Sample records for attitude to death

  1. Life Experience with Death: Relation to Death Attitudes and to the Use of Death-Related Memories (United States)

    Bluck, Susan; Dirk, Judith; Mackay, Michael M.; Hux, Ashley


    The study examines the relation of death experience to death attitudes and to autobiographical memory use. Participants (N = 52) completed standard death attitude measures and wrote narratives about a death-related autobiographical memory and (for comparison) a memory of a low point. Self-ratings of the memory narratives were used to assess their…

  2. Death Education and Death-Related Attitudes. (United States)

    Hoelter, Jon W.; Epley, Rita J.


    Assessed the impact of a death and dying course. Results showed no significant pre-test/post-test differences for the experimental or the control group, but indicated initial differences between the two groups, suggesting that students enrolling in a death and dying course have more favorable attitudes toward both suicide and abortion. (Author)

  3. Adolescents' Attitudes toward the Death Penalty. (United States)

    Lester, David; Maggioncalda-Aretz, Maria; Stark, Scott Hunter


    Examines whether high school (n=142) and college students (n=112) favored the death penalty for certain criminal acts. Findings indicate that high school students rated more criminal acts as meriting the death penalty. Gender and personality were not found to be associated with attitudes toward the death penalty. (RJM)

  4. Death Attitudes Among Middle-Aged Koreans. (United States)

    Hong, Michin; Hong, Seunghye; Adamek, Margaret E; Kim, Mee Hye


    The purpose of this study was to examine factors affecting death attitudes among middle-aged Koreans. In addition, the study explored the interaction effect between knowledge about end-of-life care planning and the experience of death of family or friends on death attitudes. The sample was obtained from a national survey with middle-aged adults in South Korea ( n = 2,026). Multivariate regression analysis revealed significant main effects and an interaction effect between knowledge about end-of-life care planning and the experience of death on death attitudes. Greater knowledge of end-of-life care planning was associated with more positive attitudes toward death; however, the effect was stronger for those who had not experienced the death of family or friends. Being older and having greater life satisfaction were also associated with more positive attitudes toward death. This study suggests that end-of-life education can help middle-aged adults embrace the final stage of life and prepare for their own death.

  5. Teachers' Attitudes Toward Death-Related Issues (United States)

    Perkes, A. Cordell


    Reports a study to assess teachers attitudes toward death-related issues. A questionnaire was given to 61 teachers in a graduate education course. It was found that the teachers tended to favor liberal abortion laws (67 percent), euthanasia (83 percent), and the majority (65 percent) believed in life after death. (SLH)

  6. Near-Death Experiences and Antisuicidal Attitudes. (United States)

    Greyson, Bruce


    One hundred-fifty near death experiencers (NDErs) and 43 individuals who had come close to death without having NDEs (nonNDErs) rated 12 antisuicidal attitudes. NDErs endorsed significantly more statements than did nonNDErs, and, among NDErs, number of statements endorsed was positively associated with depth of experience. Findings support…

  7. [Personal meaning in the elderly: sources of meaning, welfare, coping and attitude to death]. (United States)

    Ranst, N V; Marcoen, A


    There are many different ways to experience one's life and aging as meaningful. The present study looks for different patterns of personal meaning in the elderly. Respondents were 376 older adults (221 women and 155 men), their mean age was 65.9 years. They completed several standardized questionnaires including measures of sources of meaning (SOMP), ultimate meaning (PMI), life satisfaction (LSIA), depression (SRDS), anxiety (STAI), coping orientations (COAP), and death attitudes (DAP-R). A cluster analysis performed on the sources of meaning revealed three groups each with a different pattern of meaning. The smallest group I (n=23) found most meaning in values that indicate self-preoccupation. Self-transcendent sources of meaning were on the top of the hierarchy of values of the second group II (n=123). The third and largest group III (n=230) valued self-transcendent sources of meaning as well as sources of meaning that indicate self-realisation. The three clusters also differed with regard to ultimate meaning (group I having the highest and group III the lowest score), well-being (group I reporting more depressive feelings and more feelings of anxiety than group II and group III), coping with aging (group III reporting most instrumental coping), and death attitude (group II having the most positive attitude).

  8. A Course in Death Education as a Factor In Influencing Attitudes Toward Death of Juniors Enrolled in a Parochial High School. (United States)

    Mojock, Charles R.

    Examined were attitudes toward death and death education, as well as the effects of death education, among 144 Catholic students from two high schools. An Attitudes Toward Death Scale was utilized in examining several hypotheses relating to death and death education. Significant results revealed that: (1) Catholic high school students had a…

  9. Attitudes toward Euthanasia as a Function of Death Fears and Demographic Variables. (United States)

    Slezak, Michael E.


    Studied the relationship of attitudes toward euthanasia to death fears and demographic variables in a sample of 100 adults. Found the strongest predictors of euthanasia attitude were age and amount of education. Suggests individuals who are more experienced with life and death have a more positive attitude toward euthanasia. (Author)

  10. Attitudes toward death in rural areas of Japan. (United States)

    Nagamine, T


    Attitudes toward death in rural areas of Japan were investigated by means of a questionnaire. One hundred and sixty out of the 319 families residing on a small island were randomly chosen and 94 percent of them (average age 48 years, male 57 percent; living with parents 41 percent) responded. The respondents did not clearly distinguish the dead from the living in their life-styles. They seemed to recognize a continuity between living and death. They reported having confronted death as members of a family or small local community rather than individually. Community or family is seen as playing a more important role in determining respondents' attitudes toward death than their personal feelings.

  11. The Effect of Bereavement Upon Death-Related Attitudes and Fears. (United States)

    Tokunaga, Howard T.


    Reviews and critiques existing theory and research on the issue of how attitudes and fears of death are influenced by recent bereavement. While the identification and validation of distinct stages of grief has demonstrated the powerful impact of death upon survivors, other research suggests that exposure to death does not alter one's attitudes or…

  12. Factor Analysis of the Omega Scale: A Scale Designed To Measure the Attitudes of College Students toward Their Own Deaths and the Disposition of Their Bodies. (United States)

    Staik, Irene M.

    A study was undertaken to provide a factor analysis of the Omega Scale, a 25-item, Likert-type scale developed in 1984 to assess attitudes toward death and funerals and other body disposition practices. The Omega Scale was administered to 250 students enrolled in introductory psychology classes at two higher education institutions in Alabama.…

  13. Death Education and Attitudes toward Euthanasia and Terminal Illness. (United States)

    Nagi, Mostafa H.; Lazerine, Neil G.


    Analyzed attitudes of 614 Protestant and Catholic Cleveland clergy toward terminal illness and euthanasia. Clergy responses revealed that, although eager to prolong life, terminally ill patients feared prolonged illness more than death. The controversial nature of euthanasia became more apparent with clergy who had more training in death…

  14. Effects of Death Education on Fear of Death and Attitudes towards Death and Life. (United States)

    Leviton, Dan; Fretz, Bruce


    Students in a death education course were compared with students of sex education and introductory psychology. After the death education course, students viewed death as more approachable, and wished to experience death in a more interpersonal as compared to a technological context. (Author)

  15. A narrative review of the empirical evidence on public attitudes on brain death and vital organ transplantation: the need for better data to inform policy. (United States)

    Shah, Seema K; Kasper, Kenneth; Miller, Franklin G


    Vital organ transplantation is premised on 'the dead donor rule': donors must be declared dead according to medical and legal criteria prior to donation. However, it is controversial whether individuals diagnosed as 'brain dead' are really dead in accordance with the established biological conception of death-the irreversible cessation of the functioning of the organism as a whole. A basic understanding of brain death is also relevant for giving valid, informed consent to serve as an organ donor. There is therefore a need for reliable empirical data on public understanding of brain death and vital organ transplantation. We conducted a review of the empirical literature that identified 43 articles with approximately 18,603 study participants. These data demonstrate that participants generally do not understand three key issues: (1) uncontested biological facts about brain death, (2) the legal status of brain death and (3) that organs are procured from brain dead patients while their hearts are still beating and before their removal from ventilators. These data suggest that, despite scholarly claims of widespread public support for organ donation from brain dead patients, the existing data on public attitudes regarding brain death and organ transplantation reflect substantial public confusion. Our review raises questions about the validity of consent for vital organ transplantation and suggests that existing data are of little assistance in developing policy proposals for organ transplantation from brain dead patients. New approaches to rigorous empirical research with educational components and evaluations of understanding are urgently needed.

  16. Attitudes toward Life and Death, Religiosity, and Gender in Israeli Children. (United States)

    Orbach, Israel; Florian, Victor


    Examined impact of religion and gender on fifth graders' (n=142) attitudes toward life and death. Although all children displayed high attraction and low repulsion to life and low attraction and high repulsion to death, religious children displayed higher attraction to death. Found main effect of gender and gender x religiosity interaction.…

  17. An Analysis of Factors Influencing Attitudes Toward Death. (United States)

    Cox, Gerry R.

    This article assesses the affects of several factors; sex, age, occupation, size of residence, anomie, marital status, class, and world view, on attitudes towards death. The author's attitudes model is based upon the four-part basic Durkheimian typology, varying in degree and nature of an individual's integration in societal groups. Included in…

  18. Death Education and Attitudes of Counselors-in-Training toward Death: An Exploratory Study (United States)

    Harrawood, Laura K.; Doughty, Elizabeth A.; Wilde, Brandon


    This study reviewed how attitudes of counselors-in-training toward death develop after completing a course on death education. Participants included 11 graduate counseling students enrolled in a 2-credit-hour course addressing death and dying, and grief and loss. Qualitative results from a content analysis of free-response narratives suggest the…

  19. Can a Television Series Change Attitudes about Death? A Study of College Students and "Six Feet Under" (United States)

    Schiappa, Edward; Gregg, Peter B.; Hewes, Dean E.


    This study examined the effects of viewing 10 episodes of the television series "Six Feet Under" to assess whether such programming could influence college students' attitudes about death and dying. Students were administered the Death Attitude Profile--Revised, the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale, and the short version of the…

  20. Analyze Emily Dickinson’s Attitudes Toward Death,love and Nature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper aims to analyze the character of Emily Dickinson’s attitude towards death, love and nature--the theme of her writing and the writing skil of imagism. Emily Dickinson was obsessed with death. In her poems, her attitude towards death changed gradual y, she thought that death led to immorality, which is very thought-provoking. From al of these discuss, this paper concludes Emily Dickinson’s isolated life status, to interpret the prominent poet’s live from another angel, which make sense that Emily Dickinson’s seclusion life is not living without any notice to the society at al .

  1. Attitudes toward suicide: the effect of suicide death in the family. (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Jia, Cun-Xian

    There have been few reports on the effect of suicide death on family members' attitudes toward suicide. In order to estimate the extent to which suicide death affects attitudes toward suicide among family members of suicides, data of 264 informants from a case-control psychological autopsy study were analyzed. The results showed that there were no significant differences in attitudes toward suicide, measured by the General Social Survey's (GSS) four questions, between informants of suicides and informants of living controls, between family members of suicides and family members of living controls, or between family members of suicides and non-family members of suicides. Our findings did not support the hypothesis that suicide death affects the attitudes toward suicide in suicides' family members. However, some factors were found to be related to the pro-suicide attitudes measured by the four questions included in the GSS.

  2. Japanese Undergraduates' Attitudes Toward Students Survivors of Parental Suicide: A Comparison With Other Stigmatized Deaths. (United States)

    Yamanaka, Akira


    This study investigated Japanese undergraduates' attitudes toward a fellow student whose parent has died by suicide. One hundred thirty-four participants responded to four versions of a brief fictional case describing a male undergraduate whose father had died. These presented fictional cases described the cause of the death as being suicide, cancer, AIDS, or murder. Results indicated that participants had more negative attitudes toward the suicide survivor student than the nonstigmatized death (cancer) survivor. Further, results indicated that participants viewed suicide survivors as more to blame for the death and had a more negative image of them than of the other stigmatized death (AIDS and murder) survivors.

  3. Nursing Students' Attitudes Toward the Aged as a Function of Death Anxiety. (United States)

    Blackie, Norman K.

    A 139-item questionnaire was constructed to account for additional variance in the attitudes and behaviors of student nurses toward the aged. This study was conducted to examine the effects of death anxiety on the attitudes and behaviors of student nurses toward old persons. To this end, 150 student nurses were surveyed. Eight scales were…

  4. The Effect of Death Education on Specific Attitudes toward Death in College Students. (United States)

    McDonald, Rita T.


    After a course on death and dying students perceived themselves as more comfortable in interacting with the dying and bereaved and held stronger beliefs about rights of the dying. Little change was observed in attitudes towards life after death but a trend away from traditional burial preferences was noted. (JAC)

  5. Can a television series change attitudes about death? A study of college students and Six Feet Under. (United States)

    Schiappa, Edward; Gregg, Peter B; Hewes, Dean E


    This study examined the effects of viewing 10 episodes of the television series Six Feet Under to assess whether such programming could influence college students' attitudes about death and dying. Students were administered the Death Attitude Profile--Revised, the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale, and the short version of the Threat Index, prior to and after viewing. Significant changes were found on a number of measures. These results are similar to the effects of didactic death education courses.

  6. Death and Dying Attitudes, Anxieties, and Fears of Certified Nursing Assistants: A Descriptive Study (United States)

    Hamilton, Josephine A.


    The critical role of Certified Nursing Assistants (CNAs) to help elderly nursing home residents' move through declining conditions or diseases to death is salient. It is important for CNAs and nursing home leaders to understand CNAs' attitudes, fears, and anxieties toward death and dying. The quantitative study investigated CNA's…

  7. The Effects of a Course on Death and Grief on Nurses' Attitudes toward Dying Patients and Death. (United States)

    Miles, Margaret Shandor


    Nurses who attended the program had a more positive attitude toward death and dying patients. Findings suggest that this kind of program might also be helpful to nurses who do not express a desire to attend such a program and to student nurses. (JAC)

  8. Death Attitudes and Changes in Existential Outlook in Parents of Vulnerable Newborns. (United States)

    Barr, Peter


    This study is an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model analysis of the relation of death attitudes with changes in outlook in 59 parent couples of neonatal intensive care newborns. Death attitudes effects with changes in outlook were mostly intrapersonal and they mainly occurred in fathers, though between gender differences were not usually significant. Death avoidance and neutral death acquiescence were positive predictors of positive changes in outlook, and fear of death and neutral death acquiescence were respective positive and inverse predictors of negative changes. Multidimensional measures of death attitudes and personal change should be used when studying these domains of psychological functioning.

  9. Attitudes of Children towards Aging, the Elderly, and Death & Dying as Expressed through the Arts. (United States)

    Zaki, Gamal; Zaki, Sylvia

    The purpose of this study was to explore the conceptions, feelings and attitudes of elementary and junior high school students toward the topics of aging, the elderly, death, and dying. To gather data, an announcement was made to all schools within the state that the Rhode Island Gerontology Center would sponsor a contest for all school children…

  10. Physician-assisted death: attitudes and practices of community pharmacists in East Flanders, Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilsen, J.J.; Bauwens, M.; Bernheim, J.L.; Stichele, R.V.; Deliens, L.H.J.


    This study investigates attitudes and practices of community pharmacists with respect to physician-assisted death. Between 15 February and 15 April 2002, we sent anonymous mail questionnaires to 660 community pharmacists in the eastern province of Flanders, Belgium. The response rate was 54% (n = 35

  11. Attitudes toward Death in Adolescent Offspring of Holocaust Survivors: A Comparison of Israeli and American Adolescents. (United States)

    Schneider, Stanley


    Continues a study begun in 1973 on attitudes toward death, comparing Israeli and American adolescent offspring of Holocaust survivors in residential treatment program in Jerusalem, Israel. Biographical data, diagnostic classifications, a review of Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) and some dreams are presented. Israel is shown to be a therapeutic…

  12. Relationship between identity and attitude toward death in Japanese senior citizens. (United States)

    Nakagi, Satomi; Tada, Toshiko


    This study aimed to clarify the relationship between identity development stages and attitudes towards death among Japanese senior citizens. The subjects were recruited from among approximately 500 students attending educational courses for senior citizens in Prefecture A. We collected the data by using the questionnaire and interview. The contents of questionnaire were Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory (EPSI) and Death Attitude Profile-Revised (DAP-R). In the interview, we represented the four developmental stages, and asked the questions from birth to the present. The collection rate was 85.4% (427 subjects). And 10 subjects participated in the interview. In relation to correlations between the EPSI sub-factors and the DAP-R subscales, there were moderately strong, negative correlations between "Integrity" and "Fear of death" and between "Integrity" and "Avoidance of death". In relation to the subjects' reflections on their lives, the following four categories were extracted: [Trust relationships with others], [Self-confidence regarding my own efforts], [Wanting to contribute to society], and [Let things be as they are]. These results suggested that the accomplishment of "Integrity", which is the developmental task in the maturity stage, leads to the attitude of accepting one's whole life. Further, we have clarified that "Integrity" promotes the acceptance of death.

  13. Death Anxiety Reduction as the Result of Exposure to a Death and Dying Symposium. (United States)

    Waldman, David A.; Davidshofer, Charles


    Measured the effect of a three-week death and dying symposium on attitudes and anxiety related to death, dying, and grief. Results indicated lower death anxiety for students in both the treatment and control groups. Findings are discussed in terms of widespread media coverage and informal discussions which accompany symposiums. (JAC)

  14. Factors associated with attitude and hypothetical behaviour regarding brain death and organ transplantation: comparison between medical and other university students. (United States)

    Ohwaki, Kazuhiro; Yano, Eiji; Shirouzu, Makiko; Kobayashi, Aya; Nakagomi, Tadayoshi; Tamura, Akira


    The aim of this study was to investigate the factors, including knowledge, that determine an individual's attitudes and behaviours regarding brain death and organ transplantation using questionnaires among medical and other university students. A total of 522 students (388 medical and 134 other) answered a questionnaire. The survey included the individual's knowledge about brain death, attitudes towards brain death and organ transplantation, and hypothetical behaviours assuming their willingness to donate their own or their family's organs. Medical students were more likely to have knowledge about brain death and to accept brain death and organ transplantation compared with other students, while there was no difference in their willingness to donate their own or their family's organs. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effects of various factors on the attitudes and behaviours. In both medical and other students, confidence in brain-death diagnosis by doctors was independently associated with their willingness to donate their own organs after the adjustment for other factors, including knowledge (odds ratio [OR], 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15 to 2.97 and OR, 4.97; 95% CI, 1.01 to 24.39, respectively). An increase in knowledge may cause positive attitudes towards brain death and organ transplant. Meanwhile, reducing uncertainty about the brain-death diagnostic process might have a beneficial effect on the willingness to donate organs.

  15. Attitudes toward Stillbirth and Death Threat Level in a Sample of Obstetricians. (United States)

    Kirkley-Best, Elizabeth; And Others


    Obstetricians and obstetrical residents (N=70) were polled on their attitudes regarding stillbirth and simultaneously were assessed for their level of death threat as measured by the Threat Index. No effect of death threat level on attitudes toward stillbirth was observed, even when extreme scores were isolated and compared. (Author/NRB)

  16. The Death Attitudes of Older Adults: A Path-Analytical Exploration. (United States)

    Bell, Bill D.; Batterson, Constance T.


    Examines the effects of contemporaneous circumstances on the death attitudes of older adults. Findings suggest that the present social and psychological environment of the aged plays a less significant role in their attitudes toward death than is presently reflected in social gerontology. (Author)

  17. About Attitudes towards Death in the Light of Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argo Moor


    Full Text Available The article observes death-consciousness of contemporary people. The decrease of the transcendence thematic in culture is a probable decrease of death thematic. At the same time unfinished grief causes depression and malfunctions. The loss of someone close will always be dramatic, but is the acceptance of our own mortality agreeing with the finality of our own lives? We could outline several criteria as relationships with relatives, life's significance, health which are connected with the the principle that one's death and afterlife correspond to the life they have lived.

  18. Effect of a Brief Instructional Unit in Death Education on the Death Attitudes of Prospective Elementary School Teachers. (United States)

    Molnar-Stickels, Linda A.


    This study examined whether there would be changes in attitudes of prospective elementary school teachers after brief instruction units of death education were incorporated into a health education class. The experimental group had significantly less fear and felt more comfortable discussing death with children than the control groups. (Author/MT)

  19. Effect of end of life education on medical students' and health care workers' death attitude. (United States)

    Hegedus, K; Zana, A; Szabó, G


    One of the goals of education in end of life care is to make communication more open by exploring critical issues related to fear of dying and death in order to reduce anxiety and improve an individual's attitude to dying patients. The aim of our research was to evaluate the effects of courses for health care workers and medical students in care at the end of life. One hundred and twenty-seven health care professionals and 41 undergraduate medical students completed the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (MFODS) on the first and last day of the course. The most significant factors of fear of death are: Fear for Significant Others, Fear of the Dying Process and Fear of the Unknown. Overall fear of death scores were reduced as an effect of the courses. Changes in the components and level of fear of death are influenced by the participants' gender, age and profession. Improvement was evident in the attitudes to dying patients in both groups, which was related to an increase in knowledge of high-quality care of dying patients.

  20. 广东省大学生死亡、自杀态度及死亡教育需求调查%Study on the Attitudes to Death and Suicide and the Death Education Needs among the Undergraduate Students, Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林雪松; 钟健敏; 梁涯飞; 黄琼真; 刘茂玲


    目的:了解大学生对死亡、自杀的态度及死亡教育的需求,为学校死亡教育的开展提供理论基础,引导大学生建立正确积极的生命观.方法:采用整群随机抽样方法,应用死亡态度和自杀态度问卷调查广东省4所高校在校大学生,对研究因素进行t检验统计分析.结果:80.8%的大学生认为死亡是生命的必然结局,但面对死亡时仍有54.6%的人会产生悲伤、恐惧等消极态度,说明大学生对生命的本质及意义的认识不够深刻:81.8%的大学生愿意接受死亡教育,说明大学生有死亡教育需求,但仅有20.8%的人接受过死亡教育,反映高校死亡教育缺失,从大学生自杀态度总体情况看,大学生对自杀持中立或矛盾的态度.结论:在高校开展死亡教育,有利于提高大学生对死亡的认识和思考,引导大学生建立健康积极的生命观,降低大学生的自杀率.%Objective: The paper aimed at understanding attitudes toward death and suicide and the death education needs among undergraduate students, so as to provide theoretical basis to carry out the death education at the school, and establish positive views of life for undergraduate students. Methods: Based on Death Attitude Questionnaire and Suicide Attitude Questionnaire, investigated with cluster random sampling, the variables were analyzed with T-test. Results: 80.8% students believe that death is the inevitable end of life, but in face of death 54.6% of them will still have sadness, fear and other negative attitudes, which shows that students lack for profound understanding of the nature and significance of death. 81.8% students are willing to accept death education, indicating that they have death education needs. But only 20.8% students have received death education, reflecting the lack of death education in colleges and universities. In general, undergraduate students have a neutral or contradictory attitude toward committing suicide. Conclusion

  1. One or two types of death? Attitudes of health professionals towards brain death and donation after circulatory death in three countries. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Arias, D; Tortosa, J C; Burant, C J; Aubert, P; Aulisio, M P; Youngner, S J


    This study examined health professionals' (HPs) experience, beliefs and attitudes towards brain death (BD) and two types of donation after circulatory death (DCD)--controlled and uncontrolled DCD. Five hundred and eighty-seven HPs likely to be involved in the process of organ procurement were interviewed in 14 hospitals with transplant programs in France, Spain and the US. Three potential donation scenarios--BD, uncontrolled DCD and controlled DCD--were presented to study subjects during individual face-to-face interviews. Our study has two main findings: (1) In the context of organ procurement, HPs believe that BD is a more reliable standard for determining death than circulatory death, and (2) While the vast majority of HPs consider it morally acceptable to retrieve organs from brain-dead donors, retrieving organs from DCD patients is much more controversial. We offer the following possible explanations. DCD introduces new conditions that deviate from standard medical practice, allow procurement of organs when donors' loss of circulatory function could be reversed, and raises questions about "death" as a unified concept. Our results suggest that, for many HPs, these concerns seem related in part to the fact that a rigorous brain examination is neither clinically performed nor legally required in DCD. Their discomfort could also come from a belief that irreversible loss of circulatory function has not been adequately demonstrated. If DCD protocols are to achieve their full potential for increasing organ supply, the sources of HPs' discomfort must be further identified and addressed.

  2. Impact of Life Factors upon Attitudes toward Death. (United States)

    Franke, Kevin J.; Durlak, Joseph A.


    Investigated impact of life factors on college students' (N=47) feelings about death. Most important life factors clustered into three categories: Death of Significant Other, Religious Upbringing, and Near-Death Experiences. Although factors had mixed effects across individuals, they were significant predictors of current feelings about death.…

  3. Current attitudes toward organ donation after cardiac death in northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Xiaoming; Liu Linjuan; Xiang Heli; Ding Chenguang; Ren Li; Xue Wujun


    Background People's attitude toward organ donation after cardiac death (DCD) has not come to an agreement in different countries and regions.Influenced by the local culture in China for thousands of years,the general public has different ideas about this issue.The purpose of this study was to investigate the current attitudes trend and characteristics of transplantation with organs donated after cardiac death in northwest China.Methods This largest single-center cohort study was performed by an interview or by telephone using a questionnaire.The family members of potential DCD donors were recruited from the First Affiliated Hospital,medical college of Xi'an Jiaotong University located in a metropolitan area of northwest China.The 12-item attitude questionnaire was specifically developed from the literature review with coordinator,physician,and donor's family feedback.The participants were asked to rate the queries on a 5-point Likert intensity scale.Results The 174 participants included 56 (32.2%) women and 118 (67.8%) men.Most people were aged between 41 and 50 years (n=63,36.2%),31 and 40 years (n=59,33.9%),and less than 30 years (n=36,20.7%).The top five attitudes of participants were the best person to suggest organ donation to a family was ranked as the DCD coordinator of Red Cross Organization (RCO,n=160,92%),donor is a hero (n=143,82.2%),honor to be a donor's family member (n=136,78.2%),improved relationship with colleagues (n=124,71.3%),and with recipient after donation (n=123,70.7%).The best person to suggest organ donation to a family was ranked as the coordinator of RCO (n=160,92%),doctor unrelated to transplantation (n=104,59.8%),social worker (n=36,20.7%),and doctor related to transplantation (n=25,14.4%).The top two reasons for non-consent to donation were that the family insisted on intact body after patient death and did not want to have surgery again (n=51,41.5%),and feared that they would be misunderstood by neighbors

  4. Death Penalty Decisions: Instruction Comprehension, Attitudes, and Decision Mediators. (United States)

    Patry, Marc W; Penrod, Steven D


    A primary goal of this research was to empirically evaluate a set of assumptions, advanced in the Supreme Court's ruling in Buchanan v. Angelone (1998), about jury comprehension of death penalty instructions. Further, this research examined the use of evidence in capital punishment decision making by exploring underlying mediating factors upon which death penalty decisions may be based. Manipulated variables included the type of instructions and several variations of evidence. Study 1 was a paper and pencil study of 245 undergraduate mock jurors. The experimental design was an incomplete 4×2×2×2×2 factorial model resulting in 56 possible conditions. Manipulations included four different types of instructions, presence of a list of case-specific mitigators to accompany the instructions, and three variations in the case facts: age of the defendant, bad prior record, and defendant history of emotional abuse. Study 2 was a fully-crossed 2×2×2×2×2 experiment with four deliberating mock juries per cell. Manipulations included jury instructions (original or revised), presence of a list of case-specific mitigators, defendant history of emotional abuse, bad prior record, and heinousness of the crime. The sample of 735 jury-eligible participants included 130 individuals who identified themselves as students. Participants watched one of 32 stimulus videotapes based on a replication of a capital sentencing hearing. The present findings support previous research showing low comprehension of capital penalty instructions. Further, we found that higher instruction comprehension was associated with higher likelihood of issuing life sentence decisions. The importance of instruction comprehension is emphasized in a social cognitive model of jury decision making at the sentencing phase of capital cases.

  5. Facing Up to Death (United States)

    Ross, Elizabeth Kubler


    Doctor urges that Americans accept death as a part of life and suggests ways of helping dying patients and their families face reality calmly, with peace. Dying children and their siblings, as well as children's feelings about relatives' deaths, are also discussed. (PD)

  6. Student Attitudes to Whole Body Donation Are Influenced by Dissection (United States)

    Cahill, Kevin C.; Ettarh, Raj R.


    Given the important role that anatomical dissection plays in the shaping of medical student attitudes to life and death, these attitudes have not been evaluated in the context of whole body donation for medical science. First year students of anatomy in an Irish university medical school were surveyed by questionnaire before and after the initial…

  7. Factors Related to Life satisfaction, Meaning of life, Religiosity and Death Anxiety in Health Care Staff and Students: A Cross Sectional Study from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latha KS


    Full Text Available Death is beyond one's personal control, generates great concern and anxiety, among human beings. Studies exploring the association between religious attitudes and death attitudes in adolescents and young adults in postmodern society are scarce. This study examines the relationship between five dimensions of attitude toward death (fear of death, death avoidance, neutral acceptance, approach acceptance, and escape acceptance, death anxiety, life satisfaction and meaning, religiosity and selected personal factors among health care staff and students in three teaching hospitals. A total of 230 adolescents and adults both sexes who were willing participated. Diener et al Satisfaction with Life, Steger et al Meaning of Life Questionnaire; Templer's Death Anxiety Scale, Wong's Death Attitude Profile-R and a religious attitude scale were administered. Findings showed students' search for meaning was higher than faculty. An unusual finding of higher Approach acceptance death attitude in students emerged. Correlation analysis revealed that presence of meaning was related to greater life satisfaction in both groups. It was further related to higher religiosity in both groups and higher neutral acceptance of death and lesser death anxiety in students alone. In both groups search for meaning was positively associated with death anxiety. Faculty's search for meaning was positively associated with negative death attitudes and surprisingly one positive death attitude. Death anxiety was more with faculty's advancing age, and was also more when both groups held negative death attitudes. Religiosity was positively associated with death anxiety in students. Further, religiosity was not only positively associated with positive death attitudes of approach acceptance (both groups and neutral acceptance (faculty but also with negative attitude of death avoidance (faculty. Death anxiety was more despite both groups embracing approach acceptance death attitude indicating

  8. Autoerotic death due to electrocution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Arkuszewski


    Full Text Available Autoerotic death is a very rare case in forensic medicine. It is usually caused by asphyxia, but other reasons are also possible. Herein we present a case of autoerotic death due to electrocution caused by a self-made electrical device. The device was constructed to increase sexual feelings through stimulation of the scrotal area.

  9. European attitudes to water pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne Kejser


    Efficient use of the water resource requires internalization of all costs in the price of water, including environmental and resource costs. However, water resource management tends to be highly political and increasing water prices are a sensitive and complicated policy matter. Hence......, there is a need for increased understanding of the implementation process and the attitudes towards implementation among the general public. This paper explores the spatial heterogeneity in the public attitude towards internalizing environmental and resource costs in the price of water across the EU regions....... Within an extensive spatial dataset constructed for the purpose, we estimate the effect of individual information levels and affordability concerns on the attitude towards environmental water pricing. Information about water problems is found to have a significant and positive effect on attitudes...

  10. Public Opinion on Organ Donation After Death and Its Influence on Attitudes Toward Organ Donation. (United States)

    Aijing, Luo; Wenzhao, Xie; Wei, Wei; Qiquan, Wan; Xuantong, Deng


    BACKGROUND China officially launched a pilot program of organ donation after cardiac death to overcome the shortage of available organs since 2011. Voluntary organ donation by deceased citizens became the only source of transplant organs beginning January 1, 2015. To investigate public opinions on organ donation by deceased donors, and discuss the effect of these opinions on the willingness and attitude of the public regarding voluntary organ donation. MATERIAL AND METHODS We designed a questionnaire. The survey was conducted from December 2014 to January 2015 in Changsha City, and 417 valid questionnaires were recovered. RESULTS A total of 162 respondents explicitly expressed a willingness to donate organs, and 269 believed that the organ donors' relatives should be compensated. A total of 255 respondents thought it acceptable to complete the donation-consent form when receiving a driver's license. Among the respondents, 65.3% did not agree with the statement "My body is bestowed by my parents, and to donate my body parts would not display filial respect"; 88.9% agreed that "It is necessary to consider the willingness of my family"; 74.4% agreed that "Donated organs have not been fairly and appropriately used; the wealthy and celebrities have been favored"; and 61.4% agreed that "Organ donation laws and regulations are not well developed, and organ donations will result in unnecessary difficulties." More than 80% believed that organ donation and transplantation extend life. CONCLUSIONS Public opinions on organ donation after death are associated with various factors, including traditional values, religious beliefs, compensation mechanisms, donor registration, institutional credibility, and ideals.

  11. Understanding Death Attitudes: The Integration of Movies, Positive Psychology, and Meaning Management (United States)

    Niemiec, Ryan M.; Schulenberg, Stefan E.


    The portrayal of death is one of the most common themes in movies and is often unrealistic, promoting misconceptions to the public. However, there are also many films that portray death acceptance in an instructive way. Such films depict the development of character strengths useful in embracing life and lessening death anxiety, namely zest,…

  12. Domestic servants of salamanca in seventeenth Century (1601-1650: social tensions and attitudes towards death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier LORENZO PINAR


    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Through the local archives documentation, the present article tries to approach us to the situations of conflict (rapes, illicit unions, disputes, etc. that the domestic servants of Salamanca (West Spain suffered during the first half of the Seventeenth Century; and also their attitudes to the death and their relationship with their masters and their labour fellows reflected in the testaments.

  13. History of brain death as death: 1968 to the present. (United States)

    De Georgia, Michael A


    The concept of brain death was formulated in 1968 in the landmark report A Definition of Irreversible Coma. While brain death has been widely accepted as a determination of death throughout the world, many of the controversies that surround it have not been settled. Some may be rooted in a misconstruction about the history of brain death. The concept evolved as a result of the convergence of several parallel developments in the second half of the 20th century including advances in resuscitation and critical care, research into the underlying physiology of consciousness, and growing concerns about technology, medical futility, and the ethics of end of life care. Organ transplantation also developed in parallel, and though it clearly benefited from a new definition of death, it was not a principal driving force in its creation. Since 1968, the concept of brain death has been extensively analyzed, debated, and reworked. Still there remains much misunderstanding and confusion, especially in the general public. In this comprehensive review, I will trace the evolution of the definition of brain death as death from 1968 to the present, providing background, history and context.

  14. Death Anxiety and Voluntary Passive Euthanasia: Influences of Proximity to Death and Experiences with Death in Important Other Persons. (United States)

    Devins, Gerald M.


    Identified five sources of death anxiety. Significant relationships were observed between each source and experimental factors. The relationship between death anxiety and attitude toward voluntary passive euthanasia was explored, and a significant correlation was noted among elderly persons. Results were consistent with an idiographic orientation…

  15. Ambitions fulfilled? The effects of intrinsic and extrinsic goal attainment on older adults' ego-integrity and death attitudes. (United States)

    Van Hiel, Alain; Vansteenkiste, Maarten


    The present research examined the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic goal attainment on older adults' ego-integrity, psychological well-being, and death attitudes. Hypotheses were derived from Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000; Vansteenkiste, Ryan, & Deci, in press). Study 1 (N = 202, Mean age = 68.2 years) indicated that, after controlling for extrinsic goal attainment, intrinsic goal attainment contributed positively to subjective well-being and ego-integrity and negatively to despair, whereas extrinsic goal attainment was unrelated to psychological health and contributed positively to despair. Study 2 (N = 213, Mean age = 75.2 years) replicated and extended these results, showing that intrinsic goal attainment contributed to the acceptance of one's own death, lower ill-being, and less death anxiety, whereas extrinsic goal attainment was negatively associated with death acceptance. It is argued that the attainment of intrinsic goals is related to better psychological health, because intrinsic goals are more conducive to the satisfaction of basic psychological needs.

  16. Good death and bad death in ancient Israel according to biblical lore. (United States)

    Spronk, Klaas


    In the view of the ancient Israelites, as expressed in the Hebrew Bible, death is good or at least acceptable (1) after a long life, (2) when a person dies in peace, (3) when there is continuity in the relation with the ancestors and the heirs, and (4) when one will be buried in one's own land. Death is experienced as bad when (1) it is premature, (2) violent, especially when it is shameful (e.g., when a man is killed by a woman), (3) when a person does not have an heir, and (4) when one does not receive a proper burial. It is remarkable that in the literature of ancient Israel common elements like the cult of the dead and the belief in retribution after death, are not explicitly mentioned and therefore do not function as a comfort for death. Also, from a theological point of view emphasis is placed on this life. A positive attitude towards martyrdom is missing. This results in a way of coping with death which has many 'modern' elements or which may help modern people to face death.

  17. Status of College Students’Death Attitude and Educational Measures%大学生死亡态度的现状及其教育对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    To explore the status of college students’ death attitude and the influencing factors, 1690 college students were tested by means of Death Attitude Profile-Revised Scale.Some educational measures were put forword:Develop scientific death attitude.Set death education course.Improve college students’ psychological level.Realize the main value:being-towards-death.%采用《死亡态度描绘量表》(DAP-R)对1690名在校大学生进行调查,分析了大学生死亡态度的现状及不同人口统计变量对其的影响程度,并提出了相应的对策:促成科学的死亡态度,开设死亡教育课程,与学校心理健康教育相结合,提升大学生心理健康水平,实现“向死而生”的核心价值。

  18. Response to 'Fear of death and the symmetry argument'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalja Deng

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article is a response to 'Fear of death and the symmetry argument', in this issue. In that article, the author discusses the above Lucretian symmetry argument, and proposes a view that justifies the existing asymmetry in our attitudes towards birth and death. I begin by distinguishing this symmetry argument from a different one, also loosely inspired by Lucretius, which also plays a role in the article. I then describe what I take to be the author's solution to the original symmetry argument (i.e. the one above and explain why I am unpersuaded by it.

  19. Determinants of Public Attitudes towards Euthanasia in Adults and Physician-Assisted Death in Neonates in Austria: A National Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Stolz

    Full Text Available Euthanasia remains a controversial topic in both public discourses and legislation. Although some determinants of acceptance of euthanasia and physician-assisted death have been identified in previous studies, there is still a shortage of information whether different forms of euthanasia are supported by the same or different sub-populations and whether authoritarian personality dispositions are linked to attitudes towards euthanasia.A large, representative face-to-face survey was conducted in Austria in 2014 (n = 1,971. Respondents faced three scenarios of euthanasia and one of physician assisted death differing regarding the level of specificity, voluntariness and subject, requiring either approval or rejection: (1 abstract description of euthanasia, (2 abstract description of physician-assisted suicide, (3 the case of euthanasia of a terminally-ill 79-year old cancer patient, and (4 the case of non-voluntary, physician assisted death of a severely disabled or ill neonate. A number of potential determinants for rejection ordered in three categories (socio-demographic, personal experience, orientations including authoritarianism were tested via multiple logistic regression analyses.Rejection was highest in the case of the neonate (69% and lowest for the case of the older cancer patient (35%. A consistent negative impact of religiosity on the acceptance across all scenarios and differential effects for socio-economic status, area of residence, religious confession, liberalism, and authoritarianism were found. Individuals with a stronger authoritarian personality disposition were more likely to reject physician-assisted suicide for adults but at the same time also more likely to approve of physician-assisted death of a disabled neonate.Euthanasia in adults was supported by a partially different sub-population than assisted death of disabled neonates.

  20. Attitudes to Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    As an Australian expat teaching English in China for over four years, I often encourage my students to not only learn the English language but also try to understand Western culture. This includes the fact that Westerners frequently initiate proactive suggestions on any aspects of soci-

  1. Attitudes to sexuality. (United States)


    Many older people enjoy an active sex life although they are likely to experience problems relating to poor health or lack of understanding from healthcare professionals. Health issues include male sexual dysfunction resulting from medication and conditions such as diabetes, vascular disease or prostatic surgery. Older women may experience urogenital atrophy causing dryness, itching and pain on intercourse. Psychological problems such as depression are also associated with poor sexual function.

  2. Ambitions Fulfilled? The Effects of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Goal Attainment on Older Adults' Ego-Integrity and Death Attitudes (United States)

    Van Hiel, Alain; Vansteenkiste, Maarten


    The present research examined the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic goal attainment on older adults' ego-integrity, psychological well-being, and death attitudes. Hypotheses were derived from Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000; Vansteenkiste, Ryan, & Deci, in press). Study 1 (N = 202, Mean age = 68.2 years) indicated that, after…

  3. Deaths due to Unknown Foodborne Agents



    This study reviews the available evidence on unknown pathogenic agents transmitted in food and examines the methods that have been used to estimate that such agents cause 3,400 deaths per year in the United States. The estimate of deaths was derived from hospital discharge and death certificate data on deaths attributed to gastroenteritis of unknown cause. Fatal illnesses due to unknown foodborne agents do not always involve gastroenteritis, and gastroenteritis may not be accurately diagnosed...

  4. The Attitude towards Life and Death of the Participants in the First World War: Frontline Routine Sketch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Senyavskaya


    Full Text Available The article discloses the major aspect of frontline routine – «war as danger», seamless procession of «boundary conditions». Basing on archive data and private sources of Russian participants in the First World War, it touches upon such subjects as combatants’ psychological factors, their attitude towards life and death, soldiers’ fatalism, ways to overcome fear in action, specific character of combat situation perception by enlisted and commanders of the Russian Army, representatives of different service arms, the masses moral preparation for war according to contemporaries’ estimates. The article also considers «the sounds of war» and their impact on frontline soldiers’ minds.

  5. Attitudes to animal euthanasia do not correlate with acceptance of human euthanasia or suicide. (United States)

    Ogden, U; Kinnison, T; May, S A


    Several reasons have been suggested for the elevated risk of suicide experienced by those in the veterinary profession. The current study aimed to investigate possible links between veterinarians' attitudes to 'convenience' or non-justified animal euthanasia and attitudes towards human euthanasia and suicide. Veterinary students and graduates had a negative attitude towards convenience animal euthanasia, but their attitudes changed over time (pre-clinical studies, clinical studies and recently graduated). A greater tolerance to euthanasia was displayed in the later years of study and post qualification - primarily by males. Attitudes towards both human euthanasia and suicide, however, remained stable over time and indicated on average a neutral stance. No correlations were found between attitudes to convenience euthanasia and either human euthanasia or suicide, suggesting a tolerance to convenience euthanasia of animals does not lead to desensitisation in valuing human life and a changed attitude to human euthanasia or suicide, or vice versa. Attitudes to human euthanasia and suicide were predictably correlated, perhaps suggesting an overarching attitude towards control over human death. The results of the current study throw into question the argument that it is the changes in attitudes to animal life that affect veterinarian's attitudes to human life and contribute to the high suicide rate.

  6. Perspectives on Death: An Experiential Course on Death Education. (United States)

    Stefan, Edwin S.


    Describes and evaluates a college psychology course on death education (thanatology). Course objectives were to help students become aware of the feelings involved in facing death, encourage discussion on the subject of death, motivate students to change their attitudes about death, and encourage practical planning for funeral arrangements.…

  7. Neonatal death and parents' grief. Experience, behaviour and attitudes of Swedish nurses. (United States)

    Lundqvist, A; Nilstun, T


    The aim of the present study was to survey the experience, behaviour and attitudes of nurses in Swedish neonatal wards towards parents who refuse or are reluctant to see, touch or hold their dying or dead baby. A questionnaire was distributed to 173 nurses, of whom 144 responded. The questionnaire contained questions about the nurses' own experience of such situations, their behaviour, and their attitude towards influencing the parents. Seventy-four percent answered that they had experience of such situations, 59% that they often tried to persuade or in other ways influence the parents to change their mind, and 60% were of the opinion that the parents mourning-process is always facilitated when they touch or hold their dead baby. Most nurses (83%) were of the opinion that the conflict between beneficence and autonomy was difficult but not impossible to solve. A majority of the nurses were inclined to give priority to the principle of beneficence. But is this inclination ethically justified? A well-founded answer to this question requires more knowledge about the experiences of parents who have lived through such traumatic situations.

  8. Actitudes psicológicas ante la muerte y el duelo: Una revisión conceptual Psychological attitudes toward death and bereavement: One conceptual review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Gala León


    Full Text Available Introducción: la muerte siempre ha sido objeto de profundas reflexiones filosóficas, religiosas y, actualmente, científicas; sin embargo en las sociedades postindustriales es difícil aceptar su mera idea, de modo que las actitudes hacia ella han sufrido una evolución desadaptativa, retrocediendo de la mano del "progreso" de las actitudes saludables del afrontamiento y la aceptación, a las prefóbicas del sinvivir por su temor y a las fóbicas de su negación. Cambios socioculturales: podemos diferenciar en Occidente dos momentos en la vivencia de la muerte: uno previo a su Institucionalización Hospitalaria, en el que es aceptada como parte natural de la existencia y otro, desde que el Hospital pasa a ser la Institución reservada para morir, traduciéndose en un cambio radical en la consciencia e información sobre la propia muerte. Actitudes del Personal Sanitario: estos cambios también han alcanzado al PS. generándole muchas veces actitudes distorsionadas tales como no querer nombrar a la muerte o a las patologías "que las atraen", no mirar cara a cara al enfermo terminal, incongruencias y disonancias entre la Comunicación Verbal y la No Verbal y aumento de la atención tecnológica en detrimento de la empático-afectiva, con el riesgo del encarnizamiento terapéutico, empeorándose las condiciones de la muerte. Conclusión: el Marco Sanitario precisa de componendas éticas y estéticas para afrontar integralmente el proceso de morir, dotándose de medios, conocimientos y actitudes adecuadas para atender las necesidades biopsicosociales del moribundo con el objetivo de morir con dignidad.Introduction: Death has always been the object of deep philosophical, religious, and currently scientific reflections; however in post-industrial societies it is difficult to accept the very idea of it, so that attitudes to death have undergone maladaptive evolution, drawing back in the name of "progress" from the healthy attitudes of confrontation

  9. Perspectives on death and an afterlife in relation to quality of life, depression, and hopelessness in cancer patients without evidence of disease and advanced cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, H.W.M. van; Schilderman, J.; Verhagen, C.A.H.H.V.M.; Vissers, K.C.P.; Prins, J.B.


    CONTEXT: It is unknown whether cancer patients with different life expectancies have different attitudes and emotions toward death and an afterlife. Also, it is unclear whether these attitudes and emotions toward death and afterlife influence patients' distress. OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationshi

  10. Attitudes to motherhood in different cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razina N.V.


    Full Text Available The study of motherhood is a promising and relevant field of psychology. This article represents the results of a study in which a socio-psychological analysis of reproductive attitudes and demographic behaviour was conducted. The study also shows the relationship between attitudes related to motherhood and women’s cultural affiliations. The factors that contribute to the nature of attitudes towards motherhood and the interaction between these factors were studied. According to the results of this study, we distinguished the most significant characteristics of the attitudes to motherhood that influence the nature of the relationship between a mother and her unborn child. The model of the development of attitudes to motherhood proposed by R. V. Ovcharova was detailed. We considered the influence of factors on the nature of attitudes to motherhood as well as the influence of factors on each other. The results of this study allow us to describe the psychological portraits of women with different attitudes to motherhood.

  11. Development of a Scale to Measure Death Perspectives: Overcoming and Participating. (United States)

    Petty, Eric; Hayslip, Bert; Caballero, Daniela M; Jenkins, Sharon Rae


    Kastenbaum and Aisenberg have suggested that persons can cope with the impact of death and dying by altering their understanding of what each means to them as well as by changing their behavioral responses to such experiences. The present study's purpose was to develop a reliable and valid measure to assess an individual's particular death perspective based on Kastenbaum and Aisenberg's distinctions between overcomers and participators. The Death Perspective Scale developed here assessed the extent to which individuals utilize either an overcoming or participating approach to (a) assigning meaning to dying and death and (b) behaviorally responding to death-related experiences. Based upon the data collected from 168 adults varying by age and gender, findings suggested that both overcoming and participating could be reliably assessed, correlated with measures of death anxiety and death attitudes, and varied reliably (p death and dying and were less accepting in this respect, while participators reported fewer death-related fears and were more accepting. Women and older adults were more participating, while men and younger adults were more overcoming, though such effects varied depending upon whether meaning versus response to death was considered. The consistency between the present findings and the predictions Kastenbaum and Aisenberg suggests that while person's orientations to death and dying seem to transcend sociocultural change, empirically based efforts to better understand how our death system impacts persons need to move forward.

  12. Care of the patient close to death. (United States)

    Lickiss, J N; Hacker, N F


    The recognition that the patient is close to death is essential and usually possible. Assessment must be meticulous, goals clearly articulated, and strategies for symptom relief and comprehensive care defined and monitored. Death should not be obstructed by futile measures. The wish of a patient to be allowed to die needs to be respected, as well as a patient's anguish in the face of imminent and unwanted death. The final phase of life (hours or days) should not be seen as a time of treatment failure, but as a time for completion of tasks in peace and dignity, even in the mist of weakness and profound surrender.

  13. Exploration of the relationship between physical and/or sexual abuse, attitudes about life and death, and suicidal ideation in young women. (United States)

    Gutierrez, P M; Thakkar, R R; Kuczen, C


    Experiencing sexual and/or physical abuse at any point in one's life can be quite traumatic. In addition to the immediate effects of the abuse, numerous long-term consequences have been identified, including an increased risk of developing psychological disorders and attempting suicide. We sought to determine if a relationship exists between abuse experiences, attitudes about life and death, and suicidal ideation by surveying 644 college women between the ages of 18 and 24. Participants completed packets containing standardized abuse questionnaires, the Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale, and the Adult Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire. We concluded that abuse plays a role in how these young women think about life and death. Specifically, less repulsion by death and more repulsion by life were reported by women with more significant abuse histories. In addition, these same women endorsed higher levels of current suicidal ideation. It was also determined that women who had experienced more abuse tended to have been in therapy for longer periods of time. Implications of this study for mental health professionals working with suicidal young adults are discussed.

  14. Attitude of schizophrenics to computer videogames. (United States)

    Samoilovich, S; Riccitelli, C; Schiel, A; Siedi, A


    We investigated the initial attitude of 10 chronic, defected schizophrenic patients to a computer videogame session. Six of them enjoyed the experience and wanted to repeat it. Cooperation and performance were compared by means of videogames and a standard psychometric test (WAIS). Videogame performance correlated with the execution test IQ more than with the verbal test IQ. Computer games could be useful in these patients for evaluation of attitudes and responses, psychologic testing, motivation and reward.

  15. Anaesthetists' attitudes to teamwork and safety. (United States)

    Flin, R; Fletcher, G; McGeorge, P; Sutherland, A; Patey, R


    A questionnaire survey was conducted with 222 anaesthetists from 11 Scottish hospitals to measure their attitudes towards human and organisational factors that can have an impact on effective team performance and consequently on patient safety. A customised version of the Operating Room Management Attitude Questionnaire (ORMAQ) was used. This measures attitudes to leadership, communication, teamwork, stress and fatigue, work values, human error and organisational climate. The respondents generally demonstrated positive attitudes towards the interpersonal aspects of their work, such as team behaviours and they recognised the importance of communication skills, such as assertiveness. However, the results suggest that some anaesthetists do not fully appreciate the debilitating effects of stress and fatigue on performance. Their responses were comparable with (and slightly more favourable than) those reported in previous ORMAQ surveys of anaesthetists and surgeons in other countries.

  16. Deaths from heart failure: using coarsened exact matching to correct cause-of-death statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibuya Kenji


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incomplete information on death certificates makes recorded cause-of-death data less useful for public health monitoring and planning. Certifying physicians sometimes list only the mode of death without indicating the underlying disease or diseases that led to the death. Inconsistent cause-of-death assignment among cardiovascular causes of death is of particular concern. This can prevent valid epidemiologic comparisons across countries and over time. Methods We propose that coarsened exact matching be used to infer the underlying causes of death where only the mode of death is known. We focus on the case of heart failure in US, Mexican, and Brazilian death records. Results Redistribution algorithms derived using this method assign the largest proportion of heart failure deaths to ischemic heart disease in all three countries (53%, 26%, and 22% respectively, with larger proportions assigned to hypertensive heart disease and diabetes in Mexico and Brazil (16% and 23% vs. 7% for hypertensive heart disease, and 13% and 9% vs. 6% for diabetes. Reassigning these heart failure deaths increases the US ischemic heart disease mortality rate by 6%. Conclusions The frequency with which physicians list heart failure in the causal chain for various underlying causes of death allows for inference about how physicians use heart failure on the death certificate in different settings. This easy-to-use method has the potential to reduce bias and increase comparability in cause-of-death data, thereby improving the public health utility of death records.

  17. Preparing Attitude Scale to Define Students' Attitudes about Environment, Recycling, Plastic and Plastic Waste (United States)

    Avan, Cagri; Aydinli, Bahattin; Bakar, Fatma; Alboga, Yunus


    The aim of this study is to introduce an attitude scale in order to define students? attitudes about environment, recycling, plastics, plastic waste. In this study, 80 attitude sentences according to 5-point Likert-type scale were prepared and applied to 492 students of 6th grade in the Kastamonu city center of Turkey. The scale consists of…

  18. The attitudes of brain cancer patients and their caregivers towards death and dying: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmelman Jonathan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much money and energy has been spent on the study of the molecular biology of malignant brain tumours. However, little attention has been paid to the wishes of patients afflicted with these incurable tumours, and how this might influence treatment considerations. Methods We interviewed 29 individuals – 7 patients dying of a malignant brain tumor and 22 loved ones. One-on-one interviews were conducted according to a pre-designed interview guide. A combination of open-ended questions, as well as clinical scenarios was presented to participants in order to understand what is meaningful and valuable to them when determining treatment options and management approaches. The results were analyzed, coded, and interpreted using qualitative analytic techniques in order to arrive at several common overarching themes. Results Seven major themes were identified. In general, respondents were united in viewing brain cancer as unique amongst malignancies, due in large part to the premium placed on mental competence and cognitive functioning. Importantly, participants found their experiences, however difficult, led to the discovery of inner strength and resilience. Responses were usually framed within an interpersonal context, and participants were generally grateful for the opportunity to speak about their experiences. Attitudes towards religion, spirituality, and euthanasia were also probed. Conclusion Several important themes underlie the experiences of brain cancer patients and their caregivers. It is important to consider these when managing these patients and to respect not only their autonomy but also the complex interpersonal toll that a malignant diagnosis can have.

  19. Access to Attitude-Relevant Information in Memory as a Determinant of Attitude-Behavior Consistency. (United States)

    Kallgren, Carl A.; Wood, Wendy

    Recent reserach has attempted to determine systematically how attitudes influence behavior. This research examined whether access to attitude-relevant beliefs and prior experiences would mediate the relation between attitudes and behavior. Subjects were 49 college students with a mean age of 27 who did not live with their parents or in…

  20. 757名医学生死亡态度的研究%Research on Death Attitude of 757 Medical Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢云天; 陈涛


    目的:研究医学生的死亡态度。方法:采用死亡态度问卷,对757名医学生进行调查。结果:医学生中立接受死亡的得分最高(3.90±0.77),逃离接受死亡的得分最低(2.02±0.70);在死亡恐惧上,女生得分显著高于男生(t=3.28,P﹤0.001);在逃离接受死亡上,有过自杀意念的医学生得分显著高于没有自杀意念的医学生得分(t=5.13,P﹤0.001);等。结论:大多数医学生对死亡持中立接受的态度,少数人偏向于逃离接受死亡。应把生的教育和死的教育有机结合起来,引导医学生正确对待死亡。%Objective:To study death attitude of 757 medical students. Methods:757 medical students were tested by the self questionnaires about“Death Attitude”. Results:The average score of neutral death accePtance of medical students was relatively high(3. 90 ± 0. 77),and the average score of escaPe-oriented death accePtance was relatively low(2. 02 ± 0. 70). The girls tended to fear of death significantly more than the boys(t=3. 28,P﹤0. 001). The students who had suicide ideation tended to escaPe-oriented death accePtance significantly more than the students who had no suicide ideation( t=5. 13,P﹤0. 001),and so on. Conclusion:Most medical students tended to neutral death accePtance and few PeoPle tended to escaPe-oriented death accePtance. We should combine life education with death education and guide medical students to treat death correctly.

  1. Nurses' attitudes to euthanasia: a review of the literature. (United States)

    Verpoort, Charlotte; Gastmans, Chris; De Bal, Nele; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette


    This article provides an overview of the scarce international literature concerning nurses' attitudes to euthanasia. Studies show large differences with respect to the percentage of nurses who are (not) in favour of euthanasia. Characteristics such as age, religion and nursing specialty have a significant influence on a nurse's opinion. The arguments for euthanasia have to do with quality of life, respect for autonomy and dissatisfaction with the current situation. Arguments against euthanasia are the right to a good death, belief in the possibilities offered by palliative care, religious objections and the fear of abuse. Nurses mention the need for more palliative care training, their difficulties in taking a specific position, and their desire to express their ideas about euthanasia. There is a need to include nurses' voices in the end-of-life discourse because they offer a contextual understanding of euthanasia and requests to die, which is borne out of real experience with people facing death.

  2. Life and Death Attitudes of Parents of Children with Problems: Interview Data (United States)

    Leviton, Dan


    Deals with describing differences regarding life and death meanings between parents of so-called "children with problems" and of parents of children without such problems, and gaining some understanding and indication of the effect of a remedial, therapeutic program on the meaning of life and death. (Author)

  3. Non-suicidal self-injury (Nssi in adolescent inpatients: assessing personality features and attitude toward death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrara Mauro


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI is a common concern among hospitalized adolescents, and can have significant implications for short and long-term prognosis. Little research has been devoted on how personality features in severely ill adolescents interact with NSSI and "attitude toward life and death" as a dimension of suicidality. Developing more specific assessment methodologies for adolescents who engage in self-harm without suicidal intent is relevant given the recent proposal of a non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI disorder and may be useful in predicting risk in psychiatrically impaired subjects. Methods Consecutively hospitalized adolescents in a psychiatric unit (N = 52; 71% females; age 12-19 years, reporting at least one recent episode of self-harm according to the Deliberate Self-harm Inventory, were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Mental Disorders and Personality Disorders (SCID I and II, the Children's Depression Inventory and the Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale (MAST. Results Mean age onset of NSSI in the sample was 12.3 years. All patients showed "repetitive" NSSI (high frequency of self-harm, covering different modalities. Results revealed that 63.5% of adolescents met criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD and that the rest of the sample also met criteria for personality disorders with dysregulated traits. History of suicide attempts was present in 46.1% of cases. Elevated depressive traits were found in 53.8%. Results show a statistically significant negative correlation between the score on the "Attraction to Life" subscale of the MAST and the frequency and diversification of self-harming behaviors. Conclusions Most adolescent inpatients with NSSI met criteria for emotionally dysregulated personality disorders, and showed a reduced "attraction to life" disposition and significant depressive symptoms. This peculiar psychopathological configuration must be addressed in the

  4. Amusing Ourselves to Death, Almost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clasen, Mathias


    Most of us can probably agree that in the real world, there are no drooling monsters, no rotting zombies, no bloodthirsty vampires, and no moaning ghosts. Yet such outlandish ideas capture our attention and figure prominently in popular culture. The horror genre—a natural home for scary monsters......—is more in vogue than ever, but also more paradoxical than ever. People in modern societies have little reason to fear being attacked by big terrestrial predators or dangerous reptiles, let alone supernatural monsters. Why, then, do they flock to be scared and thrilled by imaginary monsters in fiction...... that an understanding of human phylogeny, in particular the evolution and design specifications of human precautionary cognitive architecture, crucially contributes to a comprehensive, vertically integrated explanation for the persistence of fear-inducing media presentations....

  5. Using Literal Text From the Death Certificate to Enhance Mortality Statistics: Characterizing Drug Involvement in Deaths. (United States)

    Trinidad, James P; Warner, Margaret; Bastian, Brigham A; Minino, Arialdi M; Hedegaard, Holly


    Objectives-This report describes the development and use of a method for analyzing the literal text from death certificates to enhance national mortality statistics on drug-involved deaths. Drug-involved deaths include drug overdose deaths as well as other deaths where, according to death certificate literal text, drugs were associated with or contributed to the death. Methods-The method uses final National Vital Statistics System-Mortality files linked to electronic files containing literal text information from death certificates. Software programs were designed to search the literal text from three fields of the death certificate (the cause of death from Part I, significant conditions contributing to the death from Part II, and a description of how the injury occurred from Box 43) to identify drug mentions as well as contextual information. The list of drug search terms was developed from existing drug classification systems as well as from manual review of the literal text. Literal text surrounding the identified drug search terms was analyzed to ascertain the context. Drugs mentioned in the death certificate literal text were assumed to be involved in the death unless contextual information suggested otherwise (e.g., "METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS INFECTION"). The literal text analysis method was assessed by comparing the results from application of the method with results based on ICD-10 codes, and by conducting a manual review of a sample of records.

  6. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from...

  7. The attitude towards people of other nations through the prism of the attitude to yourself

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Konyukh


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of theoretical analysis and empirical investigation of the relationship between self-attitude and attitude towards other people, including representatives of other nationalities. Self-attitude is viwed as a stable, emotionally charged of your own self. The interdependance of self-attitude indicators with the features of ethnic tolerance and the character of other individuals' attitude in complicated situations has been researched. Individuals with different self-image are shown to perceive their opponents just as they perceive their own personality. Perception and emotional attitude both to their own ethnic group and other ethnicities is closely related to the attitude of the individual to himself, and common factors in predisposition to criticism and condescension towards themselves and others.

  8. Canadian Medical Education Journal Survey evaluations of University of British Columbia residents’ education and attitudes regarding palliative care and physician assisted death (United States)

    Spicer, David; Paul, Sonia; Tang, Tom; Chen, Charlie; Chase, Jocelyn


    Background Little prior research has been conducted regarding resident physicians’ opinions on the subject of Physician Assisted Death (PAD), despite past surveys ascertaining the attitudes of practicing physicians towards PAD in Canada. We solicited British Columbia residents’ opinions on the amount of education they receive about palliative care and physician assisted death, and their attitudes towards the implementation of PAD. Methods We conducted a cross sectional, anonymous online survey with the resident physicians of British Columbia, Canada. Questions included: close-ended questions, graded Likert scale questions, and comments. Results Among the respondents (n=299, response rate 24%), 44% received ≥5 hours of education in palliative care, 40% received between zero and four hours of education, and 16% reported zero hours. Of all respondents, 75% had received no education about PAD and the majority agreed that there should be more education about palliative care (74%) and PAD (85%). Only 35% of residents felt their program provided them with enough education to make an informed decision about PAD, yet 59% would provide a consenting patient with PAD. Half of the respondents believed PAD would ultimately be provided by palliative care physicians. Interpretation Residents desire further education about palliative care and PAD. Training programs should consider conducting a thorough needs assessment and implementing structured education to meet this need. PMID:28344712

  9. Suicide Ideation Associations with Attitudes toward Suicide, Quality of Life, and Attitudes toward Death and Dying among Chinese, Korean, Thai, and Vietnamese High School Seniors (United States)

    Kay, Noy S.; Jantaraweragul, Sudgasame; Kanungsukkasem, Vijit; Li, Kaigang; Jones, Megan R.; Huang, Yan


    Suicide of an individual could leave devastating consequences for family, friends, relatives, and society. Suicide could be considered a serious concern and issue to public health, especially among adolescents. The purpose of the study was to examine associations of suicide ideation with attitudes toward suicide (ATS), quality of life (QOL), and…

  10. Attitudes to telehealth use among rural residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Fyhn Lykke


    Context: Rural communities tend to be underserved by medical services. Low access to medical services affects quality of life and may also affect settlement decisions. The use of telehealth has often been mentioned as an alternative way to provide health care services in remote, underserved areas....... One prerequisite for successful delivery of health care by means of telehealth is the existence of positive attitudes toward telehealth solutions among the potential end beneficiaries. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes toward telehealth use among residents in a Danish...

  11. Changing primary teacher trainees' attitudes to science (United States)

    Jane, Beverley; Martin, Marjory-Dore; Tytler, Russell


    A study of primary teacher trainees' perceptions and attitudes to science in 1990, has been useful in designing a semester unit aimed at increasing the confidence and interest of first year students at Victoria College. This paper outlines the background survey and discusses some, of the results and how they were used to develop the Professional Readiness Study-Understanding Science. This unit attempts to change attitudes by focussing on metacognition and encourages students to understand and control their own learning. Discussion involves teaching and learning strategies and alternative assessment approaches including the student's journal-the Personal Record.

  12. 死亡教育讲座对护士死亡态度影响的研究%The effect of death education curriculum on nurses' death attitudes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐鲁; 李玉香; 周玲君; 崔静; 张玲; 赵继军


    目的:开展死亡教育讲座的护士继续教育实验,为死亡教育讲座在护士队伍中的开展提供基本的讲座指导和实施参考。方法:以某三级甲等医院急诊科护士为研究对象,采用对照研究,对死亡教育讲座对护士所持死亡态度的影响进行实验论证。结果:干预后,实验组死亡恐惧、死亡逃避维度得分低于对照组,自然接受、趋近接受维度得分高于对照组,差异有统计学意义;逃离接受维度得分两组间差异没有统计学意义。结论:死亡教育讲座在一定程度上促进了护士死亡态度的正向改变,讲座具有必要性和有效性。%Objective:To conduct experimental study to explore the effects of death education in nurses. Methods:A controlled study was performed in nurses of an Emergency Department to examine the effectiveness and feasibility of the death education curriculum plan. Results:After the education, the nurses in experimental group had lower scores in two domains, including fear of death, and death avoidance, and higher scores in natural acceptance and approach acceptation than that of control group. Conclusion:The curriculum could positively inlfuence the death attitudes of nurses.

  13. Relating attitudes to residential energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, L.J.; Seligman, C.; Fazio, R.H.; Darley, J.M.


    Along with technological advances, part of the solution to the energy problem will come from a change in the public's attitudes that will place a higher value on energy conservation. The authors examine the results of surveys designed to identify consumer attitudes on a seasonal basis in terms of comfort, family finances, optimism, legitimacy of the energy crisis, savings, individual responsibility, and health. They find a positive correlation between the summer and winter comfort factors, which suggests that the large energy users are people with narrow ranges of acceptable temperatures. The best predictor of residential energy consumption is the one involving attitudes about thermal comfort and energy use. Residential energy consumption, however, is not behavior; it is a consequence of behavior, primarily thermostat setting. 15 references.

  14. Consumer attitudes to enzymes in food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Helle Alsted; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim


    The use of enzymes in food production has potential benefits for both food manufacturers and consumers. A central question is how consumers react to new ways of producing foods with enzymes. This study investigates the formation of consumer attitudes to different enzyme production methods in three...... European countries. Results show that consumers are most positive towards non-GM enzyme production methods. The enzyme production method is by far the most important factor for the formation of buying intentions compared to price and benefits. Results also show that environmental concern and attitudes...

  15. Investigation about the Medical Personnel's Attitude and Conduct to Palliative and Natural Death of Terminal Malignant Tumor Patients%医务人员对恶性肿瘤末期患者安宁自然死的态度与行为调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖俊辉; 李大平; 陈琴; 杨云滨


    Objective To find out the medical personnel's attitude and conduct propensity to palliative and natural death of terminal malignant tumor patients. Methods Accidental sampling method was used to investigate 206 medical personnel in oncology or related departments from five hospitals:Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital,Dongguan Municipal People's Hospital,Shinglong People's Hospital,First Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University and Guangdong Agricultural Reclamation Hospital about their general information( gender,age,working types,professional title,academic credentials, length of service,and working department),the treatment methods they used for the terminal malignant tumor patients,the rea-sons for the treatment methods( multiple choice questions),their attitude toward the treatment,their viewpoint on palliative and natural death,the biggest barrier,their analysis of publicity methods,etc. Results 206 questionnaires were enrolled and 206 were returned with a rate of 100. 0%,among which 198 were valid with effective rate of 96. 1%. 60. 1%( 119/198 ) medical personnel say " yes" to the palliative treatment. 36. 9%( 73/198 ) had applied it. 75. 8%( 150/198 ) listened to the patients or relatives. 86. 0%(170/198) thought patients needed symptomatic treatment to relieve pain. 66. 2%(131/198) thought it was necessary or very necessary to popularize the palliative death. 57. 1%( 113/198 ) thought the biggest barrier to popularize palliative death was lack of clear policy or law specification and therefore was easy for medical disputes. 19. 7%( 39/198 ) had some knowledge of palliative death. Conclusion The knowledge rate on palliative death of medical personnel is lower. It is neces-sary to strengthen expertise education and training on the palliative and natural death in the medical personnel,as well as publici-ty and education about the related knowledge of natural and palliative death to the people. The medical personnel in oncology de-partment need

  16. 高职护理学生死亡态度调查%Investigation and analysis of attitudes of nursing students in higher vocational towards death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐争艳; 王静; 杨丽; 胡健薇; 商亚娟


    目的 调查分析高职护生死亡态度现状及相关影响因素.方法 采用死亡态度描绘修定量表对陕西省某高校324名高职护生进行问卷调查.内容包括调查对象的身心健康状况、家庭讨论死亡的情况、家庭形态及排行、宗教、有无自杀念头、接触大众媒体关于死亡报道情况、阅读死亡书籍情况、死亡恐惧、死亡逃避、自然接受、趋近接受、逃离接受等情况.数据运用SPSS16.0进行数据录入和统计分析,统计描述用均数和标准差,统计推断用t检验和方差分析.结果 ①高职护生在自然接受维度上的总均分(3.93±0.55)最高.②在逃避接受维度上,身心健康状况极佳和佳的护生得分低于身心健康状况一般的护生(F=4.80,P=0.009);单亲家庭的护生得分高于其他家庭形态(F=4.59,P=0.004);有过自杀念头的护生得分高于无自杀念头的护生(t=-4.77,P=0.000).在死亡逃避维度上,家庭中公开讨论的护生得分低于家庭中从未讨论死亡和必要时才谈的护生(F=6.88,P=0.001).在自然接受维度上,有宗教信仰的护生不易自然接受死亡现实(t=2.52,P=0.012);曾接触过大众传播媒体关于死亡报道的护生得分较高(t=-3.85,P=0.000).在趋近接受维度上,曾接触过大众传播媒体关于死亡报道的护生得分较高(t=-3.48,P=0.001).结论 高职护生多数能自然接受死亡现实,身心健康状况、家庭谈论死亡情况、家庭形态、宗教信仰、自杀念头、接触大众媒体关于死亡报道情况对高职护生的死亡态度均有一定影响.%Objective To investigate and analyze the attitudes of higher vocational nursing students toward death and the related effect factors.Methods Totally 324 nursing students in a higher vocational school in Shaanxi province were investigated with death attitude profile-revised scale.Contents of investigation included physical and mental health status,family members' attitude towards

  17. Death, Children, and Books. (United States)

    Carr, Robin L.

    The books listed in this annotated bibliography are intended to help children understand the reality of death and deal with the mystery and emotions that accompany it. Each entry indicates the genre and reading level of the book and provides a brief description of the attitude toward death that it conveys. The selections include fables, fantasy,…

  18. Diagnostics of Pupils' Attitude to Education (United States)

    Eminli, Tovuz


    The paper is devoted to the investigation of the questions connected with the pedagogical diagnostics, in particular, the diagnostics of pupils' attitude to education. It is considered reasonable to apply the practice of development of an individual pedagogical and psychological map for productive implementation of the pedagogical diagnostics and…

  19. Reenactment of circumstances in deaths related to restraint. (United States)

    O'Halloran, Ronald L


    Reenactment of the circumstances in deaths associated with restraint, utilizing participants and witnesses while memories are fresh, may help death investigators more accurately determine the cause of death. Two recent deaths in Ventura County that occurred during restraint are discussed. Within a day of the autopsies the restrainers agreed to participate in reenactments of the restraint process, utilizing live volunteers as subjects. They allowed videotaping. Deaths associated with restraint often have nonspecific autopsy findings. Timely reenactment of the circumstances of deaths associated with restraint can help death investigators more accurately determine the probable cause of death in these difficult cases.

  20. The use of death metaphors to understand personal meaning of death among Hong Kong Chinese undergraduates. (United States)

    Cheung, Wing-Shan; Ho, Samuel M Y


    Many Chinese words are pictographic in nature and Chinese people often tend to use metaphorical expressions to communicate emotional feelings. The assessment of death images and metaphors provides a meaningful way of understanding personal perceptions of death among the Chinese. The purpose of this study was to establish an instrument to assess the death metaphors of Hong Kong Chinese for assessment and empirical research. Thirty death metaphor statements in Chinese were created from items of the Revised Death Fantasy Scale (RDFS; J. McLennan & C. A. Stewart, 1997) and a previous pilot study in Hong Kong (S. M. Y. Ho, 2001). The item pool was administered to 100 undergraduates together with the Templer's Death Anxiety Scale. Seven out of the 10 highest scored death metaphor statements were from the items that had been created for this study. Descriptive statistics of individual items suggested an interpersonal dimension of death perception that is not emphasized in Western literature. Factor analysis generated a 18-item Death Metaphors Scale (DMS) with 2 9-item subscales: the Positive Metaphors (f = .85) and the Negative Metaphors (f = .81). The scores of DMS subscales are significantly correlated with the Templer's Death Anxiety Scale but not with corresponding scores of the RDFS. The DMS was considered a potentially useful instrument to study death metaphors among Chinese.

  1. Perception and attitudes of medical students toward communication, chronic disease and death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baliram V. Ghodke


    Conclusion: Perception of students regarding caring of chronically ill-patients and death related issues needs improvement. We believe that integrating different teaching strategies and training programs regarding this issue should begin at early stages of undergraduate medical curriculum. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(5.000: 854-859

  2. [To go along with life until death]. (United States)

    Bertrand, M


    We are faced with difficult and complex questions that cannot be answered by stating great principles or ideological convictions, because they refer to painful situations, always singular, in which each individual, in a unique way, faces his life and his death. But the debate can draw on shared convictions and values. Thus, before being a way of assuming death, the Christian faith is fundamentally a way of welcoming the life, in all times and in its fullness, that Christ has given us. The whole Bible and in particular the ministry of Jesus bear witness to that fight for life, against the scandal of suffering and the powers of death that are a denial of the good work of God. Suffering is never, as such, acceptable or justifiable, and truth is never to surrender to it, as if it was a meaningful destiny. And so all suffering that can be avoided must be so. Regarding death, it is often held back in the margins of our lives and societies, as if it was a sort of setback for our human abilities and especially for medicine. Of course those abilities exist but death is not an illness. It's the natural mark of our human finiteness and there is a time when caring is not intended to cure, but to make up for life that defaults, alleviate suffering. That is why what is called to-day palliative caring is so important. Because even when medicine is powerless in front of illness, it can still do something for the sick. Because of all that, the believer can only be opposed to euthanasia which is, after all, only the exact replica of the useless prolongation of life by medical means it pretends to oppose. It's the same activism, the same pretense, the Bible fights, through which human beings want to remain the masters of life and death. But death is not given, except in deathly violence. As life, it is welcomed and is accompanied. The end of a life is still life. To die is to the live to one's last breath. And that questions the claim to die "with dignity" when life can no more be

  3. Family Resemblance in Attitudes to Foods. (United States)

    Rozin, Paul; And Others


    Compares young adults with their parents and explores food preferences and attitudes to food, especially sensitivity to cleanliness and contamination of foods. Results indicate small positive parent-child correlations for food preferences but larger correlations for contamination sensitivity. (Author/AS)

  4. Danish ethics council rejects brain death as the criterion of death -- commentary 2: return to Elsinore. (United States)

    Pallis, Christopher


    No discussion of when an individual is dead is meaningful in the absence of a definition of death. If human death is defined as the irreversible loss of the capacity for consciousness combined with the irreversible loss of the capacity to breathe spontaneously (and hence to maintain a spontaneous heart beat) the death of the brainstem will be seen to be the necessary and sufficient condition for the death of the individual. Such a definition of death is not something radically new. It is merely the reformulation -- in the language of the neurophysiologist -- of much older concepts such as the 'departure of the (conscious) soul from the body' and the 'loss of the breath of life'. All death -- in this perspective -- is, and always has been, brainstem death....

  5. A Response to the Legitimacy of Brain Death in Islam. (United States)

    Rady, Mohamed Y; Verheijde, Joseph L


    Brain death is a novel construct of death for the procurement of transplantable organs. Many authoritative Islamic organizations and governments have endorsed brain death as true death for organ donation. Many commentators have reiterated the misconception that the Quranic text does not define death. We respond by clarifying: (1) the Quran does define death as biologic disintegration and clearly distinguishes it from the dying process, (2) brain death belongs scientifically within the spectrum of neurologic disorders of consciousness and should not be confused with death, and (3) religious and legal discord about brain death has grown in jurisdictions worldwide. We urge for public transparency and truthfulness about brain death and the accommodation and respect of religious objection to the determination of death by neurologic criteria.

  6. Utilizing therapists to obtain death penalty verdicts. (United States)

    Weinstock, R


    As a result of recent decisions by the United States and California Supreme Courts, therapists now have been placed in a position in which they can be forced to testify in death penalty cases for the only purposes of achieving a conviction and a death penalty verdict. Zeal for the death penalty seems to have overcome any concern for the ethics of psychiatrists or even for the welfare of society. In California, therapists can now be forced to testify against their own patients in capital cases even if the patient does not tender his mental state as an issue, despite the presence of a psychotherapist-patient privilege in the state for criminal matters. In California, the only option for therapists who wish to treat potentially dangerous patients may be to conduct the therapy under the umbrella of attorney-client privilege. Otherwise they may not be able to avoid serious ethical problems and personal danger if the patient actually does kill someone during or after therapy. They may be unable honestly and ethically to treat such patients without obtaining truly informed consent to therapy under these potentially "undercover policeman" circumstances. Hopefully, professional organizations will take a more activist position, and courts will appreciate the folly of these decisions and reverse them. Otherwise, they may spread to other states, for which California frequently sets precedents.

  7. The Effects of Death Anxiety and Mode of "Case Study" Presentation on Shifts of Attitude toward Euthanasia. (United States)

    Hart, Edward J.


    College students (N = 18) were randomized to one of two experimental treatments: a video tape presentation of a burn victim, and a written narrative of the same "case study." There appeared to be significant differences in attitudes toward euthanasia between experimental groups. (Authors)

  8. A near death experience: Shigella manipulates host death machinery to silence innate immunity. (United States)

    Bronner, Denise N; O'Riordan, Mary Xd


    Release of mitochondrial contents often triggers inflammation and cell death, and modulating this process can be advantageous to invading pathogens. In this issue of The EMBO Journal, Andree and colleagues reveal new findings that an intracellular bacterial pathogen exploits apoptotic machinery to suppress host immune signaling, yet avoids cell death. This study emphasizes the need to expand our understanding of the roles played by pro‐apoptotic proteins in non‐death scenarios.

  9. Attitudes to Educational Issues: Development of an Instrument. (United States)

    Lemke, Jay L.; And Others

    To obtain a test which could be used for the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on teachers' attitudes toward contemporary educational issues, the Attitudes to Educational Issues instrument (AEI) was developed. Statements were written in five-choice Likert format to express attitudes toward these six educational issues: (1)…

  10. Towards a different attitude to uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Pe'er


    Full Text Available The ecological literature deals with uncertainty primarily from the perspective of how to reduce it to acceptable levels. However, the current rapid and ubiquitous environmental changes, as well as anticipated rates of change, pose novel conditions and complex dynamics due to which many sources of uncertainty are difficult or even impossible to reduce. These include both uncertainty in knowledge (epistemic uncertainty and societal responses to it. Under these conditions, an increasing number of studies ask how one can deal with uncertainty as it is. Here, we explore the question how to adopt an overall alternative attitude to uncertainty, which accepts or even embraces it. First, we show that seeking to reduce uncertainty may be counterproductive under some circumstances. It may yield overconfidence, ignoring early warning signs, policy- and societal stagnation, or irresponsible behaviour if personal certainty is offered by externalization of environmental costs. We then demonstrate that uncertainty can have positive impacts by driving improvements in knowledge, promoting cautious action, contributing to keeping societies flexible and adaptable, enhancing awareness, support and involvement of the public in nature conservation, and enhancing cooperation and communication. We discuss the risks of employing a certainty paradigm on uncertain knowledge, the potential benefits of adopting an alternative attitude to uncertainty, and the need to implement such an attitude across scales – from adaptive management at the local scale, to the evolving Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES at the global level.

  11. Nurses' attitudes to assisted suicide: sociodemographic factors. (United States)

    Evans, Luke

    This literature review seeks to explore the factors that influence nurses' attitudes towards assisted suicide. A poll conducted by the Royal College of Nursing (RCN) showed that 49% of nurses supported assisted suicide while 40% were opposed to it. A literature review resulted in 16 articles being identified for data synthesis using a recognised critiquing framework. The articles revealed four key themes: nursing specialty, level of education, geographical location and religion. It was concluded that these four themes are key to understanding a nurse's attitude towards assisted suicide. Nursing staff need to be aware of their own influences on this topic, since they will inevitably be involved in the process in some way or another, in countries where assisted suicide has been legalised.

  12. Girls' Attitudes Toward Violence as Related to TV Exposure , Family Attitudes, and Social Class. (United States)

    Dominick, Joseph R.; Greenberg, Bradley S.

    A previous study (EM 009 547) found that the most favorable attitudes of boys toward aggression existed when there was high exposure to television (TV) violence, ambiguous family attitudes toward aggression, or low socio-economic status. This study sought to examine the same three variables with respect to girls. Subjects, who were 404 fourth…

  13. Instructional strategies to improve women's attitudes toward science (United States)

    Newbill, Phyllis Leary

    Although negative attitudes toward science are common among women and men in undergraduate introductory science classes, women's attitudes toward science tend to be more negative than men's. The reasons for women's negative attitudes toward science include lack of self-confidence, fear of association with social outcasts, lack of women role models in science, and the fundamental differences between traditional scientific and feminist values. Attitudes are psychological constructs theorized to be composed of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral components. Attitudes serve functions, including social expressive, value expressive, utilitarian, and defensive functions, for the people who hold them. To change attitudes, the new attitudes must serve the same function as the old one, and all three components must be treated. Instructional designers can create instructional environments to effect attitude change. In designing instruction to improve women's attitudes toward science, instructional designers should (a) address the emotions that are associated with existing attitudes, (b) involve credible, attractive women role models, and (c) address the functions of the existing attitudes. Two experimental instructional modules were developed based on these recommendations, and two control modules were developed that were not based on these recommendations. The asynchronous, web-based modules were administered to 281 undergraduate geology and chemistry students at two universities. Attitude assessment revealed that attitudes toward scientists improved significantly more in the experimental group, although there was no significant difference in overall attitudes toward science. Women's attitudes improved significantly more than men's in both the experimental and control groups. Students whose attitudes changed wrote significantly more in journaling activities associated with the modules. Qualitative analysis of journals revealed that the guidelines worked exactly as predicted

  14. Attitudes to Mathematics in Primary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Dowker


    Full Text Available 44 Grade 3 children and 45 Grade 5 children from English primary schools were given the British abilities scales basic number skills subtest, and a Mathematics Attitude and Anxiety Questionnaire, using pictorial rating scales to record their Self-rating for maths, Liking for maths, Anxiety about maths, and Unhappiness about poor performance in mathematics. There were few year group differences in attitudes. Boys rated themselves higher than girls, but did not differ significantly in actual performance. Overall, Anxiety was not related to actual performance, but Self-rating was. This relationship between Self-rating and actual performance seemed to develop between Grade 3 and Grade 5. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  15. Explicit- and Implicit Bullying Attitudes in Relation to Bullying Behavior (United States)

    van Goethem, Anne A. J.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Wiers, Reinout W.


    The main aim of this study was to examine whether an assessment of implicit bullying attitudes could add to the prediction of bullying behavior after controlling for explicit bullying attitudes. Primary school children (112 boys and 125 girls, M age = 11 years, 5 months) completed two newly developed measures of implicit bullying attitudes (a…

  16. Instructional Strategies to Improve Women's Attitudes toward Science


    Newbill, Phyllis Leary


    Although negative attitudes toward science are common among women and men in undergraduate introductory science classes, womenâ s attitudes toward science tend to be more negative than menâ s. The reasons for womenâ s negative attitudes toward science include lack of self-confidence, fear of association with social outcasts, lack of women role models in science, and the fundamental differences between traditional scientific and feminist values. Attitudes are psychological constructs theori...

  17. Changing Chinese Attitude to Marriage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Progress is reflected in many aspects of life, and in China, as anywhere, marriage is a main mirror of socialdevelopment. Contemporary concepts of love and marriage are in complete contrast to those of ten, twenty and fifty years ago. Following are five personal accounts of love and marriage from generations spanning sixty years.

  18. [Nurses' speeches on death and to die: truth or will]. (United States)

    Silva, Karen Schein da; Ribeiro, Rubia Guimarães; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce


    We consider looking at the death and dying as a social, historical and cultural construction. Thus, in we approach them to the Cultural Studies to know nurses speeches on the subject. The research is periodic articles of two national ones of nursing. In the analyses we use tools proposals for Michel Foucault that they make possible to constitute four categories: the silenced and occulted death; stopping one it fights against the death; the death in scene: multiplicity of faces and the palliative death and cares: paradigm change. The study detaches the way as the publications operate in the production of knowing on the death and dying to them and subjectiving the nurses.

  19. Principles and Pitfalls: a Guide to Death Certification. (United States)

    Brooks, Erin G; Reed, Kurt D


    Death certificates serve the critical functions of providing documentation for legal/administrative purposes and vital statistics for epidemiologic/health policy purposes. In order to satisfy these functions, it is important that death certificates be filled out completely, accurately, and promptly. The high error rate in death certification has been documented in multiple prior studies, as has the effectiveness of educational training interventions at mitigating errors. The following guide to death certification is intended to illustrate some basic principles and common pitfalls in electronic death registration with the goal of improving death certification accuracy.

  20. An Exploratory Survey of the Attitudes of Black Memphians Toward Funeral Homes, the Funeral Ritual and Preparations for Death. Findings and Analysis. (United States)

    Johnson, Gordon C., II

    Black Americans face a paradox concerning death: although their involvement with death is intense, their knowledge of death, per se, comprehension of death related behaviors, and exposure to available life extending alternatives are minimal. An interview based questionnaire was distributed to 1,010 adults in a predominantly black section of…

  1. Jghm rum,ud on the Death-Themed Poems of Emily Dickinson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      This paper combines the analytical explanation of Dickinson’s death-themed poems with her life experience of religion and death experience to reveal her positive attitude towards life and death.

  2. Circumventing resistance: using values to indirectly change attitudes. (United States)

    Blankenship, Kevin L; Wegener, Duane T; Murray, Renee A


    Most research on persuasion examines messages that directly address the attitude of interest. However, especially when message recipients are inclined to resist change, indirect methods might be more effective. Because values are rarely attacked and defended, value change could serve as a useful indirect route for attitude change. Attitudes toward affirmative action changed more when the value of equality was attacked (indirect change) than when affirmative action was directly attacked using the same message (Experiments 1-2). Changes in confidence in the value were responsible for the indirect change when the value was attacked (controlling for changes in favorability toward the value), whereas direct counterarguments to the message were responsible for the relative lack of change when the attitude was attacked directly (Experiment 2). Attacking the value of equality influenced attitudes toward policies related to the value but left policy attitudes unrelated to the value unchanged (Experiment 3). Finally, a manipulation of value confidence that left attitudes toward the value intact demonstrated similar confidence-based influences on policies related to the value of freedom (Experiment 4). Undermined value confidence also resulted in less confidence in the resulting policy attitudes controlling for the changes in the policy attitudes themselves (Experiments 3 and 4). Therefore, indirect change through value attacks presented a double threat--to both the policy attitudes and the confidence with which those policy attitudes were held (potentially leaving them open to additional influence).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Mariasiu


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a field survey to determine the attitudes of consumers (citizens related to the use of biofuels in transport. Attitudes of citizens towards biotechnologies and renewable energy use to reduce pollutant effects on the environment are an important factor (and even decisive in political decision-making necessary to develop new investments and the practical implementation of the proposed projects in the field of renewable sources. The aim of the study was to identify the attitudes of citizens (consumers regarding follow specific issues: the identification of environmental attitudes and use of biofuels, exploring the connections between attitudes and actions declared effective environmentally taken and exploring attitudes towards authorities environmental policies. It was found that there is a favorable attitude for a massive use of biofuels in transport, even in the absence of relevant sources of information about the complexity of the effects of using biofuels in transport.

  4. Philosophical Reflection:Bases on the Attitude of Death between Zhuangzi and Socrates%庄子和苏格拉底对死亡态度的哲学反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    庄子的死亡哲学与苏格拉底之死,作为人类史上面对死亡的态度有着极为重要的现实与理论意义。前者自然而然道出了生死的真理,以精神的解放来摆脱死亡带来的恐惧;后者以灵魂的解放参透死亡的真谛,以善之念剔除死亡的担忧达到肉体的解放。%Both of Zhuangzi's philosophies of death and the death of Socrates have very important prac-tical and theoretical significance at human's death attitude.The former naturally come out of the life and death truth,which is the liberation spirit out of the fear of death;while the latter is to the release the soul to understand the meaning of death by deeply reading the death worries at physical liberation.

  5. The Effect of Age on Death Disgust: Challenges to Terror Management Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M.T. Fessler


    Full Text Available Proponents of Terror Management Theory (TMT argue that many facets of disgust serve to defend against existential anxiety accompanying cognizance of one's mortality. Because the passage of time brings death closer, this view predicts that the intensity of disgust elicited by reminders of death should increase with age. Skeptical of TMT, we conducted Internet-based studies using the instrument created by TMT proponents. Results reveal that age is negatively, not positively, correlated with death disgust sensitivity, a pattern consistent with adaptive habituation rather than terror management. The same result was obtained using in-person administration of the instrument in Costa Rica, a society characterized by attitudes toward death that differ from those of the U.S. Additional work in Costa Rica demonstrated that, contrary to TMT predictions, attention to one's own death need not increase disgust reactions to the body or its products. Both the evocative power of death stimuli and the negative effects of age on death disgust are consistent with the argument that disgust is an adaptation motivating disease avoidance rather than a psychodynamic defense mechanism.

  6. Religious and Nonreligious Spirituality in Relation to Death Acceptance or Rejection (United States)

    Cicirelli, Victor G.


    Meanings of religious and nonreligious spirituality are explored, with implications for death acceptance, death rejection, and life extension. In the first of two exploratory studies, 16 elders low on intrinsic religiosity were compared with 116 elders high in religiosity; they differed both in qualitative responses and on death attitudes. In the…

  7. Dying To Be Thin: Attachment to Death in Anorexia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Latzer


    Full Text Available Anorexia Nervosa (AN usually follows a prolonged course accompanied by significant morbidity and high mortality. AN patients have been found to have elevated and attempted suicide rates, with suicide being the second most common cause of death in AN after the complications of the disorder itself. The suicide risk in AN is similar to that in major depression or conduct disorder and linked mainly to longer duration of illness, lower weight, bingeing and purging, impulsivity-related manifestations, comorbid substance abuse, and affective disorder. This paper reviews suicidal tendency and disturbed body image, death and eating disorders, and attachment and death with clinical implications related to AN.

  8. Tarantula bite leads to death and gangrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Kalyan


    Full Text Available Chilobrachys hardwikii-giant black hairy spider bite produced two deaths, one case of gangrene of the foot and urticarial rashes in another person in a remote village of Churulia 30 km from Asansol.

  9. Preparing Attitude Scale to Define Students‟ Attitudes about Environment, Recycling, Plastic andPlastic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagri AVAN


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to introduce an attitude scale in order to define students‟ attitudes about environment, recycling, plastics, plastic waste. In this study, 80 attitude sentences according to 5-point Likert-type scale were prepared and applied to 492 students of 6th grade in the Kastamonu city center of Turkey. The scale consists of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor skills domains. After the factor analysis it was found that they have 3, 4 and 5 factors accordingly. After the reliability analysis the alpha values for cognitive, affective and psychomotor scales are .854, .871 and .826 respectively. As a result, it is found that the scale can be used to define cognitive, affective and psychomotor attitudes.

  10. Explaining consumer attitudes to genetic modification in food production


    Bredahl, Lone


    Consumers have not had many possibilities yet for seeking out, buying and consuming genetically modified food products. However, for various reasons consumer attitude formation with regard to these products is likely to be complex and closely related to personal values. The paper presents a model for explaining consumer attitudes to genetic modification in food production which builds on modern cognitive psychology and multi-attribute attitude theory. In addition, the paper introduces the emp...

  11. Consumer attitudes toward and intentions to accept mobile advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abednego Feehi Okoe


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the drivers of consumers’ attitudes towards mobile advertisement. It also sought the relationship between consumers’ attitudes towards mobile advertisement and their willingness to accept mobile advertising. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the measurement model while structural equation was conducted to assess the goodness-fit of the overall model. The findings indicate that entertainment, credibility and personalization had positive effects on consumers’ attitudes toward mobile advertising. Furthermore, the results show that, consumers’ attitude determines their willingness to accept mobile advertising.

  12. 超越恐惧:基于老年死亡态度的视角%Beyond Fear:A Review of Researches on Older Adults Death Attitudes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雪梅; 韦庆旺


    The psychological health of older adults is an important issue for an aging society. To ad-dress this issue has to take the death attitudes of older adults into consideration. This paper is intended to review the vast literature on older adultsdeath attitude,including its structure and features,various correlates,and its relationship with psychological health. In addition,terror management theory is also described from the perspective of the studies on older adults death attitudes. Previous studies on this issue have such limitations as:neglecting death acceptance;lacking an integrated theory;using limit-ed research methods;overlooking cultural differences;and avoiding tough but key problems.%  老年心理健康是老龄化社会的重要研究课题,而探讨老年心理健康离不开研究老年死亡态度。文章系统梳理了老年死亡态度的结构和特征、影响因素及其与心理健康的关系。分析了恐惧管理理论对老年死亡态度研究的影响。从轻视死亡接受、缺少理论整合、研究方法单一、忽视文化差异、逃避根本难点等五方面对老年死亡态度研究进行了评价。

  13. Maternal deaths: the need to rethink coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cruz Esmeraldo Áfio


    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze maternal deaths and present the Maternal Mortality Ratio in the city of Fortaleza, in the Northeast region of Brazil, from 2008-2010. This is a descriptive study. Data collection occurred in the Mortality Information System and in the maternal death investigation files of the Local Health Department. Fifty-six maternal deaths were investigated with a Maternal Mortality Ratio of 39.75/100,000 live births. The prevalent age group was 20-29 years (50.0%. Hypertensive disorders (50.0% were the most prevalent causes of direct obstetric deaths. As for indirect obstetric deaths, infectious and parasitic diseases (28.1% prevailed. Nearly all deaths were considered preventable or possibly preventable (91.1%. Thus, it can be assumed that most deaths could have been avoided by ensuring the quality of prenatal care.

  14. Love and death of cattle : the paradox in Suri attitudes toward livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.


    Livestock herding peoples are known for their close involvement with their animals, valuing them in multiple ways. This paper addresses the issue of the nature of emotional and moral commitment to livestock animals, particularly cattle, among a group of livestock herders in southwest Ethiopia, the S

  15. Analyzing online game players: from materialism and motivation to attitude. (United States)

    Chang, Ju-Hui; Zhang, Hongxia


    The online game market has been growing rapidly and has received an increasing amount of attention in recent years. The results of a survey conducted in China to explore online game players' attitude formation reveal that (a) the online game player's level of materialism positively influences the motivation for playing, (b) motivation positively influences attitude toward online games, and (c) motivation fully mediates the effects of materialism on attitude.

  16. Epidemiology of drowning deaths in the Philippines, 1980 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rammell Eric Martinez


    Full Text Available Drowning kills 372 000 people yearly worldwide and is a serious public health issue in the Philippines. This study aims to determine if the drowning death rates in the Philippine Health Statistics (PHS reports from 1980 to 2011 were underestimated. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted to describe the trend of deaths caused by drowning in the Philippines from official and unofficial sources in the period 1980 to 2011. Information about deaths related to cataclysmic causes, particularly victims of storms and floods, and maritime accidents in the Philippines during the study period were reviewed and compared with the PHS drowning death data. An average of 2496 deaths per year caused by drowning were recorded in the PHS reports from 1980 to 2011 (range 671-3656. The average death rate was 3.5/100 000 population (range 1.3-4.7. An average of 4196 drowning deaths were recorded from 1980 to 2011 (range 1220 to 8788 when catacylsmic events and maritime accidents were combined with PHS data. The average death rate was 6/100 000 population (range 2.5-14.2. Our results showed that on average there were 1700 more drowning deaths per year when deaths caused by cataclysms and maritime accidents were added to the PHS data. This illustrated that drowning deaths were underestimated in the official surveillance data. Passive surveillance and irregular data management are contributing to underestimation of drowning in the Philippines. Additionally, deaths due to flooding, storms and maritime accidents are not counted as drowning deaths, which further contributes to the underestimation. Surveillance of drowning data can be improved using more precise case definitions and a multisectoral approach.

  17. Revisioning the death-drive: the compulsion to repeat as a death-in-life. (United States)

    Reisner, Gavriel


    This article presents a revisionary reading of Freud's Beyond the Pleasure Principle. Recognizing the power of Freud's meditation on a universal "death-drive" in living organisms, it argues that Freud makes a greater contribution by strengthening the compulsion to repeat to a form of figurative death. We recall that after shattering the presupposition of a universal pleasure principle, Freud demonstrates an equally strong pain-principle. The pain-principle entails a return to an old image in the mind, just as Freud identifies Eros, the transfigured pleasure-principle, with the movement toward something new, "a different individual." The moving backward toward old love in opposition to the moving forward to new love is an inspired narrative application of the Oedipus complex. The repetitive backward movement is a figurative death when the observing other or self encounters a deathlike affect of despair or persecution. Less persuasive because less experience-near is the concept of the death-drive. Freud writes in different voices, and the death-drive speculation is in the mode that privileges scientific speculation over other forms of thought, even as Freud shows a variety of stylistic modes for reaching the truth. Yet it is the mode that observes human interactions and transforms them to figurative narrative that moves most profoundly to the never-fully-knowable-human-unconscious. We discover the hidden motive for repetition as a return to the original rejection or rage that was a form of previous intimacy. The genre that these figurative narratives take is close to literary romance, and death, or the special suffering that Coleridge evocatively termed "life-in-death," is the hidden object of its dark quest.

  18. Death and the Colonial Difference: An Analysis of a Mexican Idea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Sánchez


    Full Text Available The Mexican poet and philosopher Octavio Paz writes, “there are two attitudes toward death: one, pointing forward, that conceives of it as creation; the other, pointing backward, that expresses itself as a fascination with nothingness or as a nostalgia for limbo.” The attitude that points forward is found amongst the peoples of Europe and North America; the backward pointing attitude holds sway in the Mexican and Latin American imagination. We will call the forward pointing attitude, the instrumental attitude; the backward pointing attitude will be referred to as the historical attitude. My claim in the present paper is that the historical attitude toward death reflects a cultural phenomenon where death is a constant presence. The instrumental attitude reflects a more generalized “Western” notion that places death as an event of the future. The contrast between these views can be explained by what is known as “the colonial difference.”

  19. Skeptical Legal Education. How to Develop a Critical Attitude?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klink, van B.M.J.; Vries, de U.


    Law teachers at the university want students to develop a critical attitude. But what exactly does it mean to be critical and why is it important to be critical? How can a critical attitude be promoted? In this article we intend to elucidate the role that critical thinking may play in legal educatio

  20. Malaysian University Students' Attitudes to Academic Dishonesty and Business Ethics (United States)

    Ahmad, Zauwiyah; Simun, Maimun; Mohammad, Junaini


    Academic dishonesty is believed to have predictive ability for subsequent behaviours in the workplace. This study adds to the literature by investigating Malaysian business students' attitudes to academic dishonesty and their attitudes to ethics issues in business. This study also explores the association between these two constructs. The form of…

  1. Attitudes and attitude change. (United States)

    Bohner, Gerd; Dickel, Nina


    Attitudes and attitude change remain core topics of contemporary social psychology. This selective review emphasizes work published from 2005 to 2009. It addresses constructionist and stable-entity conceptualizations of attitude, the distinction between implicit and explicit measures of attitude, and implications of the foregoing for attitude change. Associative and propositional processes in attitude change are considered at a general level and in relation to evaluative conditioning. The role of bodily states and physical perceptions in attitude change is reviewed. This is followed by an integrative perspective on processing models of persuasion and the consideration of meta-cognitions in persuasion. Finally, effects of attitudes on information processing, social memory, and behavior are highlighted. Core themes cutting across the areas reviewed are attempts at integrative theorizing bringing together formerly disparate phenomena and viewpoints.

  2. Attitudes to Chronic Poverty in the "Global Village" (United States)

    Barrientos, Armando; Neff, Daniel


    The paper explores attitudes to chronic poverty in a cross-section of developed and developing countries contributing data to the World Values Survey Wave Three (1994-1998). The analysis finds a consistent belief among a majority of respondents that poverty is persistent. The paper also explores the factors influencing public attitudes to chronic…

  3. Does exposure to music videos predict adolescents’ sexual attitudes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beentjes, J.W.J.; Konig, R.P.


    This study investigates whether exposure to music videos predicts adolescents' sexual attitudes when controlled for relevant characteristics of individuals and their social environment. Sexual attitudes are related to their music video use (i.e. exposure to music videos, peer group talk about music

  4. Does exposure to music videos predict adolescents' sexual attitudes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beentjes, J.W.J.; Konig, R.P.


    This study investigates whether exposure to music videos predicts adolescents' sexual attitudes when controlled for relevant characteristics of individuals and their social environment. Sexual attitudes are related to their music video use (i.e. exposure to music videos, peer group talk about music

  5. Explaining consumer attitudes to genetic modification in food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    for explaining consumer attitudes to genetic modification in food production which builds on modern cognitive psychology and multi-attribute attitude theory. In addition, the paper introduces the empirical research which is undertaken at present to validate and estimate the parameters of the model by means...

  6. Connection to Nature: Children's Affective Attitude toward Nature (United States)

    Cheng, Judith Chen-Hsuan; Monroe, Martha C.


    A connection to nature index was developed and tested to measure children's affective attitude toward the natural environment. The index was employed through a survey that investigates students' attitude toward Lagoon Quest, a mandatory environmental education program for all fourth-grade, public school students in Brevard County, Florida. Factor…

  7. Changing public attitudes to antibiotic prescribing: can the internet help?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Madle


    Conclusions Health information websites can play a significant role in influencing public knowledge and attitudes. Further research is needed to investigate how people learn from these interventions and to determine their long-term impact on public attitudes and subsequent behaviour.

  8. Secondary School Teachers' Beliefs, Attitudes, and Reactions to Stuttering (United States)

    Adriaensens, Stefanie; Struyf, Elke


    Purpose: The study identifies teachers' beliefs about and attitudes toward stuttering and explores to what extent these beliefs and attitudes prompt specific teachers' reactions to the stuttering of a student. Method: Participants were teachers in secondary education in Flanders (Belgium), currently teaching an adolescent who stutters. They were…

  9. Explicit- and Implicit Bullying Attitudes in Relation to Bullying Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goethem, A.A.J. van; Scholte, R.H.J.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.


    The main aim of this study was to examine whether an assessment of implicit bullying attitudes could add to the prediction of bullying behavior after controlling for explicit bullying attitudes. Primary school children (112 boys and 125 girls, M age = 11 years, 5 months) completed two newly develope

  10. Explicit- and implicit bullying attitudes in relation to bullying behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goethem, A.A.J.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Wiers, R.W.


    The main aim of this study was to examine whether an assessment of implicit bullying attitudes could add to the prediction of bullying behavior after controlling for explicit bullying attitudes. Primary school children (112 boys and 125 girls, M age = 11 years, 5 months) completed two newly develope

  11. Recent modifications to the investigation of diving related deaths. (United States)

    Edmonds, Carl; Caruso, James


    The investigation of deaths that involve diving using a compressed breathing gas (SCUBA diving) is a specialized area of forensic pathology. Diving related deaths occur more frequently in certain jurisdictions, but any medical examiner or coroner's office may be faced with performing this type of investigation. In order to arrive at the correct conclusion regarding the cause and manner of death, forensic pathologists and investigators need to have a basic understanding of diving physiology, and should also utilize more recently developed technology and ancillary techniques. In the majority of diving related deaths, the cause of death is drowning, but this more often represents a final common pathway due to a water environment. The chain of events leading to the death is just as important to elucidate if similar deaths are to be minimized in the future. Re-enactment of accident scenarios, interrogation of dive computers, postmortem radiographic imaging, and slight alterations in autopsy technique may allow some of these diving related deaths to the better characterized. The amount and location of gas present in the body at the time of autopsy may be very meaningful or may simply represent a postmortem artifact. Medical examiners, coroners, and forensic investigators should consider employing select ancillary techniques to more thoroughly investigate the factors contributing a death associated with SCUBA diving.

  12. Relation of attitude toward body elimination to parenting style and attitude toward the body. (United States)

    Corgiat, Claudia A; Templer, Donald I


    The purpose was to estimate the relation of attitude toward body elimination in 93 college students (27 men and 66 women), to authoritarian personality features, participants' perception of their mothers' parenting style, and attitudes toward cleanliness, sex, and family nudity. Subjects were administered the Body Elimination Attitude Scale, the Four-item F Scale, the Parental Authority Questionnaire Pertaining to Mothers, and the items "Sex is dirty," "Cleanliness is next to godliness," and "Children should never see other family members nude." Larger scores for disgust toward body elimination were associated with authoritarian personality characteristics, being less likely to describe mother's parenting style as authoritative (open communication) and more likely to describe it as authoritarian and lower scores for tolerance for family nudity. Implications for further research were suggested.

  13. The Relationship of Counselor Attitudes to Training and Experience. (United States)

    Lambert, Michael J.; Finley, Robert E.

    The Test of Counselor Attitudes (Porter) was administered to five groups representing different levels of counselor training and experience. Significant differences were found between the groups on all five of the counselor attitudes meased: (1) evaluative; (2) interpretive; (3) understanding; (4) supportive; and (5) probing. As students receive…

  14. Childrearing Attitude Assessment as a Prelude to Integrating Foreign Families. (United States)

    Strom, Robert; And Others


    Assessed childrearing attitudes of 155 West German parents and 215 immigrant parents to West Germany from Greece, Italy, and Turkey. Subset comparisons indicate the need for parent-education programs that inform each group about attitude similarities as well as differences and that support family cohesion while integration proceeds. (Author/JAC)

  15. Investigating privacy attitudes and behavior in relation to personalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garde-Perik, E. van de; Markopoulos, P.; Ruyter, B.E.R. de; Eggen, B.; IJsselsteijn, W.A.


    This article presents an experimental study of privacy-related attitudes and behaviors regarding a music recommender service based on two types of user modeling: personality traits and musical preferences. Contrary to prior expectations and attitudes reported by participants, personality traits are

  16. Estonian and Russian Parental Attitudes to Childrearing and Play. (United States)

    Saar, Aino; Niglas, Katrin


    Used Neukater and van der Kooji's parental attitude questionnaire to ask three groups of mothers (Estonian, non-Estonian in Estonia, Russians in Moscow) about their attitudes toward children's education and play. Found that Estonian mothers applied least control and that higher mother education resulted in less child control and instruction. (DLH)

  17. Nurses' attitudes to sexuality in caring for cancer patients. (United States)

    Cort, E

    The attitudes of hospice nurses towards psychosexual issues in palliative care were surveyed. Sexuality was acknowledged to be both important and relevant in hospice nursing. A high level of awareness of sexual and relationship issues was apparent, reflecting broadly liberal attitudes.

  18. Late Maternal Deaths and Deaths from Sequelae of Obstetric Causes in the Americas from 1999 to 2013: A Trend Analysis (United States)

    de Cosio, Federico G.; Sanhueza, Antonio; Soliz, Patricia N.; Becerra-Posada, Francisco; Espinal, Marcos A.


    Background Data on maternal deaths occurring after the 42 days postpartum reference time is scarce; the objective of this analysis is to explore the trend and magnitude of late maternal deaths and deaths from sequelae of obstetric causes in the Americas between 1999 and 2013, and to recommend including these deaths in the monitoring of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Methods Exploratory data analysis enabled analyzing the magnitude and trend of late maternal deaths and deaths from sequelae of obstetric causes for seven countries of the Americas: Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Cuba, Mexico and the United States. A Poisson regression model was developed to compare trends of late maternal deaths and deaths from sequelae of obstetric causes between two periods of time: 1999 to 2005 and 2006 to 2013; and to estimate the relative increase of these deaths in the two periods of time. Findings The proportion of late maternal deaths and deaths from sequelae of obstetric causes ranged between 2.40% (CI 0.85% – 5.48%) and 18.68% (CI 17.06% – 20.47%) in the seven countries. The ratio of late maternal deaths and deaths from sequelae of obstetric causes per 100,000 live births has increased by two times in the region of the Americas in the period 2006-2013 compared to the period 1999-2005. The regional relative increase of late maternal death was 2.46 (p<0.0001) times higher in the second period compared to the first. Interpretation Ascertainment of late maternal deaths and deaths from sequelae of obstetric causes has improved in the Americas since the early 2000’s due to improvements in the quality of information and the obstetric transition. Late and obstetric sequelae maternal deaths should be included in the monitoring of the SDGs as well as in the revision of the International Classification of Diseases’ 11th version (ICD-11). PMID:27626277

  19. The Campbell paradigm as a conceptual alternative to the expectation of hypocrisy in contemporary attitude research. (United States)

    Kaiser, Florian G; Byrka, Katarzyna


    Hypocrisy-professing a general attitude without implementing corresponding attitude-relevant behavior-is, according to Ajzen and Fishbein (2005), commonly found in attitude research that aims to explain individual behavior. We conducted two studies that adopted the Campbell paradigm, an alternative to the traditional understanding of attitudes. In a laboratory experiment, we found that specific attitude-relevant cooperation in a social dilemma was a function of people's pre-existing general environmental attitude. In a quasi-experiment, we corroborated the reverse as well; engagement in attitude-relevant dietary practices was indicative of environmental attitude. When using Campbellian attitude measures, there is no room for hypocrisy: People put their general attitudes into specific attitude-relevant practices, and differences in people's general attitudes can be derived from their attitude-relevant behavior.

  20. Un Drame social: la mort (A Social Drama: Death). (United States)

    Lohezic, Bernard; Perusat, Jean-Marie


    Aspects of the French cultural attitude toward death are explored, with reference made to a survey of public opinion and a magazine article about recognition of the anniversary of Charles De Gaulle's death. Attitudes about privacy, ritual, and family behavior are highlighted. (MSE)

  1. Music as a lens to study death rituals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoondert, Martin; Bruin-Mollenhorst, Janieke


    In this article we focus on music as a ‘lens’ to understand death rituals in general and cremation rituals in particular. It is linked to current research on music and death, performed by the first author, and can be considered as a programmatic presentation of a PhD project, running from September

  2. Two cases of death due to plastic bag suffocation. (United States)

    Nadesan, K; Beng, O B


    Deaths due to plastic bag suffocation or plastic bag asphyxia are not reported in Malaysia. In the West many suicides by plastic bag asphyxia, particularly in the elderly and those who are chronically and terminally ill, have been reported. Accidental deaths too are not uncommon in the West, both among small children who play with shopping bags and adolescents who are solvent abusers. Another well-known but not so common form of accidental death from plastic bag asphyxia is sexual asphyxia, which is mostly seen among adult males. Homicide by plastic bag asphyxia too is reported in the West and the victims are invariably infants or adults who are frail or terminally ill and who cannot struggle. Two deaths due to plastic bag asphyxia are presented. Both the autopsies were performed at the University Hospital Mortuary, Kuala Lumpur. Both victims were 50-year old married Chinese males. One death was diagnosed as suicide and the other as sexual asphyxia. Sexual asphyxia is generally believed to be a problem associated exclusively with the West. Specific autopsy findings are often absent in deaths due to plastic bag asphyxia and therefore such deaths could be missed when some interested parties have altered the scene and most importantly have removed the plastic bag. A visit to the scene of death is invariably useful.

  3. A Contextualist Thanatology: A Pragmatic Approach to Death and Dying (United States)

    Reck, Andrew J.


    Denying the value of death but accepting its reality, the author points to dying, not death, as the problematic phenomenon with which a pragmatist thanatology must deal. It is suggested that dying contains opportunities for growth--for the dying as well as for their surviving friends and relatives. (Author)

  4. Attitudes and attitude change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim


    An attitude can be defined as the evaluation of an object as positive or negative. The term "object" in this definition should be understood in a broad sense; an attitude object may be any concrete or abstract entity that is in some way represented in our thoughts and memory. In other words......, attitude objects are simply the things we like or dislike. Consumer researchers are mainly interested in attitude objects of two classes, products and services, including the attributes, issues, persons, communications, situations, and behaviours related to them. Research on consumer attitudes takes two...... perspectives: Understanding attitude structure: how is an attitude cognitively represented in a consumer's mind, including its components (intra-attitudinal structure) and its associations with other psychological variables (inter-attitudinal structure)? Understanding information processing: what...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Jeżewska-Zychowicz


    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to establish the relationship between the attitude of consumers towards the environment and their behaviours when choosing food products taking into consideration their packaging. This relationship was established according to gender, age and the educational level of the consumers. Questionnaire study was carried out in 2010 within 548 adults from Warsaw. Participants were asked questions on attitudes towards environment and behaviours related to reduction of packaging waste. Frequency, factor and cluster analysis were used. Signifi cantly more women than men agreed that buying pro ducts in larger packages and beverages in glass bottles can reduce the amount of garbage. Over twice more people with positive attitude claimed not buying food in disposable plastic or paper packaging. Negative attitude fostered doing nothing to minimize waste packaging. Attitudes towards the environment have had signifi - cant impact on the choice of food packaging. More positive attitudes favoured the reduction of the amount of packaging waste. Thus, environmental campaigns focused on attitudes and environmentally relevant use of food packing are required.

  6. Relationship of Death Education to the Anxiety, Fear, and Meaning Associated with Death. (United States)

    Knight, Kim H.; Elfenbein, Morton H.


    Compared death anxiety and fear of death levels expressed by 29 college students who had completed death and dying course with comparison group of 74 students. Found that those enrolled in thanatology class reported significantly higher death anxiety at end of semester. Results suggest different effect that thanatology course can have on…

  7. Multidisciplinary staff attitudes to home haemodialysis therapy (United States)

    Foden, Philip; Mitra, Sandip


    Abstract Background: More than a decade after the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence recommendation of home haemodialysis (home HD) for 10–15% of those needing renal replacement therapy, the uptake across different regions in the UK remains uneven. Methods: This survey is part of the Barriers to Successful Implementation of Care in Home Haemodialysis (BASIC-HHD) study, an observational study of patient and organizational factor barriers and enablers of home HD uptake, in the UK. The study centres had variable prevalence of home HD by design [low: 8% (1)]. This survey was administered electronically in 2013, and had 20 questions pertaining to home HD beliefs and practices. A total of 104 members of staff across five study centres were approached to complete the survey. Results: The response rate was 46%, mostly from experienced HD practitioners. Most believed in the benefits of home HD therapy. Across all centres, respondents believed that preconceptions about patients’ and carers’ ability to cope with home HD (35% to a great or very great extent) and staff knowledge and bias influenced offer of home HD therapy (45%). Also, compared with respondents from high prevalence (HP) centre, those from low prevalence (LP) centres felt that display and presentation of dialysis information lacked clarity and uniformity (44% versus 18%), and that a better set-up for training patients for self-care HD was required (72.8% versus 33.3%). A greater proportion of respondents from the HP centre expressed concerns over caregiver support and respite care for patients on home HD (63.7% versus 33.3%). Conclusions: Survey results indicate that across all centres in the study, there is an appetite for growing home HD. There are some differences in attitudes and practice between LP and HP centres. There are other domains where all centres have expressed concern and addressing these will be influential in navigating change from the current course.

  8. Predicting counseling psychologists attitudes and clinical judgments with respect to older adults. (United States)

    Tomko, Jody K; Munley, Patrick H


    The purpose of this study was to examine age, gender, training and experience in aging issues, fear of death, and multicultural competence in predicting counseling psychologists' global attitudes toward older adults and specific clinical judgments concerning a case vignette of an older client. A national sample of 364 practicing counseling psychologists participated in the study. Participants completed a demographic measure, Polizzi's refined version of the Aging Semantic Differential (Polizzi, 2003 ), a survey of professional bias based on a clinical vignette of a 70-year-old woman (James & Haley, 1995), the Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale 3.0 (Lester, & Abdel-Khalek, 2003), the Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale (MCKAS; Ponterotto, Gretchen, Utsey, Rieger, & Austin, 2002), and a Training and Experience Questionnaire. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the extent to which the selected variables predicted more favorable attitudes toward older adults and less professional bias toward an older client beyond prediction by age and gender. Results revealed that older age and higher total scores on the MCKAS predicted less professional bias in clinical judgments. Gender was a significant predictor of global attitudes toward older adults. Findings suggest that multicultural knowledge, awareness, and skills are important in working with older adults.

  9. The effects of dual-channel coupling on the transition from amplitude death to oscillation death (United States)

    Chen, Jiangnan; Liu, Weiqing; Zhu, Yun; Xiao, Jinghua


    Oscillation quenching including amplitude death (AD) and oscillation death (OD) in addition to the transition processes between them have been hot topics in aspect of chaos control, physical and biological applications. The effects of dual-channel coupling on the AD and OD dynamics regimes, and their transition processes in coupled nonidentical oscillators are explored numerically and theoretically. Our results indicate that an additional repulsive coupling tends to shrink the AD domain while it enlarges the OD domain, however, an additional attractive coupling acts inversely. As a result, the transitions from AD to OD are replaced by transitions from oscillation state (OS) to AD or from OS to OD in the dual-channel coupled oscillators with different frequency mismatches. Our results are helpful to better understand the control of AD and OD and their transition processes.

  10. A Scale to Measure Attitude Toward Smoking Marihuana (United States)

    Vincent, Raymond J.


    Describes the construction and validity of a scale to measure student attitudes toward marihuana. The scale could be used as a means to select the best presentation for drug education in schools. (KH)

  11. Generalization of positive and negative attitudes towards individuals to outgroup attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, Tobias; Flache, Andreas; Veenstra, René


    The generalization of attitudes toward individual outgroup members into attitudes toward the outgroup as a whole can affect intergroup relations. However, little is known about the relative strengths of the generalization of negative and positive interpersonal attitudes into attitudes about the outg

  12. Skin Cancer Cream Linked to 5 Dog Deaths: (United States)

    ... Skin Cancer Cream Linked to 5 Dog Deaths: FDA Even ingesting ... have died from exposure to a skin cancer cream prescribed for people, according to the U.S. Food ...

  13. Does exposure to music videos predict adolescents' sexual attitudes?


    Beentjes, J.W.J.; Konig, R.P.


    This study investigates whether exposure to music videos predicts adolescents' sexual attitudes when controlled for relevant characteristics of individuals and their social environment. Sexual attitudes are related to their music video use (i.e. exposure to music videos, peer group talk about music videos, and perceived realism of these videos), personal factors and the sexual norms they perceive in their social environment (i.e. sexual norms of their parents and friends). A survey among Dutc...

  14. Attitudes towards to sexuality among older people: a qualitative research


    Alves, Patricia; Teixeira,Cristina; Sousa, Filomena; Antão, Celeste


    Sexuality is an important component of human being and contributes to the quality of life. Sexual activity dependa on altitudes toward sexuality. Although this is an important issue, the research on attitudes toward sexuatity among older people hás been a neglected topic. Objectives: To understand altitudes towards sexuality among older people and to assess the relationship between sociodemographic factors and such attitudes.Methods: This cross-sectíonal study was conduct...

  15. Religion and nurses' attitudes to euthanasia and physician assisted suicide. (United States)

    Gielen, Joris; van den Branden, Stef; Broeckaert, Bert


    In this review of empirical studies we aimed to assess the influence of religion and world view on nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia and physician assisted suicide. We searched PubMed for articles published before August 2008 using combinations of search terms. Most identified studies showed a clear relationship between religion or world view and nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia or physician assisted suicide. Differences in attitude were found to be influenced by religious or ideological affiliation, observance of religious practices, religious doctrines, and personal importance attributed to religion or world view. Nevertheless, a coherent comparative interpretation of the results of the identified studies was difficult. We concluded that no study has so far exhaustively investigated the relationship between religion or world view and nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia or physician assisted suicide and that further research is required.

  16. Classroom Discipline as Manifestation of Adolscents Attitude to Learning



    Classroom Discipline as Manifestation of Adolescents’ Attitude to Learning The promotion paper was worked out at the Pedagogy Department of the Faculty of Education and Psychology of the University of Latvia from September, 2003 till August, 2008. Problem Nowadays the main stress in the teacher’s work for the prevention of inadmissible activities should be put on the promotion of adolescents’ positive attitude to learning, the encouragement of their self-regulated learnin...

  17. Religious characteristics and the death penalty. (United States)

    Miller, Monica K; Hayward, R David


    Using one mock trial scenario, this study investigated whether religious and demographic factors were related to death penalty attitudes and sentencing verdicts. Those who favored the death penalty differed from those who had doubts about the penalty in gender, affiliation, fundamentalism, evangelism, literal Biblical interpretism, beliefs about God's attitudes toward murders, and perceptions of how their religious groups felt about the death penalty. These relationships generally held after mock jurors were death qualified. Gender, fundamentalism, literal interpretism, beliefs about God's death penalty position, and perceptions of how one's religious group felt about the death penalty predicted death penalty sentencing verdicts. Future research could determine whether using peremptory challenges to exclude potential jurors based on religion can help lawyers choose a more favorable jury.

  18. Sudden death due to inhalant abuse in youth: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Akcan


    Full Text Available Intentional inhalation or abuse of volatile substances is a common public health problem all over the world. As these substances generate euphoria frequency of use among adolescents and young adults is increasing steadily. In cases using inhalants to achieve a euphoric state -without knowing possible consequences- sudden death may occurdue to acute cardio-pulmonary dysfunction.Here we present a case of sudden death of a nineteen-year-old female due to inhalation of volatile from butane containing lighter gas tube, with the findings of autopsy and death scene investigation.In the context of this case; it was aimed to draw attention to the risk of sudden death and steady increase of frequencyof volatile substance abuse among adolescents and young adults due to various psycho-social factors.

  19. From Memory to Attitude: The Neurocognitive Process beyond Euthanasia Acceptance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Enke

    Full Text Available Numerous questionnaire studies on attitudes towards euthanasia produced conflicting results, precluding any general conclusion. This might be due to the fact that human behavior can be influenced by automatically triggered attitudes, which represent ingrained associations in memory and cannot be assessed by standard questionnaires, but require indirect measures such as reaction times (RT or electroencephalographic recording (EEG. Event related potentials (ERPs of the EEG and RT during an affective priming task were assessed to investigate the impact of automatically triggered attitudes and were compared to results of an explicit questionnaire. Explicit attitudes were ambivalent. Reaction time data showed neither positive nor negative associations towards euthanasia. ERP analyses revealed an N400 priming effect with lower mean amplitudes when euthanasia was associated with negative words. The euthanasia-related modulation of the N400 component shows an integration of the euthanasia object in negatively valenced associative neural networks. The integration of all measures suggests a bottom-up process of attitude activation, where automatically triggered negative euthanasia-relevant associations can become more ambiguous with increasing time in order to regulate the bias arising from automatic processes. These data suggest that implicit measures may make an important contribution to the understanding of euthanasia-related attitudes.

  20. From Memory to Attitude: The Neurocognitive Process beyond Euthanasia Acceptance. (United States)

    Enke, Martin; Meyer, Patric; Flor, Herta


    Numerous questionnaire studies on attitudes towards euthanasia produced conflicting results, precluding any general conclusion. This might be due to the fact that human behavior can be influenced by automatically triggered attitudes, which represent ingrained associations in memory and cannot be assessed by standard questionnaires, but require indirect measures such as reaction times (RT) or electroencephalographic recording (EEG). Event related potentials (ERPs) of the EEG and RT during an affective priming task were assessed to investigate the impact of automatically triggered attitudes and were compared to results of an explicit questionnaire. Explicit attitudes were ambivalent. Reaction time data showed neither positive nor negative associations towards euthanasia. ERP analyses revealed an N400 priming effect with lower mean amplitudes when euthanasia was associated with negative words. The euthanasia-related modulation of the N400 component shows an integration of the euthanasia object in negatively valenced associative neural networks. The integration of all measures suggests a bottom-up process of attitude activation, where automatically triggered negative euthanasia-relevant associations can become more ambiguous with increasing time in order to regulate the bias arising from automatic processes. These data suggest that implicit measures may make an important contribution to the understanding of euthanasia-related attitudes.

  1. The anthropology of death or the new anthropology and the religious complex connected to death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević


    Full Text Available In this article the authors give a review of new anthropological work pertaining to dying, death and beliefs in life after death. Dying and the valorization of ways of dying are the subject of a paper by sociologist Todor Kuljić, while other relevant texts commented on by the authors are the results of the work done by anthropologists. Thus, the traditional belief in “prikoljiš” is analyzed in the text of Ivan Kovačević, while the folk belief in dying after death was analyzed by Dušan Bandić, and modern forms of grief in obituaries are analyzed by Ivan Čolović. The traditional belief in the vampire is the subject of analysis in papers by Dušan Bandić and Lidija Radulović, while the analysis of beliefs in immortality, present in a new religion, is the topic of a paper by Danijel Sinani.

  2. Deaths Due to Choking in Prader-Willli Syndrome


    Stevenson, David A.; Heinemann, Janalee; Angulo, Moris; Merlin G. Butler; Loker, Jim; Rupe, Norma; Kendell, Patrick; Clericuzio, Carol L; Scheimann, Ann O


    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is the most common known syndromic cause of life threatening obesity, yet few studies have examined the causes of death in PWS. The objective of this study was to examine the contribution of choking leading to mortality in PWS. In 1999, a brief survey was made available from the Prader-Willi Syndrome Association (USA) bereavement program, which documented demographic data and causes of death. Families were subsequently offered the opportunity to fill out a detailed...

  3. Trying to trust: Brain activity during interpersonal social attitude change. (United States)

    Filkowski, Megan M; Anderson, Ian W; Haas, Brian W


    Interpersonal trust and distrust are important components of human social interaction. Although several studies have shown that brain function is associated with either trusting or distrusting others, very little is known regarding brain function during the control of social attitudes, including trust and distrust. This study was designed to investigate the neural mechanisms involved when people attempt to control their attitudes of trust or distrust toward another person. We used a novel control-of-attitudes fMRI task, which involved explicit instructions to control attitudes of interpersonal trust and distrust. Control of trust or distrust was operationally defined as changes in trustworthiness evaluations of neutral faces before and after the control-of-attitudes fMRI task. Overall, participants (n = 60) evaluated faces paired with the distrust instruction as being less trustworthy than faces paired with the trust instruction following the control-of-distrust task. Within the brain, both the control-of-trust and control-of-distrust conditions were associated with increased temporoparietal junction, precuneus (PrC), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and medial prefrontal cortex activity. Individual differences in the control of trust were associated with PrC activity, and individual differences in the control of distrust were associated with IFG activity. Together, these findings identify a brain network involved in the explicit control of distrust and trust and indicate that the PrC and IFG may serve to consolidate interpersonal social attitudes.

  4. U.S. Cancer Death Rates Continue to Fall (United States)

    ... page: U.S. Cancer Death Rates Continue to Fall: Report Researchers ... be diagnosed with cancer and about 600,000 U.S. cancer patients will die. "The drop in cancer ...

  5. From Death To Death:Some Thoughts about Indian Camp by Ernest Hemingway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui


    Based on Indian Camp, the thesis probes into the death complex of Ernest Hemingway from the visual angle of Nick, the protagonist of the novel, death complex shown in Hemingway’s works and Nick, the archetype of Hemingway respectively.

  6. Brain death. (United States)

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M


    The diagnosis of brain death should be based on a simple premise. If every possible confounder has been excluded and all possible treatments have been tried or considered, irreversible loss of brain function is clinically recognized as the absence of brainstem reflexes, verified apnea, loss of vascular tone, invariant heart rate, and, eventually, cardiac standstill. This condition cannot be reversed - not even partly - by medical or surgical intervention, and thus is final. Many countries in the world have introduced laws that acknowledge that a patient can be declared brain-dead by neurologic standards. The U.S. law differs substantially from all other brain death legislation in the world because the U.S. law does not spell out details of the neurologic examination. Evidence-based practice guidelines serve as a standard. In this chapter, I discuss the history of development of the criteria, the current clinical examination, and some of the ethical and legal issues that have emerged. Generally, the concept of brain death has been accepted by all major religions. But patients' families may have different ideas and are mostly influenced by cultural attitudes, traditional customs, and personal beliefs. Suggestions are offered to support these families.

  7. Western Scientific Approaches to Near-Death Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Greyson


    Full Text Available Near-death experiences (NDEs are vivid experiences that often occur in life-threatening conditions, usually characterized by a transcendent tone and clear perceptions of leaving the body and being in a different spatiotemporal dimension. Such experiences have been reported throughout history in diverse cultures, and are reported today by 10% to 20% of people who have come close to death. Although cultural expectations and parameters of the brush with death influence the content of some NDEs, near-death phenomenology is invariant across cultures. That invariance may reflect universal psychological defenses, neurophysiological processes, or actual experience of a transcendent or mystical domain. Research into these alternative explanations has been hampered by the unpredictable occurrence of NDEs. Regardless of the causes or interpretations of NDEs, however, they are consistently associated with profound and long-lasting aftereffects on experiencers, and may have important implications for non-experiencers as well.

  8. Development of an Attitude Scale to Assess K-12 Teachers' Attitudes toward Nanotechnology (United States)

    Lan, Yu-Ling


    To maximize the contributions of nanotechnology to this society, at least 60 countries have put efforts into this field. In Taiwan, a government-funded K-12 Nanotechnology Programme was established to train K-12 teachers with adequate nanotechnology literacy to foster the next generation of Taiwanese people with sufficient knowledge in nanotechnology. In the present study, the Nanotechnology Attitude Scale for K-12 teachers (NAS-T) was developed to assess K-12 teachers' attitudes toward nanotechnology. The NAS-T included 23 Likert-scale items that can be grouped into three components: importance of nanotechnology, affective tendencies in science teaching, and behavioural tendencies to teach nanotechnology. A sample of 233 K-12 teachers who have participated in the K-12 Nanotechnology Programme was included in the present study to investigate the psychometric properties of the NAS-T. The exploratory factor analysis of this teacher sample suggested that the NAS-T was a three-factor model that explained 64.11% of the total variances. This model was also confirmed by the confirmatory factor analysis to validate the factor structure of the NAS-T. The Cronbach's alpha values of three NAS-T subscales ranged from 0.89 to 0.95. Moderate to strong correlations among teachers' NAS-T domain scores, self-perception of own nanoscience knowledge, and their science-teaching efficacy demonstrated good convergent validity of the NAS-T. As a whole, psychometric properties of the NAS-T indicated that this instrument is an effective instrument for assessing K-12 teachers' attitudes toward nanotechnology. The NAS-T will serve as a valuable tool to evaluate teachers' attitude changes after participating in the K-12 Nanotechnology Programme.

  9. Values, inter-attitudinal structure, and attitude change: value accessibility can increase a related attitude's resistance to change. (United States)

    Blankenship, Kevin L; Wegener, Duane T; Murray, Renee A


    Accessibility is one of the most basic structural properties of an attitude and an important factor to consider in attitude strength. Despite its importance, relatively little work has examined the role of attitude accessibility in an inter-attitudinal context, particularly as it relates to the strength of related attitudes in the network. The present research examines accessibility as a property of one attitude (toward an abstract goal or end-state, that is, a value) that might influence the strength of a different but related attitude (toward a social policy conceptually related to the value). In Study 1, a highly accessible evaluative component of a value increased resistance to change of attitudes and behavioral intentions toward a social policy related to that value. Similarly, a manipulation of value accessibility (Studies 2 and 3) led to increased resistance of attitudes and behavioral intentions toward a social policy related to that value. Implications for the role of accessibility in inter-attitudinal strength are discussed.

  10. Orchestrating an Exceptional Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anja Marie Bornø

    processes of facing brain death and deciding about organ donation. This study suggests that organ donation should be understood as a ‘strange figure’ challenging traditions and attitudes regarding the boundaries between life and death and the practices surrounding dead human bodies. Simultaneously, organ...... donation can be comforting and furthermore enable some families to make sense of a sudden tragic death. Throughout the thesis, the concept of ‘orchestration’ serves as the overall theoretical framework to understand how families, hospital staff and, on a larger scale, Danish society attempt to perform......, reinterpret and translate death and organ donation into something culturally acceptable and sense making. With chapters focusing analytically on the performance of trust, the transformative practices of hope, the aesthetization of ambiguous bodies, the sociality of exchangeable organs and the organ donation...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Ortelan Maia BOTASSINI


    Full Text Available Studies related to the theme “Linguistics Beliefs and Attitudes” have shown paths to Sociolinguistics to understand issues that may be related to certain linguistic attitudes manifested by a group or by a speaking community. In the whole society, the differences of “power” existent among distinct social groups may be realized through the linguistic variation and through attitudes towards these variations. Normally, the standards of language use of the dominant group are referred to as necessary models to social mobility, however the use of dialects or low profile accent reduces the opportunities of being successful. Researches on linguistic beliefs and attitudes may broaden the discussion about the factors of linguistic changes, about the influence on a second language learning process, about issues of prestige or discredit – which lead to prejudice not only regarding the language the other speaks, but also regarding these speakers community. Thus, this work approaches important items to understand the theme: a concepts of belief and of attitude; b attitudes components, formation/development and modification; c concepts like stigma, prejudice, linguistic prestige/status, linguistic identity, linguistic loyalty and disloyalty.

  12. Attitudes to cadaveric organ donation in Irish preclinical medical students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahill, Kevin C


    There is a worldwide shortage of organs for transplantation. It has been shown that the attitude of healthcare professionals can improve the rates of organ donation, and that educational programs aimed at improving both attitudes and knowledge base of professionals can have positive outcomes. Although there has been research carried out on this topic, there has been none in Ireland. Anatomy dissection can be a stressor to medical students-we investigate the attitudes of Irish students to organ donation and how they change with exposure to anatomy dissection. A questionnaire was administered to first year students in the School of Medicine in University College Dublin, Ireland, three times over a nine-week period at the commencement of classes in an academic year. The attitudes of the students were positive throughout regarding organ donation by a stranger, a family member, or themselves. There was, however, a significant decrease in support for the donation of a family member\\'s organs in a minority of students. Irish students\\' attitudes to postmortem organ donation are positive and are not changed by exposure to the dissecting room. There is support for the donation of organs, and willingness among students to donate their own organs and support donation by family members.

  13. Traditional Male Circumcision: Ways to Prevent Deaths Due to Dehydration. (United States)

    Douglas, Mbuyiselo; Maluleke, Thelmah Xavela


    Deaths of initiates occurring in the circumcision initiation schools are preventable. Current studies list dehydration as one of the underlying causes of deaths among traditional male circumcision initiates in the Eastern Cape, a province in South Africa, but ways to prevent dehydration in the initiation schools have not been adequately explored. The goals of this study were to (a) explore the underlying determinants of dehydration among initiates aged from 12 to 18 years in the traditional male circumcision initiation schools and (b) determine knowledge of participants on the actions to be taken to prevent dehydration. The study was conducted at Libode, a rural area falling under Nyandeni municipality. A simple random sampling was used to select three focus group discussions with 36 circumcised boys. A purposive sampling was used to select 10 key informants who were matured and experienced people with knowledge of traditional practices and responsible positions in the communities. The research findings indicate that the practice has been neglected to inexperienced, unskillful, and abusive traditional attendants. The overall themes collated included traditional reasons for water restriction, imbalanced food nutrients given to initiates, poor environmental conditions in the initiation hut, and actions that should be taken to prevent dehydration. This article concludes with discussion and recommendation of ways to prevent dehydration of initiates in the form of a comprehensive circumcision health promotion program.

  14. Stakeholders’ Attitude to Genetically Modified Foods and Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifah Amin


    Full Text Available Public acceptance of genetically modified (GM foods has to be adequately addressed in order for their potential economic and social benefits to be realized. The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of the Malaysian public toward GM foods (GM soybean and GM palm oil and GM medicine (GM insulin. A survey was carried out using self-constructed multidimensional instrument measuring attitudes towards GM products. The respondents (n=1017 were stratified according to stakeholders’ groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey show that the overall attitude of the Malaysian stakeholders towards GM products was cautious. Although they acknowledged the presence of moderate perceived benefits associated with GM products surveyed and were moderately encouraging of them, they were also moderately concerned about the risks and moral aspects of the three GM products as well as moderately accepting the risks. Attitudes towards GM products among the stakeholders were found to vary not according to the type of all GM applications but rather depend on the intricate relationships between the attitudinal factors and the type of gene transfers involved. Analyses of variance showed significant differences in the six dimensions of attitude towards GM products across stakeholders’ groups.

  15. Stakeholders' attitude to genetically modified foods and medicine. (United States)

    Amin, Latifah; Jahi, Jamaluddin Md; Nor, Abd Rahim Md


    Public acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods has to be adequately addressed in order for their potential economic and social benefits to be realized. The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of the Malaysian public toward GM foods (GM soybean and GM palm oil) and GM medicine (GM insulin). A survey was carried out using self-constructed multidimensional instrument measuring attitudes towards GM products. The respondents (n = 1017) were stratified according to stakeholders' groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey show that the overall attitude of the Malaysian stakeholders towards GM products was cautious. Although they acknowledged the presence of moderate perceived benefits associated with GM products surveyed and were moderately encouraging of them, they were also moderately concerned about the risks and moral aspects of the three GM products as well as moderately accepting the risks. Attitudes towards GM products among the stakeholders were found to vary not according to the type of all GM applications but rather depend on the intricate relationships between the attitudinal factors and the type of gene transfers involved. Analyses of variance showed significant differences in the six dimensions of attitude towards GM products across stakeholders' groups.

  16. The Night-Death binomial as a poetic ploy - a cross-cultural look from the graveyard poets to expressionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioba Simon-Schuhmacher


    Full Text Available The essay describes the use of the Night-Death binomial and tracks its evolution from the eighteenth century to Expressionism across Great Britain, Germany, Spain, and Austria, at the hand of poems such as Edward Young’s Night Thoughts (1745, Novalis’s Hymnen an die Nacht, (1800, José Blanco White’s sonnet “Night and Death” (1828, and Georg Trakl’s “Verwandlung des Bösen” (1914. Romanticism brought along a preference for the nocturnal: night, moonlight, shades and shadows, mist and mystery, somber mood, morbidity, and death, as opposed to the Enlightenment’s predilection for day, light, clarity, and life. The essay analyses how poets from different national contexts and ages employ images and symbols of the night to create an association with death. It furthermore shows how, with varying attitudes and results, they manage to convert this binomial into a poetic ploy.

  17. Modelling Local Attitudes to Protected Areas in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bragagnolo


    Full Text Available During a time of intensifying competition for land, Protected Areas (PAs are coming under increasing pressure to justify their status. Positive local attitudes to a PA are a potentially important component of any such justification, especially in the developing world where human pressure on natural resources is often high. However, despite numerous studies our understanding of what drives positive attitudes to PAs is still exceedingly limited. Here, we review the literature on local attitudes towards PAs in developing countries. Our survey reveals a highly fragmented research area where studies typically lack an explicit conceptual basis, and where there is wide variation in choice of statistical approach, explanatory and response variables, and incorporation of contextual information. Nevertheless, there is a relatively high degree of concordance between studies, with certain variables showing strong associations with attitudes. We recommend that PA attitude researchers in developing countries adopt a more rigorous model building approach based on a clear conceptual framework and drawing on the extensive empirical literature. Such an approach would improve the quality of research, increase comparability, and provide a stronger basis to support conservation decision-making.

  18. The right to death. Fiction or reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucan Maria Casandra


    Full Text Available The present article is part of a dense literature – result of a perennial debate – that has polarized societies for a long time and has evident reverberations in the present. It deals with “the right to death”, trying to offer some answers referring to its existence in fact and the way in which it is perceived by different states and diverse entities with juridical nature. In the first part of the paper, it is insisted upon the right to life, so that subsequently, to speak in detail about a “right to death” and the moral and juridical implications of using such phrases. There are analyzed different states of the world found on one part or the other of the barricade in what concerns the legality of euthanasia and assisted suicide – considered the two hypostasis of the right in question. It is offered, as well, an analysis of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, mentioning that, paradoxically, while it cannot be modified so that it allows the appearance of some new rights, it can tacitly accept the creation by some states that have adhered to it of some rights antagonistic with those presented in its text. The conclusion, is that not any liberalization movement of a social action – quantified through the request of a right – has as a direct result a progress of the respective society, especially when the action creates something diametrically opposed to some fundamental functioning norms, such as, by excellence, the granting of the protection of life of all individuals.

  19. Surveying Graduate Students' Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Andrew


    Students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes towards Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate students. Comparison of their responses to the survey questions about problem solving in their own graduate level courses vs. problem solving in the introductory physics courses provides insight into their expertise in introductory and graduate level physics. The physics graduate students' responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory physics and astronomy students and physics faculty. We find that, even for problem solving in introductory physics, graduate students' responses to some survey questions are less expert-like than those of the physics faculty. Comparison of survey responses of graduate students and introductory students for...

  20. Brain death: from inflammation to metabolic changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebolledo Acevedo, Rolando


    Organ transplantation is an excellent opportunity for patients with end-stage organ failure. However, the number of patients that are still on the waiting list indicates the necessity to increase the number of organs suitable for transplantation. Most organs for transplantation are retrieved from br

  1. Attitudes of meat retailers to animal welfare in Spain. (United States)

    Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro C; Sepúlveda, Wilmer S; Villarroel, Morris; María, Gustavo A


    This study analyzes retailer attitude towards animal welfare in Spain, and how this attitude has changed over recent years (2006-2011). Retailers were concerned about animal welfare issues but a declining trend is observed recently, probably due to the financial crisis. The concern about animal welfare was affected by sex, with women retailers expressing a more positive attitude towards animal welfare issues than men. Retailers, based on their experience, perceive a low level of willingness to pay more for welfare friendly products (WFP) on behalf of their customers. This fact is reflected in the sales of the WFP, which declined from 2006 to 2011. The main reason for consumers to buy WFP, according to retailer perception, is organoleptic quality, with improved welfare being second. The results obtained provide a pessimistic picture in relation to the current market positioning of WFP, which is probably a consequence of market contraction.

  2. Death to perturbative QCD in exclusive processes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckardt, R.; Hansper, J.; Gari, M.F. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Bochum (Germany)


    The authors discuss the question of whether perturbative QCD is applicable in calculations of exclusive processes at available momentum transfers. They show that the currently used method of determining hadronic quark distribution amplitudes from QCD sum rules yields wave functions which are completely undetermined because the polynomial expansion diverges. Because of the indeterminacy of the wave functions no statement can be made at present as to whether perturbative QCD is valid. The authors emphasize the necessity of a rigorous discussion of the subject and the importance of experimental data in the range of interest.

  3. Students’ Attitudes to Universal Design in Architecture Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Larkin


    Full Text Available It is widely recognised that the built environment can dramatically impact the participation and engagement of people with disability and diverse needs. It has therefore become necessary for architects and designers to consider these needs when working within their profession. The implementation of universal design teaching into architecture and design curriculum has been recognised as an important step in facilitating and enhancing the uptake of universal design during the design process. Using a quantitative approach, this study aimed to compare, contrast and explore the attitudes of two groups of architecture students to the universal design of built environments. One group had received education relating to diversity and universal design as part of a prior project while the other group had not received this content. Findings from this comparison demonstrated that overall, no significant differences between groups existed. However further investigation provided interesting insight and perspectives into student attitudes to universal design and potential influencers of these attitudes.

  4. Prevalence of death due to pulmonary embolism after trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echeverria Rodrigo


    Full Text Available Background: Pulmonary thromboembolism is an important cause of death affecting thousands of people worldwide. The current study aims to evaluate the prevalence of death due to pulmonary embolism after trauma. Materials and Methods: The diagnoses of the causa mortis of all patients treated in the Accident and Emergency Department of Hospital de Base in Sγo Josι do Rio Preto, in the period from July 2004 to June 2005, were identified from autopsy reports to check whether pulmonary thromboembolism was involved. Result: A total of 109 deaths due to trauma were detected in this period with pulmonary embolism occurring in 3 (2.75% patients. Conclusion: Pulmonary thromboembolism is an important cause of mortality in trauma patients and so prophylactic measures should be taken during the treatment of these patients.

  5. Attitudes to smoking on submarines: results of a questionnaire study. (United States)

    Norris, William D; Brims, Fraser J H


    An anonymous survey to assess the attitudes to smoking of men serving on two Trident Nuclear submarines was conducted by questionnaire. A total of 244 questionnaires were completed, representing 87% of the two crews. Thirty-two percent of respondents declared themselves to be smokers, 69% were nonsmokers, and of these, 31% were ex-smokers. Attitudes of all respondents to an enforced ban of smoking on submarines indicated that 55% felt that it would be justifiable, 46% felt that it would be unfair, 42% felt that it was uncalled for, 46% thought that it would be illegal, and 47% thought that a ban was about time. The separate opinions of smokers and nonsmokers were polarized, whereas the overall results indicate indifferent attitudes of crew members. Further research into the atmospheric effects of environmental tobacco smoke on a submarine is required.

  6. Nuclear death: an unprecedented challenge to psychiatry and religion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, J.D.


    The growing danger of a nuclear holocaust has intensified two aspects of the human predicament that concern both religion and psychiatry: the inevitability of death and the disastrous consequences of the characteristic termed pride by theologians and narcissism by psychiatrists. For the first time, humans have power to exterminate themselves and death threatens all ages equally. Pride of power causes leaders to exaggerate their ability to control nuclear weapons; moral pride leads to demonizing enemies. The author considers implications for psychiatrists and clergy, with special reference to preventing a nuclear holocaust.

  7. Talking about Death: Implementing Peer Discussion as a Coping Mechanism to Overcome Fears about Dissection, Death, and Dying (United States)

    Kotze, Sanet Henriet; Mole, Calvin Gerald


    Many studies have reported on the perceptions of medical students toward dissection. It is important to understand the feelings and symptoms experienced during dissection so that they can be adequately handled. Prior to dissection, first year students are given lectures on aspects of dissection, death and dying, and death rituals in various…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Danish Kirmani


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship of environmental concern of consumers with their attitude towards green products and also to identify the predictors of environmental concern. The data was generated from a researcher controlled sample of graduate and post-graduate students enrolled in educational institutions located in the national capital of India (New Delhi and surrounding areas popularly known as National Capital Region (NCR. The data generated was analysed employing Structural Equation Modelling (SEM. The study findings indicate that environmental concern has a significant and positive influence on attitude towards green products. Collectivism and eco-literacy emerged as predictors of the environmental concern of consumers. The findings of this study are expected to enhance the understanding of marketers of the role played by variables such as religiosity, collectivism, eco-literacy, and environmental concern in formation of attitude of consumers towards green products.

  9. Lethality by pneumonia and factors associated to death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidnei Ferreira


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the case-fatality rate (CFR and risk factors of death in children with community-acquired acute pneumonia (CAP in a pediatric university hospital. METHOD: A longitudinal study was developed with prospective data collected from 1996 to 2011. Patients aged 1 month to 12 years were included in the study. Those who left the hospital against medical orders and those transferred to ICU or other units were excluded. Demographic andclinical-etiological characteristics and the initial treatment were studied. Variables associated to death were determined by bivariate and multivariate analysis using logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 871 patients were selected, of whom 11 were excluded; thus 860 children were included in the study. There were 26 deaths, with a CFR of 3%; in 58.7% of these, penicillin G was the initial treatment. Pneumococcus was the most common pathogen (50.4%. From 1996 to 2000, there were 24 deaths (93%, with a CFR of 5.8% (24/413. From 2001 to 2011, the age group of hospitalized patients was older (p = 0.03, and the number of deaths (p = 0.02 and the percentage of disease severity were lower (p = 0.06. Only disease severity remained associated to death in the multivariate analysis (OR = 3.2; 95%CI: 1.2-8.9; p = 0.02. CONCLUSION: When the 1996-2000 and 2001-2011 periods were compared, a significant reduction in CFR was observed in the latter, as well as a change in the clinical profile of the pediatric in patients at the institute. These findings may be related to the improvement in the socio-economical status of the population. Penicillin use did not influence CFR.

  10. A re-examination of the effect of contextual group size on people's attitude to risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumi Shimizu


    Full Text Available Using Kahneman and Tversky's life-death decision paradigm, Wang and colleagues (e.g., Wang and Johnston, 1995; Wang, 1996a, 1996b, 1996c, 2008; Wang et al., 2001 have shown two characteristic phenomena regarding people's attitude to risk when the contextual group size is manipulated. In both positive and negative frames, people tend to take greater risks in life-death decisions as the contextual group size becomes smaller; this risk-seeking attitude is greater when framed positively than negatively. (This second characteristic often leads to the disappearance of the framing effect in small group contexts comprising of 6 or 60 people. Their results could shed new light on the effect of contextual group size on people's risk choice. However these results are usually observed in laboratory experiments with university student samples. This study aims to examine the external validity of these results through different ways of experimentation and with a different sample base. The first characteristic was replicated in both a face-to-face interview with a randomly selected sample of the Japanese general public, and a web-based experiment with a non-student sample, but not the second.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Electro - fishing (passing electricity through water to catch fish requires sophisticated equipment. While this method is commonly employed b y scientists for survey and fisheries management, a crude and illegal form electro - fishing is employed in Kerala for catching fish from water bodies. This can result in accidental electrocution and even fatalities. Even though they are rare, forensic patho logists in Kerala do come across such deaths from time to time. 8 cases of accidental death which occurred during electro - fishing are discussed here.

  12. Public attitudes to genomic science: an experiment in information provision. (United States)

    Sturgis, Patrick; Brunton-Smith, Ian; Fife-Schaw, Chris


    We use an experimental panel study design to investigate the effect of providing "value-neutral" information about genomic science in the form of a short film to a random sample of the British public. We find little evidence of attitude change as a function of information provision. However, our results show that information provision significantly increased dropout from the study amongst less educated respondents. Our findings have implications both for our understanding of the knowledge-attitude relationship in public opinion toward genomic science and for science communication more generally.

  13. Gunshot deaths in Geneva, Switzerland: 2001 to 2010. (United States)

    La Harpe, Romano; Mohamed, Nadja Ben; Burkhardt, Sandra


    We have conducted a retrospective study of all gunshot deaths that occurred in Geneva, Switzerland, over a 10-year period (2001-2010). The 133 cases reviewed were classified according to the manner of death, that is, suicide (106 cases), homicide (25 cases), and accident (2 cases). Various data from police authorities and the medicolegal examinations of the bodies were studied, including the age and sex of the victims, location of the event, type of firearm used, concomitant use or nonuse of alcohol and/or other drugs, seasonality, and entry site. These various elements were compared with data found in the literature.

  14. Autoerotic Asphyxiation: A Challenge to Death Educators and Counselors. (United States)

    Garos, Sheila


    Notes that approximately 250 to 1,000 deaths in United States annually are result of autoerotic asphyxiation, hangings that were intended to enhance sexual excitement. Reviews scattered literature on autoerotic asphyxiation and includes observations by two psychiatrists and medical examiner. Notes that much remains to be learned about this…

  15. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, FY 1983. Special Report to Congress. (United States)

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This report describes research programs focusing on the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and indicates some presently available results. Specific attention is given to research on sleep apnea, respiratory control, and hypoxia, as well as to infectious disease processes and immunology. Findings of a large-scale multidisciplinary SIDS project are…

  16. Autophagic components contribute to hypersensitive cell death in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofius, Daniel; Schultz-Larsen, Torsten; Joensen, Jan;


    Autophagy has been implicated as a prosurvival mechanism to restrict programmed cell death (PCD) associated with the pathogen-triggered hypersensitive response (HR) during plant innate immunity. This model is based on the observation that HR lesions spread in plants with reduced autophagy gene ex...... contributes to HR PCD and can function in parallel with other prodeath pathways....

  17. General practitioner knowledge, skills and attitudes to eating disorders


    Doherty, Sally; McNamee, Lisa


    Given that general practitioners are perfectly placed to detect eating disorders this summer research study aimed to examine general practitioners’ knowledge, skills and attitudes towards eating disorders. The study aimed to compile a national picture of the diagnosis, referral practices, and management of eating disorders in primary care in Ireland.

  18. Two New Instruments To Probe Attitudes about Gender and Mathematics. (United States)

    Leder, Gilah C.; Forgasz, Helen J.

    Two forms of a new instrument, "Mathematics as a Gendered Domain" and "Who and Mathematics," were developed to replace one of the scales of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales. The aim of both instruments is to measure the extent to which students stereotype mathematics as a gendered domain. For "Mathematics…

  19. Signs of Change: Contemporary Attitudes to Australian Sign Language (United States)

    Slegers, Claudia


    This study explores contemporary attitudes to Australian Sign Language (Auslan). Since at least the 1960s, sign languages have been accepted by linguists as natural languages with all of the key ingredients common to spoken languages. However, these visual-spatial languages have historically been subject to ignorance and myth in Australia and…

  20. Gaining control over responses to implicit attitude tests: Implementation intentions engender fast responses on attitude-incongruent trials. (United States)

    Webb, Thomas L; Sheeran, Paschal; Pepper, John


    The present research investigated whether forming implementation intentions could promote fast responses to attitude-incongruent associations (e.g., woman-manager) and thereby modify scores on popular implicit measures of attitude. Expt 1 used the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to measure associations between gender and science versus liberal arts. Planning to associate women with science engendered fast responses to this category-attribute pairing and rendered summary scores more neutral compared to standard IAT instructions. Expt 2 demonstrated that forming egalitarian goal intentions is not sufficient to produce these effects. Expt 3 extended these findings to a different measure of implicit attitude (the Go/No-Go Association Task) and a different stereotypical association (Muslims-terrorism). In Expt 4, managers who planned to associate women with superordinate positions showed more neutral IAT scores relative to non-planners and effects were maintained 3 weeks later. In sum, implementation intentions enable people to gain control over implicit attitude responses.

  1. Sudden infant death due to Lactococcal infective endocarditis. (United States)

    Taniguchi, K; Nakayama, M; Nakahira, K; Nakura, Y; Kanagawa, N; Yanagihara, I; Miyaishi, S


    Infective endocarditis (IE) of infants is rare, most of which occur associated with congenital heart disease or its cardiac surgery. We experienced a case of sudden death of a four-month-old male infant without congenital heart disease. It was elucidated by postmortem examination that the dead had suffered severe IE, which led him to death. In the microbiological genetic analysis using histological section, the pathogen causing inflammation in the present case was identified as Lactococcus lactis subspecies, although Staphylococci have been reported to be common and important one. Previously reported infectious diseases by Lactococcus lactis subspecies were all adult cases and this is the first report of an infantile death due to Lactococcal IE according to our knowledge. Any fatal disease may be included in sudden death cases targeted for forensic autopsy, even if it is rare. It is expected for forensic pathologists that they note such case and share each experience among themselves and other medical fields to develop a strategy for prevention.

  2. Changing Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Attitudes to Algebra. (United States)

    McGowen, Mercedes A.; Davis, Gary E.

    This article addresses the question: "What are the implications for the preparation of prospective elementary teachers of 'early algebra' in the elementary grades curriculum?" Part of the answer involves language aspects of algebra: in particular, how a change in pre-service teachers' attitudes to algebra, from instrumental to relational, is…

  3. Caregivers' attitudes regarding portion size served to Head Start children (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to identify caregivers' attitudes regarding amounts and types of foods served to Head Start preschoolers using qualitative methods. Researchers conducted 8 focus groups (4 African American; 4 Hispanic) with 33 African American and 29 Hispanic Head Start caregivers. Mode...

  4. Attitudes of Health Professionals to Child Sexual Abuse and Incest. (United States)

    Eisenberg, N.; And Others


    Results of surveying 299 professionals concerning their knowledge and attitudes about child sexual abuse and incest showed that the type of sexual activity involved influenced responses; the type of relationship between adult and child, less so. Estimates of incest were low but incest was considered to be harmful to the victim. (Author/DB)

  5. Stabilization of rotational motion with application to spacecraft attitude control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal


    on a Riemannian manifold. The Lyapnov stability theory is adapted and reformulated to fit to the new framework of Riemannian manifolds. Toillustrate the results a spacecraft attitude control problem is considered. Firstly, a global canonical representation for the spacecraft motion is found, then three spacecraft...

  6. Age Modulates Attitudes to Whole Body Donation among Medical Students (United States)

    Perry, Gary F.; Ettarh, Raj R.


    Managing a whole body donor program is necessary for facilitating a traditional dissection-based anatomy curriculum in medicine and health sciences. Factors which influence body donations to medical science can therefore affect dissection-based anatomy teaching. In order to determine whether age influences the attitudes of medical students to…

  7. Deaths Attributable to Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Deaths Attributable to Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Infections.  Created: 8/6/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/13/2014.

  8. Drug Poisoning Deaths according to Ethnicity in Utah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray M. Merrill


    Full Text Available This study characterizes drug-related deaths according to ethnicity in Utah during 2005–2010, based on data from the Utah Violent Death Reporting System (UTVDRS. Hispanics made up 12.1% (12.5% male and 11.7% female of deaths. The most frequently identified drugs among decedents were opiates, then illicit drugs, benzodiazepines, over-the-counter medication, and antidepressants. Death rates for each drug were significantly greater in non-Hispanics than Hispanics. Most decedents used a combination of drugs. For each combination, rates were significantly greater for non-Hispanics than Hispanics, with an exception for opiates and illicit drugs combined, where there was no significant difference. Approximately 79% of non-Hispanics and 65% of Hispanics had one or more of the selected problems (e.g., mental, physical, or crisis related. Rates for each combination of problems were significantly greater in non-Hispanics, with the exception of crisis. Hispanics were less affected by the rise in prescription drug abuse. Hispanic decedents had a greater proportion of illegal drugs, consistent with it being more difficult to obtain prescription drugs. Hispanic decedents were less likely to have physical and mental health problems, which may be related to a smaller chance of diagnosis of such problems through the healthcare system.

  9. Causes of death and associated conditions (Codac) - a utilitarian approach to the classification of perinatal deaths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Froen, J. Frederik; Pinar, Halit; Flenady, Vicki; Bahrin, Safiah; Charles, Adrian; Chauke, Lawrence; Day, Katie; Duke, Charles W.; Facchinetti, Fabio; Fretts, Ruth C.; Gardener, Glenn; Gilshenan, Kristen; Gordijn, Sanne J.; Gordon, Adrienne; Guyon, Grace; Harrison, Catherine; Koshy, Rachel; Pattinson, Robert C.; Petersson, Karin; Russell, Laurie; Saastad, Eli; Smith, Gordon C. S.; Torabi, Rozbeh


    A carefully classified dataset of perinatal mortality will retain the most significant information on the causes of death. Such information is needed for health care policy development, surveillance and international comparisons, clinical services and research. For comparability purposes, we propose

  10. On Death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Death is not a terrible word, but a provoking one. Different people have different opinions, but no one can convince others of what death really means. This article made a tentative and superficial analysis on death according to the true feeing and experiences of the author. In her opinion, we needn’t consider more about death; the important for the death is how to live meaningfully.

  11. Euthanasia – the Right to a Dignified Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana TEREC-VLAD


    Full Text Available In the contemporary society, ethical issues raise more and more controversial debates. This has also emerged regarding the concept of euthanasia, given that it involves the decision of the patient who is facing the last phase of his life. Since this issue raises more and more debates, we consider it appropriate to bring into discussion the ethical aspects involved by the decision of dying a dignified death. In this article, we consider it would be appropriate to bring into discussion the ethical aspects involved by the decision of dying a dignified death. The aim of this article is to analyze the concept of euthanasia starting from the idea that a person in the terminal phase of an illness should have the right to decide about his own death. Researchers’ opinions are divided, the euthanasia being interpreted as involving different areas such as medicine, philosophy, Law and theology. In the context where the question of the individual quality of life is raised, is there the right to choose a dignified death? The Romanian legal framework has not regularized this practice yet, but countries such as Switzerland have reached the conclusion that the dignity of the individual and his right to die a dignified death should be among the privileges granted within the individual freedoms. Because it is a rather old practice, in the contemporary society euthanasia has drawn t he attention of all the fields, and various researchers have expressed their views regarding the end of life; hence the problematic relation between euthanasia and the freedoms and rights provided by democracy. What delimitates the particularity of this practice is exactly the trans-disciplinary dimension, the analytical coordinates that we intend to picture in this approach which we consider it to be closely related to the social reality. Classification-JEL: A23, I18


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    [目的]分析大学生死亡态度的现状和相关影响因素.[方法]采用死亡态度描绘量表、艾森克人格问卷、青少年生活事件量表对河南省8所高校的1 295名大学生进行问卷调查.[结果]①大学生在自然接受维度上的总均分最高,逃离接受的得分最低;②宗教信仰、参与葬礼次数对大学生的死亡态度有重要影响(P<0.05~0.001);③EPQ的精神质、内外向、神经质、掩饰性的得分与与死亡态度的相关因子存在相关关系(P<0.05~0.001);④个人生活事件各因子均与死亡恐惧、趋近接受和逃离接受呈正相关,与自然接受呈负相关(P<0.001).[结论]①应加强对大学生进行唯物主义教育,适时开展生命教育;②通过各种途径塑造学生良好人格;③对大学生生活中出现的负性事件,应及时进行心理疏导和教育.%[Objective] To analyze the present status of the attitudes of college students toward death and the related impact factors. [Methods] 1295 college students in eight colleges in Henan province were investigated with Death Attitude Depiction Scale, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and Juvenile Life Events Scale. [Results] ① College students got the highest average score in the dimension of Natural Acceptance and the lowest score in Escape Acceptance. ② Attitudes of college students toward death were greatly influenced by religious believes and times for attending funerals (P < 0.05-0.001). ③ There was a relationship between the score of EPQ-P, EPQ-E, EPQ-N and EPQ-L with some factors of attitudes toward death (P < 0.05-0.001). ④ All factors of personal life events were positively related with the dimension of Thanatophobia, Approach Acceptance and Escape Acceptance, and were negatively related with Natural Acceptance (P< 0.001). [Conclusion] ① Materialism education for college students should be strengthened, and life education should be opened in due time. ② Good personalities of

  13. Measuring Bystander Attitudes and Behavior to Prevent Sexual Violence (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah; Allen, Christopher T.; Postmus, Judy L.; McMahon, Sheila M.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Lowe Hoffman, Melanie


    Objective: The purpose of this study is to further investigate the factor structure and strength of the Bystander Attitude Scale-Revised and Bystander Behavior Scale-Revised (BAS-R and BBS-R). Participants: First-year students (N = 4,054) at a large public university in the Northeast completed a survey in 2010 as part of a larger longitudinal…

  14. A Path Model for Students' Attitudes to Writing a Thesis. (United States)

    Sachs, John


    Using responses of 90 undergraduate and graduate students, developed a model in which action-control belief variables have only an indirect effect on students' attitudes to writing a thesis mediated through two academic orientation variables. The model accounted for a large proportion of the repeatable variance in the two academic orientation…

  15. Deaths Due to Choking in Prader-Willli Syndrome (United States)

    Stevenson, David A.; Heinemann, Janalee; Angulo, Moris; Butler, Merlin G.; Loker, Jim; Rupe, Norma; Kendell, Patrick; Clericuzio, Carol L.; Scheimann, Ann O.


    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is the most common known syndromic cause of life threatening obesity, yet few studies have examined the causes of death in PWS. The objective of this study was to examine the contribution of choking leading to mortality in PWS. In 1999, a brief survey was made available from the Prader-Willi Syndrome Association (USA) bereavement program, which documented demographic data and causes of death. Families were subsequently offered the opportunity to fill out a detailed questionnaire and additional forms to release medical records. Demographic information was available on 178 deceased individuals with PWS, and cause of death available on 152 individuals. Fifty-four families completed questionnaires. Of the deceased individuals with completed questionnaires, 34% reported a history of choking. Choking was listed by familial report as the cause of death in 12 (7.9%) of 152 subjects with an average age of 24 years (range 3–52y; median 22.5y) at death from choking. Only two of these individuals were less than eight years of age. The data suggest that risks associated with choking are different in the PWS population compared with normal. Potential causes of increased choking in PWS include poor oral/motor coordination, poor gag reflex, hypotonia, hyperphagia, decreased mastication and voracious feeding habits. We recommend implementation of preventive measures and education for families and group home care providers for all individuals with PWS including the Heimlich maneuver, supervised meals, better food preparation and diet modification to avoid high risk choking items. PMID:17036318

  16. Determinants of public attitudes to genetically modified salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifah Amin

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country.

  17. Determinants of public attitudes to genetically modified salmon. (United States)

    Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah


    The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country.

  18. Defining Sudden Infant Death and Sudden Intrauterine Unexpected Death Syndromes with Regard to Anatomo-Pathological Examination (United States)

    Ottaviani, Giulia


    Crib death, or sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), is the most frequent form of death in the first year of life, striking one baby in every 1,700–2,000. Yet, despite advances in maternal–infant care, sudden intrauterine unexplained/unexpected death syndrome (SIUDS) has a sixfold to eightfold greater incidence than that of SIDS. Frequent congenital abnormalities, likely morphological substrates for SIDS–SIUDS, were detected, mainly represented by alterations of the cardiac conduction system, such as accessory pathways and abnormal resorptive degeneration, and hypoplasia/agenesis of the vital brainstem structures. On the basis of these considerations, the new common definition of the SIDS–SIUDS complex is “The sudden death of a fetus after the 25th gestational week or infant under one year of age which is unexpected by history and remains unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including examination of the death scene, performance of a general autopsy and examination of the fetal adnexa”. Therefore, given that the general autopsy does not disclose any cause of death, a more in-depth histopathological analysis of the cardiac conduction system and autonomic nervous system by specialized pathologists is necessary. PMID:27709109

  19. East Asian Attitudes toward Death— A Search for the Ways to Help East Asian Elderly Dying in Contemporary America (United States)

    Lee, Sok K


    The art of dying well has been a quintessential subject of ethicoreligious matters among the people in the West and the East. Most of us wish to die at home; however, about 50% of Americans die in acute care hospitals. Furthermore, immigrants from East Asian cultures feel more uncomfortable near death, because their physicians are not familiar with their traditions. This article is written to help American physicians understand the unique aspects of East Asian Confucian Ethics for the better care of the dying elderly. Western attitudes toward death are briefly reviewed and the six East Asian concepts related to death are elaborated from Confucian Chinese philosophy. To widen the horizon of bioethics and to embrace the Confucian wisdom of dying well, three pearls of wisdom from classical Confucianism are proposed: the relational autonomy of family, Confucian creative self-transformation, and the unity of transcendence and the human being. PMID:20740092

  20. Use of an Online Game to Evaluate Health Professions Students’ Attitudes toward People in Poverty


    Richey Smith, Carriann E.; Ryder, Priscilla; Bilodeau, Ann; Schultz, Michele


    Objective. To determine baseline attitudes of pharmacy, physician assistant studies, and communication science and disorders students toward people in poverty and to examine the effectiveness of using the online poverty simulation game SPENT to affect these attitudes.

  1. The President’s Authority to Promulgate Death Penalty Standards (United States)


    legislative delegation, it is important to recognize that Congress, in enacting the UCMJ, was not writing on a tabula rasa . Historically, * 18 much latitude...historical role the President has always played in this area. "Standards prescribed by Congress are to be read in the light of the conditions to role of the courts in reviewing a statu- tory death penalty scheme. It is worth quoting at length to catch the full flavor of the Court’s

  2. Causes of death and associated conditions (Codac – a utilitarian approach to the classification of perinatal deaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Catherine


    Full Text Available Abstract A carefully classified dataset of perinatal mortality will retain the most significant information on the causes of death. Such information is needed for health care policy development, surveillance and international comparisons, clinical services and research. For comparability purposes, we propose a classification system that could serve all these needs, and be applicable in both developing and developed countries. It is developed to adhere to basic concepts of underlying cause in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD, although gaps in ICD prevent classification of perinatal deaths solely on existing ICD codes. We tested the Causes of Death and Associated Conditions (Codac classification for perinatal deaths in seven populations, including two developing country settings. We identified areas of potential improvements in the ability to retain existing information, ease of use and inter-rater agreement. After revisions to address these issues we propose Version II of Codac with detailed coding instructions. The ten main categories of Codac consist of three key contributors to global perinatal mortality (intrapartum events, infections and congenital anomalies, two crucial aspects of perinatal mortality (unknown causes of death and termination of pregnancy, a clear distinction of conditions relevant only to the neonatal period and the remaining conditions are arranged in the four anatomical compartments (fetal, cord, placental and maternal. For more detail there are 94 subcategories, further specified in 577 categories in the full version. Codac is designed to accommodate both the main cause of death as well as two associated conditions. We suggest reporting not only the main cause of death, but also the associated relevant conditions so that scenarios of combined conditions and events are captured. The appropriately applied Codac system promises to better manage information on causes of perinatal deaths, the conditions

  3. Grief response of parents to neonatal death and parent participation in deciding care. (United States)

    Benfield, D G; Leib, S A; Vollman, J H


    We determined the grief response to neonatal death of 50 mother-father pairs by administering a questionnaire and conducting a semistructured interview during the infant postmortem review. As measured by a parent grief score, maternal grief significantly exceeded paternal grief (t = 5.89, P less than .0001). Parent grief was not significantly related to birth weight, duration of life, extent of parent-infant contact, previous perinatal loss, parent age, or distance from the hospital of birth to the regional center (Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients). However, the attitudes and behavior of family, friends, and health care personnel in the hospital of birth often adversely influenced parent grieving. Of 39 mother-father pairs whose infants required respirator support, 18 participated in a group decision with their physician to withdraw respirator support when the prospects of infant survival seemed hopeless (limited respirator care group). No significant differences in parent grief scores were found (t tests) when the limited respirator care group was compared to those parents of infants who died despite uninterrupted respirator care. Our data suggest that informed parents can participate as partners with their physician in difficult infant care decision, even when death results, and adjust to their loss with healthy grieving.

  4. Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales: Instruments Designed to Measure Attitudes Toward the Learning of Mathematics by Females and Males (United States)

    Fennema, Elizabeth; Sherman, Julia A.


    Nine different attitude scales are briefly described. They cover attitude toward success in mathematics, mathematics as a male domain, mother's and father's attitude, teachers' attitudes, confidence in learning mathematics, mathematics anxiety, effectance motivation in mathematics, and mathematics usefulness. (DT)

  5. Transient and sustained neural responses to death-related linguistic cues. (United States)

    Shi, Zhenhao; Han, Shihui


    Recent research showed that perception of death-related vs death-unrelated linguistic cues produced increased frontoparietal activity but decreased insular activity. This study investigated (i) whether the increased frontoparietal and decreased insular activities are, respectively, associated with transient trial-specific processes of death-related linguistic cues and sustained death-related thought during death-relevance judgments on linguistic cues and (ii) whether the neural activity underlying death-related thought can predict individuals' dispositional death anxiety. Participants were presented with death-related/unrelated words, life-related/unrelated words, and negative-valence/neutral words in separate sessions. Participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing death-relevance, life-relevance, and valence judgments on the words, respectively. The contrast of death-related vs death-unrelated words during death-relevance judgments revealed transient increased activity in the left inferior parietal lobule, the right frontal eye field, and the right superior parietal lobule. The contrast of death-relevance judgments vs life-relevance/valence judgments showed decreased activity in the bilateral insula. The sustained insular activity was correlated with dispositional death anxiety, but only in those with weak transient frontoparietal responses to death-related words. Our results dissociate the transient and sustained neural responses to death-related linguistic cues and suggest that the combination of the transient and sustained neural activities can predict dispositional death anxiety.

  6. Maternal death due to non-traumatic fat embolism. (United States)

    Karayel, Ferah; Arican, Nadir; Kavas, Gamze; Turan, Arzu Akcay; Pakis, Isil


    The aim of this report is to document a case of non-traumatic fat embolism (NTFE) and to address the need for considerition of fat embolism in suspicious deaths resulting from respiratory distress in the postpartum period. A 28-years-old woman autopsied at the Morgue Department of the Council of Forensic Medicine is included to the study. This female became unconscious and developed respiratory distress 4 h after delivery, and this was followed by respiratory arrest. External examination revealed resuscitation marks and normal postmortem changes. Light microscopy revealed massive fat embolization involving most of the alveolar capillaries on several sections. Only in one particular area was a bone marrow embolus. Pathological diagnosis of the lung was diffuse pulmonary fat embolism. There was no evidence of other organ involvement with emboli. Other visceral organs showed no striking findings other than mild congestion. The cause of death was considered to be respiratory insufficiency resulting from severe fat embolism of the lungs.

  7. Deaths of cyclists in london: trends from 1992 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee William E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cycling is an increasingly important mode of transport for environmental and health reasons. Cycling fatalities in London were previously investigated in 1994 using routinely collected data. Since then, there have been shifts in the modes of transport used, and in transport policies. We sought to replicate the previous work using data on cyclist deaths in London between 1992 and 2006, specifically investigating whether heavy goods vehicles continued to pose a threat. Methods Observational study based on analysis of time series of police road casualties data, 1992 to 2006, in London, UK. The main outcome measures were cyclists killed in road traffic collisions. Poisson regression and chi-squared test for homogeneity were used to assess time effects. Travel flow data was then used to estimate annual fatality rates per 100,000 cyclists per kilometre. Results From 1992 to 2006 there was a mean of 16 cycling fatalities per year (range 8-21. 146 deaths (60% were in inner London and 96 in outer London. There was no evidence for a decline over time (p = 0.7 other than a pronounced dip in 2004 when there were 8 fatalities. Freight vehicles were involved in 103 of 242 (43% of all incidents and the vehicle was making a left turn in over half of these (53%. The fatality rate ranged from 20.5 deaths in 1992 to 11.1 deaths in 2006 per 100,000 estimated cyclists per kilometre (rate ratio 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.28 to 1.03. Conclusions There is little evidence fatality rates have fallen. Freight vehicles over 3.5 tonnes continue to present a disproportionate threat; they should be removed from urban roads and more appropriate means of delivery of essential goods found.

  8. Caring for dying people: Attitudes among Iranian and Swedish nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Iranmanesh


    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the attitudes of Iranian and Swedish nursing students toward caring for dying persons. Materials and Methods: Their attitudes were measured with the Frommelt′s Attitude Toward Caring of the Dying and the Death Attitude Profile Revised. Results: The results indicated that the participating Iranian students were more afraid of death and less likely to give care to dying persons than the Swedish participants. Conclusion: It is suggested that theoretical education should be individualized and culturally sensitive in order to positively influence the students′ attitudes, and promote professional development.

  9. [Death by electric shock due to blatantly faulty repair]. (United States)

    Hartwig, Sven; Schmeling, Andreas; Wirth, Ingo


    Due to technical innovations and strict safety regulations the rate and mortality of accidents caused by electric current has been considerably reduced. Nevertheless there are still deaths caused by electric shock, which are mostly due to carelessness and ignorance. The described death by electric shock of a 39-year-old man was the consequence of an electrotechnical curiosity. When repairing a cut extender cable, he installed a second socket on the one part and a second plug on the other. On the day of the accident, he first plugged the part of the cable with the two plugs into a wall socket. Then, as he tried to connect it with the other part, he was electrocuted.

  10. Sudden death due to swimming in elderly women. (United States)

    Škavić, Petar; Duraković, Din


    The aim was to analyze the rate of sudden death in elderly Croatian women in comparison to elderly Croatian men, who died suddenly due to swimming. In the period from 2002 to 2011 one elderly Croatian woman and five elderly men died suddenly during swimming. In the same time, the same number of elderly foreigners died due to swimming at the Croatian Adriatic coast. One Croatian woman aged 66, who suffered of arterial hypertension with left ventricular hyper- trophy of 15 mm, diabetes mellitus and alcoholic liver cirrhosis, drowned in the sea during swimming. She was intoxi- cated with alcohol and had alcohol level in urine of 3.03 per thousand. One foreign woman, aged 82, who suffered coronary heart disease with left ventricular scar after myocardial infarction, arterial hypertension with excessive left ventricular hypertrophy of 22 mm and nephroangiosclerosis, suddenly lost conscionsness during swimming. The death rate in elderly Croatian women due to swimming reached 0.25, and the death rate in men is eight times higher: 1.97 (p = 0.0701), but the difference is not significant probably because of a small observational number.

  11. Sudden cardiac death secondary to antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs. (United States)

    Sicouri, Serge; Antzelevitch, Charles


    A number of antipsychotic and antidepressant drugs are known to increase the risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Based largely on a concern over QT prolongation and the development of life-threatening arrhythmias, a number of antipsychotic drugs have been temporarily or permanently withdrawn from the market or their use restricted. Some antidepressants and antipsychotics have been linked to QT prolongation and the development of Torsade de pointes arrhythmias, whereas others have been associated with a Brugada syndrome phenotype and the development of polymorphic ventricular arrhythmias. This review examines the mechanisms and predisposing factors underlying the development of cardiac arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death, associated with antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs in clinical use.

  12. Preventing deaths from cryptococcal meningitis: from bench to bedside. (United States)

    Roy, Monika; Chiller, Tom


    Cryptococcal meningitis (CM), a fungal disease caused by Cryptococcus spp., is the most common form of meningitis and a leading cause of death among persons with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. Detection of cryptococcal antigen, which is present several weeks before overt signs of meningitis develop, provides an opportunity to detect infection early. Screening persons with HIV for cryptococcal infection when they access healthcare can identify asymptomatic infected patients allowing for prompt treatment and prevention of death. A newly developed point-of-care assay for cryptococcal antigen, as well as growing evidence supporting the utility and cost-effectiveness of screening, are further reasons to consider broad implementation of cryptococcal screening in countries with a high burden of cryptococcal disease.

  13. Sudden death due to Eagle syndrome: a case report. (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Rayamane, Anand P; Subbaramaiah, Mouna


    Eagle syndrome represents symptoms manifested by compression of regional structures by elongation of the styloid process or ossification of the stylohyoid membrane. Various theories have been put forward toward the development of Eagle syndrome. Depending on the underlying pathogenetic mechanism and the anatomical structures compressed or irritated by the elongated styloid process, symptoms vary greatly, ranging from cervicofacial pain to cerebral ischemia. Because the symptoms are variable and nonspecific, patients land up in different clinics for treatment. In the present case, the victim had previous episode of unconsciousness along with frequent headache for which she visited various clinics on numerous occasions. The elongated styloid process was appreciated during the postmortem examination, and the diagnosis of sudden death due to mechanical irritation of the carotid sinus by elongated styloid process was made as the sign of acute cardiovascular failure was present and upon exclusion of other causes of death.

  14. Attitudes to Improving Speaking Skills by Guided Individual Activities



    Students’ perceptions of difficulties in speaking on professional issues are in the focus of the present article. It is generally assumed that the skill of speaking a foreign language is very difficult to master, while speaking on professional topics involves such difficulties as the usage of specific vocabulary and ability to deal with listeners’ oncoming arguments. The aims of the current research are to investigate learners’ attitudes to the level of difficulty in speaking activi - ties on...

  15. Relationship of Body Attitude and Personality Characteristics to Dietary Intake in Female Collegiate Athletes


    Reiss, Tiffany Michelle


    Abstract Relationship of Body Attitude and Personality Characteristics to Dietary Intake in Female Collegiate Athletes Tiffany Michelle Reiss The purpose of this study was to compare the relationship of body attitude to both dietary intake and selected personality characteristics. The study focused on the relationship between dietary intake and both body attitude and personality characteristics as well as differences in body attitude and personality characteristics between female co...

  16. Ganglion cell death in glaucoma: from mice to men. (United States)

    Nickells, Robert W


    Glaucoma results from the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells and their axons. Over the last 20 years several important advancements have been made in our understanding of the molecular pathology of this disease, particularly through the development of rat models of experimental glaucoma and the characterization of a spontaneous secondary form of glaucoma in DBA/2 substrains of inbred mice. One of these advances is the observation that ganglion cells die by apoptosis, an intrinsic molecular pathway of programmed cell death. An important aspect of this cell death process is the concept that these cells actually undergo compartmentalized self-destruction. Importantly, genetic evidence now suggests that axons die independently of the apoptotic program that executes the cell body or soma. This review briefly summarizes some of the most significant developments in glaucoma research, with respect to the process of ganglion cell degeneration.

  17. Sudden death in infancy due to bicuspid aortic valve. (United States)

    Karayel, Ferah; Ozaslan, Abdi; Turan, Arzu Akcay; Pakis, Isil; Ketenci, Cetin; Eroglu, Ayse Guler


    Symptoms of bicuspid aortic valve usually occur in the age group of 50-70 years, but rarely, it can also lead to sudden unexpected death in infancy and early childhood. The autopsy of a 2-month-old baby boy, found dead in his cot, revealed the heart weight as 25 g, and the macroscopic examination showed the circumference of the aortic valve consisting of two leaflets as 8 mm. The thickness of the left ventricle, right ventricle, and septum was measured as 8, 7, and 10 mm, respectively. Microscopically, the heart revealed hypertrophic changes of myocytes. Subendocardial areas displayed necrosis of myocytes, and severe and diffuse ischemic changes characterized by loss of myofibers and vacuolization. Interstitial pneumonia was identified in the lungs. Death occurred as a result of a congenital bicuspid aortic valve obstructing the left ventricular outflow tract complicated by lung infection. As there are only a few reported cases in infancy, and congenital bicuspid aortic valve can lead to sudden unexpected death, this case is presented to the forensic community.

  18. How does background affect attitudes to socioscientific issues in Taiwan? (United States)

    Rundgren, Shu-Nu Chang


    Based upon the goal of scientific literacy and the importance of socioscientific issues (SSIs), the purpose of this study was to investigate the Taiwanese public's awareness of, inclinations to buy/use, and their attitudes towards three attributes of SSIs including genetically modified food (GM food), organic food, and DDT and malaria (DDT). Data from a total of 865 participants across ten populations (six different educational levels and four different vocations) were validated and analyzed. The results revealed that the awareness regarding GM food and DDT increased with the levels of education. The inclinations to buy/use and the attitudes towards the three SSIs, were not related to levels of education, vocation or gender, but were related to attributes of the SSIs. The implications for education and policy development are discussed.

  19. 老年住院患者死亡态度量表的编制和信效度检验%The Preparation and Reliability and Validity of the Old Attitude of Death for the Elderly Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨磊; 刘华; 窦薇; 石英; 廖玉琼; 叶靥


    目的:初步编制老年住院患者死亡态度量表并对其进行信效度检验。方法查阅相关文献初步拟定量表,经专家咨询及在临床患者访谈的基础上确定量表内容,对101例老年住院患者进行调查,采用项目分析、因子分析、相关分析及信效度分析等统计方法评价该量表的信效度。结果老年住院患者死亡态度量表包括19个条目,因子分析产生5个因子,可解释总方差的63.212%;各条目与所属维度的Pearson相关系数为0.316~0.570(P<0.01);得出该量表与DAP-R的相关系数为0.580, P<0.01。结论老年住院患者死亡态度量表的信效度指标较好,可作为老年住院患者死亡态度的有效测评工具。%Objective To prepare elderly hospitalized patients died attitude scale and its reliability and validity.MethodsThe literature tentatively scale, scale determined by expert advice and content based on the clinical patient interview on 101 elderly patients were investigated using item analysis, factor analysis, correlation analysis and analysis of reliability and validity statistical method to evaluate the reliability and validity of the scale.Results Attitude scale hospitalized elderly patients died, including 19 entries, factor analysis yielded ifve factors explain 63.212% of the total variance, each entry belongs dimensions Pearson correlation coefifcient was 0.316~0.570 (P<0.01), draw the scale of the correlation coefifcient DAP-R was 0.580,P<0.01.Conclusion The reliability and validity of death in elderly patients hospitalized attitude scale better, as the attitude of elderly hospitalized patients died effective assessment tools.

  20. Development and Validation of the Test of Geography-Related Attitudes (ToGRA) (United States)

    Walker, Scott L.


    This paper introduced the development and validation of the Test of Geography-Related Attitudes (ToGRA). The ToGRA measures student attitude on four discrete measures student attitude on four discrete scales: 1) leisure interest in geography; 2) enjoyment of geographic education; 3) career interest in geography; and 4) interest in place. The ToGRA…

  1. 49 CFR 1103.12 - The practitioner's duty to and attitude toward the Board. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The practitioner's duty to and attitude toward the... to and attitude toward the Board. (a) It is the duty of the practitioner to maintain a respectful attitude toward the Board and for the importance of the functions it administers. In many respects...

  2. Graduates’ Attitudes to Research Skill Development in Undergraduate Media Education


    Wilmore, Michael; Willison, J.


    This paper examines the attitudes of graduates employed in different segments of the media industry to the development of research skills during their studies. Qualitative interviews were conducted with ten graduates employed in different jobs approximately one year after graduation to understand how applicable they found generic and media-specific research skills to their employment. The study was conducted as part of a wider project evaluating the application of a systematic framework for r...

  3. Attitudes to kidney donation among primary care patients in rural Crete, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatziarsenis Marios


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Greece, there is limited research on issues related to organ donation, and the low rate of registration as donors requires explanation. This study reports the findings of a survey of knowledge and attitudes to kidney donation among primary care patients in rural Crete, Greece. Methods Two rural primary care settings in the island of Crete, Anogia Health Centre and Vrachasi Practice, were involved in a questionnaire survey. This was conducted among primary care patients (aged 18 years and over with routine appointments, to assess their knowledge and attitudes to kidney donation. General practitioners (GPs recruited patients and questionnaires were completed following the patients' medical consultation. Pearson's chi square tests were used and crude odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated in order to investigate into the possible associations between the respondents' knowledge, attitudes and specific concerns in relation to their socio-demographic features. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine differences by geographical location. Results The 224 (92.5% of the 242 primary care attenders who were approached agreed to participate. Only 2.2% (5/224 of the respondents carried a donor card. Most participants (84.4%, 189/224 did not feel well informed about registering as a kidney donor. More than half of the respondents (54.3%, 121/223 were unwilling to register as a kidney donor and donate kidneys for transplant after death. Over a third of respondents (35.4%, 79/223 were not confident that medical teams would try as hard as possible to save the life of a person who has agreed to donate organs. People with a higher level of education were more likely to be willing to register as kidney donors [(OR: 3.3; 95% CI: 1.8–6.0, p Conclusion Lack of knowledge and information regarding organ donation and negative attitudes related to registration as donors were the main findings of this study

  4. Comparison of ENVISAT's Attitude Simulation and Real Optical and SLR Observations in order to Refine the Satellite Attitude Model (United States)

    Silha, J.; Schildknecht, T.; Pittet, J.; Bodenmann, D.; Kanzler, R.; Karrang, P.; Krag, H.


    The Astronomic Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) in cooperation with other three partners is involved in an ESA study dedicated to the attitude determination of large spacecraft and upper stages. Two major goals are defined. First is the long term prediction of tumbling rates (e.g. 10 years) for selected targets for the future Active Debris Removal (ADR) missions. Second goal is the attitude state determination in case of contingencies, when a short response time is required between the observations themselves and the attitude determination. One of the project consortium partners, Hypersonic Technology Goettingen (HTG), is developing a highly modular software tool ιOTA to perform short- (days) to long-term (years) propagations of the orbit and the attitude motion of spacecraft in space. Furthermore, ιOTA's post-processing modules will generate synthetic measurements, e.g. light curves, SLR residuals and Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) images that can be compared with the real measurements. In our work we will present the first attempt to compare real measurements with synthetic measurements in order to estimate the attitude state of tumbling satellite ENVISAT from observations performed by AIUB. We will shortly discuss the ESA project and ιOTA software tool. We will present AIUB's ENVISAT attitude state determined from the SLR ranges acquired by the Zimmerwald SLR station. This state was used as the initial conditions within the ιOTA software. Consequently the attitude of satellite was predicted by using ιOTA and compared with the real SLR residuals, as well with the high frame-rate light curves acquired by the Zimmerwald 1-m telescope.

  5. TIMSS 2003: Relating dimensions of mathematics attitude to mathematics achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadijević Đorđe


    Full Text Available This study, which used a sample of 137,346 students from thirty three countries that participated in the TIMSS 2003 project in the eighth grade, examined the features of the individual and collective relations of three dimensions of mathematics attitude to mathematics achievement (MA, searching for the dimension mostly related to that achievement. The three dimensions of mathematics attitude were self-confidence in learning mathematics (SCLM, liking mathematics (LM and usefulness of mathematics (UM. By utilizing psychometrically valid and reliable measures of the three dimensions, it was found that: (1 each dimension of mathematics attitude alone was positively related to MA for almost all thirty three countries; (2 SCLM was primarily related to MA for thirty one countries; (3 when the two other dimensions were held constant, SCLM was positively related to MA for thirty three countries, LM was negatively related to MA for thirty countries, whereas UM was not related to MA for twenty one countries; (4 positive collective relationships of SCLM, LM and UM to MA considerably varied from country to country. Implications for research and practice are included.

  6. Stabilization of rotational motion with application to spacecraft attitude control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal


    on a Riemannian manifold. The Lyapnov stability theory is adapted and reformulated to fit to the new framework of Riemannian manifolds. Toillustrate the results a spacecraft attitude control problem is considered. Firstly, a global canonical representation for the spacecraft motion is found, then three spacecraft...... control problems are addressed: stabilization in the inertial frame, magnetic libration damping for the gravity gradient stabilization and a slew maneuver with obstacle avoidance...

  7. Perceptions, Attitudes, and Choosing to Study Foreign Languages in England: An Experimental Intervention (United States)

    Taylor, Florentina; Marsden, Emma J.


    The declining interest in foreign languages in English-speaking countries has been attributed to negative societal attitudes and specific pupil attitudes and perceptions. While various initiatives have aimed to encourage language study, little research has systematically documented the relationship among perceptions, attitudes, and actually opting…

  8. Exposure to Violence and Children's Desensitization Attitudes in Lebanon. (United States)

    Tarabah, Asma; Badr, Lina Kurdahi; Usta, Jinan; Doyle, John


    Children exposed to multiple sources of violence may become desensitized, increasing the possibility of them imitating the aggressive behaviors they watch and considering such behavior as normal. The purpose of this article is to assess the association between exposure to various types of violence (including war) and desensitization in Lebanese children. A cross-sectional design with 207 school-aged children assessed exposure to violence using three surveys: (a) violence in the media (the Media Preference survey), (b) exposure to violence (the KID-SAVE survey), and (c) desensitization attitudes (the Attitude Toward Violence-Child Version). Children were between 8 and 12 years old, 56% were males, and 70%were from middle socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. Seventy-six percent of children reported being exposed to violence, with more exposure in males and in the lower SES group. Impact, however, was greater on girls. The predictors of attitude toward violence were "Frequency" of exposure, "Impact" of exposure, and the amount of violence viewed on television. Children are massively exposed to violence in Lebanon resulting in desensitization, which may habituate them to accept violence as normal and put them at risk for imitating violent behaviors.

  9. Surveying graduate students’ attitudes and approaches to problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandralekha Singh


    Full Text Available Students’ attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate students. Comparison of their responses to the survey questions about problem solving in their own graduate-level courses vs problem solving in the introductory physics courses provides insight into their expertise in introductory and graduate-level physics. The physics graduate students’ responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory physics and astronomy students and physics faculty. We find that, even for problem solving in introductory physics, graduate students’ responses to some survey questions are less expertlike than those of the physics faculty. Comparison of survey responses of graduate students and introductory students for problem solving in introductory physics suggests that graduate students’ responses are in general more expertlike than those of introductory students. However, survey responses suggest that graduate-level problem solving by graduate students on several measures has remarkably similar trends to introductory-level problem solving by introductory students.

  10. Influencing Attitudes and Changing Behavior: A Basic Introduction to Relevant Methodology, Theory, and Applications. Revised Edition. (United States)

    Zimbardo, Philip; Ebbesen, Ebbe B.

    In this introductory text to the field of attitude change, the emphasis is on one of the end products of research in social psychology--manipulation and control of attitudes and related behaviors. The text first defines the concept of attitude, then identifies ideas from the areas of history, literature, law, religion, and the social sciences that…

  11. Cot Deaths. (United States)

    Tyrrell, Shelagh


    Addresses the tragedy of crib deaths, giving particular attention to causes, prevention, and medical research on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Gives anecdotal accounts of coping strategies used by parents and families of SIDS infants. (DT)

  12. 北京市157名护士的死亡态度及临终关怀教育需求调查分析%Nurses’ Attitude Toward Death and Needs for Hospice Care Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏; 王敏; 刘宇; 孙静; 韩凤萍


    Objective To investigate nurses’ attitude toward death and their needs for hospice care education and to provide reference for further education on hospice care. Methods With convenience sampling, Death Attitude Profile-Revised (Wong, Reker, Gesser, 1994) and a self-designed hospice care education need questionnaire were applied to survey 157 nurses receiving further education. Results Neutral acceptance, death avoidance and fear of death scored 4.00 ±0.55, 2.90 ±0.68, 2.80 ±0.59 respectively, which topped the scores of the subscales. There was positive relationship between nurses ’ years of work and approach acceptance (rs=0.199, P=0.025), and among nurses’ age (r=0.301, P<0.001), nurses’ years of work (rs=0.343, P<0.001) and escape acceptance. Senior nurses and nurse-in-charge scored higher in escape acceptance than nurses did ( t=3.394, P=0.001) but multiple regression analysis showed only nurses’ years of working had influence on escape acceptance (t=4.093, P<0.001). Hospice care need focused on communication with families of dying patients 4.08 ±0.66, self psychological adjustment when facing death 4.08 ±0.74 and understanding psychological change of families of dying patients 4.01 ±0.67. The top three favorite approaches of further education were case study (73.3%), multi-media teaching (70.5%) and classroom teaching (53.4%). Conclusion Most nurses hold a positive and natural attitude toward death and age, years of working and professional titles exert influence on death attitude. There is urgent need for hospice care education with various education approaches.%目的:通过调查北京市157名参加继续教育的临床护士对患者死亡所持有的态度现状,评估护士对临终关怀的相关教育需求,为开展临床护士有关临终关怀的相关继续教育活动提供参考。方法采用便利抽样方法,使用 Wong, Reker和Gesse等编制的死亡态度量表、自行设计的临终关

  13. 大学生自杀意念与死亡态度的相关分析%The Relationship between Suicide Ideation and Attitude towards Death among College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶涛; 宋建根; 史玉坤; 袁锦; 范园; 陈翀; 袁婷婷; 吴欢; 吴钱飞; 夏效胜


    Objective :To explore demographic characteristics of suicide ideation and its relationship with the atti‐tude to death among college students in Wuhu ,and provide basic information for the managerial work of mental health suicide prevention for universities .Methods :A questionnaire survey was conducted with Self - rating Idea of Suicide Scale(SSIOS)and Death Attitude Profile - Revised(DAP — R)scale among students of two colleges in Wuhu by stratified cluster sampling .Results :The average score of suicide ideation was (10 .61 ± 2 .43)among 950 participates . The incidence of suicide ideation was 27 .1% and significant difference among whether they were the one - child(χ2 =5 .957 ,P < 0 .05) .The score of colleges’ suicidal ideation was statistical significance among different census register seat ,and whether they were the one - child(P < 0 .05) .The average score of death attitude was (2 .61 ± 0 .51) ,while natural acceptance dimension’ score was the highest (3 .58 ± 0 .80) .The score of death fear ,approach death accept‐ance ,escape death acceptance and the total score among students who had suicidal ideation were significantly higher than that without suicidal ideation(P < 0 .05) .The despair factor showed positively correlation with death fear (r =0 .216)and death escaping dimension(r = 0 .098) ,while positive factor showed negatively correlation with towards ac ‐ceptance(r = ‐0 .132)and escaping acceptance(r = ‐0 .155) .Conclusion :The incidence of suicide ideation among college students in Wuhu is high and different in demography characteristic .Also ,suicidal ideation and death attitude among college students show low degree of correlation .The university should take corresponding measures such as the edu‐cation of mental health and monitoring and prevention of suicide .%目的:探讨芜湖市大学生自杀意念人口学特点及其与死亡态度的相关性,为高校开展心理健康和自杀预防管理工作提供依据。

  14. Still on physicians' attitude to medical marijuana


    Olukayode Abayomi; Emmanuel Babalola


    Desai and Patel highlighted in a recent review that and ldquo;there are several issues related to medical marijuana, which concern public health such as its medical use, harmful effects, laws and physicians role. and rdquo; Certainly, physician's perspectives and position on the relative harm and benefits of marijuana contribute to the growing controversy over its legalization in western countries. Interestingly, the seeming resistance of physicians in western countries to marijuana prescrip...

  15. comparative study on effective factors on consent to organ donation among families of brain death victims in Isfahan, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshte Zamani


    Full Text Available Introduction: According to the previous studies, several social, cultural, and organizational factors are involved in the decision of families of brain death victims for organ donation. The present study was performed to determine the effective factors in the decision of organ donation among families of brain death victims. Methods: In this descriptive-comparative study data were gathered through a self-made questionnaire. The reliability of questionnaire was determined by calculating Cronbach’s alpha (0.81 and the face and content validity were studied and approved by a number of experts. Statistical population included all family members of brain death victims in Isfahan/Iran during 2012-2013. They were divided into two groups of with and without consent to organ donation. The whole population was considered as the study sample. Data analysis were done through SPSS using independent T-test, ANOVA, and Chi-square tests. Results: According to the present study, age and marital status of the victims have no effect on their families’ consent to organ donation (P> 0.05; but sex, duration of hospitalization in the emergency department, having organ donation card ,and personal opinion of the brain death victim showed significant relationship with consent to organ donation (P< 0.05. Conclusion: Since the rate of awareness, knowledge, and attitude of family members are effective in their decision for organ donation, improving cultural backgrounds required for this decision and increasing awareness and knowledge of people can improve the attitude of people in this regard and facilitate the acceptance of family members

  16. The importance of cardiovascular pathology contributing to maternal death: Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths in South Africa, 2011–2013 (United States)

    Soma-Pillay, Priya; Seabe, Joseph; Soma-Pillay, Priya; Seabe, Joseph; Sliwa, Karen


    Summary Aims Cardiac disease is emerging as an important contributor to maternal deaths in both lower-to-middle and higher-income countries. There has been a steady increase in the overall institutional maternal mortality rate in South Africa over the last decade. The objectives of this study were to determine the cardiovascular causes and contributing factors of maternal death in South Africa, and identify avoidable factors, and thus improve the quality of care provided. Methods Data collected via the South African National Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths (NCCEMD) for the period 2011–2013 for cardiovascular disease (CVD) reported as the primary pathology was analysed. Only data for maternal deaths within 42 days post-delivery were recorded, as per statutory requirement. One hundred and sixty-nine cases were reported for this period, with 118 complete hospital case files available for assessment and data analysis. Results Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) (34%) and complications of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) (25.3%) were the most important causes of maternal death. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, HIV disease infection and anaemia were important contributing factors identified in women who died of peripartum cardiomyopathy. Mitral stenosis was the most important contributor to death in RHD cases. Of children born alive, 71.8% were born preterm and 64.5% had low birth weight. Seventy-eight per cent of patients received antenatal care, however only 33.7% had a specialist as an antenatal care provider. Avoidable factors contributing to death included delay in patients seeking help (41.5%), lack of expertise of medical staff managing the case (29.7%), delay in referral to the appropriate level of care (26.3%), and delay in appropriate action (36.4%). Conclusion The pattern of CVD contributing to maternal death in South Africa was dominated by PPCM and complications of RHD, which could, to a large extent, have been avoided. It is likely that there were

  17. Still on physicians' attitude to medical marijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olukayode Abayomi


    Full Text Available Desai and Patel highlighted in a recent review that and ldquo;there are several issues related to medical marijuana, which concern public health such as its medical use, harmful effects, laws and physicians role. and rdquo; Certainly, physician's perspectives and position on the relative harm and benefits of marijuana contribute to the growing controversy over its legalization in western countries. Interestingly, the seeming resistance of physicians in western countries to marijuana prescription appears to mirror the position of psychiatrists in developing countries. For instance, in a recent survey of psychiatrists in Nigeria, up to 55% of psychiatrists were against the medical use of marijuana. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(6.000: 1098-1098

  18. Mobile-Assisted Language Learning: Student Attitudes to Using Smartphones to Learn English Vocabulary (United States)

    Davie, Neil; Hilber, Tobias


    This project examines mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) and in particular the attitudes of undergraduate engineering students at the South Westphalia University of Applied Sciences towards the use of the smartphone app Quizlet to learn English vocabulary. Initial data on attitudes to learning languages and to the use of mobile devices to do…

  19. Effect of death education curriculum on nurses' attitudes towards caring for the dying%死亡教育课程对护士照护临终患者态度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐鲁; 李玉香; 周玲君; 孟宪丽; 赵继军


    目的:探讨死亡教育课程对护士照护临终患者态度的影响。方法2012年9月选择某三级甲等医院急诊科护士60名,分为观察组和对照组各30名。观察组实施死亡教育课程,内容包括死亡教育、死亡观、临终护理及死亡相关伦理与法律等,共11次课,21学时。对照组未进行培训。入组时及观察组培训后分别采用中文版照护临终患者的态度量表( FATCOD)进行测评。结果入组时两组护士FATCOD 得分比较差异无统计学意义(P =0.543);观察组接受培训后 FATCOD 得分与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P =0.004);两组护士 FATCOD 得分前后差值比较,观察组 FATCOD 得分升高的幅度大于对照组,两组得分差值比较差异有统计学意义(P ﹤0.001)。组内比较发现,对照组 FATCOD 得分前后比较差异无统计学意义(P =0.613);观察组 FATCOD 得分前后比较差异有统计学意义(P =0.002)。培训后,观察组持正向态度的护士比例显著高于对照组(P =0.035)。结论死亡教育培训能有效改善护士对照护临终患者的态度,在一定程度上促进了护士对照护临终患者及家属态度的正向改变,有助于在临床真正开展临终关怀。%Objective To study the effect of death education curriculum on nurses' attitudes towards caring for the dying. Methods A total of 60 nurses were selected from a tertiary hospital in September 2012. They were randomly and equally divided into the control group and observation group. The nurses in the observation group attended death education curriculum including death education,thanatopsis,hospice care and death-related ethics and laws. The nurses in the control group did not attend death education curriculum. The Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying Scale(FATCOD)was used. Results There was no significant difference in FATCOD score between the two groups before education(P = 0. 543

  20. Using Aviation to Change Math Attitudes (United States)

    Wood, Jerra


    Mathematics teachers are constantly looking for real-world applications of mathematics. Aerospace education provides an incredible context for teaching and learning important STEM concepts, inspiring young people to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Teaching mathematics within the context of aerospace generates…

  1. A framework to investigate money attitudes and materialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Duh


    Full Text Available Purpose and/or objectives: This paper presents a framework to investigate money attitudes and materialistic values. The conceptualization of the framework is guided by a critical review of literature. The intention is to provide a framework that will be useful to examine how various childhood family experiences influence later-life consumption orientations. Problem investigated: The differences in family resources represent one of the biggest distinctions between an intact and a disrupted family. The underlining question is whether children raised in disrupted families will experience lower levels of family resources (economic and emotional and find the experience stressful. If so, will these experiences influence them to adopt conservative money attitudes and be less materialistic or will they symbolically value money and be more materialistic? Design/methodology/approach: The development of a framework requires a critical review of secondary sources. The literature review is based on theories that provide an explanation of how childhood family experiences can affect the development of materialistic values and money attitudes. The secondary sources require careful scrutiny of journal articles, dissertations and essays in a number of libraries to provide more scholarly insight into the concepts and to assist in the conceptualisation of the framework. Findings and/or implications: Four main theories were found useful in conceptualizing the framework. They are Ryan and Deci's (2000 self-determination theory, Maslow's (1943 human need theory, Wicklund and Gollwitzer's (1982 symbolic self-completion theory and the life course theory contextualized by Moschis (2007. However, in line with Moschis' (2007 realization, the perspectives of the life course theory were found to be multi-disciplinary, multi-theoretical and thus innovative. They would therefore form the main theoretical guide for the design of the framework. Originality and/or value of the

  2. Consumer attitudes to different pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Grunert, Klaus G; Zhou, Yanfeng;


    traditional pig breeds are raised, over large-scale and small family farms. Farms with maximum attention to food safety which furthermore can provide lean meat with consistent quality are also preferred. Imported pig breeds and tasty, but variable meat were rejected. A 3-cluster solution found that consumers...... farms and consistent quality. From a Chinese consumer's perspective, the industrial approach seems to represent values such as achievement, evolution, quality and safety, since pig production is moving away from low-cost, low-quality and low-safety family scale systems. A complex set of rural...... and environmental development, quality aspects and food safety measures are challenges that must be met by the stakeholders of pig production systems in China....

  3. To explore the neonatal nurses' beliefs and attitudes towards caring for dying neonates in Taiwan. (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Huei; Huang, Li-Chi; Liu, Hsin-Li; Lee, Ho-Yu; Wu, Shu-Ya; Chang, Yue-Cune; Peng, Niang-Huei


    (1) To explore attitudes and beliefs of neonatal nurses toward nursing care for dying neonates; (2) to estimate the influence of neonatal nurses' personal and professional characteristics on their attitudes towards end-of life care for dying infants. A cross-sectional design was used. A questionnaire was used to collect data from 80 neonatal nurses. Research setting was four level III NICUs at four medical centers around the central region of Taiwan. Research participants were neonatal nurses who had worked for at least 1 year in one of level III NICUs and had been directly involved with the care of dying infants. Research participants were 80 neonatal nurses (response rate 100 %). Research findings identified eight barriers hindering neonatal palliative care practice. These barriers were insufficient communication due to the lack of an in-service educational program; the lack of available counseling help for neonatal clinicians; inability to express personal opinions, values and beliefs towards neonatal palliative care; insufficient staffing; the lack of unit policies/guidelines for supporting palliative care; the technological imperative; parental demands and personal beliefs about death and previous experience caring for dying infants. Further studies are needed to explore each barrier and to provide in-service neonatal palliative care educational programs that are needed to decrease these barriers.

  4. Redefining Death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The results of 20 years of research on brain death will be released to the public, the Chinese Ministry of Health reported in early April. A special ministry team has drafted the criteria for brain death in Criteria for the Diagnosis of Brain Death in Adults (Revised Edition) and Technical Specifications for the Diagnosis

  5. Euthanasia Acceptance as Related to Afterlife and Other Attitudes. (United States)

    Klopfer, Frederick J.; Price, William F.


    Information on euthanasia attitudes was obtained from fixed-schedule interviews gathered from 331 respondents. It was found that a favorable attitude toward euthanasia coincided with (1) belief in an afterlife; (2) a less favorable attitude toward euthanasia if relatives make the decision; and (3) younger respondents. (Author)

  6. Apnoea testing to confirm brain death in clinical practice. (United States)

    van Donselaar, C A; Meerwaldt, J D; van Gijn, J


    In six patients an apnoea test was carried out to confirm brain death according to a protocol recommended in the USA. After ten minutes' apnoea the pCO2 did not reach the target value of 7.98 kPa (60 mm Hg) in any of these patients. This was caused by the low initial value and the slow increase of the pCO2. Moreover, we could not confirm the belief that the necessary duration of the apnoea test can be predicted by assuming a rise of the pCO2 of 0.33 kPa (2.5 mm Hg) per minute. PMID:3093640

  7. Apnoea testing to confirm brain death in clinical practice.


    van Donselaar, C. A.; Meerwaldt, J D; van Gijn, J


    In six patients an apnoea test was carried out to confirm brain death according to a protocol recommended in the USA. After ten minutes' apnoea the pCO2 did not reach the target value of 7.98 kPa (60 mm Hg) in any of these patients. This was caused by the low initial value and the slow increase of the pCO2. Moreover, we could not confirm the belief that the necessary duration of the apnoea test can be predicted by assuming a rise of the pCO2 of 0.33 kPa (2.5 mm Hg) per minute.

  8. Apnoea testing to confirm brain death in clinical practice. (United States)

    van Donselaar, C A; Meerwaldt, J D; van Gijn, J


    In six patients an apnoea test was carried out to confirm brain death according to a protocol recommended in the USA. After ten minutes' apnoea the pCO2 did not reach the target value of 7.98 kPa (60 mm Hg) in any of these patients. This was caused by the low initial value and the slow increase of the pCO2. Moreover, we could not confirm the belief that the necessary duration of the apnoea test can be predicted by assuming a rise of the pCO2 of 0.33 kPa (2.5 mm Hg) per minute.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh.- R. Walizadeh


    Full Text Available Autopsy findings in 138 newborn infants which died in a university nursery during 3 years are reviewed and discussed. 80 per cent were premature and small- for- date newborns of up to 2500 g birth weight. Most of these cases showed in addition to general prematurely signs, respiratory tract diseases such as atelectasia, amniotic fluid aspiration and hyaline membrane disease. The full term infants died mostly of malformations. In post neonatal period the cause of death was almost entirely infections such as bronchopneumonia, gastroenteritis and septicemia.

  10. Providers' knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to colorectal cancer control in Brazil. (United States)

    Perin, Douglas M Puricelli; Saraiya, Mona; Thompson, Trevor D; de Moura, Lenildo; Simoes, Eduardo J; Parra, Diana C; Brownson, Ross C


    In Brazil, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death among men, and the third most common among women. We aimed to examine CRC screening-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices among physicians and nurses working in Brazil's network of health units, and to describe the capacity of these units for CRC screening. In 2011, 1600 health units were randomly selected from all 26 states and the Federal District. One coordinator and one health care provider were selected for the interview. Response rates were 78% for coordinators, 34% for physicians, and 65% for nurses. The Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA) recommendations for CRC screening were not often used in the health units, but screening outreach and use of CRC exams were more common in units that were using them. Physicians and nurses differed in most characteristics, and in their knowledge, attitudes, and practices of CRC screening. Forty-seven percent of physicians reported not conducting CRC screening compared to 65% of nurses. Fecal occult blood test was most often used by physicians and nurses, but fewer physicians than nurses perceived this exam as very effective in reducing CRC mortality. Physicians' gender, years since graduation, and geographical region of practice in Brazil were associated to CRC screening practice. The findings may reflect the low influence of INCA CRC screening recommendations, physicians receiving their medical education when CRC burden in Brazil was of low concern, and the lack of CRC screening capacity in some regions of Brazil.

  11. A comparison of 19th century and current attitudes to female sexuality. (United States)

    Studd, John


    The 19th century medical attitude to normal female sexuality was cruel, with gynecologists and psychiatrists leading the way in designing operations for the cure of the serious contemporary disorders of masturbation and nymphomania. The gynecologist Isaac Baker Brown (1811-1873) and the distinguished endocrinologist Charles Brown-Séquard (1817-1894) advocated clitoridectomy to prevent the progression to masturbatory melancholia, paralysis, blindness and even death. Even after the public disgrace of Baker Brown in 1866-7, the operation remained respectable and widely used in other parts of Europe. This medical contempt for normal female sexual development was reflected in public and literary attitudes. Or perhaps it led and encouraged public opinion. There is virtually no novel or opera in the last half of the 19th century where the heroine with 'a past' survives to the end. H. G. Wells's Ann Veronica and Richard Strauss's Der Rosenkavalier, both of which appeared in 1909, broke the mould and are important milestones. In the last 50 years new research into the sociology, psychology and physiology of sexuality has provided an understanding of decreased libido and inadequate sexual response in the form of hypoactive sexual desire disorder. This is now regarded as a disorder worthy of treatment, either by various forms of counseling or by the use of hormones, particularly estrogens and testosterone.

  12. Photodynamic Efficiency: From Molecular Photochemistry to Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel O. L. Bacellar


    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a clinical modality used to treat cancer and infectious diseases. The main agent is the photosensitizer (PS, which is excited by light and converted to a triplet excited state. This latter species leads to the formation of singlet oxygen and radicals that oxidize biomolecules. The main motivation for this review is to suggest alternatives for achieving high-efficiency PDT protocols, by taking advantage of knowledge on the chemical and biological processes taking place during and after photosensitization. We defend that in order to obtain specific mechanisms of cell death and maximize PDT efficiency, PSes should oxidize specific molecular targets. We consider the role of subcellular localization, how PS photochemistry and photophysics can change according to its nanoenvironment, and how can all these trigger specific cell death mechanisms. We propose that in order to develop PSes that will cause a breakthrough enhancement in the efficiency of PDT, researchers should first consider tissue and intracellular localization, instead of trying to maximize singlet oxygen quantum yields in in vitro tests. In addition to this, we also indicate many open questions and challenges remaining in this field, hoping to encourage future research.

  13. Attributing death to cancer: cause-specific survival estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew A


    Full Text Available Cancer survival estimation is an important part of assessing the overall strength of cancer care in a region. Generally, the death of a patient is taken as the end point in estimation of overall survival. When calculating the overall survival, the cause of death is not taken into account. With increasing demand for better survival of cancer patients it is important for clinicians and researchers to know about survival statistics due to disease of interest, i.e. net survival. It is also important to choose the best method for estimating net survival. Increase in the use of computer programmes has made it possible to carry out statistical analysis without guidance from a bio-statistician. This is of prime importance in third- world countries as there are a few trained bio-statisticians to guide clinicians and researchers. The present communication describes current methods used to estimate net survival such as cause-specific survival and relative survival. The limitation of estimation of cause-specific survival particularly in India and the usefulness of relative survival are discussed. The various sources for estimating cancer survival are also discussed. As survival-estimates are to be projected on to the population at large, it becomes important to measure the variation of the estimates, and thus confidence intervals are used. Rothman′s confidence interval gives the most satisfactory result for survival estimate.

  14. Four questions on European consumers' attitudes to the use of genetic modification in food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone; Scholderer, Joachim


    Four questions on European consumers' attitudes to the use of genetic modification (GM) in food production are posed and answered: (1) how negative are consumer attitudes to GM applications in food production? (2) How do these attitudes affect perception of and preference for products involving GM......, and alienation from the marketplace, implying that they are deeply rooted, and that they will not easily be changed by information. They may change, however, due to own experience with products produced using GM and involving clear consumer benefits....... applications? (3) How deeply rooted are these attitudes? (4) Will the attitudes change due to more information andyor product experience? Drawing on two major studies researching these questions, it is concluded that consumer attitudes towards GM in food production are negative, that these negative attitudes...

  15. How to Break Bad News: Physicians’ and Nurses’ Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali-Akbar Nejatisafa


    Full Text Available "nObjective: Bad news disclosure is one of the most complex tasks of physicians. Recent evidences indicate that patients' and physicians' attitude toward breaking bad news has been changed since few years ago. The evidence of breaking bad news is different across cultures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the attitude of medical staff toward breaking bad news to provide a clinical guideline in Iran."nMethods: A descriptive study was conducted during 2008-2009 on a sample of 100 medical staff (50 physicians and 50 nurses at Cancer Institute of Imam Khomeini hospital. The subjects' demographic characteristics and their attitudes toward the manner of revealing the diagnosis were registered in a questionnaire."nResults: The majority of the physicians (86%, n=43 and nurses (74%, n=37 , mostly the older and more experienced, tended to reveal the diagnosis to patients . Only a few physicians (8%, n=4 had been trained how to disclose bad news, which discloused diagnosis more than non trained ones."nPhysicians and nurses preferred to inform the patients about the diagnosis when either the patients were alone or in the presence of their spouse respectively .Only a few physicians (14% and nurses (24% agreed to explain life expectancy to patients."nConclusion: Compared to past, physicians and nurses are more willing to share cancer diagnosis with patients. However, lack of adequate communication skills in caregivers, and their concerns about managing patients' emotional reactions reduce their tendency to disclose bad news to the patients. Therefore, training physicians and nurses to expose bad news to the patients seems to be necessary.

  16. Risk of death due to chronic chagasic cardiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique C Manzullo


    Full Text Available In this longitudinal study 5,710 people were included. The inclusion criteria were two positive serological results for Trypanosoma cruzi infection, 15 and 50 years old and no other demostrable diesease at the time of study. In the five year follow up 1,117 patients were lost. The follow up involved yearly evaluation of serology, clinical examination, X-ray of torax, and ECG, for 4,593 patients and 263 were contacted at home because they did not assist for their clinical consultant. Time average of follow up was 5.3 years. Eighty nine (1.5% of the 4,593 patients died during the follow-up period, 63 (71% by cardiac insufiency (CI and 26 (29% by severe ventricular arrithmias. Diagnosis of cardiomegaly was present in all the patients with diagnosis of CI and in 15 (5% of the patients with diagnosis of arrithmias.The ECG alterations of these pacients show 61 right bundle brunch block (RBBB, associated or not with left anterior hemiblock (LAHB, 47 pathological Q wave and 70 primary repolarization alterations; 61 had polyfocal ventricular arrithmia. The death rate was similar in the sexes and was more frequent between 40 and 50 years of age. Information on 1,380 recuperated patients shows that 15 died with no previous symptoms and without medical assistance and were interpretate as sudden death. The latest ECG in three follow-up of these pacients indicates (before death that only one had normal study and 14 presented 12 RBBB; 9 LAHB; 7 isolated ventricular arrithmia; 10 repolariz alterations; 2 patological Q wave, 10 patients of them with RBBB and repolariz alterations. In all the cases we had people between 35 and 43 years old, 9 men and 6 women. This study shows that in Chagas disease is possible to differenciate two risk groups. A low risk death group that have normal ECG and clinical evaluation during the follow up, and a high risk group associate ECG with RBBB and primary alterations of repolarization and/or inactivation zones with not anual

  17. A natural death or the death of the natural: towards a legal critique of death in Ireland


    Hanafin, Patrick John


    Death has been viewed in cultural terms in Ireland more as rite than right. Engrained in the collective consciousness is the conception of death as part of nature's course, a societal rite of passage. This in turn is influenced by the peculiar Irish attitude to nature and the natural which has found legal expression in the Constitution of 1937 with its homage to the ideals of natural law. The way in which successive governments have approached the issues spanning the natural cycle: contracept...

  18. Positive expectations encourage generalization from a positive intergroup interaction to outgroup attitudes. (United States)

    Deegan, Matthew P; Hehman, Eric; Gaertner, Samuel L; Dovidio, John F


    The current research reveals that while positive expectations about an anticipated intergroup interaction encourage generalization of positive contact to outgroup attitudes, negative expectations restrict the effects of contact on outgroup attitudes. In Study 1, when Blacks and Whites interacted with positive expectations, interaction quality predicted outgroup attitudes to a greater degree than when groups interacted with negative expectations. When expectations (Studies 2 and 3) and the actual interaction quality (Study 4) were manipulated orthogonally, negative expectations about the interaction predicted negative outgroup attitudes, regardless of actual interaction quality. By contrast, participants holding positive expectations who experienced a positive interaction expressed positive outgroup attitudes, whereas when they experienced a negative interaction, they expressed outgroup attitudes as negative as those with negative expectations. Across all four studies, positive expectations encouraged developing outgroup attitudes consistent with interaction quality.

  19. Using microfluidics to study programmed cell death: A new approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Christina; Zor, Kinga; Heiskanen, Arto

    This project focuses on applying microfluidic tissue culture for electrochemical or optical measurements during programmed cell death (PCD) in barley aleurone layer to increase understanding of the underlying mechanisms of PCD in plants. Microfluidic tissue culture enables in vitro experiments to...... a double-fluorescent probe-system also used by Fath et al5. Future challenges include integrating both these systems into a microfluidic device for plant tissue culture.......This project focuses on applying microfluidic tissue culture for electrochemical or optical measurements during programmed cell death (PCD) in barley aleurone layer to increase understanding of the underlying mechanisms of PCD in plants. Microfluidic tissue culture enables in vitro experiments...... to approach in vivo conditions. Microfluidics also allow implementation of a wide range of electrochemical or optical assays for online, real-time, parallel analysis of important parameters such as redox activity, O2 and H2O2 concentration, extracellular pH, cell viability and enzyme activity1,2. Currently...

  20. 护士死亡态度量表的编制及信效度检验%Establishment of scale of death attitude for nurses and testing of its validity and reliability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔静; 张淋淋; 史宝欣; 朱海玲


    Objective To design the scale of death attitude for Chinese nurses and evaluate its validity and reliability.Methods The scale draft was formed through the literature review,the formal scale was got via expert consultation and interview survey of 20 cases of small sample.120 clinical nurses were selected for investigation.Then item analysis,factor analysis,correlation analysis and reliability analysis were applied to establish the scale′s validity and reliability.Results The nursing staff death attitude scale consisted of 25 items,the varimax rotation factor analysis of the scale identified seven principal factors and explained for 63.732% variances.The correlation coefficient between each item and its domain was 0.498~0.808,the Cronbach′s α coefficient of five domains was 0.595~0.774,the Cronbach′s α and split-half coefficient for the whole scale were 0.824 and 0.868 respectively.Conclusions The scale has high reliability and validity,and it can be the effective test instrument for death attitude of nurses in China.%目的 初步编制我国护士死亡态度的评估量表并对其进行信效度检验.方法 查阅相关文献初步拟定量表条目,经专家商询及20例小样本访谈调查修正后确定量表内容,对120名临床护士进行调查,采用项目分析、因子分析、相关分析及信效度分析等统计方法评价该量表的信效度.结果 护士死亡态度量表包括25个条目,因子分析产生7个因子,可解释总方差的63.732%,且各条目在其相应维度上均有较高的因子负荷;各条目与所属维度的Pearson相关系数在0.498 ~0.808;各维度的Cronbach′s α系数在0.595~0.774,总量表的Cronbach′s α系数和分半信度系数分别为0.824和0.868.结论 护士死亡态度量表的信效度指标较好,可作为我国护士死亡态度的有效测评工具.

  1. Ageism and death: effects of mortality salience and perceived similarity to elders on reactions to elderly people. (United States)

    Martens, Andy; Greenberg, Jeff; Schimel, Jeff; Landau, Mark J


    The present research investigated the hypotheses that elderly people can be reminders of our mortality and that concerns about our own mortality can therefore instigate ageism. In Study 1, college-age participants who saw photos of two elderly people subsequently showed more death accessibility than participants who saw photos of only younger people. In Study 2, making mortality salient for participants increased distancing from the average elderly person and decreased perceptions that the average elderly person possesses favorable attitudes. Mortality salience did not affect ratings of teenagers. In Study 3, these mortality salience effects were moderated by prior reported similarity to elderly people. Distancing from, and derogation of, elderly people after mortality salience occurred only in participants who, weeks before the study, rated their personalities as relatively similar to the average elderly person's. Discussion addresses distinguishing ageism from other forms of prejudice, as well as possibilities for reducing ageism.

  2. Attitudes to a Robot Bathtub in Danish Elder Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beedholm, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Anne-Marie Skovsgaard;


    the involved leaders, nursing staff, and older people to a newly-implemented robot bathtub. Qualitative analyses of eight interviews with managers, nursing staff, and the older users revealed that the informants focused on different aspects (process, values, and functionality, respectively), used different...... implicit quality criteria, and ascribed different symbolic significance to the robot bathtub. Thus, the study demonstrated how attitudes toward the robot bathtub were connected to the informants’ institutional role. The findings challenge the current paradigm, where technology is expected to operate...

  3. Exploring knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to alcohol in Mongolia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demaio, Alessandro R; Dugee, Otgontuya; de Courten, Maximilian;


    The leading cause of mortality in Mongolia is Non-Communicable Disease. Alcohol is recognised by the World Health Organization as one of the four major disease drivers and so, in order to better understand and triangulate recent national burden-of-disease surveys and to inform policy responses to...... to alcohol consumption in Mongolia, a national Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices survey was conducted. Focusing on Non-Communicable Diseases and their risk factors, this publication explores the alcohol-related findings of this national survey....

  4. Microbiota: In Health and in Sickness, From Birth to Death. (United States)

    Kuk, Salih; Uyar, Yunus; Karaca, Serkan; Yazar, Süleyman


    Microorganisms colonize tissues and organs such as the skin and gastrointestinal, respiratory, and genitourinary systems. These microorganisms are generally called as "human microbiota". Human microbiota mostly consists of commensal microorganisms. The commensal microorganisms located on and in the human body are bacteria, fungi, viruses, archaea, and parasites. The microbiota genome is 100 times bigger in size than the human genome. Although the human genome is stationary, microbial genome has a compatible flexible variability during human life. As well as 2-year-old child and newborn, adult and adolescent, the elderly and pregnant woman have a different microbiota. Microbiota and the microbiota genome can be changed by personal and household diet, antibiotic use, mode of delivery, and hygiene within days or even hours, depending on such as these factors. The human immune system and microbiota grow up, develop, and mature as childhood friends by playing with each other from birth to death. Association between microbiota and human is not just related to childhood-it continues with health and disease, until death separates them. This review focused on the roles of microbiota in parasitology, autoimmune diseases, metabolic diseases, and cancer treatment in detail. In addition, inflammatory and immunoregulatory roles of microbiota on the intestinal immune system and how innate and adaptive immune systems regulate microbiota and its content were explained.

  5. The "Ripple Effect" of a University Sponsored Death and Dying Symposium. (United States)

    Cook, Alicia S.; And Others


    Conducted a follow-up study of a three-week, university sponsored death and dying symposium to measure attitudes of nonattendees. The findings showed a declining taboo regarding death education and a "ripple effect" in which individuals are affected by a death education program even though they do not attend it. (JAC)

  6. Enhancement of Death Acceptance by a Grief Counseling Course. (United States)

    Irwin, Harvey J.; Melbin-Helberg, Elizabeth B.


    Investigated impact of grief counseling course in terms of two-component formulation of death acceptance. Compared to controls, participants showed significant and sustained increase in cognitive confrontation of death and in assimilation of attitudes at emotional level. Identified predictors of extent of effect included individual's initial death…

  7. [Danish physicians' attitude to capital punishment. A questionnaire study]. (United States)

    Tulinius, A C; Andersen, P M; Holm, S


    The attitudes of the Danish medical profession to capital punishment and participation in the procedure of capital punishment were illustrated by means of a questionnaire investigation. A total of 1,011 questionnaires were sent to a representative section of Danish doctors. Out of the 591 who replied, 474 considered that capital punishment is not an acceptable form of punishment while 76 considered that capital punishment is acceptable. Twenty doctors were willing to participate actively in executions although medical participation of this type has been condemned both by the Nordic Medical Associations and also by the World Medical Association.

  8. Surveying Instructors' Attitudes and Approaches to Teaching Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Siddiqui, Shabnam


    Understanding instructor attitudes and approaches to teaching quantum mechanics can be helpful in developing research-based learning tools. Here we discuss the findings from a survey in which 13 instructors reflected on issues related to quantum mechanics teaching. Topics included opinions about the goals of a quantum mechanics course, general challenges in teaching the subject, student preparation for the course, comparison between their own learning of quantum mechanics vs. how they teach it and the extent to which contemporary topics are incorporated into the syllabus.

  9. Brain death: the European perspective. (United States)

    Citerio, Giuseppe; Murphy, Paul G


    Some of the seminal steps toward the recognition and definition of brain death were European. There is a general consensus on both the medical concept of brain death in Europe as well as the minimum fundamental clinical standards that are required for its diagnosis-the absence of consciousness, brainstem reflexes, and the ability to breathe in the absence of reversible or confounding conditions. Two aspects of brain death determination are addressed in this article. The authors analyze how brain death is diagnosed across Europe, identifying both the similarities and differences that exist between countries (the latter mainly concerning ancillary tests, timing, and the number of physicians involved in the brain death determination). In addition, they describe the very considerable variations in when brain death determinations are made between and within individual European countries, and propose that they are due to differences in the end-of-life care practices in patients with irreversible brain injuries, medical attitudes, and organ donation practices. Although legislation is available to standardize the brain death diagnosis process in most individual European countries, there are still disparities across Europe as a whole. The current variation in practice makes a continental consensus for the definition of brain death imperative.

  10. From DNA radiation damage to cell death: theoretical approaches. (United States)

    Ballarini, Francesca


    Some representative models of radiation-induced cell death, which is a crucial endpoint in radiobiology, were reviewed. The basic assumptions were identified, their consequences on predicted cell survival were analyzed, and the advantages and drawbacks of each approach were outlined. In addition to "historical" approaches such as the Target Theory, the Linear-Quadratic model, the Theory of Dual Radiation Action and Katz' model, the more recent Local Effect Model was discussed, focusing on its application in Carbon-ion hadrontherapy. Furthermore, a mechanistic model developed at the University of Pavia and based on the relationship between cell inactivation and chromosome aberrations was presented, together with recent results; the good agreement between model predictions and literature experimental data on different radiation types (photons, protons, alpha particles, and Carbon ions) supported the idea that asymmetric chromosome aberrations like dicentrics and rings play a fundamental role for cell death. Basing on these results, a reinterpretation of the TDRA was also proposed, identifying the TDRA "sublesions" and "lesions" as clustered DNA double-strand breaks and (lethal) chromosome aberrations, respectively.

  11. From DNA Radiation Damage to Cell Death: Theoretical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Ballarini


    Full Text Available Some representative models of radiation-induced cell death, which is a crucial endpoint in radiobiology, were reviewed. The basic assumptions were identified, their consequences on predicted cell survival were analyzed, and the advantages and drawbacks of each approach were outlined. In addition to “historical” approaches such as the Target Theory, the Linear-Quadratic model, the Theory of Dual Radiation Action and Katz' model, the more recent Local Effect Model was discussed, focusing on its application in Carbon-ion hadrontherapy. Furthermore, a mechanistic model developed at the University of Pavia and based on the relationship between cell inactivation and chromosome aberrations was presented, together with recent results; the good agreement between model predictions and literature experimental data on different radiation types (photons, protons, alpha particles, and Carbon ions supported the idea that asymmetric chromosome aberrations like dicentrics and rings play a fundamental role for cell death. Basing on these results, a reinterpretation of the TDRA was also proposed, identifying the TDRA “sublesions” and “lesions” as clustered DNA double-strand breaks and (lethal chromosome aberrations, respectively.

  12. Sudden death due to forced ingestion of vinegar. (United States)

    Shields, Lisa B E; Rolf, Cristin M; Hunsaker, John C


    Vinegar is a clear colorless liquid that commercially consists of 5% acetic acid. It has numerous benefits in everyday use, including culinary, medical, and cleaning. The ingestion of concentrated acetic acid is strongly discouraged and may have detrimental consequences, such as acute pancreatitis, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, gastric and hepatic complications, upper airway obstruction, or death. We report the first case in the literature of a 5-year-old boy who experienced a sudden death due to ingestion of distilled white vinegar. The manner was homicide. There was evidence of nonfatal blunt force impacts of the head, trunk, and extremities. A pungent aromatic odor of the viscera, gastric/small bowel contents, and cranial cavity was noted at autopsy. A dusky gray discoloration of the gastric mucosa, small bowel, and pancreas was observed. Forensic pathologists should consider ingestion of vinegar when confronted with a compelling history as well as an aromatic odor suggesting vinegar and dusky gray discoloration of the gastric mucosa and small bowel. While vinegar is a common household item and has several advantages, it may prove fatal if ingested in large quantities.

  13. Public attitudes to the promotion of genomic crop studies in Japan: correlations between genomic literacy, trust, and favourable attitude. (United States)

    Ishiyama, Izumi; Tanzawa, Tetsuro; Watanabe, Maiko; Maeda, Tadahiko; Muto, Kaori; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Nagai, Akiko; Yamagata, Zentaro


    This study aimed to assess public attitudes in Japan to the promotion of genomic selection in crop studies and to examine associated factors. We analysed data from a nationwide opinion survey. A total of 4,000 people were selected from the Japanese general population by a stratified two-phase sampling method, and 2,171 people participated by post; this survey asked about the pros and cons of crop-related genomic studies promotion, examined people's scientific literacy in genomics, and investigated factors thought to be related to genomic literacy and attitude. The relationships were examined using logistic regression models stratified by gender. Survey results showed that 50.0% of respondents approved of the promotion of crop-related genomic studies, while 6.7% disapproved. No correlation was found between literacy and attitude towards promotion. Trust in experts, belief in science, an interest in genomic studies and willingness to purchase new products correlated with a positive attitude towards crop-related genomic studies.

  14. Writing-to-Learn; Attitudes of nursing students at Sultan Qaboos University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreedevi Balachandran


    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the attitude of Omani nursing students towards writing-to-learn (WTL and its relationship to demographic variables, self-efficacy and the writing process. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used to evaluate attitudes towards WTL by Sultan Qaboos University nursing students. A convenience sample of 106 students was used and data collected between October 2009 and March 2010. A modified version of the WTL attitude scale developed by Dobie and Poirrier was used to collect the data. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for analysis. Results: Senior and junior students had more positive attitudes to WTL than mid-level students who tended to have negative attitudes towards writing. Although 52.8% students had negative attitudes towards the writing process, the median was higher for attitudes to the writing process compared to the median for self-efficacy. There was a positive correlation between self-efficacy and writing process scores. Conclusion: Overall, students had negative attitudes towards WTL. Attitudes are learnt or formed through previous experiences. The incorporation of WTL strategies into teaching can transform students’ negative attitudes towards writing into positive ones.

  15. Death by Numbers: A Response to Backer, Sarigianides, and Stillwaggon (United States)

    Taubman, Peter


    In this response essay, Peter Taubman considers the relationship between melancholia and Freud's notion of a death drive. Taubman explores how audit culture sustains melancholia and intensifies the death drive, ultimately deadening our psyches by erasing memory, disparaging feelings, shutting down thought, and ignoring history. Taubman concludes…

  16. Assessing Knowledge of, and Attitudes to, HIV/AIDS among University Students in the United Arab Emirates (United States)

    Haroun, Dalia; El Saleh, Ola; Wood, Lesley; Mechli, Rola; Al Marzouqi, Nada; Anouti, Samir


    Background The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is among the top two regions in the world with the fastest growing HIV epidemic. In this context, risks and vulnerability are high as the epidemic is on the rise with evidence indicating significantly increasing HIV prevalence, new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths. Objective The aim of the survey was to assess HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes related to HIV/AIDS among a wide group of university students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods In a cross-sectional survey, a total sample of 2,294 students (406 male; 1,888 female) from four universities in three different Emirates in the UAE were approached to take part in the study. Students self-completed a questionnaire that was designed to measure their knowledge and attitudes to HIV/AIDS. Results The overall average knowledge score of HIV.AIDS was 61%. Non-Emirati and postgraduates demonstrated higher levels of knowledge compared to Emirati and undergraduate students respectively. No significant differences between males and females; and marital status were found. Eighty-five percent of students expressed negative attitudes towards people living with HIV, with Emirati and single students significantly holding more negative attitudes compared to non-Emiratis and those that are married respectively. Conclusions The findings provide strong evidence that there is a need to advocate for appropriate National HIV/AIDS awareness raising campaigns in universities to reduce the gaps in knowledge and decrease stigmatizing attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:26913902

  17. Influencia de las creencias religiosas en las actitudes en el personal sanitario (P.S. ante la muerte Influence of religious beliefs on the attitudes of health professionals (H.P. in the face of death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raja Hernández


    Full Text Available Fundamento: Las creencias religiosas son una variable psicosocial de gran importancia para una proporción considerable de la población, entre la que se encuentran los Profesionales Sanitarios y, por consiguiente, influye en las actitudes que estos tienen hacia los demás. Por ello, es deseable investigar dichas influencias, sobre todo en situaciones críticas de la vida, entre las que se incluye la muerte por su trascedencia a la hora de la atención al enfermo terminal. Objetivos y Metodología: Analizar las influencias de las creencias religiosas en las actitudes ante la muerte en el P.S. estableciendo su prevalencia y correlacionándolas con variables psicosociales y personalísticas, con otros aspectos religiosos, así como con la experiencia con moribundos; mediante técnicas psicométricas y un inventario de creencia religiosa, siguiendo un diseño observacional-transversal, sobre una muestra representativa de la población del P.S. de un Hospital Universitario. Resultados y Conclusiones: -La mayoría del P.S. que componen la muestra resultan creyentes religiosos (con un nivel medio de práctica "moderado". -Las mujeres se muestran más religiosas que los hombres y los jóvenes resultan menos religiosos que las personas mayores. -De los dos grupos extremos bien diferenciados que aparecen (creyentes practicantes y no creyentes, por un lado y creyentes no practicantes, tibios en su fe, agnósticos, etc.,por otro los que menos ansiedad ante la muerte manifiestan son los creyentes practicantes y no creyentes. -El P.S., en general, presenta baja ansiedad (Estado y Rasgo y baja ansiedad ante la muerte.Basis: Religious beliefs are psychosocial variables of great importance for a large proportion of the population, including health professionals, and consequently influence the attitude which these people have towards others. It is therefore desirable to investigate said influences, above all in critical situations of life, among which death is

  18. Adolescents' reactions to the death of a peer. (United States)

    O'Brien, J M; Goodenow, C; Espin, O


    In recent years, more attention has been given to the fact that grieving is a process, especially in the work of Elizabeth Kubler-Ross. The literature has focused on many aspects of bereavement, including how the process may be different at different ages. Much of the research on adolescents has focused on reactions to the suicide of a peer. The purpose of this study was to explore adolescent reactions to the death of a peer by means other than suicide. Semistructured interviews were conducted with ten college students about their experience of losing a friend in high school. Results indicated that even after a few years, the adolescents were still struggling through the grieving process. Implications for future research and suggestions for practitioners faced with similar crises are offered.

  19. Risk of Death Due to Birth Defects Higher if Baby Covered by Medicaid (United States)

    ... Risk of Death Due to Birth Defects Higher If Baby Covered ... defects cause about one in every five infant deaths in the United States. Now, new research finds ...

  20. Ways To Reduce the Risk of SIDS and Other Sleep-Related Causes of Infant Death (United States)

    ... SIDS and Other Sleep-Related Causes of Infant Death Page Content Research shows that there are several ... SIDS and other sleep-related causes of infant death: The actions listed here and in Safe to ...

  1. Poor Diet Tied to Half of U.S. Deaths from Heart Disease, Diabetes (United States)

    ... Diet Tied to Half of U.S. Deaths From Heart Disease, Diabetes Study explores which foods and nutrients may ... HealthDay News) -- Nearly half of all deaths from heart disease, stroke and diabetes in the United States are ...

  2. Three Social Classroom Applications to Improve Student Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alf Inge Wang


    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a quasiexperiment where the three social classroom applications Post-It, WordCloud, and Categorizer were used in software architecture lectures. Post-It and WordCloud are applications that allow students to brainstorm or give comments related to a given topic. Categorizer is a puzzle game where the students are asked to place a number of terms in one of two correct categories. The three applications are multimodal HTML5 applications that enable students to interact in a classroom using their own digital devices, and the teacher’s laptop is used to display progress and results on the large screen. The focus of this study was to evaluate how the difference of these applications and how their integration into the lecture affected the students’ motivation, engagement, thinking, activity level, social interaction, creativity, enjoyment, attention, and learning. In addition, the study evaluated the usability and the technical quality of the applications. The results of the experiment show that the way such applications are integrated into a lecture highly affects the students’ attitude. The experiment also showed that the game-based application was on average better received among the students and that the students’ attitude was highly sensitive to the difficulty level of the game.

  3. [Cough leading to the death of an infant]. (United States)

    Hannele, Pruikkonen; Outi, Peltoniemi; Marjo, Renko; Terhi, Tapiainen


    Death from infections among previously healthy infants is rare in our country. Occasionally, warning of a severe disease may in the initial phase of the disease become manifest only from the parents' description of the condition of their child. We describe two infants under the age of 3 months with paroxysmal cough, whose whooping cough progressed to require intensive care. A suspicion of whooping cough was not roused neither among those making the emergency care assessment nor by the attending physicians before the patients had to be placed on a ventilator as the illness progressed. One of our patients succumbed to the illness despite of intensive care. Whooping cough should be suspected in all unimmunized infants having paroxysmal cough.

  4. 20 CFR 410.450 - Death due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory presumption. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis, including... COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.450 Death due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory...

  5. 20 CFR 410.458 - Irrebuttable presumption of death due to pneumoconiosis-survivor's claim. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Irrebuttable presumption of death due to... FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.458 Irrebuttable presumption of death due to...

  6. Attitudes of teachers education centers to special education inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the attitudes and perceptions towards inclusive education teacher that practices in special education centers in Andalusia. The paper has used a descriptive methodology, a total of 428 participating teachers and using data collection a semi structured questionnaire developed ad hoc. The results show how teachers of special education centers in Andalusia consider inclusive education as a pillar in education, while defining the mode of schooling in special education institutions as an educational response to students aimed at improving their quality of life and achieve greater personal independence and function in daily life activities. They also consider that the students enrolled in these schools has higher educational needs in the field of health, cognitive and social. It stands out even the existence of statistically significant differences in attitudes and perceptions of teachers as they have developed or no practical training related to the field of inclusive education during their initial training, being more favorable in the case of those without such training. Thus, we want to know the perceptions of these teachers on inclusive education to establish proposals for improvement in teacher education that lead to the development of a process of quality teaching and learning for pupils with severe and permanent disabilities.

  7. Unfavorable attitudes towards women leaders. An instrument to assess them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Lupano Perugini


    Full Text Available The main objective of the investigation consisted in designing a test to evaluate unfavorable attitudes towards women leaders. Based on Peters, Terborg and Taylor test –WAMS-, it was designed the instrument ACT-ML. This one contains 7 items and presents two dimensions, one evaluates the level that people consider if women display characteristics associate with leadership (Instrumental characteristics; and the other evaluates the level of acceptance of women like leaders (Acceptance Feminine Leadership. 789 subjects participated, 419 male (53,1% and 370 female (46,9% (Age average = 36,52; SD = 11,7. 45,8% (n = 361 of the participants occupied directive position and the 54,2% (n = 428 were subordinates. Results indicated good psychometric properties (reliability and validity. In addition, it was tried to verify the existence of significant differences according to sex and position (leader-subordinate, finding differences in favor of men and followers in a greater level of unfavorable attitudes to women leaders.

  8. Development and Large-Scale Validation of an Instrument to Assess Arabic-Speaking Students' Attitudes toward Science (United States)

    Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad; Summers, Ryan; Said, Ziad; Wang, Shuai; Culbertson, Michael


    This study is part of a large-scale project focused on "Qatari students' Interest in, and Attitudes toward, Science" (QIAS). QIAS aimed to gauge Qatari student attitudes toward science in grades 3-12, examine factors that impact these attitudes, and assess the relationship between student attitudes and prevailing modes of science…

  9. Should Marketers Try to Change Consumers Unfavourable Attitude for their Product into Favourable?


    Sunday O. E. Ewah; Patrick M. Igbaji; Christian I. Umeh


    This is an empirical study of the interplay between consumers' attitude toward marketers’ products and marketers; wish to elicit favourable buying behaviour from the consumer. According to the study the process of this transformation of consumer’s attitude is not quite easy. The marketers have to put their acts together by producing products to match consumers attitude or build a gradual change that will result to favourable buying decision from the consumer.

  10. Employee Attitude to Management Style : case: International equitable association Nigeria Limited.


    Osondu, Marshall


    The aim of the study is to reveal employees’ attitudes to management style in International equitable association Limited, Aba, Nigeria (IEA). IEA is a soap and detergent manufacturing company. The company uses modern management styles to drive employee performance. This study set out to investigate employee attitudes to the various management styles in use at IEA. The study used a framework which shows that employee attitude is driven by the employee’s awareness, the employee’s application o...

  11. The Death and Life in the Poem Ode to A Nightingale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    John Keats is an famous English Romantic poet. His poem Ode to A Nightingale are mostly read by readers all over the world. In China, many scholars have analyzed the ode from various perspectives, especially death. But the short paper will not on-ly analyze the death, but also the life in the ode. Keats loves death, and praises life.

  12. Transition to Amplitude Death in Coupled System with Small Number of Nonlinear Oscillators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hai-Ling; YANG Jun-Zhong


    In this work, we investigate the amplitude death in coupled system with small number of nonlinear oscillators. We show how the transitions to the partial and the complete amplitude deathes happen. We also show that the partial amplitude death can be found in globally coupled oscillators either.

  13. First Grade Teacher's Feelings about Discussing Death in the Classroom and Suggestions To Support Them. (United States)

    Velazquez-Cordero, Minerva

    Drawing on the literature and a survey of first-grade teachers, this paper provides a summary of the ways children grieve, children's ideas on death, ways to help children contend with the difficulties surrounding death, and teachers' feelings about discussing death in the classroom. Twelve teachers completed a questionnaire about how to…

  14. Teaching Child Care Providers to Reduce the Risk of SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome) (United States)

    Byington, Teresa; Martin, Sally; Reilly, Jackie; Weigel, Dan


    Keeping children safe and healthy is one of the main concerns of parents and child care providers. SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome) is the leading cause of death in infants 1 month to 12 months of age. Over 2,000 infants die from SIDS every year in the United States, and almost 15% of these deaths occur in child care settings. A targeted…

  15. Young, Black, and Sentenced To Die: Black Males and the Death Penalty. (United States)

    Joseph, Janice


    Explores the death penalty as imposed on young black males in the United States and examines the disparity in death penalty rates for homicides with black offenders and white victims. States continue to impose the death penalty rather than viewing youth violence as a failure of the social system. (SLD)

  16. 38 CFR 6.19 - Evidence to establish death of the insured. (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Death Benefits § 6.19 Evidence to establish death of the... insurance or United States Government life insurance, the proof of death shall be established in accordance..., World War Veterans' Act, 1924, Sections 607 and 602 (v)(2), National Service Life Insurance Act,...

  17. East to West or West to East: Plague Spread after the Black Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujun Cui


    Full Text Available The Black Death, one of the most destructive pandemics in human history, has claimed millions of lives and considerably influenced human civilization. Following the Black Death, plague outbreaks in Europe lasted for several hundred years until late the 18th century. It is generally presumed that the Black Death was caused by Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis and spread from China to Europe in one or more waves. However, because of the lack of etiological research during the medieval period and absence of a natural plague focus in Europe today, the causative agent of this pandemic and its transmission has led to long-term debate among researchers. Thus, several questions remain including whether Y. pestis actually caused the Black Death, whether a natural plague focus existed in medieval Europe and led to post-Black Death plague outbreaks, and whether the Europe plague focus played a role in the spread and evolution of Y. pestis.

  18. Attitudes to Improving Speaking Skills by Guided Individual Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Kavaliauskienė


    Full Text Available Students’ perceptions of difficulties in speaking on professional issues are in the focus of the present article. It is generally assumed that the skill of speaking a foreign language is very difficult to master, while speaking on professional topics involves such difficulties as the usage of specific vocabulary and ability to deal with listeners’ oncoming arguments. The aims of the current research are to investigate learners’ attitudes to the level of difficulty in speaking activi - ties on a subject matter at university and apply an innovative approach to improving their speaking skills. The methodology applied was focused on guided individual learning (GIL, with gradually increasing amount of spontaneity in public talks on the subject matter, starting with prepared short talks on an ESP issue leading to group discussions; moving on to Power Point presentations, involving spontaneous deviations from the subject and followed by question time; further, adding some complex subject matter, such as a discussion on a problematic professional subject suggested by learning materials; and, eventually, speaking impromptu on an issue, with a high level of control of one’s speaking skills. The research method of the learners’ attitudes employed the survey on learner attitudes to four different speaking activities in the classroom, which included short talks, Power Point Presentations, discussions and speaking impromptu. The questionnaire was administered to students of two different specializations by the end of the semester. The respondents were students who studied Psychology and Social Work at the Faculty of Social Policy, at Mykolas Romeris University in Vilnius, Lithuania. The respondents were asked to indicate the degree of difficulty they had with the various speaking activities on the Likert’s scale ranging from “very difficult” (1 to “very easy” (5. The results indicated that perceptions of difficulties to developing speaking

  19. Consumer attitudes towards nanotechnologies applied to food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Gupta, N.; George, S.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Giles, E.L.; Coles, D.G.


    The literature on public perceptions of, and attitudes towards, nanotechnology used in the agrifood sector is reviewed. Research into consumer perceptions and attitudes has focused on general applications of nanotechnology, rather than within the agrifood sector. Perceptions of risk and benefit asso

  20. Attitude theory applied to in-store and online shopping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijst, M.J.; Farag, S.; Schwanen, T.


    In this study, we investigated whether our understanding of adoption of e-shopping and instore shopping could be advanced through the application of attitude theory. A shortcoming of the analytical frameworks and models featured in attitude theory is that they do not address the issue of what causes

  1. Attitudes of RN-to-BSN students regarding teaching strategies utilized in online courses. (United States)

    Abell, Cathy; Williams, Deborah


    In this descriptive study, researchers examined RN-to-BSN students' attitudes regarding different teaching/learning strategies incorporated in courses offered utilizing the online delivery format. A semantic differential scale was used to measure attitudes regarding the use of wikis, podcasts, video capture, talking PowerPoint, and discussion boards. The results indicated that students had the most favorable attitude toward tegrity lectures as a teaching strategy. This was followed by talking PowerPoint lectures and discussion board.

  2. Segmentation studies provide insights to better understanding attitudes towards science and technology. (United States)

    Cormick, Craig; Romanach, Lygia Malzoni


    Values-based studies of people's attitudes towards science and technology not only provide great insights into what drives different attitudes to issues like climate change and genetically modified foods, but allow for segmenting the general public by homogeneous values. Such segmentations both provide better predictions of people's attitudes to new technologies or contentious science issues than age, sex, or other standard demographics, and allow a better matching of different messages with different community values.

  3. Psychometric evaluation of the Writing-To-Learn Attitude Survey. (United States)

    Schmidt, Lee A


    The Writing-To-Learn Attitude Survey (WTLAS) was developed to measure the effects of using writing-to-learn activities in the classroom, but adequate psychometric data have not been reported for the measure. Using the pretest scores from 149 basic and RN-to-BSN nursing students enrolled in a Nursing Management and Leadership course, the reliability and validity of the WTLAS were evaluated. The initial 30-item measure demonstrated acceptable reliability, but the item intercorrelations suggested revision of the subscales was appropriate. After exploratory factor analyses, the WTLAS was revised to 21 items and consists of two factors: Apprehensions about Writing Abilities and Perceived Benefits of Writing-To-Learn Activities. Both subscales possess acceptable internal consistency reliability and conceptually sound, significant correlations with a separate measure of writing apprehension. The revised WTLAS appears to have adequate psychometric properties for further use in the evaluation of students' perceptions of writing-to-learn activities.

  4. Analysis of trends in total deaths and AIDS-related deaths certified at Mosvold Hospital, Ingwavuma, KwaZulu-Natal, from 2003 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C H Vaughan Williams


    Full Text Available Objectives. To analyse mortality trends from deaths registered at Mosvold Hospital, Ingwavuma, KwaZulu-Natal, and possible impact of programmes to treat and prevent HIV infection. Design. Longitudinal study of death certifications from 2003 to 2008. Setting. Mosvold Hospital mortuary, Ingwavuma. Subjects. Counterfoils of form 83/BI-1663, Notification/Register of Death/Stillbirths (Republic of South Africa, Department of Home Affairs, completed at Mosvold Hospital from January 2003 to December 2008. Outcome measures. Age at death, cause of death, patterns of deaths grouped by age, gender and cause of death. Results. AIDS-related deaths were the cause of 53% of deaths, particularly affecting the 20 - 59-year and under-5 age groups. Since 2005 there has been a decline in deaths in the 20 - 59 age group and an increase in average age at death. Conclusions. The decrease in mortality from 2005 may be associated with antiretroviral roll-out reducing mortality from AIDS-related illnesses.

  5. Study of recent and future trends in place of death in Belgium using death certificate data: a shift from hospitals to care homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deliens Luc


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since most patients prefer out-of-hospital death, place of death can be considered an indicator of end-of-life care quality. The study of trends in place of death is necessary to examine causes of shifts, to evaluate efforts to alter place of death and develop future policies. This study aims to examine past trends and future projections of place of death. Methods Analysis of death certificates (decedents aged ≥ 1 year in Belgium (Flanders and Brussels Capital region 1998-2007. Trends in place of death were adjusted for cause of death, sociodemographic characteristics, environmental factors, numbers of hospital beds, and residential and skilled nursing beds in care homes. Future trends were based on age- and sex-specific mortality prognoses. Results Hospital deaths decreased from 55.1% to 51.7% and care home deaths rose from 18.3% to 22.6%. The percentage of home deaths remained stable. The odds of dying in a care home versus hospital increased steadily and was 1.65 (95%CI:1.53-1.78 in 2007 compared to 1998. This increase could be attributed to the replacement of residential beds by skilled nursing beds. Continuation of these trends would result in the more than doubling of deaths in care homes and a decrease in deaths at home and in hospital by 2040. Conclusions Additional end-of-life care resources in care homes largely explain the decrease in hospital deaths. Care homes will become the main locus of end-of-life care in the future. Governments should provide sufficient skilled nursing resources in care homes to fulfil the end-of-life care preferences and needs of patients.

  6. Using cognitive dissonance to enhance faculty members' attitudes toward teaching online courses. (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Bin


    Adopting a reward strategy for inducing college faculty to teach online courses is expected to cause a positive shift of their attitudes. Based upon dissonance theory, a smaller reward will lead to greater attitude change, and this effect will be more pronounced in individualists. The results of an experimental study showed that individualist teachers exhibited greater attitude change under low reward than under high reward, but the reward effect was not prominent in collectivist teachers. Implications for enhancing college teachers' attitudes toward teaching online courses are discussed.

  7. Group Supervision Attitudes: Supervisory Practices Fostering Resistance to Adoption of Evidence-Based Practices. (United States)

    Brooks, Charles T; Patterson, David A; McKiernan, Patrick M


    The focus of this study was to qualitatively evaluate worker's attitudes about clinical supervision. It is believed that poor attitudes toward clinical supervision can create barriers during supervision sessions. Fifty-one participants within a social services organization completed an open-ended questionnaire regarding their clinical supervision experiences. Results suggest four key areas which appear to be strong factors in workers' experiences and attitudes regarding group supervision: a. facilitator's skill level; b. creativity; c. utilization of technology; and d. applicability. For organizations interested in overcoming potential barriers to adopting best practices, effectively addressing workers' negative attitudes toward group supervision would be a worthy endeavor.

  8. An investigation of students’ attitudes to the ICT-based ELT classroom


    RAHMAN, Mizanoor; Shrestha, Prithvi; Khalid, Iftekhar


    The purpose of this study was to assess the attitude of students towards the ICT-enabled classroom. In a study of 113 high school students, an attitude scale was constructed and administered. The findings indicate a significant difference in the attitudes of Grade 9 students, who were found to be more in favour of and happier with ICT-based than normal classrooms on all of the tested items. No change was detected in these attitudes in relation to the type of school in which the participants s...

  9. Science journalists' perceptions and attitudes to pseudoscience in Spain. (United States)

    Cortiñas-Rovira, Sergi; Alonso-Marcos, Felipe; Pont-Sorribes, Carles; Escribà-Sales, Eudald


    Using interviews and questionnaires, we explored the perceptions and attitudes of 49 Spanish science journalists regarding pseudoscience. Pseudoscience, understood as false knowledge that endeavours to pass as science, is a controversial and complex matter that potentially poses a risk to society. Given that concern over this issue has grown in recent years in Spain, our aim was to evaluate how pseudoscience operates in journalistic practice in Spanish media. Our data reveal not only a lack of editorial policies in regard to pseudoscience, but also the existence of a significant number of science journalists who make light of the potential threat implied by the pseudosciences in the media. Some journalists point to the lack of scientific training of editors and media managers as one of the reasons for the proliferation of the pseudosciences.

  10. Attitudes of Irish dental graduates to vocational training.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKenna, G


    Vocational training (VT) is a mandatory 12 month period for UK dental graduates after graduation. Graduates of Irish Dental Schools are eligible to enter the general dental service in Ireland or obtain an NHS performers list number in the UK immediately after qualification. Reports would suggest that some graduates of Irish Dental Schools are choosing to take part in VT in the UK and find the experience beneficial. This study aimed to record the uptake of VT amongst recent graduates from University College Cork and to document their experiences. It was designed to compare the attitudes and experiences of graduates of Irish Dental Schools who undertook VT compared with those who entered the general dental service.

  11. Staff Attitudes to Talking Openly About Ethical Dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Leila


    , research on business ethics communication and behavior indicates a relatively clear, positive link between open workplace dialogue about ethical issues and ethical conduct. In this paper, I therefore address the question: What influences employee attitudes to talking openly about ethical issues? Answers...... are proposed on the basis of focus group interviews with staff at the Denmark and Brazil affiliates of the global healthcare company Novo Nordisk. It was found that interest in discussing ethical issues was influenced by two main factors: employee conceptualizations of business ethics, and the level of inter......To ensure ethical employee behavior, companies often utilize several forms of mostly one-way communication such as codes of conduct. The extent to which these efforts, in addition to informing about the company stance on ethics, are able to positively influence behavior is disputed. In contrast...

  12. Intention to respond to local wind turbines: the role of attitudes and visual perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Maria; Laike, Thorbjorn [Environmental Psychology Unit, Department of Architecture and the Built Environment, Lund University, PO Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund, (Sweden)


    Wind power projects frequently face public opposition during the siting process. A deeper understanding of social factors has therefore been called for. Based on psychological theories, the present research was initiated in order to study the relative importance of individual aspects related to visual perception and attitudinal factors in public intention to oppose local wind turbines. In an empirical study, 80 people assessed the visual characteristics of wind turbines on site and rated their emotional state. They also completed a questionnaire covering attitudes towards the turbines, perception of significant others' opinions of local wind turbines, and perceived possibilities to oppose as well as intention to oppose local turbines. Moreover, socio-demographics, factors related to the place of residence and general attitude towards wind power, were investigated. In a multiple regression analysis explaining 50% of the variance, it was found that intention to oppose was related to only a few perceptual and attitudinal factors, i.e. the perceived unity of the environment, the personal attitude towards the effects of wind turbines on landscape aesthetics and recreation, and the general attitude towards wind power. Of minor importance was the attitude towards the effects of wind turbines on people's daily quality of life. It seems important to involve the public in the discussion of how wind power installations can be integrated into the landscape without threatening the visual beauty and the recreational value of the natural and cultural environment. Moreover, social intervention is required to promote positive attitudes towards wind turbines. (Author).

  13. The attitudes to ageing questionnaire: Mokken scaling analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan D Shenkin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hierarchical scales are useful in understanding the structure of underlying latent traits in many questionnaires. The Attitudes to Ageing Questionnaire (AAQ explored the attitudes to ageing of older people themselves, and originally described three distinct subscales: (1 Psychosocial Loss (2 Physical Change and (3 Psychological Growth. This study aimed to use Mokken analysis, a method of Item Response Theory, to test for hierarchies within the AAQ and to explore how these relate to underlying latent traits. METHODS: Participants in a longitudinal cohort study, the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, completed a cross-sectional postal survey. Data from 802 participants were analysed using Mokken Scaling analysis. These results were compared with factor analysis using exploratory structural equation modelling. RESULTS: Participants were 51.6% male, mean age 74.0 years (SD 0.28. Three scales were identified from 18 of the 24 items: two weak Mokken scales and one moderate Mokken scale. (1 'Vitality' contained a combination of items from all three previously determined factors of the AAQ, with a hierarchy from physical to psychosocial; (2 'Legacy' contained items exclusively from the Psychological Growth scale, with a hierarchy from individual contributions to passing things on; (3 'Exclusion' contained items from the Psychosocial Loss scale, with a hierarchy from general to specific instances. All of the scales were reliable and statistically significant with 'Legacy' showing invariant item ordering. The scales correlate as expected with personality, anxiety and depression. Exploratory SEM mostly confirmed the original factor structure. CONCLUSIONS: The concurrent use of factor analysis and Mokken scaling provides additional information about the AAQ. The previously-described factor structure is mostly confirmed. Mokken scaling identifies a new factor relating to vitality, and a hierarchy of responses within three separate scales, referring to

  14. A Go/No-go approach to uncovering implicit attitudes towards safe and risky driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Sømhovd, Mikael J.; Møller, Mette


    ' self-reports. Implicit attitudes towards safe and risky driving were measured in 53 Danish drivers (31 female, 22 male). Further, we explored the relationship between implicit attitudes towards risky and safe driving, and self-reported driving behaviour and skills. The results suggest that implicit...... attitudes were significantly related to self-reported driving behaviour and skills for male (but not female) drivers. Pending future research with larger sample sizes, the difference between implicit attitudes towards safe versus risky driving that we observed may contribute to a greater theoretical...

  15. [Maternal death from severe malaria due to Plasmodium vivax]. (United States)

    Arróspide, Nancy; Espinoza, Máximo Manuel; Miranda-Choque, Edwin; Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Legua, Pedro; Cabezas, César


    Here we describe the case of a 19-year-old woman, in her 29th week of gestation, who was from Llumpe (Ancash, Peru) and had a history of traveling to Chanchamayo (Junín, Peru) and Rinconada (Ancash, Peru). The patient presented at Chacas Hospital (Chacas, Ancash, Peru) with general malaise, dehydration, respiratory distress, jaundice, the sensation of thermal rise, and abdominal pain. Analysis of blood smears revealed 60% hemoparasites. She was transferred to Ramos Guardia Hospital (Huaraz, Peru) where she presented increasing respiratory distress, choluria, hematuria, and decreased urine output, moreover she was positive for Plasmodium. From there she was transferred to Cayetano Heredia Hospital (Lima, Peru), where she was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with multiple organ failure, stillbirth, and leading to death. She underwent mechanical ventilation, was administered clindamycin, and was prescribed quinine, which she did not received due a lack by availability. The evolution of the illness was torpid, and she ultimately developed multiple organ failure and died. Plasmodium vivax infection was confirmed. Accordingly, we emphasize the importance of improving our diagnostic capabilities and management techniques to enable clinicians to provide adequate and timely treatment.

  16. Egyptian FGM policy fails to prevent girl's death. (United States)


    The form of female genital mutilation (FGM) predominantly practiced throughout Egypt consists of the surgical removal of the clitoris and often the inner labia. The practice reduces the level of a woman's sexual sensation and causes pain, psychological trauma, and the risk of infection and hemorrhage. An estimated 80% of Egyptian girls undergo the procedure. Egypt's Ministry of Health in 1994 decided to permit only doctors in government hospitals to perform FGM. This policy was adopted in an effort to make safer what was considered to be an inevitable practice. However, the policy was revoked in October 1995 after women's rights and health advocates criticized it as a government endorsement of FGM. An 11-year-old Nile Delta girl died July 12, 1996, as a result of FGM. The Health Ministry subsequently banned all registered health professionals from performing FGM. Two months later, on August 24, a 14-year-old girl died from hemorrhaging shortly after undergoing FGM. These recent deaths challenge the effectiveness of Egypt's new attempts to prevent FGM. Barbers and midwives in Egypt perform thousands of mutilations annually. While they are theoretically subject to criminal penalties for performing surgery without a license, the laws are rarely enforced. Furthermore, despite existing regulations, no provision in the Egyptian penal code criminalizes FGM.

  17. Pathways to ischemic neuronal cell death: are sex differences relevant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCullough Louise D


    Full Text Available Abstract We have known for some time that the epidemiology of human stroke is sexually dimorphic until late in life, well beyond the years of reproductive senescence and menopause. Now, a new concept is emerging: the mechanisms and outcome of cerebral ischemic injury are influenced strongly by biological sex as well as the availability of sex steroids to the brain. The principal mammalian estrogen (17 β estradiol or E2 is neuroprotective in many types of brain injury and has been the major focus of investigation over the past several decades. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that although hormones are a major contributor to sex-specific outcomes, they do not fully account for sex-specific responses to cerebral ischemia. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent studies in cell culture and animal models that suggest that genetic sex determines experimental stroke outcome and that divergent cell death pathways are activated after an ischemic insult. These sex differences need to be identified if we are to develop efficacious neuroprotective agents for use in stroke patients.

  18. Does the arousal system contribute to near death experience? (United States)

    Nelson, Kevin R; Mattingly, Michelle; Lee, Sherman A; Schmitt, Frederick A


    The neurophysiologic basis of near death experience (NDE) is unknown. Clinical observations suggest that REM state intrusion contributes to NDE. Support for the hypothesis follows five lines of evidence: REM intrusion during wakefulness is a frequent normal occurrence, REM intrusion underlies other clinical conditions, NDE elements can be explained by REM intrusion, cardiorespiratory afferents evoke REM intrusion, and persons with an NDE may have an arousal system predisposing to REM intrusion. To investigate a predisposition to REM intrusion, the life-time prevalence of REM intrusion was studied in 55 NDE subjects and compared with that in age/gender-matched control subjects. Sleep paralysis as well as sleep-related visual and auditory hallucinations were substantially more common in subjects with an NDE. These findings anticipate that under circumstances of peril, an NDE is more likely in those with previous REM intrusion. REM intrusion could promote subjective aspects of NDE and often associated syncope. Suppression of an activated locus ceruleus could be central to an arousal system predisposed to REM intrusion and NDE.

  19. Stressed to death: implication of lymphocyte apoptosis for psychoneuroimmunology (United States)

    Shi, Yufang; Devadas, Satish; Greeneltch, Kristy M.; Yin, Deling; Allan Mufson, R.; Zhou, Jian-nian


    Psychological and physical stressors best exemplify the intercommunication of the immune and the nervous systems. It has been shown that stress significantly impacts leukocyte cellularity and immune responses and alters susceptibility to various diseases. While acute stress has been shown to enhance immune responses, chronic stress often leads to immunosuppression. Among many criteria examined upon exposure to chronic stress, the reduction in lymphocyte mitogenic response and lymphocyte cellularity are commonly assessed. We have reported that chronic restraint stress could induce lymphocyte reduction, an effect dependent on endogenous opioids. Interestingly, the effect of endogenous opioids was found to be exerted through increasing the expression of a cell death receptor, Fas, and an increased sensitivity of lymphocytes to apoptosis. Stress-induced lymphocyte reduction was not affected by adrenalectomy. In this review, based on available literature and our recent data, we will discuss the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and endogenous opioids and examine the mechanisms by which chronic stress modulates lymphocyte apoptosis.

  20. Validation of Collett-Lester's Fear of Death Scale in a sample of nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Espinoza Venegas

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of Collett-Lester's Fear of Death Scale. A sample of 349 nursing students answered Fear of Death and Attitude toward death scales. Content validity was checked by expert review; reliability was proven using Cronbach's alpha; statistical analysis of the items, correlation between items and construct validity were checked by the correlation of the Scale with the Attitude toward death Scale. The multidimensionality of the scale was reviewed through factor analysis with varimax rotation. The Fear of Death Scale possesses good internal consistency and construct validity, confirmed by the significant correlation with the Attitude toward death Scale. Factor analysis partially supports content validity of the subscale items, but presented a modified multidimensional structure that points towards the reconceptualization of the subscales in this sample.

  1. Teaching of medical pharmacology: the need to nurture the early development of desired attitudes for safe and rational drug prescribing. (United States)

    Gwee, Matthew C E


    Pharmacology, as a basic medical science discipline, provides the scientific basis of therapeutics, i.e. the scientific foundation for safe and rational prescribing of drugs. The public, lay media, and the medical profession have raised serious concerns over the high incidence of errors of drug prescribing which compromise patient safety, including death of some patients, attributed mainly to inadequate teaching of medical pharmacology and, consequently, to medical graduates lacking skills in safe and effective drug prescribing. There is also overwhelming evidence that the pervasive and prevalent doctor-drug industry relationships have a strong influence over the prescribing habits and drug education of doctors. The British Pharmacological Society and American Association of Medical Colleges have crafted some insightful guidelines, including the learning of desired attitudes, for designing a medical pharmacology curriculum aimed at enhancing patient safety. This article will critically review the major issues relating to errors of drug prescribing, including the need to nurture the early development of desired attitudes which foster safe and rational drug prescribing. A simple educational approach, using a task analysis of drug prescribing, is applied to identify desired attitudes which should be incorporated into a basic pharmacology course for medical students in the twenty-first century.

  2. Considering ethical dilemmas related to brain death in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Chatziioannidis


    Full Text Available Brain death (BD, as the irreversible and permanent loss of cerebral and brainstem function, is relatively uncommon among newborns who need life support. It is considered the result of an acute and irreversible central nervous system insult. Asphyxia, severe intracranial hemorrhage and infection are the most common causes of  BD in children. BD diagnosis is usually based on clinical criteria. Dilemmas about life prolonging treatment for severely compromised infants – as brain dead infants are – has become challenging since neonatal intensive care unit (NICU care has developed, quality of life and resource issues are nowadays continuously underlined. Caring for premature babies is expensive and costs have risen especially since an increased number of infants with handicaps survives. Intensivists’ main duty is first to save lives and then to interrupt treatment in certain conditions like detrimental brain damage. The objective of this article is to present ethical decisions regarding brain dead newborns in order to balance between organ donation necessities and withholding/withdrawing treatment, with respect to the important role of infants’ parents in the process.

  3. Attitudes to publicly funded obesity treatment and prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Bøker; Sandøe, Peter; Lassen, Jesper


    , the perceived controllability of obesity, self-reported BMI, and additional attitudinal and sociodemographic characteristics. Public funding of some obesity treatments, such as weight-loss surgery, attracted only limited public support. A majority of the Danish public did support ‘softer’ treatment......The aim of this study was to investigate the Danish public’s support for publicly funded obesity treatment and prevention. It was also examined whether levels of support could be explained by dislike of obese people and / or the belief that those who are obese are personally responsible...... interventions and preventive initiatives. Attitudes to the treatment of obesity were clearly best predicted by the belief that individuals are personally responsible for their own obesity. Dislike of obese persons had no direct effect on the preference for collective treatment initiatives and only a small...

  4. Dyadic death due to family custom in marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Mustafa Arslan


    Full Text Available In dyadic death, a there is a lack of studies addressingthe effectiveness of the family pressure through thesedeaths. In this study, the effectiveness of the customs onthe marriages is discussed with a related case of dyadicdeath.A 27 years old male and a 19 years old female were founddead in a car out of a city center away from hometown. Inthe external examination, there was an entrance woundon the right temporal region and an exit wound on theleft temporal region of the man, and the contrary for thewoman. Both of the exit wounds were contact wound.Both of the deceased were originally from the east partof Turkey and stated to be single; and the woman wasreported to the security units as missing two days beforethe incident. As the motivation of the suicide, a note nearto the man was explaining that the deceased couple lovedeach other for one year yet the family of the women hadnot let them to get married.Being an obstacle for the marriage even for adults and acause of suicide because of family pressure is indicativeof strict application of the family customs, in Turkey. Theauthors propose that issue of whether the 84. Article ofthe Turkish Penal Code should be or not applied as a deterrentfactor reducing pressure of family customs.

  5. Births and deaths including fetal deaths (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  6. Death due to acute tetrachloroethylene intoxication in a chronic abuser. (United States)

    Amadasi, Alberto; Mastroluca, Lavinia; Marasciuolo, Laura; Caligara, Marina; Sironi, Luca; Gentile, Guendalina; Zoja, Riccardo


    Volatile substances are used widespread, especially among young people, as a cheap and easily accessible drug. Tetrachloroethylene is one of the solvents exerting effects on the central nervous system with experiences of disinhibition and euphoria. The case presented is that of a 27-year-old female, found dead by her father at home with cotton swabs dipped in the nostrils. She was already known for this type of abuse and previously admitted twice to the hospital for nonfatal acute poisonings. The swabs were still soaked in tetrachloroethylene. Toxicological and histological investigations demonstrated the presence of an overlap between chronic intake of the substance (with high concentrations in sites of accumulation, e.g., the adipose tissue, and contemporary tissue damage, as histologically highlighted) and acute intoxication as final cause of death, with a concentration of 158 mg/L in cardiac blood and 4915 mg/kg in the adipose tissue. No other drugs or medicines were detected in body fluids or tissues, and to our knowledge, this is the highest concentration ever detected in forensic cases. This peculiar case confirms the toxicity of this substance and focuses on the importance of complete histological and toxicological investigations in the distinction between chronic abuse and acute intoxication.

  7. [A case of death due to neurogenic shock]. (United States)

    Ogata, M; Ago, K; Ago, M; Tsuganezawa, O


    An autopsy case of death due probably to neurogenic shock (primary shock) is reported. A 14-year-old boy got into a fight with his elder brother and received blows against the chest and abdomen. The young boy fell down senseless on the floor and had a spasm. An ambulance was called, but he was dead on arrival at a hospital. An autopsy revealed no external injuries on the chest and abdomen. There was no evidence of preexisting disease. On histological examination, there were signs of acute cardiac failure; edema of the lungs, liver and gall bladder, partial myofibrillar degeneration and cytoplasmic vacuoles in the media of a small coronary artery. Thus, the autopsy did not give any explanation of the fatality. It seems probable, however, that the blow(s) against the abdomen (the solar plexus) caused a fatal shock (vagal inhibition). In addition, the adrenal cortices (especially the zona fasciculata) were narrowed and the aorta was slightly narrow in caliber. It is likely that these hypoplasia might affect the fatal shock consequent to very slight injuries.

  8. Modified Attitudes to Psychiatry Scale Created Using Principal-Components Analysis (United States)

    Shankar, Rohit; Laugharne, Richard; Pritchard, Colin; Joshi, Pallavi; Dhar, Romika


    Objective: The Attitudes to Psychiatry Scale (APS) is a tool used to assess medical students' attitudes toward psychiatry. This study sought to examine the internal validity of the APS in order to identify dimensions within the questionnaire. Method: Using data collected from 549 medical students from India and Ghana, the authors analyzed 28…

  9. Performance Information, Blame Avoidance, and Politicians’ Attitudes to Spending and Reform: Evidence From an Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Poul Aaes; Bækgaard, Martin


    information on politicians’ attitudes to spending and reform. To isolate the causal effect of performance information, we conducted a randomized survey experiment among 844 Danish city councilors. Information treatments showing high and low performance had a positive effect on attitudes to spending, whereas...

  10. Attitudes to Sexuality Questionnaire (Individuals with an Intellectual Disability): Scale Development and Community Norms (United States)

    Cuskelly, Monica; Gilmore, Linda


    Background: Attitudes to the sexual expression of adults with an intellectual disability (ID) are one reflection of the inclusiveness of a community. Our capacity to measure attitudes towards this important aspect of adult life is limited by the lack of an appropriate instrument. The aim of this study was to continue the development of a recently…

  11. A phenomenographic approach to the meaning of death: a Chinese perspective. (United States)

    Yang, Shu Ching; Chen, Shih-Fen


    The purpose of this study was to investigate qualitative and quantitative differences in Chinese children's concepts of death, as reflected in their drawings, and to analyze this conceptual development as it related to background variables (such as gender, age, religious belief, and heath status). Participants were 239 children in 6 grade groups recruited from primary and junior high school. The children were asked to draw their impression of the word "death" and to give a verbal commentary of what they had drawn. The drawings were analyzed according to a phenomenographic method and assigned to one of 3 superordinate and 12 subordinate qualitative categories, adapted from M. E.Tamm and A. Granqvist (1995). Metaphysical and biological death concepts dominated, while psychological death concepts were depicted least. Consistent with previous studies of the development of concepts of death in children, biological death concepts were most common for the younger age groups, and metaphysical death concepts were found predominately in the older age groups. Chi-square analysis revealed no significant differences among death concept categories as a function of the participants' gender, health status, religious belief, funeral attendance, or prior death of relatives or pets. The results are interpreted as providing a unique window on death concepts among Chinese children.

  12. High IQ May Link to Reduced Risk Of Death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Dr. David Batty,a research fellow at the MRC Social and Public Health Sciences Unit in Glasgow found that a lower IQ was strongly (1) a____with a higher risk of death from causes such as accidents,coronary heart disease and suicide.

  13. Feeling conflicted and seeking information: when ambivalence enhances and diminishes selective exposure to attitude-consistent information. (United States)

    Sawicki, Vanessa; Wegener, Duane T; Clark, Jason K; Fabrigar, Leandre R; Smith, Steven M; Durso, Geoffrey R O


    To date, little research has examined the impact of attitudinal ambivalence on attitude-congruent selective exposure. Past research would suggest that strong/univalent rather than weak/ambivalent attitudes should be more predictive of proattitudinal information seeking. Although ambivalent attitude structure might weaken the attitude's effect on seeking proattitudinal information, we believe that conflicted attitudes might also motivate attitude-congruent selective exposure because proattitudinal information should be effective in reducing ambivalence. Two studies provide evidence that the effects of ambivalence on information choices depend on amount of issue knowledge. That is, ambivalence motivates attitude-consistent exposure when issue knowledge is relatively low because less familiar information is perceived to be effective at reducing ambivalence. Conversely, when knowledge is relatively high, more unambivalent (univalent) attitudes predicted attitude-consistent information seeking.

  14. Evaluating an educational intervention to improve the accuracy of death certification among trainees from various specialties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villar Jesús


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inaccuracy of death certification can lead to the misallocation of resources in health care programs and research. We evaluated the rate of errors in the completion of death certificates among medical residents from various specialties, before and after an educational intervention which was designed to improve the accuracy in the certification of the cause of death. Methods A 90-min seminar was delivered to seven mixed groups of medical trainees (n = 166 from several health care institutions in Spain. Physicians were asked to read and anonymously complete a same case-scenario of death certification before and after the seminar. We compared the rates of errors and the impact of the educational intervention before and after the seminar. Results A total of 332 death certificates (166 completed before and 166 completed after the intervention were audited. Death certificates were completed with errors by 71.1% of the physicians before the educational intervention. Following the seminar, the proportion of death certificates with errors decreased to 9% (p Conclusion Major errors in the completion of the correct cause of death on death certificates are common among medical residents. A simple educational intervention can dramatically improve the accuracy in the completion of death certificates by physicians.

  15. Sudden infant death syndrome: are we any closer to identifying which infants will be affected?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramirez TL


    Full Text Available Tara L Ramirez, Michael H MalloyDepartment of Pediatrics, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USAAbstract: Sudden infant death syndrome is a complex and multifactoral process. The classification and definition of the syndrome has changed over time. As knowledge in the genetics of this complex syndrome continues to advance, additional causes of vulnerability have been found, but no single cause has yet been discovered. Over the last 40 years there have also been many advances in the identification of risk factors that make a given infant more vulnerable to succumbing to sudden infant death. There have also been great strides made in decreasing the number of infant deaths from this syndrome by modification of these risk factors, most notably with the initiation of the Back to Sleep campaign. With the initiation of the Safe to Sleep campaign there is hope that sudden infant death syndrome as a component of all sudden unexpected infant deaths can be further reduced.Keywords: sudden infant death syndrome, sudden unexpected death of infancy, risk factors, sleep-related infant death, crib death, cot death

  16. "This Is a Public Service Announcement": Evaluating and Redesigning Campaigns to Teach Attitudes and Persuasion (United States)

    Koch, Erika J.; Lomore, Christine D.


    We present an assignment that requires students to apply their knowledge of the social psychology of attitudes and persuasion to critique and redesign a public service announcement. Students in a 200-level social psychology course evaluated the assignment by indicating their overall attitudes toward the assignment. Students rated the assignment…

  17. Attitude of Lithuanian residents to confidentiality of adolescent sexual and reproductive health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Lazarus, Jeff; Zaborskis, Apolinaras


    To assess the attitudes of Lithuanian residents towards the protection of confidentiality in the sexual and reproductive health care of adolescents.......To assess the attitudes of Lithuanian residents towards the protection of confidentiality in the sexual and reproductive health care of adolescents....

  18. Fearless Improvisation: A Pilot Study to Analyze String Students' Confidence, Anxiety, and Attitude toward Learning Improvisation (United States)

    Alexander, Michael L.


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the confidence, anxiety, and attitude of novice string student improvisers. A form of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales, as modified for improvisation by Wehr-Flowers, was given to middle school and high school string students (N = 121) after their participation in a 4-month improvisation…

  19. Surveying Turkish High School and University Students' Attitudes and Approaches to Physics Problem Solving (United States)

    Balta, Nuri; Mason, Andrew J.; Singh, Chandralekha


    Students' attitudes and approaches to physics problem solving can impact how well they learn physics and how successful they are in solving physics problems. Prior research in the U.S. using a validated Attitude and Approaches to Problem Solving (AAPS) survey suggests that there are major differences between students in introductory physics and…

  20. Teaching Abnormal Psychology to Improve Attitudes toward Mental Illness and Help-Seeking (United States)

    Kendra, Matthew S.; Cattaneo, Lauren B.; Mohr, Jonathan J.


    Abnormal psychology instructors often use traditional and personal methods to educate students about and improve student attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking. Data from abnormal psychology students (N = 190) were used to determine if and how students' attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking attitudes…

  1. The Implicit Prejudiced Attitudes of Teachers: Relations to Teacher Expectations and the Ethnic Achievement Gap (United States)

    van den Bergh, Linda; Denessen, Eddie; Hornstra, Lisette; Voeten, Marinus; Holland, Rob W.


    Ethnic minority students are at risk for school failure and show a heightened susceptibility to negative teacher expectancy effects. In the present study, whether the prejudiced attitudes of teachers relate to their expectations and the academic achievement of their students is examined. The prejudiced attitudes of 41 elementary school teachers…

  2. Development of an Instrument To Measure Cultural Attitudes and Behaviors Affecting Vocational Rehabilitation. (United States)

    Thompson, Virginia C.; Berven, Norman L.


    The Individualism-Collectivism Vocational Attitudes Questionnaire (ICVAQ) was developed to assess cultural attitudes and behaviors that may be important in the provision of vocational rehabilitation services to people with disabilities from diverse cultural backgrounds. Results of study were mixed but provided some support for the reliability and…

  3. Survey of School Psychologists' Attitudes, Feelings, and Exposure to Gay and Lesbian Parents and Their Children (United States)

    Choi, Hee-sook; Thul, Candrice A.; Berenhaut, Kenneth S.; Suerken, Cynthia K.; Norris, James L.


    School psychologists' attitudes and feelings toward gay and lesbian parents were surveyed in relation to their training and exposure, and professional services offered to gay and lesbian parents and their children. The relationship between attitudes, feelings, training, exposure, and demographic characteristics was explored as well. A stratified…

  4. Implicit Attitudes toward Children May Be Unrelated to Child Abuse Risk (United States)

    Risser, Heather J.; Skowronski, John J.; Crouch, Julie L.


    Objective: To explore whether adults possess implicit attitudes toward children and whether those attitudes are especially negative among respondents who are high in child physical abuse (CPA) risk. Methods: The present study used an implicit evaluative priming procedure. In this procedure, participants were instructed to make decisions about the…

  5. Development an Instrument to Measure University Students' Attitude towards E-Learning (United States)

    Mehra, Vandana; Omidian, Faranak


    The study of student's attitude towards e-learning can in many ways help managers better prepare in light of e-learning for the future. This article describes the process of the development of an instrument to measure university students' attitude towards e-learning. The scale was administered to 200 University students from two countries (India…

  6. Physician-Assisted Dying: Are Education and Religious Beliefs Related to Nursing Students' Attitudes? (United States)

    Margalith, Ilana; Musgrave, Catherine F.; Goldschmidt, Lydia


    A survey of 190 Israeli nursing students found that just over half were opposed to legalization of physician-assisted dying. Exposure to theory about euthanasia or clinical oncology experience had a small effect on these attitudes. Religious beliefs and degree of religiosity were significant determinants of these attitudes. (Contains 23…

  7. Staff Attitudes towards Sexuality in Relation to Gender of People with Intellectual Disability: A Qualitative Study (United States)

    Young, Rhea; Gore, Nick; McCarthy, Michelle


    Background: Research has found staff attitudes regarding the sexuality of people with intellectual disability (ID) to be negative but influenced by several factors. The current study aimed to examine whether gender of people with ID affects such attitudes. Method: Semistructured interviews were completed with 10 staff members and analysed using…

  8. Attitudes toward Mathematics: Relationships to Mathematics Achievement, Gender, Mathematics Course-taking Plans, and Career Interests. (United States)

    Thorndike-Christ, Tracy

    The relationship of attitudes toward mathematics to mathematics performance, gender, mathematics course-taking plans, and career interests were investigated. Students enrolled in public middle and high school mathematics courses (722 male, 794 female) served as subjects. The Fennema-Sherman Math Attitude scales were used to measure attitudes…

  9. Affirming Life in the Face of Death: Ricoeur's Living Up to Death as a modern ars moriendi and a lesson for palliative care. (United States)

    de Lange, Ds Frits


    In his posthumously published Living Up to Death Paul Ricoeur left an impressive testimony on what it means to live at a high old age with death approaching. In this article I present him as a teacher who reminds us of valuable lessons taught by patients in palliative care and their caretakers who accompany them on their way to death, and also as a guide in our search for a modern ars moriendi, after--what many at least experience as--the breakdown of traditional religious belief in a personal afterlife. These lessons can be summarized in the following theses. 'Living up to death, one cannot experience one's own death. Therefore, never consider someone dying as moribund'. 'Though everybody is alone in dying, nobody should die alone.' 'The preparation for death is an affirmation of life'. 'Life experienced as a gift can be given up'. The plausibility of the last thesis, however, may go beyond the confines of austere philosophical thinking.

  10. An immanent approach to death: Theological implications of a secular view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel W. du Toit


    Full Text Available The thesis of this article is that contemporary people are increasingly ousting death from their consciousness and focussing instead on the complexities of life in a context of horizontal transcendence. This replaces the Pauline notion that death is the fruit of sin and will be overcome if its real cause, sin, is vanquished through the death and resurrection of Christ. The article shows how religions, the state and civil society have abused human fear of death in the course of history. It examines the way science has ‘biologised’ death and the impact this has on concepts such as soul, the hereafter and identity. Reflection on the hereafter tends to make light of death. The article deals with some philosophical models (especially those of Hegel and Heidegger that incorporate the negative (non-being, death into life (the subject. I then outline a model incorporating death into life at a horizontal transcendental level in order to make death plausible. The example cited is Sölle’s work. The article concludes with a discussion of some theological implications of an immanent approach to death.

  11. A cluster analysis to investigating nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and skills regarding the clinical management system. (United States)

    Chan, M F


    Nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and skills regarding the Clinical Management System are explored by identifying profiles of nurses working in Hong Kong. A total of 282 nurses from four hospitals completed a self-reported questionnaire during the period from December 2004 to May 2005. Two-step cluster analysis yielded two clusters. The first cluster (n = 159, 56.4%) was labeled "negative attitudes, less skillful, and average knowledge" group. The second cluster (n = 123, 43.6%) was labeled "positive attitudes, good knowledge, but less skillful." There was a positive correlation in cluster 1 for nurses' knowledge and attitudes (rs = 0.28) and in cluster 2 for nurses' skills and attitudes (rs = 0.25) toward computerization. The study showed that senior and more highly educated nurses generally held more positive attitudes to computerization, whereas the attitudes among younger and less well educated nurses generally were more negative. Such findings should be used to formulate strategies to encourage nurses to resolve actual problems following computer training and to increase the depth and breadth of nurses' computer knowledge and skills and improve their attitudes toward computerization.

  12. Attitude similarity and familiarity and their links to mental health: An examination of potential interpersonal mediators. (United States)

    Moore, Shannon M; Uchino, Bert N; Baucom, Brian R W; Behrends, Arwen A; Sanbonmatsu, David


    Similarity and familiarity with partner's attitudes are linked to positive relationship outcomes, while interpersonal variables have been linked to mental health. Using multilevel models (MLMs), we modeled the associations between these attitudinal variables and mental health outcomes in 74 married couples. We found that higher levels of attitude similarity in couples were linked to lower depression, while higher levels of attitude familiarity in couples were associated with greater satisfaction with life. Mediational analyses indicated marital satisfaction and interpersonal stress mediated the link between attitude similarity and depression. Marital satisfaction also mediated the link between familiarity and satisfaction with life. This study is the first linking attitude familiarity to mental health and provides evidence that familiarity and similarity have mental health effects partly due to their interpersonal consequences.

  13. Construction and Validation of an Instrument to Measure Taiwanese Elementary Students' Attitudes toward Their Science Class (United States)

    Wang, Tzu-Ling; Berlin, Donna


    The main purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the "attitudes toward science class" of fourth- and fifth-grade students in an Asian school culture. Specifically, the development focused on three science attitude constructs--science enjoyment, science confidence, and importance of science as…

  14. Attitude toward Christianity and paranormal belief among 13- to 16-yr.-old students. (United States)

    Williams, Emyr; Francis, Leslie J; Robbins, Mandy


    A small but statistically significant positive correlation (r = .17) was found in a sample of 279 13- to 16-yr.-old students in Wales between scores on the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity and on a new Index of Paranormal Belief. These data suggest that there is little common variance between attitude toward Christianity and belief in the paranormal.

  15. The Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale: Using the Health Belief Model to Predict Helmet Use among Undergraduates (United States)

    Ross, Thomas P.; Ross, Lisa Thomson; Rahman, Annalise; Cataldo, Shayla


    Objective: This study examined bicycle helmet attitudes and practices of college undergraduates and developed the Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale, which was guided by the Health Belief Model (HBM; Rosenstock, 1974, in Becker MH, ed. "The Health Belief Model and Personal Health Behavior". Thorofare, NJ: Charles B. Slack; 1974:328-335) to predict…

  16. Police Attitudes toward Policing Partner Violence against Women: Do They Correspond to Different Psychosocial Profiles? (United States)

    Gracia, Enrique; Garcia, Fernando; Lila, Marisol


    This study analyzed whether police attitudes toward policing partner violence against women corresponded with different psychosocial profiles. Two attitudes toward policing partner violence were considered--one reflecting a general preference for a conditional law enforcement (depending on the willingness of the victim to press charges against the…

  17. Group Supervision Attitudes: Supervisory Practices Fostering Resistance to Adoption of Evidence-Based Practices (United States)

    Brooks, Charles T.; Patterson, David A.; McKiernan, Patrick M.


    The focus of this study was to qualitatively evaluate worker's attitudes about clinical supervision. It is believed that poor attitudes toward clinical supervision can create barriers during supervision sessions. Fifty-one participants within a social services organization completed an open-ended questionnaire regarding their clinical supervision…

  18. Attitude of Nigerian Secondary School Teachers to Peer Evaluation of Teachers (United States)

    Joshua, Monday T.; Joshua, Akon M.; Bassey, Bassey A.; Akubuiro, Idorenyin M.


    The study investigated the general attitude of Nigerian secondary school teachers toward peer evaluation of teachers. It also sought to determine whether teacher characteristics such as gender, school geographical location, academic qualification and teaching experience affected Nigerian teachers' attitude toward peer evaluation of teachers. To…

  19. Teachers' Readiness to Implement Nutrition Education Programs: Beliefs, Attitudes, and Barriers (United States)

    Perikkou, Anastasia; Kokkinou, Eleni; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Yannakoulia, Mary


    Teachers' attitudes about school food environments and their readiness to implement school-based nutrition programs were investigated. A total of 1,436 primary-school teachers filled out a questionnaire on their demographic and professional characteristics and their attitudes, beliefs, and barriers for implementing health educational programs. The…

  20. The Development of an Instrument to Measure Teacher Attitudes toward Evaluation (TATE). (United States)

    Stern, Carolyn; Rosenquist, Barbara

    A teacher's attitudes toward a given testing procedure in particular, and evaluation and research procedures in general, may adversely affect the children's performance and consequently the resulting data. The UCLA Head Start Evaluation and Research Center found it necessary to design an instrument which would focus on those attitudes of teachers…

  1. Attitudes and Beliefs of Prekindergarten Teachers toward Teaching Science to Young Children (United States)

    Pendergast, Evelaine; Lieberman-Betz, Rebecca G.; Vail, Cynthia O.


    This study explored infield prekindergarten teachers' attitudes and beliefs toward teaching science to young children. In addition, prekindergarten teachers' previous and future interests in science-related professional development were assessed. Data were collected through a self-report measure, the preschool teacher attitudes and beliefs toward…

  2. The Relationship between Young Children's Enjoyment of Learning to Read, Reading Attitudes, Confidence and Attainment (United States)

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Johnston, Rhona S.; Walker, Jo; Howatson, Kathryn; Stockburn, Ann; Dufton, Paul


    Background: While there is a considerable body of research exploring the relationship between older primary school children's reading attitudes, confidence and attainment, there is a noticeable lack of research with younger children. Furthermore, there is relatively little research exploring the extent to which children's reading attitudes,…

  3. The Development of a Psychometrically-Sound Instrument to Measure Teachers' Multidimensional Attitudes toward Inclusive Education (United States)

    Mahat, Marian


    The "Multidimensional Attitudes toward Inclusive Education Scale" (MATIES) was developed to effectively measure affective, cognitive and behavioural aspects of attitudes, within the realm of inclusive education that includes physical, social and curricular inclusion. Models within Item Response Theory and Classical Test Theory were used…

  4. Using a Geriatric Mentoring Narrative Program to Improve Medical Student Attitudes towards the Elderly (United States)

    Duke, Pamela; Cohen, Diane; Novack, Dennis


    This study examined first-year medical student attitudes concerning the elderly before and after instituting a geriatric mentoring program. The program began and ended with a survey designed to assess students' attitudes toward the elderly. During the mentoring program, students visited the same senior for four visits throughout the academic year.…

  5. Great Expectations: Students' Educational Attitudes upon the Transition to Post-Secondary Vocational Education (United States)

    Elffers, Louise; Oort, Frans J.


    In this study, we examine students' educational attitudes upon the transition to Dutch senior vocational education (SVE), a transition associated with high dropout rates in the first year. Prior studies have identified differences in educational attitudes between sociodemographic groups. However, the mechanisms underlying those differences remain…

  6. Nursing Aides' Attitudes to Elder Abuse in Nursing Homes: The Effect of Work Stressors and Burnout (United States)

    Shinan-Altman, Shiri; Cohen, Miri


    Background: Nursing aides' attitudes condoning elder abuse are a possible risk factor for executing abusive behaviors against elder residents of long-term care facilities but have been studied infrequently. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to assess nursing aides' attitudes that condone abusive behaviors toward elderly people, as well as the…

  7. Minimizing fungal disease deaths will allow the UNAIDS target of reducing annual AIDS deaths below 500 000 by 2020 to be realized (United States)


    Deaths from AIDS (1 500 000 in 2013) have been falling more slowly than anticipated with improved access to antiretroviral therapy. Opportunistic infections account for most AIDS-related mortality, with a median age of death in the mid-30s. About 360 000 (24%) of AIDS deaths are attributed to tuberculosis. Fungal infections deaths in AIDS were estimated at more than 700 000 deaths (47%) annually. Rapid diagnostic tools and antifungal agents are available for these diseases and would likely have a major impact in reducing deaths. Scenarios for reduction of avoidable deaths were constructed based on published outcomes of the real-life impact of diagnostics and generic antifungal drugs to 2020. Annual deaths could fall for cryptococcal disease by 70 000, Pneumocystis pneumonia by 162 500, disseminated histoplasmosis by 48 000 and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis by 33 500, with approximately 60% coverage of diagnostics and antifungal agents; a total of >1 000 000 lives saved over 5 years. If factored in with the 90–90–90 campaign rollout and its effect, AIDS deaths could fall to 426 000 annually by 2020, with further reductions possible with increased coverage. Action could and should be taken by donors, national and international public health agencies, NGOs and governments to achieve the UNAIDS mortality reduction target, by scaling up capability to detect and treat fungal disease in AIDS. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience’. PMID:28080991

  8. Critical review of the United Kingdom's "gold standard" survey of public attitudes to science. (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin K; Jensen, Eric A


    Since 2000, the UK government has funded surveys aimed at understanding the UK public's attitudes toward science, scientists, and science policy. Known as the Public Attitudes to Science series, these surveys and their predecessors have long been used in UK science communication policy, practice, and scholarship as a source of authoritative knowledge about science-related attitudes and behaviors. Given their importance and the significant public funding investment they represent, detailed academic scrutiny of the studies is needed. In this essay, we critically review the most recently published Public Attitudes to Science survey (2014), assessing the robustness of its methods and claims. The review casts doubt on the quality of key elements of the Public Attitudes to Science 2014 survey data and analysis while highlighting the importance of robust quantitative social research methodology. Our analysis comparing the main sample and booster sample for young people demonstrates that quota sampling cannot be assumed equivalent to probability-based sampling techniques.

  9. Evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention program to influence attitudes of students towards peers with disabilities. (United States)

    de Boer, Anke; Pijl, Sip Jan; Minnaert, Alexander; Post, Wendy


    In this study we examine the effectiveness of an intervention program to influence attitudes of elementary school students towards peers with intellectual, physical and severe physical and intellectual disabilities. A quasi-experimental longitudinal study was designed with an experimental group and a control group, both comprising two rural schools. An intervention program was developed for kindergarten (n(experimental) = 22, n(control) = 31) and elementary school students without disabilities (n(experimental) = 91, n(control) = 127) (age range 4-12 years old). This intervention consisted of a 3 weeks education project comprising six lessons about disabilities. The Acceptance Scale for Kindergarten-revised and the Attitude Survey to Inclusive Education were used to measure attitudes at three moments: prior to the start of the intervention, after the intervention and 1 year later. The outcomes of the multilevel analysis showed positive, immediate effects on attitudes of kindergarten students, but limited effects on elementary school students' attitudes.

  10. Construction and Validation of an Instrument to Measure Taiwanese Elementary Students' Attitudes toward Their Science Class (United States)

    Wang, Tzu-Ling; Berlin, Donna


    The main purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the attitudes toward science class of fourth- and fifth-grade students in an Asian school culture. Specifically, the development focused on three science attitude constructs-science enjoyment, science confidence, and importance of science as related to science class experiences. A total of 265 elementary school students in Taiwan responded to the instrument developed. Data analysis indicated that the instrument exhibited satisfactory validity and reliability with the Taiwan population used. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.93 for the entire instrument indicating a satisfactory level of internal consistency. However, both principal component analysis and parallel analysis showed that the three attitude scales were not unique and should be combined and used as a general "attitudes toward science class" scale. The analysis also showed that there were no gender or grade-level differences in students' overall attitudes toward science class.

  11. The effect of implicitly incentivized faking on explicit and implicit measures of doping attitude: when athletes want to pretend an even more negative attitude to doping. (United States)

    Wolff, Wanja; Schindler, Sebastian; Brand, Ralf


    The Implicit Association Test (IAT) aims to measure participants' automatic evaluation of an attitude object and is useful especially for the measurement of attitudes related to socially sensitive subjects, e.g. doping in sports. Several studies indicate that IAT scores can be faked on instruction. But fully or semi-instructed research scenarios might not properly reflect what happens in more realistic situations, when participants secretly decide to try faking the test. The present study is the first to investigate IAT faking when there is only an implicit incentive to do so. Sixty-five athletes (22.83 years ± 2.45; 25 women) were randomly assigned to an incentive-to-fake condition or a control condition. Participants in the incentive-to-fake condition were manipulated to believe that athletes with lenient doping attitudes would be referred to a tedious 45-minute anti-doping program. Attitudes were measured with the pictorial doping brief IAT (BIAT) and with the Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS). A one-way MANOVA revealed significant differences between conditions after the manipulation in PEAS scores, but not in the doping BIAT. In the light of our hypothesis this suggests that participants successfully faked an exceedingly negative attitude to doping when completing the PEAS, but were unsuccessful in doing so on the reaction time-based test. This study assessed BIAT faking in a setting that aimed to resemble a situation in which participants want to hide their attempts to cheat. The two measures of attitude were differentially affected by the implicit incentive. Our findings provide evidence that the pictorial doping BIAT is relatively robust against spontaneous and naïve faking attempts. (B)IATs might be less prone to faking than implied by previous studies.

  12. Mortality from diabetes mellitus, 2004 to 2008: A multiple-cause-of-death analysis. (United States)

    Park, Jungwee; Peters, Paul A


    Using multiple-cause-of-death data, this study examines diabetes mellitus as a cause of mortality. During the 2004-to-2008 period, diabetes mellitus was listed as either the underlying cause or a contributing cause of 119,617 deaths. It was more than twice as likely to be a contributing than the underlying cause of death. When it was identified as the underlying cause of death, diabetes mellitus was rarely the only cause. The diabetes mellitus mortality rate was relatively high among males, older individuals, and people living in lower-income neighbourhoods. Provincial/Territorial differences in rates of death from diabetes mellitus were considerable. When diabetes mellitus was the underlying cause of death, cardiovascular diseases were listed as a contributing cause most often, and when diabetes mellitus was a contributing cause, cardiovascular diseases were most likely to be the underlying cause.

  13. [Autonomous National University of Mexico (UNAM) medical students' attitudes to research and learning: 1984-1994]. (United States)

    Nobigrot-Kleinman, D; Nobigrot-Streimbleinsky, M; Galván-Huerta, S C


    This study evaluates, after a 10-year period, the attitudes of medical students towards research and learning at the National University of Mexico (UNAM), and tries to determine the role that experiences obtained during academic years could play in orienting these attitudes. Results indicate that all four groups of participant students,--1st and 4th-5th grades, in 1984 and in 1994--show slightly positive attitudes towards research and learning. No significant attitude changes were observed after the 10-year period in students who enter medical school nor in those who begin clinical practice. Besides, it was found a significant correlation between these two attitudinal factors. Some possible explanations for these results are discussed, as well as some steps that could help to promote positive attitudes towards research and learning.

  14. Autophagy prevents autophagic cell death in Tetrahymena in response to oxidative stress. (United States)

    Zhang, Si-Wei; Feng, Jiang-Nan; Cao, Yi; Meng, Li-Ping; Wang, Shu-Lin


    Autophagy is a major cellular pathway used to degrade long-lived proteins or organelles that may be damaged due to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by cellular stress. Autophagy typically enhances cell survival, but it may also act to promote cell death under certain conditions. The mechanism underlying this paradox, however, remains unclear. We showed that Tetrahymena cells exerted increased membrane-bound vacuoles characteristic of autophagy followed by autophagic cell death (referred to as cell death with autophagy) after exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine or 3-methyladenine significantly augmented autophagic cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide. Blockage of the mitochondrial electron transport chain or starvation triggered activation of autophagy followed by cell death by inducing the production of ROS due to the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. This indicated a regulatory role of mitochondrial ROS in programming autophagy and autophagic cell death in Tetrahymena. Importantly, suppression of autophagy enhanced autophagic cell death in Tetrahymena in response to elevated ROS production from starvation, and this was reversed by antioxidants. Therefore, our results suggest that autophagy was activated upon oxidative stress to prevent the initiation of autophagic cell death in Tetrahymena until the accumulation of ROS passed the point of no return, leading to delayed cell death in Tetrahymena.

  15. Enhanced Suicidal Erythrocyte Death Contributing to Anemia in the Elderly


    Adrian Lupescu; Rosi Bissinger; Tobias Goebel; Salker, Madhuri S.; Kousi Alzoubi; Guilai Liu; Liviu Chirigiu; Andreas F Mack; Qadri, Syed M.; Florian Lang


    Background/Aims: Anemia, a common condition in the elderly, could result from impaired formation and/or from accelerated loss of circulating erythrocytes. The latter could result from premature suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis characterized by phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include increased cytosolic Ca2+-concentration ([Ca2+]i), oxidative stress and ceramide. The present study explored whether eryptosis is altered in elderly individ...

  16. Tobacco access to youth: beliefs and attitudes of retailers. (United States)

    Dovell, R A; Mowat, D L; Dorland, J; Lam, M


    Results of a telephone survey provide insights into the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of tobacco merchants from two local health units. More than 90% of the retailers said they should not be able to sell cigarettes to minors. They are aware of laws prohibiting such sales but are sceptical about the impact on young people. The majority report being motivated to help protect the health of youth, however, they advise that legislation provides the main reason for not selling cigarettes to minors. Other responses and behaviours of the merchants help provide a profile of an important group that is being asked to stop selling tobacco to young people. The authors classify the retailers into three groups according to the potential influence on their behaviour of messages about health and threats of enforcement. One of the health units had implemented a local intervention, therefore we also compare responses between the two health units. This type of information can be used when selecting strategies to strengthen health policies. Such policies and strategies should include input and feedback from retailers of tobacco.

  17. An assessment of burn care professionals' attitudes to major burn.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, A D


    The resuscitation of severe burn remains a controversial area within the burn care profession. There is ongoing debate as to what percentage burn is associated with a sufficient quality of life to support initial resuscitation efforts. We conducted a survey of delegates at the 39th Annual Meeting of the British Burns Association (2005), regarding attitudes towards resuscitation following major burns. Respondents were asked the maximum percentage total body surface area (TBSA) burn beyond which they would not wish to be resuscitated. They were also asked what maximum TBSA they perceived to be commensurate with an acceptable quality of life (QOL). One hundred and forty three of 300 delegates responded to the questionnaire. Thirty three percent of respondents would not wish to be resuscitated with 50-75% TBSA burns or greater. A further 35% would not wish to have life-sustaining intervention with 75-95% TBSA burns or greater. The remaining 32% indicated that they would not want resuscitation with TBSA burns>95%. Regardless of TBSA affected, 16% would not wish resuscitation if they had full thickness facial burns, a further 10% did not want resuscitation if both their hands and faces were affected. Our survey demonstrates the diversity of personal preference amongst burn care professionals. This would suggest that a unifying philosophy regarding the resuscitation of extensive burns will remain elusive.

  18. Attitudes to Sharing Personal Health Information in Living Kidney Donation (United States)

    Hizo-Abes, Patricia; Young, Ann; Reese, Peter P.; McFarlane, Phil; Wright, Linda; Cuerden, Meaghan


    Background and objectives: In living kidney donation, transplant professionals consider the rights of a living kidney donor and recipient to keep their personal health information confidential and the need to disclose this information to the other for informed consent. In incompatible kidney exchange, personal health information from multiple living donors and recipients may affect decision making and outcomes. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: We conducted a survey to understand and compare the preferences of potential donors (n = 43), potential recipients (n = 73), and health professionals (n = 41) toward sharing personal health information (in total 157 individuals). Results: When considering traditional live-donor transplantation, donors and recipients generally agreed that a recipient's health information should be shared with the donor (86 and 80%, respectively) and that a donor's information should be shared with the recipient (97 and 89%, respectively). When considering incompatible kidney exchange, donors and recipients generally agreed that a recipient's information should be shared with all donors and recipients involved in the transplant (85 and 85%, respectively) and that a donor's information should also be shared with all involved (95 and 90%, respectively). These results were contrary to attitudes expressed by transplant professionals, who frequently disagreed about whether such information should be shared. Conclusions: Future policies and practice could facilitate greater sharing of personal health information in living kidney donation. This requires a consideration of which information is relevant, how to put it in context, and a plan to obtain consent from all concerned. PMID:20299371

  19. Sex, grade, and course differences in attitudes that are related to cognitive performance in secondary science (United States)

    Levin, James; Seymour Fowler, H.

    The purpose of this study was to collect and analyze data on sexual differences in secondary school students' attitudes towards science. Attitudinal differences were also analyzed for the independent variables of science programs and grade levels. Data were collected from 988 students using a modified version of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitude Scales to represent attitudes toward science. Reliabilities of the modified science subscales were all high ( > 0.83). Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to analyze the data for the main and interaction effects of the independent variables of sex (male, female), grade level (10th, 11th, 12th), and science program (advanced placement, academic, general, terminal). Significant differences (p < 0.05) were indicated for all main effects (sex, grade, science program). Interaction effects were not found. Mean separations for the various levels of sex, grade, and science program were performed for all attitudinal subscales. Females evidenced a significantly more positive attitude (p 0.01) than males on three subscales: Attitude Toward Success in Science Scale, Science as a Male Domain Scale, and Teacher Scale. Although not significant, males evidenced more positive attitudes on all the remaining five subscales. Eleventh graders evidenced significantly more positive attitudes than tenth graders on all but the Effectance Motivation Scale. Students in 11th grade had more positive attitudes than 12th-grade students on all scales but Science as a Male Domain Scale; however, these differences were not significant. Tenth graders differed significantly from 12th graders on three subscales; Science Usefulness Scale, Confidence in Learning Science Scale, and Teacher Scale. Positive attitudes decreased from advanced placement to terminal programs. Academic students did not differ significantly from general students except on the Father Scale; however, they were significantly different (more positive) from the terminal

  20. Chinese Postgraduates'Attitude to Their Study in UK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This thesis is about the research on adjustment of East Asian students in the pursuit of UK master degree by Wenli Wu and Michael Hammond*A Division of Communication and Social Sciences.Because of the different culture, society and educa-tion, Asian students encountered many challenges in the process of pursuing master's degree in UK , this phenomenon drew the attention of relevant scholars at home and abroad who started the research on Asian overseas students going abroad for study and survival adjustment report. This paper is to investigate the attitude of Chinese student to study abroad, through the survey of social culture and academic research.This study takes the method of pre-survey and using the achievements of other people, do-ing quantitative analysis from the two dimensions of individual psychological and social culture, provide adequate and reliable data support for the follow-up study.Studies have shown that Asian overseas students in Britain are more likely to experience the cultural collision, academic difficulties, academic learning disorders, the report proposed a theoretical model of in-depth un-derstanding and how to balance the the gap between western and Asian cultures. The effort of this research is to provide practi-cal and valuable suggestions socially, culturally and academically, to help oversea students have a successful transition and eval-uate their experience in UK.

  1. Adolescent attitudes and relevance to family life education programs. (United States)

    Unni, Jeeson C


    The study was conducted in seven private coeducational English-medium schools in Cochin to understand adolescent attitudes in this part of the country. Queries submitted by students (n=10,660) and responses to separate pretested questionnaires for boys (n=886 received) and girls (n=589 received) were analysed. The study showed a lacuna of knowledge among adolescents with the most frequently asked queries being on masturbation, and sex and sexuality. More than 50% of adolescents received information on sex and sexuality from peers; boys had started masturbating by 12 yr age and 93% were doing so by 15 yr age. Although 73% of girls were told about menstruation by their parents, 32% were not aware, at menarche, that such an event would occur and only 8% were aware of all aspects of maintaining menstrual hygiene. 19% of boys succumbed to peer pressure into reading/viewing pornography; more than 50% of adolescents admitted to having had an infatuation around 13 yrs of age or after. 13% of boys admitted to having been initiated into smoking by friends; mostly between 14-16 yrs age; 6.5% boys had consumed alcohol with peers or at family functions, starting between ages of 15 to 17 yrs. Though >70% of adolescents were aware about AIDS, adequate knowledge about its spread and prevention was lacking.

  2. Death due to neurogenic shock following gastric rupture in an anorexia nervosa patient. (United States)

    Sinicina, I; Pankratz, H; Büttner, A; Mall, G


    We report a case of fatal gastric rupture discovered after death, which developed due to a bulimic attack of a 19-year-old woman suffering from anorexia nervosa. An autopsy revealed an acute gastric dilatation and rupture without commonly observed ischemic damage of gastric wall structures. However, it may be difficult to determine the cause of death despite the marked findings. The death as a consequence of neurogenic shock accounts for all the results of gross examination and histologic analysis. This case is the first reported case of fatal gastric rupture of an anorectic patient discovered after death.

  3. An investigative report on circumstances leading to death among Indian cotton farmers. (United States)

    Patil, Rajan R


    Andhra Pradesh, a southern state of India has been in the news for cotton farmers' deaths/suicides since 1998. The occurrence of 12 deaths among the farmers in the years 2001-2002 clustering around September-October expedited the investigation. The objective of our investigation was to identify the circumstances leading to death of cotton farmers in Warangal district of Andhra Pradesh. Some of the broadly held hypotheses were also analyzed for their validity. The socioeconomic-political factors emerge as very strong determinants of deaths, given the occupational work environment.

  4. General beliefs about the world as defensive mechanisms against death anxiety. (United States)

    Hui, Victoria Ka-Ying; Bond, Michael Harris; Ng, Timmy Sze Wing

    Death ideation and death anxiety represent the cognitive and affective dimensions of death attitudes, respectively. General beliefs about the world are proposed to be useful defensive mechanisms protecting persons against the death anxiety provoked by death ideation. SEM is employed to test the proposed mediation model, using a sample of 133 Hong Kong Chinese university students. Results showed that death ideation was significantly and inversely linked to belief in social cynicism, reward for application, and fate control. Moreover, higher levels of belief in fate control and lower levels of religiosity predicted greater death anxiety. Only belief in fate control partially mediated the relationship between death ideation and death anxiety. Discussion focused on how social axioms serve as useful defensive mechanisms against death anxiety.

  5. Maternal death related to IVF in the Netherlands 1984-2008.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braat, D.D.M.; Schutte, J.M.; Bernardus, R.E.; Mooij, T.M.; Leeuwen, F.E. van


    BACKGROUND: We assessed all deaths in the Netherlands that might have been related to IVF or to an IVF pregnancy in order to investigate this most serious complication. METHODS: All deaths related to IVF, within 1 year after IVF, from 1984 to 2008 were collected by sending a letter to all gynaecolog

  6. The pathobiography and death of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: from legend to reality. (United States)

    Baroni, C D


    Mozart, perhaps one of the greatest geniuses of modern age, died mysteriously at the age of 35 in Vienna in 1791. The causes of his death are still somewhat obscure and debated since we do not have any documentation acceptable by current scientific standards. Inevitably, the conclusions reached are highly debatable. In the present article the various interpretations of Mozart's death are taken into consideration-from his possible poisoning to causes of death more acceptable by the present diagnostic criteria. We suggest that the terminal cause of death was brain hemorrhaging or stroke, complicated by broncopneumonia and associated with renal failure induced by proliferative glomerulonephritis and glomerulosclerosis.

  7. Cellular redox status determines sensitivity to BNIP3-mediated cell death in cardiac myocytes


    Lee, Youngil; Kubli, Dieter A.; Hanna, Rita A.; Cortez, Melissa Q.; Lee, Hwa-Youn; Miyamoto, Shigeki; Gustafsson, Åsa B.


    The atypical BH3-only protein Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa interacting protein 3 (BNIP3) is an important regulator of hypoxia-mediated cell death. Interestingly, the susceptibility to BNIP3-mediated cell death differs between cells. In this study we examined whether there are mechanistic differences in BNIP3-mediated cell death between neonatal and adult cardiac myocytes. We discovered that BNIP3 is a potent inducer of cell death in neonatal myocytes, whereas adult myocytes are remarkably resi...

  8. Attitudes of medical students to medical leadership and management: a systematic review to inform curriculum development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mark R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing acknowledgement that doctors need to develop leadership and management competences to become more actively involved in the planning, delivery and transformation of patient services. We undertook a systematic review of what is known concerning the knowledge, skills and attitudes of medical students regarding leadership and management. Here we report the results pertaining to the attitudes of students to provide evidence to inform curriculum development in this developing field of medical education. Methods We searched major electronic databases and citation indexes within the disciplines of medicine, education, social science and management. We undertook hand searching of major journals, and reference and citation tracking. We accessed websites of UK medical institutions and contacted individuals working within the field. Results 26 studies were included. Most were conducted in the USA, using mainly quantitative methods. We used inductive analysis of the topics addressed by each study to identity five main content areas: Quality Improvement; Managed Care, Use of Resources and Costs; General Leadership and Management; Role of the Doctor, and Patient Safety. Students have positive attitudes to clinical practice guidelines, quality improvement techniques and multidisciplinary teamwork, but mixed attitudes to managed care, cost containment and medical error. Education interventions had variable effects on students' attitudes. Medical students perceive a need for leadership and management education but identified lack of curriculum time and disinterest in some activities as potential barriers to implementation. Conclusions The findings from our review may reflect the relatively little emphasis given to leadership and management in medical curricula. However, students recognise a need to develop leadership and management competences. Although further work needs to be undertaken, using rigorous methods, to identify

  9. Individualism, acceptance and differentiation as attitude traits in the public's response to vaccination. (United States)

    Velan, Baruch; Boyko, Valentina; Lerner-Geva, Liat; Ziv, Arnona; Yagar, Yaakov; Kaplan, Giora


    The attitude of the general public to vaccination was evaluated through a survey conducted on a representative sample of the Israeli population (n = 2,018), in which interviewees were requested to express their standpoints regarding five different vaccination programs. These included: pandemic influenza vaccination, seasonal influenza vaccination, travel vaccines, Human Papilloma Virus vaccine and childhood vaccinations. Analysis of the responses reveal three major attitude traits: a) acceptance, characterized by the opinion that targets should be vaccinated; b) individualism, characterized by the opinion that vaccination should be left to personal choice; and c) differentiation, characterized by the tendency to express different attitudes when addressing different vaccination programs. Interestingly, direct opposition to vaccination was found to be a minor attitude trait in this survey. Groups within the population could be defined according to their tendency to assume these different attitudes as Acceptors, Judicious-acceptors, Differentiators, Soft-individualists, and Hard-individualists. These groups expressed different standpoints on all five vaccination programs as well as on other health recommendations, such as screening for early detection of cancer. Attitude traits could be also correlated, to a certain extent, with actual compliance with vaccination programs. Interestingly, attitudes to vaccination were not correlated with social profiles related to income or education, although younger individuals exhibited higher degrees of individualism and differentiation. Taken together, all this is in accordance with the current social settings, underlining the individual's tendency for critical evaluation and self-stirring. This should be taken into consideration by health authorities involved in vaccination programs.

  10. To bleed or not to bleed: young women's attitudes toward menstrual suppression. (United States)

    Johnston-Robledo, Ingrid; Ball, Melissa; Lauta, Kimberly; Zekoll, Ann


    The purpose of this study was to investigate women's knowledge about and attitudes toward the medical suppression of menstruation. One hundred and three female undergraduate students completed several questionnaires. Thirty-five percent of the participants were familiar with menstrual suppression, and 12% reported using birth control methods to suppress their menses; oral contraceptive users were more knowledgeable about menstrual suppression than other women. Women who regarded menstruation as bothersome and shameful were more supportive of suppression than women with more positive attitudes. Women who scored higher on measures of body consciousness were not more likely to support menstrual suppression or to report a desire for more information about menstrual suppression. Future investigations of women's attitudes toward menstrual suppression could inform reproductive health care and health education.

  11. Hospitalizations and deaths due to pertussis in children from 1996 to 2013☆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janayne F. Mançaneira


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: To assess temporal trends of hospitalizations and deaths from pertussis in Brazilian children in the period of 1996-2013. METHODS: This was a descriptive ecological study of temporal trends, based on the DATASUS database. The number of hospitalizations and deaths from pertussis in children up to 19 years of age from January 1996 to December 2013 was obtained. Descriptive statistics were applied for data analysis. RESULTS: During the study period, a total of 19,047 hospital admissions from pertussis were recorded, of which 88.2% occurred in infants younger than 1 year. In the period 1996-2010, the mean annual number of admissions was 755, ranging from a maximum of 1179 in 2004 to a minimum of 400 in 2010. There was an increase of admissions in the last three consecutive years (2011, 2012, and 2013 with 1177, 2954 and 3589 hospitalizations, respectively. There were 498 deaths from pertussis throughout the study period, of which 96.8% occurred in children younger than one year. There was an increase in the number of deaths from pertussis in children in the years 2011, 2012, and 2013, with 40, 93, and 87 recorded deaths, respectively. The increase in hospitalizations and deaths from pertussis in children occurred in all regions of the country, with the highest increase observed in the Southeast, North and Northeast regions. CONCLUSIONS: There was a substantial increase in hospitalizations and deaths from pertussis in children for three consecutive years (2011, 2012, and 2013 in all Brazilian regions. The most affected age group was that of children younger than one year.

  12. Hotline in Egypt marks change in government attitude to AIDS. (United States)


    The first 24-hour AIDS hotline in the Arab world will open in Cairo, Egypt, in October 1995. The opening of the new service marks a change in attitude on the part of the Egyptian government, which has maintained a discreet AIDS control program in the past. Approval from religious leaders was necessary for the new program to begin; the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) played a prominent role in negotiations. The "Counsel and Hot Line Centre," which will be based in Imbala district, will employ 19 people, including two doctors and two psychologists. The Centre was funded with US$300,000 from the Ford Foundation. Currently, 478 persons with HIV infections and 110 people with AIDS have been reported. The ministry estimates that there are 5000-7000 persons with HIV infections in Egypt. Although these figures were greeted with suspicion by organizations outside of Egypt, subsequent testing has indicated low prevalence rates for this country, despite high tourism and a large population of migrant workers.

  13. Attitudes of medical and nursing personnel to breast feeding practices. (United States)

    Sharma, P; Dutta, A K; Narayanan, I; Mullick, D N


    Medical staff from the department of Pediatrics and Obstetrics and Gynecology (50 doctors and 50 nurses) were interviewed in an assessment of attitudes towards and knowledge of breast feeding. 98% of the doctors and nurses believed that breast feeding was better than artificial feeding. However, 32% of the nurses believed that commercial powder milk is preferable for use with a preterm baby. Most of the 100 believed that a newborn baby should receive boiled water for the 1st feed. All of the doctors and 94% of the nurses agreed that the newborn should be given the opportunity for a breast feed within the 1st 12 hours following birth. While most of the doctors and nurses generally supported breast feeding, they also did not believe that the 1st feed should be breast milk, and nearly 1/3 of the nurses advocated commercial milk for preterm babies. 86% of the nurses and 70% of the doctors believed that breast feeding ought to continue for 1 year. Even though a general awareness and understanding of breast feeding existed among the medical personnel interviewed, there are still areas in which staff could be re-educated and re-directed.

  14. Attitudes, social representations and social attitudes


    Farr, Robert, M.


    This paper plays the role of the devil's advocate in relation to Colin Fraser's paper "attitudes, social representations and widespread beliefs". It argues for the alternative perspective which Colin identifies that social representations and social attitudes are epistemologically incompatible theories.

  15. Which Variables Relate to the Attitudes of Teachers, Parents and Peers towards Students with Special Educational Needs in Regular Education? (United States)

    de Boer, Anke; Pijl, Sip Jan; Post, Wendy; Minnaert, Alexander


    While there is an increased interest in describing attitudes of teachers, parents and peers towards students with special educational needs in regular education, there is a lack of knowledge about various variables relating to the attitudes of these three groups. The aims of this study are: (1) to examine which variables relate to the attitudes of…

  16. How to Live? What We Can Learn from Ivan Ilych's Death (United States)

    Felps, Maryann


    Near the first of every school year, the author has the opportunity to talk to her students about death, usually in the midst of their study of "Beowulf" or "Gilgamesh." Occasionally, the discussion results from the recent news of the death of a public figure or, closer to home, a family member. Regardless of the circumstance, her students learn…

  17. Predicting consumers' intention to consume ready-to-eat meals. The role of moral attitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Sijtsema, Siet J; Hall, Gunnar


    This study investigates the usefulness of integrating moral attitude into the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) model when predicting intention to consume ready-to-eat (RTE) meals. Questionnaire data were gathered in three countries: Norway (N = 112), The Netherlands (N = 99), and Finland (N = 134......) in spring 2009. A stepwise hierarchical regression was conducted, and the analyses showed that moral attitude is an important predictor of RTE-meal consumption. The feeling of moral obligation, operationalised as a negative feeling of guilt, had a negative effect on peoples' intention to consume ready meals...

  18. Attitude Determination with Magnetometers and Accelerometers to Use in Satellite Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Koiti Kuga


    Full Text Available Attitude control of artificial satellites is dependent on information provided by its attitude determination process. This paper presents the implementation and tests of a fully self-contained algorithm for the attitude determination using magnetometers and accelerometers, for application on a satellite simulator based on frictionless air bearing tables. However, it is known that magnetometers and accelerometers need to be calibrated so as to allow that measurements are used to their ultimate accuracy. A calibration method is implemented which proves to be essential for improving attitude determination accuracy. For the stepwise real-time attitude determination, it was used the well-known QUEST algorithm which yields quick response with reduced computer resources. The algorithms are tested and qualified with actual data collected on the streets under controlled situations. For such street runaways, the experiment employs a solid-state magnetoresistive magnetometer and an IMU navigation block consisting of triads of accelerometers and gyros, with MEMS technology. A GPS receiver is used to record positional information. The collected measurements are processed through the developed algorithms, and comparisons are made for attitude determination using calibrated and noncalibrated data. The results show that the attitude accuracy reaches the requirements for real-time operation for satellite simulator platforms.

  19. Increasing Deaths Due to Malignancy in HIV+ Patients is Associated with Integrase Inhibitor Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel O. Griffin[1,2,3; Arif Dharsee[1; Juan Carlos Rico[1; Joseph McGowan[1


    Despite reductions in AIDS-related deaths, registries show HIV+ patients are still dying at a younger age than HIV-peers. Although overall mortality has declined in this population, a growing percent of deaths are due to malignancy. Since the data demonstrating the growing percentage of deaths due to malignancy in the HIV+ population is derived from registries, the study explores whether the subset dying from malignancy has particular characteristics that can be seen in a well-characterized cohort. In the well-characterized HIV+ cohort, the percentage of deaths due to cancer was seen to increase over four years (2010-2013) from 21% to 24% to 38% to 40%. The mean CD4-count of those who died from malignancy was 252+/-42 and 333+/-36 in patients with death from other causes. The viral load was not suppressed in 26% of patients dying from malignancy. Of patients on integrase inhibitor therapy, 48% of deaths were due to malignancy while in patients not on this therapy, 10% of deaths were due to malignancy (relative risk = 4.8). In HIV+ patients, a low CD4-count, failure to achieve viral suppression, and use of integrase inhibitors were associated with malignancy as the cause of death. The association of a specific therapy, integrase inhibition, with malignancy is seen in the study.

  20. International note: Are Emirati parents' attitudes toward mathematics linked to their adolescent children's attitudes toward mathematics and mathematics achievement? (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Khine, Myint Swe; Melkonian, Michael; Welch, Anita G; Al Nuaimi, Samira Ahmed; Rashad, Fatimah F


    Drawing on data from the 2012 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and employing multilevel modeling as an analytic strategy, this study examined the relations of adolescent children's perceptions of their parents' attitudes towards mathematics to their own attitudes towards mathematics and mathematics achievement among a sample of 5116 adolescents from 384 schools in the United Arab Emirates. The results of this cross-sectional study revealed that adolescents who perceived that their parents liked mathematics and considered mathematics was important for their children not only to study but also for their career tended to report higher levels of intrinsic and instrumental motivation to learn mathematics, mathematics self-concept and self-efficacy, and mathematics work ethic. Moreover, adolescents who perceived that their parents liked mathematics and considered mathematics was important for their children's career tended to report positive intentions and behaviors toward mathematics. However, adolescents who perceived that their parents considered mathematics was important for their children's career tended to report higher levels of mathematics anxiety. Finally, adolescents who perceived that their parents considered mathematics was important for their children to study performed significantly better on the mathematics assessment than did their peers whose parents disregarded the importance of learning mathematics.

  1. Evaluation of Underlying Causes of Death in Patients with Dementia to Support Targeted Advance Care Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van De Vorst, Irene E.; Koek, Huiberdina L.; Bots, Michiel L.; Vaartjes, Ilonca


    Background: Insight in causes of death in demented patients may help physicians in end-of-life care. Objectives: To investigate underlying causes of death (UCD) in demented patients stratified by age, sex, dementia subtype [Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD)] and to compare them with

  2. Prevalence of Parental Thrombophilic Defects After Fetal Death and Relation to Cause

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteweg, F.J.; Erwich, J.J.H.M.; Folkeringa, N.; Timmer, A.; Veeger, N.J.G.M.; Ravise, J.M.; Holm, J.P.; van der Meer, J.


    OBJECTIVE: To estimate whether parental thrombophilic defects after fetal death, either acquired or inherited, were more prevalent than in the normal population and to estimate associations between these thrombophilic defects and different fetal death causes. METHODS: In a multicenter, prospective c

  3. Time to cardiac death after withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment in potential organ donors. (United States)

    Suntharalingam, C; Sharples, L; Dudley, C; Bradley, J A; Watson, C J E


    Organ donation after cardiac death (DCD) is increasing markedly, allowing more patients to benefit from transplantation. The time to cardiac death following withdrawal of life-supporting treatment varies widely and is an important determinant of whether organ donation occurs. A prospective multicenter study of potential DCD donors was undertaken to evaluate the time to death and identify associated factors. One hundred and ninety-one potential adult DCD donors at nine UK centers were studied. Treatment withdrawal comprised stopping ventilator support and inotropes. Demographics and physiological variables at the time of death were recorded. Following treatment withdrawal, all potential donors died, with median time to death of 36 min (range 5 min to 3.3 days). Eighty-three potential donors (43.5%) remained alive 1 h after treatment withdrawal, and 69 (36.1%) and 54 (28.3%) at 2 and 4 h, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that age, cause of death, ventilation mode, inotrope use, systolic blood pressure, FiO2 and arterial pH at treatment withdrawal were all associated with time to death. Multivariable analysis showed that younger age, higher FiO2 and mode of ventilation were independently associated with shorter time to death. This information may aid planning and resourcing of DCD organ recovery and help maximize DCD donor numbers.

  4. Burden of sudden cardiac death in persons aged 1 to 49 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard, Bjarke; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Jabbari, Reza


    BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the burden and causes of sudden cardiac death (SCD) is sparse in persons agedaged 1 to 49 years. METHODS AND RESULTS......: All deaths in persons aged 1 to 49 years were included in 2007 to 2009. Death certificates were reviewed by 2 physicians. History of previous admissions to hospital was assessed, and discharge summaries were read. Sudden unexpected death cases were identified and autopsy reports were collected....... In the 3-year study period, there were 7849 deaths of which we identified 893 (11%) SCD cases. The annual incidence rate per 100 000 persons increased from 2.3 (95% confidence interval, 2.0-2.7) to 21.7 (95% confidence interval, 20.2-23.4) in persons aged 1 to 35 and 36 to 49 years, respectively. Coronary...

  5. Death: 'nothing' gives insight. (United States)

    Ettema, Eric J


    According to a widely accepted belief, we cannot know our own death--death means 'nothing' to us. At first sight, the meaning of 'nothing' just implies the negation or absence of 'something'. Death then simply refers to the negation or absence of life. As a consequence, however, death has no meaning of itself. This leads to an ontological paradox in which death is both acknowledged and denied: death is … nothing. In this article, I investigate whether insight into the ontological paradox of the nothingness of death can contribute to a good end-of-life. By analysing Aquinas', Heidegger's and Derrida's understanding of death as nothingness, I explore how giving meaning to death on different ontological levels connects to, and at the same time provides resistance against, the harsh reality of death. By doing so, I intend to demonstrate that insight into the nothingness of death can count as a framework for a meaningful dealing with death.

  6. Damages and Expected Deaths Due to Excess NOx Emissions from 2009 to 2015 Volkswagen Diesel Vehicles. (United States)

    Holland, Stephen P; Mansur, Erin T; Muller, Nicholas Z; Yates, Andrew J


    We estimate the damages and expected deaths in the United States due to excess emissions of NOx from 2009 to 2015 Volkswagen diesel vehicles. Using data on vehicle registrations and a model of pollution transport and valuation, we estimate excess damages of $430 million and 46 excess expected deaths. Accounting for uncertainty about emissions gives a range for damages from $350 million to $500 million, and a range for excess expected deaths from 40 to 52. Our estimates incorporate significant local heterogeneity: for example, Minneapolis has the highest damages despite having fewer noncompliant vehicles than 13 other cities. Our estimated damages greatly exceed possible benefits from reduced CO2 emissions due to increased fuel economy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOVOTNÁ, Jarmila


    Full Text Available The paper is a sequel to the article (Novotná et al., 2014, where the authors present the results of a 4-month experiment whose main aim was to change pupils’ culture of problem solving by using heuristic strategies suitable for problem solving in mathematics education. (Novotná et al., 2014 focused on strategies Analogy, Guess – check – revise, Systematic experimentation, Problem reformulation, Solution drawing, Working backwards and Use of graphs of functions. This paper focuses on two other heuristic strategies convenient for improvement of pupils’ culture of problem solving: Introduction of an auxiliary element and Omitting a condition. In the first part, the strategies Guess – Check – Revise, Working backwards, Introduction of an auxiliary element and Omitting a condition are characterized in detail and illustrated by examples of their use in order to capture their characteristics. In the second part we focus on the newly introduced strategies and analyse work with them in lessons using the tools from (Novotná et al., 2014. The analysis of results of the experiment indicates that, unlike in case of the strategy Introduction of an auxiliary element, successful use of the strategy Omitting a condition requires longer teacher’s work with the pupils. The following analysis works with the strategy Systematic experimentation, which seemed to be the easiest to master in (Novotná et al., 2014; we focus on the dangers it bears when it is used by pupils. The conclusion from (Novotná et al., 2014, which showed that if pupils are introduced to an environment that supports their creativity, their attitude towards problem solving changes in a positive way already after the period of four months, is confirmed.

  8. The Case for Reasonable Accommodation of Conscientious Objections to Declarations of Brain Death. (United States)

    Johnson, L Syd M


    Since its inception in 1968, the concept of whole-brain death has been contentious, and four decades on, controversy concerning the validity and coherence of whole-brain death continues unabated. Although whole-brain death is legally recognized and medically entrenched in the United States and elsewhere, there is reasonable disagreement among physicians, philosophers, and the public concerning whether brain death is really equivalent to death as it has been traditionally understood. A handful of states have acknowledged this plurality of viewpoints and enacted "conscience clauses" that require "reasonable accommodation" of religious and moral objections to the determination of death by neurological criteria. This paper argues for the universal adoption of "reasonable accommodation" policies using the New Jersey statute as a model, in light of both the ongoing controversy and the recent case of Jahi McMath, a child whose family raised religious objections to a declaration of brain death. Public policies that accommodate reasonable, divergent viewpoints concerning death provide a practical and compassionate way to resolve those conflicts that are the most urgent, painful, and difficult to reconcile.

  9. ["Us" and "them": European and North American attitudes to immigration]. (United States)

    Livi-bacci, M


    This work compares attitudes toward immigration in Europe and North America. Europe has adopted and reinforced a restrictive immigration policy since the 1970s, but family reunification and asylum for refugees have replaced labor migration to maintain the flow of newcomers over the past two decades. Illegal immigration has increased in countries such as Italy and Spain where immigration is a recent phenomenon. Migratory pressure from the former Soviet block, violence against immigrants in Germany and elsewhere, the crisis of social protection systems, economic recession and increasing unemployment have pressured European governments to reinforce their closed door policy. In the US, restrictions against immigration have relaxed greatly since adoption of the Immigration Reform and Control Act in 1986. Over 800,000 immigrants have been admitted annually to the US in recent years. The factors explaining the different immigration policies in North America and Europe are not economic or demographic, but stem rather from history, social structure, the functioning of the labor market and social mobility. North America, more than Europe, has a positive view of immigration as contributing to the vitality and renewal of the culture and promoting development by broadening experience and knowledge. Immigration is regarded in Europe as, at best, a necessity in times of labor shortage and economic expansion. European countries tend to perceive themselves as totally formed and not requiring further cultural contribution. Homogeneity in culture, language, and religion is valued. Social mobility is possible in North America through professional success, but in the older and more hierarchical societies of Europe, social status is determined by birth and family or other connections. Since the early 1990s, public opinion toward immigration has become less favorable on both sides of the Atlantic, with increasing proportions favoring limitation. The positive perception of immigration in

  10. Preservice Teachers' Attitudes about Writing: Learning to Write and Teaching to Write (United States)

    Butaud, Gayle L.


    The purpose of this study was to use a phenomenological perspective aimed at description analysis to gain a deeper understanding of the writing attitudes and experiences preservice teacher bring to the student teaching semester. A questionnaire was used to gather information about student teachers at a regional university. Based on the responses…

  11. Linking Prenatal Androgens to Gender-Related Attitudes, Identity, and Activities : Evidence From Girls With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endendijk, Joyce J.; Beltz, Adriene M.; McHale, Susan M.; Bryk, Kristina; Berenbaum, Sheri A.


    Key questions for developmentalists concern the origins of gender attitudes and their implications for behavior. We examined whether prenatal androgen exposure was related to gender attitudes, and whether and how the links between attitudes and gendered activity interest and participation were media

  12. Linking Prenatal Androgens to Gender-Related Attitudes, Identity, and Activities: Evidence From Girls With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia. (United States)

    Endendijk, Joyce J; Beltz, Adriene M; McHale, Susan M; Bryk, Kristina; Berenbaum, Sheri A


    Key questions for developmentalists concern the origins of gender attitudes and their implications for behavior. We examined whether prenatal androgen exposure was related to gender attitudes, and whether and how the links between attitudes and gendered activity interest and participation were mediated by gender identity and moderated by hormones. Gender attitudes (i.e., gender-role attitudes and attitudes about being a girl), gender identity, and gender-typed activities were reported by 54 girls aged 10-13 years varying in degree of prenatal androgen exposure, including 40 girls with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (C-CAH) exposed to high prenatal androgens and 14 girls with non-classical (NC) CAH exposed to low, female-typical, prenatal androgens. Both girls with C-CAH and NC-CAH reported positive attitudes about being a girl and egalitarian gender attitudes, consistent with their female-typical gender identity. In contrast, girls with C-CAH had more male-typed activity interest and participation than girls with NC-CAH. Gender attitudes were linked to activities in both groups, with gender identity mediating the links. Specifically, gender-role attitudes and positive attitudes about being a girl were associated with feminine gender identity, which in turn was associated with decreased male-typed activity interests and participation, and increased female-typed activity interests. Our results are consistent with schema theories, with attitudes more closely associated with gender identity than with prenatal androgens.

  13. Death and Dying: Staying in Control to the End of Our Lives. (United States)

    Sommers, Tish; And Others

    This "gray paper" addresses the concerns of older women regarding their control over death and dying. It is based on the observation that older women are devalued by society on account of both their age and gender, and hence are likely to be impoverished and vulnerable as they approach death. The paper begins by examining the legal,…

  14. Coordinate reduction in cell proliferation and cell death in mouse olfactory epithelium from birth to maturity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fung, KM; Peringa, J; Venkatachalam, S; Lee, VMY; Trojanowski, JQ


    We investigated cell proliferation and cell death in the olfactory epithelium (OE) of mice from birth to maturity using bromodeoxyuridine and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling. We show that cell death events and proliferative activity diminish concomitantly with age in the OE.

  15. Epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacological interventions related to suicide deaths and suicide attempts in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaffer, Ayal; Isometsä, Erkki T; Tondo, Leonardo


    OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder is associated with elevated risk of suicide attempts and deaths. Key aims of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide included examining the extant literature on epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacotherapy related to suicide attempts...... and deaths in bipolar disorder. METHODS: Systematic review of studies from 1 January 1980 to 30 May 2014 examining suicide attempts or deaths in bipolar disorder, with a specific focus on the incidence and characterization of suicide attempts and deaths, genetic and non-genetic biological studies...... to women. People with bipolar disorder account for 3.4-14% of all suicide deaths, with self-poisoning and hanging being the most common methods. Epidemiological studies report that 23-26% of people with bipolar disorder attempt suicide, with higher rates in clinical samples. There are numerous genetic...

  16. Sudden Infant Death With Area Postrema Lesion Likely Due to Wrong Use of Insecticide. (United States)

    Lavezzi, Anna M; Cappiello, Achille; Termopoli, Veronica; Bonoldi, Emanuela; Matturri, Luigi


    We report a noteworthy case of a 7-month-old infant who suddenly and unexpectedly died during her sleep. After a complete postmortem examination, review of the clinical history, and detailed death scene investigation, the death remained unexplained, leading to a diagnosis of sudden infant death syndrome. However, an extensive review of the brainstem neuropathology revealed a severe alteration in the area postrema (a highly vascular structure lying at the base of the fourth ventricle outside of the blood-brain barrier). The alteration was likely due to massive and repeated to a common household insecticide in the last few weeks of life. These results provide an explanation for this sudden infant death, allowing a differential diagnosis from sudden infant death syndrome.

  17. Use of hair testing to determine methadone exposure in pediatric deaths. (United States)

    Tournel, Gilles; Pollard, Jocelyn; Humbert, Luc; Wiart, Jean-François; Hédouin, Valéry; Allorge, Delphine


    A case of death attributed to methadone acute poisoning in an infant aged 11 months is reported. A sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) was suspected, whereas a traumatic cause of death was excluded regarding autopsy findings. Specimens were submitted to a large toxicological analysis, which included ethanol measurement by HS-GC-FID, a targeted screening for drugs of abuse and various prescription drug classes followed by quantification using UPLC-MS/MS methods. Methadone and its metabolite (EDDP) were detected in all the tested fluids, as well as in hair, with a blood concentration of methadone considered as lethal for children (73 ng/mL). The cause of death was determined to be acute "methadone poisoning", and the manner of death was "accidental". A discussion of the case circumstances, the difficulties with the interpretation of toxicological findings in children (blood concentration and hair testing), and the origin of exposure are discussed.

  18. From moral theory to penal attitudes and back: a theoretically integrated modeling approach. (United States)

    de Keijser, Jan W; van der Leeden, Rien; Jackson, Janet L


    From a moral standpoint, we would expect the practice of punishment to reflect a solid and commonly shared legitimizing framework. Several moral legal theories explicitly aim to provide such frameworks. Based on the theories of Retributivism, Utilitarianism, and Restorative Justice, this article first sets out to develop a theoretically integrated model of penal attitudes and then explores the extent to which Dutch judges' attitudes to punishment fit the model. Results indicate that penal attitudes can be measured in a meaningful way that is consistent with an integrated approach to moral theory. The general structure of penal attitudes among Dutch judges suggests a streamlined and pragmatic approach to legal punishment that is identifiably founded on the separate concepts central to moral theories of punishment. While Restorative Justice is frequently presented as an alternative paradigm, results show it to be smoothly incorporated within the streamlined approach.

  19. Teaching Philosophy Game - A Way to Clarify Values, Attitudes, and Preferences Related to Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Birgitte Lund; Hansen, Claus Thorp; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    The authors propose a game that can be used to clarify faculty members’ values, attitudes,and preferences related to teaching and learning. The game is intended to establish a guided, yet unformal and amusing, framework for considering and discussing what staff members find important in their tas...

  20. Advertising to Italian English Bilinguals in Australia: Attitudes and Response to Language Selection (United States)

    Santello, Marco


    This article explores attitudes and response to language selection in advertising targeting Italian bilinguals who belong to a defined speech community. The research builds upon (i) research on multilingual advertising by investigating its attitudinal correlates, and (ii) studies on advertising to bilinguals through the verification of the…

  1. Medical Students Knowledge and Attitude Towards Direct-To-Consumer Genetic Tests


    Luca Giraldi; Marco Colotto; Roberta Pastorino; Dario Arzani; Christian Ineichen; Effy Vayena; Stefania Boccia


    Aims: This study reports on the attitudes of 179 Italian Medical Students to direct-to-consumer genetic test and to participation in research practices. Methods: Data were collected using a self-completion online questionnaire sent to 380 medical students at the faculty of Medicine of the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore in Rome, Italy. Questions pertained issues related to awareness and attitudes towards genetic testing, reactions to hypothetical results, and views about contributing...

  2. A Go/No-go approach to uncovering implicit attitudes towards safe and risky driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Sømhovd, Mikael J.; Møller, Mette;


    Self-report measures of driving-related attitudes and beliefs miss potentially important precursors of driving behaviour, namely, automatic and implicit thought processes. The present study used an adapted Go/No-go Association Task to measure implicit thought without relying on the participants...... attitudes towards driving behaviour can be measured reliably with the Go/No-go Association Task. Also, the results suggest that implicit attitudes towards safe driving and risky driving, respectively, may be separable constructs, and might thus stem from different cognitive processes. Finally, implicit...

  3. Galloflavin, a new lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor, induces the death of human breast cancer cells with different glycolytic attitude by affecting distinct signaling pathways. (United States)

    Farabegoli, F; Vettraino, M; Manerba, M; Fiume, L; Roberti, M; Di Stefano, G


    Galloflavin (GF), a recently identified lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor, hinders the proliferation of cancer cells by blocking glycolysis and ATP production. The aim of the present experiments was to study the effect of this compound on breast cancer cell lines reproducing different pathological subtypes of this tumor: MCF-7 (the well differentiated form), MDA-MB-231 (the aggressive triple negative tumor) and MCF-Tam (a sub-line of MCF-7 with acquired tamoxifen resistance). We observed marked differences in the energetic metabolism of these cell lines. Compared to MCF-7 cells, both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-Tam cells exhibited higher LDH levels and glucose uptake and showed lower capacity of oxygen consumption. In spite of these differences, GF exerted similar growth inhibitory effects. This result was explained by the finding of a constitutively activated stress response in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-Tam cells, which reproduce the poor prognosis tumor forms. As a further proof, different signaling pathways were found to be involved in the antiproliferative action of GF. In MCF-7 cells we observed a down regulation of the ERα-mediated signaling needed for cell survival. On the contrary, in MCF-Tam and MDA-MB-231 cells growth inhibition appeared to be contributed by an oxidative stress condition. The prevalent mechanism of cell death was found to be apoptosis induction. Because of the clinical relevance of breast cancer forms having the triple negative and/or chemoresistant phenotype, our results showing comparable effects of GF even on aggressively growing cells encourage further studies to verify the potential of this compound in improving the chemotherapy of breast cancer.

  4. [Attitude to the illness of patients with malignant lymphomas on various stages of disease]. (United States)

    Pestereva, E V; Chulkova, V A; Vinogradova, Iu N; Il'in, N V


    In 138 patients with malignant lymphomas on different stages of the disease there were considered attitude to the illness and treatment, which included relation to the diagnosis, the subjective perception of the disease and attitude to treatment. Using a technique of studying psychological attitude to the disease there were studied details of personal response to the disease. Along with the general trends in relation to the disease, specific to cancer patients of different tumor sites, there have been identified particular features related to attitude of malignant lymphoma patients: a long period of denial of a malignant nature of the disease and their greatest psychological trauma during relapse. The necessity of professional psychological support was showed.

  5. A national study on the attitudes of Irish dental faculty members to faculty development.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, E M


    International studies suggest that dental faculty are resistant to the concept and practice of faculty development. This paper analyses the demographic and educational profile of Irish Dental Faculty, exploring their attitudes to educational initiatives.

  6. Irish Emergency Nurses’ Attitudes towards Role Expansion in, and Barriers to, Nurse Prescribing


    Clancy, Michele


    Aim This study set out to explore Irish emergency nurses’ attitudes towards nurse prescribing and also to elicit their attitudes towards potential barriers to nurse prescribing. Method A quantitative descriptive survey was used to answer the research question, a questionnaire was administered to a systematic random sample of Emergency Department nurses. This consisted of a 31 item Likert-type attitudinal scale, previously developed for a similar study. Background Traditionally,...

  7. The analysis of the structure of causes of violent death in Saratov (from 2011 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efimov А.А.


    Full Text Available Objective: the establishment changes in the structure of the causes of violent death in Saratov from 2011 till 2015. Material and Methods. The examination was based on analysis of the results of the forensic medical expert researches of corpses in the Saratov city office of forensic medical examination of corpses in the period from 2011 to 2015. Results. The structure of the causes of violent death was identical in Saratov in the last five years. The mechanical trauma was a leader, in second place — poisonings, then — mechanical asphyxia and external factors. There were two trends in the dynamics of components of each type of violent death: positive and negative. Positive trends were expressed as a decrease in the proportion of deaths from poisoning by ethanol and reducing the number of deaths from alcohol intoxication from other causes. Negative trends were expressed as the increase in the number of forensic medical expert examinations in the last two years, an increasing share of violent death of children in 2015, maintaining the leading position of automotive trauma among deaths from injuries by blunt objects. Conclusion. The number of forensic medical examinations of corpses was increased in Saratov for the studied period, but the proportion of fatal poisoning with ethanol was decreased. In 2015, the share of violent death of children aged under 14 was increased.

  8. Predicting consumers’ intention to purchase ready- to-eat meals: The role of moral attitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsen, N.V.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Hall, G.


    This study investigates the usefulness of integrating moral attitude into the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) model when predicting intention to consume ready-to-eat (RTE) meals. Questionnaire data were gathered in three countries: Norway (N = 112), The Netherlands (N = 99), and Finland (N = 134) i

  9. Australian Chinese Parents' Language Attitudes and Practices Relating to Their Children's Bilingual Development Prior to School (United States)

    Hu, Jiangbo; Torr, Jane; Whiteman, Peter


    This article reports on a deep investigation of five Australian Chinese families regarding their preschool-aged children's bilingual experiences and development. Each family was visited 3 to 5 times by the first author. The mothers were interviewed about their attitudes toward their child's bilingualism and their practices to promote it. A…

  10. The Relationship between Commitment to School, Attitude toward Narcotics, and Drug Abuse among Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Golpayegani


    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of current research was the study of relationship between commitment to school, attitude toward narcotics, and drug abuse among high school third grade students. Method: The research method was correlational design. 200 males and females students in grade three of high school were selected randomly by use of cluster sampling method in the educational year of 1389-90. Three questionnaires namely: hazardous behaviors, attitude toward narcotics, and commitment to school were administered among selected sample. Results: The results showed that positive attitudes toward narcotics and lack of commitment to school were correlated to students’ drug abuse positively. Conclusion: Designing student-centered programs in order to change in students' knowledge and attitudes must be taken into account by program-designers for preventing of drug abuse.

  11. [Attitude to disease and psychotherapeutic strategies in youths with the first psychotic episode]. (United States)

    Kaleda, V G; Maricheva, M A; Barkhatova, A N; Popovich, U O


    To study attitude to disease in patients with the first episode of juvenile endogenous psychosis (ICD-10 items F20, F25, F30.21 and F32.3), authors examined 89 male patients. There were common patterns in attitude to disease caused by the pathoplastic effect of juvenile age and some differences that were correlated with premorbid personality features and the psychopathological structure of the psychotic episode. Normonosognosic, hyponosognosic, hypernosognosic and disnosognosic types of attitude to disease were singled out. Hyponosognosic type was the most common in patients with the first episode of juvenile endogenous psychosis. Its were elaborated recommendations for differential use of psychotherapeutic strategies which took into account attitude to disease and age of the patient.

  12. Public attitudes to financial incentive models for organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus; Schicktanz, Silke; Deleuran, Ida


    Waiting lists for organs have stimulated interest in the use of financial incentives for organ donation (FIs), but the literature does not contain an adequate overview of studies of public attitudes toward this mode of procurement. We conducted a literature review of international peer......-reviewed research published between 2002 and 2012 on how members of the public position themselves toward FIs. We identified and analyzed 23 studies using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts and cross-reference search. The search included whole organs, donation, quantitative and empirical qualitative social...... scientific studies on, public attitudes (excluding professionals and medical students). The review reveals a broad divergence of public opinions on financial incentives. However, quantitative studies showed a low overall level of acceptance of payment for organs in living donation (LD); only a slightly...

  13. The Classical Conditioning of Attitudes: A Comparative Study of Ages 8 to 18 (United States)

    O'Donnell, John M.; Brown, Mari J. K.


    Results of this study indicated that attitude conditioning increased with age and that the increase appeared to be a function of contingency awareness and perhaps also a function of the older subjects' having greater facility in transferring symbolic meaning. (Author)

  14. Children's Imaginative and Social Play in Relation to Family Structure, Maternal Stress, and Attitudes about Play. (United States)

    Cornelius, Georgianna


    Examines the level of imaginative and social play of children in relation to family structure (single parent household versus dual parent household), maternal level of stress, and mothers' beliefs and attitudes about play. (BB)

  15. The Relationship between Motivational Structure, Mental Health and Attitude to Opiate Substances in University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali akbar Soliemanian


    Full Text Available Introduction: This study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the relationship between motivational structure, mental health and attitude to opiate substances in a sample of North-Khorasan's university students. Method: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 400 participants (200 males and 200 females were selected by stratified random sampling of three universities of north khorasan. All participants completed the SCL-90-R, Personal Concerns Inventory and Attitude to Opiate Substances questionnaire. Findings: The results revealed that there was a significant difference between participants with maladaptive motivational structure and adaptive motivational structure on GSI and subscales of SCL-90-R. In addition, the comparison of two groups showed that participants with maladaptive motivational structure had significant more positive attitude to opiate Substances than participants with adaptive motivational structure. Conclusion: There is a significant relationship between motivational structure, mental health and attitude to opiate substances.

  16. Saving Mothers' Lives: Reviewing maternal deaths to make motherhood safer: 2006-2008. The Eighth Report of the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cantwell, Roch


    In the triennium 2006-2008, 261 women in the UK died directly or indirectly related to pregnancy. The overall maternal mortality rate was 11.39 per 100,000 maternities. Direct deaths decreased from 6.24 per 100,000 maternities in 2003-2005 to 4.67 per 100,000 maternities in 2006–2008 (p = 0.02). This decline is predominantly due to the reduction in deaths from thromboembolism and, to a lesser extent, haemorrhage. For the first time there has been a reduction in the inequalities gap, with a significant decrease in maternal mortality rates among those living in the most deprived areas and those in the lowest socio-economic group. Despite a decline in the overall UK maternal mortality rate, there has been an increase in deaths related to genital tract sepsis, particularly from community acquired Group A streptococcal disease. The mortality rate related to sepsis increased from 0.85 deaths per 100,000 maternities in 2003-2005 to 1.13 deaths in 2006-2008, and sepsis is now the most common cause of Direct maternal death. Cardiac disease is the most common cause of Indirect death; the Indirect maternal mortality rate has not changed significantly since 2003-2005. This Confidential Enquiry identified substandard care in 70% of Direct deaths and 55% of Indirect deaths. Many of the identified avoidable factors remain the same as those identified in previous Enquiries. Recommendations for improving care have been developed and are highlighted in this report. Implementing the Top ten recommendations should be prioritised in order to ensure the overall UK maternal mortality rate continues to decline.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Grammar teaching is greatly emphasised in English language teaching in China, but does it really attain the goal the students desire? An investigation was made with overseas students about their attitudes to explicit grammar teaching. The investigation reveals that grammar teaching should focus on developing the learners’ communicative ability more than presenting and explaining grammatical rules.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Moreno Herrero


    Full Text Available Stigma in mental health is studied in a sample of 152 subjects of Almería city population with the aim of designing specific anti-stigma campaigns. For this, Stigma is operatized in three constructs: Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour, using MAKS, CAMI and RIBS scales for these. Results show that the younger group, under thirty-five years old are less knowledgeable about mental health related to stigma, showing a significant difference (p< .05. Moreover, we found significant differences in gender regarding the intention of stigmatizing behaviour (p=.049 as well as attitudes (p= .006 where men have more stigmatizing behaviour and attitudes than women. These results together with those that show a significant correlation between knowledge and behaviour, as well as between attitudes and behaviour will be used as a guide to design interventions aimed to reduce stigma in mental health.

  19. Changing attitudes and beliefs towards a woman's right to protect against HIV risk in Malawi. (United States)

    Fedor, Theresa M; Kohler, Hans-Peter; McMahon, James M


    Female empowerment and positive attitudes towards women's rights in sexual relationships have been found to be key elements of successful behaviour-based HIV prevention programmes. However, HIV prevention programmes that do not specifically engage with gender issues may also affect attitudes and beliefs towards women's rights within sexual relationships. Using data from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health we compare measures of female empowerment and changing gender norms between intervention participants and non-participants. Results suggest that female intervention participants were more likely than non-participants to believe that: (1) women have more rights within sexual relationships in general and (2) women have the right to protect themselves against HIV risk (indicating possible increases in female self-efficacy in making HIV prevention decisions). Male intervention participants showed no substantial positive change in attitudes towards women's rights. These results highlight an important positive effect of HIV prevention programmes on women's attitudes towards their own rights.

  20. Thanatophobia (Death Anxiety) in the Elderly: The Problem of the Child’s Inability to Assess Their Own Parent’s Death Anxiety State (United States)

    Sinoff, Gary


    Thanatophobia is omnipresent in our lives. Research has shown separate but connected constructs: fear of death or fear of the dying process. The influences on death anxiety are varied including religiosity, gender, psychological state, and age. It is often assumed by the children of the elderly that the fear of death is prevalent in their parents. Daily the medical staff encounters the presence of death anxiety: from family members or the staff itself. In order to understand this phenomenon, a three-tier study was conducted on non-terminal elderly inpatients in an acute geriatric care ward. The study showed that the elderly had low levels of anxiety (scoring 4/15 on Templer’s Death Anxiety Scale) but their children scored higher for themselves (6.9/15) and for their parents (8.9/15). A regression model showed that only the presence of generalized anxiety and religiosity of parent had an effect explaining 33.6% of the variance. Death anxiety of death is usually absent in the elderly but rather they fear the dying process. On the other hand, their children do fear death, which they extrapolate onto their parents. This causes conflicts since the children prevent disclosure of relevant medical information to their parents. This has to be addressed by the staff when dealing with family members, to allow open and honest communication with their patients. The staff need to explain to the family that the elderly are not afraid of death but of the suffering from the dying process.

  1. The Theme of Death in Romeo and Juliet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建春; 刘莉


      Shakespeare is the greatest poet, Playwright in English Renaissance period. His plays include comedy, tragedy and his⁃torical plays, which shows a humanistic attitude toward world. His play Romeo and Julie appeals to the world for its abundant themes and poetic language which arouse many comments upon it. In this essay, the author tries to analyze the theme of death from the western philosophy:Christian world view and Existentialism philosophy about death.

  2. Resistance to agricultural biotechnology: the importance of distinguishing between weak and strong public attitudes. (United States)

    Aerni, Philipp


    Empirical research shows that European governments and retailers are unlikely to be directly punished by taxpayers and consumers if they move away from their anti-GMO positions and policies. However, it is ultimately not the weak attitudes of taxpayers and consumers that matter to governments and retailers but the strong attitudes of the noisy anti-biotech movement. (Image: Highway signs: ©maxmitzu -; woman and balance: ©lassedesignen -

  3. Role of attitudes and intentions in predicting adherence to oral diabetes medications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel K Fai


    Full Text Available The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the extent to which patient attitudes and intentions predict adherence to the use of oral antihyperglycemic regimens in African Americans. This cross-sectional study of 115 participants used correlation analysis to establish relationships among patient attitudes, intentions and adherence. Data analyses showed significant correlations between the variables. Multiple regression analysis was used to establish predictions between the variables. A prediction model containing attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control (PBC explained 37% of the variance to behavioral intention. Intentions accounted for 8.5% of the variance to adherence. Attitudes predicted behavioral intentions. The findings support the theory of planned behavior model and identify important correlations between attitudes, intentions and behaviors. In addition, the results underscore the need for promoting positive attitudes and positive intentions in effective adherence to the use of oral antihyperglycemic regimens. Achieving adequate adherence through behavioral counseling can effect positive social change by reducing the mortality and morbidity that are associated with inadequate adherence to the use of oral diabetic agents.

  4. Interphase Death of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Exposed to Accelerated Heavy Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mehnati


    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy ions are nucleus of elements of iron, argon, carbon and neon that all carry positive electrical charges. For these particles to be useful in radiotherapy they need to accelerated to high energy by more than thousand mega volts. Also the cosmic environment is considered to be a complicated mixture of highly energetic photons and heavy ions such as iron. Therefore, the health risks to astronauts during long mission should be considered.  Materials and Methods: The induction of interphase death was tested on Chinese hamster ovary cells by exposing them to accelerated heavy ions (carbon, neon, argon and iron of 10-2000 linear energy transfers (LETs. The fraction of cells that underwent interphase death was determined by observing individual cells with time-lapse photography (direct method as well as by the indirect method of counting cells undergoing interphase death made visible by the addition of caffeine (indirect method. Results: The interphase death due to the exposure to X- rays is increased linearly as the dose exceeds the threshold dose of 10 Gy. Whereas the interphase death increases at a higher rate due to the exposure to high LET heavy ions and no threshold dose was observed. The range of LET values corresponding to the maximum RBE for the interphase death is 120-230 keV/µm. The probability of inducing the interphase death by a single heavy ion traversing through the nucleus is about 0.04-0.08. Discussion and Conclusion: The relative biological effectiveness (RBE of heavy ions as compared to X- rays as determined at the 50% level of induction is increased with LET. It reached a maximum value at a LET of approximately 230 keV/µm and then decreased with further increase in LET. The range of LET values corresponding to the maximum RBE appears to be narrower for interphase death than for reproductive death.

  5. Four aspects of self-image close to death at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Carlander


    Full Text Available Living close to death means an inevitable confrontation with one's own existential limitation. In this article, we argue that everyday life close to death embodies an identity work in progress. We used a narrative approach and a holistic-content reading to analyze 12 interviews conducted with three persons close to death. By illuminating the unique stories and identifying patterns among the participants’ narratives, we found four themes exemplifying important aspects of the identity work related to everyday life close to death. Two of the themes, named “Inside and outside of me” and “Searching for togetherness,” represented the core of the self-image and were framed by the other themes, “My place in space” and “My death and my time.” Our findings elucidate the way the individual stories moved between the past, the present, and the future. This study challenges the idea that everyday life close to impending death primarily means limitations. The findings show that the search for meaning, new knowledge, and community can form a part of a conscious and ongoing identity work close to death.

  6. Use of Twitter to monitor attitudes toward depression and schizophrenia: an exploratory study (United States)

    Pilkington, Pamela D.


    Introduction. The paper reports on an exploratory study of the usefulness of Twitter for unobtrusive assessment of stigmatizing attitudes in the community. Materials and Methods. Tweets with the hashtags #depression or #schizophrenia posted on Twitter during a 7-day period were collected. Tweets were categorised based on their content and user information and also on the extent to which they indicated a stigmatising attitude towards depression or schizophrenia (stigmatising, personal experience of stigma, supportive, neutral, or anti-stigma). Tweets that indicated stigmatising attitudes or personal experiences of stigma were further grouped into the following subthemes: social distance, dangerousness, snap out of it, personal weakness, inaccurate beliefs, mocking or trivializing, and self-stigma. Results and Discussion. Tweets on depression mostly related to resources for consumers (34%), or advertised services or products for individuals with depression (20%). The majority of schizophrenia tweets aimed to increase awareness of schizophrenia (29%) or reported on research findings (22%). Tweets on depression were largely supportive (65%) or neutral (27%). A number of tweets were specifically anti-stigma (7%). Less than 1% of tweets reflected stigmatising attitudes (0.7%) or personal experience of stigma (0.1%). More than one third of the tweets which reflected stigmatising attitudes were mocking or trivialising towards individuals with depression (37%). The attitude that individuals with depression should “snap out of it” was evident in 30% of the stigmatising tweets. The majority of tweets relating to schizophrenia were categorised as supportive (42%) or neutral (43%). Almost 10% of tweets were explicitly anti-stigma. The percentage of tweets showing stigmatising attitudes was 5%, while less than 1% of tweets described personal experiences of stigmatising attitudes towards individuals with schizophrenia. Of the tweets that indicated stigmatising attitudes, most

  7. Use of Twitter to monitor attitudes toward depression and schizophrenia: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J. Reavley


    Full Text Available Introduction. The paper reports on an exploratory study of the usefulness of Twitter for unobtrusive assessment of stigmatizing attitudes in the community.Materials and Methods. Tweets with the hashtags #depression or #schizophrenia posted on Twitter during a 7-day period were collected. Tweets were categorised based on their content and user information and also on the extent to which they indicated a stigmatising attitude towards depression or schizophrenia (stigmatising, personal experience of stigma, supportive, neutral, or anti-stigma. Tweets that indicated stigmatising attitudes or personal experiences of stigma were further grouped into the following subthemes: social distance, dangerousness, snap out of it, personal weakness, inaccurate beliefs, mocking or trivializing, and self-stigma.Results and Discussion. Tweets on depression mostly related to resources for consumers (34%, or advertised services or products for individuals with depression (20%. The majority of schizophrenia tweets aimed to increase awareness of schizophrenia (29% or reported on research findings (22%. Tweets on depression were largely supportive (65% or neutral (27%. A number of tweets were specifically anti-stigma (7%. Less than 1% of tweets reflected stigmatising attitudes (0.7% or personal experience of stigma (0.1%. More than one third of the tweets which reflected stigmatising attitudes were mocking or trivialising towards individuals with depression (37%. The attitude that individuals with depression should “snap out of it” was evident in 30% of the stigmatising tweets. The majority of tweets relating to schizophrenia were categorised as supportive (42% or neutral (43%. Almost 10% of tweets were explicitly anti-stigma. The percentage of tweets showing stigmatising attitudes was 5%, while less than 1% of tweets described personal experiences of stigmatising attitudes towards individuals with schizophrenia. Of the tweets that indicated stigmatising attitudes

  8. Life Expectancy and Cause of Death in Popular Musicians: Is the Popular Musician Lifestyle the Road to Ruin? (United States)

    Kenny, Dianna T; Asher, Anthony


    Does a combination of lifestyle pressures and personality, as reflected in genre, lead to the early death of popular musicians? We explored overall mortality, cause of death, and changes in patterns of death over time and by music genre membership in popular musicians who died between 1950 and 2014. The death records of 13,195 popular musicians were coded for age and year of death, cause of death, gender, and music genre. Musician death statistics were compared with age-matched deaths in the US population using actuarial methods. Although the common perception is of a glamorous, free-wheeling lifestyle for this occupational group, the figures tell a very different story. Results showed that popular musicians have shortened life expectancy compared with comparable general populations. Results showed excess mortality from violent deaths (suicide, homicide, accidental death, including vehicular deaths and drug overdoses) and liver disease for each age group studied compared with population mortality patterns. These excess deaths were highest for the under-25-year age group and reduced chronologically thereafter. Overall mortality rates were twice as high compared with the population when averaged over the whole age range. Mortality impacts differed by music genre. In particular, excess suicides and liver-related disease were observed in country, metal, and rock musicians; excess homicides were observed in 6 of the 14 genres, in particular hip hop and rap musicians. For accidental death, actual deaths significantly exceeded expected deaths for country, folk, jazz, metal, pop, punk, and rock.

  9. Epidemiology of deaths due to traffic accidents in Kermanshah province (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Malekifar


    Full Text Available Background: The increasing trend of traffic accidents is one of the most serious problems of public health. The aim of this paper was to investigate the fatal traffic accidents in Kermanshah province. Method: All research data required were obtained from Legal Medicine Organization and analyzed by Stata-11 software. Traffic statistics available on the Road Maintenance and Transportation Organization website were used to study the death rate per month and day according to traffic level on suburban highways. Results: The incidence rate of age-standardized deaths due to road traffic accidents was 26.1per 100,000 people, and the mean age of the dead was 39.98±21.60 years. The mortality rate was higher in men, those more than 40 years old, married, illiterate and self-employed. Considering the traffic rate on suburban roads, the highest death rate occurred in the warmest months of the year during the day. Furthermore, most deaths were due to collisions and the highest frequency of death was reported for the car occupants. In most cases, head injuries and head traumas were the final cause of death. A significant correlation was reported between the type of vehicle and the cause of death and how the accident occurred (P<0.05. Conclusion: The mortality rate due to traffic accidents in Kermanshah province is high. Surveillance over the suburban roads in hot seasons and male drivers is of particular importance.


    Friedman, M. Reuel; Dodge, Brian; Schick, Vanessa; Herbenick, Debby; Hubach, Randolph; Bowling, Jessamyn; Goncalves, Gabriel; Krier, Sarah; Reece, Michael


    PUROPSE A newly emergent literature suggest that bisexual men and women face profound health disparities in comparison to both heterosexual and homosexual individuals. Additionally, bisexual individuals often experience prejudice, stigma, and discrimination from both gay/lesbian and straight communities, termed “biphobia.” However, only limited research exists that empirically tests the extent and predictors of this double discrimination. The Bisexualities: Indiana Attitudes Survey (BIAS) was developed to test associations between biphobia and sexual identity. METHODS Using standard techniques, we developed and administered a scale to a purposive online sample of adults from a wide range of social networking websites. We conducted exploratory factor analysis to refine scales assessing attitudes toward bisexual men and bisexual women, respectively. Using generalized linear modeling, we assessed relationships between BIAS scores and sexual identity, adjusting for covariates. RESULTS Two separately gendered scales were developed, administered, and refined: BIAS-m (n=645), focusing on attitudes toward bisexual men; and BIAS-f (n=631), focusing on attitudes toward bisexual women. Across scales, sexual identity significantly predicted response variance. Lesbian/gay respondents had lower levels of bi-negative attitudes than their heterosexual counterparts (all p-values attitudes than their straight counterparts (all p-values attitudes than their lesbian/gay counterparts (all p-values heterosexual and homosexual counterparts. Our results yield valuable data for informing social awareness and intervention efforts that aim to decrease bi-negative attitudes within both straight and gay/lesbian communities, with the ultimate goal of alleviating health disparities among bisexual men and women. PMID:25568885

  11. Evaluation of GPS-Based Attitude Parameters Applied to Bathymetric Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Chia-chyang; Lee Hsing-wei


    As the survey vessels normally take bathymetric measurements in a 'dynamic'environment on the sea surface,the attitude parameters of the vessel are basically required to be introduced measurements related to the sounding datum. A multi-antenna GPSsystem, which can be easy-mounted on a vessel, has proved to be able toprecisely determine its attitude parameters through the combinations ofthe GPS vectors. This study aimed at evaluating such a GPS-basedsystem to determine the attitude parameters for the survey vessels, basedon the data collected both in-land for testing and on-sea for practical use.The precision of the estimates was realized to be around 1.6' for heading,2.3' for pitch, 9.9' for roll, and 0.3 cm for heave, based on the testing data. When system was practically applied to the bathymetric measurements made on-board, the sea depth agreements for the check points can be improved by a significant level of 43%, if a complete set of attitude parameters was in use. As the attitude information was provedto be helpful for the bathymetric measurements, it can be suggested thata multi-antenna GPS system is an economic and effective tool for the deter minations of the attitude parameter, and particularly suitable for the applications of hydrographic surveys.

  12. Listening to music during sprint interval exercise: The impact on exercise attitudes and intentions. (United States)

    Stork, Matthew J; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A


    This study investigated the impact of listening to music during exercise on perceived enjoyment, attitudes and intentions towards sprint interval training (SIT). Twenty men (24.8 ± 4.5 years) and women (20.1 ± 2.6 years) unfamiliar with SIT exercise completed two acute sessions of SIT, one with and one without music. Perceived enjoyment, attitudes and intentions towards SIT were measured post-exercise for each condition. Attitudes and intentions to engage in SIT were also measured at baseline and follow-up. Post-exercise attitudes mediated the effects of enjoyment on intentions in the music condition (95% confidence interval [CI]: [0.01, 0.07], κ(2) = 0.36) and in the no music condition (95% CI: [0.01, 0.08], κ(2) = 0.37). Attitudes towards SIT were significantly more positive following the music than no music condition (P = 0.004), while intentions towards SIT were not (P = 0.29). Further, attitudes and intentions towards SIT did not change from baseline to follow-up (Ps > 0.05). These findings revealed that participants had relatively positive attitudes and intentions towards SIT, which did not become more negative despite experiencing intense SIT protocols. This study highlights the importance of acute affective responses to SIT exercise for influencing one's attitudes and intentions towards participating in SIT exercise. Such factors could ultimately play a key role in determining whether an individual engages in SIT exercise in the long term.

  13. Analysis of 78 cases of prehospital death due to traffic accident injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡孝菽; 洪勇; 等


    Objective The cause and time of prehospital death for the injured patients caused by traffic accidents were studied in order to improve traffic management and clinical treatment,and reduce mortality.Methods The characteristics of the injury,the rescue procedure,the status of the injury leading to death were analyzed based on the retrospective data of 78 cases died before admission.Results The main causes of prehospital death in the traffic accidents included:1.head injury,2.bleeding,3.chest and heart wound,4.spinal cord injury at upper cervix.Death happened immediately after injury was in 17 cases.Death happened from the accident site to our hospital was in 47 cases.Death happened within half an hour after reaching emergency room was in 14 cases.In all of the cases,the death on the transfer took up 62.5%.Conclusions Findings from analysis of the data will be presented on a wide range of traffic safety issues.These include enhancing education of traffic safety and administration of drivers and motor vehicles,establishing a perfect emergency medical service system and a well-trained team of first aid,and popularizing first aid knowledge to all people.

  14. Programmed Death-Ligand 1 Expression and Response to the Anti-Programmed Death 1 Antibody Pembrolizumab in Melanoma. (United States)

    Daud, Adil I; Wolchok, Jedd D; Robert, Caroline; Hwu, Wen-Jen; Weber, Jeffrey S; Ribas, Antoni; Hodi, F Stephen; Joshua, Anthony M; Kefford, Richard; Hersey, Peter; Joseph, Richard; Gangadhar, Tara C; Dronca, Roxana; Patnaik, Amita; Zarour, Hassane; Roach, Charlotte; Toland, Grant; Lunceford, Jared K; Li, Xiaoyun Nicole; Emancipator, Kenneth; Dolled-Filhart, Marisa; Kang, S Peter; Ebbinghaus, Scot; Hamid, Omid


    Purpose Expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a potential predictive marker for response and outcome after treatment with anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1). This study explored the relationship between anti-PD-1 activity and PD-L1 expression in patients with advanced melanoma who were treated with pembrolizumab in the phase Ib KEYNOTE-001 study (clinical trial information: NCT01295827). Patients and Methods Six hundred fifty-five patients received pembrolizumab10 mg/kg once every 2 weeks or once every 3 weeks, or 2 mg/kg once every 3 weeks. Tumor response was assessed every 12 weeks per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) v1.1 by independent central review. Primary outcome was objective response rate. Secondary outcomes included progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Membranous PD-L1 expression in tumor and tumor-associated immune cells was assessed by a clinical trial immunohistochemistry assay (22C3 antibody) and scored on a unique melanoma (MEL) scale of 0 to 5 by one of three pathologists who were blinded to clinical outcome; a score ≥ 2 (membranous staining in ≥ 1% of cells) was considered positive. Results Of 451 patients with evaluable PD-L1 expression, 344 (76%) had PD-L1-positive tumors. Demographic and staging variables were equally distributed among PD-L1-positive and -negative patients. An association between higher MEL score and higher response rate and longer PFS (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.82) and OS (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.83) was observed ( P < .001 for each). Objective response rate was 8%, 12%, 22%, 43%, 57%, and 53% for MEL 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Conclusion PD-L1 expression in pretreatment tumor biopsy samples was correlated with response rate, PFS, and OS; however, patients with PD-L1-negative tumors may also achieve durable responses.

  15. Dentists' attitude to provision of care for people with learning disabilities in Udaipur, India. (United States)

    Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Tak, Mridula; Sharda, Archana J; Asawa, Kailash; Jalihal, Sagar; Kakatkar, Gauri


    This study determines and compares the attitudes of dentists to the provision of care for people with learning disabilities according to gender, qualification, previous experience of treating patients with learning disabilities and work experience of dentists. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 247 dentists (166 men and 81 women) using a pretested structured questionnaire. This questionnaire assessed the respondent's attitude towards learning-disabled patients in five categories: beliefs about treating them, their capabilities, discrimination against these patients, their social behaviour and quality of care to be received by these patients. The information on dentist's gender, qualification, work experience and previous experience of treating patients with learning disabilities was also collected through questionnaire. The Student's t-test and anova test were used for statistical analysis. The mean attitude score was found to be 71.13 ± 8.97. A statistically significant difference was found in the mean attitude scores of dentists with work experience (p = 0.000). Study subjects with postgraduate qualification and previous experience of treating patients with learning disabilities had significantly greater mean attitude score than their counterparts (p = 0.000). The overall attitude of dentists towards provision of care for people with learning disabilities was favourable, which increased with higher qualification and past experience.

  16. Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Educational Intervention to Improve the Patient Safety Attitudes of Intern Pharmacists (United States)

    Fois, Romano A.; McLachlan, Andrew J.; Chen, Timothy F.


    Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a face-to-face educational intervention in improving the patient safety attitudes of intern pharmacists. Methods. A patient safety education program was delivered to intern pharmacists undertaking The University of Sydney Intern Training Program in 2014. Their patient safety attitudes were evaluated immediately prior to, immediately after, and three-months post-intervention. Underlying attitudinal factors were identified using exploratory factor analysis. Changes in factor scores were examined using analysis of variance. Results. Of the 120 interns enrolled, 95 (78.7%) completed all three surveys. Four underlying attitudinal factors were identified: attitudes towards addressing errors, questioning behaviors, blaming individuals, and reporting errors. Improvements in all attitudinal factors were evident immediately after the intervention. However, only improvements in attitudes towards blaming individuals involved in errors were sustained at three months post-intervention. Conclusion. The educational intervention was associated with short-term improvements in pharmacist interns’ patient safety attitudes. However, other factors likely influenced their attitudes in the longer term. PMID:28289295

  17. Polyculturalism and Sexist Attitudes: Believing Cultures are Dynamic Relates to Lower Sexism. (United States)

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Levy, Sheri R; Militano, Maria


    In cultural contexts in which sexist beliefs are considered traditional, shifts toward gender equality represent an example of cultural change. Polyculturalism is defined as the belief that cultures change constantly through different racial and ethnic groups' interactions, influences, and exchanges with each other and, therefore, are dynamic and socially constructed rather than static. Thus, polyculturalism may involve openness to cultural change and, thereby, would be expected to be associated with lower sexist attitudes. Four studies (both cross-sectional and longitudinal) with undergraduate and community samples in the Northeastern United States tested whether endorsement of polyculturalism is inversely associated with sexism, above and beyond potentially confounding belief systems. Across studies, for both women and men, endorsement of polyculturalism was associated with lower sexist attitudes for two classes of sexism measures: (a) attitudes toward the rights and roles of women and (b) ambivalent sexist attitudes toward women. Associations remained significant while controlling for potentially confounding variables (colorblindness, conservatism, egalitarianism, gender and ethnic identity, gender and race essentialism, multiculturalism, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation). Greater openness to criticizing one's culture mediated polyculturalism's association with attitudes toward the rights and roles of women but not with ambivalent sexist attitudes toward women. Studying polyculturalism may provide unique insights into sexism, and more work is needed to understand the mechanisms involved.

  18. Is risk attitude outcome specific within the health domain? (United States)

    van der Pol, Marjon; Ruggeri, Matteo


    The aim of this study is to examine whether individuals' risk attitude for life years differ from their risk attitude for quality of life. The study also investigates two different framing effects, an order and sequence effect, and the interaction between risk attitude and time preferences. The results showed that individuals tended to be risk averse with respect to the gamble involving risk of immediate death and risk seeking with respect to the other health gambles. Varying the order of the questions or the sequence of full health and ill-health did not seem to systematically bias the estimates.

  19. Beef animal welfare, attitudes and Willingness to Pay: A regional comparison across the Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Sans


    Full Text Available Attitudes towards beef animal welfare (AW and Willingness to Pay (WTP for AW certification are investigated among consumers in two Spanish and two French regions located on both sides of the Pyrenees (n=1213. Attitudes were measured through a scale of 11 animal practices, on which, consumers report their degree of concern and trust on the supply chain compliance. Attitudes significantly differed across regions, especially with respect to those AW practices carried out by farmers, while trust lies behind concerns. Three segments based on individual consumer attitudes are defined by opposing those consumers who are more concerned and who trust more on the compliance with AW standards (n=264, 22% to those less concerned and who are more uncertain about stakeholders´ compliance with AW rules (n=356, 29%. Consumer location, gender, age and education significantly differed across attitudinal clusters. Results from a contingent valuation survey show that WTP for certified animal friendly beef ranged between 20.6% and 22.6% over the average market price of standard beef, in Spain and France, respectively. Both, consumers’ socio-demographic characteristics and habits regarding beef meat purchasing and attitudes towards farmers influenced this WTP (the more consumers trust in farmers’ involvement in animal welfare, the highest is their WTP, while a negative overall attitude significantly reduced WTP.

  20. Women with gestational diabetes in Vietnam: a qualitative study to determine attitudes and health behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirst Jane E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is increasing in prevalence globally, notably amongst populations from low- and middle- income countries. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus(GDM, a precursor for type 2 diabetes, is increasing in line with this trend. Few studies have considered the personal and social effects of GDM on women living in low and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was determine attitudes and health behaviours of pregnant women with GDM in Vietnam. Methods This was a qualitative study using focus group methodology conducted in Ho Chi Minh City. Pregnant women, aged over 18 years, with GDM were eligible to participate. Women were purposely sampled to obtain a range of gestational ages and severity of disease. They were invited to attend a 1-hour focus group. Questions were semi structured around six themes. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed, translated and cross-referenced. Non-verbal and group interactions were recorded. Thematic analysis was performed using a theoretical framework approach. Results From December 2010 to February 2011, four focus groups were conducted involving 34 women. Median age was 31.5 years (range 23 to 44, median BMI 21.8 kg/m2. Women felt confusion, anxiety and guilt about GDM. Many perceived their baby to be at increased risk of death. Advice to reduce dietary starch was confusing. Women reported being ‘hungry’ or ‘starving’ most of the time, unaware of appropriate food substitutions. They were concerned about transmission of GDM through breast milk. Several women planned not to breastfeed. All felt they needed more information. Current sources of information included friends, magazines, a health phone line or the Internet. Women felt small group sessions and information leaflets could benefit them. Conclusions This study highlights the need for culturally appropriate clinical education and health promotion activities for women with GDM in Vietnam.