WorldWideScience

Sample records for attics

  1. Measure Guideline: Guide to Attic Air Sealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lstiburek, J.

    2014-09-01

    The Guide to Attic Air Sealing was completed in 2010 and although not in the standard Measure Guideline format, is intended to be a Measure Guideline on Attic Air Sealing. The guide was reviewed during two industry stakeholders meetings held on December 18th, 2009 and January 15th, 2010, and modified based on the comments received. Please do not make comments on the Building America format of this document. The purpose of the Guide to Attic Air Sealing is to provide information and recommendations for the preparation work necessary prior to adding attic insulation. Even though the purpose of this guide is to save energy - health, safety and durability should not be compromised by energy efficiency. Accordingly, combustion safety and ventilation for indoor air quality are addressed first. Durability and attic ventilation then follow. Finally, to maximize energy savings, air sealing is completed prior to insulating. The guide is intended for home remodelers, builders, insulation contractors, mechanical contractors, general contractors who have previously done remodeling and homeowners as a guide to the work that needs to be done.

  2. Measure Guideline: Guide to Attic Air Sealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lstiburek, Joseph [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline is to provide information and recommendations for the preparation work necessary prior to adding attic insulation. Even though the purpose of this guide is to save energy, health, safety, and durability should not be compromised by energy efficiency. Accordingly, combustion safety and ventilation for indoor air quality are addressed first. Durability and attic ventilation then follow. Finally, to maximize energy savings, air sealing is completed prior to insulating. The guide is intended for home remodelers, builders, insulation contractors, mechanical contractors, general contractors who have previously done remodeling and homeowners as a guide to the work that needs to be done.

  3. Reconstruction of lateral attic wall in acquired cholesteatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdoglija Milan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Attic cholesteatoma is an epithelial cystic pseudotumor which arises in the top compartment of the middle ear. Surgery is the only therapeutic treatment for attic cholesteatoma. The aim of this study was to analyze the surgical and audiological results in tympanoplasties that use a logical application of several techniques for the management of attic cholesteatoma. Our hypothesis was that the tympanoplasty technique with cartilage/bone reconstruction of the achieve better outcome than the tympanoplasty technique with only temporal fascia reconstruction of the lateral attic wall. Methods. This retrospective clinical study included 80 patients, aged 16–65 years, with attic cholesteatoma undergoing canal “wall up” tympanoplasty with lateral attic wall reconstruction, under general anesthesia in the Eear, Nose and Throat Clinic, Military Medical Academy in Belgrade between 2006 and 2010. The patients were divided into two groups according to the type of lateral attic wall reconstruction: the group I of 60 patients with cartilage/bone plus temporalis fascia lateral attic wall reconstruction and the group II of 20 patients with only temporal fascia lateral attic wall reconstruction. Postoperative follow-up examinations were done at least 5 years after the surgery. The χ2 test was used to compare postoperative sequelae for two groups of operated patients with lateral attic wall reconstruction. The independent and paired samples t-test of air conduction and air-bone gap were used to compare the results of preoperative and postoperative hearing tests. Results. The differences between hearing measurements of the two groups according to preoperative and postoperative auditory thresholds of the air conduction and the air-bone gap were considered no statistically significant. The difference between the two groups recarding to recurrent attic retraction pocket appearance and recurrence of cholesteatoma was considered statistically

  4. Attic Ventilation Guidelines to Minimize Icings at Eaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    by sizing natural, and if necessary, mechanical attic ventilation systems to maintain an attictemperature of 30F when the outside temperature is 22F...JAN 1998 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Attic Ventilation Guidelines to Minimize Icings at Eaves 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...develop on roofs that slope to cold eaves. Ventilating the space below the snow-covered roof with outdoor aur to create a "cold" ventilated roof is

  5. Moisture performance of sealed attics in the mixed-humid climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreaux, Philip R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pallin, Simon B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, Roderick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory studied 8 homes in the mixed-humid climate, 4 with vented attics and 4 with sealed attics. ORNL wanted to understand the moisture performance of the sealed attic and how it affected the interior environment. We found that the attic and interior of sealed attic homes were more humid than the attic and interior observed in vented attic homes. This is due to the lack of ventilation in the sealed attic. Historically attics have been vented to dehumidify the attic and interior of the home. A sealed attic design greatly reduces the venting potential and thus this drying pathway and can cause elevated interior moisture over a vented attic home. Despite the elevated attic and interior moisture in the sealed attic homes, so far no mold or material degradation has been found. The roof sheathing moisture content has stayed below 20%, indicating low potential for material degradation. Also the relative humidity at the roof sheathing has stayed within the ASHRAE 160 design criteria except for a short time during the 2011/2012 winter. This was due to a combination of the sealed attic design (minimal venting to the outside) and the duct work not being operated in the attic which usually provides a dehumidification pathway. It was also found that when the humidity was controlled using the HVAC system, it resulted in 7% more cooling energy consumption. In the mixed-humid climate this reduces the cost effectiveness of the sealed attic design as a solution for bringing ducts into a semi-conditioned space. Because of this we are recommending the other alternatives be used to bringing ducts into the conditioned space in both new construction and retrofit work in the mixed-humid climate.

  6. Attic cholesteatoma with tiny retraction of pars flaccida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Ho; Hong, Seok Min; Kim, Chang Woo; Park, Yeo Hoon; Baek, So-Hye

    2015-04-01

    This clinical study was performed to analyze the characteristics of attic cholesteatoma occurring behind a tiny retraction of the pars flaccida, which was classified as Tos type I or II and had an intact pars tensa of the tympanic membrane. The clinical records of patients who underwent tympanomastoidectomy for attic cholesteatoma at a tertiary care referral center (Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital of Seoul, Korea) between March 2004 and December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Eleven patients (five men and six women) who underwent tympanomastoidectomy between March 2004 and December 2012 for attic cholesteatoma occurring behind a tiny attic retraction were included. The mean age of patients was 41.1 years (range 20-58 years) and the mean duration of follow-up was 29.5 months (range 13-52 months). Every patient had a unilateral cholesteatoma, and the opposite side was normal except in one patient. Hearing loss was the most common symptom, followed by earfullness and otalgia. Five patients had type I attic retraction, and six patients had type II attic retraction. No patient had definite scutum erosion. Interestingly, during regular postoperative checkup, one patient was found incidentally for the opposite ear. Six patients had a cholesteatoma sac that was separated from the pars flaccida, whereas in five patients it was in contact with the pars flaccida but was easily separated. Six patients had a limited cholesteatoma within the epitympanum, and five patients had extension beyond the epitympanum. The average air-bone gap was 24.3±10.1dB before the operation and 14.2±6.6dB after the operation. Every patient had an intact tympanic membrane without retraction pocket postoperatively. There was no recurrence of cholesteatoma during follow-up. The rate of attic cholesteatomas occurring behind a tiny retraction of the pars flaccida was 7.7% (11 of 142 patients with attic cholesteatoma). Attic retractions must be followed closely using endoscopy, microscopy, and

  7. Thermal model of attic systems with radiant barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkes, K.E.

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes the first phase of a project to model the thermal performance of radiant barriers. The objective of this phase of the project was to develop a refined model for the thermal performance of residential house attics, with and without radiant barriers, and to verify the model by comparing its predictions against selected existing experimental thermal performance data. Models for the thermal performance of attics with and without radiant barriers have been developed and implemented on an IBM PC/AT computer. The validity of the models has been tested by comparing their predictions with ceiling heat fluxes measured in a number of laboratory and field experiments on attics with and without radiant barriers. Cumulative heat flows predicted by the models were usually within about 5 to 10 percent of measured values. In future phases of the project, the models for attic/radiant barrier performance will be coupled with a whole-house model and further comparisons with experimental data will be made. Following this, the models will be utilized to provide an initial assessment of the energy savings potential of radiant barriers in various configurations and under various climatic conditions. 38 refs., 14 figs., 22 tabs.

  8. Mobile inert gas generator for attic oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, H.B. Jr.; Mosby, J.; Anson, R.H.

    1969-01-01

    Attic oil is usually defined as that oil which is trapped upstructure of the structurally highest producible well in a reservoir. If it is not economically feasible to drill a well for this oil accumulation, attic oil recovery by gas displacement is a possible secondary recovery method. The mechanics of the method are that gas is injected into the structurally highest well, the gas migrating up dip into the attic, forcing the oil downdip where it can be produced from the injection well or other wells in the reservoir. Where natural gas is in short supply or if injected gas cannot be recovered, inert gas generators for gas injection have a practical application. Oil accumulations found over and around piercement-type salt domes, such as the Bayou Des Allemands field, are usually excellent prospects for attic oil recovery by inert gas injection. After an economical comparison between recovery by natural gas or inert gas injection, it was found that the inert gas generator would be advantageous; therefore, an inert gas generator mounted on a cement barge was purchased. This study deals with this equipment which has now been in operation for one yr.

  9. Moisture Risk in Unvented Attics Due to Air Leakage Paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prahl, D.; Shaffer, M.

    2014-11-01

    IBACOS completed an initial analysis of moisture damage potential in an unvented attic insulated with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam. To complete this analysis, the research team collected field data, used computational fluid dynamics to quantify the airflow rates through individual airflow (crack) paths, simulated hourly flow rates through the leakage paths with CONTAM software, correlated the CONTAM flow rates with indoor humidity ratios from Building Energy Optimization software, and used Warme und Feuchte instationar Pro two-dimensional modeling to determine the moisture content of the building materials surrounding the cracks. Given the number of simplifying assumptions and numerical models associated with this analysis, the results indicate that localized damage due to high moisture content of the roof sheathing is possible under very low airflow rates. Reducing the number of assumptions and approximations through field studies and laboratory experiments would be valuable to understand the real-world moisture damage potential in unvented attics.

  10. Moisture Risk in Unvented Attics Due to Air Leakage Paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prahl, D. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Shaffer, M. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    IBACOS completed an initial analysis of moisture damage potential in an unvented attic insulated with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam. To complete this analysis, the research team collected field data, used computational fluid dynamics to quantify the airflow rates through individual airflow (crack) paths, simulated hourly flow rates through the leakage paths with CONTAM software, correlated the CONTAM flow rates with indoor humidity ratios from Building Energy Optimization software, and used Wärme und Feuchte instationär Pro two-dimensional modeling to determine the moisture content of the building materials surrounding the cracks. Given the number of simplifying assumptions and numerical models associated with this analysis, the results indicate that localized damage due to high moisture content of the roof sheathing is possible under very low airflow rates. Reducing the number of assumptions and approximations through field studies and laboratory experiments would be valuable to understand the real-world moisture damage potential in unvented attics.

  11. Measure Guideline. Air Sealing Attics in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otis, Casey [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Maxwell, Sean [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for owners, builders, contractors, homeowners, and other stakeholders in the multifamily building industry, and focuses on challenges found in existing buildings for a variety of housing types. It explains why air sealing is desirable, explores related health and safety issues, and identifies common air leakage points in multifamily building attics. In addition, it also gives an overview of materials and techniques typically used to perform air sealing work.

  12. Measure Guideline: Air Sealing Attics in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otis, C.; Maxwell, S.

    2012-06-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for owners, builders, contractors, homeowners, and other stakeholders in the multifamily building industry, and focuses on challenges found in existing buildings for a variety of housing types. It explains why air sealing is desirable, explores related health and safety issues, and identifies common air leakage points in multifamily building attics. In addition, it also gives an overview of materials and techniques typically used to perform air sealing work.

  13. Sealed Attics Exposed to Two Years of Weathering in a Hot and Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, William A [ORNL; Railkar, Sudhir [GAF; Shiao, Ming C [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Field studies in a hot, humid climate were conducted to investigate the thermal and hygrothermal performance of ventilated attics and non-ventilated semi-conditioned attics sealed with open-cell and with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam insulation. Moisture pin measurements made in the sheathing and absolute humidity sensor data from inside the foam and from the attic air show that moisture is being stored in the foam. The moisture in the foam diffuses to and from the sheathing dependent on the pressure gradient at the foam-sheathing interface which is driven by the irradiance and night-sky radiation. Ventilated attics in the same hot, humid climate showed less moisture movement in the sheathing than those sealed with either open- or closed-cell spray foam. In the ventilated attics the relative humidity drops as the attic air warms; however, the opposite was observed in the sealed attics. Peaks in measured relative humidity in excess of 80 90% and occasionally near saturation (i.e., 100%) were observed from solar noon till about 8 PM on hot, humid days. The conditioned space of the test facility is heated and cooled by an air-to-air heat pump. Therefore the partial pressure of the indoor air during peak irradiance is almost always less than that observed in the sealed attics. Field data will be presented to bring to light the critical humidity control issues in sealed attics exposed to hot, humid climates.

  14. Attic or Roof? An Evaluation of Two Advanced Weatherization Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, K.

    2012-06-01

    This project examines implementation of advanced retrofit measures in the context of a large-scale weatherization program and the archetypal Chicago brick bungalow. One strategy applies best practice air sealing methods and a standard insulation method to the attic floor. The other strategy creates an unvented roof assembly using materials and methods typically available to weatherization contractors. Through implementations of the retrofit strategies in a total of eight (8) test homes, the research found that the two different strategies achieve similar reductions in air leakage measurement (55%) and predicted energy performance (18%) relative to the pre-retrofit conditions.

  15. Field measurements of moisture variation in cold ventilated attics with different ceiling constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thor; Møller, Eva B.

    2017-01-01

    Adding insulation material on ceilings against cold ventilated attics is one of the most straightforward tasks of adding insulation. Theoretically, a higher amount of insulation in the attic decreases the temperature and consequently the capability of removing infiltrated indoor humid air. Field ...

  16. Field measurements of moisture variation in cold ventilated attics with different ceiling constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thor; Møller, Eva B.

    2017-01-01

    Adding insulation material on ceilings against cold ventilated attics is one of the most straightforward tasks of adding insulation. Theoretically, a higher amount of insulation in the attic decreases the temperature and consequently the capability of removing infiltrated indoor humid air. Field...

  17. Attic and crawlspace ventilation : implications for homes located in the urban-wildland interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen L. Quarles; Anton TenWolde

    2004-01-01

    Roof (attic and cathedral ceiling) and crawlspace ventilation has commonly been used as a moisture management tool to minimize performance problems associated with excessive moisture accumulation in these spaces. However, for homes located in the urban wildland interface, roof vents in particular provide an entry point into the attic for flame and burning embers....

  18. Ducts in the Attic? What Were They Thinking? Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, D.; Winkler, J.

    2010-08-01

    As energy-efficiency efforts focus increasingly on existing homes, we scratch our heads about construction decisions made 30, 40, 50-years ago and ask: 'What were they thinking?' A logical follow-on question is: 'What will folks think in 2050 about the homes we're building today?' This question can lead to a lively discussion, but the current practice that we find most alarming is placing ducts in the attic. In this paper, we explore through literature and analysis the impact duct location has on cooling load, peak demand, and energy cost in hot climates. For a typical new home in these climates, we estimate that locating ducts in attics rather than inside conditioned space increases the cooling load 0.5 to 1 ton, increases cooling costs 15% and increases demand by 0.75 kW. The aggregate demand to service duct loss in homes built in Houston, Las Vegas, and Phoenix during the period 2000 through 2009 is estimated to be 700 MW. We present options for building homes with ducts in conditioned space and demonstrate that these options compare favorably with other common approaches to achieving electricity peak demand and consumption savings in homes.

  19. Indoor climate and moisture durability performances of houses with unvented attic roof constructions in a mixed-humid climate.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallin, Simon B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boudreaux, Philip R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, Roderick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-10-01

    A sealed or unvented attic is an energy-efficient envelope component that can reduce the amount of energy a house consumes for space conditioning if the air handler and/or ducts are located in the attic. The attic is typically sealed by using spray foam on the underside of the roof deck and covering the soffit, ridge and gable vents to minimize air leakage from the attic to the outside. This approach can save up to 10% in space-conditioning energy when ducts are located in the attic (DOE 2013). Past research done by ORNL and Florida Solar Energy Center suggests that in more hot, humid climates, an unvented attic could potentially create a more humid, uncomfortable living environment than a vented attic (Colon 2011, Boudreaux, Pallin et al. 2013). Research showed that controlling the higher indoor humidity could reduce the energy savings from the sealed, unvented attic, which in turn would decrease the energy savings payback. Research also showed that the roof assembly (5.5 inches of open-cell foam, 1inch of closed-cell foam, OSB, felt paper, and asphalt shingles) stored moisture, thus acting as a moisture buffer. During the fall and winter, the roof assembly stored moisture and during the spring and summer it released moisture. This phenomenon is not seen in a vented attic, in which the air exchange rate to the outside is greater and, in the winter, helps to dehumidify the attic air. It was also seen that in a vented attic, the direction of water vapor diffusion is on average from the attic to the interior of the house. Air leakage from the attic to the interior also occurs during more of the year in a house with an unvented attic than in one with a vented attic. These discoveries show that the moisture dynamics in a house with an unvented attic are much different from those in a house with a vented attic. This study reports on a series of computer model investigations completed to determine the key variables impacting indoor comfort and the durability of roof

  20. Beauty and the eye of the beholder : female adornment in the wedding scenes on attic vases

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.A. During the second half of the fifth-century B.C. there was a sudden proliferation of Attic vases depicting adornment scenes. These scenes showed groups of women making themselves desirable and for the first time women were eroticised within the context of marriage. Some scholars have argued that this sudden abundance reflected a change in the Attic attitude towards women, reflecting their increased social standing. These scholars proposed various hypotheses. It is conjectured that Per...

  1. Interaction of Unvented Attics With Living Space in Three Northeast Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttagunta, Steven [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Faakye, Omari [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Unvented roof assemblies are becoming common in North American construction. It is estimated that over 100,000 have been constructed since 1995 (Schumacher 2007). According to RECS 2011, more than 30% of homes with attics can be found in the very cold/cold climate areas, which equals about 10.4 million housing units. The magnitude of these numbers emphases the significance of properly understanding how the attic conditions vary with respect to the conditioned space below.

  2. Building America Top Innovations 2014 Profile: Cost-Optimized Attic Insulation Solution for Factory-Built Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This 2014 Top Innovation profile describes a low-cost, low-tech attic insulation technique developed by the ARIES Building America team with help from Southern Energy Homes and Johns Manville. Increasing attic insulation in manufactured housing has been a significant challenge due to cost, production and transportation constraints. The simplicity of this dense-pack solution to increasing attic insulation R-value promises real hope for widespread industry adoption.

  3. Measured temperature and moisture conditions in the roof attic of a one-and-a-half story house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anker; Morelli, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Temperature and moisture measurements were made in a ventilated attic on a house with 200 mm mineral wool insulation. The measurements showed that 1) solar radiation had a great effect on the temperature in the attic; 2) moisture content reached a level below the risk of mold formation – no mold...

  4. Attic Air Injection Project, Willow Draw Oilfield, Park County, Wyoming. Initial report, May 1975--September 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oswald, Jr, D. D.; Wilson, Q. T.

    1976-12-01

    The status of the air injection project is reported. This project incorporates three distinct (but not separate) means of increasing recovery by crestally injecting air into the common Dinwoody-Phosphoria-Tensleep oil pool: displace oil in fractures out of ''attic'' into producing wells; retard aquifer invasion via fractures and decrease water oil ratio; and create a gas/oil interface in the reservoir attic to promote drainage of matrix oil into the fracture system, wherefrom it may be recovered by producing wells, at a calculated theoretical maximum stabilized rate of 760 BOPD for the reservoir. (LK)

  5. Moisture conditions for organic and mineral-based insulation products used in exterior walls and attics in traditional Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2005-01-01

    and attics were insulated with cellulose, flax and mineral wool as thermal insulation. Exterior walls were constructed without PE vapour barriers while ceilings were constructed with PE vapour barriers. The investigation showed that for a typical Danish way to construct dwellings neither the moisture......On a Danish housing estate moisture sensors were installed in dwellings, partly in exterior walls and partly in attics. At each location sensors were installed within the insulation at two positions, one facing the outer cold side and the other facing the inner warm side. The exterior walls...... conditions in walls nor attics provide a risk or concern of mould growth in the thermal insulation....

  6. Attic cholesteatoma with closure of the entrance to pars flaccida retraction pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzawa, Shingo; Iino, Yukiko; Yamamoto, Daiki; Hasegawa, Masayo; Hara, Mariko; Shinnabe, Akihiro; Kanazawa, Hiromi; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2017-12-01

    We report three patients with pars flaccida-type cholesteatoma (attic cholesteatoma) with closure of the entrance to the cholesteatoma at the time of surgery. These patients were diagnosed with attic cholesteatoma requiring surgery on the basis of abnormal findings of the pars flaccida, audiometry, and temporal bone computed tomography during the clinical course. Intraoperatively, cholesteatoma matrix and granulation tissue were observed behind the intact pars flaccida epithelium, which suggested that the entrance had apparently closed and the continuity with the cholesteatoma matrix disappeared after resolution of inflammation at the pars flaccida. In such patients, a normal pars flaccida may cause cholesteatoma to be initially overlooked, or misdiagnosed as congenital cholesteatoma. The diagnosis should be carefully made on the basis of the clinical course and the results of various examinations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Internal Roof and Attic Thermal Radiation Control Retrofit Strategies for Cooling-Dominated Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallahi, A. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston, MA (United States); Durschlag, H. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston, MA (United States); Elliott, D. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston, MA (United States); Hartsough, J. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston, MA (United States); Shukla, N. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston, MA (United States); Kosny, J. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston, MA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This project evaluates the cooling energy savings and cost effectiveness of radiation control retrofit strategies for residential attics in U.S. cooling-dominated climates. Usually, in residential applications, radiation control retrofit strategies are applied below the roof deck or on top of the attic floor insulation. They offer an alternative option to the addition of conventional bulkinsulation such as fiberglass or cellulose insulation. Radiation control is a potentially low-cost energy efficiency retrofit strategy that does not require significant changes to existing homes. In this project, two groups of low-cost radiation control strategies were evaluated for southern U.S. applications. One uses a radiant barrier composed of two aluminum foils combined with an enclosedreflective air space and the second uses spray-applied interior radiation control coatings (IRCC).

  8. Internal Roof and Attic Thermal Radiation Control Retrofit Strategies for Cooling-Dominated Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallahi, A. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Boston, MA (United States); Duraschlag, H. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Boston, MA (United States); Elliott, D. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Boston, MA (United States); Hartsough, J. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Boston, MA (United States); Shukla, N. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Boston, MA (United States); Kosny, J. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Boston, MA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This project evaluates the cooling energy savings and cost effectiveness of radiation control retrofit strategies for residential attics in U.S. cooling-dominated climates. Usually, in residential applications, radiation control retrofit strategies are applied below the roof deck or on top of the attic floor insulation. They offer an alternative option to the addition of conventional bulk insulation such as fiberglass or cellulose insulation. Radiation control is a potentially low-cost energy efficiency retrofit strategy that does not require significant changes to existing homes. In this project, two groups of low-cost radiation control strategies were evaluated for southern U.S. applications. One uses a radiant barrier composed of two aluminum foils combined with an enclosed reflective air space and the second uses spray-applied interior radiation control coatings (IRCC).

  9. Mercury speciation in soils and attic dust in the Idrija area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Gosar

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Speciation of mercury in soils and attic dust in Idrija and its surroundings was studied by means of pyrolysis technique. The results show that soil and attic dust have similar course of Hg release. The samples show double peak curves with first maximum between200 °C and 250 °C and a second one between 250 and 350 °C. The first peak (200–250 °C indicates non-cinnabar Hg compounds. Compared to the standard Hg compounds curves and that of humic acid bound Hg of the forest soil sample, it is most reasonable that this peak represents Hg bound or sorbed to matrix components. The second peak, which occurs in the higher temperature range, indicates the presence of cinnabar. In areas close to the mine or tailings Hg occurs predominantly as cinnabar. In more distant areas, Hg is mainlybound to matrix components.

  10. Heat Pump Water Heater Ducting Strategies with Encapsulated Attics in Climate Zones 2 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, M. L. [Southface Energy Inst., Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Francisco, A.; Roberts, S. G.

    2016-05-01

    The focus of this study is on the performance of HPWHs with several different duct configurations and their effects on whole building heating, cooling, and moisture loads. A.O. Smith 60 gallon Voltex (PHPT-60) heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) were included at two project sites and ducted to or located within spray foamed encapsulated attics. The effect of ducting a HPWH's air stream does not diminish its efficiency if the ducting does not reduce intake air temperature, which expands HPWH application to confined areas. Exhaust ducts should be insulated to avoid condensation on the exterior, however this imposes a risk of condensation occurring in the duct's interior near the HPWH due to large variation of temperatures between the compressor and the duct and the presence of bulk moisture around the condenser. The HPWH's air conditioning impact on HVAC equipment loads is minimal when the intake and exhaust air streams are connected to a sealed attic and not the living space. A HPWH is not suitable as a replacement dehumidifier in sealed attics as peak moisture loads were observed to only be reduced if the heat pump operated during the morning. It appears that the intake air temperature and humidity was the most dominant variable affecting HPWH performance. Different ducting strategies such as exhaust duct only, intake duct only, and exhaust and intake ducting did not have any effect on HPWH performance.

  11. Hygrothermal conditions in cold, north facing attic spaces under the eaves with vapour-open roofing underlay in a cool, temperate climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarløv, Søren Peter; Johnston, C.J.; Hansen, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    compliance with the current Danish Building Regulations (BR10) for airtightness (pressure difference) can ensure acceptable moisture levels in attics with vapour-open roofing underlays. North facing cold attic spaces under the eaves constitute a worst case scenario. Following best...... practice recommendations concerning ventilation of the cold attic space under the eaves and fulfilling the requirements in BR10 regarding air tightness of the building envelope did not ensure the absence of mould growth in the attics. Through winter the attics with infiltration through leaks (dimensioned...... to allow an influx of 3.3 l/s of conditioned indoor air 20 °C and 60% RH at a pressure difference of 50 Pa) and ventilation (singled-sided, passive ventilation) contained more moisture and had significantly higher levels of mould growth than the non-ventilated attics. Under the same physical conditions...

  12. Heat Pump Water Heater Ducting Strategies with Encapsulated Attics in Climate Zones 2 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, M. L. [Southface Energy Inst., Atlanta, GA (United States); Francisco, A. [Southface Energy Inst., Atlanta, GA (United States); Roberts, S. G. [Southface Energy Inst., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The focus of this study is on the performance of HPWHs with several different duct configurations and their effects on whole building heating, cooling, and moisture loads. A.O. Smith 60 gallon Voltex (PHPT-60) heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) were included at two project sites and ducted to or located within spray foamed encapsulated attics. The effect of ducting a HPWH's air stream does not diminish its efficiency if the ducting does not reduce intake air temperature, which expands HPWH application to confined areas.

  13. Community-Scale Attic Retrofit and Home Energy Upgrade Data Mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Smith, P. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Jackson, J. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-05-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team, Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), implemented a project to increase residential retrofits in Davis, California. The project used a neighborhood-focused strategy for implementation and a low-cost retrofit program that focused on upgraded attic insulation and duct sealing. ARBI worked with a community partner, the not-for-profit Cool Davis Initiative, as well as selected area contractors to implement a strategy that sought to capitalize on the strong local expertise of partners and the unique aspects of the Davis, California, community. Working with community partners also allowed ARBI to collect and analyze data about effective messaging tactics for community-based retrofit programs.

  14. Community-Scale Attic Retrofit and Home Energy Upgrade Data Mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Smith, P. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Jackson, J. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Residential retrofit is an essential element of any comprehensive strategy for improving residential energy efficiency, yet remains a challenging proposition to sell to homeowners due to low levels of awareness and lack of financial incentive. The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) implemented a project to increase residential retrofits in Davis, CA called Retrofit Your Attic developed and appropriate data sets were uploaded to the Building America Field Data Repository (BAFDR). Two key conclusions are a broad based public awareness campaign is needed to increase understanding of the makeup and benefits of residential retrofits and a dramatic shift is needed so that efficient homes are appraised and valued at higher levels. The SAVE Act, proposed bipartisan federal legislation [S.1106], offers one way to accomplish this.

  15. The Attic red figure vases at Zacatín (Granada, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Rouillard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the city of Granada (Spain, during a rescue excavation at the foot of the Iberian oppidum of Iliberri, calle Zacatín, 5000 pottery sherds were uncovered in a pit (mainly Greek fragments but Iberian too, and also small items of Greek glassware. The precise context and function are still obscure. Greek pottery is composed of Attic vessels (2000 fragments having homogeneous formal and iconographic features, stemless cups especially, some cups (scarcely found in the Iberian Peninsula outside Ampurias, and skyphoi, dated to the second quarter of the 4th century BC, and which can be assigned to the Vienna 116 Painter; some other pieces belong to the Group FB et to the Meleager Painter. This exceptional set —by its homogeneity and the amount of sherds— will allow to examine in depth the questions of the Athenian pottery workshops structuring and organisation, and also of transport modalities.

  16. Geochemical research of soil and attic dust in Litija area, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Jemec

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical research was carried as part of the environmental research project at the Geological Survey of Slovenia. The aim of the project was to determine the impact on the environment caused by heavy metals released in the environment during mining and smeltingactivity in the area of Litija. The samples of attic dust and soil (0–5 cm were examined with the view to separate the natural distribution of chemical elements in the environment from the one caused by past mining and smelting activities. Based on chemically analyses we determine two main geochemical associations and their spatial distribution. First geochemical association (Al, Co, Ce, K, La, Li, Nb, Rb, Sc, Ta, Th in Ti is influencedmainlybynatural source, the second man-made association (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Sb, Sn in Zn is caused mainly because of mining and lead smelting.

  17. Graikų dialektai senojoje atikinėje komedijoje | The Greek Dialects in Old Attic Comedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audronė Kudulytė-Kairienė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with the Greek dialects in Old Attic Comedy. Aristophanes is the great­est representative of this genre and the one whose complete plays have been preserved. The works of his contemporary comic poets have survived in fragments. The author of this article analyses some dialectal features of comediographs such as Apol­lophanes, Crates, Eupolis, Epilycus, Strattis, Aris­tophanes. The fragments of Old Comedy are difficult to interpret because sometimes excerpts are badly battered, the dramatic context is missing, and we do not know who is speaking the fragmentary lines that have survived. The analysis of dialectal forms shows that Greek comediographs were interested in dialects. The representation of different dialects was customary in Old Attic Comedy. Comic writers used non-Attic dialects to make their personages more re­alistic or to make a mock of them. Many dialectal forms in comedies contain comicality, irony, parody, intertextuality or are paratragic and might be bor­rowed from a tragedy, lyric or epos. In the comedies Lysistrata and Acharnians, Aristophanes reproduces Laconian, Megarian, and Boiotian speeches. He had to pick out a convincing number of the most peculiar features present to these dialects to the audience. The phonologic and morphologic features of the dialectal words in comedies generally accord with epigraphic records.

  18. In vitro study of a multi-layer piezoelectric crystal attic hearing implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, R P; Wang, Z G; Abel, E W

    2001-05-01

    We have developed a prototype middle-ear hearing implant which uses a multilayer piezoelectric actuator. In this series of experiments the actuator was attached to the medial wall of the attic so that it makes contact with the body of the incus. Initial in vitro evaluation has been carried out using a laser vibrometer (Polytec CLV) to measure stapes velocity. Stapes displacement is calculated by mathematical integration. The device used in this way is particularly effective at transmitting high frequency sound to the stapes. When switched off the actuator impairs the transmission of sound to the ossicular chain at low frequencies, but this effect is only 7 dB at most. The stapes displacements resulting from the action of the implant have a linear relationship with the voltages used to drive the system. The high capacitance of the present actuator means that its power requirements are higher than that of other comparable devices. An optimal method of coupling the device to the incus has yet to be identified.

  19. REFLECTIONS ON THE VARIETIES OF COLOURS AND THEIR LATIN AND GREEK NAMES IN AULUS GELLIUS’S ATTIC NIGHTS (2.26

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Piechocka-Kłos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This publication presents the contents of Chapter 26 of Book II of Attic Nights by Aulus Gellius. This chapter has not been discussed yet in the Polish language. However, because of the issue of the variety of colours and their Latin and Greek names that the chapter explores, this thread has been studied from the historical and philological perspective. It should be remembered that Attic Nights contains a rich amount of material pertaining to various disciplines, such as philosophy, ethics, literature, grammar, etymology and even textual criticism, history, rhetoric and law. Therefore, it constitutes an extremely precious source of knowledge about antiquity.

  20. Influence of mining and metallurgy on chemical composition of soil and attic dust in Meža valley, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Šajn

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on comparison of distributions of determined elements in soil and attic dust two natural and two man-made (anthropogenic geochemical associations were discovered in Meža valley. First natural geochemical association (Al-Ba-Ce-Co-K-La-Li-Na-Nb-Rb-Sc-Th-Ti-V is influenced mainly by weathering of metamorphic rocks, the second (Ca-Mgwas determinate on area of carbonate rock outcrops. The man-made associations are a result of lead production (Ag-As-Cd-Cu-Hg-Mo-Pb-S-Sb-Sn-Zn and iron production (Co-Cr-Cu-Fe-Mn-Mo-Ni-W. Based on soil comparison, critical level of heavy metals inattic dust were considered.

  1. Energy Savings and Peak Demand Reduction of a SEER 21 Heat Pump vs. a SEER 13 Heat Pump with Attic and Indoor Duct Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, J. [BA-PIRC/ Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Withers, C. [BA-PIRC/ Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This report describes results of experiments that were conducted in an unoccupied 1600 square foot house--the Manufactured Housing (MH Lab) at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC)--to evaluate the delivered performance as well as the relative performance of a SEER 21 variable capacity heat pump versus a SEER 13 heat pump. The performance was evaluated with two different duct systems: a standard attic duct system and an indoor duct system located in a dropped-ceiling space.

  2. Archaeometric characterization of attic pottery from the Cancho Roano palace-sanctuary (Zalamea de la Serena, Badajoz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buxeda i Garrigós, Jaume

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The group of 410 attic pots from Cancho Roano palace-sanctuary (Zalamea de la Serena, Badajoz is considered one of the most important collections of the 5th century BC ever published in the Iberian Peninsula. With 360 examples, the best represented pots are those belonging to the stemless inset-lip type. They show a wide variety in typology and macroscopical features, which suggests the existence of materials from different production centres. Because of this, an archaeometric study by means of X-Ray Fluorescence and X-Ray Diffraction analyses has been conducted in order to investigate their provenance and technology. The characterised material, which includes 60 examples, is the biggest one ever published for the 5th century BC in the Mediterranean basin. The results suggest an Attic origin, while the important differences in their macroscopic and typological features are due to technological factors.

    El conjunto de piezas áticas del palacio-santuario de Cancho Roano (Zalamea de la Serena, Badajoz, con 410 individuos, es uno de los más importantes publicados hasta el presente en la Península Ibérica para el siglo V a.C. Destaca, con 360 piezas, la Copa Cástulo que ofrece una gran variedad morfológica y de características macroscópicas que permiten plantear la hipótesis de la existencia de materiales procedentes de diferentes centros productores. Para contrastar esta posibilidad se ha realizado un estudio arqueométrico por Fluorescencia de Rayos X y Difracción de Rayos X encaminado a la determinación de procedencia de los materiales, así como al estudio de su tecnología de producción. El conjunto caracterizado, con 60 individuos, es el más importante nunca publicado para esta cronología de siglo V a.C. en todo el Mediterráneo. Los resultados sugieren un origen ático, mientras que las grandes diferencias macroscópicas y tipológicas se deben a factores tecnológicos.

  3. CASE STUDY OF DUCT RETROFIT OF A 1985 HOME AND GUIDELINES FOR ATTIC AND CRAWL SPACE DUCT SEALING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Christian, Jeffrey E [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is fully committed to research for developing the information and capabilities necessary to provide cost-effective residential retrofits yielding 50% energy savings within the next several years. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) is the biggest energy end use in the residential sector, and a significant amount of energy can be wasted through leaky ductwork in unconditioned spaces such as attics and crawl spaces. A detailed duct sealing case study is presented for one house along with nine brief descriptions of other duct retrofits completed in the mixed-humid climate. Costs and estimated energy savings are reported for most of the ten houses. Costs for the retrofits ranged from $0.92/ft2 to $1.80/ft2 of living space and estimated yearly energy cost savings due to the duct retrofits range from 1.8% to 18.5%. Lessons learned and duct sealing guidelines based on these ten houses, as well as close work with the HVAC industry in the mixed-humid climate of East Tennessee, northern Georgia, and south-central Kentucky are presented. It is hoped that the lessons learned and guidelines will influence local HVAC contractors, energy auditors, and homeowners when diagnosing or repairing HVAC duct leakage and will be useful for steering DOE s future research in this area.

  4. Long-term Geochemical Evolution of Lithogenic Versus Anthropogenic Distribution of Macro and Trace Elements in Household Attic Dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanova, Biljana; Stafilov, Trajče; Šajn, Robert; Tănăselia, Claudiu

    2017-01-01

    Attic dusts were examined as historical archives of anthropogenic emissions, with the goal of elucidating the enrichment pathways associated with hydrothermal exploitation of Cu, Pb, and Zn minerals in the Bregalnica River basin in the eastern part of the Republic of Macedonia. Dust samples were collected from 84 settlements. Atomic emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma were applied as analytical techniques for the determination of 69 element contents. Multivariate analysis was applied for the extraction of dominant geochemical markers. The lithogenic distribution was simplified to six dominant geochemical markers: F1: Ga-Nb-Ta-Y-(La-Gd)-(Eu-Lu); F2: Be-Cr-Li-Mg-Ni; F3: Ag-Bi-Cd-Cu-In-Mn-Pb-Sb-Te-W-Zn; F4: Ba-Cs-Hf-Pd-Rb-Sr-Tl-Zr; F5: As-Co-Ge-V; and F6: К-Na-Sc-Ti. The anthropogenic effects on the air pollution were marked by a dominance of F3 and secondary dominance of F5. The fifth factor also was determined as a lithogenic marker for the occurrence of the very old Rifeous shales. The first factor also presents a very unique association that despite the heterogeneity relays on natural phenomena of tracking the deposition in areas of Proterosoic gneisses; related to the distribution of fine particles was associated with carbonate-silicate volcanic rocks. Intensive poly-metallic dust depositions were recorded only in the surroundings of localities where the hydrothermal extractions are implemented. Long-term deposition can be considered as pollution indexes for these hot spots. This mainly affects the Cd, Pb, and Zn deposition that is as high as 25, 3900, and 3200 mg/kg, respectively.

  5. Education in the attic: an insight into the educational services of the Old Operating Theatre Museum and Herb Garret, London Bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, Stevie

    2009-01-01

    Hidden for almost a century in the attic of St Thomas' Church the oldest operating theatre in Britain is now part of a museum. This precious building now houses a collection of pre-anaesthetic tools, items relating to medicine in the home and various Apothecary displays. The museum aims to preserve the theatre and items relating to medicine, in order to contribute to the understanding of the development of medical knowledge, with particular reference to St Thomas' hospital. An independent museum with a long history of educational provision: this article explores some of the education services of The Old Operating Theatre Museum and Herb Garret at London Bridge.

  6. Building America Case Study: Heat Pump Water Heater Ducting Strategies with Encapsulated Attics in Climate Zones 2 and 4, LaFayette, Georgia (CZ4), and Savannah, Georgia (CZ2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Kochkin, M. Sweet

    2017-02-01

    The focus of this study is on the performance of HPWHs with several different duct configurations and their effects on whole building heating, cooling, and moisture loads. A.O. Smith 60 gallon Voltex (PHPT-60) heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) were included at two project sites and ducted to or located within spray foamed encapsulated attics. The effect of ducting a HPWH's air stream does not diminish its efficiency if the ducting does not reduce intake air temperature, which expands HPWH application to confined areas. Exhaust ducts should be insulated to avoid condensation on the exterior, however this imposes a risk of condensation occurring in the duct's interior near the HPWH due to large variation of temperatures between the compressor and the duct and the presence of bulk moisture around the condenser. The HPWH's air conditioning impact on HVAC equipment loads is minimal when the intake and exhaust air streams are connected to a sealed attic and not the living space. A HPWH is not suitable as a replacement dehumidifier in sealed attics as peak moisture loads were observed to only be reduced if the heat pump operated during the morning. It appears that the intake air temperature and humidity was the most dominant variable affecting HPWH performance. Different ducting strategies such as exhaust duct only, intake duct only, and exhaust and intake ducting did not have any effect on HPWH performance.

  7. Syn- to post-orogenic exhumation of metamorphic nappes: Structure and thermobarometry of the western Attic-Cycladic metamorphic complex (Lavrion, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Christophe; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; Lanari, Pierre; Tarantola, Alexandre; Ponthus, Léandre; Photiades, Adonis; France, Lydéric

    2016-05-01

    The Lavrion peninsula is located along the western boundary of the Attic-Cycladic metamorphic complex in the internal zone of the Hellenic orogenic belt. The nappe stack is well exposed and made, from top to bottom, of (i) a non-metamorphic upper unit composed of an ophiolitic melange, (ii) a middle unit mainly composed of the Lavrion schists in blueschist facies, (iii) and a basal unit mainly composed of the Kamariza schists affected by pervasive retrogression of the blueschist facies metamorphism in greenschist facies. The middle unit is characterized by a relatively steep-dipping foliation associated with isoclinal folds of weakly organized axial orientation. This foliation is transposed into a shallow-dipping foliation bearing a N-S trending lineation. The degree of transposition increases with structural depth and is particularly marked at the transition from the middle to the basal unit across a low-angle mylonitic to cataclastic detachment. The blueschist facies foliation of the Lavrion schists (middle unit) is underlined by high pressure phengite intergrown with chlorite. The Kamariza schists (basal unit) contains relics of the blueschist mineral paragenesis but is dominated by intermediate pressure phengite also intergrown with chlorite and locally with biotite. Electron probe micro-analyzer chemical mapping combined with inverse thermodynamic modeling (local multi-equilibrium) reveals distinct pressure-temperature conditions of crystallization of phengite and chlorite assemblages as a function of their structural, microstructural and microtextural positions. The middle unit is characterized by two metamorphic conditions grading from high pressure (M1, 9-13 kbar) to lower pressure (M2, 6-9 kbar) at a constant temperature of ca. 315 °C. The basal unit has preserved a first set of HP/LT conditions (M1-2, 8-11 kbar, 300 °C) partially to totally transposed-retrogressed into a lower pressure mineral assemblage (M3, 5-8.5 kbar) associated with a slight but

  8. ECOLO-HOUSE in the snowy town. Study of the ventilating function what the heat collecting system of the air duct utilizing attic has; Yukiguni ECOLO-HOUSE. Kison kaoku no yaneura wo riyoshita duct shunetsu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemiya, H.; Hirosawa, K. [Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Described in this paper is an air duct heat collecting system, forming a link in the chain of natural energy utilization, in an attic of a house actually in presence. When a sirocco fan (blowing air from an indoor induction duct into the room) at the base of the highblocked floor is turned, air is sucked through an air intake under the eaves into a heat collecting duct (constructed utilizing the tilt roof and rafter). Heat from the roof warmed by sunshine is absorbed by air in the heat collecting duct and is fed to the highblocked floor structure through a heat collecting room and the induction duct. This system functions quite effectively as a ventilating device. Dew condensation on the walls and floor and musty smell have been eliminated. This system is good enough as a heater even on chilly days in early spring when there is sunshine. In the time zone with the sun shining, the system collects 4{times}10{sup 4}kJ per day, exhibiting a heat collecting efficiency of 4%. The heat collecting duct was analyzed for thermal environment, and the heat flux of the collected heat was determined as Qk(W/m{sup 2}=0.1{times}I-1.3{Theta}d-{Theta}a). In this equation, I is the quantity of insolation (W/m{sup 2}), {Theta}d is the temperature in the heat collecting duct, and {Theta}a is the free air temperature. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Rediscovering Greek Architecture and Discovering the Attic Order

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arthur S Marks

    2013-01-01

      With the publication of the Antiquities of Athens, it became possible for classical enthusiasts to discard what ultimately were derivative orders in favor of their carefully rendered authentic Greek originals...

  10. Extending the Shoreline of Wonder through the Research Attic of J. Terry Gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuebel, Christa

    2017-01-01

    This article is a review of the Ohio Music Education Association Graduate Research Forum presentation from February 2017 in Cleveland. Each year, an expert in the field of music education is invited to the state conference to discuss research, practice, teaching, and learning. The presenter was Dr. J. Terry Gates of "The Hoenny Center for…

  11. The Mad Genie in the Attic: Performances of Identity in Year 6 Boys' Creative Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Identity studies relating to writing in educational setting have tended to focus on the analysis of non-fiction texts. Aligning a Bakhtinian view of language with the concept of identity as participation in "figured worlds" [Holland et al. 1998, "Identity and Agency in Cultural Worlds". London: Harvard University Press], this…

  12. Notes from our Attic: A Curator’s Pocket History of the CIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    just as memorable and informative. 7 Foreword since the american revolution, various groups in the US Government have collected and disseminated...OSS, the new Central Intelligence Agency housed a number of functions; it too would become a one-stop intelligence shop . CIA took over an

  13. Siim Nestor soovitab : StereoÖö. Bugz In The Attic albumituur. Vunts / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    Technomuusikapeost StereoÖö Tartus klubis Illusion 16. märtsil ja Tallinnas Von Krahlis 17. märtsil. Üritusest Mutant Disko 17. märtsil Tallinnas klubis Privé ja Tartus 18. märtsil klubis Illusion. Diskoõhtust "Vunts" 18. märtsil Kinomajas Tallinnas

  14. Differences in determination of chemical elements in soil and attic dust samples due to various acid treatments, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Šajn

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an assessment of relationship existing between analytical values of samples, which were treated with two different acid procedures: four acid digestion and extraction in aqua regia. The sample population consisted of 256 soil samples and 139 atticdust samples collected within the frame of various geochemical studies in Slovenia. After acid treatments, elementary composition of the samples was determined by means of ICP method. As we were interested in functional relationships between both treatment procedures, we performed bivariate analysis of elementary compositions. A regression line based on the logarithms of data was used as a basic correlation indicator. We correlated the following 31 elements: Al, Ag, As, Au, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn,Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sb, Sc, Sr, Th, Ti, U, V, W and Zn.The majority of analytical values for elements in our samples, treated with both procedures,showed a high degree of correlation and a good functional relationship. A weak relationship existed only between those elements that were on detection limits of theanalytical method or had a weak variability (Ag, Ba, Bi, K, Na, Ti, and W. On the basis of the results of double treatment and analysis of samples we calculated the boundary, warning and critical values, which are related to four acid digestion.

  15. Sókratés v starej attickej komédii (Socrates in the Old Attic Comedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Škvrnda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers a brief outline of the general characteristics of the Socratesʼ comic portrayal. It is argued, that Aristophanesʼ portrait of Socrates is based on earlier writings and that there is a certain unity of all preserved comic portraits of Socrates. This unity is linguistically analysed and further characterised as a peculiar merging of physiological and mystical features, which can be found also in the philosophical sects of the southern Italy. The conclusion is that Socrates was in these comedies portrayed as pythagorizing mystic.

  16. Cooling and Heating Season Impacts of Right-Sizing of Fixed- and Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps With Attic and Indoor Ductwork

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, James [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Withers, Charles [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Kono, Jamie [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A new generation of central, ducted variable-capacity heat pump systems has come on the market, promising very high cooling and heating efficiency. They are controlled differently than standard fixed-capacity systems. Instead of cycling on at full capacity and then cycling off when the thermostat is satisfied, they vary their cooling and heating output over a wide range (approximately 40% - 118% of nominal full capacity), thus staying 'on' for 60% - 100% more hours per day compared to fixed -capacity systems. Experiments in this research examined the performance of 2-ton and 3-ton fixed- and variable-capacity systems and the impacts of system oversizing.

  17. Cooling and Heating Season Impacts of Right-Sizing of Fixed- and Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps With Attic and Indoor Ductwork

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, James [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Withers, Charles [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Kono, Jamie [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2015-06-24

    A new generation of full variable-capacity air-conditioning (A/C) and heat pump units has come on the market that promises to deliver very high cooling and heating efficiency. The units are controlled differently than standard single-capacity (fixed-capacity) systems. Instead of cycling on at full capacity and cycling off when the thermostat is satisfied, the new units can vary their capacity over a wide range (approximately 40%–118% of nominal full capacity) and stay on for 60%–100% more hours per day than the fixed-capacity systems depending on load-to-capacity ratios. Two-stage systems were not evaluated in this research effort.

  18. Serving wine. Some comments on the adoption of the oinochoe in the lower Ebro basin (7th and 6th centuries BC)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sardà Seuma, Samuel

    2008-01-01

    ... (ionian cups, Attic kylix, Attic black-figure). Nevertheless, in the lower Ebro valley, the exceptional frequency of Phoenician trade shows clear evolution of the ceramic repertoire during the sixth and seventh centuries BC, a fact that makes...

  19. Analysis of three-year Wisconsin temperature histories for roof systems using wood, wood-thermoplastic composite, and fiberglass shingles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrold E. Winandy; Cherilyn A. Hatfield

    2007-01-01

    Temperature histories for various types of roof shingles, wood roof sheathing, rafters, and nonventilated attics were monitored in outdoor attic structures using simulated North American light-framed construction. In this paper, 3-year thermal load histories for wood-based composite roof sheathing, wood rafters, and attics under western redcedar (WRC) shingles, wood-...

  20. A Literature Review of Sealed and Insulated Attics—Thermal, Moisture and Energy Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Levinson, Ronnen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    In this literature review and analysis, we focus on the thermal, moisture and energy performance of sealed and insulated attics in California climates. Thermal. Sealed and insulated attics are expected to maintain attic air temperatures that are similar to those in the house within +/- 10°F. Thermal stress on the assembly, namely high shingle and sheathing temperatures, are of minimal concern. In the past, many sealed and insulated attics were constructed with insufficient insulation levels (~R-20) and with too much air leakage to outside, leading to poor thermal performance. To ensure high performance, sealed and insulated attics in new California homes should be insulated at levels at least equivalent to the flat ceiling requirements in the code, and attic envelopes and ducts should be airtight. We expect that duct systems in well-constructed sealed and insulated attics should have less than 2% HVAC system leakage to outside. Moisture. Moisture risk in sealed and insulated California attics will increase with colder climate regions and more humid outside air in marine zones. Risk is considered low in the hot-dry, highly populated regions of the state, where most new home construction occurs. Indoor humidity levels should be controlled by following code requirements for continuous whole-house ventilation and local exhaust. Pending development of further guidance, we recommend that the air impermeable insulation requirements of the International Residential Code (2012) be used, as they vary with IECC climate region and roof finish. Energy. Sealed and insulated attics provide energy benefits only if HVAC equipment is located in the attic volume, and the benefits depend strongly on the insulation and airtightness of the attic and ducts. Existing homes with leaky, uninsulated ducts in the attic should have major savings. When compared with modern, airtight duct systems in a vented attic, sealed and insulated attics in California may still provide substantial benefit

  1. Black Swan Event Assessment for Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Materials Application Blanket: batts and rolls Fiberglass, mineral wool, plastic fibers, natural fibers. Floors, ceilings, unfinished walls...and blown-in Cellulose, fiberglass, mineral wool. Existing walls, attic floors. Reflective system Cardboard, plastic film Unfinished floors...attic floors Structural isolated panels Foam board, liquid foam insulation core, straw core insulation New constructions There is another way of

  2. Thermal load histories for North American roof assembles using various cladding materials including wood-thermoplastic composite shingles

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. E. Winandy

    2006-01-01

    Since 1991, thermal load histories for various roof cladding types have been monitored in outdoor attic structures that simulate classic North American light-framed construction. In this paper, the 2005 thermal loads for wood-based composite roof sheathing, wood rafters, and attics under wood-plastic composite shingles are compared to common North American roof...

  3. Two-year Wisconsin thermal loads for roof assemblies and wood, wood–plastic composite, and fiberglass shingles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrold E. Winandy; Michael Grambsch; Cherilyn Hatfield

    2005-01-01

    Temperature histories for various types of roof shingles, wood roof sheathing, roof rafters, and non-ventilated attics are being monitored in outdoor attic structures using simulated North American light-framed construction. This report presents 2-year data histories for annual thermal loads for western redcedar, wood–thermoplastic composite, and fiberglass shingles...

  4. Solar assisted heat pump system with volume solar collector. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabnis, J.S.; Hickox, W.J.; Drucker, E.E.; Ucar, M.; LaGraff, J.E.

    1978-09-01

    The system uses the attic of the house with a large south facing window as the solar collector. An air-to-water heat pump uses the attic air as a heat source to heat a volume of storage water during the heating season. During the cooling season the attic is ventilated and the heat pump uses the attic air as a heat sink while cooling the storage water. The computer program was developed to include a heat exchanger in the attic which could by-pass the heat pump condenser cooling water, thus permitting direct heat exchange between the attic air and the storage water whenever a favorable temperature existed. The program also accounts for the effect of the incidence angle of insolation and the effect of the number of glass plates on the transmittance and absorptance of the collector and windows. Other refinements include: the use of a sophisticated nighttime setback thermostat, account of internal heat generation and infiltration loss. Among all of the parameter variations, the use of an attic heat exchanger resulted in the maximum savings in the heating/cooling energy consumption of the house. The use of double-glazed windows too, resulted in substantial energy savings. The total energy consumption was found to depend strongly on the infiltration rate. The program was also used to simulate the same system under weather conditions existing at several different geographic areas.

  5. Homeowners' demand for home insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    The survey was conducted to provide guidance based on the views and experience of a national sample of homeowners about the insulation of their homes. The telephone survey was conducted with 1,012 homeowners between January 12 and 22, 1978 in the East, Midwest, South, and West regions of the U.S. From the survey data were compiled on plans for installing home insulation with emphasis on attic insulation; how many homes now have various types of insulation; recent experiences in obtaining attic insulation--its cost, material used, when installed, whether installed by the homeowner or a contractor; the kinds of insulation thought to be needed--attic insulation, wall insulation, storm doors and windows; whether homeowners planning attic insulation feel that they have the necessary information to do the work themselves or if they feel they know enough to make the necessary arrangements with a contractor; the effect of higher fuel costs on likelihood of installing attic insulation; shortages of insulating materials; what sources of information are relied on when planning attic insulation; attitudes toward having utility companies install insulation to be paid for by means of utility bills; how much trust homeowners have in the advice of government, utility companies, insulation manufacturers, insulation installers, and retail stores about how much insulation is needed; the likely effect of a tax credit on plans to insulate the attic; and the concern about energy shortages.

  6. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beal, D. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); McIlvaine, J. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Fonorow, K. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces.

  7. Kaks musketäri. 20 aastat hiljem / Tristan Priimägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Priimägi, Tristan, 1976-

    2007-01-01

    Tristan Priimägi kohtumisest Londoni klubis Hard Rock Cafe ameerika rockansambli Aerosmith liikmetega, intervjuu Steven Tyleriga. Heliplaatidest "Aerosmith", "Toys in the Attic", Run D.M.C & Aerosmith "Walk This Way", Get a Grip"

  8. Investigating Solutions to Wind Washing Issues in Two-Story Florida Homes, Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withers, C. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Kono, J. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report provides results from a second-phase research study of a phenomenon generally referred to as wind washing. Wind washing is the movement of unconditioned air around or through building thermal barriers in such a way as to diminish or nullify the intended thermal performance. In some cases, thermal and air barriers are installed very poorly or not at all, and air can readily move from unconditioned attic spaces into quasi-conditioned interstitial spaces. This study focused on the impact of poorly sealed and insulated floor cavities adjacent to attic spaces in Florida homes. In these cases, unconditioned attic air can be transferred into floor cavities through pathways driven by natural factors such as wind, or by thermal differences between the floor cavity and the attic. Air can also be driven into a floor cavity through mechanical forces imposed by return duct leakage in the floor cavity.

  9. Building thermal loads: A case study for David Hellen Petta public secondary school

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumirai, T

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This chapter assesses the impact of appropriate passive interventions on building thermal loads. The passive interventions investigated are ceiling insulation, wall insulation, attic ventilation, natural ventilation and roof absorptance and also...

  10. Preschooler development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as roofs, attic windows, and steep staircases). Have strict rules for the preschooler about areas that are ... have appropriate role models of both sexes. Single parents should make sure the child has the chance ...

  11. Field Evaluation of Four Novel Roof Designs for Energy-Efficient Manufactured Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E. [Levy Partnership Inc., New York, NY (United States); Dentz, J. [Levy Partnership Inc., New York, NY (United States); Ansanelli, E. [Levy Partnership Inc., New York, NY (United States); Barker, G. [Levy Partnership Inc., New York, NY (United States); Rath, P. [Levy Partnership Inc., New York, NY (United States); Dadia, D. [Levy Partnership Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    2015-12-01

    A five-bay roof test structure was built, instrumented and monitored in an effort to determine through field testing and analysis the relative contributions of select technologies toward reducing energy use in new manufactured homes. The roof structure in Jamestown, California was designed to examine how differences in roof construction impact space conditioning loads, wood moisture content and attic humidity levels. Conclusions are drawn from the data on the relative energy and moisture performance of various configurations of vented and sealed attics.

  12. Performance Evaluation of Advanced Retrofit Roof Technologies Using Field-Test Data Phase Three Final Report, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL

    2014-05-01

    This article presents various metal roof configurations that were tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee, U.S.A. between 2009 and 2013, and describes their potential for reducing the attic-generated space conditioning loads. These roofs contained different combinations of phase change material, rigid insulation, low emittance surface and above-sheathing ventilation, with standing-seam metal panels on top. These roofs were designed to be installed on existing roofs decks, or on top of asphalt shingles for retrofit construction. All the tested roofs showed the potential for substantial energy savings compared to an asphalt shingle roof, which was used as a control for comparison. The roofs were constructed on a series of adjacent attics separated at the gables using thick foam insulation. The attics were built on top of a conditioned room. All attics were vented at the soffit and ridge. The test roofs and attics were instrumented with an array of thermocouples. Heat flux transducers were installed in the roof deck and attic floor (ceiling) to measure the heat flows through the roof and between the attic and conditioned space below. Temperature and heat flux data were collected during the heating, cooling and swing seasons over a 3 year period. Data from previous years of testing have been published. Here, data from the latest roof configurations being tested in year 3 of the project are presented. All test roofs were highly effective in reducing the heat flows through the roof and ceiling, and in reducing the diurnal attic temperature fluctuations.

  13. A Comparison of Simulation Capabilities for Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, William A [ORNL; Smith, Matt K [ORNL; Gu, Lixing [Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL

    2014-11-01

    Typically, the cheapest way to install a central air conditioning system in residential buildings is to place the ductwork in the attic. Energy losses due to duct-attic interactions can be great, but current whole-house models are unable to capture the dynamic multi-mode physics of the interactions. The building industry is notoriously fragmented and unable to devote adequate research resources to solve this problem. Builders are going to continue to put ducts in the attic because floor space is too expensive to closet them within living space, and there are both construction and aesthetic issues with other approaches such as dropped ceilings. Thus, there is a substantial need to publicly document duct losses and the cost of energy used by ducts in attics so that practitioners, builders, homeowners and state and federal code officials can make informed decisions leading to changes in new construction and additional retrofit actions. Thus, the goal of this study is to conduct a comparison of AtticSim and EnergyPlus simulation algorithms to identify specific features for potential inclusion in EnergyPlus that would allow higher-fidelity modeling of HVAC operation and duct transport of conditioned air. It is anticipated that the resulting analysis from these simulation tools will inform energy decisions relating to the role of ducts in future building energy codes and standards.

  14. TASK 2.5.4 DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENERGY SAVINGS CALCULATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, William A [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL; Huang, Joe [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Erdem, Ender [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Ronnen, Levinson [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2010-03-01

    California s major energy utilities and the California Energy Commission (CEC) are seeking to allocate capital that yields the greatest return on investment for energy infrastructure that meets any part of the need for reliable supplies of energy. The utilities are keenly interested in knowing the amount of electrical energy savings that would occur if cool roof color materials are adopted in the building market. To meet this need the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have been collaborating on a Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) project to develop an industry-consensus energy-savings calculator. The task was coordinated with an ongoing effort supported by the DOE to develop one calculator to achieve both the DOE and the EPA objectives for deployment of cool roof products. Recent emphasis on domestic building energy use has made the work a top priority by the Department of Energy s (DOE) Building Technologies Program. The Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) tool is designed to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and practitioners easily run complex simulations. The latest web technologies and usability design were employed to provide an easy input interface to an annual simulation of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim. Building defaults were assigned based on the best available statistical evidence and can provide energy and cost savings after the user selects nothing more than the building location. A key goal for the tool is to promote the energy benefits of cool color tile, metal and asphalt shingle roof products and other energy saving systems. The RSC tool focuses on applications for the roof and attic; however, the code conducts a whole building simulation that puts the energy and heat flows of the roof and attic into the perspective of the whole house. An annual simulation runs in about 30 sec. In addition to cool

  15. Measure Guideline: Implementing a Plenum Truss for a Compact Air Distribution System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This Measure Guideline presents the steps to implement a compact duct system inside an attic bulkhead (plenum truss) of a one-story, slab-on-grade home. In a compact duct design, ductwork runs are reduced in length to yield a smaller and more compact duct system. Less energy will be lost through ductwork if the ducts are contained within the thermal enclosure of the house. These measures are intended for the production builder working to meet the 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) requirements and keep the ductwork within the thermal enclosure of the house. This measure of bringing the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment and ductwork within the thermal enclosure of the house is appropriate for the builder wishing to avoid cathedralizing the insulation in the attic space (i.e., locating it at the underside of the roof deck rather than along the attic floor) or adding dropped soffits.

  16. Monedas de Ptolomeo III a nombre de la ‘Reina Berenice’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián R. Salgado

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The coinage struck by Ptolemy III Euergetes I in the name of Berenice traditionally assigned to Berenice II Euergetis is here reattributed, following the theory introduced by R. A. Hazzard (1995 supported by new arguments, to his sister Berenice Syra, wife of Antiochus II Theos. Also, the identification and organisation of two series (one struck in the Attic standard, the other in the local Ptolemaic standard is reviewed, the issues dated and set in their relevant historical and geographical context, showing also that the largest silver coin minted in name of Berenice and described by Svoronos (1904 as an Attic dodekadrachm, and by Vagi (1999 as a «pentekaidekadrachm» of the local standard, is actually a piece of 12½ Attic silver drachms.

  17. Volume 3: Characterization of representative reservoirs -- South Marsh Island 73, B35K and B65G Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, M.A.; Salamy, S.P.; Reeves, T.K. [BDM-Oklahoma, Inc., Bartlesville, OK (United States); Kimbrell, W.C. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering; Sawyer, W.K. [Mathematical and Computer Services, Inc., Danville, VA (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report documents the results of a detailed study of two Gulf of Mexico salt dome related reservoirs and the application of a publicly available PC-based black oil simulator to model the performances of gas injection processes to recover attic oil. The overall objective of the research project is to assess the oil reserve potential that could result from the application of proven technologies to recover bypassed oil from reservoirs surrounding piercement salt domes in the Gulf of Mexico. The specific study objective was to simulate the primary recovery and attic gas injection performance of the two subject reservoirs to: (1) validate the BOAST model; (2) quantify the attic volume; and (3) predict the attic oil recovery potential that could result from additional updip gas injection. The simulation studies were performed on the B-35K Reservoir and the B-65G Reservoir in the South Marsh Island Block 73 Field using data provided by one of the field operators. A modified PC-version of the BOAST II model was used to match the production and injection performances of these reservoirs in which numerous gas injection cycles had been conducted to recover attic oil. The historical performances of the gas injection cycles performed on both the B-35K Reservoir and B-65G Reservoir were accurately matched, and numerous predictive runs were made to define additional potential for attic oil recovery using gas injection. Predictive sensitivities were conducted to examine the impact of gas injection rate, injection volume, post-injection shut-in time, and the staging of gas injection cycles on oil recovery.

  18. Comparison of Software Models for Energy Savings from Cool Roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL; Huang, Yu (Joe) [White Box Technologies; Levinson, Ronnen [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2014-01-01

    A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the United States Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This tool employs modern web technologies, usability design, and national average defaults as an interface to annual simulations of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim in order to provide estimated annual energy and cost savings. In addition to cool reflective roofs, RSC simulates multiple roof and attic configurations including different roof slopes, above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, low-emittance roof surfaces, duct location, duct leakage rates, multiple substrate types, and insulation levels. A base case and energy-efficient alternative can be compared side-by-side to estimate monthly energy. RSC was benchmarked against field data from demonstration homes in Ft. Irwin, California; while cooling savings were similar, heating penalty varied significantly across different simulation engines. RSC results reduce cool roofing cost-effectiveness thus mitigating expected economic incentives for this countermeasure to the urban heat island effect. This paper consolidates comparison of RSC s projected energy savings to other simulation engines including DOE-2.1E, AtticSim, Micropas, and EnergyPlus, and presents preliminary analyses. RSC s algorithms for capturing radiant heat transfer and duct interaction in the attic assembly are considered major contributing factors to increased cooling savings and heating penalties. Comparison to previous simulation-based studies, analysis on the force multiplier of RSC cooling savings and heating penalties, the role of radiative heat exchange in an attic assembly, and changes made for increased accuracy of the duct model are included.

  19. Field Evaluation of Four Novel Roof Designs for Energy-Efficient Manufactured Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Dentz, J. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Ansanelli, E. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Barker, G. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Rath, P. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Dadia, D. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-12-03

    "9A five-bay roof test structure was built, instrumented and monitored in an effort to determine through field testing and analysis the relative contributions of select technologies toward reducing energy use in new manufactured homes. The roof structure in Jamestown, California was designed to examine how differences in roof construction impact space conditioning loads, wood moisture content and attic humidity levels. Conclusions are drawn from the data on the relative energy and moisture performance of various configurations of vented and sealed attics.

  20. Can painted glass felt or glass fibre cloth be used as vapour barrier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Khattam, Amira; Andersen, Mie Them; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2014-01-01

    with a ventilated attic where the ceiling may be air tight but has no vapour barrier; post-insulation of the attic may cause the need for a vapour barrier. Placing a vapour barrier above the ceiling can be tiresome and it is difficult to ensure tightness. A simpler way is to paint a vapour barrier directly...... on the ceiling e.g. as an ordinary paint. This paper presents the results of an investigation of the water vapour resistance of surface treatments which are commonly used in-door. The water vapour resistance was measured by the cup method. Aerated concrete was investigated with and without various surface...

  1. ABSTRACT The Hamartia of Aristotle Albert A. Sackey1 The term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    he uses the Arabic word zalal, meaning "error'', to translate hamartia. According to Avicenna, this error implies a "straying .... Secondly, Cooper's identification of Milton's and Shakespeare's heroes with .... dialect of Homer, through the New Ionic of Thucydides, to the Attic dialect of Plato, Aristotle's contemporary, the meaning ...

  2. A 'Clear View of the N,eglected Mastoid Aditus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-12-11

    Dec 11, 1971 ... G. C. C. BURGER, M.MED. (RAD.D.), Department of Diagnostic Radiology, H. F. Verwoerd Hospital, Pretoria. SUMMARY. The aditus is the central link between the attic and the mastoid antrum. Its patency determines the course of middle ear infections. Fig. 1. Tomographic cross-section of the skull, labelled.

  3. DOE ZERH Case Study: High Performance Homes, Chamberlain Court #75, Gettysburg, PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning production home in the cold climate that got a HERS 37 without PV, or HERS 23 with PV, with R-24 SIP walls, Basement with R-10 under slab, and R-15 unfaced batt on walls, sealed attic with R-49 ocsf under roof deck; ground source heat pump COP 4.4.

  4. Solar heating system in Greve. Measurements of space- and water-heating by the system - annual report. [Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soenderskov Joergensen, L.; Mikkelsen, S.E.; Kristensen, P.E.

    1980-07-01

    The experimental house in Greve was equipped with a solar heating system in 1978. The solar collector of 50.3 m/sup 2/ constructed on the south-western side of the roof was used together with storage tank of 5450 l in the attic to save 625 l of heating oil, covering 22% of the collected domestic heat demands.

  5. 16 CFR 1209.6 - Test procedures for critical radiant flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... energy source. The radiant heat energy source shall be a panel of porous refractory material mounted in a... for monitoring and controlling the flow of fuel to the panel. (3) The radiant heat energy panel shall... radiant flux of exposed attic floor insulation using a radiant heat energy source. (a) Apparatus and...

  6. Reflective Insulation for Energy Conservation in South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Teh, Khar; Yarbrough, David W.; Haw Lim, Chin; Salleh, Elias

    2017-05-01

    Thermal resistances have been measured for attic spaces insulated with reflective insulations. Three test units located in Malaysia were instrumented to provide heat flux and temperatures for the calculation of time-average RSI-values (RSI is representing R-value in SI units). The RSI for attics with enclosed reflective air spaces were in the range 2-3 m2·K/W while the uninsulated attics averaged about 0.4 m2·K/W. The RSI-values determined in this project were for heat-flow down, the predominant heat-flow direction for attic spaces in Equatorial regions. The observed thermal resistances due to the installation of the reflective insulation results in an 80-90% annual decrease in the heat transfer across the ceiling. This reduces utility usage for air conditioned units and improved comfort for occupants. The research demonstrates the use of transient data for the determination of thermal insulation performance and usefulness of enclosed reflective air spaces for thermal resistance.

  7. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart A of... - Requirements for Modular/Panelized Housing Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... jurisdiction to assure coordination. Any deviations in structure, materials or design from HUD acceptance... problems with the manufacturer, as reported by the County Office. Action may include coordination, FmHA or.... (c) Details of insulation and vapor barrier installation and attic ventilation. If the thermal...

  8. In-Depth Analysis of Simulation Engine Codes for Comparison with DOE s Roof Savings Calculator and Measured Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    New, Joshua Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Levinson, Ronnen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Huang, Yu [White Box Technologies, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sanyal, Jibonananda [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, William A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mellot, Joe [The Garland Company, Cleveland, OH (United States); Childs, Kenneth W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kriner, Scott [Green Metal Consulting, Inc., Macungie, PA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) was developed through collaborations among Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), White Box Technologies, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and the Environmental Protection Agency in the context of a California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research project to make cool-color roofing materials a market reality. The RSC website and a simulation engine validated against demonstration homes were developed to replace the liberal DOE Cool Roof Calculator and the conservative EPA Energy Star Roofing Calculator, which reported different roof savings estimates. A preliminary analysis arrived at a tentative explanation for why RSC results differed from previous LBNL studies and provided guidance for future analysis in the comparison of four simulation programs (doe2attic, DOE-2.1E, EnergyPlus, and MicroPas), including heat exchange between the attic surfaces (principally the roof and ceiling) and the resulting heat flows through the ceiling to the building below. The results were consolidated in an ORNL technical report, ORNL/TM-2013/501. This report is an in-depth inter-comparison of four programs with detailed measured data from an experimental facility operated by ORNL in South Carolina in which different segments of the attic had different roof and attic systems.

  9. Serious games in surgical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, M.

    2014-01-01

    Videogames are becoming part of our everyday lives. The common image of the average gamer - a twelve-year old boy killing mystical dwarves in his parents’ attic - stands in stark contrast to the emerging serious games, videogames developed for useful purposes in life. Serious (or applied) games are

  10. Vindictive Prosecution in Classical Athens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janek Kucharski

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Attic orators show that revenge could be an admitted and legitimate motive on the part of a prosecutor, and that such a personal agenda might be felt and portrayed not as contradictory to the impersonal rule of law but as a partner to it.

  11. Negation and Nonveridicality in the History of Greek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzopoulou, Aikaterini

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a thorough investigation of the expression primarily of sentential negation in the history of Greek, through quantitative data from representative texts from three major stages of vernacular Greek (Attic Greek, Koine, Late Medieval Greek), and qualitative data from Homeric Greek until Standard Modern. The contrast between two…

  12. Evaluation of the NightCool Nocturnal Radiation Cooling Concept: Annual Performance Assessment in Scale Test Buildings Stage Gate 1B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Danny S. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Sherwin, John R. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2008-03-01

    In this report, data is presented on the long-term comparative with all of NightCool system fully operational, with circulating fans when attic conditions are favorable for nocturnal cooling and with conventional air conditioning at other times. Data is included for a full year of the cooling season in Central Florida, which stretches from April to November of 2007.

  13. Investigating Solutions to Wind Washing Issues in Two-Story Florida Homes, Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withers, Charles R. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Kono, Jamie [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2015-04-13

    With U.S. Department of Energy goals of reducing existing home energy use by 30% and new home energy use by 50%, it is imperative to focus on several energy efficiency measures, including the quality of air and thermal barriers. This report provides results from a second-phase research study of a phenomenon generally referred to as wind washing. Wind washing is the movement of unconditioned air around or through building thermal barriers in such a way as to diminish or nullify the intended thermal performance. In some cases, thermal and air barriers are installed very poorly or not at all, and air can readily move from unconditioned attic spaces into quasi-conditioned interstitial spaces. This study focused on the impact of poorly sealed and insulated floor cavities adjacent to attic spaces in Florida homes. In these cases, unconditioned attic air can be transferred into floor cavities through pathways driven by natural factors such as wind, or by thermal differences between the floor cavity and the attic. Air can also be driven into a floor cavity through mechanical forces imposed by return duct leakage in the floor cavity.

  14. Demonstration of Three Corrosion-Resistant Sustainable Roofing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    UV-resistant acrylic binder (Figure 1). The stone chips provide additional protection from heat and abrasion . The “fawn grey” color that was chosen... peeling , chalking, or any other environmental-related degradation. 3.2.2 Attic environment and roof temperature assessments 3.2.2.1 Stone-coated metal

  15. [Proceedings of the VII international symposium 'Cultural heritage in geosciences, mining and metallurgy : libraries, archives, museums' : "Museums and their collections" held at the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Leiden (The Netherlands), 19-23 May, 2003 / Cor F. Winkler Prins and Stephen K. Donovan (editors)]: Die Schloenbach-Reisestipendien-Stiftung: ein wertvoller Beitrag fur die geowissenschaftliche Forschung und Acquisition für die Sammlungen der Geologischen Reichsanstalt in Wien

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cernajsek, T.

    2004-01-01

    The "Geologischen Bundesanstalt" (GBA: Austrian Geological Survey) still holds hidden treasures. A good example is a collection of bills and other papers labelled "Schloenbach-Reisestipendien-Stiftung" (SF: Schloenbach Foundation for travel grants) accidentally found in the attic. Also in the

  16. Die Schloenbach-Reisestipendien-Stiftung: ein wertvoller Beitrag für die geowissenschaftliche Forschung und Acquisition für die Sammlungen der Geologischen Reichsanstalt in Wien

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cernajsek, T.

    2004-01-01

    The “Geologischen Bundesanstalt” (GBA: Austrian Geological Survey) still holds hidden treasures. A good example is a collection of bills and other papers labelled “Schloenbach-Reisestipendien-Stiftung” (SF: Schloenbach Foundation for travel grants) accidentally found in the attic. Also in the

  17. Builders Challenge High Performance Builder Spotlight - NextGen Home, Las Vegas, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-01

    Building America Builders Challenge fact sheet on the NextGen demo home built in Las Vegas. The home has a Home Energy Rating System (HERS) index score of 44 with R-40 spray foam attic insulation, R-40 insulated concrete walls, and a 4kW DC solar laminate

  18. The Effects of Infrared-Blocking Pigments and Deck Venting on Stone-Coated Metal Residential Roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, William A [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    Field data show that stone-coated metal shakes and S-mission tile, which exploit the use of infraredblocking color pigments (IrBCPs), along with underside venting reduce the heat flow penetrating the conditioned space of a residence by 70% compared with the amount of heat flow penetrating roofs with conventional asphalt shingles. Stone-coated metal roof products are typically placed on battens and counter-battens and nailed through the battens to the roof deck. The design provides venting on the underside of the metal roof that reduces the heat flow penetrating a home. The Metal Construction Association (MCA) and its affiliate members installed stone-coated metal roofs with shake and S-mission tile profiles and a painted metal shake roof on a fully instrumented attic test assembly at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Measurements of roof, deck, attic, and ceiling temperatures; heat flows; solar reflectance; thermal emittance; and ambient weather were recorded for each of the test roofs and also for an adjacent attic cavity covered with a conventional pigmented and direct nailed asphalt shingle roof. All attic assemblies had ridge and soffit venting; the ridge was open to the underside of the stone-coated metal roofs. A control assembly with a conventional asphalt shingle roof was used for comparing deck and ceiling heat transfer rates.

  19. Hrázděné stěny v podkrovích českých a moravských zámků

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bláha, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2016), s. 255-270 ISSN 1802-8128 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : built heritage * chateaux and castles * timber framed constructions * half–timbered walls * roof timber frames * attics Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  20. The Dramatist and His Praxis: A Comparative Study of the Political ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There seems to be a comparable personal circumstance between the Attic dramatist, Euripides, and the Nigerian dramatist, Wole Soyinka on one hand, and between Soyinka and the popular dramatist, Hubert Ogunde on the other. They all appeared to be actively involved in the politics of their time and society. However ...

  1. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Habitat for Humanity South Sarasota County, Nokomis, FL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-09-01

    The builder won an Affordable Builder award in the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards for this super-insulated home that features a 5.5-inch-thick layer of open-cell spray foam on the inside of the attic ceiling, providing an R-20-insulated, cool, conditioned space for the home’s high-efficiency SEER 15 heat pumps.

  2. Historia del Ático a través de sus inscripciones, I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio LÓPEZ EIRE

    2009-12-01

    mediados del siglo V a. J. C, el ático de las inscripciones empieza a sentir la influencia del ático de alto nivel: la terminación de tercera persona de plural de imperativo —õcfrõv es sustituida por —ecr&õv y el típico sintagma para decir «no menos», «no menor», jig oA.£^ov, es reemplazado por u€ eX,crrcov. Otros rasgos delatores de este mismo proceso son: el más amplio y frecuente uso de perífrasis, la extensión de la —x del singular de determinados aoristos al plural y al dual (p. ej., jraQSÒcoxajiev, o la presencia de la terminación —oav en formas de la tercera persona de plural del imperativo (p. ej. xor&eÀ.ovxcoaav, rasgos todos ellos que eran, antes de pasar a las inscripciones, típicos del nivel alto del ático y que, un siglo más tarde se convertirán en característicos de las inscripciones y la literatura compuestas ya en griego helenístico. Los datos que nos van ofreciendo las inscripciones áticas nos permiten contemplar la evolución del ático «epicórico» al griego helenístico, un proceso en cuyo punto medio hay que situar la fuerte influencia ejercida por el ático de alto nivel sobre el ático de las inscripciones.ABSTRACT: The history of Attic following its inscriptions, I. The aim of this and the next papers concerning this same subject is to sketch the development of Attic calling to wittness the changes in the forms of expression detected in the different types of epigraphical documents which were written in this dialect. As particularly helpful for this purpose, we will take into account the changes which took place in the wellknown formulas which tend to be repeated, in a more or less set form, in inscriptions of the same kind. The starting point of my researchs is the worth noting fact that in one and the same year (423-2 B. C. in Attic inscriptions we find two forms of the first declension dative of plural, one ending in —aiai (XiAiaim and the other ending in — oxç (yikiaiç. Consequently we are constraint to

  3. Historia del Ático a través de sus inscripciones, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. LÓPEZ EIRE

    2009-12-01

    las inscripciones empieza a sentir la influencia del ático de alto nivel: la terminación de tercera persona de plural de imperativo -oszon es sustituida por -eszon y el típico sintagma para decir «no menos», no menor, me olejon, es remplazado por me elatton.Otros rasgos delatores de este mismo proceso son: el más amplio y frecuente uso de perífrasis, la extensión de la -K del sigular de determinados aoristos al plural y al dual (p. ej. paredokamen o la presencia de la terminación -san en formas de la tercera persona de plural del imperativo (p. ej. kazelontosan, rasgos todos ellos que eran, antes de pasar a las inscripciones, típicos del nivel alto del ático y que, un siglo más tarde se convertirán en característicos de las inscripciones y la literatura compuestas ya en griego helenístico.Los datos que nos van ofreciendo las inscripciones áticas nos permiten contemplar la evolución del ático «epicórico» al griego helenístico, un proceso en cuyo punto medio hay que situar la fuerte influencia ejercida por el ático de alto nivel sobre el ático de las inscripciones.ABSTRACT: The history of Attic following its inscriptions, II. The aim of this and the next papers concerning this same subject is to sketch the development of Attic calling to witness the changes in the forms of expression detected in the different types of epigraphical documents which were written in this dialect.As particularly helpful for this purpose, we will take into account the changes which took place in the wellknown formulas which tend to be repeated, in a more or less set form, in inscriptions of the same kind.The starting point of my research is the worth noting fact that in one and the same year (423-2 B. C. in Attic inscriptions we find two forms of the first declension dative of plural, one ending in -aisi in jiliaisi  and the other ending in -ais in jiliais. Consequently we are constraint to take into account the different kind of documents in which those features of

  4. Measure Guideline: Buried and/or Encapsulated Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Zoeller, W. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Mantha, P. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BEDs) are a class of advanced, energy-efficiency strategies intended to address the significant ductwork thermal losses associated with ducts installed in unconditioned attics. BEDs are ducts installed in unconditioned attics that are covered in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulated in closed cell polyurethane spray foam insulation. This Measure Guideline covers the technical aspects of BEDs as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and risks of BEDs compared to other alternative strategies. This guideline also provides detailed guidance on installation of BEDs strategies in new and existing homes through step-by-step installation procedures. Some of the procedures presented here, however, require specialized equipment or expertise. In addition, some alterations to duct systems may require a specialized license.

  5. Technology Solutions Case Study: Duct in Conditioned Space in a Dropped Ceiling or Fur-down, Gainesville, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-09-01

    Forced-air distribution systems (duct systems) typically are installed out of sight for aesthetic reasons, most often in unconditioned areas such as attics or crawlspaces. Any leakage of air to or from the duct system in unconditioned space not only loses energy, but impacts home and equipment durability and indoor air quality. An obvious solution is to bring the duct system into the interior of the house, either by sealing the area where the ducts are installed (attic or crawlspace) or by building an interior cavity or chase above the ceiling plane (raised ceiling or fur-up chase) or below the ceiling plane (dropped ceiling or fur-down) for the duct system. In this project, Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction team partnered with Tommy Williams Homes to implement an inexpensive, quick, and effective method of building a fur-down chase.

  6. The site of initial production and transport of effusion materials in otitis media serosa. A study on rat middle ear cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, S; Salén, B; Stenfors, L E

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to localize the site of the initial production of effusion in the middle ear cavity. Via the tympanic bulla the passage between the lateral attic compartment and the rest of the middle ear (isthmus tympanicus) was blocked with Gelfoam and/or the Eustachian tube likewise with a polyethylene tube in both normal and sympathectomized rats. Effusion was thus produced in the attic, while concomitantly dilated vessels were seen in the pars flaccida, which after a couple of days gradually withdrew in a medial direction to form a retraction pocket. Sympathectomy did not prevent the production of effusion. The stream of effusion was nasal to the promontorium and the tensor tympani muscle. Its transport seems to be influenced by the ventilation through the tympanic tube.

  7. The theseids, the Sigeum colonization and the Thracian Chersonese in the Athenian imaginary during the Archaism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam VALDÉS GUÍA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Athens doesn’t participate out of Attica in the colonization until the end of VII Century BC. The chosen area, the Sigeum, the Troad and the Chersonese (and afterwards also Thrace is constructed in the Athenian imaginary world as a space settled by Attic heroes who justify Athenian control. Some leading Attic families use these heroes in their «particular» interests in a moment where it is not easy to separate between «public» and «private». Troad and the Chersonese are mythical constructed worlds, imagined places marked by the Homeric poems and other narrations manipulated and used in Archaic period by Athens, specifically those of the Theseids.

  8. DOE ZERH Case Study: BrightLeaf Homes, McCormick Avenue, Brookfield, IL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning production home in the cold climate that got a HERS 38 without PV, with staggered 2x4 studs every 8”on a 2x6 plate with dense-packed R-25 cellulose, basement with 3” XPS exterior and 2: XPS under slab; a vented attic with spray foam top plates and R-60 blown cellulose; 96% AFUE furnace, 14 SEER AC, plus fresh air intake.

  9. Sound absorption properties of unbleached cellulose loose-fill insulation material

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas, Jorge P.; Rebolledo, Juan; Rey Tormos, Romina María del; Alba Fernández, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Recyclable cellulose loose-fill insulation has been commonly used in heavy timber construction for treating attic areas, under floors, and wall cavities. Through the kraft process, the unbleached cellulose adopts a texture characterized by small crumbs, forming a porous medium. In this work, different samples of a single layer of loose-fill cellulose insulation with different thicknesses were tested to measure their sound absorption properties, the airflow resistivity, and porosity for both d...

  10. DOE ZERH Case Study: New Town Builders, Town Homes at Perrin's Row, Wheat Ridge, CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning multifamily project with 26 units in the cold climate that got a HERS 54 without PV, or HERS 28 with PV, with 2x6 24” on center walls with R-23 blown fiberglass; slab foundation with R-10 rigid at slab edge; plus R-10 rigid exterior; R-22 ICF basement walls; vented attic with R-50 blown fiberglass; 92 AFUE furnace, 13 SEER AC.

  11. DOE ZERH Case Study: Palo Duro Homes, Via del Cielo, Santa Fe, NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning production home in the mixed-dry climate that got a HERS 48 without PV, with 2x6 24” on center walls with R-21 blown fiberglass; slab foundation with R-10 under slab and R-5rigid foam at slab edge; vented attic with R-75 blown fiberglass; ducted minisplit heat pump 16.5 SEER, 9.5 HSPF.

  12. DOE ZERH Case Study: Mandalay Homes, Vision Hill Lot 1, Glendale, AZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning production home in the hot-dry climate that got a HERS 52 without PV, or HERS -2 with PV, with 2x6 16” on center walls with R-14 ocsf plus R-4 rigid exterior; slab on grade with R-8 slab edge; sealed attic with R-31 ocsf under roof deck; 92 AFUE furnace, 15 SEER AC, 100% LED.

  13. DOE ZERH Case Study: United Way of Long Island Housing Development Corporation, Patchogue, NY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning affordable home in the mixed-humid climate that got HERS 40 without PV, -3 with PV, with 2x4 16: on center walls with R-13.5 dense packed cellulose and 1.5” polyiso rigid; basement with 2.5: polyiso on interior; unvented attic with R-48 ocsf under roof deck; ERV tied to wall hung boiler with hydro coil.

  14. Uutest plaatidest / Tõnu Pedaru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pedaru, Tõnu

    1998-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Rod Stewart "Very Best Of", Elvis Costello with Burt Bacharach "Painted From Memory", Aerosmith "A Little South Of Sanity", Royal Crown Revue "The Contender", Baxter "Baxter", Sheryl Crow "The Globe Sessions", Alishas Attic "Illumina", Foreigner "The Best Of Ballads", Secret Service "The Very Best Of", Eels "Electro-Shock Blues", 187 Lockdown "The World", Dub Pistols "Point Black", Kelly Family "I Will Be Your Bride"

  15. DOE ZERH Case Study: Hammer and Hand, Pumpkin Ridge Passive House, North Plains, OR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom home in the marine climate that got a HERS 49 without PV, or HERS 5 with PV, with 2x4 24” on center walls plus 8” exterior cavity together dense-packed with R-60 cellulose; daylight basement with R-29 rigid EPS foam under slab; vented attic with R-86 blown cellulose; minisplit heat pump; ducted with HRV; 15.5 SEER; 10 HSPF.

  16. DOE ZERH Case Study: KB Home, Double ZeroHouse 3.0, El Dorado Hill, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning production home in the mixed-dry climate that got a HERS 44 without PV, or HERS -2 with PV, with 2x4 walls 16” on center walls with R-15 cavity plus 1” EPS exterior rigid foam, slab on grade with R-10 slab edge; unvented attic with R-38 blown fiberglass netted to underside of roof deck; 19 SEER heat pump; heat pump water heater; 100% LED.

  17. Nation Building and the Rule of Law: Lessons from the Civil Rights Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-23

    Prince Edward County public 4 Prince Edward County, Virginia students demand re-opening of their schools which have been closed for years to... Edwards County schools closed down for five years rather than integrate 1960 -Sheriff Clark formed his 66-member mounted and 350-member unmounted...224 Tony Horwitz, Confederates in the Attic: Dispatches from the Unfinished Civil War ( Thorndike , Maine: G.K. Hall

  18. Los oradores áticos y algunos términos jurídicos: condicionamientos distribucionales y prefijales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Calero Secall

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies some juridical words, provided with the preverb špí, that appear in the Attic Orators’ texts in the fourth century B.C. This analysis shows that not only the preverb, but also the context, the opposition between the active and middle, and the different classes of people which form the subject of some verbs influence the meaning. Moreover it is examined if these words are exclusively used as juridical technical terms or not.

  19. DOE ZERH Case Study: Addison Homes, Cobbler Lane, Simpsonville, SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom home in the mixed humid climate that got a HERS 41 without PV, with 2x4 16” on-center walls with 1 inch rigid foam, a sealed conditioned crawl space insulated on inside with 2 inches poly iso, a vented attic with R-38 blown fiberglass, a central heat pump with fresh air intake.

  20. DOE ZERH Case Study: Dwell Development, Reclaimed Modern, Seattle, WA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom home in the cold climate that got a HERS 30 without PV, with 2x8 24” on center walls with blown fiberglass and 4” polysio rigid foam; basement with 2” XPS interior, 4” under slab, 4” exterior of foundation wall; vented attic with R-100 blown cellulose; wo air-to-air heat pumps SEER 14.1; HSPF 9.6; heat pump water heater.

  1. DOE ZERH Case Study: Mantell-Hecathorn Builders, Shenandoah Circle, Durango, CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom home in the cold climate that got a HERS 50 without PV, or HERS 21 with PV, with 2x6 24” on center walls with R-13 ccsf plus 3.5” blown fiberglass, plus R-10 rigid exterior; R-22 ICF basement walls; vented attic with spray foam over top plates, R-65 blown fiberglass; 96 AFUE furnace, triple-pane windows, 80% LED.

  2. A chronological overview of legislation about energy efficiency in buildings in our area

    OpenAIRE

    Zih, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    In graduation thesis I described the legislation about energy efficiency in buildings in our area from 1875 to 2010. I showed the changes in legislation through time in order to provide energy efficiency. Lowering thermal transmittance through time is shown by graphs: • outer wall • roof • ceiling between floors (unheated attic) • underground wall • floor above ground • floor on the ground. I wrote construction examples for outer wall, ceiling between floors and roof. Con...

  3. DOE ZERH Case Study: Glastonbury Housesmith, Hickory Drive, South Glastonbury, CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom home in the cold climate that got a HERS 29 without PV -23 with PV, with 2x6 24” on center walls with 5.5 blown fiberglass and 2.75” rigid mineral wool; basement with 4” XPS exterior, 4” under slab; sealed attic with 5” ccsf and R-58 blown fiberglass; ground source heat pump COP 4.4.

  4. DOE ZERH Case Study: Mutual Housing California, Mutual Housing at Spring Lake, Woodland, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning multifamily project of 62 affordable-housing apartment home in the hot-dry climate that exceeded CA Title 24-2008 by 35%, with 2x4 16” on center walls with R-21 fiberglass bass walls, uninsulated salb on grade foundation; vented attic with R-44 blown fiberglass; air to water heat pumps.

  5. DOE ZERH Case Study: Heirloom Design Build, Euclid Avenue, Atlanta, GA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom home in the mixed-humid climate that got a HERS 50 without PV, with 2x6 16” on center walls with R-19 ocsf; basement with R-28 ccsf, R-5 rigid foam under slab; sealed attic with R-28 ocsf under roof deck; 22.8 SEER; 12.5 HSPF heat pump.

  6. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: BPC Green Builders — Trolle Residence, Danbury, CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-09-01

    The builder of this 1,650-ft2 cabin won a Custom Home honor in the 2014 Housing Innovations Awards. The home meets Passive House Standards with 5.5-in. of foil-faced polysiocyanurate foam boards lining the outside walls, R-55 of rigid EPS foam under the slab, R-86 of blown cellulose in the attic, triple-pane windows, and a single ductless heat pump to heat and cool the entire home.

  7. DOE ZERH Case Study: Habitat for Humanity South Sarasota, Laurel Gardens #794, Nakomis, FL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning affordable home in the hot-humid climate that got a HERS 51 without PV, with foam-filled masonry block walls with .75” rigid foam, furring strips, and foil-faced paper on interior walls; R-20 ocsf in roof of sealed attic, uninsulated slab, 15 SEER 8.0 HSPF heat pump walls for heating and cooling, heat pump water heater.

  8. DOE ZERH Case Study: Amaris Homes, Fishers Circle, Vadnais Heights, MN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom home in the cold climate that got a HERS 47 without PV or HERS 22 with PV, with 2x4 24” on-center walls with 1 inch rigid foam plus 3” ccsf in cavity, a slab on grade foundation with 2” rigid foam under and around slab, a vented attic with with 2” ccsf plus R-15 blown cellulose, a central heat pump and HRV.

  9. DOE ZERH Case Study: Greenhill Contracting, Green Acres #20, #26, #28, New Paltz, NY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of three DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom homes in the cold climate that got a HERS of 26, 28, and 26 without PV or -3, -1, and -3.5 with PV; with R-22 ICFs, 10” ocsf plus 2.7” c ccsf in attic; ICF basements with 4.3” ccsf under slab; tri;e-pane windows; ERVs, ground source heat pumps (COP 5.7).

  10. DOE ZERH Case Study: Charles Thomas Homes, Anna Model, Omaha, NE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom home in the cold climate that got a HERS 48 without PV, with 2x6 24” on center walls with R-23 blown fiberglass, ocsf at rim joists, basement with plus 2x4 stud walls with R-23 blown fiberglass, with R-20 around slab, R-38 under slab; a vented attic with R-100 blown cellulose; 95% AFUE furnace, 14 SEER AC, ERV; heat pump water heater.

  11. DOE ZERH Case Study: Evolutionary Home Builders, The Adaptation Home, Geneva, IL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom home in the cold climate that got a HERS 30 without PV, with 2x8 24” on center walls with blown fiberglass and 4” polysio rigid foam; basement with 2” XPS interior, 4” under slab, 4” exterior of foundation wall; vented attic with R-100 blown cellulose; wo air-to-air heat pumps SEER 14.1; HSPF 9.6; heat pump water heater.

  12. Quantitative analysis of cholesteatoma using high resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Shigeru; Yamasoba, Tatsuya (Kameda General Hospital, Chiba (Japan)); Iinuma, Toshitaka

    1992-05-01

    Seventy-three cases of adult cholesteatoma, including 52 cases of pars flaccida type cholesteatoma and 21 of pars tensa type cholesteatoma, were examined using high resolution computed tomography, in both axial (lateral semicircular canal plane) and coronal sections (cochlear, vestibular and antral plane). These cases were classified into two subtypes according to the presence of extension of cholesteatoma into the antrum. Sixty cases of chronic otitis media with central perforation (COM) were also examined as controls. Various locations of the middle ear cavity were measured in terms of size in comparison with pars flaccida type cholesteatoma, pars tensa type cholesteatoma and COM. The width of the attic was significantly larger in both pars flaccida type and pars tensa type cholesteatoma than in COM. With pars flaccida type cholesteatoma there was a significantly larger distance between the malleus and lateral wall of the attic than with COM. In contrast, the distance between the malleus and medial wall of the attic was significantly larger with pars tensa type cholesteatoma than with COM. With cholesteatoma extending into the antrum, regardless of the type of cholesteatoma, there were significantly larger distances than with COM at the following sites: the width and height of the aditus ad antrum, and the width, height and anterior-posterior diameter of the antrum. However, these distances were not significantly different between cholesteatoma without extension into the antrum and COM. The hitherto demonstrated qualitative impressions of bone destruction in cholesteatoma were quantitatively verified in detail using high resolution computed tomography. (author).

  13. Short-Term Monitoring Results for Advanced New Construction Test House -- Roseville, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, D. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Brozyna, K. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Imm, C. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    A builder (K. Hovnanian Homes), design consultant, and trades collaborated to identify a systems integrated measures package for a 2,253-ft2 slab-on-grade ranch house to achieve a modeled energy savings of 60% with respect to the Building America House Simulation Protocols (Hendron, R. and Engebrecht, C. 'Building America House Simulation Protocols.' Golden, CO: National Renewable EnergyLaboratory, 2010) while minimizing construction costs and without requiring changes to the drawing that would impact local code or zoning approval. The key building improvements were applying R-10 insulation to the slab edge, increasing exterior wall cavity insulation from R-13 to R-15, and increasing attic insulation from R-30 to R-38. Also, the air handling unit was relocated from the attic toconditioned space, and ductwork was relocated along the attic floor with an insulated bulkhead built above it. Short-term testing results showed that duct air leakage was low due to short duct runs and the placement of ductwork in conditioned space. However, during commissioning, the lack of access for servicing the ductwork and dampers in the bulkhead area prevented retroactive balancing ofindividual branches, resulting in significant differences between specified and measured airflow values for some duct runs. Thermal imaging results performed on the house when operating in both heating and cooling modes validated historic stratification issues of ceiling supply registers with high supply air temperatures. Long-term monitoring results will be detailed in a future report.

  14. Short-Term Monitoring Results for Advanced New Construction Test House - Roseville, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, D. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Brozyna, K. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Imm, C. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    A builder (K. Hovnanian® Homes®), design consultant, and trades collaborated to identify a systems integrated measures package for a 2,253-ft² slab-on-grade ranch house to achieve a modeled energy savings of 60% with respect to the Building America House Simulation Protocols, while minimizing construction costs and without requiring changes to the drawing that would impact local code or zoning approval. The key building improvements were applying R-10 insulation to the slab edge, increasing exterior wall cavity insulation from R-13 to R-15, and increasing attic insulation from R-30 to R-38. Also, the air handling unit was relocated from the attic to conditioned space, and ductwork was relocated along the attic floor with an insulated bulkhead built above it. Short-term testing results showed that duct air leakage was low due to short duct runs and the placement of ductwork in conditioned space. However, during commissioning, the lack of access for servicing the ductwork and dampers in the bulkhead area prevented retroactive balancing of individual branches, resulting in significant differences between specified and measured airflow values for some duct runs. Thermal imaging results performed on the house when operating in both heating and cooling modes validated historic stratification issues of ceiling supply registers with high supply air temperatures. Long-term monitoring results will be detailed in a future report.

  15. Technology Solutions Case Study: Investigating Solutions to Wind Washing Issues in Two-Story Florida Homes: Phase 2, Southeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-01

    In many two-story homes, there are attic spaces above the first-floor of the home that border portions of the second-story conditioned space. These spaces have breaches of the air and thermal boundaries, creating a phenomenon known as wind washing. This can cause attic air above the first-floor space to be driven into the cavity between the first and second floors by wind, thermal buoyancy forces, or mechanical driving forces as well as circulation of hot attic air against the wallboard because of gaps between insulation batts installed on knee walls and the gypsum wallboard. In this project, the U.S. Department of Energy team Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC) investigated wind washing in 56 homes. The goals were to identify the failure mechanisms that lead to wind washing, characterize the pathways for air and heat to enter the house, and evaluate the seasonal energy savings and peak demand reduction that can result from repairing these wind washing problems. Based on this research, the team developed recommendations for cost-effective retrofit solutions and information that can help avoid these problems in new construction.

  16. La creación de los dialectos griegos del primer milenio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R. Adrados

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the development of the Greek dialects from the linguistic stage of the second millennium (i. e. from the eastern Greek and the western dialect arrived at Greece in the XIIIth century about which another article was devoted in Emerita 44, 1976, p. 1 ss. In the process of creation of the dialects of the first millennium the author states that 1 in the XIIIth century eastern and western Greek were closer than afterwards. This is due to the fact that many innovations (-τι > -σι, for instance were not yet generalized and some doublets like αρ/ορ were still alive. 2 Between the XIIIth and the Xth centuries there was a close contact among all the Greek dialects. Some innovations (*ku̯o > πο, for instance spread through the whole Greek language. There are also isoglosses which are common to the Ionic-Attic and Dorian, some of which reached the Arcadian-Cyprian and Aeolian, or, at least, a part of the latter. 3 From the Xth century on, a clear-cut differentiation of the Ionic-Attic was developed, as well as an internal splitting within the Ionic-Attic, the western Greek and the Aeolian.

  17. Steep-Slope Assembly Testing of Clay and Concrete Tile With and Without Cool Pigmented Colors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, William A [ORNL

    2005-11-01

    Cool color pigments and sub-tile venting of clay and concrete tile roofs significantly impact the heat flow crossing the roof deck of a steep-slope roof. Field measures for the tile roofs revealed a 70% drop in the peak heat flow crossing the deck as compared to a direct-nailed asphalt shingle roof. The Tile Roofing Institute (TRI) and its affiliate members are keenly interested in documenting the magnitude of the drop for obtaining solar reflectance credits with state and federal "cool roof" building efficiency standards. Tile roofs are direct-nailed or are attached to a deck with batten or batten and counter-batten construction. S-Misson clay and concrete tile roofs, a medium-profile concrete tile roof, and a flat slate tile roof were installed on fully nstrumented attic test assemblies. Temperature measures of the roof, deck, attic, and ceiling, heat flows, solar reflectance, thermal emittance, and the ambient weather were recorded for each of the tile roofs and also on an adjacent attic cavity covered with a conventional pigmented and directnailed asphalt shingle roof. ORNL measured the tile's underside temperature and the bulk air temperature and heat flows just underneath the tile for batten and counter-batten tile systems and compared the results to the conventional asphalt shingle.

  18. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerrigan, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    BSC worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to redesign three floor plans in order to locate the HVAC system in conditioned space. The purpose of this project is to develop a cost effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses. This is in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. The builder wishes to develop an upgrade package that will allow for a seamless transition to the new code mandate. The following research questions were addressed by this research project: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost? BSC and the builder developed a duct design strategy that employs a system of dropped ceilings and attic coffers for moving the ductwork from the vented attic to conditioned space. The furnace has been moved to either a mechanical closet in the conditioned living space or a coffered space in the attic.

  19. Analysis of DOE s Roof Savings Calculator with Comparison to other Simulation Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    New, Joshua Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Huang, Yu [White Box Technologies, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Levinson, Ronnen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mellot, Joe [The Garland Company, Cleveland, OH (United States); Sanyal, Jibonananda [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Childs, Kenneth W [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This tool employs the latest web technologies and usability design to provide an easy input interface to an annual simulation of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim. Building defaults were assigned based on national averages and can provide estimated annual energy and cost savings after the user selects nothing more than building location. In addition to cool reflective roofs, the RSC tool can simulate multiple roof and attic configurations including different roof slopes, above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, low-emittance surfaces, HVAC duct location, duct leakage rates, multiple layers of building materials, ceiling and deck insulation levels, and other parameters. A base case and energy-efficient alternative can be compared side-by-side to generate an energy/cost savings estimate between two buildings. The RSC tool was benchmarked against field data for demonstration homes in Ft. Irwin, CA. However, RSC gives different energy savings estimates than previous cool roof simulation tools so more thorough software and empirical validation proved necessary. This report consolidates much of the preliminary analysis for comparison of RSC s projected energy savings to that from other simulation engines.

  20. Clinical characteristics of the eardrum retraction pocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ješić Snežana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of the eardrum retraction pocket, as pathologic finding, depends on Eustachian tube dysfunction, onset of the middle ear infection and site of development of retraction on the eardrum. The study is aimed at: 1. Determining the incidence of eardrum retraction pocket and cholesteatoma within it, as well as at the degree of eardrum retraction; 2. Determining of association between eardrum retraction pocket and changes of the eardrum mucosaand parstensa of the tympanic membrane; 3. Determining of onset and intensity of the bone destruction in eardrum retraction pocket; 4. Examining of Eustachian tube function based on time of mucocilliary transport according to the type of the eardrum retraction pocket. The study is based on the retrospective analysis of the results obtained from the patients treated at the Institute of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinical Centre of Serbia in Belgrade for the diagnosis of the chronic suppurative otitis who underwent otosurgical procedures during the six-year period, from 1996-2001. In our series of 540 patients subjected to otosurgical treatment, the incidence of the retraction pocket of the eardrum was 11.23%. Onset of more severe degree of eardrum retraction was most frequent in the attic. Cholesteatoma was detected in 82.2% of patients of the group with the attic-retraction pocket of the eardrum, as well as in 25% of patients of the group of tensa-sinus retraction pocket of the eardrum. Atrophic changes of the tympanic membrane pars tensa were detected in almost all tensa-sinus retraction pockets of the eardrum. Approximately one half of the attic-retraction pockets of the eardrum were accompanied by eardrum atrophy. Bone destruction of the auditory ossicles was limited to the long process of incus and superior structures of stapes. Time of the mucocilliary transport was significantly longer (p<0.01 in attic-retraction pocket of the eardrum than in tensa-sinus retraction pocket of

  1. Pars tensa retractions without cholesteatoma in children: predictors for ossicular chain destruction, air conduction thresholds, and postoperative retractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesic, Snezana Dragoljub; Rovcanin, Lejla Hilmo; Jovicevic, Ognjen Djordjije; Jotic, Ana Dragan; Slijepcevic, Nikola Aleksandar; Ljubic, Vladimir Radoslav

    2014-07-01

    Determine predictive values of preoperative stages of pars tensa retractions, coexisting attic retraction and preoperative air conduction for ossicular destruction in isolated and combined pars tensa retraction, and predictors for successful tympanic grafts after surgery. Prospective case series study. Tertiary referral center. Forty-eight children ears without cholesteatoma were included in the study: 23 with isolated pars tensa retraction (median age, 11), 25 with combined pars tensa and attic retractions (median age, 13). Otomicroscopy, pure tone audiometry, and impedancmetry were carried out preoperatively. Three surgical procedures for isolated retractions were used: ventilation tube insertion alone or together with fascia graft or cartilage graft. Two surgical procedures for combined retractions were used: ventilation tube insertion alone and with cartilage graft. Incidence of ossicular destruction, postoperative retraction of the grafts. Stage of pars tensa retraction and preoperative air conduction thresholds do not predict long incus process defect in isolated group. Coexistence of an attic retraction predicts combined, long incus process and stapes superstructure defect (Chi = 3.943, p = 0.047, OR = 12.00). Retractions of grafts are predicted by mode of surgery, favoring cartilage graft (isolated group: Chi = 4.306, p = 0.0372,OR = 4.69; combined group Chi = 4.7836, p = 0.0287, OR = 0.1364). Stage of pars tensa retraction predicts poor outcome of fascia graft (Chi = 4.5347, p = 0.0332, OR = 12.00). Absence of correlation between stage of pars tensa retraction and air conduction thresholds with ossicular defects justifies surgical exploration of the auditory ossicles, even in lower stages of retraction. Combined ossicular defect is expected in combined retractions. The usage of cartilage graft proved to be more appropriate.

  2. Environmental geochemistry studies in the area of Idrija mercury mine, Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosar, Mateja; Teršič, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    Five centuries of mining and processing of mercury ore in the Idrija area have resulted in widespread contamination of different environmental compartments. Environmental impacts on a regional and local scale, caused by atmospheric emissions from the Idrija ore roasting plant, were established in the investigations of mercury spatial distribution in soil and attic dust in 160 km(2) area. Very high values were determined in the Idrijca River valley, and they decrease exponentially with the distance from Idrija. Mercury concentrations in attic dust are higher than in surrounding soils and the attic dust/soil ratio changes with distance. Measurements of mercury in the air confirmed widespread dispersion of mercury and showed highly elevated mercury concentrations around roasting plant and mine ventilation shaft. Beside, systematic monitoring of mercury contents in the stream sediments has demonstrated that huge amounts of mercury are stored in areas where ancient overbank sediments were deposited, and there was no decrease in mercury concentration in active sediments during the last 15 years. Recently, interesting and extremely polluted locations of historical small-scale roasting sites in the Idrija surroundings were discovered. Ongoing geochemical study aims to determine the extreme pollution and significance of these sites for wider contamination of soils and aquatic systems. Presented studies have shown that Hg mining in Idrija caused intense pollution of local and regional environment including the aquatic systems in the Gulf of Trieste, which is seen as the final sink of a major part of the Hg stored in soils and river sediments in the Idrija area.

  3. Assessment of exposure risk from hidden fungal growth by measurements of air change rates in construction cavities and living areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sofie M; Møller, Eva B.; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    health symptoms among the building occupants. This study analyses limitations of air change rate measurements in inaccessible construction cavities as well as analyses of the air exchange between living areas and accessible cavities such as crawl spaces and attics. It was necessary to invent a field...... study technique to use the tracer gas decay method in small and inaccessible cavities. This technique allowed further investigation on the exposure risk from hidden fungal growth. Assessment of the air transfer between crawl spaces and living areas indicate that the tightness of separating structure has...

  4. Cellulose Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Fire retardant cellulose insulation is produced by shredding old newspapers and treating them with a combination of chemicals. Insulating material is blown into walls and attics to form a fiber layer which blocks the flow of air. All-Weather Insulation's founders asked NASA/UK-TAP to help. They wanted to know what chemicals added to newspaper would produce an insulating material capable of meeting federal specifications. TAP researched the query and furnished extensive information. The information contributed to successful development of the product and helped launch a small business enterprise which is now growing rapidly.

  5. DOE ZERH Case Study: BPC Green Builders, Taft School, Watertown, CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom home in the cold climate that got a HERS 33 without PV or HERS -14 with PV, with 8.5” double 2x4 walls with 8.5” (R-32) blown cellulose plus R-6 rigid foam, basement with 3” ccsf on interior plus 2x4 stud walls with R-13 blown cellulose, with R-20 around slab, R-38 under slab; a vented attic with R-100 blown cellulose; a central heat pump; HRV; heat pump water heater; 100% LED; and Passive House Institute U.S.+, LEED platinum, and Living Building Challenge certifications.

  6. MIT I POVIJEST NA ZIDNIM SLIKAMA U SORKOČEVIĆEVU LJETNIKOVCU U RIJECI DUBROVAČKOJ

    OpenAIRE

    Marković, Vladimir

    1980-01-01

    The walls of the spacious loggia of the Sorkočević villa in the Ombla River valley (Rijeka Dubrovačka, west of Dubrovnik) have been painted about 1700. The themes of murals are in connection with the myths of Antiquity. The figures and scenes are the following: The decision of Paris, The death of Adonis, Heracles at a crossroads, Venus and Mars, Odysseus listining to syrens, Minerva and Neptune rivalling for the Attic lands; then follow, one by one, the paintings of Flora, Pan, Bakhus. Alegor...

  7. Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Heating Season Energy and Moisture Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    Two identical laboratory homes designed to model existing Florida building stock were sealed and tested to 2.5 ACH50. Then, one was made leaky with 70% leakage through the attic and 30% through windows, to a tested value of 9 ACH50. Reduced energy use was measured in the tighter home (2.5 ACH50) in the range of 15% to 16.5% relative to the leaky (9 ACH50) home. Internal moisture loads resulted in higher dew points inside the tight home than the leaky home. Window condensation and mold growth occurred inside the tight home.

  8. Best Practices Case Study: David Weekley Homes - Eagle Springs and Waterhaven, Houston, TX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-04-01

    Case study describing David Weekley Homes, Houston Division, has qualified more than 1,240 homes for the DOE Builders Challenge. Advanced framed 2x6 walls with open headers and two-stud corners allow more room for R-20 damp sprayed cellulose wall cavity insulation that is covered with R-5 rigid XPS foam. A radiant barrier cuts heat gain in the R-38 insulated vented attics. Draft stopping at fireplace and duct chases and behind tubs, gluing sheetrock to framing, and extensive caulking make for air-tight homes at 3.0 ACH50.

  9. A lime based mortar for thermal insulation of medieval church vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, P.K.; Hansen, Tessa Kvist

    . The lambda-value of the insulation mortar is 0.08 W/m K or twice the lambda-value for mineral wool. The water vapour permeability is equal to a medieval clay brick, and it has three times higher capacity for liquid water absorption. The mortar was applied to the top side of the vaults in a thickness of 10 cm......, despite a water vapour pressure gradient up to 500 Pa between the nave and attic. There was no reduction in energy consumption the first winter, possibly due to the increased heat loss related to the drying of the mortar....

  10. Repurposing legacy data innovative case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Jules J

    2015-01-01

    Repurposing Legacy Data: Innovative Case Studies takes a look at how data scientists have re-purposed legacy data, whether their own, or legacy data that has been donated to the public domain. Most of the data stored worldwide is legacy data-data created some time in the past, for a particular purpose, and left in obsolete formats. As with keepsakes in an attic, we retain this information thinking it may have value in the future, though we have no current use for it. The case studies in this book, from such diverse fields as cosmology, quantum physics, high-energy physics, microbiology,

  11. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Near Zero Maine Home II - Vassalboro, Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This case study describes a DOE Zero Energy Ready home in Vassalboro, Maine, that scored HERS 35 without PV and HERS 11 with PV. This 1,200 ft2 home has 10.5-inch-thick double-walls with 3 layers of mineral wool batt insulation, an R-20 insulated slab, R-70 cellulose in the attic, extensive air sealing, a mini-split heat pump, an heat recovery ventilator, solar water heating, LED lighting, 3.9 kWh PV, and triple-pane windows.

  12. Ventilation with heat recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the experiences from the use of ventilation with heat recovery in several experimental single-family houses developed and built within the last four years to meet the new Danish energy requirements of 2005. Included are descriptions of the ventilation system components...... and the main functional demands as well as measurements of the thermal efficiency, electricity consumptions and building air tightness. The paper addresses the aspects of minimizing the heat loss from the duct system and the heat recovery unit (when placed in an unheated attic space) in order to obtain...

  13. Technology Solutions for New Homes Case Study: Indirect Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-04-01

    In 2011, Rural Development, Inc. (RDI) completed the construction of Wisdom Way Solar Village (WWSV), which is a development of 20 very efficient homes in Greenfield, Massachusetts. The homes feature R-40 walls, triple-pane windows, R-50 attic insulation, and airtight construction. All homes also have photovoltaic (PV) systems and solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems. Auxiliary water heating is provided by tankless gas water heaters. With the SDHW systems, RDI hoped to eliminate most of the need for gas for water heating and get the homes closer to zero energy.

  14. Reference: 159 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available us genes, atHSP93-V and atHSP93-III, encode Hsp93. These four genes exhibited relatively uniform patterns of expre...ve study of T-DNA knockout mutants for each Tic gene, and for the most abundantly expressed Hsp93 gene, atHS...ying an essential role for atTic110 during plastid biogenesis. Homozygous tic110 embryos exhibited retarded ... and non-photosynthetic preproteins. Non-additive interactions amongst the mutations occurred in double muta...nts, suggesting that the three components may cooperate during chloroplast protein import. In vivo studies o

  15. Insulation fact sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Electricity bills, oil bills, gas bills - all homeowners pay for one or more of these utilities, and wish they paid less. Often many of us do not really know how to control or reduce our utility bills. We resign ourselves to high bills because we think that is the price we have to pay for a comfortable home. We encourage our children to turn off the lights and appliances, but may not recognize the benefits of insulating the attic. This publication provides facts relative to home insulation. It discusses where to insulate, what products to use, the decision making process, installation options, and sources of additional information.

  16. From Putsch to Purge. A Study of the German Episodes in Richard Hughes’s The Human Predicament and their Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Holmqvist, Ivo

    2000-01-01

    The two last novels by Richard Hughes (1900-1976), the first in his planned The Human Predicament series, are partly set in Germany in the years between the First and the Second World War. Much of the action in The Fox in the Attic (1961) takes part in and around Munich, culminating in a fictional reconstruction of the so-called Hitler Putsch on November 8-9, 1923, the future dictator's aborted early bid for power. In the sequel, The Wooden Shepherdess (1973), the time-span is wider and t...

  17. Part-of-Speech-Tagging using morphological information

    CERN Document Server

    Ludwig, B

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experiment to decide the question of authenticity of the supposedly spurious Rhesus - a attic tragedy sometimes credited to Euripides. The experiment involves use of statistics in order to test whether significant deviations in the distribution of word categories between Rhesus and the other works of Euripides can or cannot be found. To count frequencies of word categories in the corpus, a part-of-speech-tagger for Greek has been implemented. Some special techniques for reducing the problem of sparse data are used resulting in an accuracy of ca. 96.6%.

  18. Efficient Solutions for New Homes Case Study: Savannah Gardens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-15

    The Savannah Housing Department is leading sustainable and affordable housing development in Georgia. It partnered with Southface Energy Institute, a member of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Partnership for Home Innovation Building America research team, to seek cost-effective solutions for increasing the energy efficiency of the Savannah Housing Department’s standard single-family home plans in the Savannah Gardens Community. Based on engineering, cost, and constructability analyses, the combined research team chose to pilot two technologies to evaluate efficiency and comfort impacts for homeowners: a heat-pump water heater in an encapsulated attic and an insulated exterior wall sheathing.

  19. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Durable Energy Builders - Houston, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This case study describes a DOE Zero Energy Ready Home in Houston, Texas, that scored HERS 39 without PV and HERS 29 with PV. This 5,947 ft2 custom home has 11.5-inch ICF walls. The attic is insulated along the roof line with 5 to 7 inches of open-cell spray foam. Most of the home's drinking water is supplied by a 11,500-gallon rainwater cistern. Hurricane strapping connects the roof to the walls. The triple-pane windows are impact resistant. The foundation is a raised slab.

  20. Measure Guideline: Combustion Safety for Natural Draft Appliances Through Appliance Zone Isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, J. [Center for Energy and Environment, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Bohac, D. [Center for Energy and Environment, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the isolation of natural draft combustion appliances from the conditioned space of low-rise residential buildings. It deals with combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage. This subset of houses does not require comprehensive combustion safety tests and simplified prescriptive procedures can be used to address safety concerns. This allows residential energy retrofit contractors inexperienced in advanced combustion safety testing to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits including tightening and changes to distribution and ventilation systems to proceed.

  1. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Healthy Efficient Homes - Spirit Lake, Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This case study describes a DOE Zero Energy Ready Home in Spirit Lake, Iowa, that scored HERS 41 without PV and HERS 28 with PV. This 3,048 ft2 custom home has advanced framed walls filled with 1.5 inches closed-cell spray foam, a vented attic with spray foam-sealed top plates and blown fiberglass over the ceiling deck. R-23 basement walls are ICF plus two 2-inch layers of EPS. The house also has a mini-split heat pump, fresh air fan intake, and a solar hot water heater.

  2. Adoption of energy efficiency measures in Swedish detached houses - perception of homeowners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Gireesh; Gustavsson, Leif; Mahapatra, Krushna (Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden Univ., Oestersund (Sweden)). e-mail: leif.gustavsson@miun.se

    2009-07-01

    The paper focuses on Swedish homeowners' need for and perceptions about adopting building envelop energy efficiency measures. The results of a questionnaire surveying of 3000 randomly selected homeowners during the summer of 2008 showed that 70-90% of the respondents had no intention of adopting such a measure over the next 10 years. The main reasons for non-adoption were that homeowners were satisfied with the physical condition, thermal performance, and aesthetics of their existing building envelope components. A greater proportion of respondents perceived that improved attic insulation has more advantages than energy efficient windows and improved wall insulation, but windows were more likely to be installed than improved attic insulation. Respondents gave high priority to economic factors in deciding on an energy efficiency measure. Hence, economic incentives could be used to increase the adoption of such measures. Interpersonal sources, construction companies, installers, and energy advisers were important sources of information for homeowners as they planned to adopt energy efficiency measures

  3. Owners perception on the adoption of building envelope energy efficiency measures in Swedish detached houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Gireesh; Gustavsson, Leif; Mahapatra, Krushna [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-83125 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-07-15

    The paper focuses on Swedish homeowners' need for and perceptions about adopting building envelop energy efficiency measures. The paper is based on a questionnaire survey of 3059 homeowners (response rate of 36%) selected by stratified random sampling during the summer of 2008. The results showed that 70-90% of the respondents had no intention of adopting such a measure over the next 10 years. The main reasons for non-adoption were that homeowners were satisfied with the physical condition, thermal performance, and aesthetics of their existing building envelope components. A greater proportion of respondents perceived that improved attic insulation has more advantages than energy efficient windows and improved wall insulation, but windows were more likely to be installed than improved attic insulation. Respondents gave high priority to economic factors in deciding on an energy efficiency measure. Interpersonal sources, construction companies, installers, and energy advisers were important sources of information for homeowners as they planned to adopt building envelope energy efficiency measures. Policy measures to facilitate the rate of adoption of energy efficient building envelope measures are discussed. (author)

  4. From Energy Audits to Home Performance: 30 Years of Articles in Home Energy Magazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Alan

    2014-08-11

    Home Energy Magazine has been publishing articles about residential energy efficiency for 30 years. Its goal has been to disseminate technically reliable and neutral information to the practitioners, that is, professionals in the business of home energy efficiency. The articles, editorials, letters, and advertisements are a kind of window on the evolution of energy conservation technologies, policies, and organizations. Initially, the focus was on audits and simple retrofits, such as weatherstripping and insulation. Instrumentation was sparse sometimes limited to a ruler to measure depth of attic insulation and a blower door was exotic. CFLs were heavy, awkward bulbs which might, or might not, fit in a fixture. Saving air conditioning energy was not a priority. Solar energy was only for the most adventurous. Thirty years on, the technologies and business have moved beyond just insulating attics to the larger challenge of delivering home performance and achieving zero net energy. This shift reflects the success in reducing space heating energy and the need to create a profitable industry by providing more services. The leading edge of the residential energy services market is becoming much more sophisticated, offering both efficiency and solar systems. The challenge is to continue providing relevant and reliable information in a transformed industry and a revolutionized media landscape.

  5. La vajilla de los días de fiesta: cerámica ática en una casa de finales del siglo V a.C. de Ullastret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picazo Gurina, Marina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a study of a particular set of Attic pottery from the Iberian site of Ullastret, this paper presents a reflection on the selection criteria adopted by indigenous groups in relation to fine Attic ware (late fifth and fourth centuries BC. The accumulation of a collection of “Best China” related to the collective consumption of wine suggests the adoption of specific aspects of Greek culture by the Iberian aristocratic elite.A partir del estudio de un grupo numeroso de vasos áticos de Ullastret, se propone en este trabajo una reflexión sobre las elecciones que el mundo indígena peninsular era capaz de hacer respecto a la cerámica fina de origen griego, especialmente ática, de finales del siglo V y la primera mitad del siglo IV a.C. La construcción a lo largo del tiempo de una ‘vajilla de fiesta’ relacionada con el consumo colectivo de vino nos introduce en el tema de la influencia de las pautas culturales griegas en la aristocracia ibérica.

  6. Influence of ironworks on distribution of chemical elements in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Alijagić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is the study of the distribution of chemical elements in attic dust and topsoil for the identification of anthropogenic and geogenic element sources in an old metallurgic area in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia (Slo – BiH bilateral project “Heavy metals in environment as consequences of mining and smelting in the past”. Samples of attic dust and topsoil were collected in localities in BiH (Zenica, Vareš and Ilijaš and Slovenia (Jesenice, Štore and Ravne.Analysis for 42 chemical elements was performed. Based on a comparison of statistical parameters, spatial distribution of particular elements and results of cluster analysis one natural and two anthropogenic geochemical associations were identified. The natural geochemical association (Al-K-La-Sc-Th-Ti is influenced mainly by lithology. The anthropogenic association (Co-Cr-Mo-Ni-V-W is the result of iron metallurgy in the past. The second anthropogenic association (Ag-As-Cd-Fe-Hg-Mn-Pb-Sb-Sn-Zn is the result of high level of sulphide phase in iron ore (Vareš and zinc and sulphuric acid production in the Celje area.

  7. Experimental feeding of DDE and PCB to female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D.R. Jr.; Prouty, R.M.

    1977-03-01

    Twenty-two female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were collected in a house attic in Montgomery County, Maryland. Seventeen were fed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) that contained 166 ppM DDE; the other five were fed uncontaminated mealworms. After 54 days of feeding, six dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 16 were starved to death. In a second experiment, 21 female big brown bats were collected in a house attic in Prince Georges County, Maryland. Sixteen were fed mealworms that contained 9.4 ppM Aroclor 1254 (PCB). After 37 days, two bats had died, four dosed bats were frozen, and the remaining 15 were starved to death. Starvation caused mobilization of stored residues. After the feeding periods, average weights of all four groups (DDE-dosed, DDE control, PCB-dosed, PCB control) had increased. However, weights of DDE-dosed bats had increased significantly more than those of their controls, whereas weights of PCB-dosed bats had increased significantly less than those of their controls. During starvation, PCB-dosed bats lost weight significantly more slowly than controls. Because PCB levels in dosed bats resembled levels found in some free-living big brown bats, PCBs may be slowing metabolic rates of some free-living bats. It is not known how various common organochlorine residues may affect metabolism in hibernating bats.

  8. Measure Guideline: Buried and/or Encapsulated Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C.; Zoeller, W.; Mantha, P.

    2013-08-01

    Buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BEDs) are a class of advanced, energy-efficiency strategies intended to address the significant ductwork thermal losses associated with ducts installed in unconditioned attics. BEDs are ducts installed in unconditioned attics that are covered in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulated in closed cell polyurethane spray foam insulation. This Measure Guideline covers the technical aspects of BEDs as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and risks of BEDs compared to other alternative strategies. This guideline also provides detailed guidance on installation of BEDs strategies in new and existing homes through step-by-step installation procedures. This Building America Measure Guideline synthesizes previously published research on BEDs and provides practical information to builders, contractors, homeowners, policy analysts, building professions, and building scientists. Some of the procedures presented here, however, require specialized equipment or expertise. In addition, some alterations to duct systems may require a specialized license. Persons implementing duct system improvements should not go beyond their expertise or qualifications. This guideline provides valuable information for a building industry that has struggled to address ductwork thermal losses in new and existing homes. As building codes strengthen requirements for duct air sealing and insulation, flexibility is needed to address energy efficiency goals. While ductwork in conditioned spaces has been promoted as the panacea for addressing ductwork thermal losses, BEDs installations approach - and sometimes exceed - the performance of ductwork in conditioned spaces.

  9. Energy and Microclimate Simulation in a Heritage Building: Further Studies on the Malatestiana Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamberto Tronchin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Historical and heritage (especially UNESCO buildings need a specific, peculiar approach regarding energy performance, energy behavior, and indoor microclimate. Comparing a new building with a historical (UNESCO building, it is evident that the degrees of freedom for implementing energy efficiency in historical buildings are strongly limited. Several constraints about the materials, the geometry, and the structures do not allow a comprehensive enhancement of energy performance or microclimate parameters. In this paper, we describe an energy building performance criterion adopted in order to find out the energy behavior in the Malatestiana Library. The challenge consists of optimizing energy efficiency and microclimate as well as a full preservation of ancient manuscripts. The study adopts Google Sketchup software to model three-dimensional (3D buildings, and IESVE software to simulate an indoor microclimate. Software building models allow for the evaluation of different types of natural ventilation and section forms, e.g., original, without attic, and without ground floor. The results of the software modeling allow for a comparison of several building use modality effects and the effect of the presence of an attic and ground floor on indoor microclimate parameters in order to conserve and preserve ancient manuscripts.

  10. Smoldering combustion hazards of thermal insulation materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlemiller, T.J.; Rogers, F.E.

    1980-07-01

    Work on the smolder ignitability in cellulosic insulation and on thermal analytical characterization of the oxidation of this material is presented. Thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) shows that both retarded and unretarded cellulosic insulation oxidizes in two overall stages, both of which are exothermic. The second stage (oxidation of the char left as a residue of the first stage) is much more energetic on a unit mass basis than the first. However, kinetics and a sufficient exothermicity make the first stage responsible for ignition in most realistic circumstances. Existing smolder retardants such as boric acid have their major effect on the kinetics of the second oxidation stage and thus produce only a rather small (20/sup 0/C) increase in smolder ignition temperature. Several simplified analogs of attic insulations have been tested to determine the variability of minimum smolder ignition temperature. These employed planar or tubular constant temperature heat sources in a thermal environment quite similar to a realistic attic application. Go/no-go tests provided the borderline (minimum) ignition temperature for each configuration. The wide range (150/sup 0/C) of minimum ignition temperatures confirmed the predominant dependence of smolder ignition on heat flow geometry. Other factors (bulk density, retardants) produced much less effect on ignitability.

  11. Comfort and HVAC Performance for a New Construction Occupied Test House in Roseville, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A. [IBACOS, Inc, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-10-01

    K. Hovnanian® Homes constructed a 2,253-ft2 single-story slab-on-grade ranch house for an occupied test house (new construction) in Roseville, California. One year of monitoring and analysis focused on the effectiveness of the space conditioning system at maintaining acceptable temperature and relative humidity levels in several rooms of the home, as well as room-to-room differences and the actual measured energy consumption by the space conditioning system. In this home, the air handler unit (AHU) and ducts were relocated to inside the thermal boundary. The AHU was relocated from the attic to a mechanical closet, and the ductwork was located inside an insulated and air-sealed bulkhead in the attic. To describe the performance and comfort in the home, the research team selected representative design days and extreme days from the annual data for analysis. To ensure that temperature differences were within reasonable occupant expectations, the team followed Air Conditioning Contractors of America guidance. At the end of the monitoring period, the occupant of the home had no comfort complaints in the home. Any variance between the modeled heating and cooling energy and the actual amounts used can be attributed to the variance in temperatures at the thermostat versus the modeled inputs.

  12. Edificio Goya - Almería – España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallejo Acevedo, A.

    1973-03-01

    Full Text Available The building stands In the main avenue in Almería and successfully solves the different problems which its location involves: treating the frontage with a blend of suitable texture and colour; very careful formal plastic and pondered height and offset. It is made up of: — a commercial ground floor, — first floor - offices, — eight identical floors, with one dwelling per floor, — attic, taken up by another slightly smaller dwelling, and — an upper attic which houses the caretaker's dwelling and miscellaneous installations. The strong vertical structure is made up of perimetre line components and a compact core of vertical circulations, in reinforced concrete.El edificio está situado en la avenida principal de Almería y resuelve acertadamente los diversos problemas que entraña su emplazamiento: tratamiento de fachada con un vitraico de textura y color adecuados; plástica formal muy cuidada, y altura y retranquees ponderados. Consta de: — una planta baja comercial; — primera de oficinas; — ocho plantas iguales, con una vivienda por planta; — ático ocupado por otra vivienda algo más reducida, y — sobreático que alberga la vivienda del portero e instalaciones varias. La estructura vertical resistente está formada por elementos lineales perimetrales y núcleo compacto de circulaciones verticales, de hormigón armado.

  13. Energy conservation measures in buildings heated by district heating - A local energy system perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Difs, Kristina; Trygg, Louise [Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Bennstam, Marcus; Nordenstam, Lena [Tekniska Verken Linkoeping AB, Box 1500, SE-581 15 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2010-08-15

    The extensive energy use in the European building sector creates opportunities for implementing energy conservation measures (ECMs) in residential buildings. If ECM are implemented in buildings that are connected to a district heating (DH) system, the operation of DH plants may be affected, which in turn may change both revenue and electricity production in cogeneration plants. In this study a local energy system, containing a DH supplier and its customer, has been analysed when implementing three ECMs: heat load control, attic insulation and electricity savings. This study is unique since it analyses economic and CO{sub 2} impacts of the ECMs in both a user and a supplier perspective in combination with a deregulated European electricity market. Results show that for the local energy system electricity savings should be prioritised over a reduction in DH use, both from an economic and a global CO{sub 2} perspective. For the DH supplier attic insulation demonstrates unprofitable results, even though this measure affects the expensive peak load boilers most. Heat load control is however financially beneficial for both the DH supplier and the residences. Furthermore, the relation between the fixed and variable DH costs is highlighted as a key factor for the profitability of the ECMs. (author)

  14. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine , J.; Fonorow, K.; Martin, E.

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing. Interior ducts result from bringing the duct work inside a home's thermal and air barrier. Architects, designers, builders, and new home buyers should thoroughly investigate any opportunity for energy savings that is as easy to implement during construction, such as the opportunity to construct interior duct work. In addition to enhanced energy efficiency, interior ductwork results in other important advantages, such as improved indoor air quality, increased system durability and increased homeowner comfort. While the advantages of well-designed and constructed interior duct systems are recognized, the implementation of this approach has not gained a significant market acceptance. This guideline describes a variety of methods to create interior ducts including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. As communication of the intent of an interior duct system, and collaboration on its construction are paramount to success, this guideline details the critical design, planning, construction, inspection, and verification steps that must be taken. Involved in this process are individuals from the design team; sales/marketing team; and mechanical, insulation, plumbing, electrical, framing, drywall and solar contractors.

  15. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A SUSTAINABLE AND ENERGY EFFICIENT RE-ROOFING TECHNOLOGY USING FIELD-TEST DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Kosny, Jan [ORNL; Kriner, Scott [Metal Construction Association, Glenview, IL

    2011-01-01

    Three test attics were constructed to evaluate a new sustainable method of re-roofing utilizing photo-voltaic (PV) laminates, metal roofing panels, and PCM heat sink in the Envelope Systems Research Apparatus (ESRA) facility in the ORNL campus. Figure 1 is a picture of the three attic roofs located adjacent to each other. The leftmost roof is the conventional shingle roof, followed by the metal panel roof incorporating the cool-roof coating, and third from left is the roof with the PCM. On the PCM roof, the PV panels are seen as well; they're labelled from left-to-right as panels 5, 6 and 7. The metal panel roof consists of three metal panels with the cool-roof coating; in further discussion this is referred to as the infrared reflective (IRR) metal roof. The IRR metal panels reflect the incoming solar radiation and then quickly re-emit the remaining absorbed portion, thereby reducing the solar heat gain of the attic. Surface reflectance of the panels were measured using a Solar Spectrum Reflectometer. In the 0.35-2.0 {mu}m wavelength interval, which accounts for more than 94% of the solar energy, the IRR panels have an average reflectance of 0.303. In the infrared portion of the spectrum, the IRR panel reflectance is 0.633. The PCM roof consists of a layer of macro-encapsulated bio-based PCM at the bottom, followed by a 2-cm thick layer of dense fiberglass insulation with a reflective surface on top, and metal panels with pre-installed PV laminates on top. The PCM has a melting point of 29 C (84.2 F) and total enthalpy between 180 and 190 J/g. The PCM was macro-packaged in between two layers of heavy-duty plastic foil forming arrays of PCM cells. Two air cavities, between PCM cells and above the fiberglass insulation, helped the over-the-deck natural air ventilation. It is anticipated that during summer, this extra ventilation will help in reducing the attic-generated cooling loads. The extra ventilation, in conjunction with the PCM heat sink, are used to

  16. Cellulosic building insulation versus mineral wool, fiberglass or perlite: installer's exposure by inhalation of fibers, dust, endotoxin and fire-retardant additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breum, N O; Schneider, T; Jørgensen, O; Valdbjørn Rasmussen, T; Skibstrup Eriksen, S

    2003-11-01

    A task-specific exposure matrix was designed for workers installing building insulation materials. A priori, a matrix element was defined by type of task (installer or helper), type of work area (attic spaces or wall cavities) and type of insulation material (slabs from mineral wool, fiberglass or flax; loose-fill cellulosic material or perlite). In the laboratory a mock-up (full scale) of a one-family house was used for simulated installation of insulation materials (four replicates per matrix element). Personal exposure to dust and fibers was measured. The dust was analyzed for content of endotoxin and some trace elements (boron and aluminum) from fire-retardant or mold-resistant additives. Fibers were characterized as WHO fibers or non-WHO fibers. In support of the exposure matrix, the dustiness of all the materials was measured in a rotating drum tester. For installers in attic spaces, risk of exposure was low for inhalation of dust and WHO fibers from slab materials of mineral wool or fiberglass. Slab materials from flax may cause high risk of exposure to endotoxin. The risk of exposure by inhalation of dust from loose-fill materials was high for installers in attic spaces and for some of the materials risk of exposure was high for boron and aluminum. Exposure by inhalation of cellulosic WHO fibers was high but little is known about the health effects and a risk assessment is not possible. For the insulation of walls, the risk of installers' exposure by inhalation of dust and fibers was low for the slab materials, while a high risk was observed for loose-fill materials. The exposure to WHO fibers was positively correlated to the dust exposure. A dust level of 6.1 mg/m3 was shown to be useful as a proxy for screening exposure to WHO fibers in excess of 10(6) fibers/m3. In the rotating drum, slabs of insulation material from mineral wool or fiberglass were tested as not dusty. Cellulosic loose-fill materials were tested as very dusty, and perlite proved to be

  17. Characterization of rabies virus isolated from a colony of Eptesicus furinalis bats in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Fernandes de Almeida

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Some bat species have adapted to the expanding human population by acquiring the ability to roost in urban buildings, increasing the exposure risk for people and domestic animals, and consequently, the likelihood of transmitting rabies. Three dead bats were found in the yard of a house in an urban area of Jundiaí city in the state of São Paulo in southeast Brazil. Two of the three bats tested positive for rabies, using Fluorescent Antibody and Mouse Inoculation techniques. A large colony of Eptesicus furinalis was found in the house's attic, and of the 119 bats captured, four more tested positive for rabies. The objectives of this study were to report the rabies diagnosis, characterize the isolated virus antigenically and genetically, and study the epidemiology of the colony.

  18. Environmental cycling of cellulosic thermal insulation and its influence on fire performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, J. R.

    1984-08-01

    A study was conducted on climatological data for eleven cities located throughout the United States. Findings from this environmental study were used to develop conditioning cycles for a research project on the influence of environments on the fire performance of loose-fill cellulosic thermal insulation. Six cellulosic insulation materials with different compositions of fire retardant chemicals at an add-on level of 25% by weight were specially manufactured for this study. These materials were tested for fire performance using the smoldering combustion test and the attic flooring radiant panel test to establish a baseline. After the materials were exposed to the various environmental cycles, they were tested for fire performance. Results from these tests show that environmental exposure can have a significant effect on the fire performance of cellulosic insulation materials and indicates that long term fire protection provided by fire retardant compounds may be limited.

  19. Nasalización en griego antiguo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio López Eire

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author offers a new explanation of the treatments of the consonantal clusters -ns- (with secondary s and -ns (with primary s in ancient Greek dialects. According to him, the result of the treatment ns in cluster ans was, through nasalization of the vowel, ãəs. The different solutions in the dialects are due to vocalization of nasal ə (Lesbian: -ais-, -ais; Cyrenaean -ais-; Elean -ais or contraction ãə > ā (other dialects as, for instance, Attic-Ionic, Laconian, etc.. So, a few dialects maintain ns in cluster ans without nasalization (archaism; some of the dialects have the ending -as originated from the simplification -ans > -as explainable by syntactical phonetics (election. The rest of the dialects have undergone the nasalization of a in cluster ans > ãəs (innovation and then the denasalization of the results -ais or ās.

  20. Belleza y elocuencia, o la rendición por los sentidos (Lucianus, Scyth. 11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Jufresa

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In Lucian’s Scythian (§11, all previous editors have corrected the word ἀπάξεται as it appears in the manuscripts to ἐπάξεται. We aim to justify the restoration of the original text because, obviously, it is possible in terms of form, and, besides, it seems more appropriate to the context. The verb ‚págomai implies the notion of being moved from one place to another, while ἐπάγομαι expresses only the notion of simple attraction which does not involve actual movement. This notion of true surrendering through the senses seems to match the idea developed here by Lucian; loci paralleli in Lucian himself and other Attic authors help us to confirm this interpretation

  1. Building 'Tower' on the Partizans square in Užice (1961

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzović Duško

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The building 'Tower' at the Partisans Square in Užice was built from 1958 to 1961 designed by architect Milorad Pantović. It is located in the north zone on the street of Kralja Petra, in a continuous series of buildings that form the eastern side of the square room. Thanks to the topography of the terrain and the amount of public space, the tower dominates the square. Floors: Basement 1 + 2 basement + ground + mezzanine + 11 floors + attic. Tower at the Partisans Square represents the first multi-storey building which was built in Užice. The architectural value of the building represents a significant segment of the architectural heritage in Serbia and Yugoslavia.

  2. Exterior Insulation Implications for Heating and Cooling Systems in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anastasia [IBACOS Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-04-09

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) is interested in finding cost-effective solutions for deep energy retrofits (DERs) related to exterior wall insulation in a cold climate, with targets of 50% peak load reduction and 50% space conditioning energy savings. The U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, Inc. (GHA), was contracted by NYSERDA to research exterior wall insulation solutions. In addition to exterior wall insulation, the strategies included energy upgrades where needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, basement, band joist, walls, and floors. Under Building America, IBACOS is studying the impact of a “thermal enclosure” DER on the sizing of the space conditioning system and the occupant comfort if the thermal capacity of the heating and cooling system is dramatically downsized without any change in the existing heating and cooling distribution system (e.g., size, tightness and supply outlet configurations).

  3. Exterior Insulation Implications for Heating and Cooling Systems in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anastasia; Poerschke, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) is interested in finding cost-effective solutions for deep energy retrofits (DERs) related to exterior wall insulation in a cold climate, with targets of 50% peak load reduction and 50% space conditioning energy savings. The U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, Inc. (GHA), was contracted by NYSERDA to research exterior wall insulation solutions. In addition to exterior wall insulation, the strategies included energy upgrades where needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, basement, band joist, walls, and floors. Under Building America, IBACOS is studying the impact of a “thermal enclosure” DER on the sizing of the space conditioning system and the occupant comfort if the thermal capacity of the heating and cooling system is dramatically downsized without any change in the existing heating and cooling distribution system (e.g., size, tightness and supply outlet configurations).

  4. On the participle ἐττημένα (Pherecr., fr. 243 K.‑A., its etymology and its placing in the lexica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Rodríguez-Noriega Guillén

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The participle ἐττημένα (Pherecr., fr. 243 K.‑A. has not been correctly assigned to any verb in the Greek Lexica so far. In this paper the question is faced taking into account 1 the other words of the family, their sources, and their textual problems, 2 the Indo-European etymology of the verb, and 3 its phonetic evolution in Greek. If, as it seems very likely, the verb comes from IE *ky(eH2‑ (according to the etymology put forward by Puhvel, ἐττημένα should be assigned to the present τάω, Attic equivalent to Ionic σάω, known through Philoxenus and the Etymologica, which follow the former on this point.

  5. Assessment of exposure risk from hidden fungal growth by measurements of air change rates in construction cavities and living areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sofie M; Møller, Eva B.; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    The transfer of particulate and gaseous pollution from hidden fungi growing on non-visible surfaces within the building envelope to occupied rooms is limited by the separating structure. Yet, growth, even in sealed construction cavities, is known to cause annoying smells and other more adverse...... health symptoms among the building occupants. This study analyses limitations of air change rate measurements in inaccessible construction cavities as well as analyses of the air exchange between living areas and accessible cavities such as crawl spaces and attics. It was necessary to invent a field...... study technique to use the tracer gas decay method in small and inaccessible cavities. This technique allowed further investigation on the exposure risk from hidden fungal growth. Assessment of the air transfer between crawl spaces and living areas indicate that the tightness of separating structure has...

  6. Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Heating Season Energy and Moisture Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, R.; Parker, D.; Fairey, P.; Sherwin, J.; Withers, C.; Hoak, D.

    2013-09-01

    Two identical laboratory homes designed to model existing Florida building stock were sealed and tested to 2.5 ACH50. Then, one was made leaky with 70% leakage through the attic and 30% through windows, to a tested value of 9 ACH50. Reduced energy use was measured in the tighter home (2.5 ACH50) in the range of 15% to 16.5% relative to the leaky (9 ACH50) home. Internal moisture loads resulted in higher dew points inside the tight home than the leaky home. Window condensation and mold growth occurred inside the tight home. Even cutting internal moisture gains in half to 6.05 lbs/day, the dew point of the tight home was more than 15 degrees F higher than the outside dry bulb temperature. The homes have single pane glass representative of older Central Florida homes.

  7. Low-Cost Phase Change Material for Building Envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhari, Ramin [Renewable Energy Group

    2015-08-06

    A low-cost PCM process consisting of conversion of fats and oils to PCM-range paraffins, and subsequent “encapsulation” of the paraffin using conventional plastic compounding/pelletizing equipment was demonstrated. The PCM pellets produced were field-tested in a building envelope application. This involved combining the PCM pellets with cellulose insulation, whereby 33% reduction in peak heat flux and 12% reduction in heat gain was observed (average summertime performance). The selling price of the PCM pellets produced according to this low-cost process is expected to be in the $1.50-$3.00/lb range, compared to current encapsulated PCM price of about $7.00/lb. Whole-building simulations using corresponding PCM thermal analysis data suggest a payback time of 8 to 16 years (at current energy prices) for an attic insulation retrofit project in the Phoenix climate area.

  8. La distribución de participio concertado y subordinada adverbial en la lengua literaria griega del s. V a. C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª Dolores Jiménez

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at finding out the rule(s that determine(s the distribution of adverbial subordinate clauses and connected circumstantial participles in the Attic literary language of the V century B.C. For this purpose, the relevant instances of both constructions in Soph. O. T., Thuc. II 1-60 and Pseudo-Xenophon Ath.Pol. are systematically considered. The main conclusion is that a purely mechanical rule governs the choice between both constructions: the circumstantial participle is used when its governing substantive fulfills any given function in the main sentence; on the contrary, the adverbial subordinate clause is limited to the contexts in which its subject cannot be in agreement with any other element of the leading sentence. A number of grammatical conditions specified through the article explain most of the examples in which the general rule does not apply.

  9. Review of WAG Field Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jes Reimer; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Skauge, A.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in water-alternating-gas (WAG) processes, both miscible and immiscible. WAG injection is an oil recovery method initially aimed to improve sweep efficiency during gas injection. In some recent applications produced hydrocarbon gas has been...... reinjected in water-injection wells with the aim of improving oil recovery and pressure maintenance. Oil recovery by WAG injection has been attributed to contact of unswept zones, especially recovery of attic or cellar oil by exploiting the segregation of gas to the top or the accumulating of water toward....... Though the injectivity and production problems are generally not detrimental for the WAG process, special attention has been given to breakthrough of injected phases (water or gas). Improved oil recovery by WAG injection is discussed as influenced by rock type, injection strategy, miscible/immiscible gas...

  10. Field Testing Unvented Roofs with Asphalt Shingles in Cold and Hot-Humid Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Kohta [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Lstiburek, Joseph W. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Test houses with unvented roof assemblies were built to measure long-term moisture performance, in the Chicago area (5A) and the Houston area (2A). The Chicago-area test bed had seven experimental rafter bays, including a control vented compact roof, and six unvented roof variants with cellulose or fiberglass insulation. The interior was run at 50% RH. The Houston-area roof was an unvented attic insulated with spray-applied fiberglass. Most ridges and hips were built with a diffusion vent detail, capped with vapor permeable roof membrane. In contrast, the diffusion vent roofs had drier conditions at the roof peak in wintertime, but during the summer, RHs and MCs were higher than the unvented roof (albeit in the safe range).

  11. Yard Sales: A Book and an Exhibition: From Selling Off Objects to Redeeming Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octave Debary

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The fate of everyday objects, when they reach the end of their lives - worn out, and sometimes even broken - varies a great deal. In some cases, their remains are exhibited in museums as instances of our heritage; in others, they end up in garages and attics, or are simply disposed of. This paper focuses on the social operations surrounding the redefinition of their status as second-hand objects. We pay special attention to what happens when they are requalified as objects of memory in yard sales. Over the past thirty years, such markets - where personal stories change hands - have become favoured destinations for Sunday outings in France. They are open-air museums, where new memories are cobbled together from old objects. We attempt to show what is at stake in these transactions and transitions through a presentation of a book and an exhibition (2011-2012 devoted to French yard sales.

  12. Infiltration: pressuriztion correlations: detailed measurement on a California house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimsrud, D.T.; Sherman, M.H.; Diamond, R.C.; Condon, P.E.; Rosenfeld, A.H.

    1978-12-01

    Infiltration studies have been carried out in a typical tract home in the San Francisco Bay area. Houses in this region as a result of the mild climate are loosely constructed, and show large air leakage rates. Infiltration rates of up to 1-1/4 air changes an hour were measured using a controlled flow tracer gas technique with nitrous oxide as the tracer gas. Air leakage rates were meausured using fan pressurization of the house with a range of pressures from 7.5 to 75 Pascals. In addition to weather data taken on site, pressure sensors mounted on the exterior walls were critical in establishing a pressure model for air infiltration. Measured inside--outside pressure differences were less than a tenth of those expected based upon wind speed measurements made on site. Measurements also show significant (20%) duct leakage and air flow between the attic, living space and crawl space.

  13. Alexander Conze, “Greek Relief Sculpture”. Originally published as ‘Über das Relief bei den Griechen’, Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. Gesammtsitzung vom 25. Mai, 1882, no. 26, pp. 1-15 (pp. 563-577.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Johns (trans & ed.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of a corpus edition of Attic grave stelae, it becomes possible to make certain broad observations about the nature and development of Greek relief sculpture, a branch of the arts in which the Greeks are admitted to have excelled. Archaeology has added so much to our knowledge in the course of the 19th century that we can dismiss the earlier assumption that these sculptures did not have colour. In fact they were painted, and the evidence shows that in spite of its severe technical limitations, Greek relief sculpture developed in an increasingly painterly direction, in tandem with the development of Greek wall and panel painting as we know it – more so than vase painting. St. Remy and Pergamon provide examples of the prodigious Greek application of the genre, where ‘there were no innovations left for Roman art to make’.

  14. Reducing Thermal Losses and Gains With Buried and Encapsulated Ducts in Hot-Humid Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Magee, A. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Zoeller, W. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) monitored three houses in Jacksonville, FL, to investigate the effectiveness of encapsulated and encapsulated/buried ducts in reducing thermal losses and gains from ductwork in unconditioned attics. Burying ductwork beneath loose-fill insulation has been identified as an effective method of reducing thermal losses and gains from ductwork in dry climates, but it is not applicable in humid climates where condensation may occur on the outside of the duct jacket. By encapsulating the ductwork in closed cell polyurethane foam (ccSPF) before burial beneath loose-fill mineral fiber insulation, the condensation potential may be reduced while increasing the R-value of the ductwork.

  15. Climate controls in a historic house museum in the tropics : a case study of collection care and human comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, S.; Beltran, V. [Getty Conservation Inst., Los Angeles, CA (United States); Carvalho, C. [Casa de Rui Barbosa Foundation, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Toledo, F. [Conservare, Recife (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a ventilation/dehumidification-based climate control strategy that was successfully used in a historic house museum in a hot and humid climate. The building envelope of the Casa de Rui Barbosa Museum in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil was repaired and original passive climate designs were restored. A ventilator and dehumidifier-based climate control system was installed in the basement and attic. The thermal comfort of occupants was addressed by using an air conditioning system with a high air exchange rate and ensuring high air movement along visitor pathways. Energy conservation measures were adopted whereby full ventilation was used during dry outside conditions and full recirculation and hibernation modes were used during non-visiting hours. The installed temperature control system has maintained the indoor temperature at about 25 degrees C with reduced air pollution levels and particulate matters. Visitors have expressed satisfaction regarding thermal comfort, air quality, daylighting and low noise levels. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Complex dream-enacting behavior in sleepwalking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillmann, Frank

    2009-02-01

    Currently, dream-enacting behaviors are viewed as occurring typically in association with a REM-sleep behavior disorder. In some cases, dream-like mentation is found also in non-REM parasomnia. We report a case of complex and dramatic sleepwalking behavior in a 26-year-old adult male who tied his 4-month-old daughter to the clothesline in the attic of his house. The explanation of this seemingly senseless behavior, which was related to psychosocial stressors, was found in a detailed dream-like mentation that was reported by the patient. At the same time, an organic factor, namely, a worsening of the patient's asthma, was identified as the cause of an increased fragmentation of sleep. In some cases of non-REM parasomnia, detailed dream-like mentation may act as a bridge between psychosocial stressors and the specific parasomnic behavior.

  17. Banco de Bilbao en Vitoria – España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurtado de Saracho, F.

    1973-06-01

    Full Text Available This building, built on the same ground as the old branch, is made up of basement, ground floor, three upper storeys and attic and top-attic. In the basement the strong box services were installed; also the files, cloak room; general lavatories; and engine rooms for the air-conditioning and heating installations. The ground floor was designed for service to the public, and is made up of: a half-basement in which the cashier services are located; safety deposit boxes; hall for the public and lavatories; and a mezzanine, including: small offices for direct attention; women's bank, and small washrooms. The first floor is for the management, and here are located the offices of the director, the head of credits and head of personnel, as well as secretarial services, meeting room, visitors' room and offices. The remainder of the floors have been left for future expansion. The foundation, basement and floor of the half-basement are in reinforced concrete; metallic structure, and frameworks on the basis of metallic rolled sections and ceramic blocks in the rest of the building. The façade of the ground floor is polished granite and glass; the three upper storeys, in smoke plate glass, and the two attics, in polished granite, the same as the final crowning of the building. The vertical communication of the building is established by means of: two elevators, an employees' stairway that goes from the basement to the top floor, end a public stairway, from the mezzanine to the first attic.Este edificio, construido en el mismo terreno de la antigua sucursal, está formado por: sótano, planta baja, tres plantas superiores y ático y sobreático retranqueados. En el sótano se instalaron los servicios de caja fuerte; archivo; guardarropía; aseos generales; y cuartos de máquinas para las instalaciones de aire acondicionado y calefacción. La planta baja se destinó a servicio del público, y está formado por: un semisótano en el que se localizan los

  18. Innovative conservation housing. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuttle, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    A new passive solar thermal storage brick was developed and tested. A new insulating curtain concept was developed to assist in passive solar heating and cooling. A steel truss was designed to replace the wood truss in solar attic applications where the wood truss typically suffers some 50% loss of structural strength. Improvements were made of the dry composting toilet and grey water recycling for homes. An algae cultivation system was created for production of food, feed, fertilizer, or biomass as needed for home, farm, or industry. New concepts were explored in the areas of economy shelter, solar hot water heating, home generation of electricity, edible landscapes and other home food production, growing of fiber crops for cottage industry, storage, insulation, solar cooking, and solar refrigeration. (LEW)

  19. History and Catastrophe: Tragedy and Reconciliation in Schiller and Hegel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Aranzueque

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To what extent is it possible be reconciled with a tragic past? Could historical narration or dramatic performance help to get over the traumatic event indeed? Or do they just ascertain its constitutive contradictions, the split and the rift from a pain wich is impossible to sublimate? Is the mourning experience based on the recovery of a feeble balance between the opposite drives, emotions and feelings from the will? Or does it depend on the synthetic assimilation of that opposition into another way of life? This essay travels hand in hand with Schiller and Hegel across the space opened by those questions. It starts from the dissatisfaction generated in the young Hegel by his reading of Schiller’s Wallenstein and it analyzes his different conceptions of the ethic pathos, as well as his uneven perspective about the function of the chorus in the Attic tragedy

  20. Poster Puzzler Solution: Taking in Air | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current Poster Puzzler image shows the top of Building 560, where a new supply air handler was recently installed by Facilities Maintenance and Engineering (FME) staff, as part of lab renovations in wing 1, floor 1. FME staff enlarged the attic of the building to make space for the air handler. Building 560, the largest building at the NCI at Frederick campus, houses about 120 labs and has 19 air handlers. A supply air handler draws in outside air, filters it, cools or heats it, and adjusts the humidity to provide clean conditioned air to the laboratories. The Building 560 air handler weighs approximately 22,500 pounds and moves 22,000 cubic feet of air per minute.

  1. Warm Homes, Greener Living: Reducing Energy Poverty in Daniel McIntyre and St. Matthews through Energy Retrofits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kari

    This research examines energy poverty in the Daniel McIntyre and St. Matthews (DMSM) neighbourhoods in the city of Winnipeg. Energy poverty, defined as households spending more than 6% of their income on energy expenditures, affects as many as 50% of households in DMSM. Energy poverty can be alleviated through energy retrofits for dwellings such as weather stripping; increasing insulation in exterior walls, the attic and basement; and installing a high-efficiency furnace. The recommendations include: establishing consistent housing and energy efficiency policies; increasing the flexibility of utility on-bill financing; levying the necessary capital for energy retrofits through municipal financing mechanisms; increasing the knowledge and capacity of local residents; increasing the knowledge and capacity of local contractors for sustainable design and construction; creating a provincial strategy to increase the energy efficiency of social housing; developing low-income energy efficiency programs for rental properties; and increasing access to renewable energy sources.

  2. Advancing Replicable Solutions for High-Performance Homes in the Southeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, S. G. [Southface Energy Inst., Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Sweet, M. L. [Southface Energy Inst., Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Francisco, A. [Southface Energy Inst., Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Southface Energy Institute (Southface) partnered with owners and/or builders with various market constraints and ultimate goals for three projects in different climate zones: Savannah, GA (CZ 2), Clemson, SC (CZ 3), and LaFayette, GA (CZ 4). This report documents the design process, computational energy modeling, construction, envelope performance metrics, long-term monitoring results, and successes and failures of the design and execution of these high performance homes. The three bedroom/two bathroom test home in Savannah Gardens on an elevated slab foundation has a semi-conditioned, encapsulated attic. A neighboring home built to EarthCraft specifications was also monitored as a control for exterior foam insulation and a heat pump water heater (HPWH). For the JMC Patrick Square, a single-story project in Clemson, the small-scale production builder wanted to increase their level of energy efficiency beyond their current green building practices, including bringing ducts into conditioned space. Through a combination of upgrade measures the team met this goal and achieved many Zero Energy Ready Home requirements. LaFayette Housing Authority undertook a development of 30 affordable rental housing units in 15 duplexes in LaFayette, GA. Because they would be long-term owners, their priorities were low utility bills for the residents and durable, maintainable buildings. The team employed BEopt to optimize buildling envelope and systems choices, including 2x6 advanced framed walls, insulated slab, and heat pump water heater in a utility closet which was ducted to/from an encapsulated attic.

  3. Experimental feeding of DDE and PCB to female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Prouty, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-two female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were collected in a house attic in Montgomery County, Maryland. Seventeen were fed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) that contained 166 ppm DDE; the other five were fed uncontaminated mealworms. After 54 days of feeding, six dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 16 were starved to death. In a second experiment, 21 female big brown bats were collected in a house attic in Prince Georges County, Maryland. Sixteen were fed mealworms that contained 9.4 ppm Aroclor 1254 (PCB). After 37 days, two bats had died, four dosed bats were frozen, and the remaining 15 were starved to death. Starvation caused mobilization of stored residues. After the feeding periods, average weights of all four groups (DDE-dosed, DDE control, PCB-dosed, PCB control) had increased. However, weights of DDE-dosed bats had increased significantly more than those of their contols, whereas weights of PCB-dosed bats had increased significantly less than those of their controls. During starvation, PCB-dosed bats lost weight significantly more slowly than controls. Because PCB levels in dosed bats resembled levels found in some free-living big brown bats, PCBs may be slowing metabolic rates of some free-living bats. It is not known how various common organochlorine residues may affect metabolism in hibernating bats. DDE and PCB increased in brains of starving bats as carcass fat was metabolized. Because the tremors and/or convulsions characteristic of neurotoxicity were not observed, we think even the maximum brain levels attained (132 ppm DDE, 20 ppm PCB) were sublethal. However, extrapolation of our DDE data predicted lethal brain levels when fat reserves declined sufficiently. PCB-dosed bats were probably in no danger of neurotoxic poisoning. However, PCB can kill by a nonneurotoxic mode, and this could explain the deaths of two bats on PCB dosage.

  4. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-conditioning electricity savings from standard energy conservation measures, radiant barriers, and high-efficiency window air conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternes, M.P.; Levins, W.P.

    1992-08-01

    A field test Involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMS) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) programs directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption should be targeted at clients with high consumption to improve cost effectiveness; (2) replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency units should be considered an option in a weatherization program directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption; (3) ECMs currently being installed under the Oklahoma WAP (chosen based on effectiveness at reducing space-heating energy consumption) should continue to be justified based on their space-heating energy savings potential only; and (4) attic radiant barriers should not be included in the Oklahoma WAP if alternatives with verified savings are available or until further testing demonstrates energy savings or other benefits in this typo of housing.

  5. Edificio administrativo André & Cíe., S. A., en Lausana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnard, Pierre

    1964-05-01

    Full Text Available This building has a triangular planform It has two basements, ground floor, six storeys, an attic and terrace. The offices, which are air conditioned, occupy the external part of the building, and the inner zone of it is taken up with the service facilities, lifts (also a goods lift, for documents and suchlike, dressing rooms, posting room and a service staircase. Office rooms are mutually separated by mobile partition walls. These are fixed according to a standard module, which allows for the formation of «cells» of unitary or larger number of units of size. The management rooms have fixed partitions and occupy the south wing of the fifth floor. In the attic there is a small dining room, and a smoking room for foreign clients. A very fine view is enjoyed from these rooms. The building structure is made of reinforced concrete, and the external enclosures are curtain walls, made with light weight metal, which enclose large sized fixed windows and smaller ones, which can be opened. All of them have insulation glazing and Venetian blinds. To the external observer, this building gives a powerful impression of lightness, transparency and modern design.El edificio, de planta triangular, consta de dos sótanos, planta baja, seis pisos y un ático con terraza. Las oficinas, que están dotadas con aire acondicionado, ocupan todo el perímetro del mismo, y en su núcleo central se concentran los servicios, ascensores montacargas (para documentos, vestuarios, locales de distribución de la correspondencia y una escalera de servicio. Las oficinas están separadas unas de otras mediante tabiques móviles, colocados según una trama modular, pudiendo así formarse células individuales, o células más complejas. Los despachos de la dirección llevan tabiques fijos, y ocupan el ala sur del quinto piso.

  6. Edificio de viviendas, en Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azpiazu Ordóñez, José Ramón

    1965-12-01

    Full Text Available This building has a basement, four storeys and an attic. In the basement there is a private garage, air conditioning equipment, fuel and refuse stores, and private lockers for the various apartments. The ground floor has two dwellings and the open entrance, where there is a receptionist's desk and the post boxes. The other floors have two dwellings, each of 220 m2 area, and another of 440 m2. The attic has two small outbuildings, each of them containing a large room, or studio. This building has been lavishly designed, and space distribution is carefully planned. The interplay of volumes, and charming overall design give this project a distinctive and attractive quality.Consta de sótano, planta baja, tres plantas de pisos y ático. La planta de sótano aloja: el garaje particular de la casa, las instalaciones de aire acondicionado, almacén de carburantes, almacén de basuras y trasteros para cada vivienda o estudio. La planta baja comprende: dos viviendas y el zaguán, en el cual hay un mostrador para la conserjería y los casilleros postales. La planta tipo consta de dos viviendas: una de 220 m2 y otra de 440 m2. Y, finalmente, la planta de ático se compone de dos torreones destinados a estudios. El edificio es de una gran riqueza de tratamiento y espacio, cual corresponde a viviendas nobles. La distribución acertada y la graciosa y movida composición volumétrica le imprimen un sello característico y distintivo.

  7. CT scan of pathology and effect of therapy in otitis media with effusion in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Kawamoto, Kazutomo (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine); Sakurai, Tokio; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu

    1984-08-01

    In a study of the middle ear cleft in otitis media with effusion (OME), high-resolution computed tomography was performed in 51 patients aged 3 to 13 years. The patients were divided into the following three groups; group I, fresh cases without any treatment; group II, recurrent or chronic cases; group III, cases with sequelae as a result of OME. 1) In group I, the entire middle ear cavity was occupied with material of soft-tissue density in 18 out of 21 ears. The incidence of soft-tissue density was 100% in the mastoid air cells, 95% in the mastoid antrum, 93% in the attic and 88% in the tympanic cavity. The percentage thus rose with the distance from the tympanic cavity. 2) There was no significant difference in the incidence of soft-tissue density between groups I and II. 3) In group III, the mastoid air cells showed density, while the other regions had adequate air-containing spaces. 4) Even after myringotomy and aspiration of the fluid in group I, density was found in the mastoid air cells in 100% of the cases. Density in the mastoid antrum, attic and tympanic cavity was present in 43%, 21% and 21% of the cases, respectively. These results suggest that lesions are likely to persist in regions away from the orifice of myringotomy and that this therapy can not eliminate all of the lesions. In group II, the soft-tissue density in the middle ear was eliminated by myringotomy better than in group I. 5) The effect of ventilating tubes on the mastoid air cells was not determined and requires further studies.

  8. Casa de viviendas en Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamela Martínez, Antonio

    1963-09-01

    Full Text Available This building occupies a site of 1990 sq. ms, and includes 29 apartments distributed in a semi ground floor, five standard floor levels, an attic and a double attic. The services have been located in a second basement, and the ground floor and first basement are being devoted to commercial uses, such as shops. In order to provide more free space for the commercial zone, the beginning of the stairs and the entry to the lifts is situated on the semi ground floor level. The porter's quarters, refuse reception cubicle and porter's hall have also been placed at this level. The basic nuclei of the apartments are clearly separated into zones daytime living quarters, night quarters and services. It is noteworthy that passages have been largely eliminated, and circulation problems have been otherwise solved, avoiding to some extent the crossing of the main lines of human circulation. The area devoted to social life has been increased as far as possible, and its environment has been enlarged by means of balcony-terraces. The fine aesthetic quality of the building, in its external aspect, is largely due to the clever way in which the materials have been used, exploiting their textures and combining these harmoniously.Ha sido construida sobre un solar de 1.991,41 m2 y consta de 29 viviendas distribuidas en cinco plantas- tipo, ático, doble ático y entreplanta. Los servicios generales de la casa están situados en el segundo sótano; la planta baja y el primer sótano albergan los locales comerciales. Para conseguir una mayor superficie en dichos locales se ha adoptado la solución de situar el arranque de escalera y ascensores en la entreplanta, donde, asimismo, aparecen ubicados los servicios de vigilancia, cuarto de recepción de basuras y vivienda del portero.

  9. Building America Case Study: Savannah Gardens, Savannah, Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    Southface Energy Institute (Southface) partnered with owners and/or builders with various market constraints and ultimate goals for three projects in different climate zones: Savannah, GA (CZ 2), Clemson, SC (CZ 3), and LaFayette, GA (CZ 4). This report documents the design process, computational energy modeling, construction, envelope performance metrics, long-term monitoring results, and successes and failures of the design and execution of these high performance homes. The three bedroom/two bathroom test home in Savannah Gardens on an elevated slab foundation has a semi-conditioned, encapsulated attic. A neighboring home built to EarthCraft specifications was also monitored as a control for exterior foam insulation and a heat pump water heater (HPWH). For the JMC Patrick Square, a single-story project in Clemson, the small-scale production builder wanted to increase their level of energy efficiency beyond their current green building practices, including bringing ducts into conditioned space. Through a combination of upgrade measures the team met this goal and achieved many Zero Energy Ready Home requirements. LaFayette Housing Authority undertook a development of 30 affordable rental housing units in 15 duplexes in LaFayette, GA. Because they would be long-term owners, their priorities were low utility bills for the residents and durable, maintainable buildings. The team employed BEopt to optimize building envelope and systems choices, including 2x6 advanced framed walls, insulated slab, and heat pump water heater in a utility closet which was ducted to/from an encapsulated attic.

  10. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30

    Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The

  11. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-Conditioning Electricity Savings from Standard Energy Conservation Measures, Radiant Barriers, and High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternes, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    A field test involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMs) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The average measured pre-weatherization air-conditioning electricity consumption was 1664 kWh/year ($119/year). Ten percent of the houses used less than 250 kWh/year, while another 10% used more than 3000 kWh/year. An average reduction in air-conditioning electricity consumption of 535 kWh/year ($38/year and 28% of pre-weatherization consumption) was obtained from replacement of one low-efficiency window air conditioner (EER less than 7.0) per house with a high-efficiency unit (EER greater than 9.0). For approximately the same cost, savings tripled to 1503 kWh/year ($107/year and 41% of pre-weatherization consumption) in those houses with initial air-conditioning electricity consumption greater than 2750 kWh/year. For these houses, replacement of a low-efficiency air conditioner with a high-efficiency unit was cost effective using the incremental cost of installing a new unit now rather than later; the average installation cost for these houses under a weatherization program was estimated to be $786. The

  12. Edificio Discount Bank - Ginebra – Suiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braillard, P.

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available This building stands in the very centre of Geneva, and is made up of: — two basements, where the different types of mechanical and electrical installations are to be found; — a ground floor, with a hall for the public, ticket office and cash safes; — six floors of offices, with management and lecture rooms; — an attic, with terrace, which is where the staff dining room and cafeteria is located. Construction made of reinforced concrete slabs, resting on walls also made of concrete or on steel and concrete pillars. The frontage, from the pavement to the metal and glass awning which surrounds the building, has a granite coating. The upper part is made of large monolithic squares of artificial stone with double glass panels. The attic is completely glazed. Marble, stone, linoleum and carpeted floors, according to the use and function of the premises. The building is fully equipped with: two lifts, two document lifts, pneumatic mail, alarm system, automatic fire-extinction installation and air conditioning and ventilation installations, telephone, electric and lighting systems.En el mismo centro de Ginebra se levanta este edificio, que consta de: — dos sótanos, en los que se distribuyen los diferentes tipos de instalaciones mecánicas y eléctricas; — una planta baja, con el hall de público, taquillas y cajas de caudales; — seis plantas de oficinas, con dirección y salas de conferencias; — un ático, con terraza, en el que se encuentran el comedor y la cafetería para el personal. Construcción a base de losas de hormigón armado, apoyadas sobre muros también de hormigón o en pilares de acero y hormigón. La fachada, desde la acera hasta la marquesina de metal y vidrio que rodea el edificio, lleva revestimiento de granito. La zona superior es de grandes cuadros monolíticos de piedra artificial con entrepaños de vidrio doble. El ático está completamente acristalado. Suelos de mármol, gres, linóleo y moqueta, según el uso y

  13. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb detrital zircon study and structural observations of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit on Heraklia Island (Cyclades, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskari, Sofia; Soukis, Konstantinos; Lozios, Stylianos; Stockli, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    At the central and southern part of the Attic-Cycladic complex (Aegean Sea, Greece) significant exposures of the Cycladic Basement Unit orthogneisses and meta-sediments are observed. These are mainly cropping out in Paros, Naxos and Ios islands and to a much lesser extend in Sikinos Island and they comprise Variscan (granitic) orthogneisses and late Paleozoic metasediments. In this paper we present evidence of a hitherto not identified possible outcrop of the Cycladic Basement in Heraklia Island (central Cyclades). The small Heraklia Island, situated at the center of the Attic-Cycladic core complex in the Aegean, between the islands of Naxos and Ios, consists of rocks that are attributed to the Cycladic Blueschist Unit. The tectonostratigraphy of Heraklia Island includes: a) a lowermost schist sequence with interbedded lenses of felsic orthogneisses whose primary relationship is obliterated by later subduction and exhumation related shearing b) A 200m thick variegated marble sequence with sparse calk-schist intercalations, which is isoclinally folded together with 100m thick overlying quartz-mica and calc-schists schists. All rocks comprise a penetrative foliation formed by greenschist facies mineral assemblages but in the uppermost schists relics of the Eocene HP event are found in the form of glaucophane inclusions within albite porphyroblasts. A mylonitic planar fabric with a cataclastic overprint is observed at the base of the marble sequence and the roof of the underlying schists and orthogneisses. It is accompanied by a N-S stretching lineation, subparallel to isoclinal folding in all scales. Numerous kinematic indicators reveal a top-to-N sense of shear thus linking the Heraklia rocks kinematically with the crustal extensional detachment systems of both Naxos and Ios islands. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb detrital zircon study of schists and gneisses is used in order to identify provenance and to elucidate the tectonostratigrachic relationship between the lower and upper

  14. Dampness and Moisture Problems in Norwegian Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Becher

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of dampness and mold in the indoor environment is associated with respiratory-related disease outcomes. Thus, it is pertinent to know the magnitude of such indoor environment problems to be able to estimate the potential health impact in the population. In the present study, the moisture damage in 10,112 Norwegian dwellings was recorded based on building inspection reports. The levels of moisture damage were graded based on a condition class (CC, where CC0 is immaculate and CC1 acceptable (actions not required, while CC2 and CC3 indicate increased levels of damage that requires action. Of the 10,112 dwellings investigated, 3125 had verified moisture or mold damage. This amounts to 31% of the surveyed dwellings. Of these, 27% had CC2 as the worst grade, whereas 4% had CC3 as the worst grade level. The room types and building structures most prone to moisture damage were (in rank order crawl spaces, basements, un-insulated attics, cooling rooms, and bathrooms. The high proportion of homes with moisture damage indicate a possible risk for respiratory diseases in a relatively large number of individuals, even if only the more extensive moisture damages and those located in rooms where occupants spend the majority of their time would have a significant influence on adverse health effects.

  15. Energy Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selden, R.H. (ed.)

    1991-06-01

    The Energy Division is one of 17 research divisions at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The goals and accomplishments of the Energy Division are described in this annual progress report for FY 1990. The Energy Division is a multidisciplinary research organization committed to (1) increasing the knowledge and understanding of how societies make choices in energy use; (2) improving society's understanding of the environmental, social, and economic implications of technological change; (3) developing and transferring energy efficient technologies; and (4) developing improved transportation planning and policy. Disciplines of the 129 staff members include engineering, social sciences, physical and life sciences, and mathematics and statistics. The Energy Division's programmatic activities focus on three major areas: (1) analysis and assessment, (2) energy conservation technologies, and (3) military transportation systems. Analysis and assessment activities cover energy and resource analysis, the preparation of environmental assessments and impact statements, research on waste management, analysis of emergency preparedness for natural and technological disasters, analysis of the energy and environmental needs of developing countries, technology transfer, and analysis of civilian transportation. Energy conservation technologies include building equipment (thermally activated heat pumps, chemical heat pumps, refrigeration systems, novel cycles), building enveloped (walls, foundations, roofs, attics, and materials), retrofits for existing buildings, and electric power systems. Military transportation systems concentrate on research for sponsors within the US military on improving the efficiency of military deployment, scheduling, and transportation coordination. 48 refs., 34 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Cryptotermes brevis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) in the Azores: lessons after 2 yr of monitoring in the Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Paulo A V; Guerreiro, Orlando; Ferreira, Maria T; Borges, Annabella; Ferreira, Filomena; Bicudo, Nuno; Nunes, Lina; Marcos, Rita S; Arroz, Ana M; Scheffrahn, Rudolf H; Myles, Timothy G

    2014-01-01

    The dispersal flights of West Indian drywood termite, Cryptotermes brevis (Walker) (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) were surveyed in the major cities of Azores. The sampling device used to estimate termite density consisted of a yellow adhesive trap (size 45 by 24 cm), placed with an artificial or natural light source in a dark attic environment. In addition, data from two other projects were used to improve the knowledge about the geographical distribution of the species. The level of infestation in the two main Azorean towns differed, with high levels in the houses of Angra do Heroísmo, whereas in Ponta Delgada, there are fewer houses with high levels of infestation. The infestation in Ponta Delgada shows a pattern of spreading from the center outward to the city's periphery, whereas in Angra do Heroísmo, there was a pattern of spreading outward from several foci. The heavy infestation observed in Angra do Heroísmo and the clear increase of infestation levels observed from 2010 to 2011 is a reason for concern and calls for an urgent application of an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) control strategy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  17. ASHRAE transactions 1999: Technical and symposium papers. Volume 105, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This book contains 50 technical papers and 83 symposium papers. The symposium papers are divided into the following sections: Computer Models for Fire and Smoke Control; Thermal Properties and Estimation Techniques of Ground-Coupled Heat Pump Boreholes, Grouts, and Fills; Advances in Thermal and Fluid Characteristics in HVAC and Refrigeration Processes; Effects of Controlling Humidity on Energy Consumption of Supermarkets; Fault Detection and Diagnostics -- Learning from Building Operations; Innovative Methods for Room Air Distribution; Laboratory Exhaust Fans and Stacks; Full Scale Tests in Very Large Spaces and CFD Modeling; Laboratory Verification and Testing; Absorption/Sorption Heat Pumps and Refrigeration Systems; Attic and Cathedral Ceilings II; Health Care Issues Update; Computers in HVAC Education; Multizone Modeling of Ventilation and Infiltration in Residential Buildings; Documenting the Value of a Facility of Corporate Energy Manager; Water Heating systems Information and Design Tools; Snow Melting: System Assessment; Fault Detection and Diagnostics (FDD) Methods and Evaluation Techniques; The Effects of Commissioning and O and M on IAQ; Energy Efficiency in Commercial Food Service Facilities; Historical Views of Steam, Ice and Refrigerants; Low Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TWEI) Unitary Air Conditioners and Heat Pump Systems; and Second Law Studies of Systems and Processes. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this book.

  18. Rehabilitation project of an apartment building in Belgrade, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović-Popović Milica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As a part of a scientific project conducted at the Faculty of Architecture University of Belgrade a detailed survey of building fund has been made and a typical 1950’s building was chosen as a demonstration project for the energy conscious renovation and retrofit procedure. Rehabilitation has been done in three main phases: detailed analysis and inspection of present state based on available project documentation, on site inspection, thermography, as well as interviews with tenants. In this phase strategies for reconstructions were analyzed and evaluated; first phase of rehabilitation mainly concerned improvement of performance of envelope (façade, windows with addition of an attic level;. second phase maximizes performance of building using various architectural and technical methods. Addition of new volumes (glazed loggias, and partly double skin façades, heat recuperating units, and hot water collectors with redefinition of heating system was the main objectives. For both phases techno-economical analyses were made optimizing possible thermal performance gains and used technology in accordance with economic potential and pay-back period. Also a detailed procedure algorithm was developed in order to give guidelines for future projects of this type.

  19. Morcegos (Chiroptera da área urbana de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil Bats (Chiroptera of the urban area of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélio Roberto dos Reis

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Study carried out within the urban perimeter of Londrina, which is located in the North of the state of Paraná. The objectives were the identification of urban species of bats and diurnal roosts used by them and the verification of the problems they can cause to the population. The fire brigade, the Autarquia Municipal do Ambiente de Londrina (Municipal Environment Autarchy of Londrina, the Biology Department of the Universidade Estadual de Londrina (State University of Londrina and local residents helped spot the roosts. The collections were carried out in regular intervals between April 1998 and March 1999. By the end of them, 815 bats of 23 different species had been captured. Among these, 12 were found near or inside human constructions: Noctilio albiventris Desmarest, 1818; Artibeits lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Eptesicus brasiliensis Desmarest 1819; Lasiurus bore-alls (Muller 1776; Lasiurus ega (Gervais, 1856; Eumops glaucinus (Wagner, 1843; Molossus rufus (E. Geoffroy, 1805; Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766; Nyctinomops laticaudatus (E. Geoffroy, 1805; Nyctinomops macrotis (Gray, 1840 e Tadarida brasiliensis (i. Geoffroy, 1824. Roost sites comprised expansion joints, roofs, attics and parks, among others. It can be concluded that bats are treated as undesirable animals by the population due to the lack of knowledge about the subject.

  20. High-Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, Marc [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chitwood, Rick [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); German, Alea [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weitzel, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-30

    Duct thermal losses and air leakage have long been recognized as prime culprits in the degradation of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system efficiency. Both the U.S. Department of Energy’s Zero Energy Ready Home program and California’s proposed 2016 Title 24 Residential Energy Efficiency Standards require that ducts be installed within conditioned space or that other measures be taken to provide similar improvements in delivery effectiveness (DE). Pacific Gas & Electric Company commissioned a study to evaluate ducts in conditioned space and high-performance attics (HPAs) in support of the proposed codes and standards enhancements included in California’s 2016 Title 24 Residential Energy Efficiency Standards. The goal was to work with a select group of builders to design and install high-performance duct (HPD) systems, such as ducts in conditioned space (DCS), in one or more of their homes and to obtain test data to verify the improvement in DE compared to standard practice. Davis Energy Group (DEG) helped select the builders and led a team that provided information about HPD strategies to them. DEG also observed the construction process, completed testing, and collected cost data.

  1. Building America Case Study: Columbia County Habitat for Humanity Passive Townhomes, Hudson, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    Columbia County (New York) Habitat for Humanity built a pair of townhomes to Passive House criteria with the purpose of exploring approaches for achieving Passive House performance and to eventually develop a prototype design for future projects. The project utilized a 2x6 frame wall with a structural insulated panel curtain wall and a ventilated attic over a sealed OSB ceiling air barrier. Mechanical systems include a single head, wall mounted ductless mini-split heat pump in each unit and a heat recovery ventilator. Costs were $26,000 per unit higher for Passive House construction compared with the same home built to ENERGY STAR version 3 specifications, representing about 18 percent of total construction cost. This report discusses the cost components, energy modeling results and lessons from construction. Two alternative ventilation systems are analyzed: a central system; and, a point-source system with small through-wall units distributed throughout the house. The report includes a design and cost analysis of these two approaches.

  2. Capturing Reality at Centre Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, C.; Ouimet, C.; Yeomans, N.

    2017-08-01

    The Centre Block of Canada's Parliament buildings, National Historic Site of Canada is set to undergo a major rehabilitation project that will take approximately 10 years to complete. In preparation for this work, Heritage Conservation Services (HCS) of Public Services and Procurement Canada has been completing heritage documentation of the entire site which includes laser scanning of all interior rooms and accessible confined spaces such as attics and other similar areas. Other documentation completed includes detailed photogrammetric documentation of rooms and areas of high heritage value. Some of these high heritage value spaces present certain challenges such as accessibility due to the height and the size of the spaces. Another challenge is the poor lighting conditions, requiring the use of flash or strobe lighting to either compliment or completely eliminate the available ambient lighting. All the spaces captured at this higher level of detail were also captured with laser scanning. This allowed the team to validate the information and conduct a quality review of the photogrammetric data. As a result of this exercise, the team realized that in most, if not all cases, the photogrammetric data was more detailed and at a higher quality then the terrestrial laser scanning data. The purpose and motivation of this paper is to present these findings, as well provide the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods and data sets.

  3. Approaches to identifying reservoir heterogeneity and reserve growth opportunities from subsurface data: The Oficina Formation, Budare field, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, D.S.; Raeuchle, S.K.; Holtz, M.H. [Bureau of Economic Geology, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    We applied an integrated geologic, geophysical, and engineering approach devised to identify heterogeneities in the subsurface that might lead to reserve growth opportunities in our analysis of the Oficina Formation at Budare field, Venezuela. The approach involves 4 key steps: (1) Determine geologic reservoir architecture; (2) Investigate trends in reservoir fluid flow; (3) Integrate fluid flow trends with reservoir architecture; and (4) Estimate original oil-in-place, residual oil saturation, and remaining mobile oil, to identify opportunities for reserve growth. There are three main oil-producing reservoirs in the Oficina Formation that were deposited in a bed-load fluvial system, an incised valley-fill, and a barrier-strandplain system. Reservoir continuity is complex because, in addition to lateral facies variability, the major Oficina depositional systems were internally subdivided by high-frequency stratigraphic surfaces. These surfaces define times of intermittent lacustrine and marine flooding events that punctuated the fluvial and marginal marine sedimentation, respectively. Syn and post depositional faulting further disrupted reservoir continuity. Trends in fluid flow established from initial fluid levels, response to recompletion workovers, and pressure depletion data demonstrated barriers to lateral and vertical fluid flow caused by a combination of reservoir facies pinchout, flooding shale markers, and the faults. Considerable reserve growth potential exists at Budare field because the reservoir units are highly compartment by the depositional heterogeneity and structural complexity. Numerous reserve growth opportunities were identified in attics updip of existing production, in untapped or incompletely drained compartments, and in field extensions.

  4. Measure Guideline: Combustion Safety for Natural Draft Appliances Using Indoor Air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L.

    2014-04-01

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the combustion safety procedures for appliances and heating equipment that uses indoor air for combustion in low-rise residential buildings. Only appliances installed in the living space, or in an area freely communicating with the living space, vented alone or in tandem with another appliance are considered here. A separate measure guideline addresses combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage that use outdoor air for combustion. This document is for inspectors, auditors, and technicians working in homes where energy upgrades are being conducted whether or not air infiltration control is included in the package of measures being applied. In the indoor combustion air case, guidelines summarized here are based on language provided in several of the codes to establish minimum requirements for the space using simplified prescriptive measures. In addition, building performance testing procedures are provided by testing agencies. The codes in combination with the test procedures offer comprehensive combustion safety coverage to address safety concerns, allowing inexperienced residential energy retrofit inspectors to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits to proceed.

  5. Performance of a Hot-Dry Climate Whole-House Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Porse, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The Stockton house retrofit is a two-story Tudor style single family deep retrofit in the hot-dry climate of Stockton, CA. The home is representative of a deep retrofit option of the scaled home energy upgrade packages offered to targeted neighborhoods under the pilot Large-Scale Retrofit Program (LSRP) administered by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI). Deep retrofit packages expand on the standard package by adding HVAC, water heater and window upgrades to the ducting, attic and floor insulation, domestic hot water insulation, envelope sealing, lighting and ventilation upgrades. Site energy savings with the deep retrofit were 23% compared to the pre-retrofit case, and 15% higher than the savings estimated for the standard retrofit package. Energy savings were largely a result of the water heater upgrade, and a combination of the envelope sealing, insulation and HVAC upgrade. The HVAC system was of higher efficiency than the building code standard. Overall the financed retrofit would have been more cost effective had a less expensive HVAC system been selected and barriers to wall insulation remedied. The homeowner experienced improved comfort throughout the monitored period and was satisfied with the resulting utility bill savings.

  6. Performance of a Hot-Dry Climate Whole-House Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, E.; German, A.; Porse, E.

    2014-06-01

    The Stockton house retrofit is a two-story tudor style single family deep retrofit in the hot-dry climate of Stockton, CA. The home is representative of a deep retrofit option of the scaled home energy upgrade packages offered to targeted neighborhoods under the pilot Large-Scale Retrofit Program (LSRP) administered by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI). Deep retrofit packages expand on the standard package by adding HVAC, water heater and window upgrades to the ducting, attic and floor insulation, domestic hot water insulation, envelope sealing, lighting and ventilation upgrades. Site energy savings with the deep retrofit were 23% compared to the pre-retrofit case, and 15% higher than the savings estimated for the standard retrofit package. Energy savings were largely a result of the water heater upgrade, and a combination of the envelope sealing, insulation and HVAC upgrade. The HVAC system was of higher efficiency than the building code standard. Overall the financed retrofit would have been more cost effective had a less expensive HVAC system been selected and barriers to wall insulation remedied. The homeowner experienced improved comfort throughout the monitored period and was satisfied with the resulting utility bill savings.

  7. Centro escolar para estudiantes. Vancouver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson, Berwick & Pratt, Arquitectos

    1965-05-01

    Full Text Available This centre has four storeys. On the same level as the garden, the main building has a large recreation room, the canteen and auxiliary rooms, also the secretary's office, a room for the housekeeper, and washrooms. A carpark, the gardener's house, a workshop and a storehouse are also situated close by. The second floor, which is level with the patio facing the main entrance, has a main hall, a meeting room and offices. The third floor is taken up with the library, a lounge, and bar, as well as secondary rooms. Living quarters are provided in the attic.El edificio se desarrolla en cuatro plantas. En el nivel del jardín el cuerpo de la edificación principal aloja: el salón de recreo, la cantina con sus dependencias auxiliares, la secretaria, una oficina, cuarto del ama de llaves, aseos, etc.; en este nivel han sido construidos asimismo: estacionamiento de coches, la vivienda del jardinero, taller y almacén. La planta a nivel del patio de entrad alberga: el vestíbulo principal, salón de reuniones y una oficina. La plañía principal cobija: la biblioteca, salón, bar con sus correspondientes dependencias anexas—, etc. El ático está ocupado por una vivienda.

  8. Observaciones sobre la pretendida evolución ε > α y la flexión de los sustantivos en -εύς en el dialecto eleo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Méndez Dosuna

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available With one exception (the well attested change er > ar, all the commonly invoked examples of the context determined phonetic change ĕ > ă in Elean may be discarded. There is no necessity to postulate a process re > ra in order to account for the Elean forms λατρα[ιομεν...], κατιαραυσειε, μαστρααι and κατιαραιων. These are shown to be interpreted as instances of a complex development taking place in the inflexion of -εύς nouns and in the Elean denominatives in -ειω (Attic -εύω: as a result of two different vowel-shortening processes (Osthoff's Law, shortening in hiatus, Elean ǟ (< Proto-Gr. *ē shifted to ä. This vowel regularly merged with e; but this change was checked after an immediately preceding r or next to an e-vowel, where ä was turned to a.

  9. Improved recovery from Gulf of Mexico reservoirs. Quarterly status report, January 1--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimbrell, W.C.; Bassiouni, Z.A.; Bourgoyne, A.T.

    1996-04-30

    On February 18, 1992, Louisiana State University with two technical subcontractors, BDM, Inc. and ICF, Inc., began a research program to estimate the potential oil and gas reserve additions that could result from the application of advanced secondary and enhanced oil recovery technologies and the exploitation of undeveloped and attic oil zones in the Gulf of Mexico oil fields that are related to piercement salt domes. This project is a one year continuation of this research and will continue work in reservoir description, extraction processes, and technology transfer. Detailed data will be collected for two previously studies reservoirs: a South Marsh Island reservoir operated by Taylor Energy and one additional Gulf of Mexico reservoir operated by Mobil. Additional reservoirs identified during the project will also be studied if possible. Data collected will include reprocessed 2-D seismic data, newly acquired 3-D data, fluid data, fluid samples, pressure data, well test data, well logs, and core data/samples. The new data will be used to refine reservoir and geologic characterization of these reservoirs. Further laboratory investigation will provide additional simulation input data in the form of PVT properties, relative permeabilities, capillary pressure, and water compatibility. Geological investigations will be conducted to refine the models of mud-rich submarine fan architectures used by seismic analysts and reservoir engineers. Research on advanced reservoir simulation will also be conducted. This report describes a review of fine-grained submarine fans and turbidite systems.

  10. Energy management for housing managers. Participant's workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    The workbook on energy management for housing managers is 1 of 18 developed by HUD to upgrade management skills in HUD-related housing. Many of the principles presented should also be viewed by students and instructors as applicable to multifamily housing management practices in the private sector. The workbook is designed to prepare housing managers to conserve the energy consumed in a housing development and to equip them to encourage residents' compliance with easy and commonsense methods of home conservation of fuels, water, and electricity. It discusses energy management principles concerning drapes; windows and doors; attics, ceilings, and walls; refrigerators; ranges; washers and dryers; dishwashers; disposals and compactors; televisions and radios; and heating and cooling. Among the many nontechnical measures discussed are opening drapes to use the sun for heat when heat is desirable and keeping them closed at other times; running appliances and thermostats on the lowest settings possible to get the job done; and avoiding loss of heat or cold by restricting opening of doors to the house, refrigerator, and oven when in operation. As such the workbook emphasizes practical knowledge that can be applied to real problems and situations. It contains a posttest and a skill test. One bibliographic citation is provided.

  11. Energy Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, J.N. [ed.

    1992-04-01

    The Energy Division is one of 17 research divisions at Oak Ridge Laboratory. Its goals and accomplishments are described in this annual progress report for FY 1991. The division`s total expenditures in FY 1991 were $39.1 million. The work is supported by the US Department of Energy, US Department of Defense, many other federal agencies, and some private organizations. Disciplines of the 124 technical staff members include engineering, social sciences, physical and life sciences, and mathematics and statistics. The Energy Division`s programmatic activities focus on three major areas: (1) analysis and assessment, (2) energy conservation technologies, and (3) military transportation systems. Analysis and assessment activities cover energy and resource analysis, the preparation of environmental assessments and impact statements, research on waste management, analysis of emergency preparedness for natural and technological disasters, analysis of the energy and environmental needs of developing countries, technology transfer, and analysis of civilian transportation. Energy conservation technologies include electric power systems, building equipment (thermally activated heat pumps, advanced refrigeration systems, novel cycles), building envelopes (walls, foundations, roofs, attics, and materials), and technical issues for improving energy efficiency in existing buildings. Military transportation systems concentrate on research for sponsors within the US military on improving the efficiency of military deployment, scheduling, and transportation coordination.

  12. Energy Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, J.N. (ed.)

    1992-04-01

    The Energy Division is one of 17 research divisions at Oak Ridge Laboratory. Its goals and accomplishments are described in this annual progress report for FY 1991. The division's total expenditures in FY 1991 were $39.1 million. The work is supported by the US Department of Energy, US Department of Defense, many other federal agencies, and some private organizations. Disciplines of the 124 technical staff members include engineering, social sciences, physical and life sciences, and mathematics and statistics. The Energy Division's programmatic activities focus on three major areas: (1) analysis and assessment, (2) energy conservation technologies, and (3) military transportation systems. Analysis and assessment activities cover energy and resource analysis, the preparation of environmental assessments and impact statements, research on waste management, analysis of emergency preparedness for natural and technological disasters, analysis of the energy and environmental needs of developing countries, technology transfer, and analysis of civilian transportation. Energy conservation technologies include electric power systems, building equipment (thermally activated heat pumps, advanced refrigeration systems, novel cycles), building envelopes (walls, foundations, roofs, attics, and materials), and technical issues for improving energy efficiency in existing buildings. Military transportation systems concentrate on research for sponsors within the US military on improving the efficiency of military deployment, scheduling, and transportation coordination.

  13. Relationship Between Hearing Losses with Tympanic Membran Perforations and Bony Chain Pathhologies in Chronic Otitis Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki SEZGiN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic otitis media ,which is identifed by tympanic membran perforation,suppurative ear discharge from the external ear canal,usually conductive type hearing loss,for more than three months ve resistant to medical treatment is an otitis media type.in this study we investigated relationship between middle ear pathologies and hearing loss in 112 patients operated due to chronic otitis media between 1999 january and 1999 december in our clinic.Our patients were classified in two different groups as cholesteatomatous and non-cholesteatomatous chronic otitis media.Tympanic membran pathologies are classified as central,attic,total perforations,retraction and intact tympanic membran.Ossicles are classified as functional,destructed,no hearing bony structures and ossicular movement limited or fixed.Audiological tests were performed.Pure tone hearing treshould were determined.Effects about the hearing function of tympanic membran and ossiculer chaine pathologies are investigated. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(4.000: 266-276

  14. Energy Division progress report, fiscal years 1994--1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, C.I. [ed.

    1996-06-01

    At ORNL, the Energy Division`s mission is to provide innovative solutions to energy and related issues of national and global importance through interdisciplinary research and development. Its goals and accomplishments are described in this progress report for FY 1994 and FY 1995. The Division`s expenditures in FY 1995 totaled 44.9 million. Sixty percent of the divisions work was supported by the US DOE. Other significant sponsors include the US DOT, the US DOD, other federal agencies, and some private organizations. The Division`s programmatic activities cover three main areas: (1) analysis and assessment, (2) transportation systems, and (3) energy use and delivery technologies. Analysis and assessment activities involve energy and resource analysis, preparation of environmental assessments and impact statements, and impact statements, research on emergency preparedness, analysis of energy and environmental needs in developing countries, and transportation analysis. Transportation systems research seeks to improve the quality of both civilian and military transportation efforts. Energy use and delivery technologies focus on building equipment, building envelopes, (walls, roofs, attics, and materials), improvement of energy efficiency in buildings, and electric power systems.

  15. Monstrous Domesticity – Home as a Site of Oppression in Crimson Peak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Musap

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins by offering a brief overview of the popular culture narrative Crimson Peak (2015, directed by Guillermo del Toro. The analysis focuses on the most compelling Gothic trope del Toro reintroduces, the proverbial mansion, simultaneously displaying Freud’s heimlich and unheimlich elements, oppressing and liberating its inhabitants. Since the narrative revolves around two female protagonists, Lucille Sharpe and Edith Cushing, the paper also refers to feminist socio-cultural perspectives on space, primarily Gillian Rose’s and Shelley Mallett’s, in order to understand the position of the two protagonists within the decidedly Gothic space. This paper aims to emphasize that Lucille’s liberation as the mistress of the house is illusory regardless of the fact that she is represented as the embodiment of domestic corruption. It is precisely because she is a sexually active woman and a disruptor of the patriarchal order that she must ultimately be punished. Even though del Toro subverts the traditional image of the madwoman in the attic by positioning her at the center of the narrative, Allerdale Hall does not reveal itself as a space of female empowerment.

  16. Upregulation of Phosphorylated HSP27, PRDX2, GRP75, GRP78 and GRP94 in Acquired Middle Ear Cholesteatoma Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuen Yao Ho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cholesteatoma is a destructive and expanding growth of keratinizing squamous epithelium in the middle ear or petrous apex. The molecular and cellular processes of the pathogenesis of acquired middle ear cholesteatoma have not been fully understood. In this study, comparative proteomic analysis was conducted to investigate the roles of specific proteins in the pathways regarding keratinocyte proliferation in cholesteatoma. The differential proteins were detected by comparing the two-dimension electrophoresis (2-DE maps of the epithelial tissues of 12 attic cholesteatomas with those of retroauricular skins. There were 14 upregulated proteins in the epithelial tissues of cholesteatoma in comparison with retroauricular skin. The modulation of five crucial proteins, HSP27, PRDX2, GRP75, GRP78 and GRP94, was further determined by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Phosphorylation of HSP27 at Ser-82 was identified by mass spectroscopy. The results of this study suggested that phosphorylated HSP27 is the end expression of two potential signal-transduction pathways, and together with PRDX2, they are very likely involved in the proliferation of keratinocytes in cholesteatoma. Upregulations of GRP75, GRP78 and GRP94 in keratinocytes may be able to counter endoplasmic reticulum stress, to inhibit cell apoptosis, to prevent protein unfolding and to promote cholesteatoma growth.

  17. The Andreas Vesalius woodblocks: a four hundred year journey from creation to destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Stephen N; Buchanan, Veronica

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to trace the history of woodblocks created in 1542 by Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564). Carved by the Venetian workmen on pear tree boards, the woodblocks were used in the Basel printing of Vesalius' works De Humani Corporis Fabrica and Epitome from 1543, The China Root Epistle (1546), and the frontispiece of the Fabrica, the edition from 1555. The blocks remained with the printer Oporinus in Basel until his death in 1568 when they were sold to the Froben family. The woodblocks reappeared in 1706 in a publication by Maschenbauer and were subsequently used by Leveling in 1783. An incomplete set of woodblocks was moved from Inglostadt to Landshut and then to Munich where Roth in 1885 documented them. At the suggestion of an American physician, Samuel Lambert, the University of Munich found the "missing" woodblocks in the attic. This led Wiegand and the New York Academy of Medicine to publish the woodblocks in the Icones Anatomicae in 1934. The second edition frontispiece was returned to Louvain where it was destroyed by bombing in 1940 and all the remaining woodblocks were destroyed in Allied bombing between 1943 and 1945. Thus, the Vesalius woodblocks travelled a 400-year journey from their creation, through the use in eight publications with over 5000 prints and ended in their tragic destruction.

  18. Effects of DDE and PCB (Aroclor 1260) on experimentally poisoned little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus): Lethal brain concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Stafford, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    Adult female little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) were collected in a church attic in North East, Cecil County, Md. Mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) containing organochlorine pollutants were fed to the bats as follows: 5 bats were dosed at 480 ppm DDE, 12 at 150 ppm DDE, 5 at 1000 ppm polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB; Aroclor 1260), and 12 at 15 ppm PCB. Seven other bats were fed untreated mealworms. The objective was to elevate brain levels of DDE and PCB to lethality and measure these concentrations. During 40 d of dosage, one DDE-dosed bat and two PCB-dosed bats died after exhibiting the prolonged tremor that characterizes organochlorine poisoning. After dosage, surviving bats were starved to elevate brain levels of toxicants, and three additional DDE-dosed bats had tremors before dying. The mean brain concentration of DDE diagnostic of death was estimated as 603 ppm, range 540-670 ppm. This mean is 16-18% higher than means for Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) and common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), and may indicate less sensitivity. Lethal brain concentrations of Aroclor 1260 were 1300 and 1500 ppm. Such values appear to be higher than values (Aroclor 1254) for brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). During starvation, DDE-dosed bats lost weight about 24% faster than controls. If smaller amounts of stored DDE cause increases in metabolic rates of nonfeeding bats, as during hibernation or migration, the result could be premature energy depletion and increased mortality.

  19. Effects of moisture controlled charcoal on indoor thermal and air environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Yokogoshi, Midori; Nabeshima, Yuki

    2017-10-01

    It is crucial to remove and control indoor moisture in Japan, especially in hot and humid summers, in order to improve thermal comfort and save energy in buildings. Charcoal for moisture control made from the waste of wood material has attracted attention among many control strategies to control indoor moisture, and it is beginning to be used in houses. However, the basic characteristics of the charcoal to control moisture and remove chemical compounds in indoor air have not been investigated sufficiently. The objective of this study is to clarify the effect of moisture control charcoal on indoor thermal and air environments by a long-term field measurement using two housing scale models with/without charcoal in Toyohashi, Japan. The comparative experiments to investigate the effect of the charcoal on air temperature and humidity for two models with/without charcoal were conducted from 2015 to 2016. Also, the removal performance of volatile organic compound (VOCs) was investigated in the summer of 2015. Four bags of packed charcoal were set on the floor in the attic for one model during the experiment. As a result of the experiments, a significant effect of moisture control was observed in hot and humid season, and the efficient effect of moisture adsorption was obtained by the periodic humidification experiment using a humidifier. Furthermore, the charcoal showed a remarkable performance of VOC removal from indoor air by the injection experiment of formaldehyde.

  20. Solar Energy System Performance Evaluation: seasonal report for Wormser, Columbia, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    The Wormser Solar Energy System located in a four unit townhouse apartment (5400 square feet) in Columbia, South Carolina was designed to provide 50% of the hot water and 70% of the space heating by the Wormser Scientific Corporation, Stamford, Connecticut. The Solar Energy System consists of 266 ft/sup 2/ of pyramidal optics, flat-plate liquid collectors, a solar window area of 1152 ft/sup 2/, a 2500 gallon thermal water storage tank, an energy transport system (water), heat exchangers, pumps, controls and four domestic hot water (DHW) tanks. Electrical elements in each domestic hot water tank provide necessary auxiliary energy for hot water. Four multifunctional heat pumps, supplied with solar heated water provide space heating energy to the apartments, collector freeze protection is provided through the location of the collectors inside the attic. The system with six modes of operation became oprational in February 1978. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, maintenance, summary and conclusions.

  1. Assessment of the US Department of Energy's Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers Grant Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenahan, Tim [APPRISE, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); Bausch, Daniel [APPRISE, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); Carroll, David [APPRISE, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); Tonn, Bruce Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rose, Erin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hawkins, Beth A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) grant program that was administered by the US Department of Energy Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program Office. Grants totaling $90 million were awarded to 101 local weatherization agencies located in 27 states. More than 15,000 housing units were touched by the SERC program. Close to 29,000 SERC technologies were installed and/or services delivered. The report summarizes the results of site visits to 27 agencies in which the following 14 technologies were observed: solar photovoltaic panels, solar hot water heaters, solar thermal air panels for space heating, tankless water heaters, heat pump water heaters, geothermal heat pumps, super-evaporative cooling systems, combination boilers and indirect water heaters, small-scale residential wind systems, cool roofs, masonry spray foam insulation, attic radiant barriers, mini-split heat pumps, and in-home energy monitors. The evaluation found that the national weatherization network is capable of installing and delivering a wide range of new and innovative technologies, but the usability and adoptability of some technologies may prove impractical for the weatherization network and the demographic for which it serves.

  2. The diet of wintering Barn Owls (Tyto alba in the region of Histria, the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SÁNDOR D. Attila

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Barn Owl (Tyto alba is a common nocturnal predator of agro-ecosystems and it is widely distributed, especially in European countryside. The species uses human artifacts, ruins, barns, attics, towers for breeding and roosting, these sites can provide researchers with hundreds of pellets, thus its diet is well known. A first assessment of the diet and food selection was made for the southern part of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve in the wintering period, in a unique wetland-grassland complex, with large areas of steppes. Mammals dominated the diet spectrum, with the shrews (Soricidae being the most frequent (48.3%, followed by the mice (Muridae, and the voles (Arvicolinae. The mammalian component of the diet is important also in terms of biomass (97.8 %. The most valuable species is the Sibling Vole (Microtus epiroticus equalling 25.5 % of all biomass consumed, followed by the Common White-toothed Shrew (Crocidura suaveolens and the Mound-building Mouse (Mus spicilegus. Birds and amphibians made up a small portion of the diet, both in terms of occurrence and of biomass. Three species of birds were captured, the House Sparrow (Passer domesticus being the most important. The results suggest that the Barn Owl is a specialized feeder relying on small mammals and completing its diet with other prey only occasionally.

  3. PREDICTING THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF ROOFING SYSTEMS IN SURABAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MINTOROGO Danny Santoso

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional roofing systems in the developing country likes Indonesia are still be dominated by the 30o, 45o, and more pitched angle roofs; the roofing cover materials are widely used to traditional clay roof tiles, then modern concrete roof tiles, and ceramic roof tiles. In the 90’s decay, shop houses are prosperous built with flat concrete roofs dominant. Green roofs and roof ponds are almost rarely built to meet the sustainable environmental issues. Some tested various roof systems in Surabaya were carried out to observe the roof thermal performances. Mathematical equation model from three references are also performed in order to compare with the real project tested. Calculated with equation (Kabre et al., the 30o pitched concrete-roof-tile, 30o clay-roof-tile, 45o pitched concrete-roof-tile are the worst thermal heat flux coming to room respectively. In contrast, the bare soil concrete roof and roof pond system are the least heat flux streamed onto room. Based on predicted calculation without insulation and cross-ventilation attic space, the roof pond and bare soil concrete roof (greenery roof are the appropriate roof systems for the Surabaya’s climate; meanwhile the most un-recommended roof is pitched 30o or 45o angle with concrete-roof tiles roofing systems.

  4. Field evaluation of reflective insulation in south east Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Khar San; Yarbrough, David W.; Lim, Chin Haw; Salleh, Elias

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this research was to obtain thermal performance data for reflective insulations in a South East Asia environment. Thermal resistance data (RSI, m2 ṡ K/W) for reflective insulations are well established from 1-D steady-state tests, but thermal data for reflective insulation in structures like those found in South East Asia are scarce. Data for reflective insulations in South East Asia will add to the worldwide database for this type of energy-conserving material. RSI were obtained from heat flux and temperature data of three identical structures in the same location. One unit did not have insulation above the ceiling, while the second and third units were insulated with reflective insulation with emittance less than 0.05. RSI for the uninsulated test unit varied from 0.37 to 0.40 m2 ṡ K/W. RSI for a single-sheet reflective insulation (woven foil) varied from 2.15 to 2.26 m2 ṡ K/W, while bubble-foil insulation varied from 2.69 to 3.09 m2 ṡ K/W. The range of RSI values resulted from differences in the spacing between the reflective insulation and the roof. In addition, the reflective insulation below the roof lowered attic temperatures by as much as 9.7° C. Reductions in ceiling heat flux of 80 to 90% relative to the uninsulated structure, due to the reflective insulation, were observed.

  5. Different structural changes in membrana Shrapnelli in serous and purulent otitis media. An experimental study in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widemar, L; Hellström, S; Stenfors, L E

    1986-01-01

    In an animal model, production of serous and purulent effusion material was induced by blocking the Eustachian tube and cleaving the soft palate, respectively. Two and 6 weeks after the different surgical procedures, animals were sacrificed and the membrana Shrapnelli was analysed by light- and electronmicroscopy. The two types of middle ear effusion were associated with various structural changes of the membrana Shrapnelli. In serous otitis media the pars flaccida appeared fibrotic, with large dilated vessels. Sometimes its inner layer, facing the attic space, was contiguous with the investing layer of the ossicles. In purulent otitis media the pars flaccida was thickened and the inner epithelial lining was replaced by a pseudostratified squamous epithelium containing ciliated and secretory cells. Ciliated cells lining the pars flaccida appeared pathognomonic for a longstanding middle ear infection. It is inferred that the structure of membrana Shrapnelli changes under the influence of inflammatory conditions in the middle ear cavity, changes which specifically reflect the different types of otitis media.

  6. Membrana shrapnelli of maturing rats. The occurrence of mast cells, and histamine content in relation to otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widemar, L; Alm, P E; Bloom, G D; Hellström, S; Stenfors, L E

    1984-01-01

    The membrana shrapnelli or pars flaccida of 12 day old rats is thick (84 micron) and almost completely fills the lateral attic compartment. Histologically it is characterized by a thickened layer of stratified squamous epithelium and a lamina propria whereas an inner epithelial lining is difficult to discern. Mast cells are numerous and distributed throughout the lamina propria. At day 21 and day 30 the thickness of the pars flaccida is reduced and histologically it resembles that of the adult. Mast cells are mainly located in the vicinity of blood vessels and in a layer just beneath the squamous epithelium. The number of mast cells per unit area of pars flaccida is considerably higher in young rats as compared to adults. At day 12 their number is roughly 2.1 times that of the adult and at day 21 and 30 about 1.5 times. Except for a slightly raised level of histamine at day 30 the concentration of histamine in the pars flaccida of young rats did not differ from values obtained in the adult. Previous experimental studies have indicated that mast cells in the pars flaccida may play an important role in the pathogenesis of OME. It is interesting to note that the pars flaccida of young rats contains more mast cells than that of the adult. Should this also be the case in the pars flaccida of young humans it is tempting to suggest that mast cells may play a role in the pathogenesis of OME in children too.

  7. Field evaluation of reflective insulation in south east Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teh Khar San

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to obtain thermal performance data for reflective insulations in a South East Asia environment. Thermal resistance data (RSI, m2 ⋅ K/W for reflective insulations are well established from 1-D steady-state tests, but thermal data for reflective insulation in structures like those found in South East Asia are scarce. Data for reflective insulations in South East Asia will add to the worldwide database for this type of energy-conserving material. RSI were obtained from heat flux and temperature data of three identical structures in the same location. One unit did not have insulation above the ceiling, while the second and third units were insulated with reflective insulation with emittance less than 0.05. RSI for the uninsulated test unit varied from 0.37 to 0.40 m2 ⋅ K/W. RSI for a single-sheet reflective insulation (woven foil varied from 2.15 to 2.26 m2 ⋅ K/W, while bubble-foil insulation varied from 2.69 to 3.09 m2 ⋅ K/W. The range of RSI values resulted from differences in the spacing between the reflective insulation and the roof. In addition, the reflective insulation below the roof lowered attic temperatures by as much as 9.7° C. Reductions in ceiling heat flux of 80 to 90% relative to the uninsulated structure, due to the reflective insulation, were observed.

  8. Usefulness of CT in preoperative examinations for middle ear surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Okitsu, Takuji; Sakurai, Tokio; Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Taniguchi, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Kuniaki; Kusakari, Jun

    1985-02-01

    The usefulness of CT in preoperative examinations for middle ear surgery was evaluated on the basis of whether or not it can provide a surgon with useful information not available from the other preoperative examinations, such as microscopic examination, pure tone audiometry, impedance audiometry, equilibrium tests, conventional X-ray films, etc. The findings of CT were compared with those obatained during operations and the following conclusions were reached: CT is especially useful for the three purposes indicated below. (1) to determine the patency of the attic air route to the mastoid antrum. (2) to make differential diagnoses of middle ear diseases in the presence of obstructive pathology of the external auditory meatus. (3) to make a rough estimate of the extent of cholesteatoma growth in the middle ear cleft, and to diagnose labyrinthine fistulae. CT proved less effective or useless for the following three purposes. (1) to secure detailed information on the status of the ossicular chain. (2) to determine the precise extent of the growth of cholesteatoma. (3) to evaluate the postoperative status of the ear. (author).

  9. Short-Term Test Results. Transitional Housing Energy Efficiency Retrofit in the Hot Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, K. [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, Eric [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This project evaluates the renovation of a 5,800 ft2, multi-use facility located in St. Petersburg, on the west coast of central Florida, in the hot humid climate. An optimal package of retrofit measures was designed to deliver 30%-40% annual energy cost savings for this building with annual utility bills exceeding $16,000 and high base load consumption. Researchers projected energy cost savings for potential retrofit measures based on pre-retrofit findings and disaggregated, weather normalized utility bills as a basis for simulation true-up. A cost-benefit analysis was conducted for the seven retrofit measures implemented; adding attic insulation and sealing soffits, tinting windows, improving whole building air-tightness, upgrading heating and cooling systems and retrofitting the air distribution system, replacing water heating systems, retrofitting lighting, and replacing laundry equipment. The projected energy cost savings for the full retrofit package based on a post-retrofit audit is 35%. The building's architectural characteristics, vintage, and residential and commercial uses presented challenges for both economic projections and retrofit measure construction.

  10. Isolation of technogenic magnetic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catinon, Mickaël, E-mail: mickael.catinon@gmail.com [Laboratoire LECA, UMR 5553, Equipe Pollution, Environnement, Ecotoxicologie et Ecoremédiation, Univ. J. Fourier, 38041 Grenoble (France); Ayrault, Sophie, E-mail: sophie.ayrault@lsce.ispl.fr [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, UMR 8212, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ/IPSL, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Boudouma, Omar, E-mail: boudouma@ccr.jussieu.fr [Service du MEB, UFR928, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 75252 Paris VI (France); Bordier, Louise, E-mail: Louise.Bordier@lsce.ipsl.fr [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, UMR 8212, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ/IPSL, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Agnello, Gregory, E-mail: contact@evinrude.fr [Evinrude, Espace St Germain, 38200 Vienne (France); Reynaud, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.reynaud@ujf-grenoble.fr [Laboratoire LECA, UMR 5553, Equipe Pollution, Environnement, Ecotoxicologie et Ecoremédiation, Univ. J. Fourier, 38041 Grenoble (France); Tissut, Michel, E-mail: michel.tissut@ujf-grenoble.fr [Laboratoire LECA, UMR 5553, Equipe Pollution, Environnement, Ecotoxicologie et Ecoremédiation, Univ. J. Fourier, 38041 Grenoble (France)

    2014-03-01

    Technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs) emitted by various industrial sources, such as smelting plants, end up after atmospheric transfer on the soil surface. In the present study, we characterised the origin and composition of such particles emitted by a large iron smelting plant and deposited on particular substrates, namely tombstones, which act as a very interesting and appropriate matrix when compared to soil, tree bark, lichens or attic dust. The isolation and subsequent description of TMPs require a critical step of separation between different components of the sample and the magnetic particles; here, we described an efficient protocol that fulfils such a requirement: it resorts to water suspension, sonication, repeated magnetic extraction, sedimentation, sieving and organic matter destruction at 550 °C in some instances. The isolated TMPs displayed a noticeable crystalline shape with variable compositions: a) pure iron oxides, b) iron + Cr, Ni or Zn, and c) a complex structure containing Ca, Si, Mg, and Mn. Using Scanning Electron Microscope Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM–EDX), we obtained profiles of various and distinct magnetic particles, which allowed us to identify the source of the TMPs. - Highlights: • The developed method offers a low-cost approach of large-scale dry deposition. • Tombstones are excellent supports for sampling these atmospheric deposits. • Smelted elements crystallise after cooling, giving typical technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs). • Coupling microscopic and bulk analyses allows identifying TMP origin. • Magnetic TMPs issued from steel industry were separated by a new technique.

  11. Dampness and Moisture Problems in Norwegian Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Rune; Høie, Anja Hortemo; Bakke, Jan Vilhelm; Holøs, Sverre Bjørn; Øvrevik, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of dampness and mold in the indoor environment is associated with respiratory-related disease outcomes. Thus, it is pertinent to know the magnitude of such indoor environment problems to be able to estimate the potential health impact in the population. In the present study, the moisture damage in 10,112 Norwegian dwellings was recorded based on building inspection reports. The levels of moisture damage were graded based on a condition class (CC), where CC0 is immaculate and CC1 acceptable (actions not required), while CC2 and CC3 indicate increased levels of damage that requires action. Of the 10,112 dwellings investigated, 3125 had verified moisture or mold damage. This amounts to 31% of the surveyed dwellings. Of these, 27% had CC2 as the worst grade, whereas 4% had CC3 as the worst grade level. The room types and building structures most prone to moisture damage were (in rank order) crawl spaces, basements, un-insulated attics, cooling rooms, and bathrooms. The high proportion of homes with moisture damage indicate a possible risk for respiratory diseases in a relatively large number of individuals, even if only the more extensive moisture damages and those located in rooms where occupants spend the majority of their time would have a significant influence on adverse health effects. PMID:29039816

  12. Columbia County Habitat for Humanity Passive Townhomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan [The Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Alaigh, Kunal [The Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Dadia, Devanshi [The Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-03-18

    Columbia County (New York) Habitat for Humanity built a pair of townhomes to Passive House criteria with the purpose of exploring approaches for achieving Passive House performance and to eventually develop a prototype design for future projects. The project utilized a 2x6 frame wall with a structural insulated panel curtain wall and a ventilated attic over a sealed OSB ceiling air barrier. Mechanical systems include a single head, wall mounted ductless mini-split heat pump in each unit and a heat recovery ventilator. Costs were $26,000 per unit higher for Passive House construction compared with the same home built to ENERGY STAR version 3 specifications, representing about 18% of total construction cost. This report discusses the cost components, energy modeling results and lessons from construction. Two alternative ventilation systems are analyzed: a central system; and, a point-source system with small through-wall units distributed throughout the house. The report includes a design and cost analysis of these two approaches.

  13. Determinación de cubiertas inclinadas para programas de arquitectura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recuero, Alfonso

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an algorithm which allows the determination of a sloped roof over a plane polygonal plan of any simply or multiply connected form, that is to say, considering the interior courtyards. The slope of each gable is fixed independently, which allows us to solve a variety of cases, such as those of equally sloped roofs, roofs with constant height ridges, attic roofs or roofs over façades without gables. The algorithm provides the geometric description, of each gable separately, which facilitates its incorporation in the computer building design programs. Tim work includes a thorough description of the algorithm as well as a representative set of practical examples.

    Se presenta un algoritmo que permite determinar una cubierta inclinada sobre una planta poligonal plana deforma cualquiera simple o múltiplemente conexa, esto es, considerando patios interiores. La inclinación de cada faldón se fija independientemente, lo cual permite resolver tanto los casos de cubiertas igualmente inclinadas, como el de cubiertas de cumbreras de altura constante, el de cubiertas amansardadas o el de fachadas sin faldones. El algoritmo proporciona la descripción geométrica de cada uno de los faldones independientemente, lo que facilita su incorporación en programas para diseño de edificios asistido por computador. En el presente trabajo se incluye una descripción exhaustiva del algoritmo, así como un conjunto representativo de ejemplos de utilización.

  14. Ecological Risks in Residential Premises Arising from Thermal Insulation by Pouring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, S. S.; Timofeev, S. S.

    2017-11-01

    The residents of modern megacities are exposed to environmental risks arising both directly in the urban environment and their own dwellings. Modern polymeric building materials are the sources of toxic substances release into the air that have a significant impact on the population health. The objective of the work is the ecological and hygienic study of the air in the apartments of Irkutsk after repair work on the roof and walls insulation using the technology of pouring and calculation of the potential environmental risk for the residents. The object of the research was the indoor air in one of the houses in Irkutsk tested for formaldehyde and other toxic substances. After putting the house into operation, some defects were found - the freezing of the walls of the building attic part. During the repair work, the mansard part of the building was heat-insulated by the pouring method using the composite material “Poroplast CF 02”. High concentrations of formaldehyde and styrene were detected in the apartments exceeding the MPC in 4-8 times. The hazard ratio for inhalation exposure to harmful substances exceeds the safety level by 10 times. Consequently, there is a high probability of obtaining acute and chronic poisoning and developing cancer.

  15. Norwegian Pitched Roof Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Gullbrekken

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The building constructions investigated in this work are pitched wooden roofs with exterior vertical drainpipes and wooden load-bearing system. The aim of this research is to further investigate the building defects of pitched wooden roofs and obtain an overview of typical roof defects. The work involves an analysis of the building defect archive from the research institute SINTEF Building and Infrastructure. The findings from the SINTEF archive show that moisture is a dominant exposure factor, especially in roof constructions. In pitched wooden roofs, more than half of the defects are caused by deficiencies in design, materials, or workmanship, where these deficiencies allow moisture from precipitation or indoor moisture into the structure. Hence, it is important to increase the focus on robust and durable solutions to avoid defects both from exterior and interior moisture sources in pitched wooden roofs. Proper design of interior ventilation and vapour retarders seem to be the main ways to control entry from interior moisture sources into attic and roof spaces.

  16. Organochlorine pesticides in the indoor air of a theatre and museum in the Czech Republic: Inhalation exposure and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Eva; Audy, Ondřej; Booij, Petra; Melymuk, Lisa; Prokes, Roman; Klánová, Jana

    2017-12-31

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been used to preserve the integrity of historical buildings or to protect collections of artefacts at potentially large volumes and often without detailed application records. Previous research has focused on the efficiency of remediation at contaminated sites (where identified), as well as improvement of preservation techniques and workplace health and safety. Few studies have assessed the human health risks from occupational exposure to OCPs in buildings of cultural and historical importance. Thus, potential risks may remain unidentified. In the present study, OCPs in indoor air were measured in a baroque theatre and a natural history museum in the Czech Republic, both of which had suspected past indoor application. In the theatre attic p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) levels in air were up to 190ngm(-3), confirming past indoor use of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT). There was also evidence of γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH) use in the theatre (max γ-HCH in air of 56ngm(-3)). Yet, the cancer risk (CR) from occupational exposure via inhalation (Expi) to OCPs in the theatre was low (CR1×10(-4)). Our results show the CR through Expi to OCPs in buildings, such as museums can still be significant enough to warrant mitigation measures, e.g., remediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Short-Term Test Results: Transitional Housing Energy Efficiency Retrofit in the Hot-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, K.; Martin, E.

    2013-02-01

    This project evaluates the renovation of a 5,800 ft2, multi-use facility located in St. Petersburg, on the west coast of central Florida, in the hot humid climate. An optimal package of retrofit measures was designed to deliver 30-40% annual energy cost savings for this building with annual utility bills exceeding $16,000 and high base load consumption. Researchers projected energy cost savings for potential retrofit measures based on pre-retrofit findings and disaggregated, weather normalized utility bills as a basis for simulation true-up. A cost-benefit analysis was conducted for the seven retrofit measures implemented; adding attic insulation and sealing soffits, tinting windows, improving whole building air-tightness, upgrading heating and cooling systems and retrofitting the air distribution system, replacing water heating systems, retrofitting lighting, and replacing laundry equipment. The projected energy cost savings for the full retrofit package based on a post-retrofit audit is 35%. The building's architectural characteristics, vintage, and residential and commercial uses presented challenges for both economic projections and retrofit measure construction.

  18. Decomposition of Concealed and Exposed Porcine Remains in the North Carolina Piedmont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammack, J A; Cohen, A C; Kreitlow, K L; Roe, R M; Watson, D W

    2016-01-01

    We examined the decomposition and subsequent insect colonization of small pig carrion (Sus scrofa (L.)) placed in concealed and open environments during spring, summer, and fall in Raleigh, North Carolina, as a model for juvenile human remains. Remains were concealed in simulated attics in three manners, ranging from minimal to well-concealed. Concealment had a significant effect on the insect community colonizing the remains across all three seasons; the beetles Necrobia rufipes (DeGeer) (Cleridae) and Dermestes maculatus (DeGeer) (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) were the only species indicative of remains located indoors, whereas numerous fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Sepsidae, and Piophilidae) and beetle (Coleoptera: Silphidae, Staphylinidae, and Histeridae) species and an ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Prenolepis sp.) were indicative of remains located outdoors. Season also significantly affected the insect species, particularly the blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) colonizing remains: Lucilia illustris (Meigen) was indicative of the spring, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) and Chrysomya megacephala (F.) were indicative of the summer, and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Calliphora vomitoria (L.) were indicative of the fall. In addition, across all seasons, colonization was delayed by 35–768 h, depending on the degree of concealment. These differences among the insect communities across seasons and concealment treatments, and the effects of concealment on colonization indicate that such information is important and should to be considered when analyzing entomological evidence for criminal investigations.

  19. Micénico, dialectos paramicénicos y aqueo épico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R. Adrados

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers to the dialectal state of Greece during the second millennium B. C. In a forthcoming issue of Emerita another article will follow on «The creation of the Greek dialects of the first millennium». According to the author Mycenaean, although closely related with the other Greek oriental dialects, would present features of its own: this dialect sometimes has innovations not found anywhere else, sometimes presents doublets while the other dialects choose one or the other form. The original kernel of Epic language is related to Mycenaean but differs from it both in archaisms and innovations. This language was altered in the beginning of the first millennium when some Homeric features were interpreted as Ionian or Aeolian and so allowed the introduction of actual Ionian and Aeolian features. On the other hand already in the second millennium might exist some varieties in the oriental Greek dialects which form the kernels of the future Ionian-Attic, Aeolian and Arcadian-Cypriot dialects. It is just these varieties which are called Para-Mycenaean by the author. It is quite trustworthy to believe that Crete was the birthplace of linear B, exported then to the Continent to be used by the official recorders. Epic Achaean language, on the contrary, is believed to be born in the Continent and to have developed in Minor Asia.

  20. Energy-efficient rehabilitation of multifamily buildings in the Midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katrakis, J.T.; Knight, P.A.; Cavallo, J.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Policy and Economic Analysis Group

    1994-09-01

    This report addresses the opportunities available to make multifamily housing more affordable by using energy efficiency practices in housing rehabilitation. Use of the energy conservation measures discussed in this report enables developers of multifamily housing to substantially reduce annual energy costs. The reduction in natural gas usage was found to be approximately 10 Btu per square foot per heating degree-day. The study focuses on a number of Chicago multifamily buildings. The buildings were examined to compare energy efficiency measures that are commonly found in multifamily building rehabilitation with the high-energy-efficiency (HE) techniques that are currently available to community developers but are often unused. The HE measures include R-43 insulation in attics, R-19 insulation in exterior walls, low-emissivity coatings on windows, air infiltration sealing, and HE heating systems. The report describes the HE features and their potential benefits for making housing more affordable. It also describes the factors influencing acceptance. This report makes recommendations for expanding cost-effective energy conservation in the multifamily building sector. Among the recommendations are: expand HE rehab and retrofit techniques to multifamily building rehabs in which demolition of the interior structures is not required (moderate rehabs) or buildings are not vacant (e.g., weatherization upgrades); and expand research into the special opportunities for incorporating energy conservation in low-income communities.

  1. Effective use of Wikis in College Mathematics Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Martin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Wikis are used in mathematics education in a variety of ways [3]. As with Wikipedia, mathematics related Wikis provide pages and links that describe many different branches of mathematics. Another common use is as a portal for distributing and collecting mathematics course materials [1]. This article describes the authors' use of course wikis for two different purposes in two undergraduate math courses. In Calculus-I, a wiki was utilized to share and present the outcome of an optimization problem that required small groups to collect information about student homes' attic insulation status and eventually to compute the optimal amount of new insulation to add that maximizes heating savings. The second wiki was for a small seminar-style course on Mathematical Mysteries where students collected and posted the results of their research relating to famous unsolved problems in mathematics. This wiki was also used as a platform for in-class presentations by the students and the instructors. In both cases, the bulk of the wiki contribution was by students.

  2. Building for the Pacific Rim Countries. Energy-efficient building strategies for hot, humid climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinkopf, K. [ed.

    1991-09-01

    This book has been published by the Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA), the US trade association of the solar thermal, photovoltaic, and passive solar manufacturers, distributors, and component suppliers. Its purpose is to help architects, builders, and developers construct energy-efficient homes in hot humid climates like the Pacific Rim Countries, and to allow occupants of these homes to enjoy enhanced comfort without reliance on mechanical air-conditioning systems. Two important factors are addressed in this book. First, the past few years have seen a tremendous increase in practical applications of new research. The current popularity of ceiling paddle fans, attic radiant barriers and natural daylighting attest to the importance of keeping up with the latest concepts in energy-reduction and comfort-awareness. Professionals who have been in the field for the past few years may be unaware of the latest research findings--some of which dramatically alter prior thinking on such subjects as natural ventilation or mechanical air conditioning. The second factor is the importance of site-specific characteristics, which greatly affect building strategies and designs. A thorough understanding of the climate is a prerequisite to good building design. Such factors as temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, and solar radiation must be understood and properly integrated into the design for the home to be truly energy-efficient.

  3. The hidden poetry of Solyman Brown, the "poet laureate of dentistry".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Malvin E

    2002-07-01

    One of the most important figures in the development of the dental profession was Solyman Brown, in whose home the leading dentists of his day met and organized the first national dental organization in the world as well as the first dental journal in the world. He was named the first secretary of the organization and served, for two years, as the first editor of the journal. A true Renaissance man, Brown was also a consummate, and widely published, poet, and his epic poem, Dentologia, was hailed by the critics of his day as a literary masterpiece, earning him the sobriquet, "Poet Laureate of Dentistry." Recently Solyman Brown's great-great grandson, cleaning out an attic, discovered a trunk full of material relating to Brown's life - his daughters' memoirs, many of his letters and other of his writings, and many of his unpublished poetical works. This author was fortunate to be able to study all this material, and the poems published herein give a much fuller and rounded picture of this monumental figure in American, and world, dentistry.

  4. CT of petrou bone. Utility to cholesteatoma location. Study of 28 cases. TC de peasco. Utilidad para la localizacion preoperativa del colesteatoma. Estudio de 28 casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer, M.D.; Espinos, M.A.; Molina, A.; Martinez-Rodrigo, J.; Galant, J. (Hospital Dr. Peset. Servicio de Diagnostico por la imagen. Valencia (Spain))

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-eight patients with cholesteatoma were studied preoperatively by means of CT petrous bone to determine the localization and extension of their lesion. All the patients underwent survey and the intraoperative findings were compared with those resulting from CT. The reading was carried out with no knowledge of the intraoperative data. The following results were obtained: localization of cholesteatoma in attic, antrum and posterior tympanic cavity had a sensitivity of 0.91 and a specificity of 0.57, with a Fisher's p value less than 0.0005. When the erosion produced by the cholesteatoma was studied in the different structures, the accuracy was greatest with the stape, the septum and prussak's space; the highest number of false negatives corresponded to the tympanic membrane. The false positives were produced in the assessment of the facial canal, tegmen tympani and the labyrinthine fistula. The reliability of CT was very high for the diagnosis of ossicular destruction and displacement of the small bones, as well as for the state of the mastoid cells and congenital variations. In conclusion, we point out the importance of performing a CT study prior to surgery for cholesteatoma due to its elevated sensitivity in locating the lesion, and we stress the value of the knowledge of the erosion of the different structures since it constitutes a guide for intraoperative exploration and assessment. (Author)

  5. Estudio AB-Initio de las propiedades estructurales y electrónicas de la doble Perovskita Ba2InTaO6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crispulo Enrique Deluque-Toro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The double Perovskites materials with the formula A2 BB’O6 has been studied thoroughly in the past years due to its versatility, which allow to include the alkaline earth ions in A sites and transition metals in B and B’sites, giving origin to several physical properties with various industrials applications. In this work the structural and electronic properties of Ba2 InTaO6 are studied, material that is particularly interesting due to its possible application to the development of dielectric resonators and microwave signal filters on mobile phones and other wireless devices. Using ab-initio computational model, based on the Density Funtional Theory (DFT, and starting from spacial group Fm-3m, we calculate lattice parameters, equilibrium energies and equations of state among other quantities. The energy minimization as a function of volume allows to obtain a attice constant of 15.861 Bohr. The results of electronic density of states (DOS show that the double Perovskite Ba2 InTaO6 has an indirect gap of ~ 4.25 eV.

  6. Firefighter safety and photovoltaic installations research project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backstrom, Robert; Dini, Dave

    2012-10-01

    Under the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Assistance to Fire Fighters grant, UL LLC examined fire service concerns of photovoltaic (PV) systems. These concerns included firefighter vulnerability to electrical and casualty hazards when mitigating a fire involving photovoltaic (PV) modules systems. Findings include: 1. The electric shock hazard due to application of water is dependent on voltage, water conductivity, distance and spray pattern of the suppression stream. 2. Outdoor weather exposure rated electrical enclosures are not resistant to water penetration by fire hose streams. 3. Firefighter's gloves and boots afford limited protection against electrical shock provided the insulating surface is intact and dry. 4. "Turning off" an array is not a simple matter of opening a disconnect switch. 5. Tarps offer varying degrees of effectiveness. 6. Fire equipment scene lighting and exposure fires may illuminate PV systems sufficiently to cause a lock-on hazard. 7. Severely damaged PV arrays are capable of producing hazardous conditions. 8. Damage to modules from tools may result in both electrical and fire hazards. 9. Severing of conductors in both metal and plastic conduit results in electrical and fire hazards. 10. Responding personnel must stay away from the roofline in the event of modules or sections of an array sliding off the roof. 11. Fires under an array but above the roof may breach roofing materials and decking allowing fire to propagate into the attic space. Several tactical considerations were developed utilizing the data from the experiments.

  7. In praise of simple physics the science and mathematics behind everyday questions

    CERN Document Server

    Nahin, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Physics can explain many of the things that we commonly encounter. It can tell us why the night is dark, what causes the tides, and even how best to catch a baseball. With In Praise of Simple Physics, popular math and science writer Paul Nahin presents a plethora of situations that explore the science and math behind the wonders of everyday life. Roaming through a diverse range of puzzles, he illustrates how physics shows us ways to wring more energy from renewable sources, to measure the gravity in our car garages, to figure out which of three light switches in the basement controls the light bulb in the attic, and much, much more. How fast can you travel from London to Paris? How do scientists calculate the energy of an atomic bomb explosion? How do you kick a football so it stays in the air and goes a long way downfield? Nahin begins with simpler problems and progresses to more challenging questions, and his entertaining, accessible, and scientifically and mathematically informed explanations are all punc...

  8. جماليات الفن المصري القديم بين الالتزام وحرية التعبير (دراسة تاريخية تحليلية فنية

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    رعد مطر مجيد الطائي

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available I have deliberately researcher to study the concept of freedom and commitment in the search, and its impact on ancient Egyptian art as one of the basic pillars that the attic of the ancient Egyptian civilization, and as a means of important means of expression that has assured us the relationship between the Egyptians and their beliefs, and how this belief have impact on the arts that civilization . Art was associated with the land and the people and ideals prevailing thought and translated by the artist, and through him the best expression of his art came a commitment to the values and principles and norms of his group to which I belong. Find and located in two chapters: The first chapter, the factors that prompted the Egyptian artist to abide by, and the concept of Alaltzm Bmajalth different, and how the artist committed as a free First, if we understand that the commitment is an expression of responsibility. The second chapter: the concept of freedom in ancient Egyptian art, and how it is linked to the stages of the development of society, which explains this development often is the sum of the intellectual and ideological factors that accompany it, and here it becomes artistic liberation doomed social development.

  9. Indoor Environmental Quality Benefits of Apartment Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noris, Federico [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Adamkiewicz, Gary [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston MA (United States); Delp, William W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hotchi, Toshifumi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Russell, Marion [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spears, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Vermeer, Kimberly [Urban Habitate Initiatives Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Sixteen apartments serving low-income populations in three buildings were retrofit with the goal of simultaneously reducing energy consumption and improving indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Retrofit measures varied among apartments and included, among others, envelope sealing, installation of continuous mechanical ventilation systems, upgrading bathroom fans and range hoods, attic insulation, replacement of heating and cooling systems, and adding wall-mounted particle air cleaners. IEQ parameters were measured, generally for two one-week periods before and after the retrofits. The measurements indicate an overall improvement in IEQ conditions after the retrofits. Comfort conditions, bathroom humidity, and concentrations of carbon dioxide, acetaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, and particles generally improved. Formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide levels decreased in the building with the highest concentrations, were unchanged in a second building, and increased in a third building. IEQ parameters other than particles improved more in apartments with continuous mechanical ventilation systems installed. In general, but not consistently, larger percent increases in air exchange rates were associated with larger percent decreases in indoor levels of the pollutants that primarily come from indoor sources.

  10. West Village Student Housing Phase I: Apartment Monitoring and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Bell, C. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) worked with the University of California, Davis and the developer partner West Village Community Partnership (WVCP) to evaluate performance on 192 student apartments completed in September, 2011 as part of Phase I of the multi-purpose West Village project. West Village is the largest planned zero net energy community in the United States. The campus neighborhood is designed to enable faculty, staff, and students to affordably live near campus, take advantage of environmentally friendly transportation options, and participate fully in campus life. The aggressive energy efficiency measures that are incorporated in the design contribute to source energy reductions of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. These measures include increased wall and attic insulation, high performance windows, high efficiency heat pumps for heating and cooling, central heat pump water heaters (HPWHs), 100% high efficacy lighting, and ENERGY STAR major appliances. The report discusses how measured energy use compares to modeling estimates over a 10-month monitoring period and includes a cost effective evaluation.

  11. West Village Student Housing Phase I: Apartment Monitoring and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A.; Bell, C.; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2014-06-01

    Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) worked with the University of California, Davis (UC Davis) and the developer partner West Village Community Partnership (WVCP) to evaluate performance on 192 student apartments completed in September, 2011 as part of Phase I of the multi-purpose West Village project. West Village, the largest planned zero net energy community in the United States. The campus neighborhood is designed to enable faculty, staff and students to affordably live near campus, take advantage of environmentally friendly transportation options, and participate fully in campus life. The aggressive energy efficiency measures that are incorporated in the design contribute to source energy reductions of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. The energy efficiency measures that are incorporated into these apartments include increased wall & attic insulation, high performance windows, high efficiency heat pumps for heating and cooling, central heat pump water heaters (HPWHs), 100% high efficacy lighting, and ENERGY STAR major appliances. Results discuss how measured energy use compares to modeling estimates over a 10 month monitoring period and includes a cost effective evaluation.

  12. Performance Evaluation of Advanced Retrofit Roof Technologies Using Field-Test Data Phase Three Final Report, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Kaushik [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Childs, Phillip W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Atchley, Jerald Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This article presents some miscellaneous data from two low-slope and two steep-slope experimental roofs. The low-slope roofs were designed to compare the performance of various roof coatings exposed to natural weatherization. The steep-slope roofs contained different combinations of phase change material, rigid insulation, low emittance surface and above-sheathing ventilation, with standing-seam metal panels on top. The steep-slope roofs were constructed on a series of adjacent attics separated at the gables using thick foam insulation. This article describes phase three (3) of a study that began in 2009 to evaluate the energy benefits of a sustainable re-roofing technology utilizing standing-seam metal roofing panels combined with energy efficient features like above-sheathing-ventilation (ASV), phase change material (PCM) and rigid insulation board. The data from phases 1 and 2 have been previously published and reported [Kosny et al., 2011; Biswas et al., 2011; Biswas and Childs, 2012; Kosny et al., 2012]. Based on previous data analyses and discussions within the research group, additional test roofs were installed in May 2012, to test new configurations and further investigate different components of the dynamic insulation systems. Some experimental data from phase 3 testing from May 2012 to December 2013 and some EnergyPlus modeling results have been reported in volumes 1 and 3, respectively, of the final report [Biswas et al., 2014; Biswas and Bhandari, 2014].

  13. Beam Tests of the Balloon-Borne ATIC Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganel, O.; Adams, J. H., Jr.; Ahn, E. J.; Ampe, J.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Case, G.; Chang, J.; Ellison, S.; Fazely, A.; Gould, R.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) balloon-borne experiment is designed to perform cosmic-ray elemental spectra measurement from 50 GeV to 100 TeV for nuclei from hydrogen to iron. These measurements are expected to provide crucial hints about some of the most fundamental questions in astroparticle physics today. ATTIC'S design centers on an 18 radiation length (X(sub Omnicron)) deep bismuth germanate (BGO) calorimeter, preceded by a 0.75 lambda(sub int) graphite target. In September 1999 the ATIC detector was exposed to high-energy beams at CERN's SPS accelerator, within the framework of the development program for the Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station (ACCESS). In December 2000 - January 2001, ATIC flew on the first of a series of long duration balloon (LDB) flights from McMurdo Station, Antarctica. We present here results from the 1999 beam-tests, including energy resolutions for electrons and protons at several beam energies from 100 GeV to 375 GeV, as well as signal linearity and collection efficiency estimates. We show how these results compare with expectations based on simulations, and their expected impacts on mission performance.

  14. Building America Case Study: Accelerating the Delivery of Home-Performance Upgrades Using a Synergistic Business Model, Minneapolis, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    Achieving Building America energy savings goals (40 percent by 2030) will require many existing homes to install energy upgrades. Engaging large numbers of homeowners in building science-guided upgrades during a single remodeling event has been difficult for a number of reasons. Performance upgrades in existing homes tend to occur over multiple years and usually result from component failures (furnace failure) and weather damage (ice dams, roofing, siding). This research attempted to: A) Understand the homeowner's motivations regarding investing in building science based performance upgrades. B) Determining a rapidly scalable approach to engage large numbers of homeowners directly through existing customer networks. C) Access a business model that will manage all aspects of the contractor-homeowner-performance professional interface to ensure good upgrade decisions over time. The solution results from a synergistic approach utilizing networks of suppliers merging with networks of homeowner customers. Companies in the $400 to $800 billion home services industry have proven direct marketing and sales proficiencies that have led to the development of vast customer networks. Companies such as pest control, lawn care, and security have nurtured these networks by successfully addressing the ongoing needs of homes. This long-term access to customers and trust established with consistent delivery has also provided opportunities for home service providers to grow by successfully introducing new products and services like attic insulation and air sealing. The most important component for success is a business model that will facilitate and manage the process. The team analyzes a group that developed a working model.

  15. Edificio Playa, en la Costa del Sol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassinello, Fernando

    1964-02-01

    Full Text Available This apartment block has been built on the Costa del Sol, in Almeria, only a few metres from the seashore. It is meant to provide the following facilities. Changing rooms for bathers, and a night club, in the basement. Restaurant and bar on the ground floor. Twelve living apartments on the six standard floor levels; two apartments per storey. Porter's house in the attic. As the foundations are in the sand, and the building is exposed to strong coastal winds, the structural design has, as interesting features, the foundation ribbed slab and the transversal portal frames, which are W shaped on the ground level. This arrangement makes the edifice look lighter and it acquires a more dynamic plasticity.En la Costa del Sol de Almería y a muy pocos metros de la orilla del mar, se ha construido este edificio de apartamentos. Su programa es el siguiente: casetas de baño y sala de fiestas, en sótano; restaurante-bar, en planta baja; doce viviendas, en las seis plantas tipo, con dos viviendas por planta; y vivienda del portero en ático. Cimentado sobre arena y expuesto a los fuertes vientos que azotan la costa, la solución estructural ofrece el interés de su tipo de cimentación por placa nervada, y de sus pórticos transversales que en planta baja adoptan forma de W, con lo que el edificio adquiere un aspecto de mayor ligereza y de dinamismo plástico.

  16. The new external ion beam analysis setup at the Demokritos Tandem accelerator and first applications in cultural heritage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokaras, Dimosthenis, E-mail: dsokaras@inp.demokritos.g [Institute of Nuclear Physics, N.C.S.R. ' Demokritos' , Aghia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens (Greece); Bistekos, Euthimios; Georgiou, Lambros [Philon Models, 18541 Piraeus (Greece); Salomon, Joseph [Laboratoire du C2RMF, Centre de Rechereche et de Restauration des Musees du France, 75001 Paris (France); Bogovac, Mladen [Institute Ruder Boskovic, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Aloupi-Siotis, Eleni [Thetis Authentics Ltd., 11636 Athens (Greece); Paschalis, Vasilis [Benaki Museum, 10674 Athens (Greece); Aslani, Ioanna [Thetis Authentics Ltd., 11636 Athens (Greece); Karabagia, Sofia; Lagoyannis, Anastasios; Harissopulos, Sotirios; Kantarelou, Vasiliki [Institute of Nuclear Physics, N.C.S.R. ' Demokritos' , Aghia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens (Greece); Karydas, Andreas-Germanos [Institute of Nuclear Physics, N.C.S.R. ' Demokritos' , Aghia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens (Greece); Nuclear Spectrometry and Applications Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2011-03-01

    At the 5.5 MV Tandem VdG accelerator of the Institute of Nuclear Physics of N.C.S.R. 'Demokritos', Athens, Greece, an external ion-beam set-up has been recently developed and installed. The aim of this development was to integrate the analytical capabilities of the PIXE, RBS and PIGE ion beam techniques in one experimental set-up, so that to attain a complete elemental and near surface structural characterization of samples in an almost non-destructive way and without any limitation concerning their size or conductive state. A careful 3D mechanical drawing optimized the set-up experimental parameters achieving probe dimensions at the millimeter range (1 mm{sup 2}) and fulfilling the special requirements imposed for optimum performance of the aforementioned techniques, including the possibility to use heavier, than protons, ion beams. For the digital pulse processing of the X-ray, {gamma}-ray and charged particle detector signals, novel hardware and software tools were developed based on a custom FPGA configuration. The first applications were focused in the quality control of materials that have been intentionally contaminated with a particular tracer-element ('tagged' materials). The tagged materials which were developed and tested are technologically authentic replicas of ancient attic ceramics with black glazed decoration. Analytical diagnostic studies were carried out for a few representative paintings of contemporary Greek painters in order to identify and document materials/pigments and techniques and eventually to prevent trade of fakes. Finally, ancient glass beads were also examined with respect to the sodium concentration and its in-depth homogeneity.

  17. The evaluation of a 4000-home geothermal heat pump retrofit at Fort Polk, Louisiana: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, P.J.; Shonder, J.A.

    1998-03-01

    This report documents an independent evaluation of an energy retrofit of 4,003 family housing units at Fort Polk, Louisiana, under an energy savings performance contract (ESPC). Replacement of the heating, cooling, and water heating systems in these housing units with geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) anchored the retrofit; low-flow shower heads and compact fluorescent lighting were also installed, as well as attic insulation where needed. Statistically valid findings indicate that the project will save 25.8 million kWh, or 32.5% of the pre-retrofit whole-community electrical consumption, and 100% of the whole-community natural gas previously used for space conditioning and water heating (260,000 therms) in a typical meteorological year. At the end-use level, the GHPs were found to save about 42% of the pre-retrofit electrical consumption for heating, cooling, and water heating in housing units that were all-electric in the pre-retrofit period. This report also demonstrates an improved method of predicting energy savings. Using an engineering model calibrated to pre-retrofit energy use data collected in the field, the method predicted actual energy savings on one of the electric feeders at Fort Polk with a very high degree of accuracy. The accuracy of this model was in turn dependent on data-calibrated models of the geothermal heat pump and ground heat exchanger that are described in this report. In addition this report documents the status of vertical borehole ground heat exchanger (BHEx) design methods at the time this project was designed, and demonstrates methods of using data collected from operating GHP systems to benchmark BHEx design methods against a detailed engineering model calibrated to date. The authors also discuss the ESPC`s structure and implementation and how the experience gained here can contribute to the success of future ESPCs.

  18. The North Carolina Field Test: Field performance of the preliminary version of an advanced weatherization audit for the Department of Energy`s Weatherization Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, T.R.

    1994-06-01

    The field performance of weatherizations based on a newly-developed advanced technique for selecting residential energy conservation measures was tested alongside current Retro-Tech-based weatherizations in North Carolina. The new technique is computer-based and determines measures based on the needs of an individual house. In addition, it recommends only those measures that it determines will have a benefit-to-cost ratio greater than 1 for the house being evaluated. The new technique also considers the interaction of measures in computing the benefit-to-cost ratio of each measure. The two weatherization approaches were compared based on implementation ease, measures installed, labor and cost requirements, and both heating and cooling energy savings achieved. One-hundred and twenty houses with the following characteristics participated: the occupants were low-income, eligible for North Carolina`s current weatherization program, and responsible for their own fuel and electric bills. Houses were detached single-family dwellings, not mobile homes; were heated by kerosene, fuel oil, natural gas, or propane; and had one or two operating window air conditioners. Houses were divided equally into one control group and two weatherization groups. Weekly space heating and cooling energy use, and hourly indoor and outdoor temperatures were monitored between November 1989 and September 1990 (pre-period) and between December 1990 and August 1991 (post-period). House consumption models were used to normalize for annual weather differences and a 68{degrees}F indoor temperature. Control group savings were used to adjust the savings determined for the weatherization groups. The two weatherization approaches involved installing attic and floor insulations in near equivalent quantities, and installing storm windows and wall insulation in drastically different quantities. Substantial differences also were found in average air leakage reductions for the two weatherization groups.

  19. Energy Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Counce, D.M.; Wolff, P.P. [eds.

    1993-04-01

    Energy Division`s mission is to provide innovative solutions to energy and related Issues of national and global importance through interdisciplinary research and development. Its goals and accomplishments are described in this annual progress report for FY 1992. Energy Division`s total expenditures in FY 1992 were $42.8 million. The work is supported by the US Department of Energy, the US Department of Defense, many other federal agencies, and some private organizations. Disciplines of the 116.5 technical staff members include engineering, social sciences, physical and life sciences, and mathematics and statistics. The division`s programmatic activities cover three main areas: (1) analysis and assessment, (2) energy conservation technologies, and (3) military transportation systems. Analysis and assessment activities involve energy and resource analysis, preparation of environmental assessments and impact statements, research on waste management, technology transfer, analysis of energy and environmental needs in developing countries, and civilian transportation analysis. Energy conservation technologies focus on electric power systems, building envelopes (walls, foundations, roofs, attics, and materials), and methods to improve energy efficiency in existing buildings. Military transportation systems conduct research for sponsors within the US military to improve the efficiency of military deployment, scheduling, and transportation coordination. Much of Energy Division`s research is valuable to other organizations as well as to sponsors. This information is disseminated by the staff`s involvement in professional and trade organizations and workshops; joint research with universities and private-sector firms; collaboration with state and local governments; presentation of work at conferences; and publication of research results in journals, reports, and conference proceedings.

  20. Building America Case Study: Field Testing an Unvented Roof with Asphalt Shingles in a Cold Climate, Boilingbrook, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    Insulating roofs with dense-pack cellulose (instead of spray foam) has moisture risks, but is a lower cost approach. If moisture risks could be addressed, buildings could benefit from retrofit options, and the ability to bring HVAC systems within the conditioned space. Test houses with unvented roof assemblies were built to measure long-term moisture performance, in the Chicago area (5A) and the Houston area (2A). The Chicago-area test bed had seven experimental rafter bays, including a 'control' vented compact roof, and six unvented roof variants with cellulose or fiberglass insulation. The interior was run at 50% RH. All roofs except the vented cathedral assembly experienced wood moisture contents and RH levels high enough to constitute failure. Disassembly at the end of the experiment showed that the unvented fiberglass roofs had wet sheathing and mold growth. In contrast, the cellulose roofs only had slight issues, such as rusted fasteners and sheathing grain raise. The Houston-area roof was an unvented attic insulated with spray-applied fiberglass. Most ridges and hips were built with a 'diffusion vent' detail, capped with vapor permeable roof membrane. Some ridge sections were built as a conventional unvented roof, as a control. In the control unvented roofs, roof peak RHs reached high levels in the first winter; as exterior conditions warmed, RHs quickly fell. In contrast, the diffusion vent roofs had drier conditions at the roof peak in wintertime, but during the summer, RHs and MCs were higher than the unvented roof (albeit in the safe range).

  1. Current wheeze, asthma, respiratory infections, and rhinitis among adults in relation to inspection data and indoor measurements in single-family houses in Sweden-The BETSI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Engvall, K; Smedje, G; Nilsson, H; Norbäck, D

    2017-07-01

    In the Swedish Building Energy, Technical Status and Indoor environment study, a total of 1160 adults from 605 single-family houses answered a questionnaire on respiratory health. Building inspectors investigated the homes and measured temperature, air humidity, air exchange rate, and wood moisture content (in attic and crawl space). Moisture load was calculated as the difference between indoor and outdoor absolute humidity. Totally, 7.3% were smokers, 8.7% had doctor' diagnosed asthma, 11.2% current wheeze, and 9.5% current asthma symptoms. Totally, 50.3% had respiratory infections and 26.0% rhinitis. The mean air exchange rate was 0.36/h, and the mean moisture load 1.70 g/m3 . Damp foundation (OR=1.79, 95% CI 1.16-2.78) was positively associated while floor constructions with crawl space (OR=0.49, 95% CI 0.29-0.84) was negatively associated with wheeze. Concrete slabs with overlying insulation (OR=2.21, 95% CI 1.24-3.92) and brick façade (OR=1.71, 95% CI 1.07-2.73) were associated with rhinitis. Moisture load was associated with respiratory infections (OR=1.21 per 1 g/m3 , 95% CI 1.04-1.40) and rhinitis (OR=1.36 per 1 g/m3 , 95% CI 1.02-1.83). Air exchange rate was associated with current asthma symptoms (OR=0.85 per 0.1/h, 95% CI 0.73-0.99). Living in homes with damp foundation, concrete slabs with overlying insulation, brick façade, low ventilation flow, and high moisture load are risk factors for asthma, rhinitis, and respiratory infections. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Face to face - close range inspection of head vases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Rieke-Zapp

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Several hundred attic head vases are known worldwide and stored in museums and collections. In 1929, Beazley has categorized twenty groups (A-W based on stylistic properties and historic methodology. Head vases are assembled in several steps, most important for our comparison is the moulding of the head area. While the other parts of head vases like the size of the handle and the painting can differ significantly from each other, one can notice similarities in the head shapes of the same group. Since molds were used to shape the heads, our initial hypothesis was to perform a quantitative comparison of head shapes based on digital scan data. Comparison of scan data is straight forward and is very similar to quality control and inspection processes in industrial applications. Nonetheless, quality control of approximately 2,500-year-old artefacts that are distributed among several different places is not straight forward. Initial analysis was performed on older scan data. In addition, a high-resolution fringe projection scanner was employed to scan further head vases in additional museums in Germany and Italy. Scan resolution and accuracy of approximately 0.1 mm in all dimensions were required to reveal differences below 1 mm. All new scans were performed with an AICON SmartScan-HE C8. This scanner captures not only shape, but at the same time records color textures which can be employed for presentation or future analyses. Shape analysis results of the head areas do not only confirm that it is likely that the same mold was used for shaping some of the head vases. According to these results, it is also not unlikely that a first generation of larger head vases was used to prepare molds for consecutive generations of head vases that are slightly smaller by 10-15%. This volume loss resembles closely the volume loss observed after oven-burning of pottery. Scanning will continue to increase the data set for further analyses.

  3. Face to face - close range inspection of head vases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke-Zapp, D. H.; Trinkl, E.

    2017-08-01

    Several hundred attic head vases are known worldwide and stored in museums and collections. In 1929, Beazley has categorized twenty groups (A-W) based on stylistic properties and historic methodology. Head vases are assembled in several steps, most important for our comparison is the moulding of the head area. While the other parts of head vases like the size of the handle and the painting can differ significantly from each other, one can notice similarities in the head shapes of the same group. Since molds were used to shape the heads, our initial hypothesis was to perform a quantitative comparison of head shapes based on digital scan data. Comparison of scan data is straight forward and is very similar to quality control and inspection processes in industrial applications. Nonetheless, quality control of approximately 2,500-year-old artefacts that are distributed among several different places is not straight forward. Initial analysis was performed on older scan data. In addition, a high-resolution fringe projection scanner was employed to scan further head vases in additional museums in Germany and Italy. Scan resolution and accuracy of approximately 0.1 mm in all dimensions were required to reveal differences below 1 mm. All new scans were performed with an AICON SmartScan-HE C8. This scanner captures not only shape, but at the same time records color textures which can be employed for presentation or future analyses. Shape analysis results of the head areas do not only confirm that it is likely that the same mold was used for shaping some of the head vases. According to these results, it is also not unlikely that a first generation of larger head vases was used to prepare molds for consecutive generations of head vases that are slightly smaller by 10-15%. This volume loss resembles closely the volume loss observed after oven-burning of pottery. Scanning will continue to increase the data set for further analyses.

  4. Public Health Benefits of End-Use Electrical Energy Efficiency in California: An Exploratory Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Lobscheid, A.B.

    2006-06-01

    This study assesses for California how increasing end-use electrical energy efficiency from installing residential insulation impacts exposures and disease burden from power-plant pollutant emissions. Installation of fiberglass attic insulation in the nearly 3 million electricity-heated homes throughout California is used as a case study. The pollutants nitrous oxides (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), benzo(a)pyrene, benzene, and naphthalene are selected for the assessment. Exposure is characterized separately for rural and urban environments using the CalTOX model, which is a key input to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemicals and other environmental Impacts (TRACI). The output of CalTOX provides for urban and rural populations emissions-to-intake factors, which are expressed as an individual intake fraction (iFi). The typical iFi from power plant emissions are on the order of 10{sup -13} (g intake per g emitted) in urban and rural regions. The cumulative (rural and urban) product of emissions, population, and iFi is combined with toxic effects factors to determine human damage factors (HDFs). HDF are expressed as disability adjusted life years (DALYs) per kilogram pollutant emitted. The HDF approach is applied to the insulation case study. Upgrading existing residential insulation to US Department of Energy (DOE) recommended levels eliminates over the assmned 50-year lifetime of the insulation an estimated 1000 DALYs from power-plant emissions per million tonne (Mt) of insulation installed, mostly from the elimination of PM2.5 emissions. In comparison, the estimated burden from the manufacture of this insulation in DALYs per Mt is roughly four orders of magnitude lower than that avoided.

  5. Edificio Telve, en Cortina d'Ampezzo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gellner, Edoardo

    1964-04-01

    Full Text Available This building belongs to the telephone company, and its general distribution is as follows. The semibasement is occupied with a garage, stores, and a room where the generator and batteries are situated. The ground floor opens to a square by means of an arcade: which leads to the public telephones and the company's offices. The second floor is taken up with the amplifiers and the power station. On the second floor the automatic exchange has been located. The third storey provides space for the intercity exchange and changing rooms for the telephone operators. Finally, in the attic there is a living room for the staff, as well as bedrooms for the auxiliary personnel. The structure of the building is in reinforced concrete, and it shows externally. The spaces between the structural elements are covered in timber, in the shape of planks in their natural texture, interspersed with pine strips, painted in blue. On the ground floor there is a fringe of red Castellavazzo stone, and the pavement underneath the arcade is covered with roughly shaped porflde stone slabs.Ocupado por la Compañía Telefónica, presenta la siguiente distribución: El semisótano comprende: entrada de servicio, garaje, almacenes y cuartos de baterías y generadores. La planta baja da a la plaza, posee una zona con soportales, y en ella están situados los locutorios públicos y las oficinas de la Compañía. En el primer piso están ubicadas la sala de amplificadores y estación de energía; y en el segundo, la central automática. El tercer piso aloja la central interurbana y vestuario para las telefonistas.

  6. Field Testing of an Unvented Roof with Fibrous Insulation, Tiles and Vapor Diffusion Venting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. W. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2016-02-05

    This research is a test implementation of an unvented tile roof assembly in a hot-humid climate (Orlando, FL; Zone 2A), insulated with air permeable insulation (netted and blown fiberglass). Given the localized moisture accumulation and failures seen in previous unvented roof field work, it was theorized that a 'diffusion vent' (water vapor open, but air barrier 'closed') at the highest points in the roof assembly might allow for the wintertime release of moisture, to safe levels. The 'diffusion vent' is an open slot at the ridge and hips, covered with a water-resistant but vapor open (500+ perm) air barrier membrane. As a control comparison, one portion of the roof was constructed as a typical unvented roof (self-adhered membrane at ridge). The data collected to date indicate that the diffusion vent roof shows greater moisture safety than the conventional, unvented roof design. The unvented roof had extended winter periods of 95-100% RH, and wafer (wood surrogate RH sensor) measurements indicating possible condensation; high moisture levels were concentrated at the roof ridge. In contrast, the diffusion vent roofs had drier conditions, with most peak MCs (sheathing) below 20%. In the spring, as outdoor temperatures warmed, all roofs dried well into the safe range (10% MC or less). Some roof-wall interfaces showed moderately high MCs; this might be due to moisture accumulation at the highest point in the lower attic, and/or shading of the roof by the adjacent second story. Monitoring will be continued at least through spring 2016 (another winter and spring).

  7. Field Testing Unvented Roofs with Asphalt Shingles in Cold and Hot-Humid Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Kohta [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lstiburek, Joseph W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Insulating roofs with dense-pack cellulose (instead of spray foam) has moisture risks, but is a lower cost approach. If moisture risks could be addressed, buildings could benefit from retrofit options, and the ability to bring HVAC systems within the conditioned space. Test houses with unvented roof assemblies were built to measure long-term moisture performance, in the Chicago area (5A) and the Houston area (2A). The Chicago-area test bed had seven experimental rafter bays, including a control vented compact roof, and six unvented roof variants with cellulose or fiberglass insulation. The interior was run at 50% RH. All roofs except the vented cathedral assembly experienced wood moisture contents and RH levels high enough to constitute failure. Disassembly at the end of the experiment showed that the unvented fiberglass roofs had wet sheathing and mold growth. In contrast, the cellulose roofs only had slight issues, such as rusted fasteners and sheathing grain raise. The Houston-area roof was an unvented attic insulated with spray-applied fiberglass. Most ridges and hips were built with a diffusion vent detail, capped with vapor permeable roof membrane. Some ridge sections were built as a conventional unvented roof, as a control. In the control unvented roofs, roof peak RHs reached high levels in the first winter; as exterior conditions warmed, RHs quickly fell. In contrast, the diffusion vent roofs had drier conditions at the roof peak in wintertime, but during the summer, RHs and MCs were higher than the unvented roof (albeit in the safe range).

  8. Building America Case Study: Impact of Slab-Foundation Heat Transfer on Space-Conditioning Energy Use in Florida, Cocoa, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Parker, E. Martin

    2016-12-01

    Heat transfer to slab foundations has remained an area of building science with poor understanding over the last three decades of energy efficiency research. This is somewhat surprising since the area of floors in single family homes is generally equal to wall, or windows or attics which have been extensively evaluated. Research that has been done has focused in the impact of slab on grade foundations and insulation schemes on heat losses associated with heating in predominantly heating dominated climates. Slab on grade construction is very popular in cooling-dominated southern states where it accounts for 77 percent of new home floors according to U.S. Census data in 2014. There is a widespread conception that tile flooring, as opposed to carpet, makes for a cooler home interior in warm climates. Empirical research is needed as building energy simulations such as DOE-2 and EnergyPlus rely on simplified models to evaluate these influences. BA-PIRC performed experiments over an entire year from 2014-2015 in FSEC's Flexible Residential Test Facilities (FRTF) intended to assess for the first time 1) slab on grade influence in a cooling dominated climate, and 2) how the difference in a carpeted vs. uncarpeted building might influence heating and cooling. Two identical side by side residential buildings were evaluated, the East with pad and carpet and the west with a bare slab floor. A highly detailed grid of temperature measurements were taken on the slab surface at various locations as well as at depths of 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 feet.

  9. Fort Yukon, Alaska DOE Implementation Grant Gwich'in Solar and Energy Efficiency in the Arctic Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadzow, Janet [Gwichyaa Zhee Gwich' in Tribal Government, Fort Yukon, AK (United States); Messier, Dave [Gwichyaa Zhee Gwich' in Tribal Government, Fort Yukon, AK (United States)

    2017-01-30

    Gwichyaa Zhee Gwich’in Tribal Government (GZGTG) applied for funding in 2014 under the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Deployment of Clean Energy on Tribal Lands funding opportunity. They were awarded 50% of the project costs for the construction of an 18kW, grid-tied solar PV array on the fort Yukon Tribal Hall, the construction of a 3kW solar PV array on the tribally owned greenhouse, the replacement of inefficient florescent lighting fixtures in the tribal hall to higher efficiency LED lights and the addition of blow in cellulose insulation to the attic of the tribal hall to assist with heat retention. Total DOE Funding for the project was $124,735. Total GZGTG funding for the project was $133,321 for a total project cost of $258,056. The Project was completed with 100% local labor on the tribal hall solar PV installation, the LED lighting retrofit and the insulation on the tribal hall. Based on the results at the tribal hall/office, the tribe also used their own tribal funding to retrofit the lighting in the community hall from florescent to LED lights. The resulting project was completed by the end of Sept 2016 and results have shown a decrease in fuel used at the tribal hall/office of 35% and a decrease in electric costs at the tribal hall of 68%. The total energy costs before the project were approximately $28,000 a year and the energy equivalent of 385 MMBTU/yr. After the project the total energy costs decreased to $11,200/yr. and an energy equivalent of only 242 MMBTU. This represents an overall decrease in energy use of 38%. All in all the tribe and the community regard this project as a huge success!

  10. Suncatcher and cool pool. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, J.

    1981-03-01

    The Suncatcher is a simple, conical solar concentrating device that captures light entering clerestory windows and directs it onto thermal storage elements at the back of a south facing living space. The cone shape and inclination are designed to capture low angle winter sunlight and to reflect away higher angle summer sunlight. It is found that winter radiation through a Suncatcher window is 40 to 50% higher than through an ordinary window, and that the average solar fraction is 59%. Water-filled steal culvert pipes used for thermal storage are found to undergo less stratification, and thus to be more effective, when located where sunlight strikes the bottom rather than the top. Five Suncatcher buildings are described. Designs are considered for 32/sup 0/, 40/sup 0/ and 48/sup 0/ north latitude, and as the latitude increases, the inclination angle of the cone should be lowered. The Cool Pool is an evaporating, shaded roof pond which thermosiphons cool water into water-filled columns within a building. Preliminary experiments indicate that the best shade design has unimpeded north sky view, good ventilation, complete summer shading, a low architectural profile, and low cost attic vent lowers work. Another series of experiments established the satisfactory performance of the Cool Pool on a test building using four water-filled cylinders, two cylinders, and two cylinders connected to the Cool Pool through a heat exchanger. Although an unshaded pool cools better at night than a shaded one, daytime heat gain far offsets this advantage. A vinyl waterbag heat exchanger was developed for use with the Cool Pool. (LEW)

  11. Financial implications of installing air filtration systems to prevent PRRSV infection in large sow herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Carmen; Davies, Peter R; Polson, Dale D; Dee, Scott A; Lazarus, William F

    2013-09-01

    Air filtration systems implemented in large sow herds have been demonstrated to decrease the probability of having a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) outbreak. However, implementation of air filtration represents a considerable capital investment, and does not eliminate the risk of new virus introductions. The specific objectives of the study were: 1) to determine productivity differences between a cohort of filtered and non-filtered sow farms; and 2) to employ those productivity differences to model the profitability of filtration system investments in a hypothetical 3000 sow farm. Variables included in the study were production variables (quarterly) from respective herds; air filtration status; number of pig sites within 4.7 km of the farm; occurrence of a PRRSV outbreak in a quarter, and season. For the investment analyses, three Scenarios were compared in a deterministic spreadsheet model of weaned pig cost: (1) control, (2) filtered conventional attic, and (3) filtered tunnel ventilation. Model outputs indicated that a filtered farm produced 5927 more pigs than unfiltered farms. The payback periods for the investments, were estimated to be 5.35 years for Scenario 2 and 7.13 years for Scenario 3 based solely on sow herd productivity. Payback period sensitivity analyses were performed for both biological and financial inputs. The payback period was most influenced by the premium for weaned pig sales price for PRRSV-negative pigs, and the relative proportions of time that filtered vs. unfiltered farms produced PRRSV-negative pigs. A premium of $5 per pig for PRRS-negative weaned pigs reduced the estimated payback periods to 2.1 years for Scenario 2 and 2.8 years for Scenario 3. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemical control of Loxosceles intermedia (Araneae: Sicariidae) with pyrethroids: field and laboratory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Silva, M A; Duque, J E L; Ramires, E N; Andrade, C F S; Marques-da-Silva, E; Marques, F A; Delay, C E; Fontana, J D; Silva, A C S; Fraguas, G M

    2010-02-01

    Bites from the recluse or brown spiders (genus Loxosceles) can cause necrotic lesions and systemic effects in humans throughout the world. In the state of Paraná, Brazil, loxoscelism is considered a serious public health problem, and Loxosceles intermedia Mello-Leitão (Araneae: Sicariidae) is associated with the majority of reported accidents. In the present research we evaluated the susceptibility of L. intermedia to pyrethroid insecticides currently used for the control of spiders in both field and laboratory conditions. In laboratory tests, the most active pesticides in descending order were microencapsulated lambda-cyhalothrin (LC50 = 0.023 mg/kg), nonmicroencapsulated lambda-cyhalothrin (LC50 = 0.047 mg/kg), deltamethrin (LC50 = 0.26 mg/kg), and cypermethrin (LC50 = 1.38 mg/kg). Cockroaches, Phoetalia circumvagans (Burmeister) (n = 30), killed with microencapsulated lambdacyalothrin, were offered to the spiders. L. intermedia fed on 63.3% of the dead cockroaches during the first 6 h of experiment; none of the spiders died during the subsequent 15 d. Microencapsulated lambdacyalothrin was chosen for application in two contiguous houses. The mean volume applied was 22.8 mg (AI)/m2. Dead spiders were found during all the inspections up to 60 d after the initial application. In total, 297 dead spiders were collected; 65.7% in the attic shared by the two homes, 10.8% inside the house that had most cracks and crevices sealed and 23.6% in the control house. The use of lambda-cyhalothrin-based products for L. intermedia control is discussed.

  13. Building America Case Study: Field Testing an Unvented Roof with Fibrous Insulation and Tiles, Orlando, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-11-01

    This research is a test implementation of an unvented tile roof assembly in a hot-humid climate (Orlando, FL; Zone 2A), insulated with air permeable insulation (netted and blown fiberglass). Given the localized moisture accumulation and failures seen in previous unvented roof field work, it was theorized that a 'diffusion vent' (water vapor open, but air barrier 'closed') at the highest points in the roof assembly might allow for the wintertime release of moisture, to safe levels. The 'diffusion vent' is an open slot at the ridge and hips, covered with a water-resistant but vapor open (500+ perm) air barrier membrane. As a control comparison, one portion of the roof was constructed as a typical unvented roof (self-adhered membrane at ridge). The data collected to date indicate that the diffusion vent roof shows greater moisture safety than the conventional, unvented roof design. The unvented roof had extended winter periods of 95-100% RH, and wafer (wood surrogate RH sensor) measurements indicating possible condensation; high moisture levels were concentrated at the roof ridge. In contrast, the diffusion vent roofs had drier conditions, with most peak MCs (sheathing) below 20%. In the spring, as outdoor temperatures warmed, all roofs dried well into the safe range (10% MC or less). Some roof-wall interfaces showed moderately high MCs; this might be due to moisture accumulation at the highest point in the lower attic, and/or shading of the roof by the adjacent second story. Monitoring will be continued at least through spring 2016 (another winter and spring).

  14. Truss-Integrated Thermoformed Ductwork Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Winter; Dianne Griffiths; Ravi Gorthala

    2007-08-30

    This report summarizes a multi-year research effort to develop a leak-free duct system that can be readily installed within the thermal envelope. There are numerous efforts underway to improve duct system efficiency. Most of these involve modifications to current technology such as air sealing techniques like mastic and aeroseal, snap together duct connections, and greater levels of insulation. This project sought to make a more significant stride forward by introducing a duct system of a material that can be more readily sealed and can exhibit lower friction losses. The research focused on the use of smooth internal surface, low friction plastic ducts that could be easily installed with very low air leakage. The initial system concept that was proposed and researched in Phase I focused on the use of thermoformed plastic ducts installed in a recessed roof truss underneath the attic insulation. A bench top thermoformed system was developed and tested during Phase I of the project. In Phase II, a first generation duct system utilizing a resin impregnated fiberglass duct product was designed and specified. The system was installed and tested in an Atlanta area home. Following this installation research and correspondence with code officials was undertaken to alleviate the continued concern over the code acceptance of plastic ducts in above ground applications. A Committee Interpretation response was received from the International Code Council (ICC) stating that plastic ducts were allowed, but must be manufactured from materials complying with Class 0 or Class 1 rating. With assurance of code acceptance, a plastic duct system using rotomolded high density polyethylene ducts that had passed the material test requirements by impregnating the material with a fire retardant during the molding process was installed in the basement of a new ranch-style home in Madison, WI. A series of measurements to evaluate the performance benefits relative to a similar control house with

  15. Uncertainty analysis of the Measured Performance Rating (MPR) method. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    A report was commissioned by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority and the Electric Power Research Institute to evaluate the uncertainties in the energy monitoring method known as measured performance rating (MPR). The work is intended to help further development of the MPR system by quantitatively analyzing the uncertainties in estimates of the heat loss coefficients and heating system efficiencies. The analysis indicates that the MPR should detect as little as a 7 percent change in the heat loss coefficients and heating system efficiencies. The analysis indicate that the MPR should be able to detect as little as a 7 percent change in the heat loss coefficient at 95 percent confidence level. MPR appears sufficiently robust for characterizing common weatherization treatments; e.g., increasing attic insulation from R-7 to R-19 in a typical single-story, 1,100 sq. ft. house resulting in a 19 percent reduction in heat loss coefficient. Furnace efficiency uncertainties ranged up to three times those of the heat loss coefficients. Measurement uncertainties (at the 95 percent confidence level) were estimated to be from 1 to 5 percent for heat loss coefficients and 1.5 percent for a typical furnace efficiency. The analysis also shows a limitation in applying MPR to houses with heating ducts in slabs on grade and to those with very large thermal mass. Most of the uncertainties encountered in the study were due more to the methods of estimating the ``true`` heat loss coefficients, furnace efficiency, and furnace fuel consumption (by collecting fuel bills and simulating two actual houses) than to the MPR approach. These uncertainties in the true parameter values become evidence for arguments in favor of the need of empirical measures of heat loss coefficient and furnace efficiency, like the MPR method, rather than arguments against.

  16. The new external ion beam analysis setup at the Demokritos Tandem accelerator and first applications in cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Bistekos, Euthimios; Georgiou, Lambros; Salomon, Joseph; Bogovac, Mladen; Aloupi-Siotis, Eleni; Paschalis, Vasilis; Aslani, Ioanna; Karabagia, Sofia; Lagoyannis, Anastasios; Harissopulos, Sotirios; Kantarelou, Vasiliki; Karydas, Andreas-Germanos

    2011-03-01

    At the 5.5 MV Tandem VdG accelerator of the Institute of Nuclear Physics of N.C.S.R. "Demokritos", Athens, Greece, an external ion-beam set-up has been recently developed and installed. The aim of this development was to integrate the analytical capabilities of the PIXE, RBS and PIGE ion beam techniques in one experimental set-up, so that to attain a complete elemental and near surface structural characterization of samples in an almost non-destructive way and without any limitation concerning their size or conductive state. A careful 3D mechanical drawing optimized the set-up experimental parameters achieving probe dimensions at the millimeter range (1 mm 2) and fulfilling the special requirements imposed for optimum performance of the aforementioned techniques, including the possibility to use heavier, than protons, ion beams. For the digital pulse processing of the X-ray, γ-ray and charged particle detector signals, novel hardware and software tools were developed based on a custom FPGA configuration. The first applications were focused in the quality control of materials that have been intentionally contaminated with a particular tracer-element ("tagged" materials). The tagged materials which were developed and tested are technologically authentic replicas of ancient attic ceramics with black glazed decoration. Analytical diagnostic studies were carried out for a few representative paintings of contemporary Greek painters in order to identify and document materials/pigments and techniques and eventually to prevent trade of fakes. Finally, ancient glass beads were also examined with respect to the sodium concentration and its in-depth homogeneity.

  17. Neofunctionalization of duplicated Tic40 genes caused a gain-of-function variation related to male fertility in Brassica oleracea lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Xiaoling; Shen, Wenhao; Hu, Kaining; Zhou, Zhengfu; Xia, Shengqian; Wen, Jing; Yi, Bin; Shen, Jinxiong; Ma, Chaozhi; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong; Lagercrantz, Ulf

    2014-11-01

    Gene duplication followed by functional divergence in the event of polyploidization is a major contributor to evolutionary novelties. The Brassica genus evolved from a common ancestor after whole-genome triplication. Here, we studied the evolutionary and functional features of Brassica spp. homologs to Tic40 (for translocon at the inner membrane of chloroplasts with 40 kDa). Four Tic40 loci were identified in allotetraploid Brassica napus and two loci in each of three basic diploid Brassica spp. Although these Tic40 homologs share high sequence identities and similar expression patterns, they exhibit altered functional features. Complementation assays conducted on Arabidopsis thaliana tic40 and the B. napus male-sterile line 7365A suggested that all Brassica spp. Tic40 homologs retain an ancestral function similar to that of AtTic40, whereas BolC9.Tic40 in Brassica oleracea and its ortholog in B. napus, BnaC9.Tic40, in addition, evolved a novel function that can rescue the fertility of 7365A. A homologous chromosomal rearrangement placed bnac9.tic40 originating from the A genome (BraA10.Tic40) as an allele of BnaC9.Tic40 in the C genome, resulting in phenotypic variation for male sterility in the B. napus near-isogenic two-type line 7365AB. Assessment of the complementation activity of chimeric B. napus Tic40 domain-swapping constructs in 7365A suggested that amino acid replacements in the carboxyl terminus of BnaC9.Tic40 cause this functional divergence. The distribution of these amino acid replacements in 59 diverse Brassica spp. accessions demonstrated that the neofunctionalization of Tic40 is restricted to B. oleracea and its derivatives and thus occurred after the divergence of the Brassica spp. A, B, and C genomes. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Neofunctionalization of Duplicated Tic40 Genes Caused a Gain-of-Function Variation Related to Male Fertility in Brassica oleracea Lineages1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Xiaoling; Shen, Wenhao; Hu, Kaining; Zhou, Zhengfu; Xia, Shengqian; Wen, Jing; Yi, Bin; Shen, Jinxiong; Ma, Chaozhi; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong; Lagercrantz, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Gene duplication followed by functional divergence in the event of polyploidization is a major contributor to evolutionary novelties. The Brassica genus evolved from a common ancestor after whole-genome triplication. Here, we studied the evolutionary and functional features of Brassica spp. homologs to Tic40 (for translocon at the inner membrane of chloroplasts with 40 kDa). Four Tic40 loci were identified in allotetraploid Brassica napus and two loci in each of three basic diploid Brassica spp. Although these Tic40 homologs share high sequence identities and similar expression patterns, they exhibit altered functional features. Complementation assays conducted on Arabidopsis thaliana tic40 and the B. napus male-sterile line 7365A suggested that all Brassica spp. Tic40 homologs retain an ancestral function similar to that of AtTic40, whereas BolC9.Tic40 in Brassica oleracea and its ortholog in B. napus, BnaC9.Tic40, in addition, evolved a novel function that can rescue the fertility of 7365A. A homologous chromosomal rearrangement placed bnac9.tic40 originating from the A genome (BraA10.Tic40) as an allele of BnaC9.Tic40 in the C genome, resulting in phenotypic variation for male sterility in the B. napus near-isogenic two-type line 7365AB. Assessment of the complementation activity of chimeric B. napus Tic40 domain-swapping constructs in 7365A suggested that amino acid replacements in the carboxyl terminus of BnaC9.Tic40 cause this functional divergence. The distribution of these amino acid replacements in 59 diverse Brassica spp. accessions demonstrated that the neofunctionalization of Tic40 is restricted to B. oleracea and its derivatives and thus occurred after the divergence of the Brassica spp. A, B, and C genomes. PMID:25185122

  19. Extension of indications for transcanal endoscopic ear surgery using an ultrasonic bone curette for cholesteatomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakehata, Seiji; Watanabe, Tomoo; Ito, Tsukasa; Kubota, Toshinori; Furukawa, Takatoshi

    2014-01-01

    One-handed endoscopic procedures have, up until now, limited the indications for transcanal endoscopic ear surgery (TEES) in cholesteatoma surgery. However, the development of electrically powered instruments has opened the door to such one-handed endoscopic procedures in restricted surgical spaces. We examined the feasibility of using one such powered instrument, the ultrasonic bone curette (UBC) in TEES for cholesteatoma surgery. The UBC offers several advantages, including nonrotational motion and the combination of both suction and irrigation in a single handpiece. A prospective case series. Tertiary referral center. TEES was performed on 43 cases of primary cholesteatoma between September 2011 and December 2012, including 14 cases extending to the antrum. Zero-, 30-, or 70-degree angled rigid endoscopes with an outer diameter of 2.7 mm (Karl Storz) were used together with a high-definition video system. A Sonopet UBC (Stryker) was used to cut bony tissue. The nonrotational motion of the UBC prevents injury to the tympanomeatal flap and other soft tissue, which may result with standard drills. Transcanal endoscopic retrograde mastoidectomy on demand was performed to access the pathologies in the attic and antrum. A minimum attico-antrotomy was performed using the UBC, removing only the bony tissue necessary to visualize the pathology. The cholesteatoma was completely removed from the antral mucosa under clear endoscopic visualization in 13 of 14 cases. After removal of the cholesteatoma, the canal wall was reconstructed using cartilage taken from the tragus. This procedure resulted in greater mastoid preservation. The transcanal endoscopic approach to the antrum using the UBC proved to be less invasive and more functional. The UBC contains both a suction and irrigation system in a single handpiece, and this UBC is an appropriate cutting tool that extends the indications for TEES.

  20. Applications of Automation Methods for Nonlinear Fracture Test Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Phillip A.; Wells, Douglas N.

    2013-01-01

    Using automated and standardized computer tools to calculate the pertinent test result values has several advantages such as: 1. allowing high-fidelity solutions to complex nonlinear phenomena that would be impractical to express in written equation form, 2. eliminating errors associated with the interpretation and programing of analysis procedures from the text of test standards, 3. lessening the need for expertise in the areas of solid mechanics, fracture mechanics, numerical methods, and/or finite element modeling, to achieve sound results, 4. and providing one computer tool and/or one set of solutions for all users for a more "standardized" answer. In summary, this approach allows a non-expert with rudimentary training to get the best practical solution based on the latest understanding with minimum difficulty.Other existing ASTM standards that cover complicated phenomena use standard computer programs: 1. ASTM C1340/C1340M-10- Standard Practice for Estimation of Heat Gain or Loss Through Ceilings Under Attics Containing Radiant Barriers by Use of a Computer Program 2. ASTM F 2815 - Standard Practice for Chemical Permeation through Protective Clothing Materials: Testing Data Analysis by Use of a Computer Program 3. ASTM E2807 - Standard Specification for 3D Imaging Data Exchange, Version 1.0 The verification, validation, and round-robin processes required of a computer tool closely parallel the methods that are used to ensure the solution validity for equations included in test standard. The use of automated analysis tools allows the creation and practical implementation of advanced fracture mechanics test standards that capture the physics of a nonlinear fracture mechanics problem without adding undue burden or expense to the user. The presented approach forms a bridge between the equation-based fracture testing standards of today and the next generation of standards solving complex problems through analysis automation.

  1. Energy Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, P.P. [ed.

    1994-07-01

    One of 17 research divisions at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Energy Division`s mission is to provide innovative solutions to energy and related issues of national and global importance through interdisciplinary research and development. Its goals and accomplishments are described in this annual progress report for FY1993. Energy Division is committed to (1) understanding the mechanisms by which societies make choices in energy use; (2) improving society`s understanding of the environmental, social, and economic implications of technological change; (3) developing and transferring energy-efficient technologies; (4) improving transportation policy and planning; (5) enhancing basic knowledge in the social sciences as related to energy and associated issues. Energy Division`s expenditures in FY1993 totaled $42 million. The work was supported by the US DOE, DOD, many other federal agencies, and some private organizations. Disciplines of the 126.5 technical staff members include engineering, social sciences, physical and life sciences, and computer sciences and data systems. The division`s programmatic activities cover three main areas: (1) analysis and assessment, (2) energy use and delivery technologies, and (3) transportation systems. Analysis and assessment activities involve energy and resource analysis, preparation of environmental assessments and impact statements, research on emergency preparedness, transportation analysis, and analysis of energy and environmental needs in developing countries. Energy use and delivery technologies focus on electric power systems, building equipment, building envelopes (walls, foundations, roofs, attics, and materials), and methods to improve energy efficiency in existing buildings. Transportation systems research is conducted both to improve the quality of civilian transportation and for sponsors within the US military to improve the efficiency of deployment, scheduling, and transportation coordination.

  2. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anastasia [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Baker, Richard [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using 'L' clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and 'picture framing' the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  3. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anatasia [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Baker, Richard [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using "L" clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and "picture framing" the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  4. Accelerating the Delivery of Home Performance Upgrades through a Synergistic Business Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirber, Tom; Ojczyk, Cindy

    2016-04-11

    Achieving Building America energy savings goals (40% by 2030) will require many existing homes to install energy upgrades. Engaging large numbers of homeowners in building science-guided upgrades during a single remodeling event has been difficult for a number of reasons. Performance upgrades in existing homes tend to occur over multiple years and usually result from component failures (furnace failure) and weather damage (ice dams, roofing, siding). This research attempted to: A) understand the homeowner's motivations regarding investing in building science based performance upgrades; B) determining a rapidly scalable approach to engage large numbers of homeowners directly through existing customer networks; and C) access a business model that will manage all aspects of the contractor-homeowner-performance professional interface to ensure good upgrade decisions over time. The solution results from a synergistic approach utilizing networks of suppliers merging with networks of homeowner customers. Companies in the $400 to $800 billion home services industry have proven direct marketing and sales proficiencies that have led to the development of vast customer networks. Companies such as pest control, lawn care, and security have nurtured these networks by successfully addressing the ongoing needs of homes. This long-term access to customers and trust established with consistent delivery has also provided opportunities for home service providers to grow by successfully introducing new products and services like attic insulation and air sealing. The most important component for success is a business model that will facilitate and manage the process. The team analyzes a group that developed a working model.

  5. Cornice Duct System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne Place; Chuck Ladd

    2004-10-29

    SYNERGETICS, INC., has designed, developed, and tested an air handling duct system that integrates the air duct with the cornice trim of interior spaces. The device has the advantage that the normal thermal losses from ducts into unconditioned attics and crawl spaces can be totally eliminated by bringing the ducts internal to the conditioned space. The following report details work conducted in the second budget period to develop the Cornice Duct System into a viable product for use in a variety of residential or small commercial building settings. A full-scale prototype has been fabricated and tested in a laboratory test building at the Daylighting Facility at North Carolina State University., Based on the results of that testing, the prototype design as been refined, fabricated, installed, and extensively tested in a residential laboratory house. The testing indicates that the device gives substantially superior performance to a standard air distribution system in terms of energy performance and thermal comfort. Patent Number US 6,511,373 B2 has been granted on the version of the device installed and tested in the laboratory house. (A copy of that patent is attached.) Refinements to the device have been carried through two additional design iterations, with a particular focus on reducing installation time and cost and refining the air control system. These new designs have been fabricated and tested and show substantial promise. Based on these design and testing iterations, a final design is proposed as part of this document. That final design is the basis for a continuation in part currently being filed with the U.5, Patent office.

  6. Mitigating the Impacts of Uncontrolled Air Flow on Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Demand in Non-Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugh I. Henderson; Jensen Zhang; James B. Cummings; Terry Brennan

    2006-07-31

    This multi-faceted study evaluated several aspects of uncontrolled air flows in commercial buildings in both Northern and Southern climates. Field data were collected from 25 small commercial buildings in New York State to understand baseline conditions for Northern buildings. Laboratory wall assembly testing was completed at Syracuse University to understand the impact of typical air leakage pathways on heat and moisture transport within wall assemblies for both Northern and Southern building applications. The experimental data from the laboratory tests were used to verify detailed heat and moisture (HAM) simulation models that could be used to evaluate a wider array of building applications and situations. Whole building testing at FSEC's Building Science Laboratory (BSL) systematically evaluated the energy and IAQ impacts of duct leakage with various attic and ceiling configurations. This systematic test carefully controlled all aspects of building performance to quantify the impact of duct leakage and unbalanced flow. The newest features of the EnergyPlus building simulation tool were used to model the combined impacts of duct leakage, ceiling leakage, unbalanced flows, and air conditioner performance. The experimental data provided the basis to validate the simulation model so it could be used to study the impact of duct leakage over a wide range of climates and applications. The overall objective of this project was to transfer work and knowledge that has been done on uncontrolled air flow in non-residential buildings in Florida to a national basis. This objective was implemented by means of four tasks: (1) Field testing and monitoring of uncontrolled air flow in a sample of New York buildings; (2) Detailed wall assembly laboratory measurements and modeling; (3) Whole building experiments and simulation of uncontrolled air flows; and (4) Develop and implement training on uncontrolled air flows for Practitioners in New York State.

  7. Numerical Evaluation of Mode 1 Stress Intensity Factor as a Function of Material Orientation For BX-265 Foam Insulation Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Erik; Arakere, Nagaraj K.

    2006-01-01

    Foam; a cellular material, is found all around us. Bone and cork are examples of biological cell materials. Many forms of man-made foam have found practical applications as insulating materials. NASA uses the BX-265 foam insulation material on the external tank (ET) for the Space Shuttle. This is a type of Spray-on Foam Insulation (SOFI), similar to the material used to insulate attics in residential construction. This foam material is a good insulator and is very lightweight, making it suitable for space applications. Breakup of segments of this foam insulation on the shuttle ET impacting the shuttle thermal protection tiles during liftoff is believed to have caused the space shuttle Columbia failure during re-entry. NASA engineers are very interested in understanding the processes that govern the breakup/fracture of this complex material from the shuttle ET. The foam is anisotropic in nature and the required stress and fracture mechanics analysis must include the effects of the direction dependence on material properties. Material testing at NASA MSFC has indicated that the foam can be modeled as a transversely isotropic material. As a first step toward understanding the fracture mechanics of this material, we present a general theoretical and numerical framework for computing stress intensity factors (SIFs), under mixed-mode loading conditions, taking into account the material anisotropy. We present mode I SIFs for middle tension - M(T) - test specimens, using 3D finite element stress analysis (ANSYS) and FRANC3D fracture analysis software, developed by the Cornel1 Fracture Group. Mode I SIF values are presented for a range of foam material orientations. Also, NASA has recorded the failure load for various M(T) specimens. For a linear analysis, the mode I SIF will scale with the far-field load. This allows us to numerically estimate the mode I fracture toughness for this material. The results represent a quantitative basis for evaluating the strength and

  8. Ways of modernization of large-panel residential buildings in Yerevan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakobyan Tigran Davidovich

    Full Text Available The present article discusses some problems of renovation and modernization of large-panel residential buildings built in the postwar period in Yerevan. The analysis of the current situation showed that today these buildings have many problems related to their functional and aesthetic aspects of quality and become obsolete. The floor plans don’t satisfy modern functional requirements of inhabitants: similar and repeatable types of buildings became the reason of large arrays of monotonously built up districts with low indicators of quality. Furthermore, there are many low quality extensions and add-ins to the buildings made by inhabitants without control, which destroy the architectural appearance of habitat. Yard places of large-panel residential buildings are occupied by car parks and road travel, buildings are cut off from courtyard areas, which as a consequence don’t meet tsocial and functional requirements of the people. The consideration of the international experience of large-panel old housing renovation in European countries has shown that the main activities include improving the energy efficiency of residential buildings with removing heat loss and using solar panels, contrast changes in architectural appearance with large terraces, loggias, using wide range of colors, add-in attics and enlarging the height and the use of space-planning decisions to increase the living space. Analyzing the current situation of the housing and the international experience of modernization the concept of complex modernization of large-panel buildings was offered, which suggested bringing it to life on three main levels of habitat: apartments, building shapes, residential environment and areas. The main goals of the concept are increasing the comfort of planning decisions as well as the total size of the apartment, improving architectural appearance of the building and introducing areas for public services to housing, increasing energy efficiency and

  9. ¿La Apoteosis de Heracles o una escena de Apobates? A propósito de una cratera de campana procedente de La Loma del Escorial de Los Nietos (Cartagena, Murcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Pérez, Diana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to assess the traditional iconographic identification of the obverse of a 4th century Greek bell crater from the Iberian site of La Loma del Escorial de Los Nietos (Cartagena, Murcia. The scene has been identified as an apotheosis of Heracles. Nevertheless, a detailed analysis of its iconography and of a feature neglected in the previous study of the vase by its excavators —the remains of a shield— make it possible to argue in favor of an apobates race instead —the only scene of this type attested in the Iberian Peninsula. I present here an analysis of both iconographic motifs —the apotheosis of Heracles and the apobates race— that will reveal interesting findings on the ways in which images and iconographic types acquire meaning. It also sheds light on the kind of images favored by the receptors of these vases in the Peninsula — the Iberians. An up-to-date catalogue of Attic vases depicting each theme is included.En el presente artículo se revisa la identificación iconográ- fica de la cara A de una cratera griega fragmentaria del siglo IV a.C. procedente del yacimiento ibérico de La Loma del Escorial de Los Nietos (Cartagena, Murcia. La escena se ha identificado tradicionalmente como la apoteosis de Heracles, no obstante, tras un análisis detallado de la misma, en particular del resto de un escudo previamente inadvertido que porta el personaje principal, creemos que la iconografía se corresponde con la del apobates victorioso, un unicum en la Península Ibérica. Presentamos un análisis de ambos motivos iconográficos que revelará interesantes conclusiones sobre el funcionamiento de los tipos iconográficos y mecanismos de creación de significado en la pintura de vasos de la época, así como sobre el tipo de imágenes estimadas por los receptores de esas piezas en la Península Ibérica, los íberos. Se incluye también un catálogo actualizado de los vasos áticos que portan ambos temas.

  10. Fly proof net shed for livestock: A novel concept of physical barrier for integrated management of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Narladkar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An age old and time tested technique of mosquito net requiring no energy, used by humans since prehistoric period was the inspiration behind this novel technique of fly proof net shed for livestock. With the aim to develop similar type of net shed for animals, which will protect them at night from biting of range of insects from Culicoides midges to mosquitoes, research was undertaken. Materials and Methods: Net shed with pitch roof (gable type was erected for use of livestock. The open inlet area was covered with 40 mesh size wire net. The roof at attic level was fitted with hurricane type of ventilator. Shed was used for animals at night hours only. vane anemometer was used for estimation of temperature and wind related parameters. Thermal humidity index (THI and air changes were calculated as per the standard formulas. Based on these parameters suitability of shed was judged. Results: It was observed that, due to netting of the shed population of Culicoides and other flies and incidences of their bites at night hours were considerably lowered. As a result, animals were found comfortable, and their body movements undertaken for wiping off these flies were significantly reduced from 196.50 to 22.16. All it accrued to increased milk yield to the tune of 18.97% in the net shed buffaloes as against control shed. Studies on suitability and comfort to animals were tested by estimating THI and air changes per hour in the net shed, which also revealed the estimates in comfortable regimen and ventilation, remained not much affected despite of netting. Other parameters studied for testing its more accuracy by taking other species of animals as kids, for them also, shed was found suitable through estimation of various physiological and behavioral parameters. Finally, the efficacy of shed was judged on the basis of cost effectiveness. Highly encouraging results on the above said parameters endorsed the effectiveness of the technique. Conclusion: A

  11. Behavior and demography in an urban colony of Tadarida brasiliensis (Chiroptera: Molossidae in Rosario, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo C Romano

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Bat colonies were sampled in the city of Rosario to increase the understanding of bat ecology in urban areas of the southern cone of South America. Seven species were recorded, of which three are new records for Rosario. One representative colony was chosen for intensive ecological study. Approximately 64 000 Tadarida brasiliensis formed a maternity colony in the attic of an old building. Most of the bats were pregnant or lactating females and their young.. Adults arrive in the colony in mid-September and leave in February, no bats were present at this site from the beginning of March to mid-September. Births occur between mid-November and mid-December. Pups roosted in compact clusters in the nursery areas, spatially segregated from adults. Densities of these aggregations were 643 + 76 bats/m2 (p Con el objetivo de incrementar el conocimiento de la ecología de los murciélagos en áreas urbanas, se muestrearon colonias en la ciudad de Rosario. Fueron registradas siete especies, de las cuales tres son nuevos registros. Se seleccionó una colonia que se consideró más representativa, para realizar un intensivo estudio ecológico. Se realizaron conteos poblacionales, que arrojaron aproximadamente 64 000 Tadarida brasiliensis formando una colonia maternal en el ático de un antigüo edificio. Se hicieron registros de comportamiento (fechas de arribo y partida, patrones diarios de actividad, pariciones, etc.. Los adultos arrivan al refugio a mediados de septiembre y lo abandonan en febrero. Las pariciones ocurren entre mediados de noviembre y mediados de diciembre. Las crías se ubicaron en grupos compactos en áreas separadas de los adultos, siendo su densidad de 643 + 76 /m2 (p < 0.20. y la de los adultos de 161 + 21 /m2 (p < 0.20. 182 animales capturados fueron identificados, sexados y pesados. Los registros incluyeron patrones diarios de actividad.. Se detectó predación por "lechuza de campanario" (Tyto alba y gatos domésticos. La b

  12. Io, Argus, Hermes, Syrinx: An Example of the In_uence Excersiced by Ovid’s Metamorphoses on Ancient Roman Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Osvald

    2012-07-01

    directly allude to Ovid’s verse, encompassing the Syrinx motif and thus practically serving as illustrations to Act 4, Scene 1. According to Burkhardt Wesenberg, all four schemes stem from a common prototype – the painting Io by a late Attic painter, Nicias of Athens (Pliny, Natural History 35.132. What seems likely, however, is that Ovid’s new version with Syrinx influenced a rearrangement of the figures in the original composition, which led to the formation of new schemes.

  13. Homosexuality according to ancient Greek physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Moschos, M M; Koukaki, E; Kontaxaki, M-I; Androutsos, G

    2017-01-01

    Homosexuality and pedophilia in ancient Greece greatly concerned many researchers who were mainly interested in highlighting the social aspect of this phenomenon in ancient Greek society. An important source on the subject was the paintings of a man and his lover in attic black and red figured pottery, up to the end of the 5th century BC. Another main source was the information that derived from the texts of ancient Greek literature, especially poetry. Homosexuality was not only referring to relationships between males, but it was also manifested in lesbian love. It is believed that in the Homeric world homosexuality was not favored. In Greek society of the archaic period, the restriction of women at home, the satisfaction of sexual needs with courtesans, the marriage for the purpose of maintaining and managing the property, put women aside, marginalizing them in terms of social life, impeding the cultivation of emotional relationships between sexes. At the same time, in the society of those times, the aristocratic ideal, the constant communication of men during military training and the war, the male nudity in sports and the promotion of beauty and bravery in athletic contests, as well as the gatherings and the entertainment of men at the symposia, created a suitable substrate in which male homosexuality could develop. In this context, pedophile relationships were developed mainly during the archaic period, as recorded on vase paintings, where a mature man developed a special relationship with a teenager of the same social class. The mature man had the role of mentor for the juvenile, he would look after him and cover his living expenses and education cost. In this relationship, exhibiting predominantly the social dimension of an initiation process and introduction to adult life, the erotic homosexual intercourse could find a place to flourish. The above-mentioned relationship could not last forever, given that this would later transform into an emotional

  14. Residencia Palace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gellner, E.

    1963-12-01

    Full Text Available There are 35 apartments in this six storey block, their floor surface varying between 68 and 210 m2 The attic apartments occupy two floor levels. The apartments have the living room and main bedroom facing south, and only the secondary rooms are on the northern side. The smaller apartments are aligned along a corridor, and the secondary rooms, situated at a different level with respect to the main rooms, are ventilated and illuminated over the ceiling of the latter. The building has two wings, which are served by two independent stairs and lifts. A restaurant is provided on the ground floor, which leads out unto an extensive terrace. The external appearance of this block was made more interesting by breaking up the surface with a number of architectural features, such as overhanging balconies, pillars and brise soleils. Because of these devices, the building does not break up the countrified background too much, nor do the various coproprietors, who come to these flats to spend their holidays in the mountains, feel that they live in a cellular building, similar to their town dwellings.Se disponen 35 apartamentos—cuyas superficies varían entre las seis plantas; los del ático, se desarrollan en dos niveles. Todos ellos presentan la zona de estar y el dormitorio principal orientados al sur; solamente los ambientes secundarios miran al norte. Las unidades más pequeñas están alineadas a lo largo de un corredor, e iluminan y ventilan directamente los correspondientes servicios, aprovechando la diferencia de altura de techo del mismo. Los apartamentos están distribuidos en dos alas, independientemente servidas por escaleras y ascensores; en la planta baja hay un restaurante con una amplia terraza. Se ha logrado, plenamente, aligerar el aspecto exterior del notable volumen del edificio, fraccionando las fachadas, mediante diversas características arquitectónicas—celosías, pilastras, terrazas voladas, etcétera—. Con ello se ha conseguido

  15. INTERIOR DUCT SYSTEM DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND PERFORMANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janet E.R. Mcllvaine; David Beal; Philip Fairey

    2001-10-10

    By removing air distribution and conditioning equipment from unconditioned spaces, homeowners stand to benefit substantially with respect to both energy savings and indoor air quality. Duct leakage introduces: Greater heating and cooling loads from air at extreme temperatures and humidity levels; Outside air and air from unconditioned spaces that may contain air borne contaminants, combustion gases, pollen, mold spores, and/or particles of building materials; and Higher whole-house infiltration/exfiltration rates. Exemplary studies conducted since 1990 have demonstrated the prevalence of duct leakage throughout the United States and measured energy savings of approximately 20% during both heating and cooling seasons from leakage reduction. These all dealt with duct leakage to and/or from unconditioned spaces. In the building science community, leakage within the conditioned space is generally presumed to eliminate the negative consequences of duct leakage with the exception of possibly creating pressure imbalances in the house which relates to higher infiltration and/or exfiltration. The practical challenges of isolating ducts and air handlers from unconditioned spaces require builders to construct an air-tight environment for the ducts. Florida Solar Energy Center researchers worked with four builders in Texas, North Carolina, and Florida who build a furred-down chase located either in a central hallway or at the edges of rooms as an architectural detail. Some comparison homes with duct systems in attics and crawl spaces were included in the test group of more than 20 homes. Test data reveals that all of the duct/AHU systems built inside the conditioned space had lower duct leakage to unconditioned spaces than their conventional counterparts; however, none of the homes was completely free of duct leakage to unconditioned spaces. Common problems included wiring and plumbing penetrations of the chase, failure to treat the chase as an air tight space, and misguided

  16. Dos chalets, en Suecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erskine, Ralph

    1968-04-01

    Full Text Available Villa Engström, at Sorunda This house, of semi-spheric shape, has besically only one floor level, without basement. However, the guest room and the attic are a kind of second floor within the cupula. This is an experiment, with a view to the possible mass construction of this prototype. The various rooms are grouped in two blocks, one comprising the bedrooms, which are cellular type and of minimum size, and the bathrooms; the other includes the children's room, a living room which extends into the vestibule, and guest room at a higher level. Villa Ström, near Stockholm This house is practically cube shaped, with ample terraces, which are structurally independent of the central volume. A principal aim has been to obtain fine views in all directions, and also to take advantage of the ground slope. This house, of original and competent design, includes indoor gardens which add colour and life to the rooms.Villa Engström, en Sorunda Esta vivienda, que presenta una «forma» semiesferica, es fundamentalmente un edificio de una sola planta, sin sótano; sin embargo, el cuarto de huéspedes y el «ático» forman como una especie de doble planta dentro de la cúpula. Se trata de una experiencia con vistas a una posible fabricación en serie. Las diferentes habitaciones se hallan agrupadas en dos bloques: uno de ellos ocupado por los dormitorios —que son de tipo celular y de tamaño mínimo—, y los cuartos de baño; y el otro que comprende un cuarto para los niños, la sala de estar —unida con el vestíbulo—, y la habitación de los huéspedes en la parte superior. Villa Ström, cerca de Estocolmo La casa es prácticamente un cubo, con terrazas amplias e independientes estructuralmente del volumen principal. En todo caso, ha dominado la doble preocupación de conseguir magníficas vistas hacia todos los alrededores y una adaptación total a la pendiente del terreno. La vivienda se ha resuelto con maestría y originalidad, procurando zonas

  17. El ánfora ática de la Cova dels Pilars (Agres, Alicante: una propuesta de lectura iconográficq en su contexto espacial ibérico. Con un apéndice de Julio González-Alcalde, La Cova dels Pilars en el contexto de las cuevas-santuario ibéricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grau, Ignacio

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The dispersed fragments of an Attic red-figured amphora dated in the second fourth of the 5th century BC, proceeding from the Cova dels Pilars (Agres, Alicante province are analysed. This vessel shows the representation of an auleter and an ephebus with lyre and, on the back side, three young men. The amphora is placed in its Iberian context, as a possible monument that acquires a new sense in this singular precinct. It would be testimony and model for an ritual of initiation, that has been able to be developed in the extensive interior space of the cave. The place was frequented since Orientalizing period until Iberian-Hellenistic times. The Cova dels Pilars acts as a sanctuary that builds the sacred and political landscape in the valley of Agres, around the Iberian oppida of Mariola and La Covalta. It is a liminal space in relation to the territorial boundaries and the communication corridor of the valley.Se estudian los fragmentos dispersos de un ánfora ática de figuras rojas del segundo cuarto del siglo V a. C. procedente de la Cova dels Pilars (Agres, Alicante, con la representación de un auletér y un efebo con lira y, en el reverso, tres jóvenes. El ánfora se sitúa en su contexto ibérico, como un posible monumento que adquiere un nuevo sentido en este recinto singular. Sería testimonio y modelo de un ritual de iniciación de adolescentes, que ha podido desarrollarse en el amplio espacio interior de la cueva, frecuentada al menos desde época orientalizante y hasta época ibero-helenística. La Cueva deis Pilars actúa como santuario que, en torno a los oppida ibéricos de Mariola y La Covalta, construye el territorio sacro y político del valle de Agres. Es espacio liminal en relación con los confines territoriales y con la vía de circulación del valle.

  18. Positive feedback between strain localization and fluid flow at the ductile-brittle transition leading to Pb-Zn-Fe-Cu-Ag ore deposits in Lavrion (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Christophe; Tarantola, Alexandre; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    At the crustal scale, the ductile-brittle transition (DBT) might correspond to a physical barrier that separates a deep reservoir of metamorphic and magmatic fluids from a shallow reservoir of surficial fluids. Rock rheology, and thus the location of the DBT, is mainly governed by lithology, temperature and the presence/absence of fluids. Accordingly, the position of the DBT potentially evolves during orogenic evolution owing to thermal evolution and fluid circulation. In turn rocks are transferred across it during burial and exhumation. These processes induce connections between fluid reservoirs which might play a role on ore deposition. In this contribution, we discuss the impact of lithological heterogeneities on deformation, fluid flow and ore deposition based on the example of the Lavrion low-angle top-to-the-SSW detachment accommodating gravitational collapse of the Hellenides orogenic belt in Greece. The Lavrion peninsula, localized along the western boundary of the Attic-Cycladic Metamorphic Core Complex, is characterized by Pb-Zn-Fe-Cu-Ag ore mineralization mainly concentrated along a lithological contact (marble/schists) below and within a detachment shear zone. The mylonitic marble below the detachment shear zone is composed of white layers of pure marble alternating with blue layers containing impurities (SiO2, Al2O3, organic matter…). Development of the mylonitic fabric in competent impure blue marble is associated with its preferred dolomitization related to focused fluid infiltration. This mylonitic marble is cross-cut by several cataclastic horizons preferentially developed within the more competent impure blue marble and newly-crystallized dolomitic horizon. These cataclasites are invaded by fluorite and calcite gangue minerals showing locally Mn, Pb, Zn, Fe oxides and/or hydroxides, sphalerite, Ag-galena, Ag-sulfur and native Ag. Oxygen and carbon stable isotopes performed on marble sections point out decarbonation with magmatic contribution and

  19. Evaluation of wind-induced internal pressure in low-rise buildings: A multi scale experimental and numerical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecle, Amanuel Sebhatu

    Hurricane is one of the most destructive and costly natural hazard to the built environment and its impact on low-rise buildings, particularity, is beyond acceptable. The major objective of this research was to perform a parametric evaluation of internal pressure (IP) for wind-resistant design of low-rise buildings and wind-driven natural ventilation applications. For this purpose, a multi-scale experimental, i.e. full-scale at Wall of Wind (WoW) and small-scale at Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel (BLWT), and a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach was adopted. This provided new capability to assess wind pressures realistically on internal volumes ranging from small spaces formed between roof tiles and its deck to attic to room partitions. Effects of sudden breaching, existing dominant openings on building envelopes as well as compartmentalization of building interior on the IP were systematically investigated. Results of this research indicated: (i) for sudden breaching of dominant openings, the transient overshooting response was lower than the subsequent steady state peak IP and internal volume correction for low-wind-speed testing facilities was necessary. For example a building without volume correction experienced a response four times faster and exhibited 30--40% lower mean and peak IP; (ii) for existing openings, vent openings uniformly distributed along the roof alleviated, whereas one sided openings aggravated the IP; (iii) larger dominant openings exhibited a higher IP on the building envelope, and an off-center opening on the wall exhibited (30--40%) higher IP than center located openings; (iv) compartmentalization amplified the intensity of IP and; (v) significant underneath pressure was measured for field tiles, warranting its consideration during net pressure evaluations. The study aimed at wind driven natural ventilation indicated: (i) the IP due to cross ventilation was 1.5 to 2.5 times higher for Ainlet/Aoutlet>1 compared to cases where Ainlet

  20. Las copas tipo Cástulo en la Península Ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez, Carmen

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The Castulo cup is one of the most common black glaze Attic forms in the Iberian Peninsula from the Atlantic coast to Ampurias. Their date in the Iberian Peninsula is some years later than that proposed for Athens. They did not appear till some years after the second half of the 5th c. B.C. Their production probably continued until the first quarter of the 4th century B.C. They are almost fixed in their form for about a century, but some differences in the outside decoration and the underside of the foot can be pointed out. Two main types are proposed for the second half of the 5th century and the first quarter of the 4th century B.C. The differences in date compared with those found at Athens can be explained as an adaptation of the workshops to the demands of Iberian customers. Athen's artisans continued making Castulo cups for export at a time when in Athens they did not use them any more, because the stemless cup had been replaced by the popular kantharoi and cup-kantharoi.

    La copa Cástulo es una de las formas áticas de barniz negro más abundante en los yacimientos peninsulares desde la costa atlántica hasta Ampurias. Su cronología es en la Península Ibérica algo posterior a la propuesta para Atenas. No aparecen hasta algo después de mediados del siglo V y probablemente se continúan fabricando hasta el primer cuarto del IV a. C. No experimentan durante casi un siglo de producción ninguna variación formal, sin embargo sí se pueden ver diferencias en el tratamiento de la decoración exterior y del fondo externo. Se proponen aquí fundamentalmente dos tipos de la segunda mitad del siglo V y primer cuarto del IV a. C. La diferencia cronológica con las halladas en Atenas se explica como una adaptación de los talleres áticos a la demanda de los clientes ibéricos. Los artesanos atenienses continúan fabricando copas Cástulo para la exportación cuando en Atenas se han dejado ya de utilizar las copas de pie bajo al ser

  1. [Euripides and Heraclitus on the attitude towards the corpse--an unrecognized fragment of Heraclitus in Electra, v. 289].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moog, Ferdinand Peter

    2007-01-01

    Among the fragments of Heraclitus preserved to our times there is one saying that corpses ought to be disposed of more urgently than excrements Diels/Kranz 22 B 96. This sentence of an aphoristic nature, as frequently in the case of Heraclitus' scripts, allows many different interpretations. Even in antiquity these words led to vitriolic reactions and perplexed other writers. It is why they have been frequently quoted. Nevertheless, it has been overlooked until now that Euripides, the youngest of the three great Attic tragedians, had inserted them into one of his dramas. In his Electra it is the title figure who uses them while reporting the slaughter of Agamemnon. The quotation bears witness to Euripides' erudition as of one of the earliest men known to have possessed a private library. He must, therefore, have had access to many treatises on various subjects, among them to the work by Heraclitus. The Electra is a kind of homage to the obscure thinker from Ephesus. From this fact, and from the plot of this particular play, we may gain some insight into an ambivalent attitude of the ancient Greeks towards the corpse that certainly influenced ideas about human anatomy in particular and medical knowledge in general. A characteristic feature of the malefactors, namely Aigisthos and Clytaimestra, is the deliberate dishonouring of their victims corpse. By contrast, the noble characters Orestes and Electra never violate the corpse of their arch-enemy Aigisthos, but see to it that he is properly buried. Burial was, particularly in Athens, so essential that in the well-known Arginusai trial the failure to bury the fallen soldiers resulted in capital punishment for the accused. Nevertheless, it is likely that Euripides, following Heraclitus, did not reject the anatomical examination of corpses for scientific purposes, as he was not only in this regard a supporter of science and progress. Perhaps Plato's notion of the human body as the tomb of the soul is foreshadowed here

  2. Subjective heat stress of urban citizens: influencing factors and coping strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Hackenbruch, Julia; Schipper, Hans

    2014-05-01

    . While some results match with expectations and also with results obtained in other studies, for example that people living in the attic floor experienced higher subjective heat stress levels at home, some results are surprising: against expectations, respondents 65 years and older on average reported lower subjective heat-stress levels than younger ones - a result that can partly be linked to the different coping strategies applied by both groups.

  3. Profil Penderita Otitis Media Supuratif Kronis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Agustaf Asroel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Otitis media supuratif kronis merupakan penyakit telinga umum di negaranegara berkembang. Komplikasi otitis media supuratif kronis tipe bahaya mempunyai tanda dan gejala klinis yang khas.Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui profil penderita otitis media supuratif kronis (OMSK tipe bahaya di RSUP H. Adam Malik. Penelitian deskriptif terhadap 119 penderita dari tahun 2006-2010. Sekitar 28,57% penderita dijumpai pada tahun 2010, sekitar 31,93% terjadi pada usia 11-20 tahun, sekitar 53,78% laki-laki, dan sekitar 38,66% pada telinga kanan. Sebanyak 68,91% terjadi akibat riwayat otitis media berulang dan 61,34% dengan keluhan utama telinga berair. Gejala dan tanda klinis yang sering terjadi adalah telinga berair (76,47% dan perforasi membran timpani (74,79%, baik perforasi atik (0,84%, marginal (1,68%, subtotal (23,53%, dan total (48,74%. Gangguan pendengaran terbanyak adalah tuli konduktif (58,82%. Pada foto proyeksi Schuller, 62,18% dijumpai gambaran mastoiditis kronis dengan kolesteatoma. Dari hasil kultur dijumpai 21,01% Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 86,55% terjadi komplikasi mastoiditis.Profil penderita OMSK tipe bahaya di RSUP H. Adam Malik Medan sesuai dengan profil penderita OMSK tipe bahaya pada umumnya. Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM is a common ear disease in developing countries. The complications of CSOM have a unique set of clinical signs and symptoms. This study aimed to identify the profile of dangerous type CSOM patients at H. Adam Malik General Hospital Medan in 2006-2010. A descriptive study of 119 patients in 2006-2010. From 119 patients, 28.57% were found in 2010, 31.93% were at age between 11-20 years old, 53.78% men and 38.66% were at right ear. 68.91% due to a history of recurrent otitis media and 61.34% with a main complaint of draining ears. The most clinical symptoms and signs were aqueous ears (76.47% and tympanic membrane perforations (74.79%, as attic perforation (0.84%, marginal (1.68%, subtotal (23.53%, and total

  4. Large Prefabricated Concrete Panels Collective Dwellings from the 1970s: Context and Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, Daniel M.; Ungureanu, Viorel; Petran, Ioan; Georgescu, Mircea

    2017-10-01

    redesigned for a more efficient use of space and an improved natural lighting. Active core modules are placed on top of the unused attics and a solar panel array is introduced. Furthermore accessibility issues are addressed by facilitating access for disabled people and implementing an elevator system that currently these building do not have.

  5. Evaluation of the Impact of Slab Foundation Heat Transfer on Heating and Cooling in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, D. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Kono, J. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Vieira, R. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Gu, L. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    During the last three decades of energy-efficiency research, there has been limited study of heat transfer to slab-on-grade foundations in cooling-dominated climates. Most experimental research has focused on the impact of slab-on-grade foundations and insulation schemes on heat losses in heating-dominated climates. This is surprising because the floor area in single-family homes is generally equal to wall area, window area, or attic area, all of which have been extensively evaluated for heat-transfer properties. Moreover, slab foundations are the most common foundation type in cooling-dominated climates. Slab-on-grade construction is very popular in southern states, accounting for 77% of new home floors according to 2014 U.S. Census data. There is a widespread perception that tile flooring, as opposed to carpet, provides a cooler home interior in warm climates. Empirical research is needed because building energy simulation software programs running DOE-2 and EnergyPlus engines often rely on simplified models to evaluate the influence of flooring on interior temperature, even though in some cases more detailed models exist. The U.S. Department of Energy Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC) performed experiments in the Florida Solar Energy Center’s Flexible Residential Test Facility intended to assess for the first time (1) how slab-on-grade construction influences interior cooling in a cooling-dominated climate and (2) how the difference in a carpeted versus uncarpeted building might influence heating and cooling energy use. Two nominally identical side-by-side residential buildings were evaluated during the course of 1 year, from 2014 to 2015: the east building with a pad and carpet floor and the west building with a bare slab floor. A detailed grid shows temperature measurements taken on the slab surface at various locations as well as at depths of 1.0 ft, 2 ft, 5.0 ft, 10.0 ft, and 20.0 ft below the surface. Temperature

  6. A STUDY ON STRUCTURE AND THICKNESS OF ISTHMUS OF CARTILAG E OF PINNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyanarayana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A variety of organic and inorganic materials is used as grafts in Ossiculoplasty and reconstruction of the outer attic wall and posterior wall of External Auditory Meatus. Tragal cartilage, Conchal cartilage and septal cartilages are frequently used as auto grafts during Tympanoplasty surgery for reconstruction of Ossicular chain. Cartilage grafts used for Ossicular replacement should be thick, sturdy, easily sculpted and without much elasticity. If the graft has elastic nature it tends to reduce the conduction of sound vibrations. Auricular cartilage is accessible through the same post aural incision used for the mastoid surgery. If the auricular cartilage is palpated for the thickness, one would find that the thickest part is the isthmus. It is felt below and posterior to the inter tragal sulcus. The present study is to measure the thickness of the isthmus part of the auricle cartilage. It also includes study of histology of the cartilage of isthmus to observe the stacks of cells present between the two layers of the perichondrium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cartilage of isthmus from 36 cadavers is dissected to measure its thickness and for histology study. Cartilage of isthmus from 36 patients undergoing Modified Radical Mastoidectomy is measured for their thickness and histology is studied. A sterile steel calipers is used to measure the thickness of the cartilage, after exposing the cartilage from posterior aspect during surgery. The tips of the calipers are kept touching the perichondrium on both sides. Thin histology sections are taken after embedding the cartilage in paraffin moulds. Hematoxyline and Eosin stain is used to study the histology. The thickest portion of the cartilage is sculpted to be used as a strut in Type III Tympanoplasty. OBSERVATIONS: The thickness of the cartilage varied from 2.1 to 3mm. The number of stacks of chondrocytes varied from 5 to 7. The physical nature of the cartilage is sturdy and easily

  7. TASK 2.5.7 FIELD EXPERIMENTS TO EVALUATE COOL-COLORED ROOFING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, William A [ORNL; Cherry, Nigel J [ORNL; Allen, Richard Lowell [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL; Ronnen, Levinson [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Akbari, Hashem [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Berhahl, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2010-03-01

    counter battens, providing a nailing surface for the concrete tile. This double batten construction forms an inclined air channel running from the soffit to the ridge. The bottom surface of the channel is formed by the roof decking and is relatively flat and smooth. The top surface is created by the underside of the roofing tiles, and is designed to be an air permeable covering to alleviate the underside air pressure and minimize wind uplift on the tiles. The resulting air flows also have a cooling influence which further complicates prediction of the heat penetrating through the deck because an accurate measure of the airflow is required to predict the heat transfer. Measured temperatures and heat flows at the roof surface, within the attic and at the ceiling of the houses are discussed as well as the power usage to help gauge the benefit of cool-pigmented reflective roof products fitted with and without ventilation above the roof deck. Ventilation occurring above the deck is an inherent feature for tile roof assemblies, and is formed by an air space between the exterior face of the roof sheathing and the underside of the tile. The greater the tile s profile the greater is the effect of the ventilation which herein is termed above-sheathing ventilation (ASV). However, because of the complexity of the thermally induced flow, little credit is allowed by state and federal building codes. ASHRAE (2005) provides empirical data for the effective thermal resistance of plane air spaces. A -in. (0.0191-m) plane air space inclined at 45 with the horizontal has an RUS-0.85 (RSI-0.15) . Our intent is to help further deploy cool color pigments in roofs by conducting field experiments to evaluate the new cool-colored roofing materials in the hot climate of Southern California. The collected data will be used to showcase and market the performance of new cool-roof products and also to help formulate and validate computer codes capable of calculating the heat transfer occurring within

  8. Hospital de San José en Tacoma, Washington- (EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg, Bertrand

    1977-02-01

    Full Text Available The building is formed by two structural masses which greatly contrast with the buildings surrounding same. A nine-story tower, rest on a two-story rectangular base, with a central core going through the entire height of the building. The building is finished off with an attic for installations. The following services are installed in the base: reception, emergency, operating rooms, recuperation, radiology, pharmacy and other complementary and functional departments. The two central core floors, in the base of the tower, house the machinery for running the building. The nine floors of the tower are destined to: one for pediatrics, another for medical specialties, a third for gynecology and birth recovery; four for medical and surgery patients and two for enlargement. The floors destined for patients rooms consists of four symmetrical square-shaped sections, made of resistant walls in which concavities and convexities alternate throughout the height of the building. Each area consists of eight to nine rooms, layed-out in a semicircle around a nurse's station, permitting direct visual attention of the patients without the nurses having to get up. In addition, this group uses the general services of the central core and the stairs and elevators which surround it. The interior design of the building is sober and functional, complemented by a number of installations which contribute to its comfort and good operation.El edificio está formado por dos volúmenes estructurales de carácter marcadamente en contraste con las construcciones que le rodean. Sobre una base rectangular de dos plantas se eleva la torre, de nueve plantas, apoyada en columnas perimetrales y en un núcleo central que la recorre en toda su altura. La construcción se remata con un ático para instalaciones. En la base se distribuyen: recepción, emergencia, quirófanos, recuperación, radiología, farmacia y otros departamentos de funciones complementarias para el hospital

  9. The North Carolina Field Test: Field Performance of the Preliminary Version of an Advanced Weatherization Audit for the Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    The field performance of weatherizations based on a newly-developed advanced technique for selecting residential energy conservation measures was tested alongside current Retro-Tech-based weatherizations in North Carolina. The new technique is computer-based and determines measures based on the needs of an individual house. In addition, it recommends only those measures that it determines will have a benefit-to-cost ratio greater than 1 for the house being evaluated. The new technique also considers the interaction of measures in computing the benefit-to-cost ratio of each measure. The two weatherization approaches were compared based on implementation ease, measures installed, labor and cost requirements, and both heating and cooling energy savings achieved. One-hundred and twenty houses with the following characteristics participated: the occupants were low-income, eligible for North Carolina's current weatherization program, and responsible for their own fuel and electric bills. Houses were detached single-family dwellings, not mobile homes; were heated by kerosene, fuel oil, natural gas, or propane; and had one or two operating window air conditioners. Houses were divided equally into one control group and two weatherization groups. Weekly space heating and cooling energy use, and hourly indoor and outdoor temperatures were monitored between November 1989 and September 1990 (pre-period) and between December 1990 and August 1991 (post-period). House consumption models were used to normalize for annual weather differences and a 68 F indoor temperature. Control group savings were used to adjust the savings determined for the weatherization groups. The two weatherization approaches involved installing attic and floor insulations in near equivalent quantities, and installing storm windows and wall insulation in drastically different quantities. Substantial differences also were found in average air leakage reductions for the two weatherization groups. Average

  10. Prilozi ranom opusu Giovannija Bonazze u Kopru, Veneciji i Padovi te bilješka za njegove sinove Francesca i Antonija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Tulić

    2015-12-01

    crucifix from the church of Sant’Andrea in Padua, which can be dated to the 1700s and which, therefore, precedes three other wooden crucifixes that have been identified as his. Another work attributed to Bonazza is a large wooden gloriole with clouds, cherubs and a putto, above the altar in the Giustachini chapel in the church of Santa Maria del Carmine at Padua. The article attributes two stone angels and a putto on the attic storey of the high altar in the church of Santa Caterina on the island of Mazzorbo in the Venetian lagoon to Giovanni’s son Francesco Bonazza (Venice, c.1695 – 1770. Finally, Antonio Bonazza (Padua, 1698 – 1763, the most talented and well-known of Giovanni Bonazza’s sons, is identified as the sculptor of the exceptionally beautiful marble tabernacle on the high altar of the parish church at Kali on the island of Ugljan. The sculptures which the author of the article attributes to the Bonazza family and to Giovanni Bonazza’s teacher, l’Ongaro, demonstrate that the oeuvres of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Venetian masters are far from being closed and that we are far from knowing the final the number of their works. Moreover, it has to be said that not much is known about Giovanni’s works in wood which is why every new addition to his oeuvre with regard to this medium is important since it fills the gaps in a complex and stylistically varied production of this great Venetian sculptor

  11. Palacio de correos, telégrafos y oficinas públicas, en Cortina D'Ampezzo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gellner, Edoardo

    1964-03-01

    Full Text Available The basement of this building houses the arrival and distribution departments, and there is a covered entry for motorcars. Room is also found in the basement for a garage, the archives, the dressing rooms, washrooms, and heating boilers. The ground floor includes: hall for the public, writing room, telegram despatch department, parcel post section, post restante and general offices. The ground floor and the basement are connected by stairs and lifts. The first floor accommodates the telegraphing department, teletypes, stores, private diesel power plant, and dressing and washing rooms for the staff. Another part of this floor, with separate access, is taken up with the Court Offices. The second floor houses other court ancillaries, including the judge's office, and that of the secretaries, the lawyer's room, the statistics department, the archives and the registry office. The Treasury and Public Security Offices are located on the third floor. The attic provides room for the artistic circle rooms, which can accommodate 120 people, and includes a bar, offices and washrooms. The reinforced concrete structure of the building is externally visible. Multicoloured panels fill the concrete framework are painted in sky blue and red and greatly help to break up the uniform grey tone of the reinforced concrete mass. The contrast between the two patterns also enhances the geometric quality of the total design.El edificio aloja en el semisótano los locales de ingreso y maniobra con acceso cubierto para automóviles, garaje, archivo, ropero, aseos del personal y calderas de calefacción. La planta baja alberga: salón para el público, escritorio, servicios de imposición de telegramas, paquetes, apartado de correos y oficinas generales. Estos dos pisos se comunican mediante escaleras y montacargas. El primer piso está ocupado por los servicios de telecomunicación, sala de teletipos, almacenes, grupo electrógeno, y vestuario y aseos para el personal

  12. Deep Residential Retrofits in East Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Hendrick, Timothy P [ORNL; Christian, Jeffrey E [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL

    2012-04-01

    also monitored, with temperature and humidity measured in all conditioned zones, attics, crawlspaces, and unconditioned basements. In some homes, heat flux transducers are installed on the basement walls to help determine the insulating qualities of the technologies and practices. EnergyGauge is used to estimate the pre-retrofit and post-retrofit home energy rating system (HERS) index and reduction in energy consumption and energy bill. In a follow-up report, data from the installed sensors will be presented and analyzed as well as a comparison of the post-retrofit energy consumption of the home to the EnergyGauge model of the post-retrofit home. Table ES1 shows the retrofits that were completed at the eight households where some or all of the recommended retrofits were completed. Home aliases are used to keep the homeowners anonymous. Some key findings of this study thus far are listed as follows. Some homeowners (50%) are not willing to spend the money to reach 30 50% energy savings. Quality of retrofit work is significantly variable among contractors which impact the potential energy savings of the retrofit. Challenges exist in defining house volume and floor area. Of the five homes that completed all the recommended retrofits, energy bill savings was not the main driver for energy retrofits. In no case were the retrofits cost neutral given a 15 year loan at 7% interest for the retrofit costs.

  13. "Through Minos blocks escape by sea and land / the unconfined skies remain …": The Icarus Figure on the Sepulchral Monuments of Noricum and Pannonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Šmid

    2012-07-01

    (Germania Superior, where the Parca is replaced with Daedalus, and on a sarcophagus from Asia Minor depicting Icarus’ life. Based on the narrative cycle of Icarus’ life on that sarcophagus, Salvatore Calderone has pointed out a Neoplatonic explanation of the myth: that the fight and fall could symbolise the soul which goes into the sky, from where it falls to Earth again. As Icarus in the Danubian provinces is never shown falling but rather flying or about to take wing (the only exception being the relief from Carnuntum, the image may express a Neoplatonic thesis and the apotheosis of the deceased. The provinces display at least three elementary types: Icarus standing alone with outstretched winged arms – this type probably derives from Aquileia; Icarus in relief, together with the Parca or Daedalus; and the bust of Icarus in the tympanum of the stele or acroterium. The fragment in Joanneum has most probably arrived from one of the Attic sarcophagi, where the Parca often appears by the side of the protagonists who die prematurely.

  14. Ciceronas apie vertimą. Ką mums atskleidžia žodžių reikšmės | Cicero about Translation: Exploring the Meaning of Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audronė Kučinskienė

    2012-01-01

    word, rhetorical figure and phrase to the style, conception and situation of the work in order to ex­press most effectively vim orationis. In other words, converti ut orator means converti optime.Yet more, to translate as orator means to con­vey to the reader the original function of the source text and to make it act in the new cultural context of the translation language. In the case of De optimo genere oratorum, the Latin translation of the Dem­osthenes’ and Aeschines’ orations must become a weapon in Cicero’s polemics with the Neoatticists and persuade the Roman audience to value critically their limited eloquence. A really good translation, on the one hand, enables the author of the source text to speak throught it (Aeschinem ipsum Latine dicentem audiamus; Opt. gen. 23, on the other, such a transla­tion manages to displace the original work: to learn the Attic rhetoric, Roman youths will be able to turn to the Latin translation made by Cicero, which must become a standard for the other Roman orators (erit regula, ad quam eorum dirigantur orationes qui At­tice volent dicere; Opt. gen. 23.

  15. Impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in Fuel-Oil Heated Houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levins, W.P.

    1994-01-01

    installation labor and materials, and $627 for overhead and management), and the benefit-to-cost ratio was 1.48. A general trend toward higher-than-average fuel-oil savings was observed in houses with high pre-weatherization fuel-oil consumption. Program savings could likely be increased by targeting higher energy consumers for weatherization, although equity issues would have to be considered. Weatherization measures associated with higher-than-average savings were use of a blower door for air-sealing, attic and wall insulation, and replacement space-heating systems. Space-heating system tune-ups were not particularly effective at improving the steady-state efficiency of systems, although other benefits such as improved seasonal efficiency, and system safety and reliability may have resulted. The Program should investigate methods of improving the selection and/or application of space-heating system tune-ups and actively promote improved tune-up procedures that have been developed as a primary technology transfer activity. Houses were more air-tight following weatherization, but still leakier than what is achievable. Additional technology transfer effort is recommended to increase the use of blower doors considering that only half the weatherized houses used a blower door during air sealing. A guidebook developed by a committee of experts and covering a full range of blower-door topics might be a useful technology transfer and training document. Weatherization appeared to make occupants feel better about their house and house environment.

  16. Importance of Laser Scanning Resolution in the Process of Recreating the Architectural Details of Historical Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowicz, Joanna A.

    2017-10-01

    The TLS method (Terrestrial Laser Scanning) may replace the traditional building survey methods, e.g. those requiring the use measuring tapes or range finders. This technology allows for collecting digital data in the form of a point cloud, which can be used to create a 3D model of a building. In addition, it allows for collecting data with an incredible precision, which translates into the possibility to reproduce all architectural features of a building. This data is applied in reverse engineering to create a 3D model of an object existing in a physical space. This study presents the results of a research carried out using a point cloud to recreate the architectural features of a historical building with the application of reverse engineering. The research was conducted on a two-storey residential building with a basement and an attic. Out of the building’s façade sticks a veranda featuring a complicated, wooden structure. The measurements were taken at the medium and the highest resolution using a ScanStation C10 laser scanner by Leica. The data obtained was processed using specialist software, which allowed for the application of reverse engineering, especially for reproducing the sculpted details of the veranda. Following digitization, all redundant data was removed from the point cloud and the cloud was subjected to modelling. For testing purposes, a selected part of the veranda was modelled by means of two methods: surface matching and Triangulated Irregular Network. Both modelling methods were applied in the case of data collected at medium and the highest resolution. Creating a model based on data obtained at medium resolution, both by means of the surface matching and the TIN method, does not allow for a precise recreation of architectural details. The study presents certain sculpted elements recreated based on the highest resolution data with superimposed TIN juxtaposed against a digital image. The resulting model is very precise. Creating good models

  17. Sanatorio para la infancia, en Munich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haind, Friedrich F.

    1964-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objects to be met in the design this Children's Building were to provide suitable control and protection of the children, adequate working conditions for the nurses, and develop a pleasant family environment. This clinic is an extension of that run by the Sisters of Saint Benedict in Lechnerstrasse, Munich. It consists of two blocks, of 4 and 5 floor levels. It has a semibasement, housing the services, and some spare rooms and other facilities, described in the enclosed plans. The ground floor provides room for 25 beds, for the older boys. On the second floor there are 30 beds for those recently born, whilst the third floor has space for 30 beds for prematurely born babies. The nurses live in the attic, where there are 15 bedrooms, each with two beds, a kitchen and suitable auxiliary facilities. Much thought has been given to the design of details, the general distribution and circulation system has been planned with much care, and the overall functional efficiency of the building as a children's clinic has been kept a paramount factor. All this makes this building an outstanding one among those of this type.Los objetivos principales perseguidos aquí son: conseguir una eficaz vigilancia y protección de los niños; organizar los puestos de trabajo de las enfermeras para que resulten prácticos y agradables, y crear un ambiente familiar La clínica construida —como ampliación de las instalaciones que las Hermanas de San Benito poseen en la calle Lachner, en Munich— comprende dos cuerpos de edificio unidos, de 4 y 5 plantas de altura, respectivamente, y está distribuida del siguiente modo: el semisótano aloja, además de la zona de servicios, una serie de dependencias, que vienen descritas en la respectiva documentación gráfica. La planta baja alberga 25 camas; está destinada a los niños mayores y colegiales; la planta primera, con 30 camas, a los recién nacidos, y la planta segunda, con 30 camas, a la sección de prematuros

  18. Tectonic evolution of the western boundary of the Attico-Cycladic complex (Lavrio, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Christophe; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; Tarantola, Alexandre; Lanari, Pierre; Ponthus, Leandre; France, Lyderic; Photiades, Adonis

    2015-04-01

    The Lavrio peninsula, South East of Athens, is located along the western boundary of the Attic-Cycladic Metamorphic Complex in the internal zone of the Hellenic orogenic belt, at the intersection between thrusts and detachments. It is thus a perfect target to decipher the tectonic evolution of an orogenic wedge from tectonic accretion to gravitational collapse. The nappe stack is overlain by a non-metamorphic limestone and is made, from top to bottom by (i) an ophiolitic melange, (ii) the Lavrio tectonic unit dominated by schists and displaying mineral paragenesis typical of blueschist facies, (iii) the Kamariza tectonic unit dominated by marbles and affected by pervasive greenschist facies metamorphism. The Lavrio and Kamariza tectonic units are juxtaposed by a low-angle mylonitic to cataclastic detachement. A more detailed investigation of the relationships between mineral paragenesis and microstructures indicates that the transition from the Lavrio to the Kamariza tectonic units, across the low-angle detachment, is marked by progressive transposition of the blueschist facies fabric coeval with retrogression under greenschist facies conditions. Indeed, the Kamariza unit is characterized by a relatively steep foliation associated with isoclinal folds of weakly organized axial orientation that is partially to totally transposed into a shallow dipping foliation bearing a N-S trending lineation. The degree of transposition increases from top to bottom and is particularly marked at the transition from the Lavrio to the Kamariza unit across the low-angle detachement. The blueschist facies foliation of the Lavrio schists is underlined by glaucophane and HP phengite intergrown with chlorite crystals. The Kamariza tectonic unit is dominated by LP phengite intergrown with chlorite but contains relics of the blueschist mineral paragenesis. Detailed microprobe mapping of the composition of the phengite and chlorite crystals reveal distinct variations of the PT conditions

  19. Effects of Temperature and Tissue Type on the Development of Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Joshua K; Sanford, Michelle R; Longnecker, Michael; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2016-05-01

    The scuttle fly, Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae), is of medical, veterinary, and forensic importance. In the case of the latter, M. scalaris is commonly associated with indoor death or neglect cases of humans or household animals, and its larvae are useful in determining time of colonization (TOC). This study is the first to examine the effects of different temperatures and tissues from two vertebrate species on the growth rate and larval length of M. scalaris A preliminary validation of these data was also conducted. Immatures of M. scalaris were reared on either bovine or porcine biceps femoris at 24  °C, 28 °C, and 32 °C. Temperature significantly impacted immature development time, including egg eclosion, eclosion to pupation, and pupation to adult emergence, to favor faster development at higher temperatures. From ovipostion to eclosion, development rate was 32.1% faster from 24 °C to 28 °C, 13.9% faster from 28 °C to 32 °C, and 45.5% faster from 24 °C to 32 °C. Development from eclosion to pupation displayed similar results with differences of 30.3% between 24 °C and 28 °C, 15.4% between 28 °C and 32 °C, and 45.2% between 24 °C and 32 °C. Development from pupation to adult emergence, likewise, displayed a 44.4% difference from 24 °C and 28 °C, 7.3% from 28 °C to 32 °C, and 51.2% from 24 °C to 32 °C. From oviposition to adult emergence, M. scalaris needed ∼32.7% more hours to complete development when reared at 24 °C than 28 °C, 8.5% when reared at 28 °C rather than 32 °C, and 38.4% more time when reared at 24 °C over 32 °C. Tissue type did not significantly impact development.A preliminary validation study was conducted in four indoor environments (two attics, a closet, and a bathroom) spanning two different buildings. Utilizing minimum and mean lengths, time of colonization estimates were underestimated in all instances. The predicted range encompassed the

  20. Water saving in modern townhouse villages ВОДОСБЕРЕЖЕНИЕ В СОВРЕМЕННЫХ ПОСЕЛКАХ ТАУНХАУСОВ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It is appropriate and in some cases necessary, to arrange a special fire fighting reservoir, the size of which would vary depending on the number of buildings in a townhouse village. In case of fire, water can be taken out of it with the help of a fire pump, which is sometimes the only possible solution due to the pressure reduction in the networks of domestic water supply of villages.A water tank may also be useful for a household, as it offers a water reserve for a water supply network to assure continuous water supply to consumers in case of an accident (pump malfunction, power outage, or in case of discrepancy between regimes of water supply outside the network and water consumption inside a building. The tank is to be placed in a heated room, located as high as possible inside a building, for example, in the attic, in order to prevent water freezing. The tank volume may be about 200 300 liters; the tank is often made of steel. For the purpose of fire safety, there should always be an emergency ten-minute water supply in the tank for fire extinguishing purposes. It is worth mentioning that a free-flow water tank is preferable to a power-driven hydropneumatic one to assure an emergency supply of water for a particular period of time even in case of power failure.An electronic no-touch faucet can be even more efficient; it is activated by placing hands under a special sensor. It also has a function of maintaining a pre-set temperature, thus preventing hot water burns. It is desirable to install this a faucet in the bathroom close to the bath tub.Проблемы водосбережения выходят на первый план как в больших городах, так и в поселках малоэтажной застройки. Рассмотрены технические решения, позволяющие снизить потребление воды в несколько раз для сокращения

  1. The Mystery of the Past Haunts Again: Jane Eyre and Eugenie Marlitt’s Die zweite Frau Le mystère du passé hante encore: l’influence de Jane Eyre sur Die zweite Frau d’Eugenie Marlitt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne Defant

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre is a classic in women’s fiction. When it was published in 1847, it made an immediate impact in mid-Victorian England, partly because it drew on the paradigmatic story of a romance heroine, partly because it interpreted the needs of the women of the time. Since then, the Thornfield Hall attic where Bertha Mason is kept hidden by the master of the house, Mr. Rochester, has become the metaphor of a feminine place of imprisonment and,at the same time, of rebellion against patriarchal rules.About thirty years after Jane Eyre, another woman writer published a book which evokes the haunting atmosphere of the Thornfield Hall theme, i.e., the German writer Eugenie Marlitt, the author of Die zweite Frau ( The second wife, 1874.Interestingly, Marlitt seems to recapture, while rewriting it, the character of Bertha within the context of German domestic fiction. Bothnovels explore indeed the issue of the imprisoned and socially marginalised woman in terms of ethnicity to show how gender roles are inevitably complicit with power relations. In Jane Eyre and Die zweite Frau the house motif is a pivotal element that leads to our understanding of the female characters, but it is above all the mystery that reverberates through the houses of the two novels, represented by two women, the Creole Bertha  and the Indian Lotusblume, which, being crucial to the articulation of the discursive thrust underlying the two narratives, discloses the multi-layered construction of femininity.Jane Eyre de Charlotte Brontë est un classique de la littérature féminine. Lors de sa publication en 1847, le roman eut un impact immédiat sur l’Angleterre victorienne, d’une part parce qu’il racontait l’histoire paradigmatique d’une héroïne de romance et d’autre part parce qu’il se faisait l’interprète des désirs des femmes de l’époque. Depuis, le grenier de Thornfield Hall où le maître de maison cache Bertha Mason, est devenu la

  2. Evaluating Cool Impervious Surfaces: Application to an Energy-Efficient Residential Roof and to City Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Pablo Javier

    heating savings of 4% and electric heating savings of 3%. The slightly positive fractional annual heating energy savings likely resulted from the tile roof's high thermal capacitance, which increased the overnight temperature of the attic air. Thus cool tile roofs should be perceived as a technology that provides energy and environmental benefits during the cooling season as well as the heating season. The second topic investigates the direct and indirect effects of cool pavements on the energy use of California's building stock. First, a simple urban canyon model was developed to calculate the canyon albedo after the user provides the solar position, canyon orientation, and dimensions of the canyon walls, road, and setbacks. Next, a method is presented to correct the values of temperature changes obtained from previous urban climate models to values that would be obtained from canyon geometries that distinguish between road and setbacks (e.g. sidewalk, front yard). The new canyon model is used to scale the temperature changes obtained from a recent urban climate model that simulated the climatological impact of cool pavements on various California cities. The adjusted temperature changes are then combined with building energy simulations to investigate the effect of cool pavements on the cooling, heating, and lighting energy uses of buildings as well as the environmental impact related to these energy uses. Net (direct + indirect) conditioning (cooling + heating) energy savings and environmental savings from cool pavements were smaller in residential buildings than in commercial buildings. Additionally, residential buildings strongly dominate the building stock in all of the evaluated cities. Therefore, even though most cities yielded conditioning energy and environmental savings, they were small due to the minuscule savings from the residential buildings. When increasing the albedo by 0.20 of all public pavements in different California cities, Los Angeles was the city

  3. Um hino entre Tebas e Atenas: um exemplo da polifonia coral em Antígona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha Bacelar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Na Atenas clássica, a tragédia integrava uma tradição mais vasta, a da poesia coral. Um dos traços mais característicos dessa tradição poética é sua vinculação à ocasião de execução, observada, por exemplo, no uso recorrente de dêiticos com referência à situação em questão. Os coros trágicos, no entanto, cantam e dançam em uma situação ficcional durante um festival em honra a Dioniso. Como resultado, os dêiticos empregados nas partes líricas das tragédias podem assumir referentes ambíguos, projetando a situação cultual dos coreutas sobre a situação ficcional dos personagens que interpretam. Este trabalho pretende analisar essas projeções no quinto estásimo da Antígona de Sófocles.Abstract: In Classical Athens, tragedy took part in the larger tradition of choral poetry. One of the most characteristic features of this poetic tradition is its attachment to the occasion of performance, observed for example by the recurrent use of deictic words that refers to the situation in question. The tragic choruses, however, sing and dance in a fictional situation during a festival in honor of Dionysus. As a result, the deictics employed in tragic lyrics may assume ambiguous referents, projecting the cultic situation of the choreutes into the fictional situation of the characters they play. This paper intends to analyze these projections in the fifth stasimon of Sophocles’ Antigone.Keywords: Greek choral poetry; Attic tragedy; Sophocles’ Antigone; Dionysus’ cultsAgatha Bacelar é bacharel em Letras Português-Grego pela Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro e Mestre em Letras Clássicas pela mesma instituição, título obtido com a dissertação A Liminaridade trágica em Ájax, de Sófocles, sob orientação de Nely Maria Pessanha. Como doutoranda em ‘Histoire et civilizations’ na École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, é membro da equipe “ANHIMA” (Anthropologie et Histoire des Mondes Anciens

  4. Effect of spatial organization patterns of restructured residentialhousing areas on the wind energy potential of the environment ВЛИЯНИЕ ПРОСТРАНСТВЕННОЙ ОРГАНИЗАЦИИ РЕКОНСТРУИРУЕМОЙ ЖИЛОЙ ЗАСТРОЙКИ НА ВЕТРОЭНЕРГЕТИЧЕСКИЙ ПОТЕНЦИАЛ СРЕДЫ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poddaeva Ol’ga Igorevna

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the restructuring of Moscow residential housing areas and identify potential wind energy capacities to be based on the integration of wind turbines into urban buildings. The authors propose their original method designated for the assessment of wind patterns and developed in furtherance of Guidelines for Assessment and Management of Wind Patterns of Residential Areas, developed by Central Scientific Research and Design Institute for Urban Planning. Moreover, the authors describe several options for the restructuring of residential buildings, namely, such restructuring techniques as over-stories, link buildings, attics or building extensions added to the existing buildings.The authors provide their typological classification of planning concepts designated for the residential housing development, including the ribbon-type concept, key-type concept, low-storey concept, sporadic concept and their combinations. A comparative analysis of different wind patterns of buildings and various types of their restructuring is proposed. The authors make an attempt to prognosticate the prospects for the application of the wind power potential assessment methodology and its possible application in the course of design of multiomponent restructuring of residential buildings. The article is written within the framework of State Contract 16.552.11.7064 dated 13.07.2012.Освещены вопросы выявления особенностей реконструкции жилой застройки на примере г. Москвы и определения ветроэнергетического потенциала застройки на основе интеграции оборудования в архитектуру зданий в приземном слое. Приведен сравнительный анализ ветрового режима различной ориентации застройки, различных пл

  5. Strike-slip and extrusion tectonics of the Greater Caucasus-Kopetdagh region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, M. L.

    2012-04-01

    Caucasus-Kopetdagh chain. Tectonic movements restarted in the end of the Sarmatian (Late Miocene) simultaneously with the northward propagation of the Levantine fault and some changes in direction of the Arabian plate movement. A folding of the Attic and Rhodanian phases, which were the main ones in the Greater Caucasus, extended over the whole orogen, especially to the east. A pressure from the moving Arabian indenter was mainly directed to the Alborz region, from where strike-slips of different kinematics extended symmetrically: NW-SE up to sublatitudinal right-lateral faults in the Caucasus and NE-SW left-lateral faults in the East Alborz and West Kopetdagh. The S-E extension between the Caucasian and Kopetdaghian blocks was compensated by a formation of the South Caspian meridional graben whereas the compression in front of a northern tip of each block advanced northward brought about a formation of the corresponding Caucasian and Kopetdaghian syntaxes Each of the syntaxes has a λ-like pattern in plan. In the south, it represents a northwardly convex orogenic arc framing the corresponding block that moved to the north, that are the Lesser Caucasian arc and the Khorassan, or South Kopetdaghian, arc (arrangement of strike-slip faults of different kinematics and paleomagnetic data suggest that the both arcs extended to the north). In the north, at the margin of the Scythian-Turanian young platform, there is a straight orogenic chain of the NW-SE strike composed by the Great Caucasian orogen and the Forward anticlinal chain of the Northern Kopetdagh. Both frontal chains experienced a transverse compression as well as a noticable longitudinal lengthening and a dextral transpression. The Forward anticlinal chain of the Northern Kopetdagh was elongated in the course of domino-like rotation of a series of rigid slices bordered by right-lateral strike-slip faults whereas the Great Caucasian orogen was elongated by a ductile deformation of rhomb- and lense-shaped blocks limited

  6. Las atarazanas de Sevilla: entre la construcción y la arquitectura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molino Barrero, Julia

    2005-06-01

    .These new forms and present-day materials, which allow for both the spoken word and silence, isolation and continuity, contemplation and activity, are acceptable in the Atarazanas and were proposed with the intention of unveiling the lesson the building itself has transmitted day by day since its origin. Our fourth step was to repair the Attic in the Head Section of the building.Solving essential problems, understanding the significance of the Atarazanas, amid building and architecture, and affording the use of the rooms, has been the constant guiding force of our work, and by opening the building to the public contribution is made towards the total restoration, which is perhaps the principal reason behind our project.Con frecuencia el arquitecto L. Kahn refería que la sala, entendida como forma habitable, era el elemento esencial de la arquitectura y que ésta consistía en “una asociación de salas”. Se podría afirmar que en las Atarazanas la sala toma forma de nave y que su arquitectura es básicamente el resultado de la yuxtaposición de diecisiete grandes naves de 100 m de longitud, 10 m de latitud y 10 m de altura, cuyas cubiertas fueron presumiblemente estructuras de madera análoga a las de las mezquitas.Nuestra intervención se ha ceñido al conjunto formado por las siete primeras naves.La primera se encaminó al descubrimiento integral del espacio, suprimiendo las diversas capas y texturas que lo fueron ocultando hasta conseguir la manifestación del espacio estructural.La obra supuso un decidido primer paso para devolver la insólita espacialidad a esta construcción arquitectónica, de carácter escultórico, proponiendo que en una intervención futura se recupera una de las naves en toda su verdadera magnitud, retirando todo el relleno de la misma.Una segunda intervención se orientó para su apertura a la visita pública. Esta obra nos permitió ensayar intervenciones y materiales que deben dotar al espacio estructural de los necesarios soportes