Determination of Atterberg limits using newly devised mud press machine
Kayabali, Kamil; Akturk, Ozgur; Fener, Mustafa; Ozkeser, Ali; Ustun, Ayla Bulut; Dikmen, Orhan; Harputlugil, Furkan; Asadi, Ramin
2016-04-01
Consistency limits are one of the most prominent parameters to be determined in geotechnical investigations. While these limits are akin to one another, different tools determine each one. Each method of determining consistency limits has its own uncertainties, the operator dependency being the top source of uncertainty. Liquid limit (LL) and plastic limit (PL) tests have a number of uncertainties affecting the test results. The very speculative nature of the bead-rolling method for the plastic limit has long been known. Besides this, its results can be barely accepted as quantitative. In the past, a number of attempts have been made to eliminate these setbacks for Atterberg limits. The scope of this investigation is to evaluate the potential of newly developed "mud press method (MPM)" to predict the two consistency limits. The material employed for this investigation covers 275 soils, whose liquid limits range from 28 to 166. The log(a) and 1/b parameters obtained from the MPM method were correlated to results of the conventional methods. The PL and LL for each soil were predicted using empirical forms and were compared with the laboratory values. Remarkably good matches were obtained between the conventionally determined test results and the predicted values for the liquid and plastic limits. The newly developed tool is superior in several aspects to the available conventional methods and tools.
Haigh, Stuart K.; Vardanega, Paul J.; Bolton, Malcolm D.
2013-01-01
The plastic limit of soils was first described by Atterberg in 1911. The thread-rolling test was standardised at the US Public Roads Bureau in the 1920s and 1930s, and has subsequently become one of the standard tests of soil mechanics. This paper reviews the original definitions of plastic limit as proposed by Atterberg, and proposes that the brittle failure observed in the plastic limit test is caused by either air entry or cavitation in the clay. Critical state soil mechanics is used to sh...
Shrinkage limit of soil mixtures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shrinkage limit, one of the Atterberg limits, is widely linked with many plasticity-based soil behaviors. However, in a great majority of these cases, such correlations have been found to exhibit poor performance. Recently, it has been brought out that the shrinkage limit of a natural soil does not depend upon plasticity characteristics, and it is primarily governed by the relative grain size distribution of the soil. The present study confirms this mechanism with the results obtained using clay-clay, clay-non-cohesive soil, and non-cohesive soil mix systems. The present study gains importance from the point of view of criteria with respect to the design of back fill materials to be used in various applications, such as nuclear waste disposal projects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Solomon Ndubuisi Eluozo
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Predictive values to determine the behaviour of plastic and liquid of lateritic soil for road design and construction has been developed, this two parameters has a relationship in term of soil classification through their laboratory results, both parameters sample were subjected to through laboratory analysis for several locations, the laboratory results of both parameters were plotted to determine there behavious and limits, the results generated equations at various locations, the equations were resolved and it generated theoretical values, the model values displayed there relationship on the classification of soil for road construction. The implementation of a laboratory testing proceedure is to classify subgrade material and assess sustain properties and moisture sensitivity (heavy, collapse, softening that can influence long-term pavement performance. Testing implementation consists of classification testing, these are (i.e., gradation analysis, Atterberg Limits and sulfate tests. Generated predictive models producing theoretical values, are engineering properties of soil testing for various parameters (i.e., swell/consolidation, R-value, unconfined compressive strength, California Bearing Ratio, and Resilient Modulus Tests. This are also design parameters that should generate predictive models that can be applied as design parameter in the study area, the study is imperative because predictive models generated and validated has ascertain proof of the workability of the models as design parameter in design of flexible pavements in the study location.
Gorney, J E
1994-01-01
This article investigates the role of limit and limit setting within the psychoanalytic situation. Limit is understood to be a boundary between self and others, established as an interactional dimension of experience. Disorders of limit are here understood within the context of Winnicott's conception of the "anti-social tendency." Limit setting is proposed as a necessary and authentic response to the patient's acting out via holding and empathic responsiveness, viewed here as a form of boundary delineation. It is proposed that the patient attempts to repair his or her boundary problem through a seeking of secure limits within the analyst. The setting of secure and appropriate limits must arise from a working through of the analyst's own countertransference response to the patient. It is critical that this response be evoked by, and arise from, the immediate therapeutic interaction so that the patient can experience limit setting as simultaneously personal and authentic. PMID:7972580
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
With thirteen beam induced quenches and numerous Machine Development tests, the current knowledge of LHC magnets quench limits still contains a lot of unknowns. Various approaches to determine the quench limits are reviewed and results of the tests are presented. Attempt to reconstruct a coherent picture emerging from these results is taken. The available methods of computation of the quench levels are presented together with dedicated particle shower simulations which are necessary to understand the tests. The future experiments, needed to reach better understanding of quench limits as well as limits for the machine operation are investigated. The possible strategies to set BLM (Beam Loss Monitor) thresholds are discussed. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul
2006-01-01
Article Concerning the prospect of a kind of limited neutrality in place of the standard liberal egalitarian "neutrality of justification."......Article Concerning the prospect of a kind of limited neutrality in place of the standard liberal egalitarian "neutrality of justification."...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The dose limit is defined to be the level of harmfulness which must not be exceeded, so that an activity can be exercised in a regular manner without running a risk unacceptable to man and the society. The paper examines the effects of radiation categorised into stochastic and non-stochastic. Dose limits for workers and the public are discussed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Symons, John
2011-01-01
Skeptics argue that the acquisition of knowledge is impossible given the standing possibility of error. We present the limiting convergence strategy for responding to skepticism and discuss the relationship between conceivable error and an agent’s knowledge in the limit. We argue that the skeptic...... must demonstrate that agents are operating with a bad method or are in an epistemically cursed world. Such demonstration involves a significant step beyond conceivability and commits the skeptic to potentially convergent inquiry...
Physical properties of a sediment core from the Central Indian Basin
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Khadge, N.H.
A box core of 7.5 m was collected from the Central Indian Basin for the purpose of geotechnical studies and depthwise variation of physical properties and clay mineralogy. Water content, Atterberg limits, specific gravity are measured at regular...
Geotechnical properties of two siliceous cores from the central Indian Ocean
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Khadge, N.H.
Physical properties of the siliceous sediments from the Central Indian Basin are measured on two short cores. The properties such as water content, Atterberg limits, porosity specific gravity, wet density show the medium to high plastic sediment...
Department of Housing and Urban Development — HOME Income Limits are calculated using the same methodology that HUD uses for calculating the income limits for the Section 8 program. These limits are based on...
Filinyuk N. A.; Lischinskaya L. B.; Chekhmestruk R. Yu.
2015-01-01
The paper presents quadripole R, L, C immittance limiters, in which output immittance to the certain value depends on the input immittance. A classification of immittance limiters is given. Basic parameters are considered: low and high levels of output immittance limiters; low and high values of input immittance, corresponding to low and high levels of limitation, accordingly; range of possible values of output immittance; steepness of immittance limiters; time of wearing-out (or delay); high...
Dow, Kirstin; Berkhout, Frans; Preston, Benjamin L.; Klein, Richard J. T.; Midgley, Guy; Shaw, M. Rebecca
2013-04-01
An actor-centered, risk-based approach to defining limits to social adaptation provides a useful analytic framing for identifying and anticipating these limits and informing debates over society's responses to climate change.
Diaconis, Persi; Janson, Svante
2011-01-01
We work out the graph limit theory for dense interval graphs. The theory developed departs from the usual description of a graph limit as a symmetric function $W(x,y)$ on the unit square, with $x$ and $y$ uniform on the interval $(0,1)$. Instead, we fix a $W$ and change the underlying distribution of the coordinates $x$ and $y$. We find choices such that our limits are continuous. Connections to random interval graphs are given, including some examples. We also show a continuity result for the chromatic number and clique number of interval graphs. Some results on uniqueness of the limit description are given for general graph limits.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Filinyuk N. A.
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The paper presents quadripole R, L, C immittance limiters, in which output immittance to the certain value depends on the input immittance. A classification of immittance limiters is given. Basic parameters are considered: low and high levels of output immittance limiters; low and high values of input immittance, corresponding to low and high levels of limitation, accordingly; range of possible values of output immittance; steepness of immittance limiters; time of wearing-out (or delay; high and low cutoff frequencies; central working frequency; frequency band; relative range of working frequencies; non-linearity coefficient. The authors have designed passive R-, L-, C-limiters with possibility of limitation from above and from below. The influence of the input parasitic immittances on the immittance transfer characteristic is evaluated. In most cases parasite immittance does not influence the considered devices, including R-limiters «from above» with the input quality factor of QR(Linp=0,1…0,2 and L-limiters «from above» with high-quality input circuits with QL(Rinp>2. The analysis also shows that high-qualitiy circuits with QN(RinpN>3 should be used in C-limiters with input parasitic immittances, while at parasitic immittance of the limiting element low-quality circuits with QN(RiN>0,2 should be selected.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A limiter with an effective area in contact with the plasma of about 16 m2 is presently being manufactured for installation in 1987. This belt limiter consists of two toroidal rings located above and below the equatorial plane of the vacuum vessel. Each of the two rings comprises a structure with water cooling pipes and fins welded to the pipes. The limiter material in contact with the plasma (graphite or beryllium) is inserted between fins in the form of tiles. The belt limiter is designed to handle up to 40 MW of total power at flux densities of 3 - 5 MW/m2 for 10 s and to permit rapid exchange of different limiter materials. The design and manufacture of the belt limiter and the results of thermomechanical analysis for different edge properties, power levels and shot repetition rates, are reported. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A limiter with an effective area in contact with the plasma of about 16 m/sup 2/ is presently being manufactured for installation in 1987. This belt limiter consists of two toroidal rings located above and below the equatorial plane of the vacuum vessel. Each of the two rings comprises a structure with water cooling pipes and fins welded to the pipes. The limiter material in contact with the plasma (graphite or beryllium) is inserted between fins in the form of tiles. The belt limiter is designed to handle up to 40 MW of total power at flux densities of 3 - 5 MW/m/sup 2/ for 10 s and to permit rapid exchange of different limiter materials. This paper describes the design and manufacture of the belt limiter and the results of thermomechanical analysis for different edge properties, power levels and shot repetition rates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The static method for the evaluation of the limit loads of a perfectly elasto-plastic structure is presented. Using the static theorem of Limit Analysis and the Finite Element Method, a lower bound for the colapso load can be obtained through a linear programming problem. This formulation if then applied to symmetrically loaded shells of revolution and some numerical results of limit loads in nozzles are also presented. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The very extensive use of limitations in the operational field between protection system and closed-loop controls is an important feature of German understanding of operational safety. The design of limitations is based on very large activities in the computational field but mostly on the high level of the plant-wide own commissioning experience of a turnkey contractor. Limitations combine intelligence features of closed-loop controls with the high availability of protection systems. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper it is presented a variational method for the limit analysis of an ideal plastic solid. This method has been denominated as Modified Secundary Creep and enables to find the collapse loads through a minimization of a functional and a limit process. Given an ideal plastic material it is shown how to determinate the associated secundary creep constitutive equation. Finally, as an application, it is found the limit load in an pressurized von Mises rigid plastic sphere. (Author)
Friction Generated Limit Cycles
Ohlsson, Henrik; Åström, Karl Johan
2001-01-01
This paper treats limit cycles caused by friction. The goal has been to explain phenomena that have been observed experimentally in mechatronic systems. Experiments have shown that oscillations of qualitatively different types can be obtained simply by changing controller specifications. Stiction is important in some cases but not in others. Necessary conditions for limit cycle are given for the case where stiction is important. Conditions for local stability of the limit cycles are also pres...
Sinclair, W. K.
2000-01-01
Radiation exposures to individuals in space can greatly exceed natural radiation exposure on Earth and possibly normal occupational radiation exposures as well. Consequently, procedures limiting exposures would be necessary. Limitations were proposed by the Radiobiological Advisory Panel of the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council in 1970. This panel recommended short-term limits to avoid deterministic effects and a single career limit (of 4 Sv) based on a doubling of the cancer risk in men aged 35 to 55. Later, when risk estimates for cancer had increased and were recognized to be age and sex dependent, the NCRP, in Report No. 98 in 1989, recommended a range of career limits based on age and sex from 1 to 4 Sv. NCRP is again in the process of revising recommendations for astronaut exposure, partly because risk estimates have increased further and partly to recognize trends in limiting radiation exposure occupationally on the ground. The result of these considerations is likely to be similar short-term limits for deterministic effects but modified career limits.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damkilde, Lars
2007-01-01
Limit State analysis has a long history and many prominent researchers have contributed. The theoretical foundation is based on the upper- and lower-bound theorems which give a very comprehensive and elegant formulation on complicated physical problems. In the pre-computer age Limit State analysis...
Hansen, Janne Hedegaard
2012-01-01
In this article, I will argue that a theoretical identification of the limit to inclusion is needed in the conceptual identification of inclusion. On the one hand, inclusion is formulated as a vision that is, in principle, limitless. On the other hand, there seems to be an agreement that inclusion has a limit in the pedagogical practice. However,…
Universal Limits on Computation
Krauss, L M
2004-01-01
The physical limits to computation have been under active scrutiny over the past decade or two, as theoretical investigations of the possible impact of quantum mechanical processes on computing have begun to make contact with realizable experimental configurations. We demonstrate here that the observed acceleration of the Universe can produce a universal limit on the total amount of information that can be stored and processed in the future, putting an ultimate limit on future technology for any civilization, including a time-limit on Moore's Law. The limits we derive are stringent, and include the possibilities that the computing performed is either distributed or local. A careful consideration of the effect of horizons on information processing is necessary for this analysis, which suggests that the total amount of information that can be processed by any observer is significantly less than the Hawking-Beckenstein entropy associated with the existence of an event horizon in an accelerating universe.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oleg Svatos
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we analyze complexity of time limits we can find especially in regulated processes of public administration. First we review the most popular process modeling languages. There is defined an example scenario based on the current Czech legislature which is then captured in discussed process modeling languages. Analysis shows that the contemporary process modeling languages support capturing of the time limit only partially. This causes troubles to analysts and unnecessary complexity of the models. Upon unsatisfying results of the contemporary process modeling languages we analyze the complexity of the time limits in greater detail and outline lifecycles of a time limit using the multiple dynamic generalizations pattern. As an alternative to the popular process modeling languages there is presented PSD process modeling language, which supports the defined lifecycles of a time limit natively and therefore allows keeping the models simple and easy to understand.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recent experiments with a scoop limiter without active internal pumping have been carried out in the PDX tokamak with up to 6MW of auxiliary neutral beam heating. Experiments have also been done with a rotating head pump limiter in the PLT tokamak in conjunction with RF plasma heating. Extensive experiments have been done in the ISX-B tokamak and first experiments have been completed with the ALT-I limiter in TEXTOR. The pump limiter modules in these latter two machines have internal getter pumping. Experiments in ISX-B are with ohmic and auxiliary neutral beam heating. The results in ISX-B and TEXTOR show that active density control and particle removal is achieved with pump limiters. In ISX-B, the boundary layer (or scape-off layer) plasma partially screens the core plasma from gas injection. In both ISX-B and TEXTOR, the pressure internal to the module scales linearly with plasma density but in ISX-B, with neutral beam injection, a nonlinear increase is observed at the highest densities studied. Plasma plugging is the suspected cause. Results from PDX suggest that a region may exist in which core plasma energy confinement improves using a pump limiter during neutral beam injection. Asymmetric radial profiles and an increased edge electron temperature are observed in discharges with improved confinement. The injection of small amounts of neon into ISX-B has more clearly shown an improved electron core energy confinement during neutral beam injection. While carried out with a regular limiter, this Z-mode of operation is ideal for use with pump limiters and should be a way to achieve energy confinement times similar to values for H-mode tokamak plasmas. The implication of all these results for the design of a reactor pump limiter is described
Diaconis, Persi; Holmes, Susan; Janson, Svante
2012-01-01
We work out the graph limit theory for dense interval graphs. The theory developed departs from the usual description of a graph limit as a symmetric function $W(x,y)$ on the unit square, with $x$ and $y$ uniform on the interval $(0,1)$. Instead, we fix a $W$ and change the underlying distribution of the coordinates $x$ and $y$. We find choices such that our limits are continuous. Connections to random interval graphs are given, including some examples. We also show a continuity result for th...
Buchmann, Boris; 10.3150/10-BEJ328
2012-01-01
GARCH is one of the most prominent nonlinear time series models, both widely applied and thoroughly studied. Recently, it has been shown that the COGARCH model (which was introduced a few years ago by Kl\\"{u}ppelberg, Lindner and Maller) and Nelson's diffusion limit are the only functional continuous-time limits of GARCH in distribution. In contrast to Nelson's diffusion limit, COGARCH reproduces most of the stylized facts of financial time series. Since it has been proven that Nelson's diffusion is not asymptotically equivalent to GARCH in deficiency, in the present paper, we investigate the relation between GARCH and COGARCH in Le Cam's framework of statistical equivalence. We show that GARCH converges generically to COGARCH, even in deficiency, provided that the volatility processes are observed. Hence, from a theoretical point of view, COGARCH can indeed be considered as a continuous-time equivalent to GARCH. Otherwise, when the observations are incomplete, GARCH still has a limiting experiment, which we ...
Department of Housing and Urban Development — Income limits used to determine the income eligibility of applicants for assistance under three programs authorized by the National Housing Act. These programs are...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information for those with limited income and resources (those who may qualify for or already have the Low Income Subsidy to lower their prescription drug coverage...
Limited Denial of Participation
Department of Housing and Urban Development — A Limited Denial of Participation (LDP) is an action taken by a HUD Field Office or the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Single Family (DASSF) or Multifamily (DASMF)...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Annual Catch Limit (ACL) dataset within the Species Information System (SIS) contains information and data related to management reference points and catch data.
Department of Housing and Urban Development — In accordance with 24 CFR Part 92.252, HUD provides maximum HOME rent limits. The maximum HOME rents are the lesser of: The fair market rent for existing housing...
Coagulation with limited aggregations
Bertoin, Jean
2012-01-01
Smoluchowski's coagulation equations can be used as elementary mathematical models for the formation of polymers. We review here some recent contributions on a variation of this model in which the number of aggregations for each atom is a priori limited. Macroscopic results in the deterministic setting can be explained at the microscopic level by considering a version of stochastic coalescence with limited aggregations, which can be related to the so-called random configuration model of random graph theory.
Marion, Giles M.; Kargel, Jeffrey S.
The current mantra of astrobiology is “Follow the Water.” Where there is water, there may be life. The FREZCHEM model can determine the presence or absence of water down to the eutectic temperature, below which only solid phases are thermodynamically stable. Salinity, the desiccation potential, and acidity are other potentially life-limiting factors that are calculated by FREZCHEM. In Chapter 4, we discuss potential life-limiting factors such as temperature, salinity, acidity, desiccation, radiation, pressure, and time.
Jarolímková, Vendula
2010-01-01
Limited liability company is today the most common legal form of business entities. This is mainly due to its simple establishment together with a low capital requirements. Preconditions of a foundation of a limited liability company require an establishment of the company, optaining a business license, a pay off of capital to the extent specified by the founding documents and laws, the acting on behalf of the company before its birth, and filling for incorporation into the trade register. Th...
Lloyd, Seth
2012-01-01
This letter analyzes the limits that quantum mechanics imposes on the accuracy to which spacetime geometry can be measured. By applying the fundamental physical bounds to measurement accuracy to ensembles of clocks and signals moving in curved spacetime -- e.g., the global positioning system -- I derive a covariant version of the quantum geometric limit: the total number of ticks of clocks and clicks of detectors that can be contained in a four volume of spacetime of radius r and temporal extent t is less than or equal to rt/\\pi x_P t_P, where x_P, t_P are the Planck length and time. The quantum geometric limit bounds the number of events or `ops' that can take place in a four-volume of spacetime: each event is associated with a Planck-scale area. Conversely, I show that if each quantum event is associated with such an area, then Einstein's equations must hold. The quantum geometric limit is consistent with and complementary to the holographic bound which limits the number of bits that can exist within a spat...
Fundamental Limits of Cooperation
Lozano, Angel; Andrews, Jeffrey G
2012-01-01
Cooperation is viewed as a key ingredient for interference management in wireless systems. This paper shows that cooperation has fundamental limitations. The main result is that even full cooperation between transmitters cannot in general change an interference-limited network to a noise-limited network. The key idea is that there exists a spectral efficiency upper bound that is independent of the transmit power. First, a spectral efficiency upper bound is established for systems that rely on pilot-assisted channel estimation; in this framework, cooperation is shown to be possible only within clusters of limited size, which are subject to out-of-cluster interference whose power scales with that of the in-cluster signals. Second, an upper bound is also shown to exist when cooperation is through noncoherent communication; thus, the spectral efficiency limitation is not a by-product of the reliance on pilot-assisted channel estimation. Consequently, existing literature that routinely assumes the high-power spect...
Pawlik, Ralph; Krause, David; Bremenour, Frank
2011-01-01
The Force Limit System (FLS) was developed to protect test specimens from inadvertent overload. The load limit value is fully adjustable by the operator and works independently of the test system control as a mechanical (non-electrical) device. When a test specimen is loaded via an electromechanical or hydraulic test system, a chance of an overload condition exists. An overload applied to a specimen could result in irreparable damage to the specimen and/or fixturing. The FLS restricts the maximum load that an actuator can apply to a test specimen. When testing limited-run test articles or using very expensive fixtures, the use of such a device is highly recommended. Test setups typically use electronic peak protection, which can be the source of overload due to malfunctioning components or the inability to react quickly enough to load spikes. The FLS works independently of the electronic overload protection.
Truong, Gar-Wing; May, Eric F; Stace, Thomas M; Luiten, Andre N
2015-01-01
Spectroscopy has an illustrious history delivering serendipitous discoveries and providing a stringent testbed for new physical predictions, including applications from trace materials detection, to understanding the atmospheres of stars and planets, and even constraining cosmological models. Reaching fundamental-noise limits permits optimal extraction of spectroscopic information from an absorption measurement. Here we demonstrate a quantum-limited spectrometer that delivers high-precision measurements of the absorption lineshape. These measurements yield a ten-fold improvement in the accuracy of the excited-state (6P$_{1/2}$) hyperfine splitting in Cs, and reveals a breakdown in the well-known Voigt spectral profile. We develop a theoretical model that accounts for this breakdown, explaining the observations to within the shot-noise limit. Our model enables us to infer the thermal velocity-dispersion of the Cs vapour with an uncertainty of 35ppm within an hour. This allows us to determine a value for Boltzm...
Limits on nonlinear electrodynamics
Fouché, M.; Battesti, R.; Rizzo, C.
2016-05-01
In this paper we set a framework in which experiments whose goal is to test QED predictions can be used in a more general way to test nonlinear electrodynamics (NLED) which contains low-energy QED as a special case. We review some of these experiments and we establish limits on the different free parameters by generalizing QED predictions in the framework of NLED. We finally discuss the implications of these limits on bound systems and isolated charged particles for which QED has been widely and successfully tested.
Limitation of Auditors' Liability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Werlauff, Erik; Foged-Ladefoged, Lise Kolding
2014-01-01
The article examines the question of whether rules on the limitation of auditors’ liability within the perspective of EU law are needed, and if so, which rules can provide an appropriate balance between the potential injured party’s interests and those of the auditing sector, including with respect...
Mindess, Harvey
1983-01-01
Three incidents which elucidate the limits of laughter are described. Most persons enjoy humor as comic relief, but when humor strikes a blow at something they hold dear, they find it very hard to laugh. People are upset by an irreverent attitude toward things they hold in esteem. (RM)
Occupational dose equivalent limits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper considers methods of limiting individual radiation risks by recognizing the variation of risk with age at exposure, taking into account both somatic and genetic risks and proposes a simple formula for controlling individual cumulative exposure and hence risk. (Author)
Limitations on blanket performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The limitations on the performance of breeding blankets in a fusion power plant are evaluated. The breeding blankets will be key components of a plant and their limitations with regard to power density, thermal efficiency and lifetime could determine to a large degree the attractiveness of a power plant. The performance of two rather well known blanket concepts under development in the frame of the European Blanket Programme is assessed and their limitations are compared with more advanced (and more speculative) concepts. An important issue is the question of which material (structure, breeder, multiplier, coatings) will limit the performance and what improvement would be possible with a 'better' structural material. This evaluation is based on the premise that the performance of the power plant will be limited by the blankets (including first wall) and not by other components, e.g. divertors, or the plasma itself. However, the justness of this premise remains to be seen. It is shown that the different blanket concepts cover a large range of allowable power densities and achievable thermal efficiencies, and it is concluded that there is a high incentive to go for better performance in spite of possibly higher blanket cost. However, such high performance blankets are usually based on materials and technologies not yet developed and there is a rather high risk that the development could fail. Therefore, it is explained that a part of the development effort should be devoted to concepts where the materials and technologies are more or less in hand in order to ensure that blankets for a DEMO reactor can be developed and tested in a given time frame. (orig.)
Auctions with Limited Commitment
Qingmin Liu; Konrad Mierendorff; Xianwen Shi
2013-01-01
We study auction design in the standard symmetric independent private values environment, where the seller lacks the commitment power to withhold an unsold object off the market. The seller has a single object and can conduct an infinite sequence of standard auctions with reserve prices to maximize her expected profit. In each period, the seller can commit to a reserve price for the current period but cannot commit to future reserve prices. We analyze the problem with limited commitment throu...
Persuasion and Limited Communication
Itai Sher
2008-01-01
This paper studies optimal persuasion. A speaker must decide which arguments to present and a listener which arguments to accept. Communication is limited in that the arguments available to the speaker depend on her information. Optimality is assessed from the listener's perspective assuming that the listener can commit to a persuasion rule. I show that this seemingly simple scenario--introduced by Glazer and Rubinstein (2006)--is computationally intractable (formally, NP-hard). However under...
Photovoltaic energy cost limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Referring to a photovoltaic system for grid connected applications, a parametric expression of kWh cost is derived. The limit of kWh cost is carried out extrapolating the values of cost components to their lowest figure. The reliability of the forecast is checked by disaggregating kWh cost in direct and indirect costs and by discussing the possible cost reduction of each component
Szabo, P; Meszena, G.
2005-01-01
We reinvestigate the validity of the limiting similarity principle via numerical simulations of the Lotka-Volterra model. A Gaussian competition kernel is employed to describe decreasing competition with increasing difference in a one-dimensional phenotype variable. The simulations are initiated by a large number of species, evenly distributed along the phenotype axis. Exceptionally, the Gaussian carrying capacity supports coexistence of all species, initially present. In case of any other, d...
TFTR movable limiter installation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The TFTR movable limiter is a poloidal limiter consisting of graphite tiles mounted on three blades with hinge connections supported by three independent actuators. The installed configuration is shown. The blades and actuators underwent mechanical, electrical and vacuum tests at the fabricator and at PPL prior to assembly with the TFTR vacuum vessel. During the preparation phase the installation crew removed the bus bar segments and air ducts that interfered with assembly and installed the support steel and the support table for the blade fixture. The actuators were assembled with the extension tubes and motor drives. The lower vertical actuator was rolled into the basement on carts, then pulled into position by a cable through the vacuum vessel. The upper vertical actuator was installed next by lowering into position from above. The three blades (with most of the graphite tiles installed), the cover plate, the horizontal actuator and water and instrumentation feed-throughs were mounted on an air cushion installation fixture, which was then lowered onto the support table. The assembly was floated into position with hand adjustment to engage the roller assemblies with the limiter bridges and the guide pins into the vacuum vessel. The cover plate was then bolted onto the vacuum vessel and the remaining graphite tiles are installed. The whole assembly underwent final adjustment and calibration after installation in the vacuum vessel
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations, and other similar legal entities. 1400.204 Section 1400.204... entities. (a) A limited partnership, limited liability partnership, limited liability company,......
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Mr R. Mishra; Group Manging Director
2005-01-01
@@ "Sight can be acquired, Vision cannot". Orind Refractories Limited (ORIND), China was formed with this rare vision. At a time when the world was testing the tepid waters of China; Mr. Ravin Jhunjhunwala, Chairman of ORIND and the management of ORIND India had looked over the Great Wall to begin a journey of success. Incorported on 18th August 1994 with an initial investment of USD 5 million, ORL caters to the ever-demanding needs of the steel industry and beyond. Incidentally ORIND was the first wholly owned India company to set up base in China. Pesently, ORIND China has a 616 strong work force including 23 expatriates.
(Limiting the greenhouse effect)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rayner, S.
1991-01-07
Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Benedictus Margaux
2015-05-01
Let be a scheme. Assume that we are given an action of the one dimensional split torus $\\mathbb{G}_{m,S}$ on a smooth affine -scheme $\\mathfrak{X}$. We consider the limit (also called attractor) subfunctor $\\mathfrak{X}_{}$ consisting of points whose orbit under the given action `admits a limit at 0’. We show that $\\mathfrak{X}_{}$ is representable by a smooth closed subscheme of $\\mathfrak{X}$. This result generalizes a theorem of Conrad et al. (Pseudo-reductive groups (2010) Cambridge Univ. Press) where the case when $\\mathfrak{X}$ is an affine smooth group and $\\mathbb{G}_{m,S}$ acts as a group automorphisms of $\\mathfrak{X}$ is considered. It also occurs as a special case of a recent result by Drinfeld on the action of $\\mathbb{G}_{m,S}$ on algebraic spaces (Proposition 1.4.20 of Drinfeld V, On algebraic spaces with an action of $\\mathfrak{G}_{m}$, preprint 2013) in case is of finite type over a field.
Johansson, S.
2013-06-01
Biofuel production is dependent upon agriculture and forestry systems, and the expectations of future biofuel potential are high. A study of the global food production and biofuel production from edible crops implies that biofuel produced from edible parts of crops lead to a global deficit of food. This is rather well known, which is why there is a strong urge to develop biofuel systems that make use of residues or products from forest to eliminate competition with food production. However, biofuel from agro-residues still depend upon the crop production system, and there are many parameters to deal with in order to investigate the sustainability of biofuel production. There is a theoretical limit to how much biofuel can be achieved globally from agro-residues and this amounts to approximately one third of todays' use of fossil fuels in the transport sector. In reality this theoretical potential may be eliminated by the energy use in the biomass-conversion technologies and production systems, depending on what type of assessment method is used. By surveying existing studies on biofuel conversion the theoretical limit of biofuels from 2010 years' agricultural production was found to be either non-existent due to energy consumption in the conversion process, or up to 2-6000TWh (biogas from residues and waste and ethanol from woody biomass) in the more optimistic cases.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Johansson S.
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Biofuel production is dependent upon agriculture and forestry systems, and the expectations of future biofuel potential are high. A study of the global food production and biofuel production from edible crops implies that biofuel produced from edible parts of crops lead to a global deficit of food. This is rather well known, which is why there is a strong urge to develop biofuel systems that make use of residues or products from forest to eliminate competition with food production. However, biofuel from agro-residues still depend upon the crop production system, and there are many parameters to deal with in order to investigate the sustainability of biofuel production. There is a theoretical limit to how much biofuel can be achieved globally from agro-residues and this amounts to approximately one third of todays’ use of fossil fuels in the transport sector. In reality this theoretical potential may be eliminated by the energy use in the biomass-conversion technologies and production systems, depending on what type of assessment method is used. By surveying existing studies on biofuel conversion the theoretical limit of biofuels from 2010 years’ agricultural production was found to be either non-existent due to energy consumption in the conversion process, or up to 2–6000TWh (biogas from residues and waste and ethanol from woody biomass in the more optimistic cases.
Hartman, Thomas
2015-01-01
We show that in any relativistic system, entanglement entropy obeys a speed limit set by the entanglement in thermal equilibrium. The bound is derived from inequalities on relative entropy with respect to a thermal reference state. Thus the thermal state constrains far-from-equilibrium entanglement dynamics whether or not the system actually equilibrates, in a manner reminiscent of fluctuation theorems in classical statistical mechanics. A similar shape-dependent bound constrains the full nonlinear time evolution, supporting a simple physical picture for entanglement propagation that has previously been motivated by holographic calculations in conformal field theory. We discuss general quantum field theories in any spacetime dimension, but also derive some results of independent interest for thermal relative entropy in 1+1d CFT.
Averill, M.; Briggle, A.
2006-12-01
Science policy and knowledge production lately have taken a pragmatic turn. Funding agencies increasingly are requiring scientists to explain the relevance of their work to society. This stems in part from mounting critiques of the "linear model" of knowledge production in which scientists operating according to their own interests or disciplinary standards are presumed to automatically produce knowledge that is of relevance outside of their narrow communities. Many contend that funded scientific research should be linked more directly to societal goals, which implies a shift in the kind of research that will be funded. While both authors support the concept of useful science, we question the exact meaning of "relevance" and the wisdom of allowing it to control research agendas. We hope to contribute to the conversation by thinking more critically about the meaning and limits of the term "relevance" and the trade-offs implicit in a narrow utilitarian approach. The paper will consider which interests tend to be privileged by an emphasis on relevance and address issues such as whose goals ought to be pursued and why, and who gets to decide. We will consider how relevance, narrowly construed, may actually limit the ultimate utility of scientific research. The paper also will reflect on the worthiness of research goals themselves and their relationship to a broader view of what it means to be human and to live in society. Just as there is more to being human than the pragmatic demands of daily life, there is more at issue with knowledge production than finding the most efficient ways to satisfy consumer preferences or fix near-term policy problems. We will conclude by calling for a balanced approach to funding research that addresses society's most pressing needs but also supports innovative research with less immediately apparent application.
LIMITED LIABILITY DALAM LIMITED LIABILITY PADA KONSTRUKSI PERUSAHAAN KELOMPOK PIRAMIDA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ms. Sulistiowati
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Applicability of limited liability in corporate groups with pyramid construction creates a legal loophole in the form of a limited liability within a limited liability. To prevent moral hazard, it is necessary to stipulate new law that limits the number of levels in a corporate group. Berlakunya limited liability pada perusahaan kelompok dengan konstruksi piramida menciptakan celah hukum berupa limited liability dalam limited liability. Untuk mencegah munculnya moral hazard dari pemegang akhir atau induk perbuatan, perlu dilakukan terobosan hukum pembatasan jumlah lapisan anak perusahaan dalam konstruksi perusahaan kelompok.
Capsulorhexis: Its safe limits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vasavada Abhay
1995-01-01
Full Text Available We undertook this study to determine the safe limits of capsulorhexis during nucleus expression in 40 eyes of patients undergoing extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE with a posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC IOL implantation and in 30 cadaver eyes. In group I (patient eyes, capsulorhexis of 4.5 to 7.5 mm was performed and the nucleus was expressed by hydrodissection. The nuclei measured 4.5 to 9.0 mm. One relaxing incision at 12 o′clock position had to be placed in 9 patients. In group II (cadaver eyes, continuous curvilinear capsulotomies of 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0 and 6.5 mm were made in 5 eyes each. No relaxing incisions were placed. In both the groups, nuclei of all sizes could be safely delivered through intact capsulotomies measuring 5.5 mm or more. In two patient eyes, posterior capsule rupture occurred with rhexis measuring 4.5 and 5.0 mm, respectively. In the cadaver eyes, intracapsular extraction occurred in 4 eyes with rhexis measuring 5.0 mm or less. We conclude that a rhexis less than 5.5 mm is not safe for nucleus delivery during ECCE.
GCFR core cladding temperature limits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper reviews the phenomena that affect selection of the GCFR cladding faulted temperature limit. The limiting effects are determined to be clad melting, strength and oxidation rate. The selected temperature limit is 13000C (23700F). The limits for normal, upset and emergency events are also breifly reviewed, and some changes under consideration are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The objective of this contribution is to propose a better insight of the validity of the theory of deterrence, and of related doctrines in more complex and more various situations than in the past: emergence of powers like China and India, of new nuclear States like North Korea and Pakistan, of countries planning to acquire nuclear weapons like Iran, and possibility of a new wave of nuclear proliferation in Middle-East and north-eastern Asia. It also aims at providing arguments in the debates on the struggle against nuclear proliferation and on the future of deterrence. The author first presents and comments the principles of deterrence, and illustrates them by more or less recent historical situations (Iran during the war with Iraq, USA after Pearl Harbour, Arab-Israeli wars, Iraq, and so on). He notably outlines that the notion of deterrence is present in Islamic culture, and that Iran has well integrated it in its defence strategy. Examples of statements and behaviours of other Arab leaders are discussed. The author also briefly indicates how the deterrence strategy is present in the official doctrines of Russia, India, Pakistan, and North Korea. In a second part, based on various examples, the author analyses the practical limitations of deterrence by distinguishing the psychological dimension (bounded rationality, political leaders suffering from various psychological problems, importance of the ideological and spiritual dimension, values prevailing on interests, the case of Iran), and the strategic dimension (good understanding of the enemy, sensitivity of the threat of massive damages, existence of a single decision centre and of an efficient communication). The author finally proposes seven recommendations for better deterrence efficiency
Garrett, C.
2008-12-01
Ocean tides have been proposed as a source of renewable energy, though the maximum available power may be shown to be only a fraction of the present dissipation rate of 3.5 TW, which is small compared with global insolation (nearly 105 TW), wind dissipation (103 TW), and even human power usage of 15 TW. Nonetheless, tidal power could be a useful contributor in some locations. Traditional use of tidal power, involving the trapping of water behind a barrage at high tide, can produce an average power proportional to the area of the headpond and the square of the tidal range; the power density is approximately 6 W per square meter for a tidal range of 10 m. Capital costs and fears of environmental damage have put barrage schemes in disfavor, with interest turning to the exploitation of strong tidal currents, using turbines in a manner similar to wind turbines. There is a limit to the available power, however, as adding turbines reduces the flow, ultimately reducing the power. For sinusoidal forcing of flow in a channel connecting two large open basins, the maximum available power may be shown to be given approximately by 0.2ρ g a Q_max, where ρ is the water density, g gravity, a the amplitude of the tidal sea level difference along the channel, and Q_max is the maximum volume flux in the natural state. The same formula applies if the channel is the entrance to a semi-enclosed basin, with a now the amplitude of the external tide. A flow reduction of approximately 40% is typically associated with the maximum power extraction. The power would be reduced if only smaller environmental changes are acceptable, and reduced further by drag on supporting structures, dissipation in turbine wakes, and internal inefficiencies. It can be suggested that the best use of strong, cold, tidal currents is to provide cooling water for nuclear reactors.
FED pumped limiter configuration issues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Impurity control in the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is provided by a toroidal belt pumped limiter. Limiter design issues addressed in this paper are (1) poloidal location of the limiter belt, (2) shape of the limiter surface facing the plasma, and (3) whether the belt is pumped from one or both sides. The criteria used for evaluation of limiter configuration features were sensitivity to plasma-edge conditions and ease of maintenance and fabrication. The evaluation resulted in the selection of a baseline FED limiter that is located at the bottom of the device and has a flat surface with a single leading edge
Effects of Soil and Air Drying Methods on Soil Plasticity of Different Cities of Pakistan
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aashan Ijaz
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Atterberg Limits were initially defined in 1911, by Albert Atterberg, a Swedish scientist. Their purposes are to classifying cohesive soils and determine engineering properties of soils. According to ASTM, all the soils tested by Atterberg limits should be oven dried, it is because drying the soils in different degree will alter their properties significantly. Some of the physical properties of soils will undergo changes that appear to be permanent. Therefore, the soil samples should be in natural or air-dried form. However, in reality, due to time constraint and other factors, many will run the tests by using soil samples that are prepared by oven drying method. They assumed that there is no difference between the results of two types of drying method. However, in reality, the properties of soil will be affected and thus give a misleading result. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of two drying methods, air-drying method and oven drying method, on the soil plasticity. Six soil samples from different cities were tested. These tests include sieve analysis, specific gravity test, hydrometer analysis, Plastic limit and liquid limit test. Conclusively, the oven drying method could not replace the air-drying method in soil preparation for both Atterberg limits tests.
Charter Halibut Limited Access Program
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This limited access system limits the number of charter vessels that may participate in the guided sport fishery for halibut in area 2C and 3A. NMFS issues a...
Geotechnical studies of Jaitapur marine clay
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Bhat, S.T.; Nayak, B.U.
characterisEd. by high water content and high Atterberg limits. Undrained shear strength varied from 1.8 to 6 KPa. These were moderately sensitive clays. Carbonate content which varied from 3 to 27%, was found to influence engineering properties of the soil...
Material Limitations on the Detection Limit in Refractometry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Niels Asger Mortensen
2009-10-01
Full Text Available We discuss the detection limit for refractometric sensors relying on high-Q optical cavities and show that the ultimate classical detection limit is given by min {Δn} ≳ η with n + iη being the complex refractive index of the material under refractometric investigation. Taking finite Q factors and filling fractions into account, the detection limit declines. As an example we discuss the fundamental limits of silicon-based high-Q resonators, such as photonic crystal resonators, for sensing in a bio-liquid environment, such as a water buffer. In the transparency window (λ ≳ 1100 nm of silicon the detection limit becomes almost independent on the filling fraction, while in the visible, the detection limit depends strongly on the filling fraction because the silicon absorbs strongly.
Material Limitations on the Detection Limit in Refractometry
Skafte-Pedersen, Peder; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Niels Asger; 10.3390/s91108382
2009-01-01
We discuss the detection limit for refractometric sensors relying on high-Q optical cavities and show that the ultimate classical detection limit is given by min{Dn} > eta with n+i*eta being the complex refractive index of the material under refractometric investigation. Taking finite Q factors and filling fractions into account, the detection limit declines. As an example we discuss the fundamental limits of silicon-based high-Q resonators, such as photonic crystal resonators, for sensing in a bio-liquid environment, such as a water buffer. In the transparency window of silicon the detection limit becomes almost independent on the filling fraction, while in the visible, the detection limit depends strongly on the filling fraction because silicon absorbs strongly.
Material Limitations on the Detection Limit in Refractometry
Niels Asger Mortensen; Sanshui Xiao; Peder Skafte-Pedersen; Pedro S. Nunes
2009-01-01
We discuss the detection limit for refractometric sensors relying on high-Q optical cavities and show that the ultimate classical detection limit is given by min {Δn} ≳ η with n + iη being the complex refractive index of the material under refractometric investigation. Taking finite Q factors and filling fractions into account, the detection limit declines. As an example we discuss the fundamental limits of silicon-based high-Q resonators, such as photonic crystal resonators, for sensing in a...
Rate limits of sensorimotor synchronization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bruno H. Repp
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Empirical evidence for upper and lower rate li-mits of sensorimotor synchronization (typically, finger tapping with anauditory or visual event sequence is reviewed. If biomechanical constraints are avoided, the upper rate limit can be as high as 8-10 Hz (sequence event inter-onset intervals of 100-125 ms with auditory stimuli, but has been found to be less than 2.5 Hz (> 400 ms with simple visual stimuli (flashesof light. The upper rate limit for auditory stimuli varies with task difficulty and musical experience; that for visual stimuli requires further investigation. The lower rate limit, according to one definition,tend stobe at about 0.56 Hz (1800 ms, regardless of modality. Attentional, perceptual, and sensorimotor explanations of these limits are considered. Rate limits of sensorimotor synchronization place important constraints on musical ensemble performance and other forms of rhythmic coordination.
Material limitations on the detection limit in refractometry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skafte-Pedersen, Peder; Nunes, Pedro; Xiao, Sanshui;
2009-01-01
We discuss the detection limit for refractometric sensors relying on high-Q optical cavities and show that the ultimate classical detection limit is given by min {Δn} ≳ η with n + iη being the complex refractive index of the material under refractometric investigation. Taking finite Q factors and...
Welfare Dynamics Under Time Limits
Jeff Grogger; Charles Michalopoulos
1999-01-01
Among the most important changes brought about by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) is the imposition of time limits. In this paper, we analyze a simple model in which a potential welfare recipient chooses how to allocate her time-limited endowment of benefits so as to maximize her expected lifetime utility. Not surprisingly, the model reveals that time limits provide an incentive for the consumer to conserve, or bank, her benefits. More inte...
Thermodynamic Limit for Polydisperse Fluids
Banerjee, S.; Griffiths, R. B.; Widom, M.
2000-01-01
We examine the thermodynamic limit of fluids of hard core particles that are polydisperse in size and shape. In addition, particles may interact magnetically. Free energy of such systems is a random variable because it depends on the choice of particles. We prove that the thermodynamic limit exists with probability 1, and is independent of the choice of particles. Our proof applies to polydisperse hard-sphere fluids, colloids and ferrofluids. The existence of a thermodynamic limit implies sys...
Limit cycles in quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Niemann, Patrick
2015-04-27
In this thesis we investigate Limit Cycles in Quantum Systems. Limit cycles are a renormalization group (RG) topology. When degrees of freedom are integrated out, the coupling constants flow periodically in a closed curve. The presence of limit cycles is restricted by the necessary condition of discrete scale invariance. A signature of discrete scale invariance and limit cycles is log-periodic behavior. The first part of this thesis is concerned with the study of limit cycles with the similarity renormalization group (SRG). Limit cycles are mainly investigated within conventional renormalization group frameworks, where degrees of freedom, which are larger than a given cutoff, are integrated out. In contrast, in the SRG potentials are unitarily transformed and thereby obtain a band-diagonal structure. The width of the band structure can be regarded as an effective cutoff. We investigate the appearance of limit cycles in the SRG evolution. Our aim is to extract signatures as well as the scaling factor of the limit cycle. We consider the 1/R{sup 2}-potential in a two-body system and a three-body system with large scattering lengths. Both systems display a limit cycle. Besides the frequently used kinetic energy generator we apply the exponential and the inverse generator. In the second part of this thesis, Limit Cycles at Finite Density, we examine the pole structure of the scattering amplitude for distinguishable fermions at zero temperature in the medium. Unequal masses and a filled Fermi sphere for each fermion species are considered. We focus on negative scattering lengths and the unitary limit. The properties of the three-body spectrum in the medium and implications for the phase structure of ultracold Fermi gases are discussed.
Limit cycles in quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this thesis we investigate Limit Cycles in Quantum Systems. Limit cycles are a renormalization group (RG) topology. When degrees of freedom are integrated out, the coupling constants flow periodically in a closed curve. The presence of limit cycles is restricted by the necessary condition of discrete scale invariance. A signature of discrete scale invariance and limit cycles is log-periodic behavior. The first part of this thesis is concerned with the study of limit cycles with the similarity renormalization group (SRG). Limit cycles are mainly investigated within conventional renormalization group frameworks, where degrees of freedom, which are larger than a given cutoff, are integrated out. In contrast, in the SRG potentials are unitarily transformed and thereby obtain a band-diagonal structure. The width of the band structure can be regarded as an effective cutoff. We investigate the appearance of limit cycles in the SRG evolution. Our aim is to extract signatures as well as the scaling factor of the limit cycle. We consider the 1/R2-potential in a two-body system and a three-body system with large scattering lengths. Both systems display a limit cycle. Besides the frequently used kinetic energy generator we apply the exponential and the inverse generator. In the second part of this thesis, Limit Cycles at Finite Density, we examine the pole structure of the scattering amplitude for distinguishable fermions at zero temperature in the medium. Unequal masses and a filled Fermi sphere for each fermion species are considered. We focus on negative scattering lengths and the unitary limit. The properties of the three-body spectrum in the medium and implications for the phase structure of ultracold Fermi gases are discussed.
Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kerrisk, J.F.
1984-12-31
This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.
Grogger, Jeffrey
2004-01-01
Time limits represent a substantial departure from previous welfare policy. Theory suggests that their effects should vary according to the age of the youngest child of the family. I test this prediction using data from the Current Population Survey and find that time limits indeed have larger effects on families with younger children. I further…
Prediction of Limit Strains in Limiting Dome Height Formability Test
Zadpoor, Amir A.; Sinke, Jos; Benedictus, Rinze
2007-04-01
In this paper, the Marciniak-Kunczynski (MK) method is combined with the Storen-Rice analysis in order to improve accuracy of the predicted limit strains in Limiting Dome Height (LDH) test. FEM simulation is carried out by means of a commercial FEM code (ABAQUS) and FEM results are postprocessed by using an improved MK code. It has been shown that while original MK method considerably misspredicts the limit strains, a combination of MK method and Storen-Rice analysis can predict the dome height with a very good accuracy.
Tokamak plasma interaction with limiters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The importance of plasma purity is first discussed in terms of the general requirements of controlled thermonuclear fusion. The tokamak approach to fusion and its inherent problem of plasma contamination are introduced. A main source of impurities is due to the bombardment of the limiter by energetic particles and thus the three main aspects of the plasma-limiter interaction are reviewed, boundary plasma conditions, fuelling/recycling and impurity production. The experiments, carried out on the DITE tokamak at Culham Laboratory, UK, investigated these three topics and the results are compared with predicted behaviour; new physical phenomena are presented in all three areas. Simple one-dimensional fluid equations are found to adequately describe the SOL plasma, except in regard to the pre-sheath electric field and ambipolarity; that is, the electric field adjacent to the limiter surface appears to be weak and the associated plasma flow can be non-ambipolar. Recycling of fuel particles from the limiter is observed to be near unity at all times. The break-up behaviour of recycled and gas puffed D2 molecules is dependent on the electron temperature, as expected. Impurity production at the limiter is chemical erosion of graphite being negligible. Deposition of limiter and wall-produced impurities is found on the limiter. The spatial distributions of impurities released from the limiter are observed and are in good agreement with a sputtered atom transport code. Finally, preliminary experiments on the transport of impurity ions along field lines away from the limiter have been performed and compared with simple analytic theory. The results suggest that the pre-sheath electric field in the SOL is much weaker than the simple fluid model would predict
Fundamental Limits of Ultrathin Metasurfaces
Arbabi, Amir
2014-01-01
We present universal theoretical limits on the operation and performance of non-magnetic passive ultrathin metasurfaces. In particular, we prove that their local transmission, reflection, and polarization conversion coefficients are confined to limited regions of the complex plane. As a result, full control over the phase of the light transmitted through such metasurfaces cannot be achieved if the polarization of the light is not to be affected at the same time. We also establish fundamental limits on the maximum polarization conversion efficiency of these metasurfaces, and show that they cannot achieve more than 25% polarization conversion efficiency in transmission.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this communication we establish stochastic limit laws leading from Zipf's law to Pareto's and Heaps' laws. We consider finite ensembles governed by Zipf's law and study their asymptotic statistics as the ensemble size tends to infinity. A Lorenz-curve analysis establishes three types of limit laws for the ensembles' statistical structure: 'communist', 'monarchic', and Paretian. Further considering a dynamic setting in which the ensembles grow stochastically in time, a functional central limit theorem analysis establishes a Gaussian approximation for the ensembles' stochastic growth. The Gaussian approximation provides a generalized and corrected formulation of Heaps' law. (fast track communication)
Nuclear Structure at the Limits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
One of the frontiers of today's nuclear science is the ''journey to the limits'': of atomic charge and nuclear mass, of neutron-to-proton ratio, and of angular momentum. The tour to the limits is not only a quest for new, exciting phenomena but the new data are expected, as well, to bring qualitatively new information about the fundamental properties of the nucleonic many-body system, the nature of the nuclear interaction, and nucleonic correlations at various energy-distance scales. In this talk, current developments in nuclear structure at the limits are discussed from a theoretical perspective
Physical limits to biochemical signaling
Bialek, W
2003-01-01
Many crucial biological processes operate with surprisingly small numbers of molecules, and there is renewed interest in analyzing the impact of noise associated with these small numbers. Twenty--five years ago, Berg and Purcell showed that bacterial chemotaxis, where a single celled organism must respond to small changes in concentration of chemicals outside the cell, is limited directly by molecule counting noise, and that aspects of the bacteria's behavioral and computational strategies must be chosen to minimize the effects of this noise. Here we revisit and generalize their arguments to estimate the physical limits to signaling processes within the cell, and argue that recent experiments are consistent with performance approaching these limits.
Nuclear Structure at the Limits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
One of the frontiers of todays nuclear science is the journey to the limits of atomic charge and nuclear mass, of neutron-to-proton ratio, and of angular momentum. The tour to the limits is not only a quest for new, exciting phenomena, but the new data are expected, as well, to bring qualitatively new information about the fundamental properties of the nucleonic many-body system, the nature of the nuclear interaction, and nucleonic correlations at various energy-distance scales. In this series of lectures, current developments in nuclear structure at the limits are discussed from a theoretical perspective, mainly concentrating on medium-mass and heavy nuclei
Borges Abel, António
2010-01-01
A cidade é hoje, por força do desenvolvimento das NTIC, uma cidade alargada ou, se se preferir, uma “aldeia global”. Porém, se sob o ponto de vista da comunicação, os limites da cidade se confundem com os limites do mundo, sob o ponto de vista da cidade física, geográfica, o “capitalismo cognitivo” força cada vez mais aquela a não conhecer limites, a transformar a hibridez num novo conceito e numa nova realidade espacial, pulverizando a anterior realidade: a cidade como contraponto do camp...
Nuclear Structure at the Limits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nazarewicz, Witold
1997-12-31
One of the frontiers of today`s nuclear science is the ``journey to the limits``: of atomic charge and nuclear mass, of neutron-to-proton ratio, and of angular momentum. The tour to the limits is not only a quest for new, exciting phenomena but the new data are expected, as well, to bring qualitatively new information about the fundamental properties of the nucleonic many-body system, the nature of the nuclear interaction, and nucleonic correlations at various energy-distance scales. In this talk, current developments in nuclear structure at the limits are discussed from a theoretical perspective.
Quasi-Static Hydrodynamic Limits
De Masi, Anna; Olla, Stefano
2015-12-01
We consider hydrodynamic limits of interacting particles systems with open boundaries, where the exterior parameters change in a time scale slower than the typical relaxation time scale. The limit deterministic profiles evolve quasi-statically. These limits define rigorously the thermodynamic quasi static transformations also for transitions between non-equilibrium stationary states. We study first the case of the symmetric simple exclusion, where duality can be used, and then we use relative entropy methods to extend to other models like zero range systems. Finally we consider a chain of anharmonic oscillators in contact with a thermal Langevin bath with a temperature gradient and a slowly varying tension applied to one end.
Brassicas limited in weed control
Kristiansen, Mr P
2006-01-01
This article discusses the limitations of using brassica cover crops for weed control. A brief overview of the role of cover crops is provided, followed by a short review of research looking at brassica cover crops.
Multifamily Tax Subsidy Income Limits
Department of Housing and Urban Development — Multifamily Tax Subsidy Projects (MTSP) Income Limits were developed to meet the requirements established by the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 (Public...
... Heart tumor removal Atrial septal defect (ASD) repair Patent foramen ovale repair Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation As with other kinds of limited-access surgery, robotic-assisted surgery can mean shorter hospital stays and ...
Casimir Effect The Classical Limit
Feinberg, J; Revzen, M
2001-01-01
We analyze the high temperature limit of the Casimir effect. A simple physical argument suggests that the Casimir energy (as opposed to the Casimir free energy) should vanish in the classical limit. We check the validity of this argument for massless scalar field confined in a cavity with boundaries of arbitrary shape, using path integral formalism. We are able to verify this suggestion only when the boundaries consist of disjoint pieces. Moreover, we find in these cases that the contribution to the Casimir entropy by field modes that depend on that separation, tends, in the classical limit, to a finite asymptotic value which depends only on the geometry of the cavity. Thus the Casimir force between disjoint pieces of the boundary in the classical limit is entropy driven and is governed by a dimensionless number characterizing the arbitrary geometry of the cavity. Contributions to the Casimir thermodynamical quantities due to each individual connected component of the boundary exhibit logarithmic deviations i...
Superconducting dc fault current limiter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Within the framework of the electric power market liberalization, DC networks have many interests compared to alternative ones, but their protections need to use new systems. Superconducting fault current limiters enable by an overstepping of the critical current to limit the fault current to a preset value, lower than the theoretical short-circuit current. For these applications, coated conductors offer excellent opportunities. We worked on the implementation of these materials and built a test bench. We carried out limiting experiments to estimate the quench homogeneity at various short-circuit parameters. An important point is the temperature measurement by deposited sensors on the ribbon, results are in good correlation with the theoretical models. Improved quench behaviours for temperatures close to the critical temperature have been confirmed. Our results enable to better understand the limitation mechanisms of coated conductors. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Is the photon mass strictly null as it is told in quantum electrodynamics. In fact, a coherent theory can be build with a massive photon. Experiences have been regularly led to try to make obvious an eventual non null photon mass. Superior limits more and more strict have been found. Here is given a general survey of the consequences of a non null photon mass, different methods to measure it and the achieved limits. (author). 30 refs., 1 fig
Limit cycles of effective theories
Glazek, Stanislaw D.
2006-01-01
A simple example is used to show that renormalization group limit cycles of effective quantum theories can be studied in a new way. The method is based on the similarity renormalization group procedure for Hamiltonians. The example contains a logarithmic ultraviolet divergence that is generated by both real and imaginary parts of the Hamiltonian matrix elements. Discussion of the example includes a connection between asymptotic freedom with one scale of bound states and the limit cycle with a...
Penrose limits and maximal supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that the maximally supersymmetric pp-wave of IIB superstring and M-theories can be obtained as a Penrose limit of the supersymmetric AdSxS solutions. In addition, we find that in a certain large tension limit, the geometry seen by a brane probe in an AdSxS background is either Minkowski space or a maximally supersymmetric pp-wave. (letter to the editor)
Jeff Grogger
2000-01-01
Time limits are a central component of recent welfare reforms and represent a substantial departure from previous policy. However, several recent studies suggest that they have had no effect on welfare use. In this paper I attempt to reconcile those findings with results from Grogger and Michalopoulos, who find time limits to have substantial effects that vary by the age of the youngest child in the family. Using data from the Current Population Survey, I obtain results similar to those of pr...
Penrose Limits and Spacetime Singularities
Blau, Matthias; Borunda, Monica; O'Loughlin, Martin; Papadopoulos, George
2003-01-01
We give a covariant characterisation of the Penrose plane wave limit: the plane wave profile matrix $A(u)$ is the restriction of the null geodesic deviation matrix (curvature tensor) of the original spacetime metric to the null geodesic, evaluated in a comoving frame. We also consider the Penrose limits of spacetime singularities and show that for a large class of black hole, cosmological and null singularities (of Szekeres-Iyer ``power-law type''), including those of the FRW and Schwarzschil...
Time Limits : Effects on Recall
Hirano, Kinue
2000-01-01
This study investigates the effects of differing time limits and the level of language proficiency on the written recalls of 66 Japanese EFL undergraduates. Results showed that different time limits affected total recall, but not main ideas recalled. Regardless of proficiency level, the 20-minute group (Group 2) recalled a greater number of idea units than the 8-minute group (Group 1). However, no significant difference was found between Groups 1 and 2 regarding the recall of main ideas, alth...
Statistical limitations on molecular evolution.
Perlovsky, Leonid I
2002-06-01
Complexity of functions evolving in an evolution process are expected to be limited by the time length of an evolution process among other factors. This paper outlines a general method of deriving function-complexity limitations based on mathematical statistics and independent from details of a biological or genetic mechanism of the evolution of the function. Limitations on the emergence of life are derived, these limitations indicate a possibility of a very fast evolution and are consistent with "RNA world" hypothesis. The discussed method is general and can be used to characterize evolution of more specific biological organism functions and relate functions to genetic structures. The derived general limitations indicate that a co-evolution of multiple functions and species could be a slow process, whereas an evolution of a specific function might proceed very fast, so that no trace of intermediate forms (species) is preserved in fossil records of phenotype or DNA structure; this is consistent with a picture of "punctuated equilibrium". PMID:12023805
Fermi coordinates and Penrose limits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blau, Matthias; Frank, Denis; Weiss, Sebastian [Institut de Physique, Universite de Neuchatel Rue Breguet 1, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland)
2006-06-07
We propose a formulation of the Penrose plane wave limit in terms of null Fermi coordinates. This provides a physically intuitive (Fermi coordinates are direct measures of geodesic distance in spacetime) and manifestly covariant description of the expansion around the plane wave metric in terms of components of the curvature tensor of the original metric, and generalizes the covariant description of the lowest order Penrose limit metric itself, obtained in Blau et al (2004 Class. Quantum Grav. 21 L43-9). We describe in some detail the construction of null Fermi coordinates and the corresponding expansion of the metric, and then study various aspects of the higher order corrections to the Penrose limit. In particular, we observe that in general the first-order corrected metric is such that it admits a light-cone gauge description in string theory. We also establish a formal analogue of the Weyl tensor peeling theorem for the Penrose limit expansion in any dimension, and we give a simple derivation of the leading (quadratic) corrections to the Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5}.
Generalized Geometric Quantum Speed Limits
Pires, Diego Paiva; Cianciaruso, Marco; Céleri, Lucas C.; Adesso, Gerardo; Soares-Pinto, Diogo O.
2016-04-01
The attempt to gain a theoretical understanding of the concept of time in quantum mechanics has triggered significant progress towards the search for faster and more efficient quantum technologies. One of such advances consists in the interpretation of the time-energy uncertainty relations as lower bounds for the minimal evolution time between two distinguishable states of a quantum system, also known as quantum speed limits. We investigate how the nonuniqueness of a bona fide measure of distinguishability defined on the quantum-state space affects the quantum speed limits and can be exploited in order to derive improved bounds. Specifically, we establish an infinite family of quantum speed limits valid for unitary and nonunitary evolutions, based on an elegant information geometric formalism. Our work unifies and generalizes existing results on quantum speed limits and provides instances of novel bounds that are tighter than any established one based on the conventional quantum Fisher information. We illustrate our findings with relevant examples, demonstrating the importance of choosing different information metrics for open system dynamics, as well as clarifying the roles of classical populations versus quantum coherences, in the determination and saturation of the speed limits. Our results can find applications in the optimization and control of quantum technologies such as quantum computation and metrology, and might provide new insights in fundamental investigations of quantum thermodynamics.
Impossibility - The Limits of Science and the Science of Limits
Barrow, John D.
1999-10-01
In Impossibility , John D. Barrow--one of our most elegant and accomplished science writers--argues convincingly that there are limits to human discovery, that there are things that are ultimately unknowable, undoable, or unreachable. Barrow first examines the limits of the human mind: our brain evolved to meet the demands of our immediate environment, and much that lies outside this small circle may also lie outside our understanding. He investigates practical impossibilities, such as those imposed by complexity, uncomputability, or the finiteness of time, space, and resources. Is the universe finite or infinite? Can information be transmitted faster than the speed of light? The book also examines deeper theoretical restrictions on our ability to know, including Godel's theorem, which proved that there were things that could not be proved. Finally, having explored the limits imposed on us from without, Barrow considers whether there are limits we should impose upon ourselves. Weaving together this intriguing tapestry, Barrow illuminates some of the most profound questions of science, from the possibility of time travel to the very structure of the universe.
Limits of downstream hydraulic geometry
Wohl, Ellen
2004-10-01
Adjustments to flow width, depth, and velocity in response to changes in discharge are commonly characterized by using downstream hydraulic geometry relationships. The spatial limits of these relationships within a drainage basin have not been systematically quantified. Where the erosional resistance of the channel substrate is sufficiently large, hydraulic driving forces presumably will be unable to adjust channel form. Data sets from 10 mountain rivers in the United States, Panama, Nepal, and New Zealand are used in this study to explore the limits of downstream hydraulic geometry relationships. Where the ratio of stream power to sediment size (Ω/D84) exceeds 10,000 kg/s3, downstream hydraulic geometry is well developed; where the ratio falls below 10,000 kg/s3, downstream hydraulic geometry relationships are poorly developed. These limitations on downstream hydraulic geometry have important implications for channel engineering and simulations of landscape change.
Limitations on quantum key repeaters.
Bäuml, Stefan; Christandl, Matthias; Horodecki, Karol; Winter, Andreas
2015-01-01
A major application of quantum communication is the distribution of entangled particles for use in quantum key distribution. Owing to noise in the communication line, quantum key distribution is, in practice, limited to a distance of a few hundred kilometres, and can only be extended to longer distances by use of a quantum repeater, a device that performs entanglement distillation and quantum teleportation. The existence of noisy entangled states that are undistillable but nevertheless useful for quantum key distribution raises the question of the feasibility of a quantum key repeater, which would work beyond the limits of entanglement distillation, hence possibly tolerating higher noise levels than existing protocols. Here we exhibit fundamental limits on such a device in the form of bounds on the rate at which it may extract secure key. As a consequence, we give examples of states suitable for quantum key distribution but unsuitable for the most general quantum key repeater protocol. PMID:25903096
Bianchi, Marco S
2016-01-01
We study planar ABJM in a limit where one coupling is negligible compared to the other. We provide a recipe for exactly solving the expectation value of bosonic BPS Wilson loops on arbitrary smooth contours, or the leading divergence for cusped ones, using results from localization. As an application, we compute the exact (generalized) cusp anomalous dimension and Bremsstrahlung function and use it to determine the interpolating $h$-function. We finally prove a conjecture on the exact form of the dilatation operator in a closed sector, hinting at the integrability of this limit.
Salz, M.; Schneider, P. C.; Czesla, S.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.
2015-01-01
Gas planets in close proximity to their host stars experience photoevaporative mass loss. The energy-limited escape concept is generally used to derive estimates for the planetary mass-loss rates. Our photoionization hydrodynamics simulations of the thermospheres of hot gas planets show that the energy-limited escape concept is valid only for planets with a gravitational potential lower than $\\log_\\mathrm{10}\\left( -\\Phi_{\\mathrm{G}}\\right) < 13.11~$erg$\\,$g$^{-1}$ because in these planets th...
Penser aux/les limites de nos limites
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jacques Lévy
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Le mot « frontière » a beaucoup de succès, dans son sens propre mais plus encore comme métaphore d’une multitude de réalités qui ont à voir avec les limites, c’est-à-dire avec notre propension à découper le monde en objets séparables. Mais on constate une grande indétermination entre concept et métaphore et un usage trop facile de mélanges entre ceux-ci. Il faut donc d’abord admettre que la matérialité n’est qu’une des composantes de notre monde, mais que l’immatériel n’est pas l’irréel, le simulé ou le métaphorique. Après un détour par une théorie des limites et ses limites et une distinction entre le topographique (continu et le topologique (discontinu appliquée à l’intérieur et aux limites d’une aire, deux exemples sont développés qui visent à montrer que, si l’on trouve des frontières, ce n’est pas forcément là où on les attend et que l’appréciation juste de la place des frontières suppose la prise en compte de bien d’autres considérations que la seule limitation volontaire et brutale du franchissement d’une ligne imaginaire tracée au sol.Think about limits and the limits of our limitsThe word “boundary” has been very successful in its literal sense but even more so as a metaphor of a multitude of realities involving limits, that is, with regards to our tendency to divide the world into separable objects. However, one can observe a considerable uncertainty between the concept and the metaphor and an utilisation too easy of various mixtures of them. It becomes necessary therefore to first admit that materiality is only one of the components of our world whilst the immaterial is not unreal, simulated or metaphoric. After a detour consisting of examining a theory of limits and its limits and making the distinction between the topographic (continuous and the topologic (discontinuous applied to the interior and the limits of an area, two examples are developed which aim to
ITER operating limit definition criteria
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ciattaglia, S. [EFDA-CSU Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: sergio.ciattaglia@tech.efda.org; Barabaschi, P. [EFDA-CSU Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Carretero, J.A. [Empresarios Agrupados, Magallanes, 3 28015 Madrid (Spain); Chiocchio, S. [JWS Garching, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hureau, D. [AREVA NP, Tour AREVA, 92084 - Paris, La Defense Cedex (France); Girard, J.Ph.; Gordon, C. [ITER-JWS, Cadarache, St Paul Lez Durance F-13108 (France); Portone, A. [EFDA-CSU Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Rodrigo, L. Rodriguez [EFDA CSU C/JosepPla, n 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Bldg B3. E-08019-Barcelona (Spain); Roldan, C. [CIEMAT, Avd. Complutense, 22-E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Saibene, G. [EFDA-CSU Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Uzan-Elbez, J. [Agence ITER-France, Cadarache, St Paul Lez Durance F-13108 (France)
2009-12-15
The operating limits and conditions (OLCs) are operating parameters and conditions, chosen among all system/components, which, together, define the domain of the safe operation of ITER in all foreseen ITER states (operation, maintenance, commissioning). At the same time they are selected to guarantee the required operation flexibility which is a critical factor for the success of an experimental machine such as ITER. System and components that are important for personnel or public safety (safety important class, SIC) are identified considering their functional importance in the overall plant safety analysis. SIC classification has to be presented already in the preliminary safety analysis report and approved by the licensing authority before manufacturing and construction. OLCs comprise the safety limits that, if exceeded, could result in a potential safety hazard, the relevant settings that determine the intervention of SIC systems, and the operational limits on equipment which warn against or stop a functional deviation from a planned operational status that could challenge equipment and functions. Some operational conditions, e.g. in-Vacuum Vessel (VV) radioactive inventories, will be controlled through procedures. Operating experience from present tokamaks, in particular JET, and from nuclear plants, is considered to the maximum possible extent. This paper presents the guidelines for the development of the ITER OLCs with particular reference to safety limits.
Janesick, James; Elliott, Tom; Bredthauer, Richard; Chandler, Charles; Burke, Barry
1988-01-01
Recent developments of scientific CCDs have produced sensors that achieve ultra low read noise performance (less than 2 electrons rms) and near perfect charge transfer efficiency (0.9999996) without the addition of a fat-zero. This progress has now made it possible to achieve Fano-noise-limited performance in the soft X-ray where the detector's energy resolution is primarily limited by the statistical variation in the charge generated by the interacting X-ray photon. In this paper, Fano-noise-limited test data is presented for two different CCD types and a CCD derived estimate of the Fano factor is determined. By evaluating ultra low-modulation images (less than 1 electron peak-to-peak) it is shown that the CCD's global CTE is now superior to its read noise floor. To capitalize on this capability CCD manufacturers are now focusing their attention on reducing the noise floor below the 1 electron level thereby matching the sensor's CTE performance. This improvement, if accomplished, will push Fano-noise-limited performance for the CCD into the extreme ultra-violet.
Global limits of gauged supergravity
Hohm, Olaf
2009-01-01
World-volume actions for multiple M2 and D2 branes are constructed by taking the limit of 2 + 1 dimensional gauged supergravities to globally supersymmetric N = 8 theories on flat space. The embedding tensor formalism adopted for the classification of gauged supergravities is thereby shown to provid
Limitations of Agile Software Processes
Turk, Dan; France, Robert; Rumpe, Bernhard
2014-01-01
Software developers and project managers are struggling to assess the appropriateness of agile processes to their development environments. This paper identifies limitations that apply to many of the published agile processes in terms of the types of projects in which their application may be problematic.
Certifying Equality With Limited Interaction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brody, Joshua Eric; Chakrabarti, Amit; McGregor, Andrew; Kondapally, Ranganath
focusing on two subtle aspects. The first is to consider the {\\em expected} communication cost (at a worst-case input) for a protocol that uses limited interaction---i.e., a bounded number of rounds of communication---and whose error probability is zero or close to it. The second is to consider the {\\em...
Globalization and limit to growth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A global financial crisis is not the only concern the world should have. From oil and other commodities new challenges arise, that could be difficult to face properly and could provide another limit to growth. This Malthusian feature of the 21. century emerges clearly if one focuses on climate change.
Rugh, Svend E
2016-01-01
We provide a discussion of some main ideas in our project about the physical foundation of the time concept in cosmology. It is standard to point to the Planck scale (located at $\\sim 10^{-43}$ seconds after a fictitious "Big Bang" point) as a limit for how far back we may extrapolate the standard cosmological model. In our work we have suggested that there are several other (physically motivated) interesting limits -- located at least thirty orders of magnitude before the Planck time -- where the physical basis of the cosmological model and its time concept is progressively weakened. Some of these limits are connected to phase transitions in the early universe which gradually undermine the notion of 'standard clocks' widely employed in cosmology. Such considerations lead to a 'scale problem' for time which becomes particularly acute above the electroweak phase transition (before $\\sim 10^{-11}$ seconds). Other limits are due to problems of building up a cosmological reference frame, or even contemplating a s...
Economic Downturn Limits Conference Travel
Young, Jeffrey R.
2009-01-01
Attendance is down at many academic and professional conferences in higher education this year, and next year's numbers are expected to be far worse, as campus budgets take further beatings. With many colleges limiting travel to professors or administrators who are speaking at events they are attending, will anyone be left in the audience? A new…
Environmental risk limits for zinc
Bodar CWM; SEC
2007-01-01
Environmental Riks Limits (ERLs) were derived for zinc. ERLs serve as advisory values to set environmental quality standards in the Netherlands. The ERLs for zinc closely follow the outcomes of earlier discussions on zinc within the Water Framework Directive and EC Regulation 793/93. The ERLs refer
Environmental risk limits for zinc
Bodar CWM; SEC
2007-01-01
Environmental Riks Limits (ERLs) were derived for zinc. ERLs serve as advisory values to set environmental quality standards in the Netherlands. The ERLs for zinc closely follow the outcomes of earlier discussions on zinc within the Water Framework Directive and EC Regulation 793/93. The ERLs ref
Explosion limits for combustible gases
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TONG Min-ming; WU Guo-qing; HAO Ji-fei; DAI Xin-lian
2009-01-01
Combustible gases in coal mines are composed of methane, hydrogen, some multi-carbon alkane gases and other gases. Based on a numerical calculation, the explosion limits of combustible gases were studied, showing that these limits are related to the concentrations of different components in the mixture. With an increase of C4H10 and C6H14, the Lower ExplosionLimit (LEL) and Upper Explosion-Limit (UEL) of a combustible gas mixture will decrease clearly. For every 0.1% increase in C4H10 and C6H14, the LEL decreases by about 0.19% and the UEL by about 0.3%. The results also prove that, by increasing the amount of H2, the UEL of a combustible gas mixture will increase considerably. If the level of H2 increases by 0.1%, the UEL will increase by about 0.3%. However, H2 has only a small effect on the LEL of the combustible gas mixture. Our study provides a theoretical foundation for judging the explosion risk of an explosive gas mixture in mines.
ITER operating limit definition criteria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The operating limits and conditions (OLCs) are operating parameters and conditions, chosen among all system/components, which, together, define the domain of the safe operation of ITER in all foreseen ITER states (operation, maintenance, commissioning). At the same time they are selected to guarantee the required operation flexibility which is a critical factor for the success of an experimental machine such as ITER. System and components that are important for personnel or public safety (safety important class, SIC) are identified considering their functional importance in the overall plant safety analysis. SIC classification has to be presented already in the preliminary safety analysis report and approved by the licensing authority before manufacturing and construction. OLCs comprise the safety limits that, if exceeded, could result in a potential safety hazard, the relevant settings that determine the intervention of SIC systems, and the operational limits on equipment which warn against or stop a functional deviation from a planned operational status that could challenge equipment and functions. Some operational conditions, e.g. in-Vacuum Vessel (VV) radioactive inventories, will be controlled through procedures. Operating experience from present tokamaks, in particular JET, and from nuclear plants, is considered to the maximum possible extent. This paper presents the guidelines for the development of the ITER OLCs with particular reference to safety limits.
Illustrating the Central Limit Theorem
Corcoran, Mimi
2016-01-01
Statistics is enjoying some well-deserved limelight across mathematics curricula of late. Some statistical concepts, however, are not especially intuitive, and students struggle to comprehend and apply them. As an AP Statistics teacher, the author appreciates the central limit theorem as a foundational concept that plays a crucial role in…
Income trusts and limited partnerships
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This author provided a conceptual overview of income trusts and limited partnerships that are designed to pass operating cash flow directly to investors without the imposition of corporate taxes, discussed the evolution of the market, the mechanism used to price income funds, past and present performance of the sector, and made some predictions concerning the sector's future performance. 13 figs
Primary pump suction pressure limits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In conjunction with the operational testing program which was carried out prior to the startup of N Reactor, a study was carried out to establish limits for suction pressure of the primary (reactor coolant) pumps. The purpose of the report is to document the results of the study and interpret them with respect to the current mode of reactor operation
Thermal-hydraulic limitations on water-cooled limiters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An assessment of the cooling requirements for fusion reactor components, such as the first wall and limiter/divertor, was carried out using pressurized water as the coolant. In order to establish the coolant operating conditions, a survey of the literature on departure from nucleate boiling, critical heat flux, asymmetrical heating and heat transfer augmentation techniques was carried out. The experimental data and the empirical correlations indicate that thermal protection for the fusion reactor components based on current design concepts can be provided with an adequate margin of safety without resorting to either high coolant velocities, excessive coolant pressures, or heat transfer augmentation techniques. If, however, the future designs require heat transfer enhancement techniques, experimental verification would be necessary since no data on heat transfer augmentation techniques exist for complex geometries, especially under asymmetrically heated conditions. Since the data presented herein concern primarily thermal protection, the final design should consider other factors such as thermal stresses, temperature limits, and fatigue
40 CFR 161.175 - Certified limits.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certified limits. 161.175 Section 161... Certified limits. The applicant must propose certified limits for the ingredients in the product. Certified limits become legally binding limits upon approval of the application. Certified limits will apply to...
Penrose limits and spacetime singularities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blau, M [Institut de Physique, Universite de Neuchatel, Rue Breguet 1, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Borunda, M [SISSA Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Via Beirut 4, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); O' Loughlin, M [SISSA Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Via Beirut 4, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Papadopoulos, G [Department of Mathematics, King' s College London, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)
2004-04-07
We give a covariant characterization of the Penrose plane wave limit: the plane wave profile matrix A(u) is the restriction of the null geodesic deviation matrix (curvature tensor) of the original spacetime metric to the null geodesic, evaluated in a comoving frame. We also consider the Penrose limits of spacetime singularities and show that for a large class of black hole, cosmological and null singularities (of Szekeres-Iyer 'power-law type'), including those of the FRW and Schwarzschild metrics, the result is a singular homogeneous plane wave with profile A(u) {approx} u{sup -2}, the scale invariance of the latter reflecting the power-law behaviour of the singularities. (letter to the editor)
Jacobs, Henry O
2012-01-01
Steady swimming can be characterized as both periodic and stable. These characteristics are the very definition of limit cycles, and so we ask "Can we view swimming as a limit cycle?" In this paper we will find that the answer is "yes". We will define a class of dissipative systems which correspond to the passive dynamics of a body immersed in a Navier-Stokes fluid (i.e. the dynamics of a dead fish). Upon performing reduction by symmetry we will find a hyperbolically stable fixed point which corresponds to the stability of a dead fish in stagnant water. Given a periodic force on the shape of the body we will invoke the persistence theorem to assert the existence of a loop which approximately satisfies the exact equations of motion. If we lift this loop with a phase reconstruction formula we will find that the lifted loops are not loops, but stable trajectories which represent regular periodic motion reminiscent of swimming.
Heidmann, Antoine
2007-01-01
Doctoral Bien que les principes de base de la mesure en mécanique quantique soient connus depuis longtemps, ce n'est que récemment que les expériences ont été confrontées à ses conséquences. Les effets d'action en retour de la mesure et les limites quantiques associées sont aujourd'hui des notions essentielles dans un certain nombre d'expériences ultrasensibles, et la possibilité d'aller au-delà de ces limites par différentes techniques de compression du bruit ou de mesure non destructive ...
Israel, Marvin; Smith, T. Scott
1986-08-01
``The Earth is the very quintescence of the human condition...,'' says Hannah Arendt. Georg Simmel writes: ``The stranger is by nature no `owner of soil'—soil not only in the physical, but also in the figurative sense of a life-substance which is fixed, if not in a point in space, at least in an ideal point of social environment.'' How will no longer being Earthbound affect persons' experience of themselves and of others? Space colonization offers an opportunity for new self-definition by the alteration of existing limits. Thus ``limitation'' is a useful concept for exploring the physical, social and psychological significance of the colonization of space. Will people seek the security of routine, of convention, of hierarchy as in the military model governing our present-day astronauts? or will they seek to maximize the freedom inherent in extraordinary living conditions—as bohemians, deviants, travelers?
Nuclear Structure at the Limits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nazarewicz, W.
1998-01-12
One of the frontiers of today�s nuclear science is the �journey to the limits� of atomic charge and nuclear mass, of neutron-to-proton ratio, and of angular momentum. The tour to the limits is not only a quest for new, exciting phenomena, but the new data are expected, as well, to bring qualitatively new information about the fundamental properties of the nucleonic many-body system, the nature of the nuclear interaction, and nucleonic correlations at various energy-distance scales. In this series of lectures, current developments in nuclear structure at the limits are discussed from a theoretical perspective, mainly concentrating on medium-mass and heavy nuclei.
Penrose Limits and Spacetime Singularities
Blau, Matthias; O'Loughlin, M; Papadopoulos, G; Blau, Matthias; Borunda, Monica; Loughlin, Martin O'; Papadopoulos, George
2003-01-01
We give a covariant characterisation of the Penrose plane wave limit: the plane wave profile matrix $A(u)$ is the restriction of the null geodesic deviation matrix (curvature tensor) of the original spacetime metric to the null geodesic, evaluated in a comoving frame. We also consider the Penrose limits of spacetime singularities and show that for a large class of black hole, cosmological and null singularities (of Szekeres-Iyers ``power-law type''), including those of the FRW and Schwarzschild metrics, the result is a singular homogeneous plane wave with profile $A(u)\\sim u^{-2}$, the scale invariance of the latter reflecting the power-law behaviour of the singularities.
A Randomized Central Limit Theorem
Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph
2010-05-01
The Central Limit Theorem (CLT), one of the most elemental pillars of Probability Theory and Statistical Physics, asserts that: the universal probability law of large aggregates of independent and identically distributed random summands with zero mean and finite variance, scaled by the square root of the aggregate-size (√{n}), is Gaussian. The scaling scheme of the CLT is deterministic and uniform - scaling all aggregate-summands by the common and deterministic factor √{n}. This Letter considers scaling schemes which are stochastic and non-uniform, and presents a "Randomized Central Limit Theorem" (RCLT): we establish a class of random scaling schemes which yields universal probability laws of large aggregates of independent and identically distributed random summands. The RCLT universal probability laws, in turn, are the one-sided and the symmetric Lévy laws.
A Randomized Central Limit Theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Central Limit Theorem (CLT), one of the most elemental pillars of Probability Theory and Statistical Physics, asserts that: the universal probability law of large aggregates of independent and identically distributed random summands with zero mean and finite variance, scaled by the square root of the aggregate-size (√(n)), is Gaussian. The scaling scheme of the CLT is deterministic and uniform - scaling all aggregate-summands by the common and deterministic factor √(n). This Letter considers scaling schemes which are stochastic and non-uniform, and presents a 'Randomized Central Limit Theorem' (RCLT): we establish a class of random scaling schemes which yields universal probability laws of large aggregates of independent and identically distributed random summands. The RCLT universal probability laws, in turn, are the one-sided and the symmetric Levy laws.
Quantum Diffusion-Limited Aggregation
Johnson, David B
2011-01-01
Though classical random walks have been studied for many years, research concerning their quantum analogues, quantum random walks, has only come about recently. Numerous simulations of both types of walks have been run and analyzed, and are generally well-understood. Research pertaining to one of the more important properties of classical random walks, namely, their ability to build fractal structures in diffusion-limited aggregation, has been particularly noteworthy. However, only now has research begun in this area in regards to quantum random motion. The study of random walks and the structures they build has various applications in materials science. Since all processes are quantum in nature, it is important to consider the quantum variant of diffusion-limited aggregation. Recognizing that Schr\\"odinger equation and a classical random walk are both diffusion equations, it is possible to connect and compare them. Using similar parameters for both equations, we ran various simulations aggregating particles....
Containing Internal Diffusion Limited Aggregation
Duminil-Copin, Hugo; Yadin, Ariel; Yehudayoff, Amir
2011-01-01
Internal Diffusion Limited Aggregation (IDLA) is a model that describes the growth of a random aggregate of particles from the inside out. Shellef proved that IDLA processes on supercritical percolation clusters of integer-lattices fill Euclidean balls, with high probability. In this article, we complete the picture and prove a limit-shape theorem for IDLA on such percolation clusters, by providing the corresponding upper bound. The technique to prove upper bounds is new and robust: it only requires the existence of a "good" lower bound. Specifically, this way of proving upper bounds on IDLA clusters is more suitable for random environments than previous ways, since it does not harness harmonic measure estimates.
Drivers and Limits for Transport
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, Niels Buus; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Figueroa, Maria; Siren, Anu; Haustein, Sonja; Møller, Mette; Sigurdardottir, Sigrun B.; Christensen, Linda; Knudsen, Mette Aagaard; Rotger, Gabriel P.; Grunfelder, Julien; Mulalic, Ismir; Pilegaard, Ninette; Madsen, Edith; Abate, Megersa Abera; Kveiborg, Ole
This report summarizes key outcomes of the study ’Drivers and Limits’ that was supported for the period 2009-2013 by a research grant from the Danish Strategic Research Council. The project investigated - for the empirical context of Denmark - key driving forces behind transport growth, as well as...... the notion of limits to mobility, arising out of system interactions or set by external policy ambitions....
China Rare Earth Holdings Limited
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
China Rare Earth Holdings Limited is a large trans-area corporation and a public company listed in Hong Kong Stock Exchange (Name: China Rare Earth, Code: 0769), with headquarter in Hong Kong. Located on the bank of beautiful Taihu Lake, the subsidiary in Yinxing covers area of 200,000 m2. It has nearly 1,000 employees, 30% of whom are technical staffs. After self-administration and effort, the company passed ISO 9001: 2000 and ISO 14000 Certificaitons.
Tiling Spaces are Inverse Limits
Sadun, Lorenzo
2002-01-01
Let M be an arbitrary Riemannian homogeneous space, and let Omega be a space of tilings of M, with finite local complexity (relative to some symmetry group Gamma) and closed in the natural topology. Then Omega is the inverse limit of a sequence of compact finite-dimensional branched manifolds. The branched manifolds are (finite) unions of cells, constructed from the tiles themselves and the group Gamma. This result extends previous results of Anderson and Putnam, of Ormes, Radin and Sadun, of...
Computation Beyond the Turing Limit
Siegelmann, Hava T.
1995-04-01
Extensive efforts have been made to prove the Church-Turing thesis, which suggests that all realizable dynamical and physical systems cannot be more powerful than classical models of computation. A simply described but highly chaotic dynamical system called the analog shift map is presented here, which has computational power beyond the Turing limit (super-Turing); it computes exactly like neural networks and analog machines. This dynamical system is conjectured to describe natural physical phenomena.
Goniometry in limited joint mobility
Gopinath, S.; Manoj, K.; Rubiya
2012-01-01
Aim: To study about the utility of goniometry in screening for limited joint mobility (LJM) in patients attending a secondary level Diabetic Clinic. Materials and Methods: Randomly selected data of 100 patients attending a secondary level diabetic clinic without any complications were used. Baseline neuropathy assessments, namely monofilament and biothesiometry were done. Range of movement around the ankle joint and 1 st metatarsal joint was done using goniometry. Both the results were compar...
Summary of Dissolved Concentration Limits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yueting Chen
2001-06-11
According to the Technical Work Plan titled Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR (CRWMS M&O 2000a), the purpose of this study is to perform abstractions on solubility limits of radioactive elements based on the process-level information and thermodynamic databases provided by Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO) and Waste Package Operations (WPO). The scope of this analysis is to produce solubility limits as functions, distributions, or constants for all transported radioactive elements identified by the Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) radioisotope screening. Results from an expert elicitation for solubility limits of most radioactive elements were used in the previous Total System Performance Assessments (TSPAs). However, the elicitation conducted in 1993 does not meet the criteria set forth by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) due to lack of documentation and traceability (Kotra et al. 1996, Section 3). Therefore, at the Waste Form Abstraction Workshop held on February 2-4, 1999, at Albuquerque, New Mexico, the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) decided to develop geochemical models to study solubility for the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository. WPO/NEPO is to develop process-level solubility models, including review and compilation of relevant thermodynamic data. PAO's responsibility is to perform abstractions based on the process models and chemical conditions and to produce solubility distributions or response surfaces applicable to the proposed repository. The results of this analysis and conceptual model will feed the performance assessment for Total System Performance Assessment--Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and Total System Performance Assessment--License Application (TSPA-LA), and to the Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report section on concentration limits.
Problems of anthropogenic tritium limitation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kochetkov О.A.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available This article contains the current situation in respect to the environmental concentrations of anthropogenic and natural tritium. There are presented and analyzed domestic standards for НТО of all Radiation Safety Standards (NRB, as well as the regulations analyzed for tritium in drinking water taken in other countries today. This article deals with the experience of limitation of tritium and focuses on the main problem of rationing of tritium — rationing of organically bound tritium.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eduard Ionescu
2013-11-01
Full Text Available The recurrence of economic crises serves to illustrate the limits of neoclassical economics and the contemporary established models. The study of complex systems, evolutionary economics and interdisciplinary research offers the possibility of new developments. The concept of emergence represents an insightful argument against the well-planned and ordered nature of the social sciences universe. Complex systems research represents the viable alternative for sustainable growth in the following decades.
Axions - Motivation, limits and searches
Raffelt, Georg G.
2006-01-01
The axion solution of the strong CP problem provides a number of possible windows to physics beyond the standard model, notably in the form of searches for solar axions and for galactic axion dark matter, but in a broader context also inspires searches for axion-like particles in pure laboratory experiments. We briefly review the motivation for axions, astrophysical limits, their possible cosmological role, and current searches for axions and axion-like particles.
Limit laws for exponential families
Balkema, August A.; Klüppelberg, Claudia; Resnick, Sidney I.
1999-01-01
For a real random variable [math] with distribution function [math] , define ¶ [math] ¶ The distribution [math] generates a natural exponential family of distribution functions [math] , where ¶ [math] ¶ We study the asymptotic behaviour of the distribution functions [math] as [math] increases to [math] . If [math] then [math] pointwise on [math] . It may still be possible to obtain a non-degenerate weak limit law [math] by choosing suitable scaling and centring constants [math] an...
Possibilities and limitations of computers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Birnbaum, J.S.
1983-04-01
The author analyses the trends towards miniaturisation and faster execution, man machine interface adaptation, architectural styling, artificial intelligence and software engineering. Logic and memory developments are expected to continue at the same pace for the ensuing decade. The limitations of architecture and artificial intelligence are not physical in nature, and the main obstacle to hardware and software progress arises from the complications introduced by design hypotheses over the past 30 years.
Protection limits on free speech
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李敏
2014-01-01
Freedom of speech is one of the basic rights of citizens should receive broad protection, but in the real context of China under what kind of speech can be protected and be restricted, how to grasp between state power and free speech limit is a question worth considering. People tend to ignore the freedom of speech and its function, so that some of the rhetoric cannot be demonstrated in the open debates.
Fiscal Limits in Advanced Economies
Eric M. Leeper; Walker, Todd B
2011-01-01
Aging populations in advanced economies are placing ever-increasing demands on government spending in the form of old-age benefits. Economies that have promised substantially more benefits than they have made provision to finance are heading into a prolonged era of fiscal stress. Unresolved fiscal stress raises the possibility that the economies will hit their fiscal limits where taxes and spending no longer adjust to stabilize debt. In such economies, monetary policy may lose its ability to ...
Macner, Ashley; Steen, Paul
2011-11-01
Wet adhesion by liquid bridges in large arrays shows promise for use in lightweight, controllable on-demand devices. Applications include grab/release of wafer substrates, transport of micron-sized tiles for use in 3D printing and micro-dosing of personalized pharmaceutical drugs. By wetting and spreading, a drop can form a bridge and thereby ``grab'' a nearby solid substrate. By volume decrease or extension, the bridge can break. The breaking limit corresponds to bridge instability which can be predicted, knowing the static mechanical response of the bridge. Mechanical behaviors include force-volume (FV), pressure-volume (pV) and force-length (FL) responses. Instability crucially depends on the mode of failure - failure under constant-force or constant length are typical cases. We study single bridge equilibria for their breaking limits. FV diagrams for the pin-pin equal and pin-pin unequal radii boundary conditions for different bridge heights are measured in the laboratory. The FL response in the case of pin-pin equal radii is also measured. Results are compared to predictions of static theory. Static results are then used to compare to dynamical sequences where volume is driven quasistatically by syringe or an electro-osmotic pump. As the breaking limit is approached, the shape deformation accelerates leading to non-equilibrium shapes not captured by the static analysis.
Workshop on confidence limits. Proceedings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The First Workshop on Confidence Limits was held at CERN on 17-18 January 2000. It was devoted to the problem of setting confidence limits in difficult cases: number of observed events is small or zero, background is larger than signal, background not well known, and measurements near a physical boundary. Among the many examples in high-energy physics are searches for the Higgs, searches for neutrino oscillations, Bs mixing, SUSY, compositeness, neutrino masses, and dark matter. Several different methods are on the market: the CLs methods used by the LEP Higgs searches; Bayesian methods; Feldman-Cousins and modifications thereof; empirical and combined methods. The Workshop generated considerable interest, and attendance was finally limited by the seating capacity of the CERN Council Chamber where all the sessions took place. These proceedings contain all the papers presented, as well as the full text of the discussions after each paper and of course the last session which was a discussion session. The list of participants and the 'required reading', which was expected to be part of the prior knowledge of all participants, are also included. (orig.)
Application of fault current limiters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neumann, A.
2007-11-30
This report presents the results of a study commissioned by the Department for Business, Enterprise and Industry (BERR; formerly the Department of Trade and Industry) into the application of fault current limiters in the UK. The study reviewed the current state of fault current limiter (FCL) technology and regulatory position in relation to all types of current limiters. It identified significant research and development work with respect to medium voltage FCLs and a move to high voltage. Appropriate FCL technologies being developed include: solid state breakers; superconducting FCLs (including superconducting transformers); magnetic FCLs; and active network controllers. Commercialisation of these products depends on successful field tests and experience, plus material development in the case of high temperature superconducting FCL technologies. The report describes FCL techniques, the current state of FCL technologies, practical applications and future outlook for FCL technologies, distribution fault level analysis and an outline methodology for assessing the materiality of the fault level problem. A roadmap is presented that provides an 'action agenda' to advance the fault level issues associated with low carbon networks.
Casimir effect: The classical limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We analyze the high temperature (or classical) limit of the Casimir effect. A useful quantity which arises naturally in our discussion is the 'relative Casimir energy', which we define for a configuration of disjoint conducting boundaries of arbitrary shapes, as the difference of Casimir energies between the given configuration and a configuration with the same boundaries infinitely far apart. Using path integration techniques, we show that the relative Casimir energy vanishes exponentially fast in temperature. This is consistent with a simple physical argument based on Kirchhoff's law. As a result the 'relative Casimir entropy', which we define in an obviously analogous manner, tends, in the classical limit, to a finite asymptotic value which depends only on the geometry of the boundaries. Thus the Casimir force between disjoint pieces of the boundary, in the classical limit, is entropy driven and is governed by a dimensionless number characterizing the geometry of the cavity. Contributions to the Casimir thermodynamical quantities due to each individual connected component of the boundary exhibit logarithmic deviations in temperature from the behavior just described. These logarithmic deviations seem to arise due to our difficulty to separate the Casimir energy (and the other thermodynamical quantities) from the 'electromagnetic' self-energy of each of the connected components of the boundary in a well defined manner. Our approach to the Casimir effect is not to impose sharp boundary conditions on the fluctuating field, but rather take into consideration its interaction with the plasma of 'charge carriers' in the boundary, with the plasma frequency playing the role of a physical UV cutoff. This also allows us to analyze deviations from a perfect conductor behavior
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gordon, L.
The first two major studies sponsored by the club of Rome were the report of the Meadows team at MIT, The Limits to Growth, published in 1972, and the Mesarovic and Pestel report, Mankind at the Turning Point, published in 1974. When the Club of Rome met in Philadelphia in April of 1976, its pronouncements reflected a frame of mind quite different from that of 1972. Recently, Herman Kahn and his colleagues at the Hudson Institute have published The Next 200 Years, a book evidently inspired as much by antagonism to the limits-to-growth school of thought as by affirmative faith in its own vision of technological optimism. The author discusses the content of the studies and summarizes his own position in four areas. (1) While no trend of growth of anything can continue indefinitely in the real world, there are not global physical limits to economic growth within a time frame susceptible to plausible foresight or relevant to policy making. (2) In some world regions, notably South Asia and tropical Africa, population growth rates do indeed threaten to create a kind of Malthusian trap, and the rapid reduction of fertility is critically important to their development prospects and urgent in time. (3) For other parts of the world, both rates and directions of growth will be more influenced by changes in preferences for consumption and in attitudes toward production than by physical constraints, although higher energy costs and environmental pressures will also be important influences in generating such changes in growth patterns. (4) Probable changes in directions of growth will generate new and important issues in international economic and political relations, with both dangers and opportunities for the evolving world order. (MCW)
Flooding-limited thermal mixing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper stratification in the cold leg due to high-pressure injection in a stagnated loop of a pressurized water reactor is considered. The working hypothesis is that at high injection Froude numbers, the extent of mixing approaches a limit controlled only by the flooding condition at the cold-leg exit. Experimental data available support this hypothesis. Predictions for reactor conditions indicate a stratification of ∼ 40 degrees C. As a consequence, the downcomer plume would be rather weak (with a low Froude number) and would be expected to decay quickly
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yang Peiju
2011-01-01
On Feb 21(st),the industry was shocked by the news that AP Moller-Maersk placed an order of 10 container ships of 18,000 TEU with the South Korean ship yards.The order brings the development of large vessels to a new climax and at the same time puts forward a series of research subjects to the industry,such as what is the limit for the development of large vessels,whether ship safety can be guaranteed,and etc.
Taming Limits with Approximate Networking
Qadir, Junaid; Sathiaseelan, Arjuna; Wang, Liang; Crowcroft, Jon
2016-01-01
Internet is the linchpin of modern society, which the various threads of modern life weave around. But being a part of the bigger energy-guzzling industrial economy, it is vulnerable to disruption. It is widely believed that our society is exhausting its vital resources to meet our energy requirements, and the cheap fossil fuel fiesta will soon abate as we cross the tipping point of global oil production. We will then enter the long arc of scarcity, constraints, and limits---a post-peak "long...
Neonatal anesthesia with limited resources.
Bösenberg, Adrian T
2014-01-01
Neonates are the most vulnerable age group in terms of anesthetic risk and perioperative mortality, especially in the developing world. Prematurity, malnutrition, delays in presentation, and sepsis contribute to this risk. Lack of healthcare workers, poorly maintained equipment, limited drug supplies, absence of postoperative intensive care, unreliable water supplies, or electricity are further contributory factors. Trained anesthesiologists with the skills required for pediatric and neonatal anesthesia as well as basic monitoring equipment such as pulse oximetry will go a long way to improve the unacceptably high anesthetic mortality. PMID:24251423
Conventional colonoscopy: Technique, indications, limits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colonoscopy has long been the gold standard for the diagnosis of colonic diseases. Recently, with the advent of CT colonografy, new alternatives seem to appear on the horizon, which seem to finally overcome some of colonoscopy's drawbacks like procedure related pain and discomfort during the examination. Polyp miss rate and the fact that not always the caecum can be reached are also the basis of debate. This article gives an overview about current technique, indications and limitations of diagnostic colonoscopy as well as a potential prospect for the future, discussing novel imaging technologies ranging from magnification endoscopy to virtual histopathology
Greig, Stephen
2013-01-01
Push CSS3 and your design skills to the limit-and beyond! Representing an evolutionary leap forward for CSS, CSS3 is chock-full of new capabilities that dramatically expand the boundaries of what a styling language can do. But many of those new features remain undocumented, making it difficult to learn what they are and how to use them to create the sophisticated sites and web apps clients demand and users have grown to expect. Until now. This book introduces you to all of CSS3's new and advanced features, and, with the help of dozens of real-world examples and live
Thermodynamic effects on limited cavitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Experimental and theoretical data are presented for limited cavitation on hemispherical-nosed bodies in water and Freon 113. The experiments were conducted with 0.25 inch and 0.50 inch diameter models over a temperature range and velocity range of 80-260 deg F and 40-130fps, respectively. In general the experimental data do not display the decrease in cavitation number with temperature as predicted by the theory. It is feld that at least part of the differences between experimental and theoretical data are due to the effects of non condensable gas, laminar separation and boundary layer transition
Inhomogeneous diffusion-limited aggregation
Selinger, Robin Blumberg; Nittmann, Johann; Stanley, H. E.
1989-01-01
It is demonstrated here that inhomogeneous diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) model can be used to simulate viscous fingering in a medium with inhomogeneous permeability and homogeneous porosity. The medium consists of a pipe-pore square-lattice network in which all pores have equal volume and the pipes have negligible volume. It is shown that fluctuations in a DLA-based growth process may be tuned by noise reduction, and that fluctuations in the velocity of the moving interface are multiplicative in form.
Food irradiation, profits and limitations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The utility of the irradiation to overcome diverse problems of lost nutritious, it has been demonstrated in multiple investigation works, that its have confirmed the value and the inoculation of the irradiated foods. The quantity of energy applied to each food, is in function of the wanted effect. In this document a guide with respect to the practical application and the utility of the irradiation process in different foods, as well as the suggested dose average is shown. Among the limitations of the use of this technology, its are the costs and not being able to apply it to some fresh foods. (Author)
2010-07-01
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Speed limits. 4.21 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.21 Speed limits. (a) Park area speed limits are as follows: (1) 15 miles per hour... superintendent may designate a different speed limit upon any park road when a speed limit set forth in...
40 CFR 158.350 - Certified limits.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certified limits. 158.350 Section 158... REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.350 Certified limits. The applicant must propose certified limits for the ingredients in the product. Certified limits become legally binding limits upon...
Collider limits on leptophilic interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In order to observe leptophilic interactions at the LHC we must require at least four leptons, which may be in particular neutrinos, in the final state. If they are mediated by a resonance in the di-leptonic channel, this must be of spin 1 to be produced through a renormalizable coupling. We study the LHC reach for such a vector boson allowing for arbitrary couplings, what in practice means for arbitrary couplings to muons because lepton flavor violating couplings are constrained by rare processes, couplings to electrons by LEP and LHC is not sensitive to final states involving taus in this case. This makes the ILC complementary as it will provide the best limits on Z' couplings to tau leptons. A prominent example is the case of the anomaly-free Z' coupling to the muon minus tau lepton number Lμ-Lτ. If no departure from the Standard Model is observed at the LHC, the most stringent bounds on this vector boson are provided from events with only three charged leptons plus missing energy. Masses of the order of 1 TeV can be probed at the high-luminosity phase of the LHC for Z' couplings of order one. Generic four-lepton operators parametrizing leptophilic interactions can be also restricted using three and four (or two at the ILC) charged lepton samples, but the corresponding limits are marginal, if meaningful, because the resonant behavior appears to be essential for the signal to be significant.
Cosmology in the Newtonian limit
Bertello, Ugo
2012-01-01
Numerical N-body simulations of large scale structure formation in the universe are based on Newtonian gravity. However, according to our current understanding, the most correct theory of gravity is general relativity. It is therefore important to understand which degrees of freedom and which features are lost when the relativistic universe is approximated, or rather replaced, by a Newtonian one. This is the main purpose of our investigation. We first define Newtonian cosmology and we give an overview on general relativity, both in its standard and covariant formulations. We show how the two theories deal with inhomogeneous cosmological models and we introduce the backreaction conjecture. Then we review on how Newtonian gravity and general relativity relate to each other in the fully non-linear regime. For this purpose we discuss frame theory. We carry out the same investigation also in the weak-field, small-velocity limit of general relativity, and we derive the Newtonian limit resorting to the framework of ...
Salz, M; Czesla, S; Schmitt, J H M M
2016-01-01
Gas planets in close proximity to their host stars experience photoevaporative mass loss. The energy-limited escape concept is generally used to derive estimates for the planetary mass-loss rates. Our photoionization hydrodynamics simulations of the thermospheres of hot gas planets show that the energy-limited escape concept is valid only for planets with a gravitational potential lower than $\\log_\\mathrm{10}\\left( -\\Phi_{\\mathrm{G}}\\right) < 13.11~$erg$\\,$g$^{-1}$ because in these planets the radiative energy input is efficiently used to drive the planetary wind. Massive and compact planets with $\\log_\\mathrm{10}\\left( -\\Phi_{\\mathrm{G}}\\right) \\gtrsim 13.6~$erg$\\,$g$^{-1}$ exhibit more tightly bound atmospheres in which the complete radiative energy input is re-emitted through hydrogen Ly$\\alpha$ and free-free emission. These planets therefore host hydrodynamically stable thermospheres. Between these two extremes the strength of the planetary winds rapidly declines as a result of a decreasing heating eff...
24 CFR 585.302 - Award limits.
2010-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Award limits. 585.302 Section 585... DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES YOUTHBUILD PROGRAM Youthbuild Implementation Grants § 585.302 Award limits... than the specified limit....
Mathematical methods for hydrodynamic limits
Masi, Anna
1991-01-01
Entropy inequalities, correlation functions, couplings between stochastic processes are powerful techniques which have been extensively used to give arigorous foundation to the theory of complex, many component systems and to its many applications in a variety of fields as physics, biology, population dynamics, economics, ... The purpose of the book is to make theseand other mathematical methods accessible to readers with a limited background in probability and physics by examining in detail a few models where the techniques emerge clearly, while extra difficulties arekept to a minimum. Lanford's method and its extension to the hierarchy of equations for the truncated correlation functions, the v-functions, are presented and applied to prove the validity of macroscopic equations forstochastic particle systems which are perturbations of the independent and of the symmetric simple exclusion processes. Entropy inequalities are discussed in the frame of the Guo-Papanicolaou-Varadhan technique and of theKipnis-Oll...
Limitations of bootstrap current models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We assess the accuracy and limitations of two analytic models of the tokamak bootstrap current: (1) the well-known Sauter model (1999 Phys. Plasmas 6 2834, 2002 Phys. Plasmas 9 5140) and (2) a recent modification of the Sauter model by Koh et al (2012 Phys. Plasmas 19 072505). For this study, we use simulations from the first-principles kinetic code NEO as the baseline to which the models are compared. Tests are performed using both theoretical parameter scans as well as core-to-edge scans of real DIII-D and NSTX plasma profiles. The effects of extreme aspect ratio, large impurity fraction, energetic particles, and high collisionality are studied. In particular, the error in neglecting cross-species collisional coupling—an approximation inherent to both analytic models—is quantified. Furthermore, the implications of the corrections from kinetic NEO simulations on MHD equilibrium reconstructions is studied via integrated modeling with kinetic EFIT. (paper)
Pericytes limit tumor cell metastasis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xian, Xiaojie; Håkansson, Joakim; Ståhlberg, Anders;
2006-01-01
Previously we observed that neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) deficiency in beta tumor cells facilitates metastasis into distant organs and local lymph nodes. Here, we show that NCAM-deficient beta cell tumors grew leaky blood vessels with perturbed pericyte-endothelial cell-cell interactions...... and deficient perivascular deposition of ECM components. Conversely, tumor cell expression of NCAM in a fibrosarcoma model (T241) improved pericyte recruitment and increased perivascular deposition of ECM molecules. Together, these findings suggest that NCAM may limit tumor cell metastasis by...... stabilizing the microvessel wall. To directly address whether pericyte dysfunction increases the metastatic potential of solid tumors, we studied beta cell tumorigenesis in primary pericyte-deficient Pdgfb(ret/ret) mice. This resulted in beta tumor cell metastases in distant organs and local lymph nodes...
Goniometry in limited joint mobility
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S Gopinath
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Aim: To study about the utility of goniometry in screening for limited joint mobility (LJM in patients attending a secondary level Diabetic Clinic. Materials and Methods: Randomly selected data of 100 patients attending a secondary level diabetic clinic without any complications were used. Baseline neuropathy assessments, namely monofilament and biothesiometry were done. Range of movement around the ankle joint and 1 st metatarsal joint was done using goniometry. Both the results were compared. Inclusion Criteria: Selected 100 patients attending a secondary level diabetic clinic and on regular follow-up were included in the study. Exclusion Criteria: Sick patients requiring parenteral feeds, IV antibiotics, co-morbid conditions such as microvascular complication, autonomic gastroparesis, and diabetic foot infections were excluded from the study. Conclusion: Goniometric screening for LJM is a cheap and effective screening tool for detecting early structural deformity producing a higher plantar pressure and ulcer, and thereby preventing them at early stage.
Material selection for TFTR limiters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The requirements for the material to be used as the first surface of limiters in TFTR are that it: (1) withstand a heat flux of 1 kw/cm2 for a pulse length of 1.5s and a duty cycle of 1/200 for 105 cycles, (2) withstand the thermal and electro-magnetic loads from 104 plasma current disruptions lasting about 200 μs, (3) generate impurities at a rate low enough to meet impurity control requirements (which depend on the atomic number of the material) for TFTR, and (4) have tritium retention characteristics consistent with tritium inventory requirements for TFTR. An extensive set of material tests using electron beams, neutral beams, and plasma bombardment have been carried out to identify materials which can meet the thermal requirements of the above
Casimir Effect - The Classical Limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The temperature dependence of the Casimir effect for the radiation field confined between two conducting plates is analysed; The Casimir energy is shown to decline exponentially with temperature while the Casimir entropy which is defined in the text is shown to approach a limit which depends only on the geometry of the constraining plates. The result is shown to hold, for a scalar field, for arbitrary geometry. The high temperature (T) expansion is shown to be ''robust'', i.e. it does not have any nonvanishing correction to the ''classical' result where the latter is defined by the validity of the Rayleigh - Jeans law. We show that validity of the Rayleigh - Jeans law implies the vanishing of the Casimir energy, hence the high temperature Casimir force, for a wide variety of geometries, is purely entropic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Norica-Felicia BUCUR
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Global market forces have determined not only higher education institutions all over the world to include ESP courses in their curriculum to enhance their students’ future employability, but also public and private organisations to offer their employees the opportunity to attend ESP courses in order to meet the continuously growing ESP needs. From this perspective, ESP compentence could become a subcomponent of one of the key competences for lifelong learning, communication in foreign languages. Therefore assessing ESP competence seems to acquire paramount importance since stakeholders need accurate information about the ESP learners’ abilities to cope with specific language tasks. This article offers a concise overview of the principles and practices of ESP assessment, a detailed description of the features of ESP tests, while focusing particularly on the limits of ESP tests in order to identify possible solutions to overcome them.
Proposition Algebra with Projective Limits
Bergstra, J A
2008-01-01
Sequential logic deviates from propositional logic by taking into account that atomic propositions yield different Boolean values at different times during the sequential evaluation of a single proposition. Reactive valuations capture this dynamics of a proposition's environment. This logic is phrased as an equationally specified algebra rather than in the form of proof rules. It is strictly more general than Boolean algebra to the extent that the classical connectives fail to be expressively complete in the sequential case. The proposition algebra PRA is developed in a fashion similar to the process algebra ACP and the program algebra PGA via an algebraic specification which has a meaningful initial algebra for which a range of courser congruences are considered important as well. In addition infinite objects (that is propositions, processes and programs respectively) are preferably dealt with by means of an inverse limit construction which allows the transfer of knowledge concerning finite objects to facts ...
Extremal Limits and Kerr Spacetime
Pradhan, Parthapratim
2013-01-01
We study Innermost Stable Circular Orbits (ISCO) in extremal Kerr spacetime which lie close (in terms of the radial coordinate) to the event horizon and compare these with similar orbits in the near-extremal situation. Extremization of the effective potential for timelike circular orbits shows the existence of a stable circular geodesics in the extremal spacetime, precisely {\\it on} the event horizon in terms of the radial coordinate. This type of geodesics is unstable in the corresponding near-extremal spacetime as we show here, testifying to differences between the extremal limit of a generic Kerr spacetime and the exactly extremal geometry. Another aspect of the extremization of the effective potential for null circular orbits shows the existence of an unstable circular geodesic due to the axisymmetry of the spacetime in the extremal Kerr black hole. We attempt to relate this to the fact that the extremal Kerr black hole spacetime possesses no outer trapped surface.
Prospective Optimization with Limited Resources.
Snider, Joseph; Lee, Dongpyo; Poizner, Howard; Gepshtein, Sergei
2015-09-01
The future is uncertain because some forthcoming events are unpredictable and also because our ability to foresee the myriad consequences of our own actions is limited. Here we studied how humans select actions under such extrinsic and intrinsic uncertainty, in view of an exponentially expanding number of prospects on a branching multivalued visual stimulus. A triangular grid of disks of different sizes scrolled down a touchscreen at a variable speed. The larger disks represented larger rewards. The task was to maximize the cumulative reward by touching one disk at a time in a rapid sequence, forming an upward path across the grid, while every step along the path constrained the part of the grid accessible in the future. This task captured some of the complexity of natural behavior in the risky and dynamic world, where ongoing decisions alter the landscape of future rewards. By comparing human behavior with behavior of ideal actors, we identified the strategies used by humans in terms of how far into the future they looked (their "depth of computation") and how often they attempted to incorporate new information about the future rewards (their "recalculation period"). We found that, for a given task difficulty, humans traded off their depth of computation for the recalculation period. The form of this tradeoff was consistent with a complete, brute-force exploration of all possible paths up to a resource-limited finite depth. A step-by-step analysis of the human behavior revealed that participants took into account very fine distinctions between the future rewards and that they abstained from some simple heuristics in assessment of the alternative paths, such as seeking only the largest disks or avoiding the smaller disks. The participants preferred to reduce their depth of computation or increase the recalculation period rather than sacrifice the precision of computation. PMID:26367309
Prospective Optimization with Limited Resources.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joseph Snider
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The future is uncertain because some forthcoming events are unpredictable and also because our ability to foresee the myriad consequences of our own actions is limited. Here we studied how humans select actions under such extrinsic and intrinsic uncertainty, in view of an exponentially expanding number of prospects on a branching multivalued visual stimulus. A triangular grid of disks of different sizes scrolled down a touchscreen at a variable speed. The larger disks represented larger rewards. The task was to maximize the cumulative reward by touching one disk at a time in a rapid sequence, forming an upward path across the grid, while every step along the path constrained the part of the grid accessible in the future. This task captured some of the complexity of natural behavior in the risky and dynamic world, where ongoing decisions alter the landscape of future rewards. By comparing human behavior with behavior of ideal actors, we identified the strategies used by humans in terms of how far into the future they looked (their "depth of computation" and how often they attempted to incorporate new information about the future rewards (their "recalculation period". We found that, for a given task difficulty, humans traded off their depth of computation for the recalculation period. The form of this tradeoff was consistent with a complete, brute-force exploration of all possible paths up to a resource-limited finite depth. A step-by-step analysis of the human behavior revealed that participants took into account very fine distinctions between the future rewards and that they abstained from some simple heuristics in assessment of the alternative paths, such as seeking only the largest disks or avoiding the smaller disks. The participants preferred to reduce their depth of computation or increase the recalculation period rather than sacrifice the precision of computation.
Collider limits on leptophilic interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aguila, Francisco del; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro [Granada Univ. (Spain). CAFPE; Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos; Chala, Mikael [Granada Univ. (Spain). CAFPE; Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Santiago, Jose [Granada Univ. (Spain). CAFPE; Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos; European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)
2014-11-15
In order to observe leptophilic interactions at the LHC we must require at least four leptons, which may be in particular neutrinos, in the final state. If they are mediated by a resonance in the di-leptonic channel, this must be of spin 1 to be produced through a renormalizable coupling. We study the LHC reach for such a vector boson allowing for arbitrary couplings, what in practice means for arbitrary couplings to muons because lepton flavor violating couplings are constrained by rare processes, couplings to electrons by LEP and LHC is not sensitive to final states involving taus in this case. This makes the ILC complementary as it will provide the best limits on Z' couplings to tau leptons. A prominent example is the case of the anomaly-free Z' coupling to the muon minus tau lepton number L{sub μ}-L{sub τ}. If no departure from the Standard Model is observed at the LHC, the most stringent bounds on this vector boson are provided from events with only three charged leptons plus missing energy. Masses of the order of 1 TeV can be probed at the high-luminosity phase of the LHC for Z' couplings of order one. Generic four-lepton operators parametrizing leptophilic interactions can be also restricted using three and four (or two at the ILC) charged lepton samples, but the corresponding limits are marginal, if meaningful, because the resonant behavior appears to be essential for the signal to be significant.
Pure Phase Solubility Limits: LANL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The natural and engineered system at Yucca Mountain (YM) defines the site-specific conditions under which one must determine to what extent the engineered and the natural geochemical barriers will prevent the release of radioactive material from the repository. Most important mechanisms for retention or enhancement of radionuclide transport include precipitation or co-precipitation of radionuclide-bearing solid phases (solubility limits), complexation in solution, sorption onto surfaces, colloid formation, and diffusion. There may be many scenarios that could affect the near-field environment, creating chemical conditions more aggressive than the conditions presented by the unperturbed system (such as pH changes beyond the range of 6 to 9 or significant changes in the ionic strength of infiltrated waters). For an extended period of time, the near-field water composition may be quite different and more extreme in pH, ionic strength, and CO2 partial pressure (or carbonate concentration) than waters at some distance from the repository. Reducing conditions, high pH (up to 11), and low carbonate concentration may be present in the near-field after reaction of infiltrating groundwater with engineered barrier systems, such as cementitious materials. In the far-field, conditions are controlled by the rock-mass buffer providing a near-neutral, oxidizing, low-ionic-strength environment that controls radionuclide solubility limits and sorption capacities. There is the need for characterization of variable chemical conditions that affect solubility, speciation, and sorption reactions. Modeling of the groundwater chemistry is required and leads to an understanding of solubility and speciation of the important radionuclides. Because experimental studies cannot be performed under the numerous potential chemical conditions, solubility limitations must rely on geochemical modeling of the radionuclide's chemistry. Fundamental thermodynamic properties, such as solubility products
Changing ideas of global limits.
Goddy, D
1984-03-01
In this discussion of changing ideas of global limits, attention is directed to world trade, moral restraint, and the "green revolution." A fresh look at the work of those who first considered population problems, e.gg., Malthur, can help make some sense of the population problems the world faces today. Malthus, writing in the late 1700s, concluded that population multiplies with each generation. He saw that food production was limited by the amount of available cropland and that the more people there are, the less food they will have to eat -- assuming that all available cropland is planted. This grim view of the future led Malthus to oppose government aid to the poor maintaining that such assistance would only encourage poor people to have large families. His solution was "moral restratin," seeing it as the duty of each individual to refrain from marriage until he was able to support his children. At the time this advice seemed cruel and Malthus was bitterly attacked by writers everywhere in Europe. Karl Marx and other ctitics of Malthus believed that poverty was caused by unjust governments and the selfishness of the rich. Marx clamied that the problem was too few jobs rather than too many people. The dire predictions of Malthus were soon forgotten as manufacturing industries began to transform the economies of Western Europe in the 1800s. Along with soaring economic growth came a host of developments that improved people's lives, e.g., better transportation, better sanitiation and nutrition, and better medicine. New inventions helped farmers fo produce more food. Next came the "demographic transition." Population grew quickly in Europe and North America as people became healthier and lived longer. Gradually, people in the industrial nations began deciding to have smaller families to enable them to afford an even higher living standard. By the late 1920s birthrates in Europe and the US had dropped so low that mention of the "population problem" usually referred
Penrose limits versus string expansions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blau, Matthias; Weiss, Sebastian [Institut de Physique, Universite de Neuchatel, Rue Breguet 1, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland)
2008-06-21
We analyze the relation between two a priori quite different expansions of the string equations of motion and constraints in a general curved background, namely one based on the covariant Penrose-Fermi expansion of the metric G{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}} around a Penrose limit plane wave associated with a null geodesic {gamma} and the other on the Riemann coordinate expansion in the exact metric G{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}} of the string embedding variables around the null geodesic {gamma}. Starting with the observation that there is a formal analogy between the exact string equations in a plane wave and the first-order string equations in a general background, we show that this analogy becomes exact provided that one chooses the background string configuration to be the null geodesic {gamma} itself. We then explore the higher-order correspondence between these two expansions and find that for a general curved background they agree to all orders provided that one works in Fermi coordinates and in the lightcone gauge. Requiring moreover the conformal gauge restricts one to the usual class of (Brinkmann) backgrounds admitting simultaneously the lightcone and the conformal gauge, without further restrictions.
Limited small cell lung cancer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper assesses the prognosis of patients with limited small cell lung cancer (LSCLC) not achieving complete response (CR) to induction combination chemotherapy (ICC) but who achieve CR after thoracic irradiation (TI). Twenty-four patients had CRs to ICC (CR- ICC) of two cycles of cytoxan, Adriamycin, and vincristine alternating with two cycles of cisplatin with VP-16. Another 24 had CR after consolidation with subsequent T1 (CR-T1): 45 Gy in daily fractions of 2.5 Gy or twice-daily fractions of 1.5 Gy. The CR-ICC and CR-TI patients had similar prognostic factors and treatment. Comparing CR-ICC and CR-TI, survival was 40% versus 26% at 2 years and 35% versus 4% at 5 years (P < .05). There were eight (33%) long-term survivors (≥3 years) in the CR-ICC group versus three (13%) in the CR-TI group. Local control for CR-ICC patients was 59% at 5 years versus 21% for the CR-TI patients (not significant). Freedom from DM for the CR-ICC patients was 41% at 5 years versus 8% for the CR-TI patients (P < .05)
Agriculture: access to technology limited.
1997-01-01
From country to country and even regionally, the roles of women in agriculture vary, but most of their labor is in unpaid subsistence production and their contributions tend to be underestimated, according to the results of the [UN] Secretary-General's report. Depending on circumstances, they have complementary roles with men, sharing or dividing tasks in the production of crops, care of animals, and forestry management. In sub-Saharan Africa, for example, women contribute 60-80% of labor in food production for both household consumption and sale, while in Malaysia the women account for only 35% of the agricultural labor force, and in Ireland the participation rate is only 10.4%. Although women make this important amount of labor contributions to agricultural production, "development policies tend to favor export crops to earn foreign exchange and the agricultural research tends to address the improvement of production and technologies for commercial production". This results in limited access for women to technical knowledge and innovations, including irrigation, machinery, farming techniques and extension services. This is strengthened by the fact that most of the extension services target farmers who own land and can obtain credit to invest in input and technology. PMID:12293737
Photon and graviton mass limits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nieto, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goldhaber Scharff, Alfred [SUNY
2008-01-01
We review past and current studies of possible long-distance, low-frequency deviations from Maxwell electrodynamics and Einstein gravity. Both have passed through three phases: (1) Testing the inverse-square laws of Newton and Coulomb, (2) Seeking a nonzero value for the rest mass of photon or graviton, and (3) Considering more degrees of freedom, allowing mass while preserving gauge or general-coordinate invariance. For electrodynamics there continues to be no sign of any deviation. Since our previous review the lower limit on the photon Compton wavelength (associated with weakening of electromagnetic fields in vacuum over large distance scale) has improved by four orders of magnitude, to about one astronomical unit. Rapid current progress in astronomical observations makes it likely that there will be further advances. These ultimately could yield a bound exceeding galactic dimensions, as has long been contemplated. Meanwhile, for gravity there have been strong arguments about even the concept of a graviton rest mass. At the same time there are striking observations, commonly labeled 'dark matter' and 'dark energy' that some argue imply modified gravity. This makes the questions for gravity much more interesting. For dark matter, which involves increased attraction at large distances, any explanation by modified gravity would be qualitatively different from graviton mass. Because dark energy is associated with reduced attraction at large distances, it might be explained by a graviton-mass-like effect.
IDENTIDADES MASCULINAS: LIMITES E POSSIBILIDADES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
May-Lin Wang
2006-06-01
Full Text Available O presente trabalho toma por base uma abordagem psicossocial para discorrer sobre os limites impostos pelos estereótipos de gênero à construção de uma identidade masculina, em contraposição às possibilidades de subjetivação, num cenário cultural de pluralidade identitária. Ênfase é dada à socialização estereotipada dos meninos, num processo no qual se verifica uma espécie de superposição do contexto socio-histórico em que cresceram os pais àquele no qual o menino é socializado, acentuando determinadas crenças sobre gênero. O modelo tradicional de virilidade, que imperava inquestionável até bem pouco tempo, ignorando as necessidades afetivas e valorizando características como a competitividade, a preocupação com o desempenho, o autoritarismo, a dominação e a opressão, vem sendo questionado como pilar maior da identidade masculina tradicional.
Anisotropic diffusion-limited aggregation.
Popescu, M N; Hentschel, H G E; Family, F
2004-06-01
Using stochastic conformal mappings, we study the effects of anisotropic perturbations on diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) in two dimensions. The harmonic measure of the growth probability for DLA can be conformally mapped onto a constant measure on a unit circle. Here we map m preferred directions for growth to a distribution on the unit circle, which is a periodic function with m peaks in [-pi,pi) such that the angular width sigma of the peak defines the "strength" of anisotropy kappa= sigma(-1) along any of the m chosen directions. The two parameters (m,kappa) map out a parameter space of perturbations that allows a continuous transition from DLA (for small enough kappa ) to m needlelike fingers as kappa--> infinity. We show that at fixed m the effective fractal dimension of the clusters D(m,kappa) obtained from mass-radius scaling decreases with increasing kappa from D(DLA) approximately 1.71 to a value bounded from below by D(min) = 3 / 2. Scaling arguments suggest a specific form for the dependence of the fractal dimension D(m,kappa) on kappa for large kappa which compares favorably with numerical results. PMID:15244564
2010-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Speed limit. 3.26 Section 3.26 Public Welfare... INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.26 Speed limit. The speed limit is 25 miles per hour, unless otherwise posted. A driver of a vehicle may not exceed the speed limit....
2010-10-01
... Register citations affecting § 622.37, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Size limits. 622.37 Section 622.37... limits. All size limits in this section are minimum size limits unless specified otherwise. Except...
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Yard limits. 218.35 Section 218.35 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Trains and Locomotives § 218.35 Yard limits. (a) After August 1, 1977, yard limits must be designated by— (1) Yard limit signs, and (2) Timetable, train...
2010-10-01
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Daily limit. 20.24 Section 20.24 Wildlife... (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.24 Daily limit. No person shall take in any 1 calendar day, more than the daily bag limit or aggregate daily bag limit, whichever applies....
2010-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time limits. 5.35 Section 5.35 Public Welfare... Denial of Records § 5.35 Time limits. (a) General. FOIA sets certain time limits for us to decide whether... time limits, but if it appears that processing your request may take longer than we would wish, we...
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time limits. 2604.305 Section 2604.305... Disclosure of Records Under FOIA § 2604.305 Time limits. (a)(1) Initial request. Following receipt of a... appeal. (c) Extension of time limits. The time limits specified in either paragraph (a) or (b) of...
7 CFR 52.3185 - Moisture limits.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moisture limits. 52.3185 Section 52.3185 Agriculture... Moisture limits. Dried prunes shall not exceed the moisture limits for the applicable grades and kind and size of packaging as designated in Table IV of this subpart except there is no moisture limit when...
45 CFR 1160.13 - Indemnification limits.
2010-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indemnification limits. 1160.13 Section 1160.13... ACT § 1160.13 Indemnification limits. The dollar amounts of the limits described below are found in the guidelines referred to in § 1160.1 and are based upon the statutory limits in the Arts...
Interfacial dynamics in transport-limited dissolution
Bazant, Martin Z.
2006-01-01
Various model problems of ``transport-limited dissolution'' in two dimensions are analyzed using time-dependent conformal maps. For diffusion-limited dissolution (reverse Laplacian growth), several exact solutions are discussed for the smoothing of corrugated surfaces, including the continuous analogs of ``internal diffusion-limited aggregation'' and ``diffusion-limited erosion''. A class of non-Laplacian, transport-limited dissolution processes are also considered, which raise the general qu...
Limited Deposit Insurance Coverage and Bank Competition
Shy, Oz; Stenbacka, Rune; Yankov, Vladimir
2014-01-01
Deposit insurance designs in many countries place a limit on the coverage of deposits in each bank. However, no limits are placed on the number of accounts held with different banks. Therefore, under limited deposit insurance, some consumers open accounts with different banks to achieve higher or full deposit insurance coverage. We compare three regimes of deposit insurance: No deposit insurance, unlimited deposit insurance, and limited deposit insurance. We show that limited deposit insuranc...
Newtonian limits of warp drive spacetimes
Natario, Jose
2004-01-01
We find a class of warp drive spacetimes possessing Newtonian limits, which we then determine. The same method is used to compute Newtonian limits of the Schwarzschild solution and spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological models.
Limits: importance and compliance by measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Limits in the dose range which is characterized in radiation protection by normal operation must not be considered as a sharp boundary between ''safe'' and ''not safe''. This is because stochastic effects are the underlying issue. Limits are rather a measure to administrate radiation protection standards. Assessing of the quantities subject of limitation, one has the problem that the measured quantities include an inherent uncertainty being often comparable with the quantity itself, where the preset limits have the uncertainty of zero by definition. It will be shown that a uniform consideration of the question of acceptable uncertainty and its relation to the limits is neither necessary nor reasonable. This is because the consideration has to take into account the measured number in relation to the limit, the properties of the assessment technique and the position of the considered quantity in the hierarchy of limits. The rank in the hierarchy is directed whether the quantity is a primary limit or a derived quantity. (orig.)
A MODEL OF MINIMUM SIZE LIMIT REGULATIONS
Homans, Frances R.; Ruliffson, Jane A.
1998-01-01
Minimum size limits have become an increasingly popular management tool in recreational fisheries. This popularity stems from the potential of minimum size limits to accomplish the twin goals of limiting overfishing and improving fishing quality through increasing the average size of fish caught. The success of minimum size limits in achieving these objectives depends in a complicated way on both the behavior of anglers and the biological mechanisms that guide the growth of the fish populatio...
12 CFR 24.4 - Investment limits.
2010-01-01
... ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.4 Investment limits. (a... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment limits. 24.4 Section 24.4 Banks and...) Limited liability. A national bank may not make an investment under this part that would expose the...
Multiple Limit Cycles in an Immune System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xun-cheng Huang; Le-min Zhu; Minaya Villasana
2008-01-01
The nonlinear oscillatory phenomenon has been observed in the system of immune response, which corresponds to the limit cycles in the mathematical models. We prove that the system simulating an immune response studied by Huang has at least three limit cycles in the system. The conditions for the multiple limit cycles are useful in analyzing the nonlinear oscillation in immune response.
12 CFR 616.6600 - Leasing limit.
2010-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leasing limit. 616.6600 Section 616.6600 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LEASING § 616.6600 Leasing limit. All leases made by Farm Credit System institutions shall be subject to the lending and leasing limit in subpart...
Hopf limit cycles estimation in power systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barquin, J.; Gomez, T.; Pagola, L.F. [Univ. Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Investigacion Tecnologica
1995-11-01
This paper addresses the computation of the Hopf limit cycle. This limit cycle is associated to the appearance of an oscillatory instability in dynamical power systems. An algorithm is proposed to estimate the dimensions and shape of this limit cycle. The algorithm is computationally efficient and is able to deal with large power systems. 7 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab
36 CFR 1004.21 - Speed limits.
2010-07-01
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Speed limits. 1004.21 Section 1004.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.21 Speed limits. (a) Speed limits in the area administered by the Presidio Trust are as follows: (1) 15 miles...
2010-10-01
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Speed limits. 38.13 Section 38.13 Wildlife... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.13 Speed limits. No person on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge will exceed the speed limit for automobiles,...
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan limits. 4274.331 Section 4274.331 Agriculture... (IRP) § 4274.331 Loan limits. (a) Intermediary. (1) No loan to an intermediary will exceed the maximum... be used for loans to ultimate recipients that exceed $150,000. This limit does not apply to...
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time limit. 847.304 Section 847.304... Procedures for Elections Under the Retroactive Provisions § 847.304 Time limit. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the time limit for making an election under subpart D of this part is...
47 CFR 15.315 - Conducted limits.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conducted limits. 15.315 Section 15.315... Communications Service Devices § 15.315 Conducted limits. An unlicensed PCS device that is designed to be connected to the public utility (AC) power line must meet the limits specified in § 15.207....
2010-04-01
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time limits. 807.2... WITHDRAWAL REGISTRATION § 807.2 Time limits. (a) Except for agricultural water use projects, all registration... limit the responsibility of a project sponsor to apply for and obtain an approval as may be...
2010-10-01
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Size limits. 635.20 Section 635.20..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ATLANTIC HIGHLY MIGRATORY SPECIES Management Measures § 635.20 Size limits. Link to an... (160 cm), LJFL. (4) The Atlantic blue and white marlin minimum size limits, specified in paragraphs...
47 CFR 90.1215 - Power limits.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power limits. 90.1215 Section 90.1215... § 90.1215 Power limits. The transmitting power of stations operating in the 4940-4990 MHz band must not exceed the maximum limits in this section. (a)(1) The maximum conducted output power should not...
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan limits. 3560.63 Section 3560.63 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Direct Loan and Grant Origination § 3560.63 Loan limits. (a... housing tax credits, limits will be those specified in § 3560.53(l). (2) Developer's fee. While,...
50 CFR 20.61 - Importation limits.
2010-10-01
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Importation limits. 20.61 Section 20.61... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Importations § 20.61 Importation limits. No person shall import migratory game birds in excess of the following importation limits: (a) Doves and pigeons. (1) From...
50 CFR 648.145 - Possession limit.
2010-10-01
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Possession limit. 648.145 Section 648.145... Fishery § 648.145 Possession limit. (a) No person shall possess more than 25 black sea bass, in, or... that is not eligible for a black sea bass moratorium permit are subject to this possession limit....
2010-07-01
... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time limits. 806.22 Section 806.22 National... INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.22 Time limits. Any FOIA appeals received after the 60-day time limit are not processed, unless the requester provides adequate justification for failing to comply with the time...
2010-07-01
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time limit. 3.109 Section..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Administrative § 3.109 Time limit. (a) Notice of time limit for filing evidence. (1) If a claimant's application is incomplete, the claimant will be...
50 CFR 20.33 - Possession limit.
2010-10-01
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Possession limit. 20.33 Section 20.33... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.33 Possession limit. No person shall possess more migratory game birds taken in the United States than the possession limit or the...
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noise limits. 36.805 Section 36.805...: AIRCRAFT TYPE AND AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATION Helicopters § 36.805 Noise limits. (a) Compliance with the... levels of the helicopter are no greater than the applicable limits prescribed under section H36.305...
47 CFR 15.207 - Conducted limits.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conducted limits. 15.207 Section 15.207... Conducted limits. (a) Except as shown in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, for an intentional radiator... to 30 MHz, shall not exceed the limits in the following table, as measured using a 50 μH/50 ohms...
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power limits. 25.204 Section 25.204... Technical Standards § 25.204 Power limits. (a) In bands shared coequally with terrestrial radio... not exceed the following limits except as provided for in paragraph (c) of this section: +40 dBW...
7 CFR 1400.106 - Payment limits.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment limits. 1400.106 Section 1400.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Limitation § 1400.106 Payment limits. (a) Payments made...
47 CFR 18.307 - Conduction limits.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conduction limits. 18.307 Section 18.307... Standards § 18.307 Conduction limits. For the following equipment, when designed to be connected to the... on any frequency or frequencies shall not exceed the limits in the following tables. Compliance...
2010-07-01
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time limits. 21.1033... Time limits. The provisions of this section are applicable to informal claims and formal claims. (a) Failure to furnish form, information, or notice of time limit. VA's failure to give a claimant...
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noise limits. 36.501 Section 36.501..., Commuter Category Airplanes § 36.501 Noise limits. (a) Compliance with this subpart must be shown for— (1... applicable limit set in Part D of appendix F. (c) For aircraft covered by this subpart for...
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noise limits. 36.103 Section 36.103... Noise limits. (a) For subsonic transport category large airplanes and subsonic jet airplanes compliance... greater than the Stage 3 noise limit prescribed in section B36.5(c) of appendix B of this part. (c)...
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time limits. 1501.8 Section 1501.8 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY NEPA AND AGENCY PLANNING § 1501.8 Time limits. Although the Council has decided that prescribed universal time limits for the entire NEPA process are...
50 CFR 648.125 - Possession limit.
2010-10-01
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Possession limit. 648.125 Section 648.125... § 648.125 Possession limit. (a) No person shall possess more than 10 scup in, or harvested from, the EEZ... moratorium permit are subject to this possession limit. The owner, operator, and crew of a charter or...
17 CFR 150.2 - Position limits.
2010-04-01
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Position limits. 150.2 Section 150.2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION LIMITS ON POSITIONS § 150.2 Position limits. No person may hold or control positions, separately or in combination, net...
7 CFR 3200.5 - Dollar limitation.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dollar limitation. 3200.5 Section 3200.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT... PERSONAL PROPERTY § 3200.5 Dollar limitation. There is no dollar limitation on excess personal...
Flux-limited diffusion with relativistic corrections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A recently reported flux-limited diffusion theory is extended to include relativistic terms, correct to first order in the fluid velocity. We show that this diffusion theory is fully flux limited, and yields the correct result for the radiative flux in the classical diffusion limit, namely a Fick's law component plus a v/c convective term
The density limit in JET diverted plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Campbell, D.J.; Clement, S.; Gottardi, N.; Gowers, C.; Harbour, P.; Loarte, A.; Horton, L.; Lingertat, J.; Lowry, C.G.; Saibene, G.; Stamp, M.; Stork, D. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Monk, R. [Royal Holloway Coll., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics
1994-07-01
In JET limiter plasmas the density limit is associated with radiated power fractions of 100% and, in plasmas with carbon limiters, it is invariably disruptive. However, in discharges with solid beryllium limiters the limit is identified with the formation of a MARFE and disruptions are less frequent. In addition, the improved conditioning of the vessel arising from the use of beryllium has significantly improved the density limit scaling, so that the maximum density rises with the square root of the input power. In diverted plasmas several confinement regimes exist, making the characterization of the density limit more complex. While the density limit in L-mode plasmas is generally disruptive, the limit in ELMy and ELM-free H-modes generally prompts a return to the L-mode and a disruption is not inevitable. The density limit does rise with the increasing power, but the L-to-H transition complicates the analysis. Nevertheless, at low plasma currents (<2 MA), densities significantly above the Greenwald limit can be achieved, while at higher currents power handling limitations have constrained the range of density which can be achieved. (authors). 7 refs., 4 figs.
Newtonian limit of axially symmetric spacetimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We illustrate how Ehlers' formal mathematical definition of the Newtonian limit requires additional information to successfully determine the Newtonian limit. This information can be obtained through the physical arguments of Cooperstock's definition. We show that Ehlers' formalism is equivalent to Cooperstock's derivation of the Newtonian limit when the physical arguments are included in the former definition
49 CFR 663.9 - Audit limitations.
2010-10-01
... Audit limitations. (a) An audit under this part is limited to verifying compliance with (1) Applicable... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Audit limitations. 663.9 Section 663.9... audit under this part includes, where appropriate, a copy of a manufacturer's self...
Primordial magnetic field limits from cosmological data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study limits on a primordial magnetic field arising from cosmological data, including that from big bang nucleosynthesis, cosmic microwave background polarization plane Faraday rotation limits, and large-scale structure formation. We show that the physically relevant quantity is the value of the effective magnetic field, and limits on it are independent of how the magnetic field was generated.
Intrinsic and resonance space charge limits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parzen, G.
1989-01-01
The space charge limit in circular proton accelerators has been studied using a simulation program described below. Results from the simulation study indicate a different model for the space charge limit than the often presented models which emphasize resonances due to magnetic field errors. This simulation study suggests that the intrinsic space charge limit plays an important role. The intrinsic space charge limit is the space charge limit, in the absence of magnetic field errors, and is due to the forces generated by the beam itself. In studies of three operating accelerators, which include the AGS, the PS Booster and the Fermilab booster, it was found that the computed intrinsic space charge limit was fairly close to the experimentally observed space charge limit. This result plus studies of the effects of resonances due to magnetic field errors suggest that the intrinsic space charge limit provides an upper bound for the space charge limit which is not far from what is actually achieved by operating accelerators. The resonances present due to magnetic field errors, if strong enough, can prevent the accelerator from achieving the intrinsic space charge limit. However, the effects of these resonances were found to be appreciable only when the beam intensity gets close to the intrinsic space charge limit. Well below the intrinsic space charge limit, there is little beam growth due to magnetic field error driven resonances, and the space charge forces tend to stabilize these resonances. 4 refs., 5 figs.
Intrinsic and resonance space charge limits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The space charge limit in circular proton accelerators has been studied using a simulation program described below. Results from the simulation study indicate a different model for the space charge limit than the often presented models which emphasize resonances due to magnetic field errors. This simulation study suggests that the intrinsic space charge limit plays an important role. The intrinsic space charge limit is the space charge limit, in the absence of magnetic field errors, and is due to the forces generated by the beam itself. In studies of three operating accelerators, which include the AGS, the PS Booster and the Fermilab booster, it was found that the computed intrinsic space charge limit was fairly close to the experimentally observed space charge limit. This result plus studies of the effects of resonances due to magnetic field errors suggest that the intrinsic space charge limit provides an upper bound for the space charge limit which is not far from what is actually achieved by operating accelerators. The resonances present due to magnetic field errors, if strong enough, can prevent the accelerator from achieving the intrinsic space charge limit. However, the effects of these resonances were found to be appreciable only when the beam intensity gets close to the intrinsic space charge limit. Well below the intrinsic space charge limit, there is little beam growth due to magnetic field error driven resonances, and the space charge forces tend to stabilize these resonances. 4 refs., 5 figs
Quantum states for Heisenberg limited interferometry
Uys, H
2007-01-01
The phase resolution of interferometers is limited by the so-called Heisenberg limit, which states that the optimum phase sensitivity is inversely proportional to the number of interfering particles $N$, a $1/\\sqrt{N}$ improvement over the standard quantum limit. We have used simulated annealing, a global optimization strategy, to systematically search for quantum interferometer input states that approach the Heisenberg limited uncertainty in estimates of the interferometer phase shift. We compare the performance of these states to that of other non-classical states already known to yield Heisenberg limited uncertainty.
Quantum states for Heisenberg limited interferometry
Uys, Hermann; Meystre, Pierre
2007-06-01
An important aspect of quantum metrology is the engineering of quantum states with which to achieve Heisenberg limited measurement precision. In this limit the measurement uncertainty is inversely proportional to the number of interfering particles, N, a 1/√N improvement over the standad quantum limit. We have used numerical global optimization strategies to systematically search for quantum interferometer input states that achieve Heisenberg limited uncertainty in estimates of the interferometer phase shift. We compare the performance of candidates so obtained with that of non-classical states already known to yield Heisenberg limited uncertainty.
Quantum states for Heisenberg-limited interferometry
Uys, H.; Meystre, P.
2007-07-01
The phase sensitivity of interferometers is limited by the so-called Heisenberg limit, which states that the optimum phase sensitivity is inversely proportional to the number of interfering particles N , a 1/N improvement over the standard quantum limit. We have used simulated annealing, a global optimization strategy, to systematically search for quantum interferometer input states that approach the Heisenberg-limited uncertainty in estimates of the interferometer phase shift. We compare the performance of these states to that of other nonclassical states already known to yield Heisenberg-limited uncertainty.
Quantum states for Heisenberg-limited interferometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The phase sensitivity of interferometers is limited by the so-called Heisenberg limit, which states that the optimum phase sensitivity is inversely proportional to the number of interfering particles N, a 1/√(N) improvement over the standard quantum limit. We have used simulated annealing, a global optimization strategy, to systematically search for quantum interferometer input states that approach the Heisenberg-limited uncertainty in estimates of the interferometer phase shift. We compare the performance of these states to that of other nonclassical states already known to yield Heisenberg-limited uncertainty
Geotechnical Properties of Rubber Tires and Sediments Mixtures
Sellaf, H.; H. Trouzine; M. Hamhami; Asroun, A.
2014-01-01
An experimental work was undertaken to study the effect of rubber tires on the geotechnical properties of a dredged sediment, using a mixing ratio of large size. For comparison, two types of soil were studied (dredged sediment from Fergoug dam and Tizi Tuff from the north west of Algeria). Taking into account the high compressibility and the low water absorption of the rubber tires, grain size analysis, density, Atterberg limits analysis, chemical composition, direct shear tests, loading-unlo...
Significance of mineralogy in soil mechanics
Bojana Dolinar
2002-01-01
The research of consistency limits according to Atterberg is of key importance in soil mechanics because it determines, in a simple way, results of interactions between solid and liquid phases in soils, and thus provides possibility to classify them in groups withsimilar mechanic properties. In most cases, the results of these investigations provide a good basis for predicting other properties such as deformability, expansion, hydraulic conductivity and strength of soils. This proves that bas...
Significance of mineralogy in soil mechanics
Dolinar, Bojana
2015-01-01
The research of consistency of limits according to Atterberg is of key importance in soil mechanics because it determines, in a simple way, the results of interactions between solid and liquid phases in soils, and thus provides possibility to classify them in groups with similar mechanical properties. In most cases, the results of these investigations provide a good basis for predicting other properties, such as deformability, expansion, hydraulic conductivity and strength of soils. This prov...
Mineralogy and Thermal Behaviour of the Kaolinitic Clay of Loutété (Congo-Brazzaville)
J.M. Moutou; R. Mbedi; A. Elimbi; D. Njopwouo; Yvon, J.; Barres, O.; H.R. Ntekela
2012-01-01
The mineralogical and chemical composition and the technological properties of the raw material used by craftsmen of Loutete, locality in the south of Congo republic, for manufacturing fired bricks were characterized. The X-ray Diffraction, IR spectroscopy, ATD, ATG and AEG were used. The Atterberg limits and the particle size distribution were measured. The linear shrinkage, the water absorption, open porosity, apparent density and flexural strength of different bodies at temperatures from 8...
Carlos Cardoso Machado; Reginaldo Sérgio Pereira; Dario Cardoso de Lima; Carla Ribeiro Machado e Portugal; José Maurício Machado Pires; Gersonito da Silva Vieira
2004-01-01
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of industrial solid waste (whitewash mud) on geotechnical properties considering the following engineering parameters: California Bearing Ratio (CBR), Atterberg limits and Permeability test. Seven soil samples derived from Alagoinhas, Bahia - Brazil, were classified by the Transportation Research Board (TRB) system. Two were selected as having a great geotecnical potential classified as A-3 (0) and A-2-4 (0), whitewash mud content...
Plane wave limits and T-duality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Penrose limit is generalized to show that, any leading order solution of the low-energy field equations in any one of the five string theories has a plane wave solution as a limit. This limiting procedure takes into account all the massless fields that may arise and commutes with the T-duality so that any dual solution has again a plane wave limit. The scaling rules used in the limit are unique and stem from the scaling property of the D = 11 supergravity action. Although the leading order dual solutions need not be exact or supersymmetric, their plane wave limits always preserve some portion of the Poincare supersymmetry and solve the relevant field equations in all powers of the string tension parameter. Further properties of the limiting procedure are discussed. (author)
Penrose limits, supergravity and brane dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the Penrose limits of classical string and M-theory backgrounds. We prove that the number of (super)symmetries of a supergravity background never decreases in the limit. We classify all the possible Penrose limits of AdSxS spacetimes and of supergravity brane solutions. We also present the Penrose limits of various other solutions: intersecting branes, supersymmetric black holes and strings in diverse dimensions, and cosmological models. We explore the Penrose limit of an isometrically embedded spacetime and find a generalization to spaces with more than one time. Finally, we show that the Penrose limit is a large tension limit for all branes including those with fields of Born-Infeld type
Existence of Multiagent Equilibria with Limited Agents
Bowling, M; 10.1613/jair.1332
2011-01-01
Multiagent learning is a necessary yet challenging problem as multiagent systems become more prevalent and environments become more dynamic. Much of the groundbreaking work in this area draws on notable results from game theory, in particular, the concept of Nash equilibria. Learners that directly learn an equilibrium obviously rely on their existence. Learners that instead seek to play optimally with respect to the other players also depend upon equilibria since equilibria are fixed points for learning. From another perspective, agents with limitations are real and common. These may be undesired physical limitations as well as self-imposed rational limitations, such as abstraction and approximation techniques, used to make learning tractable. This article explores the interactions of these two important concepts: equilibria and limitations in learning. We introduce the question of whether equilibria continue to exist when agents have limitations. We look at the general effects limitations can have on agent b...
The Translation of Numerals and its Limits
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴贤雯
2013-01-01
Through probing into the diversity of numerals’functions in language use which gives prominence to the importance of numeral translation, this paper aims to analyze the limits of numeral translation and explain the cause for these limits. The analy-sis of the limits in numeral translation is guided by the principle of functional equivalence. It is discussed that in numeral transla-tion, the limits on different levels of culture, image, sound and form arise when the full functional equivalence can not be achieved. Furthermore, this paper finds that the differences in culture and formal structure as well as the semantic fuzziness are three reasons for the presence of limits in numeral translation. However, the author suggests that these limits in numeral transla-tion can be adjusted with the further development of research on translation methodology and the deep infiltration of different cultures.
Investigation of pulsed voltage limiters characteristics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karimov A. V.
2012-06-01
Full Text Available A new method for measuring the voltage limit is offered. It has been designed to measure high-power pulsed current of voltage limiters. The error of this method is half as much as the error of the known method of direct measurement. The investigation of dependence of power capability of single-crystal and double-crystal voltage limiters and of the pulsed operation time on pulse duration.
Investigation of pulsed voltage limiters characteristics
Karimov A. V.; Yodgorova D. M.; Rakhmatov A. Z.; Skornyakov S. L.; Petrov D. A.; Abdulkhayev O. A.
2012-01-01
A new method for measuring the voltage limit is offered. It has been designed to measure high-power pulsed current of voltage limiters. The error of this method is half as much as the error of the known method of direct measurement. The investigation of dependence of power capability of single-crystal and double-crystal voltage limiters and of the pulsed operation time on pulse duration.
2010-04-01
... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time limits. 145.23 Section 145.23 Customs Duties... (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS Administrative Review of Mail Entries § 145.23 Time limits. A mail entry may be... requests such amendment within the time limits prescribed therein (see §§ 173.4 and 173.5 of this...
Pauli-Limited Superconductivity in Small Grains
Bonsager, M. C.; MacDonald, A. H.
1998-01-01
We report on an exploration of the mean-field phase diagram for Pauli-limited superconductivity in small metallic grains. Emphasis is placed on the crossover from the ultra-small grain limit where superconductivity disappears to the bulk thin-film limit as the single-particle level spacing in the grain decreases. We find that the maximum Zeeman coupling strength compatible with superconductivity increases with decreasing grain size, in spite of a monotonically decreasing condensation energy p...
Limit Cycle Oscillations in Pacemaker Cells
Endresen, L P; Endresen, Lars Petter; Skarland, Nils
1999-01-01
In recent decades, several mathematical models describing the pacemaker activity of the rabbit sinoatrial node have been developed. We demonstrate that it is not possible to establish the existence, uniqueness, and stability of a limit cycle oscillation in those models. Instead we observe an infinite number of limit cycles. We then display numerical results from a new model, with a limit cycle that can be reached from many different initial conditions.
Back to Classics: Teaching Limits Through Infinitesimals
Todorov, Todor D.
2011-01-01
The usual $\\epsilon,\\delta$-definition of the limit of a function (whether presented at a rigorous or an intuitive level) requires a "candidate $L$" for the limit value. Thus, we have to start our first calculus course with "guessing" instead of "calculating". In this paper we criticize the method of using calculators for the purpose of selecting candidates for $L$. We suggest an alternative: a working formula for calculating the limit value L of a real function in terms of infinitesimals. Ou...
Nuclear Physics Around the Unitarity Limit
König, Sebastian; Hammer, H -W; van Kolck, U
2016-01-01
We argue that many features of the structure of nuclei can be understood in the unitarity limit, where the two-nucleon S-waves have bound states at zero energy. In this limit, the only dimensionful parameter, related to the breaking of scale invariance to a discrete scaling symmetry, is set by the triton binding energy. For A <= 4 nucleons, we demonstrate that the spectrum can be obtained as a controlled perturbative expansion around the unitarity limit.
Classical limits of an extended unitary model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The paper studies the limiting cases of an extended unitary model and it is shown that rotational, vibrational and transition excitation spectra are generated depending on the parameters ratio. The limits concerned resemble, by some properties, the analogous limits of an interacting boson model, however, the physical nature of the two models is different. Their generality is caused by the group structure similarity. 31 refs.; 5 figs.; 6 tabs
Time limiting of access to the Internet
Medvešček, Edi
2013-01-01
The thesis deals with time limiting of access to the Internet. In the first part of the thesis we present and analyse already existing solutions of such restricted Internet usage, whereas in the second part, our own application for time limiting is developed. We built into the application various functionalities, allowing the user a number of possibilities for limiting the access to the Internet. We mainly focused on security and reliability, with special attention paid to the potential avoid...
SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT LIMITER IN AC NETWORK
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
Short circuit is a serious fault in power network.Some novelcircuit topologies of current limiter using power electronic technology have been developed,which can limit the fault current to any desired level without much penalty.The operating principle and control strategies of such current limiters are discussed in detail.Simulation and experimental results are given to verify the performance of the current limiter,which can meet the requirements set for locations of bus tie,feeder,as well as the main transformer in the distribution network.
Implementing Risk-Limiting Audits in California
Hall, Joseph L.; Miratrix, Luke W.; Stark, Philip B.; Briones, Melvin; Ginnold, Elaine; Oakley, Freddie; Peaden, Martin; Pellerin, Gail; Stanionis, Tom; Webber, Tricia
2009-01-01
Risk-limiting post-election audits limit the chance of certifying an electoral outcome if the outcome is not what a full hand count would show. Building on previous work, we report on pilot risk-limiting audits in four elections during 2008 in three California counties: one during the February 2008 Primary Election in Marin County and three during the November 2008 General Elections in Marin, Santa Cruz and Yolo Counties. We explain what makes an audit risk-limiting and how existing and pro...
Impact limiter retention using a tape joint
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sandia National Laboratories has developed the Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) cask for the transportation of up to a megacurie of radiation source capsules. This work was done under contract to the Department of Energy. The BUSS cask employs polyurethane foam impact limiters that fit onto the ends of the cask. A foam impact limiter takes energy out of the system during a hypothetical accident condition by allowing foam crush and large deformations to occur. This, in turn, precludes high stresses or deformations from occurring in the cask. Depending on the nature of the impact limiters and large deformations experienced, retaining the limiters on a cask during a 9 meter regulatory drop poses a design challenge. Impact limiter retention becomes a concern to ensure the cask does not experience higher decelerations during secondary impacts without impact limiters in place. During the 9 meter drop, the impact limiters absorb the energy required to confine the cask deceleration to acceptable levels. However, if the impact limiters were removed from the cask due to initial impact, higher cask stress levels could occur during any secondary or rebound effects. A tape joint has been designed to solve the problem of retaining impact limiters onto the BUSS cask during impact loadings
Inproved grade length limitation of freeways
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XING En-hui; PEI Yu-long
2006-01-01
A method of ascertaining grade length limitation of freeways in mountain terrain is presented. The relationship models between 15th percentile speeds and grades were built through the surveys and analyses of operation speeds on 7 typical sections of 3 freeways in mountain terrain. Using 15th percentile and 85th percentile as speed limitations, the methods of determining admitted velocities were put forward according to the grades. Deceleration distances of longitudinal slopeways were analyzed utilizing the theories of vehicle. According to the results of analysis, grade length limitation was loosed. Finally the values of grade length limitation for freeways were put forward. The results could be used as references for freeway design.
Biological measurement beyond the quantum limit
Taylor, Michael A; Daria, Vincent; Knittel, Joachi; Hage, Boris; Bachor, Hans-A; Bowen, Warwick P
2012-01-01
Quantum noise places a fundamental limit on the per photon sensitivity attainable in optical measurements. This limit is of particular importance in biological measurements, where the optical power must be constrained to avoid damage to the specimen. By using non-classically correlated light, we demonstrated that the quantum limit can be surpassed in biological measurements. Quantum enhanced microrheology was performed within yeast cells by tracking naturally occurring lipid granules with sensitivity 2.4 dB beyond the quantum noise limit. The viscoelastic properties of the cytoplasm could thereby be determined with a 64% improved measurement rate. This demonstration paves the way to apply quantum resources broadly in a biological context.
TFTR movable limiter instrumentation and controls
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The TFTR movable limiter is a single poloidal limiter located within one 18 /SUP o/ segment of the vacuum vessel. It consists of three (3) interconnected inconel backing plates covered with titanium carbide coated graphite tiles. The backing plates are positioned by three independent screw drive actuators. Cooling water is fed through the horizontal port cover to tubes brazed onto the backs of the backing plates. Thermocouples monitor the limiter temperature. (1) and more fully described in refs. (1) and (2). The positioning actuators are driven by independently controlled DC servo motors, controlled either locally or from CICADA. Drive motor shaft position is monitored by chain driven encoders and potentiometers. Limiter blade position can be varied to suit any plasma within the operating range. CICADA is programmed to keep the limiter stroke within safe operating limits. A microprocessor duplicates the CICADA protective function allowing limiter operation without CICADA. The potentiometer signal is sent to an analog computer, which safeguards the limiter against failure of the encoders or the micro-processor. Cooling water flows through the limiter in 3 separate paths, one for each blade. The flow rate and temperature rise through each loop are measured accurately to allow CICADA to calculate the heat into each blade. The water system is also interlocked and alarmed to prevent dumping of water into the vacuum vessel
46 CFR 520.7 - Tariff limitations.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tariff limitations. 520.7 Section 520.7 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE CARRIER AUTOMATED TARIFFS § 520.7 Tariff limitations. (a) General. Tariffs published pursuant to this part shall: (1) Be clear...
Tokamak advanced pump limiter experiments and analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Experiments with pump limiter modules on several operating tokamaks establish such limiters as efficient collectors of particles and has demonstrated the importance of ballistic scattering as predicted theoretically. Plasma interaction with recycling neutral gas appears to become important as the plasma density increases and the effective ionization mean free path within the module decreases. In limiters with particle collection but without active internal pumping, the neutral gas pressure is found to vary nonlinearly with the edge plasma density at the highest densities studies. Both experiments and theory indicate that the energy spectrum of gas atoms in the pump ducting is non-thermal, consistent with the results of Monte Carlo neutral atom transport calculations. The distribution of plasma power over the front surface of such modules has been measured and appears to be consistent with the predictions of simple theory. Initial results from the latest experiment on the ISX-B tokamak with an actively pumped limiter module demonstrates that the core plasma density can be controlled with a pump limiter and that the scrape-off layer plasma can partially screen the core plasma from gas injection. The results from module pump limiter experiments and from the theory and design analysis of advanced pump limiters for reactors are used to suggest the major features of a definitive, axisymmetric, toroidal belt pump limiter experiment
Performance Limitation of Subband Adaptive Equalisers
Mohamod, H.; Weiss, S.; Rupp, M.; Hanzo, L.
2006-01-01
The aim of this reported work was identifying and quantifying limitation for the subband adaptive equalisers. The derived Wiener solution is compared against simulations for the subband equaliser, and it is verified that aliasing caused in the subband decimation can be considered equivalent to channel noise. Finally, how this limitation can be mitigated by careful system design is discussed.
47 CFR 95.1019 - Marketing limitations.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marketing limitations. 95.1019 Section 95.1019 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Low Power Radio Service (LPRS) General Provisions § 95.1019 Marketing limitations....
47 CFR 95.1219 - Marketing limitations.
2010-10-01
... SERVICES Medical Device Radiocommunication Service (MedRadio) § 95.1219 Marketing limitations. Transmitters intended for operation in the MedRadio Service may be marketed and sold only for the permissible... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marketing limitations. 95.1219 Section...
Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit.
Zhang, Xiang; Liu, Zhaowei
2008-06-01
The imaging resolution of conventional lenses is limited by diffraction. Artificially engineered metamaterials now offer the possibility of building a superlens that overcomes this limit. We review the physics of such superlenses and the theoretical and experimental progress in this rapidly developing field. Superlenses have great potential in applications such as biomedical imaging, optical lithography and data storage. PMID:18497850
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitations. 185.147 Section 185.147 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 185.147 Limitations. (a) The notice of hearing with respect to a claim or statement must be served...
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Speed limits. 401.28 Section 401... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.28 Speed limits. (a) The maximum speed over the bottom for a vessel of more than 12 m in overall length shall be regulated so as not...
32 CFR 935.132 - Speed limits.
2010-07-01
... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Speed limits. 935.132 Section 935.132 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.132 Speed limits. Each person operating a motor vehicle on Wake Island shall operate it at a speed— (a) That is reasonable, safe, and proper, considering time...
38 CFR 36.4214 - Geographical limits.
2010-07-01
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographical limits. 36.4214 Section 36.4214 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Preparation General Provisions § 36.4214 Geographical limits. The site for any manufactured home...
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weight limits. 27.25 Section 27.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 27.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The...
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan limits. 3560.612 Section 3560.612 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.612 Loan limits. The...
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Page limits. 1502.7 Section 1502.7 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.7 Page limits. The text of final environmental impact statements (e.g., paragraphs (d) through (g) of §...
27 CFR 8.4 - Jurisdictional limits.
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Jurisdictional limits. 8.4 Section 8.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXCLUSIVE OUTLETS Scope of Regulations § 8.4 Jurisdictional limits. (a)...
24 CFR 585.202 - Award limits.
2010-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Award limits. 585.202 Section 585.202 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES YOUTHBUILD PROGRAM Youthbuild Planning Grants § 585.202 Award limits....
2010-04-01
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time limits. 87.3 Section 87.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT USE OR DISTRIBUTION OF INDIAN JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.3 Time limits. (a) The Secretary shall cause to begin as early as possible the necessary research...
47 CFR 73.855 - Ownership limits.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ownership limits. 73.855 Section 73.855 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.855 Ownership limits. (a) No authorization for an...
40 CFR 503.13 - Pollutant limits.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pollutant limits. 503.13 Section 503.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Land Application § 503.13 Pollutant limits. (a) Sewage sludge....
47 CFR 15.107 - Conducted limits.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conducted limits. 15.107 Section 15.107... Conducted limits. (a) Except for Class A digital devices, for equipment that is designed to be connected to... power line on any frequency or frequencies within the band 150 kHz to 30 MHz shall not exceed the...
38 CFR 36.4332 - Geographical limits.
2010-07-01
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographical limits. 36.4332 Section 36.4332 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Geographical limits. Any real property purchased, constructed, altered, improved, or repaired with the...
27 CFR 10.4 - Jurisdictional limits.
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Jurisdictional limits. 10.4 Section 10.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Scope of Regulations § 10.4 Jurisdictional limits....
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time limits. 10.43 Section 10.43 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation MAINTENANCE OF AND ACCESS TO RECORDS PERTAINING TO INDIVIDUALS Correction of Records § 10.43 Time limits. Within ten days (excluding Saturday, Sunday, and legal...
38 CFR 36.4523 - Geographical limits.
2010-07-01
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographical limits. 36.4523 Section 36.4523 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Direct Loans § 36.4523 Geographical limits. Any real property purchased, constructed,...
47 CFR 10.430 - Character limit.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Character limit. 10.430 Section 10.430 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Alert Message Requirements § 10.430 Character limit. A CMAS Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider must...
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weight limits. 31.14 Section 31.14 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.14 Weight limits. (a) The range of weights...
27 CFR 6.4 - Jurisdictional limits.
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Jurisdictional limits. 6.4 Section 6.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.4 Jurisdictional limits. (a) General....
32 CFR 169a.19 - Study limits.
2010-07-01
... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Study limits. 169a.19 Section 169a.19 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Procedures § 169a.19 Study limits. No DoD funds shall be available to perform any...
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time limit. 14.27 Section 14.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Filing Procedures and Requirements § 14.27 Time limit. The claimant shall furnish evidence and information of the types described in 10 CFR...
2010-04-01
... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time limits. 357.106 Section 357.106 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SHORT SUPPLY PROCEDURES § 357.106 Time limits. (a) The Secretary will determine, no later than the day specified in paragraph (b) of...
27 CFR 11.4 - Jurisdictional limits.
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Jurisdictional limits. 11.4 Section 11.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS CONSIGNMENT SALES Scope of Regulations § 11.4 Jurisdictional limits....
38 CFR 36.4411 - Geographical limits.
2010-07-01
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographical limits. 36.4411 Section 36.4411 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Geographical limits. Any real property purchased, constructed, altered, improved, repaired, or...
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weight limits. 29.25 Section 29.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 29.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight....
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time limits. 1205.23 Section 1205.23 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS Amendment of Records § 1205.23 Time limits. The Clerk of the Board, Regional Director, or...
10 CFR 52.9 - Jurisdictional limits.
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Jurisdictional limits. 52.9 Section 52.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.9 Jurisdictional limits. No permit, license, standard design approval, or standard...
12 CFR 1805.402 - Assistance limits.
2010-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assistance limits. 1805.402 Section 1805.402 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Investment Instruments § 1805.402 Assistance limits....
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weight limits. 25.25 Section 25.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight General § 25.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weights....
Bargaining with Many Players: A Limit Result
Klaus Kultti; Hannu Vartiainen
2008-01-01
We provide a simple characterization of the stationary subgame perfect equilibrium of an alternating offers bargaining game when the number of players increases without a limit. Core convergence literature is emulated by increasing the number of players by replication. The limit allocation is interpreted in terms of Walrasian market for being the first proposer.
The Newtonian limit at intermediate energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the metric solutions for the gravitational equations in Modified Gravity Models (MGMs). In models with negative powers of the scalar curvature, we show that the Newtonian Limit (NL) is well defined as a limit at intermediate energies, in contrast with the usual low energy interpretation. Indeed, we show that the gravitational interaction is modified at low densities or low curvatures
The Newtonian limit at intermediate energies
Cembranos, J. A. R.
2005-01-01
We study the metric solutions for the gravitational equations in Modified Gravity Models (MGMs). In models with negative powers of the scalar curvature, we show that the Newtonian Limit (NL) is well defined as a limit at intermediate energies, in contrast with the usual low energy interpretation. Indeed, we show that the gravitational interaction is modified at low densities or low curvatures.
Central Limit Theorem for Coloured Hard Dimers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria Simonetta Bernabei
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We study the central limit theorem for a class of coloured graphs. This means that we investigate the limit behavior of certain random variables whose values are combinatorial parameters associated to these graphs. The techniques used at arriving this result comprise combinatorics, generating functions, and conditional expectations.
2010-07-01
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations. 281.7 Section 281.7 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE FOREIGN EXCHANGE OPERATIONS § 281.7 Limitations....
50 CFR 640.21 - Harvest limitations.
2010-10-01
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Harvest limitations. 640.21 Section 640.21... § 640.21 Harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) spiny lobster or slipper... immediately to the water unharmed. (2) No person may harvest or attempt to harvest a spiny lobster by...
47 CFR 24.133 - Emission limits.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emission limits. 24.133 Section 24.133... SERVICES Narrowband PCS § 24.133 Emission limits. (a) The power of any emission shall be attenuated below... the lesser attenuation. (b) The measurements of emission power can be expressed in peak or...
47 CFR 90.1323 - Emission limits.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emission limits. 90.1323 Section 90.1323... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Wireless Broadband Services in the 3650-3700 MHz Band § 90.1323 Emission limits. (a) The power of any emission outside a licensee's frequency band(s) of operation shall be...
47 CFR 27.53 - Emission limits.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emission limits. 27.53 Section 27.53... COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.53 Emission limits. (a) For operations in the 2305-2320 MHz band and the 2345-2360 MHz band, the power of any emission outside a licensee's frequency band(s)...
40 CFR 63.802 - Emission limits.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission limits. 63.802 Section 63.802... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Wood Furniture Manufacturing Operations § 63.802 Emission limits. (a) Each owner or...
40 CFR 61.162 - Emission limits.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission limits. 61.162 Section 61.162... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Glass Manufacturing Plants § 61.162 Emission limits. (a) The owner or operator of an...
47 CFR 90.669 - Emission limits.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emission limits. 90.669 Section 90.669... 896-901/935-940 Mhz Band § 90.669 Emission limits. (a) On any frequency in an MTA licensee's spectrum block that is adjacent to a non-MTA frequency, the power of any emission shall be attenuated below...
46 CFR 45.185 - Tow limitations.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tow limitations. 45.185 Section 45.185 Shipping COAST... Barges on Lake Michigan Routes § 45.185 Tow limitations. (a) Barges must not be manned. (b) No more than three barges per tow on the Milwaukee, St. Joseph, and Muskegon routes. (c) Barges must not be more...
Visualizing the Central Limit Theorem through Simulation
Ruggieri, Eric
2016-01-01
The Central Limit Theorem is one of the most important concepts taught in an introductory statistics course, however, it may be the least understood by students. Sure, students can plug numbers into a formula and solve problems, but conceptually, do they really understand what the Central Limit Theorem is saying? This paper describes a simulation…
2010-04-01
... gain from the sale or other disposition of real property for the 30-percent-of-gross-income limitation... or taxes, does not constitute the acquisition of “other property” for purposes of this subparagraph... TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.856-2 Limitations. (a) Effective date. The provisions of part...
Anomalies and the Large N Limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Operator algebra aspects of the Large N limit of Bosonic vector models are analyzed. It is shown that the Large N limit is a classical theory, and a general method, based on defromation quatization, for calculating the Poisson algebra of dynamical observables in the limiting classical theory is presented. The Poisson algebra of O(N) invariant observables of Bosonic vector models is constructed in this approach, and is shown to be a central extension of the Symplectic Lie algebra. The relation of the central term to anomalies is discussed. A comparision of the classical theories obtained in the Large N limit and that in the small (ℎ/2π) limit is also presented
Reflective Optical Limiter Based on Resonant Transmission
Makri, Eleana; Vitebskiy, Ilya
2014-01-01
Optical limiters transmit low-level radiation while blocking electromagnetic pulses with excessively high energy (energy limiters) or with excessively high peak intensity (power limiters). A typical optical limiter absorbs most of the high-level radiation which can cause its destruction via overheating. Here we introduce the novel concept of a reflective energy limiter which blocks electromagnetic pulses with excessively high total energy by reflecting them back to space, rather than absorbing them. The idea is to use a defect layer with temperature dependent loss tangent embedded in a low-loss photonic structure. The low energy pulses with central frequency close to that of the localized defect mode will pass through. But if the cumulative energy carried by the pulse exceeds certain level, the entire photonic structure reflects the incident light (and does not absorb it!) for a broad frequency window. The underlying physical mechanism is based on self-regulated impedance mismatch which increases dramatically...
Self-triggering superconducting fault current limiter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yuan, Xing (Albany, NY); Tekletsadik, Kasegn (Rexford, NY)
2008-10-21
A modular and scaleable Matrix Fault Current Limiter (MFCL) that functions as a "variable impedance" device in an electric power network, using components made of superconducting and non-superconducting electrically conductive materials. The matrix fault current limiter comprises a fault current limiter module that includes a superconductor which is electrically coupled in parallel with a trigger coil, wherein the trigger coil is magnetically coupled to the superconductor. The current surge doing a fault within the electrical power network will cause the superconductor to transition to its resistive state and also generate a uniform magnetic field in the trigger coil and simultaneously limit the voltage developed across the superconductor. This results in fast and uniform quenching of the superconductors, significantly reduces the burnout risk associated with non-uniformity often existing within the volume of superconductor materials. The fault current limiter modules may be electrically coupled together to form various "n" (rows).times."m" (columns) matrix configurations.
Reverse engineering of inductive fault current limiters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pina, J M; Neves, M Ventim; Rodrigues, A L [Centre of Technology and Systems Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Nova University of Lisbon Monte de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Suarez, P; Alvarez, A, E-mail: jmmp@fct.unl.p [' Benito Mahedero' Group of Electrical Applications of Superconductors Escuela de IngenierIas Industrials, University of Extremadura Avenida de Elvas s/n, 06006 Badajoz (Spain)
2010-06-01
The inductive fault current limiter is less compact and harder to scale to high voltage networks than the resistive one. Nevertheless, its simple construction and mechanical robustness make it attractive in low voltage grids. Thus, it might be an enabling technology for the advent of microgrids, low voltage networks with dispersed generation, controllable loads and energy storage. A new methodology for reverse engineering of inductive fault current limiters based on the independent analysis of iron cores and HTS cylinders is presented in this paper. Their electromagnetic characteristics are used to predict the devices' hysteresis loops and consequently their dynamic behavior. Previous models based on the separate analysis of the limiters' components were already derived, e.g. in transformer like equivalent models. Nevertheless, the assumptions usually made may limit these models' application, as shown in the paper. The proposed methodology obviates these limitations. Results are validated through simulations.
Pumped limiter results on TFR Tokamak plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pump limiter experiments are carried out in the TFR Tokamak. The pump limiter is located in the outer part of the torus, its double- throat head is made of graphite tiles and it is pumped by a 2000 ls-1 titanium sublimation pump. The first attempts showed that the exhaust efficiency of this pump limiter was low (ε = 1.5% of the total plasma particle efflux). To improve these results, a new limiter head with a single longer throat has been built; particles were better trapped and the pumping provided an important decrease of the recycling coefficient. Geometric features mainly explain the increase by a factor 3.5 of the exhaust efficiency (ε = 5.5%). Ion temperature of the order of a few eV has been deduced from Doppler broadening measurements at the neutralizer plate of the pump limiter
Functional Limitations and Gender Differences: Neighborhood Effects.
Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Pruchno, Rachel
2015-07-01
Rates of functional limitations are consistently higher for women than for men, but it is not clear why. While some studies have examined individual risk factors, others have turned to broader social characteristics. We examined the effects of both individual and neighborhood characteristics associated with the functional limitations of older men and women. Multilevel structural equation models were developed using data from a random digit dial sample of 5,688 adults aged 50 to 74 years living in New Jersey. We found that greater numbers of fast-food restaurants, storefronts, and supermarkets was associated with more functional limitations of women, while greater numbers of fast-food restaurants was the only neighborhood characteristic associated with more functional limitations of men. Functional limitations of women, but not men, are affected by multiple neighborhood characteristics. This research reveals that specific neighborhood contextual characteristics, not just poverty, are associated with the health of community-dwelling adults. PMID:26543060
The limits on trypanosomatid morphological diversity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard John Wheeler
Full Text Available Cell shape is one, often overlooked, way in which protozoan parasites have adapted to a variety of host and vector environments and directional transmissions between these environments. Consequently, different parasite life cycle stages have characteristic morphologies. Trypanosomatid parasites are an excellent example of this in which large morphological variations between species and life cycle stage occur, despite sharing well-conserved cytoskeletal and membranous structures. Here, using previously published reports in the literature of the morphology of 248 isolates of trypanosomatid species from different hosts, we perform a meta-analysis of the occurrence and limits on morphological diversity of different classes of trypanosomatid morphology (trypomastigote, promastigote, etc. in the vertebrate bloodstream and invertebrate gut environments. We identified several limits on cell body length, cell body width and flagellum length diversity which can be interpreted as biomechanical limits on the capacity of the cell to attain particular dimensions. These limits differed for morphologies with and without a laterally attached flagellum which we suggest represent two morphological superclasses, the 'juxtaform' and 'liberform' superclasses. Further limits were identified consistent with a selective pressure from the mechanical properties of the vertebrate bloodstream environment; trypanosomatid size showed limits relative to host erythrocyte dimensions. This is the first comprehensive analysis of the limits of morphological diversity in any protozoan parasite, revealing the morphogenetic constraints and extrinsic selection pressures associated with the full diversity of trypanosomatid morphology.
Limitations on progress in developing uranium resources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: Their exists a gap between the supply of uranium to nuclear power plants and the current demand for uranium for nuclear power plants. Recently rising spot and long term uranium prices provide indication that the supply of previously mined uranium is nearing an irreducible and unavailable inventory. The gap between supply and demand is very large and the inventory of proposed new mines is quite small. There clearly is a need for new uranium production and exploration, as well as increased access to previously mined uranium inventory. The author reviews the limitations to the development of new uranium sources including limitations to access to the existing inventory. The author will discuss the major limitations to progress in finding and developing uranium resources and in the availability of previously mined uranium. The major areas discussed are: 1. Financing of new production sources and new uranium mining companies, 2. Financing of uranium exploration, 3. International Legal Barriers, 4. Political and Social Constraints on Exploration and Production. 5. Environmental and Operational Permitting of Exploration, Development and Production, 6. Motivation of Uranium Producers. 7. Experienced Personnel, 8. Limitations on Developing New Techniques and Equipment to Improve the Accessibility of Uranium Resources Economically. The author will discuss these factors in relation to each of the major uranium producing countries with specific examples from each of the major producing countries to illustrate the limitations. The author will summarize the limitations and suggest the basis for overcoming these limitations as a conclusion to this paper. (author)
Extreme Physics and Informational/Computational Limits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Di Sia, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.disia@univr.it, E-mail: 10alla33@virgilio.it [Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Science, Verona University, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37134 Verona (Italy) and Faculty of Computer Science, Free University of Bozen, Piazza Domenicani 3, I-39100 Bozen-Bolzano (Italy)
2011-07-08
A sector of the current theoretical physics, even called 'extreme physics', deals with topics concerning superstring theories, multiverse, quantum teleportation, negative energy, and more, that only few years ago were considered scientific imaginations or purely speculative physics. Present experimental lines of evidence and implications of cosmological observations seem on the contrary support such theories. These new physical developments lead to informational limits, as the quantity of information, that a physical system can record, and computational limits, resulting from considerations regarding black holes and space-time fluctuations. In this paper I consider important limits for information and computation resulting in particular from string theories and its foundations.
Cosmological Background torsion limits from Lorentz violation
Garcia de Andrade, L C
2001-01-01
Cosmological limits on Lorentz invariance breaking in Chern-Simons $(3+1)-dimensional$ electrodynamics are used to place limits on torsion. Birefrigence phenomena is discussed by using extending the propagation equation to Riemann-Cartan spacetimes instead of treating it in purely Riemannian spaces. The parameter of Lorentz violation is shown to be proportional to the axial torsion vector which allows us to place a limit on cosmological background torsion from the Lorentz violation constraint which is given by $ 10^{-33} eV <|S^{\\mu}| < 10^{-32} eV$ where $|S^{\\mu}|$ is the axial torsion vector.
Limit theorems for 2D invasion percolation
Damron, Michael
2010-01-01
We prove limit theorems and variance estimates for quantities related to ponds and outlets for 2D invasion percolation. We first exhibit several properties of a sequence (O(n)) of outlet variables, the n-th of which gives the number of outlets in the box centered at the origin of side length 2^n. The most important of these properties describe the sequence's renewal structure and exponentially fast mixing behavior. We use these to prove a central limit theorem and strong law of large numbers for (O(n)). We then show consequences of these limit theorems for the pond radii and outlet weights.
Inviscid incompressible limits on expanding domains
Feireisl, E.; Nečasová, Š. (Šárka); Y. Sun
2014-01-01
We consider the inviscid incompressible limit of the compressible Navier-Stokes system on a large domain, the radius of which becomes infinite in the asymptotic limit. We show that the limit solutions satisfy the incompressible Euler system on the whole physical space R3 as long as the radius of the domain is larger than the speed of acoustic waves inversely proportional to the Mach number. The rate of convergence is estimated in terms of the Mach and Reynolds numbers and the radius of the fa...
Limits on Pauli principle violation by nucleons
Baron, E A; Teplitz, V L
1999-01-01
We consider nuclei produced in core collapse supernovae and subjected to a high neutron flux. We show that an accelerator mass spectrometry experiment that searched for traces of anomalous iron isotopes could set limits on the order of $10^{-20}-10^{-25}$ on (or perhaps discover) Pauli principle violation by neutrons. A similar search for anomalous Co isotopes could set limits in the range $10^{-13}-10^{-18}$ on Pauli principle violation by protons. We show that existing data on Oxygen can be used to set a limit of about $10^{-17}$ in one proposed model of such violation.
Fractional Diffusion Limit for Collisional Kinetic Equations
Mellet, Antoine
2010-08-20
This paper is devoted to diffusion limits of linear Boltzmann equations. When the equilibrium distribution function is a Maxwellian distribution, it is well known that for an appropriate time scale, the small mean free path limit gives rise to a diffusion equation. In this paper, we consider situations in which the equilibrium distribution function is a heavy-tailed distribution with infinite variance. We then show that for an appropriate time scale, the small mean free path limit gives rise to a fractional diffusion equation. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.
Noiseless limit of a ferrofluid ratchet
Becker, Volker; Engel, Andreas
2004-01-01
The noiseless limit of a thermal ratchet device using ferrofluids is studied in detail. Contrary to previous claims it is proved that no directed transport can occur in this model in the absence of fluctuations.
Operational limits and disruptions in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report contains a concise description on status of knowledge in the area of operational limits and disruption characteristics, based on the results of workshops held during the ITER Definition Phase (1988). (author)
Intensity limitations in compact Hminus cyclotrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
At TRIUMF, we have demonstrated 2.5 mA in a compact H- cyclotron. It is worthwhile to explore possibility of going to even higher intensity. In small cyclotrons, vertical focusing vanishes at the center. The space charge tune shift further reduces vertical focusing, thus determining an upper limit on instantaneous current. Limit on average current is of course also dependent upon phase acceptance, but this can be made quite large in an H- cyclotron. Longitudinal space charge on the first turn can reduce the phase acceptance as well. For finite ion source brightness, another limit comes from bunching efficiency in presence of space charge forces. We present methods of calculating and optimizing these limits. In particular, we show that it is possible to achieve 10mA in a 50 MeV compact H- cyclotron
The computation of Buehler confidence limits
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FANG; Xiangzhong; CHEN; Jiading
2005-01-01
In medicine and industry, small sample size often arises owing to the high test cost. Then exact confidence inference is important. Buehler confidence limit is a kind of exact confidence limit for the function of parameters in a model. It can be always defined if the order in sample space is given. But the computing problem is often difficult, especially for the cases with high dimension parameter or with incomplete data. This paper presents an algorithm to compute the Buehler confidence limits by EM algorithm. This is the firsttime usage of EM algorithm on Buehler confidence limits, but the algorithm is often used for maximum likelihood estimate in literatures. Three computation examples are given to illustrate the method.
Health Outcomes Survey - Limited Data Set
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (HOS) limited data sets (LDS) are comprised of the entire national sample for a given 2-year cohort (including both respondents...
Southern Hemisphere Ice Limits, 1973-1978
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weekly Southern Ocean ice limits, have been digitized from U.S. Navy Fleet Weather Facility ice charts, at the Max-Planck Institut fur Meteorologie, Hamburg....
2010-04-01
... TAXES Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.851-2 Limitations. (a... manufacturing or of any other general classification of industry, but issuers shall be construed to be...
Limitations of science and adaptive management
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Narasimhan, T.N.
2001-12-20
Adaptive management consists in patterning human sustenancewithin the constraints of Earth and biological systems whose behavior isinherently uncertain and difficult to control. For successful adaptivemanagement, a mind-set recognizing the limitations of science isneeded.
Limit Theorems in Free Probability Theory I
Chistyakov, G. P.; Götze, F.
2006-01-01
Based on a new analytical approach to the definition of additive free convolution on probability measures on the real line we prove free analogs of limit theorems for sums for non-identically distributed random variables in classical Probability Theory.
Limiting Spectral Distribution of Sample Autocovariance Matrices
Basak, Anirban; Sen, Sanchayan
2011-01-01
The empirical spectral distribution (ESD) of the sample variance covariance matrix of i.i.d. observations under suitable moment conditions converges almost surely as the dimension tends to infinity. The limiting spectral distribution (LSD) is universal and is known in closed form with support [0, 4]. In this article we show that the ESD of the sample autocovariance matrix converges as the dimension increases, when the time series is a linear process with reasonable restriction on the coefficients. This limit does not depend on the distribution of the underlying driving i.i.d. sequence but in contrast to the sample variance covariance matrix, its support is unbounded. The limit moments are certain functions of the autocovariances. This limit is inconsistent in the sense that it does not coincide with the spectral distribution of the theoretical autocovariance matrix. However, if we consider a suitably tapered version of the autocovariance matrix, then its LSD also exists and is consistent. We also discuss the ...
Elastic stability and the limit of strength
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The upper limit of strength (the ''theoretical strength'') has been an active subject of research and speculation for the better part of a century. The subject has recently become important, for two reasons. First, given recent advances in ab initio techniques and computing machines, the limits of strength can be calculated with considerable accuracy, making this one of the very few problems in mechanical behavior that can actually be solved. Second, given recent advances in materials engineering, the limits of strength are being approached in some systems, such as hardened or defect-free films, and their relevance is becoming recognized in others. The present paper discusses some interesting results from recent research on the limits of strength, with an intermixture of speculations based on those results. Topics include the inherent nature of {100} cleavage and ''pencil slip'' in bcc metals, the inherent ductility of fcc metals, the anomalous properties of Al, and the possibility of measuring ideal strength with nanoindentation
Low-frequency limit of gravitational scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider the low-frequency limit of cross sections for massless scalar, electromagnetic, and gravitational waves scattering on a Schwarzschild black hole. Explicit results are found for the scattering amplitudes, which differ from the Born approximation results
Recognizing limitations in eddy current testing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper addresses known limitations and constraints in eddy current nondestructive testing. Incomplete appreciation for eddy current limitations is believed to have contributed to both under-utilization and misapplication of the technique. Neither situation need arise if known limitations are recognized. Some, such as the skin depth effect, are inherent to electromagnetic test methods and define the role of eddy current testing. Others can be overcome with available technology such as surface probes to find circumferential cracks in tubes and magnetic saturation of ferromagnetic alloys to eliminate permeability effects. The variables responsible for limitations in eddy current testing are discussed and where alternative approaches exist, these are presented. Areas with potential for further research and development are also identified
Optical limiting by chemically enhanced bacteriorhodopsin films
Song, Q. Wang; Zhang, Chungping; Gross, Richard; Birge, Robert
1993-05-01
Measurements of effective nonlinearity of a chemically enhanced bacteriorhodopsin film are presented, using 2-scan method. Optical limiting properties and the film's nonlinear transmission properties of the film are also studied.
48 CFR 16.301-3 - Limitations.
2010-10-01
... cost-reimbursement contracts is prohibited for the acquisition of commercial items (see parts 2 and 12). ... AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 16.301-3 Limitations. (a) A...
Limitations of science and adaptive management
Narasimhan, T. N.
2001-01-01
Adaptive management consists in patterning human sustenance within the constraints of Earth and biological systems whose behavior is inherently uncertain and difficult to control. For successful adaptive management, a mind-set recognizing the limitations of science is needed.
Scallop License Limitation Program (SLLP) Permit Program
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A federal Scallop License Limitation Program (SLLP) license is required onboard any vessel deployed in scallop fisheries in Federal waters off Alaska (except for...
2010-01-01
... limit. When the amount due under the grazing contract is dependent upon future performance, the... proceed directly against the equipment and the lessee for any deficiency resulting from the sale of...
Sensitivity Limitations for Multivariable Linear Filtering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steven R. Weller
2007-01-01
Full Text Available This paper examines fundamental limitations in performance which apply to linear filtering problems associated with multivariable systems having as many inputs as outputs. The results of this paper quantify unavoidable limitations in the sensitivity of state estimates to process and measurement disturbances, as represented by the maximum singular values of the relevant transfer matrices. These limitations result from interpolation constraints imposed by open right half-plane poles and zeros in the transfer matrices linking process noise and output noise with state estimates. Using the Poisson integral inequality, this paper shows how sensitivity limitations and tradeoffs in multivariable filtering problems are intimately related to the directionality properties of the open right half-plane poles and zeros in these transfer matrices.
Synchronization limit of weakly forced nonlinear oscillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nonlinear oscillators exhibit synchronization (injection-locking) to external periodic forcings, which underlies the mutual synchronization in networks of nonlinear oscillators. Despite its history of synchronization and the practical importance of injection-locking to date, there are many important open problems of an efficient injection-locking for a given oscillator. In this work, I elucidate a hidden mechanism governing the synchronization limit under weak forcings, which is related to a widely known inequality; Hölder's inequality. This mechanism enables us to understand how and why the efficient injection-locking is realized; a general theory of synchronization limit is constructed where the maximization of the synchronization range or the stability of synchronization for general forcings including pulse trains, and a fundamental limit of general m : n phase locking, are clarified systematically. These synchronization limits and their utility are systematically verified in the Hodgkin–Huxley neuron model as an example. (fast track communication)
Limiting currents in shielded source configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Limiting currents for laminar flow equilibria of relativistic electron beams in shielded source configurations are discussed. Results are presented for the constant applied magnetic field case, and for the case of constant beam radius
Cities, Towns and Villages - City Limit (polygon)
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Data available online through GeoStor at http://www.geostor.arkansas.gov. Arkansas Cities: This data set contains all of the city limit boundaries within the state...
Stable convergence and stable limit theorems
Häusler, Erich
2015-01-01
The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...
Energy resolution limits of amplified scintillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we analyze the potential improvement in the statistical limit to the energy resolution of a scintillator using a scintillator amplification technique. The work excludes potentially complicating factors, such as non-linearity in light yield, since these factors are dependent upon the particular choice of detector materials. The results show that energy resolutions typical of semiconductors are technically feasible for scintillators. In the example presented, introducing scintillation multiplication improved the energy resolution limit from a few percent to below 1%.
Compression limits in cascaded quadratic soliton compression
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole; Krolikowski, Wieslaw;
2008-01-01
Cascaded quadratic soliton compressors generate under optimal conditions few-cycle pulses. Using theory and numerical simulations in a nonlinear crystal suitable for high-energy pulse compression, we address the limits to the compression quality and efficiency.......Cascaded quadratic soliton compressors generate under optimal conditions few-cycle pulses. Using theory and numerical simulations in a nonlinear crystal suitable for high-energy pulse compression, we address the limits to the compression quality and efficiency....
MMSE Limitations of Subband Adaptive Equalisers
Mohamad, H.; Weiss, S.; Rupp, M.
2002-01-01
In this contribution, we investigate limitations of the minimum mean square error (MMSE) solution for subband adaptive equalisers due to aliasing and error in power complementarity. By deriving the Wiener solution for the subband equaliser and comparing it against simulations, we verify that aliasing caused in the subband decimation can be considered equivalent to channel noise. We discuss how these limitations can be mitigated by careful system design.
Gulf of Mexico mud toxicity limitations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dunn, H.E.; Beardmore, D.H. (Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (USA)); Stewart, W.S. (Drilling Specialties Co. (US))
1989-10-01
Because of the Environmental Protection Agency's recent toxicity limits on drilling mud discharges for offshore Gulf of Mexico, Phillips Petroleum conducted a mud toxicity study based on both field and lab tests. The study, discussed in this article, found the polyanionic cellulose-sulfomethylated quebracho-chrome lignosulfonate mud Phillips had been using would comfortably pass the toxicity limitations. The study also found barite and thinners were of low toxicity, and hydrocarbons and surfactants were highly toxic.
Computer modelling of superconductive fault current limiters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weller, R.A.; Campbell, A.M.; Coombs, T.A.; Cardwell, D.A.; Storey, R.J. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Superconductivity (IRC); Hancox, J. [Rolls Royce, Applied Science Division, Derby (United Kingdom)
1998-05-01
Investigations are being carried out on the use of superconductors for fault current limiting applications. A number of computer programs are being developed to predict the behavior of different `resistive` fault current limiter designs under a variety of fault conditions. The programs achieve solution by iterative methods based around real measured data rather than theoretical models in order to achieve accuracy at high current densities. (orig.) 5 refs.
The Fragility of Limit Order Markets
Alasdair Brown
2013-01-01
Limit order markets - where a subset of traders provide liquidity on a discretionary basis - are the dominant exchange mechanism for financial assets. We analyse the resilience of these markets using Betfair limit order book trading on the Wimbledon Tennis Championships. As matches go inplay, the risk involved in liquidity provision intensifies, as the value of bets can change substantially in a matter of seconds, and, at the end of the match, certain bets are worthless. Our headline result i...
Supply and demand law under limited information
Zhang, Yi-Cheng
2005-01-01
We present a model for the supply-demand law with quality and limited information capability. We postulate that imperfect information permeates in almost all economic transactions to varying degrees. Through a simple model we outline a research agenda that re-examines many standard issues in economics. Our analysis shows that whereas imperfect information can be improved, it leads to new uncertainties so that the perfect information limit can never be reached. As a corollary neoclassical perf...
Inviscid incompressible limits on expanding domains
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Feireisl, Eduard; Nečasová, Šárka; Sun, Y.
2014-01-01
Roč. 27, č. 10 (2014), s. 2465-2477. ISSN 0951-7715 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compressible Navier-Stokes system * large domain * inviscid limit * incompressible limit Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.208, year: 2014 http://iopscience.iop.org/0951-7715/27/10/2465/
DNBR limit calculation by sampling statistical method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The parametric uncertainties of DNBR and exit quality were calculated using sampling statistical method based on Wilks formula and VIPRE-W code. Then the DNBR design limit and exit quality limit were got by combining with the uncertainties of models and DNB correlation. This method can gain the more DNBR margin than RTDP methodology which is developed by Westinghouse by comparison of these two methods. (authors)
Revisiting Uraltsev's BPS limit for Heavy Quarks
Heinonen, Johannes
2016-01-01
Motivated by the recent experimental data of the values of the Heavy Quark Expansion parameters, in particular the spin-orbit and Darwin terms, we argue that nature actually may be close to a limit of QCD which has been suggested by Uraltsev more than ten years ago. Assuming that this limit is not accidental, we derive the relations among the Heavy Quark Expansion parameters that occur up to the order 1/mb^5.
Activity limitation in joint hypermobility syndrome.
Schmidt, A.
2008-01-01
This review examines the role of fear and avoidance in chronic pain, focusing in particular on their role in activity limitation. It examines the existing fear-avoidance models, in particular Vlaeyen and Linton's (2000) model, it reviews the evidence for this model, and considers it in the context of models of fear and avoidance in other psychological disorders. Evidence is reviewed for other factors which contribute to activity limitation in chronic pain. In the context of this evidence, it ...
The Separate Universe Approach to Soft Limits
Kenton, Zachary
2016-01-01
We develop a formalism for calculating soft limits of $n$-point inflationary correlation functions using separate universe techniques. Our method naturally allows for multiple fields and leads to an elegant diagrammatic approach. As an application we focus on the trispectrum produced by inflation with multiple light fields, giving explicit formulae for all possible single- and double-soft limits. We also investigate consistency relations and present an infinite tower of inequalities between soft correlation functions which generalise the Suyama-Yamaguchi inequality.
LIMITING BEHAVIOR OF UNIFORM RECURSIVE TREES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Su Chun; Feng Qunqiang; Liu Jie
2007-01-01
The authors consider the limiting behavior of various branches in a uniform recursive tree with size growing to infinity. The limiting distribution of ζn,m, the number of branches with size m in a uniform recursive tree of order n, converges weakly to a Poisson distribution with parameter 1/m with convergence of all moments. The size of any large branch tends to infinity almost surely.
Bureaucratic limits of firm size: Academic summary
Staffan Canback
2003-01-01
The research tests Oliver Williamson’s proposition that transaction cost economics can explain the limits of firm size. Williamson suggests that diseconomies of scale are manifested through four interrelated factors: atmospheric consequences due to specialisation, bureaucratic insularity, incentive limits of the employment relation and communication distortion due to bounded rationality. Furthermore, Williamson argues that diseconomies of scale are counteracted by economies of scale and can b...
Environmental radiation standards and risk limitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Environmental Protection Agency and Nuclear Regulatory Commission have established environmental radiation standards for specific practices which correspond to limits on risk to the public that vary by several orders of magnitude and often are much less than radiation risks that are essentially unregulated, e.g., risks from radon in homes. This paper discusses a proposed framework for environmental radiation standards that would improve the correspondence with limitation of risk. This framework includes the use of limits on annual effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime, rather than limits on dose equivalent to whole body or any organ for each year of exposure, and consideration of exposures of younger age groups as well as adults; limits on annual effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime no lower than 0.25 mSv (25 mrem) per practice; maintenance of all exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA); and establishment of a generally applicable de minimis dose for public exposures. Implications of the proposed regulatory framework for the current system of standards for limiting public exposures are discussed. 20 refs
Cryogenic Dark Matter Search: limits and projections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The results from the second run of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search experiment in the Soudan Underground Laboratory yields new exclusion limits on the coherent WIMPnucleon scalar cross-sections for WIMP masses above 15 GeV/c2. Two towers, each consisting of six detectors, were operated in the mine for 74.5 live days, doubling the previous Ge exposure to 34 kg-d after cuts for recoil energies of 10-100 keV. When combined with the data from the first run at Soudan, the new upper limit is 1.6 x 10-43 cm2 for a 60 GeV WIMP using the standard dark-matter halo and nuclear physics WIMP model. This is a factor of 2.5 lower than our previous limit and a factor of 10 lower than any other experiment. Limits from the Si data (12 kg-d) are less stringent, but extend the excluded region for low mass WIMPs. CDMS also has sensitivity to spin-dependent limits
Derivation of limit values for nonionising radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The first limit values for nonionising radiation were introduced in the USSR in 1959. They largely applied to the microwave range. Although the determination of limit values falls within the sovereignty of national governments, international recommendations today play a major role in this. Thus various organisations have dealt with this topic over the past decades. The most noteworthy in matters concerning nonionising radiation is the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), the most important task of which is to make recommendations for guides to limiting human exposure over the entire electromagnetic spectrum. It emerged from a working group of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) and has been an independent international organisation with widely branching international partnerships. Among its partners are the World Health Organisation (WHO), the European Commission (EU) and the International Labour Organisation (ILO). The ICNIRP's special status is owed to its recognition by these partners and is reflected in the application of its limit value proposals within the partner organisations' respective spheres of competence. Examples are the EU Council Recommendation on the limitation of exposure of the general public to electromagnetic fields and various labour protection Directives in this area. In Germany the ICNIRP's recommendations have been implemented in labour protection regulations, in telecommunication laws and the 26th Emission Control Ordinance. The present deliberations are therefore based primarily on the ICNIRP's philosophy and on the ongoing discussion of general principles within the international EMF project of the WHO
Limiting factors in caribou population ecology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David R. Klein
1991-10-01
Full Text Available Caribou and wild reindeer populations fluctuate over time. On this fact there is general agreement. Factors responsible for population limitation and subsequent declines have been examined within the framework of animal population theory. There is, however, little agreement when factors limiting specific populations are generalized to Rangifer populations over broad geographic regions. Comparative examinations of wild Rangifer populations worldwide discloses that factors that have regulated those populations are highly variable between populations, apparently as a reflection of the differences in environmental variables unique to each population. Examples exist of populations where major regulating factors have been climatic extremes, predation, hunting mortality, food limitation, insects, parasites, disease, interspecific competition, and human developmental impacts or combinations of these factors. This diversity of limiting factors affecting caribou and wild reindeer populations is a reflection of the ecologial complexity of the species, a concept that has often been ignored in past efforts to reach management decisions by extrapolation from the limited localized knowledge available on the species.
Beyond the diffraction limit via optical amplification
Kellerer, Aglae N
2016-01-01
In a previous article we suggested a method to overcome the diffraction limit behind a telescope. We refer to theory and recent numerical simulations, and test whether it is indeed possible to use photon amplification to enhance the angular resolution of a telescope or a microscope beyond the diffraction limit. An essential addition is the proposal to select events with above-average ratio of stimulated to spontaneous photons. We find that the diffraction limit of a telescope is surpassed by a factor ten for an amplifier gain of 200, if the analysis is restricted to a tenth of the incoming astronomical photons. A gain of 70 is sufficient with a hundredth of the photons.
Performance limits for Synthetic Aperture Radar.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doerry, Armin Walter
2006-02-01
The performance of a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system depends on a variety of factors, many which are interdependent in some manner. It is often difficult to ''get your arms around'' the problem of ascertaining achievable performance limits, and yet those limits exist and are dictated by physics, no matter how bright the engineer tasked to generate a system design. This report identifies and explores those limits, and how they depend on hardware system parameters and environmental conditions. Ultimately, this leads to a characterization of parameters that offer optimum performance for the overall SAR system. For example, there are definite optimum frequency bands that depend on weather conditions and range, and minimum radar PRF for a fixed real antenna aperture dimension is independent of frequency. While the information herein is not new to the literature, its collection into a single report hopes to offer some value in reducing the ''seek time''.
The Filter Dichotomy and medial limits
Larson, Paul B
2010-01-01
The \\emph{Filter Dichotomy} says that every uniform nonmeager filter on the integers is mapped by a finite-to-one function to an ultrafilter. The consistency of this principle was proved by Blass and Laflamme. A function between topological spaces is \\emph{universally measurable} if the preimage of %every open subset of the codomain is measured by every Borel measure on the domain. A \\emph{medial limit} is a universally measurable function from $\\mathcal{P}(\\omega)$ to the unit interval [0,1] which is finitely additive for disjoint sets, and maps singletons to 0and $\\omega$ to 1. Christensen and Mokobodzki independently showed that the Continuum Hypothesis implies the existence of medial limits. We show that the Filter Dichotomy implies that there are no medial limits.
Numerical Limit Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Kasper Paaske
For more than half a century, limit state analysis based on the extremum principles have been used to assess the load bearing capacity of reinforced concrete structures. Extensi- ve research within the field has lead to several techniques for performing such analysis manually. While these manual...... limit state analysis problems. The work focuses on determination of the load bearing capacity of reinforced concrete structures by employing the lower bound theorem and a finite element method using equilibrium elements is developed. The recent year’s development within the field of convex optimization...... is applied to solve the limit state problems. Three different element types have been developed and tested. The first is a solid tetra- hedral element with a linear stress distribution. The tri-axial stress state in the element is decomposed into concrete and reinforcement stresses, to which separate...
Lower limits of detection of contamination detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The new German Radiation Protection Ordinance, which entered into force on April 01, 1977, indicates limits for protective measures to be taken in cases of surface contamination at work stations and of objects, which are very low. In addition, it is provided that persons working in areas containing unsealed radioactive sources be examined for contamination of the skin and clothes. Such checks are to be made as soon as these persons leave the areas referred to above. The imits stated for the skin are even lower than those quoted for the clothes outside controlled plant areas. Accordingly, the question arises in many cases whether the detectors used so far, or to be newly purchased, are capable of detecting surface contamination ot the order of, or even below, these limits. This contribution is to help in assessing contamination detectors with respect to their lower limits of detection. (orig.)
The financial-economical risk limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report makes part of a series of eight reports which have been drawn up in behalf of the dutch Policy Notition Radiation Standards (BNS). In this report the results are presented of an investigation into a financial-economic risk limit. An inventarization has been made of how the concept economical damage is used in various policy domains. It is investigated if therewith use has been made of a financial-economic risk limit. The height of this limit has been assessed. In order to give a checklist of the aspects which have to be taken into account in the calculation of the financial-economic damage, the character of the low probability-high consequence needs to be mentioned nearer. (author). 49 refs.; 4 figs.; 4 tabs
Limited liability and the public's health.
Rutkow, Lainie; Teret, Stephen P
2007-01-01
Corporations, through their products and behaviors, exert a strong effect on the well-being of populations. Industries including firearms, motor vehicles, tobacco, and alcohol produce and market products negatively impact public health. All of these industries are composed of corporations, which are legal fictions designed to provide limited exposure to liability, through a variety of mechanisms, for their investors and directors. This means that when actions are taken on behalf of a corporate entity, the individuals responsible generally will not face personal liability for the negative results of those actions. To illustrate this point, this article considers corporate products or practices that have caused harm in varied settings, and analyzes the role that limited liability played in these cases. In addition, the article identifies ways to modify or eliminate some of the principles and practices that accompany limited liability. PMID:18076511
Limitation of computational resource as physical principle
Ozhigov, Y I
2003-01-01
Limitation of computational resources is considered as a universal principle that for simulation is as fundamental as physical laws are. It claims that all experimentally verifiable implications of physical laws can be simulated by the effective classical algorithms. It is demonstrated through a completely deterministic approach proposed for the simulation of biopolymers assembly. A state of molecule during its assembly is described in terms of the reduced density matrix permitting only limited tunneling. An assembly is treated as a sequence of elementary scatterings of simple molecules from the environment on the point of assembly. A decoherence is treated as a forced measurement of quantum state resulted from the shortage of computational resource. All results of measurements are determined by a choice from the limited number of special options of the nonphysical nature which stay unchanged till the completion of assembly; we do not use the random numbers generators. Observations of equal states during the ...
Limiters and first wall on JET
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
During the initial phase of the JET operation, graphite limiters and Inconel wall protection plates had been used. After one year of operation, some of the Inconel plates at the inboard wall were found to be significantly damaged. These plates were replaced by graphite tiles in order to eliminate one source of metallic contamination of the plasma. Operational experience with the graphite tiles has been good, and additional graphite protections have been installed recently. Further protections will be added in 1987 to cover extensively, although not completely, the walls of the vessel. This paper describes the limiters and wall protections used so far, together with the experimental evidence gained during 2 years of operation. It also describes the belt limiter to be installed in the near future, and outlines longer term development plans
Fundamental limitations for quantum and nano thermodynamics
Horodecki, Michał
2011-01-01
The relationship between thermodynamics and statistical physics is valid in the thermodynamic limit -- when the number of particles involved becomes very large. Here we study thermodynamics in the opposite regime -- at both the nano scale, and when quantum effects become important. Applying results from quantum information theory we construct a theory of thermodynamics in these extreme limits. In the quantum regime, we find that the standard free energy no longer determines the amount of work which can be extracted from a resource, nor which state transitions can occur spontaneously. We derive a criteria for thermodynamical state transitions, and find two free energies: one which determines the amount of work which can be extracted from a small system in contact with a heat bath, and the other which quantifies the reverse process. They imply that generically, there are additional constraints which govern spontaneous thermodynamical processes. We find that there are fundamental limitations on work extraction f...
Industry perspective on setting emissions limits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy Canada Inc. (GEH-C) has operated a uranium dioxide fuel pelletizing plant and fuel bundle assembly facility in Toronto and Peterborough respectively, since the mid- 1960's. A primary operational objective is to ensure a consistently high degree of environmental protection, and to accomplish this requires properly established emission control limits. This paper will summarize the system of environmental and public protection constraints currently in place at GEH-C including derived emission limits, operational limits and action levels. It will discuss the basis of any values chosen and describe the methods used to calculate their magnitude. Perspectives on how to ensure operational effectiveness of these constraints will also be addressed. (authors)
New mass limit of white dwarfs
Das, Upasana
2013-01-01
Is the Chandrasekhar mass limit for white dwarfs (WDs) set in stone? Not anymore -- recent observations of over-luminous, peculiar type Ia supernovae can be explained if significantly super-Chandrasekhar WDs exist as their progenitors, thus barring them to be used as cosmic distance indicators. However, there is no estimate of a mass limit for these super-Chandrasekhar WD candidates yet. Can they be arbitrarily large? In fact, the answer is no! We arrive at this revelation by exploiting the flux freezing theorem in observed, accreting, magnetized WDs, which brings in Landau quantization of the underlying electron degenerate gas. This essay presents the calculations which pave the way for the ultimate (significantly super-Chandrasekhar) mass limit of WDs, heralding a paradigm shift 80 years after Chandrasekhar's discovery.
Thermal Nature of Concentration Limits of Combustion
Sabdenov, K. O.; Baitasov, T. M.
2015-05-01
An explanation is proposed for the concentration limits of slow combustion of gas mixtures due to the diffusional-thermal instability of a flame and the leading role of the thermal effect of mixture combustion. Basic to this explanation are the following experimental facts obtained for a wide class of mixtures: the concentration limits of slow combustion of a mixture and of its detonation are closely coinciding and depend strongly on the stoichiometric composition of mixture; there is an approximate symmetry relation between the upper and lower combustion limits. It is shown that the flame temperature of gas mixtures depends on their stoichiometric composition and that as their stoichiometric relation deviates from unity, the state of mixture combustion approaches the stability threshold beyond which a stationary flame cannot exist.
Long pulse operation with actively cooled limiters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present here the major results obtained with actively cooled plasma facing components during long pulse operation (plasma duration >3 x surface temperature time constant=steady-state). Shots up to 120 s have been achieved in Tore Supra when the plasma was leaning on the large inner toroidal actively cooled limiter with a moderate deposited power density heat flux (up to 0.3 MW/m2). For larger power density heat flux up to 4.5 MW/m2 (design value), modular limiters have been used. A prerequisite for any actively cooled limiter is the absence of any cooling defect (crack parallel to the surface in the tile or non-correct bonding). If a defect is present it leads to a super-brilliance event (with its corresponding local power heat flux increase) which propagates. This deleterious effect is unfortunately a runaway effect. (orig.)
Occupational Exposures and Chronic Airflow Limitation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Helen Dimich-Ward
1996-01-01
Full Text Available The recent literature was reviewed to evaluate whether chronic airflow limitation is associated with occupational exposures to dusts. Only those studies that controlled for the effects of smoking were included. There is compelling evidence that exposure to inorganic dusts, such as from coal and hardrock mining or asbestos, are associated with the development of chronic airflow limitation, independently of pneumoconiosis. Nonsmoking gold miners are particularly at high risk of airflow obstruction and emphysema. Findings from studies of organic dusts, such as exposures to wood, cotton, grain or other agricultural dusts, or to mixed dust exposures, were less consistent but tended to show positive dose-response associations. In the majority of studies, no statistical interaction was shown between dust exposures and smoking; however, the effects of the dust exposures were often more pronounced. An occupational history should be considered, in addition to a smoking history, as an integral part of an investigation of chronic airflow limitation in a patient.
Limit analysis and design of containment vessels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the introduction, the theory of plastic analysis of shells is briefly recalled. Minimum-volume design for assigned load factor at plastic collapse is then considered and optimality criteria are derived for plates and shells of continuously varying or piecewise-constant thickness. In the first part, containers made of metal are examined. Analytical and numerical limit analysis solutions and corresponding experimental results are considered for various types of vessels, including intersecting shells. Attention is given to experimental post-yield behavior. Some tests up to fracture are discussed. New theoretical and experimental results of limit analysis of stiffened cylindrical vessels are presented, in which reinforcing rings are treated as discrete structural element (no smearing out) and due account is taken of their strong curvature. Cases of collapse by instability under internal pressure are pointed out. Minimum-volume design of circular plates and cylindrical shells is then formulated and various examples are presented of sandwich and solid metal structures. Containers of piecewise-constant thickness are given particular attention. Available experimental evidence on minimum-volume design of plates and shells is reviewed and commented upon. The second part deals with reinforced concrete vessels. Cylindrical containers are studied, from both points of view of limit analysis and of limit design with minimum volume of reinforcement. The practical use of the latter solutions is discussed. A third part reviews other loading cases (including cyclic and impact loads) and gives indications on corresponding theories, formulations and solution methods. The last part is devoted to a discussion of the limitations of the methods presented, within the frame of the 'limit states' design philosophy, which is first briefly recalled. Considerations on further research in the field conclude the paper. (orig.)
Limits on Non-Linear Electrodynamics
Fouché, M.; Battesti, R.; Rizzo, C
2016-01-01
In this paper we set a framework in which experiments whose goal is to test QED predictions can be used in a more general way to test non-linear electrodynamics (NLED) which contains low-energy QED as a special case. We review some of these experiments and we establish limits on the different free parameters by generalizing QED predictions in the framework of NLED. We finally discuss the implications of these limits on bound systems and isolated charged particles for which QED has been widely...
Computability limits non-local correlations
Islam, Tanvirul; Wehner, Stephanie
2012-01-01
If the no-signalling principle was the only limit to the strength of non-local correlations, we would expect that any form of no-signalling correlation can indeed be realized. That is, there exists a state and measurements that remote parties can implement to obtain any such correlation. Here, we show that in any theory in which some functions cannot be computed, there must be further limits to non-local correlations than the no-signalling principle alone. We proceed to argue that even in a t...
Self-Similarity Limits of Genomic Signatures
Wu, Z B
2002-01-01
It is shown that metric representation of DNA sequences is one-to-one. By using the metric representation method, suppression of nucleotide strings in the DNA sequences is determined. For a DNA sequence, an optimal string length to display genomic signature in chaos game representation is obtained by eliminating effects of the finite sequence. The optical string length is further shown as a self- similarity limit in computing information dimension. By using the method, self-similarity limits of bacteria complete genomic signatures are further determined.
Scaling Limit of the Noncommutative Black Hole
Majid, Shahn
2010-01-01
We show that the recent `quantum' black hole wave operator in the $\\kappa$-Minkowski or bicrossproduct model quantum spacetime has a natural scaling limit $\\lambda_p\\to 0$ at the event horizon. Here $\\lambda_p$ is the Planck time and the geometry at the event horizon in Planck length is maintained at the same time as the limit is taken, resulting in a classical theory with quantum gravity remnants. Among the features is a frequency-dependent `skin' of some $\\omega\\over\
The promise and limits of computer modeling
Blilie, Charles
2007-01-01
Many books deal with the techniques of designing, building and testing computer models and simulations, but few have seriously examined what models are based on, their inherent limitations, and their essential role in extending human knowledge. This book fills this need.It focuses on computer models throughout, yet its exposition of the nature and limits of modeling is entirely general. A chapter on the development of celestial mechanics models illustrates how models progress and are essential to natural science. Chapters on models of global climate, population, economics and warfare, illustra
Subdiffusive Fluctuations for Internal Diffusion Limited Aggregation
Lawler, Gregory F.
1995-01-01
Internal diffusion limited aggregation (internal DLA) is a cluster model in $\\mathbb{Z}^d$ where new points are added by starting random walkers at the origin and letting them run until they have found a new point to add to the cluster. It has been shown that the limiting shape of internal DLA clusters is spherical. Here we show that for $d \\geq 2$ the fluctuations are subdiffusive; in fact, that they are of order at most $n^{1/3}$, at least up to logarithmic corrections. More precisely, we s...
Superconducting fault current limiter for railway transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A resistive switching superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) for DC networks with voltage of 3.5 kV and nominal current of 2 kA is developed. The SFCL consists of two series-connected units: block of superconducting modules and high-speed vacuum breaker with total disconnection time not more than 8 ms. The results of laboratory tests of superconducting SFCL modules in current limiting mode are presented. The recovery time of superconductivity is experimentally determined. The possibility of application of SFCL on traction substations of Russian Railways is considered
Superconducting fault current limiter for railway transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fisher, L. M., E-mail: LMFisher@niitfa.ru; Alferov, D. F.; Akhmetgareev, M. R.; Budovskii, A. I.; Evsin, D. V.; Voloshin, I. F.; Kalinov, A. V. [National Technical Physics and Automation Research Institute (Russian Federation)
2015-12-15
A resistive switching superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) for DC networks with voltage of 3.5 kV and nominal current of 2 kA is developed. The SFCL consists of two series-connected units: block of superconducting modules and high-speed vacuum breaker with total disconnection time not more than 8 ms. The results of laboratory tests of superconducting SFCL modules in current limiting mode are presented. The recovery time of superconductivity is experimentally determined. The possibility of application of SFCL on traction substations of Russian Railways is considered.
Astronomical Limiting Magnitude at Langkawi Observatory
Zainuddin, Mohd. Zambri; Loon, Chin Wei; Harun, Saedah
2010-07-01
Astronomical limiting magnitude is an indicator for astronomer to conduct astronomical measurement at a particular site. It gives an idea to astronomer of that site what magnitude of celestial object can be measured. Langkawi National Observatory (LNO) is situated at Bukit Malut with latitude 6°18' 25'' North and longitude 99°46' 52'' East in Langkawi Island. Sky brightness measurement has been performed at this site using the standard astronomical technique. The value of the limiting magnitude measured is V = 18.6+/-1.0 magnitude. This will indicate that astronomical measurement at Langkawi observatory can only be done for celestial objects having magnitude less than V = 18.6 magnitudes.
Roomy: A System for Space Limited Computations
Kunkle, Daniel
2010-01-01
There are numerous examples of problems in symbolic algebra in which the required storage grows far beyond the limitations even of the distributed RAM of a cluster. Often this limitation determines how large a problem one can solve in practice. Roomy provides a minimally invasive system to modify the code for such a computation, in order to use the local disks of a cluster or a SAN as a transparent extension of RAM. Roomy is implemented as a C/C++ library. It provides some simple data structu...
Limits on electron compositeness from Bhabha scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have studied the reaction e+e-→e+e- using data taken by the CELLO detector at 35 GeV centre of mass energy with an integrated luminosity of 86 pb-1. The differential cross section is found to agree with the Standard Model and is used to set limits on possible deviations from the pointlike structure of the electron. The lower limits obtained for the compositeness scale Λ range from 0.8 to 6.0 TeV (95% C.L.), depending on the structure of the current. (orig.)
Central Limit Theorem for Nonlinear Hawkes Processes
Zhu, Lingjiong
2012-01-01
Hawkes process is a self-exciting point process with clustering effect whose jump rate depends on its entire past history. It has wide applications in neuroscience, finance and many other fields. Linear Hawkes process has an immigration-birth representation and can be computed more or less explicitly. It has been extensively studied in the past and the limit theorems are well understood. On the contrary, nonlinear Hawkes process lacks the immigration-birth representation and is much harder to analyze. In this paper, we obtain a functional central limit theorem for nonlinear Hawkes process.
Limit theorems for fragmentation processes with immigration
Knobloch, Robert
2012-01-01
In this paper we extend two limit theorems which were recently obtained for fragmentation processes to such processes with immigration. More precisely, in the setting with immigration we consider a limit theorem for the process counted with a random characteristic as well as the asymptotic behaviour of an empirical measure associated with the stopping line corresponding to the first blocks, in their respective line of descent, that are smaller than a given size. In addition, we determine the asymptotic decay rate of the size of the largest block in a homogeneous fragmentation process with immigration. The techniques used to proves these results are based on submartingale arguments.
Limits on Pauli principle violation by nucleons
Baron, E.; Mohapatra, R. N.; Teplitz, V. L.
1998-01-01
We consider nuclei produced in core collapse supernovae and subjected to a high neutron flux. We show that an accelerator mass spectrometry experiment that searched for traces of anomalous iron isotopes could set limits on the order of $10^{-20}-10^{-25}$ on (or perhaps discover) Pauli principle violation by neutrons. A similar search for anomalous Co isotopes could set limits in the range $10^{-13}-10^{-18}$ on Pauli principle violation by protons. We show that existing data on Oxygen can be...
Limit Theorems for Dispersing Billiards with Cusps
Bálint, P.; Chernov, N.; Dolgopyat, D.
2011-12-01
Dispersing billiards with cusps are deterministic dynamical systems with a mild degree of chaos, exhibiting "intermittent" behavior that alternates between regular and chaotic patterns. Their statistical properties are therefore weak and delicate. They are characterized by a slow (power-law) decay of correlations, and as a result the classical central limit theorem fails. We prove that a non-classical central limit theorem holds, with a scaling factor of {sqrt{nlog n}} replacing the standard {sqrt{n}} . We also derive the respective Weak Invariance Principle, and we identify the class of observables for which the classical CLT still holds.
Charged pion condensation in the chiral limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We examine, in the chiral limit where the up and down quark masses are vanishingly small, the stability of the pure neutron ground state to small fluctuations due to charge and baryon number conserving strong interactions. It is shown that the ground state energy density as a function of pion field expectation value is determined by Weinberg's baryon two-body potential and by a calculable neutron-proton mass difference in the medium. This provides some insight into the competing physical effects that play a role in determining whether a charged pion condensate forms in dense nuclear matter. We find that in the chiral limit these effects suppress charged pion condensation. (orig.)
Average Shape of Transport-Limited Aggregates
Davidovitch, Benny; Choi, Jaehyuk; Bazant, Martin Z.
2005-08-01
We study the relation between stochastic and continuous transport-limited growth models. We derive a nonlinear integro-differential equation for the average shape of stochastic aggregates, whose mean-field approximation is the corresponding continuous equation. Focusing on the advection-diffusion-limited aggregation (ADLA) model, we show that the average shape of the stochastic growth is similar, but not identical, to the corresponding continuous dynamics. Similar results should apply to DLA, thus explaining the known discrepancies between average DLA shapes and viscous fingers in a channel geometry.
Limits on Non-Linear Electrodynamics
Fouché, M; Rizzo, C
2016-01-01
In this paper we set a framework in which experiments whose goal is to test QED predictions can be used in a more general way to test non-linear electrodynamics (NLED) which contains low-energy QED as a special case. We review some of these experiments and we establish limits on the different free parameters by generalizing QED predictions in the framework of NLED. We finally discuss the implications of these limits on bound systems and isolated charged particles for which QED has been widely and successfully tested.
DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NA
2004-11-22
The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) important to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log (line integral) CO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for all of the actinides. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.
Quantum dynamics in the thermodynamic limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The description of spontaneous symmetry breaking that underlies the connection between classically ordered objects in the thermodynamic limit and their individual quantum-mechanical building blocks is one of the cornerstones of modern condensed-matter theory and has found applications in many different areas of physics. The theory of spontaneous symmetry breaking, however, is inherently an equilibrium theory, which does not address the dynamics of quantum systems in the thermodynamic limit. Here, we will use the example of a particular antiferromagnetic model system to show that the presence of a so-called thin spectrum of collective excitations with vanishing energy - one of the well-known characteristic properties shared by all symmetry-breaking objects - can allow these objects to also spontaneously break time-translation symmetry in the thermodynamic limit. As a result, that limit is found to be able, not only to reduce quantum-mechanical equilibrium averages to their classical counterparts, but also to turn individual-state quantum dynamics into classical physics. In the process, we find that the dynamical description of spontaneous symmetry breaking can also be used to shed some light on the possible origins of Born's rule. We conclude by describing an experiment on a condensate of exciton polaritons which could potentially be used to experimentally test the proposed mechanism
Two Different Epistemologies about Limit Concepts
Kim, Dong-Joong; Kang, Hyangim; Lee, Hyun-Joo
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study is to investigate characteristics of limit concepts through the simultaneous use of historical and experimental epistemologies. Based on a historical epistemology which is an investigation of historical developments in a mathematical concept raised in the history of mathematics, four different developments of limit…
Graph limits and exchangeable random graphs
Diaconis, Persi; Janson, Svante
2007-01-01
We develop a clear connection between deFinetti's theorem for exchangeable arrays (work of Aldous--Hoover--Kallenberg) and the emerging area of graph limits (work of Lovasz and many coauthors). Along the way, we translate the graph theory into more classical probability.
2010-07-01
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations. 300.809 Section 300.809 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN...
Quantum speed limit for arbitrary initial states.
Zhang, Ying-Jie; Han, Wei; Xia, Yun-Jie; Cao, Jun-Peng; Fan, Heng
2014-01-01
The minimal time a system needs to evolve from an initial state to its one orthogonal state is defined as the quantum speed limit time, which can be used to characterize the maximal speed of evolution of a quantum system. This is a fundamental question of quantum physics. We investigate the generic bound on the minimal evolution time of the open dynamical quantum system. This quantum speed limit time is applicable to both mixed and pure initial states. We then apply this result to the damped Jaynes-Cummings model and the Ohimc-like dephasing model starting from a general time-evolution state. The bound of this time-dependent state at any point in time can be found. For the damped Jaynes-Cummings model, when the system starts from the excited state, the corresponding bound first decreases and then increases in the Markovian dynamics. While in the non-Markovian regime, the speed limit time shows an interesting periodic oscillatory behavior. For the case of Ohimc-like dephasing model, this bound would be gradually trapped to a fixed value. In addition, the roles of the relativistic effects on the speed limit time for the observer in non-inertial frames are discussed. PMID:24809395
Altitudinal distribution limits of aquatic macroinvertebrates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Philip B.; Morabowen, Andrés; Andino, Patricio;
2015-01-01
1. Temperature and oxygen are recognised as the main drivers of altitudinal limits of species distributions. However, the two factors are linked, and both decrease with altitude, why their effects are difficult to disentangle. 2. This was experimentally addressed using aquatic macroinvertebrates...
The History of the Limits to Growth
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nørgaard, Jørgen; Ragnarsdóttir, Kristín Vala; Peet, John
2010-01-01
The report The Limits to Growth was in many ways a breakthrough in the way the future was debated and analysed as far as the physical economy was concerned. The paper describes how the very title seems to have offended many people, leading a cohort of critics to reject the report as a doomsday re...
41 CFR 109-50.204 - Limitations.
2010-07-01
... Condition Codes 1 and 4, as defined in 41 CFR 101-43.4801(e), meet this criteria. Serviceability of... DISPOSAL AUTHORITIES 50.2-Math and Science Equipment Gift Program § 109-50.204 Limitations. (a) Excess and... the appropriate gift instrument where the book value of an item of equipment exceeds $25,000 or...
Fundamental Limits to Nonlinear Energy Harvesting
Haji Hosseinloo, Ashkan; Turitsyn, Konstantin
2015-12-01
Linear and nonlinear vibration energy harvesting has been the focus of considerable research in recent years. However, fundamental limits on the harvestable energy of a harvester subjected to an arbitrary excitation force and different constraints is not yet fully understood. Understanding these limits is not only essential for an assessment of the technology potential, but it also provides a broader perspective on the current harvesting mechanisms and guidance in their improvement. Here, we derive the fundamental limits on the output power of an ideal energy harvester for arbitrary excitation waveforms and build on the current analysis framework for the simple computation of this limit for more sophisticated setups. We show that the optimal harvester maximizes the harvested energy through a mechanical analog of a buy-low-sell-high strategy. We also propose a nonresonant passive latch-assisted harvester to realize this strategy for an effective harvesting. It is shown that the proposed harvester harvests energy more effectively than its linear and bistable counterparts over a wider range of excitation frequencies and amplitudes. The buy-low-sell-high strategy also reveals why the conventional bistable harvester works well at low-frequency excitation.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weight limits. 23.25 Section 23.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight General § 23.25 Weight...
2010-07-01
..., schedule a prehearing conference (or alternative procedures) under 40 CFR 22.19 and shall notify the parties of the date of hearing under 40 CFR 22.21. The Presiding Officer shall issue an initial decision... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time limits. 66.93 Section...
2010-07-01
... academic year, as defined in 34 CFR 668.3. (i) Treatment of Direct Consolidation Loans and Federal... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loan limits. 685.203 Section 685.203 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION WILLIAM D. FORD FEDERAL DIRECT LOAN PROGRAM Borrower Provisions § 685.203 Loan...
14 CFR 43.16 - Airworthiness limitations.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airworthiness limitations. 43.16 Section 43.16 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... manufacturer's maintenance manual or Instructions for Continued Airworthiness shall perform the inspection...
Limits of Legal Action: The Cherokee Cases
Norgren, Jill L.; Shattuck, Petra T.
1978-01-01
The article examines the limits of legal action in light of the experience of the Cherokee Nation in the nineteenth century. Their lawsuits, the cause of national controversy and ultimately detrimental to the Cherokee, raise questions about the effectiveness of litigation in solving divisive political conflict. (Author/NQ)
Density limit studies on DIII-D
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The authors have studied the processes limiting plasma density and successfully achieved discharges with density ∼50% above the empirical Greenwald density limit with H-mode confinement. This was accomplished by density profile control, enabled through pellet injection and divertor pumping. By examining carefully the criterion for MARFE formation, the authors have derived an edge density limit with scaling very similar to Greenwald scaling. Finally, they have looked in detail at the first and most common density limit process in DIII-D, total divertor detachment, and found that the local upstream separatrix density (nesep,det) at detachment onset (partial detachment) increases with the scrape-off layer heating power, Pheat, i.e., nesep,det ∼ Pheat0.76. This is in marked contrast to the line-average density at detachment which is insensitive to the heating power. The data are in reasonable agreement with the Borass model, which predicted that the upstream density at detachment would increase as Pheat0.7
2010-10-01
... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Leader Company Contracting 17.402 Limitations. (a) Leader company contracting is to be used only when— (1) The leader company has the necessary production... the Government's requirements without the assistance of a leader company; (3) The assistance...
Inferring Company Structure from Limited Available Information
Andreica, Mugurel Ionut; Andreica, Romulus
2008-01-01
In this paper we present several algorithmic techniques for inferring the structure of a company when only a limited amount of information is available. We consider problems with two types of inputs: the number of pairs of employees with a given property and restricted information about the hierarchical structure of the company. We provide dynamic programming and greedy algorithms for these problems.
Mass limit for the lightest neutralino
Buskulic, Damir; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Nief, J Y; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Padilla, C; Park, I C; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Alemany, R; Bazarko, A O; Bright-Thomas, P G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Lutters, G; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Moneta, L; Oest, T; Pacheco, A; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wagner, A; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rosnet, P; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Brient, J C; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Valassi, Andrea; Videau, H L; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Casper, David William; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Abbaneo, D; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Morawitz, P; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Williams, M D; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Betteridge, A P; Bowdery, C K; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Hoffmann, C; Jacobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Konstantinidis, N P; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Tilquin, A; Trabelsi, K; Aleppo, M; Ragusa, F; Bauer, C; Berlich, R; Blum, Walter; Büscher, V; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Stenzel, H; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Höcker, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Zerwas, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Giassi, A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Chambers, J T; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Köksal, A; Lehto, M H; Newton, W M; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Grupen, Claus; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Pütz, J; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Williams, R W; Armstrong, S R; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Greening, T C; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G
1996-01-01
Indirect limits on the mass of the lightest neutralino are derived from the results of searches for charginos, neutralinos, and sleptons performed with data taken by the ALEPH Collaboration at centre-of-mass energies near the Z peak and at 130 and 136 GeV. Within the context of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model and when $M_{\\tilde\
BRITEdge 11-1 limited objective experiment
Roeting, Bill; Menza, Charles
2011-01-01
This report summarizes the results of a limited objective experiment to demonstrate the capability of ROVER technology to provide real-time full motion video surveillance of the US -- Mexican border in support of US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) agents.
14 CFR 125.93 - Airplane limitations.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane limitations. 125.93 Section 125.93...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Requirements § 125.93...
Emission efficiency limit of Si nanocrystals
Limpens, R.; Luxembourg, S.L.; Weeber, A.W.; Gregorkiewicz, T.
2016-01-01
One of the important obstacles on the way to application of Si nanocrystals for development of practical devices is their typically low emissivity. In this study we explore the limits of external quantum yield of photoluminescence of solid-state dispersions of Si nanocrystals in SiO2. By making use
Elastic stability and the limit of strength
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morris Jr., J.W.; Krenn, C.R.; Roundy, D.; Cohen, Marvin L.
2002-07-01
The upper limit of strength (the ''theoretical strength'') has been an active subject of research and speculation for the better part of a century. The subject has recently become important, for two reasons. First, given recent advances in ab initio techniques and computing machines, the limits of strength can be calculated with considerable accuracy, making this one of the very few problems in mechanical behavior that can actually be solved. Second, given recent advances in materials engineering, the limits of strength are being approached in some systems, such as hardened or defect-free films, and their relevance is becoming recognized in others. The present paper discusses some interesting results from recent research on the limits of strength, with an intermixture of speculations based on those results. Topics include the inherent nature of {l_brace}100{r_brace} cleavage and ''pencil slip'' in bcc metals, the inherent ductility of fcc metals, the anomalous properties of Al, and the possibility of measuring ideal strength with nanoindentation.
Density limit studies on DIII-D
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Mahdavi, M.A.; Petrie, T.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)] [and others
1998-08-01
The authors have studied the processes limiting plasma density and successfully achieved discharges with density {approximately}50% above the empirical Greenwald density limit with H-mode confinement. This was accomplished by density profile control, enabled through pellet injection and divertor pumping. By examining carefully the criterion for MARFE formation, the authors have derived an edge density limit with scaling very similar to Greenwald scaling. Finally, they have looked in detail at the first and most common density limit process in DIII-D, total divertor detachment, and found that the local upstream separatrix density (n{sub e}{sup sep,det}) at detachment onset (partial detachment) increases with the scrape-off layer heating power, P{sub heat}, i.e., n{sub e}{sup sep,det} {approximately} P{sub heat}{sup 0.76}. This is in marked contrast to the line-average density at detachment which is insensitive to the heating power. The data are in reasonable agreement with the Borass model, which predicted that the upstream density at detachment would increase as P{sub heat}{sup 0.7}.
Limit points of the monotonic schemes
Salomon, J
2005-01-01
Many numerical simulations in quantum (bilinear) control use the monotonically convergent algorithms of Krotov (introduced by Tannor), Zhu & Rabitz or the general form of Maday & Turinici. This paper presents an analysis of the limit set of controls provided by these algorithms and a proof of convergence in a particular case.
Limit analysis of solid reinforced concrete structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Kasper Paaske
2009-01-01
Recent studies have shown that Semidefinite Programming (SDP) can be used effectively for limit analysis of isotropic cohesive-frictional continuums using the classical Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion. In this paper we expand on this previous research by adding reinforcement to the model and a solid...
50 CFR 654.21 - Harvest limitations.
2010-10-01
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Harvest limitations. 654.21 Section 654.21 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures § 654.21...
40 CFR 264.94 - Concentration limits.
2010-07-01
... 264.94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.94 Concentration limits. (a) The Regional Administrator...
2010-01-01
... PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) General § 158.9 Limitations. (a) No public agency may impose a PFC on any passenger— (1) For more than 2 boardings on a one-way trip or in each direction of a round trip; (2) On any... route. The Administrator makes available a list of carriers and eligible routes determined by...
78 FR 76787 - Position Limits for Derivatives
2013-12-19
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 1, 15, 17, 19, 32, 37, 38, 140 and 150 RIN 3038-AD99 Position Limits for Derivatives Correction In proposed rule document 2013-27200 appearing on pages 75679 through 75842 in the issue of Thursday, December 12, 2013, Table 10...
Metamaterial localized resonance sensors: prospects and limitations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jeppesen, Claus; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Asger; Kristensen, Anders
2010-01-01
The prospects and limitations of metamaterial localized resonance sensors are investigated theoretically and experimentally. Gold split-ring resonators are employed as the model system where the light induced LC-resonance yields a figure-of-merit, sensitivity divided by linewidth, up to 54...
Radioactive decays at limits of nuclear stability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pfützner, M.; Karny, M.; Grigorenko, L. V.;
2012-01-01
, and their relative probabilities. When approaching limits of nuclear stability, new decay modes set in. First, beta decays are accompanied by emission of nucleons from highly excited states of daughter nuclei. Second, when the nucleon separation energy becomes negative, nucleons start being emitted from the ground...
Improving homogeneity by dynamic speed limit systems.
Nes, N. van Brandenberg, S. & Twisk, D.A.M.
2010-01-01
Homogeneity of driving speeds is an important variable in determining road safety; more homogeneous driving speeds increase road safety. This study investigates the effect of introducing dynamic speed limit systems on homogeneity of driving speeds. A total of 46 subjects twice drove a route along 12
Limits of slow light in photonic crystals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, N. Asger
2008-01-01
are presented. The results obtained are entirely general and may be applied to any effect which results in a broadening of the electromagnetic states, such as loss, disorder, and finite-size effects. This significantly limits the reduction in group velocity attainable via photonic crystals....
Instabilities in the Mean Field Limit
Han-Kwan, Daniel; Nguyen, Toan T.
2016-03-01
Consider a system of N particles interacting through Newton's second law with Coulomb interaction potential in one spatial dimension or a {C}^2 smooth potential in any dimension. We prove that in the mean field limit N → + ∞, the N particles system displays instabilities in times of order log N, for some configurations approximately distributed according to unstable homogeneous equilibria.
Diffusion limited growth in laminar flows
R.M.H. Merks; A.G. Hoekstra; J.A. Kaandorp; P.M.A. Sloot
2003-01-01
In the diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) model, pioneered by Witten and Sander (Phys. Rev. Lett.47, 1400 (1981)), diffusing particles irreversibly attach to a growing cluster which is initiated with a single solid seed. This process generates clusters with a branched morphology. Advectiondiffusion
Analisi limite di panneli in muratura fibrorinforzati
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lucchesi, M.; Šilhavý, Miroslav; Zani, N.
Cosenza: Pellegrini Editore, 2014 - (Bruno, D.; Sante Olivito, R.; Spadea, G.), s. 157-166 ISBN 978-88-6822-228-4. [Problemi attuali e prospettive nell'ingegneria delle strutture. Maratea (IT), 26.09.2013-27.09.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : masonry * fiber -reinforced panels * limit analysis Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
14 CFR 141.23 - Advertising limitations.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising limitations. 141.23 Section 141... relating to its certification and ratings that is false or designed to mislead any person contemplating... certificate may not advertise that the school is certificated unless it clearly differentiates between...
14 CFR 142.31 - Advertising limitations.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising limitations. 142.31 Section 142.31 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... certificate holder may not conduct, and may not advertise to conduct, any training, testing, and checking...
Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit.
Kumar, Karthik; Duan, Huigao; Hegde, Ravi S; Koh, Samuel C W; Wei, Jennifer N; Yang, Joel K W
2012-09-01
The highest possible resolution for printed colour images is determined by the diffraction limit of visible light. To achieve this limit, individual colour elements (or pixels) with a pitch of 250 nm are required, translating into printed images at a resolution of ∼100,000 dots per inch (d.p.i.). However, methods for dispensing multiple colourants or fabricating structural colour through plasmonic structures have insufficient resolution and limited scalability. Here, we present a non-colourant method that achieves bright-field colour prints with resolutions up to the optical diffraction limit. Colour information is encoded in the dimensional parameters of metal nanostructures, so that tuning their plasmon resonance determines the colours of the individual pixels. Our colour-mapping strategy produces images with both sharp colour changes and fine tonal variations, is amenable to large-volume colour printing via nanoimprint lithography, and could be useful in making microimages for security, steganography, nanoscale optical filters and high-density spectrally encoded optical data storage. PMID:22886173
Limit theorems for Markov random fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Markov Random Fields (MRF's) have been extensively applied in Statistical Mechanics as well as in Bayesian Image Analysis. MRF's are a special class of dependent random variables located at the vertices of a graph whose joint distribution includes a parameter called the temperature. When the number of vertices of the graph tends to infinity, the normalized distribution of statistics based on these random variables converge in distribution. It can happen that for certain values of the temperature, that the rate of growth of these normalizing constants change drastically. This feature is generally used to explain the phenomenon of phase transition as understood by physicist. In this dissertation the author will show that this drastic change in normalizing constants occurs even in the relatively smooth case when all the random variables are Gaussian. Hence any image analytic MRF ought to be checked for such discontinuous behavior before any analysis is performed. Mixed limit theorems in Bayesian Image Analysis seek to replace intensive simulations of MRF's with limit theorems that approximate the distribution of the MRF's as the number of sites increases. The problem of deriving mixed limit theorems for MRF's on a one dimensional lattice graph with an acceptor function that has a second moment has been studied by Chow. A mixed limit theorem for the integer lattice graph is derived when the acceptor function does not have a second moment as for instance when the acceptor function is a symmetric stable density of index 0 < α < 2
Contributions of Psychology to Limiting Climate Change
Stern, Paul C.
2011-01-01
Psychology can make a significant contribution to limiting the magnitude of climate change by improving understanding of human behaviors that drive climate change and human reactions to climate-related technologies and policies, and by turning that understanding into effective interventions. This article develops a framework for psychological…
Tellurium purification: various techniques and limitations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
D S Prasad; Ch Sudheer; N R Munirathnam; T L Prakash
2002-11-01
Limitations and techniques to purify tellurium metal especially using non-chemical techniques such as vacuum distillation and zone refining are discussed. It was found that the clean environments, design, handling and cleaning of quartz ware are equally important in achieving the desired purity levels.
Poset limits can be totally ordered
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hladký, Jan; Máthé, A.; Viresh, P.; Pikhurko, O.
2015-01-01
Roč. 367, č. 6 (2015), s. 4319-4337. ISSN 0002-9947 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : limits of discrete structures * regularity lemma * poset Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.122, year: 2014 http://www.ams.org/journals/tran/2015-367-06/S0002-9947-2015-06299-0/home.html
LISA: Mars and the limits of life
Galletta, G.; D'Alessandro, M.; G. Bertoloni; Fanti, G.; Dainese, E.; Pelizzo, M.; F. Ferri; Pavarin, D; Bettanini, C.; G. Bianchini; Debei, S.
2007-01-01
We describe the results of the first tests made on LISA, a simulator of planetary environments designed and built in Padua, dedicated to the study of the limit of bacterial life on the planet Mars. Tests on the cryogenic circuit, on the UV illumination and on bacterial coltures at room temperature that shall be used as references are described.
LISA: Mars and the limits of life
Galletta, G; Bertoloni, G; Fanti, G; Dainese, E; Pelizzo, M; Ferri, F; Pavarin, D; Bettanini, C; Bianchini, G; Debei, S
2007-01-01
We describe the results of the first tests made on LISA, a simulator of planetary environments designed and built in Padua, dedi. to the study of the limit of bacterial life on the planet Mars. Tests on the cryogenic circuit, on the UV illumination and on bacterial coltures at room temperature that shall be used as references are described.
Is the wash-off process of road-deposited sediment source limited or transport limited?
Zhao, Hongtao; Chen, Xuefei; Hao, Shaonan; Jiang, Yan; Zhao, Jiang; Zou, Changliang; Xie, Wenxia
2016-09-01
An in-depth understanding of the road-deposited sediments (RDS) wash-off process is essential to estimation of urban surface runoff pollution load and to designing methods to minimize the adverse impacts on the receiving waters. There are two debatable RDS wash-off views: source limited and transport limited. The RDS build-up and wash-off process was characterized to explore what determines the wash-off process to be source limited or transport limited based on twelve RDS sampling activities on an urban road in Beijing. The results showed that two natural rain events (2.0mm and 23.2mm) reduced the total RDS mass by 30%-40%, and that finer particles (wash-off load. Both single- and multi-rain events caused the RDS particle grain size to become coarser, while dry days made the RDS particle grain size finer. These findings indicated that the bulk RDS particles wash-off tends to be transport limited, but that finer particles tend to be source limited. To further explore and confirm the results of the field experiment, a total of 40 simulated rain events were designed to observe the RDS wash-off with different particle size fractions. The finer particles have a higher wash-off percentage (Fw) than the coarser particles, and the Fw values provide a good view to characterize the wash-off process. The key conclusions drawn from the combined field and simulated experiments data are: (i) Finer and coarser particle wash-off processes tend to be source limited and transport limited, respectively. (ii) The source and transport limited processes occur during the initial period (the first flush) and later periods, respectively. (iii) The smaller and larger rain events tend to be transport limited and source limited, respectively. Overall, the wash-off process is generally a combination of source and transport limited processes. PMID:27135567
Execution of Limit and Market Orders with Trade Director, Speed Limiter, and Fill Uncertainty
Bulthuis, Brian; Concha, Julio; Leung, Tim; Ward, Brian
2016-01-01
We study the optimal execution of market and limit orders with permanent and temporary price impacts as well as uncertainty in the filling of limit orders. Our continuous-time model incorporates a trade speed limiter and a trader director to provide better control on the trading rates. We formulate a stochastic control problem to determine the optimal dynamic strategy for trade execution, with a quadratic terminal penalty to ensure complete liquidation. In addition, we identify conditions on ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The paper discusses the biological effects of ionizing radiation, the systems of dose limitations, and the quantification and acceptance of the risks involved in exposures amounting to the dose limit level and the intervention reference level. According to the concept of biological radiation effects, the dose limits and intervention reference levels do not mark the threshold between safety and danger; rather, they should be viewed as the lower limit of an unacceptable dose range, or a dose range below which interference in case of radiation accidents seems to be unnecessary. (HSCH)
One-dimensional long-range diffusion-limited aggregation III -- The limit aggregate
Amir, Gideon
2009-01-01
In this paper we study the structure of the limit aggregate (the union of all finite-time aggregates) of the one-dimensional long range diffusion limited aggregation process defined in [arXiv:0910.4416] . We show (under some regularity conditions) that for walks with finite third moment the limit aggregate has renewal structure and positive density, while for walks with finite variance the renewal structure no longer exists and the limit aggregate has 0 density. We define a tree structure on the aggregates and show some results on the degrees and number of ends of these random trees.
Towards the limit of ferroelectric nanosized grains
Roelofs, A.; Schneller, T.; Szot, K.; Waser, R.
2003-02-01
Ferroelectric random access memories are non-volatile, low voltage, high read/write speed devices which have been introduced into the market in recent years and which show the clear potential of future gigabit scale universal non-volatile memories. The ultimate limit of this concept will depend on the ferroelectric limit (synonymous superparaelectric limit), i.e. the size limit below which the ferroelectricity is quenched. While there are clear indications that 2D ferroelectric oxide films may sustain their ferroelectric polarization below 4 nm in thickness (Tybell T, Ahn C H and Triscone J M 1999 Appl. Phys. Lett. 75 856), the limit will be quite different for isolated 3D nanostructures (nanograins, nanoclusters). To investigate scaling effects of ferroelectric nanograins on Si wafers, we studied PbTiO3 (PTO) and Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 grown by a self-assembly chemical solution deposition method. Preparing highly diluted precursor solutions we achieved single separated ferroelectric grains with grain sizes ranging from 200 nm down to less than 20 nm. For grains smaller than 20 nm, no piezoresponse was observed and we suppose this could be due to the transition from the ferroelectric to the paraelectric phase which has no spontaneous polarization. Recent calculations (Zhong W L, Wang Y G, Zhang P L and Qu B D 1994 Phys. Rev. B 50 698) and experiments (Jiang B, Peng J L, Zhong W L and Bursill L A 2000 J. Appl. Phys. 87 3462) showed that the ferroelectricity of fine ferroelectric particles decrease with decreasing particle size. From these experiments the extrapolated critical size of PTO particles was found to be around 4.2-20 nm.
THE MOND LIMIT FROM SPACETIME SCALE INVARIANCE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) limit is shown to follow from a requirement of spacetime scale invariance of the equations of motion for nonrelativistic, purely gravitational systems, i.e., invariance of the equations of motion under (t, r) → (λt, λr) in the limit a 0 → ∞. It is suggested that this should replace the definition of the MOND limit based on the low-acceleration behavior of a Newtonian-MOND interpolating function. In this way, the salient, deep-MOND results-asymptotically flat rotation curves, the mass-rotational-speed relation (baryonic Tully-Fisher relation), the Faber-Jackson relation, etc.,-follow from a symmetry principle. For example, asymptotic flatness of rotation curves reflects the fact that radii change under scaling, while velocities do not. I then comment on the interpretation of the deep-MOND limit as one of 'zero mass': rest masses, whose presence obstructs scaling symmetry, become negligible compared to the 'phantom', dynamical masses-those that some would attribute to dark matter. Unlike the former masses, the latter transform in a way that is consistent with the symmetry. Finally, I discuss the putative MOND-cosmology connection in light of another, previously known symmetry of the deep-MOND limit. In particular, it is suggested that MOND is related to the asymptotic de Sitter geometry of our universe. It is conjectured, for example that in an exact de Sitter cosmos, deep-MOND physics would exactly apply to local systems. I also point out, in this connection, the possible relevance of a de Sitter-conformal-field-theory (dS/CFT) duality.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Afranio R. de Mesquita
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The limits between sea and land were estimated at "Pulso" beach located in the Southeastern Brazilian shelf (φ = 23°33/17.4886"S; Λ = 045° 13'13.0504"W - WGS84, between the island of São Sebastião and the city of Ubatuba, SP, Brazil. The relative sea level of the year 1831 at "Pulso" beach, as per Brazilian law Number 9760 dated from 1946, was estimated and materialized. The retro-estimation allowed the demarcation of the Legal Sea-Land Limits at "Pulso" beach as per the terms of the law. The accuracy of the procedure for the transference of the long-term sea level from the research station of Ubatuba to "Pulso" beach was assessed by parallel work of geometrical leveling referred to the IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics geodetic network. The motivation, the hypotheses (Brest, Cananeia and IPCC and the methods here used are described, together with a short history of the Legal Sea-Land Limits. The results indicated that the legal Sea-Land Limits at "Pulso" beach are well within the beach area. They were determined as per law 9760, and there is the need to reactivate the national network of sea level gauge.Os limites entre mar e terra foram estimados na praia chamada Pulso, localizada na costa sudeste do Brasil (φ = 23°33'17, 4886"S; Λ = 045°13'13, 0504"W entre a Ilha de São Sebastião e a cidade de Ubatuba, no Estado de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. O nível relativo do mar do ano de 1831 na praia do Pulso, ou "Praia do Pulso" (PP, foi estimado e materializado, de acordo com a Lei brasileira Número 9760 de 1946. A acurácia do procedimento foi acompanhada por trabalho paralelo de nivelamento geométrico referido ao sistema nacional de geodésia do IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. A motivação, as hipóteses (Brest, Cananeia e IPCC e os métodos utilizados são descritos, acompanhados por um breve histórico dos "Terrenos de Marinha". Os resultados indicaram que os limites em (PP estão bem dentro
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In designing a package for transporting hazardous or radioactive materials, there are a number of components whose design can lead to the success or failure to meet regulatory requirements for Type B packages. One of these components is the impact limiter. The primary purpose of the impact limiter is to protect the package and its contents from sudden deceleration. It can also act as a thermal barrier. The package is protected by the impact limiter's ability to act as an energy absorber. The crush strength of most impact limiting materials is determined by a standard quasistatic (QS) method. However it has been observed that there are a number of factors that affect crush strength. The material being used as an impact limiter may appear incompressible because of one or more of these factors. Factors that determine compressive strength of impact limiter materials are; the material density; the thickness of the impact limiter material. There must be adequate material to absorb the impact and not go into lockup, lockup up occurs when the free volume of the material is eliminated and the crush strength sharply increases; the angle of impact; and the loading rate and operating temperature. All of these are interactive and therefore difficult to model. It is the intent of tests discussed in this paper to determine the dependency of crush strength to loading rate and angle of impact to the basic grain direction of two different densities of four impact limiting materials
Theme II. Speed limits and the driver. Advisory speed limits: Should they be expanded or not?
Wegman, F.C.M.
1985-01-01
According to Dutch legislation, advisory speed limits should only be used on curves with a small radius, although there has been an increasing demand in recent years for w wider application of advisory speed limits. The behaviour of drivers on curves and the forces working on the vehicle and its occ
Coherent imaging at the diffraction limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The foreseen increase in coherent flux provided by diffraction-limited storage rings will allow ptychography to reach unprecedented throughput while retaining its inherently quantitative nature and metrological versatility. X-ray ptychography, a scanning coherent diffractive imaging technique, holds promise for imaging with dose-limited resolution and sensitivity. If the foreseen increase of coherent flux by orders of magnitude can be matched by additional technological and analytical advances, ptychography may approach imaging speeds familiar from full-field methods while retaining its inherently quantitative nature and metrological versatility. Beyond promises of high throughput, spectroscopic applications in three dimensions become feasible, as do measurements of sample dynamics through time-resolved imaging or careful characterization of decoherence effects
Coherent imaging at the diffraction limit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thibault, Pierre, E-mail: p.thibault@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London (United Kingdom); Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Menzel, Andreas [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)
2014-08-27
The foreseen increase in coherent flux provided by diffraction-limited storage rings will allow ptychography to reach unprecedented throughput while retaining its inherently quantitative nature and metrological versatility. X-ray ptychography, a scanning coherent diffractive imaging technique, holds promise for imaging with dose-limited resolution and sensitivity. If the foreseen increase of coherent flux by orders of magnitude can be matched by additional technological and analytical advances, ptychography may approach imaging speeds familiar from full-field methods while retaining its inherently quantitative nature and metrological versatility. Beyond promises of high throughput, spectroscopic applications in three dimensions become feasible, as do measurements of sample dynamics through time-resolved imaging or careful characterization of decoherence effects.
Scaling Limit of the Noncommutative Black Hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that the 'quantum' black hole wave operator in the κ-Minkowski or bicrossproduct model quantum spacetime introduced in [1] has a natural scaling limit λp → 0 at the event horizon. Here λp is the Planck time and the geometry at the event horizon in Planck length is maintained at the same time as the limit is taken, resulting in a classical theory with quantum gravity remnants. Among the features is a frequency-dependent 'skin' of some ω/ν Planck lengths just inside the event horizon for ω > 0 and just outside for ω < 0, where v is the frequency associated to the Schwarzschild radius. We use bessel and hypergeometric functions to analyse propagation through the event horizon and skin in both directions. The analysis confirms a finite redshift at the horizon for positive frequency modes in the exterior.
Scaling Limit of the Noncommutative Black Hole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Majid, Shahn, E-mail: s.majid@qmul.ac.uk [Queen Mary University of London School of Mathematics, Mile End Rd, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)
2011-03-01
We show that the 'quantum' black hole wave operator in the {kappa}-Minkowski or bicrossproduct model quantum spacetime introduced in [1] has a natural scaling limit {lambda}{sub p} {yields} 0 at the event horizon. Here {lambda}{sub p} is the Planck time and the geometry at the event horizon in Planck length is maintained at the same time as the limit is taken, resulting in a classical theory with quantum gravity remnants. Among the features is a frequency-dependent 'skin' of some {omega}/{nu} Planck lengths just inside the event horizon for {omega} > 0 and just outside for {omega} < 0, where v is the frequency associated to the Schwarzschild radius. We use bessel and hypergeometric functions to analyse propagation through the event horizon and skin in both directions. The analysis confirms a finite redshift at the horizon for positive frequency modes in the exterior.
Scaling Limit of the Noncommutative Black Hole
Majid, Shahn
2011-03-01
We show that the 'quantum' black hole wave operator in the κ-Minkowski or bicrossproduct model quantum spacetime introduced in [1] has a natural scaling limit λp → 0 at the event horizon. Here λp is the Planck time and the geometry at the event horizon in Planck length is maintained at the same time as the limit is taken, resulting in a classical theory with quantum gravity remnants. Among the features is a frequency-dependent 'skin' of some Planck lengths just inside the event horizon for ω > 0 and just outside for ω < 0, where v is the frequency associated to the Schwarzschild radius. We use bessel and hypergeometric functions to analyse propagation through the event horizon and skin in both directions. The analysis confirms a finite redshift at the horizon for positive frequency modes in the exterior.
Gulf Canada Resources Limited 1998 annual report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A review of operations in 1998 and financial information from Gulf Canada Resources Limited is provided to keep shareholders abreast of company performance. Gulf Canada Resources Limited explores for, develops, produces and markets conventional and synthetic crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. In 1998, the company's main operating centres were in western Canada (where it owns a nine per cent interest in the Syncrude Joint Venture), Indonesia, the North Sea and Australia. The report summarizes the company's energy resource activities, presents a detailed review of operations, and provides consolidated financial statements, and common share information. Although Gulf Canada Resources sold $ 1.2 billion worth of non-producing assets during the year, year end proved reserves of 838 million barrels of oil equivalent were less than ten per cent lower than a year earlier, reflecting reserve additions of 100 million barrels of oil equivalent. tabs., figs
HerMES: The SPIRE confusion limit
Nguyen, H T; Levenson, L; Amblard, A; Arumugam, V; Aussel, H; Babbedge, T; Blain, A; Bock, J; Boselli, A; Buat, V; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Cava, A; Chanial, P; Chapin, E; Clements, D L; Conley, A; Conversi, L; Cooray, A; Dowell, C D; Dwek, E; Eales, S; Elbaz, D; Fox, M; Franceschini, A; Gear, W; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Halpern, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Ibar, E; Isaak, K; Ivison, R J; Lagache, G; Lu, N; Madden, S; Maffei, B; Mainetti, G; Marchetti, L; Marsden, G; Marshall, J; O'Halloran, B; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Page, M J; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Pearson, C P; Perez-Fournon, I; Pohlen, M; Rangwala, N; Rigopoulou, D; Rizzo, D; Roseboom, I G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Scott, Douglas; Seymour, N; Shupe, D L; Smith, A J; Stevens, J A; Symeonidis, M; Trichas, M; Tugwell, K E; Vaccari, M; Valtchanov, I; Vigroux, L; Wang, L; Ward, R; Wiebe, D; Wright, G; Xu, C K; Zemcov, M
2010-01-01
We report on the sensitivity of SPIRE photometers on the Herschel Space Observatory. Specifically, we measure the confusion noise from observations taken during the Science Demonstration Phase of the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey. Confusion noise is defined to be the spatial variation of the sky intensity in the limit of infinite integration time, and is found to be consistent among the different fields in our survey at the level of 5.8, 6.3 and 6.8 mJy/beam at 250, 350 and 500 microns, respectively. These results, together with the measured instrument noise, may be used to estimate the integration time required for confusion-limited maps, and provide a noise estimate for maps obtained by SPIRE.
Limiting soft particle production and QCD
Ochs, Wolfgang
2010-01-01
We present some basic elements of the treatment of particle multiplicities in jets from high energy collisions within perturbative QCD. Then we discuss the universal features of the inclusive particle spectrum for the limiting case of momentum p\\to 0 (or p_T\\to 0) as expected from soft QCD gluon bremsstrahlung. The energy independence of the invariant particle density in this limit I_0=E dN/d^3p|_{p\\to 0} is predicted as well as the dependence of this quantity on the the colour factors characteristic of the underlying partonic processes. These properties are first recalled from e+e- collisions and then extended to pp and nuclear collisions according to Ref. 1. Present data support these predictions. It will be interesting to see whether new incoherent contributions show up in the new energy regime of LHC.
Polymer quantum mechanics and its continuum limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A rather nonstandard quantum representation of the canonical commutation relations of quantum mechanics systems, known as the polymer representation, has gained some attention in recent years, due to its possible relation with Planck scale physics. In particular, this approach has been followed in a symmetric sector of loop quantum gravity known as loop quantum cosmology. Here we explore different aspects of the relation between the ordinary Schroedinger theory and the polymer description. The paper has two parts. In the first one, we derive the polymer quantum mechanics starting from the ordinary Schroedinger theory and show that the polymer description arises as an appropriate limit. In the second part we consider the continuum limit of this theory, namely, the reverse process in which one starts from the discrete theory and tries to recover back the ordinary Schroedinger quantum mechanics. We consider several examples of interest, including the harmonic oscillator, the free particle, and a simple cosmological model
Astrophysical limits on light NMSSM neutralinos
Vasquez, Daniel Albornoz; Boehm, Celine
2011-01-01
It was recently shown that light LSP neutralinos could be found in the framework of the NMSSM. These candidates would escape known Particle Physics constraints even though they are relatively light. We now investigate the astrophysical limits which can be set on these particles. We show, in particular, that the FERMI observation of dwarf spheroidal galaxies enable to constrain the parameter space associated with these candidates and the expected radio emission in the inner Milky Way should be significant. Combined with the XENON100 experimental limits, our results illustrate the complementarity between direct and indirect searches for dark matter. Yet, our findings also suggest that probing light neutralinos in the NMSSM scenario will be very difficult because the sensitivity of both dark matter direct and indirect detection experiments would have to be improved by at least six order of magnitude compared to present values in order to explore the entire parameter space. Finally, we show that the parameter spa...
Technical presentation: BGM Cryogenic Engineering Limited
Caroline Laignel - FI Department
2006-01-01
13 - 14 June 2006 TECHNICAL PRESENTATION BGM Cryogenic Engineering Limited 09:00 - 18:00, 60-2-016, Main Building. Presentation on BGM: 11:00 - 12:00, 60-2-016, Main Building. BGM Cryogenic Engineering Limited manufactures assemblies, sub-assemblies and machined components for the cryogenic technology sector. The primary markets served include superconducting magnets used in the healthcare sector (eg MRI body scanners), spectroscopy and NMR equipment for numerous R & D and technology applications, high vacuum applications and particle physics research. BGM has specialist assembly capability including stainless steel and aluminium welding, vacuum testing, electromechanical assembly and metal finishing. BGM offers a âone stop shop'facility to satisfy any customer requirement. Through our design partner we can offer a full design and modelling service, including 3D modelling and production of 2D drawings on your own borders. We can conduct heat load and force calculations and advise on the best...
Limitations in global information on species occurrences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carsten Meyer
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Detailed information on species distributions is crucial for answering central questions in biogeography, ecology, evolutionary biology and conservation. Millions of species occurrence records have been mobilized via international data-sharing networks, but inherent biases, gaps and uncertainties hamper broader application. In my PhD thesis, I presented the first comprehensive analyses of global patterns and drivers of these limitations across different taxonomic groups and spatial scales. Integrating 300 million occurrence records for terrestrial vertebrates and plants with comprehensive taxonomic databases, expert range maps and regional checklists, I demonstrated extensive taxonomic, geographical and temporal biases, gaps and uncertainties. I identified key socio-economic drivers of data bias across different taxonomic groups and spatial scales. The results of my dissertation provide an empirical baseline for effectively accounting for data limitations in distribution models, as well as for prioritizing and monitoring efforts to collate additional occurrence information.
Metamaterial polarization converter analysis: limits of performance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Markovich, Dmitry L.; Andryieuski, Andrei; Zalkovskij, Maksim;
2013-01-01
In this paper, we analyze the theoretical limits of a metamaterial-based converter with orthogonal linear eigenpolarizations that allow linear-to-elliptical polarization transformation with any desired ellipticity and ellipse orientation. We employ the transmission line approach providing a needed...... a single layer with a ground plane can have 100 % polarization conversion efficiency. We tested our conclusions numerically reaching the designated limits of efficiency using a simple metamaterial design. Our general analysis provides useful guidelines for the metamaterial polarization converter...... level of the design generalization. Our analysis reveals that the maximal conversion efficiency for transmission through a single metamaterial layer is 50 %, while the realistic reflection configuration can give the conversion efficiency up to 90 %. We show that a double layer transmission converter and...
Fabry disease, respiratory symptoms, and airway limitation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svensson, Camilla Kara; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Backer, Vibeke
2015-01-01
BACKGROUND: Fabry disease is an X-linked disorder caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme α-galactosidase A, resulting in accumulation of glycosphingolipids in multiple organs, primarily heart, kidneys, skin, CNS, and lungs. MATERIALS AND METHOD: A systematic literature search was performed...... remaining 27 articles were relevant for this review. RESULTS: The current literature concerning lung manifestations describes various respiratory symptoms such as dyspnoea or shortness of breath, wheezing, and dry cough. These symptoms are often related to cardiac involvement in Fabry disease as respiratory...... examinations are seldom performed. Pulmonary function tests primarily show obstructive airway limitation, but a few articles also report of patients with restrictive limitation and a mixture of both. No significant association has been found between smoking and the development of symptoms or spirometry...
Limits on charm-changing neutral currents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
From data on D0, anti D0 decays, we get an upper limit on the mass difference delta m of the two CP eigenstates. Due to a critical dependence of delta m on QCD corrections, this bound cannot exclude large (gL,gR) charm-changing neutral couplings. Limits on neutrino production of charm by neutral currents and of charm decay into e+e- + hadrons are then necessary to further constrain the couplings. However, if the (c,u) current is assumed to be pure left handed, delta m gives the severe bound /gsub(L)/ -3. This is a confirmation of the Glashow-Iliopoulos-Maiani mechanism in the charm sector. (orig.)
Finding Horndeski theories with Einstein gravity limits
McManus, Ryan; Peñarrubia, Jorge
2016-01-01
The Horndeski action is the most general scalar-tensor theory with at most second-order derivatives in the equations of motion, thus evading Ostrogradsky instabilities and making it of interest when modifying gravity at large scales. To pass local tests of gravity, these modifications predominantly rely on nonlinear screening mechanisms that recover Einstein's Theory of General Relativity in regions of high density. We derive a set of conditions on the four free functions of the Horndeski action that examine whether a specific model embedded in the action possesses an Einstein gravity limit or not. For this purpose, we develop a new and surprisingly simple scaling method that identifies dominant terms in the equations of motion by considering formal limits of the couplings that enter through the new terms in the modified action. This enables us to find regimes where nonlinear terms dominate and Einstein's field equations are recovered to leading order. Together with an efficient approximation of the scalar fi...
Apparent solubility limit of nuclear glass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Most nuclear glass alteration models are based on a first-order kinetic law of the general type r = r0(l-Csi/C*) or r = r0(l-Q/K). It is generally assumed that the establishment of quasi steady-state concentrations in solution corresponds to an intrinsic glass solubility limit that may be expressed either in terms of the dissolved silicon concentration C* or as an ion activity product at saturation K. Experimental research over the last five years in France has shown that the quasi steady-state concentrations observed in solution do not correspond to a thermodynamic solubility limit with respect to the glass. This assertion is supported by a large body of experimental evidence that is discussed in this paper. The signification of the C* parameter is therefore reconsidered, and its implications on long-term behavior modeling are discussed. Copyright (2001) Material Research Society
Lower pinch radius limit in EXTRAP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In an Extrap pinch there is a superimposed magnetic octupole field which forms a magnetic separatrix with the field generated by the pinch current. Earlier experiments have shown that the octupole field has a stabilizing influence on the plasma. Regardless of the details of this stabilizing mechanism, it is expected that the influence of the octupole field should become negligible for a sufficiently small ratio between the characteristic pinch and separatrix radii. In other words, there should exist a lower limit of this ratio below which the system approaches the state of an ordinary unstabilized Z-pinch. The present paper presents an extended version of an earlier theoretical model of this lower limit, and its relation to the corresponding critical ratio between the external conductor and pinch currents. This ratio is found to vary substantially with the plasma parameters. (authors)
On the density limit of stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Under the conditions of so far performed quasi-steady stellarator experiments at maximum achievable plasma density, the plasma pressure gradient in the outer layers of the plasma body becomes mainly determined by the plasma-neutral gas balance. Ballooning instabilities can be driven by this gradient in regions of bad magnetic field curvature, when the average plasma density exceeds a critical limit. The latter becomes proportional to B(sub)t l/A(sup)1/4R(sup)1/2 where B(sup)t is the toroidal magnetic field strength, l is the rotational transform, A is the mass number, and R the major radius. The limit thus predicted appears to be consistent with experiments performed up to the present date. (author)
Limitations on the Analysis of Relaxation Studies
Snyder, Chad; Mopsik, Frederick
1998-03-01
Two issues that are commonly ignored in relaxation studies are examined. The first is the issue of interpolation, extrapolation, and analysis of relaxation data over a limited frequency range. We demonstrate that for data without dispersion or overlap, within experimental uncertainty, a Cole-Cole fit cannot be discerned from a Havriliak-Negami fit over a limited, but typical, frequency range. These results have an obvious impact on many of the theoretical models that attempt to give a physical basis to such fitting functions as the Cole-Cole, the Cole-Davidson, the Havriliak-Negami, and the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts equations. The second issue that is examined is non-isothermal relaxation studies. We examine the question of whether meaningful information can be obtained from relaxation data obtained while scanning in temperature. The implications of these results are generalized to other experiments such as modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA).
The Fundamental Limits of Measurable Q Factor
Capek, M; Hazdra, P; Eichler, J
2013-01-01
This paper describes an analytical evaluation of the radiation Q factor of any separable system in which the vector potential is known. The proposed method uses a potential definition of active and reactive power, implicitly avoiding infinite entire space integration and extraction of radiation energy. Furthermore, the proposed method uses solely measurable quantities and is thus not influenced by commonly used, but ambiguous, separation into electric and magnetic energies. As a result, all the used quantities are finite, and the calculated quality factors are always non-negative smooth functions of frequency. The theory is presented on the canonical example of the currents flowing on a spherical shell. The fundamental limit, known as the Chu formula, is reformulated analytically without any approximations. These measurable limits are presented for both spherical TM mode and for TE mode in closed forms, including both internal and external energies. The asymptotic behaviour for electrically small and large ra...
TRAIL - a tokamak rail gun limiter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An attractive new limiter concept is investigated. The TRAIL (Tokamak Rail Gun Limiter) system impacts a stream of moderate velocity pellets (100 to 200 m/sec) through the plasma edge region to absorb energy and define the plasma boundary. The pellets are recycled after cooling, to the injector of an E-M mass accelerator. Heat fluxes of approx. 30,000 W/cm2 can be readily accommodated by the pellets, with very low recirculating power requirements (approx. 0.1%) for the accelerator. The mass accelerator velocity requirements are well within the present state of the art (several Km/sec). Accelerators injecting pellets at approx. 1 Km/sec can be used to control local plasma temperature and current profiles and to act as energy absorbers to shut down the plasma without damage to the first wall if a plasma disruption occurs. (author)
Trail-A Tokamak RAIL Gun Limiter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An attractive new limiter concept is investigated. The Tokamak RAIl Gun Limiter (TRAIL) system directs a stream of moderate velocity pellets (100 to 200 m/s) through the plasma edge region to absorb energy and define the plasma boundary. The pellets are recycled, after cooling, to the injector in an electromagnetic mass accelerator. Heat fluxes of about30000 W/cm2 can be readily accommodated by the pellets, with very low recirculating power requirements ( about0.1%) for the accelerator. The mass accelerator velocity requirements are well within the present state of the art (several kilometres per second). Accelerators injecting pellets at about1 km/s can be used to control local plasma temperature and current profiles and to act as energy absorbers to shut down the plasma without damage to the first wall if a plasma disruption occurs
Sound Emission Limits for Rail Vehicles
KURZE, U. J.; DIEHL, R. J.; WEIßENBERGER, W.
2000-03-01
The statistical evaluation of measured sound emission levels from individual rail vehicles enables a clear distinction to be made between disc-braked passenger vehicles with and without wheel absorbers and tread-braked vehicles equipped with cast-iron brake blocks. A retrofit programme for replacement of cast-iron blocks by composite (K-, L- or LL-) blocks seems feasible within the next five years. The performance and durability of the new brake blocks provides a substantial noise reduction at no or limited additional costs, depending on the need for new wheels. Additional wheel damping is desirable but not readily available at sufficiently low cost. Based on the experience from an experimental train equipped with a quiet locomotive, bogie shrouds and matching low-profile barriers along the track, sound emission limits are proposed which are described in two steps.
Linearity Limits of Biased 1337 Trap Detectors
Balling, Petr
2015-01-01
The upper power limit of linear response of light trap detectors was recently measured [2,3]. We have completed this measurement with test of traps with bias voltage at several visible wavelengths using silicon photodiodes Hamamatsu S1337 1010 and made a brief test of S5227 1010. Bias extends the linearity limit by factor of more than 10 for very narrow beams and more than 30 for wide beams [5]. No irreversible changes were detected even for the highest irradiance of 33 W/cm2 at 406nm. Here we present measurement of minimal bias voltage necessary for 99%, 99.8% and 99.95% linearity for several beam sizes.
Flow reversal power limit for the HFBR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) undergoes a buoyancy-driven reversal of flow in the reactor core following certain postulated accidents. Uncertainties about the afterheat removal capability during the flow reversal has limited the reactor operating power to 30 MW. An experimental and analytical program to address these uncertainties is described in this report. The experiments were single channel flow reversal tests under a range of conditions. The analytical phase involved simulations of the tests to benchmark the physical models and development of a criterion for dryout. The criterion is then used in simulations of reactor accidents to determine a safe operating power level. It is concluded that the limit on the HFBR operating power with respect to the issue of flow reversal is in excess of 60 MW
Sparse regularization in limited angle tomography
Frikel, Jürgen
2011-01-01
We investigate the reconstruction problem of limited angle tomography. Such problems arise naturally in applications like digital breast tomosynthesis, dental tomography, electron microscopy etc. Since the acquired tomographic data is highly incomplete, the reconstruction problem is severely ill-posed and the traditional reconstruction methods, such as filtered backprojection (FBP), do not perform well in such situations. To stabilize the reconstruction procedure additional prior knowledge about the unknown object has to be integrated into the reconstruction process. In this work, we propose the use of the sparse regularization technique in combination with curvelets. We argue that this technique gives rise to an edge-preserving reconstruction. Moreover, we show that the dimension of the problem can be significantly reduced in the curvelet domain. To this end, we give a characterization of the kernel of limited angle Radon transform in terms of curvelets and derive a characterization of solutions obtained thr...
Should nuclear liability limits be removed. Yes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arguing in favor of unlimited liability in the event of a nuclear accident, the author cites a mathematical probability of a core meltdown in the US as 45% during the next 20 years. The liability insurance carried by the nuclear industry is less than for large hotels and industrial parks, and is only a small fraction of the potential costs of damage and compensation. If nuclear technology is safe, limits are not needed. If liability is limited, it removes the incentive to improve safety and sends inaccurate price signals to utilities choosing among competing technologies. There is also the ethical aspect of shifting liability costs from ratepayers and stockholders to accident victims and general taxpayers. There are other ways to finance nuclear risks, such as a sinking fund, the removal of the nuclear exclusion in property insurance policies, and annual retrospective assessments per reactors
Pitfalls and limitations of CT in neurodiagnosis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Despite initial skepticism in some quarters, the value and efficacy of computed tomography of the brain was quickly established. CT has emerged as the primary diagnostic screening modality for the detection of intracranial pathology. Accuracy of localization of structural abnormalities of the brain by CT often exceeds that which can be obtained by cerebral angiography or other invasive diagnostic procedure. Frequently CT can also provide information permitting characterization of the nature of the disease process. Accumulated experience with CT scanning of the head indicates that even this remarkable diagnostic tool has its limitations. However, the limitations of CT are probably fewer in number and less in severity than those associated with any other neurological diagnostic modality
Sea, soil, sky - Testing solar's limits
Hopkinson, J.
1981-12-01
The potentials and actualities of large scale biomass, ocean thermal, and satellite solar power systems are discussed. Biomass is an energy already on-line in installations ranging from home-sized wood-burning stoves to utility sized generators fueled by sawdust and forest residue. Uses of wheat straw, fast-growing trees such as eucalyptus and alder, and euphorbia as biofuels are examined, noting restrictions imposed by land use limitations and the necessity for genetic engineering for more suitable plants. Pyrolysis and thermochemical gasification of biomass to form gaseous, solid, and liquid fuels are explored, and mention is made of utility refuse and sewage incineration for power generation. OTEC, satellite solar power systems, and tidal generator plants are considered as promising for further investigation and perhaps useful in limited applications, while solar pond power plants require extremely large areas to be effective.
Sticky central limit theorems on open books
Hotz, Thomas; Le, Huiling; Marron, J Stephen; Mattingly, Jonathan C; Miller, Ezra; Nolen, James; Owen, Megan; Patrangenaru, Vic; Skwerer, Sean
2012-01-01
Given a probability distribution on an open book (a metric space obtained by gluing a disjoint union of copies of a half-space along their boundary hyperplanes), we define a precise concept of when the Fr\\'echet mean (barycenter) is "sticky". This non-classical phenomenon is quantified by a law of large numbers (LLN) stating that the empirical mean eventually almost surely lies on the (codimension 1 and hence measure 0) "spine" that is the glued hyperplane, and a central limit theorem (CLT) stating that the limiting distribution is Gaussian and supported on the spine. We also state versions of the LLN and CLT for the cases where the mean is nonsticky (that is, not lying on the spine) and partly sticky (that is, on the spine but not sticky).
Redshift-space limits of bound structures
D"unner, R; Meza, A; Araya, P A; Quintana, H; D\\"unner, Rolando; Reisenegger, Andreas; Meza, Andr\\'es; Araya, Pablo A.; Quintana, Hern\\'an
2006-01-01
An exponentially expanding Universe, possibly governed by a cosmological constant, forces gravitationally bound structures to become more and more isolated, eventually becoming causally disconnected from each other and forming so-called "island universes". This new scenario reformulates the question about which will be the largest structures that will remain gravitationally bound, together with requiring a systematic tool that can be used to recognize the limits and mass of these structures from observational data, namely redshift surveys of galaxies. Here we present a method, based on the spherical collapse model and N-body simulations, by which we can estimate the limits of bound structures as observed in redshift space. The method is based on a theoretical criterion presented in a previous paper that determines the mean density contrast that a spherical shell must have in order to be marginally bound to the massive structure within it. Understanding the kinematics of the system, we translated the real-spac...
Technical Limits of ICT for Enterprises' Innovations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Radim Brixi
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with technical limits of ICT for enterprises' innovations. ICT is now a key asset for the competitiveness of enterprises. It became the main stream of doing business well. These days we come to era where enterprises are fully dependant on ICT. We would try to describe more deeply the impacts of such a dependence and underlying problems. In context of the necessary new innovations of enterprises, we will focus more on the negative aspects of being dependent on ICT with the technological architecture of hard systems. Based on the need to apply a systems approach we will also provide a suggestion as to how to model these limits in a system's manner.
Fundamental limitations for quantum and nanoscale thermodynamics
Horodecki, Michał; Oppenheim, Jonathan
2013-06-01
The relationship between thermodynamics and statistical physics is valid in the thermodynamic limit—when the number of particles becomes very large. Here we study thermodynamics in the opposite regime—at both the nanoscale and when quantum effects become important. Applying results from quantum information theory, we construct a theory of thermodynamics in these limits. We derive general criteria for thermodynamical state transitions, and, as special cases, find two free energies: one that quantifies the deterministically extractable work from a small system in contact with a heat bath, and the other that quantifies the reverse process. We find that there are fundamental limitations on work extraction from non-equilibrium states, owing to finite size effects and quantum coherences. This implies that thermodynamical transitions are generically irreversible at this scale. As one application of these methods, we analyse the efficiency of small heat engines and find that they are irreversible during the adiabatic stages of the cycle.
The limits to solar thermal electricity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The potential and limits of solar thermal power systems depend primarily on their capacity to meet electricity demand in mid-winter, and the associated cost, storage and other implications. Evidence on output and costs is analysed. Most attention is given to central receivers. Problems of low radiation levels, embodied energy costs, variability and storage are discussed and are found to set significant difficulties for large scale solar thermal supply in less than ideal latitudes and seasons. It is concluded that for solar thermal systems to meet a large fraction of anticipated global electricity demand in winter would involve prohibitive capital costs. - Highlights: • Output and capital cost data for various solar thermal technologies is examined. • Special attention is given to performance in winter. • Attention is also given to the effect of solar intermittency. • Implications for storage are considered. • It is concluded that there are significant limits to solar thermal power
Limits on Planets Around White Dwarf Stars
Mullally, F; Degennaro, Steven; Jeffery, Elizabeth; Thompson, S E; Chandler, Dean
2008-01-01
We present limits on planetary companions to pulsating white dwarf stars. A subset of these stars exhibit extreme stability in the period and phase of some of their pulsation modes; a planet can be detected around such a star by searching for periodic variations in the arrival time of these pulsations. We present limits on companions greater than a few Jupiter masses around a sample of 15 white dwarf stars as part of an on-going survey. One star shows a variation in arrival time consistent with a 2 M_J planet in a 4.5 year orbit. We discuss other possible explanations for the observed signal and conclude that a planet is the most plausible explanation based on the data available.
Limiting Factors for External Reactor Vessel Cooling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The method of external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) that involves flooding of the reactor cavity during a severe accident has been considered a viable means for in-vessel retention (IVR). For high-power reactors, however, there are some limiting factors that might adversely affect the feasibility of using ERVC as a means for IVR. In this paper, the key limiting factors for ERVC have been identified and critically discussed. These factors include the choking limit for steam venting (CLSV) through the bottleneck of the vessel/insulation structure, the critical heat flux (CHF) for downward-facing boiling on the vessel outer surface, and the two-phase flow instabilities in the natural circulation loop within the flooded cavity. To enhance ERVC, it is necessary to eliminate or relax these limiting factors. Accordingly, methods to enhance ERVC and thus improve margins for IVR have been proposed and demonstrated, using the APR1400 as an example. The strategy is based on using two distinctly different methods to enhance ERVC. One involves the use of an enhanced vessel/insulation design to facilitate steam venting through the bottleneck of the annular channel. The other involves the use of an appropriate vessel coating to promote downward-facing boiling. It is found that the use of an enhanced vessel/insulation design with bottleneck enlargement could greatly facilitate the process of steam venting through the bottleneck region as well as streamline the resulting two-phase motions in the annular channel. By selecting a suitable enhanced vessel/insulation design, not only the CLSV but also the CHF limits could be significantly increased. In addition, the problem associated with two-phase flow instabilities and flow-induced mechanical vibration could be minimized. It is also found that the use of vessel coatings made of microporous metallic layers could greatly facilitate downward-facing boiling on the vessel outer surface. With vessel coatings, the local CHF limits at