behavioural practises, potentially leading to increased contamination vulnerability and subsequently, increased human exposure to waterborne contaminants. Household water supply type was significantly associated with DWWTS threat acknowledgement (p = 0.014), with unregulated private groundwater users exhibited the lowest awareness of DWWTS as a potential source of aquatic contaminants despite being the group at greatest risk. A bi-modal clustering approach was employed, with respondents found to fall into one of three distinct “attitudinal” clusters. Future engagement strategies should strive to provide guidance regarding the role of people and their activities within the hydrological cycle. The current study reinforces this conclusion, while providing evidence-based recommendations regarding provision of demographically focused educational strategies; these will further increase environmental policy compliance, and in

  8. Attitudes toward Career Counseling: The Role of Public and Self-Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwikowski, Wyndolyn M. A.; Vogel, David; Armstrong, Patrick Ian

    2009-01-01

    Although many students struggle with career-related issues in college, comparatively few engage the career services offered by their academic institutions for help with their difficulties. In addition, there is little research on the factors influencing students' decisions to engage in counseling for career-related issues, making it difficult to…

  9. Public Attitudes towards Socio-Cultural Aspects of Water Supply and Sanitation Services: Palestine as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Marwan

    2005-01-01

    Identifying and considering public attitudes towards various aspects of water supply and sanitation services by planners and decision makers represent an important developmental element relating to the quality, efficiency, and performance of those services. A sample of 1000 Palestinian adults completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes towards…

  10. Public Attitudes toward the Apollo Space Program, 1965-1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Herbert E.

    1977-01-01

    Analyzes the decline in public support for the Apollo Space Program from 1965 to 1975 in spite of generally positive media coverage. Using data from 31 telephone surveys during the period, concludes that the Moon landing polarized both opponents and proponents and increased opposition because "there was nothing more to be done." (JMF)

  11. The Attitudes toward Prostitutes and Prostitution Scale: A New Tool for Measuring Public Attitudes toward Prostitutes and Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Lia; Peled, Einat

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary developments in social attitudes toward prostitution and prostitutes influence both social policies and the social work profession. Understanding individuals' attitudes toward these issues is necessary for the development of social interventions and policies aimed at reducing stigmata attached to them. This article describes a new…

  12. "We Don't Do Public Libraries Like We Used to": Attitudes to Public Library Buildings in the UK at the Start of the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Alistair

    2011-01-01

    Although the quality, performance and future of public library services in the UK is a matter of debate, there is little doubt that in recent years, despite claims relating to the emergence of a cyber-society, interest in library buildings and the library as "place" has been intense, almost matching that seen during the Carnegie era of mass public…

  13. Religious beliefs and public attitudes toward nanotechnology in Europe and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheufele, Dietram A.; Corley, Elizabeth A.; Shih, Tsung-Jen; Dalrymple, Kajsa E.; Ho, Shirley S.

    2009-02-01

    How do citizens make sense of nanotechnology as more applications reach the market and the mainstream media start to debate the potential risks and benefits of technology? As with many other political and scientific issues, citizens rely on cognitive shortcuts or heuristics to make sense of issues for which they have low levels of knowledge. These heuristics can include predispositional factors, such as ideological beliefs or value systems, and also short-term frames of reference provided by the media or other sources of information. Recent research suggests that `religious filters' are an important heuristic for scientific issues in general, and nanotechnology in particular. A religious filter is more than a simple correlation between religiosity and attitudes toward science: it refers to a link between benefit perceptions and attitudes that varies depending on respondents' levels of religiosity. In surveys, seeing the benefits of nanotechnology is consistently linked to more positive attitudes about nanotechnology among less religious respondents, with this effect being significantly weaker for more religious respondents. For this study, we have combined public opinion surveys in the United States with Eurobarometer surveys about public attitudes toward nanotechnology in Europe to compare the influence of religious beliefs on attitudes towards nanotechnology in the United States and Europe. Our results show that respondents in the United States were significantly less likely to agree that nanotechnology is morally acceptable than respondents in many European countries. These moral views correlated directly with aggregate levels of religiosity in each country, even after controlling for national research productivity and measures of science performance for high-school students.

  14. Public Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding the Use of Antibiotics and Resistance: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study Among Palestinian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Taha, A; Abu-Zaydeh, A H; Ardah, R A; Al-Jabi, S W; Sweileh, W M; Awang, R; Zyoud, S H

    2016-09-01

    Antibiotics are considered to be among the most commonly sold drug classes in Palestine. Resistance to antibiotics has increased for reasons relating to the use and misuse of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, and attitudes regarding antibiotic use and awareness about resistance among adults visiting the emergency departments at hospitals in North Palestine. A self-administered cross-sectional questionnaire survey involving participants aged 18 or over was conducted from June 2012 to February 2013. Adults who visited the emergency departments at hospitals in North Palestine were included. Demographic characteristics, knowledge and attitudes towards antibiotic use were included in the questionnaire. Poor and good knowledge were defined as a total knowledge score of 0-7 and 8-15 of 15 questions, respectively. Attitude scores of 0-3 and 4-7 of 7 questions were considered poor and good, respectively. A total of 375 questionnaires were included in the study. A response rate of 83.3% was attained. About 55.0% of the participants had a good knowledge and 56.5% had a good attitude towards rational antibiotic use. A significant positive correlation was shown between participants' knowledge scores and participants' attitude scores towards antibiotic use (R = 0.344, P = 0.001. Participants with a high family income were more likely to be aware of appropriate antibiotic use than participants with a low family income (P-value attitude towards rational antibiotic use than those with a lower education level (P-value attitude gaps in antibiotic use. These findings will help health policymakers in Palestine to implement intervention programmes to rationalize antibiotic use. Continuing medical education, professional development and training workshops for healthcare professionals regarding rational use of antibiotics and health risks associated with the spread of antibiotic resistance are needed. In addition, minimizing non-prescription use of

  15. The primary relevance of subconsciously offered attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Tore

    2015-01-01

    ) and subconsciously (covertly) offered attitudes – because subconsciously offered attitudes appear to be a driving force in linguistic variation and change in a way that consciously offered attitudes are not. The argument is based on evidence from empirical investigations of attitudes and use in the ‘...

  16. Priming religion: The effects of religious issues in the news coverage on public attitudes towards European integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinrichsen, M.; Boomgaarden, H.; de Vreese, C.; van der Brug, W.; Hobolt, S.B.

    2012-01-01

    Religion can affect public support for the European Union (EU). However, specifying the circumstances under which religion may become a stronger predictor of EU-support has so far been neglected. This article shows that the media play a role in this process and it is investigated to what extent the

  17. Impact of cultural factors on attitude toward using ERP systems in public hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás Escobar-Rodríguez; Lourdes Bartual-Sopena

    2015-01-01

    The main problems that arise in adopting most enterprise resources planning (ERP) strategies come from organizational, rather than technical, issues, for example, social and cultural barriers, and user resistance. This paper analyzes the impact of cultural factors on user attitudes toward ERP use in public hospitals and identifying influencing factors. The theoretical grounding for this research is the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The proposed model has six constructs (“resistance to be...

  18. A narrative review of the empirical evidence on public attitudes on brain death and vital organ transplantation: the need for better data to inform policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Seema K; Kasper, Kenneth; Miller, Franklin G

    2015-04-01

    Vital organ transplantation is premised on 'the dead donor rule': donors must be declared dead according to medical and legal criteria prior to donation. However, it is controversial whether individuals diagnosed as 'brain dead' are really dead in accordance with the established biological conception of death-the irreversible cessation of the functioning of the organism as a whole. A basic understanding of brain death is also relevant for giving valid, informed consent to serve as an organ donor. There is therefore a need for reliable empirical data on public understanding of brain death and vital organ transplantation. We conducted a review of the empirical literature that identified 43 articles with approximately 18,603 study participants. These data demonstrate that participants generally do not understand three key issues: (1) uncontested biological facts about brain death, (2) the legal status of brain death and (3) that organs are procured from brain dead patients while their hearts are still beating and before their removal from ventilators. These data suggest that, despite scholarly claims of widespread public support for organ donation from brain dead patients, the existing data on public attitudes regarding brain death and organ transplantation reflect substantial public confusion. Our review raises questions about the validity of consent for vital organ transplantation and suggests that existing data are of little assistance in developing policy proposals for organ transplantation from brain dead patients. New approaches to rigorous empirical research with educational components and evaluations of understanding are urgently needed.

  19. Public Libraries and Literacy: Young People's Reading Habits and Attitudes to Public Libraries, and an Exploration of the Relationship between Public Library Use and School Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christina; Hawkins, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents additional information from the 2009 survey of young people's reading and writing. The authors conducted an online survey of 17,089 pupils aged 8 to 16 from 112 schools, conducted in November-December 2009, which consisted of 32 questions exploring young people's background, reading and writing behaviour, perceived ability and…

  20. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and attitudes towards people living with HIV among the general staff of a public university in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Yvonne; Huang, Mary

    2009-12-01

    Stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV have been widely documented, and have extended their impact into the workplace. Stigmatising attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the workplace significantly hinder HIV prevention efforts and indirectly affect national development. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the level of knowledge about HIV and AIDS and assess attitudes towards PLHIV among the general staff of Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), as well as to identify factors that are associated with it. Self-administered questionnaires were posted to a total of 344 general staff from six randomly selected faculties, and they were a given a week to return the questionnaires. The response rate was 38%. Data were analysed using Pearson's correlation, independent t-test and multiple linear regression. The respondents showed a considerably high level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS (mean knowledge score of 15.57+/-1.93 out of 18 points) although there were some misconceptions (N=129). Likert scale responses to 20 attitude statements revealed that respondents generally had moderately positive attitudes toward PLHIV (average score of 69.65+/-10.08 out of 100 points). Attitudes were inconsistent when it involved direct contact and interaction with PLHIV. Factors significantly associated with level of knowledge and attitudes included age, education and income. There was no difference in mean score for knowledge and attitudes by gender. Further efforts are necessary to improve attitudes of the general staff towards PLHIV, particularly in areas of direct contact with PLHIV.

  1. Attitudes of policy makers in Hawaii towards public health and related issues before and after an economic recession in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay E Maddock

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Legislation and regulation at the state and local level can often have a greater impact on the public’s health than individual-based approaches. Elected and appointed officials have an essential role in protecting and improving public health. Despite this important role, little systematic research has been done to assess the relative importance of public health issues compared to other policy issues in times of economic hardship. This study assessed attitudes of elected and appointed decision makers in Hawaii in 2007 and 2013 to determine if priorities differed before and after the economic recession. Methods: Elected and appointed state and county officials were mailed surveys at both time points. Respondents rated the importance of 23 specified problems, of which 9 asked about specific public health issues. Results: The survey was completed by 126 (70.4% respondents in 2007 and 117(60.9% in 2013. Among the public health issues, five saw significant mean decreases. These variables included: climate change, pedestrian safety, government response to natural disasters, access to healthcare, and pandemic influenza. Obesity was the only public health issue to increase in importance across the two time points. In terms of relative ranking across the time points, only drug abuse and obesity were among the top ten priorities. Lack of public health training, pandemic influenza, and government response to natural disasters were among the bottom five priorities. Conclusions: After the economic recession, many public health issues have a lower priority among Hawaii’s policy makers than before the downturn. Additional education and advocacy is needed to keep public health issues on the minds of decision makers during tough economic times.

  2. A Study of End-Users' Attitudes towards Digital Media Approach: The Experience of a Public University in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndawula, Stephen; Ngobi, David Henry; Namugenyi, Deborah; Nakawuki, Rose Coaster

    2012-01-01

    University students in Uganda had been confined to use of traditional educational technologies such as chalkboards, papers and text books. Digital Media Approach recently found its way in the academia at public universities in Uganda. Information and communication technology (ICT) have become popular means of surfing, downloading and obtaining…

  3. Assessing Attitude towards Religion: The Astley-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Theistic Faith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astley, Jeff; Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy

    2012-01-01

    This study builds on the research tradition modelled by the Francis Scale of Attitude towards Christianity, the Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Judaism, the Sahin-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Islam and the Santosh-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Hinduism to propose a generic instrument concerned with attitudes towards theistic faith.…

  4. Exploring the relationship between public opinion and personal attitudes and behavior toward lesbians and gay men: social conformity revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Carole J

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between social conformity, gender-role egalitarianism, and personal levels of heterosexism, or prejudice based on same-sex orientation. Mock public opinion polls of a positive or negative nature regarding same-sex orientation were used to study attitudinal and behavioral change of participants and attitude-behavior consistency. The study sample included 194 undergraduate students from a Midwestern university. A correlation existed between participants' traditional gender role beliefs and heterosexism. Participants who viewed the positive public opinion poll demonstrated behavioral support for a lesbian and gay organization, as did participants with positive attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Findings are analyzed within a social prejudice framework.

  5. Cross-Sectional Survey on the Dengue Knowledge, Attitudes and Preventive Practices Among Students and Staff of a Public University in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugova, H; Wallis, S

    2017-04-01

    Behavioural impact programmes are especially effective for dengue control and prevention. Universities are key settings for health promotion, so understanding factors that influence the practice of dengue prevention within a university community becomes important. This study aimed to examine the factors affecting dengue knowledge, attitude and preventive practices amongst students and staff of a public university. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of 372 students and staff of the NDUM were recruited by stratified sampling method. Data were collected via self-administered pre-tested structured questionnaires covering socio-demography and dengue KAP. Data were analysed descriptively. For bivariate analysis, Chi square test was applied. To explore the factors independently associated with the practice of dengue prevention, a logistic regression model was introduced. Overall, the participants had moderate dengue-related knowledge, good attitudes and good preventive practices. The majority had misconceptions about mosquito biting habits (83.8 %), seasonality of dengue epidemics (73.2 %), and mosquito breeding sites (70.3 %). Staff were more likely to have good dengue-related knowledge (p dengue knowledge and monthly average household income (p = 0.008), age (p dengue was associated with being a non-Malay (p = 0.034), having higher monthly average household income (p = 0.047) and tertiary education (p dengue knowledge and dengue attitudes were significantly and positively associated with practice of dengue prevention. Dengue preventive strategies amongst university students and staff should focus on maintaining good dengue-related preventive practices. Educational campaigns should mainly target students, young staff members, and those with lower level of education and income.

  6. The power of change: interpersonal attraction as a function of attitude similarity and attitude alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Chelsea A; Davis, Jody L; Green, Jeffrey D

    2013-01-01

    Does attitude alignment predict attraction? Would you like a stranger more who shifts her/his attitudes to more closely align with yours? In pairs, participants (N = 77) discussed social issues about which they disagreed and received false feedback on whether the partner engaged in attitude alignment (shifted her/his attitudes toward the participant's attitude) following discussion. Participants also received false feedback about the proportion of similarity to the partner on a set of issues (i.e., 25%, 50%, or 75%). Participants reported greater attraction to partners who engaged in attitude alignment and who were more similar. Moreover, similarity and attitude alignment interacted. Similarity predicted attraction when attitude alignment did not occur, but did not predict attraction when attitude alignment did occur. Finally, partner attitude alignment led to participant attitude alignment, and perceived reasoning ability mediated the attitude alignment-attraction relationship.

  7. Can Environmental Education Actions Change Public Attitudes? An Example Using the Pond Habitat and Associated Biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Sousa

    Full Text Available Ponds provide vital ecological services. They are biodiversity hotspots and important breading sites for rare and endangered species, including amphibians and dragonflies. Nevertheless, their number is decreasing due to habitat degradation caused by human activities. The "Ponds with Life" environmental education project was developed to raise public awareness and engagement in the study of ponds by promoting the direct contact between the public and nature, researchers and pedagogical hands-on exploration activities. A pre-post- project survey was set-up to assess the effects of the project on the environmental consciousness, knowledge and attitude changes towards ponds and the associated biodiversity of school students aged 15 to 18. The survey questions were based on Likert scales and their pre-post project comparisons used an innovative multivariate hypothesis testing approach. The results showed that the project improved the students' knowledge and attitudes towards ponds and associated biodiversity, especially the amphibians. Ponds can be found or constructed in urban areas and despite small sized, they proved to be interesting model habitats and living laboratories to foster environmental education, by encompassing a high number of species and a fast ecological succession.

  8. The dynamics of CRM attitude change: Attitude stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorich, Steven E.

    1993-01-01

    Special training seminars in cockpit resource management (CRM) are designed to enhance crew effectiveness in multicrew air-transport cockpits. In terms of CRM, crew effectiveness is defined by teamwork rather than technical proficiency. These seminars are designed to promote factual learning, alter aviator attitudes, and motivate aviators to make use of what they have learned. However, measures of attitude change resulting from CRM seminars have been the most common seminar evaluation technique. The current investigation explores a broader range of attitude change parameters with specific emphasis on the stability of change between recurrent visits to the training center. This allows for a comparison of training program strengths in terms of seminar ability to effect lasting change.

  9. Attitudes regarding the national forensic DNA database: Survey data from the general public, prison inmates and prosecutors' offices in the Republic of Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorović, Smilja; Mijović, Dragan; Radovanović Nenadić, Una; Savić, Marina

    2017-01-21

    Worldwide, the establishment of national forensic DNA databases has transformed personal identification in the criminal justice system over the past two decades. It has also stimulated much debate centering on ethical issues, human rights, individual privacy, lack of safeguards and other standards. Therefore, a balance between effectiveness and intrusiveness of a national DNA repository is an imperative and needs to be achieved through a suitable legal framework. On its path to the European Union (EU), the Republic of Serbia is required to harmonize its national policies and legislation with the EU. Specifically, Chapter 24 of the EU acquis communautaire (Justice, Freedom and Security) stipulates the compulsory creation of a forensic DNA registry and adoption of corresponding legislation. This process is expected to occur in 2016. Thus, in light of launching the national DNA database, the goal of this work is to instigate a consultation with the Serbian public regarding their views on various aspects of the forensic DNA databank. Importantly, this study specifically assessed the opinions of distinct categories of citizens, including the general public, the prosecutors' offices staff, prisoners, prison guards, and students majoring in criminalistics. Our findings set a baseline for Serbian attitudes towards DNA databank custody, DNA sample and profile inclusion and retention criteria, ethical issues and concerns. Furthermore, results clearly demonstrate a permissive outlook of the respondents who are professional "beneficiaries" of genetic profiling and a restrictive position taken by the respondents whose genetic material has been acquired by the government. We believe that this opinion poll will be essential in discussions regarding a national DNA database, as well as in motivating further research on the reasons behind the observed views and subsequent development of educational strategies. All of these are, in turn, expected to aid the creation of suitable

  10. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices on Oral Health of Public School Children of Batangas City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JENNIFER U. DOTADO-MADERAZO

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries among Filipino children ranked second worst among 21 World Health Organization Western Pacific countries. A recent National Oral Health Survey showed that 97 percent of Grade 1 students and 82 percent of Grade 2 students surveyed suffered from tooth decay. WHO (2007 urges governments to “ promote oral health in schools, aiming at developing healthy lifestyles and self care practices in children”. The study assessed the dental health education of public school children in Batangas City to determine the knowledge, attitude and practices of the respondents on oral health; to determine the significant relationship between the profile of the respondents and their assessment on the dental health education and propose a program to improve the project. This study used a descriptive type of research and distributed a standardized questionnaire to 279 public school children of Ilijan, Sta. Rita Kalsada and Julian Pastor Memorial Elementary School. The participants were selected randomly. The findings of the study showed that there is an observed significant to highly significant relationship between the school and the assessment on oral health in terms of knowledge, attitude and practices. This means that their assessment is affected by the school where they belong.

  11. Effect of public knowledge, attitudes, and behavior on willingness to undergo colorectal cancer screening using the health belief model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid A Almadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Success of colorectal cancer (CRC screening is dependent in part on the proportion of uptake by the targeted population. We aimed in this study to identify factors that were associated with willingness to undergo CRC screening based on the health belief model (HBM. Patients and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study among citizens of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Demographic data collected included gender, age, education, marital status, employment status, a history of CRC in the family or knowing a friend with CRC, as well as income. A questionnaire was developed in Arabic based on the HBM and included enquiries on knowledge about CRC symptoms and risk factors, types of CRC screening tests, perceived risk of CRC, previously undergoing CRC screening, intent to undergo CRC screening, perceived barriers to CRC screening, perceived severity of CRC, as well as attitudes toward CRC and its screening. Results: Five hundred participants were included. The mean age was 41.0 years (SD 10.7. Males were 50% and only 6.7% of those between 50 and 55 years of age had undergone CRC screening. Of those surveyed, 70.7% were willing to undergo CRC screening. Also, 70.5% thought that CRC is curable, 73.3% believed it was preventable, whereas 56.7% thought it was a fatal disease. Neither gender, level of education, occupation, income, marital status, nor general knowledge about CRC was found to be associated with the willingness to undergo CRC screening. Recognizing that colonoscopy was a screening test (OR 1.55, 95% CI; 1.04-2.29 was associated with a strong desire to undergo CRC screening while choosing a stool-based test was associated with not willing to undergo CRC screening (OR 0.59, 95%CI; 0.38-0.91. Conclusion: We found that the majority of those interviewed were willing to undergo CRC screening and identified a number of barriers as well as potential areas that could be targeted in the promotion of CRC screening uptake if such a national

  12. Cloning: What Are Their Attitudes? A Report on the General Attitudes of a Sample of Midwestern Citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Andrea K.; Hariharan, Joya

    This study, part of a larger research project, explored the knowledge and attitudes of the general population regarding cloning. Such awareness of the general public's knowledge of important science topics, attitudes toward such topics, and sources from which people retrieve information can help scientific and educational communities develop…

  13. Attitudes towards the Use of the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Otaibi, Khaled Nahes

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the attitude towards the use of the Internet and its cognitive, emotional and behavioral components. To achieve the objective of the study, the researcher used the scale of the attitude towards the Internet of a random sample of students (n = 216) at Teachers College at…

  14. Public Awareness of Colorectal Cancer Screening: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Interventions for Increasing Screening Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno Garcia, Antonio Z.; Hernandez Alvarez Buylla, Noemi; Nicolas-Perez, David; Quintero, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer ranks as one of the most incidental and death malignancies worldwide. Colorectal cancer screening has proven its benefit in terms of incidence and mortality reduction in randomized controlled trials. In fact, it has been recommended by medical organizations either in average-risk or family-risk populations. Success of a screening campaign highly depends on how compliant the target population is. Several factors influence colorectal cancer screening uptake including sociodemographics, provider and healthcare system factors, and psychosocial factors. Awareness of the target population of colorectal cancer and screening is crucial in order to increase screening participation rates. Knowledge about this disease and its prevention has been used across studies as a measurement of public awareness. Some studies found a positive relationship between knowledge about colorectal cancer, risk perception, and attitudes (perceived benefits and barriers against screening) and willingness to participate in a colorectal cancer screening campaign. The mentioned factors are modifiable and therefore susceptible of intervention. In fact, interventional studies focused on average-risk population have tried to increase colorectal cancer screening uptake by improving public knowledge and modifying attitudes. In the present paper, we reviewed the factors impacting adherence to colorectal cancer screening and interventions targeting participants for increasing screening uptake. PMID:24729896

  15. Health communication, information technology and the public's attitude toward periodic general health examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Quan-Hoang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Periodic general health examinations (GHEs) are gradually becoming more popular as they employ subclinical screenings, as a means of early detection. This study considers the effect of information technology (IT), health communications and the public's attitude towards GHEs in Vietnam. Methods: A total of 2,068 valid observations were obtained from a survey in Hanoi and its surrounding areas. Results: In total, 42.12% of participants stated that they were willing to use IT applications to recognise illness symptoms, and nearly 2/3 of them rated the healthcare quality at average level or below. Discussion: The data, which was processed by the BCL model, showed that IT applications (apps) reduce hesitation toward GHEs; however, older people seem to have less confidence in using these apps. Health communications and government's subsidy also increased the likelihood of people attending periodic GHEs. The probability of early check-ups where there is a cash subsidy could reach approximately 80%.

  16. Parental Attitudes and the Effects of Ethnicity: How They Influence Children's Attitudes toward Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrehaly, Essa D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the manner in which parents' attitudes toward science learning influences their children's attitudes and the effect of ethnicity on attitudes toward science learning. The results of this study show that parental attitudes toward science learning were influenced by both parents' early life experiences and…

  17. Research and Development on a Public Attitude Instrument for Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes research associated with the development of the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S"), a survey instrument designed to provide a worldwide standard measure of public attitudes toward stuttering. Pilot studies with early experimental prototypes of the "POSHA-S" are summarized that relate to…

  18. Eye Health in New Zealand: A Study of Public Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Eye Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Mark J.; Frederikson, Lesley; Borman, Barry; Bednarek, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study seeks to measure the public knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to eye health and disease in New Zealand (NZ). Design/methodology/approach: A 22-item survey of 507 adults in NZ was conducted. The survey was developed using interviews and focus groups, as well as comparisons with other benchmark international studies.…

  19. Understanding Public Attitudes in Britain towards Faith Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Ben

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed analysis of different aspects of public attitudes towards faith schools in Britain. It examines two questions relating to government policy on this issue and two questions that ask about the perceived outcomes of this type of school. After discussing existing public opinion on this issue it uses data from the British…

  20. Attitudes Towards the Sexuality of Finnish Teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Quarshie, Cecilia Naadensua

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this project based theses was to describe ‘Attitudes towards the Sexuality of Finnish Teenagers’. The primary target was to gather the knowledge the teenagers know about their sexuality and how they feel. The secondary target was to describe the attitudes other minorities have towards their sexuality. There was an introduction session on the entire topic about reproductive health issues, sexuality, attitudes and rights. In order to get both targets of this project to be successful,...

  1. Changes in beliefs and attitudes toward people with depression and schizophrenia - results of a public campaign in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Anna C; Mnich, Eva E; Ludwig, Julia; Daubmann, Anne; Bock, Thomas; Lambert, Martin; Härter, Martin; Dirmaier, Jörg; Tlach, Lisa; Liebherz, Sarah; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2016-03-30

    We examined the impact of a mental health awareness campaign on public attitudes. The campaign was embedded in the project psychenet - Hamburg Network for Mental Health. Beliefs and attitudes were examined before and after specific awareness measures in Hamburg (intervention region) and Munich (control region). Analyses were based on representative surveys (2011: N=2014; 2014: N=2006). Vignettes with symptoms suggestive of depression respectively schizophrenia were presented, followed by questions on social distance, beliefs and emotional reactions. Analyses of variance tested variations between regions over time and differences between those aware of the campaign and those not aware. In 2014, 7.3% (n=74) of the Hamburg respondents were aware of the psychenet campaign. Regarding the total sample, there were minor changes in attitudes. Differentiated according to campaign awareness among Hamburg respondents, those who were aware showed less desire for social distance toward a person with depression. Moreover, respondents aware of the campaign stated less often that a person with schizophrenia is in need of help. The campaign had small impact on attitudes. A substantial change in ingrained attitudes toward persons with mental health problems is difficult to achieve with interventions targeting the general public.

  2. Validation and Exploration of Instruments for Assessing Public Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Fen; Lin, Huann-shyang; Wu, Yi-ying

    2013-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop instruments that assess public knowledge of nanotechnology (PKNT), public attitudes toward nanotechnology (PANT) and conduct a pilot study for exploring the relationship between PKNT and PANT. The PKNT test was composed of six scales involving major nanotechnology concepts, including size and scale, structure of matter, size-dependent properties, forces and interactions, tools and instrumentation, as well as science, technology, and society. After item analysis, 26 multiple-choice questions were selected for the PKNT test with a KR-20 reliability of 0.91. Twenty items were developed in the PANT questionnaire which can be classified as scales of trust in government and industry, trust in scientists, and perception of benefit and risk. Cronbach alpha for the PANT questionnaire was 0.70. In a pilot study, 209 citizens, varying in age, were selected to respond to the instruments. Results indicated that about 70 % of respondents did not understand most of the six major concepts involving nanotechnology. The public tended to distrust government and industry and their levels of trust showed no relationship to their levels of knowledge about nanotechnology. However, people perceived that nanotechnology provided high benefits and high risks. Their perceptions of the benefits and risks were positively related with their knowledge level of nanotechnology. People's trust showed a negative relationship to their risk perception. Implications for using these instruments in research are discussed in this paper.

  3. Attitudes and relationship between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry in a public general hospital in Lima, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo De Ferrari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The interaction between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry influences physicians' attitudes and prescribing behavior. Although largely studied in the US, this topic has not been well studied in resource-poor settings, where a close relationship between physicians and industry still exists. OBJECTIVE: To describe physician interactions with and attitudes towards the pharmaceutical industry in a public general hospital in Lima, Peru. DESIGN: Descriptive, cross-sectional study through an anonymous, self-filled questionnaire distributed among faculty and trainee physicians of five different clinical departments working in a Peruvian public general hospital. A transcultural validation of an existing Spanish questionnaire was performed. Exposure to marketing activities, motivations to contact pharmaceutical representatives and attitudes towards industry were studied. Collected data was analyzed by degree of training, clinical department, gender and teaching status. Attitudes were measured on a four-point LIKERT scale. RESULTS: 155 physicians completed the survey, of which 148 were included in the study sample. 94.5% of attending physicians reported ongoing encounters with pharmaceutical representatives. The most common industry-related activities were receiving medical samples (91.2%, promotional material (87.8% and attending meetings in restaurants (81.8%. Respondents considered medical samples and continuing medical education the most ethically acceptable benefits. We found significant differences between attendings and residents, and teaching and non-teaching attendings. An association between the amount of encounters with pharmaceutical representatives, and attitudes towards industry and acceptance of medical samples was found. CONCLUSIONS: A close physician-industry relationship exists in the population under study. The contact is established mainly through pharmaceutical representatives. Medical samples are the most received

  4. Public Attitudes toward Stuttering in Turkey: Probability versus Convenience Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, R. Sertan; St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Topbas, Seyhun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A Turkish translation of the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S") was used to compare probability versus convenience sampling to measure public attitudes toward stuttering. Method: A convenience sample of adults in Eskisehir, Turkey was compared with two replicates of a school-based, probability cluster…

  5. Public Attitudes toward Stuttering in Turkey: Probability versus Convenience Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, R. Sertan; St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Topbas, Seyhun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A Turkish translation of the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S") was used to compare probability versus convenience sampling to measure public attitudes toward stuttering. Method: A convenience sample of adults in Eskisehir, Turkey was compared with two replicates of a school-based,…

  6. Abuse of disabled parking: Reforming public's attitude through persuasive multimedia strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, W. A. J. W.; Zain, M. Z. M.

    2014-02-01

    Attitude is one of the factors that contribute to the abuse of disabled parking. The attitude's components are affective, cognitive and behavioral and may be formed in various ways including learning and persuasion. Using learning and persuasion approach, this study has produced a persuasive multimedia aiming to form a positive attitude toward disabled persons in order to minimize the rate of disabled parking abuse. The persuasive multimedia was developed using Principle of Social Learning draws from Persuasive Technology as learning strategy at macro persuasion level, and modality and redundancy principles draw from Multimedia Learning Principles as design strategy at micro persuasion level. In order to measure the effectiveness of the persuasive multimedia, 93 respondents were selected in a 2 × 2 quasi experimental research design for experiment. Attitude components of affective, cognitive and behavioral were measured using adapted instrument from the Multi Dimensional Attitudes Scale toward Persons With Disabilities (MAS). Result of the study shows that the persuasive multimedia which designed based on Social Learning Theory at macro persuasion level is capable of forming positive attitude toward disabled person. The cognitive component of the attitude found to be the most responsive component. In term of design strategy at the micro persuasion level, modality found to be the most significant strategy compare to redundancy. While males are more responsive to the persuasive multimedia compare to females.

  7. Agenda-setting effects of sun-related news coverage on public attitudes and beliefs about tanning and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Helen; Warne, Charles; Scully, Maree; Dobbinson, Suzanne; Wakefield, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    The topics and framing of news stories relevant to skin cancer prevention have shifted over time. This study examined agenda-setting effects of such news stories on public attitudes and beliefs about tanning and skin cancer. Content analysis data on 516 articles published in two major daily newspapers in Melbourne, Australia, from 1994 to 2007 were combined with circulation data to generate indices of potential news exposure. Associations between these indices and cross-sectional telephone survey data from the same period on 6,244 adults' tanning attitudes and perceived susceptibility to skin cancer were examined using logistic regression models, accounting for the temporal precedence of news content. Pro-sun protection stories on attitudes and behavior were associated with older adults not thinking a tan looks healthy. Pro-sun protection stories on solaria were associated with less preference for a deep tan among young adults who like to suntan. Stories on vitamin D that were unsupportive of or ambiguous about sun protection were associated with a number of pro-tan attitudes among younger adults. Results indicate news coverage during 1994-2007 served an important agenda-setting role in explaining the public's attitudes and beliefs about tanning and skin cancer. Vitamin D stories appeared most influential, particularly among young adults.

  8. Attitudes of Mental Health Professionals about Mental Illness: A Review of the Recent Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Otto; Aroesty-Cohen, Eli

    2010-01-01

    A large body of research has documented public attitudes toward people with mental illness. The current attitudes of the people who provide services to those with psychiatric disorders are important to understand, as well. The authors review what studies over the past 5 years reveal about the attitudes of psychiatric professionals. Empirical…

  9. What are European Union Public Attitudes towards Robots? (Invited Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Loffredo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a very brief overview of public attitudes towards robots from different geographical regions of the world but focuses on one such study in one particular geographic area, the European Union (EU of 27 countries. By far, the Eurobarameter Survey on Public Attitudes towards Robots, released online in 2012, is the largest study of public attitudes towards robots. It focused exclusively on descriptive statistics which are mathematical procedures used to organize, summarize and simplify data. The statistical procedures used in this paper to perform a secondary data analysis of the data from the Eurobarameter Survey on Attitudes towards robots focused on inferential statistics which focus on inference and statistical comparisons. Secondary data analyses are often used when large data sets are posted online for public, professional, and educational use. A one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA, and separate two-way independent-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA were used to analyze participant responses on relevant survey questions. The results supported our hypotheses that there are significant differences in EU public attitudes by gender and age group.

  10. The attitude towards people of other nations through the prism of the attitude to yourself

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Konyukh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of theoretical analysis and empirical investigation of the relationship between self-attitude and attitude towards other people, including representatives of other nationalities. Self-attitude is viwed as a stable, emotionally charged of your own self. The interdependance of self-attitude indicators with the features of ethnic tolerance and the character of other individuals' attitude in complicated situations has been researched. Individuals with different self-image are shown to perceive their opponents just as they perceive their own personality. Perception and emotional attitude both to their own ethnic group and other ethnicities is closely related to the attitude of the individual to himself, and common factors in predisposition to criticism and condescension towards themselves and others.

  11. The Common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) in metropolitan France. Survey on the attitudes and practices of private- and public-sector professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdain, Frédéric; Delaunay, Pascal; Bérenger, Jean-Michel; Perrin, Yvon; Robert, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The Common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, had virtually disappeared from France in the 1950s; however, a worldwide resurgence of bed bugs (C. lectularius and C. hemipterus) has been observed since the 1990s. To document modern pest control activities for the management of bed bugs, a survey was conducted in metropolitan France among the two main categories of professionals regularly called upon to deal with the control of infestations: Municipal Health and Safety Services (MHSSs) and private Pest Management Companies (PMCs). These professionals responded to a questionnaire targeting their knowledge, attitude and practices related to the process for diagnosing a bed bug infestation and the processes taken to actually control an infestation. There were 68 responses received from MHSSs and 51 from the PMCs. The responses indicate that every single département (French administrative division) in metropolitan France has witnessed at least one intervention for bed bugs. Among the criteria considered sufficient to confirm a bed bug infestation, direct observation of bugs was the most commonly cited response. Faced with an infestation, most PMCs used a combination of non-chemical and chemical methods, and systematically performed two treatments. This survey is the first of professionals involved in bed bug control in metropolitan France and confirms the growing importance of bed bugs as a public health pest. Establishing a database to monitor this emerging pest would improve the understanding of the distribution of these insects, help guide educational requirements, identify research needs and assist in ensuring that the most appropriate control practices are undertaken. PMID:27605306

  12. The Common bed bug (Cimex lectularius in metropolitan France. Survey on the attitudes and practices of private- and public-sector professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jourdain Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, had virtually disappeared from France in the 1950s; however, a worldwide resurgence of bed bugs (C. lectularius and C. hemipterus has been observed since the 1990s. To document modern pest control activities for the management of bed bugs, a survey was conducted in metropolitan France among the two main categories of professionals regularly called upon to deal with the control of infestations: Municipal Health and Safety Services (MHSSs and private Pest Management Companies (PMCs. These professionals responded to a questionnaire targeting their knowledge, attitude and practices related to the process for diagnosing a bed bug infestation and the processes taken to actually control an infestation. There were 68 responses received from MHSSs and 51 from the PMCs. The responses indicate that every single département (French administrative division in metropolitan France has witnessed at least one intervention for bed bugs. Among the criteria considered sufficient to confirm a bed bug infestation, direct observation of bugs was the most commonly cited response. Faced with an infestation, most PMCs used a combination of non-chemical and chemical methods, and systematically performed two treatments. This survey is the first of professionals involved in bed bug control in metropolitan France and confirms the growing importance of bed bugs as a public health pest. Establishing a database to monitor this emerging pest would improve the understanding of the distribution of these insects, help guide educational requirements, identify research needs and assist in ensuring that the most appropriate control practices are undertaken.

  13. Public Progress, Data Management and the Land Grant Mission: A Survey of Agriculture Researchers' Practices and Attitudes at Two Land-Grant Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Peter; Eaker, Christopher; Swauger, Shea; Davis, Miriam L. E. Steiner

    2016-01-01

    This article reports results from a survey about data management practices and attitudes sent to agriculture researchers and extension personnel at the University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture (UTIA) and the College of Agricultural Sciences and Warner College of Natural Resources at Colorado State University. Results confirm agriculture…

  14. Gender Differences in the Usage and Attitudes toward the Internet among Student Teachers in a Public Malaysian University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong S. Luan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of gender disparity in the usage and attitude towards the Internet have received considerable interest among researchers. Most findings have revealed that females are at a disadvantage compared to their male counterparts where Internet usage is concerned. They have unequal access, a low rate of usage and exhibit negative attitudes towards the Internet (Nachmias et al., 2000; Sherman et al., 2000; Madell & Muncer, 2004. Prompted by these observations, this study was carried out to investigate the gender disparity in Internet usage and the attitudes among 152 student teachers (80 females and 72 males at a public Malaysian university (Universiti Putra Malaysia. The results of this study revealed no gender disparity in Internet usage; the female student teachers were found to spend as much time using the Internet as their male counterparts. These results accordingly contradicted the common findings of other researchers. The results also revealed that the students exhibited positive attitudes toward the Internet regardless of gender, again in contradiction to most other findings. Possible reasons and the implications of these findings will be elaborated and discussed.

  15. The determination of the attitude and attitude dynamics of TeamSat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Riis, Troels

    1999-01-01

    , in space, multiple autonomous processes intended for spacecraft applications such as autonomous star identification, attitude determination and identification and tracking of non-stellar objects, imaging and real-time compression of image and science data for further ground analysis. AVS successfully...... determined the attitude and attitude dynamics of TeamSat....

  16. Attitudes toward Advertisements of the Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, M.; Moliner, M. A.; Sanchez, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we will analyze the attitude of older adults to advertisements, differentiating between advertisements that contain rhetorical figures (trope ads) and those that do not (explicit ads). We will also study their attitude toward the brand advertised according to their degree of involvement with the product. In the course of the…

  17. Public Attitudes toward Reporting Partner Violence against Women and Reporting Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Enrique; Herrero, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Drawing from attitude-behavior research tradition, this study used a national probabilistic sample of the Spanish adult population (N = 2,432) to test hypotheses regarding correlates of public attitudes toward reporting partner violence against women, and the relationship between attitudes toward reporting and actual reporting behavior. Results…

  18. Public attitudes to genomic science: an experiment in information provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgis, Patrick; Brunton-Smith, Ian; Fife-Schaw, Chris

    2010-03-01

    We use an experimental panel study design to investigate the effect of providing "value-neutral" information about genomic science in the form of a short film to a random sample of the British public. We find little evidence of attitude change as a function of information provision. However, our results show that information provision significantly increased dropout from the study amongst less educated respondents. Our findings have implications both for our understanding of the knowledge-attitude relationship in public opinion toward genomic science and for science communication more generally.

  19. Possible Biases of Researchers’ Attitudes Toward Video Games: Publication Trends Analysis of the Medical Literature (1980–2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Segev, Aviv; Rovner, Mitchell; Appel, David Ian; Abrams, Aaron W; Rotem, Michal; Bloch, Yuval

    2016-01-01

    Background The study of video games is expanding, and so is the debate regarding their possible positive and deleterious effects. As controversies continue, several researchers have expressed their concerns about substantial biases existing in the field, which might lead to the creation of a skewed picture, both in the professional and in the lay literature. However, no study has tried to examine this issue quantitatively. Objective The objective of our study was to examine possible systemati...

  20. Sexuality attitudes: the impact of trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, Clifford L

    2003-11-01

    This study examines the relationship between traumatic events and attitudes toward sexuality. Our results show that suffering trauma is related to more accepting attitudes concerning sexuality. Generally, people who suffer negative events, many of which are traumatic, are more likely to see both pornography and having a homosexual friend or family member as acceptable. Traumatic events that are sex-related or related to other physical assault proved to be most significant in the prediction of sexuality attitudes for women only. The results are specified by gender: Trauma predicts attitudes toward pornography for women but not for men, and traumatic events are associated with attitudes concerning homosexuality for women. These results are discussed in light of the previous research, and suggestions for future research made.

  1. Study on the Service Concept and Service Attitude of Public Librarians in the New Period%新时期公共图书馆员服务理念与服务心态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋蓓蓓; 刘福祥

    2014-01-01

    THis paper introduces the transformation of public library’s service function in the new period, expounds the requirements of the transformation of public library’s service function for the librarians, analyzes the service status of public librarians in the new period and the reasons, and puts forward some countermeasures and suggestions on improving public librarians’service concept and service attitude.%介绍了新时期公共图书馆服务职能的转变,阐述了公共图书馆服务职能对馆员的要求,分析了新时期公共图书馆员的服务现状及原因,提出了改善公共图书馆员服务理念及服务心态的对策及建议。

  2. It's all in the attitude: The role of job attitude strength in job attitude-outcome relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Deidra J; Smith, Troy A; Casper, Wendy J; Watt, John D; Greguras, Gary J

    2015-07-01

    Integrating attitude theory with the job attitudes literature, we position job attitude strength (JAS) as a missing yet important theoretical concept in the study of job attitudes. We examine JAS as a moderator of the relationship between job satisfaction and several criteria of interest to organizational scholars (job performance, organizational citizenship behavior, withdrawal). We also examine multiple relevant indicators of JAS (i.e., attitude certainty, attitude extremity, latitude of rejection, and structural consistency), both to shed light on its conceptual nature and to provide meaningful practical direction to researchers interested in incorporating JAS into job attitude research. Data were collected in five field samples (total N = 816). Results support our hypotheses: JAS moderates the relationships between job satisfaction and performance, organizational citizenship behavior, and turnover intentions; in each case, these relationships are significantly stronger for employees with stronger job satisfaction attitudes. However, as expected, not all JAS indicators are equally effective as moderators. We discuss our findings in terms of their theoretical, empirical, and practical implications for the future study of job attitudes.

  3. The relationship between risk attitude and strength of preference: A test of intrinsic risk attitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Smidts (Ale)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn a field study, the concept of intrinsic, risk attitude is investigated. Intrinsic risk attitude concerns the relationship between risk attitude, measured by the utility function u(x), and strength of preference, measured by the value function v(x). We study farmers' decision-making vi

  4. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND PRACTICES ABOUT ANTIBIOTIC USE AMONG THE GENERAL PUBLIC IN MALAYSIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islahudin, Farida; Tamezi, Alyaa Madihah Ahmad; Shah, Noraida Mohamed

    2014-11-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a major problem globally. Awareness of the impact and significance of antibiotic resistance is a first step in hindering its progression. We conducted this survey to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding antibiotic use in Malaysia. A total of 373 respondents were surveyed, 219 (58.1%) were female and 312 (83%) were Malay ethnicity. Eighty-four point two percent (314) had used antibiotics more than once (> 1) during the previous year. We found respondents who were less likely to take antibiotics (≤ 1) during the previous year were more likely to agree that antibiotic resistance was a serious public health issue compared to those that took antibiotic more than once during the previous year (p < 0.0001). A significantly greater number of patients (67.2%) who took antibiotics more than once during the previous year did not complete the full course than those who took antibiotics no more than once (55.9%) during the previous year (p < 0.01). We found the frequency of antibiotic use was related to knowledge about antibiotics among the study population. It is essential to develop educational interventions to correct the misuse and misunderstanding of antibiotics.

  5. A Cross-Sectional Study of Heat Wave-Related Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice among the Public in the Licheng District of Jinan City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Xu, Xin; Ding, Guoyong; Zhao, Yun; Zhao, Ruixia; Xue, Fuzhong; Li, Jing; Gao, Jinghong; Yang, Jun; Jiang, Baofa; Liu, Qiyong

    2016-06-29

    Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) are three key components for reducing the adverse health impacts of heat waves. However, research in eastern China regarding this is scarce. The present study aimed to evaluate the heat wave-related KAP of a population in Licheng in northeast China. This cross-sectional study included 2241 participants. Data regarding demographic characteristics, KAP, and heat illnesses were collected using a structured questionnaire. Univariate analysis and unconditional logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. Most residents had high KAP scores, with a mean score of 12.23 (standard deviation = 2.23) on a 17-point scale. Urban women and participants aged 35-44 years had relatively high total scores, and those with high education levels had the highest total score. There was an increased risk of heat-related illness among those with knowledge scores of 3-5 on an 8-point scale with mean score of 5.40 (standard deviation = 1.45). Having a positive attitude toward sunstroke prevention and engaging in more preventive practices to avoid heat exposure had a protective interaction effect on reducing the prevalence of heat-related illnesses. Although the KAP scores were relatively high, knowledge and practice were lacking to some extent. Therefore, governments should further develop risk-awareness strategies that increase awareness and knowledge regarding the adverse health impact of heat and help in planning response strategies to improve the ability of individuals to cope with heat waves.

  6. Farmer and Public Attitudes Toward Lamb Finishing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Grahame; Jongman, Ellen; Greenfield, L; Hemsworth, Paul

    2016-01-01

    To develop research and policy on the welfare of lambs in intensive finishing systems, it is important to understand public and sheep farmers' attitudes. The aim of this research was to identify and compare farmer and community attitudes relevant to the intensification of lamb finishing. The majority of respondents in the community sample expressed concern about all listed welfare issues, but particularly about feedlotting of lambs and the associated confinement. These attitudes correlated with community views on the importance of welfare issues including social contact and freedom to roam. Farmers expressed much lower levels of concern than did the general public except with regard to the health of lambs, disease control, access to shade, and lack of access to clean water.

  7. Dispelling the Myths: Can Psychoeducation Change Public Attitudes towards Sex Offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleban, Holly; Jeglic, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The public desires more punitive sentencing for sex offenders; however, treatment has been shown to be most effective in increasing public safety. It has been suggested that public education about the benefits of sex offender treatment could influence public policy. The purpose of this study was to determine if a brief psychoeducational…

  8. The complexity and ambivalence of immigration attitudes: ambivalent stereotypes predict conflicting attitudes toward immigration policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Christine; Dobria, Ovidiu; Wetherell, Geoffrey

    2013-07-01

    Americans' conflicted attitudes toward immigrants and immigration has stymied immigration reform for decades. In this article, we explore the nuanced nature of stereotypes about immigrants and how they relate to ambivalent attitudes toward immigrant groups and the disparate array of immigration policies that affect them. Using item response theory and multiple regression analysis, we identified and related stereotypes of different immigrant groups to group-based and policy attitudes. Results demonstrate that ambivalent stereotypes mapped onto ambivalent group-based and immigration policy attitudes. Specifically, stereotypes that portray groups in positive or sympathetic ways predicted positive attitudes toward the group and more supportive attitudes toward policies that facilitate their immigration to the United States. Conversely, negative qualities predicted negative attitudes toward the same group and support for policies that prevent the group from immigrating. Results are discussed in light of current theory related to stereotype content, complementarity of stereotypes, and broader implications for immigration attitudes and policy.

  9. Analysis of Traditional Medicine in Zanzibar, Tanzania:Resource Conservation and Public Attitude towards the Traditional and Alternative Medicine Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Baylor, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Traditional medicine is used as a major source of health care in developing countries. A small island off the coast of Tanzania, Zanzibar has traditional medicine embedded in its culture. Informal interviews of community members and healers in four different villages as well as interviews with the Department of Forestry and the Traditional and Alternative Medicine Unit were conducted over a four week study. This study found that community members of four villages in Zanzibar supported the ide...

  10. Changes in public attitudes towards confidential adolescent sexual and reproductive health services in Lithuania after the introduction of new legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Sauliune, Skirmante

    2015-01-01

    was employed to estimate absolute differences in prevalence of belief in whether or not adolescents would find confidentiality important when consulting a physician on SRH issues. A log-binomial regression model was fitted to estimate the relative changes (prevalence ratio) of the independent variables....... RESULTS: The total number of respondents was 1054 (response rate 83%) in 2005 and 1002 (response rate 80%) in 2012. The proportion of respondents who reported a belief that adolescents would find confidentiality important when seeing a physician for SRH issues increased significantly from 62% in 2005...... to 73% in 2012. Regardless of their belief in the importance of confidentiality, in 2012 respondents more often indicated positive outcomes on the relations between the physician and the minor patient, such as increased trust of the adolescent in the physician and more frequent visits to physicians...

  11. Public and private responsibility for health: a comparative analysis of attitudes towards financing and the right for health care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abel, T.; Zee, J. van der

    1995-01-01

    The present study focuses on values that directly relate to issues of health care. It will observe specific patterns of health values and compare their distribution across selected social groups within and across four European nations. Studying these issues, new insights are expected into Eurpean we

  12. Public attitudes to financial incentive models for organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus; Schicktanz, Silke; Deleuran, Ida

    2013-01-01

    Waiting lists for organs have stimulated interest in the use of financial incentives for organ donation (FIs), but the literature does not contain an adequate overview of studies of public attitudes toward this mode of procurement. We conducted a literature review of international peer......-reviewed research published between 2002 and 2012 on how members of the public position themselves toward FIs. We identified and analyzed 23 studies using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts and cross-reference search. The search included whole organs, donation, quantitative and empirical qualitative social...... scientific studies on, public attitudes (excluding professionals and medical students). The review reveals a broad divergence of public opinions on financial incentives. However, quantitative studies showed a low overall level of acceptance of payment for organs in living donation (LD); only a slightly...

  13. Predictors of public attitude toward living organ donation in Kano, northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliyasu, Zubairu; Abubakar, Isa S; Lawan, Umar M; Abubakar, Mustapha; Adamu, Bappa

    2014-01-01

    Organ shortage is a major public health challenge for transplant programs globally. The sustenance of such programs as an effective therapy for end-stage organ failure (ESOF) requires an exploration of public awareness and willingness to donate organs. This is imperative, especially in developing countries where ESOF is highly prevalent. We studied the awareness and predictors of public attitude toward organ donation in Kano city in northern Nigeria. Using interviewer-administered questionnaires, we assessed the awareness and willingness to donate solid organs among 400 adults in the Kano metropolis. Three hundred and five of the 383 respondents (79.6%) reported that they had heard about organ donation. There was a significant variation of awareness by education and ethnicity (P <0.05). Most respondents, 303 (79.1%), were willing to donate an organ. Gender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.13; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-4.95], educational attainment (AOR = 2.55; 95% CI: 1.35-5.88), marital status (AOR = 4.5; 95% CI: 2.97-9.1), religion (AOR = 3.40; 95% CI: 1.43-8.10) and ethnicity (AOR = 2.36; 95% CI 1.04-5.35) were significant predictors of willingness to donate an organ. Preferred organ recipients were parents (48.9%), children (21.3%), spouses (14.6%) and other relatives (13.4%). Reasons for willingness to donate organs included religion (51.2%), moral obligation (21.4%) and compassion (11.9%), among others. However, there was widespread ignorance of religious precepts concerning organ donation. The high level of awareness and willingness to donate organs in this society could be further enhanced by intensive information, education and communication strategies providing clear messages on societal benefits, religious aspects and bioethical guidance regarding organ donation.

  14. Predictors of public attitude toward living organ donation in Kano, northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubairu Iliyasu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ shortage is a major public health challenge for transplant programs globally. The sustenance of such programs as an effective therapy for end-stage organ failure (ESOF requires an exploration of public awareness and willingness to donate organs. This is imperative, especially in developing countries where ESOF is highly prevalent. We studied the awareness and predictors of public attitude toward organ donation in Kano city in northern Nigeria. Using interviewer-administered questionnaires, we assessed the awareness and willingness to donate solid organs among 400 adults in the Kano metropolis. Three hundred and five of the 383 respondents (79.6% reported that they had heard about organ donation. There was a significant variation of awareness by education and ethnicity (P <0.05. Most respondents, 303 (79.1%, were willing to donate an organ. Gender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 2.13; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.40-4.95], educational attainment (AOR = 2.55; 95% CI: 1.35-5.88, marital status (AOR = 4.5; 95% CI: 2.97-9.1, religion (AOR = 3.40; 95% CI: 1.43-8.10 and ethnicity (AOR = 2.36; 95% CI 1.04-5.35 were significant predictors of willingness to donate an organ. Preferred organ recipients were parents (48.9%, children (21.3%, spouses (14.6% and other relatives (13.4%. Reasons for willingness to donate organs included religion (51.2%, moral obligation (21.4% and compassion (11.9%, among others. However, there was widespread ignorance of religious precepts concerning organ donation. The high level of awareness and willingness to donate organs in this society could be further enhanced by intensive information, education and communication strategies providing clear messages on societal benefits, religious aspects and bioethical guidance regarding organ donation.

  15. South Mississippi public elementary school teachers' implementation of and attitudes toward inquiry-based science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumrall, Thomas Franklin

    The present study was designed to examine the relationship between the dependent variables of K-5 elementary teachers' attitudes toward inquiry-based science, implementation of National Science Education Standards concerning inquiry-based science, and the number of inquiry-based lessons taught with the predictor variables of gender, school district teaching, ethnic group, educational level, experience, grade level teaching, and number of science courses taken. Four hundred thirty teachers of grades K through 5 from seven school districts in south Mississippi were surveyed using the Revised Science Attitude Scale (Bitner, 1994), Inquiry Beliefs and Practices survey (Jeanpierre, 2006), and a demographic questionnaire. A total of 814 teachers were invited to participate in the study. Multiple linear regression techniques were used to test the hypotheses of this study at a .05 level. Results indicate that number of courses taken is a predictor for all subscales of attitude toward inquiry-based science. Grade level teaching was a significant predictor for two subscales of attitude and gender along with school district were predictors for one subscale for attitude. Results also indicate that school district, ethnic group, and grade level teaching are significant predictors of the complex skills subscale for implementation of inquiry-based lessons. The predictors of gender, school district, and number of courses taken were found to be significant concerning the number of inquiry-based lessons taught. Positive correlations were found between the four subscales for attitude, the two subscales for inquiry beliefs and practices, and the number of inquiry-based lessons taught. Conclusions, implications, and recommendations for future research are included.

  16. Correlates of Attitudes toward Cohabitation: Looking at the Associations with Demographics, Relational Attitudes, and Dating Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Brian J.; Carroll, Jason S.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines how demographics, attitudes toward marriage, attitudes toward sexual activity, sexual behaviors, and dating experience are associated with three different attitudes toward cohabitation among never-married young adults. Results from a sample of 1,036 young adult college students suggest that the endorsement of…

  17. Association of the Environmental Attitudes "Preservation" and "Utilization" with Pro-Animal Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binngießer, Janine; Randler, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The relevance of environmental attitudes is obvious and attitudes towards farm and companion animals and animal welfare in medical research are an important aspect of education. However, both have rarely been linked with each other, and animal attitudes are only sparsely represented within environmental education assessment instruments. Linking…

  18. Test - retest reliability of two instruments for measuring public attitudes towards persons with mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leufstadius Christel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has identified stigmatization as a major threat to successful treatment of individuals with mental illness. As a consequence several anti-stigma campaigns have been carried out. The results have been discouraging and the field suffers from lack of evidence about interventions that work. There are few reports on psychometric data for instruments used to assess stigma, which thus complicates research efforts. The aim of the present study was to investigate test-retest reliability of the Swedish versions of the questionnaires: FABI and "Changing Minds" and to examine the internal consistency of the two instruments. Method Two instruments, fear and behavioural intentions (FABI and "Changing Minds", used in earlier studies on public attitudes towards persons with mental illness were translated into Swedish and completed by 51 nursing students on two occasions, with an interval of three weeks. Test-retest reliability was calculated by using weighted kappa coefficient and internal consistency using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Results Both instruments attain at best moderate test-retest reliability. For the Changing Minds questionnaire almost one fifth (17.9% of the items present poor test-retest reliability and the alpha coefficient for the subscales ranges between 0.19 - 0.46. All of the items in the FABI reach a fair or a moderate agreement between the test and retest, and the questionnaire displays a high internal consistency, alpha 0.80. Conclusions There is a need for development of psychometrically tested instruments within this field of research.

  19. Personality Traits and Foreign Policy Attitudes in German Public Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Harald

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the effects of personality traits on attitudes toward foreign policy issues among the German public. Building on previous research, it argues that personality characteristics shape an individual's motivation, goals, and values, thereby providing criteria to evaluate external stimuli and affecting foreign policy opinions. An…

  20. 基于海德平衡理论的老年人出行态度转变分析%Analysis of Trip Attitude Adjustment of Public Transit of the Elderly Based on Heider's Balance Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩艳; 关宏志; 李丹洋

    2015-01-01

    The travel behavior characteristics with public transit and the mechanism of attitude adjustment for the elderly were discussed based on the Heider's balance theory. According to the analysis of the elderly's travel behavior characteristics, a P-O-X triangular balance model was established from the viewpoint of balance theory to discuss the attitude adjustment mechanism in which the elderly would like to choose the attitude that was relatively easy to adjust among the attitude relationship chain to obtain better trip experience. A questionnaire of the elderly's travel behavior and attitude towards public transit was carried out and the elderly's public transit staggered shifts willingness model was formulated to quantitatively analyze the transition process between the imbalance and balance states. Results show that 69% of the elderly are likely to adjust their departure time to obtain better trip experience from the imbalance to the balance states. The research can provide essential support to traffic programming to meet the elderly's travel demand.%基于海德平衡理论,探讨了老年人公交出行行为及态度改变的机理。基于老年人出行行为特性机理分析,从平衡理论的视角,构建老年人公交出行的“P-O-X”三角平衡模型,研究老年人为获得良好的公交出行体验,在态度关系链上选择比较容易改变的关系加以转换的平衡状态调整机理。以北京市南磨房周边老年人为研究对象,开展老年人公交出行行为和意愿调查,并建立老年人错峰出行意愿模型,量化分析非平衡状态与平衡状态转换过程。结果表明:69%的老年人愿意通过调整公共交通出发时刻,将不平衡状态转化成平衡状态,可为老年人出行机动性改善提供数据支持。

  1. How emotional media reports influence attitude formation and change: the interplay of attitude base, attitude certainty and persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryffel, F.A.; Wirz, D.S.; Kühne, R.; Wirth, W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of an emotionally arousing writing style on attitude formation and change. It has been proposed that different writing styles induce attitudes based on either affect or cognition and with either high or low certainty. Previous work indicates that the interplay of th

  2. Public Attitudes towards People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Qualitative Comparison of White British & South Asian People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Sarah; Scior, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    Background: National and international polices promote the acceptance, integration and inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities into mainstream society. However, there is little systematic research into general population attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities, and even less research, which considers the impact of…

  3. Altruism and skepticism in public attitudes toward food nanotechnologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J. [University of Minnesota, Department of Educational Psychology, College of Education and Human Development (United States); Fatehi, L. [Humphrey School of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota (United States); Kuzma, J., E-mail: jkuzma@ncsu.edu [North Carolina State University, School of Public and International Affairs and Genetic Engineering and Society Center (United States)

    2015-03-15

    To better explore and understand the public's perceptions of and attitudes toward emerging technologies and food products, we conducted a US-based focus group study centered on nanotechnology, nano-food, and nano-food labeling. Seven focus groups were conducted in seven locations in two different US metropolitan areas from September 2010 to January 2011. In addition to revealing context-specific data on already established risk and public perception factors, our goal was to inductively identify other nano-food perception factors of significance for consideration when analyzing why and how perceptions and attitudes are formed to nanotechnology in food. Two such factors that emerged—altruism and skepticism—are particularly interesting in that they may be situated between different theoretical frameworks that have been used for explaining perception and attitude. We argue that they may represent a convergence point among theories that each help explain different aspects of both how food nanotechnologies are perceived and why those perceptions are formed. In this paper, we first review theoretical frameworks for evaluating risk perception and attitudes toward emerging technologies, then review previous work on public perception of nanotechnology and nano-food, describe our qualitative content analysis results for public perception toward nano-food—focusing especially on altruism and skepticism, and discuss implications of these findings in terms of how public attitudes toward nano-food could be formed and understood. Finally, we propose that paying attention to these two factors may guide more responsible development of nano-food in the future.

  4. Altruism and skepticism in public attitudes toward food nanotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J.; Fatehi, L.; Kuzma, J.

    2015-03-01

    To better explore and understand the public's perceptions of and attitudes toward emerging technologies and food products, we conducted a US-based focus group study centered on nanotechnology, nano-food, and nano-food labeling. Seven focus groups were conducted in seven locations in two different US metropolitan areas from September 2010 to January 2011. In addition to revealing context-specific data on already established risk and public perception factors, our goal was to inductively identify other nano-food perception factors of significance for consideration when analyzing why and how perceptions and attitudes are formed to nanotechnology in food. Two such factors that emerged—altruism and skepticism—are particularly interesting in that they may be situated between different theoretical frameworks that have been used for explaining perception and attitude. We argue that they may represent a convergence point among theories that each help explain different aspects of both how food nanotechnologies are perceived and why those perceptions are formed. In this paper, we first review theoretical frameworks for evaluating risk perception and attitudes toward emerging technologies, then review previous work on public perception of nanotechnology and nano-food, describe our qualitative content analysis results for public perception toward nano-food—focusing especially on altruism and skepticism, and discuss implications of these findings in terms of how public attitudes toward nano-food could be formed and understood. Finally, we propose that paying attention to these two factors may guide more responsible development of nano-food in the future.

  5. The Structure and Stability of Political Attitudes: Findings from the 1974-1976 Dearborn Panel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayman, Frank Whelon; Stockton, Ronald R.

    Based on a panel study of 800 voters in Dearborn, Michigan, this report examines the impact of political attitudes on the party system and on the presidential elections of 1972 and 1976. The central thesis is that public opinion can be classified into two clusters of attitudes, one which disrupts and the other which reinforces partisan voting. The…

  6. The Effect of Attitude and Statement Favorability Upon the Judgment of Attitude Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corenblum, B.; Corfield, Vera K.

    1976-01-01

    Male and female introductory psychology students (N=96) who held extreme attitudes toward legalized abortion judged the favorability of attitude statements on that issue. Judgments of the statements were shown to be largely inconsistent with predictions from social judgment theory and adaptation-level theory, but consistent with accentuation…

  7. Attitude of US Government towards Public Opinion%论美国政府对待民意的态度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董长贵

    2014-01-01

    美国政府对待民意的态度具有两面性,这是由美国政府的民意观决定的。深入分析其实质,对于客观认识美国的政治制度,推动我国民主政治建设有重要启示。%The US government’ s attitude towards public opinion has two sides,which is decided by the US gov-ernment’ s view of the people. The public view of the US government is hypocritical and reactionary view of public opinion. In-depth analysis of its essence has important implications for correctly understanding American political system,promoting China’ s democratic political construction .

  8. The Impact of Information on Doctors’ Attitudes Toward Generic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggeliki V. Tsaprantzi MD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess the impact of information on doctors’ attitudes and perceptions toward generics. A cross-sectional survey based on a specially designed 21-item questionnaire was conducted. The survey involved doctors of different specialties working in a public hospital in Greece. The analysis includes descriptive and inferential statistics, reliability and validity tests, as well as structural equation modeling to evaluate the causal model. Statistical analysis was accomplished by using SPSS 20 and Amos 20. A total of 134 questionnaires out of 162 were received, providing a response rate of 82.71%. A number of significant associations were found between information and perceptions about generic medicines with demographic characteristics. It seems that the provision of quality information on generic drugs influences doctors’ attitudes and prescription practices toward generic drugs. This is not a static process but a rather dynamic issue involving information provision policies for strengthening the proper doctors’ attitudes toward generic drugs.

  9. The Impact of Information on Doctors' Attitudes Toward Generic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaprantzi, Aggeliki V; Kostagiolas, Petros; Platis, Charalampos; Aggelidis, Vassilios P; Niakas, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the impact of information on doctors' attitudes and perceptions toward generics. A cross-sectional survey based on a specially designed 21-item questionnaire was conducted. The survey involved doctors of different specialties working in a public hospital in Greece. The analysis includes descriptive and inferential statistics, reliability and validity tests, as well as structural equation modeling to evaluate the causal model. Statistical analysis was accomplished by using SPSS 20 and Amos 20. A total of 134 questionnaires out of 162 were received, providing a response rate of 82.71%. A number of significant associations were found between information and perceptions about generic medicines with demographic characteristics. It seems that the provision of quality information on generic drugs influences doctors' attitudes and prescription practices toward generic drugs. This is not a static process but a rather dynamic issue involving information provision policies for strengthening the proper doctors' attitudes toward generic drugs.

  10. The Gaia Attitude Star Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, R. L.

    2016-04-01

    We describe the Attitude Star Catalog produced for the Gaia mission. This catalog is being used by Gaia for the first on-ground attitude reconstruction. Originally it was simply a subset of the Initial Gaia Source List but this subset did not meet the isolation requirements and it contained a significant number of double entries. As a result during the commissioning phase of Gaia a new generation of this catalog, that better fulfills the attitude reconstruction requirements, was requested. Here we describe the production and properties of this new Attitude Star Catalog. The Attitude Star Catalog was made by combining 7 all sky catalogs and selecting entries based on magnitude, isolation and astrometric precision criteria. The catalog has 8173331 entries with estimates of the positions at 2000, proper motions and magnitudes (Gaia G, Gaia Grvs, red RF & blue BJ) in the magnitude range 7.0 publically available from the CDS Strasbourg and the IGSL web-site.

  11. Reading Attitudes of Texas High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussert-Webb, Kathy; Zhang, Zhidong

    2016-01-01

    Through random sampling, we surveyed 2,568 high school students throughout Texas to determine their reading attitudes vis-à-vis individual and school background variables. Sources were the Rhody reading attitude scale and public domain campus summary data; the lenses of attitude theory and social justice informed this study. Significant…

  12. The Attitudes of Teachers in Further Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Reports a survey of educational attitudes among teachers and tutors in English colleges of education. Three domains were studied: naturalism-formalism in attitude toward pedagogic role and student-teacher interaction; egalitarianism-conservatism in attitude toward access to educational systems and resources; and liberalism-utilitarianism in…

  13. An Investigation of Employees’ Attitude towards the Reform of Property Right of a Public Hospital in Kunming%昆明市某公立医院职工对医院产权改革的心态调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹂; 陈龙; 张宏斌

    2015-01-01

    [目的]探索公立医院产权改革成功的原因,以便加快公立医院的改革。[方法]对昆明市正在进行产权改革的某公立医院职工进行问卷调查,了解职工对改革的心态,找到改革成功与否的关键因素。[结果]通过问卷调查结果得知,公立医院产权改革产生茫然心态、焦虑心态、不满心态等心态变化,医务人员对工作状态的整体满意度不高,基本集中在“一般”。[结论]是否获得职工的支持是改革成败的关键影响因素之一。搞改革应当顺应民意,完善各项制度,做好职工工作。%ObjectiveTo explore the cause of reform success in public hospitals so as to quicken the reform of public hospitals. MethodsInvestigated staffs who worked in a underway property right reform public hospital by questionare, knew their attitude to reform to find the key factors whether the reform success. ResultsPublic hospital property right caused blank, anxiety and dissatisfy attitude through questionnaire survey.The totality satisfactionwas low. Conclusions The employees’ support was the key element for the success of the reform. Reform should comply with the staff’s opinion. The improvement of the system and the communication should be promised when the reform was in process.

  14. The desired moral attitude of the physician: (II) compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelhaus, Petra

    2012-11-01

    Professional medical ethics demands of health care professionals in addition to specific duties and rules of conduct that they embody a responsible and trustworthy personality. In the public discussion, different concepts are suggested to describe the desired implied attitude of physicians. In a sequel of three articles, a set of three of these concepts is presented in an interpretation that is meant to characterise the morally emotional part of this attitude: "empathy", "compassion" and "care". In the first article of the series, "empathy" has been developed as a mainly cognitive and morally neutral capacity of understanding. In this article, the emotional and virtuous core of the desired professional attitude-compassion-is elaborated. Compassion is distinguished from sympathy, empathy and pity. Several problems of compassion as a spontaneous, warm emotion for being a professional virtue are discussed: especially questions of over-demand, of justice and of concerns because of a possible threat to the patient's dignity and autonomy. An interpretation of compassion as processed and learned professional attitude, that founds dignity on the general idea of man as a sentient being and on solidarity, not on his independence and capacities, is developed. It is meant to rule out the possible side effects and to make compassion as a professional attitude and as professional virtue attractive, teachable and acquirable. In order to reach the adequate warmth and closeness for the particular physician-patient-relation, professional compassion has to be combined with the capacity of empathy. If appropriate, the combination of both empathy and compassion as "empathic compassion" can demand a much warmer attitude towards the patient than each of the elements alone, or the simple addition of them can provide. The concept of "care" that will be discussed in a forthcoming article of this sequel is a missing necessary part to describe the active potential of the desired moral

  15. A pilot study of medical student attitudes to, and use of, commercial movies that address public health issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cowie Rachael

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An innovative approach to learning public health by using feature-length commercial movies was piloted in the fourth year of a medical degree. We aimed to explore how students responded to this approach and the relative effectiveness of two promotional strategies. Firstly we placed DVDs of 15 movies (with public health-related content in the medical school library. Then alternating groups of students (total n = 82 students were exposed to either a brief promotional intervention or a more intensive intervention involving a class presentation. The response rates were 99% at baseline and 85% at follow-up. Findings The level and strength of support for using movies in public health training increased after exposure to the public health module with significantly more students "strongly agreeing". Student behaviour, in terms of movies viewed or accessed from the library, also suggested student interest. While there were no statistically significant differences in median viewing or library access rates between the two intervention groups, the distribution of viewing patterns was shifted favourably. Those exposed to the more intensive intervention (class presentation were significantly more likely to have reported watching at least one movie (97% vs. 81%; p = 0.033 or to having accessed at least one movie from the library (100% vs. 70%, p = 0.0001. Conclusions This pilot study found that the students had very positive attitudes towards viewing public health-related commercial movies. Movie access rates from the library were also favourable.

  16. SUSTAINABLE FOOD CONSUMPTION: EXPLORING THE CONSUMER ATTITUDE – BEHAVIOUR GAP

    OpenAIRE

    I. VERMEIR; W. Verbeke

    2004-01-01

    Although public interest in sustainability increases and consumer attitudes are mainly positive, behavioural patterns are not univocally consistent with attitudes. The presumed gap between favourable attitude towards sustainable behaviour and behavioural intention to purchase sustainable food products is investigated in this study. The impact of involvement, perceived availability, certainty, perceived consumer effectiveness (PCE), values, and social norms on consumers’ attitudes and intentio...

  17. Design of a Control Moment Gyroscope Attitude Actuation System for the Attitude Control Subsystem Proving Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    AAS Astrodynamice Specialist Conference, 2006. 33. Katsuhiko Ogata . Modern Control Engineering. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 4th edition, 2002. 109 34...DESIGN OF A CONTROL MOMENT GYROSCOPE ATTITUDE ACTUATION SYSTEM FOR THE ATTITUDE CONTROL SUBSYSTEM PROVING GROUND THESIS Samuel C. Johnson, 2Lt, USAF...the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENY-13-M-19 DESIGN OF A CONTROL MOMENT GYROSCOPE ATTITUDE

  18. Exploring the Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Communication Preferences of the General Public regarding HPV: Findings from CDC Focus Group Research and Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Allison L.; Shepeard, Hilda

    2007-01-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted virus in the United States, causing genital warts, cervical cell abnormalities, and cervical cancer in women. To inform HPV education efforts, 35 focus groups were conducted with members of the general public, stratified by gender, race/ethnicity, and urban/rural…

  19. Public attitudes toward people with intellectual disabilities after viewing Olympic or Paralympic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Kate; Burns, Jan; Mills, Hayley

    2015-01-01

    Despite some changes to the way that people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are viewed in society, negative attitudes prevail. One of the aspirations of the 2012 Paralympic games was to influence the public's attitudes toward people with disabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether stimuli depicting people with ID performing at Paralympic level of competition change attitudes toward ID. A mixed randomized comparison design was employed comparing 2 groups: those who viewed Paralympic-level ID sport footage and information and those who viewed Olympic footage and information. One hundred fourteen students, mean age 25 yr, were administered measures of implicit (subconscious) attitudes toward disability and explicit (belief-based) attitudes toward ID. Implicit attitudes significantly changed in a positive direction for both groups. The findings provide evidence that both Paralympic (ID) and Olympic media coverage may have at least a short-term effect on attitudes toward people with disabilities.

  20. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of quality standards in small-sized public hospitals, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Khamis Alomari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess current situations in small size hospitals regarding knowledge of staff, their attitude and practice of quality standards, in order to set a plan to improve the current situations and overcome barriers of quality practice. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional research was conducted by a validated self-administered questionnaire using systematic random technique. Results: The study included about 37.7% Physicians followed by 28.3% nurses, and 18.8% administrators. Median percentage of participants′ knowledge and attitude scores regarding healthcare quality was 48% and 80% respectively. Meanwhile, the median percentage of participants′ perception toward hospital support and implementation of healthcare quality was 54% and 50% respectively. The main barriers for quality standards implementation and practicing were; staff resistance (84.8% followed by deficient knowledge (81.1%. Knowledge showed significant positive correlation with hospital application of quality standards (P = 0.001. Conclusion: The researcher concluded that improvement of knowledge and attitude toward implementation of quality standards as well as leadership commitment to quality and change management were a critical element for organisational shifting transformation to implementing quality of care. Focusing on small hospital and providing more support with all resources for implementation of quality standards through proper education and training for all staff categories are highly recommended.

  1. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of abortion among female students of two public senior secondary schools in Lagos Mainland Local Government Area, Lagos State

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul-Hakeem O Abiola; Oluwabunmi A Oke; Mobolanle R Balogun; Foluke A Olatona; Adegbesan-Omilabu, Maymunah A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Unsafe abortion is a public health concern because of its dire reproductive health consequences and impact on maternal morbidity and mortality. Tackling this problem will go a long way toward achieving one of the Millennium Developmental Goals, which aim to reduce overall maternal mortality by two-thirds by the year 2015. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practice of abortion and the factors associated with it among female students of two public s...

  2. Attitudes toward Communication Skills among Students'-Teachers' in Jordanian Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Omari, Aieman Ahmad; Al-Dababneh, Kholoud A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the positive and negative attitudes among 289 students of class teachers and childhood teachers' disciplines using the communication skills attitude scale (CSAS) in Jordanian public universities. GPA, year level of students were recorded. Overall results of study revealed that the mean of positive…

  3. Framing (implicitly) matters: the role of religion in attitudes toward immigrants and Muslims in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joel; Antalíková, Radka

    2014-12-01

    Denmark is currently experiencing the highest immigration rate in its modern history. Population surveys indicate that negative public attitudes toward immigrants actually stem from attitudes toward their (perceived) Islamic affiliation. We used a framing paradigm to investigate the explicit and implicit attitudes of Christian and Atheist Danes toward targets framed as Muslims or as immigrants. The results showed that explicit and implicit attitudes were more negative when the target was framed as a Muslim, rather than as an immigrant. Interestingly, implicit attitudes were qualified by the participants' religion. Specifically, analyses revealed that Christians demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward immigrants than Muslims. Conversely, Atheists demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward Muslims than Atheists. These results suggest a complex relationship between religion, and implicit and explicit prejudice. Both the religious affiliation of the perceiver and the perceived religious affiliation of the target are key factors in social perception.

  4. Do natural science experiments influence public attitudes towards environmental problems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, A.; Hunziker, M.; Kienast, F. [Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

    2003-10-01

    We investigated the significance of risk assessment studies in the public discussion on CO{sub 2} emissions. Politicians and representatives from the public were interviewed by using the social-science technique of qualitative in-depth interviews. Three different types of attitudes towards natural science were found among politicians. Depending on which attitude a politician holds, risk assessment studies can have an impact on his/her readiness to support environmental policy measures. Regarding lay people, key factors affecting the acceptance of environmental policy measures are knowledge of environmental problems, their impacts on ecosystems or human health as well as direct personal perception of those impacts. Since direct perception is not always possible in everyday life, natural science experiments might be a means for successfully mediating this lacking perception. (author)

  5. Reporting and sealing regulations for Alaskan natives, a proposed rule: Report on public attitudes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the proposed reporting and sealing regulations for Alaskan natives- a report on public attitudes. At the direction of the U.S. congress, the...

  6. Public child welfare staff knowledge, attitudes, and referral behaviors for an evidence based parenting program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Whitaker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of the public child welfare work force influence implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP as most research has focused on the private workforce. This paper reports on public child welfare staff knowledge, attitudes, and practices in a state implementing the EBP, SafeCare®. A survey of public child welfare staff (N = 222 was conducted to assess knowledge, familiarity, and referral barriers and practices. Knowledge of and familiarity with SafeCarewere low, especially among front line staff (case managers. Attitudes toward SafeCare were fairly positive, but somewhat less so than attitudes toward a standard, non-evidenced based parenting program. Case managers were significantly less likely to have made a referral (15% than other staff (46%. Job tenure had few effects on familiarity, knowledge, attitudes, or referrals. The strongest predictors of having made referrals were familiarity with SafeCare and job position.

  7. "This Is a Public Service Announcement": Evaluating and Redesigning Campaigns to Teach Attitudes and Persuasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Erika J.; Lomore, Christine D.

    2009-01-01

    We present an assignment that requires students to apply their knowledge of the social psychology of attitudes and persuasion to critique and redesign a public service announcement. Students in a 200-level social psychology course evaluated the assignment by indicating their overall attitudes toward the assignment. Students rated the assignment…

  8. Making sense of policy choices: understanding the roles of value predispositions, mass media, and cognitive processing in public attitudes toward nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shirley S.; Scheufele, Dietram A.; Corley, Elizabeth A.

    2010-10-01

    Using a nationally representative telephone survey of 1,015 adults in the United States, this study examines how value predispositions, communication variables, and perceptions of risks and benefits are associated with public support for federal funding of nanotechnology. Our findings show that highly religious individuals were less supportive of funding of nanotech than less religious individuals, whereas individuals who held a high deference for scientific authority were more supportive of funding of the emerging technology than those low in deference. Mass media use and elaborative processing of scientific news were positively associated with public support for funding, whereas factual scientific knowledge had no significant association with policy choices. The findings suggest that thinking about and reflecting upon scientific news promote better understanding of the scientific world and may provide a more sophisticated cognitive structure for the public to form opinions about nanotech than factual scientific knowledge. Finally, heuristic cues including trust in scientists and perceived risks and benefits of nanotech were found to be associated with public support for nanotech funding. We conclude with policy implications that will be useful for policymakers and science communication practitioners.

  9. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of abortion among female students of two public senior secondary schools in Lagos Mainland Local Government Area, Lagos State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Hakeem O Abiola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unsafe abortion is a public health concern because of its dire reproductive health consequences and impact on maternal morbidity and mortality. Tackling this problem will go a long way toward achieving one of the Millennium Developmental Goals, which aim to reduce overall maternal mortality by two-thirds by the year 2015. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practice of abortion and the factors associated with it among female students of two public senior secondary schools in Mainland Local Government Area, Lagos state. Materials and Methods: This was designed as a cross-sectional, descriptive study. The multistage sampling method was used to select 210 respondents. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires and analyzed using the EPI Info software. The questionnaire was divided into four sections: the sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents, knowledge about abortion, attitudes toward abortion, and the practice of abortion. The responses to the knowledge and attitude questions were scored and graded as good (≥50% and poor (<50%. Results: The response rate was 98%. The mean age of the respondents was 15.6 ΁ 1.3 years. The majority (83.3% of the respondents had good knowledge of abortion; almost all (99.2% demonstrated poor attitude toward abortion; and only a few (2% had ever had an abortion. There was a statistically significant association between the ages of the respondents and their knowledge of abortion (P = 0.004 as well as their attitude toward abortion (P = 0.03. Conclusion: The respondents showed good knowledge of abortion, poor attitude toward abortion, and a low of practice of abortion. There is, therefore, a need to improve and sustain the existing knowledge and attitudes toward abortion so as to reduce the practice of abortion among students of the two schools.

  10. Public Attitudes toward Education in Ontario, 1982. Fourth OISE Survey. Informal Series/51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, D. W.; And Others

    Results of the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education 1982 Survey, intended primarily to offer ongoing profiles of mass attitudes on major issues of current educational reform, are reported. In addition to documenting trends in public support for general curricular and financing options, the survey focuses on attitudes towards alternative ways…

  11. Public attitudes towards genetically-modified food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miles, S.; Ueland, O.; Frewer, L.J.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose - This study aimed to investigate the impact of information about traceability and new detection methods for identifying genetically-modified organisms in food, on consumer attitudes towards genetically-modified food and consumer trust in regulators in Italy, Norway and England. It

  12. Beliefs and Attitudes of Medical Students from Public and Private Universities in Malaysia towards Individuals with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Kwee Choy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the findings from a survey assessing the beliefs regarding testing, confidentiality, disclosure, and environment of care and attitudes towards care of people with HIV/AIDS (PLHWA, in 1020, 4th and 5th year medical students, from public and private medical universities in Malaysia. A self-administered validated questionnaire based on the UNAIDS Model Questionnaire with a 5-point Likert scale (5, strongly disagree; 4, disagree; 3, neutral; 2, agree; 1, strongly agree was used as a survey tool. The survey included demographic data and data on undergraduate training received on HIV/AIDS. Statistical significance in the demographic data and training received by respondents was evaluated using the chi-square test while the independent Student’s t-test was used for comparison of means between public and private universities. A value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant with 95% confidence interval. Our study revealed less than 20% of medical students received adequate training to care for PLHWA. They had prevalent negative beliefs regarding testing, confidentiality, disclosure and environment of care towards PLHWA although in giving care to PLHWA, their attitudes were largely positive and nondiscriminatory.

  13. Models of complex attitude systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo

    Existing research on public attitudes towards agricultural production systems is largely descriptive, abstracting from the processes through which members of the general public generate their evaluations of such systems. The present paper adopts a systems perspective on such evaluations, understa......Existing research on public attitudes towards agricultural production systems is largely descriptive, abstracting from the processes through which members of the general public generate their evaluations of such systems. The present paper adopts a systems perspective on such evaluations......, understanding them as embedded into a wider attitude system that consists of attitudes towards objects of different abstraction levels, ranging from personal value orientations over general socio-political attitudes to evaluations of specific characteristics of agricultural production systems. It is assumed...... that evaluative affect propagates through the system in such a way that the system becomes evaluatively consistent and operates as a schema for the generation of evaluative judgments. In the empirical part of the paper, the causal structure of an attitude system from which people derive their evaluations of pork...

  14. The attitude of Iranian nurses about do not resuscitate orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Mogadasian

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Iranian nurses, regardless of their religious sects, reported negative attitude towards many aspects of DNR orders. It may be possible to change the attitude of Iranian nurses towards DNR through education.

  15. The Impact of Balanced Risk-Benefit Information and Initial Attitudes on Post-Information Attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van H.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Jonge, de J.; Rowe, G.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    In a realistic social context, people are confronted with both positive and negative information, yet research on this topic is relatively scarce. We present 2 studies examining the role of initial attitudes on the impact of one-sided vs. balanced positive and negative information on attitudes towar

  16. On-the Fly Merging of Attitude Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in autonomous attitude determination instrumentation enable even small satellites flying fully autonomous multi head star trackers providing full accurate and robust attitude information. Each sensor provides the full attitude information but for robustness and optimal usage...... of the available information, i.e. optimal accuracy, methods for merging such data should be investigated. The need for and desirability of attitude merging depends on the mission objective and available resources. To enable real-time attitude control and reduce requirements on download budget, on-board merging...... of attitude data will often be advantageous. This should be weighted against the need for post observation reconstruction of attitudes, especially needed when end products are sensitive to optimal attitude reconstruction. Instrument integrated merging algorithms will reduce the complexity of on-board AOCS...

  17. The Ethical Attitudes of Local Government Employees

    OpenAIRE

    Stasiak, Ewelina

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to present the appropriate ethical attitudes of local government employees which affect the efficiency of the administration. Local government employees who are exclusively competent and honest are able to properly execute their goals within strictly defined procedures and tasks. The article focuses on a brief analysis of the concept of ethics, employees of local government, as well as an analysis of ethics in terms of its impact on the quality of ...

  18. Attitudes to publicly funded obesity treatment and prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Bøker; Sandøe, Peter; Lassen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    , the perceived controllability of obesity, self-reported BMI, and additional attitudinal and sociodemographic characteristics. Public funding of some obesity treatments, such as weight-loss surgery, attracted only limited public support. A majority of the Danish public did support ‘softer’ treatment......The aim of this study was to investigate the Danish public’s support for publicly funded obesity treatment and prevention. It was also examined whether levels of support could be explained by dislike of obese people and / or the belief that those who are obese are personally responsible...... interventions and preventive initiatives. Attitudes to the treatment of obesity were clearly best predicted by the belief that individuals are personally responsible for their own obesity. Dislike of obese persons had no direct effect on the preference for collective treatment initiatives and only a small...

  19. Attitudes Toward Violence: The Interaction of TV Exposure, Family Attitudes and Social Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Joseph R.; Greenberg, Bradley S.

    Three antecedent variables were examined to determine their effects on children's attitudes toward aggression--the child's exposure to television violence, his perceptions of his family's attitudes toward violence, and the family's socioeconomic status. Questionnaires which were completed by 434 fourth through sixth grade boys elicited responses…

  20. A nationwide postal survey on the perception of Malaysian public healthcare providers on family medicine specialists' (PERMFAMS) clinical performance, professional attitudes and research visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Boon-How; Yasin, Mazapuspavina Md; Cheong, Ai-Theng; Rashid, Mohd-Radzniwan A; Hamzah, Zuhra; Ismail, Mastura; Ali, Norsiah; Bashah, Baizury; Mohd-Salleh, Noridah

    2015-01-01

    Perception of healthcare providers who worked with family medicine specialists (FMSs) could translate into the effectiveness of primary healthcare delivery in daily practices. This study examined perceptions of public healthcare providers/professionals (PHCPs) on FMSs at public health clinics throughout Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study in 2012-2013 using postal method targeting PHCPs from three categories of health facilities, namely health clinics, health offices and hospitals. A structured questionnaire was developed to assess PHCP's perception of FMS's clinical competency, safety practice, ethical and professional values, and research involvement. It consists of 37 items with Likert scale of strongly disagree (a score of 1) to strongly agree (a score of 5). Interaction and independent effect of the independent variables were tested and adjusted means score were reported. The participants' response rate was 58.0% (780/1345) with almost equal proportion from each of the three public healthcare facilities. There were more positive perceptions than negative among the PHCPs. FMSs were perceived to provide effective and safe treatment to their patients equally disregards of patient's social background. However, there were some concerns of FMSs not doing home visits, not seeing walk-in patients, had long appointment time, not active in scientific research, writing and publication. There were significant differences in perception based on a respondent's health care facility (p perceptions on FMSs across all the domains investigated. PHCPs from different health care facilities and frequency of encounter with FMSs had different perception. Practicing FMSs could improve on the critical service areas that were perceived to be important but lacking. FMSs might need further support in conducting research and writing for publication.

  1. Empirical Validation and Application of the Computing Attitudes Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Brian; Elliott Tew, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Student attitudes play an important role in shaping learning experiences. However, few validated instruments exist for measuring student attitude development in a discipline-specific way. In this paper, we present the design, development, and validation of the computing attitudes survey (CAS). The CAS is an extension of the Colorado Learning…

  2. The relationship between attitudes towards menarche and current attitudes towards menstruation of women: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nülüfer Erbil

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study was conducted to determine affecting factors and to investigate relationship  between  attitudes towards menarche and current attitudes towards menstruation of women and to compare characteristics of menarche and menstruation of women who were born and raised in the northeastern and western of Turkey.  Method and Materials: This descriptive and comparative study was participated totally 400 volunteer women. The data were collected using a questionnaire containing defined closed and open-ended questions. Results: The study results showed that women living in Ordu province than women living in Aydın province expressed positive attitudes toward menarche, and the difference was found significant. Nevertheless, attitudes towards current menstruation were similar in both provinces. When the data of 400 women were evaluated together; women’s attitudes towards menarche were compared with the current attitudes towards menstruation, and the difference was found statistically significant. Although attitudes of the women towards menarche varied according to where they lived, their current attitudes towards menstruation were similar. In addition, depending upon the province, there were statistically significant differences in women’s age at menarche, recollection of menarche, and feelings of shame or happiness at menarche, source and adequacy of information about menstruation, and regularity of their menstrual cycle.   Conclusions: Early menstrual experiences may be related to menstrual experiences later in life and women’s attitudes towards menstruation were not affected by geographical locations. In order to develop positive attitudes towards menarche and a woman’s future years of menstrual cycles, it is very important that accurate and adequate information for young girls be provided before menarche.

  3. The Study and Measurement of Values and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlinger, Fred N.

    The author defines values, attitudes, and beliefs according to their relation to referents. A referent is a construct standing for a set or category of social objects, ideas, or behaviors that is the focus of an attitude. Attitudes and values are belief systems. Beliefs are enduring cognitions about referents; beliefs reflect the value and…

  4. Behind the ethnic-civic distinction : Public attitudes towards immigrants' political rights in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuijten, Maykel; Martinovic, Borja

    2015-01-01

    Public opinion research has sought to distinguish between ethnic and civic conceptions of citizenship and examined the differential associations of these conceptions with policy preferences in the realm of immigration. What has not been examined empirically is why exactly these conceptions are relat

  5. Public Attitudes Towards Policy Instruments for Congestion Mitigation in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Hongfeng; Xiao Pu; Feng Xiangzhao; Li Fen

    2008-01-01

    Congestion causes many externalities for the society, including time delays, excessive fuel consumption, air pollution, noise and safety concerns. In Shanghai, various policy options have been explored, piloted or applied; however, not all of them may be understood and accepted by the public. A survey was conducted to investigate people's attitudes towards several policy options. The main findings reveal that Shanghai residents are resistant to certain policies, such as congestion charges, higher parking charges in congested areas and car restrictions. Instead, they favor public transport provisions. The paper suggests that there is a case for promoting public transport and more efficient trips when the car ownership is still low, and for investing in a policy of educating the public on the 'true' costs and causes of congestion before embarking on an intensive policy of congestion charges or restrictions.

  6. Adequacy of benefits, distributive justice and individual attitudes and behaviors: A case of public community colleges staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Bin Ismail

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the indirect effect of distributive justice in the relationship between adequacy of benefits and individual attitudes and behaviors (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment using 190 usable questionnaires gathered from employees in Malaysian public community colleges (MPCOLLEGE sector. The outcome of stepwise regression analysis showed that the inclusion of distributive justice in the analysis had increased the effect of adequacy of benefits on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Furthermore, this finding confirms that distributive justice does act as a full mediating variable in the benefits program model of the organizational sector sample. In addition, implications and limitations of this study, as well as directions for future research are discussed.

  7. Belief in public efficacy, trust, and attitudes toward modern genetic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, J; Cooper, H; Senior, V

    2007-08-01

    Government and policymakers want to engage the public in a dialogue about the conduct and consequences of science and increasingly seek to actively involve citizens in decision-making processes. Implicit in this thinking is that greater transparency and public inclusion will help dispel fears associated with new scientific advancements, foster greater public trust in those accountable, and ultimately increase the acceptability of new technologies. Less understood, however, are public perceptions about such high-level involvement in science and how these map onto public trust and attitudes within a diverse population. This article uses the concept of public efficacy -- the extent to which people believe that the public might be able to affect the course of decision making -- to explore differences in trust, attentiveness, and attitudes toward modern genetic science. Using nationally representative data from the 2003 British Social Attitudes Survey, we begin by examining the characteristics of those who have a positive belief about public involvement in this area of scientific inquiry. We then focus on how this belief maps on to indicators of public trust in key stakeholder groups, including the government and genetic scientists. Finally, we consider the relationship between public efficacy and trust and attitudes toward different applications of genetic technology. Our findings run contrary to assumptions that public involvement in science will foster greater trust and lead to a climate of greater acceptance for genetic technology. A belief in public efficacy does not uniformly equate with more trusting attitudes toward stakeholders but is associated with less trust in government rules. Whereas trust is positively correlated with more permissive attitudes about technologies such as cloning and gene therapy, people who believe in high-level public involvement are less likely to think that these technologies should be allowed than those who do not.

  8. Attitudes of Iraqi society towards the role of community pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrasoul Wayyes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main aims of this study were to assess society’s use of community pharmacies; evaluate attitudes towards the role of the community pharmacist; and describe required pharmacist characteristics and future services.Study design: A cross-sectional survey with a stratified sampling technique.Methods: A self-administered, validated, questionnaire was distributed to 500 consumers in attendance at 50 community pharmacies in Baghdad, Iraq. Data were gathered from January to April 2012. Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed to test for statistical differences among the study variables. Further analysis through the Chi-square test and logistic regression was completed to assess the predictors of society’s attitudes.Results: Twenty-six percent of respondents visited their community pharmacies at least once per week and an additional 65% reported visiting their pharmacy at least once per month. Fifty-five percent of respondents listed the community pharmacist as the first person they would contact in case of any drug-related problem. However, the pharmacist’s role was under-appreciated by the majority of respondents (79.8%. These attitudes varied significantly with regard to the demographic characteristics of respondents. Logistic regression analysis showed that gender and age were the influential predictors of favourable versus non-favourable attitudes towards the role of pharmacist.Conclusions: The use of community pharmacies in Iraq was characterized by frequent visits to purchase medicines. Selection of the pharmacy primarily depended on its location. Overall, an under-appreciation of the professional performance of pharmacists was predominant. Raising public awareness towards the important role of community pharmacists in providing public health is warranted.

  9. Knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes toward complementary and alternative medicines among pharmacy students of a Malaysian Public University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Qasim Jamshed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is consistently on the rise worldwide. Consumers often consider pharmacists as a major source of information about CAM products and their safety. Due to the limitation of data, it is worth exploring the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of pharmacy students toward CAM. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of pharmacy students regarding the use of CAM in Malaysia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted for 3 months among Bachelor of Pharmacy students in a public sector University of Malaysia. A pretested, self-administered questionnaire, comprised four sections, was used to collect the data from 440 participants. Descriptive analysis was used, and Chi-square test was used to test the association between dependent and independent variables. Results: Of 440 questionnaire distributed, 287 were returned giving a response rate of (65.2%. The results showed that 38.6% participants gave correct answers when asked about the use of herbal products with digoxin. Majority of the participants were knowledgeable about supplementary therapy (25.3% while the lack of knowledge was mostly evident in traditional Chinese medicines (73.7%. Majority of the students were either neutral (49.5% or disagreed that (42.8% CAM use is unsafe. Females were more in disagreement to the statements than males (P = 0.007. Majority of students also agreed to use CAM therapies for their health and well-being (51.2%. Conclusion: The study revealed that pharmacy students did not have adequate knowledge of CAM though their attitudes and perceptions were relatively positive.

  10. Assessment of Knowledge, Attitudes and Competencies of Health Professionals Attended an International Training Programme in Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despena Andrioti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Continuing education is a fundamental aspect of health personnel professional life. These enable health professionals improve patient-centred care, stay current and provide quality services.Objectives: To assess knowledge, attitudes and competencies from the interprofessional training programme in public health held in cooperation with WHO/EURO.Methods: A structured questioner for self-ratings on perceived seminar usefulness and implementation was placed on the internet followed by email notification to the 300 participants. We have received 128 completed questionnaires (42.5%.Programme effects were tested by categorical analysis using Pearson chi-Square or Fisher's exact test. Logistic regression was used to reveal correlation between implementation of competencies according to discipline and type of employer. All tests were considered to be significant at a 5% level. Analysis was carried out using SPSS 20.0. Findings: 85.9% (p = 0.021 <0.05 of the participants applied the knowledge they acquired in the seminar. The application of the competencies in public health services differed according to position (p<0.05. Supervisors achieved higher scores (81.4% in the administration and management than the officers (48.5%. Health professionals felt that their performance has been improved and consequently the quality of the services (75%. Conclusion: The international programme gave them confidence that the acquired knowledge and skills were equal to those of their European colleagues and that they are able to deal with public health issues and to provide the respective services.

  11. Party Identification, Contact, Contexts, and Public Attitudes toward Illegal Immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravelle, Timothy B

    2016-01-01

    Illegal immigration is a contentious issue on the American policy agenda. To understand the sources of public attitudes toward immigration, social scientists have focused attention on political factors such as party identification; they have also drawn on theories of intergroup contact to argue that contact with immigrants shapes immigration attitudes. Absent direct measures, contextual measures such as respondents' ethnic milieu or proximity to salient geographic features (such as borders) have been used as proxies of contact. Such a research strategy still leaves the question unanswered - is it contact or context that really matters? Further, which context, and for whom? This article evaluates the effects of party identification, personal contact with undocumented immigrants, and contextual measures (county Hispanic population and proximity to the US-Mexico border) on American attitudes toward illegal immigration. It finds that contextual factors moderate the effects of political party identification on attitudes toward illegal immigration; personal contact has no effect. These findings challenge the assumption that contextual measures act as proxies for interpersonal contact.

  12. Investigating students’ attitude towards the importance of factors included in the teaching evaluation forms of School of Public Health of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H Dehghani Tafti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: students’ attitudes about teaching methodology have been widely recognised as a valid tool of evaluating teaching activities of faculty members. This study aims to determine the importance of the factors included in the teaching evaluation, from the students’ point of view. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. Using a random cluster sampling, 332 students of the school of public health of Shahid Sadoughi University were selected .To collect data, a questionnaire containing three partswere used. These were demographic items, teachers’ evaluation (14 items and self-evaluation (4 items. Results: The students (80% scoredpersonal characteristics more. Among different fields of study, those studying occupational health scored the factorsless than others, and those studying at masters level scored them more than others.   The results indicated that there are significant correlation between age, marital status, and employment status of the students and the total average score.   The students scored the self-evaluation items more than 60%, There was a significant correlation between the average scores of evaluation and self-evaluation items. The students at bachelor level scored the factor more than masters students. Conclusion: The students’ focus on personal characteristics of teachers was remarkable. There is a need to revise the process of academics’ recruitment based on these findings. There is also a need to review the items included in evaluation forms of the school.

  13. On the Dominance of Attitude Emotionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocklage, Matthew D; Fazio, Russell H

    2016-02-01

    Many situations in our lives require us to make relatively quick decisions as whether to approach or avoid a person or object, buy or pass on a product, or accept or reject an offer. These decisions are particularly difficult when there are both positive and negative aspects to the object. How do people go about navigating this conflict to come to a summary judgment? Using the Evaluative Lexicon (EL), we demonstrate across three studies, 7,700 attitude expressions, and nearly 50 different attitude objects that when positivity and negativity conflict, the valence that is based more on emotion is more likely to dominate. Furthermore, individuals are also more consistent in the expression of their univalent summary judgments when they involve greater emotionality. In sum, valence that is based on emotion tends to dominate when resolving ambivalence and also helps individuals to remain consistent when offering quick judgments.

  14. Influences of culture and environmental attitude on thermal, emotional and perceptual evaluations of a public square

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knez, Igor; Thorsson, Sofia

    2006-05-01

    The main objective of the present quasi-experimental study was to examine the influence of culture (Swedish vs Japanese) and environmental attitude (urban vs open-air person) on participants’ thermal, emotional and perceptual assessments of a square, within the PET (physiological equivalent temperature) comfortable interval of 18 23°C. It was predicted that persons living in different cultures with different environmental attitudes would psychologically evaluate a square differently despite similar thermal conditions. Consistent with this prediction, Japanese participants estimated the current weather as warmer than did Swedish participants and, consistent with this, they felt less thermally comfortable on the site, although participants in both countries perceived similar comfortable thermal outdoor conditions according to the PET index. Compared to the Japanese, the Swedes estimated both the current weather and the site as windier and colder, indicating a consistency in weather assessment on calm-windy and warm-cold scales in participants in both cultures. Furthermore, Swedish participants felt more glad and calm on the site and, in line with their character (more glad than gloomy), they estimated the square as more beautiful and pleasant than did Japanese participants. All this indicates that thermal, emotional and perceptual assessments of a physical place may be intertwined with psychological schema-based and socio-cultural processes, rather than fixed by general thermal indices developed in line with physiological heat balance models. In consequence, this implies that thermal comfort indices may not be applicable in different cultural/climate zones without modifications, and that they may not be appropriate if we do not take into account the psychological processes involved in environmental assessment.

  15. Attitudes of Consumers Towards the Green Plastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Elnecave Kruter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The demands regarding sustainable production and consumption are growing increasingly, the market is opening doors for companies to innovate in products and processes that present themselves as a solution to social and environmental problems facing society today. To this end, in 2010, a Brazilian company began producing the "green" polyethylene, or green plastic, which differs from conventional polyethylene because it is produced from the ethanol from cane sugar and not from naphtha oil. Because it is a new product on the market and little known, this study aims to understand consumer attitudes towards green plastic. Environmental concerns, ecologically conscious consumer behavior, purchase intention and previous knowledge of green plastic were also assessed. Were conducted initially in-depth interviews, which helped quantitative stage, an online survey, applied to a sample of 300 individuals. Results indicate that surveyed consumers have positive attitudes towards green plastic and intention to purchase products made ​​with this material. Despite exhibiting a high degree of environmental awareness, they show only moderate attitudes in relation to sustainable consumption in practice. We can conclude that there is still much to be done by companies and society so that a greater degree of maturity and respect for the environment can be achieved.

  16. Breastfeeding Attitudes of Pregnant Women and Some Factors Which Effect the Breastfeeding Attitude

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This research is carried out as analitical to determine the breastfeeding attitudes of pregnant women who applied Hacettepe University Hospital Gynecologic and Obstetric Department during the month of December 2001 and some factors effecting breastfeeding attitude. Most of the women who taken the research was between 25-29 age group and graduated high school and university. About 39.8% of the pregnant women was in the period of first pregnancy. 96.1% of pregnant women who delivered live ...

  17. The investigation of the reading attitudes of second grade students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil İşeri

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to examine the reading attitudes of 6th, 7th and 8th level primary school students in respect to several variables using the “Reading Attitude Scale towards Primary School Second Grade Students” which is developed by Özbay and Uyar (2009. Study group consists of 508 students studying in the 6th, 7th and 8th levels of state primary schools in Niğde city centre. Thus, the reading attitudes of 6th, 7th and 8th level students in accordance with gender and school variables are intended to be defined. At the end of the study, the reading attitude levels of the second grade students are seen positive. It is concluded that the reading attitude score averages of second grade students show a significant difference with regard to genders, schools and classes at which they study.

  18. Neuro-Societies? Attitudes and Perceptions in a German Public towards the Neurosciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lumma, Anna-Lena; Nagel, Saskia K.

    2016-01-01

    Findings from the neurosciences are increasingly discussed publicly. In neuroethical debates it is often assumed that the general public perceives neuroscientific topics as highly relevant and that it is influenced by the neuroscientific narratives that pervade the public sphere. However, studies on

  19. Publication of the bulletin

    CERN Document Server

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    The final edition (Nos 51-52/2008 and 1-2/2009) of the last Weekly Bulletin of the year will be published on Friday 12 December and will cover events at CERN from 15 December 2008 to 12 January 2009. Announcements for publication in this issue should reach the Publication Section (Communication group) or the Staff Association, as appropriate by noon, on Tuesday 9 December. Bulletin publication 2009 The table below lists the 2009 publication dates for the paper version of the Bulletin and the corresponding deadlines for the submission of announcements. Please note that all announcements must be submitted by 12.00 midday on Tuesdays at the latest. Bulletin No. Week number Submission of announcements (before 12.00 midday) Publication date 3-4 Tuesday 6 January Monday 12 January 5-6 Tuesday 20 January Monday 26 January 7-8 Tuesday 3 February Monday 9 February 9-10 Tuesday 17 Februar...

  20. Exploring the structure of attitudes toward genetically modified food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortinga, Wouter; Pidgeon, Nick F

    2006-12-01

    Although it is often thought that the British public is opposed to genetically modified (GM) food, recent qualitative work suggests that most people are ambivalent about GM food and crops. In this article we explore the structure of attitudes in order to examine whether attitudinal ambivalence can be captured by more quantitative methods. Based on the finding that the perceived risks and benefits of GM food can be treated as independent dimensions, we propose a four-way typology of attitudes, consisting of a positive, negative, indifferent, and ambivalent group. This study showed that the differences between the four groups could best be described by three main dimensions: (1) a general evaluative dimension, (2) an involvement dimension, and (3) an attitudinal certainty dimension. While these different attitudinal dimensions have generally been studied in isolation, we argue that they should be studied collectively.

  1. Measuring Primary Teachers' Attitudes toward Teaching Science: Development of the Dimensions of Attitude toward Science (DAS) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra; Walma van der Molen, Juliette

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a valid and reliable instrument which measures the attitude of in-service and pre-service primary teachers toward teaching science, called the Dimensions of Attitude Toward Science (DAS) Instrument. Attention to the attitudes of primary teachers toward teaching science is of fundamental importance to the…

  2. Measuring Primary Teachers' Attitudes toward Teaching Science: Development of the Dimensions of Attitude toward Science (DAS) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra; Walma van der Molen, Juliette

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a valid and reliable instrument which measures the attitude of in-service and pre-service primary teachers toward teaching science, called the Dimensions of Attitude Toward Science (DAS) Instrument. Attention to the attitudes of primary teachers toward teaching science is of fundamental importance to the…

  3. Measuring primary teachers' attitudes toward teaching science: development of the dimensions of attitude toward science (DAS) instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalderen-Smeets, van Sandra; Walma van der Molen, Juliëtte

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a valid and reliable instrument which measures the attitude of in-service and pre-service primary teachers toward teaching science, called the Dimensions of Attitude Toward Science (DAS) Instrument. Attention to the attitudes of primary teachers toward teaching science is

  4. Attitudes of Jordanian Nursing Students towards Mental Illness: The Effect of Teaching and Contact on Attitudes Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaideh, Shaher H.; Mudallal, Rola

    2009-01-01

    Purposes: Attitudes toward mental illness and patients with mental illness influence the treatment they receive and decisions of policy makers. The purposes of this study were to assess Jordanian nursing students' attitudes towards mental illness, and to assess the effectiveness of teaching and contact on changing nursing students' attitudes about…

  5. Impact of social media as an instructional component on content knowledge, attitudes, and public engagement related to global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Sallie E.

    Social media (SM) are considered important avenues to reach citizens and engage them in social change. Given the widespread use of SM and their potential to enhance communication, they could also have significant influence when used as an educational tool. Educators are exploring whether classroom SM use has instructional benefits, such as enhancing interactivity and engagement. It is critical to understand the potential of SM for creating meaningful learning environments and public engagement pathways. Much work remains to understand the use of SM in this context and how to use them effectively. This study draws on active learning theory to examine the impact of SM as an instructional component with community college students learning to make connections among science, social responsibility, and global understanding in an environmental biology course (the Course). Using global climate change as a theme, the Course included a Facebook instructional component. A pretest--posttest, nonrandomized comparison group design was used to measure the impact of Facebook as an integrated component of the Course. The treatment and comparison groups were determined to be comparable based on demographics, access and ownership of digital devices, and SM use despite non-random assignment. No statistically significant differences were found between groups on these factors. The intervention consisted of semester-long required use of Facebook for the treatment group. The impact of the SM intervention was measured in three areas: (a) content knowledge, (b) attitudes toward climate change, and (c) public engagement actions and intentions to act. At the conclusion of the Course, no discernable difference was measured in content knowledge gains between the two groups. However, students who used Facebook experienced statistically significant differences in attitude, becoming increasingly concerned about global climate change. The comparison group demonstrated statistically significant

  6. Development and validation of the ACSI : measuring students' science attitudes, pro-environmental behaviour, climate change attitudes and knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, E. M.; Goedhart, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Attitudes towards Climate Change and Science Instrument. This 63-item questionnaire measures students' pro-environmental behaviour, their climate change knowledge and their attitudes towards school science, societal implications of science

  7. Patterns of Welfare Attitudes in the Australian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Timothy P; Butterworth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The study of community attitudes toward welfare and welfare recipients is an area of increasing interest. This is not only because negative attitudes can lead to stigmatization and discrimination, but because of the relevance of social attitudes to policy decisions. We quantify the attitudes toward welfare in the Australian population using attitude data from a nationally representative survey (N = 3243). Although there was broad support for the social welfare system, negative attitudes are held toward those who receive welfare benefits. Using canonical correlation analysis we identify multivariate associations between welfare attitudes and respondent demographic characteristics. A primary attitudinal dimension of welfare positivity was found amongst those with higher levels of education, life instability, and personal exposure to the welfare system. Other patterns of negative welfare attitudes appeared to be motivated by beliefs that the respondent's personal circumstances indicate their deservingness. Moreover, a previously unidentified and unconsidered subset of respondents was identified. This group had positive attitudes toward receiving government benefits despite having no recent experience of welfare. They did, however, possess many of the characteristics that frequently lead to welfare receipt. These results provide insights into not only how attitudinal patterns segment across the population, but are of relevance to policy makers considering how to align welfare reform with community attitudes.

  8. Radioactive wastes: public attitudes toward disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindell, M.K.; Earle, T.C.; Hebert, J.A.; Perry, R.W.

    1978-10-01

    Seventeen geographically widespread, established groups were selected which were expected to vary in their attitudes from strongly pronuclear to strongly antinuclear. People who tend to be politically active were chosen. The highest level of consensus was found on the need for site monitoring, site control, and information transfer in a waste repository. Overall, the results indicate that pronuclear respondents believe that the hazards of nuclear waste are similar to other industrial risks, while antinuclear respondents are less optimistic about safe storage of nuclear wastes and believe that nuclear power is different.

  9. English as an International Language of Scientific Publication: A Study of Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Gibson; Perez-Llantada, Carmen; Plo, Ramon

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on an issue attracting increasing attention: the possible disadvantage inflicted on non-Anglophone academics by the dominance of English in scientific publication and academic exchange. We critically review the evidence for linguistic disadvantage, noting some of its limitations, and critique the native/non-native distinction as…

  10. Publication of the bulletin

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The final edition (Nos 51-52/2007 and 1-2-3/2008) of the last Bulletin of the year will appear on Friday 14 December and will cover events at CERN from 17 December 2007 to 18 January 2008. Announcements for publication in this issue should reach the Publication Section (Communication group) or the Staff Association, as appropriate, by noon on Tuesday 11 December. The table below lists the 2008 publication dates for the paper version of the Bulletin and the corresponding deadlines for the submission of announcements. Please note that all announcements must be submitted by 12.00 midday on Tuesdays at the latest. Bulletin publication 2008 Bulletin N° 4-5 Publication: Monday 21 january Submission deadline for announcements: Tuesday 15 January Bulletin N° 6-7 Publication: Monday 4 february Submission deadline for announcements: Tuesday 29 January Bulletin N° 8-9 Publication: Monday 18 february Submission deadline for announcements: Tuesday 12 February Bulletin N° 10-11 P...

  11. Do Attitudes toward School Influence the Underachievement of Turkish and Moroccan Minority Students in Flanders? The Attitude-Achievement Paradox Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'hondt, Fanny; Van Praag, Lore; Stevens, Peter A. J.; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    While many ethnic minority students underachieve compared with their ethnic majority peers, they often hold very positive school attitudes. Mickelson (1990) explained this attitude-achievement paradox by the existence of a double set of attitudes. Abstract attitudes reflect the dominant ideas about schooling, while concrete attitudes refer to a…

  12. On the relationship between the indirectly measured attitude towards beer and beer consumption: the role of attitude accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descheemaeker, Mathilde; Spruyt, Adriaan; Hermans, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Although some studies have demonstrated that the indirectly measured attitude towards alcohol is related to alcohol use, this relationship has not always been confirmed. In the current study, we attempted to shed light on this issue by investigating whether the predictive validity of an indirect attitude measure is dependent upon attitude accessibility. In a sample of 88 students, the picture-picture naming task, an adaptation of the affective priming paradigm, was used to measure the automatically activated attitude towards beer. Attitude accessibility was measured using a speeded evaluative categorization task. Behavioral measures were the amount of beer poured and drunk during a bogus taste test and the choice between a bottle of beer or water at the end of the experiment. In line with our hypothesis, the indirectly measured attitude towards beer predicted behavior during the taste test only when it was highly accessible. In contrast, this attitude was related to choice behavior irrespective of attitude accessibility. This study confirms that indirect attitude measures can be valuable predictors of alcohol-related behavior, but that it is sometimes necessary to take attitude accessibility into account.

  13. Publication of the Bulletin

    CERN Multimedia

    The final edition (Nos 51-52/2009 and 1-2/2010) of the last Weekly Bulletin of the year will be published on Friday 11 December and will cover events at CERN from 14 December 2009 to 8 January 2010. Announcements for publication in this issue should reach the Publication Section (Communications group) or the Staff Association, as appropriate, by noon on Tuesday 8 December. Bulletin publication 2010 The table below lists the 2010 publication dates for the paper version of the Bulletin and the corresponding deadlines for the submission of announcements. Please note that all announcements must be submitted by 12.00 midday on Tuesdays at the latest. Bulletin No. Week number Submission of announcements (before 12.00 midday) Bulletin Web version Bulletin Paper version 2-3 Tuesday 5 January Friday 8 and 15 January Wednesday 13 J...

  14. Gender, Self-Stigma, and Public Stigma in Predicting Attitudes toward Psychological Help-Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of university students (N = 362), the role of gender and both the self-stigma and public stigma associated with one's decision to seek psychological help in predicting attitudes toward psychological helpseeking were examined. Moreover, gender differences regarding both the self-stigma and the public stigma associated with…

  15. Public attitude formation regarding animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Bøker; Lassen, Jesper; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A number of attitudinal studies have examined support for the use of animals in research. However, on the whole they have come to rather different conclusions. In our reasearch, which is based on focus group discussions held in Denmark, we attempted to explain this variation by examining the way ......, especially for the Reserved who experience ambivalence. Future quantitative analyses should take into consideration that attitutes in the field of animal experimentation can be viewed (and measured) both at an underlying value-based level and at a context-specific level.......A number of attitudinal studies have examined support for the use of animals in research. However, on the whole they have come to rather different conclusions. In our reasearch, which is based on focus group discussions held in Denmark, we attempted to explain this variation by examining the way...... the relevant attitudes are formed. Although our participants had only limited knowledge of, and interest in, animal use in research, they were perfecly capable of developing reasoned attitudes to it by drawing on evaluative considerations concerning animal use in general. Furthermore, the evaluation of animal...

  16. The Attitudes of the High School Students of Hail, Saudi Arabia towards the Current Educational Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasawneh, Kholoud Ahmed Saleem

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the attitudes of public secondary school students in the State of Hail towards the modern educational concepts, and what are the differences between them. It has been used in the study descriptive analytical method. The study was conducted on a sample of 400 male and female students, chosen randomly according to the…

  17. The Campbell paradigm as a conceptual alternative to the expectation of hypocrisy in contemporary attitude research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Florian G; Byrka, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Hypocrisy-professing a general attitude without implementing corresponding attitude-relevant behavior-is, according to Ajzen and Fishbein (2005), commonly found in attitude research that aims to explain individual behavior. We conducted two studies that adopted the Campbell paradigm, an alternative to the traditional understanding of attitudes. In a laboratory experiment, we found that specific attitude-relevant cooperation in a social dilemma was a function of people's pre-existing general environmental attitude. In a quasi-experiment, we corroborated the reverse as well; engagement in attitude-relevant dietary practices was indicative of environmental attitude. When using Campbellian attitude measures, there is no room for hypocrisy: People put their general attitudes into specific attitude-relevant practices, and differences in people's general attitudes can be derived from their attitude-relevant behavior.

  18. The Attitudes, Knowledge and Beliefs of Arab Parents in Kuwait about Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaledi, Maram; Lincoln, Michelle; McCabe, Patricia; Packman, Ann; Alshatti, Tariq

    2009-01-01

    An Arabic version of the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes Inventory [POSHA-E; St Louis, K. O. (2005), a global instrument to measure public attitudes about stuttering. ("The ASHA Leader," 22, 2-13)] was administered to 424 Arab parents of preschool and school age children in 18 government schools across all six governorates in…

  19. Evidence that attitude accessibility augments the relationship between speeding attitudes and speeding behavior: a test of the MODE model in the context of driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Mark A; Lee, Emme; Robertson, Jamie S; Innes, Rhona

    2015-01-01

    According to the MODE model of attitude-to-behavior processes, attitude accessibility augments attitude-behavior correspondence, reflecting an automatic influence of attitudes on behavior. We therefore tested whether attitude accessibility moderates the attitude-behavior relationship in a context that is governed by characteristically automatic behavior, namely driving. In study 1 (correlational design), participants (N=130) completed online questionnaire measures of the valences and accessibilities of their attitudes towards speeding. Two weeks later, online questionnaire measures of subsequent speeding behavior were obtained. Attitude valence was a significantly better predictor of behavior at high (mean+1SD) versus low (mean-1SD) levels of attitude accessibility. In study 2 (experimental design), attitude accessibility was manipulated with a repeated attitude expression task. Immediately after the manipulation, participants (N=122) completed online questionnaire measures of attitude valence and accessibility, and two weeks later, subsequent speeding behavior. Increased attitude accessibility in the experimental (versus control) condition generated an increase in attitude-behavior correspondence. The findings are consistent with the MODE model's proposition that attitudes can exert an automatic influence on behavior. Interventions to reduce speeding could usefully increase the accessibility of anti-speeding attitudes and reduce the accessibility of pro-speeding attitudes.

  20. Attitude towards Community Building in Association of Southeast Asian Nations: A Public Opinion Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichandran Moorthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN envisioned an integrated regional community by the year 2015, following the European Union model. However, unlike the European Community which was formed after years of discussion at different levels of society, institutions and government, ASEAN was rather quick to conceptualize this initiative, without seeking the feedbacks for the public. Consequently, ASEAN Community initiative has been criticized for being elitist in its policy formulation process and for the lack of public opinions regarding this policy. The study examines how people in three ASEAN countries (Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore view the concept of community building, especially from the perspective of the obstacles that this initiative is perceived to encounter in its formation. Approach: The study employs public opinion surveys to gather feedback from respondents regarding their opinion of the obstacles towards the establishment of the ASEAN community by the year 2015. The surveys conducted in eleven cities in three ASEAN countries, namely Indonesia (Jakarta, Makassar, Medan, Surabaya and Pontianak, Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur, Penang, Melaka, Johor Bahru and Kota Kinabalu and Singapore. The surveys involved 1256 respondents- 551 from Indonesia, 451 from Malaysia and 294 from Singapore. Results: The study reveals several findings; firstly the low levels of education in several ASEAN countries have been cited as the main factor that hinders regional integration; secondly there has been a lack of initiative to engage the public regarding their opinions on regional integration and thirdly, issues such as lack of economic competitiveness, dependency on develop countries, socio-economic disparity, differences in legal and political systems and technological divide have scored high agreements among respondents-as contributory factors that would possibly slow down regional integration initiatives. Conclusion: The

  1. The Relationship between Justice and Attitudes: An Examination of Justice Effects on Event and System-Related Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Maureen; Hess, Ronald L.; Ganesan, Shankar

    2007-01-01

    Research in organizational justice has always been interested in the relationship between justice and attitudes. This research often examines how different types of justice affect different attitudes, with distributive justice predicted to affect attitudes about specific events (e.g., performance evaluation) and procedural justice predicted to…

  2. Food Safety Attitude of Culinary Arts Based Students in Public and Private Higher Learning Institutions (IPT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patah, Mohd Onn Rashdi Abd; Issa, Zuraini Mat; Nor, Khamis Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Food safety issue is not new in Malaysia as problems such as unsafe food handling, doubtful food preparation, food poisoning outbreaks in schools and education institutions and spreading of infectious food borne illness has been discussed by the public more often than before. The purpose of this study is to examine the food safety knowledge and…

  3. Public knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy in Majmaah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Aqeel Munahi; Ansari, Tahir; Sami, Waqas; Baz, Salah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Epilepsy is very common in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, occurring in 6.54 out of every 1000 individuals. The current study was conducted to determine the level of public awareness of and attitudes toward epilepsy in the city of Majmaah, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia. The study population included respondents derived from preselected public places in the city. Stratified random sampling was used, and the sample size was made up of 706 individuals. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection from respondents after receiving their verbal consent. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 2.0. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of Majmaah University. Results: The results showed that 575 (81.4%) of the respondents had heard or read about epilepsy. Almost 50% of the respondents knew someone who had epilepsy, and 393 (55.7%) had witnessed what they believed to be a seizure. Results showed that 555 (78.6%) respondents believed that epilepsy was neither a contagious disease nor a type of insanity. It was found that 335 (47.5%) stated that epilepsy was a brain disease, and almost one-quarter of the respondents said that the manifestation of an epileptic episode is a convulsion. Regarding attitude, 49% and 47.3% of respondents stated that they would not allow their children to interact with individuals with epilepsy and would object to marrying an individual with epilepsy, respectively. Conclusion: Although knowledge about epilepsy is improving, it is still not adequate. The study showed that the attitude toward epilepsy is poor.

  4. Public knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy in Majmaah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqeel Munahi Almutairi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Epilepsy is very common in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, occurring in 6.54 out of every 1000 individuals. The current study was conducted to determine the level of public awareness of and attitudes toward epilepsy in the city of Majmaah, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia. The study population included respondents derived from preselected public places in the city. Stratified random sampling was used, and the sample size was made up of 706 individuals. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection from respondents after receiving their verbal consent. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 2.0. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of Majmaah University. Results: The results showed that 575 (81.4% of the respondents had heard or read about epilepsy. Almost 50% of the respondents knew someone who had epilepsy, and 393 (55.7% had witnessed what they believed to be a seizure. Results showed that 555 (78.6% respondents believed that epilepsy was neither a contagious disease nor a type of insanity. It was found that 335 (47.5% stated that epilepsy was a brain disease, and almost one-quarter of the respondents said that the manifestation of an epileptic episode is a convulsion. Regarding attitude, 49% and 47.3% of respondents stated that they would not allow their children to interact with individuals with epilepsy and would object to marrying an individual with epilepsy, respectively. Conclusion: Although knowledge about epilepsy is improving, it is still not adequate. The study showed that the attitude toward epilepsy is poor.

  5. Authoritarianism and Censorship: Attitudes and Opinions of Students in the Graduate Library School of Indiana University. A Report of an Exploratory Project Conducted as a Preliminary for a Proposed Nationwide Study of American Public Librarians and Intellectual Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busha, Charles H.

    This study attempts to measure the attitudes toward intellectual freedom held by a group of future librarians and to correlate these findings with certain syndromes of authoritarianism as reported in "The Authoritarian Personality," by T. W. Adorno, and others (New York, Harper, 1950). The hypothesis is that graduate library students who…

  6. Intention to respond to local wind turbines: the role of attitudes and visual perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Maria; Laike, Thorbjorn [Environmental Psychology Unit, Department of Architecture and the Built Environment, Lund University, PO Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund, (Sweden)

    2007-06-21

    Wind power projects frequently face public opposition during the siting process. A deeper understanding of social factors has therefore been called for. Based on psychological theories, the present research was initiated in order to study the relative importance of individual aspects related to visual perception and attitudinal factors in public intention to oppose local wind turbines. In an empirical study, 80 people assessed the visual characteristics of wind turbines on site and rated their emotional state. They also completed a questionnaire covering attitudes towards the turbines, perception of significant others' opinions of local wind turbines, and perceived possibilities to oppose as well as intention to oppose local turbines. Moreover, socio-demographics, factors related to the place of residence and general attitude towards wind power, were investigated. In a multiple regression analysis explaining 50% of the variance, it was found that intention to oppose was related to only a few perceptual and attitudinal factors, i.e. the perceived unity of the environment, the personal attitude towards the effects of wind turbines on landscape aesthetics and recreation, and the general attitude towards wind power. Of minor importance was the attitude towards the effects of wind turbines on people's daily quality of life. It seems important to involve the public in the discussion of how wind power installations can be integrated into the landscape without threatening the visual beauty and the recreational value of the natural and cultural environment. Moreover, social intervention is required to promote positive attitudes towards wind turbines. (Author).

  7. Preliminary Validation of the Sex Trafficking Attitudes Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston-Kolnik, Jaclyn D; Todd, Nathan R; Wilson, Midge

    2016-09-01

    This study presents the Sex Trafficking Attitudes Scale (STAS), assessing cognitive, behavioral, and affective attitudes toward the sex trafficking of women and girls. Across two studies, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed and confirmed six subscales: (a) Knowledge About Sex Trafficking, (b) Awareness of Sex Trafficking, (c) Attitudes Toward Ability to Leave Sex Trafficking, (d) Attitudes Toward Helping Survivors, (e) Empathic Reactions Toward Sex Trafficking, and (f) Efficacy to Reduce Sex Trafficking. Results showed support for convergent validity as the subscales were associated with related measures. The STAS holds promise to expand research and inform efforts to support trafficking survivors.

  8. Attitude toward Public Health Dentistry as a career among dental students in Odisha: A Cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Nupur; Jain, Kittu; Kabasi, Soumik

    2016-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of dental students' expectations of their profession as well as their attitudes to study a particular specialty of dentistry is of great importance. These attitudes and expectations make studying dentistry meaningful to dental students and society and understanding these factors facilitate workforce planning in the dental sector The aim of the study was to assess the attitude of dental students towards considering Public Health Dentistry as their future career. Materials...

  9. Employer Attitudes towards the Work Inclusion of People with Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nota, Laura; Santilli, Sara; Ginevra, Maria C.; Soresi, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examines the importance of work in life of people with disability and then focuses on employer attitudes towards these people. In the light of Stone and Colella's model, the study examines the employer attitudes and the role of variables such as type of disability, employer experience in the hiring of persons with…

  10. Welfare Attitudes and Social Expenditure: Do Regimes Shape Public Opinion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Tor Georg

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the link between regime types, social expenditure, and welfare attitudes. By employing data on 19 countries taken from the World Values Survey, the main aim is to see to what degree the institutions of a country affect the attitudes of its citizens. According to Esping-Andersen ("The three worlds of welfare…

  11. Attitudes toward same-sex marriage: the case of Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Niklas; Kotsadam, Andreas; Jakobsson, Siri Støre

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the variables that explain attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Using recently collected Scandinavian data (from Norway and Sweden) with a high response rate, this study shows that gender, regular participation in religious activities, political ideology, education, whether the respondent lived in the capital city, and attitudes toward gender equality were important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Age and income were not important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Although both Norwegians and Swedes clearly favor same-sex marriage, Swedes are significantly more positive than Norwegians.

  12. An Empirical Reexamination of the Parent Attitude Research Instrument (PARI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Laura S.; Paolucci, Beatrice

    1975-01-01

    The Parent Attitude Research Instrument (PARI) was employed to study the attitudes of 146 mothers of preschool children toward childrearing. Because responses from the sample were not consistent with scales previously reported in the literature, reevaluation of the scales was performed. Reevaluation revealed groupings of clusters were comparable…

  13. Attitude towards Community Building in Association of Southeast Asian Nations: A Public Opinion Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ravichandran Moorthy; Guido Benny

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) envisioned an integrated regional community by the year 2015, following the European Union model. However, unlike the European Community which was formed after years of discussion at different levels of society, institutions and government, ASEAN was rather quick to conceptualize this initiative, without seeking the feedbacks for the public. Consequently, ASEAN Community initiative has been criticized for being elitist in i...

  14. Awareness and attitude of general public about clinical trials from a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Sridharan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge and awareness about clinical trials amongst general public is essential to improve the recruitment rate of patients. The present study was conducted to assess such aspects in semi-urban and rural India. A cross-sectional pre-validated questionnaire based assessment of views of public regarding the various aspects of clinical trials ranging from general, ethical, confidentiality and publication was conducted. Descriptive statistics was used to represent the responses in the form of proportions. A total of 400 participants were recruited for the study and 92% of the study participants opined that clinical trials benefit society while 9.7% opined that it harms the society. Nearly three-fourth (285/336, 73.8% considered clinical research as an essential step for the development of new drugs. Surprisingly, only 118/261 (45.2% of the study participants felt that the confidentiality of the study participants were adequately protected. Also, only 79/247 (32% and 86/234 (36.8% study participants were aware of compensation in case of participation in clinical trials and adverse effects respectively. To conclude, we observed an optimistic trend towards increasing awareness about clinical trials. However, more robust studies in larger groups of individuals from various strata need to be conducted to assess the attributing factors for the difference in knowledge and awareness about clinical trials.

  15. Organizational climate partially mediates the effect of culture on work attitudes and staff turnover in mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A; Sawitzky, Angelina C

    2006-05-01

    Staff turnover in mental health service organizations is an ongoing problem with implications for staff morale, productivity, organizational effectiveness, and implementation of innovation. Recent studies in public sector services have examined the impact of organizational culture and climate on work attitudes (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment) and, ultimately, staff turnover. However, mediational models of the impact of culture and climate on work attitudes have not been examined. The present study examined full and partial mediation models of the effects of culture and climate on work attitudes and the subsequent impact of work attitudes on staff turnover. Multilevel structural equation models supported a partial mediation model in which organizational culture had both direct influence on work attitudes and indirect influence through organizational climate. Work attitudes significantly predicted one-year staff turnover rates. These findings support the contention that both culture and climate impact work attitudes and subsequent staff turnover.

  16. Public awareness and attitudes towards naval sonar mitigation for cetacean conservation: a preliminary case study in Fairfax County, Virginia. (the DC Metro area).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirbel, K; Balint, P; Parsons, E C M

    2011-01-01

    The potential impacts of naval sonar on cetaceans has led to a series of court cases and statements of concern by international organizations. However, there has been no research conducted on attitudes of the general public with respect to this issue. To investigate this, a preliminary public survey was conducted in Fairfax, Virginia (the Washington, DC Metro region). The majority of the public sampled believed that naval sonar impacted marine mammals (51.3%), that the US Navy should not be exempt from environmental regulations in time of peace (75.2%), and that sonar use should be moderated if it impacts cetaceans (75.8%). Individuals who were conservative, Republican, and have served in the military were more likely to believe the Navy should be exempt from marine mammal protection regulations. In addition, expert interviews were conducted to gain opinions on the potential ramifications of the recent US Supreme Court case on naval sonar mitigation.

  17. Factorial Validity of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Marcia R.; And Others

    The factorial validity of four of the nine Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales (FSMASs) was examined for use in measuring fifth graders' interaction with a subject. The following four scales were assessed: (1) the Confidence in Learning Mathematics Scale; (2) the Attitude Toward Success in Mathematics Scale (ATSMS); (3) the Mathematics…

  18. Counselors' Attitudes toward Homosexuality: A Selective Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, James

    1988-01-01

    Presents review of counselors' and psychotherapists' attitudes toward homosexuality. Reports analysis of the patterns emerging from published survey literature which revealed considerable division and contradiction in the attitudes reported. Proposes the source of such inconsistency to be the mixed messages mental health personnel receive from…

  19. The Relationship of Counselor Attitudes to Training and Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Michael J.; Finley, Robert E.

    The Test of Counselor Attitudes (Porter) was administered to five groups representing different levels of counselor training and experience. Significant differences were found between the groups on all five of the counselor attitudes meased: (1) evaluative; (2) interpretive; (3) understanding; (4) supportive; and (5) probing. As students receive…

  20. The Effectiveness of Smart Schooling on Students' Attitudes towards Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Eng-Tek; Ruthven, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the relative effect of Smart and Mainstream schooling on students' attitudes towards science which was measured using ATSSA(M)--the Malay version of the Germann's (1988) Attitudes Towards Science in School Assessment (ATSSA) instrument. The participants comprised 775 Form 3 (15-year-old) students from two Smart Schools and two…

  1. Multilingual Education: The Role of Language Ideologies and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony J.; Taylor-Leech, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    This paper overviews issues relating to the role of ideologies and attitudes in multilingual education (MLE). It argues that ideologies and attitudes are constituent parts of the language planning process and shape the possibilities for multilingualism in educational programmes in complex ways, but most frequently work to constrain the ways that…

  2. Is 50 cent the price of the optimal copayment? - a qualitative study of patient opinions and attitudes in response to a 50 cent charge on prescription drugs in a publicly funded health system in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinnott Sarah-Jo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A 50 cent prescription levy was introduced in 2010 on the General Medical Services (GMS scheme (Irish public health insurance. This study sought to examine patient attitudes and opinions surrounding the 50 cent copayment. Given the small momentary value of the prescription fee, these results are of interest to policymakers internationally who wish to reduce copayments rather than abolish them. Methods A qualitative research design was used; semi structured interviews were carried out. Twenty four GMS eligible participants were interviewed in 23 interviews. Fifteen females and 9 males took part. Ages varied from 31- >70 years. Patients were invited to be interviewed in both independent and chain community pharmacies in three types of setting; 1 a socially deprived urban area, 2 a suburban affluent area and 3 a rural area. The Framework method was used for data management and analysis using QSR International’s NVivo 9.2 qualitative data analysis software. The “Francis method” was used to test for data saturation. Results Results are of interest to the Irish context and also at a broader international level. Patients were mostly accepting of the prescription levy with some reservations concerning an increased price and the way in which generated revenue would be used by government. Participants identified waste of prescription drugs at the hand of patients (moral hazard, but there was discordant opinion on whether the 50 cent copayment would halt this moral hazard. Interviewees felt the levy was affordable, albeit some may suffer a financial impact more than others. Conclusions This qualitative study gives important insights into the experiences of GMS patients with regard to the prescription levy. Information regarding the appropriateness of a 50 cent copayment as a symbolic copayment needs to be confirmed by quantitative analysis. Further insight is required from a younger population.

  3. Relation of attitude toward body elimination to parenting style and attitude toward the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corgiat, Claudia A; Templer, Donald I

    2003-04-01

    The purpose was to estimate the relation of attitude toward body elimination in 93 college students (27 men and 66 women), to authoritarian personality features, participants' perception of their mothers' parenting style, and attitudes toward cleanliness, sex, and family nudity. Subjects were administered the Body Elimination Attitude Scale, the Four-item F Scale, the Parental Authority Questionnaire Pertaining to Mothers, and the items "Sex is dirty," "Cleanliness is next to godliness," and "Children should never see other family members nude." Larger scores for disgust toward body elimination were associated with authoritarian personality characteristics, being less likely to describe mother's parenting style as authoritative (open communication) and more likely to describe it as authoritarian and lower scores for tolerance for family nudity. Implications for further research were suggested.

  4. The Identification of Factors Influencing College Students' Attitudes toward Radioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crater, Harold L., Jr.

    The two basic questions considered in this study were: (1) What attitudes do college students hold toward radioactivity? and (2) What are some characteristics associated with the college students who hold the more favorable attitudes toward radioactivity? The sample studied included 1,205 mostly undergraduate students at the University of Texas at…

  5. Towards the ASEAN Community: Assessing the Knowledge, Attitudes, and Aspirations of Thai University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinn Siraprapasiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the knowledge of, attitudes towards, and aspirations for ASEAN among Thai university students, who are set to enter the ASEAN Community labour market and are among those most in touch with ASEAN issues. It uses data obtained from a countrywide survey and focus group discussions to identify variables that affect knowledge, attitudes, and aspirations and to explore the relationships between knowledge, attitudes, and aspirations. The quantitative analysis conducted here uses students’ fields of study, academic performance, and exposure to both ASEAN-related courses and also information and discussions about ASEAN in the mass media and public forums as predictors of their level of knowledge about ASEAN. The paper’s results confirm that positive attitudes towards ASEAN lead to positive aspirations for ASEAN. They also reveal that significant knowledge about ASEAN cannot, in isolation, adequately explain students’ attitudes towards ASEAN and does not always lead to positive attitudes. These findings and those obtained from the focus group discussions suggest that a high level of knowledge and understanding of fellow ASEAN member countries and their people – whether attained through formal or informal education or social interaction – is needed for students to develop positive attitudes and become aspiring members of the ASEAN Community.

  6. The Public and Nuclear Waste Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinberg, Dorothy

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the public's negative attitude towards nuclear energy development. Explains the perceptions for the nuclear waste disposal problem, and the concern for the protection of the environment. (GA)

  7. The Impact of School Political Systems on Student Political Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Devon J.; Barr, Robert D.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a study of the effects of student participation in school policy-making upon student attitudes. Data were collected from students in a comprehensive high school and a small alternative school within the comprehensive school. Students in the alternative school participated more in policy-making and also showed more positive attitudes.…

  8. The effects of virtual experience on attitudes toward real brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolski, Pawel; Pochwatko, Grzegorz; Skorko, Maciek; Bielecki, Maksymilian

    2014-02-01

    Although the commercial availability and implementation of virtual reality interfaces has seen rapid growth in recent years, little research has been conducted on the potential for virtual reality to affect consumer behavior. One unaddressed issue is how our real world attitudes are affected when we have a virtual experience with the target of those attitudes. This study compared participant (N=60) attitudes toward car brands before and after a virtual test drive of those cars was provided. Results indicated that attitudes toward test brands changed after experience with virtual representations of those brands. Furthermore, manipulation of the quality of this experience (in this case modification of driving difficulty) was reflected in the direction of attitude change. We discuss these results in the context of the associative-propositional evaluation model.

  9. Public awareness and attitudes towards epilepsy in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helia Ghanean

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : Epilepsy is a prototypical, stigmatised disorder. Numerous studies have been conducted regarding the public perception of epilepsy, but they are primarily from high-income western countries; few studies have taken place in low- to middle-income countries with a traditional culture and a religious orientation. Objective : The public knowledge and attitudes towards epilepsy in Tehran, Iran, is studied. Design : A survey of 800 subjects ranging from 18 to 85 years was randomly chosen from households in Tehran in 2009. The questionnaire used was based on the Caveness and Gallup's studies conducted in the United States in 1949 and it has been used in numerous similar studies all over the world. The mean age of the participants was 37.5 years and 46.7% were female. Pearson's Chi-squared test was used for subgroup analyses. Results : The majority of subjects cited brain disorders as a cause of epilepsy, while 17% indicated the will of God as the cause. Most individuals were willing to work with a person with epilepsy, allow their children to play with a child with epilepsy, and allow people with epilepsy to use public transportation (78–82%. However, only 28% were willing to accept the marriage of a family member to someone with epilepsy. Conclusion : The knowledge and attitudes towards epilepsy are similar to those in Europe, with the exception of a much lower acceptance regarding marriage to a person with epilepsy. However, the low acceptance for marrying someone with epilepsy reveals the remaining misconceptions about the nature of epilepsy in Iran, despite the high educational level in the studied population. Therefore, informational efforts must be employed to change the perception of epilepsy.

  10. Deconstructing and Developing the Attitudes of Primary School Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortileb, Evan

    2015-01-01

    Improving student attitudes toward reading remains of particular concern to elementary school teachers. The development of students' demeanour toward reading is as important, if not more so, than skill enhancement. Unless reading attitudes are maintained and even bolstered, content instruction will not always reach the learner, nor will students…

  11. Public perceptions about HIV/AIDS and discriminatory attitudes toward people living with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudnia, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Negative and discriminatory attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are one of the biggest experienced challenges by people suffering from HIV, and these attitudes have been regarded as a serious threat to the fundamental rights of all infected people who are affected or associated with this disease in Iran. This study aimed to determine the relationship between public perception about HIV/AIDS and discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA . The present study was conducted using a descriptive and survey design. Data were collected from 450 patients (236 male and 214 female) in Tehran and Yazd cities. The research instruments were modified HIV-related knowledge/attitude and perception questions about PLWHA, and discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA. The results showed that prevalence of discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA in the studied population was 60.0%. There was a significant negative correlation between citizens' awareness about HIV/AIDS, HIV-related attitudes, negative perception toward people with HIV/AIDS symptoms and their discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA (p AIDS explained for 23.7% of the variance of discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA. Negative public perceptions about HIV/AIDS in Iran associated with discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA and cultural beliefs in Iran tend to stigmatize and discriminate against the LWHA.

  12. The Consistency of Attitude and Behavior by Adolescents in the Area of Energy Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Jacque R.; Chamberlain, Valerie M.

    This study examined the relationship between the energy use for personal and family activities. Data were collected from a sample of 227 students in 11 secondary public schools in central city, suburban, small town, and rural areas. Students completed instruments that measured energy conservation attitudes, behaviors, and levels of attitudinal…

  13. The Impact of Training on Attitudes towards Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Leam A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to measure attitudes towards sex offenders held by professionals and paraprofessionals and to evaluate an introductory training workshop aimed at increasing knowledge and improving attitudes to this client group. Eighty-five residential hostel workers and probation officers attended an intensive two-day…

  14. Representatives of the Public?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anne; Carroll, Brendan; Lowery, David

    2014-01-01

    Although scholars have long speculated about how organised interests link the public to decision makers, there has actually been little empirical research on this important element of democratic theory. This important gap in the literature is addressed in this article by examining, in addition to...

  15. 'I reject your reality and substitute my own'. Why more knowledge about CO2 storage hardly improves public attitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsting, S.; De Best-Waldhober, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Terwel, B.W. [Leiden University, Department of Social and Organizational Psychology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-05-01

    Lack of societal acceptance of energy (transition) technologies is often attributed to a lack of knowledge among the public. The underlying assumption is that more knowledge improves attitudes about a technology. This assumption will be tested in this paper by examining the influence of the scores on a CCS Knowledge Test on attitudes towards CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Furthermore the paper will examine the influence of perceptions of CCS (ideas that cannot be deemed 'true' or 'false') on attitude towards CCS and will analyse how knowledge and perceptions jointly influence attitude as well as in interaction. Implications of the results for communication about CCS are discussed.

  16. Attitudes of the Macedonian Preschool Teachers toward Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova-Radojichikj, Daniela Blagoj; Chichevska-Jovanova, Natasha; Rashikj-Canevska, Olivera

    2016-01-01

    Preschool teachers are seen as key persons to implement inclusive education. Positive attitudes are therefore argued as playing a considerable role in implementing this educational change successfully. The aim of this study was to examine what attitudes Macedonian preschool teachers hold towards early inclusive education; which variables are…

  17. Public attitudes toward biofuels. Effects of knowledge, political partisanship, and media use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Michael A; Binder, Andrew R; Scheufele, Dietram A; Shaw, Bret R

    2012-01-01

    Despite large-scale investments and government mandates to expand biofuels development and infrastructure in the United States, little is known about how the public conceives of this alternative fuel technology. This study examines public opinion of biofuels by focusing on citizen knowledge and the motivated processing of media information. Specifically, we explore the direct effects of biofuels knowledge and the moderating effect of partisanship on the relationship between media use and benefit vs. risk perceptions in the following four domains: environmental impacts, economic consequences, ethical/social implications, and political ramifications. Our results suggest that more knowledgeable respondents see fewer benefits of biofuels relative to risks, and that Democrats and Republicans are affected differently by media use when forming opinions about biofuels. Among Democrats, greater attention to political media content leads to a more favorable outlook toward the technology across several domains of interest, while among Republicans, an increase in attention to political content has the opposite effect. Possible reasons for these results, as well as implications of the findings at the intersection of politics and the life sciences, are discussed.

  18. Mexican-American adolescents' gender role attitude development: the role of adolescents' gender and nativity and parents' gender role attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A; McHale, Susan M; Zeiders, Katharine H; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Perez-Brena, Norma J; Wheeler, Lorey A; Rodríguez De Jesús, Sue A

    2014-12-01

    Gender development has long term implications for education and career endeavors and family formation behaviors, but we know very little about the role of sociocultural factors in developmental and individual differences. In this study, we investigated one domain of gender development, gender role attitudes, in Mexican-American adolescents (N = 246; 51 % female), using four phases of longitudinal data across 8 years. Data were collected when adolescents averaged 12.51 years (SD = 0.58), 14.64 years (SD = 0.59), 17.72 years (SD = 0.57), and 19.60 years of age (SD = 0.66). Mothers' and fathers' gender role attitudes also were assessed in Phases 1, 3, and 4. Findings revealed that gender attitude development varied as a function of the interaction between adolescents' nativity and gender. Among Mexico-born adolescents, females exhibited significant declines in traditional attitudes from early to late adolescence, but males' attitudes were stable over time. U.S.-born females and males, in contrast, did not differ in their gender attitude trajectories. Examining the links between mothers', fathers', and adolescents' gender role attitudes revealed within-person associations between mothers' and adolescents' gender role attitudes: on occasions when mothers reported more traditional attitudes relative to their own cross-time average, adolescents also reported more traditional attitudes than usual. In addition, fathers' more traditional gender role attitudes were associated with daughters', but not sons', more traditional gender role attitudes at the between-person level. The discussion focuses on the interpretation of Mexican-American adolescents' gender role attitude development from a cultural ecological perspective.

  19. Public Attitudes toward Stuttering in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przepiorka, Aneta M.; Blachnio, Agata; St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Wozniak, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Background: People who stutter often experience negative judgments and reactions to their stuttering from the nonstuttering majority. Many are stigmatized because of their stuttering and threatened with social exclusion, placing them at risk for compromised quality of life. Aims: The purpose of this investigation was to measure public attitudes…

  20. The Peer Attitudes toward Children Who Stutter (PATCS) Scale: An Evaluation of Validity, Reliability and the Negativity of Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Marilyn; Kleitman, Sabina; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Background: Persistent calls for school-based education about stuttering necessitate a better understanding of peer attitudes toward children who stutter and a means to measure outcomes of such educational interventions. Langevin and Hagler in 2004 developed the Peer Attitudes Toward Children who Stutter scale (PATCS) to address these needs and…

  1. College Textbook Reading Attitude Survey: The Development of an Attitude Measuring Tool and Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension's Impact on Student Teachers' Attitudes and Perceptions Concerning College Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, James E.; Becker, Melisa; Lamb, Holy; McGregor, Jenifer

    2009-01-01

    Attitude toward reading has long proven to be of importance in learning. This study designed a survey instrument for college teachers to gage future teachers, college students' attitudes toward the reading of textbooks. College students (n = 64) responded to two instruments, the newly created survey called the College Textbook Reading Attitude…

  2. Research on the attitude towards horizontal integration of healthcare resources in public hospitals in Shanghai%上海市市级公立医院横向医疗资源整合意向研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璐莹; 应晓华; 郑培永; 高解春; 杨丽; 何萍; 杜宁; 杨佳鸿; 赵蓉

    2015-01-01

    This study conducted a questionnaire survey in 24 tertiary hospitals with 54 hospital presidents, 367 heads of department and 15 policy-makers and researchers. Results revealed that most respondents had supportive attitude towards horizontal integration of healthcare resources in public hospitals. Implementing horizontal integration among hospitals which have complementary strengths is the most suitable. Government is proposed to give some support to horizontal integration on the aspects of hospital management mechanism,personal system and evaluation criteria on hospital presidents.%对上海市24所市级公立医院的54名院长、367名科主任/学科带头人以及15名医院管理者和研究者进行问卷调查。结果显示大部分被调查者对医院间横向资源整合持支持态度;认为最适合进行横向整合的情况是拥有优势资源的医院与资源相对薄弱的医院之间的强弱互补;需要政府在医院的管理体制、人事制度以及院长绩效评价标准上对横向整合给予相依的倾斜与配合。

  3. My Attitudes toward Science (MATS): The Development of a Multidimensional Instrument Measuring Students' Science Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Susan J.; Zeeman, Stephan I.; Tilburg, Charles E.; List, Henrietta E.

    2016-01-01

    The number of students in the United States choosing science, technology, engineering or mathematics careers is declining at a time when demand for these occupations is rapidly increasing. Numerous efforts have been undertaken to reverse this trend, yet results are uncertain. One's attitude is key to many choices one makes, and this includes, for…

  4. Development and Validation of the Transgender Attitudes and Beliefs Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Yasuko; Cornelius-White, Jeffrey H D; Pegors, Teresa K; Daniel, Todd; Hulgus, Joseph

    2016-08-29

    In recent years, issues surrounding transgender have garnered media and legal attention, contributing to rapidly shifting views on gender in the U.S. Yet, there is a paucity of data-driven studies on the public's views of transgender identity. This study reports the development and validation of the Transgender Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (TABS). After constructing an initial 96-item pool from consulting experts and existing scales, Phase 1 of the study was launched, involving an exploratory factor analysis of 48 items. The initial factor analysis with 295 participants revealed three factors across 33 items-16 items on interpersonal comfort, 11 on sex/gender beliefs, and 6 on human value. The internal consistency of each factor was high-α = .97 for Factor 1, α = .95 for Factor 2, and α = .94 for Factor 3. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted in the second phase with an independent sample consisting of 238 participants. The Attitudes Toward Transgender Individual Scale and the Genderism and Transphobia Scale were also included to test for convergent validity, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the short form of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale were utilized to test discriminant validity. Both of the data collection phases employed MTurk, a form of online sampling with increased diversity compared to college student samples and more generalizability to the general U.S.

  5. An Investigation of Demographic Correlates of the Celebrity Attitude Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn McCutcheon; Mara S. Aruguete; William Jenkins; Nancy McCarley; Ronald Yockey

    2016-01-01

    The Celebrity Attitude Scale (CAS) has been widely used in the last 15 years, but little is known about how ethnicity and socioeconomic status relate to scores on this scale. In the first of two studies, we showed that a sample of African-American college students had more favorable attitudes toward their favorite celebrities than a sample of White college students. However, there was no control for the possibility that the two samples were unequal with respect to socioeconomic status. The se...

  6. The Sociocultural Mechanism of the Formation of Young People's Attitudes toward Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubok, Iu. A.; Chuprov, V. I.

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that traditional Russian attitudes coexist with attitudes resulting from current Russian society. It is argued that this more recent set of attitudes is too instrumental, and that more traditional attitudes to the acquisition of knowledge need to be strengthened.

  7.  Public Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Complementary and AlternativeMedicine in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M.N. AlBedah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available  Objectives: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM iswell established world wide. The present work is aimed at studying the knowledge, attitude and practice of CAM by the people of Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive household survey studyof the people living in Riyadh city, as well as the surrounding governorates. A multistage random sample was taken from1st January to the end of March 2010, with a total number of 518 participants. Data were collected using a pre-designed questionnaire through direct interview. The data was collected based on socio-demography, as well as knowledge, attitude and practice of CAM.Results: Participants were nearly sex-matched, consisting of approximately 70�0Saudi and 30�0non-Saudis. About 89�0ofthe participants had some knowledge of CAM. Mass media e.g.(T.V., newspapers and radio and family, relatives and friends represented the main sources of CAM knowledge, (46.5�0and46.3�0respectively. Nearly 85�0of participants or one of their family members has used some form of CAM before, and the most common users of CAM practices were females, housewives, and illiterate subjects (or those who could just read and write, as well as participants aged 60 years and above. Medical herbs (58.89� prayer (54� honey and bee products (54� hijama (35.71�nd cauterization or medical massage therapy (22�20were thecommonly used CAM practices. Most participants agreed that there are needs for; CAM practices (93.8� regulations for CAM(94.9� health education (96.6� specialized centers (94.8�20and CAM clinics (92.7� While only 8.3�0of participants usually discussed CAM with their physicians.Conclusion: There is a high prevalence and increased public interest in CAM use in the Riyadh region. There is a positiv eattitude towards CAM, yet most participants are reluctant to share and discuss CAM information with their physicians.

  8. Attitudes towards immigrants and the integration of ethnically diverse societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiu PAAS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to clarify the possible determinants of peoples’ attitudes towards immigrants depending on their personal characteristics as well as attitudes towards households’ socio-economic stability and a country's institutions relying on the data of the European Social Survey fourth round database. The study intends to provide empirical evidence-based grounds for the development of policy measures to integrate ethnically diverse societies, taking into account the composition of the country's population as well as other country’s peculiarities. The results of the empirical analysis are consistent with several theoretical approaches explaining individual and collective determinants of people’s attitudes towards immigrants. Ethnic minorities, urban people, people with higher education and income, as well as people who have work experience abroad are, as a rule, more tolerant towards immigrants in Europe. Furthermore, people whose attitudes to socio-economic risks are lower and who evaluate the political and legal systems of a country and its police higher are more tolerant towards immigrants. The respondents’ labour market status (employed, unemployed does not have a statistically significant relationship with their attitudes towards immigrants. In addition to the respondent’s personal characteristics and their attitudes, the collective determinants depending on country specific conditions measured by country dummies are valid in explaining people’s attitudes towards immigration.

  9. A painful reminder: the role of level and salience of attitude importance in cognitive dissonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzyk, Katherine B; Fabrigar, Leandre R; Soryal, Ashley S; Fanning, Jessie J

    2009-01-01

    In his seminal book, L. Festinger (1957) emphasized the role of attitude importance in cognitive dissonance. This study (N = 308) explored whether people's use of dissonance reduction strategies differs as a function of level of attitude importance and whether the personal importance of an attitude is salient. Results showed that level and salience of attitude importance interacted to affect high-choice (HC) participants' tendency to use attitude change and trivialization to reduce dissonance. When HC participants were not reminded of the personal importance of their attitude (i.e., it was not salient), they changed their attitudes equally irrespective of attitude importance, but engaged in greater trivialization with increasing levels of importance. In contrast, when attitude importance was salient, HC participants changed their attitudes less with increasing attitude importance and showed no evidence of trivializing under any level of importance.

  10. Attitudes toward Diversity and the School Choice Process: Middle-Class Parents in a Segregated Urban Public School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimelberg, Shelley McDonough; Billingham, Chase M.

    2013-01-01

    White flight from urban public schools has been well documented, but little attention has been paid to middle-class reinvestment in urban schools. This article combines findings from interviews with middle-class parents of Boston Public School students with demographic data from the city's public elementary schools to examine the motivations of…

  11. Attitudes towards legalising physician provided euthanasia in Britain: the role of religion over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyliv, Andriy; O'Neill, Ciaran

    2015-03-01

    Hastening the death of another whether through assisted suicide or euthanasia is the subject of intense debate in the UK and elsewhere. In this paper we use a nationally representative survey of public attitudes - the British Social Attitudes survey - to examine changes in attitudes to the legalisation of physician provided euthanasia (PPE) over almost 30 years (1983-2012) and the role of religious beliefs and religiosity in attitudes over time. Compatible questions about attitudes to euthanasia were available in the six years of 1983, 1984, 1989, 1994, 2005, and 2012. We study the trends in the support for legalisation through these time points and the relationship between attitudes, religious denomination and religiosity, controlling for a series of covariates. In total, 8099 individuals provided answers to the question about PPE in the six years of the study. The support for legalisation rose from around 76.95% in 1983 to 83.86% in 2012. This coincided with an increase in secularisation exhibited in the survey: the percentage of people with no religious affiliation increasing from 31% to 45.4% and those who do not attend a religious institution (e.g. church) increasing from 55.7% to 65.03%. The multivariate analysis demonstrates that religious affiliation and religiosity as measured by religious institution attendance frequency are the main contributors to attitudes towards euthanasia, and that the main increase in support happened among the group with least religious affiliation. Other socio-demographic characteristics do not seem to alter these attitudes systematically across the years. Our study demonstrates an increase in the support of euthanasia legalisation in Britain in the last 30 years coincided with increased secularisation. It does not follow, however, that trends in public support are immutable nor that a change in the law would improve on the current pragmatic approach toward hastening death by a physician adopted in England and Wales in terms of

  12. Evolution of Attitudes in the Field of Human Research Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Escobar-Melo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The state of evolution of attitudes in a sample of 142 Medical Students at the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana in Bogota (at the beginning, middle and ending of their studies in the field of Human Research Ethics (HRE is analytically described. A complex scale of attitudes was used, with three components: affective, beliefs-related and behavioral, further divided into three theoretical categories taken from Bioethics: Subject-End/means- Dignity, Benefit and Justice. The relationship between the current medical education process and the attitudes regarding HRE in the sample are analyzed.A small trend towards progress in all categories and in all components of attitudes throughout medical education is described; neither the Benefit nor the Subject-End/means/Dignity categories evolve in a significant way; some significant differences were observed in the Justice category (beliefs and behavioral and in the Subject-End/means-Dignity category (beliefs component. The results allow for asking about the role of formation and evolution of those attitudes throughout the academic process. In conclusion, attitudes seem to be progressing relatively, without a decisive evolution.

  13. Attitudes towards the Use of the Medical and Sanitary Services in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Manouchehr

    1977-01-01

    Describes research methodology and findings of a survey in Iran to determine relationships between educational level, age, residence, and other variables involved in attitudes regarding the use of medical and sanitary services. Public health education is seen to be needed. For journal availability, see SO 506 019. (Author/AV)

  14. The Determination of the Applicability of the Fishbein Model of Attitudes in Ascertaining the Attitudes Toward Science Held by High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Dean DeVere

    This study was undertaken to determine the applicability of the Fishbein model of attitudes in ascertaining the attitudes toward science held by high school students. The model proposed assumed that attitudes involve both cognitive and affective components. Acceptability of the psychometric properties of an instrument developed in this…

  15. The influence of parents' martial dissolutions on children's attitudes toward family formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axinn, W G; Thornton, A

    1996-02-01

    We investigate the influence of parents' martial dissolutions on their children's attitudes toward several dimensions of family formation. Hypotheses focus on the role of patients' attitudes as a mechanism linking parents' behavior to their children's attitudes. We test these hypotheses using intergenerational panel data that include measures of children's attitudes taken directly from children. Results demonstrate strong effects of parental divorce, remarriage, and widowhood on children's attitudes toward premarital sex, cohabitation, marriage, childbearing, and divorce. The results also show that parents' own attitudes link their behavior to their children's attitudes, although substantial effects of parental behavior remain after controlling for parents' attitudes.

  16. Public attitudes about different types of anti-bullying laws: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Luedicke, Joerg; King, Kelly M

    2015-02-01

    State anti-bullying laws have been enacted across the United States to address bullying both by and of youths. Although these statutes can provide critical protection to youth, there is debate about whether such laws should enumerate protected classes of youth. Weight-based bullying is an increasingly prevalent form of harassment and it has been overlooked in policy initiatives. Enumeration in existing laws might help protect overweight victims. As no research has examined this issue, we conducted a national survey of American adults (N=1155) to assess public opinion about enactment of anti-bullying laws that vary according to whether or not they enumerate distinguishing characteristics. Our results demonstrated substantial public agreement (ranging from 2/3 to 3/4 of participants) with enactment of state and federal anti-bullying laws that enumerate distinguishing characteristics, including physical appearance and weight, which are currently absent in most statutes. Our evidence can inform policy and legal approaches to protect youth effectively from bullying.

  17. Consumer attitudes and the governance of food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todt, Oliver; Muñoz, Emilio; González, Marta; Ponce, Gloria; Estévez, Betty

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the analysis of a recent study of public perception of food safety governance in Spain, using genetically modified (GM) foods as an indicator. The data make clear that Spanish food consumers are aware of their rights and role in the marketplace. They are critical of current regulatory decision making, which they perceive to be unduly influenced by certain social actors, such as industry. In contrast, consumers demand decisions to be based primarily on scientific opinion, as well as consumer preferences. They want authorities to facilitate informed purchasing decisions, and favor labeling of GM foods mostly on the grounds of their right to know. However, consumers' actual level of knowledge with respect to food technology and food safety remains low. There are several ambivalences as to the real impact of these attitudes on actual consumer behavior (specifically when it comes to organizing themselves or searching out background information).

  18. Does Citizenship Always Further Immigrants' Feeling of Belonging to the Host Nation? A Study of Policies and Public Attitudes in 14 Western Democracies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kristina Bakkær

    2017-01-01

    citizenship is approached in Western democracies. In the literature, these differences are typically understood to reflect varying degrees of openness to seeing immigrants as part of the host national community. Motivated by this observation, the article examines whether the degree to which immigrants...

  19. Determinants of Public Attitudes towards Euthanasia in Adults and Physician-Assisted Death in Neonates in Austria: A National Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Stolz

    Full Text Available Euthanasia remains a controversial topic in both public discourses and legislation. Although some determinants of acceptance of euthanasia and physician-assisted death have been identified in previous studies, there is still a shortage of information whether different forms of euthanasia are supported by the same or different sub-populations and whether authoritarian personality dispositions are linked to attitudes towards euthanasia.A large, representative face-to-face survey was conducted in Austria in 2014 (n = 1,971. Respondents faced three scenarios of euthanasia and one of physician assisted death differing regarding the level of specificity, voluntariness and subject, requiring either approval or rejection: (1 abstract description of euthanasia, (2 abstract description of physician-assisted suicide, (3 the case of euthanasia of a terminally-ill 79-year old cancer patient, and (4 the case of non-voluntary, physician assisted death of a severely disabled or ill neonate. A number of potential determinants for rejection ordered in three categories (socio-demographic, personal experience, orientations including authoritarianism were tested via multiple logistic regression analyses.Rejection was highest in the case of the neonate (69% and lowest for the case of the older cancer patient (35%. A consistent negative impact of religiosity on the acceptance across all scenarios and differential effects for socio-economic status, area of residence, religious confession, liberalism, and authoritarianism were found. Individuals with a stronger authoritarian personality disposition were more likely to reject physician-assisted suicide for adults but at the same time also more likely to approve of physician-assisted death of a disabled neonate.Euthanasia in adults was supported by a partially different sub-population than assisted death of disabled neonates.

  20. The attitudes of young people towards sustainable transport

    OpenAIRE

    Line, T.; Chatterjee, K.(Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata, India); Lyons, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers that a fuller understanding of the public’s attitudes towards and perceptions of transport is essential in the development of successful campaigns and policies aiming to encourage more sustainable transport behaviour. The paper seeks to clarify: the importance of understanding the attitudes and perceptions of young people (the future users and decision makers in regard to transport); what is currently understood in this area through a review of the current literature; whe...

  1. Does Citizenship Always Further Immigrants' Feeling of Belonging to the Host Nation? A Study of Policies and Public Attitudes in 14 Western Democracies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kristina Bakkær

    2016-01-01

    Immigrants' access to citizenship in their country of residence is increasingly debated in Western democracies. It is an underlying premise of these debates that citizenship and national belonging are closely linked, but at the same time there is considerable cross-country variation in how...... citizenship is approached in Western democracies. In the literature, these differences are typically understood to reflect varying degrees of openness to seeing immigrants as part of the host national community. Motivated by this observation, the article examines whether the degree to which immigrants...... citizenship less important. Interestingly, citizenship policy does not have a moderating effect on the association between citizenship and national belonging. Implications for future studies of the subjective experience of citizenship are discussed....

  2. Attitudes of Business Students on the TARP Program: A Semantic Differential Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris; Guyette, Roger W., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The TARP program, a federal response to the 2008 financial crisis, has generated much debate both inside and outside of academia. Since business ethics, corporate responsibility, and public policy form the basic educational framework of the undergraduate business school curriculum, we investigated attitudes toward the TARP in the Spring of 2009.…

  3. Children's Attitudes toward the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantz, Richard K.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A study measured children's attitudes toward and knowledge of older people in American society. Findings indicate that children have little general knowledge of the elderly and very complex, mixed attitudes toward older persons. Ways are suggested in which schools can inculcate positive attitudes toward all people, including the elderly.…

  4. The Effects of Teaching and Using of Learning Strategies on Achievement, Retention and Attitude of the Students

    OpenAIRE

    Yeliz DİKBAŞ; KAF HASIRCI, Özlem

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find out the effects of teaching and using of learning strategies on achievement, retention and attitude of the students in Social Science courses. This research was designed according to one group pretest-posttest modeling. The study was conducted with 24 students who are fifth grades at public elementary school. The data was collected with “Learning Strategies Questionnaire”, “Social Studies Achievement Test” and “Social Studies Attitude Scale”. Learning Strategi...

  5. INVESTIGATING THE FACTOR STRUCTURE OF THE BLOG ATTITUDE SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra SHAHSAVAR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the wide application of advanced technology in education, many attitude scales have been developed to evaluate learners’ attitudes toward educational tools. However, with the rapid development of emerging technologies, using blogs as one of the Web 2.0 tools is still in its infancy and few blog attitude scales have been developed yet. In view of this need, a lot of researchers like to design a new scale based on their conceptual and theoretical framework of their own study rather than using available scales. The present study reports the design and development of a blog attitude scale (BAS. The researchers developed a pool of items to capture the complexity of the blog attitude trait, selected 29 items in the content analysis, and assigned the scale comprising 29 items to 216 undergraduate students to explore the underlying structure of the BAS. In exploratory factor analysis, three factors were discovered: blog anxiety, blog desirability, and blog self-efficacy; 14 items were excluded. The extracted items were subjected to a confirmatory factor analysis which lent further support to the BAS underpinning structure.

  6. Public Perceptions and Attitudes Toward Adolescent Marijuana Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella M. Resko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study is to examine patterns in public perceptions and attitudes toward marijuana use among adolescents. Computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI was used to collect data from a statewide sample of adults in Michigan identified through random-digit dialing (n = 560. CATI interviews were supplemented with web- and paper-based surveys for nonrespondents. We used latent class analysis to characterize patterns in public perception, using a vignette technique that assessed (a whether adults recognize adolescent marijuana use as a problem, (b how they view the efficacy of treatment, (c how they view help-seeking with mental health professionals, and (d whether they support prevention services for adolescents. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between class membership and demographics, substance use, and methodological factors. Three latent classes were identified: (a a discriminating group, (b a low-concern group, and (c a high-concern group. Age and substance use were among the strongest determinants for membership in the discriminating group. Results provide insight into how the general public perceives marijuana use and marijuana-related problems among adolescents.

  7. The attitudes of socially marginalized men toward physician-assisted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Louisa A; Zelman, Diane C; Wanlass, Richard L

    Bioethics and public policy literature suggests that socially marginalized populations may be at increased risk for overuse of physician-assisted suicide (PAS) were it to become more accepted. Yet the attitudes of socially marginalized populations toward PAS have not been widely studied. The present study surveyed a sample of men in a substance abuse recovery program. Participants completed a PAS attitude questionnaire and a religiosity measure. Support for PAS was fairly evenly split, with 52.2% indicating general opposition to PAS and 46.9% indicating general support. Greater religiosity was associated with more negative attitudes toward PAS. Higher educational level was associated with more acceptance. Overall attitudes toward PAS were considerably more negative than those of Dr. George Domino's (2003) general population sample.

  8. Attitudes, Values and Background of High School Journalists Compared with the Media Elite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sammye

    To compare attitudes, values, and background of high school journalists with those of the media elite (journalists already working in the media), a survey was administered to 132 public and private high school students attending the Trinity University Journalism Institute during June 5-9, 1983. These students were the editors of their newspapers,…

  9. Shaping attitudes about homosexuality: the role of religion and cultural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Amy; Pitt, Cassady

    2009-06-01

    Across the globe, the debate over homosexuality continues, with great variation in public opinion about the acceptability of homosexuality, laws regulating same-sex unions and penalties for homosexual sex behaviors. Religion is often seen as an important predictor of attitudes about homosexuality. However, cross-national differences in cultural orientations suggest that the role religion has in explaining homosexual attitudes may depend on a nation's cultural context. In this study, we merge ideas from cultural sociology and religious contextual effects to explain cross-national variation in public opinion about homosexuality. Using data from the fourth wave of the World Values Survey and Hierarchical Modeling techniques, we find support for the micro and macro effects of religion and a survival vs. self-expressive cultural orientation. Moreover, we find that personal religious beliefs have a greater effect on attitudes about homosexuality in countries like the United States, which have a strong self-expressive cultural orientation.

  10. Public Awareness, Attitudes and Beliefs regarding Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scior, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    The general public's responses to people with intellectual disabilities influence the likely success or failure of policies aimed at increasing their social inclusion. The present paper provides a review of general population based research into awareness, attitudes and beliefs regarding intellectual disability published in English between 1990…

  11. Systems of attitudes towards production in the pork industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Dutra de Barcellos, Marcia; Veflen Olsen, Nina

    2012-01-01

    search algorithms and structural equation models. The results suggest that evaluative judgments of the importance of pork production system attributes are generated in a schematic manner, driven by personal value orientations. The effect of personal value orientations was strong and largely unmediated......, understanding them as embedded into a wider attitude system that consists of attitudes towards objects of different abstraction levels, ranging from personal value orientations over general socio-political attitudes to evaluations of specific characteristics of agricultural production systems. It is assumed...... production systems was modelled. The analysis was based on data from a cross-national survey involving 1931 participants from Belgium, Denmark, Germany and Poland. The survey questionnaire contained measures of personal value orientations and attitudes towards environment and nature, industrial food...

  12. ANALYSIS OF THE ATTITUDES OF STUDENTS AT THE SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed and carried out at the School of Physical Education and Sports at Çukurova University in order to determine whether the attitudes of the students towards violence differed according to their gender, certification status, status as performers or spectators of contact/non-contact sports, and the academic departments in which they were enrolled. A total of 403 students, who were randomly selected on a voluntary basis, participated in the study. The "Adolescents' Attitudes towards Violence Scale", which was developed by Cetin (2011, was used as the data collection tool. As result of the analysis, the study concluded that there are significant differences in the attitudes of students enrolled in the School of Physical Education and Sports towards violence in terms of gender, favoring the male students and in terms of spectators of contact/non-contact sports in favor of the spectators of contact sports. While no significant difference was found with respect to the certification status, performers, contact/non-contact sports, and departments enrolled, the study found that the students who enrolled in the department of coaching education scored higher than students who enrolled in other departments in terms of violent behavior. Similarly, regarding attitudes towards violence, certified students scored higher than those who were not certified and the performers of contact sports scored higher than the students who performed non-contact.

  13. Assessing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior toward Charismatic Megafauna: The Case of Dolphins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Erin C.; Mintzes, Joel J.; Yen, Chiung-Fen

    2005-01-01

    Using concept maps, a Kellert-type (S. R. Kellert, 1985) inventory, and self-report behavioral items, this cross-age study assessed public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward bottlenose dolphins. Results suggest that this important megafaunal species is poorly understood by the public at large, and that negative "utilitarian" attitudes and…

  14. Gender differences in tenth-grade students' attitudes toward science: The effect of school type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndakwah, Ernestine Ajame

    The focus of this mixed methods study was on 10th grade students' attitudes towards science. Its purpose was to examine the effect of gender and school-type on attitudes toward science. Research on attitudes toward science has focused on gender, school level, and classroom environment. Relatively little has been done on the effect of school type. In the present study, school type refers to the following variables; private vs. public, single-sex vs. coeducational and high vs. low-achieving schools. The quantitative component of the study allowed the researcher to determine whether there are gender differences in attitudes toward science based on the school type variables being investigated. The Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA) was the instrument used to provide quantitative data for this aspect of the study. TOSRA is a Likert scale consisting of seven subscales measuring different aspects of science attitudes. The qualitative component, on the other hand, explored students' perspectives on the factors, which were influential in the development of the attitudes that they hold. The events and experiences of their lives in and out-of-school, with respect to science, and the meanings that they make of these provided the data from which their attitudes toward science could be gleaned. Data for this component of the study was gathered by means of in-depth focus group interviews. The method of constant comparative analysis was used to analyze the interview transcripts. Statistical treatment of the questionnaire data involved the use of t tests and ANOVA. Findings did not reveal any gender differences on the total attitude scores although there were some differences on some of the subscales. School type did not appear to be a significant variable in students' attitudes to science. The results of both quantitative and qualitative components show that instructional strategy and teacher characteristics, both of which are components of the classroom environment are

  15. The Effect of Environmental Science Projects on Students' Environmental Knowledge and Science Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Aamri, Shamsa S.

    2014-01-01

    The current study explores the effectiveness of involving students in environmental science projects for their environmental knowledge and attitudes towards science. The study design is a quasi-experimental pre-post control group design. The sample was 62 11th-grade female students studying at a public school in Oman. The sample was divided into…

  16. The Effect of Environmental Science Projects on Students' Environmental Knowledge and Science Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Aamri, Shamsa S.

    2014-01-01

    The current study explores the effectiveness of involving students in environmental science projects for their environmental knowledge and attitudes towards science. The study design is a quasi-experimental pre-post control group design. The sample was 62 11th-grade female students studying at a public school in Oman. The sample was divided into…

  17. The parental attitudes toward psychological services inventory: adaptation and development of an attitude scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Erlanger A

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide psychometric data on the Parental Attitudes Toward Psychological Services Inventory (PATPSI), which is a revised measure to assess parents' attitudes toward outpatient mental health services. Using a sample of adults (N = 250), Study 1 supported a 3-factor structure (RMSEA = .05, NNFI = .94, and CFI = .94), adequate internal consistency (ranging from .72 to .92), and test-retest reliability (ranging from .66 to .84). Additionally, results indicated that individuals with previous use of mental health services reported more positive views toward child mental health services. Study 2 provided confirming evidence of the 3-factor structure (NNFI = .94, RMSEA = .08, and the CFI = .95) and adequate reliability (ranging from .70 to .90) using a parent-sample (N = 260). Additionally, discriminate validity of the PATPSI was supported. Implications for research and clinical practice are discussed.

  18. Affect and cognition in attitude formation towards familiar and unfamiliar attitude objects: the case of nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesen, van R.I.

    2015-01-01

    Together, the chapters in this thesis show that although the default is to rely on affect, in attitude formation toward unfamiliar attitude objects, people are able to draw on cognitive inferences provided that there are enough cues available (e.g. product context, high Need for Cognition, or being

  19. Social Studies Teachers' Attitudes Concerning Controversial Public Issues Instruction and State Mandated Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Starlynn Raenae

    2012-01-01

    This transcendental phenomenological qualitative study examines attitudes toward Controversial Public Issue instruction by teachers who used mandated standards and state tests. After the interviews of 11 social studies teachers (high school, middle school and junior high) five distinct themes emerged in the study. Overall, participants execute…

  20. Equine road user safety: public attitudes, understandings and beliefs from a qualitative study in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Catherine; Musselwhite, Charles B A

    2011-11-01

    Horse riders represent a significant group of vulnerable road user and are involved in a number of accidents and near misses on the road. Despite this horse riders have received little attention both in terms of academic research and transport policy. Based on literature on vulnerable road user safety, including attitudes to road user safety and behaviour of drivers and their relationship with cyclists and motorcyclists, this paper examines the attitudes and reported behaviour of drivers and horse riders. A total of 46 participants took part in six focus groups divided into four groups of drivers with little or no horse riding experience and two groups of frequent horse riders. Each group investigated five key topic areas stemming from the literature review on vulnerable road users including hazard perception, risk perception, emotion, attitudes to sharing the road and empathy. It was found that drivers and horse riders are not always aware of the same hazards in the road and that this may lead drivers to under-estimate the risk when encountering horses. Drivers often had good intentions to overtake horses safely, but were unaware of how vulnerable passing very wide and slow made them feel until they had begun the manoeuvre and hence quickly reduced such feelings either by speeding up or cutting in too soon. However, other than this, drivers had good skills when encountering horses. But these skills could be impeded by frustration when encountering a slow moving horse which was further compounded by a feeling, mainly by younger drivers, that horse riding was for leisure and as such should not get in the way of necessary work journeys. There is a need for drivers to be more aware of the potential hazards a horse rider faces on the road and these could be achieved through inducing empathy amongst drivers for horse riders, creating nudges for drivers in the environment and better education for drivers.

  1. Public Education in the United States: A Nation Divided

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushaw, William J.; Lopez, Shane J.

    2012-01-01

    The 44th annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes Toward the Public Schools showed some sharp divisions among the public's attitude toward the public schools, but also some hopeful signs of broad agreement in some areas. Satisfaction with President Barack Obama declined in the last year, but remains ahead of two years ago and the public…

  2. Students' Attitudes towards Peers with Disabilities: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Anke; Pijl, Sip Jan; Minnaert, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The trend towards inclusive education has led to an increase of studies focusing on peer attitudes. This review study presents an overview of studies describing attitudes of students, variables relating to students' attitudes, and the relationship between students' attitudes and the social participation of peers with disabilities. Based on a…

  3. The Structure and Content of Social Attitude Referents: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlinger, Fred N.

    1972-01-01

    Purpose of this study was to explore the measurement of social attitudes by using attitude referents as stimuli; to assess the psychometric properties of an attitude scale constructed with referents; and to test aspects of a structural theory of attitudes. (Author/MB)

  4. THE IMPORTANCE OF STUDIES OF BELIEFS AND ATTITUDES TO SOCIOLINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Ortelan Maia BOTASSINI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies related to the theme “Linguistics Beliefs and Attitudes” have shown paths to Sociolinguistics to understand issues that may be related to certain linguistic attitudes manifested by a group or by a speaking community. In the whole society, the differences of “power” existent among distinct social groups may be realized through the linguistic variation and through attitudes towards these variations. Normally, the standards of language use of the dominant group are referred to as necessary models to social mobility, however the use of dialects or low profile accent reduces the opportunities of being successful. Researches on linguistic beliefs and attitudes may broaden the discussion about the factors of linguistic changes, about the influence on a second language learning process, about issues of prestige or discredit – which lead to prejudice not only regarding the language the other speaks, but also regarding these speakers community. Thus, this work approaches important items to understand the theme: a concepts of belief and of attitude; b attitudes components, formation/development and modification; c concepts like stigma, prejudice, linguistic prestige/status, linguistic identity, linguistic loyalty and disloyalty.

  5. Measuring the Impact of a Supplemental Civic Education Program on Students' Civic Attitude and Efficacy Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñgul, Ferdinand S.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of Project Citizen Philippines, an extra-classroom civic education program, on its 3rd and 4th year high school participants' civic attitude and efficacy beliefs. Three hundred forty three participants and 107 non-participants from various public high schools in the Philippines' National Capital Region were compared…

  6. Cultural transmission of civic attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Miles-Touya, Daniel; Rossi, Máximo

    2016-01-01

    In this empirical paper we attempt to measure the separate influence on civic engagement of educational attainment and cultural transmission of civic attitudes. Unlike most of the previous empirical works on this issue, we are able to approximate the cultural transmission of civic attitudes. We observe that civic returns to education are overstated when the transmission of civic attitudes is ignored. Moreover, the transmission of civic attitudes significantly enhances civic involvement and re...

  7. Assessment of decisions in the context of life attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klamut Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented article attempts to show sense of life perspective as a determinant of decision making. It is assumed that the sense of life perspective described as life attitudes is significant in assessment of decision problem defined in the predecision phase of the decision making process. The predicted dependence was analysed in three categories of decision: self-development, financial and voting. The research was conducted on two groups of 186 and 86 participants. Two methods were used in the research: the Life Attitude Profile -Revised (LAP-R and the Decision Assessment Questionnaire. In statistical analysis, the canonical correlation analysis was used. The scores show that the life attitudes (especially: Purpose, Coherence, Life Control and Existential Vacuum are correlated with the assessment factor (especially: Cognitive Analysis and Affective Assessment of each tested category of decision. However, the most significant relationship is found in the self-development decision.

  8. Attitudes do matter: The role of attitudes and personality in DUI offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jornet-Gibert, Montsant; Gallardo-Pujol, David; Suso, Carlos; Andrés-Pueyo, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have related personality variables with antisocial behavior. Among antisocial behaviors, driving under the influence (DUI) has received growing attention in recent years, particularly in relation to the role of personality. However, it has been shown that personality alone is not sufficient to accurately predict DUI. As a result, there is growing interest in identifying other types of individual differences that might predict this behavior better, such as attitudinal variables. The aim of this study was to examine differences in personality dimensions and attitudes between a group of DUI offenders and a comparison group. Ninety-eight subjects were assessed: 51 subjects who had been convicted of a DUI offense following a diversion program, and 47 drivers without criminal records. Personality was measured with the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and antisocial attitudes were assessed with the Jesness Inventory-Revised. Results indicated that offenders were more prone to show antisocial attitudes (pDUI and should be taken into account in interventions designed to avoid recidivism.

  9. Students' Attitudes towards Peers with Disabilities : A review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Anke; Pijl, Sip Jan; Minnaert, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The trend towards inclusive education has led to an increase of studies focusing on peer attitudes. This review study presents an overview of studies describing attitudes of students, variables relating to students' attitudes, and the relationship between students' attitudes and the social participa

  10. The time for doing is not the time for change: effects of general action and inaction goals on attitude retrieval and attitude change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Dolores; Handley, Ian M

    2011-06-01

    Implicit in many informal and formal principles of psychological change is the understudied assumption that change requires either an active approach or an inactive approach. This issue was systematically investigated by comparing the effects of general action goals and general inaction goals on attitude change. As prior attitudes facilitate preparation for an upcoming persuasive message, general action goals were hypothesized to facilitate conscious retrieval of prior attitudes and therefore hinder attitude change to a greater extent than general inaction goals. Experiment 1 demonstrated that action primes (e.g., "go," "energy") yielded faster attitude report than inaction primes (e.g., "rest," "still") among participants who were forewarned of an upcoming persuasive message. Experiment 2 showed that the faster attitude report identified in Experiment 1 was localized on attitudes toward a message topic participants were prepared to receive. Experiments 3, 4, and 5 showed that, compared with inaction primes, action primes produced less attitude change and less argument scrutiny in response to a counterattitudinal message on a previously forewarned topic. Experiment 6 confirmed that the effects of the primes on attitude change were due to differential attitude retrieval. That is, when attitude expression was induced immediately after the primes, action and inaction goals produced similar amounts of attitude change. In contrast, when no attitude expression was induced after the prime, action goals produced less attitude change than inaction goals. Finally, Experiment 7 validated the assumption that these goal effects can be reduced or reversed when the goals have already been satisfied by an intervening task.

  11. Food Allergy Knowledge and Attitudes among School Nurses in an Urban Public School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twichell, Sarah; Wang, Kathleen; Robinson, Humaira; Acebal, Maria; Sharma, Hemant

    2015-07-21

    Since food allergy knowledge and perceptions may influence prevention and management of school-based reactions, we evaluated them among nurses in an urban school district. All District of Columbia public school nurses were asked to anonymously complete a food allergy knowledge and attitude questionnaire. Knowledge scores were calculated as percentage of correct responses. Attitude responses were tabulated across five-point Likert scales, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The knowledge questionnaire was completed by 87% of eligible nurses and the attitude questionnaire by 83%. The mean total knowledge score was 76 ± 13 with domain score highest for symptom recognition and lowest for treatment. Regarding attitudes, most (94%) felt food allergy is a serious health problem, for which schools should have guidelines (94%). Fewer believed that nut-free schools (82%) and allergen-free tables (44%) should be implemented. Negative perceptions of parents were identified as: parents of food-allergic children are overprotective (55%) and make unreasonable requests of schools (15%). Food allergy knowledge deficits and mixed attitudes exist among this sample of urban school nurses, particularly related to management of reactions and perceptions of parents. Food allergy education of school nurses should be targeted to improve their knowledge and attitudes.

  12. An investigation of Chinese attitudes toward the environment: case study using the Grain for Green Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shixiong; Chen, Li; Liu, Zhande

    2009-02-01

    China is the world's most populous country and has one of the largest territories. As such, Chinese attitudes and behavior with regard to environmental issues are key factors in protecting the world's natural resources and environment. In this study, we surveyed a random sample of 5000 citizens from six Chinese provinces (Beijing, Shanghai, Hubei, Hunan, Henan, and Shaanxi) to understand their environmental attitudes, contrasts between the attitudes of citizens in different demographic groups, and their willingness to invest in environmental conservation. The results indicated that policymakers and the public increasingly recognize the key role that environmental restoration plays in protecting the overall health of the environment. In total, 91% of the interviewees believed that the environment had deteriorated severely during the past decade, compared with 44% in a 1999 survey. In addition, 78% of the interviewees supported their government's investment of more than 300 billion RMB (approximately 10% of total government revenues in 2004) in the "Grain for Green Project", which discouraged unsustainable land use by compensating farmers and herders for abandoning farming and grazing on marginal land. There was a strong correlation between environmental attitudes and net income and education levels, and other differences were based on the respondents' age, gender, job, and location. Net income and education level were the key factors that affected environmental attitudes. Based on these results, we propose that successful environmental restoration projects must include both an education component and an economic development component.

  13. Insights into the Diversity of Attitudes Concerning Evolution and Creation: A Multidimensional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konneman, Christiane; Asshoff, Roman; Hammann, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to describe high school students' attitudes concerning evolution and creation, with a focus on (1) attitudes toward evolutionary theory, (2) attitudes toward the Biblical accounts of creation, (3) creationist beliefs, and (4) scientistic beliefs. Latent class analyses revealed seven attitude profiles in a sample of…

  14. Youth Attitudes towards Tobacco Control Laws: The Influence of Smoking Status and Grade in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Terrinieka T.; Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven B.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined adolescent attitudes towards tobacco control laws. An exploratory factor analysis, using surveys from over 9,000 students, identified the following three factors: (1) youth attitudes towards the efficacy of tobacco control laws, (2) youth attitudes towards tobacco possession laws and (3) youth attitudes towards tobacco sales…

  15. The morality of attitudes toward nanotechnology: about God, techno-scientific progress, and interfering with nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandermoere, Frederic, E-mail: Frederic_Vandermoere@hks.harvard.ed [Program on Science, Technology and Society, Harvard Kennedy School (United States); Blanchemanche, Sandrine [INRA Paris, Metarisk Department (France); Bieberstein, Andrea [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Marketing und Konsumforschung (Germany); Marette, Stephan [INRA, UMR Economie publique (France); Roosen, Jutta [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer BWL - Marketing und Konsumforschung (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    Using survey data, we examine public attitudes toward and awareness of nanotechnology in Germany (N = 750). First, it is shown that a majority of the people are still not familiar with nanotechnology. In addition, diffusion of information about nanotechnology thus far mostly seems to reach men and people with a relative higher educational background. Also, pro-science and technology views are positively related with nanotech familiarity. Results further show that a majority of the people have an indifferent, ambiguous, or non-attitude toward nanotechnology. Multinomial logit analyses further reveal that nanotech familiarity is positively related with people's attitudes. In addition, it is shown that traditional religiosity is unrelated to attitudes and that individual religiosity is weakly related to nanotechnology attitudes. However, moral covariates other than religiosity seem of major importance. In particular, our results show that more negative views on technological and scientific progress as well as more holistic views about the relation between people and the environment increase the likelihood of having a negative attitude toward nanotechnology.

  16. The Development of the Attitude Toward the Subject Science Scale. Report No. 85:7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krynowsky, Bernie A.

    This report outlines the stages of development and validation of the Attitude Toward the Subject Science Scale (ATSSS). The instrument, developed in accordance with the Ajzen and Fishbein (1980) theory of attitude assessment, can be used by junior secondary science teachers or administrators to assess student attitudes toward the subject science…

  17. Governance of Public Service Media in Poland: The Role of the Public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Glowacki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the role of the public in governance processes in public service media (PSM in Poland in the post mass-media era, characterized by participatory culture and network practices. Referencing the findings of the “Democratization of media policy in the digital ecosystems” (2014–2015 research project, the study aims to map the effectiveness of existing tools, practices and attitudes toward opening-up Polish public media enterprises to the public. Examination of media regulation, grey literature (corporate documentation, strategies, reports and civil society initiatives are likely to indicate the ways and extent to which members of the public might currently participate in the decision-making and control. On the basis of hypotheses that public media enterprises in Poland are not fully prepared for the multi-stakeholder and advanced model of PSM, the study takes into account potential systemic/regulatory, organizational and social barriers for change. The salient questions to be addressed are: What are the strategies and practices through which members of civil society might get involved? At what stages are the publics able to engage? How can PSM take advantage of the development of online tools offering space for interaction and collaboration? How is it possible to make the public more active and interested in governance and participation?

  18. Attitudes to Chronic Poverty in the "Global Village"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Armando; Neff, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The paper explores attitudes to chronic poverty in a cross-section of developed and developing countries contributing data to the World Values Survey Wave Three (1994-1998). The analysis finds a consistent belief among a majority of respondents that poverty is persistent. The paper also explores the factors influencing public attitudes to chronic…

  19. The effects of dysphoria and personality on negative self-referent attitudes and perceptions of the attitudes of others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshai, Shadi; Prentice, Jennifer L; Swan, Jennifer L; Dobson, Keith S

    2015-01-01

    The cognitive model of depression posits that depressed individuals harbor more dysfunctional self-referent attitudes, but little is known about how depressed individuals perceive the attitudes and perceptions of others in their social arena. This study examined whether dysphoric individuals perceive others to hold equally negative attitudes about themselves, and whether such perceptions depend on sociotropic (i.e., highly invested in social approval and relationship success) and autonomous (i.e., highly invested in vocational or academic achievement and goal attainment) personality styles. A sample of undergraduate students (N = 197) was recruited, and after the assessment of their depression symptoms and personality style, participants read vignettes that described negative scenarios, and imagined that these scenarios occurred to themselves or the general university student. After reading each vignette, participants also rated their agreement with a number of statements that assessed dysfunctional attitudes. Results indicated that elevated dysphoria (i.e., showing signs of depression) scores were positively associated with dysfunctional self-referent attitudes. Further, moderational analyses examining the interaction of sociotropy and dysphoria did not support the hypothesis that individuals higher on dysphoria and sociotropy were less likely to perceive others as harboring negative attitudes about themselves in comparison to those with elevated dysphoria and lower levels of sociotropy. Last, individuals showing elevated dysphoria and higher scores on subdomains of autonomy were more likely to perceive others as exhibiting negative attitudes about themselves than those with low levels of the trait. These findings, their implications, and strengths and limitations of the current investigation are further discussed.

  20. 非体育专业大学生公共体育选修课态度的调查与分析%The Attitude Surveys and Analysis of Public Sports Electives Attitude of Non-sports Majors Students in College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾热提·买提热依木

    2013-01-01

    The survey mathematical statistics, interviews, documentation and so on my way to my school students opened by the attitude of the sports elective course on the analysis results show that the current elective course I school sports education and teaching The practice had a positive attitude and negative attitude, in order to solve the problem of negative, which analyzed the causes and made a perfect college sports elective course of coun-termeasures and suggestions.%  文章采用问卷调查法、数理统计法、访谈法和文献资料等方法,对大学生对高校所开设的体育选修课的态度进行分析研究,目前大学生对高校体育选修课教育教学实践的态度产生了积极和消极态度,分析了消极态度原因,并提出了完善高校体育选修课的对策与建议。

  1. Language Attitudes and the Future of Bilingualism: The Case of Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jinny K.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the language attitudes of parents and secondary school students who are participating in programs where both official languages of Paraguay--Spanish and Guarani--are taught. Studies the relationship between linguistic attitudes and usage. (Author/VWL)

  2. Public Attitudes on Higher Education: A Trend Analysis, 1993 to 2003. National Center Report Number 04-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immerwahr, John

    2004-01-01

    To examine some of the impacts of changes on public attitudes, this document highlights a small-scale survey that included 16 substantive questions. It was conducted in October 2003 and included 801 adult respondents. Several respondents were called back for more in-depth discussions of the views they had expressed in the surveys. Public opinion…

  3. Promoting Positive Attitudes among the Caregivers of the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Joanne K.; Fay, Patricia

    1983-01-01

    Outlines educational strategies that can help the nursing staff reduce the frustrations and stress often related to caring for the elderly. Shows how to help staff recognize their own feelings about the elderly, become aware of misconceptions, and develop positive attitudes. (JOW)

  4. Progress, decline, and the public uptake of climate science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudiak-Gould, Peter

    2014-02-01

    Previous research has sought to explain public perception of climate change science in terms of individuals' "prior commitment" to such ideological stances as just-world belief, system justification, and liberalism/conservatism. One type of prior commitment that has received little formal attention in the literature is narratives of the moral trajectory of society. A theory of climate science uptake based on beliefs in societal progress or decline is more easily portable to non-Western settings; in a case study of global warming attitudes in the Marshall Islands, trajectory narratives indeed account for public belief, concern, blame, and response more aptly than existing theories, and accord well with qualitative analysis of Marshallese climate change discourse. In Western settings, progress/decline narratives may explain much of the variation in climate change attitudes previously accounted for by other ideological variables, promising a more penetrating explanation for the divergence of climate change attitudes within and between societies.

  5. Factors Affecting the Attitude of the Chinese Public to the Policy of Prohibiting Using Thin and Costless Plastic Bags%中国公众对"限塑令"态度的影响因素——以兰州市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常跟应; 李曼; 席亚宏; 刘书朋

    2011-01-01

    Based on questionnaire survey and interviews, this paper analyzed socio-demographic and psychological mechanisms of the attitude of the Chinese public to the policy of prohibiting using thin and costless plastic bags by using path analysis method. It is found that among four socio-demographic variables (sex, age, family income, and educational level), only educational level was positively and significantly correlated with the attitude, explaining 0.9% of the variances in the attitude. Psychological variables could predict the attitude much better than socio-demographic variables. Collectivism and environmental value were the antecedents of the attitude, explaining 6.3% of the variance. Environmental value was followed by collectivism, postmaterialist value orientation, general environmental knowledge, and plastic bags-specific environmental knowledge. It is found as well that the attitude to the policy of prohibiting using thin and costless plastic bags could predict the intention of buyers to bring shopping bags by themselves. It is argued that environmental attitude-behavior theories derived from western social practices can be used in China. However, it is necessary to understand the peculiarities of environmental attitudes and behaviors in transitional China with the public having changing and unstable world outlooks and environmental values, and to develop China-specific models since western models are based on stable social cognition of environmental problems.%基于问卷调查和个人访谈,运用路径方法,分析了影响中国公众对限塑令态度的社会心理和社会人口变量.结果表明,社会人口变量中,只有教育与公众对限塑令的态度呈正相关,且社会人口变量只能解释公众对限塑令态度方差的很小一部分.相较而言,社会心理变量能更好解释中国公众对限塑令态度的差异,集体主义价值观和新生态观与限塑令态度呈显著正相关,而新生态观受集体主义价值

  6. On the Attitude of Secondary 1 Students towards Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppan, L.; Munirah, S. K.; Foong, S. K.; Yeung, A. S.

    2010-07-01

    The understanding of students' attitude towards science will give a sense of direction when designing pedagogical approaches and lesson packages so that reasons for not liking science is arrested and eventually the nation's need for science oriented workforce is addressed in the future. This study is part of a 3-year research project entitled PbI1@School: A large scale study on the effect of "Physics by Inquiry" pedagogy on Secondary One students' attitude and aptitude in science, involving school, National Institute of Education (NIE) Singapore, University of Washington at Seattle and the Ministry of Education (MOE) of Singapore. The results from a survey conducted on a sample size of 215 secondary 1 students indicate that fun in studying science is a major reason for their interest towards the subject. Those who do not like science dislike the idea of surface learning such as memorizing facts and information. Besides, all these students in our sample appear to be inquisitive. We believe that the teaching and learning system needs to be modified to increase or at least sustain the students' interest in science and capitalize on students' inquisitiveness. Although the results obtained are interesting and give an insight on secondary 1 students' attitude towards science, we intend to carry out a more rigorous study to identify correlations between students' responses for different attitude questions to understand deeply their attitude towards science.

  7. The development and validation of a scientific attitudes and attitudes toward evolution and creation instrument for Christian college biology students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenneson, Michael Gunnar

    2002-01-01

    This study reports on the development of a valid and reliable survey instrument to be used by college biology teachers at Christian colleges to evaluate the scientific attitudes and the attitudes about evolution and attitudes about creationism of their students. Survey questions were largely derived from student responses to open ended interview questions. Content validity was strong as indicated by agreement among content experts through the use of a content validity rating form. Construct validity was examined through the use of principal components analysis of 165 survey responses. Four factors were identified as a result of this analysis: "evolution support," "views of how scientists think/operate," "scientific attitudes," and "hypotheses and theories." These factors were found to be consistent with the three theoretical constructs of scientific attitudes, attitudes about evolution, and attitudes about creationism. Overall instrument reliability, Cronbach's reliability coefficient, alpha, was determined to be 0.64 (N = 165). Readability was found to be at the 7 th grade level. The instrument should be comprehensible by college students.

  8. The credibility of risk information about licit substances: An exploratory study of attitudes among Swedish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekendahl Mats

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – Providing risk information on licit substances is a central health promotion strategy. There is, however, very little knowledge about public attitudes on this information. In this exploratory study we analyse the extent to which Swedish adults: 1 trust risk information regarding alcohol, cigarettes and wet snuff (“snus” provided by public authorities, 2 perceive risk information regarding alcohol, cigarettes and snus as consistent, and 3 have received an adequate amount of risk information from public authorities regarding these substances. The aim is also to investigate if certain characteristics among participants are related to their perceptions of such risk information.

  9. Attitudes of Mississippi college students toward David Duke before and after seeing the film Who is David Duke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenman, R; Girdner, E J; Burroughs, R G; Routman, M

    1993-01-01

    The attitudes of 211 students at a university in Mississippi were investigated both before and after seeing the Public Broadcasting Film Who Is David Duke? The film provided evidence of Duke's current racism, anti-Semitism, and pro-Nazi leanings. In a previous study with university students in Louisiana, the majority did not change their attitudes after watching the film (Eisenman, 1993). However, in the present study, students' attitudes showed change in an anti-Duke direction. The findings are discussed and reasons given for the differences between the two samples, and for the popularity of Duke, a former leader of the Ku Klux Klan.

  10. Couples' Attitudes, Childbirth, and the Division of Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Miranda; Liefbroer, Aart C.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine effects of partners' attitudes on the timing of the birth of a first child, the division of domestic labor, the division of child care, and the division of paid labor of couples. They use data from the Panel Study of Social Integration in the Netherlands, which includes independent measures of both partners'…

  11. The Influence of Personal Values on Attitudes and Loyalty Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz Henrique

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Although loyalty has been extensively investigated in the marketing discipline, there is a lack of attention to the relationship between personal values, loyalty and attitudes. Based on that, the objective of this study was to test the moderating role of personal values in the relationship between attitudes and loyalty tages from Oliver (1999. Data from a survey with 910 bank customers support the hypothesis that attitudes predicts loyalty, despite the structural model does not reveal statistically significant differences among customer clusters (self-promotional and selftranscending Hedonic. However, when comparing Loyalty means among segments, it can be noted that (i the self-promotional and self-transcendent clusters were different at the cognitive and affective stages, and (ii the self-promotional differed from the hedonic in the action stage. Finally we discuss the theoretical and managerial implications and provide suggestions for future research in the area.

  12. The Status of Hispanic American Students in Science: Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance L.; Rakow, Steven J.

    1985-01-01

    Examines attitudes toward science classes and teachers; science as a career; and value of science among elementary, junior and senior high Hispanic students in participating National Assessment of Educational Progress schools over three years. Compares attitudes of White and Black students. Results show increase in positive attitudes of minority…

  13. The stigma of obesity in the general public and its implications for public health - a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schomerus Georg

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Up to this date, prevalence rates of obesity are still rising. Aside from co-morbid diseases, perceived discrimination and stigmatization leads to worsen outcomes in obese individuals. Higher stigmatizing attitudes towards obese individuals may also result in less support of preventive and interventive measures. In light of the immense burden of obesity on health care systems and also on the individuals' quality of life, accepted and subsidized preventive measures are needed. Policy support might be determined by views of the lay public on causes of obesity and resulting weight stigma. This study seeks to answer how representative samples of the lay public perceive people with obesity or overweight status (stigmatizing attitudes; what these samples attribute obesity to (causal attribution and what types of interventions are supported by the lay public and which factors determine that support (prevention support. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted. All studies of representative samples reporting results on (a stigmatizing attitudes towards overweight and obese individuals, (b causal beliefs and (c prevention support were included. Results Only 7 articles were found. One study reported prevalence rates of stigmatizing attitudes. About a quarter of the population in Germany displayed definite stigmatizing attitudes. Other studies reported causal attributions. While external influences on weight are considered as well, it seems that internal factors are rated to be of higher importance. Across the studies found, regulative prevention is supported by about half of the population, while childhood prevention has highest approval rates. Results on sociodemographic determinants differ substantially. Conclusions Further research on public attitudes toward and perception of overweight and obesity is urgently needed to depict the prevailing degree of stigmatization. Introducing a multidimensional concept of the etiology

  14. Dental Hygiene Students' Attitudes and Self-confidence in the Care of the Disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruythuysen, R. J. M.

    1987-01-01

    A study measured the influence of treating disabled persons during the practical training period on the dental hygiene student's attitude toward the disabled, and studied whether attitude and self-confidence are related to certain student characteristics. (MSE)

  15. The neural basis of social influence and attitude change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuma, Keise

    2013-06-01

    Human attitudes and preferences are susceptible to social influence. Recent social neuroscience studies, using theories and experimental paradigms from social psychology, have begun to elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying how others influence our attitudes through processes such as social conformity, cognitive inconsistency and persuasion. The currently available evidence highlights the role of the posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) in social conformity and cognitive inconsistency, which represents the discrepancy between one's own and another person's opinion, or, more broadly, between currently inconsistent and ideally consistent states. Research on persuasion has revealed that people's susceptibility to persuasive messages is related to activation in a nearby but more anterior part of the medial frontal cortex. Future progress in this field will depend upon the ability of researchers to dissociate underlying motivations for attitude change in different paradigms, and to utilize neuroimaging methods to advance social psychological theories of social influence.

  16. Develop, apply and attitude scale to investigate the social marketing of sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Ünal

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop, apply and assess an attitude scale to investigate the social marketing of sport, its effects on the public attitude and the attitude of the society towards sport. The sample scale consists of 55 attitude statements including 5 dimensions (habit of doing sport regularly, society and sport, media-advertisement and sport, the effect of state and private sectors on sport, sportive education of families and children. The pilot study was carried out with 150 people over 18 who were randomly chosen from different groups in Muğla. In order to gather data, “the Attitude Scale for Social Marketing of Sport” (ASSMS was developed by the researcher. KMO test (0,866 was applied to assure the efficacy of the data gathered from the sample. The reliability coefficient which was 0,973 showed that the data had a high level of reliability. Consequently, a scale of 40 items was developed.

  17. Causal or spurious? The relationship of knowledge and attitudes to trust in science and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Mary Roduta; Reid, Grace; Schroeder, Meadow; Norris, Stephen P

    2013-07-01

    Survey data on 1217 adults living in Alberta, Canada were collected by Ipsos Reid Public Affairs and made available to us for analysis. The survey questioned participants on issues related to science including their perceived knowledge of science, attitudes toward science, and trust in science and technology. We developed a structural equation model to account for the causal relations implied by the correlations among the variables in the data set. Results show that trust in generalized science and technology is a large determiner of trust in specific technologies, but that trust in specific technologies is not a determinant of overall trust in science and technology. We also found that attitudes towards science have an effect on trust in generalized science and technology whereas perceived knowledge does not. Education and gender contribute to attitudes supporting an increased personal attachment to science, which was the strongest predictor of trust in our model.

  18. Knowledge and Attitudes of the Faculty of Theology Students on Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürdil Yilmaz, Seher; Opak Yücel, Burcu; Çuhadar, Döndü

    2016-12-29

    The objective in this study is to determine the knowledge and attitudes of the Faculty of Theology students on organ transplantation. The study that was planned as a descriptive study took place between March-May 2014 with the participation of 119 students enrolled at the Faculty of Theology. It was determined as a result of the study that the students see lack of knowledge (49.6%) as the top obstacle for organ transplantation followed by religion (21%), that 52.1% accept that organ transplantation is not forbidden in Islam; that 27.7% agree with the thought that considers it disturbing and unnerving to carry an organ or tissue from another body; that 80.7% agree with the idea stating that organ transplantation should be carried out even if it provides only a possibility for treatment or for prolonging one's life and that 82.4% agree with the opinion that statements in favor of organ transplantation to be declared by the Directorate of Religious Affairs will increase organ transplantation. Clergymen play an important role in affecting the behavior and attitudes of large public masses, and thus it is important that the positive ideas of these individuals with regard to organ donation will thus have indirect but positive effects on the attitudes of the public with regard to organ transplantation. Hence, it is thought that determining the attitudes of clergymen candidates who will educate the public both at schools and at places of prayer and increasing their awareness in this subject will contribute to increasing the awareness of the public with regard to organ donation.

  19. The Development of Attitude ScaleFor Physics Laboratory and The Assesment of Pre-Service Teachers’ Attitudes Towards Physics Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasret NUHOĞLU

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop a reliable and valid attitude scale in order to assess primary science preservice teachers’ attitudes towards physics laboratory. The attitude factors were developed by comparing existing attitudes scales and discussing with experts on the field. The sample related to the development phase of the scale consists of 318 science pre-service teachers studying in the Department of primary science education at the Faculty of education, Kırsehir at Gazi University. There are 19 positive and 17 negative attitude factors in the scale. The Cronbach-Alpha internal integrity coefficient of the final version of the scale was found to be 0.8930 after factor analysis was carried out. Science pre- service teachers’ attitudes towards physics laboratory were explored by a five point Likert scale. The data were analyzed by SPSS software and were evaluated at their attitudes towards physicslaboratory.

  20. Attitudes toward the use of baby walkers among healthcare personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Mazen Alessa; Majeda Hammoud; Wafa Al-Qabandi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to identify the attitudes of healthcare personnel in Kuwait towards the use of BW. Methods Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among 144 health workers of different specialties in hospitals in the State of Kuwait to find out the perceived benefits and associated risks of BWs

  1. Belief and Investing: Preferences and Attitudes of the Faithful

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Brimble1

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This Australian study seeks to better understand the disparity between the positive attitudes towards Socially Responsible Investing (SRI and the level of investment in SRI (Saulwick &Associates 2001; Watmore & Bradley 2001; Williams 2007; Arjalies 2010, by examining both the attitudes to SRI and the investment choices that are made. It is hypothesised that those who are more committed to religious belief principles are more likely to invest in SRI.To test this 322 people from two large Queensland organisations were surveyed in relation to their investment attitudes and preferences. Results show that those who are more religious are no more likely to invest in SRI, and that the level of importance placed on SRI and financial criteria are similar in most instances for the more and less religious. In addition, women who are religious place more importance on conservative general investment criteria than less ornon-religious women.

  2. Expanding the domains of attitudes towards evidence-based practice: the evidence based practice attitude scale-50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A; Cafri, Guy; Lugo, Lindsay; Sawitzky, Angelina

    2012-09-01

    Mental health and social service provider attitudes toward evidence-based practice have been measured through the development and validation of the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS; Aarons, Ment Health Serv Res 6(2):61-74, 2004). Scores on the EBPAS scales are related to provider demographic characteristics, organizational characteristics, and leadership. However, the EBPAS assesses only four domains of attitudes toward EBP. The current study expands and further identifies additional domains of attitudes towards evidence-based practice. A qualitative and quantitative mixed-methods approach was used to: (1) generate items from multiples sources (researcher, mental health program manager, clinician/therapist), (2) identify potential content domains, and (3) examine the preliminary domains and factor structure through exploratory factor analysis. Participants for item generation included the investigative team, a group of mental health program managers (n = 6), and a group of clinicians/therapists (n = 8). For quantitative analyses a sample of 422 mental health service providers from 65 outpatient programs in San Diego County completed a survey that included the new items. Eight new EBPAS factors comprised of 35 items were identified. Factor loadings were moderate to large and internal consistency reliabilities were fair to excellent. We found that the convergence of these factors with the four previously identified evidence-based practice attitude factors (15 items) was small to moderate suggesting that the newly identified factors represent distinct dimensions of mental health and social service provider attitudes toward adopting EBP. Combining the original 15 items with the 35 new items comprises the EBPAS 50-item version (EBPAS-50) that adds to our understanding of provider attitudes toward adopting EBPs. Directions for future research are discussed.

  3. Attitudes of university precalculus students toward mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Haitham M; Mji, Andile

    2005-04-01

    To investigate the attitudes of 200 university students (83% freshmen) toward mathematics, a questionnaire was administered to report on their attitudes toward mathematics. Analysis indicated that students studying precalculus had a somewhat positive attitude toward mathematics.

  4. Validity of the Eating Attitude Test among Exercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen J; Lane, Andrew M; Matheson, Hilary

    2004-12-01

    Theory testing and construct measurement are inextricably linked. To date, no published research has looked at the factorial validity of an existing eating attitude inventory for use with exercisers. The Eating Attitude Test (EAT) is a 26-item measure that yields a single index of disordered eating attitudes. The original factor analysis showed three interrelated factors: Dieting behavior (13-items), oral control (7-items), and bulimia nervosa-food preoccupation (6-items). The primary purpose of the study was to examine the factorial validity of the EAT among a sample of exercisers. The second purpose was to investigate relationships between eating attitudes scores and selected psychological constructs. In stage one, 598 regular exercisers completed the EAT. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the single-factor, a three-factor model, and a four-factor model, which distinguished bulimia from food pre-occupation. CFA of the single-factor model (RCFI = 0.66, RMSEA = 0.10), the three-factor-model (RCFI = 0.74; RMSEA = 0.09) showed poor model fit. There was marginal fit for the 4-factor model (RCFI = 0.91, RMSEA = 0.06). Results indicated five-items showed poor factor loadings. After these 5-items were discarded, the three models were re-analyzed. CFA results indicated that the single-factor model (RCFI = 0.76, RMSEA = 0.10) and three-factor model (RCFI = 0.82, RMSEA = 0.08) showed poor fit. CFA results for the four-factor model showed acceptable fit indices (RCFI = 0.98, RMSEA = 0.06). Stage two explored relationships between EAT scores, mood, self-esteem, and motivational indices toward exercise in terms of self-determination, enjoyment and competence. Correlation results indicated that depressed mood scores positively correlated with bulimia and dieting scores. Further, dieting was inversely related with self-determination toward exercising. Collectively, findings suggest that a 21-item four-factor model shows promising validity coefficients among

  5. Pedagogic Barriers in Cameroon Inclusive Classrooms: The Impact of Curriculum, Teachers' Attitudes and Classroom Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanyi, Maureen Ebanga

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to examine if the curriculum, infrastructures and teachers' attitudes may influence school exclusion amongst disabled pupils. Three hypotheses were formulated based on the three variables: curriculum (teaching programmes), infrastructures and teachers' attitudes. 150 public primary school personnel from 12 primary schools in…

  6. Attitudes of the Elderly toward Information and Communications Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Antonio; Ramirez, M. Paz; Viadel, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Learning and using new technologies by the older people is seen as a demand for their integration in society and as a factor related to active aging. The goal of this article is to understand the attitudes of the elderly towards information and communication technologies in the context of a training course about the utilization of a digital…

  7. Attitudes toward Science: Measurement and Psychometric Properties of the Test of Science-Related Attitudes for Its Use in Spanish-Speaking Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Marianela; Förster, Carla; González, Caterina; González-Pose, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    Understanding attitudes toward science and measuring them remain two major challenges for science teaching. This article reviews the concept of attitudes toward science and their measurement. It subsequently analyzes the psychometric properties of the "Test of Science-Related Attitudes" (TOSRA), such as its construct validity, its…

  8. 野生动物利用态度调查及分析%Investigation and Analysis of Public Attitudes Towards Wildlife Utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆锋; 张伟

    2012-01-01

    A survey on public attitudes towards wildlife utilization was conducted using questionnaire and interview investigation methods among 300 people, including some undergraduate and graduate students from Northeast Forestry University in Hei-longjiang Province as well as some new students' parents. Results of the investigation show that the main factors influencing the formation of public attitudes to wildlife utilization are level of education, life experience, media publicity, understanding of national policy, and misleading of some non-governmental organizations. Some feasible suggestions are proposed to promote the sustainable development and utilization of wildlife.%采用问卷调查法及访谈,对部分来自于黑龙江省东北林业大学的在读本科生、在读研究生、本科入学新生以及新生家长共300人进行了调查.对当前人们普遍关注的野生动物利用热点问题进行了提问,调查结果表明影响野生动物利用态度形成的深层次原因为受教育程度、生活经验、媒体宣传、国家政策了解程度、某些非政府组织(NGO)的误导,并根据分析结果提出了促进野生动物可持续发展与利用的几点可行性建议.

  9. Overfulfilling the Norm : The Better-Than-Average effect in judgments of attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavrova, O.; Koeneke, Vanessa; Schloesser, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This research extends the better-than-average (BTA) effect commonly observed in judgments of abilities and personality traits to the domain of attitudes. Participants reported their attitudes toward 18 sociopolitical issues and estimated the attitudes of most other people toward these issues. Consis

  10. Predicting Intention to Take Protective Measures During Haze: The Roles of Efficacy, Threat, Media Trust, and Affective Attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Trisha T C; Bautista, John Robert

    2016-07-01

    The annual Southeast Asian haze pollution raises public health concerns in this region. Based on a modified extended parallel process model, this study examines efficacy (self-efficacy and response efficacy) and perceived threat (susceptibility and severity) and incorporates new constructs of media trust and affective attitude. Results from a Web survey of 410 undergraduate students in Singapore show that response efficacy to seek haze-related information mediates the association between perceived self-efficacy and intention to take protective measures during haze. Moreover, self-efficacy is negatively associated with affective attitude (e.g., fear and worry) toward haze-related health problems. Next, perceived severity and perceived susceptibility are positively associated with response efficacy and affective attitude. Affective attitude toward haze is a stronger predictor than response efficacy for behavioral intention. Finally, trust in new media is positively associated with young Singaporeans' affective attitude, which positively affects their behavioral intention to take protective measures.

  11. The Sexuality Education and Attitudes of College Students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the type and quality of sexuality education received by college students in Hangzhou, China. Their attitudes towards sex and sexuality were also explored. To set the broader context the regulations and laws governing the provision of sexuality education in China have also been examined.…

  12. The Structure of Political Attitudes in Hungary and Serbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todosijevic, Bojan

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a comparative examination of the structure of political ideology in two post-communist countries, Serbia and Hungary. A broad set of indicators of specific political attitudes is reduced to a smaller number of latent ideological dimensions via factor analysis. The precise meanin

  13. The Effect of Computer Assisted Instruction Based Constructivist Learning Approach on Students’ Attitudes and Achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeyda Gül

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the effect of computer assisted instruction based constructivist learning approach on students’ attitudes towards computers and science and technology lesson and their achievements at science and technology lesson. The study group is a group of 56 students who attend to fourth grade of a public primary school which were selected via convenient sampling method from Körfez (Kocaeli. The data were collected by means of Attitude Scale to Science and Technology Lesson, Attitude Scale to Computers and Achievement Test. In this research, a quasi-experiment design with pre test-post test control group was employed. The subjects was taught to the students using constructivist learning method which carried out at present syllabus in control group and computer assisted instruction based constructivist learning approach in experimental group. The findings from this study showed that there was a statistically significant difference between groups’ post-test attitudes towards computers and post-test scores obtained from achievement test in favour of experimental group (p0.05 despite the fact that there was a positive increase at experimental groups’ attitudes.

  14. L'Apprentissage et le Changement des Attitudes envers Soi-meme: Le Concept de Soi. (Learning and the Change of Attitudes Towards Oneself: Self Image).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Aimee

    1980-01-01

    The French language article is the second in a series and describes the principles of classic conditioning which underlie attitude formation and change. The article also notes the many functions of self-concept attitudes in order to guide the choices of intervention in attitude learning. (Author/SB)

  15. Validation of the Chinese Expanded Euthanasia Attitude Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Alice Ming-Lin; Fok, Shiu-Yeu

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the validation of the Chinese version of an expanded 31-item Euthanasia Attitude Scale. A 4-stage validation process included a pilot survey of 119 college students and a randomized household survey with 618 adults in Hong Kong. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed a 4-factor structure of the scale, which can therefore be…

  16. Knowledge of the animal welfare act and animal welfare regulations influences attitudes toward animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Mitchell M

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants' attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings.

  17. Exploring the Dialogic Space of Public Participation in Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    in public misconceptions of science. This paper uses the dialogic space proposed by Callon et al. to explore relationships between public and science. The dialogic space spans collective versus scientific dimensions. The collective (or public) is constituted by aggregation (opinion polls) or by composition......The participatory turn in science communication embraces a range of activities and concepts, from citizen science to multistakeholder dialogue and public access to information and even juridical redress, when necessary. Public participation in science breaks with the underlying assumptions...... of public understanding of science and scientific literacy approaches: that scientific knowledge in some sense is privileged, that understanding the science will lead to appreciative attitudes toward science and technology in general, and that controversial issues involving science and the public are rooted...

  18. The Public Communication of Geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatheodorou, Photini; Spathopoulos, Fivos

    2016-04-01

    Communication of scientific and technological developments to the public demands an in-depth understanding of relevant public perceptions and concerns and a resultant plan of action. Until recently, very little research and practice had been recorded on this front. The presentation wishes to promote the idea of dialogue as a tool for establishing public trust in scientific and technological development, in general. Different theoretical perspectives on public communication will be examined, as defined by current research. As a case study, the media coverage of shale gas and renewable energy sources projects around the world will be presented. The final proposition of the presentation will make the case of dialogue, as an effective form of engaging the public with scientific developments and will explore dialogic practices and their application in the fields of science and technology.

  19. Attitudes of parents of nondisabled students regarding inclusion of disabled students in Nevada's public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, E J

    2001-02-01

    Opinions of 370 parents of students without disabilities about inclusive programming were compared with those obtained from a previous study of 65 parents of students with disabilities. Both groups of parents positively rated opinion statements favoring inclusion; however, parents of students with disabilities consistently rated inclusion-focused statements more positively than parents of nondisabled students.

  20. The Attitudes of Interior Design Students towards Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Caimen Leigh; Olson, Margot A.

    2009-01-01

    To measure attitudes toward environmental issues, interior design students responded to a four-part survey: demographics, ecology, sustainability, and comments. The ecology section was composed of modifications of questions from the New Ecological Paradigm Scale (Dunlap et al. "Journal of Environmental Education," 9:10-19, 2000). The researchers…

  1. 76 FR 70216 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws; Vessel REEL ATTITUDE; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws; Vessel REEL ATTITUDE... the vessel REEL ATTITUDE is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Fishing Charter passenger less...

  2. The role of public relations activities in hospital choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengilimoglu, Dilaver; Yesiltas, Mehmet; Kisa, Adnan; Dziegielewski, Sophia F

    2007-01-01

    Public relations activities for all organizations can have an important effect on consumer decision-making when buying goods or services. This study examines the effect that public relations activities can have regarding consumer decisions and choice. To explore exemplify this relationship a questionnaire was given to 971 patients within public, university and private hospitals in Ankara, Turkey. Study results show that public relations activities were a crucial factor in determining consumer hospital choice. The majority of respondents reported that the behaviors and attitude of personnel as public relations activities that support the hospital's reputation within the public were the primary variables in hospital choice. Health care managers can use these findings to further understand how patients make informed choices related to usage of a health care facility and to develop and/or improve public relations activities.

  3. Supporting the Public Benefits of Public Higher Education. Policy Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Alice

    This policy statement from the American Association of State Colleges and Universities addresses the benefits of public higher education. Along with introductory and concluding sections, the statement addresses access, academic quality, research and public service, accountability, public financial support, and balanced governance. The statement…

  4. Undergraduate Attitudes towards the Developmentally Disabled: Impact of Volunteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert A.; And Others

    Thirty-three undergraduate students volunteered for a minimum of 20 hours in agencies serving the developmentally disabled (DD) as part of the requirements for a course on exceptional children; 10 additional students chose to complete a paper. A 40-item questionnaire pertaining to attitudes towards the DD population was administered prior to and…

  5. Development and Validation of the Test of Geography-Related Attitudes (ToGRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Scott L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduced the development and validation of the Test of Geography-Related Attitudes (ToGRA). The ToGRA measures student attitude on four discrete measures student attitude on four discrete scales: 1) leisure interest in geography; 2) enjoyment of geographic education; 3) career interest in geography; and 4) interest in place. The ToGRA…

  6. Success attitudes of young ophthalmologists in the first decade of their career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rodrigo Pedreira Chaves

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe the main success attitudes of young ophthalmologists in the first decade of their career. METHODS: This descriptive study comprised subjects selected from a sample of ophthalmologists who were participating in a congress, using a semi-structured questionnaire. The inclusion criteria were as follows: ophthalmologists under the age of 40 years, within 5-10 years from ophthalmology residency conclusion. The subjects were asked about the three main success attitudes in their personal experience during the first years of ophthalmology practice. After the initial results, the 10 most frequently mentioned attitudes were listed and volunteers were again interviewed to choose, within the latter list, the three main attitudes. RESULTS: Forty-eight ophthalmologists were interviewed, 24 (50% were male; the mean age was 37 years (SD: 2 years, range: 33-40 years and the mean time from ophthalmology residency conclusion was 8 years (SD: 1 year, range: 5-10 years. The frequency of such mentioned success attitudes were as follows: to invest in professional updating (22.9%, to have a good relationship with patients and professional partners (18.8%, to prioritize individual and family happiness (12.5%, initially to work in an established group (11.1%, to work in public service (9.7%, to have their own business with a homogeneous group (7.6%, to save money (7.6%, to be ready to resume work (4.2%, to get business administration skills (4.2%, and to have professional insurance (0.7%. CONCLUSIONS: The three main success attitudes consisted in investing in professional updating (22.9%, maintaining a good relationship with patients and professional partners (18.8%, and prioritizing individual and family happiness (12.5%. Although these results should not be generalized, they are helpful not only for those ophthalmologists at the beginning of a career but also those who want to reflect on what to prioritize in their professional practice.

  7. Primary care obesity management in Hungary: evaluation of the knowledge, practice and attitudes of family physicians

    OpenAIRE

    Rurik Imre; Torzsa Péter; Ilyés István (1943-) (gyermekgyógyász, gyermekendokrinológus, háziorvos); Szigethy Endre (1980-) (szociológus, epidemiológus); Halmy Lászlóné (orvos, Budapest); Iski Gabriella; Kolozsvári László Róbert (1977-) (háziorvos); Mester Lajos; Móczár Csaba (1966-) (háziorvos); Rinfel József; Nagy Lajos; Kalabay László

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity, a threatening pandemic, has an important public health implication. Before proper medication is available, primary care providers will have a distinguished role in prevention and management. Their performance may be influenced by many factors but their personal motivation is still an under-researched area. Methods The knowledge, attitudes and practice were reviewed in this questionnaire study involving a representative sample of 10% of all Hungarian family physicians. In d...

  8. The Educative Value of Dewey's Religious Attitude for Spirituality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, R. Scott

    2009-01-01

    John Dewey's "religious attitude" has great potential for the educative development of children's spirituality. This is because it enables their spiritual understandings to become more intelligently composed--not just in a cognitive or hyper-rational sense, but as a way of being. This paper provides an outline of Dewey's approach, which is…

  9. Public attitudes towards pricing policies to change health-related behaviours: a UK focus group study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteau, Theresa M.; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Cohn, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence supports the use of pricing interventions in achieving healthier behaviour at population level. The public acceptability of this strategy continues to be debated throughout Europe, Australasia and USA. We examined public attitudes towards, and beliefs about the acceptability of pricing policies to change health-related behaviours in the UK. The study explores what underlies ideas of acceptability, and in particular those values and beliefs that potentially compete with the evidence presented by policy-makers. Methods: Twelve focus group discussions were held in the London area using a common protocol with visual and textual stimuli. Over 300 000 words of verbatim transcript were inductively coded and analyzed, and themes extracted using a constant comparative method. Results: Attitudes towards pricing policies to change three behaviours (smoking, and excessive consumption of alcohol and food) to improve health outcomes, were unfavourable and acceptability was low. Three sets of beliefs appeared to underpin these attitudes: (i) pricing makes no difference to behaviour; (ii) government raises prices to generate income, not to achieve healthier behaviour and (iii) government is not trustworthy. These beliefs were evident in discussions of all types of health-related behaviour. Conclusions: The low acceptability of pricing interventions to achieve healthier behaviours in populations was linked among these responders to a set of beliefs indicating low trust in government. Acceptability might be increased if evidence regarding effectiveness came from trusted sources seen as independent of government and was supported by public involvement and hypothecated taxation. PMID:25983329

  10. Gatekeepers of science: attitudes toward the research participation of adults with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Katherine E; Keys, Christopher B; Henry, David B

    2008-11-01

    Researchers and Institutional Review Board (IRB) members' attitudes influence scientific knowledge about individuals with intellectual disability. We recruited 260 intellectual disability researchers and IRB members to develop a measure of attitudes toward the research participation of adults with intellectual disability, the Participation in Research Attitude Scale. Findings suggest three conceptual domains: Opportunity and Choice, Help in Decision Making, and Beneficence. We also examined individual differences in attitudes and the relationships between general and specific attitudes. In general, intellectual disability researchers and those with closer relationships to individuals with disabilities had attitudes consistent with disability-rights principles. Some dimensions of global attitudes toward adults with intellectual disability predictedmore specific attitudes toward their research participation. Implications are discussed.

  11. Comparison of ENVISAT's Attitude Simulation and Real Optical and SLR Observations in order to Refine the Satellite Attitude Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silha, J.; Schildknecht, T.; Pittet, J.; Bodenmann, D.; Kanzler, R.; Karrang, P.; Krag, H.

    2016-09-01

    The Astronomic Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) in cooperation with other three partners is involved in an ESA study dedicated to the attitude determination of large spacecraft and upper stages. Two major goals are defined. First is the long term prediction of tumbling rates (e.g. 10 years) for selected targets for the future Active Debris Removal (ADR) missions. Second goal is the attitude state determination in case of contingencies, when a short response time is required between the observations themselves and the attitude determination. One of the project consortium partners, Hypersonic Technology Goettingen (HTG), is developing a highly modular software tool ιOTA to perform short- (days) to long-term (years) propagations of the orbit and the attitude motion of spacecraft in space. Furthermore, ιOTA's post-processing modules will generate synthetic measurements, e.g. light curves, SLR residuals and Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) images that can be compared with the real measurements. In our work we will present the first attempt to compare real measurements with synthetic measurements in order to estimate the attitude state of tumbling satellite ENVISAT from observations performed by AIUB. We will shortly discuss the ESA project and ιOTA software tool. We will present AIUB's ENVISAT attitude state determined from the SLR ranges acquired by the Zimmerwald SLR station. This state was used as the initial conditions within the ιOTA software. Consequently the attitude of satellite was predicted by using ιOTA and compared with the real SLR residuals, as well with the high frame-rate light curves acquired by the Zimmerwald 1-m telescope.

  12. Attitudes of (future) primary school teachers towards homosexuality and its integration in the learning process

    OpenAIRE

    Ogulin, Tjaša

    2013-01-01

    Homosexuality and its integration in the learning process has often been subject of discussion in professional and general public. Many people think that homosexuality is a moral issue. In spite of many researches proving the opposite, same-sex partnerships and rainbow families are still often interpreted as unnatural, abnormal, even deviant and because of that dangerous to the children. Intolerance towards gays and lesbians is reflected in negative attitudes, prejudices and stereotypes, whic...

  13. Illusory correlation in the perception of group attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spears, R.; van der Pligt, J.; Eiser, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    126 undergraduates with pro- or anti-attitudes toward nuclear power and 15 local members of a campaign for nuclear disarmament viewed opinion statements supposedly made by residents of 2 towns. One town was larger and statements from it occurred frequently, the other was small and statements from it

  14. The impact of affective and cognitive focus on attitude formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, H.L. van den; Manstead, A.S.R.; Pligt, J. van der; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effects of unobtrusive affective and cognitive focus on attitude formation. To induce focus, participants worked on a word-search puzzle consisting of either affective (e.g., emotion) or cognitive (e.g., reasoning) words. They then read positive and negative affective and cognitive i

  15. The Impact of Practitioner Presentations on Student Attitudes about Accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoryshyn, Michael W.; Tyson, Thomas N.

    2003-01-01

    In two of four sections of an accounting course, students attended presentations by accountants. Precourse (n=138) and postcourse (n=99) questionnaires indicated that those exposed to presentations had far more positive attitude changes regarding accountants, the profession, and accounting careers. (SK)

  16. Analysis of consumer´s attitudes to the retailing formats

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořák, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The thesis is focused on retail marketing and its main goal is to analyse consumer's attitudes to the various retailing formats. First part is dedicated to some theoretical terms of retailing, stores typology, consumer behaviour, segmentation and specifics of retail marketing. Next part analyses available information from public researches, articles and MML database to reveal present situation and trends on retail market. In the last part is executed own primary research with aim to discover ...

  17. Attitudes toward Information Technology of Teachers of the Gifted: Implications for Gifted Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaunessy, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This statewide study of teachers of intellectually gifted students examined teachers' attitudes toward information technology. Participants were 418 teachers of the intellectually gifted in a southeastern state who voluntarily responded to a survey about technology attitudes. Results indicated positive attitudes toward technology, with training in…

  18. AAPI college students' willingness to seek counseling: the role of culture, stigma, and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Na-Yeun; Miller, Matthew J

    2014-07-01

    This study tested 4 theoretically and empirically derived structural equation models of Asian, Asian American, and Pacific Islanders' willingness to seek counseling with a sample of 278 college students. The models represented competing hypotheses regarding the manner in which Asian cultural values, European American cultural values, public stigma, stigma by close others, self-stigma, and attitudes toward seeking professional help related to willingness to seek counseling. We found that Asian and European American cultural values differentially related to willingness to seek counseling indirectly through specific indirect pathways (public stigma, stigma by close others, self-stigma, and attitudes toward seeking professional help). Our results also showed that the magnitude of model-implied relationships did not vary as a function of generational status. Study limitations, future directions for research, and implications for counseling are discussed.

  19. Public Understanding and Attitudes towards Meat Chicken Production and Relations to Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erian, Ihab; Phillips, Clive J C

    2017-03-09

    Little is known about public knowledge of meat chicken production and how it influences attitudes to birds' welfare and consumer behaviour. We interviewed 506 members of the public in SE Queensland; Australia; to determine how knowledge of meat chicken production and slaughter links to attitudes and consumption. Knowledge was assessed from 15 questions and low scores were supported by respondents' self-assessed report of low knowledge levels and agreement that their knowledge was insufficient to form an opinion about which chicken products to purchase. Older respondents and single people without children were most knowledgeable. There was uncertainty about whether chicken welfare was adequate, particularly in those with little knowledge. There was also evidence that a lack of empathy towards chickens related to lack of knowledge, since those that thought it acceptable that some birds are inadequately stunned at slaughter had low knowledge scores. More knowledgeable respondents ate chicken more frequently and were less likely to buy products with accredited labelling. Approximately half of the respondents thought the welfare of the chicken was more important than the cost. It is concluded that the public's knowledge has an important connection to their attitudes and consumption of chicken.

  20. The role of public transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayliss, D. [London Transport, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-11-01

    This paper considers the types and scale of the contributions that public transport can make to sustainable personal mobility. It recognises that public transport actions must be part of a wider concerted effort if real progress is to be made in promoting sustainable mobility. Parallel actions will be needed in the areas of land use patterns, technology and activity patterns as well as other elements of transport planning and management. The energy efficiency, environmental impacts, space effects and mobility characteristics of the main forms of public transport are examined and related, where appropriate, to those of cars. (author) 1 fig., 11 tabs., refs.

  1. The Effect of Personality Value Practice of Principals toward Attitude, Discipline, Qualities and Communications of Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the effect of personality value practice of principals toward work attitude, work discipline, work quality and work communication of teachers in senior high schools such as public senior high schools (SMA, vocational senior high schools (SMK, religion senior high schools (MAN in Makassar city, South Sulawesi province of Indonesia. The sample consisted of 295 teachers. It used random sampling method. The study used a questionnaire to collect data. Data were analyzed by the statistical inference of linear regression to test the hypotheses. Cronbach's alpha of the questionnaire is 0.879. The results showed a strong effect of personality values of principals toward work attitude, work quality and work communication of teachers at schools. While, personality value of principals have moderate influence on teachers’ work discipline.

  2. From motivation to acceptability: a survey of public attitudes towards organ donation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordfalk, Francisca; Olejaz, Maria; Jensen, Anja Marie Bornø;

    2016-01-01

    (N = 1195). A questionnaire was developed on the basis of preceding qualitative studies and pilot testing and included reuse of one item from earlier surveys to facilitate historical comparison. The analysis of the data was carried out using IBM SPSS Statistics 22 and focused on descriptive...

  3. Faculty Internationalization: Experiences, Attitudes, and Involvement of Faculty at Public Universities in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Internationalization in higher education is an issue of growing importance as the forces of globalism continue to push both social and economic connections from local to global. While this topic is becoming increasingly vital to the health and influence of educational institutions, many, including those within South Dakota, are unaware of the…

  4. The relationship between media exposure and antifat attitudes: the role of dysfunctional appearance beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Linda; Reid, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between media exposure, antifat attitudes, and body dissatisfaction, as well as the mediating effect of dysfunctional appearance beliefs. A sample of 112 women completed surveys measuring media exposure, antifat attitudes, body dissatisfaction, and dysfunctional beliefs about appearance. It was found that time spent reading fashion magazines was positively correlated with antifat attitudes and that this relationship was mediated by dysfunctional beliefs about appearance. Measures of antifat attitudes and body dissatisfaction were both found to be correlated with endorsement of dysfunctional beliefs about appearance and body mass index. Results suggest that time spent reading fashion magazines may be related to antifat attitudes through dysfunctional appearance beliefs.

  5. Attitudes of stakeholders towards the Podyji/Thaya River Basin National Park in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihar, Martin; Stankova, Jindriska

    2006-11-01

    In August 2000, a survey of public opinion was carried out among visitors, local residents and representatives of local self-governments in the territory of the Podyji/Thaya River Basin National Park in the Czech Republic. The goal was to obtain stakeholders' opinions and attitudes towards nature conservation, the National Park and tourism within the territory which used to be closed to the public for 40 years due to the Iron Curtain. Without the knowledge of opinions of stakeholders it is not possible to manage nature conservation and development in the protected area properly. Using the method of direct interviews, 646 questionnaires where collected, of which 523 were from visitors and tourists, 115 from local residents and 8 from mayors of towns/villages. The questionnaires were analysed in order to detect differences in attitudes among the respondent groups in the following thematic areas: (a) the National Park, its environment and perception of it by respondents; (b) relationship of respondents to the territory; (c) tourism and attitudes towards recreational activities; (d) the Administration of the National Park and evaluation of its work; and (e) economic impact of tourism for local communities. One section of the study focused on comparing the attitudes between local inhabitants and mayors and the other section presents a collation of opinions from locals, mayors and tourists. Although a positive evaluation of the national park dominated the results, some negative attitudes and experiences were identified among locals. In addition, the situation also differed within communities. Results also indicated a relatively strong relationship to the territory by locals, but low job opportunities and income from tourism. The level of tourism intensity was perceived as an increasing and sometimes disturbing factor for local communities; motoring was observed as being the most negative activity for nature. The Administration of the Podyji/Thaya River Basin National

  6. PUBLIC ATTITUDES, EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CONSEQUENCES OF DRINKING AND DRIVING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. DESAPRIYA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury is the ninth most common cause of premature death worldwide and the third most common cause of years lived with disability. Many early deaths are related to motor vehicle crashes (MVC's: each year, MVC's kill 1.2 million people (3,242 deaths/day and injure or disable 20–50 million more. The Global Burden of Disease Study, conducted in the early 1990s, predicted that traffic-related injuries will become the third largest contributor to global death and disability by the year 2020. The identification of effective strategies for the prevention of traffic related injuries is of global health importance. The substantial effect of alcohol on road safety has long been recognized, and a variety of important initiatives to combat this problem have been introduced with some measurable success. Canadians have rated drinking and driving as one of the most important social issues facing them today, placing it ahead of other prominent issues, including health care, pollution, and the state of the economy. Two factors that have contributed strongly to motor vehicle injuries and fatalities in British Columbia (BC and Canada are alcohol-impaired driving and failure to use seat belts. Drivers who operated motor vehicles after drinking were less likely to wear seat belts, and so they continue to be a major traffic safety concern. When compared to restrained occupants, unrestrained occupants were almost 5 times more likely to die (Odds Ratios (OR 4.70, or be injured (OR 4.66. Fractures (OR 10.70, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 7.35–15.5, lacerations (OR 7.50, CI 5.55-10.15 bleeding (OR 7.14, CI 4.97–10.26 and concussions (OR 5.49, CI 2.71-11.12, were the more common types of injuries experienced by unrestrained occupants compared to the restrained occupants. Laws mandate the use of safety belts by motor vehicle occupants, and driving under the influence of alcohol is a generic term for a series of offences under the Canadian Criminal Code. Violation of

  7. Chinese public understanding of the use of agricultural biotechnology--a case study from Zhejiang Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Lan

    2006-04-01

    This study explores the Chinese public's perceptions of, and attitudes to, agriculture and food applications of biotechnology; and investigates the effect of socio-demographic factors on attitudes. A questionnaire survey and interviews were used in an attempt to combine quantitative analysis with qualitative review. The main finding of this study is that the Chinese population has a superficial, optimistic attitude to agricultural biotechnology; and that, in accordance with public attitudes, a cautious policy, with obligatory labelling, should be adopted. The study reveals that education is the factor among socio-demographic variables with the strongest impact on public attitudes. Higher education leads to a more positive evaluation of GM (genetically modified) foods and applications of biotechnology with respect to usefulness, moral acceptability, and suitability for encouragement. In addition, public attitudinal differences depend significantly on area of residence. Compared with their more urban compatriots, members of the public in less developed areas of China have more optimistic attitudes, perceive more benefits, and are more risk tolerant in relation to GM foods and agricultural biotechnology. Finally we obtained a very high rate of "don't know" answers to our survey questions. This suggests that many people do not have settled attitudes, and correspondingly, that the overall public attitude to agricultural biotechnology and GM foods in China is at present somewhat unstable.

  8. Chinese public understanding of the use of agricultural biotechnology--A case study from Zhejiang Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the Chinese public's perceptions of, and attitudes to, agriculture and food applications of biotechnology; and investigates the effect of socio-demographic factors on attitudes. A questionnaire survey and interviews were used in an attempt to combine quantitative analysis with qualitative review. The main finding of this study is that the Chinese population has a superficial, optimistic attitude to agricultural biotechnology; and that, in accordance with public attitudes, a cautious policy,with obligatory labelling, should be adopted. The study reveals that education is the factor among socio-demographic variables with the strongest impact on public attitudes. Higher education leads to a more positive evaluation of GM (genetically modified)foods and applications of biotechnology with respect to usefulness, moral acceptability, and suitability for encouragement. In addition, public attitudinal differences depend significantly on area of residence. Compared with their more urban compatriots,members of the public in less developed areas of China have more optimistic attitudes, perceive more benefits, and are more risk tolerant in relation to GM foods and agricultural biotechnology. Finally we obtained a very high rate of"don't know" answers to our survey questions. This suggests that many people do not have settled attitudes, and correspondingly, that the overall public attitude to agricultural biotechnology and GM foods in China is at present somewhat unstable.

  9. ATTITUDES OF THE CONSUMERS REGARDING THE PROCESSING AND EMPLOYMENT OF THEIR PERSONAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusescu Marius

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of privacy, seen in connection with the consumer's private space, and defined in terms of the specific personal data has gained an increasing importance, as a result of the organizations’ extended attempts, within their marketing efforts, to capture, process and use the consumers’ personal data. Paper explores the attitudes of the consumers regarding their personal data in terms of their disclosure, previous agreement consumers should grant to the companies or public institutions (authorities processing them, employment, registration and processing by the companies, and buying products and/or services as a result of a direct approach.

  10. Conservation Education and the Attitudes of Local Communities Living Adjacent to Mt. Elgon National Park, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonyu, Joseph C.

    2009-01-01

    A study of attitudes of 328 people living around Mt. Elgon National Park showed that more than three-quarters had favorable attitudes toward the conservation of the Park's forest and wildlife resources. They also had favorable attitudes toward the conservation education efforts of various agencies that operated in the area, particularly those of…

  11. On the numeric integration of dynamic attitude equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, P. E.; Yan, Y.; Grossman, Robert

    1992-01-01

    We describe new types of numerical integration algorithms developed by the authors. The main aim of the algorithms is to numerically integrate differential equations which evolve on geometric objects, such as the rotation group. The algorithms provide iterates which lie on the prescribed geometric object, either exactly, or to some prescribed accuracy, independent of the order of the algorithm. This paper describes applications of these algorithms to the evolution of the attitude of a rigid body.

  12. Reading Habits and Attitudes of UMSKAL Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shameem Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Effective reading is essential for success in acquiring a foreign language (Mikulecky 2008. Students have to read a wide range of textbooks and related materials at the tertiary level. Lack of adequate reading habit is, therefore, bound to impede students’ progress towards mastery of a foreign language. This study investigated reading habits and attitudes on reading of the undergraduate students attending ESL courses at a public university in Malaysia. For data collection, a 35 item questionnaire based on the Adult Survey of Reading Attitude (ASRA from the work of Smith (1991 were designed and administered on around 314 students. The questionnaire investigated the students’ general habit, preferences, and attitude towards reading. This study was based on the following research questions: What are the reading habits of these undergraduate students? What are the attitudes of these students to reading as a useful language learning skill? What are the reading preferences of these undergraduate students? The research findings through qualitative analysis revealed that the undergraduate students had an overall positive attitude towards reading in spite of their minimal enjoyment of it and the resulting anxieties and difficulties they face. Based on the findings, few recommendations were made to improve reading among those undergraduates. Keywords: Reading habits, attitude towards reading, reading preferences, ESL

  13. Pain Management Practices by Nurses: An Application of the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzghoul, Bashar I; Abdullah, Nor Azimah Chew

    2015-10-26

    Pain is one of the most common reasons that drive people to go to hospitals. It has been found that several factors affect the practices of pain management. In this regard, this study aimed at investigating the underlying determinants in terms of pain management practices. Based on reviewing the previous studies and the suggestions of the KAP model, it was hypothesized that the main elements of the KAP model (attitudes and knowledge) significantly predict the variation in the practices of nurses regarding pain management. A questionnaire comprising the KAP model' s constructs, i.e. knowledge and attitude towards pain management, as well as pain management practices, was used to collect data from 266 registered nurses (n=266) who are deemed competent in the management of patients' pain in the Jordanian public hospitals. The two constructs, attitude and knowledge, which are the main determinants of the KAP model were found to independently predict nurses' practices of managing patients' pain. Knowledge of pain management was found to be the strongest predictor. Additionally, it was found that about 69% of the variance in pain management could be explained by the constructs of the KAP model. Therefore, it is recommended that the Jordanian hospitals and universities focus on nurses' knowledge and attitude towards pain management in order to enhance their practices in the field of pain management.

  14. Teacher attitudes toward dyslexia: Effects on teacher expectations and the academic achievement of students with dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornstra, T.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Bakker, J.T.A.; Bergh, L. van den; Voeten, M.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined teacher attitudes toward dyslexia and the effects of these attitudes on teacher expectations and the academic achievement of students with dyslexia compared to students without learning disabilities. The attitudes of 30 regular education teachers toward dyslexia were deter

  15. Teacher Attitudes toward Dyslexia: Effects on Teacher Expectations and the Academic Achievement of Students with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstra, Lisette; Denessen, Eddie; Bakker, Joep; van den Bergh, Linda; Voeten, Marinus

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined teacher attitudes toward dyslexia and the effects of these attitudes on teacher expectations and the academic achievement of students with dyslexia compared to students without learning disabilities. The attitudes of 30 regular education teachers toward dyslexia were determined using both an implicit measure and an…

  16. News framing and public opinion: A mediation analysis of framing effects on political attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecheler, S.K.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    There is no satisfactory account of the psychological processes that mediate a news framing effect. Based on an experimental study (N = 1,537), this article presents a mediation analysis of a news framing effect on opinion, testing for two important mediation processes: belief importance and belief

  17. Actitud Hacia las Matematicas: Revision Bibliografica (Attitudes Toward Mathematics: Revised Bibliography). Publication No. 39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Feijoo, Nelida

    Investigations about attitudes toward mathematics carried out in the past decade were revised. The instruments used to measure attitudes toward mathematics were analysed as well as the attitudes toward different aspects of mathematics, their relation with other school subjects and their stability through time. Opinions about the influence of…

  18. Case Managers' Attitudes toward the Use of Homework for People Diagnosed with a Severe Psychiatric Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Peter J.; Deane, Frank P.; Kazantzis, Nikolaos; Crowe, Trevor P.

    2007-01-01

    The study examined mental health case managers' attitudes toward the use of homework and explored the relationship between clinician attitudes and systematic homework administration practices. A survey examining attitudes toward the use of homework was completed by 122 Australian mental health case managers. Case managers who held more positive…

  19. The Effect of Robotics Competitions on High School Students' Attitudes toward Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Anita; Huffman, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the impact of participating in an after-school robotics competition on high school students' attitudes toward science. Specifically, this study used the Test of Science-Related Attitude to measure students' social implications of science, normality of scientists, attitude toward scientific inquiry, adoption of…

  20. The Impact of Parental Knowledge and Tanning Attitudes on Sun Protection Practice for Young Children in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Gefeller

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Public health campaigns have improved knowledge on UVR-associated skin cancer risk and increased sun protection awareness. However, tanned skin is still a common beauty ideal. The relationship between knowledge, attitudes and protective behavior is not fully understood yet. A population-based survey was thus performed in the district of Erlangen involving 2,619 parents of 3- to 6-year old children. By means of a self-administered standardized questionnaire parental knowledge about risk factors for skin cancer, their attitudes towards tanning and details of protective measures taken for their children were assessed. The study analyzed specifically the impact of parental tanning attitudes on sun-protective measures for their children while controlling for parental knowledge about skin cancer risk factors. While parental knowledge was significantly (inversely associated with agreement to the statement “Tanned skin is healthy skin”, this was not the case for “Tanning makes me look better”. Overall, tanning affirmative attitudes were inversely associated with protective measures taken for the children, whereas parental knowledge had a positive impact on sun protection at the beach only. Multivariable analyses provided evidence for an effect of parental attitude on protective behavior independent of parental knowledge. Tanning attitudes and tanned skin as the misguided ideal of beauty need to be addressed in future public health campaigns to enhance the effectiveness of preventive activities in changing sun protective behavior.

  1. Public attitudes to nuclear energy: salience and anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a brief overview of trends and developments of public opinion about nuclear energy since the late 1970's. One possible reason for increased concern is the public's perception of risks. Research has shown a considerable divergence in public and expert assessment of the risks associated with

  2. Green roof systems: a study of public attitudes and preferences in southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Cañero, Rafael; Emilsson, Tobias; Fernandez-Barba, Carolina; Herrera Machuca, Miguel Ángel

    2013-10-15

    This study investigates people's preconceptions of green roofs and their visual preference for different green roof design alternatives in relation to behavioral, social and demographical variables. The investigation was performed as a visual preference study using digital images created to represent eight different alternatives: gravel roof, extensive green roof with Sedums not in flower, extensive green roof with sedums in bloom, semi-intensive green roof with sedums and ornamental grasses, semi-intensive green roof with shrubs, intensive green roof planted with a lawn, intensive green roof with succulent and trees and intensive green roof with shrubs and trees. Using a Likert-type scale, 450 respondents were asked to indicate their preference for each digital image. Results indicated that respondents' sociodemographic characteristics and childhood environmental background influenced their preferences toward different green roof types. Results also showed that green roofs with a more careful design, greater variety of vegetation structure, and more variety of colors were preferred over alternatives.

  3. TRANSFORMATION OF THE INTERACTION OF PUBLIC RELATIONS AND PUBLIC DIPLOMACY WITH AN AUDIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Aleksandrovna Kontsevaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the phenomenon of transformation of the interaction of public relations and public diplomacy with an audience. Since 1980-s, experts have noted strengthening of the role of public in the communication process of PR and Public Diplomacy. Analysis of the work in this direction has revealed changes in the communication world order, due to several factors, which caused the transformation. These factors are: globalization of society (active tourism, developing from the end of the ХХ century, communication without geographical boundaries allowing people to send and receive information outside the country, technological development (penetration of Internet, in particular social networks, in the communication process and changed attitude of the audience to information (also due to the widespread use of social networks, allowing open access to personal information for strangers. Experts evaluate positively the changes in public relations and public diplomacy that have occurred under the influence of transformation of their interaction with the audience. The analysis made in the article is based on the works of renowned experts in this field.

  4. The paradox of public acceptance of bike sharing in Gothenburg

    OpenAIRE

    Nikitas, Alexandros; Wallgren, Pontus; Rexfelt, Oskar

    2015-01-01

    Bike sharing is one of the most promising urban planning interventions to facilitate an all-necessary transition towards a more sustainable transport paradigm. Regardless of the fact that hundreds of schemes run in more than 50 countries worldwide, bike sharing is still moderately investigated by research. This paper reports on a primarily quantitative study of 558 responses that was set to frame attitudes reflecting public acceptance towards the rapidly expanding bike-sharing scheme in Gothe...

  5. The Relationships among Academic Attitudes, Psychological Attitudes, and the First-Semester Academic Achievement of First-Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Amy L.; Weigand, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among academic and psychological attitudes and academic achievement of first-year students. The College Resilience Scale, the Academic Motivation Scale, the College Self-Efficacy Inventory, and the University Environment Scale were administered to 164 first-year undergraduate students enrolled at a large RU/VH…

  6. The Spirit of Public Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassall Thomsen, Line Hassall; Willig, Ida

    on cultural production and news work. Through fieldwork and interviews with Danish and British reporters/editors from DR 1, TV 2, BBC 1 and ITV we identify three components of a strong public service spirit present in the journalist’s understanding of the self: mass audience orientation, democratic......Research on public service broadcasting tends to highlight norms and values at the strategic level. This paper explores ‘public service’ as an institutional logic guiding the everyday practice of journalists. The theoretical framework draws on Pierre Bourdieus’ field theory and recent works...... responsibility and unbiased reporting. These three components can be found in both British and Danish newsrooms suggesting a trans-national, institutional spirit of public service. At the same time, the three components are interpreted differently from newsroom to newsroom suggesting different practices...

  7. The psychological attitude of patients toward health practitioners in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Ayoub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients often complain about their doctor′s attitude toward them. They describe the interaction that they have with some doctors as quick, cold, discourteous, or hardhearted. Although this does not apply to all Lebanese doctors, it does apply to some. Aims: The purpose of this study was to (1 examine the general perception of satisfaction, trust, and openness that Lebanese patients hold toward the work, office, personal, and social characteristics of their doctors - physician or dentist; and (2 identify the aspects on which a Lebanese health practitioner should focus to improve his/her practice. Materials and Methods: A convenient sample of 450 individuals from an area housing nine hospitals and hundreds of private clinics in Greater Beirut were surveyed regarding the qualities of their health practitioners. They were asked to complete a nine-page, 85-item, anonymous, and voluntary questionnaire that dealt with the medical and dental practice in Lebanon. Participants were older than 18 years and mentally competent. None was physicians, dentists, or nurses. The questionnaire was open-ended and initially pretested and piloted among a random sample. Results: Four hundred-fifteen (92% individuals responded. Participants were from different ages, genders, geographical areas, educational backgrounds, and professions. The doctor traits most preferred by the Lebanese public were found to be: Empathy (90%, professionalism (87%, miscellaneous traits (86%, and academics (81%. Conclusion: The results support the conventional wisdom that the idealized perception of a doctor as a care-giving, compassionate, knowledgeable, well-appearing, and healthy role model still holds true within the Lebanese community.

  8. The role of awareness in attitude formation through evaluative conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweldens, Steven; Corneille, Olivier; Yzerbyt, Vincent

    2014-05-01

    This article provides a review of past and contemporary debates regarding the role of awareness in attitude formation through evaluative conditioning (EC), that is, by repeatedly pairing a stimulus with other stimuli of positive or negative valence. Because EC is considered the most prototypical method to form and change the network of evaluative associations in memory, the role of awareness in this effect is critical to the question of whether attitudes may be formed and changed through dual processes. We analyze the reasons why there has been so much discussion and disagreement regarding the role of awareness, review past and contemporary methodologies and their limitations, discuss the role of mental processes and conditioning procedures, and identify promising directions for future research in this area.

  9. The Effect of the BalloonSat Project on Middle and High School Students' Attitude toward Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhage, L. Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study measured the effect of completing a BalloonSat project on student attitude toward science. Seven categories of student attitudes toward science were measured using the Test of Science Relate Attitudes survey (TOSRA). The research anticipated that the BalloonSat project would have similar effects on student attitudes as found in robotics…

  10. Nurses' attitudes towards the sexuality of colorectal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, M; Justham, D

    This article reviews the literature on nurses' attitudes towards sexuality and highlights a range of studies carried out on functional outcomes following colorectal surgery. The article provides nurses with an insight into colorectal cancer, the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in men and women following colorectal surgery and the importance of addressing the various aspects of sexuality in a sensitive manner to provide patients with holistic care.

  11. Sexuality in the elderly: knowledge and attitudes of professional caregivers

    OpenAIRE

    Senra, Margarida; Saraiva, Horácio; Pinheira, Vítor

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sexuality in the elderly still remains a taboo, especially in the institutional context. Demographic changes have been occurring these past few years which led to an increase in the number of institutionalized elders, as an attempt to respond their needs. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to know the levels of knowledge and attitudes of the professional caregivers, how these are related and how these relate with the socio demographic variables. METHODS: Quantitative, ...

  12. The Effect of Media on Preservice Science Teachers' Attitudes toward Astronomy and Achievement in Astronomy Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektasli, Behzat

    2013-01-01

    Studies show that it is hard to change students' attitudes toward science. This study specifically explored if media affect preservice science teachers' attitudes toward astronomy and their astronomy achievement. The sample for the pilot study consisted of 196 preservice science and mathematics teachers for attitude assessment and 230 preservice…

  13. Creating Positive Attitudes toward Reading in Public Schools and Homeschools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Deanna Peterschick

    Learning environments have an impact on acquiring skills in reading as well as developing positive attitudes toward reading. Another variable that affects attitudes and aptitude toward reading is the "climate" or "environment" in which children learn their skills. This paper concentrates on the phenomenon that is reaching epic proportions in the…

  14. Portuguese validation of the children's eating attitudes test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Del Carmen Bento Teixeira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT is the most widely used instrument for evaluating eating disorders in adults and adolescents in a variety of cultures and samples. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT. METHOD: Nine hundred and fifty-six Portuguese secondary students (565 girls and 391 boys answered the ChEAT. The test-retest reliability was obtained with data from 206 participants from the total sample who re-answered the questionnaire after 4-6 weeks. Psychometric analyses were carried out for the total sample and separately for girls and boys. RESULTS: Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were satisfactory. Principal components factorial analysis yielded four factors in the total sample, accounting for 42.35% of the total variance. Factor structure was similar in the total sample and in both genders. Factors were labelled: F1 "Fear of Getting Fat", F2 "Restrictive and Purgative Behaviours", F3 "Food Preoccupation" and F4 "Social Pressure to Eat". The concurrent validity, explored using the Contour Drawing Figure Rating Scale (CDRS was high. DISCUSSION: The Portuguese version of the ChEAT is a valid and useful instrument for the evaluation of abnormal eating attitudes and behaviours among Portuguese adolescents.

  15. Studying the Influence of Market Orientation on Job Attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijeh Bahrainizadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever changing of business trends and increase of competition among companies has made the surrounding environment of organizations, more diverse. Diagnosing future business trends and moving towards the way that organizational goals might be achievable, highlights the importance of marketing research and subjects such as market orientation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of market orientation on job attitude, which is essential for internal marketing. This research is typically a practical and descriptive survey. Hypothesis and the instrument of measuring market orientation have been derived from the market orientation scale of Narver and Slater (1990 and the instrument for measuring job attitude has been derived from standardized scales. Statistical population of this research includes the commercial banks in Bushehr. Using appropriate statistical methods, 234 individuals have been selected as the sample. Reliability internal consistency of data has been approved considering Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Data has been further analyzed by Pearson’s correlation and regression tests using SPSS software. Findings imply that market orientation influences job attitude; also component of market orientation influences organization commitment, job satisfaction and customer orientation; and inter-functional coordination influences intention to leave. In addition, none of the components of market orientation has impact on role conflict and competitor orientation has no correlation with intention to leave. Finally, suggestions have been presented for improving performance of commercial banks and future research.

  16. Case Study: Learner Attitudes Towards the Correction of Mistakes

    OpenAIRE

    Galina Kavaliauskienė; Lilija Anusienė

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the research is to explore learner attitudes to correction of mistakes or feedback as a language learning tool in oral, electronically- and paper-written work as well as peer correction of mistakes. Feedback is a method used in the teaching of languages to improve performance by sharing observations, concerns and suggestions with regard to written work or oral presentation. It includes not only correcting learners, but also assessing them. Both correction and assessmen...

  17. Case Study: Learner Attitudes Towards the Correction of Mistakes

    OpenAIRE

    Galina Kavaliauskienė; Lilija Anusienė

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the research is to explore learner attitudes to correction of mistakes or feedback as a language learning tool in oral, electronically- and paper-written work as well as peer correction of mistakes.Feedback is a method used in the teaching of languages to improve performance by sharing observations, concerns and suggestions with regard to written work or oral presentation. It includes not only correcting learners, but also assessing them. Both correction and assessment depend...

  18. The relationship of high school students' attitudes towards creation and evolution with the students' worldview philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Donald David, Jr.

    This prospectus examines the relationship of high school students' attitudes toward creation and evolution with the student's worldview philosophy. Chapter 1 presents the purpose of the research, which is to discover if there is a positive correlation in the relationship of high school students' attitudes toward creation and evolution and other aspects of worldview such as politics, economics, education, religion, and social issues. Also, the study will examine the frequency and comparative magnitude of the worldviews of homeschool, public school and Christian school students. Chapter 2 surveys precedents in the literature that are appropriate to the study. The significant literature to the study begins with the analysis of the relevant theological presuppositions pertaining to the topics of creation, evolution, and worldview. The analysis then moves to the literature on the relevant educational assumptions, which include theories, philosophies and practices related to high school students' attitudes toward creation and evolution with worldviews. Chapter 3 describes the methodological design for the study. Included in the chapter are the selection and profile of the sample, the selection and development of the instruments, namely the Creationist Worldview Test developed by Steve Deckard, and the PEERS Test---a worldview opinion survey developed by the Nehemiah Institute. Finally, the step-by-step protocol used in gathering the data completes the section. Chapter 4 presents the analysis of the data developed from the responses to the Creationist Worldview Test and the PEERS Test provided by the Nehemiah Institute and by the researcher. Profiles of each of the subgroups will be provided along with comparative analysis of the profiles. Concluding the chapter are summaries of profiles and comparative analysis. Chapter 5 presents a summary of the data describes the relationship of high school students' attitudes toward creation and evolution with the student's worldview

  19. The Relationship between a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Gender Role Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jo Ann; Norton, G. Ron; De Luca, Rayleen V.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and gender role attitudes. Female university students rated themselves and their parents on gender role attitudes and history of childhood sexual abuse. Traditional participant gender role attitude and social isolation were associated with reporting being sexually abused as a…

  20. The Basic Public Finance of Public-Private Partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Eduardo M. R. A.; Fischer, Ronald D.; Galetovic, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Public-private partnerships (PPPs) have been justified because they release public funds or save on distortionary taxes. However, the resources saved by a government that does not finance the upfront investment are offset by giving up future revenue flows to the concessionaire. If a PPP can be justified on efficiency grounds, the PPP contract that optimally balances demand risk, userfee distortions and the opportunity cost of public funds has a minimum revenue guarantee and a revenue cap. The...

  1. Current and Future Friends of the Earth: Assessing Cross-National Theories of Environmental Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Stenner

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies of public opinion on environmental protection have typically been grounded in Inglehart’s post-materialism thesis, proposing that societal affluence encourages materially-sated publics to look beyond their interests and value the environment. These studies are generally conducted within, or at best across, Western, democratic, industrialized countries. Absence of truly cross-cultural research means the theory’s limitations have gone undetected. This article draws on an exceptionally broad dataset—pooling cross-sectional survey data from 80 countries, each sampled at up to three different points over 15 years—to investigate environmental attitudes. We find that post-materialism provides little account of pro-environment attitudes across diverse cultures, and a far from adequate explanation even in the affluent West. We suggest that unique domestic interests, more than broad value systems, are driving emerging global trends in environmental attitudes. The environment’s future champions may be the far from ‘post-material’ citizens of those developing nations most at risk of real material harm from climate change and environmental degradation.

  2. Scientific authority in policy contexts: Public attitudes about environmental scientists, medical researchers, and economists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Timothy L

    2013-10-01

    This paper uses data from the US General Social Survey to examine public support for scientists in policy contexts and its link to scientific disciplines. An analysis of attitudes about the amount of influence that environmental scientists, two kinds of medical researchers, and economists should have over policy decisions reveals that in each discipline the extent to which scientists are thought to serve the nation's best interests is the strongest determinant of attitudes about scientists as policy advisors. Perceptions of scientists' technical knowledge and the level of consensus in the scientific community also have direct, albeit weaker effects on opinions about scientists' appropriate roles in policy settings. Whereas previous research has stressed the importance of local variability in understanding the transfer of scientific authority across institutional boundaries, these results point to considerable homogeneity in the social bases of scientific authority in policy contexts.

  3. Attitudes, Learning and Human-Computer Interaction: An Application of the Fishbein and Ajzen Model of Attitude-Behavior Consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

    The Fishbein and Ajzen model of attitude-behavior consistency was applied to 56 undergraduates learning to use a microcomputer. Two levels of context for this act were compared: the students' beliefs about themselves, and their beliefs about people in general. The results indicated that students' beliefs were good predictors of their behavioral…

  4. Attitude towards littering as a mediator of the relationship between personality attributes and responsible environmental behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojedokun, Oluyinka

    2011-12-01

    The study tested whether attitude towards littering mediates the relationship between personality attributes (altruism and locus of control) and responsible environmental behavior (REB) among some residents of Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria. Using multistage sampling technique, measures of each construct were administered to 1360 participants. Results reveal significant independent and joint influence of personality attributes on attitude towards littering and responsible environmental behavior, respectively. Attitude towards littering also mediates the relationship between personality characteristics and REB. These findings imply that individuals who possess certain desirable personality characteristics and who have unfavorable attitude towards littering have more tendencies to engage in pro-environmental behavior. Therefore, stakeholders who have waste management as their priority should incorporate this information when guidelines for public education and litter prevention programs are being developed. It is suggested that psychologists should be involved in designing of litter prevention strategies. This will ensure the inclusion of behavioral issues in such strategies. An integrated approach to litter prevention that combines empowerment, cognitive, social, and technical solutions is recommended as the most effective tool of tackling the litter problem among residents of Ibadan metropolis.

  5. Nuclear power and the public: analysis of collected survey research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melber, B.D.; Nealey, S.M.; Hammersla, J.; Rankin, W.L.

    1977-11-01

    This executive summary highlights the major findings of a comprehensive synthesis and analysis of over 100 existing surveys dealing with public attitudes toward nuclear power issues. Questions of immediate policy relevance to the nuclear debate are posed and answered on the basis of these major findings. For each issue area, those sections of the report in which more-detailed discussion and presentation of relevant data may be found are indicated.

  6. The health-related behaviors and attitudes of student nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vowell, Maribeth

    Nurses are an important component of primary medical care, and patient education is a common and important role of most nurses. Patient education and positive role modeling by nurses have the potential to influence patients' life style choices and the serious diseases that may be affected by those choices. A greater understanding of the ways nurses think about their own health could help facilitate healthier choices for them and in their patients. The purpose of this inquiry was to examine the experiences, attitudes and beliefs of student nurses related to their personal health, and to investigate those experiences, attitudes and beliefs as they relate to their education, relationships, values and career choice. The purpose was achieved through phenomenological interviews with eleven senior nursing students, nine females and two males, encouraging them to provide in as much detail as possible their attitudes and values about their personal health. The interviews were tape recorded, transcribed verbatim, and phenomenologically analyzed. A thematic structure emerged such that the nursing students experiences were represented by the four interrelated themes of caring for myself/caring for others ; I control my health/my world controls my health; I have energy/I'm tired; and feeling good/looking good. The contextual grounds for the themes that emerged during the analysis were the Body and Time. This structure was presented in terms of its relationship to health education, other research and to current theory.

  7. Knowledge, attitudes and practices for the prevention of diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia de Sá Policarpo

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the knowledge, attitudes and practices for the prevention of diabetic foot in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. This study was based on a cross-sectional survey conducted in two Family Health Units, in the city of Picos - PI, Brazil, with 85 diabetics of both sexes, by means of a semi-structured Knowledge, Attitude and Practice questionnaire. There was a predominance of females in the study (62.4%. On the topic of foot care, 49.4% had no knowledge on hygiene or what to observe in their feet. In relation to nail care, 56.5% were unaware of the correct way to cut nails. Regarding attitudes, 80% were willing to engage in self-care. In terms of practice, results showed that activities such as washing, drying, moisturizing and massaging were not executed together. It is therefore necessary to develop educational strategies to create awareness, both for diabetics and health professionals, on the effective prevention of diabetic foot.

  8. The Detection of Structural Deformation Errors in Attitude Determination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. J. Moore; C. Rizos; J. Wang

    2003-01-01

    In the determination of the attitude parameters from a multi-antenna GPS array, one of the major assumptions is that the body frame is rigid at all times. If this assumption is not true then the derived attitude parameters will be in error. It is well known that in airborne platforms the wings often experience some displacement during flight, especially during periods of initializing maneouvres, such as taking off, landing,and banking. Often it is at these points in time that it is most critical to have the most precise attitude parameters.There are a number of techniques available for the detection of modeling errors.The CUSUM algorithm has successfully been implemented in the past to detect small persistent changes. In this paper the authors investigate different methods of generating the residuals, to be tested by the CUSUM algorithm, in an effort to determine which technique is best suited for the detection of structural deformation of an airborne platform. The methods investigated include monitoring the mean of the residuals generated from the difference between the known body frame coordinates, and those calculated from the derived attitude parameters. The generated residuals are then passed to a CUSUM algorithm to detect any small persistent changes. An alternative method involves transforming the generated residuals into the frequency domain through the use of the Fast Fourier Transform. The CUSUM algorithm is then used to detect any frequency changes. The final technique investigated involves transforming the generated residuals using the Haar wavelet. The wavelet coefficients are then monitored by the CUSUM algorithm in order to detect any significant change to the rigidity of the body frame.Detecting structural deformation, and quantifying the degree of deformation, during flight will ensure that these effects can be removed from the system, thus ensuring the most precise and reliable attitude parameter solutions. This paper, through a series

  9. Multiple dimensions of attitudes about homosexuality: development of a multifaceted scale measuring attitudes toward homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolfsen, Anna; Iedema, Jurjen; Keuzenkamp, Saskia

    2010-01-01

    Attitudes toward homosexuality are complex. To get a comprehensive view on the attitudes of people, different dimensions need to be included in research. Based on a review of the literature, we distinguish five dimensions: acceptance of homosexuality in a general sense; attitude toward equal rights; reactions to homosexuality "at close quarters"; reactions to homosexuality in public; and so-called modern homonegativity. In a study on a representative sample of Dutch Defence personnel (N = 1,607) we tested this model. Structural equation modeling of several items measuring the attitude toward homosexuality offers a six factor solution. These six factors are more or less comparable to the five dimensions we distinguished. The dimension "reactions to homosexuality at close quarters" is, however, empirically split in a dimension on affective reactions to homosexuality and homosexual persons in general and a dimension on affective reaction to homosexual friends or acquaintances.

  10. The public of media events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Morgner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the growing importance of large-scale events and their central role in a globalised media world in relation to public reactions and public involvement. The peculiar structure of such events requires a different understanding of mass communication and its audience. Therefore, the audience is further examined with regard to its impact on and inclusion in the media itself. Consequently, questions are raised as to how the public is incorporated, the form this inclusion takes and the effect that this has on the audience’s participation.The article examines different types of semantic inclusion, with a focus on emotional reactions towards three different media events: the Titanic disaster, the assassination of John F. Kennedy, and the death of Princess Diana.

  11. Risk Perception and the Public Acceptance of Drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clothier, Reece A; Greer, Dominique A; Greer, Duncan G; Mehta, Amisha M

    2015-06-01

    Unmanned aircraft, or drones, are a rapidly emerging sector of the aviation industry. There has been limited substantive research, however, into the public perception and acceptance of drones. This article presents the results from two surveys of the Australian public designed to investigate (1) whether the public perceive drones to be riskier than existing manned aviation, (2) whether the terminology used to describe the technology influences public perception, and (3) what the broader concerns are that may influence public acceptance of the technology. We find that the Australian public currently hold a relatively neutral attitude toward drones. Respondents did not consider the technology to be overly unsafe, risky, beneficial, or threatening. Drones are largely viewed as being of comparable risk to that of existing manned aviation. Furthermore, terminology had a minimal effect on the perception of the risks or acceptability of the technology. The neutral response is likely due to a lack of knowledge about the technology, which was also identified as the most prevalent public concern as opposed to the risks associated with its use. Privacy, military use, and misuse (e.g., terrorism) were also significant public concerns. The results suggest that society is yet to form an opinion of drones. As public knowledge increases, the current position is likely to change. Industry communication and media coverage will likely influence the ultimate position adopted by the public, which can be difficult to change once established.

  12. Segmentation of Czech Consumers Based on the Attitudes Towards Money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Tomek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding current and potential customers´ behaviour is one of the key factors of marketing efficiency and it brings competitive advantage. Companies usually classify their customers and create client groups with similar characteristic features. Such grouping activity is called segmentation or typology. There are many possibilities how to obtain data for segmentation process (e.g. data mining, demographical segmentation, analyzing shopping behaviour, media behaviour or their combination. This paper concentrates on financial behaviour of the Czech population and brings a survey based on primary data. It takes into consideration aspects like attitude towards risk and savings and even aspects like money ethic and money role in the society. Seven consumer segments that differ in attitudes towards money were identified and described.

  13. Impact of the Reading Buddies Program on Reading Level and Attitude Towards Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley Dolman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This research examines the Reading Buddies program at the Grande Prairie Public Library, which took place in July and August of 2011 and 2012. The Reading Buddies program pairs lower elementary students with teen volunteers for reading practice over the summer. The aim of the study was to discover how much impact the program would have on participating children’s reading levels and attitudes towards reading.Methods – During the first and last sessions of the Reading Buddies program, the participants completed the Elementary Reading Attitudes Survey (ERAS and the Graded Word Recognition Lists from the Bader Reading and Language Inventory (6th ed., 2008.Participants were also asked for their grade and sex, and the program coordinator kept track of attendance. Results – There were 37 Reading Buddies participants who completed both the pre- and post-tests for the study. On average, the program had a small positive effect on participants’ reading levels and a small negative effect on their attitudes towards reading. There was a larger range of changes to the ERAS scores than to the reading test scores, but most participants’ scores did not change dramatically on either measure.Conclusions – Although findings are limited by the small size of the data-set, results indicate that many of the Reading Buddies participants maintained their reading level over the summer and had a similar attitude towards reading at the end of the program. On average, reading levels increased slightly and attitudes towards reading were slightly more negative. Many factors could not be taken into account during the study (e.g., the amount of reading done at home. A study with a control group that did not participate in the program could help to assess whether the program helped to combat summer learning loss.

  14. The attitudes and beliefs of Pakistani medical practitioners about depression: a cross-sectional study in Lahore using the Revised Depression Attitude Questionnaire (R-DAQ)

    OpenAIRE

    Haddad, M.; Waqas, A.; Qayyum, W.; M Shams; Malik, S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mental disorders such as depression are common and rank as major contributors to the global burden of disease. Condition recognition and subsequent management of depression is variable and influenced by the attitudes and beliefs of clinicians as well as those of patients. Most studies examining health professionals' attitudes have been conducted in Western nations; this study explores beliefs and attitudes about depression among doctors working in Lahore, Pakistan.\\ud \\ud METHODS:...

  15. 变革型领导对公务员工作态度的影响---公共服务动机的中介效应研究%The Impact of Transformational Leadership on the Work Attitude of Civil Servants---A Study of the Mediating Effect of Public Service Motivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛蕾蕾

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the influence of transformational leadership and public service motivation ( PSM) on the work attitude of civil servants , by analyzing responses from a group of 425 policemen in Beijing .Organizational citizenship behavior , organizational commitment and job satisfaction are selected to reflect the work attitude of civil servants , and results show that transformational leadership is positively related to organizational citizenship behavior , organizational commitment and job satisfaction .Also, PSM is positively related to organizational citizenship behavior , organizational commitment and job satisfaction . Meanwhile , PSM partially mediates the relationship between transformational leadership and organization-al citizenship behavior , job satisfaction and organizational commitment .These findings should theoretical-ly enrich the empirical research of PSM in China , and help managers of public sectors make the right de-cision in the practice of human resources management , such as choosing leadership style , fostering civil servants ’ public service motivation and motivating organizational citizenship behavior .%通过对北京市的425名警察进行实地抽样问卷调查,来探索变革型领导风格与公共服务动机对公务员工作态度的影响。研究选取组织公民行为、组织承诺和工作满意度来反映公务员的工作态度,结果发现变革型领导和组织公民行为、组织承诺和工作满意度正相关,公共服务动机和组织公民行为、工作满意度、组织承诺正相关。同时,公共服务动机在变革型领导与组织公民行为、工作满意度和组织承诺间发挥着部分中介作用。上述发现从理论上丰富了我国公共服务动机的实证研究,并且对公共部门人力资源管理中领导风格的选择、公务员公共服务动机的提升和组织公民行为的激发具有指导意义。

  16. Development and Psychometric Validation of the Dementia Attitudes Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L. O'Connor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study employed qualitative construct mapping and factor analysis to construct a scale to measure attitudes toward dementia. Five family caregivers, five professionals, and five college students participated in structured interviews. Qualitative analysis of the interviews led to a 46-item scale, which was reduced to 20 items following principal axis factoring with two different samples: college students (=302 and certified nursing assistant students (=145. Confirmatory factor analysis was then conducted with another sample of college students (=157. The final scale, titled the Dementia Attitudes Scale (DAS, essentially had a two-factor structure; the factors were labeled “dementia knowledge” and “social comfort.” Total-scale Cronbach's alphas ranged 0.83–0.85. Evidence for convergent validity was promising, as the DAS correlated significantly with scales that measured ageism and attitudes toward disabilities (range of correlations = 0.44–0.55; mean correlation =0.50. These findings demonstrate the reliability and validity of the DAS, supporting its use as a research tool.

  17. 公众对自杀的态度量表的编制及在社区和大学学生中的应用%Development and application of the Scale of Public Attitudes about Suicide among community members and college students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李献云; 李诚; 费立鹏; 牛雅娟; 王志青; 童永胜; 张亚利; 徐东; 王绍礼; 杨甫德

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To develop a Scale of Public Attitudes about Suicide (SPAS) and assess its reliability and validity among community residents and college students in China. Methods: Firstly, we conducted qualitative focus groups and in-depth interviews on attitudes about suicide among community members and generated the initial scale of community attitudes related to suicide in China based on the results of text analyses and review of literature. Then we administered the scale to a large randomized community sample and revised it based on the results. This process was repeated by administering the scale to a second large community sample. Finally we administered the final version of the instrument to multi-stage, stratified random adult samples of 604 rural residents from Shandong, 548 urban residents from Tianjin, and 626 university students from Chongqing. To explore if different methods of administration would generate different results, community respondents with middle school education or higher were randomly assigned to either self-administration of the scale or administration by an interviewer; university students (who all self-administered the scale) were randomly assigned to complete the instrument anonymously or to sign the instrument. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 1063 respondents who were re-administered the questionnaire 5 to 8 days ( average 6. 7 days) after the first administration. Results: The final scale included 47 items that covered seven theoretical constructs ( difficulty in preventing suicide, extent to which suicide is outside the individual's personal control, stigmatizing beliefs about suicide, positive attitudes about suicide, suicidal behavior as a means of influencing others, social importance of suicide to the community, and similarity of attempted and completed suicide). Six of the 7 subscales had good internal consistency ( Cronbach α= 0. 62 ~ 0. 87) and stable test-retest reliability ( ICC= 0. 62 ~ 0. 82); the one

  18. Attitude stabilization of a rigid spacecraft using two control torques: A nonlinear control approach based on the spacecraft attitude dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Hariharan; Reyhanoglu, Mahmut; McClamroch, Harris

    1994-06-01

    The attitude stabilization problem of a rigid spacecraft using control torques supplied by gas jet actuators about only two of its principal axes is considered. If the uncontrolled principal axis of the spacecraft is not an axis of symmetry, then the complete spacecraft dynamics are small time locally controllable. However, the spacecraft cannot be asymptotically stabilized to any equilibrium attitude using time-invariant continuous feedback. A discontinuous stabilizing feedback control strategy is constructed which stabilizes the spacecraft to any equilibrium attitude. If the uncontrolled principal axis of the spacecraft is an axis of symmetry, the complete spacecraft dynamics are not even assessible. However, the spacecraft dynamics are strongly accessible and small time locally controllable in a reduced sense. The reduced spacecraft dynamics cannot be asymptotically stabilized to any equilibrium attitude using time-invariant continuous feedback, but again a discontinuous stabilizing feedback control strategy is constructed. In both cases, the discontinuous feedback controllers are constructed by switching between several feedback functions which are selected to accomplish a sequence of spacecraft maneuvers. The results of the paper show that although standard nonlinear control techniques are not applicable, it is possible to construct a nonlinear discontinuous control law based on the dynamics of the particular physical system.

  19. Political tolerance of homosexuals: the role of group attitudes and legal principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggle, E D; Ellis, A L

    1994-01-01

    Individuals' attitudes toward and acceptance of general legal principles were assessed along with their willingness to extend application of these principles to various social and political groups, including homosexuals. Respondents then indicated their attitudes toward various social and political groups, including the groups to whom they had applied the general principles. Regression analyses were used to determine to what degree acceptance of the general principle and attitude toward the social group predicted application of the general principle to the group. For disliked groups such as the Ku Klux Klan and Nazis, individuals' acceptance of the general principle alone predicted the specific application. For homosexuals, however, the application of the general principle was affected both by acceptance of the general principle and by individuals' attitudes toward homosexuals. The implications of this difference in light of research addressing the cognitive and affective nature of attitudes and attitude change is discussed.

  20. VALIDITY OF THE EATING ATTITUDE TEST AMONG EXERCISERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Matheson

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Theory testing and construct measurement are inextricably linked. To date, no published research has looked at the factorial validity of an existing eating attitude inventory for use with exercisers. The Eating Attitude Test (EAT is a 26-item measure that yields a single index of disordered eating attitudes. The original factor analysis showed three interrelated factors: Dieting behavior (13-items, oral control (7-items, and bulimia nervosa-food preoccupation (6-items. The primary purpose of the study was to examine the factorial validity of the EAT among a sample of exercisers. The second purpose was to investigate relationships between eating attitudes scores and selected psychological constructs. In stage one, 598 regular exercisers completed the EAT. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was used to test the single-factor, a three-factor model, and a four-factor model, which distinguished bulimia from food pre-occupation. CFA of the single-factor model (RCFI = 0.66, RMSEA = 0.10, the three-factor-model (RCFI = 0.74; RMSEA = 0.09 showed poor model fit. There was marginal fit for the 4-factor model (RCFI = 0.91, RMSEA = 0.06. Results indicated five-items showed poor factor loadings. After these 5-items were discarded, the three models were re-analyzed. CFA results indicated that the single-factor model (RCFI = 0.76, RMSEA = 0.10 and three-factor model (RCFI = 0.82, RMSEA = 0.08 showed poor fit. CFA results for the four-factor model showed acceptable fit indices (RCFI = 0.98, RMSEA = 0.06. Stage two explored relationships between EAT scores, mood, self-esteem, and motivational indices toward exercise in terms of self-determination, enjoyment and competence. Correlation results indicated that depressed mood scores positively correlated with bulimia and dieting scores. Further, dieting was inversely related with self-determination toward exercising. Collectively, findings suggest that a 21-item four-factor model shows promising validity coefficients

  1. The Effect of Terrorist Incidents on the Occupational Attitude of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üstün, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how many terrorist incidents affected the teachers' occupational attitude by the variables of gender, marital status, birthplace, the term of employment and occupational status with "the effect of terrorist incidents on the occupational attitude of the teacher" scale. In this study, "descriptive scanning…

  2. Assessing the Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Students Regarding Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh HOLAKOUIE-NAIENI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The emergence and spread of Ebola outbreak is a growing problem worldwide, which represents a significant threat to public health. Evidence has shown that the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice of people in the society play major roles in controlling the spread of Ebola virus disease. This study was designed to determine knowledge, attitude and practice of students at School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences towards Ebola.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was performed in Tehran, Iran in 2014 using a pretested self-administered questionnaire on a stratified sample of 400 students. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were used for statistical analysis.Results: All-in-all, 385 students returned the completed questionnaires making a response rate of 96.3%., 239 (62.2% were females and 145 (37.8% were males. The mean age of female and males were 28.44 and 30.3 years respectively. Of the 385students, 83 (21.7% were studying at PhD level, 210 (55.0% at Masters Level (including MPH and 89 (23.3% at Bachelors level. knowledge of the students regarding EVD transmission was lowest among students of Department of Occupational Health (50.0%, followed by Health Education and Promotion Department (33.3%. Virology Department recorded the highest percentage of students who had selected correct answers regarding EVD prevention (100.0%Conclusion: These findings will aid in the assessment of the adequacy of current students’ educational curriculum. Also, it will provide further insight in designing future multifaceted interventions to promote specific messages to change attitude and improve practice. Keywords: Ebola, Outbreak, Tehran, Iran, Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, Students

  3. Automatically-Activated Attitudes as Mechanisms for Message Effects: The Case of Alcohol Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, Catherine E; Slater, Michael D

    2010-10-01

    Alcohol advertisements may influence impulsive, risky behaviors indirectly, via automatically-activated attitudes toward alcohol. Results from an experiment in which participants were exposed to either four alcohol advertisements, four control advertisements, or four drunk driving public service advertisements, suggested that alcohol advertisements had more measurable effects on implicit, than on explicit attitude measures. Moreover, there were significant indirect paths from alcohol advertisement exposure through automatically-activated alcohol attitudes on willingness to engage in risky alcohol-related behaviors, notably drinking and driving. A mechanism that may explain how these advertisements activate automatic, non-deliberative alcohol attitudes was investigated. Associative evidence was found supportive of an evaluative conditioning mechanism, in which positive responses to an alcohol advertiseme