Wisniewski, Rafal; Markley, F.L.
because control torques can only be generated perpendicular to the local geomagnetic field vector. This has been a serious obstacle for using magnetorquer based control for three-axis stabilization of a low earth orbit satellite. The problem of controlling the spacecraft attitude using only magnetic...
Renuganth Varatharajoo; Ramly Ajir; Tamizi Ahmad
The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS) consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl...
Full Text Available The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.
Full Text Available Future space missions will involve satellites with great autonomy and stringent pointing precision, requiring of the Attitude Control Systems (ACS with better performance than before, which is function of the control algorithms implemented on board computers. The difficulties for developing experimental ACS test is to obtain zero gravity and torque free conditions similar to the SCA operate in space. However, prototypes for control algorithms experimental verification are fundamental for space mission success. This paper presents the parameters estimation such as inertia matrix and position of mass centre of a Satellite Attitude Control System Simulator (SACSS, using algorithms based on least square regression and least square recursive methods. Simulations have shown that both methods have estimated the system parameters with small error. However, the least square recursive methods have performance more adequate for the SACSS objectives. The SACSS platform model will be used to do experimental verification of fundamental aspects of the satellite attitude dynamics and design of different attitude control algorithm.
Paielli, Russell A.; Bach, Ralph E.
An approach to attitude control theory is introduced in which a linear form is postulated for the closed-loop rotation error dynamics, then the exact control law required to realize it is derived. The nonminimal (four-component) quaternion form is used to attitude because it is globally nonsingular, but the minimal (three-component) quaternion form is used for attitude error because it has no nonlinear constraints to prevent the rotational error dynamics from being linearized, and the definition of the attitude error is based on quaternion algebra. This approach produces an attitude control law that linearizes the closed-loop rotational error dynamics exactly, without any attitude singularities, even if the control errors become large.
Wu, Baolin; Shen, Qiang; Cao, Xibin
The problem of spacecraft attitude stabilization control system with limited communication and external disturbances is investigated based on an event-triggered control scheme. In the proposed scheme, information of attitude and control torque only need to be transmitted at some discrete triggered times when a defined measurement error exceeds a state-dependent threshold. The proposed control scheme not only guarantees that spacecraft attitude control errors converge toward a small invariant set containing the origin, but also ensures that there is no accumulation of triggering instants. The performance of the proposed control scheme is demonstrated through numerical simulation.
George Cristian Calugaru
Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for an efficient control of the aircraft landing and attitude through Dynamic Matrix Control. The idea of MPC structures used in aircraft control has been well established during the last few years, but some aspects require further investigation. With this in mind, the paper proposes structures for aircraft landing and aircraft attitude control by using single DMC controllers for landing and respectively one DMC controller for each of the attitude axis (pitch attitude hold, bank angle hold and heading hold. The model used for analysis of the aircraft landing structure is based on the last phase of landing. Also, the model used to illustrate the attitude control is that of a pitch attitude hold system of a N250-100 aircraft. Simulations are performed for a variety of control and prediction horizons, taking into account the possibility of adding a weighting factor for the control actions. Apart from separate studies on step reference variations, for some use cases, a generic reference trajectory is provided as a control purpose of the system. Results show a better performance of the proposed method in terms of control surface transition and protection of the actuators involved and a better time response in stabilizing the aircraft attitude. Overall, the aspects shown ensure an improved aircraft attitude control and landing stabilization.
when a satellite is on a throughout this thesis. Confined computer capacity and a limit on electrical power supply were separate obstacles.They demanded computational simplicity and power optimality from the attitude control system. The design of quasi optimal controllers for a real-time implementation...... to provide four stable equilibria, one of which was the desired orientation. It was explained how the equilibria depended on the ratio of the satellite's moments of inertia. It was further investigated how to control the attitude, such that the satellite was globally asymptotically stable in the desired...
The objective of this paper is to give a design scheme for attitude control algorithms of a generic spacecraft. Along with the system model formulated in the Hamilton's canonical form the algorithm uses information about a required potential energy and a dissipative term. The control action...
Full Text Available The attitude dynamics of KITSAT-1 are modeled including the gravity gradient stabilization method. We define the operation scenario during the initial attitude stabilization period by means of a magnetorquering control algorithm. The required constraints for the gravity gradient boom deployment are also examined. Attitude dynamics model and control laws are verified by analyzing in-orbit attitude sensor telemetry data.
Larsen, Jesper A.; Amini, Rouzbeh; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh
accuracy of better than 5 degrees. Cost, size, weight and power requirements, on the other hand, impose selecting relative simple sensors and actuators which leads to an attitude control requirement of less than 1 degree. This precision is obtained by a combination of magnetorquers and momentum wheels...
Starin, Scott R.; Eterno, John
designing and operating spacecraft pointing (i.e. attitude) systems.
Gerhardt, David T.
Passive Magnetic Attitude Control (PMAC) is capable of aligning a satellite within 5 degrees of the local magnetic field at low resource cost, making it ideal for a small satellite. However, simulation attempts to date have not been able to predict the attitude dynamics at a level sufficient for mission design. Also, some satellites have suffered from degraded performance due to an incomplete understanding of PMAC system design. This dissertation alleviates these issues by discussing the design, inputs, and validation of PMAC systems for small satellites. Design rules for a PMAC system are defined using the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) CubeSat as an example. A Multiplicative Extended Kalman Filter (MEKF) is defined for the attitude determination of a PMAC satellite without a rate gyro. After on-orbit calibration of the off-the-shelf magnetometer and photodiodes and an on-orbit fit to the satellite magnetic moment, the MEKF regularly achieves a three sigma attitude uncertainty of 4 degrees or less. CSSWE is found to settle to the magnetic field in seven days, verifying its attitude design requirement. A Helmholtz cage is constructed and used to characterize the CSSWE bar magnet and hysteresis rods both individually and in the flight configuration. Fitted parameters which govern the magnetic material behavior are used as input to a PMAC dynamics simulation. All components of this simulation are described and defined. Simulation-based dynamics analysis shows that certain initial conditions result in abnormally decreased settling times; these cases may be identified by their dynamic response. The simulation output is compared to the MEKF output; the true dynamics are well modeled and the predicted settling time is found to possess a 20 percent error, a significant improvement over prior simulation.
Werking, R. D.; Beck, J.; Gardner, D.; Moyer, P.; Plett, M.
A description of the attitude control support being supplied by the Mission and Data Operations Directorate is presented. Descriptions of the computer programs being used to support the mission for attitude determination, prediction, control, and definitive attitude processing are included. In addition, descriptions of the operating procedures which will be used to accomplish mission objectives are provided.
Full Text Available Attitude determination and control of satellite is important component which determines the accomplish satellite missions. In this study, attitude control using reaction wheels and momentum dumping of wheels are considered. Attitude control law is designed by Sliding control and LQR. Attitude maneuver control law is obtained by Shooting method. Wheels momentum dumping control law is designed by Bang-Bang control. Four reaction wheels are configurated for minimized the electric power consumption. Wheels control torque and magnetic moment of magnetic torquer are limited.
Hewston, Alan W.; Mitchell, Kent A.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.
This paper provides an overview of the on-orbit operation of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). The three ACTS control axes are defined, including the means for sensing attitude and determining the pointing errors. The desired pointing requirements for various modes of control as well as the disturbance torques that oppose the control are identified. Finally, the hardware actuators and control loops utilized to reduce the attitude error are described.
Paluszek, Michael A. (Inventor); Piper, Jr., George E. (Inventor)
A spacecraft attitude and/or velocity control system includes a controller which responds to at least attitude errors to produce command signals representing a force vector F and a torque vector T, each having three orthogonal components, which represent the forces and torques which are to be generated by the thrusters. The thrusters may include magnetic torquer or reaction wheels. Six difference equations are generated, three having the form ##EQU1## where a.sub.j is the maximum torque which the j.sup.th thruster can produce, b.sub.j is the maximum force which the j.sup.th thruster can produce, and .alpha..sub.j is a variable representing the throttling factor of the j.sup.th thruster, which may range from zero to unity. The six equations are summed to produce a single scalar equation relating variables .alpha..sub.j to a performance index Z: ##EQU2## Those values of .alpha. which maximize the value of Z are determined by a method for solving linear equations, such as a linear programming method. The Simplex method may be used. The values of .alpha..sub.j are applied to control the corresponding thrusters.
Full Text Available The robust optimal attitude control problem for a flexible spacecraft is considered. Two optimal sliding mode control laws that ensure the exponential convergence of the attitude control system are developed. Integral sliding mode control (ISMC is applied to combine the first-order sliding mode with optimal control and is used to control quaternion-based spacecraft attitude manoeuvres with external disturbances and an uncertainty inertia matrix. For the optimal control part the state-dependent Riccati equation (SDRE and optimal Lyapunov techniques are employed to solve the infinite-time nonlinear optimal control problem. The second method of Lyapunov is used to guarantee the stability of the attitude control system under the action of the proposed control laws. An example of multiaxial attitude manoeuvres is presented and simulation results are included to verify the usefulness of the developed controllers.
This report concerns a designed and built experimental facility that will allow the conduction of experiments for validating advanced attitude control algorithms for spacecraft in a weightless environment...
Dillman, Robert A.; Gsell, Valerie T.; Bowden, Ernest L.
The Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment 3 (IRVE-3) launched July 23, 2012, from NASA Wallops Flight Facility and successfully performed its mission, demonstrating both the survivability of a hypersonic inflatable aerodynamic decelerator in the reentry heating environment and the effect of an offset center of gravity on the aeroshell's flight L/D. The reentry vehicle separated from the launch vehicle, released and inflated its aeroshell, reoriented for atmospheric entry, and mechanically shifted its center of gravity before reaching atmospheric interface. Performance data from the entire mission was telemetered to the ground for analysis. This paper discusses the IRVE-3 mission scenario, reentry vehicle design, and as-flown performance of the attitude control system in the different phases of the mission.
Hooper, H. L.; Mckendrew, J. B.; Repass, G. D.
A description of the attitude control support being supplied for the Explorer 50 mission is given. Included in the document are descriptions of the computer programs being used to support attitude determination, prediction, and control for the mission and descriptions of the operating procedures that will be used to accomplish mission objectives.
Attitude stability augmentation control system with a lower cost need to be designed so that MUH (Mini Unmanned Helicopter) can adapt to different types of geographic environment and fly steadily although the weather may be bad. Attitude feedback was calculated mainly by filtering estimation within attitude acquisition module in this system. Stability augmentation can be improved mainly by PI. This paper will depict running principle and designing process of MUH attitude stability augmentation control system and algorithm that is considered as an important part in this system.
Nasrolahi, Seiied Saeed; Abdollahi, Farzaneh
This paper proposes an integrated sensor fault detection and recovery for the satellite attitude control system. By introducing a nonlinear observer, the healthy sensor measurements are provided. Considering attitude dynamics and kinematic, a novel observer is developed to detect the fault in angular rate as well as attitude sensors individually or simultaneously. There is no limit on type and configuration of attitude sensors. By designing a state feedback based control signal and Lyapunov stability criterion, the uniformly ultimately boundedness of tracking errors in the presence of sensor faults is guaranteed. Finally, simulation results are presented to illustrate the performance of the integrated scheme.
Chak, Yew-Chung; Varatharajoo, Renuganth
Many spacecraft attitude control systems today use reaction wheels to deliver precise torques to achieve three-axis attitude stabilization. However, irrecoverable mechanical failure of reaction wheels could potentially lead to mission interruption or total loss. The electrically-powered Solar Array Drive Assemblies (SADA) are usually installed in the pitch axis which rotate the solar arrays to track the Sun, can produce torques to compensate for the pitch-axis wheel failure. In addition, the attitude control of a flexible spacecraft poses a difficult problem. These difficulties include the strong nonlinear coupled dynamics between the rigid hub and flexible solar arrays, and the imprecisely known system parameters, such as inertia matrix, damping ratios, and flexible mode frequencies. In order to overcome these drawbacks, the adaptive Jacobian tracking fuzzy control is proposed for the combined attitude and sun-tracking control problem of a flexible spacecraft during attitude maneuvers in this work. For the adaptation of kinematic and dynamic uncertainties, the proposed scheme uses an adaptive sliding vector based on estimated attitude velocity via approximate Jacobian matrix. The unknown nonlinearities are approximated by deriving the fuzzy models with a set of linguistic If-Then rules using the idea of sector nonlinearity and local approximation in fuzzy partition spaces. The uncertain parameters of the estimated nonlinearities and the Jacobian matrix are being adjusted online by an adaptive law to realize feedback control. The attitude of the spacecraft can be directly controlled with the Jacobian feedback control when the attitude pointing trajectory is designed with respect to the spacecraft coordinate frame itself. A significant feature of this work is that the proposed adaptive Jacobian tracking scheme will result in not only the convergence of angular position and angular velocity tracking errors, but also the convergence of estimated angular velocity to
Wisniewski, Rafal; Stoustrup, Jakob
between the Earth´s magnetic field and an artificial magnetic field generated by the coils produces a control torque. The magnetic attitude control is intrinsically periodic due to cyclic variation of the geomagnetic field in orbit. The control performance is specified by the generalized H2 operator norm....... A linear matrix inequality-based algorithm is proposed for attitude control synthesis. Simulation results are provided, showing the prospect of the concept for onboard implementation....
Knowledge, attitude and control practices of sickle cell disease among youth corps members ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... access to haemopoeitic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in our environment, stronger efforts ...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gas released by current sounding rocket payload attitude control systems (ACS) has the potential to interfere with some types of science instruments. A single-axis...
Chern, Jeng-Shing; Wu, A.-M.
one revolution. The purpose of this paper is to present the attitude control design optimization such that the maximum solar energy is ingested while minimum maneuvering energy is dissipated. The strategy includes the maneuvering sequence design, the minimization of angular path, the sizing of three magnetic torquers, and the trade-off of the size, number and orientations arrangement of momentum wheels.
control torques can only be generated perpendicular to the local geomagnetic field vector. This has been a serious obstacle for using magnetorquer based control for three-axis attitude control. This paper deals with three-axis stabilization of a low earth orbit satellite. The problem of controlling...... the spacecraft attitude using only magnetic torquing is realized in the form of the sliding mode control. A three dimensional sliding manifold is proposed, and it is shown that the satellite motion on the sliding manifold is asymptotically stable...
Starin, Scott R.; Bourkland, Kristin L.; Kuo-Chia, Liu; Mason, Paul A. C.; Vess, Melissa F.; Andrews, Stephen F.; Morgenstern, Wendy M.
The Solar Dynamics Observatory mission, part of the Living With a Star program, will place a geosynchronous satellite in orbit to observe the Sun and relay data to a dedicated ground station at all times. SDO remains Sun- pointing throughout most of its mission for the instruments to take measurements of the Sun. The SDO attitude control system is a single-fault tolerant design. Its fully redundant attitude sensor complement includes 16 coarse Sun sensors, a digital Sun sensor, 3 two-axis inertial reference units, 2 star trackers, and 4 guide telescopes. Attitude actuation is performed using 4 reaction wheels and 8 thrusters, and a single main engine nominally provides velocity-change thrust. The attitude control software has five nominal control modes-3 wheel-based modes and 2 thruster-based modes. A wheel-based Safehold running in the attitude control electronics box improves the robustness of the system as a whole. All six modes are designed on the same basic proportional-integral-derivative attitude error structure, with more robust modes setting their integral gains to zero. The paper details the mode designs and their uses.
Wang, Jie; Li, Dongxu
High pointing accuracy and stabilization are significant for spacecrafts to carry out Earth observing, laser communication and space exploration missions. However, when a spacecraft undergoes large angle maneuver, the excited elastic oscillation of flexible appendages, for instance, solar wing and onboard antenna, would downgrade the performance of the spacecraft platform. This paper proposes a coupling control method, which synthesizes the adaptive sliding mode controller and the positive position feedback (PPF) controller, to control the attitude and suppress the elastic vibration simultaneously. Because of its prominent performance for attitude tracking and stabilization, the proposed method is capable of slewing the flexible spacecraft with a large angle. Also, the method is robust to parametric uncertainties of the spacecraft model. Numerical simulations are carried out with a hub-plate system which undergoes a single-axis attitude maneuver. An attitude control testbed for the flexible spacecraft is established and experiments are conducted to validate the coupling control method. Both numerical and experimental results demonstrate that the method discussed above can effectively decrease the stabilization time and improve the attitude accuracy of the flexible spacecraft.
Keum, Jung-Hoon; Ra, Sung-Woong
Nonlinear sliding surface design in variable structure systems for spacecraft attitude control problems is studied. A robustness analysis is performed for regular form of system, and calculation of actuator bandwidth is presented by reviewing sliding surface dynamics. To achieve non-singular attitude description and minimal parameterization, spacecraft attitude control problems are considered based on modified Rodrigues parameters (MRP). It is shown that the derived controller ensures the sliding motion in pre-determined region irrespective of unmodeled effects and disturbances.
Bedrossian, Nazareth; Bhatt, Sagar; Alaniz, Abran; McCants, Edward; Nguyen, Louis; Chamitoff, Greg
In this paper, the attitude control issues associated with International Space Station (ISS) loss of automatic thruster control capability are discussed and methods for attitude control recovery are presented. This scenario was experienced recently during Shuttle mission STS-117 and ISS Stage 13A in June 2007 when the Russian GN&C computers, which command the ISS thrusters, failed. Without automatic propulsive attitude control, the ISS would not be able to regain attitude control after the Orbiter undocked. The core issues associated with recovering long-term attitude control using CMGs are described as well as the systems engineering analysis to identify recovery options. It is shown that the recovery method can be separated into a procedure for rate damping to a safe harbor gravity gradient stable orientation and a capability to maneuver the vehicle to the necessary initial conditions for long term attitude hold. A manual control option using Soyuz and Progress vehicle thrusters is investigated for rate damping and maneuvers. The issues with implementing such an option are presented and the key issue of closed-loop stability is addressed. A new non-propulsive alternative to thruster control, Zero Propellant Maneuver (ZPM) attitude control method is introduced and its rate damping and maneuver performance evaluated. It is shown that ZPM can meet the tight attitude and rate error tolerances needed for long term attitude control. A combination of manual thruster rate damping to a safe harbor attitude followed by a ZPM to Stage long term attitude control orientation was selected by the Anomaly Resolution Team as the alternate attitude control method for such a contingency.
Djamel, Kaddouri; Abdellah, Mokhtari; Benallegue, Abdelaziz
A hierarchical controller design based on nonlinear H∞ theory and backstepping technique is developed for a nonlinear and coupled dynamic attitude system using conventional quaternion based method. The derived controller combines the attractive features of H∞ optimal controller and the advantages of the backstepping technique leading to a control law which avoids winding phenomena. Performance issues of the controller are illustrated in a simulation study made for a four-rotor vertical take-o...
Full Text Available This paper deals with stabilization and reduced attitude control of a robotic underwater vehicle. The vehicle is assumed to be able to perform a full stable rotations around all axes in underwater space, that is why the standard bottom-heavy structure is not used. The system preferably uses a vectored-thrust arrangement and is built as an overactuated system, which enables to gain a better robustness and guarantees a stable controlled motion even if some thruster suddenly stop working. Because the heading angle cannot be measured, the reduced attitude control strategy is designed and the stability of reduced state of the system is proved using perturbation method.
Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Kunz, Nans
At the request of the Science Mission Directorate Chief Engineer, the NASA Technical Fellow for Guidance, Navigation & Control assembled and facilitated a workshop on Spacecraft Hybrid Attitude Control. This multi-Center, academic, and industry workshop, sponsored by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), was held in April 2013 to unite nationwide experts to present and discuss the various innovative solutions, techniques, and lessons learned regarding the development and implementation of the various hybrid attitude control system solutions investigated or implemented. This report attempts to document these key lessons learned with the 16 findings and 9 NESC recommendations.
Parham, Ellen S.; And Others
Survey explores attitudes toward weight loss/weight control among 2 groups of change agents--40 dietitians and 42 fitness instructors--and among 96 people trying to lose weight. Significant differences were found in terms of importance in weight control of diet, drugs, exercise, religion, and will power; in importance of being of normal weight;…
Benford, Dominic J.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Rinehart. Stephen
The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) is an 8-meter baseline far-infrared interferometer to fly on a high altitude balloon. Operating at wavelengths of 30-90 microns, BETTII will obtain spatial and spectral information on science targets at angular resolutions down to less than half an arcsecond, a capability unmatched by other far-infrared facilities. This requires attitude control at a level ofless than a tenth of an arcsecond, a great challenge for a lightweight balloon-borne system. We have designed a precision attitude determination system to provide gondola attitude knowledge at a level of 2 milliarcseconds at rates up to 100Hz, with accurate absolute attitude determination at the half arcsecond level at rates of up to 10Hz. A mUlti-stage control system involving rigid body motion and tip-tilt-piston correction provides precision pointing stability to the level required for the far-infrared instrument to perform its spatial/spectral interferometry in an open-loop control. We present key aspects of the design of the attitude determination and control and its development status.
Sorensen, J. A.; Schmidt, S. F.; Goka, T.
Suitable digital algorithms are developed and tested for providing on-board precision attitude estimation and pointing control for potential use in the Landsat-D spacecraft. These algorithms provide pointing accuracy of better than 0.01 deg. To obtain necessary precision with efficient software, a six state-variable square-root Kalman filter combines two star tracker measurements to update attitude estimates obtained from processing three gyro outputs. The validity of the estimation and control algorithms are established, and the sensitivity of their performance to various error sources and software parameters are investigated by detailed digital simulation. Spacecraft computer memory, cycle time, and accuracy requirements are estimated.
Deng, Mingle; Yue, Baozeng
This paper is focused on attitude tracking control of a spacecraft that is equipped with flexible appendage and partially filled liquid propellant tank. The large amplitude liquid slosh is included by using a moving pulsating ball model that is further improved to estimate the settling location of liquid in microgravity or a zero-g environment. The flexible appendage is modelled as a three-dimensional Bernoulli-Euler beam, and the assumed modal method is employed. A hybrid controller that combines sliding mode control with an adaptive algorithm is designed for spacecraft to perform attitude tracking. The proposed controller has proved to be asymptotically stable. A nonlinear model for the overall coupled system including spacecraft attitude dynamics, liquid slosh, structural vibration and control action is established. Numerical simulation results are presented to show the dynamic behaviors of the coupled system and to verify the effectiveness of the control approach when the spacecraft undergoes the disturbance produced by large amplitude slosh and appendage vibration. Lastly, the designed adaptive algorithm is found to be effective to improve the precision of attitude tracking.
Keshtkar, Sajjad; Moreno, Jaime A.; Kojima, Hirohisa; Uchiyama, Kenji; Nohmi, Masahiro; Takaya, Keisuke
This paper presents a new and improved concept of recently proposed two-degrees of freedom spherical stabilizer for triaxial orientation of microsatellites. The analytical analysis of the advantages of the proposed mechanism over the existing inertial attitude control devices are introduced. The extended equations of motion of the stabilizing satellite including the spherical gyroscope, for control law design and numerical simulations, are studied in detail. A new control algorithm based on continuous high-order sliding mode algorithms, for managing the torque produced by the stabilizer and therefore the attitude control of the satellite in the presence of perturbations/uncertainties, is presented. Some numerical simulations are carried out to prove the performance of the proposed mechanism and control laws.
Full Text Available The path tracking control algorithm is one of the key problems in the control system design of autonomous vehicle. In this paper, we have conducted dynamic modeling for autonomous vehicle, the relationship between course deviation and yaw rate and centroid deflection angle. From the angle of the dynamics and geometrical, this paper have described the path tracking problem, analyzed the emergence of the eight autonomous vehicles pose binding - position and attitude alternate control methods to identify the relationship between posture and the controlling variables, and design a controller, the experimental results verify the feasibility and effectiveness of this control method.
Aim: The aims of this study were to document the smoking prevalence and attitudes regarding its control among these set of students who will be tomorrow's health care providers. Subjects and Methods: A cross‑sectional survey was conducted in two medical schools in South‑Western Nigeria with their accompanied ...
Burk, Thomas A.
The Cassini mission at Saturn will come to an end in the spring and summer of 2017 with a series of 22 orbits that will dip inside the rings of Saturn. These are called proximal orbits and will conclude with spacecraft disposal into the atmosphere of the ringed world on September 15, 2017. These unique orbits that cross the ring plane only a few thousand kilometers above the cloud tops of the planet present new attitude control challenges for the Cassini operations team. Crossing the ring plane so close to the inner edge of the rings means that the Cassini orientation during the crossing will be tailored to protect the sensitive electronics bus of the spacecraft. This orientation will put the sun sensors at some extra risk so this paper discusses how the team prepares for dust hazards. Periapsis is so close to the planet that spacecraft controllability with RCS thrusters needs to be evaluated because of the predicted atmospheric torque near closest approach to Saturn. Radiation during the ring plane crossings will likely trigger single event transients in some attitude control sensors. This paper discusses how the attitude control team deals with radiation hazards. The angular size and unique geometry of the rings and Saturn near periapsis means that star identification will be interrupted and this paper discusses how the safe mode attitude is selected to best deal with these large bright bodies during the proximal orbits.
Full Text Available A hierarchical controller design based on nonlinear H∞ theory and backstepping technique is developed for a nonlinear and coupled dynamic attitude system using conventional quaternion based method. The derived controller combines the attractive features of H∞ optimal controller and the advantages of the backstepping technique leading to a control law which avoids winding phenomena. Performance issues of the controller are illustrated in a simulation study made for a four-rotor vertical take-off and landing (VTOL aerial robot prototype known as the quadrotor aircraft.
Adirelle C. Santana
Full Text Available This article has discussed the development of a three-axis attitude digital controller for an artificial satellite using a digital signal processor. The main motivation of this study is the attitude control system of the satellite Multi-Mission Platform, developed by the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research for application in different sort of missions. The controller design was based on the theory of the Linear Quadratic Gaussian Regulator, synthesized from the linearized model of the motion of the satellite, i.e., the kinematics and dynamics of attitude. The attitude actuators considered in this study are pairs of cold gas jets powered by a pulse width/pulse frequency modulator. In the first stage of the project development, a system controller for continuous time was studied with the aim of testing the adequacy of the adopted control. The next steps had included an analysis of discretization techniques, the setting time of sampling rate, and the testing of the digital version of the Linear Quadratic Gaussian Regulator controller in the MATLAB/SIMULINK. To fulfill the study, the controller was implemented in a digital signal processor, specifically the Blackfin BF537 from Analog Devices, along with the pulse width/pulse frequency modulator. The validation tests used a scheme of co-simulation, where the model of the satellite was simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK, while the controller and modulator were processed in the digital signal processor with a tool called Processor-In-the-Loop, which acted as a data communication link between both environments.function and required time to achieve a given mission accuracy are determined, and results are provided as illustration.
Sutherlin, D. W.; Boland, J. S. , III; Borelli, M. T.
Study of the normal and clamped modes of operation and dynamic response characteristics of the gimbaled control moment gyro (CMG) designed to fulfill the stringent pointing requirements of the Skylab telescope mount when the spacecraft is under the influence of both external and internal torques. The results indicate that the clamped mode of operation provides a feasible approach for significantly improving the system characteristics.
Chen, J.; Morgenstern, Wendy; Garrick, Joseph
Triana is a single-string spacecraft to be placed in a halo orbit about the sun-earth Ll Lagrangian point. The Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) hardware includes four reaction wheels, ten thrusters, six coarse sun sensors, a star tracker, and a three-axis Inertial Measuring Unit (IMU). The ACS Safehold design features a gyroless sun-pointing control scheme using only sun sensors and wheels. With this minimum hardware approach, Safehold increases mission reliability in the event of a gyroscope anomaly. In place of the gyroscope rate measurements, Triana Safehold uses wheel tachometers to help provide a scaled estimation of the spacecraft body rate about the sun vector. Since Triana nominally performs momentum management every three months, its accumulated system momentum can reach a significant fraction of the wheel capacity. It is therefore a requirement for Safehold to maintain a sun-pointing attitude even when the spacecraft system momentum is reasonably large. The tachometer sun-line rate estimation enables the controller to bring the spacecraft close to its desired sun-pointing attitude even with reasonably high system momentum and wheel drags. This paper presents the design rationale behind this gyroless controller, stability analysis, and some time-domain simulation results showing performances with various initial conditions. Finally, suggestions for future improvements are briefly discussed.
Eisenhaure, David B.; Bechtel, Robert; Hockney, Richard; Oglevie, Ron; Olszewski, Mitch
Integrated Power and Attitude Control System (IPACS) studies performed over a decade ago established the feasibility of storing electrical energy in flywheels and utilizing the resulting angular momentum for spacecraft attitude control. Such a system has been shown to have numerous attractive features relative to more contemporary technology, and is appropriate to many applications (including high-performance slewing actuators). Technology advances over the last two decades in composite rotors, motor/generator/electronics, and magnetic bearings are found to support the use of IPACS for increasingly sophisticated applications. It is concluded that the concept offers potential performance advantages as well as savings in mass and life-cycle cost. Viewgraphs and discussion on IPACS are included.
Xiong, Jing-Jing; Zheng, En-Hui
A synthesis control method is proposed to perform the position and attitude tracking control of the dynamical model of a small quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), where the dynamical model is underactuated, highly-coupled and nonlinear. Firstly, the dynamical model is divided into a fully actuated subsystem and an underactuated subsystem. Secondly, a controller of the fully actuated subsystem is designed through a novel robust terminal sliding mode control (TSMC) algorithm, which is utilized to guarantee all state variables converge to their desired values in short time, the convergence time is so small that the state variables are acted as time invariants in the underactuated subsystem, and, a controller of the underactuated subsystem is designed via sliding mode control (SMC), in addition, the stabilities of the subsystems are demonstrated by Lyapunov theory, respectively. Lastly, in order to demonstrate the robustness of the proposed control method, the aerodynamic forces and moments and air drag taken as external disturbances are taken into account, the obtained simulation results show that the synthesis control method has good performance in terms of position and attitude tracking when faced with external disturbances. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tijmons, Sjoerd; Karásek, Matěj; de Croon, G C H E
Robust attitude control is an essential aspect of research on autonomous flight of flapping wing Micro Air Vehicles. The mechanical solutions by which the necessary control moments are realised come at the price of extra weight and possible loss of aerodynamic efficiency. Stable flight of these vehicles has been shown by several designs using a conventional tail, but also by tailless designs that use active control of the wings. In this study a control mechanism is proposed that provides active control over the wings. The mechanism improves vehicle stability and agility by generation of control moments for roll, pitch and yaw. Its effectiveness is demonstrated by static measurements around all the three axes. Flight test results confirm that the attitude of the test vehicle, including a tail, can be successfully controlled in slow forward flight conditions. Furthermore, the flight envelope is extended with robust hovering and the ability to reverse the flight direction using a small turn space. This capability is very important for autonomous flight capabilities such as obstacle avoidance. Finally, it is demonstrated that the proposed control mechanism allows for tailless hovering flight. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Calvo, Daniel; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana; Lapuerta, Victoria; Aviles, Taisir
Fuzzy logic controllers are flexible and simple, suitable for small satellites Attitude Determination and Control Subsystems (ADCS). In this work, a tailored fuzzy controller is designed for a nanosatellite and is compared with a traditional Proportional Integrative Derivative (PID) controller. Both control methodologies are compared within the same specific mission. The orbit height varies along the mission from injection at around 380 km down to a 200 km height orbit, and the mission requires pointing accuracy over the whole time. Due to both the requirements imposed by such a low orbit, and the limitations in the power available for the attitude control, a robust and efficient ADCS is required. For these reasons a fuzzy logic controller is implemented as the brain of the ADCS and its performance and efficiency are compared to a traditional PID. The fuzzy controller is designed in three separated controllers, each one acting on one of the Euler angles of the satellite in an orbital frame. The fuzzy memberships are constructed taking into account the mission requirements, the physical properties of the satellite and the expected performances. Both methodologies, fuzzy and PID, are fine-tuned using an automated procedure to grant maximum efficiency with fixed performances. Finally both methods are probed in different environments to test their characteristics. The simulations show that the fuzzy controller is much more efficient (up to 65% less power required) in single maneuvers, achieving similar, or even better, precision than the PID. The accuracy and efficiency improvement of the fuzzy controller increase with orbit height because the environmental disturbances decrease, approaching the ideal scenario. A brief mission description is depicted as well as the design process of both ADCS controllers. Finally the validation process and the results obtained during the simulations are described. Those results show that the fuzzy logic methodology is valid for small
Full Text Available In this paper we present the design of a sliding mode controller for attitude control of spacecraft actuated by three orthogonal reaction wheels. The equilibrium of the closed loop system is proved to be asymptotically stable in the sense of Lyapunov. Due to cases where spacecraft do not have angular velocity measurements, an estimator for the generalized velocity is derived and asymptotic stability is proven for the observer. The approach is tested on an experimental platform with a sphere shaped Autonomous Underwater Vehicle SATellite: AUVSAT, developed at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
Ludvigsson, J; Svensson, P G
Urinary glucose excretion reflects the blood glucose levels and is therefore recommended and used as a relevant and practical method for self-control in juvenile diabetes. The purpose of this study was to estimate the attitudes of of diabetic children and their parents towards such daily urinalysis. In 1975 69 juvenile diabetics 6-18 years old and their parents were studied and three years later another 69 patients were added. Still a year later 31 of the children were studied again. Standardized interviews, questionnaires and a special attitude test were used. The results indicate that a great majority of the patients and the parents accept the self-testing method and regard it as a valuable tool in the management of the disease. Almost nobody experienced the urine tests as a psychological problem. As urinalysis has become established as a self-evident part of the treatment, the attitudes have become even more positive among a growing number of patients. Parallel to this feeling of usefulness the patients are honest and the urine tests thus give reliable information.
Baculi, Joshua; Ayoubi, Mohammad A.
This study presents a fuzzy tracking controller based on the Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model of the solar sail. First, the T-S fuzzy model is constructed by linearizing the existing nonlinear equations of motion of the solar sail. Then, the T-S fuzzy model is used to derive the state feedback controller gains for the Twin Parallel Distributed Compensation (TPDC) technique. The TPDC tracks and stabilizes the attitude of the solar sail to any desired state in the presence of parameter uncertainties and external disturbances while satisfying actuator constraints. The performance of the TPDC is compared to a PID controller that is tuned using the Ziegler-Nichols method. Numerical simulation shows the TPDC outperforms the PID controller when stabilizing the solar sail to a desired state.
for global stabilization of a rotary motion. Along with a model of the system formulated in the Hamilton's canonical from the algorithm uses information about a required potential energy and a dissipation term. The control action is the sum of the gradient of the potential energy and the dissipation force......The objective of this paper is to develop a control scheme for stabilization of a hamiltonian system. The method generalizes the results available in the literature on motion control in the Euclidean space to an arbitrary differrential manifol equipped with a metric. This modification is essencial...... on a Riemannian manifold. The Lyapnov stability theory is adapted and reformulated to fit to the new framework of Riemannian manifolds. Toillustrate the results a spacecraft attitude control problem is considered. Firstly, a global canonical representation for the spacecraft motion is found, then three spacecraft...
for global stabilization of a rotary motion. Along with a model of the system formulated in the Hamilton's canonical from the algorithm uses information about a required potential energy and a dissipation term. The control action is the sum of the gradient of the potential energy and the dissipation force......The objective of this paper is to develop a control scheme for stabilization of a hamiltonian system. The method generalizes the results available in the literature on motion control in the Euclidean space to an arbitrary differrential manifol equipped with a metric. This modification is essencial...... on a Riemannian manifold. The Lyapnov stability theory is adapted and reformulated to fit to the new framework of Riemannian manifolds. Toillustrate the results a spacecraft attitude control problem is considered. Firstly, a global canonical representation for the spacecraft motion is found, then three spacecraft...
Peters, T. V.; Briz Valero, José Francisco; Escorial Olmos, Diego; Lappas, V.; Jakowski, P.; Gray, I.; Tsourdos, A.; Schaub, H.; Biesbroek, R.
The increase of satellites and rocket upper stages in low earth orbit (LEO) has also increased substantially the danger of collisions in space. Studies have shown that the problem will continue to grow unless a number of debris are removed every year. A typical active debris removal (ADR) mission scenario includes launching an active spacecraft (chaser) which will rendezvous with the inactive target (debris), capture the debris and eventually deorbit both satellites. Many concepts for the capture of the debris while keeping a connection via a tether, between the target and chaser have been investigated, including harpoons, nets, grapples and robotic arms. The paper provides an analysis on the attitude control behaviour for a tethered de-orbiting mission based on the ESA e.Deorbit reference mission, where Envisat is the debris target to be captured by a chaser using a net which is connected to the chaser with a tether. The paper provides novel insight on the feasibility of tethered de-orbiting for the various mission phases such as stabilization after capture, de-orbit burn (plus stabilization), stabilization during atmospheric pass, highlighting the importance of various critical mission parameters such as the tether material. It is shown that the selection of the appropriate tether material while using simple controllers can reduce the effort needed for tethered deorbiting and can safely control the attitude of the debris/chaser connected with a tether, without the danger of a collision.
Cho, Sung-Ki; Cochran, John E., Jr.
Multi-body spacecraft attitude and configuration control formulations based on the use of collaborative control theory are considered. The control formulations are based on two-player, nonzero-sum, differential game theory applied using a Nash strategy. It is desired that the control laws allow different components of the multi-body system to perform different tasks. For example, it may be desired that one body points toward a fixed star while another body in the system slews to track another satellite. Although similar to the linear quadratic regulator formulation, the collaborative control formulation contains a number of additional design parameters because the problem is formulated as two control problems coupled together. The use of the freedom of the partitioning of the total problem into two coupled control problems and the selection of the elements of the cross-coupling matrices are specific problems addressed in this paper. Examples are used to show that significant improvement in performance, as measured by realistic criteria, of collaborative control over conventional linear quadratic regulator control can be achieved by using proposed design guidelines.
Full Text Available Multi-body spacecraft attitude and configuration control formulations based on the use of collaborative control theory are considered. The control formulations are based on two-player, nonzero-sum, differential game theory applied using a Nash strategy. It is desired that the control laws allow different components of the multi-body system to perform different tasks. For example, it may be desired that one body points toward a fixed star while another body in the system slews to track another satellite. Although similar to the linear quadratic regulator formulation, the collaborative control formulation contains a number of additional design parameters because the problem is formulated as two control problems coupled together. The use of the freedom of the partitioning of the total problem into two coupled control problems and the selection of the elements of the cross-coupling matrices are specific problems addressed in this paper. Examples are used to show that significant improvement in performance, as measured by realistic criteria, of collaborative control over conventional linear quadratic regulator control can be achieved by using proposed design guidelines.
Kim, Sung-Woo; Park, Sang-Young; Park, Chandeok
In this study, a neuro-fuzzy controller (NFC) was developed for spacecraft attitude control to mitigate large computational load of the state-dependent Riccati equation (SDRE) controller. The NFC was developed by training a neuro-fuzzy network to approximate the SDRE controller. The stability of the NFC was numerically verified using a Lyapunov-based method, and the performance of the controller was analyzed in terms of approximation ability, steady-state error, cost, and execution time. The simulations and test results indicate that the developed NFC efficiently approximates the SDRE controller, with asymptotic stability in a bounded region of angular velocity encompassing the operational range of rapid-attitude maneuvers. In addition, it was shown that an approximated optimal feedback controller can be designed successfully through neuro-fuzzy approximation of the optimal open-loop controller.
Sanders, Devon S.; Heater, Daniel L.; Peeples, Steven R.; Sules. James K.; Huang, Po-Hao Adam
A cubesat attitude control system (ACS) was designed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to provide sub-degree pointing capabilities using low cost, COTS attitude sensors, COTS miniature reaction wheels, and a developmental micro-propulsion system. The ACS sensors and actuators were integrated onto a 3D-printed plastic 3U cubesat breadboard (10 cm x 10 cm x 30 cm) with a custom designed instrument board and typical cubesat COTS hardware for the electrical, power, and data handling and processing systems. In addition to the cubesat development, a low-cost air bearing was designed and 3D printed in order to float the cubesat in the test environment. Systems integration and verification were performed at the MSFC Small Projects Rapid Integration & Test Environment laboratory. Using a combination of both the miniature reaction wheels and the micro-propulsion system, the open and closed loop control capabilities of the ACS were tested in the Flight Robotics Laboratory. The testing demonstrated the desired sub-degree pointing capability of the ACS and also revealed the challenges of creating a relevant environment for development testin
Liechty, Janet M; Saltzman, Jaclyn A; Musaad, Salma M
The purpose of this study was to examine associations between parental health literacy and parent attitudes about weight control strategies for young children. Parental low health literacy has been associated with poor child health outcomes, yet little is known about its relationship to child weight control and weight-related health information-seeking preferences. Data were drawn from the STRONG Kids Study, a Midwest panel survey among parents of preschool aged children (n = 497). Parents endorsed an average of 4.3 (SD =2.8) weight loss strategies, 53% endorsed all three recommended weight loss strategies for children, and fewer than 1% of parents endorsed any unsafe strategies. Parents were most likely to seek child weight loss information from healthcare professionals but those with low (vs. adequate) health literacy were significantly less likely to use the Internet or books and more likely to use minister/clergy as sources. Poisson and logistic regressions showed that higher health literacy was associated with endorsement of more strategies overall, more recommended strategies, and greater odds of endorsing each specific recommended strategy for child weight control, after adjusting for parent age, education, race/ethnicity, income, marital status, weight concern, and child BMI percentile. Findings suggest that health literacy impacts parental views about child weight loss strategies and health information-seeking preferences. Pediatric weight loss advice to parents should include assessment of parent attitudes and prior knowledge about child weight control and facilitate parent access to reliable sources of evidence-informed child weight control information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Journal of Educational Research. Journal Home · ABOUT ... These will help to change the negative attitude of teachers to inspectors and inspection to positive. Keywords: Teacher Attitude; School Inspection; Education Inspectors.
Wales, R. O. (Editor)
Attitude control is reviewed, encompassing the attitude control subsystem, spacecraft attitude precision pointing and slewing adaptive control experiment, and RF interferometer experiment. The spacecraft propulsion system (SPS) is discussed, including subsystem, SPS design description and validation, orbital operations and performance, in-orbit anomalies and contingency operations, and the cesium bombardment ion engine experiment. Thruster failure due to plugging of the propellant feed passages, a major cause for mission termination, are considered among the critical generic failures on the satellite.
Full Text Available The problem of spacecraft attitude control is solved using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS. An ANFIS produces a control signal for one of the three axes of a spacecraft’s body frame, so in total three ANFISs are constructed for 3-axis attitude control. The fuzzy inference system of the ANFIS is initialized using a subtractive clustering method. The ANFIS is trained by a hybrid learning algorithm using the data obtained from attitude control simulations using state-dependent Riccati equation controller. The training data set for each axis is composed of state errors for 3 axes (roll, pitch, and yaw and a control signal for one of the 3 axes. The stability region of the ANFIS controller is estimated numerically based on Lyapunov stability theory using a numerical method to calculate Jacobian matrix. To measure the performance of the ANFIS controller, root mean square error and correlation factor are used as performance indicators. The performance is tested on two ANFIS controllers trained in different conditions. The test results show that the performance indicators are proper in the sense that the ANFIS controller with the larger stability region provides better performance according to the performance indicators.
Zou, An-Min; Kumar, Krishna Dev
This brief considers the attitude coordination control problem for spacecraft formation flying when only a subset of the group members has access to the common reference attitude. A quaternion-based distributed attitude coordination control scheme is proposed with consideration of the input saturation and with the aid of the sliding-mode observer, separation principle theorem, Chebyshev neural networks, smooth projection algorithm, and robust control technique. Using graph theory and a Lyapunov-based approach, it is shown that the distributed controller can guarantee the attitude of all spacecraft to converge to a common time-varying reference attitude when the reference attitude is available only to a portion of the group of spacecraft. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed distributed controller.
Macy, Jonathan T; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C
This study examined the association between implicit and explicit attitudes toward smoking and support for tobacco control policies. Participants were from an ongoing longitudinal study of the natural history of smoking who also completed a web-based assessment of implicit attitudes toward smoking (N = 1,337). Multiple regression was used to test the association between covariates (sex, age, educational attainment, parent status, and smoking status), implicit attitude toward smoking, and explicit attitude toward smoking and support for tobacco control policies. The moderating effect of the covariates on the relation between attitudes and support for policies was also tested. Females, those with higher educational attainment, parents, and nonsmokers expressed more support for tobacco control policy measures. For nonsmokers, only explicit attitude was significantly associated with support for policies. For smokers, both explicit and implicit attitudes were significantly associated with support. The effect of explicit attitude was stronger for those with lower educational attainment. Both explicit and implicit smoking attitudes are important for building support for tobacco control policies, particularly among smokers. More research is needed on how to influence explicit and implicit attitudes to inform policy advocacy campaigns.
Duerink, D.O.; Hadi, U.; Lestari, E.S.; Roeshadi, D.; Wahyono, H.; Nagelkerke, N.J.; Meulen, R.G.; Broek, P.J.A. van den
Aim: to investigate knowledge, attitude and behaviour toward infection control in two teaching hospitals on the island of Java by means of a questionnaire and to evaluate the use of the questionnaire as a tool. Methods: we investigated knowledge, attitude and behaviour toward infection control in
Werking, R. D.; Headrick, R. D.; Manders, C. F.; Woolley, R. D.
A description of attitude control support being supplied by the Mission and Data Operations Directorate is presented. Included are descriptions of the computer programs being used to support the missions for attitude determination, prediction, and control. In addition, descriptions of the operating procedures which will be used to accomplish mission objectives are provided.
This paper concerns the development of the Attitude Determination and Control System (ADCS) for the SSETI-Express micro-satellite mission. The mission is an educational project involving 14 universities and the European Space Agency (ESA). The satellite has been designed and built, by students...
This paper concerns the development of the Attitude Determination and Control System (ADCS) for the SSETI-Express micro-satellite mission. The mission is an educational project involving 14 universities and the European Space Agency (ESA). The satellite has been designed and built, by students...
Full Text Available In this paper, an adaptive attitude control algorithm is developed based on neural network for a satellite using four reaction wheels in a tetrahedron configuration. Then, an attitude control based on feedback linearization control has been designed and uncertainties in the moment of inertia matrix and disturbances torque have been considered. In order to eliminate the effect of these uncertainties, a multilayer neural network with back-propagation law is designed. In this structure, the parameters of the moment of inertia matrix and external disturbances are estimated and used in feedback linearization control law. Finally, the performance of the designed attitude controller is investigated by several simulations.
Solar sails offer an opportunity for a CubeSatscale, propellant-free spacecraft technology that enables long-term and long-distance missions not possible with traditional methods. Solar sails operate using the transfer of linear momentum from photons of sunlight reflected from the surface of the sail. To propel the spacecraft, no mechanically moving parts, thrusters, or propellant are needed. However, attitude control, or orientation, is still performed using traditional methods involving reaction wheels and propellant ejection, which severely limit mission lifetime. For example, the current state of the art solutions employed by upcoming missions couple solar sails with a state of the art propellant ejection gas system. Here, the use of the gas thruster has limited the lifetime of the mission. To solve the limited mission lifetime problem, the Propellantless Attitude Control of Solar Sail Technology Utilizing Reflective Control Devices project team is working on propellantless attitude control using thin layers of material, an optical film, electrically switchable from transparent to reflective. The technology is based on a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC), which allows this switch upon application of a voltage. This technology removes the need for propellant, which reduces weight and cost while improving performance and lifetime.
Wisniewski, Rafal; Kulczycki, P.
A configuration consisting of a star camera, four reaction wheels and magnetorquers for momentum unloading has become standard for many spacecraft missions. This popularity has motivated numerous agencies and private companies to initiate work on the design of an imbedded attitude control system...... realized on an integrated circuit. This paper considers two issues: slew maneuver with a feature of avoiding direct exposure of the camera's CCD chip to the Sun %, three-axis attitude control and optimal control torque distribution in a reaction wheel assembly. The attitude controller is synthesized...
Reyhanoglu, Mahmut; Mcclamroch, N. Harris
An attitude control strategy for maneuvers of an interconnection of planar bodies in space is developed. It is assumed that there are no exogeneous torques and that torques generated by joint motors are used as means of control so that the total angular momentum of the multibody system is a constant, assumed to be zero. The control strategy utilizes the nonintegrability of the expression for the angular momentum. Large angle maneuvers can be designed to achieve an arbitrary reorientation of the multibody system with respect to an inertial frame. The theoretical background for carrying out the required maneuvers is summarized.
Full Text Available The modeling and attitude stabilization control problems of a four-rotor vertical takeoff and landing unmanned air vehicle (UAV known as the quadrotor are investigated. The quadrotor’s attitude is represented by the unit quaternion rather than Euler angles to avoid singularity problem. Taking dynamical behavior of motors into consideration and ignoring aerodynamic effect, a nonlinear controller is developed to stabilize the attitude. The control design is accomplished by using backstepping control technique. The proposed control law is based on the compensation for the Coriolis and gyroscope torques. Applying Lyapunov stability analysis proves that the closed-loop attitude system is asymptotic stable. Moreover, the controller can guarantee that all the states of the system are uniformly ultimately bounded in the presence of external disturbance torque. The effectiveness of the proposed control approach is analytically authenticated and also validated via simulation study.
Ahn, Young Tae
Spacecraft need specific attitude control methods that depend on the mission type or special tasks. The dynamics and the attitude control of a spacecraft with a shifting mass distribution within the system are examined. The behavior and use of conventional attitude control actuators are widely developed and performing at the present time. However, the advantage of a shifting mass distribution concept can complement spacecraft attitude control, save mass, and extend a satellite's life. This can be adopted in practice by moving mass from one tank to another, similar to what an airplane does to balance weight. Using this shifting mass distribution concept, in conjunction with other attitude control devices, can augment the three-axis attitude control process. Shifting mass involves changing the center-of-mass of the system, and/or changing the moments of inertia of the system, which then ultimately can change the attitude behavior of the system. This dissertation consists of two parts. First, the equations of motion for the shifting mass concept (also known as morphing) are developed. They are tested for their effects on attitude control by showing how shifting the mass changes the spacecraft's attitude behavior. Second, a method for optimal mass redistribution is shown using a combinatorial optimization theory under constraints. It closes with a simple example demonstrating an optimal reconfiguration. The procedure of optimal reconfiguration from one mass distribution to another to accomplish attitude control has been demonstrated for several simple examples. Mass shifting could work as an attitude controller for fine-tuning attitude behavior in small satellites. Various constraints can be applied for different situations, such as no mass shift between two tanks connected by a failed pipe or total amount of shifted mass per pipe being set for the time optimum solution. Euler angle changes influenced by the mass reconfiguration are accomplished while stability
Full Text Available In order to realize the high accuracy attitude control of satellite with flexible appendages, attitude control system consisting of the controller and structural filter was designed. When the low order vibration frequency of flexible appendages is approximating the bandwidth of attitude control system, the vibration signal will enter the control system through measurement device to bring impact on the accuracy or even the stability. In order to reduce the impact of vibration of appendages on the attitude control system, the structural filter is designed in terms of rejecting the vibration of flexible appendages. Considering the potential problem of in-orbit frequency variation of the flexible appendages, the design method for the adaptive notch filter is proposed based on the in-orbit identification technology. Finally, the simulation results are given to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed design techniques.
Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann
Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual…
Full Text Available The attitude tracking problem of spacecraft in the presence of unknown disturbance is investigated. By using the adaptive control technique and the Lyapunov stability theory, a chattering-free adaptive sliding mode control law is proposed for the attitude tracking problem of spacecraft with unknown disturbance. Simulation results are employed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control design technique in this paper.
Shtessel, Yuri B.; Zhu, J. Jim; Daniels, Dan; Jackson, Scott (Technical Monitor)
In this paper we present a time-varying sliding mode control (TVSMC) technique for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) attitude control in ascent and entry flight phases. In ascent flight the guidance commands Euler roll, pitch and yaw angles, and in entry flight it commands the aerodynamic angles of bank, attack and sideslip. The controller employs a body rate inner loop and the attitude outer loop, which are separated in time-scale by the singular perturbation principle. The novelty of the TVSMC is that both the sliding surface and the boundary layer dynamics can be varied in real time using the PD-eigenvalue assignment technique. This salient feature is used to cope with control command saturation and integrator windup in the presence of severe disturbance or control effector failure, which enhances the robustness and fault tolerance of the controller. The TV-SMC ascent and descent designs are currently being tested with high fidelity, 6-DOF dispersion simulations. The test results will be presented in the final version of this paper.
Hall, Robert A.; Hough, Steven; Orphee, Carolina; Clements, Keith
Basic principles for the design and stability of a spacecraft on-orbit attitude control system employing on-off Reaction Control System (RCS) thrusters are presented. Both vehicle dynamics and the control system actuators are inherently nonlinear, hence traditional linear control system design approaches are not directly applicable. This paper has two main aspects: It summarizes key RCS design principles from earlier NASA vehicles, notably the Space Shuttle and Space Station programs, and introduces advances in the linear modelling and analyses of a phase plane control system derived in the initial development of the NASA's next upper stage vehicle, the Exploration Upper Stage (EUS). Topics include thruster hardware specifications, phase plane design and stability, jet selection approaches, filter design metrics, and RCS rotational maneuver logic.
Solar sails are spacecraft that utilise the Solar Radiation Pressure, the force generated by impinging photons, to propel themselves. Conventional actuators are not suitable for controlling the attitude of solar sails therefore specific attitude control methods have been devised to tackle this. One of these methods is to change the centre of pressure with respect to the center of mass thus creating a torque. Reflectivity Control Devices (RCDs) have been proposed and successfully used to change the centre of pressure. Current methods that utilise RCDs have control authority over two axis only with no ability to control the torque about the normal of the sail surface. This thesis extends the state of the art and demonstrates 3-axis control by generating arbitrary torque vectors within a convex polyhedron. Two different RCD materials are considered, transmission and diffusion technologies both compatible with the proposed concept. A number of metrics have been developed which facilitate the comparison of different sail configurations. One of these metics is the sun map which is a graphic representation of the sun angles for which control authority is maintained. An iterative design process is presented which makes use of the metrics developed and aids in the design of a sail which meets the mission requirements and constraints. Moreover, the effects of different parameters on the performance of the proposed control concept are discussed. For example it is shown that by alternating the angle between the edge and middle RCDs the control authority increases. The concept's scalability has been investigated and a hybrid control scheme has been devised which makes use of both RCDs and reaction wheels. The RCDs are complemented by the reaction wheels to achieve higher slew rates while in turn the RCDs desaturate the reaction wheels. Finally, a number of simulations are conducted to verify the validity of the proposed concept.
Zou, An-Min; Dev Kumar, Krishna; Hou, Zeng-Guang
This paper investigates the problem of output feedback attitude control of an uncertain spacecraft. Two robust adaptive output feedback controllers based on Chebyshev neural networks (CNN) termed adaptive neural networks (NN) controller-I and adaptive NN controller-II are proposed for the attitude tracking control of spacecraft. The four-parameter representations (quaternion) are employed to describe the spacecraft attitude for global representation without singularities. The nonlinear reduced-order observer is used to estimate the derivative of the spacecraft output, and the CNN is introduced to further improve the control performance through approximating the spacecraft attitude motion. The implementation of the basis functions of the CNN used in the proposed controllers depends only on the desired signals, and the smooth robust compensator using the hyperbolic tangent function is employed to counteract the CNN approximation errors and external disturbances. The adaptive NN controller-II can efficiently avoid the over-estimation problem (i.e., the bound of the CNNs output is much larger than that of the approximated unknown function, and hence, the control input may be very large) existing in the adaptive NN controller-I. Both adaptive output feedback controllers using CNN can guarantee that all signals in the resulting closed-loop system are uniformly ultimately bounded. For performance comparisons, the standard adaptive controller using the linear parameterization of spacecraft attitude motion is also developed. Simulation studies are presented to show the advantages of the proposed CNN-based output feedback approach over the standard adaptive output feedback approach.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hyper-XACT is intended to extend the capabilities of CubeSat attitude control systems for longer duration missions with tighter performance requirements by...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new pulsed electric thruster, named "pulsed electrogasdynamic thruster," for attitude control and orbit maneuver is proposed. In this thruster, propellant gas is...
Shahrooei, Abolfazl; Kazemi, Mohammad Hosein
In this paper, the multiple model adaptive control is utilized to improve the transient response of attitude control system for a rigid spacecraft. An adaptive output feedback control law is proposed for attitude control under angular velocity constraints and its almost global asymptotic stability is proved. The multiple model adaptive control approach is employed to counteract large uncertainty in parameter space of the inertia matrix. The nonlinear dynamics of a low earth orbit satellite is simulated and the proposed control algorithm is implemented. The reported results show the effectiveness of the suggested scheme.
Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C.; Sherman, Steven J.; Seo, Dong-Chul; Macy, Jon
The current study tested implicit and explicit attitudes as prospective predictors of smoking cessation in a Midwestern community sample of smokers. Results showed that the effects of attitudes significantly varied with levels of experienced failure to control smoking and plans to quit. Explicit attitudes significantly predicted later cessation among those with low (but not high or average) levels of experienced failure to control smoking. Conversely, however, implicit attitudes significantly...
Huo, Mingying; Zhao, Jun; Xie, Shaobiao; Qi, Naiming
The paper discusses the coupled attitude-orbit dynamics and control of an electric-sail-based spacecraft in a heliocentric transfer mission. The mathematical model characterizing the propulsive thrust is first described as a function of the orbital radius and the sail angle. Since the solar wind dynamic pressure acceleration is induced by the sail attitude, the orbital and attitude dynamics of electric sails are coupled, and are discussed together. Based on the coupled equations, the flight control is investigated, wherein the orbital control is studied in an optimal framework via a hybrid optimization method and the attitude controller is designed based on feedback linearization control. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy, a transfer problem from Earth to Mars is considered. The numerical results show that the proposed strategy can control the coupled system very well, and a small control torque can control both the attitude and orbit. The study in this paper will contribute to the theory study and application of electric sail.
Banse, R; Seise, J; Zerbes, N
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the psychometric properties of an Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) that was adapted to measure implicit attitudes towards homosexuality. In a first experiment, the validity of the Homosexuality-IAT was tested using a known group approach. Implicit and explicit attitudes were assessed in heterosexual and homosexual men and women (N = 101). The results provided compelling evidence for the convergent and discriminant validity of the Homosexuality-IAT as a measure of implicit attitudes. No evidence was found for two alternative explanations of IAT effects (familiarity with stimulus material and stereotype knowledge). The internal consistency of IAT scores was satisfactory (alpha s > .80), but retest correlations were lower. In a second experiment (N = 79) it was shown that uninformed participants were able to fake positive explicit but not implicit attitudes. Discrepancies between implicit and explicit attitudes towards homosexuality could be partially accounted for by individual differences in the motivation to control prejudiced behavior, thus providing independent evidence for the validity of the implicit attitude measure. Neither explicit nor implicit attitudes could be changed by persuasive messages. The results of both experiments are interpreted as evidence for a single construct account of implicit and explicit attitudes towards homosexuality.
Allison M. Schmidt
Full Text Available Favorable attitudes towards tobacco control policies can facilitate their implementation and success. We examined attitudes toward four potential U.S. Federal tobacco regulations (banning menthol from cigarettes, reducing nicotine levels in cigarettes, banning candy and fruit flavored electronic cigarettes, and banning candy and fruit flavored little cigars and cigarillos and associations with individual and state variables. A nationally representative phone survey of 4337 adults assessed attitudes toward potential policies. Weighted logistic regression was used to assess relationships between attitudes and demographic factors, smoking behavior, beliefs about the government (knowledge, trust, and credibility, exposure to tobacco control campaigns, and state variables from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE System. Most respondents supported three out of four policies. Respondents that were female, non-white, Latino, living below the poverty line, had less than high school education, were of older age, did not smoke, had higher trust in government, and were exposed to national tobacco control campaigns had higher odds of expressing favorable attitudes toward potential new tobacco regulations than did their counterparts. No state-level effects were found. While differences in attitudes were observed by individual demographic characteristics, behaviors, and beliefs, a majority of participants supported most of the potential new tobacco regulations surveyed.
Full Text Available This paper studies attitude control of the ESMO satellite using six reaction thrusters. Bang-bang control with dead-zone and Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM for the modulation of the on-time of the thrusters are treated. Closed loop hardware-in-loop simulations, using themicrocontroller unit (MCU Microchip PIC18F452 for implementation of attitude control and MatLab in a standard PC for simulating satellite dynamics, are carried out. Results for real time simulation are compared with autonomous simulations. The controller gives a satisfactory performance in the real time environment.
Fukushima, Edwardo F.; Hirose, Shigeo
This paper introduces an attitude control scheme based in optimal force distribution using quadratic programming which minimizes joint energy consumption. This method shares similarities with force distribution for multifingered hands, multiple coordinated manipulators and legged walking robots. In particular, an attitude control scheme was introduced inside the force distribution problem, and successfully implemented for control of the articulated body mobile robot KR-II. This is an actual mobile robot composed of cylindrical segments linked in series by prismatic joints and has a long snake-like appearance. These prismatic joints are force controlled so that each segment's vertical motion can automatically follow the terrain irregularities. An attitude control is necessary because this system acts like a system of wheeled inverted pendulum carts connected in series, being unstable by nature. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by computer simulation and experiments with the robot KR-II. (author)
Weng, Liguo; Xia, Min; Wang, Wei; Liu, Qingshan
This paper addresses the problem of the crew exploration vehicle (CEV) attitude control. CEVs are NASA's next-generation human spaceflight vehicles, and they use reaction control system (RCS) jet engines for attitude adjustment, which calls for control algorithms for firing the small propulsion engines mounted on vehicles. In this work, the resultant CEV dynamics combines both actuation and attitude dynamics. Therefore, it is highly nonlinear and even coupled with significant uncertainties. To cope with this situation, a neural-immunology/memory network is proposed. It is inspired by the human memory and immune systems. The control network does not rely on precise system dynamics information. Furthermore, the overall control scheme has a simple structure and demands much less computation as compared with most existing methods, making it attractive for real-time implementation. The effectiveness of this approach is also verified via simulation.
Full Text Available We propose a predictive sliding mode control (PSMC scheme for attitude control of hypersonic vehicle (HV with system uncertainties and external disturbances based on an improved fuzzy disturbance observer (IFDO. First, for a class of uncertain affine nonlinear systems with system uncertainties and external disturbances, we propose a predictive sliding mode control based on fuzzy disturbance observer (FDO-PSMC, which is used to estimate the composite disturbances containing system uncertainties and external disturbances. Afterward, to enhance the composite disturbances rejection performance, an improved FDO-PSMC (IFDO-PSMC is proposed by incorporating a hyperbolic tangent function with FDO to compensate for the approximate error of FDO. Finally, considering the actuator dynamics, the proposed IFDO-PSMC is applied to attitude control system design for HV to track the guidance commands with high precision and strong robustness. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed attitude control scheme.
Schmidt, Allison M.; Kowitt, Sarah D.; Myers, Allison E.; Goldstein, Adam O.
Favorable attitudes towards tobacco control policies can facilitate their implementation and success. We examined attitudes toward four potential U.S. Federal tobacco regulations (banning menthol from cigarettes, reducing nicotine levels in cigarettes, banning candy and fruit flavored electronic cigarettes, and banning candy and fruit flavored little cigars and cigarillos) and associations with individual and state variables. A nationally representative phone survey of 4337 adults assessed at...
Kojima, Hirohisa; Hiraiwa, Kana; Yoshimura, Yasuhiro
This paper presents the results of line-of-sight (LOS) attitude control using control moment gyros under a micro-gravity environment generated by parabolic flight. The W-Z parameters are used to describe the spacecraft attitude. In order to stabilize the current LOS to the target LOS, backstepping-based feedback control is considered using the W-Z parameters. Numerical simulations and experiments under a micro-gravity environment are carried out, and their results are compared in order to validate the proposed control methods.
Full Text Available A semi-physical simulation platform for attitude determination and control system is proposed to verify the attitude estimator and controller on ground. A simulation target, a host PC, many attitude sensors, and actuators compose the simulation platform. The simulation target is composed of a central processing unit board with VxWorks operating system and many input/output boards connected via Compact Peripheral Component Interconnect bus. The executable programs in target are automatically generated from the simulation models in Simulink based on Real-Time Workshop of MATLAB. A three-axes gyroscope, a three-axes magnetometer, a sun sensor, a star tracer, three flywheels, and a Global Positioning System receiver are connected to the simulation target, which formulates the attitude control cycle of a satellite. The simulation models of the attitude determination and control system are described in detail. Finally, the semi-physical simulation platform is used to demonstrate the availability and rationality of the control scheme of a micro-satellite. Comparing the results between the numerical simulation in Simulink and the semi-physical simulation, the semi-physical simulation platform is available and the control scheme successfully achieves three-axes stabilization.
Nakath, David; Clemens, Joachim; Rachuy, Carsten
Autonomous systems typically actively observe certain aspects of their surroundings, which makes them dependent on a suitable controller. However, building an attitude controller for three degrees of freedom is a challenging task, mainly due to singularities in the different parametrizations of the three dimensional rotation group SO (3). Thus, we propose an attitude controller based on a manifold representation of direction cosine matrices: In state space, the attitude is globally and uniquely represented as a direction cosine matrix R ∈ SO (3). However, differences in the state space, i.e., the attitude errors, are exposed to the controller in the vector space ℝ 3 . This is achieved by an operator, which integrates the matrix logarithm mapping from SO (3) to so(3) and the map from so(3) to ℝ 3 . Based on this representation, we derive a proportional and derivative feedback controller, whose output has an upper bound to prevent actuator saturation. Additionally, the feedback is preprocessed by a particle filter to account for measurement and state transition noise. We evaluate our approach in a simulator in three different spacecraft maneuver scenarios: (i) stabilizing, (ii) rest-to-rest, and (iii) nadir-pointing. The controller exhibits stable behavior from initial attitudes near and far from the setpoint. Furthermore, it is able to stabilize a spacecraft and can be used for nadir-pointing maneuvers. (paper)
Tamer Mekky Ahmed Habib
Full Text Available The main goal of this research is to establish spacecraft orbit and attitude control algorithms based on extended Kalman filter which provides estimates of spacecraft orbital and attitude states. The control and estimation algorithms must be capable of dealing with the spacecraft conditions during the detumbling and attitude acquisition modes of operation. These conditions are characterized by nonlinearities represented by large initial attitude angles, large initial angular velocities, large initial attitude estimation error, and large initial position estimation error. All of the developed estimation and control algorithms are suitable for application to the next Egyptian scientific satellite, EGYPTSAT-2. The parameters of the case-study spacecraft are similar but not identical to the former Egyptian satellite EGYPTSAT-1. This is done because the parameters of EGYPTSAT-2 satellite have not been consolidated yet. The sensors utilized are gyro, magnetometer, and GPS. Gyro and magnetometer are utilized to provide measurements for the estimates of spacecraft attitude state vector where as magnetometer and GPS are utilized to provide measurements for the estimates of spacecraft orbital state vector.
Dennehy, Cornelius J.
There is a heightened interest within NASA for the design, development, and flight implementation of mixed-actuator hybrid attitude control systems for science spacecraft that have less than three functional reaction wheel actuators. This interest is driven by a number of recent reaction wheel failures on aging, but what could be still scientifically productive, NASA spacecraft if a successful hybrid attitude control mode can be implemented. Over the years, hybrid (mixed-actuator) control has been employed for contingency attitude control purposes on several NASA science mission spacecraft. This paper provides a historical perspective of NASA's previous engineering work on spacecraft mixed-actuator hybrid control approaches. An update of the current situation will also be provided emphasizing why NASA is now so interested in hybrid control. The results of the NASA Spacecraft Hybrid Attitude Control Workshop, held in April of 2013, will be highlighted. In particular, the lessons learned captured from that workshop will be shared in this paper. An update on the most recent experiences with hybrid control on the Kepler spacecraft will also be provided. This paper will close with some future considerations for hybrid spacecraft control.
Tee, G H; Gurpreet, K; Hairi, N N; Zarihah, Z; Fadzilah, K
Assistant environmental health officers (AEHO) are health care providers (HCPs) who act as enforcers, educators and trusted role models for the public. This is the first study to explore smoking behaviour and attitudes toward tobacco control among future HCPs. Almost 30% of AEHO trainees did not know the role of AEHOs in counselling smokers to stop smoking, but 91% agreed they should not smoke before advising others not to do so. The majority agreed that tobacco control regulations may be used as a means of reducing the prevalence of smoking. Future AEHOs had positive attitudes toward tobacco regulations but lacked understanding of their responsibility in tobacco control measures.
, lightweight, and power efficient actuators is therefore crucial and viable. This paper discusser linear attitude control strategies for a low earth orbit satellite actuated by a set of mutually perpendicular electromagnetic coils. The principle is to use the interaction between the Earth's magnetic field......, nevertheless, a solution of the riccati equation gives an excellent frame for investigations provided in this paper. An observation that geomagnetic field changes approximately periodically when satellite is on a near polar orbit is used throughout this paper. Three types of attitude controllers are proposed......: an infinite horizon, a finite horizon, and a constant gain controller. Their performance is evaluated and compared in the simulation study of the environment...
Shi, Ye; Liang, Bin; Xu, Dong; Wang, Xueqian; Xu, Wenfu
The problem of spacecraft attitude regulation based on the reaction of arm motion has attracted extensive attentions from both engineering and academic fields. Most of the solutions of the manipulator’s motion tracking problem just achieve asymptotical stabilization performance, so that these controllers cannot realize precise attitude regulation because of the existence of non-holonomic constraints. Thus, sliding mode control algorithms are adopted to stabilize the tracking error with zero transient process. Due to the switching effects of the variable structure controller, once the tracking error reaches the designed hyper-plane, it will be restricted to this plane permanently even with the existence of external disturbances. Thus, precise attitude regulation can be achieved. Furthermore, taking the non-zero initial tracking errors and chattering phenomenon into consideration, saturation functions are used to replace sign functions to smooth the control torques. The relations between the upper bounds of tracking errors and the controller parameters are derived to reveal physical characteristic of the controller. Mathematical models of free-floating space manipulator are established and simulations are conducted in the end. The results show that the spacecraft’s attitude can be regulated to the position as desired by using the proposed algorithm, the steady state error is 0.000 2 rad. In addition, the joint tracking trajectory is smooth, the joint tracking errors converges to zero quickly with a satisfactory continuous joint control input. The proposed research provides a feasible solution for spacecraft attitude regulation by using arm motion, and improves the precision of the spacecraft attitude regulation.
Macy, Jonathan T; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C
Several cross-sectional studies have examined factors associated with support for tobacco control policies. The current study utilized a longitudinal design to test smoking status and attitude toward smoking measured in adolescence as prospective predictors of support for tobacco control policies measured in adulthood. Participants (N = 4,834) were from a longitudinal study of a Midwestern community-based sample. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses tested adolescent smoking status and attitude toward smoking as prospective predictors (after controlling for sociodemographic factors, adult smoking status, and adult attitude toward smoking) of support for regulation of smoking in public places, discussion of the dangers of smoking in public schools, prohibiting smoking in bars, eliminating smoking on television and in movies, prohibiting smoking in restaurants, and increasing taxes on cigarettes. Participants who smoked during adolescence demonstrated more support for discussion of the dangers of smoking in public schools and less support for increasing taxes on cigarettes but only among those who smoked as adults. Those with more positive attitudes toward smoking during adolescence demonstrated less support as adults for prohibiting smoking in bars and eliminating smoking on television and in movies. Moreover, a significant interaction indicated that those with more positive attitudes toward smoking as adolescents demonstrated less support as adults for prohibiting smoking in restaurants, but only if they became parents as adults. This study's findings suggest that interventions designed to deter adolescent smoking may have future benefits in increasing support for tobacco control policies.
Iai, Masafumi; Durali, Mohammad; Hatsuzawa, Takeshi
Recent research has been extending the applications of small satellites called microsatellites, nanosatellites, or picosatellites. To further improve capability of those satellites, a lightweight, active attitude-control mechanism is needed. This paper proposes a concept of inertial orientation control, an attitude control method using movable solar arrays. This method is made suitable for nanosatellites by the use of shape memory alloy (SMA)-actuated elastic hinges and a simple maneuver generation algorithm. The combination of SMA and an elastic hinge allows the hinge to remain lightweight and free of frictional or rolling contacts. Changes in the shrinking and stretching speeds of the SMA were measured in a vacuum chamber. The proposed algorithm constructs a maneuver to achieve arbitrary attitude change by repeating simple maneuvers called unit maneuvers. Provided with three types of unit maneuvers, each degree of freedom of the satellite can be controlled independently. Such construction requires only simple calculations, making it a practical algorithm for a nanosatellite with limited computational capability. In addition, power generation variation caused by maneuvers was analyzed to confirm that a maneuver from any initial attitude to an attitude facing the sun was justifiable in terms of the power budget.
Full Text Available For attitude control system, based on decentralized fault-tolerant control framework, actuators damage and stuck fault detection and identification unit are designed for the flight control system. And observer-based auxiliary system unit is also designed. The auxiliary system implies control surface damage faults and disturbances information. Firstly, we give the attitude control system under actuator stuck, lose of effectiveness, and control surface damages faults. Secondly, a multi-observer is designed for actuator fault detection and identification using a decision-making mechanism to determine current actuator failure modes. Then, an adaptive sliding mode observer is designed for implicit control surface damages and interference information. The reconfigurable controller can achieve fault tolerant using the information of adaptive sliding mode observer. Finally, the simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Yu, Dong Hyeon; Chong, Kil To [Chon-bok National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Ho [Seonam University, Namwon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Ji Hyoung [ETRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
This paper presents the results of study for improving the reliability of quadrotor attitude control by applying a multi-sensor along with a data fusion algorithm. First, a mathematical model of the quadrotor dynamics was developed. Then, using the quadrotor mathematical model, simulations were performed using the improved reliability multi-sensor data as the inputs. From the simulation results, we designed a Gimbal-equipped quadrotor system. With the quadrotor in a hover state, we performed experiments according to the angle change of the user's specifications . We then calculated the attitude control data from the actual experimental data. Furthermore, with additional simulations, we verified the performance of the designed quadrotor attitude control system with multiple sensors.
Franchi, Loris; Feruglio, Lorenzo; Mozzillo, Raffaele; Corpino, Sabrina
In recent years, thanks to the increase of the know-how on machine-learning techniques and the advance of the computational capabilities of on-board processing, expensive computing algorithms, such as Model Predictive Control, have begun to spread in space applications even on small on-board processor. The paper presents an algorithm for an optimal fault recovery of a 3U CubeSat, developed in MathWorks Matlab & Simulink environment. This algorithm involves optimization techniques aiming at obtaining the optimal recovery solution, and involves a Model Predictive Control approach for the attitude control. The simulated system is a CubeSat in Low Earth Orbit: the attitude control is performed with three magnetic torquers and a single reaction wheel. The simulation neglects the errors in the attitude determination of the satellite, and focuses on the recovery approach and control method. The optimal recovery approach takes advantage of the properties of magnetic actuation, which gives the possibility of the redistribution of the control action when a fault occurs on a single magnetic torquer, even in absence of redundant actuators. In addition, the paper presents the results of the implementation of Model Predictive approach to control the attitude of the satellite.
Duerink, D O; Hadi, U; Lestari, E S; Roeshadi, Djoko; Wahyono, Hendro; Nagelkerke, N J D; Van der Meulen, R G; Van den Broek, P J
to investigate knowledge, attitude and behaviour toward infection control in two teaching hospitals on the island of Java by means of a questionnaire and to evaluate the use of the questionnaire as a tool. we investigated knowledge, attitude and behaviour toward infection control in two teaching hospitals on the island of Java by means of a questionnaire to identify problem areas, barriers and facilitators. The target was to include at least 50% of all health care workers (physicians, nurses, assistant nurses and infection control nurses) in each hospital, department and profession. Differences between demographic variables and scores for individual questions and groups of questions were compared using the chi-square statistic and analysis of variance and Spearman's rho was used to test for correlations between knowledge, attitude, self-reported behaviour and perceived obstacles. more than half of the health care workers of the participating departments completed the questionnaire. Of the 1036 respondents (44% nurses, 37% physicians and 19% assistant nurses), 34% were vaccinated against hepatitis B, 77% had experienced needle stick accidents and 93% had been instructed about infection control. The mean of the correct answers to the knowledge questions was 44%; of the answers to the attitude questions 67% were in agreement with the correct attitude; obstacles to compliance with infection control guidelines were perceived in 30% of the questions and the mean self-reported compliance was 63%. Safe handling of sharps, hand hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment were identified as the most important aspects for interventions. Significant positive correlations were found between knowledge, attitude, self-reported behaviour and perceived obstacles. the questionnaire in conjunction with site visits and interviews was a valuable strategy to identify trouble spots in the hospitals and to determine barriers to facilitators of change that should be taken into
Schaub, Hanspeter; Piggott, Scott
Spacecraft attitude control solutions typically are torque-level algorithms that simultaneously control both the attitude and angular velocity tracking errors. In contrast, robotic control solutions are kinematic steering commands where rates are treated as the control variable, and a servo-tracking control subsystem is present to achieve the desired control rates. In this paper kinematic attitude steering controls are developed where an outer control loop establishes a desired angular response history to a tracking error, and an inner control loop tracks the commanded body angular rates. The overall stability relies on the separation principle of the inner and outer control loops which must have sufficiently different response time scales. The benefit is that the outer steering law response can be readily shaped to a desired behavior, such as limiting the approach angular velocity when a large tracking error is corrected. A Modified Rodrigues Parameters implementation is presented that smoothly saturates the speed response. A robust nonlinear body rate servo loop is developed which includes integral feedback. This approach provides a convenient modular framework that makes it simple to interchange outer and inner control loops to readily setup new control implementations. Numerical simulations illustrate the expected performance for an aggressive reorientation maneuver subject to an unknown external torque.
Lee, Keum W.; Singh, Sahjendra N.
The paper presents a novel noncertainty-equivalent adaptive (NCEA) control system for the pitch attitude control of satellites in elliptic orbits using solar radiation pressure (SRP). The satellite is equipped with two identical solar flaps to produce control moments. The adaptive law is based on the attractive manifold design using filtered signals for synthesis, which is a modification of the immersion and invariance (I&I) method. The control system has a modular controller-estimator structure and has separate tunable gains. A special feature of this NCEA law is that the trajectories of the satellite converge to a manifold in an extended state space, and the adaptive law recovers the performance of a deterministic controller. This recovery of performance cannot be obtained with certainty-equivalent adaptive (CEA) laws. Simulation results are presented which show that the NCEA law accomplishes precise attitude control of the satellite in an elliptic orbit, despite large parameter uncertainties.
AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2018-0008 TR-2018-0008 DEVELOPMENT OF A TORQUE SENSOR- BASED TEST BED FOR ATTITUDE CONTROL SYSTEM VERIFICATION AND...Sensor-Based Test Bed for Attitude Control System Verification & Validation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9453-15-1-0315 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...NUMBER 62601F 6. AUTHOR(S) Norman Fitz-Coy 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 4846 5e. TASK NUMBER PPM00015968 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER EF125135 7. PERFORMING
Tapsawat, Wittawat; Sangpet, Teerawat; Kuntanapreeda, Suwat
Attitude control is an important part in satellite on-orbit operation. It greatly affects the performance of satellites. Testing of an attitude determination and control subsystem (ADCS) is very challenging since it might require attitude dynamics and space environment in the orbit. This paper develops a low-cost hardware-in-loop (HIL) simulator for testing an ADCS of a CubeSat satellite. The simulator consists of a numerical simulation part, a hardware part, and a HIL interface hardware unit. The numerical simulation part includes orbital dynamics, attitude dynamics and Earth’s magnetic field. The hardware part is the real ADCS board of the satellite. The simulation part outputs satellite’s angular velocity and geomagnetic field information to the HIL interface hardware. Then, based on this information, the HIL interface hardware generates I2C signals mimicking the signals of the on-board rate-gyros and magnetometers and consequently outputs the signals to the ADCS board. The ADCS board reads the rate-gyro and magnetometer signals, calculates control signals, and drives the attitude actuators which are three magnetic torquers (MTQs). The responses of the MTQs sensed by a separated magnetometer are feedback to the numerical simulation part completing the HIL simulation loop. Experimental studies are conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the simulator.
Full Text Available The paper describes the development of a microsatellite attitude determination and control subsystem (ADCS and verification of its functionality by software-in-the-loop (SIL method. The role of ADCS is to provide attitude control functions, including the de-tumbling and stabilizing the satellite angular velocity, and as well as estimating the orbit and attitude information during the satellite operation. In Taiwan, Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT, dedicating for students to design experimental low earth orbit micro-satellite, called AFITsat. For AFITsat, the operation of the ADCS consists of three modes which are initialization mode, detumbling mode, and normal mode, respectively. During the initialization mode, ADCS collects the early orbit measurement data from various sensors so that the data can be downlinked to the ground station for further analysis. As particularly emphasized in this paper, during the detumbling mode, ADCS implements the thrusters in plus-wide modulation control method to decrease the satellite angular velocity. ADCS provides the attitude determination function for the estimation of the satellite state, during normal mode. The three modes of microsatellite adopted Kalman filter algorithm estimate microsatellite attitude. This paper will discuss using the SIL validation ADCS function and verify its feasibility.
Gatsonis, Nikolaos A.; Lu, Ye; Blandino, John; Demetriou, Michael A.; Paschalidis, Nicholas
This study presents a 3-Unit CubeSat design with commercial-off-the-shelf hardware, Teflon-fueled micropulsed plasma thrusters, and an attitude determination and control approach. The micropulsed plasma thruster is sized by the impulse bit and pulse frequency required for continuous compensation of expected maximum disturbance torques at altitudes between 400 and 1000 km, as well as to perform stabilization of up to 20 deg /s and slew maneuvers of up to 180 deg. The study involves realistic power constraints anticipated on the 3-Unit CubeSat. Attitude estimation is implemented using the q method for static attitude determination of the quaternion using pairs of the spacecraft-sun and magnetic-field vectors. The quaternion estimate and the gyroscope measurements are used with an extended Kalman filter to obtain the attitude estimates. Proportional-derivative control algorithms use the static attitude estimates in order to calculate the torque required to compensate for the disturbance torques and to achieve specified stabilization and slewing maneuvers or combinations. The controller includes a thruster-allocation method, which determines the optimal utilization of the available thrusters and introduces redundancy in case of failure. Simulation results are presented for a 3-Unit CubeSat under detumbling, pointing, and pointing and spinning scenarios, as well as comparisons between the thruster-allocation and the paired-firing methods under thruster failure.
Liu, Feng; Yue, Baozeng; Zhao, Liangyu
A liquid-filled flexible spacecraft is essentially a time-variant fully-coupled system, whose dynamics characteristics are closely associated with its motion features. This paper focuses on the mathematical modelling and attitude control of the spacecraft coupled with fuel sloshing dynamics and flexible solar panels vibration. The slosh motion is represented by a spherical pendulum, whose motion description method is improved by using split variable operation. Benefiting from this improvement, the nonlinear lateral sloshing and the rotary sloshing as well as the rigid motion of a liquid respect to the spacecraft can be approximately described. The assumed modes discretization method has been adopted to approximate the elastic displacements of the attached panels, and the coupled dynamics is derived by using the Lagrangian formulation. A variable substitution method is proposed to obtain the apparently-uncoupled mathematical model of the rigid-flexible-liquid spacecraft. After linearization, this model can be directly used for designing Lyapunov output-feedback attitude controller (OFAC). With only torque actuators, and attitude and rate sensors installed, this kind of attitude controller, as simulation results show, is capable of not only bringing the spacecraft to the desired orientation, but also suppressing the effect of flex and slosh on the attitude motion of the spacecraft.
Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Sadahiro, Ryoichi; Enokido, Masanori
The affectionless control parenting has been associated with depression in recipients. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of this parenting style on dysfunctional attitudes predisposing to depression. The subjects were 666 Japanese volunteers. Perceived parental rearing was evaluated by the Parental Bonding Instrument, which has the care and protection subscales. Parental rearing was classified into four types, i.e., optimal parenting (high care/low protection), affectionate constraint (high care/high protection), neglectful parenting (low care/low protection), and affectionless control (low care/high protection). Dysfunctional attitudes were evaluated by the 24-item Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, which has the achievement, dependency and self-control subscales. Males with paternal affectionless control had higher achievement scores than those with paternal optimal parenting (P=.016). Similarly, females with maternal affectionless control had higher achievement scores than those with maternal optimal parenting (P=.016). The present study suggests that affectionless control by the same-sex parents increases dysfunctional attitudes about achievement. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper presents the finite-time attitude control problem for reentry vehicle with redundant actuators in consideration of planet uncertainties and external disturbances. Firstly, feedback linearization technique is used to cancel the nonlinearities of equations of motion to construct a basic mode for attitude controller. Secondly, two kinds of time-varying sliding mode control methods with disturbance observer are integrated with the basic mode in order to enhance the control performance and system robustness. One method is designed based on boundary layer technique and the other is a novel second-order sliding model control method. The finite-time stability analyses of both resultant closed-loop systems are carried out. Furthermore, after attitude controller produces the torque commands, an optimization control allocation approach is introduced to allocate them into aerodynamic surface deflections and on-off reaction control system thrusts. Finally, the numerical simulation results demonstrate that both of the time-varying sliding mode control methods are robust to uncertainties and disturbances without chattering phenomenon. Moreover, the proposed second-order sliding mode control method possesses better control accuracy.
Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C; Sherman, Steven J; Seo, Dong-Chul; Macy, Jonathan T
The current study tested implicit and explicit attitudes as prospective predictors of smoking cessation in a Midwestern community sample of smokers. Results showed that the effects of attitudes significantly varied with levels of experienced failure to control smoking and plans to quit. Explicit attitudes significantly predicted later cessation among those with low (but not high or average) levels of experienced failure to control smoking. Conversely, however, implicit attitudes significantly predicted later cessation among those with high levels of experienced failure to control smoking, but only if they had a plan to quit. Because smoking cessation involves both controlled and automatic processes, interventions may need to consider attitude change interventions that focus on both implicit and explicit attitudes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
DeKock, Brandon; Sanders, Devon; Vanzwieten, Tannen; Capo-Lugo, Pedro
The FASTSAT-HSV01 spacecraft is a microsatellite with magnetic torque rods as it sole attitude control actuator. FASTSAT s multiple payloads and mission functions require the Attitude Control System (ACS) to maintain Local Vertical Local Horizontal (LVLH)-referenced attitudes without spin-stabilization, while the pointing errors for some attitudes be significantly smaller than the previous best-demonstrated for this type of control system. The mission requires the ACS to hold multiple stable, unstable, and non-equilibrium attitudes, as well as eject a 3U CubeSat from an onboard P-POD and recover from the ensuing tumble. This paper describes the Attitude Control System, the reasons for design choices, how the ACS integrates with the rest of the spacecraft, and gives recommendations for potential future applications of the work.
Full Text Available Displaced solar orbits for spacecraft propelled by electric sails are investigated. Since the propulsive thrust is induced by the sail attitude, the orbital and attitude dynamics of electric-sail-based spacecraft are coupled and required to be investigated together. However, the coupled dynamics and control of electric sails have not been discussed in most published literatures. In this paper, the equilibrium point of the coupled dynamical system in displaced orbit is obtained, and its stability is analyzed through a linearization. The results of stability analysis show that only some of the orbits are marginally stable. For unstable displaced orbits, linear quadratic regulator is employed to control the coupled attitude-orbit system. Numerical simulations show that the proposed strategy can control the coupled system and a small torque can stabilize both the attitude and orbit. In order to generate the control force and torque, the voltage distribution problem is studied in an optimal framework. The numerical results show that the control force and torque of electric sail can be realized by adjusting the voltage distribution of charged tethers.
Oudekerk, Barbara A; Allen, Joseph P; Hafen, Christopher A; Hessel, Elenda T; Szwedo, David E; Spilker, Ann
Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. Peer acceptance of early sex predicted greater risky sexual behaviors, but only for teens whose mothers engaged in high levels of psychological control. Paternal psychological control demonstrated the same moderating effect for girls; for boys, however, high levels of paternal control predicted risky sex regardless of peer attitudes. Results are consistent with the theory that peer influences do not replace parental influences with regard to adolescent sexual behavior; rather, parental practices continue to serve an important role either directly forecasting sexual behavior or moderating the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior.
Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann
Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. Peer acceptance of early sex predicted greater risky sexual behaviors, but only for teens whose mothers engaged in high levels of psychological control. Paternal psychological control demonstrated the same moderating effect for girls; for boys, however, high levels of paternal control predicted risky sex regardless of peer attitudes. Results are consistent with the theory that peer influences do not replace parental influences with regard to adolescent sexual behavior; rather, parental practices continue to serve an important role either directly forecasting sexual behavior or moderating the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. PMID:25328265
however, there are many dual-use applications, such as regenerative braking technology and flywheel energy storage. The reaction wheel system on Simsat...as the reaction wheels change angular velocity. 2.3.5 Control Moment Gyroscopes. The second category of momentum ex- change devices is the control
Knapp, Roger Glenn
A fuzzy-based attitude controller is designed for attitude control of a generic spacecraft with on/off thrusters. The controller is comprised of packages of rules dedicated to addressing different objectives (e.g., disturbance rejection, low fuel consumption, avoiding the excitation of flexible appendages, etc.). These rule packages can be inserted or removed depending on the requirements of the particular spacecraft and are parameterized based on vehicle parameters such as inertia or operational parameters such as the maneuvering rate. Individual rule packages can be 'weighted' relative to each other to emphasize the importance of one objective relative to another. Finally, the fuzzy controller and rule packages are demonstrated using the high-fidelity Space Shuttle Interactive On-Orbit Simulator (IOS) while performing typical on-orbit operations and are subsequently compared with the existing shuttle flight control system performance.
McComas, David; O'Donnell, James R., Jr.; Andrews, Stephen F.
This paper presents an overview of the attitude control subsystem flight software development process, identifies how the process has changed due to automatic code generation, analyzes each software development phase in detail, and concludes with a summary of our lessons learned.
This research was carried out to assess the role of dysfunctional attitudes, outcomes of psychology in substance abuse behaviors of subject were referred to addiction treatment center in the city of Bandar Abbas, and to compare the with the control group. Methods: This is a retrospective study in which 100 subject substance abusers were compared with 100 subject s of control group who were selected using convenience sampling and were also demographically matched. Data were gathered using a demographic questionnaire, clinical interview, dysfunctional attitudes scale (DAS, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS. The data were analyzed via descriptive statistic method, T- Test and chi-square and variance analysis. Findings: Findings indicated that in comparison with control group, subject of substance abusers had experienced more stress, anxiety, depression, had shown a cognitively more percent of them dysfunctional attitudes in comparison with control group. Results: The results suggested that the dysfunctional attitudes could be as a Vulnerability Factor that increase abuse of substance consequently use of cognitive therapy could be helpful and effective in prevention and treatment of the addicts.
Martin, Nancy K.; Yin, Zenong; Mayall, Hayley
The purpose of this study was to report the psychometric properties of the revised Attitudes and Beliefs of Classroom Control Inventory (ABCC-R). Data were collected from 489 participants via the ABCC-R, Teacher Efficacy Scale, Problems in School Questionnaire, and a demographic questionnaire. Results were in keeping with the construct. The…
Chamberlin, K.; Clagett, C.; Correll, T.; Gruner, T.; Quinn, T.; Shiflett, L.; Schnurr, R.; Wennersten, M.; Frederick, M.; Fox, S. M.
The attitude Control Electronics (ACE) Box is the center of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) for the Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) satellite. This unit is the single point interface for all of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) related sensors and actuators. Commands and telemetry between the SAMPEX flight computer and the ACE Box are routed via a MIL-STD-1773 bus interface, through the use of an 80C85 processor. The ACE Box consists of the flowing electronic elements: power supply, momentum wheel driver, electromagnet driver, coarse sun sensor interface, digital sun sensor interface, magnetometer interface, and satellite computer interface. In addition, the ACE Box also contains an independent Safehold electronics package capable of keeping the satellite pitch axis pointing towards the sun. The ACE Box has dimensions of 24 x 31 x 8 cm, a mass of 4.3 kg, and an average power consumption of 10.5 W. This set of electronics was completely designed, developed, integrated, and tested by personnel at NASA GSFC. SAMPEX was launched on July 3, 1992, and the initial attitude acquisition was successfully accomplished via the analog Safehold electronics in the ACE Box. This acquisition scenario removed the excess body rates via magnetic control and precessed the satellite pitch axis to within 10 deg of the sun line. The performance of the SAMPEX ACS in general and the ACE Box in particular has been quite satisfactory.
Quottrup, Michael Melholt; Krogh-Sørensen, J.; Wisniewski, Rafal
This paper suggests nonlinear attitude control of the Danish satellite Rømer. This satellite will be designed to fulfil two scientific objectives: The observation of stellar oscillations and the detection and localisation of gamma-ray bursts. The satellite will be equipped with a tetrahedron...
This paper categorizes the qualitative behavior of the Command and Control Segment (CCS) differential correction algorithm as applied to attitude estimation using simultaneous spin axis sun angle and Earth cord length measurements. The categories of interest are the domains of convergence, divergence, and their boundaries. Three series of plots are discussed that show the dependence of the estimation algorithm on the vehicle radius, the sun/Earth angle, and the spacecraft attitude. Common qualitative dynamics to all three series are tabulated and discussed. Out-of-limits conditions for the estimation algorithm are identified and discussed.
infection prevention and control is imparted early before they are introduced to the wards. ... professional nurses in Namibia instead of depending .... Table 3: ANOVA results for overall IPC Knowledge Score for gender, student area, high ...
Cameron, R.; Aldcroft, T.; Podgorski, W. A.; Freeman, M. D.
The aspect determination system of the Chandra X-ray Observatory plays a key role in realizing the full potential of Chandra's X-ray optics and detectors. We review the performance of the spacecraft hardware components and sub-systems, which provide information for both real time control of the attitude and attitude stability of the Chandra Observatory and also for more accurate post-facto attitude reconstruction. These flight components are comprised of the aspect camera (star tracker) and inertial reference units (gyros), plus the fiducial lights and fiducial transfer optics which provide an alignment null reference system for the science instruments and X-ray optics, together with associated thermal and structural components. Key performance measures will be presented for aspect camera focal plane data, gyro performance both during stable pointing and during maneuvers, alignment stability and mechanism repeatability.
Song, Zhankui; Sun, Kaibiao
A compensation control strategy based on adaptive back-stepping technique is presented to address the problem of attitude adjustment for a quad-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (QR- UAV) with inertia parameter uncertainties, the limited airflow disturbance and the partial loss of rotation speed effectiveness. In the design process of control system, adaptive estimation technique is introduced into the closed loop system in order to compensate the lumped disturbance term. More specifically, the designed controller utilizes "prescribed performance bounds" method, and therefore guarantees the transient performance of tracking errors, even in the presence of the lumped disturbance. Adaptive compensation algorithms under the proposed closed loop system structure are derived in the sense of Lyapunov stability analysis such that the attitude tracking error converge to a small neighborhood of equilibrium point. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cheng, Yu; Ye, Dong; Sun, Zhaowei; Zhang, Shijie
This paper proposes a novel feedback control law for spacecraft to deal with attitude constraint, input saturation, and stochastic disturbance during the attitude reorientation maneuver process. Applying the parameter selection method to improving the existence conditions for the repulsive potential function, the universality of the potential-function-based algorithm is enhanced. Moreover, utilizing the auxiliary system driven by the difference between saturated torque and command torque, a backstepping control law, which satisfies the input saturation constraint and guarantees the spacecraft stability, is presented. Unlike some methods that passively rely on the inherent characteristic of the existing controller to stabilize the adverse effects of external stochastic disturbance, this paper puts forward a nonlinear disturbance observer to compensate the disturbance in real-time, which achieves a better performance of robustness. The simulation results validate the effectiveness, reliability, and universality of the proposed control law.
Studer, P.; Rodriguez, E.
The combination of spacecraft attitude control and energy storage (ACES) functions in common hardware, to synergistically maintain three-axis attitude control while supplying electrical power during earth orbital eclipses, allows the generation of control torques by high rotating speed wheels that react against the spacecraft structure via a high efficiency bidirectional energy conversion motor/generator. An ACES system encompasses a minimum of four wheels, controlling power and the three torque vectors. Attention is given to the realization of such a system with composite flywheel rotors that yield high energy density, magnetic suspension technology yielding low losses at high rotational speeds, and an ironless armature permanent magnet motor/generator yielding high energy conversion efficiency.
Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis B is highly infectious, but preventable diseases and dentists are at increased risk of exposure to saliva and blood of patients during their clinical practice, and so it is of utmost importance that they follow standard guidelines for infection control. Aims: To assess knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding infection control measures among dental students of Government Dental College in Punjab. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered pretested questionnaire to dental students and responses were statistically analyzed. The analysis of variance was used to compare means of knowledge, attitude, and practice scores between four groups of study subjects and P < 0.05 is considered statistically significant. Results: Although the students have sufficient knowledge regarding hepatitis B, still there are gaps in putting their knowledge into practice. Third and final year students have significantly less mean knowledge and practice scores compared to interns and postgraduate students. The majority of students have a positive attitude and were willing to perform any procedure on hepatitis B-infected patients. Conclusions: Dental students have adequate knowledge and good attitude but still there are some misconceptions. There is poor implementation of standard infection control measures in their practice. Rigorous training programs on preventive practices and regular workshops must be organized on an annual basis in dental colleges. Moreover, hepatitis B vaccination must be made mandatory for students before they start their clinical practice.
Full Text Available In this paper a controllability study of different actuator configurations consisting of magnetic torquers, reaction wheels and a gravity boom is presented. The theoretical analysis is performed with use of controllability gramians, and simulation results with the different configurations are presented and compared regarding settling time and power consumption to substantiate the theoretical analysis. A reference model is also introduced to show how the power consumption can he lowered to the same magnitude as when magnetic torquers are used, without degrading the satellite response significantly.
Apr 1, 2009 ... psychological, financial and social burden on patients, their care-givers and society at large. Furthermore, there are very few centres with facilities for prenatal diagnosis in Nigeria.24 Suffice to say that current control measures of sickle cell disease in Nigeria are palpably meager in the face of the enormous ...
Apr 2, 2014 ... This study assessed the effects of the implementation of the policy in a tertiary hospital in Port Harcourt, ... malpractice suit in developing countries, not only for the ... Infection control policy has however been shown to reduce the burden of ..... SSIs‑activities that mirror the plan‑do‑check‑act that is applied in ...
of health professionals to provide patient counseling, some of which are; time .... is usually obtained from friends and family members and smoking can be viewed as rite .... The health consequences of smoking: Nicotine addiction: A report of the ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Cigarette smoking ...
Abdolaziz Hagh Negahdar
Full Text Available Background & Objective: Infection control in dental centers is affected by the persons’ attitude and knowledge about mechanisms of infection transmission. This study was designed to evaluate the knowledge and the attitude of Shiraz dentists about infection control during intraoral radiographies preparation. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional, and analytical research, the attitude and the knowledge of 45 male and 25 female, randomly selected dentists, were obtained through completion of a researcher- planed questioner which its validity and reliability had been confirmed. Data were analyzed using Cronbach`s alpha, one-way ANOVA, student’s t-test, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient in SPSS (V.21. Results: The average of the dentists’ age was 40.59±10.72 and their average occupational experience was 13.49±9.75 years. The mean score obtained for knowledge about infection control during intraoral radiographic procedures was less than fifty percent of total obtainable score, and was assessed as weak knowledge. There was no significant difference in the level of knowledge between studied male and female dentists (P>0.05. In addition, no significant relationship was detected between level, age/experience, and the university of education (P>0.05. The attitude of the dentists about infection control during intraoral radiography preparation assessed as moderate to good level. Conclusions: The results showed that the main reason for the present problems is insufficient knowledge of the dentists in related subjects. Therefore, the solution, which is recommended among dentists, is to raise their awareness and to change their attitudes and culture in order to improve their performance.
Full Text Available A quadrotor helicopter with uncertain actuator faults, such as loss of effectiveness and lock-in-place, is studied in this paper. An adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller based on direct self-repairing control is designed for such nonlinear system to track the desired output signal, when any actuator of this quadrotor helicopter is loss of effectiveness or stuck at some place. Moreover, using the Lyapunov stability theory, the stability of the whole system and the convergence of the tracking error can be guaranteed. Finally, the availability of the proposed method is verified by simulation on 3-DOF hover to ensure that the system performance under faulty conditions can be quickly recovered to its normal level. And this proposed method is also proved to be better than that of LQR through simulation.
Full Text Available Attitude control is the inner-loop and the most important part of the automatic flight control system of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV. The information fusion-based optimal control method is applied in a UAV flight control system in this work. Firstly, a nonlinear model of alterable thrust direction UAV (ATD-UAV is established and linearized for controller design. The longitudinal controller and lateral controller are respectively designed based on information fusion-based optimal control, and then the information fusion flight control system is built up. Finally, the simulation of a nonlinear model described as ATD-UAV is carried out, the results of which show the superiority of the information fusion-based control strategy when compared to the single-loop design method. We also show that the ATD technique improves the anti-disturbance capacity of the UAV.
Inamori, Takaya; Sako, Nobutada; Nakasuka, Shinichi
Nano-satellites provide space access to broader range of satellite developers and attract interests as an application of the space developments. These days several new nano-satellite missions are proposed with sophisticated objectives such as remote-sensing and observation of astronomical objects. In these advanced missions, some nano-satellites must meet strict attitude requirements for obtaining scientific data or images. For LEO nano-satellite, a magnetic attitude disturbance dominates over other environmental disturbances as a result of small moment of inertia, and this effect should be cancelled for a precise attitude control. This research focuses on how to cancel the magnetic disturbance in orbit. This paper presents a unique method to estimate and compensate the residual magnetic moment, which interacts with the geomagnetic field and causes the magnetic disturbance. An extended Kalman filter is used to estimate the magnetic disturbance. For more practical considerations of the magnetic disturbance compensation, this method has been examined in the PRISM (Pico-satellite for Remote-sensing and Innovative Space Missions). This method will be also used for a nano-astrometry satellite mission. This paper concludes that use of the magnetic disturbance estimation and compensation are useful for nano-satellites missions which require a high accurate attitude control.
Full Text Available In this paper, a Hardware-In-the-Loop simulator to simulate attitude control of spacecraft using momentum wheels is developed. The simulator consists of a spherical air bearing system allowing rotation and tilt in all three axes, three momentum wheels for actuation, and an AHRS (Attitude Heading Reference System. The simulator processes various types of data in PC104 and wirelessly communicates with a host PC using TCP/IP protocol. A simple low-cost momentum wheel assembly set and its drive electronics are also developed. Several experiments are performed to test the performance of the momentum wheels. For the control performance test of the simulator, a PID controller is implemented. The results of experimental demonstrations confirm the feasibility and validity of the Hardware-In-the-Loop simulator developed in the current study.
, lightweight, and power efficient actuators is therefore crucial and viable. This paper discusses linear attitude control strategies for a low earth orbit satellite actuated by a set of mutually perpendicular electromagnetic coils. The principle is to use the interaction between the Earth's magnetic field...... systems is limited, nevertheless, a solution of the Riccati equation gives an excellent frame for investigations provided in this paper. An observation that geomagnetic field changes approximately periodically when a satellite is on a near polar orbit is used throughout this paper. Three types of attitude...... controllers are proposed: an infinite horizon, a finite horizon, and a constant gain controller. Their performance is evaluated and compared in the simulation study of the realistic environment....
Peters, W. H.
Development of the Apollo thrust vector control digital autopilot (TVC DAP) was summarized. This is the control system that provided pitch and yaw attitude control during velocity change maneuvers using the main rocket engine on the Apollo service module. A list of ten primary functional requirements for this control system are presented, each being subordinate to a more general requirement appearing earlier on the list. Development process functions were then identified and the essential information flow paths were explored. This provided some visibility into the particular NASA/contractor interface, as well as relationships between the many individual activities.
Ran, Dechao; Chen, Xiaoqian; de Ruiter, Anton; Xiao, Bing
This study presents an adaptive second-order sliding control scheme to solve the attitude fault tolerant control problem of spacecraft subject to system uncertainties, external disturbances and reaction wheel faults. A novel fast terminal sliding mode is preliminarily designed to guarantee that finite-time convergence of the attitude errors can be achieved globally. Based on this novel sliding mode, an adaptive second-order observer is then designed to reconstruct the system uncertainties and the actuator faults. One feature of the proposed observer is that the design of the observer does not necessitate any priori information of the upper bounds of the system uncertainties and the actuator faults. In view of the reconstructed information supplied by the designed observer, a second-order sliding mode controller is developed to accomplish attitude maneuvers with great robustness and precise tracking accuracy. Theoretical stability analysis proves that the designed fault tolerant control scheme can achieve finite-time stability of the closed-loop system, even in the presence of reaction wheel faults and system uncertainties. Numerical simulations are also presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed control scheme over existing methodologies.
Danishevski, K; Gilmore, A; McKee, M
Since the political transition in 1991, Russia has been targeted intensively by the transnational tobacco industry. Already high smoking rates among men have increased further; traditionally low rates among women have more than doubled. The tobacco companies have so far faced little opposition as they shape the discourse on smoking in Russia. This paper asks what ordinary Russians really think about possible actions to reduce smoking. A representative sample of the Russian population (1600 respondents) was interviewed face to face in November 2007. Only 14% of respondents considered tobacco control in Russia adequate, while 37% thought that nothing was being done at all. There was support for prices keeping pace with or even exceeding inflation. Over 70% of all respondents favoured a ban on sales from street kiosks, while 56% believed that existing health warnings (currently 4% of front and back of packs) were inadequate. The current policy of designating a few tables in bars and restaurants as non-smoking was supported by less than 10% of respondents, while almost a third supported a total ban, with 44% supporting provision of equal space for smokers and non-smokers. Older age, non-smoking status and living in a smaller town all emerged as significantly associated with the propensity to support antismoking measures. The tobacco companies were generally viewed as behaving like most other companies in Russia, with three-quarters of respondents believing that these companies definitely or maybe bribe politicians. Knowledge of impact of smoking on health was limited with significant underestimation of dangers and addictive qualities of tobacco. A third believed that light cigarettes are safer than normal cigarettes. The majority of the Russian population would support considerable strengthening of tobacco control policies but there is also a need for effective public education campaigns.
Danishevski, Kirill; Gilmore, Anna; McKee, Martin
Background Since the political transition in 1991, Russia has been targeted intensively by the transnational tobacco industry. Already high smoking rates among men have increased further; traditionally low rates among women have more than doubled. The tobacco companies have so far faced little opposition as they shape the discourse on smoking in Russia. This paper asks what ordinary Russians really think about possible actions to reduce smoking. Methods A representative sample of the Russian population (1600 respondents) was interviewed face-to-face in November 2007. Results Only 14% of respondents considered tobacco control in Russia adequate, while 37% felt that nothing was being done at all. There was support for prices keeping pace with or even exceeding inflation. Over 70% of all respondents favoured a ban on sales from street kiosks, while 56% believed that existing health warnings (currently 4% of front and back of packs) were inadequate. The current policy of designating a few tables in bars and restaurants as non-smoking was supported by less than 10% of respondents, while almost a third supported a total ban, with 44% supporting provision of equal space for smokers and non-smokers. Older age, non-smoking status and living a smaller town all emerged as significantly associated with the propensity to support of antismoking measures. The tobacco companies were generally viewed as behaving like most other companies in Russia, with three-quarters believing that they definitely or maybe bribe politicians. Knowledge of impact of smoking on health was limited with significant underestimation of dangers and addictive qualities of tobacco. A third believed that light cigarettes are safer than normal. Conclusion The majority of the Russian population would support considerable strengthening of tobacco control policies but there is also a need for effective public education campaigns. PMID:18653793
Shrestha, Anita; Bhattarai, Dipesh; Thapa, Barsha; Basel, Prem; Wagle, Rajendra Raj
Infection control remains a key challenge for Tuberculosis (TB) control program with an increased risk of TB transmission among health care workers (HCWs), especially in settings with inadequate TB infection control measures. Poor knowledge among HCWs and inadequate infection control practices may lead to the increased risk of nosocomial TB transmission. An institution-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 28 health facilities providing TB services in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. A total of 190 HCWs were assessed for the knowledge, attitudes and practices on TB infection control using a structured questionnaire. The level of knowledge on TB infection control among almost half (45.8%) of the HCWs was poor, and was much poorer among administration and lower level staff. The knowledge level was significantly associated with educational status, and TB training and/or orientation received. The majority (73.2%) of HCWs had positive attitude towards TB infection control. Sixty-five percent of HCWs were found to be concerned about being infected with TB. Use of respirators among the HCWs was limited and triage of TB suspects was also lacking. Overall knowledge and practices of HCWs on TB infection control were not satisfactory. Effective infection control measures including regular skill-based training and/or orientation for all categories of HCWs can improve infection control practices in health facilities.
Boland, J. S., III
The conventional six-engine reaction control jet relay attitude control law with deadband is shown to be a good linear approximation to a weighted time-fuel optimal control law. Techniques for evaluating the value of the relative weighting between time and fuel for a particular relay control law is studied along with techniques to interrelate other parameters for the two control laws. Vehicle attitude control laws employing control moment gyros are then investigated. Steering laws obtained from the expression for the reaction torque of the gyro configuration are compared to a total optimal attitude control law that is derived from optimal linear regulator theory. This total optimal attitude control law has computational disadvantages in the solving of the matrix Riccati equation. Several computational algorithms for solving the matrix Riccati equation are investigated with respect to accuracy, computational storage requirements, and computational speed.
Colorado, J; Barrientos, A; Rossi, C; Parra, C
This paper presents a novel bat-like unmanned aerial vehicle inspired by the morphing-wing mechanism of bats. The goal of this paper is twofold. Firstly, a modelling framework is introduced for analysing how the robot should manoeuvre by means of changing wing morphology. This allows the definition of requirements for achieving forward and turning flight according to the kinematics of the wing modulation. Secondly, an attitude controller named backstepping+DAF is proposed. Motivated by biological evidence about the influence of wing inertia on the production of body accelerations, the attitude control law incorporates wing inertia information to produce desired roll (φ) and pitch (θ) acceleration commands (desired angular acceleration function (DAF)). This novel control approach is aimed at incrementing net body forces (F net ) that generate propulsion. Simulations and wind-tunnel experimental results have shown an increase of about 23% in net body force production during the wingbeat cycle when the wings are modulated using the DAF as a part of the backstepping control law. Results also confirm accurate attitude tracking in spite of high external disturbances generated by aerodynamic loads at airspeeds up to 5 ms −1 . (paper)
Colorado, J; Barrientos, A; Rossi, C; Parra, C
This paper presents a novel bat-like unmanned aerial vehicle inspired by the morphing-wing mechanism of bats. The goal of this paper is twofold. Firstly, a modelling framework is introduced for analysing how the robot should manoeuvre by means of changing wing morphology. This allows the definition of requirements for achieving forward and turning flight according to the kinematics of the wing modulation. Secondly, an attitude controller named backstepping+DAF is proposed. Motivated by biological evidence about the influence of wing inertia on the production of body accelerations, the attitude control law incorporates wing inertia information to produce desired roll (ϕ) and pitch (θ) acceleration commands (desired angular acceleration function (DAF)). This novel control approach is aimed at incrementing net body forces (F(net)) that generate propulsion. Simulations and wind-tunnel experimental results have shown an increase of about 23% in net body force production during the wingbeat cycle when the wings are modulated using the DAF as a part of the backstepping control law. Results also confirm accurate attitude tracking in spite of high external disturbances generated by aerodynamic loads at airspeeds up to 5 ms⁻¹.
Tsuda, Yuichi; Nakasuka, Shinichi
This paper describes a new control algorithm for achieving any arbitrary attitude and angular velocity states of a rigid body, even fast and complicated tumbling rotations, under some practical constraints. This technique is expected to be applied for the attitude motion synchronization to capture a non-cooperative, tumbling object in such missions as removal of debris from orbit, servicing broken-down satellites for repairing or inspection, rescue of manned vehicles, etc. For this objective, we have introduced a novel control algorithm called Free Motion Path Method (FMPM) in the previous paper, which was formulated as an open-loop controller. The next step of this consecutive work is to derive a closed-loop FMPM controller, and as the preliminary step toward the objective, this paper attempts to derive a conservative state variables representation of a rigid body dynamics. 6-Dimensional conservative state variables are introduced in place of general angular velocity-attitude angle representation, and how to convert between both representations are shown in this paper.
Redondo, Ignacio; Puelles, María
What is going on with environmental education, which is currently unable to promote pro-environmental behaviors as effectively as it promotes pro-environmental attitudes? A tentative answer is that the environmental attitude-behavior gap observed in some individuals is just one manifestation of their lack of self-control for maintaining…
Wu, Yunhua; Han, Feng; Zheng, Mohong; He, Mengjie; Chen, Zhiming; Hua, Bing; Wang, Feng
On-orbit servicing is one of the research hotspots of space missions. A small satellite equipped with multiple robotic manipulators is expected to carry out device replacement task for target large spacecraft. Attitude hyperstable control of a small satellite platform under rotations of the manipulators is a challenging problem. A hybrid momentum exchanging actuator consists of Control Moment Gyro (CMG) and Reaction Wheel (RW) is proposed to tackle the above issue, due to its huge amount of momentum storage capacity of the CMG and high control accuracy of the RW, in which the CMG produces large command torque while the RW offers additional control degrees. The constructed dynamic model of the servicing satellite advises that it's feasible for attitude hyperstable control of the platform with arbitrary manipulators through compensating the disturbance generated by rapid rotation of the manipulators. Then, null motion between the CMG and RW is exploited to drive the system to the expected target with favorable performance, and to overcome the CMG inherent geometric singularity and RW saturation. Simulations with different initial situations, including CMG hyperbolic and elliptic singularities and RW saturation, are executed. Compared to the scenarios where the CMG or RW fails stabilizing the platform, large control torque, precise control effect and escape of singularity are guaranteed by the introduced hybrid actuator, CMGRW (CMGRW refers to the hybrid momentum exchanging devices in this paper, consisting of 4 CMGs in classical pyramid cluster and 3 RWs in an orthogonal group (specific description can been found in Section 4)). The feasible performance of the satellite, CMG and RW under large disturbance demonstrates that the control architecture proposed is capable of attitude control for on-orbit servicing satellite with multiple robotic manipulators.
Schröder, Johanna; Berger, Thomas; Meyer, Björn; Lutz, Wolfgang; Späth, Christina; Michel, Pia; Rose, Matthias; Hautzinger, Martin; Hohagen, Fritz; Klein, Jan Philipp; Moritz, Steffen
Most individuals with depression do not receive adequate treatment. Internet interventions may help to bridge this gap. Research on attitudes toward Internet interventions might facilitate the dissemination of such interventions by identifying factors that help or hinder uptake and implementation, and by clarifying who is likely to benefit. This study examined whether attitudes toward Internet interventions moderate the effects of a depression-focused Internet intervention, and how attitudes change over the course of treatment among those who do or do not benefit. We recruited 1,004 adults with mild-to-moderate depression symptoms and investigated how attitudes toward Internet interventions are associated with the efficacy of the program deprexis, and how attitudes in the intervention group change from pre to post over a 3 months intervention period, compared to a control group (care as usual). This study consists of a subgroup analysis of the randomized controlled EVIDENT trial. Positive initial attitudes toward Internet interventions were associated with greater efficacy (η 2 p = .014) independent of usage time, whereas a negative attitude (perceived lack of personal contact) was associated with reduced efficacy (η 2 p = .012). Users' attitudes changed during the trial, and both the magnitude and direction of attitude change were associated with the efficacy of the program over time (η 2 p = .030). Internet interventions may be the most beneficial for individuals with positive attitudes toward them. Informing potential users about evidence-based Internet interventions might instill positive attitudes and thereby optimize the benefits such interventions can provide. Assessing attitudes prior to treatment might help identify suitable users. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Tee, G H; Hairi, N N; Hairi, F
Physicians should play a leading role in combatting smoking; information on attitudes of future physicians towards tobacco control measures in a middle-income developing country is limited. Of 310 future physicians surveyed in a medical school in Malaysia, 50% disagreed that it was a doctor's duty to advise smokers to stop smoking; 76.8% agreed that physicians should not smoke before advising others not to smoke; and 75% agreed to the ideas of restricting the sale of cigarettes to minors, making all public places smoke-free and banning advertising of tobacco-related merchandise. Future physicians had positive attitudes towards tobacco regulations but had not grasped their responsibilities in tobacco control measures.
Simulation is an important tool in the analysis and design of spacecraft attitude control systems. The speaker will discuss the simulation tool, called simply 42, that he has developed over the years to support his own work as an engineer in the Attitude Control Systems Engineering Branch at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. 42 was intended from the outset to be high-fidelity and powerful, but also fast and easy to use. 42 is publicly available as open source since 2014. The speaker will describe some of 42's models and features, and discuss its applicability to studies ranging from early concept studies through the design cycle, integration, and operations. He will outline 42's architecture and share some thoughts on simulation development as a long-term project.
Eaves, Lindon J; Silberg, Judy L
The genetic and social causes of individual differences in attitudes to gun control are estimated in a sample of senior male and female twin pairs in the United States. Genetic and environmental parameters were estimated by weighted least squares applied to polychoric correlations for monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins of both sexes. The analysis suggests twin similarity for attitudes to gun control in men is entirely genetic while that in women is purely social. Although the volunteer sample is small, the analysis illustrates how the well-tested concepts and methods of genetic epidemiology may be a fertile resource for deepening our scientific understanding of biological and social pathways that affect individual risk to gun violence.
Heffernan, C; Misturelli, F; Nielsen, L; Gunn, G J; Yu, J
At present, national-level policies concerning the eradication and control of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) differ widely across Europe. Some Scandinavian countries have enacted strong regulatory frameworks to eradicate the disease, whereas other countries have few formal policies. To examine these differences, the attitudes of stakeholders and policy makers in 17 European countries were investigated. A web-based questionnaire was sent to policy makers, government and private sector veterinarians, and representatives of farmers' organisations. In total, 131 individuals responded to the questionnaire and their responses were analysed by applying a method used in sociolinguistics: frame analysis. The results showed that the different attitudes of countries that applied compulsory or voluntary frameworks were associated with different views about the attribution or blame for BVD and the roles ascribed to farmers and other stakeholders in its eradication and control.
Mirkarimi, Kamal; Eri, Maryam; Ghanbari, Mohammad R; Kabir, Mohammad J; Raeisi, Mojtaba; Ozouni-Davaji, Rahman B; Aryaie, Mohammad; Charkazi, Abdurrahman
We were guided by the Protection Motivation Theory to test the motivational interviewing effects on attitude and intention of obese and overweight women to do regular physical activity. In a randomized controlled trial, we selected using convenience sampling 60 overweight and obese women attending health centres. The women were allocated to 2 groups of 30 receiving a standard weight-control programme or motivational interviewing. All constructs of the theory (perceived susceptibility, severity, self-efficacy and response efficacy) and all anthropometric characteristics (except body mass index) were significantly different between the groups at 3 study times. The strongest predictors of intention to do regular physical exercise were perceived response efficacy and attitude at 2- and 6-months follow-up. We showed that targeting motivational interviewing with an emphasis on Protection Motivation Theory constructs appeared to be beneficial for designing and developing appropriate intervention to improve physical activity status among women with overweight and obesity.
Assan, Abraham; Takian, Amirhossein; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Rahimiforoushani, Abbas; Nematolahi, Shahrzad
Despite continuing international attention to malaria prevention, the disease remains a global public health problem. We investigated socio-demographic factors influencing knowledge, attitudes, and practices about malaria in rural Ghana. Our survey looked at 354 households. Mean knowledge score was higher among individuals with a history of volunteers having visited their households to educate them about malaria; families with 4-6 members; and males. Households with at least one under-five-aged child also had significantly higher knowledge scores. Households with at least one pregnant woman evinced a positive attitude towards malaria prevention. National malaria control strategies have achieved positive results in the fight against malaria. Nonetheless, multipronged community-based health strategies that integrate malaria programs and population growth control initiatives may be able to reach by 2030 the sustainable development goal of eliminating malaria.
Zimbelman, Darrell F.
Thermal elastic shock (TES) is a twice per orbit impulsive disturbance torque experienced by low-Earth orbiting spacecraft. The fundamental equations used to model the TES disturbance torque for typical spacecraft appendages (e.g., solar arrays and antenna booms) are derived in detail. In particular, the attitude-pointing performance of the TOPEX spacecraft, when subjected to the TES disturbance, is analyzed using a three-axis nonlinear time-domain simulation. Results indicate that the TOPEX spacecraft could exceed its roll-axis attitude-control requirement during penumbral transitions, and remain in violation for approximately 150 sec each orbit until the umbra collapses. A localized active-control system is proposed as a solution to minimize and/or eliminate the degrading effects of the TES disturbance.
Kulkov, V. M.; Medvedskii, A. L.; Terentyev, V. V.; Firsyuk, S. O.; Shemyakov, A. O.
The problem of spacecraft attitude control using electromagnetic systems interacting with the Earth's magnetic field is considered. A set of dimensionless parameters has been formed to investigate the spacecraft orientation regimes based on dynamically similar models. The results of experimental studies of small spacecraft with a magnetic attitude control system can be extrapolated to the in-orbit spacecraft motion control regimes by using the methods of the dimensional and similarity theory.
Full Text Available The present paper addresses an attitude tracking control problem of a ducted fan microaerial vehicle. The proposed indirect adaptive controller can greatly reduce tracking error in the initial stage of the adaptive learning process by using an error compensation strategy and can achieve good capability to eliminate the adverse effect of measurement noises on the convergence of adjustable parameters. Moreover, the learning rate adaptation strategy is proposed to further minimize the adverse effect of large learning rates on the convergence of adjustable parameters. The experimental tests have illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive controller.
Gielen, Joris; Gupta, Harmala; Rajvanshi, Ambika; Bhatnagar, Sushma; Mishra, Seema; Chaturvedi, Arvind K.; Van den Branden, Stef; Broeckaert, Bert
Aim: We wanted to assess Indian palliative-care nurses and physicians’ attitudes toward pain control and palliative sedation. Materials and Methods: From May to September 2008, we interviewed 14 physicians and 13 nurses working in different palliative-care programs in New Delhi, using a semi-structured questionnaire, and following grounded-theory methodology (Glaser and Strauss). Results: The interviewees did not consider administration of painkillers in large doses an ethical problem, ...
Joris Gielen; Harmala Gupta; Ambika Rajvanshi; Sushma Bhatnagar; Seema Mishra; Arvind K Chaturvedi; Stef Van den Branden; Bert Broeckaert
Aim: We wanted to assess Indian palliative-care nurses and physicians′ attitudes toward pain control and palliative sedation. Materials and Methods: From May to September 2008, we interviewed 14 physicians and 13 nurses working in different palliative-care programs in New Delhi, using a semi-structured questionnaire, and following grounded-theory methodology (Glaser and Strauss). Results: The interviewees did not consider administration of painkillers in large doses an ethical problem...
Caplenor, Carlotta A; Poudyal, Neelam C; Muller, Lisa I; Yoest, Chuck
Wild hogs (Sus scrofa) are an invasive species with destructive habits, particularly rooting and wallowing, which can directly impact agricultural crops, pasture land, and water quality. Considering wild hogs are widely dispersed across the landscape, they are extremely difficult to control. Disagreements can arise among different stakeholders over whether and how their populations should be managed. The purpose of this article was to examine Tennessee, United States landowners' attitudes toward wild hogs, to compare acceptability of control methods, and to evaluate factors significantly influencing public support for regulations to control wild hogs. Logistic regression was employed to analyze data collected from a statewide survey of rural landowners in the fall of 2015. Landowners had overwhelmingly negative attitudes towards wild hogs, and were concerned about their impact on the natural environment and rural economy. Although landowners showed support for controlling wild hogs, levels of acceptability for management options varied. Respondents favored active management and supported education and incentive-based control programs to control wild hogs. Cognitive concepts such as social and personal norms and awareness of consequences, as well as demographic characteristics, significantly predicted landowners' support for state regulations to control wild hogs in Tennessee. Findings increase our understanding of the human dimensions of wild hog management and that of other similarly invasive animals, and may guide resource managers in designing effective and socially acceptable management strategies to control wild hog populations in Tennessee and elsewhere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Inamori, Takaya; Ozaki, Naoya; Saisutjarit, Phongsatorn; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki
This paper proposes a novel radiative cooling system for a high temperature superconducting (HTS) coil for an attitude orbit control system in nano- and micro-spacecraft missions. These days, nano-spacecraft (1-10 kg) and micro-spacecraft (10-100 kg) provide space access to a broader range of spacecraft developers and attract interest as space development applications. In planetary and high earth orbits, most previous standard-size spacecraft used thrusters for their attitude and orbit control, which are not available for nano- and micro-spacecraft missions because of the strict power consumption, space, and weight constraints. This paper considers orbit and attitude control methods that use a superconducting coil, which interacts with on-orbit space plasmas and creates a propulsion force. Because these spacecraft cannot use an active cooling system for the superconducting coil because of their mass and power consumption constraints, this paper proposes the utilization of a passive radiative cooling system, in which the superconducting coil is thermally connected to the 3 K cosmic background radiation of deep space, insulated from the heat generation using magnetic holders, and shielded from the sun. With this proposed cooling system, the HTS coil is cooled to 60 K in interplanetary orbits. Because the system does not use refrigerators for its cooling system, the spacecraft can achieve an HTS coil with low power consumption, small mass, and low cost.
Reid, W. Mark; Hansell, William; Phillips, Tom; Anderson, Mark O.; Drury, Derek
NASA established the Small Explorer (SNMX) program in 1988 to provide frequent opportunities for highly focused and relatively inexpensive space science missions. The SMEX program has produced five satellites, three of which have been successfully launched. The remaining two spacecraft are scheduled for launch within the coming year. NASA has recently developed a prototype for the next generation Small Explorer spacecraft (SMEX-Lite). This paper describes the object-oriented design (OOD) of the SMEX-Lite Attitude Control System (ACS) software. The SMEX-Lite ACS is three-axis controlled and is capable of performing sub-arc-minute pointing. This paper first describes high level requirements governing the SMEX-Lite ACS software architecture. Next, the context in which the software resides is explained. The paper describes the principles of encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism with respect to the implementation of an ACS software system. This paper will also discuss the design of several ACS software components. Specifically, object-oriented designs are presented for sensor data processing, attitude determination, attitude control, and failure detection. Finally, this paper will address the establishment of the ACS Foundation Class (AFC) Library. The AFC is a large software repository, requiring a minimal amount of code modifications to produce ACS software for future projects.
Paulsen, Marit Johanne
This thesis presents new results on the design and analysis of nonlinear output feedback controllers for auto pilots and dynamic positioning systems for ships and underwater vehicles. Only position and attitude measurements of the vehicle are used in the control design. The underlying idea of the work is to use certain structural properties of the equations of motion in the controller design and analysis. New controllers for regulation and tracking have been developed and the stability of the resulting closed-loop systems has been rigorously established. The results are supported by simulations. The following problems have been investigated covering design of passive controller for regulation, comparison of two auto pilots, nonlinear damping compensation for tracking, tracking control for nonlinear ships, and output tracking control with wave filtering for multivariable models of possibly unstable vehicles. 97 refs., 32 figs.
Full Text Available This paper addresses the T-S fuzzy modelling and H∞ attitude control in three channels for hypersonic gliding vehicles (HGVs. First, the control-oriented affine nonlinear model has been established which is transformed from the reentry dynamics. Then, based on Taylor’s expansion approach and the fuzzy linearization approach, the homogeneous T-S local modelling technique for HGVs is proposed. Given the approximation accuracy and controller design complexity, appropriate fuzzy premise variables and operating points of interest are selected to construct the T-S homogeneous submodels. With so-called fuzzy blending, the original plant is transformed into the overall T-S fuzzy model with disturbance. By utilizing Lyapunov functional approach, a state feedback fuzzy controller has been designed based on relaxed linear matrix inequality (LMI conditions to stable the original plants with a prescribed H∞ performance of disturbance. Finally, numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed H∞ T-S fuzzy controller for the original attitude dynamics; the superiority of the designed T-S fuzzy controller compared with other local controllers based on the constructed fuzzy model is shown as well.
Fulton, Joseph M.
Due to the volume and power limitations of a small satellite, careful consideration must be taken while designing an attitude control system for 3-axis stabilization. Placing redundancy in the system proves difficult and utilizing power hungry, high accuracy, active actuators is not a viable option. Thus, it is customary to find dependable, passive actuators used in conjunction with small scale active control components. This document describes the application of Elastic Memory Composite materials in the construction of a flexible spacecraft appendage, such as a gravity gradient boom. Assumed modes methods are used with Finite Element Modeling information to obtain the equations of motion for the system while assuming free-free boundary conditions. A discussion is provided to illustrate how cantilever mode shapes are not always the best assumption when modeling small flexible spacecraft. A key point of interest is first resonant modes may be needed in the system design plant in spite of these modes being greater than one order of magnitude in frequency when compared to the crossover frequency of the controller. LQG/LTR optimal control techniques are implemented to compute attitude control gains while controller robustness considerations determine appropriate reduced order controllers and which flexible modes to include in the design model. Key satellite designer concerns in the areas of computer processor sizing, material uncertainty impacts on the system model, and system performance variations resulting from appendage length modifications are addressed.
Starin, Scott R.; Vess, Melissa F.; Kenney, Thomas M.; Maldonado, Manuel D.; Morgenstern, Wendy M.
The Solar Dynamics Observatory is an Explorer-class mission that will launch in early 2009. The spacecraft will operate in a geosynchronous orbit, sending data 24 hours a day to a devoted ground station in White Sands, New Mexico. It will carry a suite of instruments designed to observe the Sun in multiple wavelengths at unprecedented resolution. The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly includes four telescopes with focal plane CCDs that can image the full solar disk in four different visible wavelengths. The Extreme-ultraviolet Variability Experiment will collect time-correlated data on the activity of the Sun's corona. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager will enable study of pressure waves moving through the body of the Sun. The attitude control system on Solar Dynamics Observatory is responsible for four main phases of activity. The physical safety of the spacecraft after separation must be guaranteed. Fine attitude determination and control must be sufficient for instrument calibration maneuvers. The mission science mode requires 2-arcsecond control according to error signals provided by guide telescopes on the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, one of the three instruments to be carried. Lastly, accurate execution of linear and angular momentum changes to the spacecraft must be provided for momentum management and orbit maintenance. In thsp aper, single-fault tolerant fault detection and correction of the Solar Dynamics Observatory attitude control system is described. The attitude control hardware suite for the mission is catalogued, with special attention to redundancy at the hardware level. Four reaction wheels are used where any three are satisfactory. Four pairs of redundant thrusters are employed for orbit change maneuvers and momentum management. Three two-axis gyroscopes provide full redundancy for rate sensing. A digital Sun sensor and two autonomous star trackers provide two-out-of-three redundancy for fine attitude determination. The use of software to maximize
Full Text Available Although the use of placebo in clinical trials of schizophrenia patients is controversial because of medical and ethical concerns, placebo-controlled clinical trials are commonly used in the licensing of new drugs.The objective of this study was to assess the attitudes toward placebo-controlled clinical trials among patients with schizophrenia in Japan.Using a cross-sectional design, we recruited patients (n = 251 aged 47.7±13.2 (mean±SD with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who were admitted to six psychiatric hospitals from December 2013 to March 2014. We employed a 14-item questionnaire specifically developed to survey patients' attitudes toward placebo-controlled clinical trials.The results indicated that 33% of the patients would be willing to participate in a placebo-controlled clinical trial. Expectations for improvement of disease, a guarantee of hospital treatment continuation, and encouragement by family or friends were associated with the willingness to participate in such trials, whereas a belief of additional time required for medical examinations was associated with non-participation.Fewer than half of the respondents stated that they would be willing to participate in placebo-controlled clinical trials. Therefore, interpreting the results from placebo-controlled clinical trials could be negatively affected by selection bias.
Lim, Yeerang; Lee, Wonsuk; Bang, Hyochoong; Lee, Hosung
A thrust distribution approach is proposed in this paper for a variable thrust solid propulsion system with an attitude control system (ACS) that uses a reduced number of nozzles for a three-axis attitude maneuver. Although a conventional variable thrust solid propulsion system needs six ACS nozzles, this paper proposes a thrust system with four ACS nozzles to reduce the complexity and mass of the system. The performance of the new system was analyzed with numerical simulations, and the results show that the performance of the system with four ACS nozzles was similar to the original system while the mass of the whole system was simultaneously reduced. Moreover, a feasibility analysis was performed to determine whether a thrust system with three ACS nozzles is possible.
The Pluto unmanned long-range scientific explorer (PULSE) is a probe that will do a flyby of Pluto. It is a low weight, relatively low costing vehicle which utilizes mostly off-the-shelf hardware, but not materials or techniques that will be available after 1999. A design, fabrication, and cost analysis is presented. PULSE will be launched within the first decade of the twenty-first century. The topics include: (1) scientific instrumentation; (2) mission management, planning, and costing; (3) power and propulsion systems; (4) structural subsystem; (5) command, control, and communication; and (6) attitude and articulation control.
Motion Coordination for VTOL Unmanned Aerial Vehicles develops new control design techniques for the distributed coordination of a team of autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles. In particular, it provides new control design approaches for the attitude synchronization of a formation of rigid body systems. In addition, by integrating new control design techniques with some concepts from nonlinear control theory and multi-agent systems, it presents a new theoretical framework for the formation control of a class of under-actuated aerial vehicles capable of vertical take-off and landing. Several practical problems related to the systems’ inputs, states measurements, and restrictions on the interconnection topology between the aerial vehicles in the team are addressed. Worked examples with sufficient details and simulation results are provided to illustrate the applicability and effectiveness of the theoretical results discussed in the book. The material presented is primarily intended for researchers an...
Anderson, Mark O.; Barnes, Kenneth C.; Melhorn, Charles M.; Phillips, Tom
The Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE), currently scheduled for launch in September 1998, is the fifth of five spacecraft in the NASA/Goddard Small Explorer (SMEX) series. This paper presents the design of WIRE's Attitude Control System flight software (ACS FSW). WIRE is a momentum-biased, three-axis stabilized stellar pointer which provides high-accuracy pointing and autonomous acquisition for eight to ten stellar targets per orbit. WIRE's short mission life and limited cryogen supply motivate requirements for Sun and Earth avoidance constraints which are designed to prevent catastrophic instrument damage and to minimize the heat load on the cryostat. The FSW implements autonomous fault detection and handling (FDH) to enforce these instrument constraints and to perform several other checks which insure the safety of the spacecraft. The ACS FSW implements modules for sensor data processing, attitude determination, attitude control, guide star acquisition, actuator command generation, command/telemetry processing, and FDH. These software components are integrated with a hierarchical control mode managing module that dictates which software components are currently active. The lowest mode in the hierarchy is the 'safest' one, in the sense that it utilizes a minimal complement of sensors and actuators to keep the spacecraft in a stable configuration (power and pointing constraints are maintained). As higher modes in the hierarchy are achieved, the various software functions are activated by the mode manager, and an increasing level of attitude control accuracy is provided. If FDH detects a constraint violation or other anomaly, it triggers a safing transition to a lower control mode. The WIRE ACS FSW satisfies all target acquisition and pointing accuracy requirements, enforces all pointing constraints, provides the ground with a simple means for reconfiguring the system via table load, and meets all the demands of its real-time embedded environment (16 MHz Intel
Magliano, Lorenza; Rinaldi, Angela; Costanzo, Regina; De Leo, Renata; Schioppa, Giustina; Petrillo, Miriam; Read, John
Despite scientific evidence that the majority of people with schizophrenia (PWS) have personal histories of traumatic life events and adversities, their needs for psychological support often remain unmet. Poor availability of nonpharmacological therapies in schizophrenia may be partly because of professionals' attitudes toward people diagnosed with this disorder. As future health professionals, psychology students represent a target population for efforts to increase the probability that PWS will be offered effective psychological therapies. This quasi-randomized controlled study investigated the effect of an educational intervention, addressing common prejudices via scientific evidence and prerecorded audio-testimony from PWS, on the attitudes of psychology students toward PWS. Students in their fifth year of a master's degree in Psychology at the Second University of Naples, Italy were randomly assigned to an experimental group-which attended two 3-hr sessions a week apart-or to a control group. Compared with their baseline assessment, at 1-month reassessment the 76 educated students endorsed more psychosocial causes and more of them recommended psychologists in the treatment of schizophrenia. They were also more optimistic about recovery, less convinced that PWS are recognizable and unpredictable, and more convinced that treatments, pharmacological and psychological, are useful. No significant changes were found, from baseline to 1-month reassessment, in the 112 controls. At 1-month reassessment, educated students were more optimistic about recovery and less convinced that PWS are unpredictable than controls. These findings suggest that psychology students' attitudes toward PWS can be improved by training initiatives including education and indirect contact with users. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Garland, Kandis V
To assess knowledge, attitudes and practices of U.S. dental hygienists with infection control guidelines (ICG). Research has shown improved compliance with specific aspects of dental ICG is needed. This study supports the American Dental Hygienists' Association National Research Agenda's Occupational Health and Safety objective to investigate methods to decrease errors, risks and or hazards in health care. Data are needed to assess compliance, prevention and behavioral issues with current ICG practices. A proportional stratified random sample (n=2,500) was recruited for an online survey. Descriptive statistics summarized demographic characteristics and knowledge, attitudes and practices responses. Spearman's rho correlations determined relationships between knowledge, attitudes and practices responses (pexpectations for using ICG (rs=0.529) and no time to use (rs=-0.537). Themes from comments indicated time is a barrier, and respondents' perceived a need for involvement of all co-workers. Dental hygienists are adhering with most aspects of the ICG. High compliance with ICG among respondents in this study was associated with positive safety beliefs and practices, whereas lower compliance with ICG was associated with less positive safety beliefs and practices. A safety culture appears to be a factor in compliance with ICG.
Cogin, Julie Ann; Ng, Ju Li; Lee, Ilro
We assess how human resource management (HRM) is implemented in Australian hospitals. Drawing on role theory, we consider the influence HRM has on job attitudes of healthcare staff and hospital operational efficiency. We adopt a qualitative research design across professional groups (physicians, nurses, and allied health staff) at multiple levels (executive, healthcare managers, and employee). A total of 34 interviews were carried out and analyzed using NVivo. Findings revealed a predominance of a control-based approach to people management. Using Snell's control framework (AMJ 35:292-327, 1992), we found that behavioral control was the principal form of control used to manage nurses, allied health workers, and junior doctors. We found a mix between behavior, output, and input controls as well as elements of commitment-based HRM to manage senior physicians. We observed low levels of investment in people and a concentration on transactional human resource (HR) activities which led to negative job attitudes such as low morale and frustration among healthcare professionals. While hospitals used rules to promote conformity with established procedures, the overuse and at times inappropriate use of behavior controls restricted healthcare managers' ability to motivate and engage their staff. Excessive use of behavior control helped to realize short-term cost-cutting goals; however, this often led to operational inefficiencies. We suggest that hospitals reduce the profusion of behavior control and increase levels of input and output controls in the management of people. Poor perceptions of HR specialists and HR activities have resulted in HR being overlooked as a vehicle to address the strategic challenges required of health reform and to build an engaged workforce.
The goal of the Imaging X-Ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) Mission is to expand understanding of high-energy astrophysical processes and sources, in support of NASA's first science objective in Astrophysics: "Discover how the universe works." X-ray polarimetry is the focus of the IXPE science mission. Polarimetry uniquely probes physical anisotropies-ordered magnetic fields, aspheric matter distributions, or general relativistic coupling to black-hole spin-that are not otherwise measurable. The IXPE Observatory consists of Spacecraft and Payload modules. The Payload includes three polarization sensitive, X-ray detector units (DU), each paired with its corresponding grazing incidence mirror module assemblies (MMA). A deployable boom provides the correct separation (focal length) between the DUs and MMAs. These Payload elements are supported by the IXPE Spacecraft. A star tracker is mounted directly with the deployed Payload to minimize alignment errors between the star tracker line of sight (LoS) and Payload LoS. Stringent pointing requirements coupled with a flexible structure and a non-collocated attitude sensor-actuator configuration requires a thorough analysis of control-structure interactions. A non-minimum phase notch filter supports robust control loop stability margins. This paper summarizes the IXPE mission science objectives and Observatory concepts, and then it describes IXPE attitude determination and control implementation. IXPE LoS pointing accuracy, control loop stability, and angular momentum management are discussed.
Ojulong, J; Mitonga, K H; Iipinge, S N
Health Sciences students are exposed early to hospitals and to activities which increase their risk of acquiring infections. Infection control practices are geared towards reduction of occurrence and transmission of infectious diseases. To evaluate knowledge and attitudes of infection prevention and control among Health Science students at University of Namibia. To assess students' knowledge and attitudes regarding infection prevention and control and their sources of information, a self-administered questionnaire was used to look at standard precautions especially hands hygiene. One hundred sixty two students participated in this study of which 31 were medical, 17 were radiography and 114 were nursing students. Medical students had better overall scores (73%) compared to nursing students (66%) and radiology students (61%). There was no significant difference in scores between sexes or location of the high school being either in rural or urban setting. Serious efforts are needed to improve or review curriculum so that health sciences students' knowledge on infection prevention and control is imparted early before they are introduced to the wards.
Afsari, Atousa; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Valizadeh, Sousan; Abbasnezhadeh, Massomeh; Galshi, Mina; Fatahi, Samira
The attitude of a girl toward her menstruation and puberty has a considerable impact on her role during motherhood, social adjustment, and future marital life. This study was conducted in 2014 with the aim of comparing the effects of educating mothers and girls on the attitudes of adolescent girls of Tabriz City, Iran, towards puberty health. This randomized control clinical trial was conducted on 364 adolescent girls who experienced menstruation. Twelve schools were selected randomly among 107 secondary schools for girls. One-third of the students of each school were selected randomly using a table of random numbers and socio-demographic and each participant was asked to answer the attitude questionnaires. The schools were randomly allocated to the groups of mother's education, girl's education, and no-intervention. The attitude questionnaire was filled out by the participants again 2 months after intervention. The general linear model, in which the baseline values were controlled, was employed to compare the scores of the three groups after the intervention. No significant differences were observed among the three groups in terms of the attitude score before intervention (p>0.05). Attitude score improvement after intervention in the girl's education group was significantly higher than the one of both mother's education (adjusted mean difference [AMD]: 1.8; [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4-1.3]) and no-intervention groups (AMD: 1.3; [95% CI: 0.0-2.6]) by controlling the attitude score before intervention. Based on the findings, it is more effective to educate girls directly about puberty health to improve adolescent girls' attitudes than educating mothers and asking them to transfer information to the girls. Nevertheless, studies with longer training period and follow-up are proposed to determine the effects of educating girls (through their mothers) on their attitudes about puberty health.
Squier, Christopher; Hesli, Vicki; Lowe, John; Ponamorenko, Victor; Medvedovskaya, Natalia
To examine the relationship between physicians' smoking behaviors and their attitudes toward tobacco use by their patients and tobacco control in the Ukraine, a 70-item questionnaire was administered to 799 general practitioners (287 men and 512 women) working in both rural (278 physicians) and urban (521 physicians) areas of three regions of Ukraine. In all, 13.9% of physicians were current smokers and 21.6% reported being past smokers, with significantly (Pnon-smoking as a norm and (2) the likelihood that a patient will be provided smoking cessation counseling increases.
Woschnak, A.; Krejci, D.; Schiebl, M.; Scharlemann, C.
This document describes the selection assessment of propellants for a 1-newton green bipropellant thruster for attitude control on satellites. The development of this thruster was conducted as a part of the project GRASP (Green Advanced Space Propellants) within the European FP7 research program. The green propellant combinations hydrogen peroxide (highly concentrated with 87.5 %(wt.)) with kerosene or hydrogen peroxide (87.5 %(wt.)) with ethanol were identified as interesting candidates and were investigated in detail with the help of an experimental combustion chamber in the chemical propulsion laboratory at the Forschungsund Technologietransfer GmbH ― Fotec. Based on the test results, a final selection of propellants was performed.
Warren, M; Lobley, M; Winter, M
Controversy persists in England, Wales and Northern Ireland concerning methods of controlling the transmission of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) between badgers and cattle. The National Trust, a major land-owning heritage organisation, in 2011, began a programme of vaccinating badgers against bTB on its Killerton Estate in Devon. Most of the estate is farmed by 18 tenant farmers, who thus have a strong interest in the Trust's approach, particularly as all have felt the effects of the disease. This article reports on a study of the attitudes to vaccination of badgers and to the alternative of a culling programme, using face-to-face interviews with 14 of the tenants. The results indicated first that the views of the respondents were more nuanced than the contemporary public debate about badger control would suggest. Secondly, the attitude of the interviewees to vaccination of badgers against bTB was generally one of resigned acceptance. Thirdly, most respondents would prefer a combination of an effective vaccination programme with an effective culling programme, the latter reducing population of density sufficiently (and preferably targeting the badgers most likely to be diseased) for vaccination to have a reasonable chance of success. While based on a small sample, these results will contribute to the vigorous debate concerning contrasting policy approaches to bTB control in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
Full Text Available I analyze attitudes towards gun control from a recent survey of American high school students. For students who most closely identify as Republicans, cueing them to think about prior school shootings increases their agreement that armed staff in schools will improve safety and arming citizens will reduce risk of mass shootings. For those identifying as Democrats and Independents, providing them with selective information that certain states have loose gun control laws and low rates of gun violence makes them more supportive of gun rights. For Republicans, providing selective information that certain states have loose gun control laws and high rates of gun violence makes them less supportive of gun rights. These results suggest that emotional cues may exacerbate a priori biases, while informational cues may be more likely to change people’s minds about firearm policies.
Quottrup, Michael Melholt; Krogh-Sørensen, J.; Wisniewski, Rafal
This paper suggests nonlinear attitude control of the Danish satellite Rømer. This satellite will be designed to fulfil two scientific objectives: The observation of stellar oscillations and the detection and localisation of gamma-ray bursts. The satellite will be equipped with a tetrahedron...... configuration of Wide Angle Telescopes for Cosmic Hard x-rays (WATCH), that server the dual purpose of X-ray detectors and momentum wheels. By employing passivity theory it is shown, that the satellite is a passive system. This paper shows, that global asymptotic can be obtained with a passive and an imput...... and output strictly passive system in a feedback interconnection. It is demonstrated in a simulation study that the resultant control has a potential for on-board implementation in the acquistion phase, where global stabillity of the control law is vital...
O'Brien, Kerry; Forrest, Walter; Lynott, Dermot; Daly, Michael
Racism is related to policies preferences and behaviors that adversely affect blacks and appear related to a fear of blacks (e.g., increased policing, death penalty). This study examined whether racism is also related to gun ownership and opposition to gun controls in US whites. The most recent data from the American National Election Study, a large representative US sample, was used to test relationships between racism, gun ownership, and opposition to gun control in US whites. Explanatory variables known to be related to gun ownership and gun control opposition (i.e., age, gender, education, income, conservatism, anti-government sentiment, southern vs. other states, political identification) were entered in logistic regression models, along with measures of racism, and the stereotype of blacks as violent. Outcome variables included; having a gun in the home, opposition to bans on handguns in the home, support for permits to carry concealed handguns. After accounting for all explanatory variables, logistic regressions found that for each 1 point increase in symbolic racism there was a 50% increase in the odds of having a gun at home. After also accounting for having a gun in the home, there was still a 28% increase in support for permits to carry concealed handguns, for each one point increase in symbolic racism. The relationship between symbolic racism and opposition to banning handguns in the home (OR1.27 CI 1.03,1.58) was reduced to non-significant after accounting for having a gun in the home (OR1.17 CI.94,1.46), which likely represents self-interest in retaining property (guns). Symbolic racism was related to having a gun in the home and opposition to gun control policies in US whites. The findings help explain US whites' paradoxical attitudes towards gun ownership and gun control. Such attitudes may adversely influence US gun control policy debates and decisions.
Murray, Jane K; Mosteller, Jill R; Loberg, Jenny M; Andersson, Maria; Benka, Valerie A W
Fertility control is important for population management of owned and unowned cats, provides health benefits at the individual level and can reduce unwanted sexually dimorphic behaviors such as roaming, aggression, spraying and calling. This article reviews the available evidence regarding European and American veterinarian, owner and pedigree cat breeder attitudes toward both surgical sterilization and non-surgical fertility control. It additionally presents new data on veterinarians' and pedigree cat breeders' use of, and attitudes toward, alternative modalities of fertility control. Within the United States and Europe, the proportion of cats reported to be sterilized varies widely. Published estimates range from 27-93% for owned cats and 2-5% for cats trapped as part of a trap-neuter-return (TNR) program. In some regions and populations of cats, non-surgical fertility control is also used. Social context, cultural norms, individual preferences, economic considerations, legislation and professional organizations may all influence fertility control decisions for cats. Particularly in Europe, a limited number of non-surgical temporary contraceptives are available for cats; these include products with regulatory approval for cats as well as some used 'off label'. Non-surgical methods remove the risk of complications related to surgery and offer potential to treat more animals in less time and at lower cost; they may also appeal to pedigree cat breeders seeking temporary contraception. However, concerns over efficacy, delivery methods, target species safety, duration and side effects exist with current non-surgical options. Research is under way to develop new methods to control fertility in cats without surgery. US and European veterinarians place high value on three perceived benefits of surgical sterilization: permanence, behavioral benefits and health benefits. Non-surgical options will likely need to share these benefits to be widely accepted by the veterinary
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Racism is related to policies preferences and behaviors that adversely affect blacks and appear related to a fear of blacks (e.g., increased policing, death penalty. This study examined whether racism is also related to gun ownership and opposition to gun controls in US whites. METHOD: The most recent data from the American National Election Study, a large representative US sample, was used to test relationships between racism, gun ownership, and opposition to gun control in US whites. Explanatory variables known to be related to gun ownership and gun control opposition (i.e., age, gender, education, income, conservatism, anti-government sentiment, southern vs. other states, political identification were entered in logistic regression models, along with measures of racism, and the stereotype of blacks as violent. Outcome variables included; having a gun in the home, opposition to bans on handguns in the home, support for permits to carry concealed handguns. RESULTS: After accounting for all explanatory variables, logistic regressions found that for each 1 point increase in symbolic racism there was a 50% increase in the odds of having a gun at home. After also accounting for having a gun in the home, there was still a 28% increase in support for permits to carry concealed handguns, for each one point increase in symbolic racism. The relationship between symbolic racism and opposition to banning handguns in the home (OR1.27 CI 1.03,1.58 was reduced to non-significant after accounting for having a gun in the home (OR1.17 CI.94,1.46, which likely represents self-interest in retaining property (guns. CONCLUSIONS: Symbolic racism was related to having a gun in the home and opposition to gun control policies in US whites. The findings help explain US whites' paradoxical attitudes towards gun ownership and gun control. Such attitudes may adversely influence US gun control policy debates and decisions.
O’Brien, Kerry; Forrest, Walter; Lynott, Dermot; Daly, Michael
Objective Racism is related to policies preferences and behaviors that adversely affect blacks and appear related to a fear of blacks (e.g., increased policing, death penalty). This study examined whether racism is also related to gun ownership and opposition to gun controls in US whites. Method The most recent data from the American National Election Study, a large representative US sample, was used to test relationships between racism, gun ownership, and opposition to gun control in US whites. Explanatory variables known to be related to gun ownership and gun control opposition (i.e., age, gender, education, income, conservatism, anti-government sentiment, southern vs. other states, political identification) were entered in logistic regression models, along with measures of racism, and the stereotype of blacks as violent. Outcome variables included; having a gun in the home, opposition to bans on handguns in the home, support for permits to carry concealed handguns. Results After accounting for all explanatory variables, logistic regressions found that for each 1 point increase in symbolic racism there was a 50% increase in the odds of having a gun at home. After also accounting for having a gun in the home, there was still a 28% increase in support for permits to carry concealed handguns, for each one point increase in symbolic racism. The relationship between symbolic racism and opposition to banning handguns in the home (OR1.27 CI 1.03,1.58) was reduced to non-significant after accounting for having a gun in the home (OR1.17 CI.94,1.46), which likely represents self-interest in retaining property (guns). Conclusions Symbolic racism was related to having a gun in the home and opposition to gun control policies in US whites. The findings help explain US whites’ paradoxical attitudes towards gun ownership and gun control. Such attitudes may adversely influence US gun control policy debates and decisions. PMID:24204867
Wang, Yan; Wang, Lei; Cui, Xianghua; Fang, Yuan; Chen, Qianqiu; Wang, Ya; Qiang, Yao
Self-regulatory resources and trait self-control have been found to moderate the impulse-behavior relationship. The current study investigated whether the interaction of self-regulatory resources and trait self-control moderates the association between implicit attitudes and food consumption. One hundred twenty female participants were randomly assigned to either a depletion condition in which their self-regulatory resources were reduced or a no-depletion condition. Participants' implicit attitudes for chocolate were measured with the Single Category Implicit Association Test and self-report measures of trait self-control were collected. The dependent variable was chocolate consumption in an ostensible taste and rate task. Implicit attitudes predicted chocolate consumption in depleted participants but not in non-depleted participants. However, this predictive power of implicit attitudes on eating in depleted condition disappeared in participants with high trait self-control. Thus, trait self-control and self-regulatory resources interact to moderate the prediction of implicit attitude on eating behavior. Results suggest that high trait self-control buffers the effect of self-regulatory depletion on impulsive eating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Viswanathan, Sasi Prabhakaran
Design, dynamics, control and implementation of a novel spacecraft attitude control actuator called the "Adaptive Singularity-free Control Moment Gyroscope" (ASCMG) is presented in this dissertation. In order to construct a comprehensive attitude dynamics model of a spacecraft with internal actuators, the dynamics of a spacecraft with an ASCMG, is obtained in the framework of geometric mechanics using the principles of variational mechanics. The resulting dynamics is general and complete model, as it relaxes the simplifying assumptions made in prior literature on Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs) and it also addresses the adaptive parameters in the dynamics formulation. The simplifying assumptions include perfect axisymmetry of the rotor and gimbal structures, perfect alignment of the centers of mass of the gimbal and the rotor etc. These set of simplifying assumptions imposed on the design and dynamics of CMGs leads to adverse effects on their performance and results in high manufacturing cost. The dynamics so obtained shows the complex nonlinear coupling between the internal degrees of freedom associated with an ASCMG and the spacecraft bus's attitude motion. By default, the general ASCMG cluster can function as a Variable Speed Control Moment Gyroscope, and reduced to function in CMG mode by spinning the rotor at constant speed, and it is shown that even when operated in CMG mode, the cluster can be free from kinematic singularities. This dynamics model is then extended to include the effects of multiple ASCMGs placed in the spacecraft bus, and sufficient conditions for non-singular ASCMG cluster configurations are obtained to operate the cluster both in VSCMG and CMG modes. The general dynamics model of the ASCMG is then reduced to that of conventional VSCMGs and CMGs by imposing the standard set of simplifying assumptions used in prior literature. The adverse effects of the simplifying assumptions that lead to the complexities in conventional CMG design, and
Croom, Christopher A.; Tolson, Robert H.
Results are presented of the study of the Venusian atmosphere, Magellan aerodynamic moment coefficients, moments of inertia, and solar moment coefficients. This investigation is based upon the use of attitude control data in the form of reaction wheel speeds from the Magellan spacecraft. As the spacecraft enters the upper atmosphere of Venus, measurable torques are experienced due to aerodynamic effects. Solar and gravity gradient effects also cause additional torques throughout the orbit. In order to maintain an inertially fixed attitude, the control system counteracts these torques by changing the angular rates of three reaction wheels. Model reaction wheel speeds are compared to observed Magellan reaction wheel speeds through a differential correction procedure. This method determines aerodynamic, atmospheric, solar pressure, and mass moment of inertia parameters. Atmospheric measurements include both base densities and scale heights. Atmospheric base density results confirm natural variability as measured by the standard orbital decay method. Potential inconsistencies in free molecular aerodynamic moment coefficients are identified. Moments of inertia are determined with a precision better than 1 percent of the largest principal moment of inertia.
Shen, H; Xu, Y; Dickinson, B T
Inspired by sensing strategies observed in birds and bats, a new attitude control concept of directly using real-time pressure and shear stresses has recently been studied. It was shown that with an array of onboard airflow sensors, small unmanned aircraft systems can promptly respond to airflow changes and improve flight performances. In this paper, a mapping function is proposed to compute aerodynamic moments from the real-time pressure and shear data in a practical and computationally tractable formulation. Since many microscale airflow sensors are embedded on the small unmanned aircraft system surface, it is highly possible that certain sensors may fail. Here, an adaptive control system is developed that is robust to sensor failure as well as other numerical mismatches in calculating real-time aerodynamic moments. The advantages of the proposed method are shown in the following simulation cases: (i) feedback pressure and wall shear data from a distributed array of 45 airflow sensors; (ii) 50% failure of the symmetrically distributed airflow sensor array; and (iii) failure of all the airflow sensors on one wing. It is shown that even if 50% of the airflow sensors have failures, the aircraft is still stable and able to track the attitude commands.
Krening, Samantha C.
A major science objective of the Cassini mission is to study Saturnian satellites. The gravitational properties of each Saturnian moon is of interest not only to scientists but also to attitude control engineers. When the Cassini spacecraft flies close to a moon, a gravity gradient torque is exerted on the spacecraft due to the mass of the moon. The gravity gradient torque will alter the spin rates of the reaction wheels (RWA). The change of each reaction wheel's spin rate might lead to overspeed issues or operating the wheel bearings in an undesirable boundary lubrication condition. Hence, it is imperative to understand how the gravity gradient torque caused by a moon will affect the reaction wheels in order to protect the health of the hardware. The attitude control telemetry from low-altitude flybys of Saturn's moons can be used to estimate the gravitational parameter of the moon or the distance between the centers of mass of Cassini and the moon. Flight data from several low altitude flybys of three Saturnian moons, Dione, Rhea, and Enceladus, were used to estimate the gravitational parameters of these moons. Results are compared with values given in the literature.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and behavior of Turkish dentists in Samsun City regarding cross-infection control. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire was designed to obtain information about procedures used for the prevention of cross-infection in dental practices and determine the attitudes and perceptions of respondent dental practitioners to their procedures. The study population included all dentists in the city of Samsun, Turkey, in April 2005 (n=184. The questionnaire collected data on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge and practice of infection control procedures, sterilization, wearing of gloves, mask, use of rubber dam, method of storing instruments and disposal methods of contaminated material, etc. Questionnaire data was entered into a computer and analyzed by SPSS statistical software. RESULTS: From the 184 dentists to whom the questionnaires were submitted, 135 participated in the study (overall response rate of 73.36%. As much as 74.10% dentists expressed concern about the risk of cross-infection from patients to themselves and their dental assistants. Forty-three percent of the participants were able to define "cross-infection" correctly. The greatest majority of the respondents (95.60% stated that all patients have to be considered as infectious and universal precautions must apply to all of them. The overall responses to the questionnaire showed that the dentists had moderate knowledge of infection control procedures. CONCLUSIONS: Improved compliance with recommended infection control procedures is required for all dentists evaluated in the present survey. Continuing education programs and short-time courses about cross-infection and infection control procedures are suitable to improve the knowledge of dentists.
Raus, Robin; Gao, Yang; Wu, Yunhua; Watt, Mark
The attitude dynamics and manoeuvre survey in this paper is performed for a mission scenario involving a penetrator-type spacecraft: an axisymmetric prolate spacecraft spinning around its minor axis of inertia performing a 90° spin axis reorientation manoeuvre. In contrast to most existing spacecraft only one attitude control thruster is available, providing a control torque perpendicular to the spin axis. Having only one attitude thruster on a spinning spacecraft could be preferred for spacecraft simplicity (lower mass, lower power consumption etc.), or it could be imposed in the context of redundancy/contingency operations. This constraint does yield restrictions on the thruster timings, depending on the ratio of minor to major moments of inertia among other parameters. The Japanese Lunar-A penetrator spacecraft proposal is a good example of such a single-thruster spin-stabilised prolate spacecraft. The attitude dynamics of a spinning rigid body are first investigated analytically, then expanded for the specific case of a prolate and axisymmetric rigid body and finally a cursory exploration of non-rigid body dynamics is made. Next two well-known techniques for manoeuvring a spin-stabilised spacecraft, the Half-cone/Multiple Half-cone and the Rhumb line slew, are compared with two new techniques, the Sector-Arc Slew developed by Astrium Satellites and the Dual-cone developed at Surrey Space Centre. Each technique is introduced and characterised by means of simulation results and illustrations based on the penetrator mission scenario and a brief robustness analysis is performed against errors in moments of inertia and spin rate. Also, the relative benefits of each slew algorithm are discussed in terms of slew accuracy, energy (propellant) efficiency and time efficiency. For example, a sequence of half-cone manoeuvres (a Multi-half-cone manoeuvre) tends to be more energy-efficient than one half-cone for the same final slew angle, but more time-consuming. As another
Bates, David M.
NASA's Cassini Spacecraft, launched on October 15th, 1997 and arrived at Saturn on June 30th, 2004, is the largest and most ambitious interplanetary spacecraft in history. In order to meet the challenging attitude control and navigation requirements of the orbit profile at Saturn, Cassini is equipped with a monopropellant thruster based Reaction Control System (RCS), a bipropellant Main Engine Assembly (MEA) and a Reaction Wheel Assembly (RWA). In 2008, after 11 years of reliable service, several RCS thrusters began to show signs of end of life degradation, which led the operations team to successfully perform the swap to the backup RCS system, the details and challenges of which are described in this paper. With some modifications, it is hoped that similar techniques and design strategies could be used to benefit other spacecraft.
Smith, G. A.; Meyer, G.
A full envelope automatic flight control system based on nonlinear inverse systems concepts has been applied to a vertical attitude takeoff and landing (VATOL) fighter aircraft. A new method for using an airborne digital aircraft model to perform the inversion of a nonlinear aircraft model is presented together with the results of a simulation study of the nonlinear inverse system concept for the vertical-attitude hover mode. The system response to maneuver commands in the vertical attitude was found to be excellent; and recovery from large initial offsets and large disturbances was found to be very satisfactory.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Chinese National People's Congress ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC on 27 August 2005, signaling China's commitment to implement tobacco control policies and legislation consistent with the treaty. This study was designed to examine attitudes towards four WHO FCTC measures among Chinese urban residents. Methods In a cross-sectional design study, survey data were collected from two Chinese urban cities involving a sample of 3,003 residents aged 15 years or older. Through a face-to-face interview, respondents were asked about attitudes toward four tobacco control measures developed by the WHO FCTC. Data on the four dependent measures were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Using descriptive statistics, potential change in smoking behavior that smokers might make in response to increasing cigarette prices is also reported. Results 81.8% of the respondents in the study sample supported banning smoking in public places, 68.8% favored increasing the cigarette tax, 85.1% supported health warnings on cigarette packages, and 85.7% favored banning tobacco advertising. The likelihood to support these measures was associated with gender, educational level, and personal income. Smokers were less likely to support these measures than non-smokers, with decreased support expressed by daily smokers compared to occasional smokers, and heavy smokers compared to light smokers. The proportion of switching to cheaper cigarette brands, decreasing smoking, and quitting smoking altogether with increased cigarette prices were 29.1%, 30.90% and 40.0% for occasional smokers, respectively; and 30.8%, 32.7% and 36.5% for daily smokers, respectively. Conclusion Results from this study indicate strong public support in key WHO FCTC measures and that increases in cigarette price may reduce tobacco consumption among Chinese urban residents. Findings from this study have implications with respect to
With a rapid increase in the interest in use of nanosatellites in the past decade, finding a precise and low-power-consuming attitude control system for these satellites has been a real challenge. In this thesis, it is intended to design and test an electrospray thruster system that could perform the attitude control of a 1-unit CubeSat. Firstly, an experimental setup is built to calculate the conductivity of different liquids that could be used as propellants for the CubeSat. Secondly, a Time-Of-Flight experiment is performed to find out the thrust and specific impulse given by these liquids and hence selecting the optimum propellant. On the other hand, a colloidal thruster system for a 1-U CubeSat is designed in Solidworks and fabricated using Lathe and CNC Milling Machine. Afterwards, passive propellant feeding is tested in this thruster system. Finally, the electronic circuit and wireless control system necessary to remotely control the CubeSat is designed and the final testing is performed. Among the propellants studied, Ethyl ammonium nitrate (EAN) was selected as the best propellant for the CubeSat. Theoretical design and fabrication of the thruster system was performed successfully and so was the passive propellant feeding test. The satellite was assembled for the final experiment but unfortunately the microcontroller broke down during the first test and no promising results were found out. However, after proving that one thruster works with passive feeding, it could be said that the ACS testing would have worked if we had performed vacuum compatibility tests for other components beforehand.
Yang, Tingzhong; Wu, Yanwei; Abdullah, Abu Saleh M; Dai, Di; Li, Fuzhong; Wu, Junqing; Xiang, Haiqing
The Chinese National People's Congress ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) on 27 August 2005, signaling China's commitment to implement tobacco control policies and legislation consistent with the treaty. This study was designed to examine attitudes towards four WHO FCTC measures among Chinese urban residents. In a cross-sectional design study, survey data were collected from two Chinese urban cities involving a sample of 3,003 residents aged 15 years or older. Through a face-to-face interview, respondents were asked about attitudes toward four tobacco control measures developed by the WHO FCTC. Data on the four dependent measures were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Using descriptive statistics, potential change in smoking behavior that smokers might make in response to increasing cigarette prices is also reported. 81.8% of the respondents in the study sample supported banning smoking in public places, 68.8% favored increasing the cigarette tax, 85.1% supported health warnings on cigarette packages, and 85.7% favored banning tobacco advertising. The likelihood to support these measures was associated with gender, educational level, and personal income. Smokers were less likely to support these measures than non-smokers, with decreased support expressed by daily smokers compared to occasional smokers, and heavy smokers compared to light smokers. The proportion of switching to cheaper cigarette brands, decreasing smoking, and quitting smoking altogether with increased cigarette prices were 29.1%, 30.90% and 40.0% for occasional smokers, respectively; and 30.8%, 32.7% and 36.5% for daily smokers, respectively. Results from this study indicate strong public support in key WHO FCTC measures and that increases in cigarette price may reduce tobacco consumption among Chinese urban residents. Findings from this study have implications with respect to policymaking and legislation for tobacco control in China.
Full Text Available This article concentrates on the attitude control problem for the lifting re-entry vehicle with non-minimum phase property. A novel attitude control method is proposed for this kind of lifting re-entry vehicle without assuming the internal dynamics to be measurable. First, an internal dynamics extended state observer is developed to deal with the unmeasurable problem of the internal dynamics. And then, the control scheme which adopts output feedback method is proposed by modifying the traditional output redefinition technique with internal dynamics extended state observer. This control scheme only requires the system output to be measurable, and it can still stabilize the unstable internal dynamics and track attitude commands. Besides, because of the inherent property of extended state observer in rejecting uncertainties and disturbances, the control precision of the proposed controller is higher than the controller designed with traditional output redefinition technique. Finally, the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed attitude controller are demonstrated by the simulation results.
Stephen M. Merino
Full Text Available Mass shootings in the United States have generated significant media coverage and public concern, invigorating debates over gun control. Media coverage and academic research on gun control attitudes and reactions to mass shootings have paid little attention to the role of religion. Recent research sheds light on the complex relationship between religion and guns, including higher rates of gun ownership and stronger opposition to gun control among white evangelical Protestants. Using nationally representative survey data, this study examines the relationship between religious identity, gun ownership, and support for a range of gun control policies, including proposed remedies for preventing mass shootings. Compared with individuals from other religious traditions, evangelical Protestants are most opposed to stricter gun control laws and enforcement, even with statistical controls for gun ownership and demographic characteristics. Rather, they favor individualistic solutions and putting more emphasis on religious values in their social surroundings. I discuss how these findings reflect the cultural tools evangelical Protestants use to construct their understandings of social problems, including gun violence, and the broader implications for gun policy in the United States.
Delavault, Stéphanie; Prieur, Pascal; Liénart, Thomas; Robert, Alain; Guidotti, Pierre-Yves
Microscope is a CNES-ESA-ONERA-CNRS-OCA-DLR-ZARM mission dedicated to the test of the Equivalence Principle with an improved accuracy of 10-15. The 300 kg drag-free microsatellite was launched on April 25th 2016 into a 710 km dawndusk sun-synchronous orbit for a 2-year mission. To comply with stringent requirements, the drag-free and attitude control system (DFACS) involves the scientific accelerometer as main sensor and a set of 8 cold gas proportional thrusters. Once in mission mode, within the CNES drag-free expertise center (CECT) the DFACS team provides several services to the system and to the scientific mission center: cold gas monitoring and management, `Attitude' ancillary data, DFACS expertise ancillary data. For this purpose, expertise tools have been implemented in the CECT, using the flexibility and efficiency of Matlab™ utilities. This paper presents the role of the CECT within the mission and details the expertise activities of the DFACS team illustrated with some typical in flight results.
Pereira, M. C.; de Melo, C. F.; Meireles, L. G.
Solar sails present a promising alternative method of propulsion for the coming phases of the space exploration. With the recent advances in materials engineering, the construction of lighter and more resistant materials capable of impelling spaceships with the use of solar radiation pressure has become increasingly viable technologically and economically. The studies, simulations and analysis of orbital transfers from Earth to Mars proposed in this work were implemented considering the use of a flat solar sail. Maneuvers considering the delivery of a sailcraft from a Low Earth Orbit to the border of the Earth’s sphere of influence and interplanetary trajectories to Mars were investigated. A set of simulations were implemented varying the attitude of the sail relative to the Sun. Results show that a sailcraft can carry out transfers with final velocity with respect to Mars smaller than the interplanetary Patched-conic approximation, although this requires a longer time of transfers, provided the attitude of the sailcraft relative to the Sun can be controlled in some points of the trajectories.
Orphee, Juan; Diedrich, Ben; Stiltner, Brandon; Becker, Chris; Heaton, Andrew
An Attitude Control System (ACS) has been developed for the NASA Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout mission. The NEA Scout spacecraft is a 6U cubesat with an eighty-six square meter solar sail for primary propulsion that will launch as a secondary payload on the Space Launch System (SLS) Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) and rendezvous with a target asteroid after a two year journey, and will conduct science imagery. The spacecraft ACS consists of three major actuating subsystems: a Reaction Wheel (RW) control system, a Reaction Control System (RCS), and an Active Mass Translator (AMT) system. The reaction wheels allow fine pointing and higher rates with low mass actuators to meet the science, communication, and trajectory guidance requirements. The Momentum Management System (MMS) keeps the speed of the wheels within their operating margins using a combination of solar torque and the RCS. The AMT is used to adjust the sign and magnitude of the solar torque to manage pitch and yaw momentum. The RCS is used for initial de-tumble, performing a Trajectory Correction Maneuver (TCM), and performing momentum management about the roll axis. The NEA Scout ACS is able to meet all mission requirements including attitude hold, slews, pointing for optical navigation and pointing for science with margin and including flexible body effects. Here we discuss the challenges and solutions of meeting NEA Scout mission requirements for the ACS design, and present a novel implementation of managing the spacecraft Center of Mass (CM) to trim the solar sail disturbance torque. The ACS we have developed has an applicability to a range of potential missions and does so in a much smaller volume than is traditional for deep space missions beyond Earth.
Blake, Kelly D; Viswanath, K; Blendon, Robert J; Vallone, Donna
In August 2007, the President's Cancer Panel urged the leadership of the nation to "summon the political will to address the public health crisis caused by tobacco use" (President's Cancer Panel, N, 2007, Promoting healthy lifestyles: Policy, program, and personal recommendations for reducing cancer risk. http://deainfo.nci.nih.gov/advisory/pcp/pcp07rpt/pcp07rpt.pdf). While some research has examined predictors of public support for tobacco control measures, little research has examined modifiable factors that may influence public attitudes toward tobacco control. We used the American Legacy Foundation's 2003 American Smoking and Health Survey 2 to examine the contribution of smoking status, knowledge of the negative effects of tobacco, and tobacco-specific media exposure (antitobacco messages, news coverage of tobacco issues, and protobacco advertising) on U.S. adults' attitudes toward tobacco control. In addition, we assessed whether smoking status moderates the relationship between tobacco-specific media exposure and policy attitudes. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models were employed. Results suggest that knowledge of the negative effects of tobacco and smoking status are associated with attitudes toward tobacco control and that exposure to tobacco-specific information in the media plays a role only in some instances. We found no evidence of effect modification by smoking status on the impact of exposure to tobacco-specific media on attitudes toward tobacco control. Understanding the impact of readily modifiable factors that shape policy attitudes is essential if we are to target outreach and education in a way that is likely to sway public support for tobacco control.
Tang Jiqiang; Fang Jiancheng; Ge, Shuzhi Sam
Compared with conventional energy storage flywheel, the rotor of attitude control and energy storage flywheel (ACESF) used in space not only has high speed, but also is required to have precise and stable direction. For the presented superconducting magnetic bearing (SMB) and active magnetic bearing (AMB) suspended ACESF, the rotor model including gyroscopic couples is established originally by taking the properties of SMB and AMB into account, the forces of SMB and AMB are simplified by linearization within their own neighbors of equilibrium points. For the high-speed rigid discal rotor with large inertia, the negative effect of gyroscopic effect of rotor is prominent, the radial translation and tilting movement of rotor suspended by only SMB, SMB with equivalent PMB, or SMB together with PD controlled AMB are researched individually. These analysis results proved originally that SMB together with AMB can make the rotor be stable and make the radial amplitude of the vibration of rotor be small while the translation of rotor suspended by only SMB or SMB and PM is not stable and the amplitude of this vibration is large. For the stability of the high-speed rotor in superconducting ACESF, the AMB can suppress the nutation and precession of rotor effectively by cross-feedback control based on the separated PD type control or by other modern control methods.
Full Text Available The orbital docking represents a problem of great importance in aerospace engineering. The paper aims to perform an analysis of docking maneuvers between a chaser vehicle and a target vehicle in permanent LEO (low earth orbit. The work begins with a study of the attitude dynamics modeling intended to define the strategy that facilitates the chaser movement toward a docking part of the target. An LQR (linear quadratic regulator approach presents an optimal control design that provides linearized closed-loop error dynamics for tracking a desired quaternion. The control law formulation is combined with the control architecture based on SDRE (State Dependent Riccati equation technique for rotational maneuvers, including the Earth oblateness perturbation. The chaser body-fixed frame must coincide with the target body-fixed frame at the docking moment. Then the implementation of the control architecture based on LQR technique using the computational tool MATLAB is carried out. In simulation of the docking strategy V-R bar operations are analyzed and the minimum accelerations needs the control of chaser vehicle. The simulation analysis of those maneuvers considered for a chaser vehicle and a target vehicle in LEO orbit is validated in a case study.
Full Text Available The integrated 6-DOF orbit-attitude dynamical modeling and control have shown great importance in various missions, for example, formation flying and proximity operations. The integrated approach yields better performances than the separate one in terms of accuracy, efficiency, and agility. One challenge in the integrated approach is to find a unified representation for the 6-DOF motion with configuration space SE(3. Recently, exponential coordinates of SE(3 have been used in dynamics and control of the 6-DOF motion, however, only on the kinematical level. In this paper, we will improve the current method by adopting exponential coordinates on the dynamical level, by giving the relation between the second-order derivative of exponential coordinates and spacecraft’s accelerations. In this way, the 6-DOF motion in terms of exponential coordinates can be written as a second-order system with a quite compact form, to which a broader range of control theories, such as higher-order sliding modes, can be applied. For a demonstration purpose, a simple asymptotic tracking control law with almost global convergence is designed. Finally, the integrated modeling and control are applied to the body-fixed hovering over an asteroid and verified by a simulation, in which absolute motions of the spacecraft and asteroid are simulated separately.
Smits, P B A; de Graaf, L; Radon, K; de Boer, A G; Bos, N R; van Dijk, F J H; Verbeek, J H A M
Undergraduate medical teaching in occupational health (OH) is a challenge in universities around the world. Case-based e-learning with an attractive clinical context could improve the attitude of medical students towards OH. The study question is whether case-based e-learning for medical students is more effective in improving knowledge, satisfaction and a positive attitude towards OH than non-case-based textbook learning. Participants, 141 second year medical students, were randomised to either case-based e-learning or text-based learning. Outcome measures were knowledge, satisfaction and attitude towards OH, measured at baseline, directly after the intervention, after 1 week and at 3-month follow-up. Of the 141 participants, 130 (92%) completed the questionnaires at short-term follow-up and 41 (29%) at 3-month follow-up. At short-term follow-up, intervention and control groups did not show a significant difference in knowledge nor satisfaction but attitude towards OH was significantly more negative in the intervention group (F=4.041, p=0.047). At 3-month follow-up, there were no significant differences between intervention and control groups for knowledge, satisfaction and attitude. We found a significant decrease in favourable attitude during the internship in the experimental group compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in knowledge or satisfaction between case-based e-learning and text-based learning. The attitude towards OH should be further investigated as an outcome of educational programmes.
Gielen, Joris; Gupta, Harmala; Rajvanshi, Ambika; Bhatnagar, Sushma; Mishra, Seema; Chaturvedi, Arvind K; den Branden, Stef Van; Broeckaert, Bert
We wanted to assess Indian palliative-care nurses and physicians' attitudes toward pain control and palliative sedation. From May to September 2008, we interviewed 14 physicians and 13 nurses working in different palliative-care programs in New Delhi, using a semi-structured questionnaire, and following grounded-theory methodology (Glaser and Strauss). The interviewees did not consider administration of painkillers in large doses an ethical problem, provided the pain killers are properly titrated. Mild palliative sedation was considered acceptable. The interviewees disagreed whether palliative sedation can also be deep and continuous. Arguments mentioned against deep continuous palliative sedation were the conviction that it may cause unacceptable side effects, and impedes basic daily activities and social contacts. A few interviewees said that palliative sedation may hasten death. Due to fears and doubts regarding deep continuous palliative sedation, it may sometimes be too easily discarded as a treatment option for refractory symptoms.
Gielen, Joris; Gupta, Harmala; Rajvanshi, Ambika; Bhatnagar, Sushma; Mishra, Seema; Chaturvedi, Arvind K; den Branden, Stef Van; Broeckaert, Bert
Aim: We wanted to assess Indian palliative-care nurses and physicians’ attitudes toward pain control and palliative sedation. Materials and Methods: From May to September 2008, we interviewed 14 physicians and 13 nurses working in different palliative-care programs in New Delhi, using a semi-structured questionnaire, and following grounded-theory methodology (Glaser and Strauss). Results: The interviewees did not consider administration of painkillers in large doses an ethical problem, provided the pain killers are properly titrated. Mild palliative sedation was considered acceptable. The interviewees disagreed whether palliative sedation can also be deep and continuous. Arguments mentioned against deep continuous palliative sedation were the conviction that it may cause unacceptable side effects, and impedes basic daily activities and social contacts. A few interviewees said that palliative sedation may hasten death. Conclusion: Due to fears and doubts regarding deep continuous palliative sedation, it may sometimes be too easily discarded as a treatment option for refractory symptoms. PMID:21633619
Nag, S.; Li, A.
Distributed Space Missions (DSMs) such as formation flight and constellations, are being recognized as important solutions to increase measurement samples over space and time. Given the increasingly accurate attitude control systems emerging in the commercial market, small spacecraft now have the ability to slew and point within few minutes of notice. In spite of hardware development in CubeSats at the payload (e.g. NASA InVEST) and subsystems (e.g. Blue Canyon Technologies), software development for tradespace analysis in constellation design (e.g. Goddard's TAT-C), planning and scheduling development in single spacecraft (e.g. GEO-CAPE) and aerial flight path optimizations for UAVs (e.g. NASA Sensor Web), there is a gap in open-source, open-access software tools for planning and scheduling distributed satellite operations in terms of pointing and observing targets. This paper will demonstrate results from a tool being developed for scheduling pointing operations of narrow field-of-view (FOV) sensors over mission lifetime to maximize metrics such as global coverage and revisit statistics. Past research has shown the need for at least fourteen satellites to cover the Earth globally everyday using a LandSat-like sensor. Increasing the FOV three times reduces the need to four satellites, however adds image distortion and BRDF complexities to the observed reflectance. If narrow FOV sensors on a small satellite constellation were commanded using robust algorithms to slew their sensor dynamically, they would be able to coordinately cover the global landmass much faster without compensating for spatial resolution or BRDF effects. Our algorithm to optimize constellation satellite pointing is based on a dynamic programming approach under the constraints of orbital mechanics and existing attitude control systems for small satellites. As a case study for our algorithm, we minimize the time required to cover the 17000 Landsat images with maximum signal to noise ratio fall
Song, Jun Beom; Byun, Young Seop; Jeong, Jin Seok; Kim, Jeong; Kang, Beom Soo
This paper proposes a cascaded control structure and a method of practical application for attitude control of a multi-rotor Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The cascade control, which has tighter control capability than a single-loop control, is rarely used in attitude control of a multi-rotor UAV due to the input-output relation, which is no longer simply a set-point to Euler angle response transfer function of a single-loop PID control, but there are multiply measured signals and interactive control loops that increase the complexity of evaluation in conventional way of design. However, it is proposed in this research a method that can optimize a cascade control with a primary and secondary loops and a PID controller for each loop. An investigation of currently available PID-tuning methods lead to selection of the Simple internal model control (SIMC) method, which is based on the Internal model control (IMC) and direct-synthesis method. Through the analysis and experiments, this research proposes a systematic procedure to implement a cascaded attitude controller, which includes the flight test, system identification and SIMC-based PID-tuning. The proposed method was validated successfully from multiple applications where the application to roll axis lead to a PID-PID cascade control, but the application to yaw axis lead to that of PID-PI
Song, Jun Beom [Dept. of Aviation Maintenance, Dongwon Institute of Science and Technology, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Young Seop; Jeong, Jin Seok; Kim, Jeong; Kang, Beom Soo [Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
This paper proposes a cascaded control structure and a method of practical application for attitude control of a multi-rotor Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The cascade control, which has tighter control capability than a single-loop control, is rarely used in attitude control of a multi-rotor UAV due to the input-output relation, which is no longer simply a set-point to Euler angle response transfer function of a single-loop PID control, but there are multiply measured signals and interactive control loops that increase the complexity of evaluation in conventional way of design. However, it is proposed in this research a method that can optimize a cascade control with a primary and secondary loops and a PID controller for each loop. An investigation of currently available PID-tuning methods lead to selection of the Simple internal model control (SIMC) method, which is based on the Internal model control (IMC) and direct-synthesis method. Through the analysis and experiments, this research proposes a systematic procedure to implement a cascaded attitude controller, which includes the flight test, system identification and SIMC-based PID-tuning. The proposed method was validated successfully from multiple applications where the application to roll axis lead to a PID-PID cascade control, but the application to yaw axis lead to that of PID-PI.
Da Fonseca, Ijar M.; Goes, Luiz C. S.; Seito, Narumi; da Silva Duarte, Mayara K.; de Oliveira, Élcio Jeronimo
In space the manipulators working space is characterized by the microgravity environment. In this environment the spacecraft floats and its rotational/translational motion may be excited by any internal and external disturbances. The complete system, i.e., the spacecraft and the associated robotic manipulator, floats and is sensitive to any reaction force and torque related to the manipulator's operation. In this sense the effort done by the robot may result in torque about the system center of mass and also in forces changing its translational motion. This paper analyzes the impact of the robot manipulator dynamics on the attitude motion and the associated control effort to keep the attitude stable during the manipulator's operation. The dynamics analysis is performed in the close proximity phase of rendezvous docking/berthing operation. In such scenario the linear system equations for the translation and attitude relative motions are appropriate. The computer simulations are implemented for the relative translational and rotational motion. The equations of motion have been simulated through computer by using the MatLab software. The LQR and the PID control laws are used for linear and nonlinear control, respectively, aiming to keep the attitude stable while the robot is in and out of service. The gravity-gradient and the residual magnetic torque are considered as external disturbances. The control efforts are analyzed for the manipulator in and out of service. The control laws allow the system stabilization and good performance when the manipulator is in service.
Awotidebe, Taofeek O; Adedoyin, Rufus A; Afolabi, Mubaraq A; Opiyo, Rose
Exercise plays significant role in the health outcomes of patients with diabetes, however, little is known about patients' knowledge of exercise for plasma blood glucose control among patients with type-2 diabetes (T2D). This study investigated knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of exercise for plasma blood glucose control among patients with T2D. This cross-sectional study recruited 299 patients with T2D (male=105; female=194) from selected government hospitals in Osun State, Nigeria using purposive sampling technique. Validated questionnaires were used to assess of exercise for plasma blood glucose control and socioeconomic status (SES) of the patients. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Alpha level was set at exercise whilst 269(90.0%) had negative attitude to exercise practice. Less than a third, 82(27.4%) engaged in exercise practice for plasma blood glucose control. There was significant association between knowledge and practice of exercise ((2)=12.535; p=0.002). Furthermore, significant associations were found between knowledge and gender ((2)=11.453; p=0.003), and socioeconomic status ((2)=29.127, p=0.001) but not associated with attitude towards exercise (p>0.05). Patients with demonstrated good knowledge of exercise for plasma blood glucose control but reported negative attitude and poor practice of exercise. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Knauber, R. N.
A FORTRAN IV coded computer program is presented for post-flight analysis of a missile's control surface response. It includes preprocessing of digitized telemetry data for time lags, biases, non-linear calibration changes and filtering. Measurements include autopilot attitude rate and displacement gyro output and four control surface deflections. Simple first order lags are assumed for the pitch, yaw and roll axes of control. Each actuator is also assumed to be represented by a first order lag. Mixing of pitch, yaw and roll commands to four control surfaces is assumed. A pseudo-inverse technique is used to obtain the pitch, yaw and roll components from the four measured deflections. This program has been used for over 10 years on the NASA/SCOUT launch vehicle for post-flight analysis and was helpful in detecting incipient actuator stall due to excessive hinge moments. The program is currently set up for a CDC CYBER 175 computer system. It requires 34K words of memory and contains 675 cards. A sample problem presented herein including the optional plotting requires eleven (11) seconds of central processor time.
Full Text Available A parallel configuration using two 3-degree-of-freedom (3-DOF spherical electromagnetic momentum exchange actuators is investigated for large angle spacecraft attitude maneuvers. First, the full dynamic equations of motion for the spacecraft system are derived by the Newton-Euler method. To facilitate computation, virtual gimbal coordinate frames are established. Second, a nonlinear control law in terms of quaternions is developed via backstepping method. The proposed control law compensates the coupling torques arising from the spacecraft rotation, and is robust against the external disturbances. Then, the singularity problem is analyzed. To avoid singularities, a modified weighed Moore-Pseudo inverse velocity steering law based on null motion is proposed. The weighted matrices are carefully designed to switch the actuators and redistribute the control torques. The null motion is used to reorient the rotor away from the tilt angle saturation state. Finally, numerical simulations of rest-to-rest maneuvers are performed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
communications between the MicroAuto Box and the ground station computer . SimSat users design experiments in the MATLAB® Simulink environment and use an...Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 1094–1103, 2012.  Z. Sun, L. Zhang, G. Jin, and X. Yang, “Analysis of inertia dyadic uncertainty
Johnson, Ray, Jr.; Simon, Elizabeth J.; Henkell, Heather; Zhu, John
Event-related potentials (ERPs) are unique in their ability to provide information about the timing of activity in the neural networks that perform complex cognitive processes. Given the dearth of extant data from normal controls on the question of whether attitude representations are stored in episodic or semantic memory, the goal here was to…
Jansen, J.; Schaik, van G.; Renes, R.J.; Lam, T.J.G.M.
Over the years, much effort has been put into implementing mastitis control programs in herds. To further improve utilization of such programs, there needs to be an understanding of the attitudes, knowledge, and behavior of farmers regarding udder health, and the way this can be influenced by
Henson, Robin K.; Roberts, J. Kyle
This study examined the factorial invariance of scores from the Attitudes and Beliefs on Classroom Control Inventory (ABCC) (Martin and others, 1998) for 243 undergraduate preservice teachers. Although the original ABCC was developed with inservice teachers, use of the instrument to study the classroom beliefs of preservice teachers had not been…
Helms, W. Jason; Pohlkamp, Kara M.
The Space Shuttle does not dock at an exact 90 degrees to the International Space Station (ISS) x-body axis. This offset from 90 degrees, along with error sources within their respective attitude knowledge, causes the two vehicles to never completely agree on their attitude, even though they operate as a single, mated stack while docked. The docking offset can be measured in flight when both vehicles have good attitude reference and is a critical component in calculations to transfer attitude reference from one vehicle to another. This paper will describe how the docking offset and attitude reference errors between both vehicles are measured and how this information would be used to recover Shuttle attitude reference from ISS in the event of multiple failures. During STS-117, ISS on-board Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) computers began having problems and after several continuous restarts, the systems failed. The failure took the ability for ISS to maintain attitude knowledge. This paper will also demonstrate how with knowledge of the docking offset, the contingency procedure to recover Shuttle attitude reference from ISS was reversed in order to provide ISS an attitude reference from Shuttle. Finally, this paper will show how knowledge of the docking offset can be used to speed up attitude control handovers from Shuttle to ISS momentum management. By taking into account the docking offset, Shuttle can be commanded to hold a more precise attitude which better agrees with the ISS commanded attitude such that start up transients with the ISS momentum management controllers are reduced. By reducing start-up transients, attitude control can be transferred from Shuttle to ISS without the use of ISS thrusters saving precious on-board propellant, crew time and minimizing loads placed upon the mated stack.
mohamad hasan Eftekhari
Full Text Available Background : Adolescence is one of the most critical growth periods in the human's life. Eating disorder is one of the most common nutritional-psychological disorders in this period, which can lead to acute and chronic physical and mental problems. Therefore, regarding the importance of the topic, the present study was designed to determine the prevalence of weight – controlling attitude and eating disorders, and their association with anthropometric indices in female adolescent school students. Materials and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional descriptive analytical study. 594 high school adolescent girls were selected using multi-stage random sampling method. Nutritional attitude was assessed by use of a nutritional attitude questionnaire. Another specific questionnaire was used to gather demographic and anthropometric information. Data analysis was done using SPSS software, independent t- test and Chi-square (P˂0.05. Results: The information shows that 80% of the studied population are at risk of eating disorders. The number of the obese , over weight and underweight students were significantly more in the group with nutritional attitude disorders. Conclusion: Due to the high prevalence of eating disorders in adolescent girls, and the concomitant obesity and underweight with these disorders, the correction of these attitude could be mentioned as a health priority in this city
Chobotov, V. A.
Control elements such as sensors, momentum exchange devices, and thrusters are described which can be used to define space replaceable units (SRU), in accordance with attitude control, guidance, and navigation performance requirements selected for NASA space serviceable mission spacecraft. A number of SRU's are developed, and their reliability block diagrams are presented. An SRU assignment is given in order to define a set of feasible space serviceable spacecraft for the missions of interest.
Wang, Yan; Ding, Ye; Song, Daoping; Zhu, Daqiao; Wang, Jianrong
Obese individuals frequently experience weight-related bias or discrimination-even in healthcare settings. Although obesity bias has been associated with several demographic factors, little is known about the association of weight locus of control with bias against overweight persons or about weight bias among Chinese health professionals. The aim of the study was to examine attitudes toward obese patients in a sample of Chinese registered nurses (RNs) and the relationship between weight bias and nurses' weight locus of control. RNs working in nine community health service centers across Shanghai, China, answered three self-report questionnaires: The Attitudes Toward Obese Persons Scale (ATOP), the External Weight Locus of Control Subscale (eWLOC) from the Dieting Belief Scale, and a sociodemographic profile. Hierarchical, stepwise, multiple regression was used to predict ATOP scores. From among 385 invited, a total of 297 RNs took part in the study (77.1% response rate). Participants scored an average of 71.04 on the ATOP, indicating slightly positive attitudes toward obese persons, and 30.08 on the eWLOC, indicating a belief in the uncontrollability of body weight. Using hierarchical, stepwise, multiple regression, two predictors of ATOP scores were statistically significant (eWLOC scores and status as a specialist rather than generalist nurse), but explained variance was low. Chinese RNs seemed to have relatively neutral or even slightly positive attitudes toward obese persons. Those nurses who believed that obesity was beyond the individual's control or worked in specialties were more likely to have positive attitudes toward obese people. Improved understanding of the comprehensive etiology of obesity is needed.
Full Text Available Early childhood care and education providers (CCPs work with over 7 million young children. These children are vulnerable to physical, sexual and emotional abuse, and neglect. However, CCPs make less than 1% of all reports of suspected child abuse and neglect that are made to child protective services. CCPs are therefore an untapped resource in the public health response to child maltreatment. However, their knowledge and attitudes about duties to report child maltreatment are poorly understood. Moreover, no rigorous research has tested whether their knowledge and attitudes about reporting child maltreatment can be improved. These gaps in knowledge are important because knowledge of the duty and positive attitudes towards it produce more effective reporting, and little evidence exists about how to enhance cognitive and affective attributes. Using the CONSORT approach, we report a single-blind test-retest randomized controlled trial evaluating iLook Out for Child Abuse, a customized online educational intervention for CCPs to increase knowledge and attitudes towards the reporting duty. 762 participants were randomized with results analyzed for 741 participants (372 in the intervention group; 369 in the control. Knowledge of the reporting duty increased in the intervention group from 13.54 to 16.19 out of 21 (2.65 increase, 95% CI: (2.37, 2.93; large effect size 0.95, p < 0.001; the control group remained stable, moving from 13.54 to 13.59 (0.05 increase, 95% CI: (-0.12, 0.22; negligible effect size 0.03, p = 0.684. Attitudes were enhanced on all 13 items for the intervention group, remaining stable in the control, with significant differences between groups on all items (p < 0.05. Gains were largely sustained at four month follow-up. Findings support education for CCPs and other professions. Future research should also explore effects of education on reporting behavior.US National Institutes of Health NCT02225301.
Carpentier, Aline; Brijs, Kris; Declercq, Katrien; Brijs, Tom; Daniels, Stijn; Wets, Geert
The aim of the study was to examine the relative importance of young novice drivers' family climate on their driving behavior. A sample of young novice drivers (N=171) between the age of 17 and 24, who held their permanent (or temporary) driver's license for no longer than one year, participated. The questionnaire included items related to the participants' family climate, 3 socio-cognitive determinants (i.e., attitude, locus of control and social norm), and risky driving behaviors. We expected both family climate and the socio-cognitive determinants to exert a direct effect on risky driving. Furthermore we hypothesized that the socio-cognitive determinants would moderate the impact of family climate on risky driving. The results showed that the effect of family climate on risky driving only originated from one single factor (i.e., noncommitment). Besides that, the results confirmed the importance of the three socio-cognitive determinants to the degree that attitude, locus of control, and social norm significantly predicted the self-reported risky driving. In line of what we hypothesized, attitude moderated the relationship between noncommitment and risky driving. Lastly, we found an unexpected three-way interaction which indicated that locus of control moderated the relation between noncommitment and risky driving only when young drivers' attitude was risk-supportive. We recommend scholars and practitioners to take into account the interaction between external sources of influence (such as an individual's family climate) and more personally oriented dispositions (such as an individual's attitude, social norm and locus of control) when trying to explain and change young novices' risky driving. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mathews, Ben; Yang, Chengwu; Lehman, Erik B; Mincemoyer, Claudia; Verdiglione, Nicole; Levi, Benjamin H
Early childhood care and education providers (CCPs) work with over 7 million young children. These children are vulnerable to physical, sexual and emotional abuse, and neglect. However, CCPs make less than 1% of all reports of suspected child abuse and neglect that are made to child protective services. CCPs are therefore an untapped resource in the public health response to child maltreatment. However, their knowledge and attitudes about duties to report child maltreatment are poorly understood. Moreover, no rigorous research has tested whether their knowledge and attitudes about reporting child maltreatment can be improved. These gaps in knowledge are important because knowledge of the duty and positive attitudes towards it produce more effective reporting, and little evidence exists about how to enhance cognitive and affective attributes. Using the CONSORT approach, we report a single-blind test-retest randomized controlled trial evaluating iLook Out for Child Abuse, a customized online educational intervention for CCPs to increase knowledge and attitudes towards the reporting duty. 762 participants were randomized with results analyzed for 741 participants (372 in the intervention group; 369 in the control). Knowledge of the reporting duty increased in the intervention group from 13.54 to 16.19 out of 21 (2.65 increase, 95% CI: (2.37, 2.93); large effect size 0.95, p < 0.001); the control group remained stable, moving from 13.54 to 13.59 (0.05 increase, 95% CI: (-0.12, 0.22); negligible effect size 0.03, p = 0.684). Attitudes were enhanced on all 13 items for the intervention group, remaining stable in the control, with significant differences between groups on all items (p < 0.05). Gains were largely sustained at four month follow-up. Findings support education for CCPs and other professions. Future research should also explore effects of education on reporting behavior. US National Institutes of Health NCT02225301.
The aim of this thesis is to present algorithms for autonomous control of tilt-rotor quadcopter UAV. In particular, this research work describes position, attitude and fault tolerant control in tilt-rotor quadcopter. Quadcopters are one of the most popular and reliable unmanned aerial systems because of the design simplicity, hovering capabilities and minimal operational cost. Numerous applications for quadcopters have been explored all over the world but very little work has been done to explore design enhancements and address the fault-tolerant capabilities of the quadcopters. The tilting rotor quadcopter is a structural advancement of traditional quadcopter and it provides additional actuated controls as the propeller motors are actuated for tilt which can be utilized to improve efficiency of the aerial vehicle during flight. The tilting rotor quadcopter design is accomplished by using an additional servo motor for each rotor that enables the rotor to tilt about the axis of the quadcopter arm. Tilting rotor quadcopter is a more agile version of conventional quadcopter and it is a fully actuated system. The tilt-rotor quadcopter is capable of following complex trajectories with ease. The control strategy in this work is to use the propeller tilts for position and orientation control during autonomous flight of the quadcopter. In conventional quadcopters, two propellers rotate in clockwise direction and other two propellers rotate in counter clockwise direction to cancel out the effective yawing moment of the system. The variation in rotational speeds of these four propellers is utilized for maneuvering. On the other hand, this work incorporates use of varying propeller rotational speeds along with tilting of the propellers for maneuvering during flight. The rotational motion of propellers work in sync with propeller tilts to control the position and orientation of the UAV during the flight. A PD flight controller is developed to achieve various modes of the
Full Text Available To satisfy the requirements for small satellites that seek agile slewing with peak power, this paper investigates integrated power and attitude control using variable-speed control moment gyros (VSCMGs that consider the mass and inertia of gimbals and wheels. The paper also details the process for developing the controller by considering various environments in which the controller may be implemented. A fuzzy adaptive disturbance observer (FADO is proposed to estimate and compensate for the effects of equivalent disturbances. The algorithms can simultaneously track attitude and power. The simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the control approach, which exhibits an improvement of 80 percent compared with alternate approaches that do not employ a FADO.
Tang, Shangfeng; Bishwajit, Ghose; Ji, Lu; Feng, Da; Fang, Haiqing; Fu, Hang; Shao, Tian; Shao, Piaopiao; Liu, Chunyan; Feng, Zhanchun; Luba, Tegene R.
Abstract Proactive attitude of hypertensive patients seeking follow-up services (FUS) lies at the core of self-efficacy. However, few evidence have shown the activeness of seeking FUS in the context of blood pressure control among hypertensive patients. Improvements in follow-up visits may not just by services itself cause better control of blood pressure among hypertensive patients, rather due to the patient's pro-active attitude of the patient in seeking FUS. A cross-sectional study was carried out in selected rural regions of China to explore the association between blood pressure control and sociodemographic and economic variables and activeness of hypertensive patients in seeking FUS. The primary clinical outcome for this study was blood pressure control (systolic blood pressure seekers were 3.17 times greater than those of passive seekers (odds ratio [OR] = 3.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.56–3.93, P passively. Proactive attitude of seeking follow-up services can improve blood pressure control among hypertensive patients. PMID:27057859
Schleicher, A.; Ziegler, T.; Schubert, R.; Brandt, N.; Bergner, P.; Johann, U.; Fichter, W.; Grzymisch, J.
LISA Pathfinder is a technology demonstrator mission that was funded by the European Space Agency and that was launched on December 3, 2015. LISA Pathfinder has been conducting experiments to demonstrate key technologies for the gravitational wave observatory LISA in its operational orbit at the L1 Lagrange point of the Earth-Sun system until final switch off on July 18, 2017. These key technologies include the inertial sensors, the optical metrology system, a set of µ-propulsion cold gas thrusters and in particular the high performance drag-free and attitude control system (DFACS) that controls the spacecraft in 15 degrees of freedom during its science phase. The main goal of the DFACS is to shield the two test masses inside the inertial sensors from all external disturbances to achieve a residual differential acceleration between the two test masses of less than 3 × 10-14 m/s2/√Hz over the frequency bandwidth of 1-30 mHz. This paper focuses on two important aspects of the DFACS that has been in use on LISA Pathfinder: the DFACS Accelerometer mode and the main DFACS Science mode. The Accelerometer mode is used to capture the test masses after release into free flight from the mechanical grabbing mechanism. The main DFACS Science Mode is used for the actual drag-free science operation. The DFACS control system has very strong interfaces with the LISA Technology Package payload which is a key aspect to master the design, development, and analysis of the DFACS. Linear as well as non-linear control methods are applied. The paper provides pre-flight predictions for the performance of both control modes and compares these predictions to the performance that is currently achieved in-orbit. Some results are also discussed for the mode transitions up to science mode, but the focus of the paper is on the Accelerometer mode performance and on the performance of the Science mode in steady state. Based on the achieved results, some lessons learnt are formulated to extend
Ali, Anwar; Mughal, M. Rizwan; Ali, Haider; Reyneri, Leonardo
Electric power supply (EPS) and attitude determination and control subsystem (ADCS) are the most essential elements of any aerospace mission. Efficient EPS and precise ADCS are the core of any spacecraft mission. So keeping in mind their importance, they have been integrated and developed on a single tile called CubePMT module. Modular power management tiles (PMTs) are already available in the market but they are less efficient, heavier in weight, consume more power and contain less number of subsystems. Commercial of the shelf (COTS) components have been used for CubePMT implementation which are low cost and easily available from the market. CubePMT is developed on the design approach of AraMiS architecture: a project developed at Politecnico di Torino that provides low cost and higher performance space missions with dimensions larger than CubeSats. The feature of AraMiS design approach is its modularity. These modules can be reused for multiple missions which helps in significant reduction of the overall budget, development and testing time. One has just to reassemble the required subsystems to achieve the targeted specific mission.
Luna, Michael E.; Collins, Steven M.
On November 4, 2010 the former "Deep Impact" spacecraft, renamed "EPOXI" for its extended mission, flew within 700km of comet 103P/Hartley 2. In July 2005, the spacecraft had previously imaged a probe impact of comet Tempel 1. The EPOXI flyby was the fifth close encounter of a spacecraft with a comet nucleus and marked the first time in history that two comet nuclei were imaged at close range with the same suite of onboard science instruments. This challenging objective made the function of the attitude determination and control subsystem (ADCS) critical to the successful execution of the EPOXI flyby.As part of the spacecraft flyby preparations, the ADCS operations team had to perform meticulous sequence reviews, implement complex spacecraft engineering and science activities and perform numerous onboard calibrations. ADCS contributions included design and execution of 10 trajectory correction maneuvers, the science calibration of the two telescopic instruments, an in-flight demonstration of high-rate turns between Earth and comet point, and an ongoing assessment of reaction wheel health. The ADCS team was also responsible for command sequences that included updates to the onboard ephemeris and sun sensor coefficients and implementation of reaction wheel assembly (RWA) de-saturations.
Luna, Michael E.; Collins, Stephen M.
On November 4, 2010 the already "in-flight" Deep Impact spacecraft flew within 700km of comet 103P/Hartley 2 as part of its extended mission EPOXI, the 5th time to date any spacecraft visited a comet. In 2005, the spacecraft had previously imaged a probe impact comet Tempel 1. The EPOXI flyby marked the first time in history that two comets were explored with the same instruments on a re-used spacecraft-with hardware and software originally designed and optimized for a different mission. This made the function of the attitude determination and control subsystem (ADCS) critical to the successful execution of the EPOXI flyby. As part of the spacecraft team preparations, the ADCS team had to perform thorough sequence reviews, key spacecraft activities and onboard calibrations. These activities included: review of background sequences for the initial conditions vector, sun sensor coefficients, and reaction wheel assembly (RWA) de-saturations; design and execution of 10 trajectory correction maneuvers; science calibration of the two telescope instruments; a flight demonstration of the fastest turns conducted by the spacecraft between Earth and comet point; and assessment of RWA health (given RWA problems on other spacecraft).
Jansen, J; van Schaik, G; Renes, R J; Lam, T J G M
Over the years, much effort has been put into implementing mastitis control programs in herds. To further improve utilization of such programs, there needs to be an understanding of the attitudes, knowledge, and behavior of farmers regarding udder health, and the way this can be influenced by mastitis control programs. This study aimed to explore the effect of a national mastitis control program on Dutch farmers' attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding mastitis. A total of 378 dairy farmers completed a survey on attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding mastitis before the start of a national mastitis control program in 2004, and 204 completed a similar survey in the final year of the program (2009). Although the average annual bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) remained the same, the farmers' self-reported attitudes, knowledge, and behavior changed significantly. The problem level of BMSCC decreased from 285,000 cells/mL in 2004 to 271,000 cells/mL in 2009. More farmers perceived that they had sufficient knowledge about the prevention of mastitis (34% in 2004 vs. 53% in 2009) and they more often perceived that they knew the cause of a mastitis problem (25% in 2004 vs. 37% in 2009). The use of gloves for milking increased from 15 to 46%, the use of a standardized mastitis treatment protocol increased from 7 to 34%, and freestalls were cleaned more often (2.28 vs. 2.51 times/d) in 2009 compared with 2004. Most changes in attitudes, knowledge, and behavior did not differ between groups of dairy farmers whose herds had an initially low (≤ 162,000 cells/mL), medium (163,000 to 205,000 cells/mL), or high (>206,000 cells/mL) BMSCC. The high BMSCC group significantly decreased their annual BMSCC level by 15,000 cells/mL. Regression analysis showed that the decrease in BMSCC was associated with a change in farmers' perceptions (e.g., increased perceived knowledge about the effect of the milking machine on mastitis) and with a change in certain management
Full Text Available Noncooperative target spacecrafts are those assets in orbit that cannot convey any information about their states (position, attitude, and velocities or facilitate rendezvous and docking/berthing (RVD/B process. Designing a guidance, navigation, and control (GNC module for the chaser in a RVD/B mission with noncooperative target should be inevitably solved for on-orbit servicing technologies. The proximity operations and the guidance for achieving rendezvous problems are addressed in this paper. The out-of-plane maneuvers of proximity operations are explored with distinct subphases, including a chaser far approach in the target’s orbit to the first hold point and a closer approach to the final berthing location. Accordingly, guidance solutions are chosen for each subphase from the standard Hill based Closhessy-Willtshire (CW solution, elliptical fly-around, and Glideslope algorithms. The control is based on a linear quadratic regulator approach (LQR. At the final berthing location, attitude tracker based on a proportional derivative (PD form is tested to synchronize the chaser and target attitudes. The paper analyzes the performance of both controllers in terms of the tracking ability and the robustness. Finally, it prescribes any restrictions that may be imposed on the guidance during any subphase which can help to improve the controllers tracking ability.
Abdullah, Abu Saleh; Yang, Tingzhong; Beard, Jennifer
In 2005 China ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and committed to implement tobacco control legislation and policies. Wide variation in smoking prevalence between men and women in China and the high exposure of women to secondhand smoke suggest that each component of the FCTC should be analyzed from a gender perspective. This study describes women's attitudes toward and predictors of support for four key FCTC measures in China. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1,408 women in two urban cities on demographics, smoking behavior, and attitudes toward key tobacco control measures. Seventy percent of the study women (n = 1,408) were exposed to secondhand smoke at home, work, or other public places. Support for the four FCTC measures of interest was as follows: 92.5% supported banning smoking in public places, 79.2% supported increasing the cigarette tax, 92% supported stronger health warnings on cigarette packages, and 87.1% favored banning tobacco advertising. The predictors for supporting each of these measures included socioeconomic, attitudinal, and behavioral factors. Urban Chinese women appear to support implementation of key WHO FCTC measures. Predictors of women's attitudes toward the key FCTC measures varied. The formulation process resulting from the tobacco control policy should consider these women-specific predictors in order to facilitate successful implementation of FCTC.
The aim of this study is to evaluate biology teachers' attitudes and belief levels on classroom control in terms of teachers' sense of efficacy. The screening model was used in the study. The study group was comprised of 135 biology teachers. In this study, Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES) and The Attitudes and Beliefs on Classroom Control…
Bohner, Gerd; Dickel, Nina
Attitudes and attitude change remain core topics of contemporary social psychology. This selective review emphasizes work published from 2005 to 2009. It addresses constructionist and stable-entity conceptualizations of attitude, the distinction between implicit and explicit measures of attitude, and implications of the foregoing for attitude change. Associative and propositional processes in attitude change are considered at a general level and in relation to evaluative conditioning. The role of bodily states and physical perceptions in attitude change is reviewed. This is followed by an integrative perspective on processing models of persuasion and the consideration of meta-cognitions in persuasion. Finally, effects of attitudes on information processing, social memory, and behavior are highlighted. Core themes cutting across the areas reviewed are attempts at integrative theorizing bringing together formerly disparate phenomena and viewpoints.
Full Text Available Background: Adolescents pay more attention to their appearance and body.Irregular nutritional patterns, eating certain types of food, and consuming more protein-containing food are more common in this age group. Considering the importance of this issue and lack of adequate studies in Iran, especially in Fars province, we aimed to assess the relationship between weight-controlling attitudes and eating disorders with dietary intake in female adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 600 female students aged 14-17 years from the four educational districts of Shiraz, southern Iran, during 2011-2012 using the stratified random sampling method. Data were collected using three questionnaires as follows: demographic data questionnaire, Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 to assess eating attitude disorders in students, and the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 13 and the NUT 4 software. Results: Six (1% EAT-26 questionnaire were omitted from analysis for being incomplete. Also, 556, 446, and 491 questionnaires were evaluated in meat, bread, and fat groups, respectively; and the rest were omitted because of not being complete. The mean±SD age of the students was 15.8±0.9 years. According to the EAT-26, we found that 80.1% of the students were at risk of eating attitude disorders (CI=95%, 76.9-83.3. By comparing the results of the FFQ and the EAT-26 and weight controlling behaviors, we found that consumption of meat and fat was significantly higher in students with eating attitude disorder (P=0.027 and P=0.003 respectively. Bread intake was significantly higher in the groups with no disorder (P=0.08. (This P value is not significant. Moreover, the mean consumption of sandwiches was higher in students with eating attitude disorders (P=0.002. Conclusion: Considering the high prevalence of eating attitude disorders in our study, assessing the underlying reasons and implementing preventive
Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Sussman, Steve
Peer crowd identification consistently predicts an adolescent's smoking behavior. As such, several interventions have targeted adolescents and young adults based on their identification with a specific crowd (e.g., Hipsters). This study uses a controlled experimental design to isolate and test the effect of peer crowd targeting in an antismoking ad on antismoking attitudes and smoking susceptibility. Two hundred and thirty-nine adolescents, age 13-15 years, completed a baseline survey and then viewed an antismoking ad targeting one of eight crowds; 1 week later they completed a posttest. Participants were assessed on antismoking attitudes and smoking susceptibility. Adolescents who strongly identified with the crowd targeted by the ad reported stronger antismoking attitudes and lower levels of smoking susceptibility. Those who disidentified with the crowd targeted in the ad exhibited not statistically significant increases in smoking susceptibility and weaker antismoking attitudes at posttest. These findings indicate that targeting youths based on their peer crowd is a useful strategy for antismoking interventions. Additional research should further examine whether youths who disidentify with the targeted crowd in an ad exhibit reactance against the message.
Maryam Amin; Pawan Nyachhyon; Maryam Elyasi; Muhammed Al-Nuaimi
Purpose. To evaluate the impact of an educational workshop on parental knowledge, attitude, and perceived behavioral control regarding their child’s oral health. Materials and Methods. A one-time oral health education workshop including audio/visual and hands-on components was conducted by a trained dentist and bilingual community workers in community locations. Participants were African parents of children who had lived in Canada for less than ten years. The impact of the workshop was evalua...
Guo, Zongyi; Chang, Jing; Guo, Jianguo; Zhou, Jun
This paper focuses on the adaptive twisting sliding mode control for the Hypersonic Reentry Vehicles (HRVs) attitude tracking issue. The HRV attitude tracking model is transformed into the error dynamics in matched structure, whereas an unmeasurable state is redefined by lumping the existing unmatched disturbance with the angular rate. Hence, an adaptive finite-time observer is used to estimate the unknown state. Then, an adaptive twisting algorithm is proposed for systems subject to disturbances with unknown bounds. The stability of the proposed observer-based adaptive twisting approach is guaranteed, and the case of noisy measurement is analyzed. Also, the developed control law avoids the aggressive chattering phenomenon of the existing adaptive twisting approaches because the adaptive gains decrease close to the disturbance once the trajectories reach the sliding surface. Finally, numerical simulations on the attitude control of the HRV are conducted to verify the effectiveness and benefit of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
MolinaFraticelli, Jose Carlos
This paper details the work done to auto generate C code from a Simulink-Based Attitude Determination Control System (ADCS) to be used in target platforms. NASA Marshall Engineers have developed an ADCS Simulink simulation to be used as a component for the flight software of a satellite. This generated code can be used for carrying out Hardware in the loop testing of components for a satellite in a convenient manner with easily tunable parameters. Due to the nature of the embedded hardware components such as microcontrollers, this simulation code cannot be used directly, as it is, on the target platform and must first be converted into C code; this process is known as auto code generation. In order to generate C code from this simulation; it must be modified to follow specific standards set in place by the auto code generation process. Some of these modifications include changing certain simulation models into their atomic representations which can bring new complications into the simulation. The execution order of these models can change based on these modifications. Great care must be taken in order to maintain a working simulation that can also be used for auto code generation. After modifying the ADCS simulation for the auto code generation process, it is shown that the difference between the output data of the former and that of the latter is between acceptable bounds. Thus, it can be said that the process is a success since all the output requirements are met. Based on these results, it can be argued that this generated C code can be effectively used by any desired platform as long as it follows the specific memory requirements established in the Simulink Model.
Davis, R. Benjamin; Fischbach, Sean R.
The Attitude Control Motor (ACM) is being developed for use in the Launch Abort System (LAS) of NASA's Ares I launch vehicle. The ACM consists of a small solid rocket motor and eight actuated pintle valves that directionally allocate.thrust_- 1t.has-been- predicted-that significant unsteady. pressure.fluctuations.will.exist. inside the-valves during operation. The dominant frequencies of these oscillations correspond to the lowest several acoustic natural frequencies of the individual valves. An acoustic finite element model of the fluid volume inside the valve has been critical to the prediction of these frequencies and their associated mode shapes. This work describes an effort to experimentally validate the acoustic finite model of the valve with an acoustic modal test. The modal test involved instrumenting a flight-like valve with six microphones and then exciting the enclosed air with a loudspeaker. The loudspeaker was configured to deliver broadband noise at relatively high sound pressure levels. The aquired microphone signals were post-processed and compared to results generated from the acoustic finite element model. Initial comparisons between the test data and the model results revealed that additional model refinement was necessary. Specifically, the model was updated to implement a complex impedance boundary condition at the entrance to the valve supply tube. This boundary condition models the frequency-dependent impedance that an acoustic wave will encounter as it reaches the end of the supply tube. Upon invoking this boundary condition, significantly improved agreement between the test data and the model was realized.
An attitude can be defined as the evaluation of an object as positive or negative. The term "object" in this definition should be understood in a broad sense; an attitude object may be any concrete or abstract entity that is in some way represented in our thoughts and memory. In other words......, attitude objects are simply the things we like or dislike. Consumer researchers are mainly interested in attitude objects of two classes, products and services, including the attributes, issues, persons, communications, situations, and behaviours related to them. Research on consumer attitudes takes two...... perspectives: Understanding attitude structure: how is an attitude cognitively represented in a consumer's mind, including its components (intra-attitudinal structure) and its associations with other psychological variables (inter-attitudinal structure)? Understanding information processing: what...
Albarracin, Dolores; Shavitt, Sharon
This review covers research on attitudes and attitude change published between 2010 and 2017. We characterize this period as one of significant progress toward an understanding of how attitudes form and change in three critical contexts. The first context is the person, as attitudes change in connection to values, general goals, language, emotions, and human development. The second context is social relationships, which link attitude change to the communicator of persuasive messages, social media, and culture. The third context is sociohistorical and highlights the influence of unique events, including sociopolitical, economic, and climatic occurrences. In conclusion, many important recent findings reflect the fact that holism, with a focus on situating attitudes within their personal, social, and historical contexts, has become the zeitgeist of attitude research during this period.
Full Text Available This paper proposed a robust fault-tolerant control algorithm for satellite stabilization based on active disturbance rejection approach with artificial bee colony algorithm. The actuating mechanism of attitude control system consists of three working reaction flywheels and one spare reaction flywheel. The speed measurement of reaction flywheel is adopted for fault detection. If any reaction flywheel fault is detected, the corresponding fault flywheel is isolated and the spare reaction flywheel is activated to counteract the fault effect and ensure that the satellite is working safely and reliably. The active disturbance rejection approach is employed to design the controller, which handles input information with tracking differentiator, estimates system uncertainties with extended state observer, and generates control variables by state feedback and compensation. The designed active disturbance rejection controller is robust to both internal dynamics and external disturbances. The bandwidth parameter of extended state observer is optimized by the artificial bee colony algorithm so as to improve the performance of attitude control system. A series of simulation experiment results demonstrate the performance superiorities of the proposed robust fault-tolerant control algorithm.
Mehdi Jafarzadeh Samani
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Successful pediatric dentistry depends not only on the dentist's technical skills, but also on his ability to acquire and maintain a child's cooperation. The correction of dentist’ action in this area affects the view of parents and increases the quality of dental services. The objective of this study was to evaluate the attitudes of general dentists toward methods of controlling pediatrics’ behavior in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: This study is descriptive, analytic, and cross-sectional. For this research, 100 general dentists of Isfahan city were selected with simple random sampling technique and were asked to complete the questionnaire which was included four different management techniques. The data were analyzed with t-test, P earson’s correlation , ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis. Results: The methods accepted by dentists were Tell-Show-Do (4.0 ± 0.5, Voice control (3.5 ± 0.4, active restraint (3.0 ± 0.5 and Hand-Over-Mouth (2.9 ± 0.5 respectively. The mean score of female dentists’ attitudes was more toward the method of active restraint and less toward Hand-Over-Mouth technique. Also the average score of middle aged dentists’ attitudes toward Voice Control method was less than young dentists and toward Hand-Over-Mouth was higher. The general dentists with more number of pediatric patients had less consent on the method of Hand-Over-Mouth (P=0.004 and active restraint (P=0.034. Conclusion: There were significant correlation between attitude of general dentists toward behavior management techniques with age, gender, clinical experience and the number of pediatric patients. General dentists have fewer tendencies to aggressive behavior management techniques.
Tachfouti, Nabil; Slama, Katia; Berraho, Mohammed; Nejjari, Chakib
Background Although tuberculosis (TB) care is provided free of charge in Morocco, a high number of patients voluntarily interrupt their treatment before the end. Treatment Default is a major obstacle in the fight against the disease. The purpose of this study was to describe the impact of knowledge and attitudes toward TB on treatment adherence. Methods Case-control study of 290 TB patients (85 defaulters and 205 controls). A defaulter was defined as a TB patient who interrupted treatment for two months or longer. Socio-demographic measurements, knowledge and attitude were collected by face to face anonymous questionnaire. Khi-square test was conducted to examine differences in TB attitudes and knowledge according to treatment adherence. Results The mean age of participants was 31.7 ± 12.0 years. Monthly income was under 2000 MAD (180 €) for 82% of them. Over sixty four percent were illiterate or had a basic educational level. Microbial cause was known by 17.2% respondents; 20.5% among adherent patients versus 9.4% (p=0.02). The fact that the disease is curable was more known by adherent patients: 99.0% versus 88.2% (p education into current TB case management. PMID:22937192
Rodrigue, James R; Luskin, Richard; Nelson, Helen; Glazier, Alexandra; Henderson, Galen V; Delmonico, Francis L
Unfavorable attitudes and insufficient knowledge about donation after cardiac death among critical care providers can have important consequences for the appropriate identification of potential donors, consistent implementation of donation after cardiac death policies, and relative strength of support for this type of donation. The lack of reliable and valid assessment measures has hampered research to capture providers' attitudes. Design and Research Aims: Using stakeholder engagement and an iterative process, we developed a questionnaire to measure attitudes of donation after cardiac death in critical care providers (n = 112) and examined its psychometric properties. Exploratory factor analysis, internal consistency, and validity analyses were conducted to examine the measure. A 34-item questionnaire consisting of 4 factors (Personal Comfort, Process Satisfaction, Family Comfort, and System Trust) provided the most parsimonious fit. Internal consistency was acceptable for each of the subscales and the total questionnaire (Cronbach α > .70). A strong association between more favorable attitudes overall and knowledge ( r = .43, P donation after cardiac death ( P donation after cardiac death.
Roche, S M; Jones-Bitton, A; Meehan, M; Von Massow, M; Kelton, D F
This study evaluated a participatory-based, experiential learning program, Ontario Focus Farms (FF), which aimed to change dairy producer behavior to control Johne's disease (JD) in Ontario, Canada. The goals were to (1) assess the effect of FF on participating dairy producers' knowledge, attitudes, and behavior with regard to JD control; (2) compare changes in these factors among FF participants to changes among a group of nonparticipating dairy producers; and (3) describe the characteristics of producers who made at least one on-farm management change. Pre- and post-FF intervention questionnaires collected data on respondents' knowledge, attitudes, behavior, herd production, and demographic information; before and after JD-risk assessments were used to assess respondents' on-farm risk of JD transmission. Overall, 176 dairy producers participated in the FF process; 39.8% (70/176) of FF and 14.6% (52/357) of control participants responded to both the pre- and postintervention questionnaires. Upon comparison, FF respondents were more likely to be younger, have larger herds, and have higher management scores. The proportion of FF participants who reported making at least one on-farm change (81%) was significantly higher than that of control respondents (38%). Overall, FF respondents significantly changed their risk score in 4 out of 5 risk areas and had an average reduction of 13 points in their overall risk score between before and after risk assessments. Control respondents' risk assessment scores did not significantly change during the study period. In a JD knowledge assessment, FF and control respondents exhibited a moderate knowledge score before the intervention period, with median scores of 75.9% (22/29) in each group. The FF respondents significantly increased their score at the postintervention assessment, with a median of 82.8% (24/29); control-respondent scores did not significantly change. Both FF and control respondents held strong positive attitudes
Hains, Carrie-Anne Marie; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J
Public and healthcare professionals differ in their attitudes towards euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS), the legal status of which is currently in the spotlight in the UK. In addition to medical training and experience, religiosity, locus of control and patient characteristics (eg, patient age, pain levels, number of euthanasia requests) are known influencing factors. Previous research tends toward basic designs reporting on attitudes in the context of just one or two potentially influencing factors; we aimed to test the comparative importance of a larger range of variables in a sample of nursing trainees and non-nursing controls. One hundred and fifty-one undergraduate students (early-stage nursing training, late-stage nursing training and non-nursing controls) were approached on a UK university campus and asked to complete a self-report questionnaire. Participants were of mixed gender and were on average 25.5 years old. No significant differences in attitude were found between nursing and non-nursing students. There was a significant positive correlation between higher religiosity and positive attitude toward euthanasia (r=0.19, peuthanasia and PAS, and confirm the importance of individual differences in determining these attitudes. The unexpected direction of association between religiosity and attitudes may reflect a broader cultural shift in attitudes since earlier research in this area. Furthermore, these findings suggest it possible that experience, more than training itself, may be a bigger influence on attitudinal differences in healthcare professionals.
Osako, Mai; Takayama, Tomoko; Kira, Shohei
This paper describes dietary habits and attitudes toward body weight control of college women in Japan and examines their relationships with subjective symptoms of fatigue. We also discuss strategies to promote better diets among young adults. Self-reported questionnaires were distributed to 286 young women aged 18 to 25 years; 275 of these were analyzed. The study found that more than half of the women were concerned about nutritional balance and calories. Yet thirty percent ate "a single-item meal (i.e., bread, rice bowl, noodles) two or more times a day," while roughly one half skipped breakfast "sometimes" or "always." A majority ate vegetables "almost never" and consumed instant foods, confectionery, or sugary drinks "almost daily." Subjective symptoms of fatigue were significantly correlated with a higher frequency of irregular meal-taking, single-item meals, between-meal snacking, missed breakfasts, non-vegetable diets, non-fruit diets, and instant foods and confectionery. About sixty percent of the women in the study considered their bodies to be "slightly fat or overweight" while 79.5% indicated a desire to "lose weight". On average, the participants' ideal BMI was 18.7 (+/- 1.2) while the ideal body weight was 47.2 (+/- 4.1) kg, approximately 4 kg under actual average body weight. Subjective symptoms of fatigue were stronger among women who considered themselves "slightly fat or overweight". Likewise, symptoms were stronger to the extent that a participant's ideal BMI was below her actual BMI. Many women in this study desired to lose weight although they were not overweight by objective measures. The study suggests that subjective symptoms of fatigue are not the result of individual dietary habits, but rather of a lifestyle that reach to series of dietary habits connected to subjective symptoms of fatigue. The study also confirms the importance both of encouraging young women not just to eat well but to lead lifestyles in which they do not skip meals and
Ampt, Amanda J; Amoroso, Cheryl; Harris, Mark F; McKenzie, Suzanne H; Rose, Vanessa K; Taggart, Jane R
services to patients. General practitioner attitudes, normative influences from both patients and the profession, and perceived external control factors (time, cost, availability and practice capacity) all influence management of behavioural risk factors. Provider education, community awareness raising, support and capacity building may improve the uptake of lifestyle modification interventions.
McKenzie Suzanne H
patient's motivation, and cost and accessibility of services to patients. Conclusion General practitioner attitudes, normative influences from both patients and the profession, and perceived external control factors (time, cost, availability and practice capacity all influence management of behavioural risk factors. Provider education, community awareness raising, support and capacity building may improve the uptake of lifestyle modification interventions.
Gorti, Sridhar; Holmes, Richard; O'Dell, John; McKechnie, Timothy; Shchetkovskiy, Anatoliy
Rhenium, with its high melting temperature, excellent elevated temperature properties, and lack of a ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT), is ideally suited for the hot gas components of the ACM (Attitude Control Motor), and other high-temperature applications. However, the high cost of rhenium makes fabricating these components using conventional fabrication techniques prohibitive. Therefore, near-net-shape forming techniques were investigated for producing cost-effective rhenium and rhenium alloy components for the ACM and other propulsion applications. During this investigation, electrochemical forming (EL-Form ) techniques were evaluated for producing the hot gas components. The investigation focused on demonstrating that EL-Form processing techniques could be used to produce the ACM flow distributor. Once the EL-Form processing techniques were established, a representative rhenium flow distributor was fabricated, and samples were harvested for material properties testing at both room and elevated temperatures. As a lower cost and lighter weight alternative to an all-rhenium component, rhenium- coated graphite and carbon-carbon were also evaluated. The rhenium-coated components were thermal-cycle tested to verify that they could withstand the expected thermal loads during service. High-temperature electroforming is based on electrochemical deposition of compact layers of metals onto a mandrel of the desired shape. Mandrels used for electro-deposition of near-net shaped parts are generally fabricated from high-density graphite. The graphite mandrel is easily machined and does not react with the molten electrolyte. For near-net shape components, the inner surface of the electroformed part replicates the polished graphite mandrel. During processing, the mandrel itself becomes the cathode, and scrap or refined refractory metal is the anode. Refractory metal atoms from the anode material are ionized in the molten electrolytic solution, and are deposited
Uppal, Navneet; Shahab, Lion; Britton, John; Ratschen, Elena
Although research suggests that the majority of smokers want to quit smoking, the uptake of Stop Smoking Services, designed to assist smokers with quitting, remains low. Little is known about continuing smokers who do not access these services, and opportunities to influence their motivation and encourage quit attempts through the uptake of services. Using PRIME theory, this study explored differences between continuing smokers who had varying levels of motivation to quit, in terms of their plans to quit, evaluative beliefs about smoking, cigarette dependence, and attitudes towards tobacco control policies and services. Twenty-two current smokers, recruited from the community, were classified by motivation level to quit using a self-report questionnaire (two groups: high/low). Four focus groups (n=13) and individual interviews (n=9) were conducted with both groups using an interview guide incorporating aspects of PRIME theory. Discussion areas included motives for smoking, attitudes towards smoking and quitting, perceptions of dependence, motives for quitting, barriers to quitting, and attitudes towards existing and impending tobacco control policies and services. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using thematic framework analysis. All participants expressed low motivation to quit during discussions, despite some initially self-classifying as having high explicit levels of motivation to quit. Both groups reported similar attitudes towards smoking and quitting, including a perceived psychological addiction to smoking, positive evaluations about smoking which inhibited plans to quit, and similar suggested methods to increase motivation (simply wanting to, save money, improve health). Most felt that they 'ought' to quit as opposed to 'wanted' to. Little influence was ascribed towards tobacco control policies such as plain packaging and hidden sales displays, and participants felt that price increases of tobacco products needed to be considerable in order to influence
Jenkins, Carolyn; Burkett, Nina-Sarena; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Mueller, Martina; Patel, Sachin; Brunner-Jackson, Brenda; Saulson, Raelle; Treiber, Frank
Mobile health, or mHealth, has increasingly been signaled as an effective means to expedite communication and improve medical regimen adherence, especially for patients with chronic health conditions such as stroke. However, there is a lack of data on attitudes of stroke patients toward mHealth. Such information will aid in identifying key indicators for feasibility and optimal implementation of mHealth to prevent and/or decrease rates of secondary stroke. Our objective was to ascertain stroke patients' attitudes toward using mobile phone enabled blood pressure (BP) monitoring and medication adherence and identify factors that modulate these attitudes. Sixty stroke patients received a brief demonstration of mHealth devices to assist with BP control and medication adherence and a survey to evaluate willingness to use this technology. The 60 participants had a mean age of 57 years, were 43.3% male, and 53.3% were White. With respect to telecommunication prevalence, 93.3% owned a cellular device and 25% owned a smartphone. About 70% owned a working computer. Regarding attitudes, 85% felt comfortable with a doctor or nurse using mHealth technologies to monitor personal health information, 78.3% believed mHealth would help remind them to follow doctor's directions, and 83.3% were confident that technology could effectively be used to communicate with health care providers for medical needs. Mobile device use is high in stroke patients and they are amenable to mHealth for communication and assistance in adhering to their medical regimens. More research is needed to explore usefulness of this technology in larger stroke populations.
Byars, L. B.
The feasibility of incorporating a guidance system in the Scout fourth stage to achieve a significant improvement in expected payload delivery accuracy is studied. The technical investigations included the determination of the AVC equipment performance requirements, establishment of qualification and acceptance test levels, generation of layouts illustrating design approaches for the upper D and payload transition sections to incorporate the hardware, and the preparation of a vendor bid package. Correction concepts, utilizing inertial velocity and attitude, were identified and evaluated. Fourth stage attitude adjustments as determined from inertial velocity variation through the first three stages and a final velocity correction based upon the measured in-plane component errors at injection were employed. Results show radical reductions in apogee-perigee deviations.
Kelly D. Bradley; Michael Peabody; Shannon O. Sampson
This study utilized the Rasch model to assess the quality of a survey instrument designed to measure attitudes of administrators and teachers concerning a differentiated teacher compensation program piloted in Kentucky. Researchers addressing potentially contentious issues should ensure their methods stand up to rigorous criticism. The results indicate that the rating scale does not function as expected, with items being too easy to endorse. Future iterations of this survey should be revis...
Onion, C W; Bartzokas, C A
When attempting to implement evidence-based medicine, such as through clinical guidelines, we often rely on passive educational tactics, for example didactic lectures and bulletins. These methods involve the recipient in relatively superficial processing of information, and any consequent attitude changes can be expected to be short-lived. However, active methods, such as practice-based discussion, should involve recipients in deep processing, with more enduring attitude changes. In this experiment, the aim was to assess the efficacy of an active strategy at promoting deep processing and its effectiveness, relative to a typical passive method, at changing attitudes between groups of GPs over 12 months across an English Health District. All 191 GPs operating from 69 practices in the Wirral Health District of Northwest England were assigned, with minimization of known confounding variables, to three experimental groups: active, passive and control. The groups were shown to have similar learning styles. The objective of the study was to impart knowledge of best management of infections as captured in a series of locally developed clinical guidelines. The passive group GPs were given a copy of the guidelines and were invited to an hour-long lecture event. The GPs in the deep group were given a copy of the guidelines and were invited to engage in an hour-long discussion about the guideline content at their own premises. The control group received neither the guidelines nor any educational contact regarding them. Three months before and 12 months after the interventions, all GPs were sent a postal questionnaire on their preferred empirical antibiotic for 10 common bacterial infections. The responses were compared in order to ascertain whether increased knowledge of best clinical practice was evident in each group. Seventy-five per cent (144/191) of GPs responded to the pre-intervention questionnaire, 62 % (119/191) post-intervention. Thirty-four per cent (22/64) of GPs
Maria Aparecida A Moura Strelec
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between blood pressure control and the following: the Morisky-Green test, the patient's consciousness regarding high blood pressure, the patient's attitude in face of medicine intake, the patient's attendance at medical consultations, and the subjective physician's judgment. METHODS: We studied 130 hypertensive patients with the following characteristics: 73% females, 60±11 years, 58% married, 70% white, 45% retired, 45% with incomplete elementary schooling, 64% had a familial income of 1 to 3 minimum wages, body mass index of 30±7 kg/m², consciousness regarding the disease for a mean period of 11±9.5 years, and mean treatment duration of 8 ±7 years. RESULTS: Only 35% of the hypertensive individuals had blood pressure under control and a longer duration of treatment (10±7 vs 7±6.5 years; P<0.05. The retiree predominated. The result of the Morisky-Green test did not relate to blood pressure control. In evaluating the attitude in face of medicine intake, the controlled patients achieved significantly higher scores than did the noncontrolled patients (8±1.9 vs 7 ±2, P<0.05. The hypertensive patients had higher levels of consciousness regarding their disease and its treatment, and most (70% patients attended 3 or 4 medical consultations, which did not influence blood pressure control. The physicians attributed significantly higher scores regarding adherence to treatment to controlled patients (6±0.8 vs 5±1.2; P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Consciousness regarding the disease, the Morisky-Green test, and attendance to medical consultations did not influence blood pressure control.
Heffernan, Claire; Azbel-Jackson, Lena; Brownlie, Joe; Gunn, George
The eradication of BVD in the UK is technically possible but appears to be socially untenable. The following study explored farmer attitudes to BVD control schemes in relation to advice networks and information sharing, shared aims and goals, motivation and benefits of membership, notions of BVD as a priority disease and attitudes toward regulation. Two concepts from the organisational management literature framed the study: citizenship behaviour where actions of individuals support the collective good (but are not explicitly recognised as such) and peer to peer monitoring (where individuals evaluate other's behaviour). Farmers from two BVD control schemes in the UK participated in the study: Orkney Livestock Association BVD Eradication Scheme and Norfolk and Suffolk Cattle Breeders Association BVD Eradication Scheme. In total 162 farmers participated in the research (109 in-scheme and 53 out of scheme). The findings revealed that group helping and information sharing among scheme members was low with a positive BVD status subject to social censure. Peer monitoring in the form of gossip with regard to the animal health status of other farms was high. Interestingly, farmers across both schemes supported greater regulation with regard to animal health, largely due to the mistrust of fellow farmers following voluntary disease control measures. While group cohesiveness varied across the two schemes, without continued financial inducements, longer-term sustainability is questionable.
Full Text Available The eradication of BVD in the UK is technically possible but appears to be socially untenable. The following study explored farmer attitudes to BVD control schemes in relation to advice networks and information sharing, shared aims and goals, motivation and benefits of membership, notions of BVD as a priority disease and attitudes toward regulation. Two concepts from the organisational management literature framed the study: citizenship behaviour where actions of individuals support the collective good (but are not explicitly recognised as such and peer to peer monitoring (where individuals evaluate other's behaviour. Farmers from two BVD control schemes in the UK participated in the study: Orkney Livestock Association BVD Eradication Scheme and Norfolk and Suffolk Cattle Breeders Association BVD Eradication Scheme. In total 162 farmers participated in the research (109 in-scheme and 53 out of scheme. The findings revealed that group helping and information sharing among scheme members was low with a positive BVD status subject to social censure. Peer monitoring in the form of gossip with regard to the animal health status of other farms was high. Interestingly, farmers across both schemes supported greater regulation with regard to animal health, largely due to the mistrust of fellow farmers following voluntary disease control measures. While group cohesiveness varied across the two schemes, without continued financial inducements, longer-term sustainability is questionable.
Heponiemi, Tarja; Kuusio, Hannamaria; Sinervo, Timo; Elovainio, Marko
The present study examined whether there are differences in job-related attitudes and well-being among physicians working in private sector and public sector. In addition, we examined whether psychosocial factors (organizational justice and job control) could mediate these possible differences in different sectors. Cross-sectional survey data from the Finnish Health Professional Study was used. A random sample of Finnish physicians included 1522 women and 1047 men aged 25-65 years. Outcome variables were job satisfaction, organizational commitment, psychological distress, work ability and sleeping problems. Job control and organizational justice were measured using established questionnaires. Series of regression analyses were performed and the mediational effects were tested following the procedures outlined by Baron and Kenny. Physicians working in private sector had higher levels of job satisfaction and organizational commitment and lower levels of psychological distress and sleeping problems when compared with physicians working in public sector. Private physicians also had higher levels of organizational justice, which acted as a mediator behind more positive attitudes and better well-being in private sector. Private physicians had higher levels of job control but it did not act as a mediator. Private physicians feel better than public physicians and this is partly due to higher organizational justice in private sector. Public health care organizations should invest effort to increase the fairness in their organizations and management and pay more attention in improving the well-being of their employees, which could possibly increase the attractiveness of public sector as a career option.
Kuijer, Roeline G; Boyce, Jessica A
Food and eating are often associated with ambivalent feelings: pleasure and enjoyment, but also worry and guilt. Guilt has the potential to motivate behaviour change, but may also lead to feelings of helplessness and loss of control. This study firstly examined whether a default association of either 'guilt' or 'celebration' with a prototypical forbidden food item (chocolate cake) was related to differences in attitudes, perceived behavioural control, and intentions in relation to healthy eating, and secondly whether the default association was related to weight change over an 18month period (and short term weight-loss in a subsample of participants with a weight-loss goal). This study did not find any evidence for adaptive or motivational properties of guilt. Participants associating chocolate cake with guilt did not report more positive attitudes or stronger intentions to eat healthy than did those associating chocolate cake with celebration. Instead, they reported lower levels of perceived behavioural control over eating and were less successful at maintaining their weight over an 18month period. Participants with a weight-loss goal who associated chocolate cake with guilt were less successful at losing weight over a 3month period compared to those associating chocolate cake with celebration. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Mauldin, Rebecca H.
In order to study and control the attitude of a spacecraft, it is necessary to understand the natural motion of a body in orbit. Assuming a spacecraft to be a rigid body, dynamics describes the complete motion of the vehicle by the translational and rotational motion of the body. The Simulink Attitude Analysis Model applies the equations of rigid body motion to the study of a spacecraft?s attitude in orbit. Using a TCP/IP connection, Matlab reads the values of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) hand controllers and passes them to Simulink as specified torque and impulse profiles. Simulink then uses the governing kinematic and dynamic equations of a rigid body in low earth orbit (LE0) to plot the attitude response of a spacecraft for five seconds given known applied torques and impulses, and constant principal moments of inertia.
Mitchell, Michael W.
The differential effectiveness of two types of adjunct embedded questions in facilitating deep processing, increased knowledge gain, and increased positive attitude change was examined in this two-session laboratory study. In session one, subjects completed a measure of locus of control (LOC) orientation, as well as measures of pretest knowledge and attitudes regarding drinking. Two weeks later, stratified assignment was used to place 33 subjects (ages 12 to 15...
Wu, Tingting; Hu, Ping; Huang, Hao; Wu, Chengbin; Fu, Zhirong; Du, Lei; Xu, Xianglong; Shi, Zumin; Zhao, Yong
The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of public service advertising on the awareness and attitude of Chongqing urban citizens. The theme of the public service advertisement launched in Chongqing was chronic disease prevention and control. A self-designed questionnaire was used in an outdoor intercept survey to collect information about the perception of citizens toward the effect of the advertisement on awareness and attitude situation. Respondents had good knowledge of chronic d...
Full Text Available The aerodynamic parameters of ducted fan micro aerial vehicles (MAVs are difficult and expensive to precisely measure and are, therefore, not available in most cases. Furthermore, the actuator dynamics with risks of potentially destabilizing the overall system are important but often neglected consideration factors in the control system design of ducted fan MAVs. This paper presents a near-hover adaptive attitude control strategy of a prototype ducted fan MAV with actuator dynamics and without any prior information about the behavior of the MAV. The proposed strategy consists of an online parameter estimation algorithm and an adaptive gain scheduling algorithm, with the former accommodating parametric uncertainties, and the latter approximately eliminating the coupling among axes and guaranteeing the control quality of the MAV. The effectiveness of the proposed strategy is verified numerically and experimentally.
José Manuel da Silva Vilelas Janeiro
Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the relationship between sexual and contraceptive attitudes, the locus of health control and self-esteem among students of a private institution of higher education. Methods: Descriptive and correlational study with a quantitative approach, performed in a higher education school in Lisbon, with 152 students, from the 1st to the 4th year of undergraduate courses in Nursing, Physiotherapy, Cardiopneumology and Radiology. As research instrument, it was used a questionnaire with rating scales on ‘sexual attitudes’, ‘contraception attitudes’, ‘locus of health control’ and ‘self-esteem’. The data obtained was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The majority of students (90.7% have already had sexual intercourse. Sexual attitudes were influenced by gender (p=0.0035, but not by the start of sexual activity or by the course’s year (p>0.05. Contraceptive attitudes were related to the year that students attended (p=0.031 and to gender (p=0.029. The external locus of control, on average, was higher among girls (29.2 than boys (30.1. The self-esteem increased with the student’s age (p=0.003. Conclusion: Investment in the area of sexual education is needed in the undergraduate programs, since the young people live their days in the school setting, spending little time with their families. The university should assume a special position in the development of the concept of sexuality based on the holistic perspective of the human being, promoting sexual education as essential in the construction of human identity and fundamental for health promotion doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5020/18061230.2013.p505
Behbehani, Nasser N; Hamadeh, Randah R; Macklai, Nejma S
The global health professional survey is a project organized by the World Health Organization, to determine the smoking habits, knowledge and attitude towards tobacco control of health professionals in several countries around the world. This paper presents data from Kuwait and Bahrain. The survey period was between May 2000 and March 2001. A questionnaire was distributed to all physicians in Bahrain and to a random sample from Kuwait. The responses to knowledge and attitude questions were on a scale of 1-5, (1 strongly agree, 2 agree, 3 unsure, 4 disagree and 5 strongly disagree). Four hundred and seventy physicians from Bahrain and 1095 from Kuwait completed the questionnaire. The prevalence of cigarette smoking in Kuwait was: current smokers 18.4%, previous smokers 15.8%, Bahrain 14.6% and 14.3%. The prevalence of shisha smoking was 12% and 6.4% for Kuwait and Bahrain, (p=0.004). The mean scores of agreement with the association between passive smoking and lung diseases, lower respiratory tract infections in children were 1.6, 1.7 and 1.8, 1.9 for non smoking physicians and smoking physicians (Pnon-smoking physicians (pattitude towards tobacco control compared to non-smokers. There was no difference in the prevalence of cigarette smoking between Kuwait and Bahrain, but the prevalence of shisha smoking was higher in Kuwait.
Alarcon, Pablo; Wieland, Barbara; Mateus, Ana L P; Dewberry, Chris
The objectives of this study were (1) to explore the factors involved in the decision-making process used by pig farmers for disease control and (2) to investigate pig farmers' attitudes and perceptions about different information sources relating to disease control. In 2011 a qualitative study involving 20 face-to-face interviews with English pig farmers was conducted. The questionnaire was composed of three parts. The first part required farmers to identify two diseases they had experienced and which were difficult to recognize and/or control. They were asked to report how the disease problem was recognized, how the need for control was decided, and what affected the choice of control approach. For the latter, a structure related to the Theory of Planned Behaviour was used. Their verbal responses were classified as associated with: (1) attitude and beliefs, (2) subjective norms, or (3) perceived behavioural control (PBC). In the second part, five key sources of information for disease control (Defra, BPEX, research from academia, internet and veterinarians) and the factors related to barriers to knowledge were investigated. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. A qualitative analysis of the text of the interview transcripts was carried out using templates. Drivers for disease control were 'pig mortality', 'feeling of entering in an economically critical situation', 'animal welfare' and 'feeling of despair'. Veterinarians were perceived by several participating farmers as the most trusted information source on disease control. However, in particular non-sustainable situations, other producers, and especially experiences from abroad, seemed to considerably influence the farmers' decision-making. 'Lack of knowledge', 'farm structure and management barriers' and 'economic constrains' were identified in relation to PBC. Several negative themes, such as 'lack of communication', 'not knowing where to look', and 'information bias' were associated with research from
Full Text Available Abstract. This study investigated the relative benefits of peer-controlled and moderated online collaboration during group problem solving. Thirty-five self-selected groups of four or five students were randomly assigned to the two conditions, which used the same online collaborative tool to solve twelve problem scenarios in an undergraduate statistics course. A score for the correctness of the solutions and a reasoning score were analyzed. A survey was administered to reveal differences in students' related attitudes. Three conclusions were reached: 1. Groups assigned to moderated forums displayed significantly higher reasoning scores than those in the peer-controlled condition, but the moderation did not affect correctness of solutions. 2. Students in the moderated forums reported being more likely to choose to use an optional online forum for future collaborations. 3. Students who reported having no difficulty during collaboration reported being more likely to choose to use an optional online forum in the future.
Ofan, Renana H; Rubin, Nava; Amodio, David M
We examined the relation between neural activity reflecting early face perception processes and automatic and controlled responses to race. Participants completed a sequential evaluative priming task, in which two-tone images of Black faces, White faces, and cars appeared as primes, followed by target words categorized as pleasant or unpleasant, while encephalography was recorded. Half of these participants were alerted that the task assessed racial prejudice and could reveal their personal bias ("alerted" condition). To assess face perception processes, the N170 component of the ERP was examined. For all participants, stronger automatic pro-White bias was associated with larger N170 amplitudes to Black than White faces. For participants in the alerted condition only, larger N170 amplitudes to Black versus White faces were also associated with less controlled processing on the word categorization task. These findings suggest that preexisting racial attitudes affect early face processing and that situational factors moderate the link between early face processing and behavior.
Full Text Available Awab Ali Ibrahim,1 Sittana Shamseldin Elshafie,2 1Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar, 2Aspetar, Laboratory Department, Qatar Orthopedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar Background: Medical students can be exposed to serious health care-associated infections, if they are not following infection prevention and control (IPC measures. There is limited information regarding the knowledge, awareness, and practices of medical students regarding IPC and the educational approaches used to teach them these practices. Aim: To evaluate the knowledge, awareness, and attitude of medical students toward IPC guidelines, and the learning approaches to help improve their knowledge. Methods: A cross-sectional, interview-based survey included 73 medical students from Weill Cornell Medical College, Qatar. Students completed a questionnaire concerning awareness, knowledge, and attitude regarding IPC practices. Students’ knowledge was assessed by their correct answers to the survey questions. Findings: A total of 48.44% of the respondents were aware of standard isolation precautions, 61.90% were satisfied with their training in IPC, 66.13% were exposed to hand hygiene training, while 85.48% had sufficient knowledge about hand hygiene and practiced it on a routine basis, but only 33.87% knew the duration of the hand hygiene procedure. Conclusion: Knowledge, attitude, and awareness of IPC measures among Weill Cornell Medical Students in Qatar were found to be inadequate. Multifaceted training programs may have to target newly graduated medical practitioners or the training has to be included in the graduate medical curriculum to enable them to adopt and adhere to IPC guidelines. Keywords: infection prevention, education, medical students
Spruyt, Adriaan; Fazio, Russell H.; Hermans, Dirk
Abstract The more accessible an attitude is, the stronger is its influence on information processing and behavior. Accessibility can be increased through attitude rehearsal, but it remains unknown whether attitude rehearsal also affects the accessibility of related attitudes. To investigate this hypothesis, participants in an experimental condition repeatedly expressed their attitudes towards exemplars of several semantic categories during an evaluative categorization task. Participants in a control condition performed a non‐evaluative task with the same exemplars and evaluated unrelated attitude objects. After a 30‐minute interval, participants in the experimental condition were faster than controls to evaluate not only the original exemplars but also novel exemplars of the same categories. This finding suggests that the effect of attitude rehearsal on accessibility generalizes to attitudes towards untrained but semantically related attitude objects. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:28701803
Xiong, Peng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiaohui; Wu, Tat Leong; Hall, Brian J
Standard precautions (SPs) are considered fundamental protective measures to manage health care-associated infections and to reduce occupational health hazards. This study intended to assess the effectiveness of a mixed media education intervention to enhance nursing students' knowledge, attitude, and compliance with SPs. A randomized controlled trial with 84 nursing students was conducted in a teaching hospital in Hubei, China. The intervention group (n = 42) attended 3 biweekly mixed media education sessions, consisting of lectures, videos, role-play, and feedback with 15-20 minutes of individual online supervision and feedback sessions following each class. The control group learned the same material through self-directed readings. Pre- and posttest assessments of knowledge, attitudes, and compliance were assessed with the Knowledge with Standard Precautions Questionnaire, Attitude with Standard Precautions Scale, and the Compliance with Standard Precautions Scale, respectively. The Standard Bacterial Colony Index was used to assess handwashing effectiveness. At 6-week follow-up, performance on the Knowledge with Standard Precautions Questionnaire, Attitude with Standard Precautions Scale, and Compliance with Standard Precautions Scale were significantly improved in the intervention group compared with the control group (P media education intervention is effective in improving knowledge, attitude, and compliance with SPs. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bandelow, Borwin; Gutermann, Julia; Peter, Helmut; Wedekind, Dirk
Only few studies have compared the frequency of traumatic life events during childhood in inpatients with depression with a healthy control group. Consecutively admitted inpatients with depression (n = 79), most of whom belonged to the melancholic subtype (n = 73; 92.4%), and healthy controls (n = 110) were investigated using a comprehensive retrospective interview with 203 questions regarding childhood traumatic life events, parental attitudes, family history of psychiatric disorders and birth risk factors. Depressed patients had significantly more severe traumatic events (mean score 1.33; SD 1.4) than control subjects (0.85; SD 1.2) on a 0-10 point "severe trauma scale". 70.9% (n = 56) of the depressed patients, but only 48.2% (n = 53) of the controls reported at least one severe traumatic event. When looking at single events, only few differences were found between patients and controls. Compared to controls, patients described significantly higher rates of psychiatric disorders in their families, in particular depression. Parental rearing styles were rated as more unfavorable in the patient group. In a logistic regression model, of all possible etiological factors examined, only a family history of psychiatric disorders showed a significant influence (OR = 3.6). Melancholic depression seems to be less associated with traumatic events than other psychiatric disorders.
Blommaert, E.C.C.A.; Tubergen, F.A. van; Coenders, M.T.A.
We study effects of explicit and implicit interethnic attitudes on ethnic discrimination in hiring. Unlike explicit attitudes, implicit attitudes are characterised by reduced controllability, awareness or intention. Effects of implicit interethnic attitudes on ethnic discrimination in the labour
Liu, Chuang; Ye, Dong; Shi, Keke; Sun, Zhaowei
A novel improved mixed H2/H∞ control technique combined with poles assignment theory is presented to achieve attitude stabilization and vibration suppression simultaneously for flexible spacecraft in this paper. The flexible spacecraft dynamics system is described and transformed into corresponding state space form. Based on linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) scheme and poles assignment theory, the improved mixed H2/H∞ controller does not restrict the equivalence of the two Lyapunov variables involved in H2 and H∞ performance, which can reduce conservatives compared with traditional mixed H2/H∞ controller. Moreover, it can eliminate the coupling of Lyapunov matrix variables and system matrices by introducing slack variable that provides additional degree of freedom. Several simulations are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method in this paper.
Saddichha, Sahoo; Rekha, Dorothy P; Patil, Basanagouda K; Murthy, Pratima; Benegal, Vivek; Isaac, Mohan K
We assessed the knowledge, attitude and practices of dental surgeons in the city of Bangalore, Karnataka, concerning use of tobacco in their patients. A self-administered questionnaire was administered to all dental surgeons prior to a sensitization program on nicotine dependence. The dental surgeons who responded (n=100) reported a need for increasing sensitization on the issue of tobacco especially among health professionals. Only 33% knew that nicotine is the most addictive drug and knowledge was poor about pharmacological as well as non pharmacological methods of treatment of nicotine dependence. Only 52% asked all their patients about tobacco use. However, almost all dental surgeons agreed that there should be a ban on public use of tobacco. The results of this study call for sensitizing health professionals on a larger scale on the issue of tobacco use and its treatment.
Furnham, A; Adam-Saib, S
Previous studies have found significantly higher scores on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) which measures eating disorders among second-generation British-Asian schoolgirls in comparison to their White counterparts. Further, high EAT-26 scores (an indication of unhealthy eating attitudes and behaviours) are positively associated with parental overprotection scores on the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). This study aimed to replicate and extend previous findings, comparing British-Asian schoolgirls to White schoolgirls and consider 'intra-Asian' differences on the same measures, including factor scores. Participants completed three questionnaires: EAT-26, PBI and BSS (Body Satisfaction Scale). There were 168 participants: 46 White, 40 Indian, 44 Pakistani and 38 Bengali. Previous findings were supported; the Asian scores were significantly higher than the White scores on the EAT-26 and PBI, but not the BSS. The Bengali sample had significantly higher EAT-26 total and 'oral control' scores than the other groups. There were no intra-Asian differences for the overprotection scores. PBI scores were not associated with EAT-26 scores. The BSS score was the only significant predictor of EAT scores, when entered into a regression along with PBI scores and the body mass index. Results demonstrated sociocultural factors in the development of eating disorders. The results suggest that there are important psychological differences between second-generation migrants from different countries on the Indian subcontinent. In line with previous studies, significant differences were found between the four ethnic groups, parenting styles, but these did not relate to actual eating disorders.
Ghasemi, S.; Khorasani, K.
In this paper, the problem of fault detection and isolation (FDI) of the attitude control subsystem (ACS) of spacecraft formation flying systems is considered. For developing the FDI schemes, an extended Kalman filter (EKF) is utilised which belongs to a class of nonlinear state estimation methods. Three architectures, namely centralised, decentralised, and semi-decentralised, are considered and the corresponding FDI strategies are designed and constructed. Appropriate residual generation techniques and threshold selection criteria are proposed for these architectures. The capabilities of the proposed architectures for accomplishing the FDI tasks are studied through extensive numerical simulations for a team of four satellites in formation flight. Using a confusion matrix evaluation criterion, it is shown that the centralised architecture can achieve the most reliable results relative to the semi-decentralised and decentralised architectures at the expense of availability of a centralised processing module that requires the entire team information set. On the other hand, the semi-decentralised performance is close to the centralised scheme without relying on the availability of the entire team information set. Furthermore, the results confirm that the FDI results in formations with angular velocity measurement sensors achieve higher level of accuracy, true faulty, and precision, along with lower level of false healthy misclassification as compared to the formations that utilise attitude measurement sensors.
Armani, R; Mitchell, L E; Allen-Graham, J; Heriot, N R; Kotsimbos, T; Wilson, J W
The current health system in Australia is comprised of both electronic- and paper-based medical records. The Federal Government has approved funding for the development of an individual health identifier and a universally adopted online health repository. To determine attitudes and beliefs of patients and healthcare workers regarding the use of stored medical information and the personally controlled electronic health record (PCEHR) in selected major hospitals in Victoria. Qualitative survey of patients and healthcare workers (n = 600 each group) conducted during 2014 across five major hospitals in Melbourne to measure the awareness, attitudes and barriers to electronic health and the PCEHR. Of the patients, 93.3% support the concept of a shared electronic healthcare record, 33.7% were aware of the PCEHR and only 11% had registered. The majority of healthcare workers believed that the presence of a shared health record would result in an increased appropriateness of care and patient safety by reducing adverse drug events and improving the timeliness of care provided. However, only 46% of healthcare workers were aware of the PCEHR. This study provides a baseline evaluation of perceptions surrounding eHealth and PCHER in acute health services in five metropolitan centres. While there appears to be a readiness for adoption of these strategies for healthcare documentation, patients require motivation to register for the PCEHR, and healthcare workers require more information on the potential benefits to them to achieve more timely and efficient care. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Tabither M Gitau
Full Text Available Failure to consume an adequate diet or over consumption during adolescence can disrupt normal growth and development, resulting in undesirable weight change. This leads to an increase in unhealthy weight control practices related to eating and exercise among both adolescent girls and boys to meet the societal 'ideal' body shape. This study therefore aims to examine the longitudinal changes in eating attitudes, body-esteem and weight control behaviours among adolescents between 13 and 17 years; and, to describe perceptions around body shape at age 17 years. A total of 1435 urban South African black and mixed ancestry boys and girls, who had data at both age 13 and 17 years from the Birth to Twenty cohort were included. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires on eating attitudes (EAT-26, body esteem and weight control behaviours for either weight loss or muscle gain attempts. Height and weight were measured at both time points and BMI was calculated. Black females had a higher BMI (p<0.001 and an increased risk of developing eating disorders as well as significant increase in the prevalence of weight loss practices between the ages 13 and 17 years. At age 17 years both Mixed ancestry adolescents had lower body-esteem compared to black adolescents. The prevalence of possible eating disorders was 11% and 13.1% in early and late adolescents respectively. Males and females shared similar opinions on normal silhouettes being the 'best', 'getting respect' and being the 'happiest', while the obese silhouette was associated with the 'worst' and the 'unhappiest', and the underweight silhouette with the "weakest". Black females had a higher BMI and an increased risk of developing eating disorders. Adolescent females engaged more in weight loss practices whereas, males in muscle gain practices indicating that Western norms of thinness as the ideal are becoming more common in South Africa.
Parikh, Divya Sinha; Totañes, Francis I G; Tuliao, Alex H; Ciro, Raezelle N T; Macatangay, Bernard J C; Belizario, Vicente Y
We determined the attitudes toward and practices regarding soil-transmitted helminthes (STH) control among parents and school teachers to identify reasons behind attitudes and practices that do not promote STH control. Written knowledge, attitudes and practices surveys were distributed to parents (N = 531) and teachers (N = 105) of students at 11 elementary schools in Guimaras Province, the Philippines. The survey addressed attitudes about mass drug administration (MDA), knowledge about STH control, hygienic practices, and acceptability of distributing deworming tablets among teachers. More than 90% of parents and teachers held favorable attitudes towards MDA. Sixty-nine percent of parents and 75.5% of teachers believed stool exams were necessary before MDA. Thirty-seven percent of parents stated they would not allow teachers to administer deworming tablets and 91.5% of parents feared teachers would not detect side effects of the medication. Forty-eight percent of teachers felt they could safely give deworming tablets and 81.4% of teachers were afraid of managing the side effects of deworming tablets. Forty-seven point eight percent of parents and 42.2% of teachers stated defecation in the open occured in their community. Although attitudes toward STH control were largely favorable, misconceptions about the MDA strategy, lack of support for teachers giving deworming tablets, and the practice of open defecation still exist as barriers to STH control efforts. The next step to achieve effective STH control will be to clarify misconceptions in education campaigns, to train teachers about medication administration, campaign to improve sanitation and hygiene and begin targeted mass treatment in Guimaras, the Philippines.
Eliacik, Kayi; Bolat, Nurullah; Kanik, Ali; Sargin, Enis; Selkie, Ellen; Korkmaz, Nurhan; Baydan, Figen; Akar, Ebru; Sarioglu, Berrak
This study aimed to identify differences in the antenatal stressful life events, parenting style, family functioning, depression and anxiety of mothers who have children with breath-holding spells (BHS) compared with controls. This case control study divided 66 children into a group of children with BHS and a control group, with the children's ages ranging between 6 months and 5 years of age. This study explored underlying anxiety and depression in mothers as well as functioning of their families. Socio-demographical data and stressful life events that the mother experienced during pregnancy were analysed. In order to evaluate the effects of family structure, depression and anxiety in mothers on BHS in children, the Family Assessment Device, and both the Parental Attitude Research Instrument and the Beck Depression Inventory as well as the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were used to assess both groups. Exposure to stressful life events during pregnancy (P overprotective maternal characteristics (P = 0.027) and most of the family functioning subscales were found to be significantly different between BHS and control groups. The association of anxiety, depression, prenatal stressful events and poor family functioning in mothers who have children with BHS is significantly higher than controls. An evaluation of these problems may be beneficial in the management of BHS. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Rodent control in urban areas can result in the inadvertent mortality of non-target species (e.g., bobcats). However, there is little detailed information about rodent control practices of urban residents. Our objective was to evaluate urban rodent control behaviors in two area...
Dania, Michelle G; Ozoh, Obianuju B; Bandele, Emmanuel O
This study aimed to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking among medical students, and to determine their level of knowledge regarding risk associated with cigarette smoking and their attitude and behavior towards tobacco control strategies and policies. A stratified random sampling approach was used to select participants. A modified version of the the Global Health Professional Students Survey questionnaire was self-administered. Descriptive statistics were applied and comparisons were done using chi-square test. Multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain the significant determinants of smoking. A P smoking and current smoking was 9.6 and 1.2%, respectively. Age > 21, having a smoking father, and use of alcohol were significantly associated with ever smoking. Knowledge of smoking as a risk for emphysema was 72.8%, coronary artery disease 82.8%, stroke 68.8%, and low birth weight 76.4%. There were 103 (41.2%) students aware of antidepressant usage in smoking cessation. One hundred and ninety-five (78%) offered smoking cessation advice if a smoker had no smoking-related disease and did not seek their opinion about smoking, 68.8% affirmed to having adequate knowledge on smoking cessation, and 56.8% had received formal training on smoking cessation techniques. The ban on cigarette smoking in enclosed public places was supported by 92.4%. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking among medical students in Lagos is relatively low. Gaps exist in the level of knowledge of the students regarding risks of cigarette smoking, tobacco cessation strategies, and in their attitude and behavior towards offering tobacco cessation advice. There is need therefore to include formal training on tobacco control strategies at an early stage in the medical curriculum.
Jose M Martínez-Sánchez
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The six most important cost-effective policies on tobacco control can be measured by the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS. The objective of our study was to describe the correlation between the TCS and smoking prevalence, self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS and attitudes towards smoking restrictions in the 27 countries of the European Union (EU27. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ecologic study in the EU27. We used data from the TCS in 2007 and from the Eurobarometer on Tobacco Survey in 2008. We analysed the relations between the TCS and prevalence of smoking, self-reported exposure to SHS (home and work, and attitudes towards smoking bans by means of scatter plots and Spearman rank-correlation coefficients (r(sp. Among the EU27, smoking prevalence varied from 22.6% in Slovenia to 42.1% in Greece. Austria was the country with the lowest TCS score (35 and the UK had the highest one (93. The correlation between smoking prevalence and TCS score was negative (r(sp = -0.42, p = 0.03 and the correlation between TCS score and support to smoking bans in all workplaces was positive (r(sp = 0.47, p = 0.01 in restaurants; r(sp = 0.5, p = 0.008 in bars, pubs, and clubs; and r(sp = 0.31, p = 0.12 in other indoor workplaces. The correlation between TCS score and self-reported exposure to SHS was negative, but statistically non-significant. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Countries with a higher score in the TCS have higher support towards smoking bans in all workplaces (including restaurants, bars, pubs and clubs, and other indoor workplaces. TCS scores were strongly, but not statistically, associated with a lower prevalence of smokers and a lower self-reported exposure to SHS.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Diabetes mellitus is among the most common causes of mortality in the world and an important risk factor for chronic kidney disease, foot amputation, ischemic heart disease and blindness among older adults. Diabetic patients mostly develop hyperlipidemia, which can result in cardiovascular diseases. Patient’s knowledge, attitude and practices toward diet are the core center for diabetes control and affect their metabolic control and complications. In the present study, we measured nutritional knowledge, attitude and practices and their relations to serum lipids, HbA1C, and fasting blood glucose in diabetic patients of Boirahmad County, southwest of Iran, where many people encounter increasing prevalence of diabetes. Materials and Methods: 198 IDDM patients from the rural and urban areas of Boirahmad County were invited to the health centers to be checked for their fasting blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, serum HDL cholesterol, serum triglyceride and also serum glycosylated hemoglobin. Their knowledge, attitude, and practices toward the diabetic diet were assessed using a validated questionnaire. The obtained scores were classified into three categories (Poor, average, and Good to show their knowledge, attitude and practice levels, and the serum parameters were compared between the levels to show the relevancies. Results: Our data showed that the patients’ knowledge and attitude on diabetic nutrition are mostly at the average level (79.3% and 47.1%, respectively but their practice scores are mostly at the poor level (43.8%, and just a minor proportion of the patients are at the appropriate levels (15.3, 33, and 23.1% of knowledge, attitude and practices, respectively. In addition, we found a significant reverse relationship between the patients’ nutritional knowledge and serum HbA1C (p=0.003, and also between their attitude and serum triglyceride (p<0.05. Conclusions: Our data suggest that the knowledge
Glad Mohesh M. I
Full Text Available Smoking tobacco is one of the leading and preventable cause of death worldwide. Apart from the responsibility of the Governments and the Non-governmental organizations, it is the duty of every health care professional to promote the awareness about the hazards of tobacco usage to their patients. This study was aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of tobacco control measures by the selected group of health care professionals. A self administered e-questionnaire was send to 106 health care professionals including Physicians, Dentists and Physiotherapists to their personal email address. E-responses were collected during the study period between September to November, 2015.Responses were analysed. About 89.6% of the healthcare professionals felt strongly that smoking is bad for health. Eighty one percent of the participants responded that they do not use any form of tobacco and 98.1% of the respondents accepted that it is the duty of a health care professional to advise people against the ill effects of tobacco usage. Also 94.2% of them suggested updated topics on tobacco control programmes to be inducted into the curriculum of their respective area of health care profession. Even though the health care professionals were found doing their role in tobacco control measures, their suggestion to incorporate more informations on tobacco control into the curriculum is an urgent concern.
Sivaprakash, N.; Shanmugam, J.; Natarajan, P.
Full text: Magnetic control is a favorable way to stabilize small satellites. Often, the hardware is simple and lightweight, and does not degrade or change mass over time. However, a magnetic control system does have some disadvantages and limitations. The control, which is in the form of magnetic moment, can only be applied perpendicular to the local magnetic field. In addition, there is uncertainty in the Earth magnetic field models due to the complicated dynamic nature of the field. Also, the magnetic hardware and the spacecraft can interact, causing both to behave in undesirable ways. To overcome these limitations some intelligence is incorporated in the controller. In this paper, control laws are developed to stabilize spacecraft on Three axes. The motivation for this project is ANUSAT, which is a micro-satellite under development at Anna University in collaboration with ISRO. This control could be carried out solely with satellite's magnetometer measurements and its position in orbit. The magnetic dipole moment for control is: M = K p (B o - B r ) + K d (dB o /dt - dB r /dt) Where B o is the measured magnetic field, B r is the reference magnetic field, and K p and K d are the control position and rate gains respectively. The value of the controller gains are selected by the Intelligent Neural Network System in the feedback path. Control laws are numerically tested to show that the magnetic control system works within resolution limits
McGinty, Emma E; Webster, Daniel W; Barry, Colleen L
In recent years, mass shootings by persons with serious mental illness have received extensive news media coverage. The authors test the effects of news stories about mass shootings on public attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness and support for gun control policies. They also examine whether news coverage of proposals to prevent persons with serious mental illness from having guns exacerbates the public's negative attitudes toward this group. The authors conducted a survey-embedded randomized experiment using a national sample (N=1,797) from an online panel. Respondents were randomly assigned to groups instructed to read one of three news stories or to a no-exposure control group. The news stories described, respectively, a mass shooting by a person with serious mental illness, the same mass shooting and a proposal for gun restrictions for persons with serious mental illness, and the same mass shooting and a proposal to ban large-capacity magazines. Outcome measures included attitudes toward working with or living near a person with serious mental illness, perceived dangerousness of persons with serious mental illness, and support for gun restrictions for persons with serious mental illness and for a ban on large-capacity magazines. Compared with the control group, the story about a mass shooting heightened respondents' negative attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness and raised support for gun restrictions for this group and for a ban on large-capacity magazines. Including information about the gun restriction policy in a story about a mass shooting did not heighten negative attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness or raise support for the restrictions. The aftermath of mass shootings is often viewed as a window of opportunity to garner support for gun control policies, but it also exacerbates negative attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness.
Wilkinson, Tracey A; Miller, Courtney; Rafie, Samantha; Landau, Sharon Cohen; Rafie, Sally
To examine adolescent attitudes toward accessing contraception through a new pharmacist prescribing model in the State of California. In-depth telephone interviews were conducted in summer 2015 with 30 females ages 18 to 19 in California. Participants were recruited using a social media advertisement. Semi-structured interviews utilized open-ended questions to understand teens' experiences with pharmacies, experiences obtaining contraception, and views on pharmacist prescribing of contraception. Responses were transcribed and qualitatively analyzed using an independent-coder method to identify salient themes. Participants were ethnically diverse and primarily living in suburban areas. All participants had completed high school and many had completed one year of college. Nearly all participants were supportive of California's new law allowing pharmacist prescribing of contraception. Thematic analyses revealed that while participants were satisfied with traditional service providers and valued those relationships, they appreciated the benefit of increased access and convenience of going directly to a pharmacy. Participants expected increased access to contraception in pharmacies would lead to both personal and societal benefits. They expressed concerns regarding parental involvement, as well as confidentiality in the pharmacy environment and with insurance disclosures. Older teens in California are very supportive of pharmacies and pharmacists as direct access points for contraception, but confidentiality concerns were noted. Policy makers and pharmacies can incorporate study findings when designing policies, services, and physical pharmacy spaces to better serve teens. Further research is warranted after pharmacies implement this new service to assess teen utilization and satisfaction as well as outcomes. Several states recently passed legislation enabling pharmacists to prescribe contraception and other states are considering similar legislation. Older teens are
Stolt, L B; Johnson-Ifearulundu, Y J; Kaneene, J B
To determine attitudes of veterinarians, animal control directors, and country prosecutors in Michigan toward enforcement of state animal cruelty legislation and to identify factors associated with whether veterinarians would report suspected cases of animal cruelty. Survey. Questionnaires were sent to 1,146 Michigan Veterinary Medical Association member veterinarians, 139 animal control directors, and 83 county prosecutors in Michigan. 740 (65%) veterinarians, 70 (50%) animal control directors, and 43 (52%) prosecutors responded. Six hundred forty six of 735 (88%) veterinarians reported having treated an animal that they believed had been a victim of animal cruelty, but only 192 of 719 (27%) had ever reported a case of animal cruelty, and only 217 of 734 (30%) had ever testified in an animal cruelty case. Logistic regression analysis of responses revealed that the only factor associated with whether veterinarians would report cases of suspected animal cruelty was the potential reactions of the involved clients to the accusation of animal cruelty. Veterinarians who rated reaction of the involved client as important, very important, or essential to their decision whether to report a case of animal cruelty were less likely to report such cases than were veterinarians who rated potential client reaction as somewhat important or unimportant. Concern about potential client reaction was the most important factor in whether veterinarians would report cases of suspected animal cruelty.
Thompson Joseph William
Full Text Available Wave-Based Control has been previously applied successfully to simple under-actuated flexible mechanical systems. Spacecraft and rockets with structural flexibility and sloshing are examples of such systems but have added difficulties due to non-uniform structure, external disturbing forces and non-ideal actuators and sensors. The aim of this paper is to extend the application of WBC to spacecraft systems, to compare the performance of WBC to other popular controllers and to carry out experimental validation of the designed control laws. A mathematical model is developed for an upper stage accelerating rocket moving in a single plane. Fuel sloshing is represented by an equivalent mechanical pendulum model. A wave-based controller is designed for the upper stage AVUM of the European launcher Vega. In numerical simulations the controller successfully suppresses the sloshing motion. A major advantage of the strategy is that no measurement of the pendulum states (sloshing motion is required.
Full Text Available In recent years, the development of unmanned air vehicles aiming at vegetation observation, information gathering of a disaster site, etc. is increasing. Among them, airships are attractive because of good energy efficiency and it is possible to be employed for a long time cruise. Especially, small airships called “blimp” have been developing to make the management easy. Although most of existing airships employ control methods by combining propellers and rudders, such a control approach has the problem that the maneuverability is deteriorated if their traveling speed is slow because the airflow received by rudders is weakened. In this research, “X4-Blimp” is proposed as a blimp controlled by only four propellers without any rudders, and it is controlled by a switching controller.
Springvloet, L.; Willemsen, M. C.; Mons, U.; van den Putte, B.; Kunst, A. E.; Guignard, R.; Hummel, K.; Allwright, S.; Siahpush, M.; de Vries, H.; Nagelhout, G. E.
This study examined educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions among adult smokers. Longitudinal data (N = 7571) from two waves of six countries of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys were included. Generalized estimating equation analyses and…
Springvloet, L.; Willemsen, M.C.; Mons, U.; van den Putte, B.; Kunst, A.E.; Guignard, R.; Hummel, K.; Allwright, S.; Siahpush, M.; de Vries, H.; Nagelhout, G.E.
This study examined educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions among adult smokers. Longitudinal data (N = 7571) from two waves of six countries of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys were
Dixon, J.B.; Browne, J.L.; Mosely, K.G.; Jones, K.M.; Pouwer, F.; Speight, J.
Aims To investigate whether diabetes self-care attitudes, behaviours and perceived burden, particularly related to weight management, diet and physical activity, differ between adults with Type 2 diabetes who are severely obese and matched non-severely obese control subjects. Methods The 1795
Mathews, John J.; And Others
In the comparison, questionnaires concerning aspects of training-related and work-related attitudes were sent to 225 Air Traffic Control (ATC) trainees who represented groups of attritions and retentions in two En Route training programs; viz, programs that provided basic training at the FAA Academy and programs that provided basic training at the…
Shroff, Ronnie H.; Trent, John; Ng, Eugenia M. W.
This study extends the ownership of learning model by using e-portfolios in a field experience placement to examine student-teachers' attitudes towards learning in relationship to personal value, feeling in control and taking responsibility. A research model is presented based on research into ownership of learning. The student e-portfolio…
Bradley, Deirdre Elyse
A reasoned action approach (RAA) was used to assess the importance of psychological factors (attitude, perceived norm, and perceived behavioral control) in forming a woman's intention to use mobile technology, specifically mobile business applications. This study also examined whether the significance of these factors varied across cultures. An…
Janssen, Heleen J.; Bruinsma, Gerben J. N.; Dekovic, Maja; Eichelsheim, Veroni I.
Although spending time in criminogenic settings is increasingly recognized as an explanation for adolescent delinquency, little is known about its determinants. The current study aims to examine the extent to which (change in) self-control and (change in) delinquent attitudes relate to (change in) time spent in criminogenic settings, and the…
Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the status of cigarette marketing in Tehran and the attitude of smokers toward smoking Behavior and tobacco control programs in smokers of Tehran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 608 volunteer smokers in Tehran City. Using a stratified cluster random sampling method, the study population involved smokers who used at least one cigarette per day. The data collection tool was an anonymous self-administered questionnaire including basic information and questions related to participants' attitude toward smoking habits (Cronbach's alpha; 78.19%.. (72.9% of the participants started smoking at the age of 10 to 19 years and 72.2% used foreign cigarettes. Each person spends a daily average of 30690 riyals for cigarettes. Being tempted (28.0%, feeling euphoria (27.8% and getting nervous (25.5% were the most common reasons of restarting cigarette smoking after cessation. A majority of the participants believed that smoking in public places was a violation of the rights of others and smoking should be avoided in such places. 61 Iranian and foreign cigarette brands available in the market that some foreign cigarettes were smuggled. Most smokers start smoking as teenagers, then smoking prevention programs should focus on adolescents as the most vulnerable age group. Raising the retail price of tobacco products through increasing taxes can reduce consumption particularly among first starters and youth. increasing taxes and prices of tobacco products may be effective when simultaneous effective measures are implemented to eliminate all kinds of illicit trade in all forms of tobacco products.
Kumaran, Emmanuelle; Doum, Dyna; Keo, Vanney; Sokha, Ly; Sam, BunLeng; Chan, Vibol; Alexander, Neal; Bradley, John; Liverani, Marco; Prasetyo, Didot Budi; Rachmat, Agus; Lopes, Sergio; Hii, Jeffrey; Rithea, Leang; Shafique, Muhammad; Hustedt, John
Globally there are an estimated 390 million dengue infections per year, of which 96 million are clinically apparent. In Cambodia, estimates suggest as many as 185,850 cases annually. The World Health Organization global strategy for dengue prevention aims to reduce mortality rates by 50% and morbidity by 25% by 2020. The adoption of integrated vector management approach using community-based methods tailored to the local context is one of the recommended strategies to achieve these objectives. Understanding local knowledge, attitudes and practices is therefore essential to designing suitable strategies to fit each local context. A Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices survey in 600 randomly chosen households was administered in 30 villages in Kampong Cham which is one of the most populated provinces of Cambodia. KAP surveys were administered to a sub-sample of households where an entomology survey was conducted (1200 households), during which Aedes larval/pupae and adult female Aedes mosquito densities were recorded. Participants had high levels of knowledge regarding the transmission of dengue, Aedes breeding, and biting prevention methods; the majority of participants believed they were at risk and that dengue transmission is preventable. However, self-reported vector control practices did not match observed practices recorded in our surveys. No correlation was found between knowledge and observed practices either. An education campaign regarding dengue prevention in this setting with high knowledge levels is unlikely to have any significant effect on practices unless it is incorporated in a more comprehensive strategy for behavioural change, such a COMBI method, which includes behavioural models as well as communication and marketing theory and practice. ISRCTN85307778.
Doum, Dyna; Keo, Vanney; Sokha, Ly; Sam, BunLeng; Chan, Vibol; Alexander, Neal; Bradley, John; Liverani, Marco; Prasetyo, Didot Budi; Rachmat, Agus; Lopes, Sergio; Hii, Jeffrey; Rithea, Leang; Shafique, Muhammad; Hustedt, John
Background Globally there are an estimated 390 million dengue infections per year, of which 96 million are clinically apparent. In Cambodia, estimates suggest as many as 185,850 cases annually. The World Health Organization global strategy for dengue prevention aims to reduce mortality rates by 50% and morbidity by 25% by 2020. The adoption of integrated vector management approach using community-based methods tailored to the local context is one of the recommended strategies to achieve these objectives. Understanding local knowledge, attitudes and practices is therefore essential to designing suitable strategies to fit each local context. Methods and findings A Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices survey in 600 randomly chosen households was administered in 30 villages in Kampong Cham which is one of the most populated provinces of Cambodia. KAP surveys were administered to a sub-sample of households where an entomology survey was conducted (1200 households), during which Aedes larval/pupae and adult female Aedes mosquito densities were recorded. Participants had high levels of knowledge regarding the transmission of dengue, Aedes breeding, and biting prevention methods; the majority of participants believed they were at risk and that dengue transmission is preventable. However, self-reported vector control practices did not match observed practices recorded in our surveys. No correlation was found between knowledge and observed practices either. Conclusion An education campaign regarding dengue prevention in this setting with high knowledge levels is unlikely to have any significant effect on practices unless it is incorporated in a more comprehensive strategy for behavioural change, such a COMBI method, which includes behavioural models as well as communication and marketing theory and practice. Trial registration ISRCTN85307778. PMID:29451879
The study assessed young adults' attitudes toward childlessness and identified certain factors which predict positive or negative attitudes toward childlessness. The author anticipated finding changes in attitudes because of recent social developments such as awareness of world overpopulation, availability of birth control methods, pressure for…
Full Text Available This paper has implemented nonlinear control strategy for the single tilt tri-rotor aerial robot. Based on Newton-Euler’s laws, the linear and nonlinear mathematical models of tri-rotor UAVs are obtained. A numerical analysis using Newton-Raphson method is chosen for finding hovering equilibrium point. Back-stepping nonlinear controller design is based on constructing Lyapunov candidate function for closed-loop system. By imitating the linguistic logic of human thought, fuzzy logic controllers (FLCs are designed based on control rules and membership functions, which are much less rigid than the calculations computers generally perform. Effectiveness of the controllers design scheme is shown through nonlinear simulation model on each channel.
Full Text Available In this article, nonlinear uncertainty has been investigated for a hypersonic reentry vehicle subject to actuator saturation via active disturbance rejection control technology. A nonlinear extended state observer is designed to estimate “total disturbances,” which is compensated with a linear controller. Both convergence of the nonlinear extended state observer and stabilization of the closed-loop system are studied in this article. Some simulation results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
O?Brien, Kerry; Forrest, Walter; Lynott, Dermot; Daly, Michael
OBJECTIVE: Racism is related to policies preferences and behaviors that adversely affect blacks and appear related to a fear of blacks (e.g., increased policing, death penalty). This study examined whether racism is also related to gun ownership and opposition to gun controls in US whites. METHOD: The most recent data from the American National Election Study, a large representative US sample, was used to test relationships between racism, gun ownership, and opposition to gun control in US wh...
Cinthia A Acka
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the developing world where parasitic worm infections are pervasive, preventive chemotherapy is the key strategy for morbidity control. However, local knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP of parasitic worms are poorly understood, although such information is required for prevention and sustainable control. METHODS: We carried out KAP surveys in two rural communities of Côte d'Ivoire that were subjected to school-based and community-based research and control activities. We used qualitative and quantitative methods. The former included observations, in-depth interviews with key informants, and focus group discussions with school children and adults. Quantitative methods consisted of a structured questionnaire administered to household heads. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Access to clean water was lacking in both communities and only a quarter of the households had functioning latrines. There was a better understanding of soil-transmitted helminthiasis than intestinal schistosomiasis, but community-based rather than school-based interventions appeared to improve knowledge of schistosomiasis. In the villages with community-based interventions, three-quarters of household interviewees knew about intestinal schistosomiasis compared to 14% in the village where school-based interventions were implemented (P<0.001. Whereas two-thirds of respondents from the community-based intervention village indicated that the research and control project was the main source of information, only a quarter of the respondents cited the project as the main source. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Preventive chemotherapy targeting school-aged children has limitations, as older population segments are neglected, and hence lack knowledge about how to prevent and control parasitic worm infections. Improved access to clean water and sanitation is necessary, along with health education to make a durable impact against helminth infections.
Li, Zhijun; Yao, Yan; Han, Weiqing; Yu, Yaqin; Liu, Yawen; Tao, Yuchun; Kou, Changgui; Jiang, Lingling; Sun, Qing; Yin, Yutian; Zhang, Huiping; Li, Bo
The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), the associated factors of current smoking among adults, and their attitudes and perceptions towards tobacco control. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012 using a self-reported questionnaire. A representative sample of adults aged 18-79 years was collected in the Jilin Province of Northeast China by a multistage stratified random cluster sampling design. Descriptive data analysis was conducted, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of prevalence/frequency were calculated to enable comparisons between the alleged differences and similarities. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the risk factors associated with current smoking. 21,435 adults responded to the survey (response rate: 84.9%). The overall prevalence of ever smoking, current smoking, and former smoking or smoking cessation was 39.1% (95% CI: 38.3-39.9), 31.8% (95% CI 31.1-32.6), and 7.3% (95% CI: 6.9-7.7), respectively. The proportion of ETS exposure among adult non-smokers in Jilin Province was 61.1% (95% CI: 60.1-62.1), and 23.1% (95% CI: 22.3-24.0) of the non-smokers reported daily ETS exposure. The proportion of ETS exposure at home was 33.4% (95% CI: 32.5-34.4), but the proportion of ETS exposure at restaurants was lower (6.5%) (95% CI: 6.0-7.1). More than 90% of the participants had positive attitudes and perceptions towards tobacco control, but 23.2% (95% CI: 22.5-24.0) of them did not agree with the perception of "smoking is fully quit in public places", and almost half of the adults (49.5%) (95% CI: 48.7-50.3) did not agree with the perception of "hazards of low-tar cigarettes are equal to general cigarettes". Smoking and exposure to ETS are prevalent among adults from the Jilin Province of Northeast China. Our findings suggest that tobacco control should be advocated in Northeast China. Anti-smoking campaigns and legislation should be built into the
Full Text Available Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, the associated factors of current smoking among adults, and their attitudes and perceptions towards tobacco control. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012 using a self-reported questionnaire. A representative sample of adults aged 18–79 years was collected in the Jilin Province of Northeast China by a multistage stratified random cluster sampling design. Descriptive data analysis was conducted, and 95% confidence intervals (CI of prevalence/frequency were calculated to enable comparisons between the alleged differences and similarities. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the risk factors associated with current smoking. Results: 21,435 adults responded to the survey (response rate: 84.9%. The overall prevalence of ever smoking, current smoking, and former smoking or smoking cessation was 39.1% (95% CI: 38.3–39.9, 31.8% (95% CI 31.1–32.6, and 7.3% (95% CI: 6.9–7.7, respectively. The proportion of ETS exposure among adult non-smokers in Jilin Province was 61.1% (95% CI: 60.1–62.1, and 23.1% (95% CI: 22.3–24.0 of the non-smokers reported daily ETS exposure. The proportion of ETS exposure at home was 33.4% (95% CI: 32.5–34.4, but the proportion of ETS exposure at restaurants was lower (6.5% (95% CI: 6.0–7.1. More than 90% of the participants had positive attitudes and perceptions towards tobacco control, but 23.2% (95% CI: 22.5–24.0 of them did not agree with the perception of “smoking is fully quit in public places”, and almost half of the adults (49.5% (95% CI: 48.7–50.3 did not agree with the perception of “hazards of low-tar cigarettes are equal to general cigarettes”. Conclusions: Smoking and exposure to ETS are prevalent among adults from the Jilin Province of Northeast China. Our findings suggest that tobacco control should be advocated in
Galal, Yasmine S; Labib, John R; Abouelhamd, Walaa A
Healthcare-associated infection is a prominent problem among patients in pediatric intensive care units (PICU) as it could result in significant morbidity, prolonged hospitalization, and increase in medical care costs. The role of nurses is extremely important in preventing hazards and sequela of healthcare-associated infections. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a health education program regarding infection-control measures on nurses' knowledge and attitude in PICUs at Cairo University hospitals. This was a pre-post test interventional study in which a convenient sample of 125 nurses was taken from the nursing staff in different PICUs at Cairo University hospitals. The study took place in three phases. In the first phase, the nursing staff's knowledge, attitude and practice concerning infection-control measures were tested using a self-administered pretested questionnaire and an observation checklist. The second phase included health education sessions in the form of powerpoint and video presentations; and in the third phase the nurses' knowledge and attitude on infection-control measures were reassessed. A significantly higher level of knowledge was revealed in the postintervention phase as compared with the preintervention phase with regards to the types of nosocomial infections (94.4 vs. 76.8%, Pcontrol nosocomial infections (89.6 vs. 68%, Pcontrol measures could protect them completely from acquiring infection (79.2 vs. 65.6%, P=0.033). Statistically significant higher total knowledge and attitude scores were revealed in the postintervention phase as compared with the preintervention one (PHospital (88%), whereas it was the lowest in the emergency pediatric unit (65%). There is scope for improvement in knowledge and attitude after educational program was offered to the nursing staff. Educational training programs should be multidisciplinary interventions in the era of quality control to help healthcare workers realize the importance of basic
Doroshin, Anton V.
In this work the chaos in dynamical systems is considered as a positive aspect of dynamical behavior which can be applied to change systems dynamical parameters and, moreover, to change systems qualitative properties. From this point of view, the chaos can be characterized as a hub for the system dynamical regimes, because it allows to interconnect separated zones of the phase space of the system, and to fulfill the jump into the desirable phase space zone. The concretized aim of this part of the research is to focus on developing the attitude control method for magnetized gyrostat-satellites, which uses the passage through the intentionally generated heteroclinic chaos. The attitude dynamics of the satellite/spacecraft in this case represents the series of transitions from the initial dynamical regime into the chaotic heteroclinic regime with the subsequent exit to the final target dynamical regime with desirable parameters of the attitude dynamics.
Hayashida, S [Nagasaki Institute of Applied Science, Nagasaki (Japan)
The previous paper has proposed a resistance test method by controlling the attitude of a high-speed model ship using a personal computer without making a data base. For this method, the fluid force acting on the hull of model ship is measured, to change its attitude based on the measurement, and then, the fluid force is measured again, to change the attitude again. The traveling attitude is created by repeating this, to measure the force acting on the hull. Since the attitude is changed by calculating using the fluid force measured, various factors can be considered in the calculation process. For example, a test with an arbitrary displacement in an arbitrary position of center of gravity can be conducted in spite of actual displacement and position of center of gravity of the model ship. A test for a high-speed ship was conducted through this method, to obtain nearly satisfactory results compared with a usual resistance test. Occasionally, a lot of repetitions were required to satisfy the balancing condition of the force. In this study, the improvement of testing efficiency has been planned by modifying the analyzing program. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.
Carpiniello, Bernardo; Primavera, Diego; Pilu, Alessandra; Vaccargiu, Nicola; Pinna, Federica
Mentally ill people experience greater difficulty than the general population in exercising regularly. We aimed to evaluate attitudes displayed and barriers perceived towards physical activity in a sample of psychiatric patients. A total of 138 (M = 48, F = 90) patients attending a community mental health centre were compared with a control group made up of 138 subjects not affected by mental disorders matched for gender, mean age and education. Both groups underwent a self-administered questionnaire. Patients reported a more sedentary lifestyle in terms of weekly physical activities and daily hours of exercise; their body mass index (BMI) was significantly higher compared with the BMI of controls (p barriers to physical activity; moreover, stating how feeling sad or "distressed" reduced their propensity to physical exercise (p = 0.002). A higher number of patients (p physical activity, and the experiencing of scarce enjoyment (p barriers may limit regular physical activity in subjects affected by mental disorders; these barriers should be taken into account and appropriately addressed.
Howe, Lauren C; Krosnick, Jon A
Attitude strength has been the focus of a huge volume of research in psychology and related sciences for decades. The insights offered by this literature have tremendous value for understanding attitude functioning and structure and for the effective application of the attitude concept in applied settings. This is the first Annual Review of Psychology article on the topic, and it offers a review of theory and evidence regarding one of the most researched strength-related attitude features: attitude importance. Personal importance is attached to an attitude when the attitude is perceived to be relevant to self-interest, social identification with reference groups or reference individuals, and values. Attaching personal importance to an attitude causes crystallizing of attitudes (via enhanced resistance to change), effortful gathering and processing of relevant information, accumulation of a large store of well-organized relevant information in long-term memory, enhanced attitude extremity and accessibility, enhanced attitude impact on the regulation of interpersonal attraction, energizing of emotional reactions, and enhanced impact of attitudes on behavioral intentions and action. Thus, important attitudes are real and consequential psychological forces, and their study offers opportunities for addressing behavioral change.
Colzato, L.S.; Hommel, B.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.M.; Hsieh, S.
Increasing evidence suggests that religious practice induces systematic biases in attentional control. We used Navon's global-local task to compare attentional bias in Taiwanese Zen Buddhists and Taiwanese atheists; two groups brought up in the same country and culture and matched with respect to
trampoline . When a person jumps onto a trampoline , the springs are compressed. When the springs return to their normal state, the restoring force sends...0.0164 103.25 in Table 4.4. The heading for the table lists appendage length, peak control effort, stability robustness, frequency of the first bending
Full Text Available Los estudiantes universitarios utilizan internet para comunicarse y obtener información sobre salud. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo mediante una encuesta a 227 estudiantes para determinar si había diferencias entre aquellos que utilizan internet y el correo electrónico para informarse sobre salud y aquellos que no. Las variables dependientes fueron la Escala de Estrés Percibido y las subescalas de la Escala Multidimensional de Locus de Control de la Salud. Las variables independientes incluyeron preguntas sobre la utilización de internet para informarse o comunicarse con otros sobre salud. Se realizaron análisis para el total de la muestra y por género. En los tres ítems de comunicación, los que utilizaban internet/correo electrónico mostraron un nivel de estrés percibido significativamente más alto. No hubo diferencias entre los que usaban internet para buscar información sobre salud. Estos resultados se mantuvieron para hombres y se acercaron a la significación para las mujeres. Los que utilizan internet para obtener información sobre salud puntuaron significativamente más alto en la subescala de locus de control interno. Estos resultados se mantuvieron en los varones, mientras que para las mujeres fue significativa la subescala de control por otros poderes. Los hombres con estrés percibido se comunican por correo electrónico o internet sobre salud, mientras que las mujeres no. Respecto al uso de información sobre salud en internet, los hombres utilizan un locus de control interno y las mujeres un locus de control por otros poderes. Estos resultados son útiles para los profesionales que asesoren a universitarios con problemas de salud.
Straily, A; Trevino-Garrison, I
Rabies is a deadly zoonoses endemic in the United States, including Kansas. Animal control programmes that emphasize vaccination of dogs and cats, removal of stray animals and enforcement of licensure programmes have historically been essential in reducing the risk of rabies exposures to humans (Beran, 1991). Kansas does not mandate the use of animal control officers [ACOs] and in areas where there is no designated animal control officer, law enforcement officers [LEOs] are required to fill that role. Little is known about LEOs' knowledge of rabies, their current practices in responding to animal-related calls or if they receive any specialized training to perform the duties of an ACO. A web-based, voluntary and anonymous survey was sent to law enforcement officers in Kansas in January 2014. The survey included questions about animal control practices and a self-assessment of rabies knowledge. The response rate was 16.2%. All respondents indicated LEOs will respond to animal-related calls, even if there was an ACO available in their department or jurisdiction. A majority of respondents indicated they had not received training on safe animal handling (62.9%, 61/97) or zoonoses prevention (85.6%, 83/97), even though a strong majority considered such training important (89.7% and 79.4%, respectively). Most respondents (>80%) were able to correctly identify animals capable of transmitting rabies but were less aware of how rabies was transmitted or the severity of rabies in humans. Our results demonstrate that Kansas LEOs perform animal control duties, many without the proper training, even though most consider such training to be important to be able to perform their duties safely. Training on safe animal handling and zoonoses prevention should be provided to all LEOs in Kansas to enable them to safely execute their duties and provide timely and accurate information to citizens regarding rabies prevention. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Attitudes and beliefs are analyzed as verbal behavior. It is argued that shaping by a verbal community is an essential part of the formation and maintenance of both attitudes and beliefs, and it is suggested that verbal communities mediate the important shift in control from events in the environment (attitudes and beliefs as tacts) to control by other words (attitudes and beliefs as intraverbals). It appears that both attitudes and beliefs are constantly being socially negotiated through aut...
Inumoh, Lawrence O.; Forshaw, Jason L.; Horri, Nadjim M.
Gyroscopic actuators for satellite control have attracted significant research interest over the years, but their viability for the control of small satellites has only recently started to become clear. Research on variable speed gyroscopic actuators has long been focused on single gimbal actuators; double gimbal actuators typically operate at constant wheel spin rate and allow tilt angle ranges far larger than the ranges needed to operate most satellite missions. This research examines a tilted wheel, a newly proposed type of inertial actuator that can generate torques in all three principal axes of a rigid satellite using a spinning wheel and a double tilt mechanism. The tilt mechanism tilts the angular momentum vector about two axes providing two degree of freedom control, while variation of the wheel speed provides the third. The equations of motion of the system lead to a singularity-free system during nominal operation avoiding the need for complex steering logic. This paper describes the hardware design of the tilted wheel and the experimental setup behind both standalone and spherical air-bearing tables used to test it. Experimental results from the air bearing table are provided with the results depicting the high performance capabilities of the proposed actuator in torque generation.
da Fonseca, Ijar M.; Rade, Domingos A.; Goes, Luiz C. S.; de Paula Sales, Thiago
The primary purpose of this paper is to provide insight into control-structure interaction for satellites comprising flexible appendages and internal moving components. The physical model considered herein aiming to attend such purpose is a rigid-flexible satellite consisting of a rigid platform containing two rotating flexible solar panels. The solar panels rotation is assumed to be in a sun-synchronous configuration mode. The panels contain surface-bonded piezoelectric patches that can be used either as sensors for the elastic displacements or as actuators to counteract the vibration motion. It is assumed that in the normal mode operation the satellite platform points towards the Earth while the solar arrays rotate so as to follow the Sun. The vehicle moves in a low Earth polar orbit. The technique used to obtain the mathematical model combines the Lagrangian formulation with the Finite Elements Method used to describe the dynamics of the solar panel. The gravity-gradient torque as well as the torque due to the interaction of the Earth magnetic field and the satellite internal residual magnetic moment is included as environmental perturbations. The actuators are three reaction wheels for attitude control and piezoelectric actuators to control the flexible motion of the solar arrays. Computer simulations are performed using the MATLAB® software package. The following on-orbit satellite operating configurations are object of analysis: i) Satellite pointing towards the Earth (Earth acquisition maneuver) by considering the initial conditions in the elastic displacement equal to zero, aiming the assessment of the flexible modes excitation by the referred maneuver; ii) the satellite pointing towards the Earth with the assumption of an initial condition different from zero for the flexible motion such that the attitude alterations are checked against the elastic motion disturbance; and iii) attitude acquisition accomplished by taking into account initial conditions
Gorawara-Bhat, Rita; O'Muircheartaigh, Siobhan; Mohile, Supriya; Dale, William
To compare patients' attitudes towards recurrent prostate cancer (PCa) and starting hormone therapy (HT) treatment in two groups-Decision-Aid (DA) (intervention) and Standard-of-care (SoC) (Control). The present research was conducted at three academic clinics-two in the Midwest and one in the Northeast U.S. Patients with biochemical recurrence of PCa (n=26) and follow-up oncology visits meeting inclusion criteria were randomized to either the SoC or DA intervention group prior to their consultation. Analysts were blinded to group assignment. Semi-structured phone interviews with patients were conducted 1-week post consultation. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. Qualitative analytic techniques were used to extract salient themes and conduct a comparative analysis of the two groups. Four salient themes emerged-1) knowledge acquisition, 2) decision-making style, 3) decision-making about timing of HT, and 4) anxiety-coping mechanisms. A comparative analysis showed that patients receiving the DA intervention had a better comprehension of Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), an improved understanding of HT treatment implications, an external locus-of-control, participation in shared decision-making and, support-seeking for anxiety reduction. In contrast, SoC patients displayed worse comprehension of PSA testing and HT treatment implications, internal locus-of-control, unilateral involvement in knowledge-seeking and decision-making, and no support-seeking for anxiety-coping. The DA was more effective than the SoC group in helping PCa patients understand the full implications of PSA testing and treatment; motivating shared decision-making, and support-seeking for anxiety relief. DA DVD interventions can be a useful patient education tool for bringing higher quality decision-making to prostate cancer care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This survey of attitude theory and research published between 1996 and 1999 covers the conceptualization of attitude, attitude formation and activation, attitude structure and function, and the attitude-behavior relation. Research regarding the expectancy-value model of attitude is considered, as are the roles of accessible beliefs and affective versus cognitive processes in the formation of attitudes. The survey reviews research on attitude strength and its antecedents and consequences, and covers progress made on the assessment of attitudinal ambivalence and its effects. Also considered is research on automatic attitude activation, attitude functions, and the relation of attitudes to broader values. A large number of studies dealt with the relation between attitudes and behavior. Research revealing additional moderators of this relation is reviewed, as are theory and research on the link between intentions and actions. Most work in this context was devoted to issues raised by the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior. The present review highlights the nature of perceived behavioral control, the relative importance of attitudes and subjective norms, the utility of adding more predictors, and the roles of prior behavior and habit.
Full Text Available Objectives: To provide data on African/black South African university students’ tobacco use status, belief in the benefits to health of not smoking, risk awareness in terms of knowledge of the links between smoking and disease, health locus of control, value for health, subjective health status and well-being. Design: Cross sectional. Setting: University of the North Subjects: 793 Black University students from non-health courses chosen by random sampling, of these 370 (46.7% were males and 423 (53.3% were females in the age range of 18 to 25 years (M age 21.0 years, SD=3.48. Main Outcome Measures: A measure of smoking, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, the Health as a Value Scale, and a measure for subjective health and subjective well-being. Results: The average prevalence of current tobacco use was 15% in men and 1% in women. The proportion of tobacco users who were classified as light users (1-10 per day averaged 10% in men and 1% in women. Age and being male were significantly positively associated with status and frequency of tobacco use. Awareness of the link between smoking and lung cancer was high (93%, but awareness of the role of smoking in heart disease was very low (16%. The importance to health of not smoking was associated with smoking status (non-smoking versus smoking. Overall, 75% of the current smokers stated that they would like to reduce the amount they smoked. Poor subjective health status and low subjective well-being was associated with smoking status. No significant differences were found among non-tobacco users and tobacco users in relation to the three subscales of the Health Locus of Control (Internal, Chance, and Powerful others and Value for health. Conclusion: For about 9% of the male students investigated, a high risk exists to become regular tobacco users for the next 30 years.
Leon, Linear Algebra with Applications, 5th ed., Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2009.  Controller Area Network (CAN) Tutorial, National...as an elementary rotation when it is about a single principal axis in the reference frame. When successive rotations are implemented, a numerical...axis). The DCMs for elementary rotations are as follows : 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 cos sin 0 sin cos C (8) 22 122
Colzato, Lorenza S; Hommel, Bernhard; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; Hsieh, Shulan
Increasing evidence suggests that religious practice induces systematic biases in attentional control. We used Navon's global-local task to compare attentional bias in Taiwanese Zen Buddhists and Taiwanese atheists; two groups brought up in the same country and culture and matched with respect to race, intelligence, sex, and age. Given the Buddhist emphasis on compassion for the physical and social environment, we expected a more global bias in Buddhist than in Atheist participants. In line with these expectations, Buddhists showed a larger global-precedence effect and increased interference from global distracters when processing local information. This pattern reinforces the idea that people's attentional processing style reflects biases rewarded by their religious practices.
Lorenza S Colzato
Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that religious practice induces systematic biases in attentional control. We used Navon’s global-local task to compare attentional bias in Taiwanese Buddhists and Taiwanese atheists; two groups brought up in the same country and culture and matched with respect to race, intelligence, sex, and age. Given the Buddhist emphasis on compassion for the physical and social environment, we expected a more global bias in Buddhist than in Atheist participants. In line with these expectations, Buddhists showed a larger global-precedence effect and increased interference from global distracters when processing local information. This pattern reinforces the idea that people's attentional processing style reflects biases rewarded by their religious beliefs.
Two ground simulation software are used to model the SMAP spacecraft dynamics. The CAST software uses a higher fidelity model than the ADAMS software. The ADAMS software models the spacecraft plant, controller and actuator models, and assumes a perfect sensor and estimator model. In this simulation study, the spacecraft dynamics results from the ADAMS software are used as CAST software is unavailable. The main source of spacecraft dynamics error in the higher fidelity CAST software is due to the estimation error. A signal generation model is developed to capture the effect of this estimation error in the overall spacecraft dynamics. Then, this signal generation model is included in the ADAMS software spacecraft dynamics estimate such that the results are similar to CAST. This signal generation model has similar characteristics mean, variance and power spectral density as the true CAST estimation error. In this way, ADAMS software can still be used while capturing the higher fidelity spacecraft dynamics modeling from CAST software.
In a first phase, the modelling process underlines the presence of highly time varying parameters during the ascent, due to a fast mass variation along with propellant consumption. Linearizing the dynamical equations at six main flight instants yields linear time invariant models to be considered during control design. Each of them is to be stabilized by one control law, while respecting given specifications. The synthesis becomes even more complex when the bending modes are taken into account. Moreover, scheduling appears necessary to deal with the time variations. Indeed it is shown that no single gain setting is able to respect all the specifications along the trajectory. Furthermore, increasing complexity when modelling a whole launch vehicle pushes one to consider the model's errors and uncertainties. They represent a major issue in this study since it is asked to ensure the nominal performances in a robust fashion. Owing to their properties, guardian maps appear to be the most suitable tool to deal with such a problem of scheduling with robust performances. In light of this, the development of synthesis methods based on guardian maps is the main contribution of the project. It appears that actual state of the art in this field is focused on theoretical issues, whereas practical ones could be improved. Two approches are presented in the memoire. The first one is based on a graphical approach consisting in drawing the vanishing locus of guardian maps. A program using image analysis techniques is devised to check automatically which gain settings satisfy the constraints. The second one is based on an optimisation procedure involving guardian maps. Starting with the open loop system, the iterative process proposed ends up with a satisfactory gain setting for the closed-loop. These methods are tried and tested for the launch vehicle, with specifications from ASTRIUM-ST. Their practical application is motivated by the system complexity, the different kinds of
Li, Jessica; Lovatt, Melanie; Eadie, Douglas; Dobbie, Fiona; Meier, Petra; Holmes, John; Hastings, Gerard; MacKintosh, Anne Marie
The harmful effects of heavy drinking on health have been widely reported, yet public opinion on governmental responsibility for alcohol control remains divided. This study examines UK public attitudes towards alcohol policies, identifies underlying dimensions that inform these, and relationships with perceived effectiveness. A cross-sectional mixed methods study involving a telephone survey of 3477 adult drinkers aged 16-65 and sixteen focus groups with 89 adult drinkers in Scotland and England was conducted between September 2012 and February 2013. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to reduce twelve policy statements into underlying dimensions. These dimensions were used in linear regression models examining alcohol policy support by demographics, drinking behaviour and perceptions of UK drinking and government responsibility. Findings were supplemented with a thematic analysis of focus group transcripts. A majority of survey respondents supported all alcohol policies, although the level of support varied by type of policy. Greater enforcement of laws on under-age sales and more police patrolling the streets were strongly supported while support for pricing policies and restricting access to alcohol was more divided. PCA identified four main dimensions underlying support on policies: alcohol availability, provision of health information and treatment services, alcohol pricing, and greater law enforcement. Being female, older, a moderate drinker, and holding a belief that government should do more to reduce alcohol harms were associated with higher support on all policy dimensions. Focus group data revealed findings from the survey may have presented an overly positive level of support on all policies due to differences in perceived policy effectiveness. Perceived effectiveness can help inform underlying patterns of policy support and should be considered in conjunction with standard measures of support in future research on alcohol control policies
Croley, D.R.; Garrett, H.B.; Murphy, G.B.; Garrard, T.L.
The three large solar particle events, beginning on October 19, 1989 and lasting approximately six days, were characterized by high fluences of solar protons and heavy ions at 1 AU. During these events, an abnormally large number of upsets (243) were observed in the random access memory of the attitude control system (ACS) control processing electronics (CPE) on-board the geosynchronous TDRS-1 (Telemetry and Data Relay Satellite). The RAM unit affected was composed of eight Fairchild 93L422 memory chips. The Galileo spacecraft, launched on October 18, 1989 (one day prior to the solar particle events) observed the fluxes of heavy ions experienced by TDRS-1. Two solid-state detector telescopes on-board Galileo, designed to measure heavy ion species and energy, were turned on during time periods within each of the three separate events. The heavy ion data have been modeled and the time history of the events reconstructed to estimate heavy ion fluences. These fluences were converted to effective LET spectra after transport through the estimated shielding distribution around the TDRS-1 ACS system. The number of single event upsets (SEU) expected was calculated by integrating the measured cross section for the Fairchild 93L422 memory chip with average effective LET spectrum. The expected number of heavy ion induced SEU's calculated was 176. GOES-7 proton data, observed during the solar particle events, were used to estimate the number of proton-induced SEU's by integrating the proton fluence spectrum incident on the memory chips, with the two-parameter Bendel cross section for proton SEU's. The proton fluence spectrum at the device level was gotten by transporting the protons through the estimated shielding distribution. The number of calculated proton-induced SEU's was 72, yielding a total of 248 predicted SEU's, very close to the 243 observed SEU's
Croley, D. R.; Garrett, H. B.; Murphy, G. B.; Garrard,T. L.
The three large solar particle events, beginning on October 19, 1989 and lasting approximately six days, were characterized by high fluences of solar protons and heavy ions at 1 AU. During these events, an abnormally large number of upsets (243) were observed in the random access memory of the attitude control system (ACS) control processing electronics (CPE) on-board the geosynchronous TDRS-1 (Telemetry and Data Relay Satellite). The RAM unit affected was composed of eight Fairchild 93L422 memory chips. The Galileo spacecraft, launched on October 18, 1989 (one day prior to the solar particle events) observed the fluxes of heavy ions experienced by TDRS-1. Two solid-state detector telescopes on-board Galileo, designed to measure heavy ion species and energy, were turned on during time periods within each of the three separate events. The heavy ion data have been modeled and the time history of the events reconstructed to estimate heavy ion fluences. These fluences were converted to effective LET spectra after transport through the estimated shielding distribution around the TDRS-1 ACS system. The number of single event upsets (SEU) expected was calculated by integrating the measured cross section for the Fairchild 93L422 memory chip with average effective LET spectrum. The expected number of heavy ion induced SEU's calculated was 176. GOES-7 proton data, observed during the solar particle events, were used to estimate the number of proton-induced SEU's by integrating the proton fluence spectrum incident on the memory chips, with the two-parameter Bendel cross section for proton SEU'S. The proton fluence spectrum at the device level was gotten by transporting the protons through the estimated shielding distribution. The number of calculated proton-induced SEU's was 72, yielding a total of 248 predicted SEU'S, very dose to the 243 observed SEU'S. These calculations uniquely demonstrate the roles that solar heavy ions and protons played in the production of SEU
Babbar, Shilpa; Porter, Blake W; Williams, Karen B
Pregnancy serves as an opportune time for "teachable moments" to elicit positive behavior change. We evaluated change in exercise perception, behavior and gestational weight gain in participants engaged in a one-hour educational experience. Women between 28 0/7 to 36 6/7 weeks with no prior yoga experience carrying a non-anomalous singleton fetus participated in a randomized controlled trial on prenatal yoga. The yoga group engaged in a one-hour yoga class; the attention control educational group, in a one-hour presentation on exercise, nutrition and obesity in pregnancy. Maternal perception of yoga, exercise effects and current health status was conducted before and after the intervention. Gestational weight gain (GWG) and body mass index (BMI) were assessed. A postpartum survey was performed to determine self-reported behavioral changes during and after pregnancy. Over 6 months, 52 women were randomized and 46 (88%) completed the study. Women reported a more positive attitude towards exercise and yoga after the yoga intervention. Total GWG was similar (yoga 32.9 versus education 32.8 pounds, p = 0.98). Stratified by pre-pregnancy BMI, 13% gained within and 61% gained above the Institute of Medicine guidelines in each group. Of 29 inactive women prior to the intervention, 60% of the yoga group and 75% of the education group began prenatal exercises after the intervention and 50% of each group continued to exercise after delivery. There were no significant differences between groups. A one-time, one-hour intervention teaching a new exercise or educating women during pregnancy can positively impact pregnancy behaviors and perception with the potential to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. Clinicaltrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov , NCT02063711.
Nahla K. Ibrahim
Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the level of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP of patients attended dental clinics at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH regarding cross infections and infection control in dentistry. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 225 patients who attended the dental clinics of KAUH, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, 2014. A standardized, confidential, anonymous, interviewing questionnaire was used. Knowledge about dental infections was assessed by 12 MCQs. The attitudes were assessed through answering seven statements on a three- point Likert scale. Patients’ self reported practices were also evaluated. Descriptive and inferential statistics were done.Results of the study revealed that 39.5%, 38.7% and 21.8% of the participants obtained poor, fair and satisfactory level of knowledge about infections and infection control in dentistry, respectively. Social media was the commonest source of information about dental infection. Participant's educational level was significantly associated with the level of knowledge about dental infection. Patients had positive attitudes towards infection control in dentistry. Regarding self-reported practice, only few participants would ask dentists about sterilization of dental instruments (9.3%, wearing face mask (13.3% and gloves (16.4% if they don’t do so. In conclusion, our participants had good attitudes towards infection control in dentistry. However, their knowledge and practice need improvements. Conduction of educational programs is needed through social media, mass media, schools and public places. These programs involve both patients and providers. Keywords: Patient safety, Cross infection, Dental infection, Infection control, Emerging diseases, KAP
Full Text Available Background: Lack of knowledge, attitude and practice are some of the barriers of having a healthy lifestyle and controlling high blood pressure. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a lifestyle modification program on knowledge, attitude and practice of hypertensive patients with angioplasty. Methods: This study was a randomizedcontrolledclinical trial conducted from November to April 2014 on 60 hypertensive patients with angioplasty in ShahidChamran hospital of Isfahan, Iran. The samples were randomly assigned to two equal groups. Data collection was performed in three stages by a researcher-made questionnaire. The intervention plan was 6 education sessions and then follow up were done by phone call. The gathered data were analyzed via SPSS (V.20, using t-test, Chi-square, repeated measurement, and post hoc LSD test andANOVA statistics. Results: The mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice in the experimental group immediately after the intervention was 77.8±7.2, 88.3±6.4 and 86.2±6.5, respectively and one month after the intervention was 80.8±7.4, 91.1±3.5 and 92.5±2.2, respectively. But in the control group, the mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice immediately after the intervention (34.90±11.23, 61.11±6.28, and 38.64±7.15 and one month after the intervention was (38.64±7.15, 59.56±6.31 and 37.27±7.26. Conclusion: Lifestyle modification program can be effective in promoting the knowledge, attitude and practice of hypertensive patients with angioplasty. Nurses can use this program in their care provision programs for these patients.
Graff, S. H.
Sometimes it is necessary to mount a payload remotely from the main body of a spacecraft or space station. The reasons for this vary from vibration isolation to avoidance of measurement contamination. For example the SP-100 project, which grew out of the increased interest in nuclear power in space for space stations and for deep space explorations, requires separation of the nuclear reactor from the user because of vibration, heat and radiation. The different attitude control problems for beam and tether configurations are discussed. The beam configuration uses a conservative design approach. The vibration, beam flexibility and deployment concerns are analyzed. The tether configuration offers some very attractive design features, but not without several thorny problems. These problems are analyzed. One configuration will be recommended for the main thrust of the SP-100 design effort based on attitude control considerations.
Renate van Landschoot
Full Text Available Educational posters are used to enhance knowledge, attitudes and self-confidence of patients. Little is known on their effectiveness for educating health care professionals. As these professionals may play an important role in suicide prevention, the effects of a poster and accompanying evaluation and triage guide on knowledge, self-confidence and attitudes regarding suicidal thoughts and behaviours, were studied in a multicentre cluster randomised controlled trial, involving staff from 39 emergency and 38 psychiatric departments throughout Flanders (n = 1171. Structured self-report questionnaires assessed the knowledge, confidence and beliefs regarding suicidal behaviour management, and attitudes. Data were analysed through a Solomon four-group design, with random assignment to the different conditions. Baseline scores for knowledge and provider confidence were high. The poster and accompanying evaluation and triage guide did not have an effect on knowledge about suicide and self-confidence in suicidal behaviour management. However, the poster campaign appeared to be beneficial for attitudes towards suicidal patients, but only among staff from mental health departments that were assigned to the un-pretested condition. Given the limited effects of the poster campaign in the studied population with a relatively high baseline knowledge, the evaluation of this poster as part of a multimodal educational programme in a more heterogeneous sample of health care professionals is recommended.
Effect of pain neurophysiology education on physiotherapy students' understanding of chronic pain, clinical recommendations and attitudes towards people with chronic pain: a randomised controlled trial.
Colleary, G; O'Sullivan, K; Griffin, D; Ryan, C G; Martin, D J
To investigate the effect of pain neurophysiology education (PNE) on student physiotherapists': (1) knowledge of chronic pain; (2) attitudes towards patients with chronic pain; and (3) clinical recommendations for patients with chronic pain. Multicentre single-blind randomised controlled trial. One UK and one Irish university. Seventy-two student physiotherapists. Participants received either PNE (intervention) or a control education. Both were delivered in a 70-minute group lecture. (1) The Revised Pain Neurophysiology Quiz to assess knowledge; (2) the Health Care Pain Attitudes and Impairment Relationship Scale (HC-PAIRS) to assess attitudes; and (3) a case vignette to assess the appropriateness of clinical recommendations. Post education, the PNE group had a greater increase in pain neurophysiology knowledge [mean difference 4.0 (95% confidence interval 3.2 to 4.7), Pstudents in the PNE group were more likely to make appropriate recommendations regarding work (94% vs 56%), exercise (92% vs 56%), activity (94% vs 67%) and bed rest (69% vs 33%) compared with those in the control group (Pphysiotherapy students, and could be used on a more widespread basis. There is a need to investigate whether these findings can be replicated in other healthcare professions, and how well these reported changes lead to changes in actual clinical behaviour and the clinical outcomes of patients. Copyright © 2017 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kerner, Matthew S; Kalinski, Michael I
Using the Theory of Planned Behavior as a framework, the Attitude to Leisure-time Physical Activity, Expectations of Others, Perceived Control, and Intention of Engage in Leisure-time Physical Activity scales were developed for use among high school students. The study population included 20 boys and 68 girls 13 to 17 years of age (for boys, M = 15.1 yr., SD = 1.0; for girls, M = 15.0 yr., SD = 1.1). Generation of items and the establishment of content validity were performed by professionals in exercise physiology, physical education, and clinical psychology. Each scale item was phrased in a Likert-type format. Both unipolar and bipolar scales with seven response choices were developed. Following the pilot testing and subsequent revisions, 32 items were retained in the Attitude to Leisure-time Physical Activity scale, 10 items were retained in the Expectations of Others scale, 3 items were retained in the Perceived Control Scale, and 24 items were retained in the Intention to Engage in Leisure-time Physical Activity scale. Coefficients indicated adequate stability and internal consistency with alpha ranging from .81 to .96. Studies of validities are underway, after which scales would be made available to those interested in intervention techniques for promoting positive attitudes toward physical fitness, perception of control over engaging in leisure-time physical activities, and good intentions to engage in leisure-time physical activities. The present results are encouraging.
Ibrahim, Normala; Rampal, Lekhraj; Jamil, Zubaidah; Zain, Azhar Mohd
Develop, implement and evaluate the effectiveness of a peer-led education program related to HIV/AIDS among university students. randomized controlled trial with 276 university students at Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences University Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang in 2011. A peer-led education program on HIV prevention by university students. differences in knowledge, attitude and risk behavior practices related to HIV between baselines, immediate follow-up after intervention and after three months. Significant improvement in sound knowledge in the intervention group as compared to the control group (Odds ratio, 1.75; 95% CI 1.01, 3.00; p=0.04) and improvement in good attitude related to HIV (Odds ratio 2.22; 95% CI 1.37, 3.61; p=0.01). The odds of high substance risk behavior was significantly reduced in the intervention group as compared to the control group (Odds ratio 0.07; 95% CI 0.02, 0.34; p=0.01). The association between good knowledge and intervention was modified by the different time points (baseline, immediately after intervention and 3 months after intervention), ethnicity and gender. Peer-led education program in HIV prevention improves knowledge, attitude and substance risk behavior. Changes in sexual risk behavior may require a longer follow-up. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study examines the knowledge of HIV/AIDS, attitudes towards risky sexual behaviour and perceived behavioural control among students in Botswana. Data were collected from 445 students randomly selected from the University of Botswana and Boitekanelo College. Hundred and seventy three males and 272 females participated in the study. The study established that although more than 90% of students correctly identified routes of HIV transmission, misconceptions regarding HIV/AIDS still exist. This includes the belief that people can be infected with HIV because of witchcraft and that only people who have sex with gay or homosexual partners can be infected with HIV. Majority of students were aware of various sexual risks. However, the percentage of students who indicated that “it is difficult to ask my partner to use a condom” was still relatively high (13.5% based on the assumption that students are supposed to know the consequences of sexual risky behaviour. It was also found that male students were 3.48 times more likely to negotiate sex than their female counterparts (OR = 3.48, 95% CI: 1.09 − 11.13 and students who were 18 years and below were more likely to negotiate sex than students above 18 years of age (OR = 2.78, 95% CI: 1.42 − 18.32. Christians are four times less likely to negotiate sex compared to non-Christians (OR = 0.219, 95% CI: 0.095 − 0.506. More than 80% of students were comfortable discussing HIV or sex and sexuality with their friends, boyfriends/girlfriends or partners but uncomfortable discussing the same issues with their parents.
Bock, Daniel; Tajmar, Martin
A highly miniaturized Field Emission Electric Propulsion (FEEP) system is currently under development at TU Dresden, called NanoFEEP . The highly miniaturized thruster heads are very compact and have a volume of less than 3 cm3 and a weight of less than 6 g each. One thruster is able to generate continuous thrust of up to 8 μN with short term peaks of up to 22 μN. The very compact design and low power consumption (heating power demand between 50 and 150 mW) are achieved by using Gallium as metal propellant with its low melting point of approximately 30 °C. This makes it possible to implement an electric propulsion system consisting of four thruster heads, two neutralizers and the necessary electronics on a 1U CubeSat with its strong limitation in space, weight and available power. Even formation flying of 1U CubeSats using an electric propulsion system is possible with this system, which is shown by the example of a currently planned cooperation project between Wuerzburg University, Zentrum fuer Telematik and TU Dresden. It is planned to use the NanoFEEP electric propulsion system on the UWE (University Wuerzburg Experimental) 1U CubeSat platform  to demonstrate orbit and two axis attitude control with our electric propulsion system NanoFEEP. We present the latest performance characteristics of the NanoFEEP thrusters and the highly miniaturized electronics. Additionally, the concept and the current status of a novel cold neutralizer chip using Carbon Nano Tubes (CNTs) is presented.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated attitudes to and compliance with smoking bans, but few have been conducted in healthcare settings and none in such a setting in Portugal. Portugal is of particular interest because the current ban is not in line with World Health Organization recommendations for a "100% smoke-free" policy. In November 2007, a Portuguese teaching-hospital surveyed smoking behaviour and tobacco control (TC attitudes before the national ban came into force in January 2008. Methods Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, including all eligible staff. Sample: 52.9% of the 1, 112 staff; mean age 38.3 ± 9.9 years; 65.9% females. Smoking behaviour and TC attitudes and beliefs were the main outcomes. Bivariable analyses were conducted using chi-squared and MacNemar tests to compare categorical variables and Mann-Whitney tests to compare medians. Multilogistic regression (MLR was performed to identify factors associated with smoking status and TC attitudes. Results Smoking prevalence was 40.5% (95% CI: 33.6-47.4 in males, 23.5% (95% CI: 19.2-27.8 in females (p Conclusions Smoking prevalence was high, especially among the lower socio-economic groups. The findings showed a very high level of support for smoking bans, despite the pro-smoking environment. Most staff reported passive behaviour, despite high SHS exposure. This and the high smoking prevalence may contribute to low compliance with the ban and low participation on smoking cessation activities. Smoking behaviour had greater influence in TC attitudes than health professionals' education. Our study is the first in Portugal to identify potential predictors of non-compliance with the partial smoking ban, further emphasising the need for a 100% smoke-free policy, effective enforcement and public health education to ensure compliance and promote social norm change.
Hutchinson, Jayne; Christian, Meaghan Sarah; Evans, Charlotte Elizabeth Louise; Nykjaer, Camilla; Hancock, Neil; Cade, Janet Elizabeth
Involvement of children in gardening has the potential to increase liking of fruit and vegetables (FV) and consequently, intake, but research results are mixed. School gardening led by external specialists such as the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) could have more impact than teacher-led gardening on children's knowledge of, and attitudes towards, FV. Data from a cluster randomised controlled trial were used to compare a RHS-led school gardening intervention with a teacher-led gardening intervention amongst 7-10 year olds in 21 London schools. A short questionnaire was developed and used to identify children's knowledge and attitudes towards FV consumption before the garden intervention and 18 months afterwards. Results from multilevel regression models, both unadjusted and adjusted for baseline responses and socio-demographic factors, were reported. Attitudes to FV intake were compared between groups. Change in FV knowledge was used to predict change in FV consumption assessed using 24-hour food diaries. In comparison with the RHS-led group (n = 373), teacher-led children (n = 404) were more likely to agree they ate lots of fruit (p gardening was associated with a greater increase in the total number of vegetables recognised (p = 0.031). No other differences in improvements in attitudes, or associations between change in FV recognition and intake were found. In relation to improvements in children's recognition and attitudes towards eating FV, this trial produced limited evidence that gardening activity packages led by external specialists (RHS-led) provide additional benefits over those led by teachers trained by the RHS. Indeed, the latter were potentially more effective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Akgul Gundogdu, Nurcan; Sevig, Emine Umit; Guler, Nuran
To assess the effect of the solution-focused approach interview technique on overweight/obese adolescents' nutrition-exercise attitudes and behaviours. Obesity is a serious health problem for all age groups, particularly adolescents; therefore, it is important for adolescents to develop healthy nutrition habits and acquire exercise behaviours. Unless healthy nutrition-exercise behaviours are acquired, obesity can develop in adolescence, continue in adulthood. Focusing on solutions can be effective for overweight/obese adolescents to develop healthy nutrition-exercise behaviours. A pretest-post-test randomised controlled trial design was used. The study included 32 overweight/obese adolescents (16 for intervention group, 16 for control group) aged 12-13 years who attended a health centre and met the inclusion criteria. The solution-focused Approach interview technique was applied to the intervention group. Eight solution-focused interviews were conducted with each adolescent at 2-week intervals (interview length 30-45 min). For each group, anthropometric, metabolic measurement follow-ups were conducted in the first and sixth months. The data were evaluated using independent samples t test, Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon test, respectively, for normally, non-normally distributed variables. The categorical variables were compared using chi-square test. The value p exercise attitude and behaviour scale scores were higher in the sixth month follow-up; difference between the follow-ups was significant (p exercise attitude and behaviour scores. Eight interviews during 6 months were adequate for positive development of their nutrition-exercise attitudes and behaviours; significant decrease in their weight, BMI percentile, BMI-SDS values; and normal metabolic values. The solution-focused approach interview technique enabled overweight/obese adolescents' weight and blood glucose to be controlled against obesity. It helped them acquire healthy nutrition-exercise behaviours
Niu, Lu; Luo, Dan; Silenzio, Vincent M B; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Tian, Yongquan
This study is one part of a five-year tobacco-control project in China, which aimed to gain insight into the smoking behavior, knowledge, and attitudes among medical teachers in China. In May 2010, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among medical teachers of Xiangya Medical School, Central South University, China. A total number of 682 medical teachers completed the surveys. Latent class analysis indicated the sample of smoking patterns was best represented by three latent subgroups of smoking consumption severity levels. Most respondents were informed of smoking related knowledge, but lack of knowledge on smoking cessation. Most of them held a supportive attitude towards their responsibilities among tobacco control, as well as the social significance of smoking. However, both smoking related knowledge and attitude were not correlated with severity of smoking consumption among medical teachers. The smoking prevalence among medical teachers in China remains high. Programs on smoking cessation training are required. Future study should also develop targeted interventions for subgroups of smokers based on smoking consumption. Persistent and effective anti-tobacco efforts are needed to achieve the goals of creating smoke-free campuses and hospitals.
Swanson, C. O.
The dynamically tuned gyro (DTG) was developed to replace the floated, rate integrating gyro used for space attitude control, as the DTG fulfills cost, performance, and reliability requirements not satisfied by its predecessor. The use of this gyro in the Dry Gyro Inertial Reference Unit I (DRIRU I) marked the first application of a DTG in a spacecraft attitude reference unit. Design and performance characteristics of DTG application in the Singer-Kearfott Inertial Reference Unit (SKIRU) are outlined, for example its minimal weight (7 lb), and operational reliability. The DTG has accomplished 156,000 failure-free hours, and a chart, logging test performance, indicates that this and other requirements were more than sufficiently satisfied. The unit has an unparalleled life span, with several units still operating after 70,000 to 130,000 hours, and a random drift which always remains under 0.0005 deg/h. Potential for improvements, such as drift performance, are considered.
Zettler, Ingo; Hilbig, B.E.
Previous research on political orientations, which can be understood as one's left- versus right-wing attitude, has shown that some personality factors yield explanatory power. In the current work, we consider the role of altruism - a personality construct which does not exclusively map onto one...... of the broad personality dimensions typically studied. Altruism was predicted to relate to left-wing attitudes due to an overlap regarding concerns for social equality, and a discrepancy between well-known attributes of right-wingers and altruistic individuals, respectively. Moreover, altruism was expected...... association between altruism and left-wing attitudes, and altruism was found to account for substantial variance in political orientation after controlling for the HEXACO factors of personality. We conclude that altruism is an important construct which deserves attention whenever political attitudes or other...
Jung, Eun Sook; Reid, Norman
Working memory capacity has been shown to be an important factor in controlling understanding in the sciences. Attitudes related to studies in the sciences are also known to be important in relation to success in learning. It might be argued that if working memory capacity is a rate controlling feature of learning and success in understanding…
Smits, P. B. A.; de Graaf, L.; Radon, K.; de Boer, A. G.; Bos, N. R.; van Dijk, F. J. H.; Verbeek, J. H. A. M.
Objectives Undergraduate medical teaching in occupational health (OH) is a challenge in universities around the world. Case-based e-learning with an attractive clinical context could improve the attitude of medical students towards OH. The study question is whether case-based e-learning for medical
Zerhouni, O.; Bègue, L.; Comiran, F.; Wiers, R.W.
Since implicit attitudes (i.e. evaluations occurring outside of complete awareness) are highly predictive of alcohol consumption, we tested an evaluative learning procedure based on repeated pairing to a critical stimulus (i.e. alcohol, the CS) with a valenced stimulus (the US) in order to modify
Kouassi, Bernard L; Barry, Aboulaye; Heitz-Tokpa, Kathrin; Krauth, Stefanie J; Goépogui, Andre; Baldé, Mamadou S; Barry, Oumar; Niamey, Marie L; Bockarie, Moses J; Koudou, Benjamin G; Utzinger, Jürg
Little is known about the perceptions, attitudes and practices of lymphatic filariasis in Conakry, Republic of Guinea. Yet, such knowledge is important for an optimal design and implementation of setting-specific prevention and control measures. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a mixed methods approach. Qualitative data related to people's general experience with lymphatic filariasis, their perception of the causes of the disease, the onset of elephantiasis, care-seeking behaviour and the socioeconomic impact of lymphatic filariasis were collected through in-depth interviews with 85 respondents. Quantitative data related to strategies for prevention and the knowledge of the causes of the disease were collected by interviewing 429 people. A total of 514 individuals (313 females and 201 males), aged 10-84 years, participated. Most participants were well aware of lymphatic filariasis and they recognized the disease mainly by its disfiguring manifestation, collectively termed "elephantiasis" or "leg-swelling disease". Morbidity patterns due to filarial infection showed an increase with age (from 30 to 50 years) independent of sex. Most patients with lymphatic filariasis abandoned their jobs (73.9%) or sought other work (21.7%). The main perceived causes of acquiring lymphatic filariasis were of supernatural origin (as stated by 8.7% of patients and 5.7% of healthy subjects), while mosquito bites were mentioned by fewer participants (4.3% of patients and 4.2% of healthy subjects). A number of other causes were reported that relate to both medical and non-medical conceptions. The study also identified socioeconomic impairments and stigmatization due to elephantiasis. Taken together, community perception of lymphatic filariasis in Conakry is influenced by sociocultural conceptions. Appropriate health education campaigns aimed at enhancing community understanding of the transmission of lymphatic filariasis are required to increase the success of mass drug
Shinn, Eileen; Qazi, Usman; Gera, Shalini; Brodovsky, Joan; Simpson, Jessica; Follen, Michele; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Macaulay, Calum
Optical spectroscopy has been studied for biologic plausibility, technical efficacy, clinical effectiveness, patient satisfaction, and cost-effectiveness. We sought to identify health care provider attitudes or practices that might act as barriers or to the dissemination of this new technology. Through an academic-industrial partnership, we conducted a series of focus groups to examine physician barriers to optical diagnosis. The study was conducted in 2 stages. First, a pilot group of 10 physicians (8 obstetrician gynecologists and 2 family practitioners) was randomly selected from 8 regions of the United States and each physician was interviewed individually. Physicians were presented with the results of a large trial (N = 980) testing the accuracy of a spectroscopy-based device in the detection of cervical neoplasia. They were also shown a prototype of the device and were given a period of time to ask questions and receive answers regarding the device. They were also asked to provide feedback on a questionnaire that was then revised and presented to 3 larger focus groups (n = 13, 15, and 17 for a total N = 45). The larger focus groups were conducted during national scientific meetings with 20 obstetrician gynecologists and 25 primary care physicians (family practitioners and internists). When asked about the dissemination potential of the new cervical screening technology, all study groups tended to rely on established clinical guidelines from their respective professional societies with regard to the screening and diagnosis of cervical cancer. In addition, study participants consistently agreed that real-time spectroscopy would be viewed positively by their patients. Participants were positive about the new technology's potential as an adjunct to colposcopy and agreed that the improved accuracy would result in reduced health care costs (due to decreased biopsies and decreased visits). Although all participants saw the potential of real-time diagnosis, there
Ravara, Sofia B; Calheiros, Jose M; Aguiar, Pedro; Barata, Luis Taborda
Several studies have investigated attitudes to and compliance with smoking bans, but few have been conducted in healthcare settings and none in such a setting in Portugal. Portugal is of particular interest because the current ban is not in line with World Health Organization recommendations for a "100% smoke-free" policy. In November 2007, a Portuguese teaching-hospital surveyed smoking behaviour and tobacco control (TC) attitudes before the national ban came into force in January 2008. Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, including all eligible staff. 52.9% of the 1, 112 staff; mean age 38.3 ± 9.9 years; 65.9% females. Smoking behaviour and TC attitudes and beliefs were the main outcomes. Bivariable analyses were conducted using chi-squared and MacNemar tests to compare categorical variables and Mann-Whitney tests to compare medians. Multilogistic regression (MLR) was performed to identify factors associated with smoking status and TC attitudes. Smoking prevalence was 40.5% (95% CI: 33.6-47.4) in males, 23.5% (95% CI: 19.2-27.8) in females (p smoking bans, even among smokers, despite the fact that 70.3% of the smokers smoked on the premises and 76% of staff reported being frequently exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS). In addition 42.8% reported that SHS was unpleasant and 28.3% admitted complaining. MLR showed that smoking behaviour was the most important predictor of TC attitudes. Smoking prevalence was high, especially among the lower socio-economic groups. The findings showed a very high level of support for smoking bans, despite the pro-smoking environment. Most staff reported passive behaviour, despite high SHS exposure. This and the high smoking prevalence may contribute to low compliance with the ban and low participation on smoking cessation activities. Smoking behaviour had greater influence in TC attitudes than health professionals' education. Our study is the first in Portugal to identify potential predictors of non-compliance with the partial
A B Adelowo
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Non - communicable diseases (NCDs are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in many developed and developing countries. Nigeria is experiencing an epidemiological transition with a double burden of communicable and non communicable diseases. This study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of bankers in Lagos Island Local Government Area on healthy lifestyle in relation to the prevention and control of NCDs. Material and Methods: Cross sectional descriptive design was employed. Multistage sampling technique was used to collect information from 260 consenting bankers using pretested, interviewer administered questionnaires. The questionnaire collected information on biodata, knowledge, attitude and practice. Data obtained was analyzed using Epi info version 3.5.3 Results: The mean age of 260 the respondents was 33.5 ± 5.7 years. Only 26.9% had good knowledge of healthy lifestyle while 87.3% had good attitude towards healthy lifestyle. Only 9.7% consumed healthy diet, while majority 88.0% and 72.7% had good practice regarding tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption respectively. Gender was a significant predictor of alcohol use, 55.8% of the study population engaged in adequate physical activity, while very few (3.8% of the respondents engaged in healthy lifestyle. Conclusion: Although the bankers had good attitude towards healthy lifestyle, their knowledge and practice of healthy living was poor. The management of every bank should invest in periodic health promotion and wellness programs that will promote all the components of healthy living for their employees.
Wu, Tingting; Hu, Ping; Huang, Hao; Wu, Chengbin; Fu, Zhirong; Du, Lei; Zhao, Yong
The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of public service advertising on the awareness and attitude of Chongqing urban citizens. The theme of the public service advertisement launched in Chongqing was chronic disease prevention and control. A self-designed questionnaire was used in an outdoor intercept survey to collect information about the perception of citizens toward the effect of the advertisement on awareness and attitude situation. Respondents had good knowledge of chronic disease (17.11 ± 3.23, total score: 23), but only 58.4% of participants thought cancer is one type of chronic disease. The awareness of cancer as a chronic disease among the group who had seen this advertisement (63.6%) was higher than that of the group who had not seen the advertisement (56.5%) (p = 0.046). The attitude of respondents was good after watching the advertisement, approximately 77.4% of respondents attempted to remind their family and friends to prevent chronic diseases, roughly. 78.2% tried to persuade their family and friends to change their unhealthy lifestyle habits, and 84.7% of participants reported that the advertising increased the possibility of their own future lifestyle change. There was minimal change of awareness of the participants who saw the advertisement. This study did not show significant differences on chronic disease related knowledge between the participants who have seen the advertisement and who have not seen the advertisement. The public service advertisement may help participants improve the attitude of future behavior change. Further researches combining the sustained intervention and support through clinical and community health programs media campaigns are needed to support public health. PMID:29206192
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of public service advertising on the awareness and attitude of Chongqing urban citizens. The theme of the public service advertisement launched in Chongqing was chronic disease prevention and control. A self-designed questionnaire was used in an outdoor intercept survey to collect information about the perception of citizens toward the effect of the advertisement on awareness and attitude situation. Respondents had good knowledge of chronic disease (17.11 ± 3.23, total score: 23, but only 58.4% of participants thought cancer is one type of chronic disease. The awareness of cancer as a chronic disease among the group who had seen this advertisement (63.6% was higher than that of the group who had not seen the advertisement (56.5% (p = 0.046. The attitude of respondents was good after watching the advertisement, approximately 77.4% of respondents attempted to remind their family and friends to prevent chronic diseases, roughly. 78.2% tried to persuade their family and friends to change their unhealthy lifestyle habits, and 84.7% of participants reported that the advertising increased the possibility of their own future lifestyle change. There was minimal change of awareness of the participants who saw the advertisement. This study did not show significant differences on chronic disease related knowledge between the participants who have seen the advertisement and who have not seen the advertisement. The public service advertisement may help participants improve the attitude of future behavior change. Further researches combining the sustained intervention and support through clinical and community health programs media campaigns are needed to support public health.
Wu, Tingting; Hu, Ping; Huang, Hao; Wu, Chengbin; Fu, Zhirong; Du, Lei; Xu, Xianglong; Shi, Zumin; Zhao, Yong
The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of public service advertising on the awareness and attitude of Chongqing urban citizens. The theme of the public service advertisement launched in Chongqing was chronic disease prevention and control. A self-designed questionnaire was used in an outdoor intercept survey to collect information about the perception of citizens toward the effect of the advertisement on awareness and attitude situation. Respondents had good knowledge of chronic disease (17.11 ± 3.23, total score: 23), but only 58.4% of participants thought cancer is one type of chronic disease. The awareness of cancer as a chronic disease among the group who had seen this advertisement (63.6%) was higher than that of the group who had not seen the advertisement (56.5%) ( p = 0.046). The attitude of respondents was good after watching the advertisement, approximately 77.4% of respondents attempted to remind their family and friends to prevent chronic diseases, roughly. 78.2% tried to persuade their family and friends to change their unhealthy lifestyle habits, and 84.7% of participants reported that the advertising increased the possibility of their own future lifestyle change. There was minimal change of awareness of the participants who saw the advertisement. This study did not show significant differences on chronic disease related knowledge between the participants who have seen the advertisement and who have not seen the advertisement. The public service advertisement may help participants improve the attitude of future behavior change. Further researches combining the sustained intervention and support through clinical and community health programs media campaigns are needed to support public health.
Trautmann, Stefan; van de Kuilen, Gijs; Keren, Gideon; Wu, George
This chapter reviews the experimental literature on ambiguity attitudes, focusing on three topics. First, it considers various approaches to operationalize ambiguity in experiments. Second, the chapter reviews basic findings in the field regarding the prevalence of ambiguity aversion and ambiguity
Kalolo, Albino; Kibusi, Stephen Matthew
Despite the declining trends of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), unsafe sexual behaviours among adolescents still represent a public health challenge. It is important to understand factors acting at different levels to influence sexual behaviour among adolescents. This study examined the influence of perceived behaviour control, subjective norms, attitudes and empowerment on intention to use condoms and reported use of condoms among adolescents in rural Tanzania. We used a questionnaire to collect data from 403 adolescents aged 14 through 19 years from nine randomly selected secondary schools in the Newala district located in the Southern part of Tanzania. The self-administered questionnaire collected information on sexual practices and factors such as attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behaviour control and empowerment. Binary logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with intention to use and reported use of condoms. Sexually active adolescents constituted 40.6 % of the sample, among them 49.7 % did not use a condom at last sexual intercourse and 49.8 % had multiple sex partners. Many (85 %) of sexually active respondents had their sexual debut between the ages of 14 to 17 years. Girls became sexually active earlier than boys. Perceived behaviour control predicted intentions to use condoms (AOR = 3.059, 95 % CI 1.324-7.065), thus demonstrating its importance in the decision to use a condom. Empowerment (odds ratio = 3.694, 95 % CI 1.295-10.535) and a positive attitude (AOR = 3.484, 95 % CI 1.132-10.72) predicted reported condom use, thus turning the decision to actions. Subjective norms had only indirect effects on intention and reported use of condoms. The findings suggest that unsafe sex practices are prevalent among school adolescents in rural areas of Tanzania. Perceived behaviour control and positive attitudes predict intensions to use condoms whereas empowerment
Hui, Alison; Wong, Paul Wai-Ching; Fu, King-Wa
A depression-awareness campaign delivered through the Internet has been recommended as a public health approach that would enhance mental health literacy and encourage help-seeking attitudes. However, the outcomes of such a campaign remain understudied. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an online depression awareness campaign, which was informed by the theory of planned behavior, to encourage help-seeking attitudes for depression and to enhance mental health literacy in Hong Kong. The second aim was to examine click-through behaviors by varying the affective facial expressions of people in the Facebook advertisements. Potential participants were recruited through Facebook advertisements, using either a happy or sad face illustration. Volunteer participants registered for the study by clicking on the advertisement and were invited to leave their personal email addresses to receive educational content about depression. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups (campaign or control), and over a four consecutive week period, received either the campaign material or official information developed by the Hospital Authority in Hong Kong. Pretests and posttests were conducted before and after the campaign to measure the differences in help-seeking attitudes and mental health literacy among the campaign and control groups. Of the 199 participants that registered and completed the pretest, 116 (55 campaign and 62 control) completed the campaign and the posttest. At the posttest, we found no significant changes in help-seeking attitudes between the campaign and control groups, but the campaign group participants demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in mental health literacy (P=.031) and a higher willingness to access additional information (Padvertisement attracted more click-throughs by users into the website than did the sad face advertisement (P=.03). The present study provides evidence that an online campaign can
Nakasuka, Shinichi; Miyata, Kikuko; Tsuruda, Yoshihiro; Aoyanagi, Yoshihide; Matsumoto, Takeshi
The recent advancement of micro/nano/pico-satellites technologies encourages many universities to develop three axis stabilized satellites. As three axis stabilization is high level technology requiring the proper functioning of various sensors, actuators and control software, many early satellites failed in their initial operation phase because of shortage of solar power generation or inability to realize the initial step of missions because of unexpected attitude control system performance. These results come from failure to design the satellite attitude determination and control system (ADCS) appropriately and not considering "satellite survivability." ADCS should be designed such that even if some sensors or actuators cannot work as expected, the satellite can survive and carry out some of its missions, even if not full. This paper discusses how to realize ADCS while taking satellite survivability into account, based on our experiences of design and in-orbit operations of Hodoyoshi-3 and 4 satellites launched in 2014, which suffered from various component anomalies but could complete their missions.
Ruth, Mike; Lebsock, Ken; Dennehy, Neil
This paper revisits the Bode integral theorem, first described in 1945 for feedback amplifier design, in the context of modern satellite Attitude Control System (ACS) design tasks. Use of Bode's Integral clarifies in an elegant way the connection between open-loop stability margins and closed-loop bandwidth. More importantly it shows that there is a very strong tradeoff between disturbance rejection below the satellite controller design bandwidth, and disturbance amplification in the 'penalty region' just above the design bandwidth. This information has been successfully used to re-tune the control designs for several NASA science-mission satellites. The Appendix of this paper contains a complete summary of the relevant integral conservation theorems for stable, unstable, and non-minimum- phase plants.
Nagamatsu, Yasuko; Natori, Yuji; Yanai, Haruo; Horiuchi, Shigeko
In Japan nursing care lags behind the growing population of patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. This study evaluated an educational program for nurses about caring for patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma in Japan. In this randomized controlled study relative to care for malignant pleural mesothelioma, Knowledge, Difficulties and Attitude were measured at baseline, at post-test and at follow-up one month later. The two-day program with a half-day follow-up program included lectures, group work, role-playing and group discussion. 188 participants were randomly assigned to the intervention group (program, n=96) and control group (n=92; self-study by a similar content handbook). At baseline the groups showed no statistical differences in Knowledge (p=0.921), Difficulty (p=0.458) and Attitude (p=0.922). Completing the study were 177 participants yielding 88 in the intervention group and 89 in the control group. Human rights and privacy of participants were protected. The Knowledge score was significantly higher in the intervention post-test (t=14.03, p=0.000) and follow-up test (t=8.98, p=0.000). Difficulty score was significantly lower in the intervention at post-test (t=-3.41, p=0.001) and follow-up test (t=-3.70, p=0.000). The Attitude score was significantly higher in the intervention post-test (t=7.11, p=0.000) and follow-up test (t=4.54, p=0.000). The two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures on time showed an interaction between time and group; the subsequent simple main effect test found significant differences (p=0.000-0.001) between groups for after-program and at follow-up and a significant difference (p=0.000) in time only within the intervention group. The educational program was effective in improving the nurses' knowledge and attitude toward malignant pleural mesothelioma care and decreasing the difficulty in MPM care, therefore this program has potential for nurses' in-service education throughout Japan. Copyright © 2014
The findings of a survey of attitude studies to determine the effect of students' attitudes on communication competence as they enter the work force and develop their careers are reported in this paper. The paper explains how attitude improvement is an effective management tool in controlling costly absenteeism, output, job productivity, work…
Lederman, Regina P; Chan, Wenyaw; Roberts-Gray, Cynthia
In this study, the authors compared differences in sexual risk attitudes and intentions for three groups of youth (experimental program, n = 90; attention control, n = 80; and nonparticipant control, n = 634) aged 12-14 years. Two student groups participated with their parents in programs focused on strengthening family interaction and prevention of sexual risks, HIV, and adolescent pregnancy. Surveys assessed students' attitudes and intentions regarding early sexual and other health-risk behaviors, family interactions, and perceived parental disapproval of risk behaviors. The authors used general linear modeling to compare results. The experimental prevention program differentiated the total scores of the 3 groups (p < .05). A similar result was obtained for student intentions to avoid sex (p < .01). Pairwise comparisons showed the experimental program group scored higher than the nonparticipant group on total scores (p < .01) and on students' intention to avoid sex (p < .01). The results suggest this novel educational program involving both parents and students offers a promising approach to HIV and teen pregnancy prevention.
Recently, local governments in Albania have begun paying attention to management of small watershed, because there are specific boundaries and people living within a watershed basin tend to be more concerned about the basin's environmental, economic, and social development. But this natural resource management and non-point source (NPS) pollution control is still facing challenges. Albanian part of Prespa Park (AL-Prespa) is a good case study, as it is a protected wetland area of high biodiversity and long human history. In this framework, this study was undertaken, the main objectives of which were to explore: (1) the attitudes of the residents toward NPS pollution control, (2) their willingness-to-pay for improving water quality, and (3) factors affecting the residents' willingness-to-pay. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA (analysis of variance), Chi-square analysis, and multivariate data analysis techniques were used. Findings strongly suggested that the residents' attitudes toward NPS pollution control in this area were positive. With the combination of two major contingent valuation methods—dichotomous choice and open-ended formats, the survey results indicated that the average yearly respondents' WTP was €6.4. The survey revealed that residents' yearly income and education level were the main factors affecting residents' willingness-to-pay for NPS pollution control in this area, and there was no significant correlation between residents' yearly income and their education level. The current study would lay a solid foundation on decision-making in further NPS pollution control and public participation through community-based watershed management policies in AL-Prespa watershed and similar areas.
Mallick, Rizwana; Kathard, Harsha; Thabane, Lehana; Pillay, Mershen
Children who stutter (CWS) are at a high-risk of being teased and bullied in primary school because of negative peer attitudes and perceptions towards stuttering. There is little evidence to determine if classroom-based interventions are effective in changing peer attitudes towards stuttering. The primary objective is to determine the effect of the Classroom Communication Resource (CCR) intervention versus usual practice, measured using the Stuttering Resource Outcomes Measure (SROM) 6-months post-intervention among grade 7 students. The secondary objective is to investigate attitude changes towards stuttering among grade participants on the SROM subscales. A cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted with schools as the unit of randomization. Schools will be stratified into quintile groups, and then randomized to receive the CCR intervention or usual practice. Quintile stratification will be conducted in accordance to the Western Cape Department of Education classification of schools according to geographical location, fee per school and allocation of resources and funding. Participants will include primary schools in the lower (second and third) and higher (fourth and fifth) quintiles and children aged 11 years or older in grade 7 will be included. The study will consist of the CCR intervention program or usual practice as a no-CCR control. The CCR is a classroom-based, teacher led intervention tool including a story, role-play and discussion. The grade 7 teachers allocated to the CCR intervention, will be trained and will administer the intervention. The analysis will follow intention-to-treat (ITT) principle and generalized estimating equations (GEE) to compare groups on the global SROM and its subscales to account for possible clustering within schools. The subgroup hypothesis will be tested by adding an interaction term of quintile group x intervention. This study is designed to assess whether the CCR intervention versus usual practice in
Naidu, Rahul; Nunn, June; Irwin, Jennifer D
Motivational Interviewing (MI) has been used across primary healthcare and been shown to be effective in reducing the prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) in preschool children. This study aimed to compare the effect of MI, in contrast to traditional dental health education (DHE), on oral health knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviours among parents and caregivers of preschool children in Trinidad. The design of this exploratory study included a cluster randomised controlled trial and semi-structured focus groups. Six preschools (79 parents and caregivers) in Eastern Trinidad were randomly assigned to a test or control group (3 preschools in each group). Parents and caregivers in the test-group (n = 25) received a talk on dental health using an MI approach and the control-group (n = 54) received a talk using traditional DHE. Both groups received additional, written dental health information. The MI group also received two telephone call follow-ups as part of the MI protocol. Both groups were given questionnaires before the talks and four months later. Question items included oral health knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, brushing behaviour, oral health self-efficacy, oral health fatalism and a specific instrument to asses 'readiness for change', the Readiness Assessment of Parents Concerning Infant Dental Decay (RAPIDD). Participants in the test-group were also invited to take part in a focus group to share their views on the dental health talk. At four month follow-up, knowledge items on fluoride use, tooth brushing, dietary practice and dental attendance increased in both the test (DHE + MI) and control (DHE) groups ((p oral health fatalism (p parent and caregiver efforts to improve oral health practices for their preschool children. In this exploratory controlled study there was some evidence that using an MI approach when delivering oral health information had a positive effect on parent/ caregiver oral health knowledge, attitudes and behaviours compared
A system for automatic acquisition of underwater platform attitude data has been designed, developed and tested in the laboratory. This is a micro controller based system interfacing dual axis inclinometer, high-resolution digital compass...
Haddad, Mark; Pinfold, Vanessa; Ford, Tamsin; Walsh, Brendan; Tylee, Andre
Mental health problems in children and young people are a vital public health issue. Only 25% of British school children with diagnosed mental health problems have specialist mental health services contact; front-line staff such as school nurses play a vital role in identifying and managing these problems, and accessing additional services for children, but there appears limited specific training and support for this aspect of their role. To evaluate the effectiveness of a bespoke short training programme, which incorporated interactive and didactic teaching with printed and electronic resources. Hypothesized outcomes were improvements in school nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and recognition skills for depression. A cluster-randomised controlled trial. 146 school nurses from 13 Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) in London were randomly allocated to receive the training programme. School nurses from 7 PCTs (n = 81) were randomly allocated to receive the training intervention and from 6 PCTs (n = 65) for waiting list control. Depression detection was measured by response to vignettes, attitudes measured with the Depression Attitude Questionnaire, and knowledge by the QUEST knowledge measure. These outcomes were measured at baseline and (following training) 3 months and nine months later, after which nurses in the control group received the training programme. At 3 months, 115 nurses completed outcome measures. Training was associated with significant improvements in the specificity of depression judgements (52.0% for the intervention group and 47.2% for the control group, P = 0.039), and there was a non-significant increase in sensitivity (64.5% compared to 61.5% P = 0.25). Nurses' knowledge about depression improved (standardised mean difference = 0.97 [95% CI 0.58 to 1.35], P < 0.001); and confidence about their professional role in relation to depression increased. There was also a significant change in optimism about depression outcomes, but no
Van Kessel, Gisela; Hillier, Susan; English, Coralie
Attitudes are recognized as influencing research implementation. However, little is known about the process by which physiotherapists' attitudes and beliefs shape their use of 7-day per week therapy and circuit class therapy research findings. Understanding beliefs may assist in addressing barriers to research uptake. Fifteen physiotherapists from six rehabilitation centers who ranged in seniority, experience, and education levels consented to be interviewed. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using a qualitative content analysis drawing on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Participants felt that they had autonomy in adopting new approaches when the evidence was supported by social norms. Participants believed that 7-day per week therapy delivers a seamless service that increases physiotherapy time, which helps maintain patient improvement, but needs to accommodate patient choice and expectations. Circuit class therapy was viewed positively as it provides more physiotherapy time, increases patient social interaction, and motivation. However, this was qualified by a belief that patients would not receive individualized, quality of movement focused therapy, particularly for patients with limited capacities. Implementation of a new approach depends on the past experience, coherence with individual beliefs regarding important elements of therapy content, and opportunities to control barriers to implementation.
Khan, Adeel A M; Dey, Subhojit; Taha, Alaa H; Huq, Farhan S; Moussawi, Ahmad H; Omar, Omar S; Soliman, Amr S
Tobacco smoking rates are increasing in developing countries and so are tobacco-related chronic diseases. Reported figures from the WHO show rates of smoking in Egypt as high as 20% but limited information is available about smoking specifically among physicians and medical students. Final-year medical students of Cairo University were surveyed regarding their tobacco behavior and attitudes using a modified Global Health Professions Student Survey. We approached 220 students by randomly selecting clinical units into which they were assigned and requested completion of the survey. Ever users of some form of tobacco comprised 46.7% of students sampled, current users of cigarettes comprised 17.4%, and current users of water pipe 'sheesha' comprised 17.6%. The vast majority (87.7%) of students believed that smoking is a public health problem in Cairo and supported restriction of tobacco. Yet, only 58.5% stated that they were taught it is important for physicians to provide tobacco education materials to patients. Among ever users of cigarettes, 54.4% believed health professionals do not serve as health role models for patients, and only a small percentage of all students (34.2%) stated that they had received some form of training on smoking cessation in their medical curriculum to be able to instruct patients. A high rate of smoking was revealed among medical students in Cairo. Overall, approximately 23.4% of students were currently smoking cigarettes and/or sheesha, and 46.7% were ever users of some form of tobacco. A formal antitobacco program for medical students should be incorporated into their medical curriculum to change the attitudes of medical students and overcome the anticipated increase in chronic diseases in Egypt.
Ekrami, Yasamin; Cook, Joseph S.
In order to mitigate catastrophic failures on future generation space vehicles, engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration have begun to integrate a novel crew abort systems that could pull a crew module away in case of an emergency at the launch pad or during ascent. The Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) is a recent test vehicle that was designed as an alternative to the baseline Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) to demonstrate the performance of a "tower-less" LAS configuration under abort conditions. The MLAS II test vehicle will execute a propulsive coast stabilization maneuver during abort to control the vehicles trajectory and thrust. To accomplish this, the spacecraft will integrate an Attitude Control System (ACS) with eight hypergolic monomethyl hydrazine liquid propulsion engines that are capable of operating in a quick pulsing mode. Two main elements of the ACS include a propellant distribution subsystem and a pressurization subsystem to regulate the flow of pressurized gas to the propellant tanks and the engines. The CAD assembly of the Attitude Control System (ACS) was configured and integrated into the Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) design. A dynamic random vibration analysis was conducted on the Main Propulsion System (MPS) helium pressurization panels to assess the response of the panel and its components under increased gravitational acceleration loads during flight. The results indicated that the panels fundamental and natural frequencies were farther from the maximum Acceleration Spectral Density (ASD) vibrations which were in the range of 150-300 Hz. These values will direct how the components will be packaged in the vehicle to reduce the effects high gravitational loads.
Gasco, Margarita; Briñol, Pablo; Horcajo, Javier
Attitude change toward body image: The role of elaboration on attitude strength. Attitudes toward body image have been shown to play a central role in the understanding and treating of eating disorders. In the present research, participants' attitudes toward their body image were changed through a persuasive procedure involving high mental elaboration (self-persuasion) or through a less engaging procedure involving less active participation (passive exposure). As expected, participants in these two groups showed more favourable attitudes toward their bodies than those in the control group. Despite that both treatments were equally efficient in changing attitudes, the strength associated with those attitudes was significantly different depending on the amount of thinking involved in the process of change. Specifically, attitudes were stronger in the high rather than low thinking group of treatment. This finding is important because the strength of the attitude may determine the long-term consequences of an intervention.
Mukhopadhyay, V.; Newsom, J. R.
A stability margin evaluation method in terms of simultaneous gain and phase changes in all loops of a multiloop system is presented. A universal gain-phase margin evaluation diagram is constructed by generalizing an existing method using matrix singular value properties. Using this diagram and computing the minimum singular value of the system return difference matrix over the operating frequency range, regions of guaranteed stability margins can be obtained. Singular values are computed for a wing flutter suppression and a drone lateral attitude control problem. The numerical results indicate that this method predicts quite conservative stability margins. In the second example if the eigenvalue magnitude is used instead of the singular value, as a measure of nearness to singularity, more realistic stability margins are obtained. However, this relaxed measure generally cannot guarantee global stability.
van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra I.; van der Molen, Juliette H. Walma
This article provides a description of a novel, attitude-focused, professional development intervention, and presents the results of an experimental pretest-posttest control group study investigating the effects of this intervention on primary teachers' personal attitudes toward science, attitudes toward teaching science, and their science…
van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra; Walma van der Molen, Julie Henriëtte
This article provides a description of a novel, attitude-focused, professional development intervention, and presents the results of an experimental pretest-posttest control group study investigating the effects of this intervention on primary teachers’ personal attitudes toward science, attitudes
Shmyrov, A.; Shmyrov, V.; Shymanchuk, D.
This article considers the motion of a celestial body within the restricted three-body problem of the Sun-Earth system. The equations of controlled coupled attitude-orbit motion in the neighborhood of collinear libration point L1 are investigated. The translational orbital motion of a celestial body is described using Hill's equations of circular restricted three-body problem of the Sun-Earth system. Rotational orbital motion is described using Euler's dynamic equations and quaternion kinematic equation. We investigate the problem of stability of celestial body rotational orbital motion in relative equilibrium positions and stabilization of celestial body rotational orbital motion with proposed control laws in the neighborhood of collinear libration point L1. To study stabilization problem, Lyapunov function is constructed in the form of the sum of the kinetic energy and special "kinematic function" of the Rodriguez-Hamiltonian parameters. Numerical modeling of the controlled rotational motion of a celestial body at libration point L1 is carried out. The numerical characteristics of the control parameters and rotational motion are given.
Cochran, J. E., Jr.; Lahr, B. S.
The problems of categorizing and modeling the attitude dynamics of uncontrolled artificial earth satellites which may be targets in recovery attempts are addressed. Methods of classification presented are based on satellite rotational kinetic energy, rotational angular momentum and orbit and on the type of control present prior to the benign failure of the control system. The use of approximate analytical solutions and 'exact' numerical solutions to the equations governing satellite attitude motions to predict uncontrolled attitude motion is considered. Analytical and numerical results are presented for the evolution of satellite attitude motions after active control termination.
Efficacy of an internet-based learning module and small-group debriefing on trainees' attitudes and communication skills toward patients with substance use disorders: results of a cluster randomized controlled trial.
Lanken, Paul N; Novack, Dennis H; Daetwyler, Christof; Gallop, Robert; Landis, J Richard; Lapin, Jennifer; Subramaniam, Geetha A; Schindler, Barbara A
To examine whether an Internet-based learning module and small-group debriefing can improve medical trainees' attitudes and communication skills toward patients with substance use disorders (SUDs). In 2011-2012, 129 internal and family medicine residents and 370 medical students at two medical schools participated in a cluster randomized controlled trial, which assessed the effect of adding a two-part intervention to the SUDs curricula. The intervention included a self-directed, media-rich Internet-based learning module and a small-group, faculty-led debriefing. Primary study outcomes were changes in self-assessed attitudes in the intervention group (I-group) compared with those in the control group (C-group) (i.e., a difference of differences). For residents, the authors used real-time, Web-based interviews of standardized patients to assess changes in communication skills. Statistical analyses, conducted separately for residents and students, included hierarchical linear modeling, adjusted for site, participant type, cluster, and individual scores at baseline. The authors found no significant differences between the I- and C-groups in attitudes for residents or students at baseline. Compared with those in the C-group, residents, but not students, in the I-group had more positive attitudes toward treatment efficacy and self-efficacy at follow-up (Pcommunication skills toward patients with SUDs among residents. Enhanced attitudes and skills may result in improved care for these patients.
Naughton, Jonathan W. [University of Wyoming
The growth of wind turbines has led to highly variable loading on the blades. Coupled with the relative reduced stiffness of longer blades, the need to control loading on the blades has become important. One method of controlling loads and maximizing energy extraction is local control of the flow on the wind turbine blades. The goal of the present work was to better understand the sources of the unsteady loading and then to control them. This is accomplished through an experimental effort to characterize the unsteadiness and the effect of a Gurney flap on the flow, as well as an analytical effort to develop control approaches. It was planned to combine these two efforts to demonstrate control of a wind tunnel test model, but that final piece still remains to be accomplished.
entire rartge in steps of 1 % due to the rapid solenoid valve actuation. The requirement of the control system is to provide pointing control accuracy of...and accuracy are discussed. 1S. SUBJECT TERMS Nanosatellite, laser rangefinder, ARAP AIMA, USAF, object imaging, shape reconstruction, space-based...thrusters can be modulated over the entire range in steps of 1% due to the rapid solenoid valve actuation. The requirement of the control system is to
Maor, Noga Roguin; Sayag, Shlomit; Dahan, Rachel; Hermoni, Doron
Israeli youth lead 27 western countries in dieting. The prevalence of eating disorders has been rising in the last 30 years, causing social problems and medical complications. To examine the prevalence of eating disorders among high school students in a region in northern Israel (Misgav) and to examine the relationship between the parents' employment status and the subject's eating disorder. A structured questionnaire was administered to collect demographic data. The short version of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to evaluate the subject's attitudes toward and preoccupation with food, dieting, eating, physical appearance, and personal control over eating. Of 360 students approached, 283 (78%) completed the self-report EAT-26. One of every 5 females and one in every 20 males had an abnormal eating attitude. The rate of pathologic EAT-26 results, 20.8%, falls within the high range of similar community-based samples of female adolescents. There were no differences in EAT-26 score between students with an employed or unemployed mother; however, there was a trend for higher EAT-26 scores among those whose father was unemployed (21.4% vs. 12.7%, chi2 = 0.14). The findings support our hypothesis of a relatively high rate of abnormal eating attitudes (as reflected by high EAT-26 score) in this population. Another possible risk factor is having an unemployed father, which warrants further research and attention. Our next step is to introduce an intervention program in the school and to study its effect.
The Beliefs, Attitudes and Views of University Students about Anger and the Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy-Oriented Anger Control and Anxiety Management Programs on Their Anger Management Skill Levels
Karahan, T. Fikret; Yalçin, B. Murat; Erbas, Melda M.
This study was designed as a qualitative focus group using a randomized controlled trail with a mixed methodology. The study has dual aims. First we searched the beliefs, attitudes and views of 176 university students on how to deal with anger using eight focus discussion groups. The anxiety and anger levels of these students were investigated…
Jallinoja, P; Hakonen, A; Aro, A R
A survey study was conducted among 1169 people to evaluate attitudes towards genetic testing in Finland. Here we present an analysis of the contradictions detected in people's attitudes towards genetic testing. This analysis focuses on the approval of genetic testing as an individual choice and o...... studies on attitudes towards genetic testing as well as in the health care context, e.g. in genetic counselling.......A survey study was conducted among 1169 people to evaluate attitudes towards genetic testing in Finland. Here we present an analysis of the contradictions detected in people's attitudes towards genetic testing. This analysis focuses on the approval of genetic testing as an individual choice...... and on the confidence in control of the process of genetic testing and its implications. Our analysis indicated that some of the respondents have contradictory attitudes towards genetic testing. It is proposed that contradictory attitudes towards genetic testing should be given greater significance both in scientific...
Noopur, Gupta; Praveen, Vashist; Radhika, Tandon; Sanjeev K, Gupta; Mani, Kalaivani; Deepak, Kumar
To assess awareness, barriers, and misconceptions related to eye donation in people with corneal disease as compared to controls in a population setting. A population-based study was conducted in 25 randomly selected clusters of Rural Gurgaon, Haryana, India, as part of the CORE (Cornea Opacity Rural Epidemiological) study. In addition to ophthalmic examination, knowledge and perceptions regarding eye donation were assessed through a validated questionnaire. The questionnaire captured the sociodemographic factors influencing awareness regarding eye donation in participants with corneal disease and twice the number of age- and gender-matched controls recruited from the same study clusters. Descriptive statistics were computed along with multivariable logistic regression analysis to determine associated factors for awareness of eye donation. In the CORE study, 452 participants had corneal opacities on ocular examination. Of these, 442 were assessed for eye donation awareness. Additionally, 884 age- and gender-matched controls were recruited. The mean age of cases and controls was 60.9 ± 15.5 and 59.6 ± 14.3 years, respectively. Awareness of eye donation in cases and controls was 46.4% (n = 205 of 442) and 52.3% (n = 462 of 884), respectively (P = 0.044). Educational status was an important factor determining knowledge about eye donation in both cases and controls (P = donated before death or even after 24 h of death and that any type of blindness could be treated with corneal transplantation were prevalent. The study demonstrated that although there is substantial awareness about eye donation, there are numerous barriers in this population that need to be resolved to improve donation rates. Additional efforts are needed to translate this awareness into actual eye donation in both cases with corneal disease and controls.
Poote, A E; van den Akker, O B A
There has been little interest in the research literature on public opinions regarding assisted conception and surrogacy, particularly in European countries, despite the growing evidence showing that problems in adaptation and coping may be related to perceived normative values. This study investigated British women's attitudes to surrogacy using components of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Questionnaires on attitudes to surrogacy and reasons for parenthood were completed by 187 women from the general public. Significant socio-demographic differences were found between women who were possibly willing (n = 76) and those who were unwilling (n = 111) to become surrogate mothers. General attitudes to surrogacy also differed between groups (P = 0.000). This study supported the predictive utility of components of the TPB, and differentiated adequately between groups on attitudes to recruitment for surrogacy (P = 0.000), the consequences of surrogacy (P = 0.000), factors that induce people to become surrogates (P = 0.000), social support (P = 0.000), having personal control (P = 0.002) and reasons for parenthood (P = 0.000). Age (P = 0.000), attitudes to advertising (P = 0.02) and the consequences of surrogacy (P = 0.05) predicted (un)willingness to become a potential surrogate mother. Further research is needed with larger sample sizes of potential surrogates to determine whether the predictive attitudes reported here translate to actual behaviours. The larger group which was not interested in considering becoming a surrogate scored significantly more negatively on all attitudes towards surrogacy. The negative attitudes reported by the 'unwilling to consider being a surrogate' group may reflect attitudes held by the majority of the population and are likely to be influenced by reports of stigma associated with surrogacy.
Marnie L. Brennan
Full Text Available Disease prevention and control practices are frequently highlighted as important to ensure the health and welfare of farmed animals, although little is known as to why not many practices are carried out. The aim of this study was to identify the motivators and barriers of dairy cattle farmers towards the use of biosecurity measures on dairy farms using a health psychology approach. Twenty-five farmers on 24 farms in Great Britain (GB were interviewed using the Theory of Planned Behaviour framework. Results indicated that farmers perceived they had the ability to control what happened on their farms in terms of preventing and controlling disease, and described benefits from being proactive and vigilant. However, barriers were cited in relation to testing inaccuracies, effectiveness and time-efficiency of practices, and disease transmission route (e.g., airborne transmission. Farmers reported they were positively influenced by veterinarians and negatively influenced by the government (Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs (DEFRA and the general public. Decisions to implement practices were influenced by the perceived severity of the disease in question, if disease was diagnosed on the farm already, or was occurring on other farms. Farmers described undertaking a form of personal risk assessment when deciding if practices were worth doing, which did not always involve building in disease specific factors or opinions from veterinarians or other advisors. These results indicate that further guidance about the intricacies of control and prevention principles in relation to specific animal diseases may be required, with an obvious role for veterinarians. There appears to be an opportunity for farm advisors and herd health professionals to further understand farmer beliefs behind certain attitudes and target communication and advice accordingly to further enhance dairy cattle health and welfare.
Jaine, Richard; Russell, Marie; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George
We aimed to explore New Zealand tobacco retailers' views on selling tobacco, the forthcoming 2012 point of sale display ban and two other potential tobacco control interventions in the retail setting: compulsory sales of nicotine replacement therapy and licensing of tobacco retailers. We carried out in-depth interviews with 18 retailers from a variety of store types where tobacco was sold. Stores were selected from a range of locations with varying levels of deprivation. We used thematic analysis to analyse the data. All but four of the retailers were ambivalent about selling tobacco, would rather not sell it, or fell back on a business imperative for justification. Only one retailer was explicitly unconcerned about selling tobacco products. Most participants had few or no concerns about the removal of point-of-sale displays. Issues which were raised were mainly practical and logistical issues with the removal of displays. Only three thought sales would definitely be reduced. The majority of the retailers were not opposed to a possible requirement that nicotine replacement therapy products be made available wherever tobacco products are sold. Ten supported a licensing or registration scheme for tobacco retailers, and only three were opposed. We found widespread ambivalence about selling tobacco. There was considerable support for the licensing of tobacco retailers and other potential tobacco control measures. The retailers' attitudes about potential financial costs and security issues from a tobacco display ban were at odds with the tobacco industry predictions and the views of retailers' organisations. Some retailers appear to be potential allies for tobacco control. This is in contrast to retailer organisations, which may be out of step with many of their members in their strong opposition to retail tobacco control interventions.
This study examined attitudinal and behavioral differences between internal and external locus of control (LOC) consumers on credit card misuse, the importance of money, and compulsive buying. Using multiple analysis of variance and separate analyses of variance, internal LOC consumers were found to have lower scores on credit card misuse and…
Clark, Heddy Kovach; Ringwalt, Chris L.; Shamblen, Stephen R.; Hanley, Sean M.
Using a randomized controlled effectiveness trial, we examined the effects of Project SUCCESS on a range of secondary outcomes, including the program's mediating variables. Project SUCCESS, which is based both on the Theory of Reasoned Action and on Cognitive Behavior Theory, is a school-based substance use prevention program that targets…
The Diabetes Intention, Attitude, and Behavior Questionnaire: evaluation of a brief questionnaire to measure physical activity, dietary control, maintenance of a healthy weight, and psychological antecedents
-related self-care activities. Most subjects in Stage II were male, Caucasian, and married. Mean age was 63 years. Factor analysis revealed six psychological constructs (Behavior, Planning, Intention, Perceived Behavioral Control, Attitude, and Subjective Norm. Test–retest reliability was acceptable (≥0.70 for all scales, except Perceived Behavioral Control. Construct validity was demonstrated based on correlations with diabetes-specific items/scales and the SF-36. Known-groups validity was confirmed for Behavior, Planning, and Intention when respondents were categorized into groups that differed based on body mass index, disease severity, and HbA1c. Item scores were transformed to a 100-point scale, and minimal clinically important change estimates ranged from 6–11 points, representing the change that would be considered important to a respondent. Conclusion: The DIAB-Q is a brief, psychometrically sound, patient-reported outcome that can be used among individuals with T2DM to evaluate intention to engage in self-care behaviors. Keywords: diabetes, Theory of Planned Behavior, DIAB-Q, attitude, intention, behavior, patient-reported outcome, questionnaire
A paper describes attitude-control algorithms using the combination of magnetic actuators with reaction wheel assemblies (RWAs) or other types of actuators such as thrusters. The combination of magnetic actuators with one or two RWAs aligned with different body axis expands the two-dimensional control torque to three-dimensional. The algorithms can guarantee the spacecraft attitude and rates to track the commanded attitude precisely. A design example is presented for nadir-pointing, pitch, and yaw maneuvers. The results show that precise attitude tracking can be reached and the attitude- control accuracy is comparable with RWA-based attitude control. When there are only one or two workable RWAs due to RWA failures, the attitude-control system can switch to the control algorithms for the combined magnetic actuators with the RWAs without going to the safe mode, and the control accuracy can be maintained. The attitude-control algorithms of the combined actuators are derived, which can guarantee the spacecraft attitude and rates to track the commanded values precisely. Results show that precise attitude tracking can be reached, and the attitude-control accuracy is comparable with 3-axis wheel control.
Bogus, Joshua; Gankpala, Lincoln; Fischer, Kerstin; Krentel, Alison; Weil, Gary J; Fischer, Peter U; Kollie, Karsor; Bolay, Fatorma K
The recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) interrupted mass drug administration (MDA) programs to control and eliminate neglected tropical diseases in Liberia. MDA programs treat entire communities with medication regardless of infection status to interrupt transmission and eliminate lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis. Following reports of hostilities toward health workers and fear that they might be spreading EVD, it was important to determine whether attitudes toward MDA might have changed after the outbreak. We surveyed 140 community leaders from 32 villages in Lofa County, Liberia, that had previously participated in MDA and are located in an area that was an early epicenter of the EVD outbreak. Survey respondents reported a high degree of community trust in the MDA program, and 97% thought their communities were ready to resume MDA. However, respondents predicted that fewer people would comply with MDA after the EVD epidemic than before. The survey also uncovered fears in the community that EVD and MDA might be linked. Respondents suggested that MDA programs emphasize to people that the medications are identical to those previously distributed and that MDA programs have nothing to do with EVD. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Nasr Nabil A
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the first part of this study, we investigated the prevalence and associated key factors of soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections among Orang Asli children in rural Malaysia; an alarming high prevalence and five key factors significantly associated with infections were reported. Part 2 of this study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP on STH infections among Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 215 households from 13 villages in Lipis district, Pahang, Malaysia. Demographic and socioeconomic information of the participants and their KAP on STH were collected by using a pre-tested questionnaire. Results Overall, 61.4% of the participants had prior knowledge about intestinal helminths with a lack of knowledge on the transmission (28.8%, signs and symptoms (29.3% as well as the prevention (16.3%. Half of the respondents considered STH as harmful, while their practices to prevent infections were still inadequate. Significant associations between the KAP and age, gender, educational and employment status, family size, and household monthly income were reported. Moreover, significantly lower prevalence of STH infections was reported among children of respondents who wear shoes/slippers when outside the house (72.8%; 95% CI= 62.6, 80.5 vs 87.0%; 95% CI= 81.4, 91.1, wash their hands before eating (32.4%; 95% CI= 24.3, 42.2 vs 51.4%; 95% CI= 44.7, 60.1, and wash their hands after defecation (47.8%; 95% CI= 35.7, 57.1 vs 69.2%; 95% CI= 63.7, 78.7 as compared to their counterparts. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the educational level of the respondents was the most important factor significantly associated with the KAP on STH among this population. Conclusion This study reveals inadequate knowledge, attitude and practices on STH infections among Orang Asli in rural Malaysia. Hence, there is a great need for a proper health education
Niessner, Albert F.; Benowitz, Edward G.
The two most important factors in improving performance in any software system, but especially a real-time, embedded system, are knowing which components are the low performers and knowing what can be done to improve their performance. The word performance with respect to a real-time, embedded system does not necessarily mean fast execution, which is the common definition when discussing non real-time systems. It also includes meeting all of the specified execution dead-lines and executing at the correct time without sacrificing non real-time performance. Using a Java prototype of an existing control system used on Deep Space 1, the effects from adding memory areas are measured and evaluated with respect to improving performance.
Planning permission for the construction of a small 'farm' of wind turbines at Delabole (Deli windfarm) had been obtained and it was intended to use this source of renewable energy by generating electricity and selling it to the electrical power companies for distribution through the National Grid. It was important, therefore, to establish just what the attitudes of local residents were to the proposed development. A programme of research was discussed with the developer and it was agreed that an attitude survey would be conducted in the local area in the summer of 1990, before the turbines were erected, and before the tourist season was completely spent in order to obtain the views of visitors as well. A similar survey would then be done one year later, when the Deli windfarm was established and running. In addition, control samples would be taken at these two times in Exeter to give baseline information on attitudes toward this topic. This proposal was put to the developer and agreement was reached with him and the UK Department of Energy who were providing financial support for the research. The results of the research are reported. (author)
Full Text Available Adolescents’ self-control weight behaviors were assessed (n= 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008 in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT, we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed would be motivated either by a promotion focus (to show an attractive body, a prevention focus (to avoid social rejection of fatness, or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13% and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were Not at all concerned about weight gain, and girls’ percentages decreased to 13% and 11% respectively. By contrast 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious emotional (self-defense and cognitive (dissonance mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics.
O'Reilly, Claire L; Bell, J Simon; Kelly, Patrick J; Chen, Timothy F
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of delivering Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training for pharmacy students on their mental health literacy and stigma towards mental illness. A non-randomized controlled design was used, with all third year pharmacy students at the University of Sydney (n = 272) in 2009 invited to participate in one of two MHFA training courses, each of 12 hours duration. Of these, 174 students applied for MHFA training, of whom 60 were randomly selected and offered MHFA training. Outcome measures that were completed by all participants in the MHFA and non-MHFA groups before and after the MHFA training included an evaluation of mental health literacy, the 7-item social distance scale, and 16 items related to self-reported behaviour. The survey instrument was completed by 258 participants at baseline (59 MHFA and 199 non-MHFA) and 223 participants at follow up (53 MHFA and 170 non-MHFA). The MHFA training improved the participants' ability to correctly identify a mental illness (p = 0.004). There was a significant mean decrease in total social distance of 2.18 (SD 3.35) p training. This study demonstrated that MHFA training can reduce pharmacy students' mental health stigma, improve recognition of mental disorders and improve confidence in providing services to consumers with a mental illness in the pharmacy setting.
Muzaffar, Henna; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen; Castelli, Darla M; Scherer, Jane A
We hypothesized that Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) constructs (behavioral belief, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, knowledge and behavioral intention) regarding preventive behaviors for obesity and type 2 diabetes will change favorably after completing the web-based intervention, HOT (Healthy Outcome for Teens) project, grounded in the TPB; and that passive online learning (POL) group will improve more than the active online learning (AOL) group. The secondary hypothesis was to determine to what extent constructs of the TPB predict intentions. 216 adolescents were recruited, 127 randomly allocated to the treatment group (AOL) and 89 to the control group (POL). The subjects completed a TPB questionnaire pre and post intervention. Both POL and AOL groups showed significant improvements from pretest to posttest survey. However, the results indicated no significant difference between POL and AOL for all constructs except behavioral belief. Correlational analysis indicated that all TPB constructs were significantly correlated with intentions for pretest and posttest for both groups. Attitude and behavioral control showed strongest correlations. Regression analysis indicated that TPB constructs were predictive of intentions and the predictive power improved post intervention. Behavioral control consistently predicted intentions for all categories and was the strongest predictor for pretest scores. For posttest scores, knowledge and attitude were the strongest predictors for POL and AOL groups respectively. Thus, HOT project improved knowledge and the TPB constructs scores for targeted behaviors, healthy eating and physical activity, for prevention of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Hui, Alison; Wong, Paul Wai-Ching; Fu, King-Wa
Background A depression-awareness campaign delivered through the Internet has been recommended as a public health approach that would enhance mental health literacy and encourage help-seeking attitudes. However, the outcomes of such a campaign remain understudied. Objective The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an online depression awareness campaign, which was informed by the theory of planned behavior, to encourage help-seeking attitudes for depression and to enhan...
Laganá, Luciana; Gavrilova, Larisa; Carter, Delwin B; Ainsworth, Andrew T
Despite the rapid increase in the size of the geriatric population, no current published literature is available based on the effects of viewing a documentary covering medical and psychosocial issues concerning older adults influencing young people's empathy and ageism. The aim of the current study was to test whether participants who viewed an original documentary about older adults experiencing physical pain would report lower ageism and higher empathy scores when compared to participants who watched a neutral documentary. Seventy-seven students (ages 18-29 years) were randomized to either the experimental (pain documentary) or the control (neutral documentary) conditions and given pre- and post-test measures of empathy and ageism. The results of a series of Profile Analyses (Multivariate Mixed ANOVAs) showed a significant interaction (Wilk's λ=0.933, F (1,75)=5.389, p =0.023, partial η 2 =0.067) between treatment and time (pre- vs . post-viewing the film) for the empathy measure that was confirmed by follow-up t -tests. The latter showed a significant increase in empathy scores for only the experimental group, t (37)=-2.999, p =0.005. However, contrary to the original prediction, this same treatment by time effect was not observed for ageism (Wilk's λ=0.994, F (1,75)=0.482, p =0.490, partial η 2 =0.006), as the experimental participants did not significantly reduce their ageism scores, t (38)=0.725, p =0.473. The results of these analyses, as well as those obtained by using the subscales of each questionnaire, have been discussed. The findings of this preliminary study indicate that showing a pain-based, anti-bias documentary feature film has the potential to significantly improve empathy towards older adults in university students.
Laganá, Luciana; Gavrilova, Larisa; Carter, Delwin B.; Ainsworth, Andrew T.
Background Despite the rapid increase in the size of the geriatric population, no current published literature is available based on the effects of viewing a documentary covering medical and psychosocial issues concerning older adults influencing young people’s empathy and ageism. The aim of the current study was to test whether participants who viewed an original documentary about older adults experiencing physical pain would report lower ageism and higher empathy scores when compared to participants who watched a neutral documentary. Method Seventy-seven students (ages 18–29 years) were randomized to either the experimental (pain documentary) or the control (neutral documentary) conditions and given pre- and post-test measures of empathy and ageism. Results The results of a series of Profile Analyses (Multivariate Mixed ANOVAs) showed a significant interaction (Wilk’s λ=0.933, F(1,75)=5.389, p=0.023, partial η2=0.067) between treatment and time (pre- vs. post-viewing the film) for the empathy measure that was confirmed by follow-up t-tests. The latter showed a significant increase in empathy scores for only the experimental group, t(37)=−2.999, p=0.005. However, contrary to the original prediction, this same treatment by time effect was not observed for ageism (Wilk’s λ=0.994, F(1,75)=0.482, p=0.490, partial η2=0.006), as the experimental participants did not significantly reduce their ageism scores, t(38)=0.725, p=0.473. The results of these analyses, as well as those obtained by using the subscales of each questionnaire, have been discussed. Conclusions The findings of this preliminary study indicate that showing a pain-based, anti-bias documentary feature film has the potential to significantly improve empathy towards older adults in university students. PMID:29399638
Harvie, E.; Chu, D.; Woodard, M.
Propagating attitude by integrating Euler's equation for rigid body motion has long been suggested for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) but until now has not been implemented. Because of limited Sun visibility, propagation is necessary for yaw determination. With the deterioration of the gyros, dynamic propagation has become more attractive. Angular rates are derived from integrating Euler's equation with a stepsize of 1 second, using torques computed from telemetered control system data. The environmental torque model was quite basic. It included gravity gradient and unshadowed aerodynamic torques. Knowledge of control torques is critical to the accuracy of dynamic modeling. Due to their coarseness and sparsity, control actuator telemetry were smoothed before integration. The dynamic model was incorporated into existing ERBS attitude determination software. Modeled rates were then used for attitude propagation in the standard ERBS fine-attitude algorithm. In spite of the simplicity of the approach, the dynamically propagated attitude matched the attitude propagated with good gyros well for roll and yaw but diverged up to 3 degrees for pitch because of the very low resolution in pitch momentum wheel telemetry. When control anomalies significantly perturb the nominal attitude, the effect of telemetry granularity is reduced and the dynamically propagated attitudes are accurate on all three axes.
Kaleta, Dorota; Polańska, Kinga; Rzeźnicki, Adam; Stelmach, Włodzimierz; Wojtysiak, Piotr
Tobacco-free school environment as well as non-smoking teachers and school personnel provide positive role models for children and young people. In Poland, smoking should be banned in colleges, schools, educational establishments and educational care facilities. However, for the existing law to be effective, awareness of all people in school curriculum and enforcement of the law are crucial. The aim of the study was to evaluate tobacco use patterns, knowledge and attitudes towards tobacco as well as availability of tobacco control training among school personnel in a rural area in Poland. Moreover, compliance with tobacco control policies and their enforcement were assessed. The study was carried out in Piotrkowski district between November 2014 and May 2015 in accordance with the Global School Personnel Survey (GSPS) methodology. Sixty schools participated in the survey (92% of the schools from the region) with involvement of 1044 teachers and 500 non-teaching staff (the response rate - 83.1%). The multivariate linear regression analyses were applied to study factors linked to the need for anti-tobacco training dedicated to the youth and teachers' knowledge as well as activities to educate the students about tobacco use and its prevention. About 24% of the school personnel were current and 9% were ex-smokers. Significantly more teachers than the non-teaching staff indicated that the schools had a policy prohibiting tobacco use among students. In addition, 6% of the study participants indicated everyday violations of the tobacco control policy by the school personnel. More than 80% of the teaching personnel indicated the need for training dedicated to the youth to prevent their tobacco use. In the multivariate linear regression model, longer duration of working experience predicted higher levels of knowledge and more activities performed to teach the youth about tobacco use and its prevention. The smokers comparing to the non-smokers perceived the need for anti
Hattis, Philip D.
Paper provides mathematical basis for predictive management of angular momenta of control-moment gyroscopes (CMG's) to control attitude of orbiting space station. Numerical results presented for pitch control of proposed power-tower space station. Based on prior orbit history and mathematical model of density of atmosphere, predictions made of requirements on dumping and storage of angular momentum in relation to current loading state of CMG's and to acceptable attitude tolerances.
Legido-Quigley, Helena; Camacho Lopez, Paul Anthony; Balabanova, Dina; Perel, Pablo; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Nieuwlaat, Robby; Schwalm, J-D; McCready, Tara; Yusuf, Salim; McKee, Martin
Hypertension is a leading cause of premature death worldwide and the most important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Effective screening programs, communication with patients, regular monitoring, and adherence to treatment are essential to successful management but may be challenging in health systems facing resource constraints. This qualitative study explored patients’ knowledge, attitudes, behaviour and health care seeking experiences in relation to detection, treatment and control of hypertension in Colombia. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 26 individuals with hypertension and 4 family members in two regions. Few participants were aware of ways to prevent high blood pressure. Once diagnosed, most reported taking medication but had little information about their condition and had a poor understanding of their treatment regime. The desire for good communication and a trusting relationship with the doctor emerged as key themes in promoting adherence to medication and regular attendance at medical appointments. Barriers to accessing treatment included co-payments for medication; costs of transport to health care facilities; unavailability of drugs; and poor access to specialist care. Some patients overcame these barriers with support from social networks, family members and neighbours. However, those who lacked such support, experienced loneliness and struggled to access health care services. The health insurance scheme was frequently described as administratively confusing and those accessing the state subsidized system believed that the treatment was inferior to that provided under the compulsory contributory system. Measures that should be addressed to improve hypertension management in Colombia include better communication between health care professionals and patients, measures to improve understanding of the importance of adherence to treatment, reduction of co-payments and transport costs, and easier
Full Text Available Hypertension is a leading cause of premature death worldwide and the most important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Effective screening programs, communication with patients, regular monitoring, and adherence to treatment are essential to successful management but may be challenging in health systems facing resource constraints. This qualitative study explored patients' knowledge, attitudes, behaviour and health care seeking experiences in relation to detection, treatment and control of hypertension in Colombia. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 26 individuals with hypertension and 4 family members in two regions. Few participants were aware of ways to prevent high blood pressure. Once diagnosed, most reported taking medication but had little information about their condition and had a poor understanding of their treatment regime. The desire for good communication and a trusting relationship with the doctor emerged as key themes in promoting adherence to medication and regular attendance at medical appointments. Barriers to accessing treatment included co-payments for medication; costs of transport to health care facilities; unavailability of drugs; and poor access to specialist care. Some patients overcame these barriers with support from social networks, family members and neighbours. However, those who lacked such support, experienced loneliness and struggled to access health care services. The health insurance scheme was frequently described as administratively confusing and those accessing the state subsidized system believed that the treatment was inferior to that provided under the compulsory contributory system. Measures that should be addressed to improve hypertension management in Colombia include better communication between health care professionals and patients, measures to improve understanding of the importance of adherence to treatment, reduction of co-payments and transport
Foster, Nadine E.; Ogollah, Reuben O.; Croft, Peter R.; Holden, Melanie A.
Objective To investigate how attitudes and beliefs about exercise relate to physical activity behavior in older adults with knee pain attributable to osteoarthritis (OA). Methods We conducted secondary data analyses of a randomized controlled trial of exercise interventions (ISRCTN: 93634563). Participants were adults ≥45 years old with knee pain attributable to OA (n = 514). Crude and adjusted cross‐sectional and longitudinal associations between baseline Self‐Efficacy for Exercise (SEE), Positive Outcome Expectations for Exercise (POEE), Negative Outcome Expectations for Exercise scores, and physical activity level, at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months (measured by self‐report using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly [PASE]), and important increases in physical activity level (from baseline to 6‐month followup) were investigated using multiple linear and logistic regression. Results Cross‐sectional associations were found between SEE and PASE scores (β = 4.14 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.26, 8.03]) and POEE and PASE scores (β = 16.71 [95% CI 1.87, 31.55]), adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical covariates. Longitudinal associations were found between baseline SEE and PASE scores at 3 months (β = 4.95 [95% CI 1.02, 8.87]) and 6 months β = 3.71 (0.26, 7.16), and baseline POEE and PASE at 3 months (β = 34.55 [95% CI 20.13, 48.97]) and 6 months (β = 25.74 [95% CI 11.99, 39.49]), adjusted for baseline PASE score and intervention arm. However, no significant associations with important increases in physical activity level were found. Conclusion Greater exercise self‐efficacy and more positive exercise outcome expectations were associated with higher current and future physical activity levels. These may be targets for interventions aimed at increasing physical activity. PMID:27696795
Legido-Quigley, Helena; Camacho Lopez, Paul Anthony; Balabanova, Dina; Perel, Pablo; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Nieuwlaat, Robby; Schwalm, J-D; McCready, Tara; Yusuf, Salim; McKee, Martin
Hypertension is a leading cause of premature death worldwide and the most important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Effective screening programs, communication with patients, regular monitoring, and adherence to treatment are essential to successful management but may be challenging in health systems facing resource constraints. This qualitative study explored patients' knowledge, attitudes, behaviour and health care seeking experiences in relation to detection, treatment and control of hypertension in Colombia. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 26 individuals with hypertension and 4 family members in two regions. Few participants were aware of ways to prevent high blood pressure. Once diagnosed, most reported taking medication but had little information about their condition and had a poor understanding of their treatment regime. The desire for good communication and a trusting relationship with the doctor emerged as key themes in promoting adherence to medication and regular attendance at medical appointments. Barriers to accessing treatment included co-payments for medication; costs of transport to health care facilities; unavailability of drugs; and poor access to specialist care. Some patients overcame these barriers with support from social networks, family members and neighbours. However, those who lacked such support, experienced loneliness and struggled to access health care services. The health insurance scheme was frequently described as administratively confusing and those accessing the state subsidized system believed that the treatment was inferior to that provided under the compulsory contributory system. Measures that should be addressed to improve hypertension management in Colombia include better communication between health care professionals and patients, measures to improve understanding of the importance of adherence to treatment, reduction of co-payments and transport costs, and easier access
Hamilton, Kyra; Spinks, Teagan; White, Katherine M; Kavanagh, David J; Walsh, Anne M
Preschool-aged children spend substantial amounts of time engaged in screen-based activities. As parents have considerable control over their child's health behaviours during the younger years, it is important to understand those influences that guide parents' decisions about their child's screen time behaviours. A prospective design with two waves of data collection, 1 week apart, was adopted. Parents (n = 207) completed a Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)-based questionnaire, with the addition of parental role construction (i.e., parents' expectations and beliefs of responsibility for their child's behaviour) and past behaviour. A number of underlying beliefs identified in a prior pilot study were also assessed. The model explained 77% (with past behaviour accounting for 5%) of the variance in intention and 50% (with past behaviour accounting for 3%) of the variance in parental decisions to limit child screen time. Attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, parental role construction, and past behaviour predicted intentions, and intentions and past behaviour predicted follow-up behaviour. Underlying screen time beliefs (e.g., increased parental distress, pressure from friends, inconvenience) were also identified as guiding parents' decisions. Results support the TPB and highlight the importance of beliefs for understanding parental decisions for children's screen time behaviours, as well as the addition of parental role construction. This formative research provides necessary depth of understanding of sedentary lifestyle behaviours in young children which can be adopted in future interventions to test the efficacy of the TPB mechanisms in changing parental behaviour for their child's health. What is already known on this subject? Identifying determinants of child screen time behaviour is vital to the health of young people. Social-cognitive and parental role constructions are key influences of parental decision-making. Little is known about the
Pengetahuan, Sikap, dan Praktik Pemilik Breeding Kennel terhadap Pencegahan dan Pengendalian Bruselosis pada Anjing Impor (KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE, AND PRACTISES OF BREEDING KENNEL OWNER REGARDING CANINE BRUCELLOSIS PREVENTION AND CONTROLLING ON IMPORTED DOGS
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella canis of imported dog for breederthrough Soekarno Hatta International Airport, Cengkareng Tanggerang, Indonesia. A total of 64 serumsamples were obtained from breeder dogs imported to Indonesia between Mei–September 2014. Theserums were examined by Immunochromatographic Assay. None of the serum samples in this studytested positive. Result of this study indicated that antibodies of B. canis were not detected in 64 dogsimported to Indonesia during the research period. A Knowledge, Attitude and Practises (KAP Survey wasalso performed. This study used 32 respondents and data were analyzed by using path analysis. Therespondents were breeding kennel owners (breeder who imported dogs through Soekarno HattaInternational Airport during the research period. The study concluded that the knowledge significantlyinfluenced the attitude of the breeder, and also the attitude significantly influenced the practises ofpreventing and controlling brucellosis. The annually income was also identified as a variable thatsignificantly influenced the practises. Practice prevention and control of canine brucellosis can be improvedby increasing the knowledge of the breeding kennel owner.
Rationale, design and methods for a staggered-entry, waitlist controlled clinical trial of the impact of a community-based, family-centred, multidisciplinary program focussed on activity, food and attitude habits (Curtin University’s Activity, Food and Attitudes Program—CAFAP among overweight adolescents
Straker Leon M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Current estimates place just under one quarter of adolescents in Australia as overweight or obese. Adolescence has been identified as a critical period for the development of obesity, yet despite this recognition, there is limited systematic research into or evaluation of interventions for overweight adolescents. Reviews have concluded that there is a substantive evidence gap for effective intervention, but physical activity, lifestyle change and family involvement have been identified as promising foci for treatment. Methods This paper reports on the development of a staggered-entry, waitlist controlled clinical trial to assess the impact of a multidisciplinary intervention aiming to change the poor health trajectory of overweight adolescents and help them avoid morbid obesity in adulthood—Curtin University’s Activity, Food and Attitudes Program (CAFAP. 96 adolescents, aged 11–16 years, and parents, will attend twice weekly during an 8 week intensive multidisciplinary program with maintenance follow-up focussed on improving activity, food and attitude habits. Follow-up assessments will be conducted immediately after completing the intensive program, and at 3, 6 and 12 months post intensive program. Main outcomes will be objectively-measured physical activity, sedentary behaviour and activity behaviours; food intake (measured by 3 day diary and food behaviours; body composition, fitness and physical function; mental and social well-being (quality of life, mood and attitudes, and family functioning. Discussion This trial will provide important information to understand whether a community based multidisciplinary intervention can have short and medium term effects on activity and food habits, attitudes, and physical and mental health status of overweight adolescents. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611001187932.
Ethiopia. A limited understanding of the concept disability, negative attitudes towards .... impairment and mental retardation in ... on the attitudes of the people” Taking part ... feelings about inclusion. ... Brahmnorwich(2002) , younger teachers.
Hepler, Justin; Albarracín, Dolores
We hypothesized that individuals may differ in the dispositional tendency to have positive vs. negative attitudes, a trait termed the dispositional attitude. Across 4 studies, we developed a 16-item Dispositional Attitude Measure (DAM) and investigated its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, factor structure, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and predictive validity. DAM scores were (a) positively correlated with positive affect traits, curiosity-related traits, and individual preexisting attitudes; (b) negatively correlated with negative affect traits; and (c) uncorrelated with theoretically unrelated traits. Dispositional attitudes also significantly predicted the valence of novel attitudes while controlling for theoretically relevant traits (such as the Big 5 and optimism). The dispositional attitude construct represents a new perspective in which attitudes are not simply a function of the properties of the stimuli under consideration, but are also a function of the properties of the evaluator. We discuss the intriguing implications of dispositional attitudes for many areas of research, including attitude formation, persuasion, and behavior prediction. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Rawashdeh, Samir A.
As electronics become smaller and more capable, it has become possible to conduct meaningful and sophisticated satellite missions in a small form factor. However, the capability of small satellites and the range of possible applications are limited by the capabilities of several technologies, including attitude determination and control systems. This dissertation evaluates the use of image-based visual attitude propagation as a compliment or alternative to other attitude determination technologies that are suitable for miniature satellites. The concept lies in using miniature cameras to track image features across frames and extracting the underlying rotation. The problem of visual attitude propagation as a small satellite attitude determination system is addressed from several aspects: related work, algorithm design, hardware and performance evaluation, possible applications, and on-orbit experimentation. These areas of consideration reflect the organization of this dissertation. A "stellar gyroscope" is developed, which is a visual star-based attitude propagator that uses relative motion of stars in an imager's field of view to infer the attitude changes. The device generates spacecraft relative attitude estimates in three degrees of freedom. Algorithms to perform the star detection, correspondence, and attitude propagation are presented. The Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC) approach is applied to the correspondence problem to successfully pair stars across frames while mitigating falsepositive and false-negative star detections. This approach provides tolerance to the noise levels expected in using miniature optics and no baffling, and the noise caused by radiation dose on orbit. The hardware design and algorithms are validated using test images of the night sky. The application of the stellar gyroscope as part of a CubeSat attitude determination and control system is described. The stellar gyroscope is used to augment a MEMS gyroscope attitude propagation
Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz
Recent advances in autonomous attitude determination instrumentation enable even small satellites flying fully autonomous multi head star trackers providing full accurate and robust attitude information. Each sensor provides the full attitude information but for robustness and optimal usage...... of the available information, i.e. optimal accuracy, methods for merging such data should be investigated. The need for and desirability of attitude merging depends on the mission objective and available resources. To enable real-time attitude control and reduce requirements on download budget, on-board merging...... of attitude data will often be advantageous. This should be weighted against the need for post observation reconstruction of attitudes, especially needed when end products are sensitive to optimal attitude reconstruction. Instrument integrated merging algorithms will reduce the complexity of on-board AOCS...
The accuracy of spacecraft attitude control using magnetic actuators only is low and on the order of 0.4-5 degrees. The key reason is that the magnetic torque is two-dimensional and it is only in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field vector. In this paper novel attitude control algorithms using the combination of magnetic actuators with Reaction Wheel Assembles (RWAs) or other types of actuators, such as thrusters, are presented. The combination of magnetic actuators with one or two RWAs aligned with different body axis expands the two-dimensional control torque to three-dimensional. The algorithms can guarantee the spacecraft attitude and rates to track the commanded attitude precisely. A design example is presented for Nadir pointing, pitch and yaw maneuvers. The results show that precise attitude tracking can be reached and the attitude control accuracy is comparable with RWAs based attitude control. The algorithms are also useful for the RWAs based attitude control. When there are only one or two workable RWAs due to RWA failures, the attitude control system can switch to the control algorithms for the combined magnetic actuators with the RWAs without going to the safe mode and the control accuracy can be maintained.
Newbill, Phyllis Leary
Although negative attitudes toward science are common among women and men in undergraduate introductory science classes, women's attitudes toward science tend to be more negative than men's. The reasons for women's negative attitudes toward science include lack of self-confidence, fear of association with social outcasts, lack of women role models in science, and the fundamental differences between traditional scientific and feminist values. Attitudes are psychological constructs theorized to be composed of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral components. Attitudes serve functions, including social expressive, value expressive, utilitarian, and defensive functions, for the people who hold them. To change attitudes, the new attitudes must serve the same function as the old one, and all three components must be treated. Instructional designers can create instructional environments to effect attitude change. In designing instruction to improve women's attitudes toward science, instructional designers should (a) address the emotions that are associated with existing attitudes, (b) involve credible, attractive women role models, and (c) address the functions of the existing attitudes. Two experimental instructional modules were developed based on these recommendations, and two control modules were developed that were not based on these recommendations. The asynchronous, web-based modules were administered to 281 undergraduate geology and chemistry students at two universities. Attitude assessment revealed that attitudes toward scientists improved significantly more in the experimental group, although there was no significant difference in overall attitudes toward science. Women's attitudes improved significantly more than men's in both the experimental and control groups. Students whose attitudes changed wrote significantly more in journaling activities associated with the modules. Qualitative analysis of journals revealed that the guidelines worked exactly as predicted
Elliott, Mark A; Lee, Emme; Robertson, Jamie S; Innes, Rhona
According to the MODE model of attitude-to-behavior processes, attitude accessibility augments attitude-behavior correspondence, reflecting an automatic influence of attitudes on behavior. We therefore tested whether attitude accessibility moderates the attitude-behavior relationship in a context that is governed by characteristically automatic behavior, namely driving. In study 1 (correlational design), participants (N=130) completed online questionnaire measures of the valences and accessibilities of their attitudes towards speeding. Two weeks later, online questionnaire measures of subsequent speeding behavior were obtained. Attitude valence was a significantly better predictor of behavior at high (mean+1SD) versus low (mean-1SD) levels of attitude accessibility. In study 2 (experimental design), attitude accessibility was manipulated with a repeated attitude expression task. Immediately after the manipulation, participants (N=122) completed online questionnaire measures of attitude valence and accessibility, and two weeks later, subsequent speeding behavior. Increased attitude accessibility in the experimental (versus control) condition generated an increase in attitude-behavior correspondence. The findings are consistent with the MODE model's proposition that attitudes can exert an automatic influence on behavior. Interventions to reduce speeding could usefully increase the accessibility of anti-speeding attitudes and reduce the accessibility of pro-speeding attitudes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bulsing, Patricia J; Smeets, Monique A M; van den Hout, Marcel A
Associations between certain odors and for instance health effects may lead to positive or negative attitudes toward these odors. However, in experiments we conducted using the Implicit Association Test (IAT), we encountered attitudes even to odor "words." The IAT is based on the principle that reaction times measuring the association between words from a target dimension (in this case, odor vs. a neutral reference category) and an attribute dimension (i.e., positive or negative words) reflect the attitude to the target, where attitude-congruent associations between target and attribute are reflected by shorter reaction times. In a first experiment, we found distinctly positive attitudes to the concept odor in a student sample, which was replicated in a second experiment. In the main experiment, subjects in the aromatherapy group, who prefer using scented consumer products for relaxation purposes, showed a significantly more positive attitude toward odor words in the IAT than a control group, who did not have such a preference. The fact that results from the implicit test were not always associated with explicitly stated attitudes toward the odor words attests to the fact that the IAT measures the attitude of interest in a different way. As such, the IAT has added value in circumstances where explicit tests can be biased.
Hahn, Adam; Judd, Charles M.; Hirsh, Holen K.; Blair, Irene V.
Research on implicit attitudes has raised questions about how well people know their own attitudes. Most research on this question has focused on the correspondence between measures of implicit attitudes and measures of explicit attitudes, with low correspondence interpreted as showing that people have little awareness of their implicit attitudes. We took a different approach and directly asked participants to predict their results on upcoming IAT measures of implicit attitudes toward five different social groups. We found that participants were surprisingly accurate in their predictions. Across four studies, predictions were accurate regardless of whether implicit attitudes were described as true attitudes or culturally learned associations (Studies 1 and 2), regardless of whether predictions were made as specific response patterns (Study 1) or as conceptual responses (Studies 2–4), and regardless of how much experience or explanation participants received before making their predictions (Study 4). Study 3 further suggested that participants’ predictions reflected unique insight into their own implicit responses, beyond intuitions about how people in general might respond. Prediction accuracy occurred despite generally low correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of attitudes, as found in prior research. All together, the research findings cast doubt on the belief that attitudes or evaluations measured by the IAT necessarily reflect unconscious attitudes. PMID:24294868
Koivunen, Marita; Välimäki, Maritta; Patel, Anita; Knapp, Martin; Hätönen, Heli; Kuosmanen, Lauri; Pitkänen, Anneli; Anttila, Minna; Katajisto, Jouko
Utilisation of information technology (IT) in the treatment of people with severe mental health problems is an unknown area in Europe. Use of IT and guiding patients to relevant sources of health information requires that nursing staff have positive attitudes toward computers and accept IT use as a part of daily practises. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of the implementation of a web-based patient support system on staff's attitudes towards computers and IT use on psychiatric wards. Hundred and forty-nine nurses in two psychiatric hospitals in Finland were randomised to two groups to deliver patient education for patients with schizophrenia and psychosis with a web-based system (n = 76) or leaflets (n = 73). After baseline nurses were followed-up for 18 months after the introduction of the system. The primary outcome was nurses' motivation to utilise computers, and the secondary outcomes were nurses' beliefs in and satisfaction with computers, and use of computer and internet. There were no statistically significant differences between study groups in attitudes towards computers (motivation p = 0.936, beliefs p = 0.270, satisfaction p = 0.462) and internet use (p = 0.276). However, nurses' general computer use (p = 0.029) increased more in the leaflet group than in the IT intervention group. We can conclude that IT has promise as an alternative method in patient education, as the implementation of the web-based patient support system in daily basis did not have a negative effect on nurses' attitudes towards IT. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Legido-Quigley, Helena; Camacho Lopez, Paul Anthony; Balabanova, Dina; Perel, Pablo; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Nieuwlaat, Robby; Schwalm, J-D; McCready, Tara; Yusuf, Salim; McKee, Martin
Hypertension is a leading cause of premature death worldwide and the most important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Effective screening programs, communication with patients, regular monitoring, and adherence to treatment are essential to successful management but may be challenging in health systems facing resource constraints. This qualitative study explored patients' knowledge, attitudes, behaviour and health care seeking experiences in relation to detection, treatment a...
Consumer attitudes toward food irradiation were evaluated. The influence of educational efforts on consumer concern for the safety of irradiated products and willingness to buy irradiated foods were measured. Demographic and psychological factors were studied in relation to attitudes. An educational leaflet describing current scientific information regarding the safety, advantages, and disadvantages of food irradiation was developed and used in two studies evaluating attitude change. In the first study, attitude change among two groups of consumers with different philosophic orientations was measured. In a second study, the effectiveness of an educational leaflet received through the mail and a poster display were examined. In a third study response to food irradiation was related to value hierarchy, locus of control, innovativeness, and demographic parameters. Initially, subjects showed a higher concern for other areas of food safety, particularly the use of chemicals and sprays on food, than toward food irradiation. After educational efforts, conventional consumers expressed minor concern toward irradiation whereas ecologically sensitive alternative consumers obtained from a food cooperative expressed major concern. A knowledgeable discussion leader lowered irradiation concern among conventional consumers. In contrast, concern among alternative consumers did not diminish when given the opportunity to discuss safety issues with a knowledgeable person
Blankenship, Kevin L; Wegener, Duane T; Murray, Renee A
Most research on persuasion examines messages that directly address the attitude of interest. However, especially when message recipients are inclined to resist change, indirect methods might be more effective. Because values are rarely attacked and defended, value change could serve as a useful indirect route for attitude change. Attitudes toward affirmative action changed more when the value of equality was attacked (indirect change) than when affirmative action was directly attacked using the same message (Experiments 1-2). Changes in confidence in the value were responsible for the indirect change when the value was attacked (controlling for changes in favorability toward the value), whereas direct counterarguments to the message were responsible for the relative lack of change when the attitude was attacked directly (Experiment 2). Attacking the value of equality influenced attitudes toward policies related to the value but left policy attitudes unrelated to the value unchanged (Experiment 3). Finally, a manipulation of value confidence that left attitudes toward the value intact demonstrated similar confidence-based influences on policies related to the value of freedom (Experiment 4). Undermined value confidence also resulted in less confidence in the resulting policy attitudes controlling for the changes in the policy attitudes themselves (Experiments 3 and 4). Therefore, indirect change through value attacks presented a double threat--to both the policy attitudes and the confidence with which those policy attitudes were held (potentially leaving them open to additional influence).
Effects of the First Line Diabetes Care (FiLDCare) self-management education and support project on knowledge, attitudes, perceptions, self-management practices and glycaemic control: a quasi-experimental study conducted in the Northern Philippines.
Ku, Grace Marie V; Kegels, Guy
To investigate the effects of implementing a context-adapted diabetes self-management education and support (DSME/S) project based on chronic care models in the Philippines, on knowledge, attitudes, self-management practices, adiposity/obesity and glycaemia of people with diabetes. Prospective quasi-experimental before-after study. 203 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus from two local government units in the Northern Philippines fulfilling set criteria. Context-adapted DSME/S was given to a cohort of people with diabetes by trained pre-existing local government healthcare personnel. Changes in knowledge, attitudes and self-management practices, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were measured 1 year after full project implementation. Non-parametric and parametric descriptive and inferential statistics including logistic regression analysis were done. Complete data were collected from 164 participants. Improvements in glycaemia, waist circumference, WHR, knowledge, some attitudes, adherence to medications and exercise, and an increase in fear of diabetes were significant. Reductions in HbA1c, regardless of level of control, were noted in 60.4%. Significant increase in knowledge (pability to control blood glucose (p=0.004) and adherence to medications (p=0.001) were noted among those whose glycaemia improved. Significant differences between the subgroups whose HbA1c improved and those whose HbA1c deteriorated include male gender (p=0.042), shorter duration of diabetes (p=0.001) and increased perceived ability to control blood glucose (p=0.042). Significant correlates to improved glycaemia were male gender (OR=2.655; p=0.034), duration of diabetes >10 years (OR=0.214; p=0.003) and fear of diabetes (OR=0.490; p=0.048). Context-adapted DSME/S introduced in resource-constrained settings and making use of established human resources for health may improve knowledge, attitudes, self-management practices
Glaser, Tina; Dickel, Nina; Liersch, Benjamin; Rees, Jonas; Süssenbach, Philipp; Bohner, Gerd
The authors propose a framework distinguishing two types of lateral attitude change (LAC): (a) generalization effects, where attitude change toward a focal object transfers to related objects, and (b) displacement effects, where only related attitudes change but the focal attitude does not change. They bring together examples of LAC from various domains of research, outline the conditions and underlying processes of each type of LAC, and develop a theoretical framework that enables researchers to study LAC more systematically in the future. Compared with established theories of attitude change, the LAC framework focuses on lateral instead of focal attitude change and encompasses both generalization and displacement. Novel predictions and designs for studying LAC are presented. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Chęć, Magdalena; Potemkowski, Andrzej; Wąsik, Marta; Samochowiec, Agnieszka
A better functioning of adolescents involves proper relationships with parents, whereas negative relationships lead to aggressive behaviour. Young members of Emo subculture, characterised by deep emotional sensitivity, are particularly vulnerable to parental influence. The aim was to specify a relationship between parental attitudes and aggression among adolescents from the Emo subculture in comparison with a control group. 3,800 lower secondary school students took part in the introductory research. A target group constituted 41 people from the Emo subculture as well as a control group involving 48 people. A screening survey, the Parental Attitudes Scale, the Aggression Questionnaire and the author's questionnaire including questions concerning the functioning in the Emo subculture were used in the study. The results obtained in the research study suggest that there is a relationship between the indicated improper parental attitudes and aggressive behaviour among adolescents from the Emo subculture in comparison with the control group. In the Emo subculture, teenagers'aggressive behaviour is related to improper parental attitudes. It has been stated that mother's attitudes, irrespective of subculture, are much more strongly associated with the aggression among adolescents than father's attitudes. Moreover, aggressive behaviour in the Emo subculture occurs when father displays an excessively demanding attitude. A reduction of the level of almost all kinds of aggression manifested among teenagers from the Emo subculture is associated with mothers' attitude of acceptance. Mothers' autonomous attitude leads to an increase in the aggression in this group, whereas an inconsistent attitude of mothers fosters an increase in aggression among all teenagers.
Yount, James R.; Horton, Phillip B.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between factors believed to contribute to the formation of environmental attitudes by college nonscience majors. Key relationships addressed were the effects of a university environmental studies course on (a) environmental attitudes, (b) the amount of factual information that is brought to bear on an environmental attitude decision (defensibility), and (c) the linkages between the affective and the cognitive domains of freshman and sophomore students. When compared to the control group, the students who attended an environmental studies class did not significantly change their attitudes, but they did exhibit increases in their total [F(3, 132) = 5.91, p cognitive reasoning scores were more prone to increase defensibility [F(6, 129) = 3.78, p cognitive and affective domains in the environmental attitude decision-making process.
Jiang, Hai; Shi, Guo-Qing; Tu, Wen-Xiao; Zheng, Can-Jun; Lai, Xue-Hui; Li, Xin-Xu; Wei, Qiang; Li, Mei; Deng, Li-Quan; Huo, Xiang; Chen, Ming-Quan; Xu, Feng; Ye, Long-Jie; Bai, Xi-Chen; Chen, Tong-Nian; Yin, Shao-Hua; Samba, Thomas T; Liang, Xiao-Feng
The recent outbreak of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Sierra Leone has been characterized by the World Health Organization as one of the most challenging EVD outbreaks to date. The first confirmed case in Sierra Leone was a young woman who was admitted to a government hospital in Kenema following a miscarriage on 24 May 2014. On 5 January 2015, intensified training for an EVD response project was initiated at the medical university of Sierra Leone in Jui. To understand the knowledge, attitudes, practices, and perceived risk of EVD among the public, especially after this training, a rapid assessment was conducted from 10 to 16 March 2015. Interviews were conducted with 466 participants based on questionnaires that were distributed from 10 to 16 March 2015 by cluster sampling in three adjacent communities, namely Jui, Grafton, and Kossoh Town, in the Western Area Rural District of Sierra Leone. It was found that knowledge about EVD was comprehensive and high. Positive attitude towards prevention was found to be satisfactory. Nearly all participants knew the reporting phone number 117 and had reported some change in behavior since learning about Ebola. More than half (62 %) of the participants had a history of travelling to urban areas, which increases the risk of infection. The multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that community and occupation were variables associated with perceived risk of EVD. Our study showed that community level social mobilization and community engagement were an effective strategy in the special context.
mekar dwi anggraeni
Full Text Available Background and purpose: The earlier development of the attitude toward exclusive breastfeeding produces the longer exclusive breastfeeding duration. Considering the first marriage age among Indonesian, the attitude toward exclusive breastfeeding should be developed at the adolescence age. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the attitude toward breastfeeding concept based comic on the adolescent's attitude toward exclusive breastfeeding. Method: This was a quasy experimental posttest only with control group study. The respondents were provided an comic. The respondent's attitude toward exclusive breastfeeding was measured using The Breastfeeding Attitude Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using independent and dependent t test. Results: The majority of respondents were aged 17 years old in both intervention (70% and control grup (63%, first child in both intervention (23,3% and control grup (26,7%, and had a nuclear family in both intervention (80% and control grup (90%. The independent t test showed that there was a significant difference between post-test scores among the intervention and control groups (t = 5,602, p < 0,01. Conclusion and recommendation: Nurses may use the Attitude Toward Breastfeeding based comic to increase the Adolescence's attitude toward breastfeeding. Keywords: Comic, Attitudes Toward Exclusive Breastfeeding, Adolescence
Full Text Available This paper investigates the distribution of epistemic modals in attitude contexts in three Romance languages, as well as their potential interaction with mood selection. We show that epistemics can appear in complements of attitudes of acceptance (Stalnaker 1984, but not desideratives or directives; in addition, emotive doxastics (hope, fear and dubitatives (doubt permit epistemic possibility modals, but not their necessity counterparts. We argue that the embedding differences across attitudes indicate that epistemics are sensitive to the type of attitude an attitude predicate reports. We show that this sensitivity can be derived by adopting two types of proposals from the literature on epistemic modality and on attitude verbs: First, we assume that epistemics do not target knowledge uniformly, but rather quantify over an information state determined by the content of the embedding attitude (Hacquard 2006, 2010, Yalcin 2007. In turn, we adopt a fundamental split in the semantics of attitude verbs between ‘representational’ and ‘non-representational’ attitudes (Bolinger 1968: representational attitudes quantify over an information state (e.g., a set of beliefs for believe, which, we argue, epistemic modals can be anaphoric to. Non-representational attitudes do not quantify over an information state; instead, they combine with their complement via a comparison with contextually-provided alternatives using a logic of preference (cf. Bolinger 1968, Stalnaker 1984, Farkas 1985, Heim 1992, Villalta 2000, 2008. Finally, we argue that emotive doxastics and dubitatives have a hybrid semantics, which combines a representational component (responsible for licensing epistemic possibility modals, and a preference component (responsible for disallowing epistemic necessity modals. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.6.8 BibTeX info
Ardern-Jones, Joanne; Hughes, Donald K; Rowe, Philip H; Mottram, David R; Green, Christopher F
This study assessed the attitudes of Emergency Department (ED) staff regarding the introduction of an automated stock-control system. The objectives were to determine attitudes to stock control and replenishment, speed of access to the system, ease of use and the potential for future uses of the system. The study was carried out in the Countess of Chester Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (COCH) ED, which is attended by over 65,000 patients each year. All 68 ED staff were sent pre-piloted, semi-structured questionnaires and reminders, before and after automation of medicines stock control. Pre-implementation, 35 staff (66.1% of respondents) reported that problems occurred with access to medicine storage keys 'very frequently' or 'frequently'. Twenty-eight (52.8%) respondents 'agreed' or 'strongly agreed' that medicines were quickly accessed, which rose to 41 (77%) post-automation (P fluids and refrigerated items. Twenty-seven (51.9%) staff reported access to the system within 1 min and 17 (32.7%) staff reported access within 1-2 min. The majority of staff found the system 'easy' or 'very easy' to use and there was a non-significant relationship between previous use of information technology and acceptance of the system. From a staff satisfaction perspective, automation improved medicines storage, security and stock control, and addressed the problem of searching for keys to storage areas. Concerns over familiarity with computers, queuing, speed of access and an improved audit trail do not appear to have been issues, when compared with the previous manual storage of medicines.
Wallace, Douglas H.; Wehmer, Gerald
The results indicate that a voluntary three hour exposure to erotic pictures, some of which have been defined as being legally obscene," does not lead to a change in a person's attitudes toward such materials or in attitudes toward their censorship. (Author)
Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel
Using the 2007 wave of the Pew Global Attitudes Project, this paper finds statistically significant and economically large Stolper-Samuelson effects in individuals’ preference formation towards trade policy. High-skilled individuals are substantially more pro-trade than low-skilled individuals......-Ohlin model in shaping free trade attitudes, relative to existing literature....
Full Text Available Several applications require the tracking of attitude and position of a body based on velocity data. It is tempting to use direction cosine matrices (DCM), for example, to track attitude based on angular velocity data, and to integrate the linear...
. By listening to different voices - primarily from four focus group interviews - the article will discuss attitudes towards musical soundtracks in documentaries, attitudes being negotiated between emotional immersion and critical reflection, with the concept of manipulation as an underlying theme. In the end...
Rafieyan, Vahid; Orang, Maryam; Bijami, Maryam; Nejad, Maryam Sharafi; Eng, Lin Siew
Learning a language involves knowledge of both linguistic competence and cultural competence. Optimal development of linguistic competence and cultural competence, however, requires a high level of acculturation attitude toward the target language culture. To this end, the present study explored the acculturation attitudes of 70 Iranian…
Saiki, Takanao; Tsuda, Yuichi; Funase, Ryu; Mimasu, Yuya; Shirasawa, Yoji; Ikaros Demonstration Team,
This paper shows the attitude operation results of Japanese interplanetary solar sail demonstration spacecraft IKAROS. IKAROS was launched on 21 May 2010(JST) aboard an H-IIA rocket, together with the AKATSUKI Venus climate orbiter. As IKAROS is the secondary payload, the development cost and period were restricted and the onboard attitude system is very simple. This paper introduces the attitude determination and control system. And as IKAROS is spin type spacecraft and it has the large membrane, the attitude control is not easy and it is very important to determine the long-term attitude plan in advance. This paper also shows the outline of the IKAROS attitude operation plan and its operation results.
Crano, William D; Prislin, Radmila
Study of attitudes and persuasion remains a defining characteristic of contemporary social psychology. This review outlines recent advances, with emphasis on the relevance of today's work for perennial issues. We reiterate the distinction between attitude formation and change, and show its relevance for persuasion. Single- and dual-process models are discussed, as are current views on dissonance theory. Majority and minority influence are scrutinized, with special emphasis on integrative theoretical innovations. Attitude strength is considered, and its relevance to ambivalence and resistance documented. Affect, mood, and emotion effects are reviewed, especially as they pertain to fear arousal and (un)certainty. Finally, we discuss attitude-behavior consistency, perhaps the reason for our interest in attitudes in the first place, with emphasis on self-interest and the theory of planned behavior. Our review reflects the dynamism and the reach of the area, and suggests a sure and sometimes rapid accumulation of knowledge and understanding.
Full Text Available Knowledge-attitude-practices (KAP significantly impact the outcome of self-management in patients with diabetes, yet the association between KAP and the combined control of the levels of blood glucose, blood pressure, and blood lipids in these patients remains uncertain. This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2014 to December 2016 on 3977 patients with type 2 diabetes in Shanghai. KAP were evaluated using the modified Chinese version of the Diabetes, Hypertension and Hyperlipidemia (DHL Knowledge Instrument, Diabetes Empowerment Scale–Short Form (DES-SF, and Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA. Clinical and biochemical measurements were performed at each sampling site. The association between KAP scores and achieving the combined target goal was assessed by multiple logistic regression. Patients having a higher score of knowledge were more likely to achieve the combined target goal. Furthermore, a turning point of knowledge score was found that the possibility of achieving the combined target goal presented a sharp increase when the knowledge score was more than 70. However, the scores of attitude and practices had no significant relations with achieving the combined target goal. Health intervention strategies, especially increasing integrated diabetes knowledge, should be targeted to patients with type 2 diabetes in communities.
Kikuchi, Shota; Howell, Kathleen C.; Tsuda, Yuichi; Kawaguchi, Jun'ichiro
The motion of a spacecraft in proximity to a small body is significantly perturbed due to its irregular gravity field and solar radiation pressure. In such a strongly perturbed environment, the coupling effect of the orbital and attitude motions exerts a large influence that cannot be neglected. However, natural orbit-attitude coupled dynamics around small bodies that are stationary in both orbital and attitude motions have yet to be observed. The present study therefore investigates natural coupled motion that involves both a Sun-synchronous orbit and Sun-tracking attitude motion. This orbit-attitude coupled motion enables a spacecraft to maintain its orbital geometry and attitude state with respect to the Sun without requiring active control. Therefore, the proposed method can reduce the use of an orbit and attitude control system. This paper first presents analytical conditions to achieve Sun-synchronous orbits and Sun-tracking attitude motion. These analytical solutions are then numerically propagated based on non-linear coupled orbit-attitude equations of motion. Consequently, the possibility of implementing Sun-synchronous orbits with Sun-tracking attitude motion is demonstrated.
Filkowski, Megan M; Anderson, Ian W; Haas, Brian W
Interpersonal trust and distrust are important components of human social interaction. Although several studies have shown that brain function is associated with either trusting or distrusting others, very little is known regarding brain function during the control of social attitudes, including trust and distrust. This study was designed to investigate the neural mechanisms involved when people attempt to control their attitudes of trust or distrust toward another person. We used a novel control-of-attitudes fMRI task, which involved explicit instructions to control attitudes of interpersonal trust and distrust. Control of trust or distrust was operationally defined as changes in trustworthiness evaluations of neutral faces before and after the control-of-attitudes fMRI task. Overall, participants (n = 60) evaluated faces paired with the distrust instruction as being less trustworthy than faces paired with the trust instruction following the control-of-distrust task. Within the brain, both the control-of-trust and control-of-distrust conditions were associated with increased temporoparietal junction, precuneus (PrC), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and medial prefrontal cortex activity. Individual differences in the control of trust were associated with PrC activity, and individual differences in the control of distrust were associated with IFG activity. Together, these findings identify a brain network involved in the explicit control of distrust and trust and indicate that the PrC and IFG may serve to consolidate interpersonal social attitudes.
Bebetsos, Evangelos; Antoniou, Panagiotis
The aim of this study was to discover the differences on attitudes of Greek Physical Education students towards the subject of computers, in comparison with their involvement in physical activities (PA). The sample consisted of 165 freshmen students, 93 males and 72 females. They completed the “Computer Attitude Scale” questionnaire (Selwyn, 1997) of 21 items which consist four factors (affect, perceived usefulness, perceived control and behavioural) Additionally, each student received a dia...
There is widespread public concern over nuclear power and radioactive waste. Although the opposition is probably still in the minority, the proportion is sufficient to put the future of the nuclear industry in jeopardy in those countries where there is a choice. It is suggested that, if risk perceptions are to be changed, the whole attitude towards this hazardous technology must be carefully dissected and analyzed. Scientifically designed methods of attitude change can then be implemented. In particular, the social and cultural context that sustains the attitude has to be addressed through its constituent beliefs about employment prospects, safety, economic and political benefits etc. Factual knowledge, on the other hand, is largely irrelevant to attitude orientation. If anything, the antis have substantially more factual knowledge than the pros. The emotional component of the attitude is a crude, fast acting system that often controls the cognitive input and its organization. If attitude change is to succeed, a massive communication/education campaign is required over several years. But it would need to be based on the most relevant messages, originating from highly credible sources, purveyed through the most appropriate media and targeted to the moderate pros and antis and to the uncommitted
There is widespread public concern over nuclear power and its associated radioactive waste. Although the opposition is probably still in the minority the proportion is sufficient to put the future of the nuclear industry in jeopardy in those countries where there is a choice. Over the years, scientists and engineers have tended to ignore these growing misgivings; to dismiss them as irrational; or to attempt to placate them by pumping out technical information. Simultaneously, they have allocated more and more technological resource and expertise to ensuring that low probability accidents are made even less probable. It is suggested that, if risk perceptions are to be changed, the whole attitude towards this hazardous technology must be carefully dissected and analyzed. Scientifically designed methods of attitude change can then be implemented. In particular, the social and cultural context that sustains the attitude has to be addressed through its constituent beliefs about employment prospects, safety, economic and political benefits etc. Factual knowledge, on the other hand, is largely irrelevant to attitude orientation. If anything, the antis have substantially more factual knowledge than the pros. The emotional component of the attitude is a crude, fast acting system that often controls the cognitive input and its organization. If attitude change is to succeed, a massive communication/education campaign is required over several years. But it would need to be based on the most relevant messages, originating from highly credible sources, purveyed through the most appropriate media and targetted to the moderate pros and antis and to the uncommitted
PAHA study: psychological active and healthy aging: psychological wellbeing, proactive attitude and happiness effects of whole-body vibration versus Multicomponent Training in aged women: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Compare, Angelo; Zarbo, Cristina; Marín, Elena; Meloni, Alessia; Rubio-Arias, Jacobo A; Berengüí, Rosendo; Grossi, Enzo; Shonin, Edo; Martini, Gianmaria; Alcaraz, Pedro E
Evidence demonstrates that physical exercise and psychological wellbeing are closely interlinked, particularly in older-aged women. However, research investigating how different forms of exercise influence mental health in older-aged women is underdeveloped. A randomized controlled trial (N = 300) will assess the relative effectiveness of two different exercise programs (whole-body vibration and Multicomponent Training) for improving psychological wellbeing in older-aged women. The following outcomes will be assessed at three time points (that is, pre, post, and follow-up): psychological wellbeing, proactive attitude, quality of life, and happiness. Results will have important implications for preventing psychological and physiological disease in older-aged women and for managing health-related costs for this population group. Number NCT01966562 on Clinical Gov database the 8 October 2013.
Padin, Avelina C; Emery, Charles F; Vasey, Michael; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K
Dual-process models of health behavior posit that implicit and explicit attitudes independently drive healthy behaviors. Prior evidence indicates that implicit attitudes may be related to weekly physical activity (PA) levels, but the extent to which self-regulation attenuates this link remains unknown. This study examined the associations between implicit attitudes and self-reported PA during leisure time among 150 highly active young adults and evaluated the extent to which effortful control (one aspect of self-regulation) moderated this relationship. Results indicated that implicit attitudes toward exercise were unrelated to average workout length among individuals with higher effortful control. However, those with lower effortful control and more negative implicit attitudes reported shorter average exercise sessions compared with those with more positive attitudes. Implicit and explicit attitudes were unrelated to total weekly PA. A combination of poorer self-regulation and negative implicit attitudes may leave individuals vulnerable to mental and physical health consequences of low PA.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Tests, Measurement, and Evaluation, Princeton, NJ.
This brief overview discusses the rationale for measuring teachers' attitudes toward the mainstreaming of handicapped students into regular classrooms, as well as research findings on teacher attitudes. Two attitude tests, Berryman and Berryman's Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale and Hall's Stages of Concern Questionnaire, are also briefly…
van der Pligt, J.; Ester, P.; van der Linden, J.
Studied the effects of attitude extremity on perceived consensus and willingness to ascribe trait terms to others with either pro- or antinuclear attitudes. 611 Ss rated their attitudes toward nuclear energy on a 5-point scale. Results show that attitude extremity affected consensus estimates. Trait
Full Text Available A specific technique is developed to wield the internal disturbance torque caused by the solar panel actuation for spacecraft attitude control tasks. This work is the maiden work towards integrating the attitude control and the solar tracking tasks, forming a combined attitude and solar tracking system. The feasibility of this concept for spacecraft is proven and eventually the combined concept is validated. A technical proof is presented corresponding to the end-to-end system demonstration. The investigation starts with the determination of the solar tracking constraints. Then, the mathematical models describing the attitude and solar tracking are established, and eventually the onboard architecture is implemented. The numerical treatments using MatlabTM were performed to evaluate the developed onboard architecture. The simulation results are discussed especially from the attitude control standpoint. The integrated system complies very well with the reference mission requirements.
ABFAB. Attachment to the breast and family attitudes to breastfeeding. The effect of breastfeeding education in the middle of pregnancy on the initiation and duration of breastfeeding: a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN21556494
Full Text Available Abstract Background It has proven difficult to reach World Health Organization (WHO recommendations that infants be exclusively breastfed from birth to six months of age 12, yet there is limited knowledge about interventions that are effective in increasing breastfeeding initiation and duration. Particularly lacking is evidence about how to maintain breastfeeding rates in countries which already have a high initiation of breastfeeding. This study aims to determine whether mid-pregnancy breastfeeding education, with a focus on either attitudes to breastfeeding or on technical aspects of breastfeeding, has an effect on rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration. Secondary aims of the study are to: explore what factors might affect the duration of breastfeeding and evaluate the interventions from the participant and childbirth facilitator perspectives. Methods/Design A randomised controlled trial (RCT design will be used. Women having their first baby, and planning to give birth as public patients at the Royal Women's Hospital (RWH, Melbourne, will be approached at 18–20 weeks of pregnancy and invited to participate in the study. Participants will be randomly allocated to a control group or one of two group interventions: a previously designed and trialled tool to teach practical aspects of breastfeeding or an exploration of family attitudes to breastfeeding. The latter was developed and piloted by the investigators in conjunction with the group facilitators, prior to trial commencement. The interventions are planned to take place at 20–25 weeks. Data will be collected by questionnaire at recruitment, at interview in hospital after the birth and by telephone interview six months later. Medical/obstetric outcomes will be obtained from the medical record. The sample size (972 was calculated to identify an increase in breastfeeding initiation from 75 to 85% and an increase from 40 to 50% in breastfeeding at six months.
Effectiveness of a virtual intervention for primary healthcare professionals aimed at improving attitudes towards the empowerment of patients with chronic diseases: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial (e-MPODERA project).
González-González, Ana Isabel; Orrego, Carola; Perestelo-Perez, Lilisbeth; Bermejo-Caja, Carlos Jesús; Mora, Nuria; Koatz, Débora; Ballester, Marta; Del Pino, Tasmania; Pérez-Ramos, Jeannet; Toledo-Chavarri, Ana; Robles, Noemí; Pérez-Rivas, Francisco Javier; Ramírez-Puerta, Ana Belén; Canellas-Criado, Yolanda; Del Rey-Granado, Yolanda; Muñoz-Balsa, Marcos José; Becerril-Rojas, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Morales, David; Sánchez-Perruca, Luis; Vázquez, José Ramón; Aguirre, Armando
Communities of practice are based on the idea that learning involves a group of people exchanging experiences and knowledge. The e-MPODERA project aims to assess the effectiveness of a virtual community of practice aimed at improving primary healthcare professional attitudes to the empowerment of patients with chronic diseases. This paper describes the protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial. We will randomly assign 18 primary-care practices per participating region of Spain (Catalonia, Madrid and Canary Islands) to a virtual community of practice or to usual training. The primary-care practice will be the randomization unit and the primary healthcare professional will be the unit of analysis. We will need a sample of 270 primary healthcare professionals (general practitioners and nurses) and 1382 patients. We will perform randomization after professionals and patients are selected. We will ask the intervention group to participate for 12 months in a virtual community of practice based on a web 2.0 platform. We will measure the primary outcome using the Patient-Provider Orientation Scale questionnaire administered at baseline and after 12 months. Secondary outcomes will be the sociodemographic characteristics of health professionals, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients, the Patient Activation Measure questionnaire for patient activation and outcomes regarding use of the virtual community of practice. We will calculate a linear mixed-effects regression to estimate the effect of participating in the virtual community of practice. This cluster randomized controlled trial will show whether a virtual intervention for primary healthcare professionals improves attitudes to the empowerment of patients with chronic diseases. ClicalTrials.gov, NCT02757781 . Registered on 25 April 2016. Protocol Version. PI15.01 22 January 2016.
Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Klemmensen, Robert; Nørgaard, Asbjørn Sonne
This article examines if deep-seated psychological differences add to the explanation of attitudes toward immigration. We explore whether the Big Five personality traits matter for immigration attitudes beyond the traditional situational factors of economic and cultural threat and analyze how...... individuals with different personalities react when confronted with the same situational triggers. Using a Danish survey experiment, we show that different personality traits have different effects on opposition toward immigration. We find that Openness has an unconditional effect on attitudes toward...... high on Conscientiousness are more sensitive to the skill level of immigrants. The results imply that personality is important for attitudes toward immigration, and in the conclusion, we further discuss how the observed conditional and unconditional effects of personality make sense theoretically....
Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Schroll, Sanne
In this paper, we re-examine the role of economic self-interest in shaping people’s attitudes towards immigration, using data from the European Social Survey 2002/2003. Compared to the existing literature, there are two main contributions of the present paper. First, we develop a more powerful test...... of the hypothesis that a positive relationship between education and attitudes towards immigration reflects economic self-interest in the labour market. Second, we develop an alternative and more direct test of whether economic self-interest matters for people’s attitudes towards immigration. We find that while...... the "original" relationship between education and attitudes found in the literature is unlikely to reflect economic self-interest, there is considerable evidence of economic self-interest when using the more direct test...
Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Roland Munch, Jakob; Schroll, Sanne
In this paper, we re-examine the role of economic self-interest in shaping people's attitudes towards immigration, using data from the European Social Survey 2002/2003. Compared to the existing literature, there are two main contributions of the present paper. First, we develop a more powerful test...... of the hypothesis that a positive relationship between education and attitudes towards immigration reflects economic self-interest in the labour market. Second, we develop an alternativeand more direct test of whether economic self-interest mattersfor people's attitudes towards immigration. We find that whilethe...... "original" relationship between education and attitudes found in the literature is unlikely to reflect economic self-interest, there is considerable evidence of economic self-interest when using the more directtest....
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Variable Attitude Test Stand designed and built for testing of the V-22 tilt rotor aircraft propulsion system, is used to evaluate the effect of aircraft flight...
Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard
a negative attitude to recreational hunting. Older respondents and rural residents had more positive attitudes towards hunting than younger and urban residents. Some of the conditions under which hunting occurs affected attitudes negatively, especially the hunting of farm-reared and released game birds...... to the commercial aspect of hunting and this could result in tighter regulation with further effects on management practices. Management Implications The public opinions and public preferences concerning recreational hunting are complex. However, this study revealed some factors relevant for regulatory...... and managerial development in relation to outdoor recreation: age (younger respondents were least supportive of hunting), urbanisation (living in an urban environment enhanced negative attitudes), compatibility of recreational hunting with other outdoor leisure activities....
This thesis describes the development of an attitude determination system for spacecraft based only on magnetic field measurements. The need for such system is motivated by the increased demands for inexpensive, lightweight solutions for small spacecraft. These spacecraft demands full attitude...... determination based on simple, reliable sensors. Meeting these objectives with a single vector magnetometer is difficult and requires temporal fusion of data in order to avoid local observability problems. In order to guaranteed globally nonsingular solutions, quaternions are generally the preferred attitude...... is a detailed study of the influence of approximations in the modeling of the system. The quantitative effects of errors in the process and noise statistics are discussed in detail. The third contribution is the introduction of these methods to the attitude determination on-board the Ørsted satellite...
Beentjes, J.W.J.; Konig, R.P.
This study investigates whether exposure to music videos predicts adolescents' sexual attitudes when controlled for relevant characteristics of individuals and their social environment. Sexual attitudes are related to their music video use (i.e. exposure to music videos, peer group talk about music
Beentjes, J.W.J.; Konig, R.P.
This study investigates whether exposure to music videos predicts adolescents' sexual attitudes when controlled for relevant characteristics of individuals and their social environment. Sexual attitudes are related to their music video use (i.e. exposure to music videos, peer group talk about music
Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Broderick, Patricia C.
The Motherhood Inventory (MI) is a 40-item questionnaire developed to study attitudes toward motherhood and the motherhood myth. It includes items related to the control of reproduction, abortion, adoption, single motherhood, male-female relationships, and idealized and punitive attitudes toward mothers. The MI was investigated using 301 subjects…
Goethem, A.A.J. van; Scholte, R.H.J.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.
The main aim of this study was to examine whether an assessment of implicit bullying attitudes could add to the prediction of bullying behavior after controlling for explicit bullying attitudes. Primary school children (112 boys and 125 girls, M age = 11 years, 5 months) completed two newly
van Goethem, A.A.J.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Wiers, R.W.
The main aim of this study was to examine whether an assessment of implicit bullying attitudes could add to the prediction of bullying behavior after controlling for explicit bullying attitudes. Primary school children (112 boys and 125 girls, M age = 11 years, 5 months) completed two newly
Ao, Hou-jun; Yang, Le-ping; Zhu, Yan-wei; Zhang, Yuan-wen; Huang, Huan
Rescue of satellite with attitude fault is of great value. Satellite with improper injection attitude may lose contact with ground as the antenna points to the wrong direction, or encounter energy problems as solar arrays are not facing the sun. Improper uploaded command may set the attitude out of control, exemplified by Japanese Hitomi spacecraft. In engineering practice, traditional physical contact approaches have been applied, yet with a potential risk of collision and a lack of versatility since the mechanical systems are mission-specific. This paper puts forward a touchless attitude correction approach, in which three satellites are considered, one having constant dipole and two having magnetic coils to control attitude of the first. Particular correction configurations are designed and analyzed to maintain the target's orbit during the attitude correction process. A reference coordinate system is introduced to simplify the control process and avoid the singular value problem of Euler angles. Based on the spherical triangle basic relations, the accurate varying geomagnetic field is considered in the attitude dynamic mode. Sliding mode control method is utilized to design the correction law. Finally, numerical simulation is conducted to verify the theoretical derivation. It can be safely concluded that the no-contact attitude correction approach for the satellite with uniaxial constant magnetic moment is feasible and potentially applicable to on-orbit operations.
Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose
Using the European Social Survey 2002/3, we develop a new test of whether economic self-interest influences people's attitudes towards immigration, exploiting that people have widely different perceptions of the consequences of immigration......Using the European Social Survey 2002/3, we develop a new test of whether economic self-interest influences people's attitudes towards immigration, exploiting that people have widely different perceptions of the consequences of immigration...
Recent debate over the empirical psychological presuppositions of virtue ethics has focused on reactive behavioural dispositions. But there are many character traits that cannot be understood properly in this way. Such traits are well described by attitude psychology. Moreover, the findings of attitude psychology support virtue ethics in three ways. First, they confirm the role of habituation in the development of character. Further, they show virtue ethics to be compatible with the situation...
Navarrete Sonya Patricia
Full Text Available This article presents the first year experience of teaching Science combined with English in the preschool section with ages between 4 and 6 in the Gimnasio Campestre. A brief theoretical framework is exposed based on inquiring attitudes and theoretical models about this. Then a proposal is presented which was applied to these children; the purpose is to show a new methodology where students will acquire an inquiring attitude through a Science class taught in English.
Full Text Available During the last decade, French Guiana has been affected by major dengue fever outbreaks. Although this arbovirus has been a focus of many awareness campaigns, very little information is available about beliefs, attitudes and behaviors regarding vector-borne diseases among the population of French Guiana. During the first outbreak of the chikungunya virus, a quantitative survey was conducted among high school students to study experiences, practices and perceptions related to mosquito-borne diseases and to identify socio-demographic, cognitive and environmental factors that could be associated with the engagement in protective behaviors.A cross-sectional survey was administered in May 2014, with a total of 1462 students interviewed. Classrooms were randomly selected using a two-stage selection procedure with cluster samples. A multiple correspondence analysis (MCA associated with a hierarchical cluster analysis and with an ordinal logistic regression was performed. Chikungunya was less understood and perceived as a more dreadful disease than dengue fever. The analysis identified three groups of individual protection levels against mosquito-borne diseases: "low" (30%, "moderate" (42% and "high" (28%". Protective health behaviors were found to be performed more frequently among students who were female, had a parent with a higher educational status, lived in an individual house, and had a better understanding of the disease.This study allowed us to estimate the level of protective practices against vector-borne diseases among students after the emergence of a new arbovirus. These results revealed that the adoption of protective behaviors is a multi-factorial process that depends on both sociocultural and cognitive factors. These findings may help public health authorities to strengthen communication and outreach strategies, thereby increasing the adoption of protective health behaviors, particularly in high-risk populations.
Holbrook, Allyson L; Berent, Matthew K; Krosnick, Jon A; Visser, Penny S; Boninger, David S
People who attach personal importance to an attitude are especially knowledgeable about the attitude object. This article tests an explanation for this relation: that importance causes the accumulation of knowledge by inspiring selective exposure to and selective elaboration of relevant information. Nine studies showed that (a) after watching televised debates between presidential candidates, viewers were better able to remember the statements made on policy issues on which they had more personally important attitudes; (b) importance motivated selective exposure and selective elaboration: Greater personal importance was associated with better memory for relevant information encountered under controlled laboratory conditions, and manipulations eliminating opportunities for selective exposure and selective elaboration eliminated the importance-memory accuracy relation; and (c) people do not use perceptions of their knowledge volume to infer how important an attitude is to them, but importance does cause knowledge accumulation.
Zhang, Shuo; Xing, Fei; Sun, Ting; You, Zheng; Wei, Minsong
The star tracker is widely used in attitude control systems of spacecraft for attitude measurement. The attitude update rate of a star tracker is important to guarantee the attitude control performance. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to improve the attitude update rate of a star tracker. The electronic Rolling Shutter (RS) imaging mode of the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor in the star tracker is applied to acquire star images in which the star spots are exposed with row-to-row time offsets, thereby reflecting the rotation of star tracker at different times. The attitude estimation method with a single star spot is developed to realize the multiple attitude updates by a star image, so as to reach a high update rate. The simulation and experiment are performed to verify the proposed approaches. The test results demonstrate that the proposed approach is effective and the attitude update rate of a star tracker is increased significantly.
Malkus, Amy J.; Musser, Lynn M.
This study examined the relationship between children's environmental attitudes and their perceived competence and locus of control. The study sample consisted of 171 children in grades 3, 4, and 5. Children completed the Children's Attitudes Toward the Environment Scale (CATES) and the Janus Environmental Attitudes Scale (JEAS), which assessed…
Akyurek, Erkan; Afacan, Ozlem
The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of brain-based learning approach on attitudes and motivation levels in 8th grade students' science classes. The main reason for examining attitudes and motivation levels, the effect of the short-term motivation, attitude shows the long-term effect. The pre/post-test control group research model…
Watkins, George A.