Bohner, Gerd; Dickel, Nina
Attitudes and attitude change remain core topics of contemporary social psychology. This selective review emphasizes work published from 2005 to 2009. It addresses constructionist and stable-entity conceptualizations of attitude, the distinction between implicit and explicit measures of attitude, and implications of the foregoing for attitude change. Associative and propositional processes in attitude change are considered at a general level and in relation to evaluative conditioning. The role of bodily states and physical perceptions in attitude change is reviewed. This is followed by an integrative perspective on processing models of persuasion and the consideration of meta-cognitions in persuasion. Finally, effects of attitudes on information processing, social memory, and behavior are highlighted. Core themes cutting across the areas reviewed are attempts at integrative theorizing bringing together formerly disparate phenomena and viewpoints.
An attitude can be defined as the evaluation of an object as positive or negative. The term "object" in this definition should be understood in a broad sense; an attitude object may be any concrete or abstract entity that is in some way represented in our thoughts and memory. In other words......, attitude objects are simply the things we like or dislike. Consumer researchers are mainly interested in attitude objects of two classes, products and services, including the attributes, issues, persons, communications, situations, and behaviours related to them. Research on consumer attitudes takes two...... perspectives: Understanding attitude structure: how is an attitude cognitively represented in a consumer's mind, including its components (intra-attitudinal structure) and its associations with other psychological variables (inter-attitudinal structure)? Understanding information processing: what...
Albarracin, Dolores; Shavitt, Sharon
This review covers research on attitudes and attitude change published between 2010 and 2017. We characterize this period as one of significant progress toward an understanding of how attitudes form and change in three critical contexts. The first context is the person, as attitudes change in connection to values, general goals, language, emotions, and human development. The second context is social relationships, which link attitude change to the communicator of persuasive messages, social media, and culture. The third context is sociohistorical and highlights the influence of unique events, including sociopolitical, economic, and climatic occurrences. In conclusion, many important recent findings reflect the fact that holism, with a focus on situating attitudes within their personal, social, and historical contexts, has become the zeitgeist of attitude research during this period.
Howe, Lauren C; Krosnick, Jon A
Attitude strength has been the focus of a huge volume of research in psychology and related sciences for decades. The insights offered by this literature have tremendous value for understanding attitude functioning and structure and for the effective application of the attitude concept in applied settings. This is the first Annual Review of Psychology article on the topic, and it offers a review of theory and evidence regarding one of the most researched strength-related attitude features: attitude importance. Personal importance is attached to an attitude when the attitude is perceived to be relevant to self-interest, social identification with reference groups or reference individuals, and values. Attaching personal importance to an attitude causes crystallizing of attitudes (via enhanced resistance to change), effortful gathering and processing of relevant information, accumulation of a large store of well-organized relevant information in long-term memory, enhanced attitude extremity and accessibility, enhanced attitude impact on the regulation of interpersonal attraction, energizing of emotional reactions, and enhanced impact of attitudes on behavioral intentions and action. Thus, important attitudes are real and consequential psychological forces, and their study offers opportunities for addressing behavioral change.
Trautmann, Stefan; van de Kuilen, Gijs; Keren, Gideon; Wu, George
This chapter reviews the experimental literature on ambiguity attitudes, focusing on three topics. First, it considers various approaches to operationalize ambiguity in experiments. Second, the chapter reviews basic findings in the field regarding the prevalence of ambiguity aversion and ambiguity
Ethiopia. A limited understanding of the concept disability, negative attitudes towards .... impairment and mental retardation in ... on the attitudes of the people” Taking part ... feelings about inclusion. ... Brahmnorwich(2002) , younger teachers.
Hahn, Adam; Judd, Charles M.; Hirsh, Holen K.; Blair, Irene V.
Research on implicit attitudes has raised questions about how well people know their own attitudes. Most research on this question has focused on the correspondence between measures of implicit attitudes and measures of explicit attitudes, with low correspondence interpreted as showing that people have little awareness of their implicit attitudes. We took a different approach and directly asked participants to predict their results on upcoming IAT measures of implicit attitudes toward five different social groups. We found that participants were surprisingly accurate in their predictions. Across four studies, predictions were accurate regardless of whether implicit attitudes were described as true attitudes or culturally learned associations (Studies 1 and 2), regardless of whether predictions were made as specific response patterns (Study 1) or as conceptual responses (Studies 2–4), and regardless of how much experience or explanation participants received before making their predictions (Study 4). Study 3 further suggested that participants’ predictions reflected unique insight into their own implicit responses, beyond intuitions about how people in general might respond. Prediction accuracy occurred despite generally low correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of attitudes, as found in prior research. All together, the research findings cast doubt on the belief that attitudes or evaluations measured by the IAT necessarily reflect unconscious attitudes. PMID:24294868
Glaser, Tina; Dickel, Nina; Liersch, Benjamin; Rees, Jonas; Süssenbach, Philipp; Bohner, Gerd
The authors propose a framework distinguishing two types of lateral attitude change (LAC): (a) generalization effects, where attitude change toward a focal object transfers to related objects, and (b) displacement effects, where only related attitudes change but the focal attitude does not change. They bring together examples of LAC from various domains of research, outline the conditions and underlying processes of each type of LAC, and develop a theoretical framework that enables researchers to study LAC more systematically in the future. Compared with established theories of attitude change, the LAC framework focuses on lateral instead of focal attitude change and encompasses both generalization and displacement. Novel predictions and designs for studying LAC are presented. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the distribution of epistemic modals in attitude contexts in three Romance languages, as well as their potential interaction with mood selection. We show that epistemics can appear in complements of attitudes of acceptance (Stalnaker 1984, but not desideratives or directives; in addition, emotive doxastics (hope, fear and dubitatives (doubt permit epistemic possibility modals, but not their necessity counterparts. We argue that the embedding differences across attitudes indicate that epistemics are sensitive to the type of attitude an attitude predicate reports. We show that this sensitivity can be derived by adopting two types of proposals from the literature on epistemic modality and on attitude verbs: First, we assume that epistemics do not target knowledge uniformly, but rather quantify over an information state determined by the content of the embedding attitude (Hacquard 2006, 2010, Yalcin 2007. In turn, we adopt a fundamental split in the semantics of attitude verbs between ‘representational’ and ‘non-representational’ attitudes (Bolinger 1968: representational attitudes quantify over an information state (e.g., a set of beliefs for believe, which, we argue, epistemic modals can be anaphoric to. Non-representational attitudes do not quantify over an information state; instead, they combine with their complement via a comparison with contextually-provided alternatives using a logic of preference (cf. Bolinger 1968, Stalnaker 1984, Farkas 1985, Heim 1992, Villalta 2000, 2008. Finally, we argue that emotive doxastics and dubitatives have a hybrid semantics, which combines a representational component (responsible for licensing epistemic possibility modals, and a preference component (responsible for disallowing epistemic necessity modals. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.6.8 BibTeX info
Wallace, Douglas H.; Wehmer, Gerald
The results indicate that a voluntary three hour exposure to erotic pictures, some of which have been defined as being legally obscene," does not lead to a change in a person's attitudes toward such materials or in attitudes toward their censorship. (Author)
Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel
Using the 2007 wave of the Pew Global Attitudes Project, this paper finds statistically significant and economically large Stolper-Samuelson effects in individuals’ preference formation towards trade policy. High-skilled individuals are substantially more pro-trade than low-skilled individuals......-Ohlin model in shaping free trade attitudes, relative to existing literature....
Full Text Available Several applications require the tracking of attitude and position of a body based on velocity data. It is tempting to use direction cosine matrices (DCM), for example, to track attitude based on angular velocity data, and to integrate the linear...
. By listening to different voices - primarily from four focus group interviews - the article will discuss attitudes towards musical soundtracks in documentaries, attitudes being negotiated between emotional immersion and critical reflection, with the concept of manipulation as an underlying theme. In the end...
Rafieyan, Vahid; Orang, Maryam; Bijami, Maryam; Nejad, Maryam Sharafi; Eng, Lin Siew
Learning a language involves knowledge of both linguistic competence and cultural competence. Optimal development of linguistic competence and cultural competence, however, requires a high level of acculturation attitude toward the target language culture. To this end, the present study explored the acculturation attitudes of 70 Iranian…
Crano, William D; Prislin, Radmila
Study of attitudes and persuasion remains a defining characteristic of contemporary social psychology. This review outlines recent advances, with emphasis on the relevance of today's work for perennial issues. We reiterate the distinction between attitude formation and change, and show its relevance for persuasion. Single- and dual-process models are discussed, as are current views on dissonance theory. Majority and minority influence are scrutinized, with special emphasis on integrative theoretical innovations. Attitude strength is considered, and its relevance to ambivalence and resistance documented. Affect, mood, and emotion effects are reviewed, especially as they pertain to fear arousal and (un)certainty. Finally, we discuss attitude-behavior consistency, perhaps the reason for our interest in attitudes in the first place, with emphasis on self-interest and the theory of planned behavior. Our review reflects the dynamism and the reach of the area, and suggests a sure and sometimes rapid accumulation of knowledge and understanding.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Tests, Measurement, and Evaluation, Princeton, NJ.
This brief overview discusses the rationale for measuring teachers' attitudes toward the mainstreaming of handicapped students into regular classrooms, as well as research findings on teacher attitudes. Two attitude tests, Berryman and Berryman's Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale and Hall's Stages of Concern Questionnaire, are also briefly…
van der Pligt, J.; Ester, P.; van der Linden, J.
Studied the effects of attitude extremity on perceived consensus and willingness to ascribe trait terms to others with either pro- or antinuclear attitudes. 611 Ss rated their attitudes toward nuclear energy on a 5-point scale. Results show that attitude extremity affected consensus estimates. Trait
Zettler, Ingo; Hilbig, B.E.
Previous research on political orientations, which can be understood as one's left- versus right-wing attitude, has shown that some personality factors yield explanatory power. In the current work, we consider the role of altruism - a personality construct which does not exclusively map onto one...... of the broad personality dimensions typically studied. Altruism was predicted to relate to left-wing attitudes due to an overlap regarding concerns for social equality, and a discrepancy between well-known attributes of right-wingers and altruistic individuals, respectively. Moreover, altruism was expected...... association between altruism and left-wing attitudes, and altruism was found to account for substantial variance in political orientation after controlling for the HEXACO factors of personality. We conclude that altruism is an important construct which deserves attention whenever political attitudes or other...
Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Klemmensen, Robert; Nørgaard, Asbjørn Sonne
This article examines if deep-seated psychological differences add to the explanation of attitudes toward immigration. We explore whether the Big Five personality traits matter for immigration attitudes beyond the traditional situational factors of economic and cultural threat and analyze how...... individuals with different personalities react when confronted with the same situational triggers. Using a Danish survey experiment, we show that different personality traits have different effects on opposition toward immigration. We find that Openness has an unconditional effect on attitudes toward...... high on Conscientiousness are more sensitive to the skill level of immigrants. The results imply that personality is important for attitudes toward immigration, and in the conclusion, we further discuss how the observed conditional and unconditional effects of personality make sense theoretically....
Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Schroll, Sanne
In this paper, we re-examine the role of economic self-interest in shaping people’s attitudes towards immigration, using data from the European Social Survey 2002/2003. Compared to the existing literature, there are two main contributions of the present paper. First, we develop a more powerful test...... of the hypothesis that a positive relationship between education and attitudes towards immigration reflects economic self-interest in the labour market. Second, we develop an alternative and more direct test of whether economic self-interest matters for people’s attitudes towards immigration. We find that while...... the "original" relationship between education and attitudes found in the literature is unlikely to reflect economic self-interest, there is considerable evidence of economic self-interest when using the more direct test...
Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Roland Munch, Jakob; Schroll, Sanne
In this paper, we re-examine the role of economic self-interest in shaping people's attitudes towards immigration, using data from the European Social Survey 2002/2003. Compared to the existing literature, there are two main contributions of the present paper. First, we develop a more powerful test...... of the hypothesis that a positive relationship between education and attitudes towards immigration reflects economic self-interest in the labour market. Second, we develop an alternativeand more direct test of whether economic self-interest mattersfor people's attitudes towards immigration. We find that whilethe...... "original" relationship between education and attitudes found in the literature is unlikely to reflect economic self-interest, there is considerable evidence of economic self-interest when using the more directtest....
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Variable Attitude Test Stand designed and built for testing of the V-22 tilt rotor aircraft propulsion system, is used to evaluate the effect of aircraft flight...
Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard
a negative attitude to recreational hunting. Older respondents and rural residents had more positive attitudes towards hunting than younger and urban residents. Some of the conditions under which hunting occurs affected attitudes negatively, especially the hunting of farm-reared and released game birds...... to the commercial aspect of hunting and this could result in tighter regulation with further effects on management practices. Management Implications The public opinions and public preferences concerning recreational hunting are complex. However, this study revealed some factors relevant for regulatory...... and managerial development in relation to outdoor recreation: age (younger respondents were least supportive of hunting), urbanisation (living in an urban environment enhanced negative attitudes), compatibility of recreational hunting with other outdoor leisure activities....
This thesis describes the development of an attitude determination system for spacecraft based only on magnetic field measurements. The need for such system is motivated by the increased demands for inexpensive, lightweight solutions for small spacecraft. These spacecraft demands full attitude...... determination based on simple, reliable sensors. Meeting these objectives with a single vector magnetometer is difficult and requires temporal fusion of data in order to avoid local observability problems. In order to guaranteed globally nonsingular solutions, quaternions are generally the preferred attitude...... is a detailed study of the influence of approximations in the modeling of the system. The quantitative effects of errors in the process and noise statistics are discussed in detail. The third contribution is the introduction of these methods to the attitude determination on-board the Ørsted satellite...
Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose
Using the European Social Survey 2002/3, we develop a new test of whether economic self-interest influences people's attitudes towards immigration, exploiting that people have widely different perceptions of the consequences of immigration......Using the European Social Survey 2002/3, we develop a new test of whether economic self-interest influences people's attitudes towards immigration, exploiting that people have widely different perceptions of the consequences of immigration...
Recent debate over the empirical psychological presuppositions of virtue ethics has focused on reactive behavioural dispositions. But there are many character traits that cannot be understood properly in this way. Such traits are well described by attitude psychology. Moreover, the findings of attitude psychology support virtue ethics in three ways. First, they confirm the role of habituation in the development of character. Further, they show virtue ethics to be compatible with the situation...
Navarrete Sonya Patricia
Full Text Available This article presents the first year experience of teaching Science combined with English in the preschool section with ages between 4 and 6 in the Gimnasio Campestre. A brief theoretical framework is exposed based on inquiring attitudes and theoretical models about this. Then a proposal is presented which was applied to these children; the purpose is to show a new methodology where students will acquire an inquiring attitude through a Science class taught in English.
Spruyt, Adriaan; Fazio, Russell H.; Hermans, Dirk
Abstract The more accessible an attitude is, the stronger is its influence on information processing and behavior. Accessibility can be increased through attitude rehearsal, but it remains unknown whether attitude rehearsal also affects the accessibility of related attitudes. To investigate this hypothesis, participants in an experimental condition repeatedly expressed their attitudes towards exemplars of several semantic categories during an evaluative categorization task. Participants in a control condition performed a non‐evaluative task with the same exemplars and evaluated unrelated attitude objects. After a 30‐minute interval, participants in the experimental condition were faster than controls to evaluate not only the original exemplars but also novel exemplars of the same categories. This finding suggests that the effect of attitude rehearsal on accessibility generalizes to attitudes towards untrained but semantically related attitude objects. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:28701803
Markley, F. Landis
All spacecraft require attitude determination at some level of accuracy. This can be a very coarse requirement of tens of degrees, in order to point solar arrays at the sun, or a very fine requirement in the milliarcsecond range, as required by Hubble Space Telescope. A toolbox of attitude determination methods, applicable across this wide range, has been developed over the years. There have been many advances in the thirty years since the publication of Reference, but the fundamentals remain the same. One significant change is that onboard attitude determination has largely superseded ground-based attitude determination, due to the greatly increased power of onboard computers. The availability of relatively inexpensive radiation-hardened microprocessors has led to the development of "smart" sensors, with autonomous star trackers being the first spacecraft application. Another new development is attitude determination using interferometry of radio signals from the Global Positioning System (GPS) constellation. This article reviews both the classic material and these newer developments at approximately the level of, with emphasis on. methods suitable for use onboard a spacecraft. We discuss both "single frame" methods that are based on measurements taken at a single point in time, and sequential methods that use information about spacecraft dynamics to combine the information from a time series of measurements.
Full Text Available Poverty, perceived as a lack of basic consumer goods, gives rise to a whole range of outcomes which affect not only the material dimension of human existence, but also influence social relations and references to spiritual values. Attitudes which could be associated with involuntary and unacceptable poverty include: doubt in the Divine Providence, bitterness, jealousy and envy, blaming others, lack of gratitude and in perceiving good, laziness, lack of initiative, escalating demands, gluttony and greed as well as meanness. However, joy, peace, freedom and solidarity with the poor, as well as work and enterprise, are symptoms of evangelical attitudes of the poor in spirit. Attitudes to poverty point to a wide range of human behaviours towards possessions and in effect, reveal an individual’s sense of value.
People like others who share their attitudes. Online dating platforms as well as other social media platforms regularly rely on the social bonding power of their users' shared attitudes. However, little is known about moderating variables. In the present work, I argue that sharing rare compared with sharing common attitudes should evoke stronger interpersonal attraction among people. In five studies, I tested this prediction for the case of shared interests from different domains. I found converging evidence that people's rare compared with their common interests are especially potent to elicit interpersonal attraction. I discuss the current framework's theoretical implications for impression formation and impression management as well as its practical implications for improving online dating services.
María Elena Brenlla
Full Text Available Love styles described by Lee are Eros (passionate love, Ludus (game-pla- ying love, Storge (friendship love, Mania (possessive, dependent love, Pragma (logical, “shopping list” love and Agape (all-giving, selfless love. Based on those types, Hendrick and Hendrick developed a 42-ítem rating questionnaire with 7 items measuring each love style (Love Attitudes Scale. Beside, inform about frequency in love relationships and attachment style. The purpose of this study was analyze the reliability and factor structure of the Love Attitudes Scale and to investigate the association between love attitudes and the attachment style. The results (N=280 participants indicate adequate internal consistency (alfa = 0,73. The items were intercorrelated and factored. The best solution extracted six factors using varimax rotation and all six factors accounted 41% of the total variance. Secure attachment was related positively to eros.
This survey of attitude theory and research published between 1996 and 1999 covers the conceptualization of attitude, attitude formation and activation, attitude structure and function, and the attitude-behavior relation. Research regarding the expectancy-value model of attitude is considered, as are the roles of accessible beliefs and affective versus cognitive processes in the formation of attitudes. The survey reviews research on attitude strength and its antecedents and consequences, and covers progress made on the assessment of attitudinal ambivalence and its effects. Also considered is research on automatic attitude activation, attitude functions, and the relation of attitudes to broader values. A large number of studies dealt with the relation between attitudes and behavior. Research revealing additional moderators of this relation is reviewed, as are theory and research on the link between intentions and actions. Most work in this context was devoted to issues raised by the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior. The present review highlights the nature of perceived behavioral control, the relative importance of attitudes and subjective norms, the utility of adding more predictors, and the roles of prior behavior and habit.
In order to analyse the semantics of natural language sentences a translation into a partial type logic using lexical and logical combinators is presented. The sentences cover a fragment of English with propositional attitudes like knowledge, belief and assertion. A combinator is a closed term...... used for embedded sentences expressing propositional attitudes, thereby allowing for inconsistency without explosion (also called paraconsistency), and is based on a few key equalities for the connectives giving four truth values (truth, falsehood, and undefinedness with negative and positive polarity...
Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe
We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of the attitudes on immigrants welfare. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are of importance: they both affect their labour market outcomes and their quality of life. We...... interpret the negative effect on wages as evidence of labour market discrimination. We estimate the welfare effects of negative attitudes, through their wage and local amenities, for immigrants with different levels of skills, origin, gender and age....
Heaven, Catherine P.; McCluskey-Fawcett, Kathleen
Intergenerational attitudes toward child care were examined among college-age students and their parents through the use of questionnaires, the Beliefs About the Consequences of Maternal Employment Scale (BACMEC), and the Bias in Attitudes toward Women Scale (BIAS). Findings indicated that traditional attitudes were more prevalent in males of both…
The study assessed young adults' attitudes toward childlessness and identified certain factors which predict positive or negative attitudes toward childlessness. The author anticipated finding changes in attitudes because of recent social developments such as awareness of world overpopulation, availability of birth control methods, pressure for…
Nurses are uniquely placed to provide effective health education with the aim of promoting attitude and behavioural change. This article explores the literature relating to attitude formation, attitude change and the nature of persuasive communication, and identifies specific strategies that will be useful to all nurses.
Loveridge, Scott; Miller, Steven R.; Komarek, Timothy M.; Satimanon, Thasanee
Much of the current discussion on factors that influence entrepreneurial activity focuses on availability of human, social, and financial capitals, regional economic conditions, and dynamics of population. We discuss social attitudes toward entrepreneurship and how attitudes may influence entrepreneurial activity. We analyze telephone survey questions designed to gauge attitudes towards community entrepreneurship. High school entrepreneurship career exploration and positive spin-offs from loc...
Maor, Noga Roguin; Sayag, Shlomit; Dahan, Rachel; Hermoni, Doron
Israeli youth lead 27 western countries in dieting. The prevalence of eating disorders has been rising in the last 30 years, causing social problems and medical complications. To examine the prevalence of eating disorders among high school students in a region in northern Israel (Misgav) and to examine the relationship between the parents' employment status and the subject's eating disorder. A structured questionnaire was administered to collect demographic data. The short version of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to evaluate the subject's attitudes toward and preoccupation with food, dieting, eating, physical appearance, and personal control over eating. Of 360 students approached, 283 (78%) completed the self-report EAT-26. One of every 5 females and one in every 20 males had an abnormal eating attitude. The rate of pathologic EAT-26 results, 20.8%, falls within the high range of similar community-based samples of female adolescents. There were no differences in EAT-26 score between students with an employed or unemployed mother; however, there was a trend for higher EAT-26 scores among those whose father was unemployed (21.4% vs. 12.7%, chi2 = 0.14). The findings support our hypothesis of a relatively high rate of abnormal eating attitudes (as reflected by high EAT-26 score) in this population. Another possible risk factor is having an unemployed father, which warrants further research and attention. Our next step is to introduce an intervention program in the school and to study its effect.
Jung, Eun Sook; Reid, Norman
Working memory capacity has been shown to be an important factor in controlling understanding in the sciences. Attitudes related to studies in the sciences are also known to be important in relation to success in learning. It might be argued that if working memory capacity is a rate controlling feature of learning and success in understanding…
This document investigates the attitudes of successful individuals, citing the achievement of established goals as the criteria for success. After offering various definitions of success, the paper focuses on the importance of self-esteem to success and considers ways by which the self-esteem of students can be improved. Theories of human behavior…
Lesourd, Sandra J.; And Others
Formulates descriptive research findings into a utilitarian tool for principal leadership development programs. An instrument measuring attitude toward a (visionary) leadership ideal was developed, administered, and analyzed. Previous research findings were summarized. Results showed that the instrument would help assess individual acceptance of…
Gillmore, Gerald M.; Aleamoni, Lawrence M.
This 42-item Student Attitude Inventory (SAI) was administered to entering college freshmen at the University of Illinois (see TM 001 015). The SAI items are divided into nine categories on the basis of content as follows: voting behavior, drug usage, financial, Viet Nam war, education, religious behavior, pollution, housing, and alienation. A…
Sjoeberg, L.; Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M.
This is a study of risk perception and attitudes with regard to nuclear waste. Two data sets are reported. In the first set, data were obtained from a survey of the general population, using an extensive questionnaire. The second set constituted a follow-up 7 years later, with a limited number of questions. The data showed that people considered the topic of nuclear waste risks to be very important and that they were not convinced that the technological problems had been solved. Experts associated with government agencies were moderately trusted, while those employed by the nuclear industry were much distrusted by some respondents, and very much trusted by others. Moral obligations to future generations were stressed. A large portion (more than 50 per cent) of the variances in risk perception could be explained by attitude to nuclear power, general risk sensitivity and trust in expertise. Most background variables, except gender, had little influence on risk perception and attitudes. The follow-up study showed that the attitude to nuclear power had become more positive over time, but that people still doubted that the problems of nuclear waste disposal had been solved. 49 refs
Wisniewski, Rafal; Markley, F.L.
because control torques can only be generated perpendicular to the local geomagnetic field vector. This has been a serious obstacle for using magnetorquer based control for three-axis stabilization of a low earth orbit satellite. The problem of controlling the spacecraft attitude using only magnetic...
Hedegaard, Troels Fage
recipients lacking both the financial incentives and the will to work. According to theories of the impact of media on welfare attitudes, this had the potential to undermine public support. A two-wave panel survey, however, showed only a small drop in public support for spending on social assistance...
Berger, Ida E; Mitchell, Andrew A
The influence of advertising repetition on several non-evaluative dimensions of attitudes and the strength of the relationship between attitudes and behavior are examined. The results indicate that attitudes formed on the basis of repeated ad exposure are similar to those formed on the basis of direct experience in that they are more accessible from memory, held with more confidence, and are more predictive of subsequent behavior than are attitudes based on a single ad exposure. The results a...
Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe
We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of negative attitudes on refugees’ utility from labour income and amenities. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are important: while they affect mainly the refugees......’ quality of life, they also affect their income. We estimate the utility effects of negative attitudes for refugees with different levels of education and gender. We also analyse how the size of the refugees’ networks relate to their quality of life and income as well as how negative attitudes towards...
Full Text Available There are many themes in marketing to analyze the psychological and marketing aspect of research. The survey of consumer attitudes is one of them. The consumer attitudes have long been discussed and written about. For this purpose, numerous theories, models and researches have emerged. The research of powerful feelings of consumers towards products is something that marketers are constantly trying to achieve. Therefore it is very important for them to understand the factors affecting the attitudes of consumers. Issues related to consumers' attitudes have always been subject matter of the marketers who are trying to keep and maintain the positive and minimize negative attitudes towards the products and services of company. Bearing in the mind that attitudes play a central role in purchase decision, marketers are trying to explore the relation between attitudes and behavior of consumers.
Janice Y. Jung; Barbara A. Mellers
To successfully select and implement nudges, policy makers need a psychological understanding of who opposes nudges, how they are perceived, and when alternative methods (e.g., forced choice) might work better. Using two representative samples, we examined four factors that influence U.S. attitudes toward nudges – types of nudges, individual dispositions, nudge perceptions, and nudge frames. Most nudges were supported, although opt-out defaults for organ donations were op...
Ruuskanen, A.T.; Jaervinen, P.J.
Energy issues are at present heavily debated in Finland. Public discussion is very emotional and biased against nuclear power. The undetermined situation together with the need for a decision on increasing the nuclear capacity led Imatran Voima Oy (Imatra Power Company) to measure the prevailing attitudes. The paper discusses the energy opinion surveys recently made in Finland. The general results give evidence of the changes occurring in the values of life. Environmental issues and the purity of energy production are seen as the most important factors of energy policy. Low price or availability and reliability are considered less important. The results of the surveys show, however, that people think that more electricity will be needed in the future. Natural gas, peat and hydroelectric power are most favoured. The attitude towards the use of coal and nuclear power is clearly more diffuse. In the survey, 21% want to increase the share of nuclear power, 32% want to keep its use at the present level and 35% want to reduce it. This 35% includes the one-fifth of the population that would like to abandon nuclear power altogether. Nuclear wastes and accidents are considered the most important factors contributing to the formation of attitudes towards nuclear energy. The other main factors are discussed in the paper. A great desire for information on energy policy together with personal decision making interests reflect the general attitude in Finland also. Totally incorrect information on nuclear energy is, however, surprisingly prevalent, which makes opposition to nuclear power understandable. All these factors make taking a decision on a fifth nuclear power plant in Finland difficult. (author)
María Elena Brenlla; Analía Brizzio; Alejandra Carreras
Love styles described by Lee are Eros (passionate love), Ludus (game-pla- ying love), Storge (friendship love), Mania (possessive, dependent love), Pragma (logical, “shopping list” love) and Agape (all-giving, selfless love). Based on those types, Hendrick and Hendrick developed a 42-ítem rating questionnaire with 7 items measuring each love style (Love Attitudes Scale). Beside, inform about frequency in love relationships and attachment style. The purpose of this study was analyze the relia...
televison camera). The incident illumination produces a non-uniformity on the scanned side of the sensitive material which can be modeled as an...to compute the probabilistic attitude matrix. Fourth, the experiment will be conducted with the televison camera mounted on a machinists table, such... the optical axis does not necesarily pass through the center of the lens assembly and impact the center pixel in the active region of
Planning permission for the construction of a small 'farm' of wind turbines at Delabole (Deli windfarm) had been obtained and it was intended to use this source of renewable energy by generating electricity and selling it to the electrical power companies for distribution through the National Grid. It was important, therefore, to establish just what the attitudes of local residents were to the proposed development. A programme of research was discussed with the developer and it was agreed that an attitude survey would be conducted in the local area in the summer of 1990, before the turbines were erected, and before the tourist season was completely spent in order to obtain the views of visitors as well. A similar survey would then be done one year later, when the Deli windfarm was established and running. In addition, control samples would be taken at these two times in Exeter to give baseline information on attitudes toward this topic. This proposal was put to the developer and agreement was reached with him and the UK Department of Energy who were providing financial support for the research. The results of the research are reported. (author)
Park, Taehwan; Yusuf, Akeem A; Hadsall, Ronald S
To examine pharmacy students' attitudes toward debt. Two hundred thirteen pharmacy students at the University of Minnesota were surveyed using items designed to assess attitudes toward debt. Factor analysis was performed to identify common themes. Subgroup analysis was performed to examine whether students' debt-tolerant attitudes varied according to their demographic characteristics, past loan experience, monthly income, and workload. Principal component extraction with varimax rotation identified 3 factor themes accounting for 49.0% of the total variance: tolerant attitudes toward debt (23.5%); contemplation and knowledge about loans (14.3%); and fear of debt (11.2%). Tolerant attitudes toward debt were higher if students were white or if they had had past loan experience. These 3 themes in students' attitudes toward debt were consistent with those identified in previous research. Pharmacy schools should consider providing a structured financial education to improve student management of debt.
Taylor, Cheryl A; Lord, Charles G; Bond, Charles F
Attitude embodiment effects occur when the position or movement of a person's physical body changes the way the person evaluates an object. The present research investigated whether attitude embodiment effects depend more on biomechanical factors or on inferential cues to causal agency. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that actual movements of the physical body are not necessary to create attitude embodiment effects when inferential cues imply agency for another person's physical movements. Experiment 3 showed that actual movements of the physical body are not sufficient to create attitude embodiment effects when inferential cues imply nonagency for those movements. In all 3 experiments, inferential cues to agency played a more important role in attitude embodiment effects than did actual agency, suggesting that theories of embodiment and attitude embodiment need to consider inferential cues to agency alongside biomechanical mechanisms.
Renuganth Varatharajoo; Ramly Ajir; Tamizi Ahmad
The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS) consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl...
Jensen, Anne Kejser
, there is a need for increased understanding of the implementation process and the attitudes towards implementation among the general public. This paper explores the spatial heterogeneity in the public attitude towards internalizing environmental and resource costs in the price of water across the EU regions....... Within an extensive spatial dataset constructed for the purpose, we estimate the effect of individual information levels and affordability concerns on the attitude towards environmental water pricing. Information about water problems is found to have a significant and positive effect on attitudes...
This paper traces the history of public attitudes regarding nuclear waste issues. A majority of the public has recently developed the attitude that nuclear wastes are a serious problem, and a small percentage of the public opposes nuclear power mainly because of nuclear waste issues. However, a majority of the public has confidence in the ability of technologists to solve the problems associated with nuclear waste disposal. Finally, the attitudes of nuclear technologists regarding waste disposal differed greatly from the attitudes of other groups, especially environmentalists
Alkhateeb, Haitham M; Mji, Andile
To investigate the attitudes of 200 university students (83% freshmen) toward mathematics, a questionnaire was administered to report on their attitudes toward mathematics. Analysis indicated that students studying precalculus had a somewhat positive attitude toward mathematics.
J M Vorster
Full Text Available The beginning of the twenty-first century faces new challenges in the field of business ethics.� Totally new macro-ethical challenges have arisen and they have already inspired constant ethical reflection. Two major developments in the field of economics paved the way for this new interest in business ethics: the total dominance of the market driven economy and economic globalization. This article investigates the ethical challenges posed by this new environment from a Christian ethical perspective. Firstly norms are formulated flowing from the paradigm of Christian attitude as a manifestation of the attitude of Christ. These are love, stewardship, self-denial and obedience to God. These norms are then applied to the following modern-day issues in the field of business ethics: the challenge of globalization, respect for basic human rights, remuneration, the corporation as a moral model, the need for self-evaluation, political responsibility and environmental concern. In conclusion I attempt to define the role of Christians and Christian churches in transforming corporations into moral agents.
This report contains a summary of the results of a study of household attitudes to energy use and conservation while the author was a member of staff at Massey University. During 1975 seven batches of a mail questionnaire were sent out to a random sample of people drawn from the 1974 Local Body Electoral Rolls. Valid replies were obtained from just under 60% of the 17,500 households to which the forms were sent. The study was undertaken for the simple reason that all energy demand depends on people and yet very little information seemed to be available which showed what people thought about the energy situation and how they felt about the need for conservation. The way people evaluate their energy needs represents a focal element in the energy system as it is this appraisal which results in their demand for energy. The impact of household attitudes goes far beyond the relative share of the energy market taken by the domestic sector, however, as the same people are involved in the demand from all other sectors.
Yamaura, Kazuho; Kurokawa, Masaru; Suzuki, Kouhei
This study examined how subjects who were persuaded to change their attitudes, actually changed their attitude after being told the degree of their changed attitudes. At first, 133 college students (Men : 27,Women : 106) were recorded for their initial attitudes (first session). After one week, the subjects were told opposite persuasion messages against their initial attitudes and their attitudes were measured again (second session). After another two weeks, the subjects were told how much th...
van der Veer, C.G.; Ommundsen, R.; Krumov, K.; Van Le, H.; Larsen, K.S.
This study reports on the development and cross-national utility of a Likert type scale measuring attitudes toward unauthorized migration into a foreign country in two samples from "migrant-sending" nations. In the first phase a pool of 86 attitude statements were administered to a sample of 505
Miller, Charles A.
The colonial attitude toward land depended on the climate of the area and the culture of the settlers. With independence came a national attitude that land represented economic and political freedom for the individual. Abundant land fostered unregulated lumbering, mining, and farming. Today environmental awareness has created the conservation…
Full Text Available The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.
Zysberg, Leehu; Schenk, Tal
Although theoretically proposed in the literature, the direct associations between political attitudes, religion, and creativity have been scarcely explored. A convenience sample of 123 adults working in Israel filled out questionnaires assessing political-social attitudes, religiosity, and background factors (e.g., age, gender, education, and…
Kubiatko, Milan; Janko, Tomas; Mrazkova, Katerina
This study investigates 540 Czech lower secondary students' attitudes towards geography. It examined the general influence of gender and grade level on attitudes towards geography with an emphasis on four specific areas in particular: geography as a school subject; geography and the environment; the importance of geography; and the relevance of…
Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe
We consider the impact of negative attitudes against immigrants and immigration on educational choice in a search and wage bargaining model including networking. We consider two cases in terms of the importance of negative attitudes againts immigrants for high and low educated individuals and find...... that more negative attitudes against immigrants has a positive impact on education in one case and a negative impact in the other and has no impact on natives. Immigration improves employment perspectives for immigrants and thereby increases immigrant education whereas endogenous negative attitudes lead...... use Danish register data to find a signficant positive correlation between negative attitudes towards immigrants and high school attendance and find a positive impact of networking on high school attendance. In both the macro and the micro-econometric analysis we run the same regressions for natives...
Liebe, Carl Christian
One problem comes to all spacecrafts using vector information. That is the problem of determining the attitude. This paper describes how the area of attitude determination instruments has evolved from simple pointing devices into the latest technology, which determines the attitude by utilizing...... a CCD camera and a powerful microcomputer. The instruments are called star trackers and they are capable of determining the attitude with an accuracy better than 1 arcsecond. The concept of the star tracker is explained. The obtainable accuracy is calculated, the numbers of stars to be included...... in the star catalogue are discussed and the acquisition of the initial attitude is explained. Finally the commercial market for star trackers is discussed...
Perrea, Toula; Grunert, Klaus G; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios
Green food is perceived by Chinese consumers as environmentally friendly and safe to consume. Through a Value-Attitude model, the paper examines the degree to which attitudes towards green food is determined by consumers’ values and their general attitudes towards environment and technology....... The link between collectivism, attitudes towards environment and attitudes towards green food is the strongest one. Collectivism also influences attitudes towards technology, which in turn influence attitudes towards green food. However, the lack of significant relationship between individualism...... and attitudes towards technology points towards the belief of Chinese people that technology is a positive determinant of food safety, and that interest in technology steams from altruistic predispositions....
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of implicit (automatic attitudes to explain the weak attitude-behaviour relationships often found in green consumer behaviour research. Therefore, not only explicit but also implicit attitudes toward green consumer behaviour were measured by means of the Implicit Association Test (IAT. Explicit measures revealed positive attitudes, while the IAT showed more positive attitudes toward the ecological than toward the traditional product (Experiment 1 or no differences in these attitudes (Experiment 2 and follow-up study. When existing products were involved, implicit attitudes related to behavioural intention, even where the explicit attitude measure did not.
This paper discusses geological activity which takes place mainly in response to industrial and social pressures. Past geological reaction to these pressures profoundly altered popular conceptions of time, the Church, man, and the balance of nature. The present-day circumstances of geology are not essentially different from those of the past. Petroleum geology in North American illustrates the role of technology in determining the style and scope of geological work. Peaks of activity cluster obviously on the introduction from time to time of new instrumental capabilities (geophysical apparatus, for example), although not infrequently such activity is testing concepts or relationships perceived long before. Organic metamorphism and continental drift provide two examples. The petroleum industry now faces the dilemma of satisfying predicted demands for fuel, without doing irreparable injury to its environment of operation. Awareness of man's place in nature, which is a fundamental perception of geology, governs the geological attitude
Rocklage, Matthew D; Fazio, Russell H
Despite the centrality of both attitude accessibility and attitude basis to the last 30 years of theoretical and empirical work concerning attitudes, little work has systematically investigated their relation. The research that does exist provides conflicting results and is not at all conclusive given the methodology that has been used. The current research uses recent advances in statistical modeling and attitude measurement to provide the most systematic examination of the relation between attitude accessibility and basis to date. Specifically, we use mixed-effects modeling which accounts for variation across individuals and attitude objects in conjunction with the Evaluative Lexicon (EL)-a linguistic approach that allows for the simultaneous measurement of an attitude's valence, extremity, and emotionality. We demonstrate across four studies, over 10,000 attitudes, and nearly 50 attitude objects that attitudes based on emotion tend to be more accessible in memory, particularly if the attitude is positive.
Full Text Available Contemporary logic is confined to a few paradigmatic attitudes such as belief, knowledge, desire and intention. My purpose is to present a general model-theoretical semantics of propositional attitudes of any cognitive or volitive mode. In my view, one can recursively define the set of all psychological modes of attitudes. As Descartes anticipated, the two primitive modes are those of belief and desire. Complex modes are obtained by adding to primitive modes special cognitive and volitive ways or special propositional content or preparatory conditions. According to standard logic of attitudes (Hintikka, human agents are either perfectly rational or totally irrational. I will proceed to a finer analysis of propositional attitudes that accounts for our imperfect but minimal rationality. For that purpose I will use a non standard predicative logic according to which propositions with the same truth conditions can have different cognitive values and I will explicate subjective in addition to objective possibilities. Next I will enumerate valid laws of my general logic of propositional attitudes. At the end I will state principles according to which minimally rational agents dynamically revise attitudes of any mode.
Kerzman, Hana; Van Dijk, Dina; Eizenberg, Limor; Khaikin, Rut; Phridman, Shoshi; Siman-Tov, Maya; Goldberg, Shoshi
In recent years, an increasing number of care procedures previously under the physician's authority have been placed in the hands of registered nurses. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of nurses towards expanding nurses' authority and the relationships between these attitudes and job satisfaction facets, professional characteristics, and demographics. A cross-sectional study was conducted between 2010 and 2011 in three major medical centers in Israel. Participants included 833 nurses working in 89 departments. Attitudes toward the expansion of nurses' authority were assessed by self-report questionnaire, as well as job satisfaction facets including perception of professional autonomy, nurse-physician working relations, workload and burnout, perceptions of quality of care, and nursing staff satisfaction at work. Nurses reported positive attitudes toward the expansion of nurses' authority and moderate attitudes for interpretation of diagnostic tests in selected situations. The results of multivariate regression analyses demonstrate that the nurses' satisfaction from professional autonomy and work relations were the most influential factors in explaining their attitudes toward the expansion of nurses' authority. In addition, professionally young nurses tend to be more positive regarding changes in nurses' authority. In the Israeli reality of a nurse's shortage, we are witnessing professional transitions toward expansion of the scope of nurses' accountability and decision-making authority. The current research contributes to our understanding of attitudes toward the expansion of nurses' authority among the nursing staffs. The findings indicate the necessity of redefining the scope of nursing practice within the current professional context.
Poote, A E; van den Akker, O B A
There has been little interest in the research literature on public opinions regarding assisted conception and surrogacy, particularly in European countries, despite the growing evidence showing that problems in adaptation and coping may be related to perceived normative values. This study investigated British women's attitudes to surrogacy using components of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Questionnaires on attitudes to surrogacy and reasons for parenthood were completed by 187 women from the general public. Significant socio-demographic differences were found between women who were possibly willing (n = 76) and those who were unwilling (n = 111) to become surrogate mothers. General attitudes to surrogacy also differed between groups (P = 0.000). This study supported the predictive utility of components of the TPB, and differentiated adequately between groups on attitudes to recruitment for surrogacy (P = 0.000), the consequences of surrogacy (P = 0.000), factors that induce people to become surrogates (P = 0.000), social support (P = 0.000), having personal control (P = 0.002) and reasons for parenthood (P = 0.000). Age (P = 0.000), attitudes to advertising (P = 0.02) and the consequences of surrogacy (P = 0.05) predicted (un)willingness to become a potential surrogate mother. Further research is needed with larger sample sizes of potential surrogates to determine whether the predictive attitudes reported here translate to actual behaviours. The larger group which was not interested in considering becoming a surrogate scored significantly more negatively on all attitudes towards surrogacy. The negative attitudes reported by the 'unwilling to consider being a surrogate' group may reflect attitudes held by the majority of the population and are likely to be influenced by reports of stigma associated with surrogacy.
This paper will present what relationships exist between the attitude toward quality assurance and the variables of training and experience on the part of managers within the nuclear power industry. Managerial attitude toward quality assurance was measured via questionnaires submitted to managers within architect-engineering, nuclear steam supplier, and constructor firms throughout the United States. The data from the completed questionnaires were statistically analyzed using the chi-square test and conclusions were drawn. Additional study results related to major factors for positive and negative attitudes toward quality assurance will be presented
Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G
Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p < .01). However, the direction of the effect contradicted Adlerian theory. Except for alcohol consumption, these findings extended to self-reported risk behavior. Together, the data call for a cautious stand on the impact of birth order on risk attitudes. © The Author(s) 2013.
Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe
, the impact of negative attitudes and networking taking into account that these parameters may influence high and uneducated workers as well as immigrants and natives differently, creating different incentives to acquire education for the two ethnic groups. Using rich Danish administrative data, this paper......This paper explores potential explanations behind the educational gap between young natives and immigrants using two measures, negative attitudes towards immigrants and networking, which may influence natives and immigrants differently. The paper considers, both theoretically and empirically...... finds evidence that greater negative attitudes increase incentives for males to acquire education and that networking also increases immigrant education....
) and subconsciously (covertly) offered attitudes – because subconsciously offered attitudes appear to be a driving force in linguistic variation and change in a way that consciously offered attitudes are not. The argument is based on evidence from empirical investigations of attitudes and use in the ‘...
Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.
In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…
Smith, T W
In the US attitudes toward abortion in the 1980s seem to have reached a more liberal plateau, much more favored than in the 1960s or earlier, but not longer moving in a liberal direction. Catholic attitudes basically have followed the same trend. Traditionally Catholic support has been slightly lower than Protestant, and both are less inclined to support abortion than Jews or the nonreligious. During the 1970s support among non-black Catholics averaged about 10 percentage points below non-black Protestants. Blacks tend to be anti-abortion and thereby lower support among Protestants as a whole. A comparison of Protestants and Catholics of both races shows fewer religious differences -- about 7 percentage points. There are some indications that this gap may be closing. In 1982, for the 1st time, support for abortions for social reasons, such as poverty, not wanting to marry, or not wanting more children, was as high among Catholics as among Protestants. 1 of the factors contributing to this narrowing gap has been the higher level of support for abortion among younger Catholics. Protestants show little variation on abortion attitudes, with those over age 65 being slightly less supportive. Among Catholics, support drops rapidly with age. This moderate and possibly vanishing difference between Catholics and Protestants contrasts sharply with the official positions of their respective churches. The Catholic Church takes an absolute moral position against abortion, while most Protestant churches take no doctrinaire position on abortion. Several, such as the Unitarians and Episcopalians, lean toward a pro-choice position as a matter of social policy, though fundamentalist sects take strong anti-abortion stances. Few Catholics agree with their church's absolutist anti-abortion position. The big split on abortion comes between what are sometimes termed the "hard" abortion reasons -- mother's health endangered, serious defect in fetus, rape, or incest. Support among Catholics
Astley, Jeff; Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy
This study builds on the research tradition modelled by the Francis Scale of Attitude towards Christianity, the Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Judaism, the Sahin-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Islam and the Santosh-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Hinduism to propose a generic instrument concerned with attitudes towards theistic faith.…
Karimi, Y.; Saffarinia, M.
One of the most issues in social Psychology is study of attitude. Attitudes are causes of human behavior. If we regard energy consumption as a behavior for changing behavior in field of energy we must to study attitude and attitude change.In social psychology attitude define as positive and negative affective state to a matter of object. In this paper try it describe approaches and theories about attitudes and attitude change such as classical conditioning operant conditioning, social learning and cognitive. We hope this paper will be useful for planners and expert that work in this field
A system for automatic acquisition of underwater platform attitude data has been designed, developed and tested in the laboratory. This is a micro controller based system interfacing dual axis inclinometer, high-resolution digital compass...
Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard
Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)
Van Doorn, E.; Moes, N.; Fain, N.
Modern academic design and engineering education adopted the issues and goals of holistic development of design competence. Holistic design competence is a combination of generic capacities: capability, knowledge, skill, experience and attitude. All capacities should be addressed in academic
Amo, Michael F.; Bittner, John R.
Questionnaire attempts to determine attitudes in effort to learn how students perceive danger, or lack of it, in the use of marihuana. Tabulated responses are presented, and while no conclusions are drawn several interpretations are suggested. (Author/CJ)
This paper investigates the attitudes and opinions surrounding Standard English (SE) within the United Kingdom. The definition of SE, for the purposes of this study, is standard grammar and standard pronunciation of southern English, commonly referred to as 'BBC English'. The subject of SE and attitudes towards different accents and dialects of British English is emotive and attracts strong opinions. The main issues discussed here are the place of language in society, the social implications ...
Settle, Amber; Sedlak, Brian
While motivation is of great interest to computing educators, relatively little work has been done on understanding faculty attitudes toward student motivation. Two previous qualitative studies of instructor attitudes found results identical to those from other disciplines, but neither study considered whether instructors perceive student motivation to be more important in certain computing classes. In this work we present quantitative results about the perceived importance of student motivat...
Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G.
Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p < .01). However, the direction of the effect contradict...
C. Reggiani; G. Rossini
Home bias affects trade in goods, services and financial assets. It is mostly generated by "natural" trade barriers. Among these dividers we may list many behavioral and sociological factors, such as status quo biases and a few kind of ‘embeddedness’. Unfortunately these factors are difficult to measure. An important part of ‘embeddedness’ may be related to religious attitudes. Is there any relation between economic home bias and religious attitudes at the individual tier? Our aim is to provi...
Ott, Ingrid; Soretz, Susanne
We analyse the interdependence between green attitude and equilibrium development of environmental quality in an endogenous growth model. Individuals take only part of their impact on pollution into account, hence there is a negative externality of capital accumulation on environmental quality. Increasing wealth or increasing pollution enhance green attitude and reduce the externality, because individuals care more about the environment if their income is higher or if pollution is more obviou...
The rapid proliferation of mobile devices such as cellular phones has created a new communication channel for marketing. Currently, cellular phones are mostly used for Short Messaging Service (SMS) advertising. The aim of this study is to explore the factors that underline undergraduates’ attitudes toward SMS advertising. The results obtained indicated factors such as entertainment, informativeness, irritation, reliability, general attitude and permission and incentive-based advertising. The ...
Attitudes and beliefs are analyzed as verbal behavior. It is argued that shaping by a verbal community is an essential part of the formation and maintenance of both attitudes and beliefs, and it is suggested that verbal communities mediate the important shift in control from events in the environment (attitudes and beliefs as tacts) to control by other words (attitudes and beliefs as intraverbals). It appears that both attitudes and beliefs are constantly being socially negotiated through aut...
Reid, Chelsea A; Davis, Jody L; Green, Jeffrey D
Does attitude alignment predict attraction? Would you like a stranger more who shifts her/his attitudes to more closely align with yours? In pairs, participants (N = 77) discussed social issues about which they disagreed and received false feedback on whether the partner engaged in attitude alignment (shifted her/his attitudes toward the participant's attitude) following discussion. Participants also received false feedback about the proportion of similarity to the partner on a set of issues (i.e., 25%, 50%, or 75%). Participants reported greater attraction to partners who engaged in attitude alignment and who were more similar. Moreover, similarity and attitude alignment interacted. Similarity predicted attraction when attitude alignment did not occur, but did not predict attraction when attitude alignment did occur. Finally, partner attitude alignment led to participant attitude alignment, and perceived reasoning ability mediated the attitude alignment-attraction relationship.
Gregorich, Steven E.
Special training seminars in cockpit resource management (CRM) are designed to enhance crew effectiveness in multicrew air-transport cockpits. In terms of CRM, crew effectiveness is defined by teamwork rather than technical proficiency. These seminars are designed to promote factual learning, alter aviator attitudes, and motivate aviators to make use of what they have learned. However, measures of attitude change resulting from CRM seminars have been the most common seminar evaluation technique. The current investigation explores a broader range of attitude change parameters with specific emphasis on the stability of change between recurrent visits to the training center. This allows for a comparison of training program strengths in terms of seminar ability to effect lasting change.
Drawing upon the writings of Jungian analyst Joseph Henderson on unconscious attitudes toward culture that patients and analysts may bring to therapy, the author defines the aesthetic attitude as one of the basic ways that cultural experience is instinctively accessed and processed so that it can become part of an individual's self experience. In analytic treatment, the aesthetic attitude emerges as part of what Jung called the transcendent function to create new symbolic possibilities for the growth of consciousness. It can provide creative opportunities for new adaptation where individuation has become stuck in unconscious complexes, both personal and cultural. In contrast to formulations that have compared depth psychotherapy to religious ritual, philosophic discourse, and renewal of socialization, this paper focuses upon the considerations of beauty that make psychotherapy also an art. In psychotherapeutic work, the aesthetic attitude confronts both analyst and patient with the problem of taste, affects how the treatment is shaped and 'framed', and can grant a dimension of grace to the analyst's mirroring of the struggles that attend the patient's effort to be a more smoothly functioning human being. The patient may learn to extend the same grace to the analyst's fumbling attempts to be helpful. The author suggests that the aesthetic attitude is thus a help in the resolution of both countertransference and transference en route to psychological healing.
Full Text Available As the budgets of the European Union (EU become tighter, the questions about the effectiveness of EU’s expenditure, especially the most important parts such as Cohesion policy, are hotly debated. The aim of this paper is to examine whether the presence of social attitudes may influence the effectiveness of EU budget expenditure, measured by the level of regional inequalities. The analysis starts by focusing on individuals’ attitudes towards income from their own effort and income which is derived from other people’s effort, having in mind that individual actions depend on their attitudes. The next step establishes the link between the income from other people’s effort with the re-distributive dimension of the EU budget, considering that different attitudes among individuals in the EU could lead to significant differences in effectiveness of this redistributive policy among European regions and, consequently, diverse regional inequalities. Empirical research uses data for 27 EU countries observed over two waves of European Value Surveys: 1999-2000 (Wave 1 and 2008–2009 (Wave 2. The results indicate a significant role of social attitudes for regional inequalities, which raises the question of the appropriateness of simplification and uniform regional policy instruments in solving EU regional problems.
Ustüner, Mehmet; Aksoy, Kasim; Ozer, Niyazi
The aim of this research is twofold: 1) to determine attitudes of high school students toward addictive substances; and 2) to determine students' attitudes toward addictive substances in terms of some variables including gender, grade, and perceived parental attitudes. To this end, Addictive Substances Attitudes Scale and Parental Attitudes Scale were given to a sample of 745 high school students (F = 330, M = 415) chosen by purposive sampling method. Results showed that compared to the males, females had more negative attitudes toward addictive substances. And compared to students from the upper grades, students from lower grades had more negative attitudes toward addictive substances. It is also found that students' attitudes toward addictive substances correlate with perceived parental attitudes. The correlation is low and positive for perceived democratic parental attitudes (r = .29), negative and low for perceived authoritarian parental attitudes (r = -.27).
Full Text Available A questionnaire-based survey was conducted on a sample of 238 parents whose children attend the third and fourth grades in two Belgrade elementary schools: “Oslobodioci Beograda” and “Borislav Pekic”. The aim of this study was to deter¬mi¬ne the incidence of outdoor activities and the attitude of the third and fourth graders’ parents towards it. Statistical data processing was based on the use of the –R, and every question represented a random variable. The analysis of the collected data has proved the presence of outdoor activities among these pupils and their positive attitude towards camping out, as well as a positive attitude of their parents.
Bjarnø, Jonas Bækby
Spacecraft platform instability constitutes one of the most significant limiting factors in hyperacuity pointing and tracking applications, yet the demand for accurate, timely and reliable attitude information is ever increasing. The PhD research project described within this dissertation has...... served to investigate the solution space for augmenting the DTU μASC stellar reference sensor with a miniature Inertial Reference Unit (IRU), thereby obtaining improved bandwidth, accuracy and overall operational robustness of the fused instrument. Present day attitude determination requirements are met...... of the instrument, and affecting operations during agile and complex spacecraft attitude maneuvers. As such, there exists a theoretical foundation for augmenting the high frequency performance of the μASC instrument, by harnessing the complementary nature of optical stellar reference and inertial sensor technology...
Gary L. Beck Dallaghan
Full Text Available Background: Interprofessional education (IPE is an important component to training health care professionals. Research is limited in exploring the attitudes that faculty hold regarding IPE and what barriers they perceive to participating in IPE. The purpose of this study was to identify faculty attitudes about IPE and to identify barriers to participating in campus-wide IPE activities. Methods: A locally used questionnaire called the Nebraska Interprofessional Education Attitudes Scale (NIPEAS was used to assess attitudes related to interprofessional collaboration. Questions regarding perceived barriers were included at the end of the questionnaire. Descriptive and non-parametric statistics were used to analyze the results in aggregate as well as by college. In addition, open-ended questions were analyzed using an immersion/crystallization framework to identify themes. Results: The results showed that faculty had positive attitudes of IPE, indicating that is not a barrier to participating in IPE activities. Most common barriers to participation were scheduling conflicts (x24,285=19.17, p=0.001, lack of department support (4,285=10.09, p=0.039, and lack of awareness of events (x24,285=26.38, p=0.000. Narrative comments corroborated that scheduling conflicts are an issue because of other priorities. Those who commented also added to the list of barriers, including relevance of the activities, location, and prior negative experiences. Discussion: With faculty attitudes being positive, the exploration of faculty's perceived barriers to IPE was considered even more important. Identifying these barriers will allow us to modify our IPE activities from large, campus-wide events to smaller activities that are longitudinal in nature, embedded within current curriculum and involving more authentic experiences.
Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe
This paper theoretically and empirically assesses the potential explanations behind the educational gap between young natives and immigrants using two measures, negative attitudes towards immigrants and networking. The paper considers that two these parameters may influence high and uneducated...... workers as well as immigrants and natives differently, creating different incentives to acquire education for the two groups. Using rich Danish administrative data, this paper finds suggestive evidence rejecting the theoretical case where negative attitudes decrease 1st generation immigrant education...... and indications that quality of networks seems to matter more for immigrants than the quantity of individuals in a potential network....
Fosgaard, Toke Reinholt; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Wengström, Erik Roland
This paper shows that political attitudes are linked to cooperative behavior in an incentivized experiment with a large sample randomly drawn from the Danish population. However, this relationship depends on the way the experiment is framed. In the standard game in which subjects give to a public...... good, contributions are the same regardless of political attitudes. In an economically equivalent version, in which subjects take from a public good, left-wingers cooperate significantly more than subjects in the middle or to the right of the political spectrum. Through simulation techniques we find...
Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal
Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real-life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas ...... where agents take different attitudes when reasoning about the actions of others. In particular, we study optimistic, neutral and pessimistic attitudes and provide both computational hardness results and polynomial-time algorithms for computing stable outcomes....
Masterton, Malin; Renberg, Tobias; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia
stakeholders. This study compared the attitudes of patients and researchers on animal testing. Focus-group interviews were held with patients suffering from chronic inflammatory diseases, resulting in a questionnaire that was distributed January–May 2011. The questionnaire was posted to patient members...... of support is comparable to those held by the general public found in national surveys. A clear majority of researchers were positive towards animal testing, and large statistical differences between patients and researchers were found regarding their attitudes towards testing animals commonly held as pets...... (Pattitude towards animal testing is not shared to an equal degree with patients, who are the intended end-users and beneficiaries of medical...
Based on the present results, the following points are suggested: First, there are significant attitudinal differences [in Japan] on new reproductive technologies between infertile couples and married laypersons; laypersons' attitudes were not so affirmative as those of infertile couples. Second, among the group of infertile couples, male respondents showed more affirmative attitudes toward assisted procreation than female respondents. Third, the main reason for approving of new reproductive technologies was that "it is a treatment for infertility," while the main reasoning of those who disapproved of them was that "it conflicts with the way of nature."
This study assessed the attitudes of women with diverse backgrounds toward possible responses to an attempted sexual assault and also ascertained their beliefs about how society should handle a convicted rapist. Additionally, the role which the personality dimensions of assertiveness and internal-external expectamcy play in shaping attitudes toward rape was investigated. Seventy-seven women and 25 men were administered the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, the Rotter I-E Scale, and a Rape Inventory. Women relied on a narrow range of options to deal with a rapist's attack, depending mostly on less active modes. They advocated humane approaches be taken with convicted rapists. Personality played only a minor role.
Full Text Available This article discusses responses to an online survey on the topic of musical influence. 119 participants took part, answering both quantitative (five point Likert scale and qualitative questions. A rich set of data was collected, which is summarized and analyzed in this paper. The primary research aim was to discover a good opinion base concerning issues of musical influence, to help illuminate some existing theories of influence, and in turn to inform further research directions. General trends observed included variation in attitudes to influences over time, the role of non- musical influences, and a usually positive attitude towards influences amongst participants.
Full Text Available The paper considers official and individual attitudes towards bilingualism in English and a Ghanaian language. We ask whether bilingualism in English and Ghanaian languages is a social handicap, without merit, or an important indicator of ethnic identity. Ghana has about 50 non-mutually intelligible languages, yet there are no statistics on who speaks what language(s where in the country. We consider attitudes to English against the current Ghanaian language policy in education as practised in the school system. Our data reveal that parents believe early exposure to English enhances academic performance; English is therefore becoming the language of the home.
Byrd, Marquita L.; Williams, Hampton S.
These two related papers provide information on teacher attitudes toward black dialect use in the classroom and the measurement of such attitudes. The first paper reports on data from 176 administrators, counselors, teachers, and student teachers, revealing significant relationships between a teacher's definition of black dialect, attitudes toward…
Blommaert, E.C.C.A.; Tubergen, F.A. van; Coenders, M.T.A.
We study effects of explicit and implicit interethnic attitudes on ethnic discrimination in hiring. Unlike explicit attitudes, implicit attitudes are characterised by reduced controllability, awareness or intention. Effects of implicit interethnic attitudes on ethnic discrimination in the labour
Ehrmann, Michael; Pfajfar, Damjan; Santoro, Emiliano
situation, their purchasing attitudes, and their expectations about the macroeconomy. Respondents with current or expected financial difficulties and those with pessimistic attitudes about major purchases, income developments, or unemployment have a stronger upward bias than other households. However...
Lebedeva, N. M.
The results of study of interrelations between values and attitudes to innovations of Canadian and Russian students (Russians and representatives of Northern Caucasia), n = 426 per. are presented. Correlation between individuals' values and their attitudes to innovations are determined. Significant
Hardy, Clifford A.
Student attitudes toward current controversial problems (bussing for racial integration, legalization of abortion, and legalization of marijuana) were studied with regard to social class. The 1960 revision of the Purdue Master Attitude Scale was used. (LBH)
Hobart, Charles W.
A study of student attitudes toward family size, use of contraceptives, authoritarian, permissive approaches to childrearing, parental responsibilities of the husband and wife and divorce. Hypotheses concerning determinants of these attitudes are also tested. (JC)
A distinction is made between attitudes and specifically language attitudes. The process of acculturation is dealt with and its influence upon the motivation of ESL learners. Integrational and instmmental motivation are defined. Teachers' language attitudes, the dangers of prejudice and stereotyping are discussed. ,Attitude changes are analysed as well as the teacher's role in effecting them. 'n Onderskeid word getref tussen algemene houdings en houdings ten opsigte van taal. Die proses van a...
Vieira, Pedro Nuno Rino Carreira
Doutoramento em Gestão Risk and attitudes towards risk play a central role in several areas such as economics and psychology. Interestingly, in economics risk attitudes are addressed under the umbrella of the Utility Theory, while in psychology they are measured by psychometric scales. Risk attitudes in financial decision making are here studied under both approaches with the concern of understanding how they are related. So, I propose a conceptual model that explains risk attitudes, I ...
Stark, Tobias; Flache, Andreas; Veenstra, René
The generalization of attitudes toward individual outgroup members into attitudes toward the outgroup as a whole can affect intergroup relations. However, little is known about the relative strengths of the generalization of negative and positive interpersonal attitudes into attitudes about the
Alrehaly, Essa D.
The purpose of this study was to explore the manner in which parents' attitudes toward science learning influences their children's attitudes and the effect of ethnicity on attitudes toward science learning. The results of this study show that parental attitudes toward science learning were influenced by both parents' early life experiences and…
Monroe, Brian M.; Read, Stephen J.
A localist, parallel constraint satisfaction, artificial neural network model is presented that accounts for a broad collection of attitude and attitude-change phenomena. The network represents the attitude object and cognitions and beliefs related to the attitude, as well as how to integrate a persuasive message into this network. Short-term…
Sirakaya, Mustafa; Kiliç Çakmak, Ebru
This study aimed at identifying the attitudes of secondary school students toward AR applications and to investigate the change in these attitudes according to different variables. The study also aspired to determine the relationship between attitudes toward AR and achievement. The general survey model was used in the study. The study group was…
Seferoğlu, Meral; Yıldız, Demet; Pekel, Nilüfer Büyükkoyuncu; Güneş, Aygül; Yıldız, Abdülmecit; Tufan, Fatih
Attitude of healthcare providers toward older people is very important in the aging world. Neurologists contact older adults very frequently. We aimed to investigate the attitudes of neurologists toward older adults. We recorded participants age; sex; duration of clinical practice in neurology; existence of older adult relatives; and history of geriatrics education, nursing home visits, older adult patient density in their clinical practice, and participation in voluntary public activities. UCLA Geriatrics Attitude Scale was used to evaluate participants' attitudes. A total of 100 neurologists participated in this study. Seventy-seven percent had positive, 3 % had neutral, and 20 % had negative attitudes. Twenty-seven percent of the participants had history of geriatrics education, and these participants tended to have a higher rate of positive attitudes. Neurologists with positive attitudes tended to be older than those with negative attitudes. Participants with history of living with older adult relatives had lower rates of positive attitudes. The most common diagnoses of the patients the participants encountered were stroke and dementia. Independent factors associated with positive attitudes were history of geriatrics education and older age. History of living with older relatives tended to have a negative effect. Most of the negative items of the attitude scale were associated with the natural course and behavior of the common diseases in neurology practice. Generalization of geriatrics education may translate into a better understanding and improved care for older patients. Development of instruments and implementation of qualitative studies to assess attitudes of neurologists toward older adults are needed.
Chew, Brandi L.; Jensen, Scott A.; Rosen, Lee A.
Objective: The attitudes of college students with and without ADHD toward peers with ADHD were examined. Method: A total of 196 college students (30 diagnosed with ADHD) anonymously completed four attitude measures. General analyses of attitudes toward peers with ADHD as well as comparisons between those with and without ADHD are made. Results:…
Rahman, Mohammad Ataur
This study examined how teacher educators perceive the attitude towards use of computer technology in Teachers' Training Colleges in Bangladesh. This study investigated teacher educators' computer attitudes by using the valid and reliable instruments of Loyd and Gressard's (1984) Computer Attitude Scale (CAS). The data was collected through …
This book examines language attitudes, focusing on individual attitudes toward majority and minority languages and bilingualism. Special emphasis is placed on research conducted on language attitudes in Wales toward the Welsh and English languages. Six chapters address the following: (1) the nature, definition, and measurement of language…
The findings of a survey of attitude studies to determine the effect of students' attitudes on communication competence as they enter the work force and develop their careers are reported in this paper. The paper explains how attitude improvement is an effective management tool in controlling costly absenteeism, output, job productivity, work…
Shahroudi, Julie; Shaw, Geraldine
Attitudes concerning the Human Genome Project were reported by faculty (N=40) and students (N=66) from a liberal arts college. Positive attitudes toward the project involved privacy, insurance and health, economic purposes, reproductive purposes, genetic counseling, religion and overall opinions. Negative attitudes were expressed regarding…
Ibrahim, Akbar bin
Attitudes toward science of 654 pupils aged 14-15 were assessed, and relationships between attitude and locality, achievement, and sex studied. Achievement was mildly correlated with attitude, but locality and sex had no influence. Other findings are also discussed. (MNS)
Attitudes towards mathematics and associated anxiety have been known to plague students with diverse socio-economic backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to investigate senior high student's attitudes towards mathematics and to explore sex differences in attitudes towards mathematics among students in Accra.
Gonzales, Ernest; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Gilbert, Pat
Given the growth in the number of older adults and the ageist attitudes many in the health care profession hold, interventions aimed at improving health professionals' attitudes toward older adults are imperative. Vital Visionaries is an intergenerational art program designed to improve medical students' attitudes toward older adults. Participants…
Young, G. M.
Reports a survey of educational attitudes among teachers and tutors in English colleges of education. Three domains were studied: naturalism-formalism in attitude toward pedagogic role and student-teacher interaction; egalitarianism-conservatism in attitude toward access to educational systems and resources; and liberalism-utilitarianism in…
S A Kuznetsova
Full Text Available In the article the first cycle of working out the migratory attitude scale is presented. The results of the research of the migratory attitudes in Magadan young people show the adequacy of theoretical hypotheses and the validity of the estimation procedure. The scale application has rendered possible to obtain the data about the age features of migratory attitudes.
Koc, Isil; Kuvac, Meltem
The purpose of this study was to determine preservice science teachers' attitudes toward environment and to investigate whether their environmental attitudes differ in terms of gender and grade level. A total of 197 preservice science teachers participated in the study. Personal Information Form and the Environmental Attitudes Inventory (EAI)…
Whitty, Elaine; Clarke, Marie
This paper through the theoretical framework of constructive attitude theory explores mathematics teachers' attitudes and pedagogical strategies with reference to inclusive practice. The authors argue that though teachers may have formed positive inclusive attitudes, the translation of these into practice does not always occur and poses…
This paper reviews recent public attitudes to nuclear power in Canada and the state of empirical knowledge about these attitudes referring specifically to studies carried out in Ontario. It discusses interest groups as a factor in public attitudes and suggests some lines of investigation for social research. (author)
Bhargava, Anupama; Pathy, M. K.
Teaching being a dynamic activity requires a favourable attitude and certain specific competencies from its practitioners. Teachers' proficiency depends on the attitude she possesses for the profession. The positive attitude helps teacher to develop a conductive learner friendly environment in the classroom. This also casts a fruitful effect on…
Consumer attitudes toward food irradiation were evaluated. The influence of educational efforts on consumer concern for the safety of irradiated products and willingness to buy irradiated foods were measured. Demographic and psychological factors were studied in relation to attitudes. An educational leaflet describing current scientific information regarding the safety, advantages, and disadvantages of food irradiation was developed and used in two studies evaluating attitude change. In the first study, attitude change among two groups of consumers with different philosophic orientations was measured. In a second study, the effectiveness of an educational leaflet received through the mail and a poster display were examined. In a third study response to food irradiation was related to value hierarchy, locus of control, innovativeness, and demographic parameters. Initially, subjects showed a higher concern for other areas of food safety, particularly the use of chemicals and sprays on food, than toward food irradiation. After educational efforts, conventional consumers expressed minor concern toward irradiation whereas ecologically sensitive alternative consumers obtained from a food cooperative expressed major concern. A knowledgeable discussion leader lowered irradiation concern among conventional consumers. In contrast, concern among alternative consumers did not diminish when given the opportunity to discuss safety issues with a knowledgeable person
Timberlake, Constance A.; Carpenter, Wayne D.
Assessed sexuality attitudes of black middle-class sample (N=124) concerning communication regarding sexuality information, adolescent contraception, adolescent pregnancy, nonmarital intercourse, responsibility for contraception and pregnancy, abortion, pornography, and masturbation. Results suggest that participants were well-informed, moderate,…
Flynn, Timothy W.; St. Louis, Kenneth O.
Purpose: Live oral or recorded video presentations on stuttering were delivered to high school students in order to determine the extent to which their attitudes toward stuttering could be improved. Methods: A classroom teacher administered the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S") to two health classes before and…
Chiba, Reiko; And Others
Examined the attitudes of 169 Japanese university students toward varieties of spoken English. Results found that the students with more instrumental motivation were more positive toward nonnative English accents than those with less instrumental motivation, and that the students' familiarity with accents had an influence on their acceptance of…
Full Text Available Future space missions will involve satellites with great autonomy and stringent pointing precision, requiring of the Attitude Control Systems (ACS with better performance than before, which is function of the control algorithms implemented on board computers. The difficulties for developing experimental ACS test is to obtain zero gravity and torque free conditions similar to the SCA operate in space. However, prototypes for control algorithms experimental verification are fundamental for space mission success. This paper presents the parameters estimation such as inertia matrix and position of mass centre of a Satellite Attitude Control System Simulator (SACSS, using algorithms based on least square regression and least square recursive methods. Simulations have shown that both methods have estimated the system parameters with small error. However, the least square recursive methods have performance more adequate for the SACSS objectives. The SACSS platform model will be used to do experimental verification of fundamental aspects of the satellite attitude dynamics and design of different attitude control algorithm.
Crandall, Christian S.; Martinez, Rebecca
Tests the role of blame and ideology in antifat prejudice by comparing attitudes among college students (N=406) in the United States and Mexico. Mexican students were significantly less concerned about their own weight and more accepting of fat people than United States students. Prejudice toward fat people in the United States appears to have a…
by conducting a survey involving 200 parents in Udu Local Government Area of Delta State. The result ... the concept of linkage between education and working life; for instance, ... Parental attitudes towards vocational education: Implications for counselling. Okocha ... and methodically prepared special courses of fairly long.
Huang, Hui-Ju; Lin, Yu-Teh Kirk
The study investigated American and Taiwan undergraduate students' attitudes toward biodiversity. The survey questionnaire consisted of statements prompted by the question "To what extent do you agree with the following statements about problems with the biodiversity issues." Students indicated strongly disagree, disagree, agree,…
K.Y. Lam (Kar Yin); M. van de Velden (Michel); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)
textabstractTo assess the attitudes with respect to the quality of banks’ service levels, we use survey data amongst more than 250 Chief Financial Officers (CFOs) of a range of Netherlands-based companies. These companies range from small to very large (including multinationals as Philips and Shell)
Wilczenski, Felicia L.
Developed scale to measure attitudes toward inclusive education, in which disabled students are responsibility of regular teacher supported by specialists. Administered scale to 301 elementary and secondary teachers and to 144 undergraduate elementary education majors. Analysis yielded four discrete dimensions of inclusive education with…
Hillson, David; Murray-Webster, Ruth
... This book highlights how risk attitude factors influence the human psyche, and carefully explains the impacts. Organisations seeking to dramatically improve the effectiveness of their risk management process will want to use this book's insights. Craig Peterson, President, PMI Risk Management SIG This book has prompted me to think more deeply as a change d...
Nutt, Roberta L.; Sedlacek, William E.
At the University of Maryland, 758 randomly selected incoming freshman students were administered an anonymous poll regarding their sexual attitudes and behavior. Results showed that the Maryland freshman generally resembled other U.S. college students in their sexual experience. Approximately half (52% of males, 46% of females) reported that they…
Maurer, A; Oszustowicz, B; Stocki, R
This study examines gender differences in attitudes towards work in Poland and Germany and considers the implications of these findings for counseling. The study opens with a review of the following theories dealing with the relationship between psychological attitude and economic growth: Weber on the Protestant work ethic, Schumpeter on competitiveness, McClelland on achievement motivation, and Wiener on low valuation of business (the status of different occupations as an important factor affecting economic growth). This study, part of a larger research project, involved administering questionnaires to 300 Polish students (150 male) and 306 German students. Data were collected on work ethic, achievement motivation, mastery (a concern for excellence), competitiveness, achievement via conformity, money beliefs, attitude towards saving, and occupational preferences. Results were tabulated for men in each country, for women in each country, and for gender differences in each country. National differences were found in work ethic, achievement motivation, competitiveness, and achievement via conformity with results higher for Poland than Germany (with the exception that women in Poland were less interested in saving money). German men and women preferred the occupations of doctor and social worker, German women preferred being a country landowner and farmer. Polish men preferred being a small business owner and Polish women preferred being a teacher. The men generally had higher scores than the women for most occupations. Consideration of these results in light of the economic achievements of both countries would challenge theories of attitude and economic growth. This discrepancy may be a function of the different political systems in each country at the time of the survey. Counselors, therefore, should be sensitive to national and regional environments as well as to the importance of counseling parents to create a supportive environment to foster appropriate attitudes
Perrea, Toula; Grunert, Klaus G.; Krystallis, Athanasios; Zhou, Yanfeng
Green food is perceived by Chinese consumers as environmentally friendly and safe to consume. Through a hierarchical values-attitudes model, the paper examines the degree to which attitudes towards green food is determined by consumers’ values and their general attitudes towards environment and nature and technological progress. The link between collectivism, attitudes towards environment and nature, and attitudes towards green food is the strongest link of the hierarchical model. However, co...
Bhattacherjee, Anol; Sanford, Clive Carlton
This study introduces the concept of "attitude strength" to explain why some IT users' attitudes are not strongly related to their usage behaviors. We review the attitude strength literature, employ the elaboration likelihood model to theorize personal relevance and related expertise as two salient...... dimensions of attitude strength in the IT usage context, and postulate a research model to capture the moderating effects of these constructs on the attitude-behavior relationship. The hypothesized effects are empirically tested using a longitudinal survey of document management system usage among staff...
Dalege, Jonas; Borsboom, Denny; van Harreveld, Frenk; van der Maas, Han L J
In this article, we provide a brief tutorial on the estimation, analysis, and simulation on attitude networks using the programming language R. We first discuss what a network is and subsequently show how one can estimate a regularized network on typical attitude data. For this, we use open-access data on the attitudes toward Barack Obama during the 2012 American presidential election. Second, we show how one can calculate standard network measures such as community structure, centrality, and connectivity on this estimated attitude network. Third, we show how one can simulate from an estimated attitude network to derive predictions from attitude networks. By this, we highlight that network theory provides a framework for both testing and developing formalized hypotheses on attitudes and related core social psychological constructs.
Jallinoja, P; Hakonen, A; Aro, A R
A survey study was conducted among 1169 people to evaluate attitudes towards genetic testing in Finland. Here we present an analysis of the contradictions detected in people's attitudes towards genetic testing. This analysis focuses on the approval of genetic testing as an individual choice and o...... studies on attitudes towards genetic testing as well as in the health care context, e.g. in genetic counselling.......A survey study was conducted among 1169 people to evaluate attitudes towards genetic testing in Finland. Here we present an analysis of the contradictions detected in people's attitudes towards genetic testing. This analysis focuses on the approval of genetic testing as an individual choice...... and on the confidence in control of the process of genetic testing and its implications. Our analysis indicated that some of the respondents have contradictory attitudes towards genetic testing. It is proposed that contradictory attitudes towards genetic testing should be given greater significance both in scientific...
Saher, Marieke; Lindeman, Marjaana; Hursti, Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto
Finnish students (N=3261) filled out a questionnaire on attitudes towards genetically modified and organic food, plus the rational-experiential inventory, the magical thinking about food and health scale, Schwartz's value survey and the behavioural inhibition scale. In addition, they reported their eating of meat. Structural equation modelling of these measures had greater explanatory power for attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods than for attitudes towards organic foods (OF). GM attitudes were best predicted by natural science education and magical food and health beliefs, which mediated the influence of thinking styles. Positive attitudes towards organic food, on the other hand, were more directly related to such individual differences as thinking styles and set of values. The results of the study indicate that OF attitudes are rooted in more fundamental personal attributes than GM attitudes, which are embedded in a more complex but also in a more modifiable network of characteristics.
Gasco, Margarita; Briñol, Pablo; Horcajo, Javier
Attitude change toward body image: The role of elaboration on attitude strength. Attitudes toward body image have been shown to play a central role in the understanding and treating of eating disorders. In the present research, participants' attitudes toward their body image were changed through a persuasive procedure involving high mental elaboration (self-persuasion) or through a less engaging procedure involving less active participation (passive exposure). As expected, participants in these two groups showed more favourable attitudes toward their bodies than those in the control group. Despite that both treatments were equally efficient in changing attitudes, the strength associated with those attitudes was significantly different depending on the amount of thinking involved in the process of change. Specifically, attitudes were stronger in the high rather than low thinking group of treatment. This finding is important because the strength of the attitude may determine the long-term consequences of an intervention.
Richardson, N J; Macfie, H J; Shepherd, R
This study reports on current meat consumption in the UK and the factors that are percieved by the subjects to be influential in their choice of diet. A random sample of individuals from the population (n-1018) were questioned on their consumption and attitudes towards meat by a postal survey. The study revealed that 28·3% of the population considered themselves to be reducing meat consumption; attitudes found to be determinant in changes in the consumption of meat were healthiness, taste and concerns over additives. Hypothetical future events were found to affect people's estimated meat-eating. Knowledge of meat-related information was investigated with specific reference to the respondents' trust in the various sources used; food package labels were found to be an influential source of meat-related information. Copyright © 1993. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Public attitudes about radioactive waste are changeable. That is the author's conclusion from eight years of social science research which the author has directed on this topic. The fact that public attitudes about radioactive waste are changeable is well-known to the hands-on practitioners who have opportunities to talk with the public and respond to their concerns--practitioners like Ginger King who is sharing the podium with me today. The public's changeability and open-mindedness are frequently overlooked in studies that focus narrowly on fear and dread. Such studies give the impression that the outlook for waste disposal solutions s dismal. The author believes that impression is misleading, and in this paper shares research findings that give a broader perspective
Public attitudes about radioactive waste are changeable. That is my conclusion from eight years of social science research which I have directed on this topic. The fact that public attitudes about radioactive waste are changeable is well-known to the hands-on practitioners who have opportunities to talk with the public and respond to their concerns-practitioners like Ginger King, who is sharing the podium with me today. The public's changeability and open-mindedness are frequently overlooked in studies that focus narrowly on fear and dread. Such studies give the impression that the outlook for waste disposal solutions is dismal. I believe that impression is misleading, and I'd like to share research findings with you today that give a broader perspective
Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Gebreselassie, Hailemichael; Awah, Paschal; Pearson, Erin
Despite Zambia's relatively progressive abortion law, women continue to seek unsafe, illegal abortions. Four domains of abortion attitudes - support for legalization, immorality, rights, and access to services - were measured in 4 communities. A total of 668 people were interviewed. Associations among the 4 domains were inconsistent with expectations. The belief that abortion is immoral was widespread, but was not associated with lack of support for legalization. Instead, it was associated with belief that women need access to safe services. These findings suggest that increasing awareness about abortion law in Zambia may be important for encouraging more favorable attitudes. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The overall aim of this paper is to show the factors that may affect consumers’ attitude towards farmed fish products. Consumers ask new products on the basis of different quality attributes: stability, safety, composition, better health effects, environment protection, etc. Different and controversial opinions on farmed and wild fish are also explored by literature review. The authors pay attention also to fish welfare as an emerging issue and effective information about fish products as a factor exerting a positive influence on consumers’ decision of purchase. Some relevant legislative notes on the paper’s topics are also cited. The qualitative aspects of aquaculture fish and the consumers’ demand and choice need further studies, according to some factors, such as the changing consumers’ attitudes towards fish products, the different fish quality perception and the development in the aquaculture systems.
The purpose of this study is to clarify Japanese attitudes towards foreign languages based on the kinds and changes of TV and radio programs that aired on the Japanese national broadcasting station (NHK) between 1955 and 2000. Foreign language programs are classified into three groups according to their content: 1) cultivation, 2) education, or 3) communication. For Japanese people, foreign languages are the measures of intelligence and intellect. Studying a foreign language is considered a sign of intelligence whether or not it is used for actual communication. The number of foreign language programs has increased tremendously since 1965 in part because the global economy has brought many countries in such close contact. Since 1990, programs for the purpose of communication have increased because of the necessity to communicate with foreign people. Japanese attitudes towards studying foreign languages have been changing gradually from an intellectual purpose to a communication purpose.
Full Text Available https://doaj.org/puChild's developmental retardation is an undoubted condition for the absence of educational attainment and its unpleasant mental state. Due to the nature of multidimensional state of that, parental attitudes become relevant, as they affect the acceleration or retardation of development. Positive parental attitudes are the strong weapon for the child and his struggles on the way to an equal start and equal development opportunities. For this reason you should emphasize those factors that build the structures supporting developmental progression.An ecosystem approach to human development emphasizes each factor as relevant component for growth and expansion, without denying its own human activity and his self-determination rightblisher/metadata
Among the many effects of the accident at Three Mile Island are impacts upon other communities that currently host nuclear-power reactors. Because studies on communities' reactions not immediately available, this chapter reviews existing studies and speculates about possible effects. The patterns and variations in impacts on and responses of nuclear host communities have been the subject of studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Oak Ridge, Tennessee) since 1972. This essay presents results from four post-licensing studies of host communities - Plymouth, Massachusetts, and Waterford, Connecticut (PL-1), and Brunswick, North Carolina, and Appling-Toombs counties, Georgia (PL-2) - along with case study and attitude survey information from two additional communities in which reactors are under construction: Hartsville, Tennessee, and Cherokee County, South Carolina. Differences and similarities between the sites have been assessed in terms of differences in input and social structure; factors affecting the generally favorable attitudes toward local nuclear plants are discussed
Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo
search algorithms and structural equation models. The results suggest that evaluative judgments of the importance of production system attributes are generated in a schematic manner, driven by personal value orientations. The effect of personal value orientations was strong and largely unmediated...... that evaluative affect propagates through the system in such a way that the system becomes evaluatively consistent and operates as a schema for the generation of evaluative judgments. In the empirical part of the paper, the causal structure of an attitude system from which people derive their evaluations of pork......Existing research on public attitudes towards agricultural production systems is largely descriptive, abstracting from the processes through which members of the general public generate their evaluations of such systems. The present paper adopts a systems perspective on such evaluations...
good application for what we call artificial intellignece . FH: Absolutely. It’s scary, you know when you talk this kind of stuff to XLPA, you really...alcohol or other drugs which artificially increase self- confidence with our concomitant improvement in sensory or motor abilities. Our ability to analyze...6 the gyro horizon, artificial horizon, or attitude pyre) was: introduced, it greatly reduced the amount of work required to spatially orient
employees --is predicted For the iSSOs. Second, movement toward greater tr-.:hnological Job content has led to greater training and development...air, water, etc., (2) Safety needs, such as freedom from harm, (3) Social needs, such as love, belongingness , (4) Esteem needs, need For mastery and... Employee attitudes and employee performance. Psucholooical Dachler, H. P., & Schneider, E. (1978). Some general con- siderations about Factors
G. G. Rousseau
Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to measure consumer attitudes towards gambling amongst various sociodemographic groups in Port Elizabeth. The study was based on past research and used a modified version of a questionnaire developed by various authors. The sample (N=355 was drawn, using a non-probability sampling technique from English, Afrikaans and Xhosa speaking respondents in the Port Elizabeth Uitenhage area. Fieldwork was carried out by students of Industrial Psychology at the University of Port Elizabeth. Results showed significant differences between socio-demographic groups regarding attitudes towards gambling. Cultural influences deduced from home language and religion seems to influence gambling attitudes in particular. These results have important implications for the gaming industry and welfare organisations. Opsomming Die hoof doelstelling van hierdie studie was om verbruikerhoudings ten opsigte van dobbel onder verskeie sosiodemografiese groepe in Port Elizabeth te ondersoek. Die studie is gegrond op vorige navorsing in die veld en maak gebruik van n aangepaste vraelys, ontwikkel deur verskeie outeurs. ‘n Nie-ewekansige steekproef (N=355 is getrek uit Engels, Afrikaans en Xhosa-sprekende respondente in die Port Elizabeth Uitenhage gebied. Veldwerk is uitgevoer deur Bedryfsielkunde studente van die Universiteit van Port Elizabeth. Bevindinge toon beduidende verskille tussen sosio-demografiese groepe ten opsigte van houdings oor dobbel. Kultuurinvloede afgelei uit taal en godsdiens blyk om dobbelhoudings te beinvloed. Die resultate het belangrike implikasies vir die dobbelspelbedryf en welsynsorganisasies.
Jordanova, Malina; Vasileva, Lidia; Rasheva, Maximka; Bojinova, Rumiana
Securing psychological supervision, consultations and help during long lasting flights is vital condition for success. That's why, knowing in details consumers (clients) attitude toward virtual psychology services is essential. Knowledge gained during nowadays studies on Earth will definitely help in the preparation for the future. The presentation focuses on results of a longitudinal survey assessing clients' attitudes toward e-psychology service. The first part of the survey was performed in spring 2006, while the second - in 2008. The study is part of an ongoing project OHN 1514/2005, funded by National Science Fund, Bulgaria. Project's strategic goal is to develop and offer a virtual high quality psychological service to people from remotes areas that have no contact with licensed psychologist. The project enables experts to communicate directly with clients and perform remote consultations, supervision, etc. The objective of this presentation is to report changes and trends in clients' attitude towards innovative virtual psychology care. Both parts of the survey involved men and women between 19 and 70 year, who defend various opinions on the application of virtual technologies for healthcare. The sample is stratifies for age, gender, education level.
Full Text Available Christopher Taylor1, Nelson Barber2, Cynthia Deale31School of Business, Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, Roosevelt County, NM, USA; 2Whittemore School of Business, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA; 3Department of Hospitality Management, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC , USAAbstract: Wine tourism marketers frequently seek new ways to promote destinations, often executing ecologically sustainable practices. As consumer environmental knowledge of a wine tourism destination increases, consumer attitudes change, influencing perceptions of the environmental policies of a wine region. In this consumer-driven economy, it is therefore important to search for effective ways to market destinations, and one approach is selective marketing. By focusing on consumers in this manner, it is possible to understand better their concerns and motivations, which should aid in marketing and advertising efforts. This study investigated wine consumers environmental concerns and attitudes about wine regions. Results suggest environmental attitudes differed by demographics regarding the impact of wine tourism, providing ideas on further marketing efforts for those involved in wine tourism.Keywords: sustainable wine tourism, green products, wine marketing, consumers
van Giesen, Roxanne I.
At large attitudes are built on earlier experience with the attitude object. If earlier experiences are not available, as is the case for unfamiliar attitude objects such as new technologies, no stored evaluations exist. Yet, people are still somehow able to construct attitudes on the spot. Depending on the familiarity of the attitude object, attitudes may find their basis more in affect or cognition. The current paper investigates differences in reliance on affect or cognition in attitude formation toward familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects. In addition, individual differences in reliance on affect (high faith in intuition) or cognition (high need for cognition) are taken into account. In an experimental survey among Dutch consumers (N = 1870), we show that, for unfamiliar realistic attitude objects, people rely more on affect than cognition. For familiar attitude objects where both affective and cognitive evaluations are available, high need for cognition leads to more reliance on cognition, and high faith in intuition leads to more reliance on affect, reflecting the influence of individually preferred thinking style. For people with high need for cognition, cognition has a higher influence on overall attitude for both familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects. On the other hand, affect is important for people with high faith in intuition for both familiar and unfamiliar attitude objects and for people with low faith in intuition for unfamiliar attitude objects; this shows that preferred thinking style is less influential for unfamiliar objects. By comparing attitude formation for familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects, this research contributes to understanding situations in which affect or cognition is the better predictor of overall attitudes. PMID:26517876
van Giesen, Roxanne I; Fischer, Arnout R H; van Dijk, Heleen; van Trijp, Hans C M
At large attitudes are built on earlier experience with the attitude object. If earlier experiences are not available, as is the case for unfamiliar attitude objects such as new technologies, no stored evaluations exist. Yet, people are still somehow able to construct attitudes on the spot. Depending on the familiarity of the attitude object, attitudes may find their basis more in affect or cognition. The current paper investigates differences in reliance on affect or cognition in attitude formation toward familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects. In addition, individual differences in reliance on affect (high faith in intuition) or cognition (high need for cognition) are taken into account. In an experimental survey among Dutch consumers (N = 1870), we show that, for unfamiliar realistic attitude objects, people rely more on affect than cognition. For familiar attitude objects where both affective and cognitive evaluations are available, high need for cognition leads to more reliance on cognition, and high faith in intuition leads to more reliance on affect, reflecting the influence of individually preferred thinking style. For people with high need for cognition, cognition has a higher influence on overall attitude for both familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects. On the other hand, affect is important for people with high faith in intuition for both familiar and unfamiliar attitude objects and for people with low faith in intuition for unfamiliar attitude objects; this shows that preferred thinking style is less influential for unfamiliar objects. By comparing attitude formation for familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects, this research contributes to understanding situations in which affect or cognition is the better predictor of overall attitudes.
Schleicher, Deidra J; Smith, Troy A; Casper, Wendy J; Watt, John D; Greguras, Gary J
Integrating attitude theory with the job attitudes literature, we position job attitude strength (JAS) as a missing yet important theoretical concept in the study of job attitudes. We examine JAS as a moderator of the relationship between job satisfaction and several criteria of interest to organizational scholars (job performance, organizational citizenship behavior, withdrawal). We also examine multiple relevant indicators of JAS (i.e., attitude certainty, attitude extremity, latitude of rejection, and structural consistency), both to shed light on its conceptual nature and to provide meaningful practical direction to researchers interested in incorporating JAS into job attitude research. Data were collected in five field samples (total N = 816). Results support our hypotheses: JAS moderates the relationships between job satisfaction and performance, organizational citizenship behavior, and turnover intentions; in each case, these relationships are significantly stronger for employees with stronger job satisfaction attitudes. However, as expected, not all JAS indicators are equally effective as moderators. We discuss our findings in terms of their theoretical, empirical, and practical implications for the future study of job attitudes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Paielli, Russell A.; Bach, Ralph E.
An approach to attitude control theory is introduced in which a linear form is postulated for the closed-loop rotation error dynamics, then the exact control law required to realize it is derived. The nonminimal (four-component) quaternion form is used to attitude because it is globally nonsingular, but the minimal (three-component) quaternion form is used for attitude error because it has no nonlinear constraints to prevent the rotational error dynamics from being linearized, and the definition of the attitude error is based on quaternion algebra. This approach produces an attitude control law that linearizes the closed-loop rotational error dynamics exactly, without any attitude singularities, even if the control errors become large.
Lyons, D. T.
Polynomial functions of time are used to specify the components of the quaternion which represents the nominal attitude of the Venus Radar mapper spacecraft during mapping. The following constraints must be satisfied in order to obtain acceptable synthetic array radar data: the nominal attitude function must have a large dynamic range, the sensor orientation must be known very accurately, the attitude reference function must use as little memory as possible, and the spacecraft must operate autonomously. Fitting polynomials to the components of the desired quaternion function is a straightforward method for providing a very dynamic nominal attitude using a minimum amount of on-board computer resources. Although the attitude from the polynomials may not be exactly the one requested by the radar designers, the polynomial coefficients are known, so they do not contribute to the attitude uncertainty. Frequent coefficient updates are not required, so the spacecraft can operate autonomously.
Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to contribute to the field of diversity studies with novel insights on how language diversity and communication frequency influence dissimilarity attitudes. Design/methodology/approach – The authors examine language diversity and communication frequency...... attitudes, namely openness to linguistic, visible and informational diversity. Contradicting our predictions, language diversity had positive associations with all variables portraying positive dissimilarity attitudes. The implications of these findings are discussed in detail. Originality/value – Few prior...
David Dillenberger; Kareen Rozen
We propose a model of history-dependent risk attitude, allowing a decision maker’s risk attitude to be affected by his history of disappointments and elations. The decision maker recursively evaluates compound risks, classifying realizations as disappointing or elating using a threshold rule. We establish equivalence between the model and two cognitive biases: risk attitudes are reinforced by experiences (one is more risk averse after disappointment than after elation) and there is a primacy ...
van der Pligt, J.; van Schie, E.C.M.; Martijn, C.
Tested the hypotheses that evaluatively biased language influences attitudes and that the magnitude and persistence of attitude change depends on the amount of cognitive effort. 132 undergraduates participated in the experiment, which used material focusing on the issue of restricting adolescent driving over the weekends to reduce the number of fatal traffic accidents. Results indicate that evaluatively biased language can affect attitudes. Using words that evaluate the pro-position positivel...
Matharu, Kabir; Kravitz, Richard L; McMahon, Graham T; Wilson, Machelle D; Fitzgerald, Faith T
Abstract Background Healthcare providers’ attitudes toward sexual minorities influence patient comfort and outcomes. This study characterized medical student attitudes toward gay men, focusing on behavior, personhood, gay civil rights, and male toughness. Methods A cross-sectional web-based anonymous survey was sent to medical students enrolled at the University of California, Davis (N = 371) with a response rate of 68%. Results Few respondents expressed negative attitudes toward gay men or w...
Mah Zhi Jian
Full Text Available This research investigates the attitude of 60 primary and secondary school teachers towards English in Batu Anam. A questionnaire was administered to find out whether they have a positive or a negative attitude towards the English language. Results indicate that teachers in Batu Anam generally have a positive attitude towards English. Comparison between male and female teachers, optionist and non-optionist teachers and teachers from different types of schools are also analyzed.
Kluge, Annette; Krings, Franciska
This study investigated attitudes towards older employees, perceived age discrimination, and HR practices (personnel development and reward) in 240 employees. Attitudes toward older employees were largely positive, thus supporting the notion that attitudes toward older employees are becoming increasingly positive. Older employees' attitudes towards older employees were more positive, but younger employees' attitudes were still favorable. Moreover, older and younger employees reported benefiti...
Ladenburg, Jacob; Möller, B.
farms attributes on attitude towards offshore wind farms. The results point towards that the travel time and the attributes of the nearest offshore wind farm influence the attitude significantly. Travel time has mixed effects on the attitude, whilst offshore wind farms with many turbines generate more...... a novel contribution to this field. First of all, we give a thorough review of the studies that have analysed the relation between experience with wind turbines and attitude. In addition, we supplement the review by analysing the effect of travel distance to the nearest offshore wind farm and the wind...
Søndergaard, Helle Alsted; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim
The use of enzymes in food production has potential benefits for both food manufacturers and consumers. A central question is how consumers react to new ways of producing foods with enzymes. This study investigates the formation of consumer attitudes to different enzyme production methods in three...... European countries. Results show that consumers are most positive towards non-GM enzyme production methods. The enzyme production method is by far the most important factor for the formation of buying intentions compared to price and benefits. Results also show that environmental concern and attitudes...... to technological progress are the socio-political attitudes that have the highest predictive value regarding attitudes to enzyme production methods....
Shely Mary Koshy
Full Text Available The present study was conducted to measure the attitude of farmers in Kerala, India towards Kisan Call Centre (KCC. Kisan Call Centre provides free agricultural advisory services to every citizen involved in agriculture through a toll free number. One hundred and fifty farmers who have utilized the Kisan Call Centre service were selected from the database of KCC. The results showed that the respondents had moderately favourable attitude towards KCC followed by highly favourable attitude. The variables digital divide, temporal awareness on KCC, satisfaction towards KCC and utilization of KCC were found to have a positive correlation with the attitude of respondents towards KCC.
Keywords: Consumer Education, Attitude, Home Economics, Secondary. School Students. ... Home Management taught at Senior Secondary School level. Today ..... indicate that facilities for teaching Consumer Education especially textbooks.
Izuma, Keise; Shibata, Kazuhisa; Matsumoto, Kenji; Adolphs, Ralph
Our attitudes toward others influence a wide range of everyday behaviors and have been the most extensively studied concept in the history of social psychology. Yet they remain difficult to measure reliably and objectively, since both explicit and implicit measures are typically confounded by other psychological processes. We here address the feasibility of decoding incidental attitudes based on brain activations. Participants were presented with pictures of members of a Japanese idol group inside an functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner while performing an unrelated detection task, and subsequently (outside the scanner) performed an incentive-compatible choice task that revealed their attitude toward each celebrity. We used a real-world election scheme that exists for this idol group, which confirmed both strongly negative and strongly positive attitudes toward specific individuals. Whole-brain multivariate analyses (searchlight-based support vector regression) showed that activation patterns in the anterior striatum predicted each participant's revealed attitudes (choice behavior) using leave-one-out (as well as 4-fold) cross-validation across participants. In contrast, attitude extremity (unsigned magnitude) could be decoded from a distinct region in the posterior striatum. The findings demonstrate dissociable striatal representations of valenced attitude and attitude extremity and constitute a first step toward an objective and process-pure neural measure of attitudes. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Román, E M; Sorribes, E; Ezquerro, O
The care of terminally ill patients is a challenge for nurses that has raised special interest in recent years. Several studies have shown a stereotyped negative attitude in nurses towards terminally ill patients. However, all have used methods with several limitations. The aim of the study presented in this paper was to identify the nurses' attitude to the terminally ill patient in Catalonia, Spain, and the relationship of this attitude to different socio-demographic data (type of centre, shift, years of experience, age and sex) by means of a new quantitative method based on the free word-association test. One hundred and seventy-five nurses working in 18 hospitals and hospices in Catalonia, Spain were included in the study. Data were analysed by the Associative Semantic Field Differential method by means of the computer programme CONTEXT and a quantitative evaluation of the degree of attitudes positivity was obtained. The study revealed a general slight negative trend in attitudes towards the terminally ill patient. A more positive attitude was observed in older caregivers and in women. The positivity in attitude decreased from morning to night shift. No differences were observed between nurses working in hospitals and those working in hospices. We conclude that nursing attitudes can be analysed by methods such as that used in this study. Attempts can be made to modify this attitude in caregivers by means of training programmes and stimulating awareness of an adequate professional approach.
Full Text Available Despite evidences of the media?s infl uence on shaping the attitudes of the Spanish population towards the immigrant community, survey indicators have seldom been designed to explain the relationship between media coverage of immigrants and the attitudes of native towards this phenomenon. Using a sample of students, we examined the validity of different types of indicators used to measure the frequency of media consumption, the recall of news regarding immigration and the degree of media credibility in order to explain racist and xenophobic attitudes. Results reveal a clear association between the news media and native group attitudes towards immigration, thus demonstrating the usefulness of these indicators.
Al-Fayez, Ghenaim; Awadalla, Abdelwahid; Arikawa, Hiroko; Templer, Donald I; Hutton, Shane
The purpose of the present study was to determine the family resemblance of attitude toward body elimination in Kuwaiti participants. This study was conceptualized in the context of the theories of moral development, importance of cleanliness in the Muslim religion, cross-cultural differences in personal hygiene practices, previous research reporting an association between family attitudes and body elimination attitude, and health implications. The 24-item Likert-type format Body Elimination Attitude Scale-Revised was administered to 277 Kuwaiti high school students and 437 of their parents. Females scored higher, indicating greater disgust, than the males. Moreover, sons' body elimination attitude correlated more strongly with fathers' attitude (r = .85) than with that of the mothers (r = .64). Daughters' attitude was similarly associated with the fathers' (r = .89) and the mothers' attitude (r = .86). The high correlations were discussed within the context of Kuwait having a collectivistic culture with authoritarian parenting style. The higher adolescent correlations, and in particular the boys' correlation with fathers than with mothers, was explained in terms of the more dominant role of the Muslim father in the family. Public health and future research implications were suggested. A theoretical formulation was advanced in which "ideal" body elimination attitude is relative rather than absolute, and is a function of one's life circumstances, one's occupation, one's culture and subculture, and the society that one lives in.
Cochran, J. E., Jr.; Lahr, B. S.
The problems of categorizing and modeling the attitude dynamics of uncontrolled artificial earth satellites which may be targets in recovery attempts are addressed. Methods of classification presented are based on satellite rotational kinetic energy, rotational angular momentum and orbit and on the type of control present prior to the benign failure of the control system. The use of approximate analytical solutions and 'exact' numerical solutions to the equations governing satellite attitude motions to predict uncontrolled attitude motion is considered. Analytical and numerical results are presented for the evolution of satellite attitude motions after active control termination.
Hünük, Deniz; Demirhan, Giyasettin
1,163 middle school students (586 girls, 577 boys; Grades 6-8) were selected through a stratified random sampling method to examine their attitudes toward physical education (PE) by grade, student's sex, sports participation characteristics, and teacher's sex. They were administered the Attitude Toward Physical Education Scale for Children. Factorial analysis of variance indicated that Grade 8 students' mean attitude scores were less positive than those of Grade 6 students, but the attitudes of boys and of sports participants were more positive than of girls and nonsports participants. Findings were similar regardless of the teacher's sex.
Full Text Available The primary aim of this study was to determine the democratic attitudes of the classroomteachers. This study is a descriptive research. In this research, democratic attitude scala which was developed by“published for the attitude research labaratory” and adapted to Turkish educational system by Gözütok (1995 wasused. Research group consisted fifty teachers from four private primary schools in Ankara. The data were analyzed byone way ANOVA. According of the results of the research, democratic attitudes of teachers have been discriminated onteachers’ sexuality, seniority and graduate level
Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Blackmore, James C.
An attitude estimation was examined in fractioned free-flying spacecraft. Instead of a single, monolithic spacecraft, a fractionated free-flying spacecraft uses multiple spacecraft modules. These modules are connected only through wireless communication links and, potentially, wireless power links. The key advantage of this concept is the ability to respond to uncertainty. For example, if a single spacecraft module in the cluster fails, a new one can be launched at a lower cost and risk than would be incurred with onorbit servicing or replacement of the monolithic spacecraft. In order to create such a system, however, it is essential to know what the navigation capabilities of the fractionated system are as a function of the capabilities of the individual modules, and to have an algorithm that can perform estimation of the attitudes and relative positions of the modules with fractionated sensing capabilities. Looking specifically at fractionated attitude estimation with startrackers and optical relative attitude sensors, a set of mathematical tools has been developed that specify the set of sensors necessary to ensure that the attitude of the entire cluster ( cluster attitude ) can be observed. Also developed was a navigation filter that can estimate the cluster attitude if these conditions are satisfied. Each module in the cluster may have either a startracker, a relative attitude sensor, or both. An extended Kalman filter can be used to estimate the attitude of all modules. A range of estimation performances can be achieved depending on the sensors used and the topology of the sensing network.
Binngießer, Janine; Randler, Christoph
The relevance of environmental attitudes is obvious and attitudes towards farm and companion animals and animal welfare in medical research are an important aspect of education. However, both have rarely been linked with each other, and animal attitudes are only sparsely represented within environmental education assessment instruments. Linking…
A. Smidts (Ale)
textabstractIn a field study, the concept of intrinsic, risk attitude is investigated. Intrinsic risk attitude concerns the relationship between risk attitude, measured by the utility function u(x), and strength of preference, measured by the value function v(x). We study farmers' decision-making
Analyzed data from research on Japanese high school students' attitudes toward learning English to investigate female students' more positive attitudes toward English learning. Girls' attitudes toward English were affected by a composite of Japanese social and educational elements (e.g., characterization of English as a woman-dominant choice at…
van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra I.; van der Molen, Juliette H. Walma
This article provides a description of a novel, attitude-focused, professional development intervention, and presents the results of an experimental pretest-posttest control group study investigating the effects of this intervention on primary teachers' personal attitudes toward science, attitudes toward teaching science, and their science…
van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra; Walma van der Molen, Julie Henriëtte
This article provides a description of a novel, attitude-focused, professional development intervention, and presents the results of an experimental pretest-posttest control group study investigating the effects of this intervention on primary teachers’ personal attitudes toward science, attitudes
Avan, Cagri; Aydinli, Bahattin; Bakar, Fatma; Alboga, Yunus
The aim of this study is to introduce an attitude scale in order to define students? attitudes about environment, recycling, plastics, plastic waste. In this study, 80 attitude sentences according to 5-point Likert-type scale were prepared and applied to 492 students of 6th grade in the Kastamonu city center of Turkey. The scale consists of…
Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Riis, Troels
, in space, multiple autonomous processes intended for spacecraft applications such as autonomous star identification, attitude determination and identification and tracking of non-stellar objects, imaging and real-time compression of image and science data for further ground analysis. AVS successfully...... determined the attitude and attitude dynamics of TeamSat....
Davies, J.E.O.; Dobson, J.K.; Baril, R.G.
A national assessment was made of public attitudes towards nuclear power, along with regional studies of the Maritimes and mid-western Canada and a study of Canadian policy-makers' views on nuclear energy. Public levels of knowledge about nuclear power are very low and there are marked regional differences. Opposition centers on questions of safety and is hard to mollify due to irrational fear and low institutional credibility. Canadians rate inflation as a higher priority problem than energy and see energy shortages as a future problem (within 5 years) and energy independence as a high priority policy. (E.C.B.)
M Tsui, Katherine; Desai, Munjal; A. Yanco, Holly; Cramer, Henriette; Kemper, Nicander
Studies using Nomura et al.’s “Negative Attitude toward Robots Scale” (NARS)  as an attitudinal measure have featured robots that were perceived to be autonomous, indepen- dent agents. State of the art telepresence robots require an explicit human-in-the-loop to drive the robot around. In this paper, we investigate if NARS can be used with telepresence robots. To this end, we conducted three studies in which people watched videos of telepresence robots (n=70), operated te...
Ryffel, F.A.; Wirz, D.S.; Kühne, R.; Wirth, W.
This study examined the influence of an emotionally arousing writing style on attitude formation and change. It has been proposed that different writing styles induce attitudes based on either affect or cognition and with either high or low certainty. Previous work indicates that the interplay of
Aug 18, 2011 ... Keywords: knowledge, attitudes, perceptions, interdisciplinary team, dietitian role. The knowledge, attitudes ... other professionals' roles in the team, as well as their perceptions and attitudes ..... leader of the team. This may ...
Otway, H J [International Atomic Energy Agency, Joint IAEA/IIASA Research Project, Vienna (Austria)
An earlier article (Bulletin Vol. 17, no. 4, August 1975) outlined the research programme of the Joint IAEA/IIASA Research Project on risk assessment and presented some preliminary results. This project is co-sponsored by the IAEA and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, located at Laxenburg, near Vienna. Additional support is received from IAEA Member States who have indicated their interest in this research by seconding scientists, at no cost to the Agency, to work with the group for periods of one year or more. Secondments have been completed by scientists from the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, United Kingdom, United States of America and Sweden. Additional secondments, or notice of intent, have now been received from France, Netherlands, Norway and South Africa. The research on risk assessment is oriented toward understanding how societies judge the acceptability of new technologies and how information on risks, and the expected responses to them, may be used in decision making. This article will briefly review one specific research area, that of attitude formation, and will illustrate how established models and techniques may be applied in order to gain insight into the relative importance of the specific technological, psychological and social factors which determine attitudes toward nuclear power.
van der Pligt, J; Eiser, J R; Spears, R
The last decade has seen a marked increase in public concern about nuclear energy. As a consequence, it is now recognized that the future of nuclear energy will not only depend on technical and economic factors, but that public acceptability of this technology will play a crucial role in its long-term future. This paper summarizes trends in public reactions to nuclear power in various countries and discusses a number of studies on public beliefs and attitudes to nuclear power in general, and to the building of a nuclear power plant near to one's home. It is concluded that the qualitative aspects of the possible risks of nuclear energy play an important role in the public's perception of this technology. It is also clear, however, that differences in perception of the risks do not embrace all the relevant aspects of the public's assessment of nuclear energy. Public reaction is also related to more-general beliefs and values, such as emphasis on economic versus social priorities, attitudes to technology and environmental concern. 11 references.
An earlier article (Bulletin Vol. 17, no. 4, August 1975) outlined the research programme of the Joint IAEA/IIASA Research Project on risk assessment and presented some preliminary results. This project is co-sponsored by the IAEA and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, located at Laxenburg, near Vienna. Additional support is received from IAEA Member States who have indicated their interest in this research by seconding scientists, at no cost to the Agency, to work with the group for periods of one year or more. Secondments have been completed by scientists from the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, United Kingdom, United States of America and Sweden. Additional secondments, or notice of intent, have now been received from France, Netherlands, Norway and South Africa. The research on risk assessment is oriented toward understanding how societies judge the acceptability of new technologies and how information on risks, and the expected responses to them, may be used in decision making. This article will briefly review one specific research area, that of attitude formation, and will illustrate how established models and techniques may be applied in order to gain insight into the relative importance of the specific technological, psychological and social factors which determine attitudes toward nuclear power
This report presents the results of a survey on Europeans' attitudes towards climate change which was carried out in January and February 2009. The survey focuses on: Citizens' perceptions of climate change in relation to other world problems; Citizens' perceptions of the seriousness of climate change; The extent to which citizens feel informed about climate change - its causes, consequences and ways of fighting it; Citizens' attitudes towards alternative fuels and CO2 emissions; Whether citizens feel that climate change is stoppable or has been exaggerated, and what impact it has on the European economy; Whether citizens have taken personal action to fight climate change. This Eurobarometer survey was carried out by TNS Opinion and Social network between 16 January and 22 February 2009. The interviews were conducted among 26,718 citizens in the 27 Member States of the European Union, the three candidate countries for accession to the European Union (Croatia, Turkey and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia) and in the Turkish Cypriot Community.
Wang, Yunlong; Soltani, Mohsen; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar
In this paper, a nonlinear attitude estimator is designed for an Attitude Heading and Reference System (AHRS) based on Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) sensors. The design process of the attitude estimator is stated with detail, and the equilibrium point of the estimator error model...... the problems in previous research works. Moreover, the estimation of MEMS gyroscope bias is also inclueded in this estimator. The designed nonlinear attitude estimator is firstly tested in simulation environment and then implemented in an AHRS hardware for further experiments. Finally, the attitude estimation...
Attitudes towards language learning is paramount important. Learners with positive attitudes, who experience success, will have these attitudes reinforced. In contrast, learners??? negative attitudes may be strengthened by lack of success. Attitudes are learnt, not inherited or generally endowed (Baker, 1988, in Ellis, 2003: 198 - 199). Two research questions are raised in this study. 1. How are the attitudes of freshmen of English department towards learning English, and 2. How are thei...
Estrada, M.; Moliner, M. A.; Sanchez, J.
In this study we will analyze the attitude of older adults to advertisements, differentiating between advertisements that contain rhetorical figures (trope ads) and those that do not (explicit ads). We will also study their attitude toward the brand advertised according to their degree of involvement with the product. In the course of the…
Vendsborg, Per; Bratbo, Johanne; Dannevang, Anders
Stigmatizing attitudes have been reported in international studies among staff in psychiatry. The authors wanted to investigate if this was the case in Denmark.......Stigmatizing attitudes have been reported in international studies among staff in psychiatry. The authors wanted to investigate if this was the case in Denmark....
Heubach, Philip Gilbert
This Questionnaire, consisting of 74 yes/no, multiple choice, and completion items, is designed to assess smoking practices and attitudes toward smoking in high school students. Questions pertain to personal data, family smoking practices and attitudes, personal smoking habits, reasons for smoking or not smoking, and opinions on smoking. Detailed…
Amato, Solange Amorim
The research results presented in this paper were part of an action research performed with the aims of improving primary school student teachers (STs)' understanding of, and attitudes to, mathematics. The teaching strategies used to help STs' improve their understanding and attitudes were similar to the ones suggested for their future use in…
Fabrigar, Leandre R.; Krosnick, Jon A.
Explores the possibility that importance may regulate the magnitude of the false consensus effect. Analysis revealed a strong false consensus effect but no reliable relation between its magnitude and attitude importance. Results contradict assumptions that the false consensus effect arises from attitudes that directly or indirectly influence…
The aim of this research was to explore the relationship among students' attitudes toward programming, gender and academic achievement in programming. The scale used for measuring students' attitudes toward programming was developed by the researcher and consisted of 35 five-point Likert type items in four subscales. The scale was administered to…
This paper provides a comprehensive review of attitude research in physical education. The first section reviews theoretical models that are prevalent in attitude research. Then, the next section describes the methods that were used to locate the research used in the remainder of the paper. The third section discusses measurement issues in…
Al Otaibi, Khaled Nahes
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the attitude towards the use of the Internet and its cognitive, emotional and behavioral components. To achieve the objective of the study, the researcher used the scale of the attitude towards the Internet of a random sample of students (n = 216) at Teachers College at…
Exploring knowledge, perceptions and attitudes about generic medicines among final-year health science students. ... had knowledge deficits about the safety, quality and efficacy of generic medicines. The dissemination of information about generic medicines may strengthen future knowledge, attitudes and perceptions.
Harvie, E.; Chu, D.; Woodard, M.
Propagating attitude by integrating Euler's equation for rigid body motion has long been suggested for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) but until now has not been implemented. Because of limited Sun visibility, propagation is necessary for yaw determination. With the deterioration of the gyros, dynamic propagation has become more attractive. Angular rates are derived from integrating Euler's equation with a stepsize of 1 second, using torques computed from telemetered control system data. The environmental torque model was quite basic. It included gravity gradient and unshadowed aerodynamic torques. Knowledge of control torques is critical to the accuracy of dynamic modeling. Due to their coarseness and sparsity, control actuator telemetry were smoothed before integration. The dynamic model was incorporated into existing ERBS attitude determination software. Modeled rates were then used for attitude propagation in the standard ERBS fine-attitude algorithm. In spite of the simplicity of the approach, the dynamically propagated attitude matched the attitude propagated with good gyros well for roll and yaw but diverged up to 3 degrees for pitch because of the very low resolution in pitch momentum wheel telemetry. When control anomalies significantly perturb the nominal attitude, the effect of telemetry granularity is reduced and the dynamically propagated attitudes are accurate on all three axes.
Vander Kolk, Charles J.; Bright, Bobra C.
Attitudes of tenth graders were more positive after receiving information about and exposure to albinism, an inherited condition affecting skin and hair color as well as visual functioning. Attitude difficulties are compounded by poor self-concept and racial factors. Albinic persons frequently know very little about the condition. (CL)
Bulsing, Patricia J; Smeets, Monique A M; van den Hout, Marcel A
Associations between certain odors and for instance health effects may lead to positive or negative attitudes toward these odors. However, in experiments we conducted using the Implicit Association Test (IAT), we encountered attitudes even to odor "words." The IAT is based on the principle that reaction times measuring the association between words from a target dimension (in this case, odor vs. a neutral reference category) and an attribute dimension (i.e., positive or negative words) reflect the attitude to the target, where attitude-congruent associations between target and attribute are reflected by shorter reaction times. In a first experiment, we found distinctly positive attitudes to the concept odor in a student sample, which was replicated in a second experiment. In the main experiment, subjects in the aromatherapy group, who prefer using scented consumer products for relaxation purposes, showed a significantly more positive attitude toward odor words in the IAT than a control group, who did not have such a preference. The fact that results from the implicit test were not always associated with explicitly stated attitudes toward the odor words attests to the fact that the IAT measures the attitude of interest in a different way. As such, the IAT has added value in circumstances where explicit tests can be biased.
Prestia, Mindy; Murphy, Susan; Yoder, Marian
In an effort to address the home care nursing shortage, this pilot study was designed to measure nursing students' attitudes toward home health nursing and to test the Home Health Attitude Questionnaire developed specifically for this study based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Senior undergraduate nursing students and registered nursing to bachelor of science in nursing students completed the questionnaire.
Department of Psychiatry, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, PMB12003, ... attitudes among undergraduate students of two higher institutions in Lagos, Nigeria. .... as a profile of the eating attitudes of the sub-scale scores ..... lar studies conducted in Iran, Brazil and Canada where ..... Educational Research and Evaluation.
van der Pligt, J.; Eiser, J.R.; Spears, R.
Examined the effects of a TV documentary about the safety of the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant in the Northwest of England on public attitudes. In a study of 805 respondents (average age 47.8 yrs) to questionnaires from 4 districts in the Southwest of England, the attitudes and beliefs of
Li, Fengjuan; Chen, Junjun; Baker, Miles
While there have been many studies into students' attitudes toward Physical Education at the school level, far fewer studies have been conducted at the university level, especially in China. This study explored 949 students' attitudes toward their university Physical Education experiences in four Chinese universities. An intercorrelated model of…
Berryman, Joan D.
A survey of 377 adults at a small city shopping mall showed positive attitudes toward mainstreaming of handicapped students with normal potential for learning, and less favorable attitudes toward students exhibiting disruptive behavior. Subjects showed attitudinal differences based on their race, age, and child in school, but not their gender.…
Fisher, Ronald J.
Contemporary social psychology takes a simplistic approach to the conceptualization and measurement of intergroup attitudes. Most definitions involve only the affective component of attitudes, and most measurement devices are restricted self-report, paper and pencil questionnaires. A broader and more flexible approach is required to adequately…
the knowledge, attitude and practice of mothers regarding febrile seizures in Tripoli, Libya. ... aim of the audit is to assess the attitude and knowledge of parents of children with .... The following exclusion criteria were used: child who has fever due CNS ... department after giving prior first aid-a similar results was reported.
The major ASRH problems mentioned were teenage pregnancy and HIV/AIDS. The results indicated a number of challenges confronting ASRH promotion including resistance from parents, attitudes of adolescents, communication gap between adults and adolescents and attitudes of health care providers. Among health ...
Consumers' trust of the Internet banking system emerged as the strongest predicator of their attitude, while demographic variables were found to be weak and poor predictors of customers' attitude. Moreover, the results indicated that, even though customers are sceptical of the Internet banking system, they intend to start ...
This paper reports on an investigation into students' attitudes to and motivations for reading. These socio-affective factors relating to students' reading abilities have been largely ignored in L1 and L2 reading research, especially in L2 contexts. Yet, L2 students tend to display differing motivations and attitudes for L2 reading ...
Shin, Euikyung E.; Milson, Andrew J.; Smith, Thomas J.
The spatial thinking skills and attitudes of geography majors were compared with those of future teachers majoring in elementary education and secondary social studies education. Scores were obtained for each group on two measures: the spatial skills test and the attitude toward spatial thinking inventory. Mean differences were examined based on…
We aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of prophylaxis in venous thromboembolism among medical doctors in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital,. Sokoto, North-West Nigeria. Methodology: The knowledge, attitude and practice of VTE prophylaxis among medical doctors was assessed using ...
Kjærsgård, Andreas Pihl
Danish and Swedish media portray wealthy people in different ways. This has an effect on the difference in attitudes towards economic equality in the two countries.......Danish and Swedish media portray wealthy people in different ways. This has an effect on the difference in attitudes towards economic equality in the two countries....
U.S. Army Troop Support Command. The survey was conducted as part of an organizational diagnosis in preparation for the implementation of a civilian...survey as part of the program evaluation is recommended. Keywords: Surveys; Questionnaires; Employee attitudes; Attitude measurement; Organizational diagnosis .
John C. Benjamin; George H. Moeller; Douglas A. Morrison
A modified semantic differential was developed to measure environmental attitudes of sixth-graders. Classes were selected to represent different socioeconomic and residence backgrounds and degrees of previous exposure to structured environmental programs. Results indicate that: exposure to environmental education fosters favorable environmental attitudes; socioeconomic...
Prokop, Pavol; Kubiatko, Milan
Investigating predictors of environmental attitudes may bring valuable benefits in terms of improving public awareness about biodiversity degradation and increased pro-environmental behaviour. Here we used an evolutionary approach to study environmental attitudes based on disease-threat model. We hypothesized that people vulnerable to diseases may…
This research set out to explore the attitudes of school, academic and public librarians towards marketing libraries. The main question that was examined is whether personality characteristics such as empowerment, extroversion and resistance to change influence librarians' attitudes towards the marketing of libraries. One hundred and fifty-six…
Dalege, Jonas; Borsboom, Denny; van Harreveld, Frenk; van den Berg, Helma; Conner, Mark; van der Maas, Han L J
This article introduces the Causal Attitude Network (CAN) model, which conceptualizes attitudes as networks consisting of evaluative reactions and interactions between these reactions. Relevant evaluative reactions include beliefs, feelings, and behaviors toward the attitude object. Interactions between these reactions arise through direct causal influences (e.g., the belief that snakes are dangerous causes fear of snakes) and mechanisms that support evaluative consistency between related contents of evaluative reactions (e.g., people tend to align their belief that snakes are useful with their belief that snakes help maintain ecological balance). In the CAN model, the structure of attitude networks conforms to a small-world structure: evaluative reactions that are similar to each other form tight clusters, which are connected by a sparser set of "shortcuts" between them. We argue that the CAN model provides a realistic formalized measurement model of attitudes and therefore fills a crucial gap in the attitude literature. Furthermore, the CAN model provides testable predictions for the structure of attitudes and how they develop, remain stable, and change over time. Attitude strength is conceptualized in terms of the connectivity of attitude networks and we show that this provides a parsimonious account of the differences between strong and weak attitudes. We discuss the CAN model in relation to possible extensions, implication for the assessment of attitudes, and possibilities for further study. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available The article presents the results of theoretical analysis and empirical investigation of the relationship between self-attitude and attitude towards other people, including representatives of other nationalities. Self-attitude is viwed as a stable, emotionally charged of your own self. The interdependance of self-attitude indicators with the features of ethnic tolerance and the character of other individuals' attitude in complicated situations has been researched. Individuals with different self-image are shown to perceive their opponents just as they perceive their own personality. Perception and emotional attitude both to their own ethnic group and other ethnicities is closely related to the attitude of the individual to himself, and common factors in predisposition to criticism and condescension towards themselves and others.
Rawashdeh, Samir A.
As electronics become smaller and more capable, it has become possible to conduct meaningful and sophisticated satellite missions in a small form factor. However, the capability of small satellites and the range of possible applications are limited by the capabilities of several technologies, including attitude determination and control systems. This dissertation evaluates the use of image-based visual attitude propagation as a compliment or alternative to other attitude determination technologies that are suitable for miniature satellites. The concept lies in using miniature cameras to track image features across frames and extracting the underlying rotation. The problem of visual attitude propagation as a small satellite attitude determination system is addressed from several aspects: related work, algorithm design, hardware and performance evaluation, possible applications, and on-orbit experimentation. These areas of consideration reflect the organization of this dissertation. A "stellar gyroscope" is developed, which is a visual star-based attitude propagator that uses relative motion of stars in an imager's field of view to infer the attitude changes. The device generates spacecraft relative attitude estimates in three degrees of freedom. Algorithms to perform the star detection, correspondence, and attitude propagation are presented. The Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC) approach is applied to the correspondence problem to successfully pair stars across frames while mitigating falsepositive and false-negative star detections. This approach provides tolerance to the noise levels expected in using miniature optics and no baffling, and the noise caused by radiation dose on orbit. The hardware design and algorithms are validated using test images of the night sky. The application of the stellar gyroscope as part of a CubeSat attitude determination and control system is described. The stellar gyroscope is used to augment a MEMS gyroscope attitude propagation
Studies have shown that mental health professionals in many cases have counterproductive attitudes towards patients with mental illnesses and comorbid substance use disorders (dual diagnosis). This is problematic because professionals’ attitudes are important for both the therapeutic alliance...... and treatment outcome. This study tested whether providing training in dual diagnosis treatment to mental health professionals will affect their attitudes positively. Twenty-one professionals completed a questionnaire on attitudes towards working with dual diagnosis (Comorbidity Problems Perceptions...... Questionnaire, CMPPQ) pre-training and post-training. Results showed that there was a significant positive change in total CMPPQ scores and a positive change in all six subscales of the CMPPQ following training, indicating that the training resulted in more positive attitudes. The study suggests that training...
Yin, Wen-wen; Wu, Xiang; Ci, Hui-Peng; Qin, Shu-Qi; Liu, Jia-Long
To change unsafe behavior through adjusting people’s safety attitudes has become an important measure to prevent accidents. Demographic variables, as influential factors of safety attitude, are fundamental and essential for the research. This research does a questionnaire survey among coal mine industry workers, and makes variance analysis and correlation analysis of the results in light of age, length of working years, educational level and experiences of accidents. The results show that the coal miners’ age, length of working years and accident experiences correlate lowly with safety attitudes, and those older coal miners with longer working years have better safety attitude, as coal miners without experiences of accident do.However, educational level has nothing to do with the safety attitude. Therefore, during the process of safety management, coal miners with different demographic characteristics should be put more attention to.
Full Text Available In this research, attitudes of high school students towards geometry were investigated in terms of gender, grade, types of the field and school. Population of research includes students who were studying at high school in five distincs of Mersin in 2013-2014 academical year. Sample of research includes 935 students from twelve high schools. Attitude scale which was developed by Su-Özenir (2008 was used for data collection. For data analysis, mean, standart deviation, t test and ANOVA were used. A meaningful difference between students’ attitudes towards geometry and variance of gender and grade level wasn’t observed, on the other hand a meaningful difference according to field and school type is observed.Key Words: Attitudes towards geometry, high school geometry lesson, attitude scale
Sofiani, D.; Maulida, A. S.; Fadhillah, N.; Sihite, D. Y.
This study investigated the students’ attitude towards science and the effect of gender on students’ attitude. A total of 77 secondary school students participated in this study that were selected randomly in cluster, from various schools of Bandung, Indonesia. The attitude questionnaire consisted of 23 items related to four dimensions: enjoyment, self-confidence, value and motivation. Data collected by questionnaire were converted into interval scale using Method of Successive Interval (MSI) and further analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The use of MSI for analyzing the questionnaire data is still fairly new. Results showed that students’ positive attitude towards science was at medium level and there was no significant difference in attitude towards science between the female and male students. The study is of great significance to science teachers in order not to be gender biased when teaching science learning.
Lyon, Lori; Houser, Rick
As educators strongly influence the attitudes of their students, the purpose of this study was to determine nurse educator attitudes toward people with disabilities. Inadequate education of health professionals is a known barrier to care for people with disability. Continuing calls for improved education of health professionals compel an assessment of nurse educator attitudes. This was a cross-sectional, correlational web-based survey of nurse educators (n = 126). Nurse educator attitudes were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and multiple regression analysis. Nurse educators held discriminatory attitudes toward people with disabilities, though most preferred a biopsychosocial model of disability. Forty-four percent lacked knowledge of disability-related aims, objectives, or outcomes within the curriculum. To advance equity in health care, nurse educators must confront personal bias and teach competent care of people with disabilities.
Elisabeth H. Ormandy
Full Text Available The exploration of public attitudes toward animal research is important given recent developments in animal research (e.g., increasing creation and use of genetically modified animals, and plans for progress in areas such as personalized medicine, and the shifting relationship between science and society (i.e., a move toward the democratization of science. As such, public engagement on issues related to animal research, including exploration of public attitudes, provides a means of achieving socially acceptable scientific practice and oversight through an understanding of societal values and concerns. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore public attitudes toward animal use, and more specifically the use of animals in research. This paper reviews relevant literature using three categories of influential factors: personal and cultural characteristics, animal characteristics, and research characteristics. A critique is given of survey style methods used to collect data on public attitudes, and recommendations are given on how best to address current gaps in public attitudes literature.
This chapter reviews empirical and theoretical developments in research on social influence and message-based persuasion. The review emphasizes research published during the period from 1996-1998. Across these literatures, three central motives have been identified that generate attitude change and resistance. These involve concerns with the self, with others and the rewards/punishments they can provide, and with a valid understanding of reality. The motives have implications for information processing and for attitude change in public and private contexts. Motives in persuasion also have been investigated in research on attitude functions and cognitive dissonance theory. In addition, the chapter reviews the relatively unique aspects of each literature: In persuasion, it considers the cognitive and affective mechanisms underlying attitude change, especially dual-mode processing models, recipients' affective reactions, and biased processing. In social influence, the chapter considers how attitudes are embedded in social relations, including social identity theory and majority/minority group influence.
Gentile, Douglas A
Advertisers are adept at changing our attitudes and purchasing behaviors, but we rarely notice the effects. This plenary talk at the eighth annual Midwest Rural Agricultural Safety and Health Forum, November 2009, focused on the psychology of advertising and how advertising is designed to work outside of our conscious awareness. Several psychological "tricks" are used to influence us, with the goal being to get us to change our behaviors but to think that it was our idea all along. These tricks include using emotional appeals and persuasion techniques that rely on biases in human problem solving. This power can be used for social marketing, the use of these techniques to promote social well-being, rather than simply for commercial purposes. Understanding how advertising works therefore allows us to use this power to effect positive changes in society.
Clark, A.W.; Trahair, R.C.S.; Powell, R.J.; Walker, R.M.
The results of a series of surveys of 2900 Australians show that some 80 per cent favour nuclear disarmament. The nuclear disarmament view is broad-based, for example it cuts across differences in age, sex and education. However the view is more common among people towards the left of the political spectrum who view the world as benign rather than hostile and who consider stockpiles can be reduced by small, reciprocated and supervised reductions. Between 2.5 per cent and 5.5 per cent of respondents act to bring about nuclear disarmament. The findings support and extend results from studies outside Australia showing that attitudes favouring nuclear disarmament are distributing themselves widely
Greenhalgh, Geoffrey [Down Park Place, Crawley Down (United Kingdom)
There is now unmistakable evidence of a widening split within the Western industrial nations arising from conflicting views of society; for and against change. The argument is over the benefits of 'progress' and growth. On one side are those who seek more jobs, more production and consumption, higher standards of living, an ever-increasing GNP with an increasing globalisation of production and welcome the advances of science and technology confident that any temporary problems that arise can be solved by further technological development - possible energy shortages as a growing population increases energy usage can be met by nuclear power development; food shortages by the increased yields of GM crops. In opposition are those who put the quality of life before GNP, advocate a more frugal life-style, reducing needs and energy consumption, and, pointing to the harm caused by increasing pollution, press for cleaner air and water standards. They seek to reduce the pressure of an ever-increasing population and above all to preserve the natural environment. This view is associated with a growing uncertainty as the established order is challenged with the rise in status of 'alternative' science and medicine. This paper argues that these conflicting views reflect instinctive attitudes. These in turn draw support from beliefs selected from those which uncertainty offers. Where there is scope for argument over the truth or validity of a 'fact', the choice of which of the disputed views to believe will be determined by a value judgement. This applies to all controversial social and political issues. Nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are but two particular examples in the technological field; joining the EMU is a current political controversy where value judgements based on attitudes determine beliefs. When, or if, a controversy is finally resolved the judgement arrived at will be justified by the belief that the consequences of the course chosen will be more favourable
Greenhalgh, Geoffrey [Down Park Place, Crawley Down (United Kingdom)
There is now unmistakable evidence of a widening split within the Western industrial nations arising from conflicting views of society; for and against change. The argument is over the benefits of 'progress' and growth. On one side are those who seek more jobs, more production and consumption, higher standards of living, an ever-increasing GNP with an increasing globalisation of production and welcome the advances of science and technology confident that any temporary problems that arise can be solved by further technological development - possible energy shortages as a growing population increases energy usage can be met by nuclear power development; food shortages by the increased yields of GM crops. In opposition are those who put the quality of life before GNP, advocate a more frugal life-style, reducing needs and energy consumption, and, pointing to the harm caused by increasing pollution, press for cleaner air and water standards. They seek to reduce the pressure of an ever-increasing population and above all to preserve the natural environment. This view is associated with a growing uncertainty as the established order is challenged with the rise in status of 'alternative' science and medicine. This paper argues that these conflicting views reflect instinctive attitudes. These in turn draw support from beliefs selected from those which uncertainty offers. Where there is scope for argument over the truth or validity of a 'fact', the choice of which of the disputed views to believe will be determined by a value judgement. This applies to all controversial social and political issues. Nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are but two particular examples in the technological field; joining the EMU is a current political controversy where value judgements based on attitudes determine beliefs. When, or if, a controversy is finally resolved the judgement arrived at will be justified by the belief that the consequences of the course
Bouland, Andrew J; Jenkins, J Lee; Levy, Matthew J
Prospective studies have improved knowledge of prehospital spinal immobilization. The opinion of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers regarding spinal immobilization is unknown, as is their knowledge of recent research advances. To examine the attitudes, knowledge, and comfort of prehospital and Emergency Department (ED) EMS providers regarding spinal immobilization performed under a non-selective protocol. An online survey was conducted from May to July of 2011. Participants were drawn from the Howard County Department of Fire and Rescue Services and the Howard County General Hospital ED. The survey included multiple choice questions and responses on a modified Likert scale. Correlation analysis and descriptive data were used to analyze results. Comfort using the Kendrick Extrication Device was low among ED providers. Experienced providers were more likely to indicate comfort using this device. Respondents often believed that spinal immobilization is appropriate in the management of penetrating trauma to the chest and abdomen. Reported use of padding decreased along with the frequency with which providers practice and encounter immobilized patients. Respondents often indicated that they perform spinal immobilization due solely to mechanism of injury. Providers who feel as if spinal immobilization is often performed unnecessarily were more likely to agree that immobilization causes an unnecessary delay in patient care. The results demonstrate the need for improved EMS education in the use of the Kendrick Extrication Device, backboard padding, and spinal immobilization in the management of penetrating trauma. The attitudes highlighted in this study are relevant to the implementation of a selective spinal immobilization protocol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
There is now unmistakable evidence of a widening split within the Western industrial nations arising from conflicting views of society; for and against change. The argument is over the benefits of 'progress' and growth. On one side are those who seek more jobs, more production and consumption, higher standards of living, an ever-increasing GNP with an increasing globalisation of production and welcome the advances of science and technology confident that any temporary problems that arise can be solved by further technological development - possible energy shortages as a growing population increases energy usage can be met by nuclear power development; food shortages by the increased yields of GM crops. In opposition are those who put the quality of life before GNP, advocate a more frugal life-style, reducing needs and energy consumption, and, pointing to the harm caused by increasing pollution, press for cleaner air and water standards. They seek to reduce the pressure of an ever-increasing population and above all to preserve the natural environment. This view is associated with a growing uncertainty as the established order is challenged with the rise in status of 'alternative' science and medicine. This paper argues that these conflicting views reflect instinctive attitudes. These in turn draw support from beliefs selected from those which uncertainty offers. Where there is scope for argument over the truth or validity of a 'fact', the choice of which of the disputed views to believe will be determined by a value judgement. This applies to all controversial social and political issues. Nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are but two particular examples in the technological field; joining the EMU is a current political controversy where value judgements based on attitudes determine beliefs. When, or if, a controversy is finally resolved the judgement arrived at will be justified by the belief that the consequences of the course chosen will be more favourable
Hepler, Justin; Albarracín, Dolores
We hypothesized that individuals may differ in the dispositional tendency to have positive vs. negative attitudes, a trait termed the dispositional attitude. Across 4 studies, we developed a 16-item Dispositional Attitude Measure (DAM) and investigated its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, factor structure, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and predictive validity. DAM scores were (a) positively correlated with positive affect traits, curiosity-related traits, and individual preexisting attitudes; (b) negatively correlated with negative affect traits; and (c) uncorrelated with theoretically unrelated traits. Dispositional attitudes also significantly predicted the valence of novel attitudes while controlling for theoretically relevant traits (such as the Big 5 and optimism). The dispositional attitude construct represents a new perspective in which attitudes are not simply a function of the properties of the stimuli under consideration, but are also a function of the properties of the evaluator. We discuss the intriguing implications of dispositional attitudes for many areas of research, including attitude formation, persuasion, and behavior prediction. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Bogard, Kimber L; Sherrod, Lonnie R
This study examined the relationships among three sets of variables in a sample of 299 diverse high school youth: (a) demographic variables such as ethnicity and immigrant status, (b) attitudes toward citizenship responsibilities, and (c) allegiances to three socializing institutions--family, school, and community. A measure of citizenship attitudes was found to identify two distinct constructs--Polity-Oriented and Civic-Oriented attitudes toward citizenship responsibilities, relating to the polity or nation-state, and to serving the community. European Americans were consistently lower on Polity-Oriented attitudes than Hispanic teens, and lower on family allegiance than other non-European American groups. Hispanic youth reported significantly lower community involvement than other non-European American groups as well as European American youth. Whereas the only significant correlation between allegiance and citizenship attitudes was between family allegiance and Polity-Oriented attitudes, there were multiple moderating effects of immigrant status and ethnicity. Results are discussed in terms of ethnicity and allegiances as contexts of socialization for the development of attitudes toward citizenship responsibilities.
Brunero, S; Smith, J; Bates, E; Fairbrother, G
Preventing suicide can depend upon the ability of a range of different health professionals to make accurate suicide risk assessments and treatment plans. The attitudes that clinicians hold towards suicide prevention initiatives may influence their suicide risk assessment and management skills. This study measures a group of non-mental health professionals' attitude towards suicide prevention initiatives. Health professionals that had attended suicide prevention education showed significantly more positive attitudes towards suicide prevention initiatives. The findings in this study further support the effectiveness of educating non-mental health professionals in suicide risk awareness and management.
Sørensen, Jens Fyhn Lykke
. One prerequisite for successful delivery of health care by means of telehealth is the existence of positive attitudes toward telehealth solutions among the potential end beneficiaries. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes toward telehealth use among residents in a Danish...... rural area. Method: A representative sample from the island of Ærø (n=1000) was selected and attitudes toward two telehealth applications were examined by structured telephone interviews regarding: 1) video consultation between patient and specialist, and 2) transfer of work tasks from local hospital...
Hough, K J; Erwin, P G
Children's attitudes toward television violence were studied. A 47-item questionnaire collecting attitudinal and personal information was administered to 316 children aged 11 to 16 years. Cluster analysis was used to split the participants into two groups based on their attitudes toward television violence. A stepwise discriminant function analysis was performed to determine which personal characteristics would predict group membership. The only significant predictor of attitudes toward violence on television was the amount of television watched on school days (p < .05), but we also found that the impact of other predictor variables may have been mediated by this factor.
The author, a nuclear power plant operator at the Ginna pressurized water reactor, discusses the positive and negative aspects of 12-hour workshifts, the various schedules that have been developed to optimize performance during the 12-hour shifts, and the motivation required to prepare mentally and physically for the shift. A healthy work attitude is the best guarantee of high standards of performance whether the shift be of 8-, 10-, or 12-hour duration. This healthy work attitude will cause peers to improve their attitudes and attentiveness and strive to lift their own work levels to a higher standard
Wu, Baolin; Shen, Qiang; Cao, Xibin
The problem of spacecraft attitude stabilization control system with limited communication and external disturbances is investigated based on an event-triggered control scheme. In the proposed scheme, information of attitude and control torque only need to be transmitted at some discrete triggered times when a defined measurement error exceeds a state-dependent threshold. The proposed control scheme not only guarantees that spacecraft attitude control errors converge toward a small invariant set containing the origin, but also ensures that there is no accumulation of triggering instants. The performance of the proposed control scheme is demonstrated through numerical simulation.
Presently, less than a handful of papers have analysed the attitude towards offshore wind farms in a population living in an area with offshore wind farms. This leaves the experience-based attitude and demographic relations analysis relatively unexplored. The present studies aims at covering some of that seemingly uncharted territory by analysing attitudes from a sample of more than 1000 respondents. Applying an Ordered Probit Model, the results show general positive attitudes towards offshore wind farms and that the attitude formation seems to be a function of the gender, income, level of education, visit frequency and type of visit to the beach and the view to on-land turbines from the residence. Interestingly and perhaps the most interesting results, the observed relations between demographics and attitude are found to be dependent on the type and frequency of usage of the beach among the respondents. Attitudes towards offshore wind farms and demographic associations are thus found to be more evident in the case that respondents do use not the beach for walking on a relatively frequent basis but much weaker if the respondent use the beach on a frequent basis. However, these results are sensitive to the type of beach usage. This suggests that attitude formation towards offshore wind farms appear to be dependent on a combination of the type and frequency of use of the beach. To the author's knowledge these findings are novel, as such relation has not yet been identified in the literature. As such, the results shed light on a new angle in both the literature focusing on the opposition formation towards wind power projects in general and offshore wind farms in particular.
MOHAMMED, M. A. SI; BOUSSADIA, H.; BELLAR, A.; ADNANE, A.
This paper presents a brief synthesis and useful performance analysis of different attitude filtering algorithms (attitude determination algorithms, attitude estimation algorithms, and nonlinear observers) applied to Low Earth Orbit Satellite in terms of accuracy, convergence time, amount of memory, and computation time. This latter is calculated in two ways, using a personal computer and also using On-board computer 750 (OBC 750) that is being used in many SSTL Earth observation missions. The use of this comparative study could be an aided design tool to the designer to choose from an attitude determination or attitude estimation or attitude observer algorithms. The simulation results clearly indicate that the nonlinear Observer is the more logical choice.
Attitudes are complex and little research in the field of linguistics has focused on language attitudes. This article deals with attitudes toward sign languages and those who use them--attitudes that are influenced by ideological constructions. The article reviews five categories of such constructions and discusses examples in each one.
Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Hirt, Jessie; Sears, Alan
Examined attitudes toward homosexuals among 199 male and female students at a Canadian university. Attitudes toward gay men were more negative than attitudes toward lesbians. For male students, attitudes toward gay men improved with time spent at college, suggesting the influence of college in reducing antihomosexual prejudice. (SLD)
Wilder, Gita; And Others
Describes two surveys used to (1) determine sex differences in attitudes toward computers and video games among schoolchildren and the relationship of these attitudes to attitudes about science, math, and writing; and (2) sex differences in attitudes toward computing among a select group of highly motivated college freshmen. (SA)
Full Text Available The attitude dynamics of KITSAT-1 are modeled including the gravity gradient stabilization method. We define the operation scenario during the initial attitude stabilization period by means of a magnetorquering control algorithm. The required constraints for the gravity gradient boom deployment are also examined. Attitude dynamics model and control laws are verified by analyzing in-orbit attitude sensor telemetry data.
Davis, Sharon J.; Sneed, Zachery B.; Koch, D. Shane
Using the Counselor Trainee Attitudes Measure (CTAM) to assess student attitudes toward alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA), results indicated that students had more positive attitudes toward AODA when they were in recovery or had a family member in recovery. Furthermore, completion of AODA related courses predicted more positive attitudes toward…
I. VERMEIR; W. VERBEKE
Although public interest in sustainability increases and consumer attitudes are mainly positive, behavioural patterns are not univocally consistent with attitudes. The presumed gap between favourable attitude towards sustainable behaviour and behavioural intention to purchase sustainable food products is investigated in this study. The impact of involvement, perceived availability, certainty, perceived consumer effectiveness (PCE), values, and social norms on consumers’ attitudes and intentio...
Leppanen, Jaana M.; Haahla, Anu E.; Lensu, Anssi M.; Kuitunen, Markku T.
Are adolescents' environmental attitudes similar to their parents' attitudes? The main objective of this study is to examine what quantitative associations, if any, exist in parent-child environmental attitudes within the family. The survey data was collected assessing attitudes toward the environment and nature from 15-year-old students (n = 237)…
In the past ten years, public interest in nuclear power and its relationship to the environment has grown. Although most Canadians have accepted nuclear power as a means of generating electricity, there is significant opposition to its use. This opposition has effectively forced the Canadian nuclear industry to modify its behaviour to the public in the face of growing concern over the safety of nuclear power and related matters. The paper reviews Canadian experience concerning public acceptance of nuclear power, with special reference to the public information activities of the Canadian nuclear industry. Experience has shown the need for scientific social data that will permit the nuclear industry to involve the public in a rational examination of its concern about nuclear power. The Canadian Nuclear Association sponsored such studies in 1976 and the findings are discussed. They consisted of a national assessment of public attitudes, two regional studies and a study of Canadian policy-makers' views on nuclear energy. The social data obtained were of a base-line nature describing Canadian perceptions of and attitudes to nuclear power at that time. This research established that Canadian levels of knowledge about nuclear power are very low and that there are marked regional differences. Only 56% of the population have the minimum knowledge required to indicate that they know that nuclear power can be used to generate electricity. Nevertheless, 21% of informed Canadians oppose nuclear power primarily on the grounds that it is not safe. Radiation and waste management are seen to be major disadvantages. In perspective, Canadians are more concerned with inflation than with the energy supply. About half of all Canadians see the question of energy supplies as a future problem (within five years), not a present one. A more important aspect of energy is seen by the majority of Canadians to be some form of energy independence. The use of data from these studies is no easy
SSBs) remains a public health problem among the young adults. This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and consumption pattern of alcohol and SSBs among the undergraduate students. A pretested, self-administered questionnaire was ...
Objectives: To assess the attitudes and perceptions of healthcare providers ... antibiotics and only 32% always send a sample for culture sensitivity ..... resistance - A global issue of concern. Asian J. Pharma Clin Res. 2009; 2(2): 34 - 39. 4.
Vadmann, Henrik; Pedersen, Susanne S; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis
BACKGROUND: Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) is an important but expensive procedure that is the subject of some debate. Physicians´ attitudes towards catheter ablation may influence promotion and patient acceptance. This is the first study to examine the attitudes of Danish...... cardiologists towards catheter ablation for AF, using a nationwide survey. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed a purpose-designed questionnaire to evaluate attitudes towards catheter ablation for AF that was sent to all Danish cardiologists (n = 401; response n = 272 (67.8%)). There was no association between...... attitudes towards ablation and the experience or age of the cardiologist with respect to patients with recurrent AF episodes with a duration of 7 days and/or need for cardioversion. The majority (69%) expected a recurrence of AF after catheter ablation in more than 30% of the cases...
The present paper analyses the attitudes towards existing and future land-based turbines and off-shore wind farms. The analysis is carried out using a probit model to elicit systematic characteristics determining the attitude of the population. The analyses show that off-shore development...... is preferred to land based development, which indicates that the wind power development should be taken off-shore. But, the results also point out that the land-based opportunities for wind power development are not exhausted. On a more detailed level, the results denote that the attitude towards both land...... based and off-shore wind power vary with age of the respondents and experience with wind turbines. Younger respondents are more positive towards wind power than older respondents, pointing towards an increase in acceptance in the future. The attitude was also found to covariate negatively...
de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Grunert, Klaus G; Zhou, Yanfeng
In many Western countries, consumers have shown an increasing interest to the way in which food products are being produced. This study investigates Chinese consumers' attitudes towards different pig production systems by means of a conjoint analysis. While there has been a range of studies...... on Western consumers' attitudes to various forms of food production, little is known about the level of Chinese consumers' attitudes. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 472 participants in six Chinese cities. Results indicate that Chinese consumers prefer industrial pig production systems, where...... from Cluster 1 focus almost exclusively on the food safety aspect (food safety focused). Consumers from cluster 2 (indifferent) show generally weak attitudes to pig production systems in general. Cluster 3 (industrial production oriented) stands out by being very positive about industrial, large size...
A basic of questions were developed that could be used in periodic surveys that track drivers attitudes and awareness concerning impaired driving, seat belt use, and speeding issues. The objective of the survey was to learn the knowledge, views, and ...
Nadja Cristiane Lappann Bott
Full Text Available Objective. Examine the attitudes of nursing students with the suicidal behavior before and after a training course on the subject. Methodology. Performed quantitative, cross-sectional study, with 58 nursing students from a public university in Minas Gerais (Brazil who participated in training on the theme. For data collection were used the Questionnaire of Attitudes Before Suicidal Behavior. The questionnaire was applied just before the start and the end of the training measuring attitudes toward suicidal behavior. Results. Were found statistically significant differences in negative feelings factors on the patient and perception of professional competence (p <0.05. The right factor to suicide was not significantly different among nursing students. Conclusion. The academic training may have influenced positively the desired changes regarding the attitudes of nursing students across the suicidal behavior.
Nigerian physicians' knowledge, attitude and practices regarding diabetes ... conducted among physicians in four towns in four different States in Nigeria, ... Only 36.8% of the participants knew that children with diabetes should eat family diet.
Yang, Bijou; James, Simon; Lester, David
American university students owned more than twice as many credit cards as British university students. However, scores on a credit card attitude scale predicted the number of cards owned by respondents in both countries.
This report presents the results of the first youth poll in a series that looked at propensity, employment status, education status, impressions of the military, attitudes toward teams, influencers...
Knowledge, Attitude and Practices toward Post Exposure Prophylaxis for Human Immunodeficiency ... Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research ... Data related to HIV PEP was collected by pre‑designed, pre‑tested, self‑administered ...
International Journal of Health Research ... Purpose: To assess the attitude, perception and practice of pharmacists in Ogun State towards pharmaceutical care implementation. Methods: Pre-tested and validated structured questionnaire was ...
In terms of attitudes, 40.0% (n=60) expressed concern about the pain during insertion, 33.3% (n=50) believed the IUCD can ... women are at risk of unintended pregnancy. ... pregnancies requires long periods of effective contraceptive use.
Dec 27, 2009 ... Understanding of contraceptives and reproductive health was poor, condoms were the contraceptive method most known by teenagers and ... Liberal attitudes towards casual sex, alcohol consumption, .... releasing stress.
Stallings, William M.; Leslie, Elwood K.
The result of a study designed to assess student attitudes toward grading practices are discussed. Questionnaire responses of 3439 students in three institutions were tabulated. Responses were generally negative toward conventional grading systems. (MS)
JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN FORESTRY, WILDLIFE AND ENVIRONMENT VOLUME 7, No.2 SEPTEMBER, 2015. ... and the impact of conservation interventions, as well as to inform the ... The conservation attitudes of local people residing ...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is seeking an optical system capable of analyzing the attitude of wind tunnel models in real time, with a high angular resolution and robustness. To address...
African Journal of Reproductive Health December 2010; 14(4): 17. ORIGINAL ... Data on perceptions, knowledge, access and attitudes toward contraceptive use were collected from ...... They are unable to exercise this right since their.
Chrisler, Joan C; Marván, Maria Luisa; Gorman, Jennifer A; Rossini, Meghan
Menstruation is an important function of the female body, yet it has rarely been included in research on body image. As women's attitudes toward menstruation are so often negative, this study was designed to examine whether women with positive body image would have more positive attitudes toward menstruation. Seventy-two American women, ages 18-45 years, were recruited online to complete the Body Appreciation Scale (Avalos et al., 2005) and the Beliefs about and Attitudes toward Menstruation Scale (Marván et al., 2006) and to answer some questions about their interest in menstrual suppression. Linear regressions showed that higher scores on body appreciation predicted more positive attitudes toward and beliefs about menstruation, but were not related to interest in menstrual suppression. Our findings may be useful in designing interventions to increase women's comfort with their bodies and bodily functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A distinction is made between attitudes and specifically language attitudes. The process of acculturation is dealt with and its influence upon the motivation of ESL learners. Integrational and instmmental motivation are defined. Teachers' language attitudes, the dangers of prejudice and stereotyping are discussed. ,Attitude changes are analysed as well as the teacher's role in effecting them. 'n Onderskeid word getref tussen algemene houdings en houdings ten opsigte van taal. Die proses van akkulturasie word behandel, asook die invloed daarvan op die motivering van Engels Tweede Taal-leerders. Die skrywer onderskei verder tussen integrerende en instmmentale motivering. Die onderwysers se houding teenoor die taal word ook bespreek, asook die gevare van bevooroordeeldheid en stereotipering. Veranderinge in houdings word ontleed, en vera! die rol wat die onderwyser speel om die veranderinge teweeg te bring.
Dec 27, 2009 ... Original Research: Attitudes, perceptions and understanding amongst teenagers ... Methods: The qualitative study entailed 13 in-depth interviews with pregnant ...... different types of recreational or instructive activities for.
This research study was aimed at investigating the effect of technological attitude of students on ... for the study of several courses in the universities, for examples engineering, medical and other applied science courses need physics. In view ...
gender and school location significantly influenced students' attitude towards guidance ... students respond and perceive guidance and counselling services will, to ... counsellors will be appointed in post-primary institutions and tertiary levels.
... knowledge, attitude and perception towards prevention and management of diabetes ... by healthcare professionals can impact on the care of diabetic patients. ... 2014 and February, 2015, among Pharmacists in Jos metropolis using a self ...
Galal, Ken; Nickel, Craig; Sherman, Ryan
The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) satellite successfully completed its 148-day science investigation in a low-altitude, near-equatorial lunar orbit on April 18, 2014. The LADEE spacecraft was built, managed and operated by NASA's Ames Research Center (ARC). The Mission Operations Center (MOC) was located at Ames and was responsible for activity planning, command sequencing, trajectory and attitude design, orbit determination, and spacecraft operations. The Science Operations Center (SOC) was located at Goddard Space Flight Center and was responsible for science planning, data archiving and distribution. This paper details attitude design and operations support for the LADEE mission. LADEE's attitude design was shaped by a wide range of instrument pointing requirements that necessitated regular excursions from the baseline one revolution per orbit "Ram" attitude. Such attitude excursions were constrained by a number of flight rules levied to protect instruments from the Sun, avoid geometries that would result in simultaneous occlusion of LADEE's two star tracker heads, and maintain the spacecraft within its thermal and power operating limits. To satisfy LADEE's many attitude requirements and constraints, a set of rules and conventions was adopted to manage the complexity of this design challenge and facilitate the automation of ground software that generated pointing commands spanning multiple days of operations at a time. The resulting LADEE Flight Dynamics System (FDS) that was developed used Visual Basic scripts that generated instructions to AGI's Satellite Tool Kit (STK) in order to derive quaternion commands at regular intervals that satisfied LADEE's pointing requirements. These scripts relied heavily on the powerful "align and constrain" capability of STK's attitude module to construct LADEE's attitude profiles and the slews to get there. A description of the scripts and the attitude modeling they embodied is provided. One particular
Zhu, Jiancheng; Hu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Tao; Wang, Jinling; Wu, Meiping
The Unaided Single Frequency/Single Epoch Global Navigation Satellite System (SF/SE GNSS) model is the most challenging scenario for ambiguity resolution in the GNSS attitude determination application. To improve the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution without excessive cost, the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit (MEMS-IMU) is a proper choice for the auxiliary sensor that carries out the inertial attitude augmentation. Firstly, based on the SF/SE-GNSS compass model, the Inertial Derived Baseline Vector (IDBV) is defined to connect the MEMS-IMU attitude measurement with the SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity search space, and the mechanism of inertial attitude augmentation is revealed from the perspective of geometry. Then, through the quantitative description of model strength by Ambiguity Dilution of Precision (ADOP), two ADOPs are specified for the unaided SF/SE-GNSS compass model and its inertial attitude augmentation counterparts, respectively, and a sufficient condition is proposed for augmenting the SF/SE-GNSS model strength with inertial attitude measurement. Finally, in the framework of an integer aperture estimator with fixed failure rate, the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation is analyzed when the model strength is varying from strong to weak. The simulation results show that, in the SF/SE-GNSS attitude determination application, MEMS-IMU can satisfy the requirements of ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation.
Zhu, Jiancheng; Hu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Tao; Wang, Jinling; Wu, Meiping
The Unaided Single Frequency/Single Epoch Global Navigation Satellite System (SF/SE GNSS) model is the most challenging scenario for ambiguity resolution in the GNSS attitude determination application. To improve the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution without excessive cost, the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit (MEMS-IMU) is a proper choice for the auxiliary sensor that carries out the inertial attitude augmentation. Firstly, based on the SF/SE-GNSS compass model, the Inertial Derived Baseline Vector (IDBV) is defined to connect the MEMS-IMU attitude measurement with the SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity search space, and the mechanism of inertial attitude augmentation is revealed from the perspective of geometry. Then, through the quantitative description of model strength by Ambiguity Dilution of Precision (ADOP), two ADOPs are specified for the unaided SF/SE-GNSS compass model and its inertial attitude augmentation counterparts, respectively, and a sufficient condition is proposed for augmenting the SF/SE-GNSS model strength with inertial attitude measurement. Finally, in the framework of an integer aperture estimator with fixed failure rate, the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation is analyzed when the model strength is varying from strong to weak. The simulation results show that, in the SF/SE-GNSS attitude determination application, MEMS-IMU can satisfy the requirements of ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation. PMID:24971472
Dreisler, P.; Blenker, P.; Nielsen, K.
social change, examining whether they are trying to create a change in attitudes or in behaviour or in both? This analysis has implications beyond the Danish case, as general reflections on entrepreneurship policy are induced from the analysis. It is argued that policy makers should reflect whether...... the target groups towards which policy initiatives are directed: 1) have a positive or negative attitude towards entrepreneurship, and 2) are engaged or not engaged in entrepreneurial action....
Susana de Araujo Gastal; Sandra Dall'Agnol
The places by the sea, as spaces of tourism and second homes, suffer the impacts from the activity. The local population attitude, seeing these places as bonuses or otherwise, as a burden, contributes to the viability of tourism in the locality. This article aims to present a research, methodologically related to attitude construct of social psychology, conducted in Laguna, Santa Catarina, Brazil to evaluate the relationship between the community and the different impacts caused by tourism,. ...
The purpose of this study was to measure the attitudes of the middle level career Army officers relative to the concepts of conflict management . The...the literature concerning conflict management and its related fields of study, an exploratory analysis employing Hierarchical Clustering Schemes, and... conflict management . (2) No difference exists in the attitudes of conflict management according to the sample’s three branch groups: combat arms
S. Nethra; Dr. V. T. Dhanaraj
The popularity of online shopping has caught the attention of many peoples. Many studies have been done in developed nations to know about the attitude and behaviour of consumers towards online shopping. The research is focused on consumer behaviour and attitude towards online shopping in Coimbatore district. The study is based on primary data which has been collected by issuing questionnaire to 200 respondents residing in Coimbatore district by adopting convenient sampling method. The stat...
Sacit KÖSE; Ayse SAVRAN GENCER; Kudret GEZER; Gül Hanım EROL; Kadir BİLEN
Environmental education has been viewed as an important way to educate students about environmental issues beginning from pre-school to higher education. This study is a part of this field- namely, undergraduate environmental education. The purpose of the study is to explore undergraduate students’ attitudes towards environment after the course “Environment, Human, and Society”. In direction of this basic aim, environmental attitudes of university students were e...
Hattis, Philip D.
Paper provides mathematical basis for predictive management of angular momenta of control-moment gyroscopes (CMG's) to control attitude of orbiting space station. Numerical results presented for pitch control of proposed power-tower space station. Based on prior orbit history and mathematical model of density of atmosphere, predictions made of requirements on dumping and storage of angular momentum in relation to current loading state of CMG's and to acceptable attitude tolerances.
Assimilation of a standard ERP system to an organization is difficult. User involvement seems to be the crux of the matter. However, even the best intentions for user involvement may come to nothing. A case study of a five-year ERP implementation process reveals that a main reason may be that the...... research regarding new approaches and/or new techniques and tools for user participation in the context of ERP implementations is needed. Udgivelsesdato: 2008......Assimilation of a standard ERP system to an organization is difficult. User involvement seems to be the crux of the matter. However, even the best intentions for user involvement may come to nothing. A case study of a five-year ERP implementation process reveals that a main reason may...... be that the perception of usefulness of the system in any given phase of the implementation is heavily dependent on preceding events—the process. A process model analysis identifies eight episodes and nine encounters in the case showing that the user’s attitude towards the ERP system changes between acceptance...
Full Text Available This study assesses the level of knowledge, interest, and awareness of archaeology among Kuwaiti youth in keeping with the social learning theory (Bandura 1977, which emphasises the social context in which learning takes place. According to this approach, individuals acquire through observation and imitation of significant others key concepts and cultural symbols. This study also focuses on students' perceptions of how the Kuwaiti government implements the archaeology law. Data were collected from a survey conducted in 2015 on a random sample of 1193 students from 12 high schools located in the 6 governorates in Kuwait. Two high schools (representing males and females from each governorate were selected. Emphasis was on students in the senior level of high school (17-18 years old as the last stage in the public schooling system in Kuwait. The study analysed the impact of students' gender, socioeconomic background, and personal exposure to archaeology on their attitudes toward archaeology. Analyses using Chi-square tests along with descriptive statistics revealed that students with highly educated parents and those attending schools in well-to-do communities were more likely to be knowledgeable about, interested in, and aware of the importance of archaeology. Students with personal exposure to archaeology are more interested in and concerned with archaeology than those with no experience. In addition, gender was a significant factor as males showed more knowledge of, interest in, and awareness of archaeology than females.
Fazio, Russell H.
Historical developments regarding the attitude concept are reviewed, and set the stage for consideration of a theoretical perspective that views attitude, not as a hypothetical construct, but as evaluative knowledge. A model of attitudes as object-evaluation associations of varying strength is summarized, along with research supporting the model’s contention that at least some attitudes are represented in memory and activated automatically upon the individual’s encountering the attitude objec...
There is widespread public concern over nuclear power and radioactive waste. Although the opposition is probably still in the minority, the proportion is sufficient to put the future of the nuclear industry in jeopardy in those countries where there is a choice. It is suggested that, if risk perceptions are to be changed, the whole attitude towards this hazardous technology must be carefully dissected and analyzed. Scientifically designed methods of attitude change can then be implemented. In particular, the social and cultural context that sustains the attitude has to be addressed through its constituent beliefs about employment prospects, safety, economic and political benefits etc. Factual knowledge, on the other hand, is largely irrelevant to attitude orientation. If anything, the antis have substantially more factual knowledge than the pros. The emotional component of the attitude is a crude, fast acting system that often controls the cognitive input and its organization. If attitude change is to succeed, a massive communication/education campaign is required over several years. But it would need to be based on the most relevant messages, originating from highly credible sources, purveyed through the most appropriate media and targeted to the moderate pros and antis and to the uncommitted
Teamwork, productivity, and reducing exposure are admirable goals presented to the workers in a nuclear power plant. A common thread to achievement in these areas resides in worker attitudes toward the tasks presented. A positive, alert, and cooperative attitude is an element in a worker's mind that must be created and maintained by good leadership and management practices. At the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, management has used certain strategies to foster good positive worker attitudes toward radiation protection and quality workmanship in all tasks. Strategies differ from management by objectives in that they have no deadlines or timetables in and of themselves. Rather, strategies are preplanned methods that can be called upon when the opportunity arises to improve worker attitudes. A series of five strategies for positive attitude development are described in the full paper. The strategies are identified with buzz words to allow the user a recall mechanism (as with the acronyms abounding in the nuclear industry). They cover the range of management techniques from example setting to reward/recognition. Although not unique to radiation exposure management, nor all inclusive, the strategies provide some though stimulation in creating productive worker attitudes
Full Text Available Having in mind a fact that consumers represent the central aspect of the companies' demand, consumer behavior must be the focal point of marketing research as well as the central topic in the entire marketing system. The initial and the most fundamental marketing activity is the research of consumer behavior. It is only after the analysis of the collected relevant data on current and potential buyers, that the companies can implement other marketing activities such as competition analysis, sales forecast, measuring the market potential as well as the market share in order to create the appropriate marketing mix of the company. Numerous factors influence behavior of the consumers, however, one can conclude that the attitudes play very important role in the psychological analysis of the consumer behavior. Attitude recognition gives us a chance to analyze past and predict future behaviors. Often the behavior appears as the consequence of the formed attitudes. Weather the behavior results from the attitude and whether or not it is in accordance with this attitude, depends on the strength of the attitude as well as on the influence of other environmental factors.
Chetcuti, Deborah A.; Kioko, Beriter
This study investigated girls' attitudes towards science in Kenya. It was carried out with 120 girls from four secondary schools in the Eastern province of Kenya. These were an urban single-sex (SS) and co-educational (Co-Ed) school and a rural SS and Co-Ed school. Different schools were chosen in order to explore whether there are any differences in attitudes in SS and Co-Ed schools and in schools in rural and urban areas. The methodology included the use of both questionnaires and focus group interviews. The main aim was to gain insight into the extent and depth of students' attitudes towards science. The findings of the study showed that the majority of Kenyan girls who participated in the study have a favourable attitude towards science. Girls in SS schools were found to have a more favourable attitude than those in Co-Ed schools, while girls in rural area schools were found to find science more relevant than those in urban schools. It emerged from this study that the attitudes of Kenyan girls are influenced by their perceptions of the relevance of science, enjoyment of studying science, perceptions of the suitability of science for a career, and their perceptions of subject difficulty.
Blankenstein, Neeltje E; Peper, Jiska S; Crone, Eveline A; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K
Individual differences in attitudes to risk (a taste for risk, known probabilities) and ambiguity (a tolerance for uncertainty, unknown probabilities) differentially influence risky decision-making. However, it is not well understood whether risk and ambiguity are coded differently within individuals. Here, we tested whether individual differences in risk and ambiguity attitudes were reflected in distinct neural correlates during choice and outcome processing of risky and ambiguous gambles. To these ends, we developed a neuroimaging task in which participants ( n = 50) chose between a sure gain and a gamble, which was either risky or ambiguous, and presented decision outcomes (gains, no gains). From a separate task in which the amount, probability, and ambiguity level were varied, we estimated individuals' risk and ambiguity attitudes. Although there was pronounced neural overlap between risky and ambiguous gambling in a network typically related to decision-making under uncertainty, relatively more risk-seeking attitudes were associated with increased activation in valuation regions of the brain (medial and lateral OFC), whereas relatively more ambiguity-seeking attitudes were related to temporal cortex activation. In addition, although striatum activation was observed during reward processing irrespective of a prior risky or ambiguous gamble, reward processing after an ambiguous gamble resulted in enhanced dorsomedial PFC activation, possibly functioning as a general signal of uncertainty coding. These findings suggest that different neural mechanisms reflect individual differences in risk and ambiguity attitudes and that risk and ambiguity may impact overt risk-taking behavior in different ways.
There is widespread public concern over nuclear power and its associated radioactive waste. Although the opposition is probably still in the minority the proportion is sufficient to put the future of the nuclear industry in jeopardy in those countries where there is a choice. Over the years, scientists and engineers have tended to ignore these growing misgivings; to dismiss them as irrational; or to attempt to placate them by pumping out technical information. Simultaneously, they have allocated more and more technological resource and expertise to ensuring that low probability accidents are made even less probable. It is suggested that, if risk perceptions are to be changed, the whole attitude towards this hazardous technology must be carefully dissected and analyzed. Scientifically designed methods of attitude change can then be implemented. In particular, the social and cultural context that sustains the attitude has to be addressed through its constituent beliefs about employment prospects, safety, economic and political benefits etc. Factual knowledge, on the other hand, is largely irrelevant to attitude orientation. If anything, the antis have substantially more factual knowledge than the pros. The emotional component of the attitude is a crude, fast acting system that often controls the cognitive input and its organization. If attitude change is to succeed, a massive communication/education campaign is required over several years. But it would need to be based on the most relevant messages, originating from highly credible sources, purveyed through the most appropriate media and targetted to the moderate pros and antis and to the uncommitted
Naseh, Ladan; Heidari, Mohammad
One of the most common morally controversial issues in endof-life care is euthanasia. Examining the attitudes of nursing students to this issue is important because they may encounter situations related to euthanasia during their clinical courses. The aim of our study was to examine nursing students' attitudes to euthanasia in Shahrekord city in western Iran. This was done using the Euthanasia Attitude Scale. The scale is divided into four categories, ie ethical considerations, practical considerations, treasuring life and naturalistic beliefs. Of 132 nursing students, 120 participated in the study (response rate 93.1%). According to the study's findings, 52.5%, 2.5% and 45% of the students reported a negative, neutral and positive attitude to euthanasia, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the nursing students' attitudes to euthanasia and some demographic characteristics, including sex, age and religious beliefs. Iranian Muslim nursing students participating in the study had a negative attitude to euthanasia. Further studies are recommended among nursing students from different cultures and of different religious faiths.
Markley, F. Landis; Sedlak, Joseph E.
This paper presents a Kalman filter using a seven-component attitude state vector comprising the angular momentum components in an inertial reference frame, the angular momentum components in the body frame, and a rotation angle. The relatively slow variation of these parameters makes this parameterization advantageous for spinning spacecraft attitude estimation. The filter accounts for the constraint that the magnitude of the angular momentum vector is the same in the inertial and body frames by employing a reduced six-component error state. Four variants of the filter, defined by different choices for the reduced error state, are tested against a quaternion-based filter using simulated data for the THEMIS mission. Three of these variants choose three of the components of the error state to be the infinitesimal attitude error angles, facilitating the computation of measurement sensitivity matrices and causing the usual 3x3 attitude covariance matrix to be a submatrix of the 6x6 covariance of the error state. These variants differ in their choice for the other three components of the error state. The variant employing the infinitesimal attitude error angles and the angular momentum components in an inertial reference frame as the error state shows the best combination of robustness and efficiency in the simulations. Attitude estimation results using THEMIS flight data are also presented.
Ernest Cyril de Run
Full Text Available This research is aimed at determining the attitudes with regard to advertising from the perspective of generational cohorts in Sarawak. A two-phase of study was conducted to firstly identify generational cohorts in the state and, secondly, to investigate the attitude of each cohort to advertising. Utilizing theories of generations, a qualitative approach by means of personal interviews was used at the outset to identify external events which bring about the formation of cohorts. Accordingly, 48 interviews were conducted and data were content-analyzed. The findings were then incorporated into the second phase of study to investigate cohorts’ views about advertising, using theory of reasoned action. A quantitative approach via questionnaire-based survey was administered, and 1,410 copies were collected for analysis. Five distinct cohorts are proposed in the initial findings. They are labeled as Neoteric Inheritors, Prospective Pursuers, Social Strivers, Idealistic Strugglers and Battling Lifers on the basis of their respective engagement with events during the coming-of-age years. The subsequent findings show that beliefs about advertising are significant predictors of the attitudes to advertising, and so are the attitudes with regard to the intention of every cohort. However, their beliefs and attitudes to advertising are found to differ significantly, especially in the older cohort. The study thus highlights the implication of generational differences on the attitudes to advertising.
Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Chung, Gilbert
The aim of this study was to evaluate attitudes towards and achievement in science of Form 3 students studying in single-sex and coeducational schools in Brunei. The results demonstrated significant differences in attitudes towards and achievement in science of male and female students in single-sex schools and students in coeducational schools. These differences were at moderate level. In single-sex schools, the girls achieved moderately better in science than the boys despite their attitudes were only marginally better than the boys. However, there were no gender differences in attitudes towards and achievement in science of students in coeducational schools. The attitudes towards and achievement in science of girls in single-sex schools were moderately better than those of girls in coeducational schools. Whereas the attitudes towards and achievement in science of boys in single-sex schools were only marginally better than the boys in coeducational schools. However, further research to investigate (a) if these differences are repeated at other levels as well as in other subjects, and (b) the extent to which school type contributed towards these differences is recommended.
Herbert, Diane F.; Schiaffino, Kathleen M.
This study investigated adolescents' and parents' perceptions regarding smoking behavior, attitudes toward smoking, and smoking communication. Instruments were developed to measure multidimensional smoking communication messages and smoking attitudes in 140 mother-adolescent dyads. The prediction of relevant adolescent smoking variables is…
Smith, L R; Ryan, B E
The joint effects of student achievement level and attitude survey format upon attitudes toward reading were investigated. Sixth-grade students completed reading attitude surveys involving a standard Likert-type format or one involving pictures of the comic strip character, Garfield. The survey items were identical for both formats; only the presentation format was varied. There was no significant main effect on attitude responses due to achievement level, but the main effect due to survey format was significant, with the Likert-type format producing significantly higher attitude responses than the Garfield format. The interaction between achievement level and format also was significant, with above average students and average students giving higher attitude responses than did below average students when the Garfield format was used. When the Likert-type format was used, average students and below average students gave higher attitude responses than did above average students. The results imply that attitude responses of adolescents can be manipulated by varying the format of the survey.
Tezer, Murat; Ozcan, Deniz
Attitudes of the students towards mathematics lessons are very important in terms of their success and motivation. The purpose of this study is to develop a scale for the assessment of primary school students' attitudes towards mathematics courses in the 2nd and 3rd grades, to analyse its validity-reliability structure and to determine the…
Erdogan, Sezen Camci
The purpose of this study is to determine science teaching attitudes and scientific attitudes of pre-service teachers of gifted students due to gender and grade level and also correlation among these variables. It is a survey study that the group is 82 students attending Gifted Education undergraduate level. Data is gathered by Scientific Attitude…
Giesen, van R.I.
Together, the chapters in this thesis show that although the default is to rely on affect, in attitude formation toward unfamiliar attitude objects, people are able to draw on cognitive inferences provided that there are enough cues available (e.g. product context, high Need for Cognition, or being
Reyna, Christine; Dobria, Ovidiu; Wetherell, Geoffrey
Americans' conflicted attitudes toward immigrants and immigration has stymied immigration reform for decades. In this article, we explore the nuanced nature of stereotypes about immigrants and how they relate to ambivalent attitudes toward immigrant groups and the disparate array of immigration policies that affect them. Using item response theory and multiple regression analysis, we identified and related stereotypes of different immigrant groups to group-based and policy attitudes. Results demonstrate that ambivalent stereotypes mapped onto ambivalent group-based and immigration policy attitudes. Specifically, stereotypes that portray groups in positive or sympathetic ways predicted positive attitudes toward the group and more supportive attitudes toward policies that facilitate their immigration to the United States. Conversely, negative qualities predicted negative attitudes toward the same group and support for policies that prevent the group from immigrating. Results are discussed in light of current theory related to stereotype content, complementarity of stereotypes, and broader implications for immigration attitudes and policy. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
McKinnon, David H.; Nolan, C. J. Patrick; Sinclair, Kenneth E.
Describes results of an integrated curriculum project in New Zealand that generated paradoxical results regarding student motivation and attitudes toward computer use during junior high school, where attitudes became less positive. Examines implications for the design and implementation of curriculum projects involving student use of computer…
Röder, A.; Lubbers, M.
This contribution investigates the socially conservative attitudes of newly arrived immigrants from Poland in two Western European countries, Ireland and the Netherlands, with a particular interest in the selective nature of out-migration along non-economic factors and attitude change after
Henderson-King, Donna; Brooks, Kelly D.
Rates of cosmetic surgery procedures have increased dramatically over the past several decades, but only recently have studies of cosmetic surgery attitudes among the general population begun to appear in the literature. The vast majority of those who undergo cosmetic surgery are women. We examined cosmetic surgery attitudes among 218…
Abstract We proposed a model of intergroup contact wherein contact promotes understanding of outgroup perspectives, perspective taking relates to reduced intergroup anxiety that in turn is associated with lessened stereotyping and more positive intergroup attitudes. Additionally, we examined if implicit attitudes followed this model or were directly impacted by contact. White undergraduates (n = 153) completed measures of contact, perspective taking, intergroup anxiety, stereotype ...
van Vuuren, Hubrecht A.; Cooren, François
In proposing a next step in loosening the restriction of action to humans, this paper explores what we call the agency of attitudes and especially the ethical and practical questions that such recognition should entail. In line with Actor-Network Theory, we suggest that attitudes, passions and
Hatemi, Peter K.; Verhulst, Brad
The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area. PMID:25734580
Hatemi, Peter K; Verhulst, Brad
The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area.
Yount, James R.; Horton, Phillip B.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between factors believed to contribute to the formation of environmental attitudes by college nonscience majors. Key relationships addressed were the effects of a university environmental studies course on (a) environmental attitudes, (b) the amount of factual information that is brought to bear on an environmental attitude decision (defensibility), and (c) the linkages between the affective and the cognitive domains of freshman and sophomore students. When compared to the control group, the students who attended an environmental studies class did not significantly change their attitudes, but they did exhibit increases in their total [F(3, 132) = 5.91, p cognitive reasoning scores were more prone to increase defensibility [F(6, 129) = 3.78, p cognitive and affective domains in the environmental attitude decision-making process.
Antoniadis, D; Gouti, A; Kaloudi, E; Τourlende, N; Douzenis, A; Christodoulou, C; Lykouras, L; Livaditis, M; Samakouri, M
Attitudes and beliefs of the population regarding the mentally ill have been universally subject of many researches. Research of different groups' opinion for mental disorders has given remarkable findings that assist in the right design of psychiatric services. Objective of this thesis is to study the attitude of students towards mental illness. In particular, it intends to study the differences derived from the age, gender, place of birth, kind of studies, year of study, duration of stay at the place of studies and the existence of mental disorders in the student's family. Data were collected from 536 students randomly selected from Universities and Technological Institutions both in Athens and Thessaloniki. In general, the participants are being divided based on the subject of their studies in undergraduates of human sciences, exact sciences, social and health sciences. The short version of the scale "Community Attitudes Toward the Mentality III" (CAMI) was used, which consists of 26 questions sorted to four subscales (domination scale, humanism scale, social exclusion scale and the scale measuring the community beliefs regarding the care of mentally ill), along with a special questionnaire in order to collect social and demographic data. Students' attitudes towards mental illness are influenced by demographic factors, the department they are studying at and the year of study. Female gender (p=0.000), personal contact with mentally ill (p=0.012), studying in Universities (p=0.031) and especially social sciences (p=0.009) are associated with positive attitudes. On the contrary, less years of studying are associated with negative attitudes whereas older students appear to score less in the Domination Scale (p=0.000). It is significant that the place of birth (p=0,335) and the duration of stay at the place of studies (r=0.735) did not show any association with the variables studied in this research. However these results cannot be compared with older researches
Nebhinani, Naresh; Mamta; Gaikwad, Achla D.; Tamphasana, L.
Background: Preventing suicide depends upon different health professionals’ knowledge regarding suicide, attitude toward suicide attempters, skills to assess and manage suicidal risk. Objectives: This study was aimed to assess the attitude of nursing students toward suicide prevention. Materials and Methods: 308 nursing students were recruited from the two institutions through total enumeration method. Attitude toward suicide prevention scale was administered. Study design was cross-sectional. Results: Majority were single females, from urban locality, who were pursuing BSc Nursing with the mean age of 20 years. Only minority had previous exposure to suicide prevention programs or workshops. Nearly half of the subjects had positive attitude toward working with suicidal patients. Again half of the subjects considered unemployment and poverty as main causes of suicide and were quite hopeless about it and they also perceived that most of the suicidal people would not reveal their suicidal plans to others. Conclusions: Merely half of the students had positive attitude toward working with suicidal patients. Hence, there is strong need to organize more educational and training programs on suicide prevention so that these budding health professionals could be more equipped and trained to manage these suicidal patients. PMID:25013311
Since the last three decades or so, we have witnessed the growing concern of human beings, all over the world, to adopt measures to conserve and preserve environment of the planet earth, because the same has been threatened by human activity and by way of our unparalleled intervention in the otherwise balanced environment. This awareness and concern has emerged as a need of incorporating environmental Issues into the normal curricula, so that we can educate the young generation to become informed decision-makers of the future. UNESCO and UNEP have advocated (since the last three decades) to teach environmentalised science to students. In Pakistan, there have been attempts to change curricula in accordance with the need of the time. Teachers need new kinds of skills, attitudes and commitment to teach science in an environmentalised fashion. This article discusses the impact of a semester-course on change in environmental attitudes of prospective science-teachers. A pre-test, post-test method was used to ascertain any change in environmental attitude of prospective science-teachers, after studying the environmental education course. It has been shown that there was a change in the environmental attitude of science-teachers as a result of the one-semester course, but the change or the level of attitude was not substantial or satisfactory. There seems to be a need of adopting a comprehensive approach to environmental education, and introducing teaching of environmental concepts at a very early age. (author)
Bertin, Lauren; Lipsky, Samara; Erblich, Joel
Cigarette cravings, especially those in response to environmental stressors and other smoking-related triggers (e.g., passing by a favorite smoking spot), are important contributors to smoking behavior and relapse. Previous studies have demonstrated significant individual differences in such cravings. This study explores the possibility that attitudes about smoking can influence the experience of cigarette craving. Consistent with classical theories of the links between cognition and motivation, we predicted that smokers who exhibit more favorable attitudes towards smoking would have greater cravings. Daily smokers (n=103, mean age=41.8years, 33% female) were instructed to imagine smoking, stress, and neutral scenarios. Cravings were measured prior to and after each exposure. Participants also completed an abridged version of the Smoking Consequence Questionnaire (SCQ) that had them rate the: 1) desirability and 2) likelihood, for eighteen separate negative smoking consequences (e.g., "The more I smoke, the more I risk my health", "People will think less of me if they see me smoking"). Findings revealed that favorable attitudes about the consequences of smoking, as measured by the SCQ-desirability index, significantly predicted cigarette cravings. Findings suggest that individual attitudes toward smoking may play an important role in better understanding cigarette cravings, which may ultimately help identify targets for more efficient and effective cognitive/attitude-based interventions for smoking cessation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nebhinani, Naresh; Mamta; Gaikwad, Achla D; Tamphasana, L
Preventing suicide depends upon different health professionals' knowledge regarding suicide, attitude toward suicide attempters, skills to assess and manage suicidal risk. This study was aimed to assess the attitude of nursing students toward suicide prevention. 308 nursing students were recruited from the two institutions through total enumeration method. Attitude toward suicide prevention scale was administered. Study design was cross-sectional. Majority were single females, from urban locality, who were pursuing BSc Nursing with the mean age of 20 years. Only minority had previous exposure to suicide prevention programs or workshops. Nearly half of the subjects had positive attitude toward working with suicidal patients. Again half of the subjects considered unemployment and poverty as main causes of suicide and were quite hopeless about it and they also perceived that most of the suicidal people would not reveal their suicidal plans to others. Merely half of the students had positive attitude toward working with suicidal patients. Hence, there is strong need to organize more educational and training programs on suicide prevention so that these budding health professionals could be more equipped and trained to manage these suicidal patients.
Full Text Available Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV infection causes severe disabilities and developmental delays. Women's awareness of CMV is low. Only about half of healthcare providers report counseling women about behaviors to reduce CMV risk and public health education is limited. Routine CMV counseling is not recommend. Providers may lack time to counsel women; other conditions may take priority for counseling; there may be a perception that women are reluctant to follow advice. This cross-sectional descriptive study examined women's attitudes toward CMV prevention behaviors. Data were collected from an online panel of 840 U.S. women 18–40 years of age, who had a child <5 years of age, and were pregnant or planning a pregnancy in the next 12 months. Questions assessed CMV awareness, frequency of past behaviors that transmit CMV, and attitudes toward eight CMV prevention behaviors. Only 15.5% of women were somewhat or very familiar with CMV. Very few women (6.1% reported hearing from their provider about CMV. Women held positive attitudes toward the CMV prevention behaviors and perceived them as feasible. Least positive attitudes were toward not kissing a child on the lips and not sharing foods. Predictors of positive attitudes were CMV awareness, past behavior, talking to a healthcare provider, and perceived risk reduction. Healthcare providers and public health practitioners should collaborate to increase CMV awareness. Encouraging behaviors to reduce saliva sharing may result in greater gains in reducing CMV infection.
Laanterä, Sari; Pölkki, Tarja; Ekström, Anette; Pietilä, Anna-Maija
Breastfeeding attitudes are known to influence infant feeding but little information exists on the prenatal breastfeeding attitudes of parents. The purpose of this study was to describe Finnish parents' prenatal breastfeeding attitudes and their relationships with demographic characteristics. The electronic Breastfeeding Knowledge, Attitude and Confidence scale was developed and 172 people (123 mothers, 49 fathers) completed the study. The data were analysed using factor analysis and nonparametric methods. Breastfeeding was regarded as important, but 54% of the respondents wanted both parents to feed the newborn. The mean rank values of breastfeeding attitudes differed significantly when parity, gender, education, age, breastfeeding history and level of breastfeeding knowledge were considered. The respondents who were expecting their first child, were 18-26 years old or had vocational qualifications or moderate breastfeeding knowledge had more negative feelings and were more worried about breastfeeding than respondents who had at least one child, had a higher vocational diploma or academic degree or had high levels of breastfeeding knowledge. Respondents with high levels of breastfeeding knowledge did not appear concerned about equality in feeding. Both mothers and fathers found breastfeeding important. A father's eagerness to participate in their newborn's life should be included in prenatal breastfeeding counselling and ways in which to support breastfeeding discussed. Relevant information about breastfeeding should focus on the parents who are expecting their first child, those who are young, those with low levels of education or those who have gaps in breastfeeding knowledge, so that fears and negative views can be resolved.
Wole M. Olatokun
Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined and identified the factors that affect lawyers’ attitudes to knowledge sharing, and their knowledge sharing behaviour. Specifically, it investigated the relationship between the salient beliefs affecting the knowledge sharing attitude of lawyers’, and applied a modified version of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA in the knowledge sharing context, to predict how these factors affect their knowledge sharing behaviour.Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers was carried out, using questionnaire for data collection. Collected data on all variables were structured into grouped frequency distributions. Principal Component Factor Analysis was applied to reduce the constructs and Simple Regression was applied to test the hypotheses. These were tested at 0.05% level of significance.Results: Results showed that expected associations and contributions were the major determinants of lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. Expected reward was not significantly related to lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. A positive attitude towards knowledge sharing was found to lead to a positive intention to share knowledge, although a positive intention to share knowledge did not significantly predict a positive knowledge sharing behaviour. The level of Information Technology (IT usage was also found to significantly affect the knowledge sharing behaviour of lawyers’.Conclusion: It was recommended that law firms in the study area should deploy more IT infrastructure and services that encourage effective knowledge sharing amongst lawyers.
Pérez-Testor, Carles; Behar, Julia; Davins, Montse; Conde Sala, José Luís; Castillo, José A; Salamero, Manel; Alomar, Elisabeth; Segarra, Sabina
Schools play a key role in transmitting attitudes towards sexual diversity. Many studies stress the importance of teachers' and other professionals' attitudes towards gay men and/or lesbian women. This study evaluates attitudes and prejudices toward homosexuality in a sample of 254 elementary and high school teachers in Barcelona and its surrounding area. The results obtained using a scale of overt and subtle prejudice and a scale of perceived discrepancy of values indicate that discrepancy between likely behavior and personal values was significantly greater in women, those who hold religious beliefs, churchgoers and people without any gay or lesbian acquaintances. Approximately 88% of the teachers showed no type of prejudiced attitudes towards gay men and lesbian women. The experience of proximity to gay men and/or lesbian women reduces not only the discrepancy between personal values and likely behavior but also the presence of homophobic prejudice. It would be advisable to expand specific teacher training in the subject of sexual diversity in order to reduce prejudicial attitudes, thus fostering non-stereotyped knowledge of homosexuality.
Matharu, Kabir; Kravitz, Richard L; McMahon, Graham T; Wilson, Machelle D; Fitzgerald, Faith T
Healthcare providers' attitudes toward sexual minorities influence patient comfort and outcomes. This study characterized medical student attitudes toward gay men, focusing on behavior, personhood, gay civil rights, and male toughness. A cross-sectional web-based anonymous survey was sent to medical students enrolled at the University of California, Davis (N = 371) with a response rate of 68%. Few respondents expressed negative attitudes toward gay men or would deny them civil rights. More negative responses were seen with respect to aspects of intimate behavior and homosexuality as a natural form of sexual expression. Men and students younger than 25 years old were more likely to endorse negative attitudes toward behavior as well as more traditional views on male toughness. We show that an important minority of students express discomfort with the behavior of gay men and hold to a narrow construction of male identity. These findings suggest that competency training must move beyond conceptual discussions and address attitudes toward behaviors through new pedagogical approaches.
Background Healthcare providers’ attitudes toward sexual minorities influence patient comfort and outcomes. This study characterized medical student attitudes toward gay men, focusing on behavior, personhood, gay civil rights, and male toughness. Methods A cross-sectional web-based anonymous survey was sent to medical students enrolled at the University of California, Davis (N = 371) with a response rate of 68%. Results Few respondents expressed negative attitudes toward gay men or would deny them civil rights. More negative responses were seen with respect to aspects of intimate behavior and homosexuality as a natural form of sexual expression. Men and students younger than 25 years old were more likely to endorse negative attitudes toward behavior as well as more traditional views on male toughness. Conclusions We show that an important minority of students express discomfort with the behavior of gay men and hold to a narrow construction of male identity. These findings suggest that competency training must move beyond conceptual discussions and address attitudes toward behaviors through new pedagogical approaches. PMID:22873668
Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare providers’ attitudes toward sexual minorities influence patient comfort and outcomes. This study characterized medical student attitudes toward gay men, focusing on behavior, personhood, gay civil rights, and male toughness. Methods A cross-sectional web-based anonymous survey was sent to medical students enrolled at the University of California, Davis (N = 371 with a response rate of 68%. Results Few respondents expressed negative attitudes toward gay men or would deny them civil rights. More negative responses were seen with respect to aspects of intimate behavior and homosexuality as a natural form of sexual expression. Men and students younger than 25 years old were more likely to endorse negative attitudes toward behavior as well as more traditional views on male toughness. Conclusions We show that an important minority of students express discomfort with the behavior of gay men and hold to a narrow construction of male identity. These findings suggest that competency training must move beyond conceptual discussions and address attitudes toward behaviors through new pedagogical approaches.
Gong, Hao; Chen, Keshan; Ren, Wenqiang; Cai, Xin
The traditional attitude detection technology can't tackle the problem of attitude detection of the polyhedral robot. Thus we propose a novel algorithm of multi-sensor data fusion which is based on Kalman filter. In the algorithm a tetrahedron robot is investigated. We devise an attitude detection system for the polyhedral robot and conduct the verification of data fusion algorithm. It turns out that the minimal attitude detection system we devise could capture attitudes of the tetrahedral robot in different working conditions. Thus the Kinematics model we establish for the tetrahedron robot is correct and the feasibility of the attitude detection system is proven.
Zeng, Xianglong; Pan, Yiqin; Zhou, Han; Yu, Shi; Liu, Xiangping
Individual differences in love attitudes and the relationship between love attitudes and other variables in Asian culture lack in-depth exploration. This study conducted cluster analysis with data regarding love attitudes obtained from 389 college students in mainland China. The result of cluster analysis based on love-attitude scales distinguished four types of students: game players, rational lovers, emotional lovers, and absence lovers. These four groups of students showed significant differences in sexual attitudes and personality traits of deliberation and dutifulness but not self-discipline. The study’s implications for future studies on love attitudes in certain cultural groups were also discussed. PMID:27851784
Zeng, Xianglong; Pan, Yiqin; Zhou, Han; Yu, Shi; Liu, Xiangping
Individual differences in love attitudes and the relationship between love attitudes and other variables in Asian culture lack in-depth exploration. This study conducted cluster analysis with data regarding love attitudes obtained from 389 college students in mainland China. The result of cluster analysis based on love-attitude scales distinguished four types of students: game players, rational lovers, emotional lovers, and absence lovers. These four groups of students showed significant differences in sexual attitudes and personality traits of deliberation and dutifulness but not self-discipline. The study's implications for future studies on love attitudes in certain cultural groups were also discussed.
Full Text Available Individual differences in love attitudes and the relationship between love attitudes and other variables in Asian culture lack in-depth exploration. This study conducted cluster analysis with data regarding love attitudes obtained from 389 college students in mainland China. The result of cluster analysis based on love-attitude scales distinguished four types of students: game players, rational lovers, emotional lovers, and absence lovers. These four groups of students showed significant differences in sexual attitudes and personality traits of deliberation and dutifulness but not self-discipline. The study's implications for future studies on love attitudes in certain cultural groups were also discussed.
Wilson, Michelle Clare; Scior, Katrina
Implicit attitude research has expanded rapidly over the last decade and is seen as very promising as it counters biases present in much attitude research such as social desirability. However, most research in the area of intellectual disabilities has focused on explicit attitudes alone. This study examined implicit attitudes to this population and also examined their association with emotional reactions and contact, which have previously been found to have a significant influence on attitudes and stigma. A web based survey consisting of a single target Implicit Association Test, measures of explicit attitudes, social distance, and emotional reactions towards and contact with individuals with intellectual disabilities was completed by 326 adult UK residents. Implicit attitudes were not significantly associated with explicit attitudes, social distance or emotional reactions. Instead there were small to moderate associations between emotional reactions and explicit attitudes and social distance. Implicit attitudes did not vary according to participants' level of contact with individuals with intellectual disabilities, type of the contact relationship (voluntary versus involuntary), gender or educational attainment. In contrast, these participant characteristics did affect explicit attitudes and social distance. Implicit attitudes towards individuals with intellectual disabilities were somewhat negative and, unlike explicit attitudes and stigma, did not vary according to participant demographics or contact. As they may have a negative impact on the lives of people with intellectual disabilities, implicit attitudes merit increased attention in research and interventions in the intellectual disabilities field.
Michelle Clare Wilson
Full Text Available Implicit attitude research has expanded rapidly over the last decade and is seen as very promising as it counters biases present in much attitude research such as social desirability. However, most research in the area of intellectual disabilities has focused on explicit attitudes alone. This study examined implicit attitudes to this population and also examined their association with emotional reactions and contact, which have previously been found to have a significant influence on attitudes and stigma. A web based survey consisting of a single target Implicit Association Test, measures of explicit attitudes, social distance, and emotional reactions towards and contact with individuals with intellectual disabilities was completed by 326 adult UK residents. Implicit attitudes were not significantly associated with explicit attitudes, social distance or emotional reactions. Instead there were small to moderate associations between emotional reactions and explicit attitudes and social distance. Implicit attitudes did not vary according to participants' level of contact with individuals with intellectual disabilities, type of the contact relationship (voluntary versus involuntary, gender or educational attainment. In contrast, these participant characteristics did affect explicit attitudes and social distance. Implicit attitudes towards individuals with intellectual disabilities were somewhat negative and, unlike explicit attitudes and stigma, did not vary according to participant demographics or contact. As they may have a negative impact on the lives of people with intellectual disabilities, implicit attitudes merit increased attention in research and interventions in the intellectual disabilities field.
Starin, Scott R.; Eterno, John
designing and operating spacecraft pointing (i.e. attitude) systems.
Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Møller, Mette
; further, self-reports of the intention to drive safely (or not) are socially sensitive. Therefore, we examined automatic preferences towards safe and risky driving with a Go/No-go Association Task (GNAT). The results suggest that (1) implicit attitudes towards driving behavior can be measured reliably...... with the GNAT; (2) implicit attitudes towards safe driving versus towards risky driving may be separable constructs. We propose that research on driving behavior may benefit from routinely including measures of implicit cognition. A practical advantage is a lesser susceptibility to social desirability biases......, compared to self-report methods. Pending replication in future research, the apparent dissociation between implicit attitudes towards safe versus risky driving that we observed may contribute to a greater theoretical understanding of the causes of unsafe and risky driving behavior....
Full Text Available After experiencing library service failure, the user may directly or indirectly voice his/her complaint, which is the best prescription to improve library public services. The paper explores the academic librarians and users’ attitudes towards complaints. Through surveying six hundred students from twenty universities and applying descriptive and inferential statistical techniques, the study investigates student users’ complaint preference and behavior afterwards, and perception of complaint handling and outcome. The study reports and compares their attitudes and perspectives towards library complaints. It further examines the differences in attitudes and behavior intention among respondents who had prior experience in filing complaints at libraries, did not complain, and had no prior experience in service failure. An ultimate analysis was made to contrast the user’s perception towards complaint handling of the library and of for-profit organization. [Article content in Chinese
Full Text Available This article concerns the attitudes people have towards money, analysed from an economic and psychological point of view. The article presents an overview of current knowledge on the issues of money attitudes, as well as derived own research derived. This research was designed in order to identify different types of money attitudes as well as their determinants. The study identified five dominant profiles and showed that the most popular is a rational approach, and second – it’s opposite - improvidence. The results have been faced with the most important economic socialization determinants identified during the literature review. The comparison proved to be important, e.g. in the form of receiving pocket money.
Raluca BĂBUŢ (COMIATI
Full Text Available As advertisements are broadcast on a daily basis, Romanian consumers are subject to an intensive media bombardment designed to influence them, trigger certain emotions, and make them develop an attitude to a particular brand or product. When designing the advertisement, great care must be taken so that it conveys positive feelings and emotions and fosters favourable attitudes to a brand. The object of the current research is to determine how consumers are able to assess the advertisement phenomenon in general and the TV commercials in particular. Based on a representative sample of 550 Romanian consumers from the urban population, the study highlights the Romanian consumers’ attitude to various types of advertisements, endorsers and creative strategies used to design and execute the advertisements. The managerial as well as the scientific implications are considered by means of the correlations made according to the respondents’ social and demographic characteristics.
Moskowitz, David A.; Rieger, Gerulf; Roloff, Michael E.
Negative attitudes of heterosexual people toward same-sex marriage relate to the degree to which they are homophobic. However, it has been understudied whether there exists a gender difference in this association. Our results indicated that homophobia was the best predictor of attitudes toward gay male and lesbian marriage, and this was equally true for both heterosexual men and women. However, the attitudinal difference between gay male and lesbian marriage was related to homophobia in men but not in women. That is, for men only, being less homophobic towards lesbians than towards gay men was associated with favoring lesbian over gay men marriage. Considering these results, the role of gender in attitudes toward same-sex marriage seems to be as an important moderator of homophobia. PMID:20390996
Wole M. Olatokun
Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers was carried out, using questionnaire for data collection. Collected data on all variables were structured into grouped frequency distributions. Principal Component Factor Analysis was applied to reduce the constructs and Simple Regression was applied to test the hypotheses. These were tested at 0.05% level of significance. Results: Results showed that expected associations and contributions were the major determinants of lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. Expected reward was not significantly related to lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. A positive attitude towards knowledge sharing was found to lead to a positive intention to share knowledge, although a positive intention to share knowledge did not significantly predict a positive knowledge sharing behaviour. The level of Information Technology (IT usage was also found to significantly affect the knowledge sharing behaviour of lawyers’. Conclusion: It was recommended that law firms in the study area should deploy more IT infrastructure and services that encourage effective knowledge sharing amongst lawyers.
Julio Fernando Acosta Muñoz
Full Text Available This work is a reflection article, product of the research referred to ‘Researching Attitudes of Young People in Research Training at the School’. The field of interest is focused on developing the contrast, of theoretical and critical type, facing the research training from the proposal of different research attitudes in the training processes of the school. Methodologically, it is constructed from the theoretical review of authors, exploring the problem at the same time. First the difficulties, expressed about the research training and the relationship of this type of education with traditional positivist view, are described. Within the text, it is proposed to visualize different attitudes in the scholar research training (childhood experience, self-knowledge, and the reflective and critical condition, based on the subjectivity of the classroom, placing the trainee as an object of reflection and action in his/her researcher process.
The current trend towards ethical scrutiny and oversight is very much a social trend. Many of the results of this trend are perfectly reasonable but some go harmfully too far. In this paper, caution is advocated about public attitudes and social trends. Although there is often a degree of truth in them, there is an inevitable simplification of the issues involved. The more specific danger for the professions is to think that public attitudes and social trends simply deliver 'the ethical'. In this context a more adequate account of ethics is considered - one that is relevant for professions like radiology confronting the demands of ethical scrutiny and oversight. The paper concludes with some suggestions about how to incorporate the important aspects of public attitudes and social trends without being subservient to them. (authors)
Moskowitz, David A; Rieger, Gerulf; Roloff, Michael E
Negative attitudes of heterosexual people toward same-sex marriage relate to the degree to which they are homophobic. However, it has been understudied whether there exists a gender difference in this association. Our results indicated that homophobia was the best predictor of attitudes toward gay male and lesbian marriage, and this was equally true for both heterosexual men and women. However, the attitudinal difference between gay male and lesbian marriage was related to homophobia in men but not in women. That is, for men only, being less homophobic toward lesbians than toward gay men was associated with favoring lesbian over gay men marriage. Considering these results, the role of gender in attitudes toward same-sex marriage seems to be as an important moderator of homophobia.
Dreisler, Poul; Blenker, Per; Nielsen, Kent T.
. The choice of strategy depends on whether the target groups: 1) have a positive or negative attitude towards what is socially desired, and 2) are engaged or not engaged in socially desired action During the last 30 years, entrepreneurship has become what most nations would call a socially desirable action...... and Frazier's (1982) model of planned social change, examining whether initiatives can be a means of creating change in attitudes or in behaviour or in both? The basic idea underlying Sheth and Frazier's model is that different strategies can be used to bring about socially desirable attitudes and behaviour...... and thus a target for planned social change. However, the model introduced by Sheth and Frazier has never been used to analyse how this socially desirable action can be promoted. Undertaking such an analysis is the ambition of this paper, and based on this analysis, the paper will, will conclude...
DeSantis, L; Thomas, J T
The problem of teenage pregnancy continues to impact private and public resources, affecting all socioeconomic and cultural groups. A key factor for nurse practitioners to consider when planning sex education programs is the differing parental attitudes toward teenage sexuality. These attitudes are especially important to keep in mind when dealing with parents from minority cultural groups, as these groups are often highly influential in determining the nature of adolescent sexual behavior and attitudes toward reproduction. A study of Cuban and Haitian child-rearing practices clearly demonstrates two divergent parental views of adolescent sexuality. Nurse practitioners must recognize these differing views, and individualize their approach, in order to develop culturally sensitive sex education programs for adolescents and their parents. Suggestions are provided for development of such programs for Cuban and Haitian parents and children.
Full Text Available This paper presents the attitudes and behaviour of young consumers towards food waste based on a pilot qualitative research and data published in the literature. Qualitative research was conducted with the use of focus grou p method, with approximately 8–10 selected students per group. Four focus group sessions were held, with open discussion led by a moderator and the scenario containing problematic issues. The study included a total of thirty-seven students, aged 22– 25 years. Studies have shown that negative attitude of household towards food waste is not frequently refl ected in consumers’ behaviour, despite their fundamental knowledge on how to reduce food waste. Respondents emphasized the need for educational campaigns. Properly selected and presented information will stimulate both consumer’s attitude and behaviour.
Adıbelli, Derya; Ünal, Ayşe Sevim; Şen, Tülay
Domestic violence is commonly observed worldwide; however, exposure to violence is not often mentioned directly. Prevention of domestic violence may be one of the most important social problems and requires much time and effort to resolve. This study was conducted to determine the attitudes toward domestic violence of Turkish males who are young adult and undertake military service, and the factors that affect these attitudes. A cross-sectional study design was used. This study was conducted with 221 young adult men who applied to Sarıkamış Military Hospital between December 2012 and February 2013. A questionnaire and the Attitude Toward Domestic Violence Scale were used for the collection of data. One-way ANOVA, T test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Mann-Whitney U test were used in the process of analyzing the data. In the study, it was found that 10% of the young adult men were exposed to violence within their own family and the average of their total scores from the Attitude Toward Domestic Violence Scale was 49.41 ± 7.27. It was confirmed that undereducated men have more negative attitudes toward domestic violence than other groups. The present study determined that men who have negative attitudes toward domestic violence and who have a low education level affected attitudes toward domestic violence negatively. It is important that violence is prevented before it occurs. In this respect, health professionals, politicians, teachers, academics, and all community leaders have an important role in preventing initiatives on violence.
Amin, Latifah; Hashim, Hasrizul; Mahadi, Zurina; Ibrahim, Maznah; Ismail, Khaidzir
Concern about the inevitable depletion of global energy resources is rising and many countries are shifting their focus to renewable energy. Biodiesel is one promising energy source that has garnered much public attention in recent years. Many believe that this alternative source of energy will be able to sustain the need for increased energy security while at the same time being friendly to the environment. Public opinion, as well as proactive measures by key players in industry, may play a decisive role in steering the direction of biodiesel development throughout the world. Past studies have suggested that public acceptance of biofuels could be shaped by critical consideration of the risk-benefit perceptions of the product, in addition to the impact on the economy and environment. The purpose of this study was to identify the relevant factors influencing stakeholders' attitudes towards biodiesel derived from crops such as palm oil for vehicle use, as well as to analyse the interrelationships of these factors in an attitude model. A survey of 509 respondents, consisting of various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia, was undertaken. The results of the study have substantiated the premise that the most important direct predictor of attitude to biodiesel is the perceived benefits ( β = 0.80, p < 0.001). Attitude towards biodiesel also involves the interplay between other factors, such as engagement to biotechnology, trust of key players, attitude to technology, and perceived risk. Although perceived benefit has emerged as the main predictor of public support of biodiesel, the existence of other significant interactions among variables leads to the conclusion that public attitude towards biodiesel should be seen as a multi-faceted process and should be strongly considered prior to its commercialisation.
Chak, Yew-Chung; Varatharajoo, Renuganth
Many spacecraft attitude control systems today use reaction wheels to deliver precise torques to achieve three-axis attitude stabilization. However, irrecoverable mechanical failure of reaction wheels could potentially lead to mission interruption or total loss. The electrically-powered Solar Array Drive Assemblies (SADA) are usually installed in the pitch axis which rotate the solar arrays to track the Sun, can produce torques to compensate for the pitch-axis wheel failure. In addition, the attitude control of a flexible spacecraft poses a difficult problem. These difficulties include the strong nonlinear coupled dynamics between the rigid hub and flexible solar arrays, and the imprecisely known system parameters, such as inertia matrix, damping ratios, and flexible mode frequencies. In order to overcome these drawbacks, the adaptive Jacobian tracking fuzzy control is proposed for the combined attitude and sun-tracking control problem of a flexible spacecraft during attitude maneuvers in this work. For the adaptation of kinematic and dynamic uncertainties, the proposed scheme uses an adaptive sliding vector based on estimated attitude velocity via approximate Jacobian matrix. The unknown nonlinearities are approximated by deriving the fuzzy models with a set of linguistic If-Then rules using the idea of sector nonlinearity and local approximation in fuzzy partition spaces. The uncertain parameters of the estimated nonlinearities and the Jacobian matrix are being adjusted online by an adaptive law to realize feedback control. The attitude of the spacecraft can be directly controlled with the Jacobian feedback control when the attitude pointing trajectory is designed with respect to the spacecraft coordinate frame itself. A significant feature of this work is that the proposed adaptive Jacobian tracking scheme will result in not only the convergence of angular position and angular velocity tracking errors, but also the convergence of estimated angular velocity to
Are beliefs about and behaviors towards the Bible associated with voluntary euthanasia attitudes? Using General Social Survey data and multivariate logistic regression, I find that individuals' views of the authorship and epistemological status of the Bible; the importance of the Bible in making decisions; and the frequency in which individuals read the Bible are associated with negative voluntary euthanasia attitudes, even when controlling for other religiosity and sociodemographic predictors. I find that the importance of the Bible in making decisions accounts for the effect of frequency of reading the Bible and viewing the Bible as the inspired word of God.
Full Text Available The anthropocentric view holds that the social world is a projection of mental states and attitudes onto the real world. However, there is more to a society of individuals than their psychological make up. In The Ant Trap, Epstein hints at the possibility that collective intentionality can, and should, be discarded as a pillar of social ontology. In this commentary I argue that this claim is motivated by an outdated view of the nature and structure of collective attitudes. If we aim at a good theory of social ontology, we need a good theory of collective intentionality.
Hedland, D. A.; Degonia, P. K.
Attempts made to obtain a description of the in-orbit dynamic behavior of the RAE-B spacecraft and account for the discrepancies between predicted and actual in-orbit performance are reported. In particular, attitude dynamics during the final despin operations in lunar orbit, throughout all deployment operations, and into the final steady state mission mode were investigated. Attempts made to match computer simulation results to the observed equilibrium data are discussed. Due to a damaged antenna boom and the unavailability of sufficient attitude and dynamics data, most of the objectives were not realized.
when a satellite is on a throughout this thesis. Confined computer capacity and a limit on electrical power supply were separate obstacles.They demanded computational simplicity and power optimality from the attitude control system. The design of quasi optimal controllers for a real-time implementation...... to provide four stable equilibria, one of which was the desired orientation. It was explained how the equilibria depended on the ratio of the satellite's moments of inertia. It was further investigated how to control the attitude, such that the satellite was globally asymptotically stable in the desired...
Vaart, van der W.
Survey questionnaires commonly include retrospective questions on attitudes as a substitute for concurrently obtained assessments. Empirical studies have shown that these retrospectively obtained attitudes often deviate seriously from the attitudes for which they are substitutes: the attitude that
found to have a significant influence on the Ejagham child's attitude towards ... parents responsible for whatever attitudes that their children develop in life. It ..... teachers. • Parents should not accommodate the idea of children presenting to.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Prospector attitude data set consists of values for the spacecraft spin rate and spin axis orientation (attitude) as a function of time. These values are...
This study examines the attitudes of Naval officers concerning homosexuals in the military, including trends in attitudes over the past six years and understanding of the "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy...
Passengers' attitudes and behaviour towards motorcycle helmet use in Ilorin, ... Remember me ... The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes, knowledge, and behavior of motorcycle passengers to helmet use in Ilorin metropolis, ...
de Dreu, C.K.W.; van de Vliert, E.
Tested the hypothesis that majority (MAJ) influence induces convergent processing, which stimulates attitude change (AC) on focal issues (FISs), whereas minority (MIN) influence produces divergent processing, which might stimulate change on related attitudes. Ss were 86 high school students. Results
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Toyon Research Corporation proposes to develop a family of compact, low-cost GPS-based attitude (GPS/A) sensors for launch vehicles. In order to obtain 3-D attitude...
International Journal of Educational Research. Journal Home · ABOUT ... These will help to change the negative attitude of teachers to inspectors and inspection to positive. Keywords: Teacher Attitude; School Inspection; Education Inspectors.
The findings of this study have shown that the participants had conducive oral health behavior, sufficient knowledge, positive attitude and held positive beliefs regarding dental treatments. ORAL HEALTH RELATED BEHAVIOUR, KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES. AND BELIEFS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN.
' attitudes towards mathematics. In particular, the study investigated the students' attitudes along the following seven dimensions: Confidence in learning mathematics; Usefulness of mathematics; Success in mathematics; Effective motivation; ...
Aug 28, 2007 ... Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices of women regarding ... Exclusive breastfeeding (giving a child no other food or drink ... feeding practices and nutritional advice), attitudes.
Conclusions: Iranian nurses, regardless of their religious sects, reported negative attitude towards many aspects of DNR orders. It may be possible to change the attitude of Iranian nurses towards DNR through education.
Attitudes of female university students towards participation in sports. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... linked to attitude but no studies to date have explored such links, particularly in respect of black undergraduate ...
Journal Home > Vol 37, No 2 (2017) > ... Success in this core business subject is dependent on students' mathematical aptitude, attitude and type of secondary schooling. Our study investigated accounting students' attitudes to mathematics on ...
Perceived usefulness and culture as predictors of teachers attitudes towards ... perceived usefulness, perceived cultural relevance, perceived competence and access to ... and senior phase, completed the Attitudes Towards Computer Scale.
Bossaert, Goele; Colpin, Hilde; Pijl, Sip Jan; Petry, Katja
This study aimed to explore Belgian adolescents' attitudes towards peers with disabilities and to explore factors associated with these attitudes. Based on the theory of persuasive communication, this study focused on receiver variables (the "whom"), characteristics of students with disabilities
Discussed are the determinants of environmentally responsible behavior, the attitude-behavior discrepancy problem, how environmental attitudes are formed and changed, and the effects of individual differences on appropriateness of educational techniques. (CW)
aims to determine customers' attitudes towards complaining as well as their likelihood of voicing a .... is particularly powerful and impacts greatly on customer satisfaction and retention. ...... 'Cross-national analysis of hotel customers' attitudes ...
Archbold, A.; Nisbet, J.
Attitudes of 134 parents of children from 10 rural schools threatened with closure, and 56 parents of children from seven schools recently closed, were assessed by interview. Most parents opposed closure, and most gave educational reasons for their attitudes. (Author)
DeDreu, CKW; DeVries, NK
This experiment tested the general hypothesis that majority influence induces convergent processing, which stimulates attitude change on focal issues, whereas minority influence sometimes produces divergent processing, which might stimulate change on related attitudes. Results of a numerical support
Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz
Recent advances in autonomous attitude determination instrumentation enable even small satellites flying fully autonomous multi head star trackers providing full accurate and robust attitude information. Each sensor provides the full attitude information but for robustness and optimal usage...... of the available information, i.e. optimal accuracy, methods for merging such data should be investigated. The need for and desirability of attitude merging depends on the mission objective and available resources. To enable real-time attitude control and reduce requirements on download budget, on-board merging...... of attitude data will often be advantageous. This should be weighted against the need for post observation reconstruction of attitudes, especially needed when end products are sensitive to optimal attitude reconstruction. Instrument integrated merging algorithms will reduce the complexity of on-board AOCS...
Newbill, Phyllis Leary
Although negative attitudes toward science are common among women and men in undergraduate introductory science classes, women's attitudes toward science tend to be more negative than men's. The reasons for women's negative attitudes toward science include lack of self-confidence, fear of association with social outcasts, lack of women role models in science, and the fundamental differences between traditional scientific and feminist values. Attitudes are psychological constructs theorized to be composed of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral components. Attitudes serve functions, including social expressive, value expressive, utilitarian, and defensive functions, for the people who hold them. To change attitudes, the new attitudes must serve the same function as the old one, and all three components must be treated. Instructional designers can create instructional environments to effect attitude change. In designing instruction to improve women's attitudes toward science, instructional designers should (a) address the emotions that are associated with existing attitudes, (b) involve credible, attractive women role models, and (c) address the functions of the existing attitudes. Two experimental instructional modules were developed based on these recommendations, and two control modules were developed that were not based on these recommendations. The asynchronous, web-based modules were administered to 281 undergraduate geology and chemistry students at two universities. Attitude assessment revealed that attitudes toward scientists improved significantly more in the experimental group, although there was no significant difference in overall attitudes toward science. Women's attitudes improved significantly more than men's in both the experimental and control groups. Students whose attitudes changed wrote significantly more in journaling activities associated with the modules. Qualitative analysis of journals revealed that the guidelines worked exactly as predicted
Hilda Bongazana Mahlangu; Ayesha Lian Bevan-Dye
The purpose of this paper is to report on the results of a pilot study conducted on the determinants and inhibitors of Generation Y students’ attitudes towards Facebook advertising. The findings suggest that Generation Y students have a positive attitude towards the information value, entertainment value, credibility, self-brand congruity of advertising on Facebook and attitude towards the social interaction value of Facebook. Their attitudes towards trust in the site and trust in the members...
Jing, S.; Lay, A.; Weis, L.; Furnham, A.
The current study examined the relationship between traditional masculine traits and attitudes toward vibrator use, actual vibrator use, and frequency of vibrator use in China. In all, 235 Chinese females aged between 16 and 58 years completed a questionnaire regarding attitudes toward, and personal use of, vibrators. The results showed a positive association between masculine traits and attitudes toward women's vibrator use, attitudes toward vibrator use and actual vibrator use, as well as f...
Mkhize, Msizi Vitalis; Maistry, Suriamurthee Moonsamy
Mathematics proficiency has an acknowledged impact on students' accounting grades. Success in this core business subject is dependent on students' mathematical aptitude, attitude and type of secondary schooling. Our study investigated accounting students' attitudes to mathematics on domains of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales (F-SMAS) and identified demographic variables in overall attitudes to mathematics, which are pertinent to higher education pedagogy for accountancy. Eigh...
Collins, Eleanor M.; And Others
The report summarizes results of a study of attitudes of 222 undergraduate university students (University of Minnesota, Duluth) toward financial decisions involving a family member with a handicap. The Situational Attitude Scale--Handicapped Family Consumer (which assesses attitudes toward parental expenditure of money for siblings or…
Szymanski, Antonia; Croft, Laurie; Godor, Brian
The purpose of this study is to explore teacher attitudes toward gifted students in several distinct areas and to provide psychometric evidence of reliability and validity for the use of an instrument titled "Determining Attitudes Toward Ability" (DATA) to measure specific components of teacher attitudes. Subscales of Focus on Others,…
Dorn, Brian; Elliott Tew, Allison
Student attitudes play an important role in shaping learning experiences. However, few validated instruments exist for measuring student attitude development in a discipline-specific way. In this paper, we present the design, development, and validation of the computing attitudes survey (CAS). The CAS is an extension of the Colorado Learning…
van der Pligt, J.; de Vries, N.K.
In this study, 312 respondents were asked to indicate their attitude toward smoking and their smoking behavior. Attitudes were assessed by a direct attitude measure (4 items) and a series of 15 belief statements about the possible consequences of smoking. Next, respondents were asked to select the 3
Attitude toward accepting target language culture or maintaining heritage culture referred to as acculturation attitude can determine language learners' pragmatic gains during an educational sojourn. To this end, the current study investigated the relationship between language learners' acculturation attitudes during an educational sojourn and the…
Hillman, Jennifer L.; Stricker, George
Factor analysis of scores of 458 college students on the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitude Scale revealed a two-factor structure. Religious affiliation and ethnicity uniquely predicted permissive/restrictive attitudes. Death anxiety and salience of elderly sexuality uniquely predicted empathic/indifferent attitudes. Students of different ages…
Kiziltan, Gul; Karabudak, Efsun
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes among Turkish dietetic students and the relations between nutrition education and eating attitudes. The study population was 568 female university students (248 dietetic students, 320 non-dietetic students). Two scales were used: Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26)…
Kawai, Norimune; Healey, E. Charles; Nagasawa, Taiko; Vanryckeghem, Martine
Past research with the Communication Attitude Test (CAT) has shown it to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing speech-associated attitude of children who stutter (CWS). However, in Japan, the CAT has not been used extensively to examine the communication attitude of CWS. The purpose of this study was to determine if a Japanese version…
An Investigation into the Decision Makers's Risk Attitude Index Ranking Technique for Fuzzy Critical Path Analysis. ... Nigerian Journal of Technology ... for a benchmark problem, the decision maker's risk attitude index ranking method produces unrealistic results when the decision maker's attitude towards risk was neutral.
Grisamore, Amber; Roberts, Kevin R.
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore school nutrition directors' attitudes and behaviors about food recalls. Specific objectives included: 1) Determine current food recall attitudes and the relationship between demographics and these attitudes; 2) Determine current practices of school nutrition directors related to…
Klopfer, Frederick J.; Price, William F.
Information on euthanasia attitudes was obtained from fixed-schedule interviews gathered from 331 respondents. It was found that a favorable attitude toward euthanasia coincided with (1) belief in an afterlife; (2) a less favorable attitude toward euthanasia if relatives make the decision; and (3) younger respondents. (Author)
Chen, Shuang; Ma, Li; Zhang, Jian-Xin
The present study is aimed at examining implicit and explicit attitudes toward persons with disabilities among Chinese college students. The "Implicit Association Test" was used to measure their implicit attitudes, whereas their explicit attitudes toward persons with disabilities were measured by using a scale of three items.…
Baring, Rito V.
Reflecting from the Philippine experience, this article explores an emerging picture that characterizes contemporary Bible reading attitudes of college students. Six new attitude factor definitions are developed following the development of the Bible Reading (BR) attitude scale for college students constructed by this author in a separate study.…
Examined the sex-role attitude of the drug abuse treatment counselor. Found: 1) male counselors viewed clients of both sexes more negatively; 2) male clients were viewed more negatively by counselors of both sexes; 3) counselors with less education had more negative attitudes; and 4) attitudes differed with treatment program type. (Author/RC)
The study investigated junior secondary school pupils' attitudes towards mathematics. In addition, it investigated gender differences in attitudes towards the subject. The purposive sampling method was used to select nine schools in the Cape Coast Municipality, involving 581 pupils. Questionnaires on attitudes towards ...
Michael Nisengard; Miklos Gratzer
This project examines attitudes towards management strategies of four Allegany State Park recreational user groups: cabin users, recreational vehicle users, tent users, and day users. It investigates recreational user group attitude differences, and attitude change over a ten year time period, in regard to the following park management strategy categories: park...
Malinen, Olli-Pekka; Savolainen, Hannu
A sample of 523 Chinese university students was given a questionnaire on their attitudes towards the inclusion of children with disabilities into regular classrooms. Factor analysis, analysis of variance, t-test and correlations were used to assess the respondents' general attitude towards inclusion, the factor structure of the attitudes, the…
Wilczenski, Felicia L.
The Attitudes toward Inclusive Education Scale (ATIES) is a measure of positive and negative attitudes toward integrating children with disabilities into regular classes. Results with 445 teachers show that the ATIES defines a unidimensional attitudinal variable and yields interval measures of attitudes toward inclusive education. (SLD)
Kerlinger, Fred N.
The author defines values, attitudes, and beliefs according to their relation to referents. A referent is a construct standing for a set or category of social objects, ideas, or behaviors that is the focus of an attitude. Attitudes and values are belief systems. Beliefs are enduring cognitions about referents; beliefs reflect the value and…
Glock, Sabine; Kovacs, Carrie
Teachers' and preservice teachers' attitudes toward students are mental states that may contribute to teachers' judgments and students' achievement. However, in the past, educational research has mainly focused on explicit attitudes and has hardly considered the pivotal role of implicit attitudes in predicting behavior. Drawing…
Gholson, Melissa L.
This study used Yun and Weaver's (2010) Attitudes toward Poverty Short Form (ATP-SF) of twenty-one items on a Likert-type scale to determine the poverty attitudes of 309 principals in a rural Appalachian state in the United States. The study compared the poverty attitudes from the ATP-SF scaled score as a dependent variable to the following…
Al-Hoorie, Ali H.
This paper reports the first investigation in the second language acquisition field assessing learners' implicit attitudes using the Implicit Association Test, a computerized reaction-time measure. Examination of the explicit and implicit attitudes of Arab learners of English (N = 365) showed that, particularly for males, implicit attitudes toward…
Fullerton, Jami A.; Kendrick, Alice
This study used the Students' Attitudes toward Statistics Scale (STATS) to measure attitude toward statistics among a national sample of advertising students. A factor analysis revealed four underlying factors make up the attitude toward statistics construct--"Interest & Future Applicability," "Confidence," "Statistical Tools," and "Initiative."…
Epley, Rita J.; McCaghy, Charles H.
Using a range of semantic differential adjectives, 233 college students indicated attitudes toward young and old people who were healthy, ill, or terminally ill. Attitudes toward each state of health category separate into three factors: attitudes toward healthy, ill, and dying persons. (Author)
Mkhize, Msizi Vitalis; Maistry, Suriamurthee Moonsamy
Mathematics proficiency has an acknowledged impact on students' accounting grades. Success in this core business subject is dependent on students' mathematical aptitude, attitude and type of secondary schooling. Our study investigated accounting students' attitudes to mathematics on domains of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales…
Background: The attitudes toward people with epilepsy are influenced by the degree of knowledge of the condition. The social problems encountered by school children with epilepsy as a result of negative attitude and beliefs are quite enormous. Objectives The study therefore looked at the knowledge, attitudes, and ...
van der Pligt, J.; Zeelenberg, M.; van Dijk, W.W.; de Vries, N.K.; Richard, R.
Focuses on the role of affect in attitudes and decision making. The authors discuss the role of affect in attitude-formation and -change processes and 2 issues that have played a role in this research: the distinction between affect-based and cognition-based attitudes and the effects of mood on
Constantinides, Panos; Silverman, Stephen
Purpose: This study examined the attitudes of Cypriot elementary school students toward physical education. Fourth, fifth and sixth grade students (N = 763) from six urban Cypriot elementary schools completed an attitude instrument. Methods: Adapting the attitude instrument for Greek-speaking students an extensive two-step pilot study showed the…
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Attitude of rating... FOR RATING DISABILITIES General Policy in Rating § 4.23 Attitude of rating officers. It is to be... personal feelings to intrude; an antagonistic, critical, or even abusive attitude on the part of a claimant...
Doctors' attitude towards homosexuality may determine their responses and care for patients whose sexual orientation is homosexuality. Despite this, there is near absence of data on the attitude of medical students to homosexuals in Nigeria. Thus, this study investigated the attitude of final year medical students to ...
Werking, R. D.; Beck, J.; Gardner, D.; Moyer, P.; Plett, M.
A description of the attitude control support being supplied by the Mission and Data Operations Directorate is presented. Descriptions of the computer programs being used to support the mission for attitude determination, prediction, control, and definitive attitude processing are included. In addition, descriptions of the operating procedures which will be used to accomplish mission objectives are provided.
Williams, Robert H.; Williams, Sharon Ann
Discussion of conditions under which simulation games promote changes in attitudes focuses on identification theory as a predictor of attitude change. Incentive theory and cognitive dissonance theory are discussed, and a study of community college students is described that tested the role of identification in changing attitudes. (LRW)
Abstract. The study investigated junior secondary school pupils' attitudes towards mathematics. In addition, it investigated gender differences in attitudes towards the subject. The purposive sampling method was used to select nine schools in the Cape Coast. Municipality, involving 581 pupils. Questionnaires on attitudes ...
Sung, Kang Hoon; Lee, Moon J
The authors investigated the effects of reading different types of online comments about a company on people's attitude change based on individual's prior attitude toward the company. Based on Social Judgment Theory, several hypotheses were tested. The results showed that the effects of online comments interact with individuals' prior attitudes toward a corporation. People with a strong negative attitude toward a corporation were less influenced by other's online comments than people with a neutral attitude in general. However, people with a prior negative attitude were more affected by refutational two-sided comments than one-sided comments. The results suggest that the effects of user generated content should be studied in a holistic manner, not only by investigating the effects of online content itself, but also by examining how others' responses to the content shape or change individuals' attitudes based on their prior attitudes.
Dijkstra, E. M.; Goedhart, M. J.
This article describes the development and validation of the Attitudes towards Climate Change and Science Instrument. This 63-item questionnaire measures students' pro-environmental behaviour, their climate change knowledge and their attitudes towards school science, societal implications of
Małecki, Wojciech; Pawłowski, Bogusław; Sorokowski, Piotr
Literary fiction has been credited with considerable power to improve attitudes toward outgroups. It was even argued that it has been an important factor behind the global decline of violence against various minorities in the last centuries. Could it also help to reduce the human-inflicted suffering of animals? To test this, we studied the attitude toward animal welfare of n = 921 (experimental group) people of both sexes who read a short fragment of an unpublished novel with a motif of the physical abuse of an animal. The control group (n = 912) read a fragment of a similar length but not related to animals. After reading the text all subjects filled out an on-line questionnaire with seven items (camouflaged among many others items) measuring attitudes toward animal welfare. The questionnaire included also demographical questions, such as whether the subject keeps pets. We found that in comparison with the control group, the experimental group was significantly more concerned about animal welfare. This result indicates that literary fiction can influence attitudes toward other species. It is also worth noting that our study is characterized by a high level of ecological validity, i.e. a relatively high extent to which its results can be generalized (or extended) to real-world settings. Due to its specific design, which involved the cooperation of a bestselling author and his publisher, the study approximated the typical conditions in which people read fiction in a remarkably accurate way. Finally, our research has potential practical implications for promoting animal welfare.
Kutlaca, Maja; Kuppens, T.; Blikmans, Martijn; Gootjes, Frank
This study examines the moral underpinnings of attitudes towards refugees, by applying insights from moral reasoning theories. We created and in two pilot studies validated a short self-report measure of two moral reasoning styles. Next, we used this measure to investigate perceived threats,
Tosun, Cemal; Genç, Murat
The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that affect the secondary school students' attitudes in science. This study was conducted using survey method. The sample of the study was 503 students from four different secondary schools in Bartin and Düzce. Data were obtained using the Survey of Factors Affecting Students' Science Attitudes…
Larsen, Christian Albrekt
to link institutions and welfare attitudes have not been convincing. The empirical studies have had large difficulties in finding the expected effects from regime dependent differences in self-interest, class-interest, and egalitarian values. This book develops a new theoretical macro-micro link...
Larsen, Christian Albrekt
to link institutions and welfare attitudes have not been convincing. The empirical studies have had large difficulties in finding the expected effects from regime dependent differences in self-interest, class-interest, and egalitarian values. This article develops a new theoretical macro-micro link...
This study endeavored to investigate primary school teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and perceived practices of continuous assessment (CA). Ninety-five primary school teachers from three primary schools in West Gojjam, Ethiopia, were randomly selected for the study. Questionnaire, interviews and content analyses were ...
In all a total of two hundred and fifty participants were drawn through accidental sampling technique for this study. Their age ranged between 19-48 ... In the same view, consumers ethnic group was not found to significantly influence attitude towards Internet piracy (F(3,246) = .404, P> .05). Reasons were given why the ...
Van Volkom, Michele
The purpose of the current study was to gather data on the attitudes and smoking habits of university students. Data were collected from 250 undergraduates dealing with various aspects of smoking behavior. There were 80 smokers and 170 nonsmokers, including 21 former smokers. In addition to demographic information, participants were assessed with…
Khojastehrad, Shadi; Rafik-Galea, Shameem; Abdullah, Ain Nadzimah
Language attitudes are learned and formed in our social environment through hearing others referring to certain groups or people's languages and cultures, and also by exposure to particular varieties spoken in the context. This might lead to stereotyping English and its native speakers (McKenzie, 2008). In this sense, it is pedagogically…
Tokumoto, Mina; Shibata, Miki
According to previous studies, Japanese EFL learners who wish to acquire American or British English pronunciation are reluctant to speak their L1-accented English. In view of this tendency, the present study examined the attitudes of Asian learners toward their L1-accented English. University students from Japan, South Korea, and Malaysia…
Zhang, Weimin; Hu, Guiling
This pilot project investigates second language (L2) learners' attitudes towards three varieties of English: American (AmE), British (BrE) and Australian (AuE). A 69-word passage spoken by a female speaker of each variety was used. Participants were 30 Chinese students pursuing Masters or Doctoral degrees in the United States, who listened to each…
Background. Dental students are seen as role-models for promoting good oral health behaviour, yet there is little published evidence in South Africa (SA) that describes student knowledge and attitudes towards their own oral healthcare. Objective. To investigate undergraduate dental therapy and oral hygiene students' ...
The goal of this study is to identify new dimensions of language attitudes to allow for both their multidimensionality and possible language-specificity stemming from local sociolinguistic environments. Adopting a two-step methodology comprising (1) elicitation of adjectives in group interviews and (2) employment of the semantic differential…
Entrepreneurship Education (EE) and undergraduates' attitude of Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife, Nigeria, (OAU), to self-employment were examined. Over one thousand students enrolled for the special electives in 2006/2007 academic session. These students were administered with questionnaire, pre- and post- ...
Much of the international research on Community Service-Learning has investigated the benefits, outcomes, and learning experiences of students already engaged in service-learning projects and programmes. As there is scant research on students\\' attitudes to and perceptions of Service-Learning, before this learning ...
Recent advertising research has suggested that to gain initial entry into and retain continual success with a targeted audience of consumers, it is wise to mirror the attitudes and desires of those consumers. This has proven effective in the United States, where companies such as Chevrolet, Levi Strauss, and Coca-Cola have successfully catered to…
Cutler, Stephen J.
Available evidence does not support the notion that aging is associated with increasingly conservative social and political attitudes, or the idea that attitudinal rigidity is the norm among older cohorts. To examine whether aging is associated with attitudinal rigidity, nine surveys from the National Opinion Research Center were analyzed to…
Kian, Ensiyeh Mohebbi; Riazi, Hedieh; Bashirian, Saeid
BACKGROUND: Surrogacy arrangements are multifaceted in nature, involving multiple controversial aspects and engaging ethical, moral, psychological and social issues. Successful treatment in reproductive medicine is strongly based on the mutual agreement of both partners, especially in Iran where men often make the final decision for health-related problems of this nature. AIM: The aim of the following study is to assess the attitudes of Iranian infertile couples toward surrogacy. SETTING AND DESIGN: This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Hamadan university of medical sciences, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study sample consisted of 150 infertile couples selected using a systematic randomized method. Data collection was based on responses to a questionnaire consisting of 22 questions. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: P surrogacy, the overall attitudes toward surrogacy were positive (53.3% of women and 54.6% of men surveyed). CONCLUSION: Although, there was not a significant difference between the overall positive attitudes of infertile women and men toward surrogacy, the general attitude toward using this method is not strongly positive. Therefore, further efforts are required to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile couples. PMID:24829531
Postiglione, Gerard A.
Data from a 1993 survey of Hong Kong college and university faculty, part of a larger international study, provide information about teacher demographic characteristics; educational background; attitudes toward working conditions, mobility, and salaries; professional interests; and views on student quality and governance issues. Implications for…
This paper investigates indigenous communities' attitudes towards sustainable ecotourism development in Olumirin Waterfall Southwestern Nigeria. A field survey via structured questionnaire was conducted on 150 village respondents living in the vicinity of Olumirin waterfall of which fifty questionnaires were randomly ...
Fowler, Samantha R.; Meisels, Gerry G.
A survey of Florida teachers reveals many differences in comfort level with teaching evolution according to the state's science teaching standards, general attitudes and beliefs about evolution, and the extent to which teachers are criticized, censured, disparaged, or reprehended for their beliefs about the teaching of evolution.
St. Louis, Kenneth O.
Purpose: The study investigated the extent to which differences existed between public attitudes of males versus females. Method: One hundred adults, 50 males and 50 females, were chosen at random from each of 50 study samples comprising a total of 3371 respondents in a database archive who had completed the "Public Opinion Survey of Human…
Brigham, John C.; Severy, Lawrence J.
Measures of racial attitude, conceptual style, commitment to candidate and electoral process, social-political evaluation, and voting intentions, were administered to white college students (N=320) before the 1972 Presidential election. Prediction of behavioral intentions becomes more powerful as attitudinal measures are made more directly…
Wetzel, Patricia J.
Describes the results of a subjective reaction test of over 700 Japanese college students' and office workers' attitudes toward honorifics (keigo) in Japanese. It found that subjects from higher socioeconomic classes were more outspoken and ready to judge incompetent or insufficient keigo more negatively than individuals from lower socioeconomic…
Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Towards Exclusive Breast-Feeding At Jimma, Ethiopia. Teklebrhan Tema. Abstract. No abstract - Available on PDF. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.
Francis, Leslie J
A Pearson correlation of .55 was found for a sample of 243 female undergraduates in Wales (M age=20.9 yr., SD=4.6) between high scores on the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity and rejection of premarital sex.
Watkins, George A.
This study related population problem attitudes and socioeconomic variables. Six items concerned with number of children, birth control, family, science, economic depression, and overpopulation were selected for a Guttman scalogram. Education, occupation, and number of children were correlated with population problems scale scores; marital status,…
Chrisler, Joan C.
Despite the increasing acceptance of the value of psychotherapy, there are still those who think people should solve their own problems. A study was conducted to investigate the attitudes of college students toward seeking professional help before and after taking a course in abnormal psychology to determine whether exposure to the purposes and…
College students' attitudes toward homosexuality changed after they participated in a program that taught about homosexuality through the use of: (1) a film on the topic of prejudice; (2) a videotape of a homosexual clergyman who discussed sexual variance; (3) two films in which couples engaged in homosexual behavior; and (4) a lecture. Results…
Schnurr, Norman V.; Racic, Stanko; Gelo, Tomislav
We surveyed Croatian and Turkish business school students, from universities emphasizing globalization, to analyze whether consideration for travel to the USA is affected by attitude toward their own country and the USA. The results from comparing and contrasting differences between these countries and differences between males and females in each…
Calhoun, Lawrence; And Others
Presents a refined method for designing a valid and reliable Likert-type scale to test attitudes toward the generation of electricity from nuclear energy. Discusses various tests of validity that were used on the nuclear energy scale. Reports results of administration and concludes that the test is both reliable and valid. (CW)
McKeehan, Irina V.
Analyzes the results of sociological surveys conducted among thousands of students in higher education institutions in Russia and other republics of the former Soviet Union. Compares and contrasts student attitudes about such topics as economics, democratic values, ethnic groups, education, and students' perception of the future. (CFR)
Kovac, Mirjana M.; Sirkovic, N.
Good communication skills are of utmost importance in the education of engineering students. It is necessary to promote not only their education, but also to prepare them for the demanding and competitive job market. The purpose of this study was to compare the attitudes towards communication skills after formal instruction between the students of…
This study surveyed 120 student nurses from two schools of nursing in Ibadan, Nigeria to assess the symptoms experienced during menstruation, attitude towards and management of menstruation. The student nurses overall mean age at menarche was 14 years, average duration of menstrual period was five days and ...
Lester, David; Maggioncalda-Aretz, Maria; Stark, Scott Hunter
Examines whether high school (n=142) and college students (n=112) favored the death penalty for certain criminal acts. Findings indicate that high school students rated more criminal acts as meriting the death penalty. Gender and personality were not found to be associated with attitudes toward the death penalty. (RJM)
Özelçi, Serap Yilmaz; Saracaloglu, A. Seda
This research aims to develop an independent scale that measures the critical thinking attitudes of classroom teacher candidates. The research was designed in a screening model. The universe of the research was composed of 384 prospective teachers who are studying in the education faculty of a university in the western part of Turkey. In the…
Ensiyeh Mohebbi Kian
Full Text Available Background: Surrogacy arrangements are multifaceted in nature, involving multiple controversial aspects and engaging ethical, moral, psychological and social issues. Successful treatment in reproductive medicine is strongly based on the mutual agreement of both partners, especially in Iran where men often make the final decision for health-related problems of this nature. AIM: The aim of the following study is to assess the attitudes of Iranian infertile couples toward surrogacy. Setting and Design: This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Hamadan university of medical sciences, Iran. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 150 infertile couples selected using a systematic randomized method. Data collection was based on responses to a questionnaire consisting of 22 questions. Statistical Analysis: P <0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: While 33.3% of men and 43.3% of women surveyed insisted on not using surrogacy, the overall attitudes toward surrogacy were positive (53.3% of women and 54.6% of men surveyed. Conclusion: Although, there was not a significant difference between the overall positive attitudes of infertile women and men toward surrogacy, the general attitude toward using this method is not strongly positive. Therefore, further efforts are required to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile couples.
Kian, Ensiyeh Mohebbi; Riazi, Hedieh; Bashirian, Saeid
Surrogacy arrangements are multifaceted in nature, involving multiple controversial aspects and engaging ethical, moral, psychological and social issues. Successful treatment in reproductive medicine is strongly based on the mutual agreement of both partners, especially in Iran where men often make the final decision for health-related problems of this nature. The aim of the following study is to assess the attitudes of Iranian infertile couples toward surrogacy. This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Hamadan university of medical sciences, Iran. The study sample consisted of 150 infertile couples selected using a systematic randomized method. Data collection was based on responses to a questionnaire consisting of 22 questions. P surrogacy, the overall attitudes toward surrogacy were positive (53.3% of women and 54.6% of men surveyed). Although, there was not a significant difference between the overall positive attitudes of infertile women and men toward surrogacy, the general attitude toward using this method is not strongly positive. Therefore, further efforts are required to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile couples.
Räty, Hannu; Korhonen, Maija; Kasanen, Kati; Komulainen, Katri; Rautiainen, Riitta; Siivonen, Päivi
This study set out to investigate parental attitudes toward entrepreneurship education as evaluative directing components of social representations. A nationwide sample of parents (N = 625) was asked to indicate their opinions on a set of statements about entrepreneurship education. The parents' attitudinal orientation suggested that they would…
Ives, Bob; Obenchain, Kathryn M.; Oikonomidoy, Eleni
Participants in this study were ethnic Hungarian secondary students attending high schools in Romania in which Hungarian was the primary language of instruction. Attitudes of participants toward ethnic and cultural groups were measured using a variation of the Bogardus (1933) Scale of Social Distance. Results were consistent with predictions based…
Tucker, Richard; Abbasi, Neda
Positive experiences of teamwork in design contexts significantly improve students' satisfaction with teaching and their attitudes towards future teamwork. Thus, an understanding of the factors leading to negative and positive team experiences can inform strategies to support effective teamwork. This paper examines design students' perceptions and…
Penner, Karen P.; Kolasa, Kathryn M.
The nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and practices of secondary teachers of health and physical education, home economics, science, and social studies were assessed. Of the 518 teachers who completed the survey instruments, 43 percent had never taken a food or nutrition course, and 63 percent had no inservice training in nutrition or food…
... attitude and behaviour towards breast cancer diagnosis and treatment in Malaysia – a mini ... Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Malaysia. ... on breast cancer and to know the steps that need to be taken to detect it early. ... due to their good knowledge of health issues and their roles in healthcare.
Miles, S.; Ueland, O.; Frewer, L.J.
Abstract: Purpose - This study aimed to investigate the impact of information about traceability and new detection methods for identifying genetically-modified organisms in food, on consumer attitudes towards genetically-modified food and consumer trust in regulators in Italy, Norway and England. It
The study assessed the relationship between knowledge and attitude towards HIV voluntary counselling among secondary school adolescents in Edo State. One hypothesis guided the study. This was a descriptive correlational study based on survey research design. The population of the study was one hundred and ...
Faes, M.; Stoppie, J.
An investigation was carried out within the frame of occupational medicine on the psychological attitudes of workers in the nuclear industry towards ionizing radiations. Three aspects were considered: awareness of the danger; feeling of safety in the working environment; workers' feelings following incidents or accidents; satisfaction level felt by the workers in the plant [fr
Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.
We investigate the differences in economic attitudes and financial decisions between religious and non-religious households. Using Dutch survey data, we find that religious households consider themselves more trusting, and have a stronger bequest motive and a longer planning horizon. Furthermore,
administered instrument pack with three sections including a CorpAtt Scale from a sample of 199 first ... But, they argue that CP has more harm than benefit ... some more problems associated with CP such as lower levels of self- control, more ... Teachers hold attitudes such as CP is the best way of motivating students to.
About 309 (46.8%) of the students had heard about emergency contraceptives and from those who heard emergency contraceptives, 27.2% had good knowledge. Majority, four hundred fifteen (62.9%) of the students had positive attitude towards it. However, only 31(4.7%) had used emergency contraceptive methods.
Background: Unwanted pregnancy followed by unsafe abortion can be avoided by using different contraceptive methods, including emergency contraceptives. Information on knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptives among women is particularly important because of high rates of teenage and ...
Akturk, Ahmet Oguz; Izci, Kemal; Caliskan, Gurbuz; Sahin, Ismail
Rapid developments in technology in the present age have made it necessary for communities to follow technological developments and adapt themselves to these developments. One of the fields that are most rapidly affected by these developments is undoubtedly education. Determination of the attitudes of preservice teachers, who live in an age of…
Wilson, Valerie A.
Since the inception of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, educators have struggled with including students with disabilities in the general education classroom with their nondisabled peers. The inclusion educational model was utilized in this study to explore secondary teachers' attitudes toward inclusive educational…
Baek, Youngkyun; Zhang, Hui; Yun, Seongchul
Mobile devices have become ubiquitous, and their uses are various. In schools, many discussions about mobile devices are ongoing as more and more teachers are adopting the technology for use in their classrooms. Teachers' attitudes toward mobile learning takes an important role in initiating its usage in schools. This study aims to investigate the…
Zeldow, Peter B.
Males and females were divided into "masculine,""feminine," and "androgynous" based on their scores on an androgyny scale. The three groups then answered a questionnaire on attitudes toward women. Results show that feminine men were the most conservative group. (SE)
The contribution discusses attitudes of German Teacher Training Students on Inclusion based on an empirical analysis containing three elements: Evaluation of students' written exams, results of a survey with closed as open questions and the interpretation of group discussions among students about inclusion. One can see that, though the found-out…
Dillon, Linda S.
The author surveyed the attitudes of 1,551 North Carolinians toward sexual discrimination and nontraditional work roles. Sixty-three percent of all respondents thought that women had not been treated equally with men in being allowed to earn enough money to support themselves independently. Women were significantly different than men in their…
Köse, Sacit; Savran Gencer, Ayse; Gezer, Kudret; Erol, Gül Hanim; Bilen, Kadir
Environmental education has been viewed as an important way to educate students about environmental issues beginning from pre-school to higher education. This study is a part of this field- namely, undergraduate environmental education. The purpose of the study is to explore undergraduate students' attitudes towards environment at the end of the…
The paper analyzes middle managers' job attitudes, in particular job satisfaction, based on case studies. Employees' job satisfaction is expected to reduce human resource management risks, leading to higher loyalty, organizational commitment and motivation and resulting in less turnover. Components of job satisfaction include achievement, recognition, work itself, job security, supervision, interpersonal relationships, compensation, organization, personal life and working conditions. They cau...
Full Text Available In a previous paper , the active torques needed for the minisatellite attitude guidance from one fixed attitude posture to another fixed attitude posture were determined using an inverse dynamics method. But when considering reaction/momentum wheels, instead of this active torques computation, the purpose is to compute the angular velocities of the three reaction wheels which ensure the minisatellite to rotate from the initial to the final attitude. This paper presents this computation of reaction wheels angular velocities using a similar inverse dynamics method based on inverting Euler’s equations of motion for a rigid body with one fixed point, written in the framework of the x-y-z sequence of rotations parameterization. For the particular case A=B not equal C of an axisymmetric minisatellite, the two computations are compared: the active torques computation versus the computation of reaction wheels angular velocities ̇x , ̇y and ̇z. An interesting observation comes out from this numerical study: if the three reaction wheels are identical (with Iw the moment of inertia of one reaction wheel with respect to its central axis, then the evolutions in time of the products between Iw and the derivatives of the reaction wheels angular velocities, i.e. ̇ , ̇ and ̇ remain the same and do not depend on the moment of inertia Iw.
Chonody, Jill M.; Siebert, Darcy Clay; Rutledge, Scott Edward
A variety of pedagogical techniques have shown promising results in promoting acceptance and affirmation of gays and lesbians among students in social work, allied health, and education professions. In this article we examine whether 211 students enrolled in a human sexuality course in a southeastern university changed their attitudes toward gays…
This chapter discusses how linear models that assume a causal link from perception, to attitude, to intention and decisions and finally behavior have long dominated consumer behavior research. The theory of planned behavior, the technology acceptance model and the norm activation model are examples
Vasilijević Danijela N.
Full Text Available Research to date has shown that teacher teamwork results in higher motivation among students and higher quality knowledge, and also facilitates the sharing of professional experiences and stimulates teachers' creativity and their openness to change. Team forming and development depend on multiple factors, particularly on the individual and group traits of team members. This paper examines teachers' attitudes as an individual factor significant for their inclination for team teaching, and the aim of the study presented in the paper was to study teachers' attitudes to teamwork. The sample consisted of 240 teachers from fifteen elementary schools in Belgrade. Factor analysis has singled out three factors around which teachers' attitudes are grouped: a teaching; b team and individual development; and c professional challenge. The study has shown that overall, teachers have a positive attitude to teamwork because it is conducive to a stimulating environment for work and learning, and also provides an opportunity for teachers' personal and professional development. Significant differences in the perception of teamwork have been noted among lower-grade teachers depending on their years of service and the extent to which they have been engaged in team teaching.
negative perception items, namely, (a) people who got HIV through sex deserve it (p = 0.003), (b) ... Conclusions: Discriminatory attitudes against PLWHA among pharmacy students and .... “young” for students less than 25 years and ... higher percentage of older pharmacists thought ... from infected mother to child?(Yes).
Steenis, Nigel D.; Fischer, Arnout R.H.
Purpose – Nanotechnology is a technology that holds much promise for food production. It is, however not clear to what extent consumers will accept different types of nanotechnologies in food products. The purpose of this paper is to research consumer attitudes towards differing applications of
Young people's attitude towards entrepreneurship contributes tremendously to the rapid increase in innovation. Income and social economic status of people also have strong effect on innovation because in developing countries, stronger payment ability and higher income level enables more people to spend more on a ...
Background: Community Health Workers (CHWs) have significantly contributed to the decrease of malaria prevalence and related mortality among under five children in Rwanda. This study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices of CHWs about malaria prevention in a selected District of Rwanda. Methods: ...
Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.
Persuasion is presented as it may be applied by science educators in research and practice. The orientation taken is that science educators need to be acquainted with persuasion in the context of social influence and learning theory to be able to evaluate its usefulness as a mechanism for developing and changing science-related attitudes. (KR)