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Sample records for attenuating inducible nitric

  1. 7-Nitro indazole, an inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase, attenuates pilocarpine-induced seizures

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    R. van Leeuwen (Redmer); R. de Vries (René); E. Dzoljic (Eleonora)

    1995-01-01

    textabstract7-Nitro indazole (25–100 mg/kg i.p.), an inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide (NO) synthase, attenuated the severity of pilocarpine (300 mg/kg i.p.)-induced seizures in mice. This indicates that the decreased neuroexcitability of the central nervous system (CNS) following administration of

  2. Simvastatin Attenuates Contrast-Induced Nephropathy through Modulation of Oxidative Stress, Proinflammatory Myeloperoxidase, and Nitric Oxide

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    Ketab E. Al-Otaibi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrast media- (CM- induced nephropathy is a serious complication of radiodiagnostic procedures. Available data suggests that the development of prophylaxis strategies is limited by poor understanding of pathophysiology of CM-induced nephropathy. Present study was designed to determine the role of oxidative stress, myeloperoxidase, and nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of iohexol model of nephropathy and its modification with simvastatin (SSTN. Adult Sprague Dawley rats were divided into seven groups. After 24 h of water deprivation, all the rats except in control and SSTN-only groups were injected (10 ml/kg with 25% glycerol. After 30 min, SSTN (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg was administered orally, daily for 4 days. Twenty-four hours after the glycerol injection, iohexol was infused (8 ml/kg through femoral vein over a period of 2 min. All the animals were sacrificed on day 5 and blood and kidneys were collected for biochemical and histological studies. The results showed that SSTN dose dependently attenuated CM-induced rise of creatinine, urea, and structural abnormalities suggesting its nephroprotective effect. A significant increase in oxidative stress (increased lipid hydroperoxides and reduced glutathione levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO and decreased nitric oxide in CM group were reversed by SSTN. These findings support the use of SSTN to combat CM-induced nephrotoxicity.

  3. Inhaled nitric oxide pretreatment but not posttreatment attenuates ischemia-reperfusion-induced pulmonary microvascular leak.

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    Chetham, P M; Sefton, W D; Bridges, J P; Stevens, T; McMurtry, I F

    1997-04-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) pulmonary edema probably reflects a leukocyte-dependent, oxidant-mediated mechanism. Nitric oxide (NO) attenuates leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions and I/R-induced microvascular leak. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) agonists reverse and prevent I/R-induced microvascular leak, but reversal by inhaled NO (INO) has not been tested. In addition, the role of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) activation in the NO protection effect is unknown. Rat lungs perfused with salt solution were grouped as either I/R, I/R with INO (10 or 50 ppm) on reperfusion, or time control. Capillary filtration coefficients (Kfc) were estimated 25 min before ischemia (baseline) and after 30 and 75 min of reperfusion. Perfusate cell counts and lung homogenate myeloperoxidase activity were determined in selected groups. Additional groups were treated with either INO (50 ppm) or isoproterenol (ISO-10 microM) after 30 min of reperfusion. Guanylyl cyclase was inhibited with 1H-[1,2,4]Oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ-15 microM), and Kfc was estimated at baseline and after 30 min of reperfusion. (1) Inhaled NO attenuated I/R-induced increases in Kfc. (2) Cell counts were similar at baseline. After 75 min of reperfusion, lung neutrophil retention (myeloperoxidase activity) and decreased perfusate neutrophil counts were similar in all groups. (3) In contrast to ISO, INO did not reverse microvascular leak. (4) 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-br-cGMP) prevented I/R-induced microvascular leak in ODQ-treated lungs, but INO was no longer effective. Inhaled NO attenuates I/R-induced pulmonary microvascular leak, which requires sGC activation and may involve a mechanism independent of inhibition of leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions. In addition, INO is ineffective in reversing I/R-induced microvascular leak.

  4. Melatonin can attenuate ciprofloxacin induced nephrotoxicity: Involvement of nitric oxide and TNF-α.

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    Shaki, Fatemeh; Ashari, Sorour; Ahangar, Nematollah

    2016-12-01

    Ciprofloxacin is a synthetic broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent of fluoroquinolone family. The aim of our investigation was to evaluate the role of oxidative damage and inflammation in nephrotoxic potential of Ciprofloxacin and protective effects of melatonin against its nephrotoxicity in male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into six groups: Control, ciprofloxacin (100mg/kg/day, i.p), ciprofloxacin with three doses (2.5, 5 and 10mg/kg/day) of melatonin and a group which received ciprofloxacin (100mg/kg/day) plus vitamin E (100mg/kg/day) for 8 consecutive days. 24h after last injection, the animals were euthanized and kidney tissues were separated. Finally reactive oxygen species, glutathione content, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl, nitric oxide and TNF-α were evaluated. Also, pathological examination and measuring of kidney biochemical markers (BUN and Cr) were done. The administration of ciprofloxacin for 8days resulted in significant increase (Pmelatonin was able to protect against deterioration in nephrotoxic markers and suppressed the increase in oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. Our study showed the critical role of oxidative damage and inflammation in ciprofloxacin-induced nephrotoxicity that markedly inhibited by administration of melatonin. So, melatonin can be suggested for prevention of ciprofloxacin-induced nephrotoxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Ropivacaine-Induced Contraction Is Attenuated by Both Endothelial Nitric Oxide and Voltage-Dependent Potassium Channels in Isolated Rat Aortae

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    Seong-Ho Ok

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated endothelium-derived vasodilators and potassium channels involved in the modulation of ropivacaine-induced contraction. In endothelium-intact rat aortae, ropivacaine concentration-response curves were generated in the presence or absence of the following inhibitors: the nonspecific nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, the neuronal NOS inhibitor Nω-propyl-L-arginine hydrochloride, the inducible NOS inhibitor 1400W dihydrochloride, the nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (GC inhibitor ODQ, the NOS and GC inhibitor methylene blue, the phosphoinositide-3 kinase inhibitor wortmannin, the cytochrome p450 epoxygenase inhibitor fluconazole, the voltage-dependent potassium channel inhibitor 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, the calcium-activated potassium channel inhibitor tetraethylammonium (TEA, the inward-rectifying potassium channel inhibitor barium chloride, and the ATP-sensitive potassium channel inhibitor glibenclamide. The effect of ropivacaine on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS phosphorylation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells was examined by western blotting. Ropivacaine-induced contraction was weaker in endothelium-intact aortae than in endothelium-denuded aortae. L-NAME, ODQ, and methylene blue enhanced ropivacaine-induced contraction, whereas wortmannin, Nω-propyl-L-arginine hydrochloride, 1400W dihydrochloride, and fluconazole had no effect. 4-AP and TEA enhanced ropivacaine-induced contraction; however, barium chloride and glibenclamide had no effect. eNOS phosphorylation was induced by ropivacaine. These results suggest that ropivacaine-induced contraction is attenuated primarily by both endothelial nitric oxide and voltage-dependent potassium channels.

  6. Chronic wheel running reduces maladaptive patterns of methamphetamine intake: regulation by attenuation of methamphetamine-induced neuronal nitric oxide synthase

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    Engelmann, Alexander J.; Aparicio, Mark B.; Kim, Airee; Sobieraj, Jeffery C.; Yuan, Clara J.; Grant, Yanabel

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether prior exposure to chronic wheel running (WR) alters maladaptive patterns of excessive and escalating methamphetamine intake under extended access conditions, and intravenous methamphetamine self-administration-induced neurotoxicity. Adult rats were given access to WR or no wheel (sedentary) in their home cage for 6 weeks. A set of WR rats were injected with 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to determine WR-induced changes in proliferation (2-h old) and survival (28-day old) of hippocampal progenitors. Another set of WR rats were withdrawn (WRw) or continued (WRc) to have access to running wheels in their home cages during self-administration days. Following self-administration [6 h/day], rats were tested on the progressive ratio (PR) schedule. Following PR, BrdU was injected to determine levels of proliferating progenitors (2-h old). WRc rats self-administered significantly less methamphetamine than sedentary rats during acquisition and escalation sessions, and demonstrated reduced motivation for methamphetamine seeking. Methamphetamine reduced daily running activity of WRc rats compared with that of pre-methamphetamine days. WRw rats self-administered significantly more methamphetamine than sedentary rats during acquisition, an effect that was not observed during escalation and PR sessions. WR-induced beneficial effects on methamphetamine self-administration were not attributable to neuroplasticity effects in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex, but were attributable to WR-induced inhibition of methamphetamine-induced increases in the number of neuronal nitric oxide synthase expressing neurons and apoptosis in the nucleus accumbens shell. Our results demonstrate that WR prevents methamphetamine-induced damage to forebrain neurons to provide a beneficial effect on drug-taking behavior. Importantly, WR-induced neuroprotective effects are transient and continued WR activity is necessary to prevent compulsive methamphetamine intake

  7. Adiponectin attenuates angiotensin II-induced vascular smooth muscle cell remodeling through nitric oxide and the RhoA/ROCK pathway.

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    Wared eNour-Eldine

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Adiponectin (APN, an adipocytokine, exerts protective effects on cardiac remodeling, while angiotensin II (Ang II induces hypertension and vascular remodeling. The potential protective role of APN on the vasculature during hypertension has not been fully elucidated yet. Here, we evaluate the molecular mechanisms of the protective role of APN in the physiological response of the vascular wall to Ang II.METHODS AND RESULTS: Rat aortic tissues were used to investigate the effect of APN on Ang II-induced vascular remodeling and hypertrophy. We investigated whether nitric oxide (NO, the RhoA/ROCK pathway, actin cytoskeleton remodeling, and reactive oxygen species (ROS mediate the anti-hypertrophic effect of APN. Ang II-induced protein synthesis was attenuated by pre-treatment with APN, NO donor (SNAP, or cGMP. The hypertrophic response to Ang II was associated with a significant increase in RhoA activation and vascular force production, which were prevented by APN and SNAP. NO was also associated with inhibition of Ang II-induced phosphorylation of cofilin. In addition, immunohistochemistry revealed that 24 hr Ang II treatment increased the F- to G-actin ratio, an effect that was inhibited by SNAP. Ang II-induced ROS formation and upregulation of p22phox mRNA expression were inhibited by APN and NO. Both compounds failed to inhibit Nox1 and p47phox expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the anti-hypertrophic effects of APN are due, in part, to NO-dependent inhibition of the RhoA/ROCK pathway and ROS formation.

  8. Netrin-1 abrogates ischemia/reperfusion-induced cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction via nitric oxide-dependent attenuation of NOX4 activation and recoupling of NOS.

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    Siu, Kin Lung; Lotz, Christopher; Ping, Peipei; Cai, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Despite an established role of mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, the upstream activators have remained incompletely defined. We have recently identified an innovative role of exogenously applied netrin-1 in cardioprotection, which is mediated by increased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Here, we tested the hypothesis that this "pharmacological" treatment of netrin-1 preserves mitochondrial function via novel mechanisms that are NO dependent. Freshly isolated C57BL6 mouse hearts were perfused using a Langendorff system, and subjected to a 20min global ischemia/60min reperfusion, in the presence or absence of netrin-1. I/R induced marked increases in infarct size, total superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production, activity and protein abundance of NADPH oxidase (NOX) isoform 4 (NOX4), as well as impaired mitochondrial integrity and function, all of which were attenuated by netrin-1. This protective effect of netrin-1 is attributed to cGMP, a downstream effector of NO. The protein levels of NOX1 and NOX2 were however unaffected, and infarct size from NOX1 and NOX2 knockouts was not different from wild type animals. Scavenging of NO with PTIO reversed inhibitory effects of netrin-1 on NOX4, while NO donor attenuated NOX4 protein abundance. In vivo NOX4 RNAi, or sepiapterin perfusion, resulted in recoupling of NOS, decreased infarct size, and blockade of dysfunctional mitochondrial swelling and mitochondrial superoxide production. These data demonstrate that netrin-1 induces cardioprotection through inhibition of NOX4 activity, which leads to recoupling of NOS, augmented NO bioavailability, reduction in oxidative stress, and ultimately preservation of mitochondrial function. The NO-dependent NOX4 inhibition connects with our previously established pathway of DCC/ERK1/2/eNOS/NO/DCC feed-forward mechanism, to maintain NOS in the coupling state to attenuate oxidative stress to preserve mitochondrial function. These findings may

  9. The nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside attenuates recognition memory deficits and social withdrawal produced by the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine and induces anxiolytic-like behaviour in rats.

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    Trevlopoulou, Aikaterini; Touzlatzi, Ntilara; Pitsikas, Nikolaos

    2016-03-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that the non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine impairs cognition and can mimic certain aspects of positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia in rodents. Nitric oxide (NO) is considered as an intracellular messenger in the brain, and its abnormalities have been linked to schizophrenia. The present study was designed to investigate the ability of the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) to counteract schizophrenia-like behavioural deficits produced by ketamine in rats. The ability of SNP to reverse ketamine-induced memory deficits and social withdrawal were assessed using the novel object recognition task (NORT) and the social interaction test, respectively. Furthermore, since anxiety disorders are noted to occur commonly in schizophrenics, the effects of SNP on anxiety-like behaviour were examined using the light/dark test. Locomotor activity was also assessed as an independent measure of the potential motoric effects of this NO donor. SNP (0.3 and 1 mg/kg) reversed ketamine (3 mg/kg)-induced short-term recognition memory deficits. SNP (1 mg/kg) counteracted the ketamine (8 mg/kg)-induced social isolation in the social interaction test. The anxiolytic-like effects in the light/dark test of SNP (1 mg/kg) cannot be attributed to changes in locomotor activity. Our findings illustrate a functional interaction between the nitrergic and glutamatergic system that may be of relevance for schizophrenia-like behavioural deficits. The data also suggest a role of NO in anxiety.

  10. Arctigenin, a Potent Ingredient of Arctium lappa L., Induces Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase and Attenuates Subarachnoid Hemorrhage-Induced Vasospasm through PI3K/Akt Pathway in a Rat Model

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    Chih-Zen Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Upregulation of protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt is observed within the cerebral arteries of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH animals. This study is of interest to examine Arctigenin, a potent antioxidant, on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and Akt pathways in a SAH in vitro study. Basilar arteries (BAs were obtained to examine phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K, phospho-PI3K, Akt, phospho-Akt (Western blot and morphological examination. Endothelins (ETs and eNOS evaluation (Western blot and immunostaining were also determined. Arctigenin treatment significantly alleviates disrupted endothelial cells and tortured internal elastic layer observed in the SAH groups (p<0.01. The reduced eNOS protein and phospho-Akt expression in the SAH groups were relieved by the treatment of Arctigenin (p<0.01. This result confirmed that Arctigenin might exert dural effects in preventing SAH-induced vasospasm through upregulating eNOS expression via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and attenuate endothelins after SAH. Arctigenin shows therapeutic promise in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm following SAH.

  11. Arctigenin, a Potent Ingredient of Arctium lappa L., Induces Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase and Attenuates Subarachnoid Hemorrhage-Induced Vasospasm through PI3K/Akt Pathway in a Rat Model.

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    Chang, Chih-Zen; Wu, Shu-Chuan; Chang, Chia-Mao; Lin, Chih-Lung; Kwan, Aij-Lie

    2015-01-01

    Upregulation of protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt) is observed within the cerebral arteries of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) animals. This study is of interest to examine Arctigenin, a potent antioxidant, on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and Akt pathways in a SAH in vitro study. Basilar arteries (BAs) were obtained to examine phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), phospho-PI3K, Akt, phospho-Akt (Western blot) and morphological examination. Endothelins (ETs) and eNOS evaluation (Western blot and immunostaining) were also determined. Arctigenin treatment significantly alleviates disrupted endothelial cells and tortured internal elastic layer observed in the SAH groups (p < 0.01). The reduced eNOS protein and phospho-Akt expression in the SAH groups were relieved by the treatment of Arctigenin (p < 0.01). This result confirmed that Arctigenin might exert dural effects in preventing SAH-induced vasospasm through upregulating eNOS expression via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and attenuate endothelins after SAH. Arctigenin shows therapeutic promise in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm following SAH.

  12. Therapy with radio-attenuated vaccine in experimental murine visceral leishmaniasis showed enhanced T cell and inducible nitric oxide synthase levels, suppressed tumor growth factor-beta production with higher expression of some signaling molecules.

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    Datta, Sanchita; Roy, Syamal; Manna, Madhumita

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or Kala-Azar (KA) is one of the most deadly forms of disease among all neglected tropical diseases. There are no satisfactory drugs or vaccine candidates available for this dreaded disease. Our previous studies showed promising therapeutic and prophylactic efficacy of the live, radio-attenuated parasites through intramuscular (I.M.) and intraperitoneal (I.P.) route in BALB/c mice model. The T-cell proliferation level, the mRNA expression level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor growth factor-beta (TGF-β) genes and finally the phosphorylation levels of phosphoinositide dependent kinase 1 (PDK1), phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) molecules were checked in BALB/c mice model immunized with radio-attenuated Leishmania donovani parasites through I.M. route. Higher T-cell proliferation, increased iNOS level, and suppressed TGF-β level were found in treated infected animal groups (100 and 150Gy) in relation to untreated infected animals. Likewise, phosphorylation levels of PDK1, PI3K and p38MAPK of these two groups were increased when compared to untreated infected controls. The clearance of the parasites from treated infected groups of animals may be mediated by the restoration of T-cell due to therapy with radio-attenuated L. donovani parasites. The killing of parasites was mediated by increase in nitric oxide release through PDK1, PI3K and p38MAPK signaling pathways. A lower TGF-β expression has augmented the restored Th1 ambience in the 100 and 150Gy treated animal groups proving further the efficacy of the candidate vaccine. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  13. Chronic central nervous system MC3/4R blockade attenuates hypertension induced by nitric oxide synthase inhibition but not by angiotensin II infusion.

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    da Silva, Alexandre A; do Carmo, Jussara M; Dubinion, John H; Bassi, Mirian; Mokhtarpouriani, Kasra; Hamza, Shereen M; Hall, John E

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether central melanocortin 3 and 4 receptor (MC3/4R) blockade attenuates the blood pressure (BP) responses to chronic L-NAME or angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion in Sprague-Dawley rats implanted with telemetry transmitters, venous catheters, and intracerebroventricular cannula into the lateral ventricle. After 5 days of control measurements, L-NAME (10 μg/kg/min IV, groups 1 and 2) or Ang II (10 ng/kg/min IV, groups 3 and 4) were infused for 24 days, and starting on day 7 of L-NAME or Ang II infusion, the MC3/4R antagonist SHU-9119 (24 nmol/d, n=6/group; groups 1 and 3) or vehicle (saline 0.5 μL/h, n=6/group; groups 2 and 4) was infused intracerebroventricularly for 10 days. A control normotensive group also received SHU-9119 for 10 days (n=5). L-NAME and Ang II increased BP by 40±3 and 56±5 mm Hg, respectively, although heart rate was slightly reduced. MC3/4R blockade doubled food intake and reduced heart rate (≈40 to ≈50 bpm) in all groups. MC3/4R blockade caused only a small reduction in BP in normotensive group (4 mm Hg) and no change in rats receiving Ang II, although markedly reducing BP by 21±4 mm Hg in L-NAME-treated rats. After SHU-9119 infusion was stopped, food intake, heart rate, and BP gradually returned to values observed before SHU-9119 infusion was started. Ganglionic blockade at the end of L-NAME or Ang II infusion caused similar BP reduction in both groups. These results suggest that the brain MC3/4R contributes, at least in part, to the hypertension induced by chronic L-NAME infusion but not by Ang II. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Attenuation by methyl mercury and mercuric sulfide of pentobarbital induced hypnotic tolerance in mice through inhibition of ATPase activities and nitric oxide production in cerebral cortex

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    Chuu, Jiunn-Jye; Huang, Zih-Ning; Yu, Hsun-Hsin; Chang, Liang-Hao [College of Engineering, Southern Taiwan University, Institute of Biotechnology, Tainan (China); Lin-Shiau, Shoei-Yn [College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Institute of Pharmacology, Taipei (China)

    2008-06-15

    This study is aimed at exploring the possible mechanism of hypnosis-enhancing effect of HgS or cinnabar (a traditional Chinese medicine containing more than 95% HgS) in mice treated with pentobarbital. We also examined whether the effect of HgS is different from that of the well-known methyl mercury (MeHg). After a short period (7 days) of oral administration to mice, a nontoxic dose (0.1 g/kg) of HgS not only significantly enhanced pentobarbital-induced hypnosis but also attenuated tolerance induction; while a higher dose (1 g/kg) of HgS or cinnabar exerted an almost irreversible enhancing effect on pentobarbital-hypnosis similar to that of MeHg (2 mg/kg) tested, which was still effective even after 10 or 35 days cessation of administration. To study comparatively the effects of different mercury forms from oral administration of MeHg and HgS on membrane ATPase activities of experimental mice, analysis of the Hg content in the cerebral cortex revealed that correlated with the decrease of Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase and Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activities. Furthermore, NO levels of blood but not that of cerebral cortex were also decreased by mercuric compounds. Although pentobarbital alone enhanced cytochrome p450-2C9 in time dependent manner, all of mercurial compounds tested had no such effect. All of these findings indicated that the mercurial compounds including cinnabar, HgS and MeHg exert a long-lasting enhancing hypnotic activity without affecting pentobarbital metabolism, which provides evidence-based sedative effect of cinnabar used in Chinese traditional medicine for more than 2,000 years. The nontoxic HgS dosing (0.1 g/kg/day) for consecutive 7 days is perhaps useful for delaying or preventing pentobarbital-tolerance. (orig.)

  15. CHRONIC CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM MC3/4R BLOCKADE ATTENUATES HYPERTENSION INDUCED BY NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE INHIBITION BUT NOT BY ANGIOTENSIN II INFUSION

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    da Silva, Alexandre A.; do Carmo, Jussara M.; Dubinion, John H.; Bassi, Mirian; Mokhtarpouriani, Kasra; Hamza, Shereen M.; Hall, John E.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether central melanocortin 3 and 4 receptor (MC3/4R) blockade attenuates the BP responses to chronic L-NAME or angiotensin II (Ang-II) infusion in Sprague Dawley rats implanted with telemetry transmitters, venous catheters and intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannula into the lateral ventricle. After 5 days of control measurements, L-NAME (10 μg/kg/day, i.v. – groups 1 and 2) or Ang II (10 ng/kg/min, i.v. – groups 3 and 4) were infused for 24 days and starting on day 7 of L-NAME or Ang II infusion the MC3/4R antagonist SHU-9119 (24 nmol/day, n=6/group – groups 1 and 3) or vehicle (saline 0.5 μl/hr, n=6/group – groups 2 and 4) was infused ICV for 10 days. A control normotensive group also received SHU-9119 for 10 days (n=5). L-NAME and Ang II increased BP by 40±3 and 56±5 mmHg, respectively; while heart rate (HR) was slightly reduced. MC3/4R blockade doubled food intake and reduced HR (~40 to ~50 bpm) in all groups. MC3/4R blockade caused only a small reduction in BP in normotensive group (4 mmHg) and no change in rats receiving Ang II, while markedly reducing BP by 21±4 mmHg in L-NAME treated rats. After SHU-9119 infusion was stopped, food intake, HR and BP gradually returned to values observed before SHU-9119 infusion was started. Ganglionic blockade performed at the end of L-NAME or Ang II infusion caused similar BP reduction in both groups. These results suggest that the brain MC3/4R contributes, at least in part, to the hypertension induced by chronic L-NAME infusion but not by Ang II. PMID:25287400

  16. Involvement of nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide induced anorexia.

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    Riediger, Thomas; Cordani, Caroline; Potes, Catarina Soares; Lutz, Thomas A

    2010-11-01

    Treatment with the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a commonly used model to induce disease-related anorexia. Following LPS treatment inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is expressed in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), where nitric oxide (NO) inhibits orexigenic neurons. Intracellular STAT signaling is triggered by inflammatory stimuli and has been linked to the transcriptional regulation of iNOS. We evaluated whether pharmacological blockade of iNOS by the specific inhibitor 1400W attenuates LPS-induced anorexia. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the tolerance to the anorectic effect occurring after repeated LPS treatment is paralleled by a blunted STAT3 phosphorylation in the ARC. Rats treated with a subcutaneous injection of 1400W (10 mg/kg) showed an attenuated anorectic LPS response relative to control rats receiving only LPS (100 µg/kg; i.p.). Similarly, iNOS blockade attenuated LPS-induced adipsia, hyperthermia, inactivity and the concomitant drop in energy expenditure. While single LPS treatment increased STAT3 phosphorylation in the ARC, rats treated repeatedly with LPS showed no anorectic response and also no STAT3 phosphorylation in the ARC after the second and third LPS injections, respectively. Hence, pSTAT3 signaling in the ARC might be part of the intracellular cascades translating pro-inflammatory stimuli into suppression of food intake. The current findings substantiate a role of iNOS dependent NO formation in disease-related anorexia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Immunobiology of Nitric Oxide and Regulation of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase.

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    Lee, Martin; Rey, Kevin; Besler, Katrina; Wang, Christine; Choy, Jonathan

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a bioactive gas that has multiple roles in innate and adaptive immune responses. In macrophages, nitric oxide is produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase upon microbial and cytokine stimulation. It is needed for host defense against pathogens and for immune regulation. This review will summarize the role of NO and iNOS in inflammatory and immune responses and will discuss the regulatory mechanisms that control inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and activity.

  18. Aspirin attenuates insulin resistance in muscle of diet-induced obese rats by inhibiting inducible nitric oxide synthase production and S-nitrosylation of IRbeta/IRS-1 and Akt.

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    Carvalho-Filho, M A; Ropelle, E R; Pauli, R J; Cintra, D E; Tsukumo, D M L; Silveira, L R; Curi, R; Carvalheira, J B C; Velloso, L A; Saad, M J A

    2009-11-01

    High-dose aspirin treatment improves fasting and postprandial hyperglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes, as well as in animal models of insulin resistance associated with obesity and sepsis. In this study, we investigated the effects of aspirin treatment on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-mediated insulin resistance and on S-nitrosylation of insulin receptor (IR)-beta, IRS-1 and protein kinase B (Akt) in the muscle of diet-induced obese rats and also in iNos (also known as Nos2)-/- mice on high fat diet. Aspirin (120 mg kg-1 day-1 for 2 days) or iNOS inhibitor (L-NIL; 80 mg/kg body weight) were administered to diet-induced obese rats or mice and iNOS production and insulin signalling were investigated. S-nitrosylation of IRbeta/IRS-1 and Akt was investigated using the biotin switch method. iNOS protein levels increased in the muscle of diet-induced obese rats, associated with an increase in S-nitrosylation of IRbeta, IRS-1 and Akt. These alterations were reversed by aspirin treatment, in parallel with an improvement in insulin signalling and sensitivity, as measured by insulin tolerance test and glucose clamp. Conversely, while aspirin reversed the increased phosphorylation of IkappaB kinase beta and c-Jun amino-terminal kinase, as well as IRS-1 serine phosphorylation in diet-induced obese rats and iNos -/- mice on high-fat diet, these alterations were not associated with the improvement of insulin action induced by this drug. Our data demonstrate that aspirin treatment not only reduces iNOS protein levels, but also S-nitrosylation of IRbeta, IRS-1 and Akt. These changes are associated with improved insulin resistance and signalling, suggesting a novel mechanism of insulin sensitisation evoked by aspirin treatment.

  19. Fibroblastic reticular cells from lymph nodes attenuate T cell expansion by producing nitric oxide.

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    Stefanie Siegert

    Full Text Available Adaptive immune responses are initiated when T cells encounter antigen on dendritic cells (DC in T zones of secondary lymphoid organs. T zones contain a 3-dimensional scaffold of fibroblastic reticular cells (FRC but currently it is unclear how FRC influence T cell activation. Here we report that FRC lines and ex vivo FRC inhibit T cell proliferation but not differentiation. FRC share this feature with fibroblasts from non-lymphoid tissues as well as mesenchymal stromal cells. We identified FRC as strong source of nitric oxide (NO thereby directly dampening T cell expansion as well as reducing the T cell priming capacity of DC. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS was up-regulated in a subset of FRC by both DC-signals as well as interferon-γ produced by primed CD8+ T cells. Importantly, iNOS expression was induced during viral infection in vivo in both LN FRC and DC. As a consequence, the primary T cell response was found to be exaggerated in Inos(-/- mice. Our findings highlight that in addition to their established positive roles in T cell responses FRC and DC cooperate in a negative feedback loop to attenuate T cell expansion during acute inflammation.

  20. Quantitative laser-induced fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in a heavy-duty Diesel engine

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    Verbiezen, K.; Klein-Douwel, R. J. H.; van Viet, A. P.; Donkerbroek, A. J.; Meerts, W. L.; Dam, N. J.; ter Meulen, J. J.

    2007-01-01

    We present quantitative, in-cylinder, UV-laser-induced fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in a heavy-duty Diesel engine. Processing of the raw fluorescence signals includes a detailed correction, based on additional measurements, for the effect of laser beam and fluorescence attenuation, and

  1. Consumption of both low and high (-)-epicatechin apple puree attenuates platelet reactivity and increases plasma concentrations of nitric oxide metabolites: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasper, Amy; Hollands, Wendy; Casgrain, Amelie; Saha, Shikha; Teucher, Birgit; Dainty, Jack R; Venema, Dini P; Hollman, Peter C; Rein, Maarit J; Nelson, Rebecca; Williamson, Gary; Kroon, Paul A

    2014-10-01

    We hypothesised that consumption of flavanol-containing apple puree would modulate platelet activity and increase nitric oxide metabolite status, and that high flavanol apple puree would exert a greater effect than low flavanol apple puree. 25 subjects consumed 230 g of apple puree containing 25 and 100mg epicatechin (low and high flavanol apple puree, respectively) and aspirin (75 mg) in random order. Measurements were made at baseline, acutely after treatment (2, 6 and 24 h), and after 14 d of treatment. Low flavanol apple puree significantly attenuated ADP and epinephrine-induced integrin-β3 expression 2 h and 6 h after consumption and ADP and epinephrine-induced P-selectin expression within 2h of consumption. High flavanol apple puree attenuated epinephrine and ADP-induced integrin-β3 expression after 2 and 6h. ADP and epinephrine-induced integrin-β3 expression was significantly attenuated 2, 6 and 24 h after consumption of aspirin, whilst 14 d aspirin consumption attenuated collagen-induced P-selectin expression only. The plasma total nitric oxide metabolite conc. was significantly increased 6h after consumption of both low and high flavanol apple purees. In conclusion, consumption of apple purees containing ⩾25 or 100 mg flavanols transiently attenuated ex vivo integrin-β3 and P-selectin expression and increased plasma nitric oxide metabolite conc. in healthy subjects, but the effect was not enhanced for the high flavanol apple puree. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhibition of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase, Cycleooxygenase-2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inhibition of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase, Cycleooxygenase-2 and Lipid Peroxidation by Methanol Extract of Pericarpium Zanthoxyli. ... Production of iNOS induced by LPS was significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited by the extract, suggesting that the extract inhibits nitric oxide (NO) production by suppressing iNOS expression.

  3. Genistein attenuates hypoxic pulmonary hypertension via enhanced nitric oxide signaling and the erythropoietin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Sachiko; Morio, Yoshiteru; Toba, Michie; Nagaoka, Tetsutaro; Takahashi, Fumiyuki; Iwakami, Shin-Ichiro; Seyama, Kuniaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2014-06-01

    Upregulation of the erythropoietin (EPO)/EPO receptor (EPOR) system plays a protective role against chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (hypoxic PH) through enhancement of endothelial nitric oxide (NO)-mediated signaling. Genistein (Gen), a phytoestrogen, is considered to ameliorate NO-mediated signaling. We hypothesized that Gen attenuates and prevents hypoxic PH. In vivo, Sprague-Dawley rats raised in a hypobaric chamber were treated with Gen (60 mkg/kg) for 21 days. Pulmonary hemodynamics and vascular remodeling were ameliorated in Gen-treated hypoxic PH rats. Gen also restored cGMP levels and phosphorylated endothelial NO synthase (p-eNOS) at Ser(1177) and p-Akt at Ser(473) expression in the lungs. Additionally, Gen potentiated plasma EPO concentration and EPOR-positive endothelial cell counts. In experiments with hypoxic PH rats' isolated perfused lungs, Gen caused NO- and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt-dependent vasodilation that reversed abnormal vasoconstriction. In vitro, a combination of EPO and Gen increased the p-eNOS and the EPOR expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells under a hypoxic environment. Moreover, Gen potentiated the hypoxic increase in EPO production from human hepatoma cells. We conclude that Gen may be effective for the prevention of hypoxic PH through the improvement of PI3K/Akt-dependent, NO-mediated signaling in association with enhancement of the EPO/EPOR system. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Inducible nitric oxide synthase in renal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joles, JA; Vos, IH; Grone, HJ; Rabelink, TJ

    The importance of the endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has been well established. Endothelium-derived nitric oxide has been shown to be essential for vascular homeostasis and modulation of eNOS has thus become a target in prevention of cardiovascular disease. The role of the

  5. Inhibition of endogenous heat shock protein 70 attenuates inducible nitric oxide synthase induction via disruption of heat shock protein 70/Na(+) /H(+) exchanger 1-Ca(2+) -calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II/transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1-nuclear factor-κB signals in BV-2 microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Lu, Xu; Wang, Jia; Tong, Lijuan; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) critically contributes to inflammation and host defense. The inhibition of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) prevents iNOS induction in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. However, the role and mechanism of endogenous Hsp70 in iNOS induction in microglia remains unclear. This study addresses this issue in BV-2 microglia, showing that Hsp70 inhibition or knockdown prevents LPS-induced iNOS protein expression and nitric oxide production. Real-time PCR experiments showed that LPS-induced iNOS mRNA transcription was blocked by Hsp70 inhibition. Further studies revealed that the inhibition of Hsp70 attenuated LPS-stimulated nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB as well as the degradation of inhibitor of κB (IκB)-α and phosphorylation of IκB kinase β (IKKβ). This prevention effect of Hsp70 inhibition on IKKβ-NF-κB activation was found to be dependent on the Ca(2+) /calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)/transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) signals based on the following observations: 1) chelation of intracellular Ca(2+) or inhibition of CaMKII reduced LPS-induced increases in TAK1 phosphorylation and 2) Hsp70 inhibition reduced LPS-induced increases in CaMKII/TAK1 phosphorylation, intracellular pH value, [Ca(2+) ]i , and CaMKII/TAK1 association. Mechanistic studies showed that Hsp70 inhibition disrupted the association between Hsp70 and Na(+) /H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1), which is an important exchanger responsible for Ca(2+) influx in LPS-stimulated cells. These studies demonstrate that the inhibition of endogenous Hsp70 attenuates the induction of iNOS, which likely occurs through the disruption of NHE1/Hsp70-Ca(2+) -CaMKII/TAK1-NF-κB signals in BV-2 microglia, providing further insight into the functions of Hsp70 in the CNS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Blastomyces dermatitidis Yeast Cells Inhibit Nitric Oxide Production by Alveolar Macrophage Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Nicole M.; Carmen, John C.; Klein, Bruce S.

    2011-01-01

    The ability of pathogens to evade host antimicrobial mechanisms is crucial to their virulence. The dimorphic fungal pathogen Blastomyces dermatitidis can infect immunocompetent patients, producing a primary pulmonary infection that can later disseminate to other organs. B. dermatitidis possesses a remarkable ability to resist killing by alveolar macrophages. To date, no mechanism to explain this resistance has been described. Here, we focus on macrophage production of the toxic molecule nitric oxide as a potential target of subversion by B. dermatitidis yeast cells. We report that B. dermatitidis yeast cells reduce nitric oxide levels in the supernatants of activated alveolar macrophages. This reduction is not due to detoxification of nitric oxide, but rather to suppression of macrophage nitric oxide production. We show that B. dermatitidis yeast cells do not block upregulation of macrophage inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression or limit iNOS access to its arginine substrate. Instead, B. dermatitidis yeast cells appear to inhibit iNOS enzymatic activity. Further investigation into the genetic basis of this potential virulence mechanism could lead to the identification of novel antifungal drug targets. PMID:21444664

  7. Inhibition of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase, Cycleooxygenase-2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To explore the antioxidant properties of the methanol extract of Pericarpium Zanthoxyli and its effect on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cycleooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced cell damage in macrophage cells. Methods: Anti-oxidant activities were tested by measuring free ...

  8. Protective effect of nitric oxide against arsenic-induced oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a key molecule involved in many physiology processes. The effects of NO on alleviating arsenic-induced oxidative damage in tall fescue leaves were investigated. Arsenic (25 M) treatment induced significantly accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and led to serious lipid peroxidation in tall ...

  9. Nitric oxide in liver fibrosis: The role of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakiri, Yasuko

    2015-12-01

    The inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is expressed in hepatic cells in pathological conditions. Its induction is involved in the development of liver fibrosis, and thus iNOS could be a therapeutic target for liver fibrosis. This review summarizes the role of iNOS in liver fibrosis, focusing on 1) iNOS biology, 2) iNOS-expressing liver cells, 3) iNOS-related therapeutic strategies, and 4) future directions.

  10. Ginsenoside Rb1 attenuates activated microglia-induced neuronal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Lining; Guo, Wei; Xu, Jianwen; Zhang, Guodong; Wang, Wei; Huang, Wenhua

    2014-02-01

    The microglia-mediated inflammatory reaction promotes neuronal damage under cerebral ischemia/hypoxia conditions. We therefore speculated that inhibition of hypoxia-induced microglial activation may alleviate neuronal damage. To test this hypothesis, we co-cultured ginsenoside Rb1, an active component of ginseng, and cortical neurons. Ginsenoside Rb1 protected neuronal morphology and structure in a single hypoxic culture system and in a hypoxic co-culture system with microglia, and reduced neuronal apoptosis and caspase-3 production. The protective effect was observable prior to placing in co-culture. Additionally, ginsenoside Rb1 inhibited levels of tumor necrosis factor-α in a co-culture system containing activated N9 microglial cells. Ginsenoside Rb1 also significantly decreased nitric oxide and superoxide production induced by N9 microglia. Our findings indicate that ginsenoside Rb1 attenuates damage to cerebral cortex neurons by downregulation of nitric oxide, superoxide, and tumor necrosis factor-α expression in hypoxia-activated microglia.

  11. Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Epithelial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: iNOS was over expressed in OKCs when compared with DC and RC suggesting that iNOS may contribute to the aggressive behavior of OKC. This is yet another evidence to support that OKC is the neoplasm. Keywords: Dentigerous cyst, Immunohistochemistry, Inducible nitric oxide synthase, Odontogenic ...

  12. Analysis of genetic variation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-21

    Feb 21, 2011 ... The genetic diversity of 100 Malaysian native chickens was investigated using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) for two candidate genes: inducible nitric oxide synthase (INOS) and natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (NRAMP1). The two genes.

  13. A Comparison of the Effects of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition on Cartilage Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Selim Gokay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of selective inducible nitric oxide synthase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on cartilage regeneration. The study involved 27 Wistar rats that were divided into five groups. On Day 1, both knees of 3 rats were resected and placed in a formalin solution as a control group. The remaining 24 rats were separated into 4 groups, and their right knees were surgically damaged. Depending on the groups, the rats were injected with intra-articular normal saline solution, neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (50 mg/kg, inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor amino-guanidine (30 mg/kg, or nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (200 mg/kg. After 21 days, the right and left knees of the rats were resected and placed in formalin solution. The samples were histopathologically examined by a blinded evaluator and scored on 8 parameters. Although selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition exhibited significant (P=0.044 positive effects on cartilage regeneration following cartilage damage, it was determined that inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibition had no statistically significant effect on cartilage regeneration. It was observed that the nitric oxide synthase activation triggered advanced arthrosis symptoms, such as osteophyte formation. The fact that selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors were observed to have mitigating effects on the severity of the damage may, in the future, influence the development of new agents to be used in the treatment of cartilage disorders.

  14. A Comparison of the Effects of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition on Cartilage Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokay, Nevzat Selim; Yilmaz, Ibrahim; Komur, Baran; Demiroz, Ahu Senem; Gokce, Alper; Dervisoglu, Sergülen; Gokay, Banu Vural

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of selective inducible nitric oxide synthase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on cartilage regeneration. The study involved 27 Wistar rats that were divided into five groups. On Day 1, both knees of 3 rats were resected and placed in a formalin solution as a control group. The remaining 24 rats were separated into 4 groups, and their right knees were surgically damaged. Depending on the groups, the rats were injected with intra-articular normal saline solution, neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (50 mg/kg), inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor amino-guanidine (30 mg/kg), or nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (200 mg/kg). After 21 days, the right and left knees of the rats were resected and placed in formalin solution. The samples were histopathologically examined by a blinded evaluator and scored on 8 parameters. Although selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition exhibited significant (P = 0.044) positive effects on cartilage regeneration following cartilage damage, it was determined that inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibition had no statistically significant effect on cartilage regeneration. It was observed that the nitric oxide synthase activation triggered advanced arthrosis symptoms, such as osteophyte formation. The fact that selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors were observed to have mitigating effects on the severity of the damage may, in the future, influence the development of new agents to be used in the treatment of cartilage disorders.

  15. Nitric-oxide synthase trafficking inducer is a pleiotropic regulator of endothelial cell function and signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shreeta; Ain, Rupasri

    2017-04-21

    Endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) and its bioactive product, nitric oxide (NO), mediate many endothelial cell functions, including angiogenesis and vascular permeability. For example, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated angiogenesis is inhibited upon reduction of NO bioactivity both in vitro and in vivo Moreover, genetic disruption or pharmacological inhibition of eNOS attenuates angiogenesis during tissue repair, resulting in delayed wound closure. These observations emphasize that eNOS-derived NO can promote angiogenesis. Intriguingly, eNOS activity is regulated by nitric-oxide synthase trafficking inducer (NOSTRIN), which sequesters eNOS, thereby attenuating NO production. This has prompted significant interest in NOSTRIN's function in endothelial cells. We show here that NOSTRIN affects the functional transcriptome of endothelial cells by down-regulating several genes important for invasion and angiogenesis. Interestingly, the effects of NOSTRIN on endothelial gene expression were independent of eNOS activity. NOSTRIN also affected the expression of secreted cytokines involved in inflammatory responses, and ectopic NOSTRIN overexpression functionally restricted endothelial cell proliferation, invasion, adhesion, and VEGF-induced capillary tube formation. Furthermore, NOSTRIN interacted directly with TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), leading to the suppression of NFκB activity and inhibition of AKT activation via phosphorylation. Interestingly, TNF-α-induced NFκB pathway activation was reversed by NOSTRIN. We found that the SH3 domain of NOSTRIN is involved in the NOSTRIN-TRAF6 interaction and is required for NOSTRIN-induced down-regulation of endothelial cell proteins. These results have broad biological implications, as aberrant NOSTRIN expression leading to deactivation of the NFκB pathway, in turn triggering an anti-angiogenic cascade, might inhibit tumorigenesis and cancer progression. © 2017 by The American Society for

  16. Modulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by sumoylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feinstein Douglas L

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In astrocytes, the inflammatory induction of Nitric Oxide Synthase type 2 (NOS2 is inhibited by noradrenaline (NA at the transcriptional level however its effects on specific transcription factors are not fully known. Recent studies show that the activity of several transcription factors including C/EBPβ, which is needed for maximal NOS2 expression, is modulated by conjugation of the small molecular weight protein SUMO. We examined whether the expression of SUMO Related Genes (SRGs: SUMO-1, the conjugating enzyme Ubc9, and the protease SENP1 are affected by inflammatory conditions or NA and whether SUMO-1 regulates NOS2 through interaction with C/EBPβ. Methods Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS was used to induce inflammatory responses including NOS2 expression in primary astrocytes. The mRNA levels of SRGs were determined by QPCR. A functional role for SUMOylation was evaluated by determining effects of over-expressing SRGs on NOS2 promoter and NFκB binding-element reporter constructs. Interactions of SUMO-1 and C/EBPβ with the NOS2 promoter were examined by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Interactions of SUMO-1 with C/EBPβ were examined by immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis and by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET assays. Results LPS decreased mRNA levels of SUMO-1, Ubc9 and SENP1 in primary astrocytes and a similar decrease occurred during normal aging in brain. NA attenuated the LPS-induced reductions and increased SUMO-1 above basal levels. Over-expression of SUMO-1, Ubc9, or SENP1 reduced the activation of a NOS2 promoter, whereas activation of a 4 × NFκB binding-element reporter was only reduced by SUMO-1. ChIP studies revealed interactions of SUMO-1 and C/EBPβ with C/EBP binding sites on the NOS2 promoter that were modulated by LPS and NA. SUMO-1 co-precipitated with C/EBPβ and a close proximity was confirmed by FRET analysis. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that

  17. Inhaled nitric oxide exacerbated phorbol-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hen I; Chu, Shi Jye; Hsu, Kang; Wang, David

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we determined the effect of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) on the acute lung injury induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) in isolated rat lung. Typical acute lung injury was induced successfully by PMA during 60 min of observation. PMA (2 microg/kg) elicited a significant increase in microvascular permeability, (measured using the capillary filtration coefficient Kfc), lung weight gain, lung weight/body weight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) and protein concentration of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Pretreatment with inhaled NO (30 ppm) significantly exacerbated acute lung injury. All of the parameters reflective of lung injury increased significantly except PAP (P<0.05). Coadministration of Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (5 mM) attenuated the detrimental effect of inhaled NO in PMA-induced lung injury, except for PAP. In addition, L-NAME (5 mM) significantly attenuated PMA-induced acute lung injury except for PAP. These experimental data suggest that inhaled NO significantly exacerbated acute lung injury induced by PMA in rats. L-NAME attenuated the detrimental effect of inhaled NO.

  18. Arsenic toxicity induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia: Pharmacological interdiction by histone deacetylase and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Bhupesh, E-mail: drbhupeshresearch@gmail.com; Sharma, P.M.

    2013-11-15

    Arsenic toxicity has been reported to damage all the major organs including the brain and vasculature. Dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are posing greater risk to the world population as it is now increasing at a faster rate. We have investigated the role of sodium butyrate, a selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and aminoguanidine, a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor in pharmacological interdiction of arsenic toxicity induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and dementia in rats. Arsenic toxicity was done by administering arsenic drinking water to rats. Morris water-maze (MWM) test was used for assessment of learning and memory. Endothelial function was assessed using student physiograph. Oxidative stress (aortic superoxide anion, serum and brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species, brain glutathione) and nitric oxide levels (serum nitrite/nitrate) were also measured. Arsenic treated rats have shown impairment of endothelial function, learning and memory, reduction in serum nitrite/nitrate and brain GSH levels along with increase in serum and brain TBARS. Sodium butyrate as well as aminoguanidine significantly convalesce arsenic induced impairment of learning, memory, endothelial function, and alterations in various biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that arsenic induces endothelial dysfunction and dementia, whereas, sodium butyrate, a HDAC inhibitor as well as aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor may be considered as potential agents for the management of arsenic induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia. - Highlights: • As has induced endothelial dysfunction (Edf) and vascular dementia (VaD). • As has increased oxidative stress, AChE activity and decreased serum NO. • Inhibitors of HDAC and iNOS have attenuated As induced Edf and VaD. • Both the inhibitors have attenuated As induced biochemical changes. • Inhibitor of HDAC and iNOS has shown good potential

  19. Prednisolone reduces nitric oxide-induced migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, P; Daugaard, D; Lassen, L H

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) induces delayed migraine attacks in migraine patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pre-treatment with prednisolon could decrease this effect of GTN. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled, crossover...... patients on the prednisolone day (P = 0.14). Prednisolone pre-treatment did not alter the summed or peak immediate headache responses to GTN significantly (P = 0.08, P = 0.07), whereas the peak headache scores during the following 12 h were significantly lower after prednisolone pre-treatment (median peak...

  20. Nitric Oxide is Protective Against Mercury Induced Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezo Nahavandi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A B S T R A C T Introduction: Mercury is the second most metal pollutant in the world and has the potential to induce many pathologic conditions, especially in nervous system, such as depression. Here we tried to find out if nitric oxide has any possible role in the pathophysiology of depression induced by this metal. Although the role of nitric oxide has been shown in mood control, here we use specific doses of nitric oxide inducer and/or inhibitors which had no effect on normal rats. Methods: 120 male wistar rats weighting 200-250 gram were divided into two main groups: control and methyl mercury(MM treated. Each main group was divided into four different sub-goups: Saline, L-Arginine, L-Name or 7-nitroindazole (7-NI respectively. The duration of taking MM or saline was daily for 15 days for both. After the 15th injection a forced swimming test was done. This test shows behavioral immobility (BI or latency of attempt to escape (LAE, as a depression indicator. Results: Our study showed that low dose L-arginine is protective against MM induced depression as it could turn behavioral immobility (BI to normal levels in groups taking MM plus L-Arginine, while in group taking just MM, BI was much longer showing the intensity of depression. L-Name and 7-NI did aggravated depression in MM groups but not control ones, on the other hand just in the case of 7-NI the result was significant. Discussion: Our results showed 1 MM could induce depression in rat 2 L-Arginine could improve depression to normal situation in MM group, while in control group has no effec 3 7-NI, a selective nNOS inhibitor can aggravate mental depression in intoxicated rats. These results showed the important role of nNOS in protection against MM induced depression.

  1. AVE 3085, a novel endothelial nitric oxide synthase enhancer, attenuates cardiac remodeling in mice through the Smad signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yili; Chen, Cong; Feng, Cong; Tang, Anli; Ma, Yuedong; He, Xin; Li, Yanhui; He, Jiangui; Dong, Yugang

    2015-03-15

    AVE 3085 is a novel endothelial nitric oxide synthase enhancer. Although AVE 3085 treatment has been shown to be effective in spontaneously restoring endothelial function in hypertensive rats, little is known about the effects and mechanisms of AVE 3085 with respect to cardiac remodeling. The present study was designed to examine the effects of AVE 3085 on cardiac remodeling and the mechanisms underlying the effects of this compound. Mice were subjected to aortic banding to induce cardiac remodeling and were then administered AVE 3085 (10 mg kg day(-1), orally) for 4 weeks. At the end of the treatment, the aortic banding-treated mice exhibited significant elevations in cardiac remodeling, characterized by an increase in left ventricular weight relative to body weight, an increase in the area of collagen deposition, an increase in the mean myocyte diameter, and increases in the gene expressions of the hypertrophic markers atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and β-MHC. These indexes were significantly decreased in the AVE 3085-treated mice. Furthermore, AVE 3085 treatment reduced the expression and activation of the Smad signaling pathway in the aortic banding-treated mice. Our data showed that AVE 3085 attenuated cardiac remodeling, and this effect was possibly mediated through the inhibition of Smad signaling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Blueberry Metabolites Attenuate Lipotoxicity-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharat, Divya; Cavalcanti, Rafaela Ramos Mororo; Petersen, Chrissa; Begaye, Nathan; Cutler, Brett Ronald; Costa, Marcella Melo Assis; Ramos, Renata Kelly Luna Gomes; Ferreira, Marina Ramos; Li, Youyou; Bharath, Leena P; Toolson, Emma; Sebahar, Paul; Looper, Ryan E; Jalili, Thunder; Rajasekaran, Namakkal S; Jia, Zhenquan; Symons, J David; Pon Velayutham, Anandh Babu

    2017-10-12

    Lipotoxicity-induced endothelial dysfunction is an important vascular complication associated with diabetes. Clinical studies support the vascular benefits of blueberry anthocyanins, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that metabolites of blueberry anthocyanins attenuate lipotoxicity-induced endothelial dysfunction. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were treated for 6 h with either: (i) the parent anthocyanins (malvidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-glucoside); or (ii) the blueberry metabolites (hydroxyhippuric acid, hippuric acid, benzoic acid-4-sulfate, isovanillic acid-3-sulfate, and vanillic acid-4-sulfate), at concentrations known to circulate in humans following blueberry consumption. For the last 5 h HAECs were treated with palmitate or vehicle. HAECs treated with palmitate displayed elevated reactive oxygen species generation, increased mRNA expression of Nox4, chemokines, adhesion molecules, and IκBα, exaggerated monocyte binding, and suppressed nitric oxide production. Of note, the damaging effects of palmitate were ameliorated in HAECs treated with blueberry metabolites but not parent anthocyanins. Further, important translational relevance of these results was provided by our observation that palmitate-induced endothelial dysfunction was lessened in arterial segments that incubated concurrently with blueberry metabolites. Our findings indicate that the vascular benefits of blueberry anthocyanins are mediated by their metabolites. Blueberries might complement existing therapies to improve vascular complications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Nitric oxide-induced signalling in rat lacrimal acinar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Looms, Dagnia Karen; Tritsaris, K.; Dissing, S.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the physiological role of nitric oxide (NO) in mediating secretory processes in rat lacrimal acinar cells. In addition, we wanted to determine whether the acinar cells possess endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity by measuring NO productio...... using the fluorescent NO indicator 4,5-diaminofluorescein (DAF-2). We initiated investigations by adding NO from an external source by means of the NO-donor, S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP). Cellular concentrations of cyclic guanosine 5'-phosphate (cGMP) ([cGMP]) were measured...... by radioimmunoassay (RIA), and we found that SNAP induced a fast increase in the [cGMP], amounting to 350% of the [cGMP] in resting cells. Moreover, addition of SNAP and elevating [cGMP] in fura-2 loaded lacrimal acinar cells, resulted in a cGMP-dependent protein kinase-mediated release of Ca2+ from intracellular...

  4. Intermittent fasting attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation and memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Andrea R; Yshii, Lidia M; Viel, Tania A; Buck, Hudson S; Mattson, Mark P; Scavone, Cristoforo; Kawamoto, Elisa M

    2014-05-06

    Systemic bacterial infections often result in enduring cognitive impairment and are a risk factor for dementia. There are currently no effective treatments for infection-induced cognitive impairment. Previous studies have shown that intermittent fasting (IF) can increase the resistance of neurons to injury and disease by stimulating adaptive cellular stress responses. However, the impact of IF on the cognitive sequelae of systemic and brain inflammation is unknown. Rats on IF for 30 days received 1 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline intravenously. Half of the rats were subjected to behavioral tests and the other half were euthanized two hours after LPS administration and the hippocampus was dissected and frozen for analyses. Here, we report that IF ameliorates cognitive deficits in a rat model of sepsis by a mechanism involving NF-κB activation, suppression of the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and enhancement of neurotrophic support. Treatment of rats with LPS resulted in deficits in cognitive performance in the Barnes maze and inhibitory avoidance tests, without changing locomotor activity, that were ameliorated in rats that had been maintained on the IF diet. IF also resulted in reduced levels of mRNAs encoding the LPS receptor TLR4 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the hippocampus. Moreover, IF prevented LPS-induced elevation of IL-1α, IL-1β and TNF-α levels, and prevented the LPS-induced reduction of BDNF levels in the hippocampus. IF also significantly attenuated LPS-induced elevations of serum IL-1β, IFN-γ, RANTES, TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Taken together, our results suggest that IF induces adaptive responses in the brain and periphery that can suppress inflammation and preserve cognitive function in an animal model of systemic bacterial infection.

  5. Curcumin attenuates airway hyperreactivity induced by ischemia-reperfusion of the pancreas in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K H; Chao, D; Liu, C F; Chen, C F; Wang, D

    2010-04-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) of the rat pancreas induces acute pancreatitis with a systemic inflammatory response. Activated inflammatory cells are sequestered in the lung, and the consequent respiratory burst may increase airway reactivity. In this study, we characterized the effect of the antioxidant curcumin on airway hyperreactivity induced by pancreatic I/R. Ischemia of the pancreas was induced by clamping the gastroduodenal and the splenic artery for 2 hours followed by reperfusion for 6 hours. The pulmonary function data of Penh, a measurement of airway resistance, were used to show the airway responses to a methacholine challenge. The blood concentration of oxygen radicals, nitric oxide, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) were measured after pancreatic I/R. mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and TNFalpha in lung tissues were measured after pancreatic I/R. Pretreatment with curcumin (20 mg/kg) was administered by intraperitoneal injection 2 hours before pancreatic I/R. The protocol resulted in significant elevations of the blood concentrations of amylase, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide, TNFalpha, and white cells among the I/R group. iNOS and TNFalpha mRNA expressions also significantly increased in lung tissues. Pulmonary function data showed that pancreatic I/R induced significant increases in responses to methacholine challenge: Penh increased significantly in the I/R group when compared with the sham group. Pretreatment with curcumin significantly attenuated the inflammatory, oxidative, and nitrosative responses and lung tissue iNOS and TNFalpha expressions. Curcumin also attenuated airway reactivity to methacholine challenge. I/R of the pancreas induced systemic inflammatory responses with respiratory burst, nitrosative stress, and hyperresponses in the airways. Curcumin, which has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, significantly attenuated the inflammatory responses and airway hyperreactivity induced by pancreatic I

  6. Interleukin 1 beta induces diabetes and fever in normal rats by nitric oxide via induction of different nitric oxide synthases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, J I; Bjerre, U; Mandrup-Poulsen, T

    1994-01-01

    Substantial in vitro evidence suggests that nitric oxide may be a major mediator of interleukin 1 (IL-1) induced pancreatic beta-cell inhibition and destruction in the initial events leading to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Using NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, an inhibitor of both......, glucagon, corticosterone and leukocyte- and differential-counts in normal rats injected once daily for 5 days with interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) (0.8 microgram/rat = 4.0 micrograms/kg). Inhibition of both the constitutive and the inducible forms of nitric oxide synthase prevented IL-1 beta-induced fever...

  7. Bisabolol-induced gastroprotection against acute gastric lesions: role of prostaglandins, nitric oxide, and KATP+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, S B; Leal, L K A M; Nogueira, N A P; Pinto, N A N; Campos, A R

    2009-12-01

    The effects of Matricaria recutita and alpha-bisabolol, a bioactive component from Chamomile species, were investigated against gastric damage induced by absolute ethanol (96%, 1 mL per animal) in rats. The effects of M. recutita extract and alpha-bisabolol on gastric mucosal damage were assessed by determination of changes in mean gastric lesion area. Mechanistic studies were carried out at with 100 mg=kg alpha-bisabolol. We further examined the possible participation of prostaglandins, nitric oxide, and KATP+ channels in its mechanism. M. recutita reduced gastric damage in all doses tested. Alpha-bisabolol at oral doses of 50 and 100 mg=kg markedly attenuated the gastric lesions induced by ethanol to the extent of 87% and 96%, respectively. Pretreatments with the nitric oxide antagonist N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (10 mg=kg, i.p.) or with indomethacin, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, failed to block effectively the gastroprotective effect of alpha-bisabolol. Furthermore, the alpha-bisabolol effect was significantly reduced in rats pretreated with glibenclamide, an inhibitor of KATP+ channel activation. Thus we provide evidence that alpha-bisabolol reduces the gastric damage induced by ethanol, at least in part, by the mechanism of activation of KATP+ channels.

  8. Commiphora molmol Modulates Glutamate-Nitric Oxide-cGMP and Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 Pathways and Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Hematological Alterations in Hyperammonemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman M. Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperammonemia is a serious complication of liver disease and may lead to encephalopathy and death. This study investigated the effects of Commiphora molmol resin on oxidative stress, inflammation, and hematological alterations in ammonium chloride- (NH4Cl- induced hyperammonemic rats, with an emphasis on the glutamate-NO-cGMP and Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 signaling pathways. Rats received NH4Cl and C. molmol for 8 weeks. NH4Cl-induced rats showed significant increase in blood ammonia, liver function markers, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α. Concurrent supplementation of C. molmol significantly decreased circulating ammonia, liver function markers, and TNF-α in hyperammonemic rats. C. molmol suppressed lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide and enhanced the antioxidant defenses in the liver, kidney, and cerebrum of hyperammonemic rats. C. molmol significantly upregulated Nrf2 and HO-1 and decreased glutamine and nitric oxide synthase, soluble guanylate cyclase, and Na+/K+-ATPase expression in the cerebrum of NH4Cl-induced hyperammonemic rats. Hyperammonemia was also associated with hematological and coagulation system alterations. These alterations were reversed by C. molmol. Our findings demonstrated that C. molmol attenuates ammonia-induced liver injury, oxidative stress, inflammation, and hematological alterations. This study points to the modulatory effect of C. molmol on glutamate-NO-cGMP and Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 pathways in hyperammonemia. Therefore, C. molmol might be a promising protective agent against hyperammonemia.

  9. Commiphora molmol Modulates Glutamate-Nitric Oxide-cGMP and Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 Pathways and Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Hematological Alterations in Hyperammonemic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Sultan; Othman, Sarah I.; Germoush, Mousa O.; Hussein, Omnia E.; Al-Basher, Gadh; Khim, Jong Seong; Al-Qaraawi, Maha A.; Al-Harbi, Hanan M.; Fadel, Abdulmannan; Allam, Ahmed A.

    2017-01-01

    Hyperammonemia is a serious complication of liver disease and may lead to encephalopathy and death. This study investigated the effects of Commiphora molmol resin on oxidative stress, inflammation, and hematological alterations in ammonium chloride- (NH4Cl-) induced hyperammonemic rats, with an emphasis on the glutamate-NO-cGMP and Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 signaling pathways. Rats received NH4Cl and C. molmol for 8 weeks. NH4Cl-induced rats showed significant increase in blood ammonia, liver function markers, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Concurrent supplementation of C. molmol significantly decreased circulating ammonia, liver function markers, and TNF-α in hyperammonemic rats. C. molmol suppressed lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide and enhanced the antioxidant defenses in the liver, kidney, and cerebrum of hyperammonemic rats. C. molmol significantly upregulated Nrf2 and HO-1 and decreased glutamine and nitric oxide synthase, soluble guanylate cyclase, and Na+/K+-ATPase expression in the cerebrum of NH4Cl-induced hyperammonemic rats. Hyperammonemia was also associated with hematological and coagulation system alterations. These alterations were reversed by C. molmol. Our findings demonstrated that C. molmol attenuates ammonia-induced liver injury, oxidative stress, inflammation, and hematological alterations. This study points to the modulatory effect of C. molmol on glutamate-NO-cGMP and Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 pathways in hyperammonemia. Therefore, C. molmol might be a promising protective agent against hyperammonemia. PMID:28744340

  10. Can nitric oxide induce migraine in normal individuals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jes; Ashina, Messoud

    2015-01-01

    migraine expression. The question is whether any person may express a migraine attack given a sufficiently strong stimulus or provocation. Here, we reviewed and discussed the ability of nitric oxide to induce migraine-like attacks in normal individuals. CONCLUSION: Experimental data show that normal...... individuals may develop a migraine-like attack and that the human data point to different ways of further developing existing animal and human models.......INTRODUCTION: For many years, scientists have debated the possibility that an individual "migraine threshold" determines the likelihood with which individuals may express migraine attacks. DISCUSSION: Recent discoveries provided evidence for both genetic and environmental influences on individual...

  11. Hypergravity upregulates renal inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nitric oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Gun; Oh, Choong Sik; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2016-05-24

    Exposure to hypergravity severely decreases renal blood flow, potentially causing renal dysfunction. Nitric oxide (NO), which is endogenously synthesized by inducible NO synthase (iNOS), plays an important role in the regulation of renal function. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of hypergravity exposure on the production of NO in kidneys. To determine whether hypergravity induces renal hypoxia and alters renal iNOS expression and NO production, mice were exposed to short-term hypergravity at +3Gz for 1 h. The time course of iNOS mRNA expression, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α expression, and NO production was examined. Renal HIF-1α levels were significantly elevated immediately after centrifugation, and this increase was sustained for 3 h post-exposure. iNOS mRNA levels were also significantly increased immediately after exposure and were maintained during the reoxygenation period. Immunohistochemical staining for iNOS revealed that the cortical tubular epithelium exhibited moderate to strong cytoplasmic iNOS immunoreactivity immediately after hypergravity exposure and during the reoxygenation period. The time course of NO production was similar to that of iNOS expression. Our results suggest that both hypoxia and reoxygenation might be involved in the upregulation of HIF-1α in the kidneys of mice exposed to hypergravity. Significant increases in renocortical iNOS expression immediately after centrifugation and during the reoxygenation period suggest that iNOS expression induced by hypergravity exposure might play a protective role against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury in the renal cortex. Further investigations are necessary to clarify the role of iNOS and NO in kidneys exposed to hypergravity.

  12. Inducible nitric oxide synthase is responsible for nitric oxide release from murine pituicytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, T H; Rivier, C; Lee, S

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated whether pituicytes were able to produce and release nitric oxide (NO), and which type of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) would be responsible for this phenomenon. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 1 micro g/ml was used as inflammatory mediator. Because pituicytes are known to secrete...

  13. Nitric Oxide Mediates Bleomycin-Induced Angiogenesis and Pulmonary Fibrosis via Regulation of VEGF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Anand Krishnan V.; Ramesh, Vani; Castro, Carlos A.; Kaushik, Vivek; Kulkarni, Yogesh M.; Wright, Clayton A.; Venkatadri, Rajkumar; Rojanasakul, Yon; Azad, Neelam

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive lung disease hallmarked by increased fibroblast proliferation, amplified levels of extracellular matrix deposition and increased angiogenesis. Although dysregulation of angiogenic mediators has been implicated in pulmonary fibrosis, the specific rate-limiting angiogenic markers involved and their role in the progression of pulmonary fibrosis remains unclear. We demonstrate that bleomycin treatment induces angiogenesis, and inhibition of the central angiogenic mediator VEGF using anti-VEGF antibody CBO-P11 significantly attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vivo. Bleomycin-induced nitric oxide (NO) was observed to be the key upstream regulator of VEGF via the PI3k/Akt pathway. VEGF regulated other important angiogenic proteins including PAI-1 and IL-8 in response to bleomycin exposure. Inhibition of NO and VEGF activity significantly mitigated bleomycin-induced angiogenic and fibrogenic responses. NO and VEGF are key mediators of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, and could serve as important targets against this debilitating disease. Overall, our data suggests an important role for angiogenic mediators in the pathogenesis of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:25919965

  14. Nitric Oxide Signaling in Hypergravity-Induced Neuronal Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein, Gay R.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this research project was to identify the neurons and circuits in the vestibular nuclei and nucleus prepositus hypoglossi that utilize nitric oxide (NO) for intercellular signaling during gravity-induced plasticity. This objective was pursued using histochemical and immunocytochemical approaches to localize NO-producing neurons and characterize the fine morphology of the cells in ground-based studies of normal rats, rats adapted to hypergravity, and rats adapted to hypergravity and then re-adapted to the 1G environment. NO-producing neurons were identified and studied using four methodologies: i) immunocytochemistry employing polyclonal antibodies directed against neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), to provide an indication of the capacity of a cell for NO production; ii) immunocytochemistry employing a monoclonal antibody directed against L-citrulline, to provide an indirect index of the enzyme's activity; iii) histochemistry based on the NADPH-diaphorase reaction, for fuI1 cytological visualization of neurons; and iv) double immunofluorescence to co-localize nNOS and L-citrulline in individual vestibular nuclei (VN) and neurons.

  15. Minocycline Attenuates Iron-Induced Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fan; Xi, Guohua; Liu, Wenqaun; Keep, Richard F; Hua, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Iron plays an important role in brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Our previous study found minocycline reduces iron overload after ICH. The present study examined the effects of minocycline on the subacute brain injury induced by iron. Rats had an intracaudate injection of 50 μl of saline, iron, or iron + minocycline. All the animals were euthanized at day 3. Rat brains were used for immunohistochemistry (n = 5-6 per each group) and Western blotting assay (n = 4). Brain swelling, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, and iron-handling proteins were measured. We found that intracerebral injection of iron resulted in brain swelling, BBB disruption, and brain iron-handling protein upregulation (p minocycline with iron significantly reduced iron-induced brain swelling (n = 5, p Minocycline significantly decreased albumin protein levels in the ipsilateral basal ganglia (p minocycline co-injected animals. In conclusion, the present study suggests that minocycline attenuates brain swelling and BBB disruption via an iron-chelation mechanism.

  16. Do tobacco stimulate the production of nitric oxide by up regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthesis in cancer: Immunohistochemical determination of inducible nitric oxide synthesis in oral squamous cell carcinoma - A comparative study in tobacco habituers and non-habituers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Karthik

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate the enhanced expression in OSCC of tobacco habituers when compared to OSCC of tobacco non-habituers indicating the effect of tobacco on nitric oxide. Carcinogenic chemical compounds in Tobacco induce nitric oxide production by iNOS, by its tumor-promoting effects which may enhance the process of carcinogenesis.

  17. Inducible nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity in healthy rat pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keklikoglu, Nurullah

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is produced by NO synthase (NOS) isoforms: neuronal NOS (nNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS). It is believed that, while nNOS and eNOS are effective in regulation of normal physiological processes, iNOS is expressed at an increasing rate especially in inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of iNOS immunoreactivity (iNOS-IR) and, to compare the iNOS-IR in islet of Langerhans cells (LC), acinar cells (AC), centroacinar cells (CC) and ductal cells (DC) by immunohistochemical (IHC) method in healthy rat pancreata. This study revealed the presence of iNOS-IR in all cell types except AC. Statistical analysis revealed a highly significant difference (preseach related to diabetes, it should not be disregarded that iNOS may be constitutively present in pancreatic islets.

  18. Effects of alpha-tocopherol on gingival expression of inducible nitric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-01

    or insulin on the number of gingival inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) positive cells in rats with experimental periodontitis with or without streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 ...

  19. Nitric Oxide Induces Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) Protein-dependent γH2AX Protein Formation in Pancreatic β Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Bryndon J.; Broniowska, Katarzyna A.; Schreiber, Katherine H.; Tarakanova, Vera L.; Corbett, John A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of cytokines on the activation of the DNA double strand break repair factors histone H2AX (H2AX) and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) were examined in pancreatic β cells. We show that cytokines stimulate H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX formation) in rat islets and insulinoma cells in a nitric oxide- and ATM-dependent manner. In contrast to the well documented role of ATM in DNA repair, ATM does not appear to participate in the repair of nitric oxide-induced DNA damage. Instead, nitric oxide-induced γH2AX formation correlates temporally with the onset of irreversible DNA damage and the induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, inhibition of ATM attenuates cytokine-induced caspase activation. These findings show that the formation of DNA double strand breaks correlates with ATM activation, irreversible DNA damage, and ATM-dependent induction of apoptosis in cytokine-treated β cells. PMID:24610783

  20. Carbamylated low-density lipoprotein attenuates glucose uptake via a nitric oxide-mediated pathway in rat L6 skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye-Jung; Lee, Kyoung Jae; Hwang, Eun Ah; Mun, Kyo-Cheol; Ha, Eunyoung

    2015-07-01

    Carbamylation is a cyanate-mediated posttranslational modification. We previously reported that carbamylated low-density lipoprotein (cLDL) increases reactive oxygen species and apoptosis via a lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor mediated pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. A recent study reported an association between cLDL and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In the current study, the effects of cLDL on glucose transport were explored in skeletal muscle cells. The effect of cLDL on glucose uptake, glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation, and signaling pathway were examined in cultured rat L6 muscle cells using 2-deoxyglucose uptake, immunofluorescence staining and western blot analysis. The quantity of nitric oxide (NO) was evaluated by the Griess reaction. The effect of native LDL (nLDL) from patients with chronic renal failure (CRF-nLDL) on glucose uptake was also determined. It was observed that cLDL significantly attenuated glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the membrane, which was mediated via the increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-induced NO production. Tyrosine nitration of the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS‑1) was increased. It was demonstrated that CRF-nLDL markedly reduced glucose uptake compared with nLDL from healthy subjects. Collectively, these findings indicate that cLDL, alone, attenuates glucose uptake via NO-mediated tyrosine nitration of IRS‑1 in L6 rat muscle cells and suggests the possibility that cLDL is involved in the pathogenesis of T2DM.

  1. Regulation of prostaglandin generation in carrageenan-induced pleurisy by inducible nitric oxide synthase in knockout mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, A.; Cuzzocrea, S.; Mazzon, E.; Serraino, I.; Sarro, A. de; Dugo, L.; Felice, M.R.; Loo, F.A.J. van de; Rosa, M. Di; Musci, G.; Caputi, A.P.; Sautebin, L.

    2003-01-01

    In the present study, by comparing the responses in wild-type mice (iNOSWT) and mice lacking (iNOSKO) the inducible (or type 2) nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), we investigated the correlation between endogenous nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) generation in carrageenan-induced pleurisy. The

  2. Smoking and gingivitis: focus on inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide and basic fibroblast growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, B; Özmeric, N; Elgün, S; Barış, E

    2016-10-01

    Periodontal disease pathogenesis has been associated with smoking. Gingivitis is a mild and reversible form of periodontal disease and it tends to progress to periodontitis only in susceptible individuals. In the present study, we aimed to examine the impact of smoking on host responses in gingivitis and to evaluate and compare the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity in gingival tissue and NO and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) levels in the gingival crevicular fluid of patients with gingivitis and healthy individuals. Forty-one participants were assigned to the gingivitis-smoker (n = 13), gingivitis (n = 13), healthy-smoker (n = 7) and healthy groups (n = 8). Clinical indices were recorded; gingival biopsy and gingival crevicular fluid samples were obtained from papillary regions. iNOS expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. The immunoreactive cells were semiquantitatively assessed. For the quantitative determination of nitrite and nitrate in gingival crevicular fluid, the NO assay kit was used. The amount of bFGF in gingival crevicular fluid was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The gingivitis-smoker group demonstrated a stronger iNOS expression than the non-smoker gingivitis group. iNOS expression intensity was lower in the non-smoker healthy group compared to that in healthy-smokers. No significant gingival crevicular fluid NO and bFGF level changes were observed between groups. Among patients with gingivitis, a positive correlation was detected between gingival crevicular fluid NO and bFGF levels (r = 0.806, p = 0.001). Our data suggest that smoking has significant effects on iNOS expression but not on gingival crevicular fluid NO or bFGF levels in healthy and patients with gingivitis. However, our results suggest that bFGF might be involved in the regulation of NO production via iNOS. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Nitric oxide synthase modulates CFA-induced thermal hyperalgesia through cytokine regulation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Boettger, Michael K; Reif, Andreas; Schmitt, Angelika; Uçeyler, Nurcan; Sommer, Claudia

    2010-03-02

    Although it has been largely demonstrated that nitric oxide synthase (NOS), a key enzyme for nitric oxide (NO) production, modulates inflammatory pain, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects remain to be clarified. Here we asked whether cytokines, which have well-described roles in inflammatory pain, are downstream targets of NO in inflammatory pain and which of the isoforms of NOS are involved in this process. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) pretreatment with 7-nitroindazole sodium salt (7-NINA, a selective neuronal NOS inhibitor), aminoguanidine hydrochloride (AG, a selective inducible NOS inhibitor), L-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a non-selective NOS inhibitor), but not L-N(5)-(1-iminoethyl)-ornithine (L-NIO, a selective endothelial NOS inhibitor), significantly attenuated thermal hyperalgesia induced by intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed a significant increase of nNOS, iNOS, and eNOS gene expression, as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene expression in plantar skin, following CFA. Pretreatment with the NOS inhibitors prevented the CFA-induced increase of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF and IL-1beta. The increase of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was augmented in mice pretreated with 7-NINA or L-NAME, but reduced in mice receiving AG or L-NIO. NNOS-, iNOS- or eNOS-knockout (KO) mice had lower gene expression of TNF, IL-1beta, and IL-10 following CFA, overall corroborating the inhibitor data. These findings lead us to propose that inhibition of NOS modulates inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia by regulating cytokine expression.

  4. Bone marrow-derived versus parenchymal sources of inducible nitric oxide synthase in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zehntner, Simone P; Bourbonniere, Lyne; Hassan-Zahraee, Mina

    2004-01-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) in central nervous system (CNS) inflammation is uncertain. Whereas experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is exacerbated in mice deficient in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), inhibitor studies have suggested a pro-inflammatory role for NO. These discr...

  5. Nitric oxide induces morphological changes in cultured neurohypophysial astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsell, K D; Cobbett, P

    1996-03-01

    Cultured pituicytes, derived from the neurohypophysis of adult rats, have previously been reported to change from a non-stellate form to a stellate form when incubated in medium containing a beta-adrenoreceptor agonist. This study was designed to determine whether the same morphological change could be induced by direct activation of adenylate cyclase or of soluble guanylate cyclase. The fraction of stellate cells was normally low (< 0.25) when the pituicytes were incubated (90 min) in a HEPES buffered salt solution (HBSS); most pituicytes had an amorphous protoplasmic appearance. The fraction of stellate cells was significantly increased when pituicytes were incubated in HBSS supplemented with isoproterenol (10 microM) or forskolin (5 microM) or with either of the nitric oxide donors nitroprusside (10-25 microM) and 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1; 10 microM). The effect of forskolin was mimicked by 8-bromo cyclic AMP, a membrane permeable analog of cyclic AMP, but not by the inactive forskolin analog 1, 9 dideoxyforskolin. The effect of nitroprusside was blocked by methylene blue, an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase, and was mimicked by 8-bromo cyclic GMP, a membrane permeable analog of cyclic GMP. These results demonstrate that activation of adenylate cyclase and also of soluble guanylate cyclase can induce pituicytes to undergo morphological changes in vitro. The data suggest that the activity of both enzymes may be important in control of the plastic relationship that exists between neuronal and glial elements in the neurohypophysis in vivo.

  6. The Neurokinin-1 Receptor Modulates the Methamphetamine-Induced Striatal Apoptosis and Nitric Oxide Formation in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Judy; Xu, Wenjing; Wang, Jing; Ali, Syed F.; Angulo, Jesus A.

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study we showed that pharmacological blockade of the neurokinin-1 receptors attenuated the methamphetamine-induced toxicity of the striatal dopamine terminals. In the present study we examined the role of the neurokinin-1 receptors on the methamphetamine-induced apoptosis of some striatal neurons. To that end, we administered a single injection of METH (30 mg/kg, i.p.) to male mice. METH induced the apoptosis (TUNEL) of approximately 20% of striatal neurons. This percentage of METH-induced apoptosis was significantly attenuated by either a single injection of the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist WIN-51,708 (5 mg/kg, i.p.) or the ablation of the striatal interneurons expressing the neurokinin-1 receptors (cholinergic and somatostatin) with the selective neurotoxin [Sar9,Met(O2)11] substance P-saporin. Next we assessed the levels of striatal 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) by HPLC and immunohistochemistry. METH increased the levels of striatal 3-NT and this increase was attenuated by pretreatment with WIN-51,708. Our data support the hypothesis that METH-induced striatal apoptosis occurs via a mechanism involving the neurokinin-1 receptors and the activation of nitric oxide synthesis. Our findings are relevant for the treatment of METH abuse and may be relevant to certain neurological disorders involving the dopaminergic circuitry of the basal ganglia. PMID:19682209

  7. Influence of nitric oxide on histamine and carbachol – induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed to determine the influence of nitric oxide (NO) on the action of histamine and carbachol on acid secretion in the common African toad – Bufo regularis. Gastric acidity was determined by titration method. The acid secretion was determined when nitric oxide was absent following administration of NO synthase ...

  8. Nitric oxide modulates interleukin-2-induced proliferation in CTLL-2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Padrón

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the L-arginine–nitric oxide metabolic pathway was explored for interleukin-2-induced proliferation in the cytotoxic T lymphocyte clone CTLL-2. Specific inhibition of nitric oxide synthase significantly diminished, in a concentration-dependent manner, 3H-thymidine uptake of CTLL-2 cells in response to different concentrations of interleukin 2. Withdrawal of L-arginine from culture medium resulted as potent as the higher inhibition obtained when blocking nitric oxide synthase with L-arginine analogues. Furthermore, intermedial concentrations of Larginine and exogenous nitric oxide donors were found for achieving optimal IL2-induced proliferation of CTLL-2. These findings prompted us to suggest that intra- and/or inter-cellular nitric oxide signalling may contribute to the modulation of the IL2 mitogenic effect upon cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

  9. Nitric oxide synthase inhibitor improves de novo and long-term L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in hemiparkinsonian rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Eduardo Padovan-Neto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of neuronal and endothelial nitric oxide synthase decrease l-3,4-dihidroxifenilalanine (L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in rodents. The mechanism of nitric oxide inhibitor action is unknown. The aims of the present study were to investigate the decrease of L-DOPA-induced abnormal involuntary movements in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA-lesioned rats by nitric oxide inhibitors following either acute or chronic treatment. The primary findings of this study were that NG-nitro-L-Arginine, an inhibitor of endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase, attenuated abnormal involuntary movements induced by chronic and acute L-DOPA. In contrast, rotational behavior was attenuated only after chronic L-DOPA. L-DOPA improved stepping test performance, and its chronic administration did not alter open field behavior. Our results indicated a correlation between apomorphine-induced rotation and the decrease in the number of adjusting steps performed with the contralateral forepaw in the 6-OHDA-lesioned rats.The 6-OHDA lesion and the L-DOPA treatment induced a bilateral increase (1.5 times in the nNOS protein and nNOS mRNA in the striatum and in the frontal cortex. There was a parallel increase, bilaterally, of the FosB/ΔFosB, primarily in the ipsilateral striatum. The exception was in the contralateral striatum and the ipsilateral frontal cortex, where chronic L-DOPA treatment induced an increase of approximately 10 times the nNOS mRNA. Our results provided further evidence of an anti-dyskinetic effect of NOS inhibitor. The effect appeared under L-DOPA acute and chronic treatment. The L-DOPA treatment also revealed an over-expression of the neuronal NOS in the frontal cortex and striatum. Our results corroborated findings that L-DOPA-induced rotation differs between acute and chronic treatment. The effect of the NOS inhibitor conceivably relied on the L-DOPA structural modifications in the parkinsonian brain. Taken together, these data provided a rationale

  10. Inducible nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity in healthy rat pancreas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurullah Keklikoglu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is produced by NO synthase (NOS isoforms: neuronal NOS (nNOS, endothelial NOS (eNOS and inducible NOS (iNOS. It is believed that, while nNOS and eNOS are effective in regulation of normal physiological processes, iNOS is expressed at an increasing rate especially in inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of iNOS immunoreactivity (iNOS-IR and, to compare the iNOS-IR in islet of Langerhans cells (LC, acinar cells (AC, centroacinar cells (CC and ductal cells (DC by immunohistochemical (IHC method in healthy rat pancreata. This study revealed the presence of iNOS-IR in all cell types except AC. Statistical analysis revealed a highly significant difference (p<0.001 with respect to iNOS-IR in comparison of all cell types. However, binary comparison of cell types revealed no significant differences between LC and DC (p=0.136, significant differences LC and CC, CC and DC (p=0.001 and 0.022, respectively and a highly significant differences LC and AC, AC and DC (P<0.001. The results of this study indicate that iNOS-IR is present in almost all LC. Thus, especially in reseach related to diabetes, it should not be disregarded that iNOS may be constitutively present in pancreatic islets.

  11. Melatonin Attenuates Manganese and Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Activation of BV2 Microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Euteum; Chun, Hong Sung

    2017-02-01

    Melatonin, a naturally occurring neurohormone in the pineal gland, has been shown to exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. This study examined the effects of melatonin on manganese (Mn) and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation. Melatonin (10 μM) inhibited Mn (100 μM) and/or LPS (0.5 μg/ml)-induced phagocytotic activity of activated BV2 microglia. It also inhibited the lipid peroxidation and intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion induced by Mn and/or LPS. Melatonin effectively suppressed the upregulation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) at both mRNA and protein levels in Mn and/or LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia. In addition, melatonin pretreatment attenuated Mn and/or LPS-induced degradation of IκB-α, nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and its activation, and the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) in BV2 microglial cells. These results suggest that melatonin can effectively modulate phagocytosis and expression of proinflammatory mediators, and can prevent neuroinflammatory disorders accompanied by microglial activation.

  12. In vivo Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Experimentally Induced Neurologic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprowski, Hilary; Zheng, Yong Mu; Heber-Katz, Ellen; Fraser, Nigel; Rorke, Lucy; Fu, Zhen Fang; Hanlon, Cathleen; Dietzschold, Bernhard

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA in the brain tissue of rats and mice under the following experimental conditions: in rats infected with borna disease virus and rabies virus, in mice infected with herpes simplex virus, and in rats after the induction of experimental allergic encephalitis. The results showed that iNOS mRNA, normally nondetectable in the brain, was present in animals after viral infection or after induction of experimental allergic encephalitis. The induction of iNOS mRNA coincided with the severity of clinical signs and in some cases with the presence of inflammatory cells in the brain. The results indicate that nitric oxide produced by cells induced by iNOS may be the toxic factor accounting for cell damage and this may open the door to approaches to the study of the pathogenesis of neurological diseases.

  13. Exhaled nitric oxide dynamics in asthmatic reactions induced by diisocyanates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, P; Scarpa, M C; Guarnieri, G; Giordano, G; Baraldi, E; Maestrelli, P

    2016-12-01

    Isocyanate-induced asthmatic reactions are associated with delayed increase in fractional exhaled nitric oxide measured at expiratory flow of 50 mL/s (FeNO50), a biomarker of airway inflammation. The time course of FeNO increase is compatible with the activation of NO synthase, but the origin of NO production in the lung is undetermined. The aim of this study was to define the dynamics of airway and alveolar NO during specific inhalation challenge (SIC) with isocyanates and the role of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthase. Spirometry, exhaled NO parameters (FeNO50, bronchial wall NO concentration, NO airway diffusing capacity, NO flux to luminal space, alveolar NO) and ADMA levels in exhaled breath condensate were measured before and at intervals up to 24 h after exposure to isocyanates. The results were compared between 17 SIC-positive and eight SIC-negative subjects. A significant FeNO50 increase in SIC-positive subjects was detected 24 h after exposure and was associated with the augmented NO flux from airway wall to the lumen, whereas airway NO diffusion and alveolar NO were not affected. The changes in NO dynamics were specific for the subjects who developed an asthmatic reaction, but were independent from the pattern and magnitude of bronchoconstriction. There was no evidence that exhaled NO is modulated by the changes in ADMA concentration. Because isocyanate-induced increase in FeNO50 was almost exclusively determined by the increase in NO flux, the use of FeNO50 appears adequate to monitor the exhaled NO dynamics during SIC. FeNO50 measurement may provide additional information to spirometry, because bronchoconstriction and airway inflammatory responses are dissociated. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The effect of thalidomide on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in mice: involvement of inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirshahrokhi, Keyvan; Khalili, Ali-Reza

    2015-01-05

    Excessive ethanol ingestion causes gastric mucosal damage through the inflammatory and oxidative processes. The present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of thalidomide on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in mice. The animals were pretreated with vehicle or thalidomide (30 or 60 mg/kg, orally), and one hour later, the gastric mucosal injury was induced by oral administration of acidified ethanol. The animals were euthanized one hour after ethanol ingestion, and gastric tissues were collected to biochemical analyzes. The gastric mucosal lesions were assessed by macroscopic and histopathological examinations. The results showed that treatment of mice with thalidomide prior to the administration of ethanol dose-dependently reduced the gastric ulcer index. Thalidomide pretreatment significantly reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6], malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In addition, thalidomide significantly inhibited ethanol-induced nitric oxide (NO) overproduction in gastric tissue. Histological observations showed that ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage was attenuated by thalidomide pretreatment. It seems that thalidomide as an anti-inflammatory agent may have a protective effect against alcohol-induced mucosal damage by inhibition of neutrophil infiltration and reducing the production of nitric oxide and inflammatory cytokines in gastric tissue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An iso-α-acid-rich extract from hops (Humulus lupulus) attenuates acute alcohol-induced liver steatosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hege, Marianne; Jung, Finn; Sellmann, Cathrin; Jin, Chengjun; Ziegenhardt, Doreen; Hellerbrand, Claus; Bergheim, Ina

    2018-01-01

    Results of in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that consumption of beer is less harmful for the liver than consumption of spirits. It also has been suggested that secondary plant compounds derived from hops such as xanthohumol or iso-α-acids may have beneficial effects on the development of liver diseases of various etiologies. The aim of this study was to determine whether iso-α-acids consumed in doses achieved by "normal" beer consumption have beneficial effects on health. Female C57 Bl/6 J mice, pretreated for 4 d with an iso-α-acid-rich extract (∼30% iso-α-acids from hops, 0.75 mg/kg body weight), were fed one bolus of ethanol (6 g/kg body weight intragastric) or an iso-caloric maltodextrin solution. Markers of liver damage, toll-like receptor-4 signaling, and lipid peroxidation were determined. Furthermore, the effect of isohumulone on the lipopolysaccharide-dependent activation of J774 A.1 macrophages, used as a model of Kupffer cells, was determined. In the liver, acute ethanol administration led to a significant accumulation of fat (∼10-fold), which was accompanied by significantly higher inducible nitric oxide synthase protein level, elevated nitric oxide production, and increased plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 protein concentration when compared to controls. In mice pretreated with iso-α-acids, these effects of alcohol were markedly attenuated. Pretreatment of J774 A.1 macrophages with isohumulone significantly attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and interleukin-6 as well as the release of nitric oxide. Taken together, iso-α-acids markedly attenuated the development of acute alcohol-induced damage in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Role of inducible nitric oxide synthase pathway on methotrexate-induced intestinal mucositis in rodents

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    Siqueira Francisco JWS

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methotrexate treatment has been associated to intestinal epithelial damage. Studies have suggested an important role of nitric oxide in such injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO, specifically iNOS on the pathogenesis of methotrexate (MTX-induced intestinal mucositis. Methods Intestinal mucositis was carried out by three subcutaneous MTX injections (2.5 mg/kg in Wistar rats and in inducible nitric oxide synthase knock-out (iNOS-/- and wild-type (iNOS+/+ mice. Rats were treated intraperitoneally with the NOS inhibitors aminoguanidine (AG; 10 mg/Kg or L-NAME (20 mg/Kg, one hour before MTX injection and daily until sacrifice, on the fifth day. The jejunum was harvested to investigate the expression of Ki67, iNOS and nitrotyrosine by immunohistochemistry and cell death by TUNEL. The neutrophil activity by myeloperoxidase (MPO assay was performed in the three small intestine segments. Results AG and L-NAME significantly reduced villus and crypt damages, inflammatory alterations, cell death, MPO activity, and nitrotyrosine immunostaining due to MTX challenge. The treatment with AG, but not L-NAME, prevented the inhibitory effect of MTX on cell proliferation. MTX induced increased expression of iNOS detected by immunohistochemistry. MTX did not cause significant inflammation in the iNOS-/- mice. Conclusion These results suggest an important role of NO, via activation of iNOS, in the pathogenesis of intestinal mucositis.

  17. Inorganic Polyphosphate Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) Expression in Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kana; Shiba, Toshikazu; Doi, Kazuya; Morita, Koji; Kubo, Takayasu; Makihara, Yusuke; Piattelli, Adriano; Akagawa, Yasumasa

    2013-01-01

    In response to infection, macrophages produce a series of inflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide (NO), to eliminate pathogens. The production of these molecules is tightly regulated via various mechanisms, as excessive responses are often detrimental to host tissues. Here, we report that inorganic polyphosphate [poly(P)], a linear polymer of orthophosphate ubiquitously found in mammalian cells, suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a cell wall component of Gram-negative bacteria, in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Poly(P) with longer chains is more potent than those with shorter chains in suppressing LPS-induced iNOS expression. In addition, poly(P) decreased LPS-induced NO release. Moreover, poly(P) suppressed iNOS mRNA expression induced by LPS stimulation, thereby indicating that poly(P) reduces LPS-induced iNOS expression by down-regulation at the mRNA level. In contrast, poly(P) did not affect the LPS-induced release of TNF, another inflammatory mediator. Poly(P) may serve as a regulatory factor of innate immunity by modulating iNOS expression in macrophages. PMID:24040305

  18. Nitric Oxide Synthase Promotes Distension-Induced Tracheal Venular Leukocyte Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldobaeva, Aigul; Rentsendorj, Otgonchimeg; Jenkins, John; Wagner, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    The process of leukocyte recruitment to the airways in real time has not been extensively studied, yet airway inflammation persists as a major contributor to lung pathology. We showed previously in vivo, that neutrophils are recruited acutely to the large airways after periods of airway distension imposed by the application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Given extensive literature implicating products of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in lung injury after ventilatory over-distension, we questioned whether similar mechanisms exist in airway post-capillary venules. Yet, endothelial nitric oxide has been shown to be largely anti-inflammatory in other systemic venules. Using intravital microscopy to visualize post-capillary tracheal venules in anesthetized, ventilated mice, the number of adherent leukocytes was significantly decreased in eNOS-/- mice under baseline conditions (2±1 cell/60 min observation) vs wild type (WT) C57BL/6 mice (7±2 cells). After exposure to PEEP (8 cmH2O for 1 min; 5 times), adherent cells increased significantly (29±5 cells) in WT mice while eNOS-/- mice demonstrated a significantly decreased number of adherent cells (11±4 cells) after PEEP. A similar response was seen when thrombin was used as the pro-inflammatory stimulus. In addition, mouse tracheal venular endothelial cells studied in vitro after exposure to cyclic stretch (18% elongation) or thrombin both demonstrated increased p-selectin expression that was significantly attenuated by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) and excess BH4. In vivo treatment with the ROS inhibitor NACA or co-factor BH4 abolished completely the PEEP-induced leukocyte adherence. These results suggest that pro-inflammatory stimuli cause leukocyte recruitment to tracheal endothelium in part due to eNOS uncoupling. PMID:25181540

  19. Inducible nitric oxide inhibitors block NMDA antagonist-stimulated motoric behaviors and medial prefrontal cortical glutamate efflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadley C Bergstrom

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO plays a critical role in the motoric and glutamate releasing action of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA-antagonist stimulants. Earlier studies utilized neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors (nNOS for studying the neurobehavioral effects of noncompetitive NMDA-antagonist stimulants such as dizocilpine (MK-801 and phencyclidine (PCP. This study explores the role of the inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors (iNOS aminoguanidine (AG and (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG in NMDA-antagonist induced motoric behavior and prefrontal cortical glutamate efflux. Adult male rats were administered a dose range of AG, EGCG or vehicle prior to receiving NMDA antagonists MK-801, PCP or a conventional psychostimulant (cocaine and tested for motoric behavior in an open arena. Glutamate in the medial prefrontal cortex was measured using in vivo microdialysis after a combination of AG or EGCG prior to MK-801. Acute administration of AG or EGCG dose-dependently attenuated the locomotor and ataxic properties of MK-801 and PCP. Both AG and EGCG were unable to block the motoric effects of cocaine, indicating the acute pharmacologic action of AG and EGCG is specific to NMDA antagonism and not generalizable to all stimulant class drugs. AG and EGCG normalized MK-801-stimulated medial prefrontal cortical glutamate efflux. These data demonstrate that AG and EGCG attenuates NMDA antagonist-stimulated motoric behavior and cortical glutamate efflux. Our results suggest that EGCG-like polyphenol nutraceuticals (contained in green tea and chocolate may be clinically useful in protecting against the adverse behavioral dissociative and cortical glutamate stimulating effects of NMDA antagonists. Medications that interfere with NMDA antagonists such as MK-801 and PCP have been proposed as treatments for schizophrenia.

  20. Leptin Inhibits the Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Induced by Angiotensin II through Nitric Oxide-Dependent Mechanisms

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    Amaia Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study was designed to investigate whether leptin modifies angiotensin (Ang II-induced proliferation of aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs from 10-week-old male Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, and the possible role of nitric oxide (NO. Methods. NO and NO synthase (NOS activity were assessed by the Griess and 3H-arginine/citrulline conversion assays, respectively. Inducible NOS (iNOS and NADPH oxidase subutnit Nox2 expression was determined by Western-blot. The proliferative responses to Ang II were evaluated through enzymatic methods. Results. Leptin inhibited the Ang II-induced proliferative response of VSMCs from control rats. This inhibitory effect of leptin was abolished by NOS inhibitor, NMMA, and iNOS selective inhibitor, L-NIL, and was not observed in leptin receptor-deficient fa/fa rats. SHR showed increased serum leptin concentrations and lipid peroxidation. Despite a similar leptin-induced iNOS up-regulation, VSMCs from SHR showed an impaired NOS activity and NO production induced by leptin, and an increased basal Nox2 expression. The inhibitory effect of leptin on Ang II-induced VSMC proliferation was attenuated. Conclusion. Leptin blocks the proliferative response to Ang II through NO-dependent mechanisms. The attenuation of this inhibitory effect of leptin in spontaneous hypertension appears to be due to a reduced NO bioavailability in VSMCs.

  1. Dopamine inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production through the formation of dopamine quinone in murine microglia BV-2 cells

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    Yasuhiro Yoshioka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA has been suggested to modulate functions of glial cells including microglial cells. To reveal the regulatory role of DA in microglial function, in the present study, we investigated the effect of DA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO production in murine microglial cell line BV-2. Pretreatment with DA for 24 h concentration-dependently attenuated LPS-induced NO production in BV-2 cells. The inhibitory effect of DA on LPS-induced NO production was not inhibited by SCH-23390 and sulpiride, D1-like and D2-like DA receptor antagonists, respectively. In addition, pretreatment with (−-(6aR,12bR-4,6,6a,7,8,12b-Hexahydro-7-methylindolo[4,3-a]phenanthridin (CY 208–243 and bromocriptine, D1-like and D2-like DA receptor agonists, respectively, did not affect the LPS-induced NO production. N-Acetylcysteine, which inhibits DA oxidation, completely inhibited the effect of DA. Tyrosinase, which catalyzes the oxidation of DA to DA quionone (DAQ, accelerated the inhibitory effect of DA on LPS-induced NO production. These results suggest that DA attenuates LPS-induced NO production through the formation of DAQ in BV-2 cells.

  2. S-Adenosylmethionine modulates inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in rat liver and isolated hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majano, P L; García-Monzón, C; García-Trevijano, E R; Corrales, F J; Cámara, J; Ortiz, P; Mato, J M; Avila, M A; Moreno-Otero, R

    2001-12-01

    Hepatocellular availability of S-adenosylmethionine, the principal biological methyl donor, is compromised in situations of liver damage. S-Adenosylmethionine administration alleviates experimental liver injury and increases survival in cirrhotic patients. The mechanisms behind these beneficial effects of S-adenosylmethionine are not completely known. An inflammatory component is common to many of the pathological conditions in which S-adenosylmethionine grants protection to the liver. This notion led us to study the effect of S-adenosylmethionine administration on hepatic nitric oxide synthase-2 induction in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide and proinflammatory cytokines. The effect of S-adenosylmethionine on nitric oxide synthase-2 expression was assessed in rats challenged with bacterial lipopolysaccharide and in isolated rat hepatocytes treated with proinflammatory cytokines. Interactions between S-adenosylmethionine and cytokines on nuclear factor kappa B activation and nitric oxide synthase-2 promoter transactivation were studied in isolated rat hepatocytes and HepG2 cells, respectively. S-Adenosylmethionine attenuated the induction of nitric oxide synthase-2 in the liver of lipopolysaccharide-treated rats and in cytokine-treated hepatocytes. S-Adenosylmethionine accelerated the resynthesis of inhibitor kappa B alpha, blunted the activation of nuclear factor kappa B and reduced the transactivation of nitric oxide synthase-2 promoter. Our findings indicate that the hepatoprotective actions of S-adenosylmethionine may be mediated in part through the modulation of nitric oxide production.

  3. Inducible nitric oxide synthase haplotype associated with migraine and aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de O S Mansur, Thiago; Gonçalves, Flavia M; Martins-Oliveira, Alisson; Speciali, Jose G; Dach, Fabiola; Lacchini, Riccardo; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2012-05-01

    Migraine is a complex neurological disorder with a clear neurogenic inflammatory component apparently including enhanced nitric oxide (NO) formation. Excessive NO amounts possibly contributing to migraine are derived from increased expression and activity of inducible NO synthase (iNOS). We tested the hypothesis that two functional, clinically relevant iNOS genetic polymorphisms (C(-1026)A-rs2779249 and G2087A-rs2297518) are associated with migraine with or without aura. We studied 142 healthy women without migraine (control group) and 200 women with migraine divided into two groups: 148 with migraine without aura (MWA) and 52 with aura (MA). Genotypes were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction using the Taqman(®) allele discrimination assays. The PHASE 2.1 software was used to estimate the haplotypes. The A allele for the G2087A polymorphism was more commonly found in the MA group than in the MWA group (28 vs. 18%; P 0.05). The haplotype combining both A alleles for the two polymorphisms was more commonly found in the MA group than in the control group or in the MWA group (19 vs. 10 or 8%; P = 0.0245 or 0.0027, respectively). Our findings indicate that the G2087A and the C(-1026)A polymorphism in the iNOS gene affect the susceptibility to migraine with aura when their effects are combined within haplotypes, whereas the G2087A affects the susceptibility to aura in migraine patients. These finding may have therapeutic implications when examining the effects of selective iNOS inhibitors.

  4. Propolis attenuates oxidative injury in brain and lung of nitric oxide synthase inhibited rats

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    Zeliha Selamoglu-Talas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The blocking of nitric oxide synthase (NOS activity may reason vasoconstriction with formation of reactive oxygen species. Propolis has biological and pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant. The aim of this study was to examine the antioxidant effects of propolis which natural product on biochemical parameters in brain and lung tissues of acute nitric oxide synthase inhibited rats by Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME.Methods: Rats have been received L-NAME (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, NOS inhibitor for 15 days to produce hypertension and propolis (200mg/kg, by gavage the lastest 5 of 15 days.Results: There  were  the  increase  (P<0.001  in  the  malondialdehyde  levels  in  the  L-NAME treatment groups when compared to control rats, but the decrease (P<0.001 in the catalase activities in both brain and lung tissues. There were statistically changes (P<0.001 in these parameters of L-NAME+propolis treated rats as compared with L-NAME-treated group.Conclusion: The application of L-NAME to the Wistar rats resulted in well developed oxidative stress. Also, propolis may influence endothelial NO production. Identification of such compounds and characterisation of their cellular actions may increase our knowledge of the regulation of endothelial NO production and could provide valuable clues for the prevention or treatment of hypertensive diseases and oxidative stress.

  5. Inhibition or knock out of Inducible nitric oxide synthase result in resistance to bleomycin-induced lung injury

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    Crimi Nunzio

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the present study, by comparing the responses in wild-type mice (WT and mice lacking (KO the inducible (or type 2 nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, we investigated the role played by iNOS in the development of on the lung injury caused by bleomycin administration. When compared to bleomycin-treated iNOSWT mice, iNOSKO mice, which had received bleomycin, exhibited a reduced degree of the (i lost of body weight, (ii mortality rate, (iii infiltration of the lung with polymorphonuclear neutrophils (MPO activity, (iv edema formation, (v histological evidence of lung injury, (vi lung collagen deposition and (vii lung Transforming Growth Factor beta1 (TGF-β1 expression. Methods Mice subjected to intratracheal administration of bleomycin developed a significant lung injury. Immunohistochemical analysis for nitrotyrosine revealed a positive staining in lungs from bleomycin-treated iNOSWT mice. Results The intensity and degree of nitrotyrosine staining was markedly reduced in tissue section from bleomycin-iNOSKO mice. Treatment of iNOSWT mice with of GW274150, a novel, potent and selective inhibitor of iNOS activity (5 mg/kg i.p. also significantly attenuated all of the above indicators of lung damage and inflammation. Conclusion Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate that iNOS plays an important role in the lung injury induced by bleomycin in the mice.

  6. Alterations of inducible and constitutive nitric oxide synthase after hippocampal injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, M; Ghahari, L

    2009-08-15

    The aim of this study was to study the changes of inducible and constitutive Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) after brain injury. In order to brain injury 42 wistar rats were submitted and divided in 7 groups. Nitric oxide synthase activities were assayed at different times after injury. Present results showed that a significant increase of iNOS and cNOS activity 8 h after lesion. In conclusion, both isoformes of NOS increase at different time after brain injury.

  7. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthases abrogates pregnancy-induced uterine vascular expansive remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osol, George; Barron, Carolyn; Gokina, Natalia; Mandala, Maurizio

    2009-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to test the hypothesis that hypertension and/or inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthases alters uterine vascular remodeling during pregnancy. Using a model of hypertension (NO synthase inhibition with L-NAME) in nonpregnant and pregnant rats, comparisons were made with age-matched controls, as well as with animals receiving hydralazine along with L-NAME to maintain normotension in the presence of NO synthase inhibition. Circumferential and axial remodeling of large (main uterine, MUA) and small (premyometrial radial) arteries were quantified and compared. L-NAME treatment prevented expansive circumferential remodeling of the MUA; cotreatment with hydralazine was without effect. Circumferential remodeling of smaller premyometrial radial arteries was also significantly attenuated in hypertensive pregnant animals, while premyometrial radial arteries from rats receiving hydralazine with L-NAME were of intermediate diameter. Neither hypertension nor NO synthase inhibition had any effect on the substantial (200-300%) axial growth of MUA or premyometrial radial arteries. NO plays a major role in facilitating pregnancy-induced expansive remodeling in the uterine circulation, particularly in larger arteries. Some beneficial effects of hydralazine on expansive circumferential remodeling were noted in smaller radial vessels, and these may be linked to its prevention of systemic hypertension and/or to local effects on the arterial wall. Neither NO synthase inhibition nor hypertension had any effect on arterial longitudinal growth.

  8. Quebrachitol-induced gastroprotection against acute gastric lesions: role of prostaglandins, nitric oxide and K+ ATP channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Olinda, T M; Lemos, T L G; Machado, L L; Rao, V S; Santos, F A

    2008-05-01

    The effect of Quebrachitol (2-O-methyl-L-inositol), a bioactive component from Magonia glabrata fruit extract was investigated against gastric damage induced by absolute ethanol (96%, 0.2 ml/animal) and indomethacin (30 mg/kg, p.o.), in mice. Quebrachitol at oral doses of 12.5, 25, and 50mg/kg markedly attenuated the gastric lesions induced by ethanol to the extent of 69%, 64%, and 53% and against indomethacin by 55%, 59%, and 26%, respectively. While pretreatment with TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine (5mg/kg, i.p.) failed to block effectively the gastroprotective effect of quebrachitol (25mg/kg) against ethanol damage, the non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (10mg/kg, p.o.), almost abolished it. Furthermore, quebrachitol effect was significantly reduced in mice pretreated with L-NAME, or glibenclamide, the respective inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase and K(+)(ATP) channel activation. Thus we provide the first evidence that quebrachitol reduces the gastric damage induced by ethanol and indomethacin, at least in part, by mechanisms that involve endogenous prostaglandins, nitric oxide release, and or the activation of K(+)(ATP) channels.

  9. (-)-Epicatechin-induced recovery of mitochondria from simulated diabetes: Potential role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Sánchez, Israel; Rodríguez, Alonso; Moreno-Ulloa, Aldo; Ceballos, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco

    2016-05-01

    (-)-Epicatechin increases indicators associated with mitochondrial biogenesis in endothelial cells and myocardium. We investigated endothelial nitric oxide synthase involvement on (-)-epicatechin-induced increases in indicators associated with mitochondrial biogenesis in human coronary artery endothelial cells cultured in normal-glucose and high-glucose media, as well as to restore indicators of cardiac mitochondria from the effects of simulated diabetes. Here, we demonstrate the role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase on (-)-epicatechin-induced increases in mitochondrial proteins, transcription factors and sirtuin 1 under normal-glucose conditions. In simulated diabetes endothelial nitric oxide synthase function, mitochondrial function-associated and biogenesis-associated indicators were adversely impacted by high glucose, effects that were reverted by (-)-epicatechin. As an animal model of type 2 diabetes, 2-month old C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet for 16 weeks. Fasting and fed blood glucose levels were increased and NO plasma levels decreased. High-fat-diet-fed mice myocardium revealed endothelial nitric oxide synthase dysfunction, reduced mitochondrial activity and markers of mitochondrial biogenesis. The administration of 1 mg/kg (-)-epicatechin for 15 days by oral gavage shifted these endpoints towards control mice values. Results suggest that endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediates (-)-epicatechin-induced increases of indicators associated with mitochondrial biogenesis in endothelial cells. (-)-Epicatechin also counteracts the negative effects that high glucose or simulated type 2 diabetes has on endothelial nitric oxide synthase function. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Methanol Extract of Codonopsis pilosula Inhibits Inducible Nitric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the mechanism of antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of Codonopsis pilosula. Methods: Anti-oxidative properties were assessed by measuring free radical scavenging activity, nitric oxide (NO) levels, protein oxidation and reducing power, while the mechanism of antioxidative effect of ...

  11. Attenuation of IL-32-induced caspase-1 and nuclear factor-κB activations by acteoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sun-Young; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2015-12-01

    Acteoside has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentials. Nevertheless, little information is available about the pharmacological mechanism of acteoside. Here, we report the regulatory effects and underlying mechanisms of acteoside on interleukin (IL)-32-induced inflammatory reactions using human monocytes cells line, THP-1 cells. Acteoside suppressed IL-32-induced macrophage-like cells differentiation. Levels of thymic stromal lymphopoietin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-1β, and IL-8 increased by IL-32 or LPS were significantly reduced by treatment with acteoside in THP-1 cells. Acteoside attenuated IL-32-induced caspase-1 and nuclear factor-κB activations in THP-1 cells. In IL-32-induced macrophages, acteoside significantly reduced LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 production. In addition, production of nitric oxide (NO) and expression of inducible NO synthase increased by LPS were significantly decreased by treatment with acteoside in IL-32-induced macrophages. Our data suggest that acteoside exhibits an anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing IL-32 signaling pathway. Collectively, the results indicate that acteoside may act as a regulator of the IL-32 induced immune responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Large Negative Stress Phase Angle (SPA) attenuates nitric oxide production in bovine aortic endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancu, Michael B; Tarbell, John M

    2006-06-01

    Hemodynamics plays an important role in cardiovascular physiology and pathology. Pulsatile flow (Q), pressure (P), and diameter (D) waveforms exert wall shear stress (WSS), normal stress, and circumferential strain (CS) on blood vessels. Most in vitro studies to date have focused on either WSS or CS but not their interaction. Recently, we have shown that concomitant WSS and CS affect EC biochemical response modulated by the temporal phase angle between WSS and CS (stress phase angle, SPA). Large negative SPA has been shown to occur in regions of the circulation where atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia are prevalent. Here, we report that nitric oxide (NO) biochemical secretion was significantly decreased in response to a large negative SPA of -180 deg with respect to an SPA of 0 degrees in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) at 5 h. A new hemodynamic simulator for the study of the physiologic SPA was used to provide the hemodynamic conditions of pro-atherogenic (SPA = -180 deg) and normopathic (SPA = 0 deg) states. The role of complex hemodynamics in vascular remodeling, homeostasis, and pathogenesis can be advanced by further assessment of the hypothesis that a large negative SPA is pro-atherogenic.

  13. Wogonin Induces Eosinophil Apoptosis and Attenuates Allergic Airway Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorward, David A.; Sharma, Sidharth; Rennie, Jillian; Felton, Jennifer M.; Alessandri, Ana L.; Duffin, Rodger; Schwarze, Jurgen; Haslett, Christopher; Rossi, Adriano G.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Eosinophils are key effector cells in allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, eczema, and asthma. Their tissue presence is regulated by both recruitment and increased longevity at inflamed sites. Objectives: To investigate the ability of the flavone wogonin to induce eosinophil apoptosis in vitro and attenuate eosinophil-dominant allergic inflammation in vivo in mice. Methods: Human and mouse eosinophil apoptosis in response to wogonin was investigated by cellular morphology, flow cytometry, mitochondrial membrane permeability, and pharmacological caspase inhibition. Allergic lung inflammation was modeled in mice sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung tissue were examined for inflammation, mucus production, and inflammatory mediator production. Airway hyperresponsiveness to aerosolized methacholine was measured. Measurements and Main Results: Wogonin induced time- and concentration-dependent human and mouse eosinophil apoptosis in vitro. Wogonin-induced eosinophil apoptosis occurred with activation of caspase-3 and was inhibited by pharmacological caspase inhibition. Wogonin administration attenuated allergic airway inflammation in vivo with reductions in BAL and interstitial eosinophil numbers, increased eosinophil apoptosis, reduced airway mucus production, and attenuated airway hyperresponsiveness. This wogonin-induced reduction in allergic airway inflammation was prevented by concurrent caspase inhibition in vivo. Conclusions: Wogonin induces eosinophil apoptosis and attenuates allergic airway inflammation, suggesting that it has therapeutic potential for the treatment of allergic inflammation in humans. PMID:25629436

  14. Effects of alpha‑tocopherol on gingival expression of inducible nitric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    or insulin on the number of gingival inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) positive cells in rats with experimental periodontitis with or without streptozotocin (STZ)‑induced diabetes. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 Sprague‑Dawley rats were ...

  15. Doxycycline Attenuates Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis by Prostaglandin E2-EP4 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingwen; Su, Wenru; Chen, Xiaoqing; Cheng, Xiaokang; Dai, Ye; Han, Longhui; Liang, Dan

    2015-10-01

    We explored the anti-inflammatory effects of doxycycline in experimental uveitis and the underlying mechanisms. Rats with endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) received doxycycline (1.5 mg/kg) or the control vehicle via intraperitoneal injection. Clinical scores were graded under a slit lamp. Rat peritoneal macrophages were used in vitro to further explore the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of doxycycline. The levels of nitric oxide (NO), TNF-α, IL-1β, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, I kappa B-α (IκB-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Akt, caspase-3, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) were analyzed. Treatment with doxycycline dramatically reduced the clinical scores of EIU (P doxycycline significantly inhibited the production of NO, IL-1β, and TNF-α in peritoneal macrophages by modulating the PI3K/Akt/IκB-α/NF-κB pathway. Importantly, we found that doxycycline significantly enhanced COX2 expression and PGE2 production both in vivo and in vitro. More importantly, blockade of the EP4 receptor of PGE2 significantly reversed the doxycycline-mediated inhibition of macrophages and the PI3K/Akt pathway in vitro. Furthermore, simultaneous injection of an EP4 antagonist and doxycycline significantly blocked the doxycycline-mediated attenuation of EIU. Doxycycline can ameliorate EIU, and PGE2-EP4 signaling is essential for the anti-inflammatory effects of doxycycline in vitro and in vivo.

  16. Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx Flavonoids Fraction Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice

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    Chun-jun Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx (Maxim. Hara, belonging to the Labiatae family, is widely used as an anti-inflammatory and antitumor drug for the treatment of different inflammations and cancers. Aim of the Study. To investigate therapeutic effects and possible mechanism of the flavonoids fraction of Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx (Maxim. Hara (RJFs in acute lung injury (ALI mice induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Materials and Methods. Mice were orally administrated with RJFs (6.4, 12.8, and 25.6 mg/kg per day for 7 days, consecutively, before LPS challenge. Lung specimens and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF were isolated for histopathological examinations and biochemical analysis. The level of complement 3 (C3 in serum was quantified by a sandwich ELISA kit. Results. RJFs significantly attenuated LPS-induced ALI via reducing productions of the level of inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, and significantly reduced complement deposition with decreasing the level of C3 in serum, which was exhibited together with the lowered myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and nitric oxide (NO and protein concentration in BALF. Conclusions. RJFs significantly attenuate LPS-induced ALI via reducing productions of proinflammatory mediators, decreasing the level of complement, and reducing radicals.

  17. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide attenuates cisplatin-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cisplatin-induced apoptosis in ovary granulosa cells via alleviation of endoplasmic reticulum stress”. Li-Qiong Huang1,2, Yuan-Zhen Zhang1,2*, Bo Zheng3 and Yi He3. 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, 2Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of. Developmentally Originated ...

  18. On the effectiveness of mangroves in attenuating cyclone induced waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narayan, S.; Suzuki, T.; Stive, M.J.F.; Verhagen, H.J.; Ursem, W.N.J.; Ranasinghe, R.

    2010-01-01

    A study of the effectiveness of mangroves in attenuating cyclone- induced waves was done using the SWAN 40.81 numerical model. Hydraulic parameters during extreme events and local mangrove vegetation parameters were estimated for the Kanika Sands mangrove island near the upcoming Dhamra Port in

  19. Astaxanthin interacts with selenite and attenuates selenite-induced cataractogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jiahn-Haur; Chen, Chien-Sheng; Maher, Timothy J; Liu, Chiung-Yueh; Lin, Mei-Hsiang; Wu, Tzu-Hua; Wu, Shih-Hsiung

    2009-03-16

    Selenite, the most commonly encountered toxic form of selenium, in overdose, is used to induce cataracts in rats. This study demonstrated that selenite, but not selenate, would interact with the carotenoid astaxanthin (ASTX), as determined using isothermal titration calorimetry and NMR. The maximum absorption of ASTX decreased with increasing selenite concentration, indicating that the conjugated system of ASTX was changed by selenite. Such interactions between ASTX and selenite were also supported by the attenuation of selenite-induced turbidity by ASTX (0-12.5 microM) in vitro. In vivo experiments also showed that ASTX attenuated selenite-induced cataractogenesis in rats. In summary, this is the first report of a direct interaction of ASTX with selenite. This interaction is supported by an in vitro assay and may be partially responsible for the ASTX observed in vivo protection against selenite-induced cataractogenesis.

  20. Pentoxifylline Attenuates Cardiac Remodeling Induced by Tobacco Smoke Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minicucci, Marcos; Oliveira, Fernando; Santos, Priscila; Polegato, Bertha; Roscani, Meliza; Fernandes, Ana Angelica; Lustosa, Beatriz; Paiva, Sergio; Zornoff, Leonardo; Azevedo, Paula, E-mail: paulasa@fmb.unesp.br [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-05-15

    Tobacco smoke exposure is an important risk factor for cardiac remodeling. Under this condition, inflammation, oxidative stress, energy metabolism abnormalities, apoptosis, and hypertrophy are present. Pentoxifylline has anti‑inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-thrombotic and anti-proliferative properties. The present study tested the hypothesis that pentoxifylline would attenuate cardiac remodeling induced by smoking. Wistar rats were distributed in four groups: Control (C), Pentoxifylline (PX), Tobacco Smoke (TS), and PX-TS. After two months, echocardiography, invasive blood pressure measurement, biochemical, and histological studies were performed. The groups were compared by two-way ANOVA with a significance level of 5%. TS increased left atrium diameter and area, which was attenuated by PX. In the isolated heart study, TS lowered the positive derivate (+dp/dt), and this was attenuated by PX. The antioxidants enzyme superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were decreased in the TS group; PX recovered these activities. TS increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and decreased 3-hydroxyacyl Coenzyme A dehydrogenases (OH-DHA) and citrate synthase (CS). PX attenuated LDH, 3-OH-DHA and CS alterations in TS-PX group. TS increased IL-10, ICAM-1, and caspase-3. PX did not influence these variables. TS induced cardiac remodeling, associated with increased inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and changed energy metabolism. PX attenuated cardiac remodeling by reducing oxidative stress and improving cardiac bioenergetics, but did not act upon cardiac cytokines and apoptosis.

  1. Inducible nitric oxide synthase and guinea-pig ileitis induced by adjuvant

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    N. D. Seago

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We sought to establish a model of inflammatory bowel disease by augmenting the activity of the local immune system with Freund's complete adjuvant, and to determine if inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression and peroxynitrite formation accompanied the inflammatory condition. In anaesthetized guinea-pigs, a loop of distal ileum received intraluminal 50% ethanol followed by Freund's complete adjuvant. Control animals were sham operated. When the animals were killed 7 or 14 days later, loop lavage fluid was examined for nitrite and PGE2 levels; mucosal levels of granulocyte and macrophages were estimated by myeloperoxidase (MPO and N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase (NAG activity, respectively. Cellular localization if iNOS and peroxynitrite formation were determined by immunohistochemistry with polyclonal antibodies directed against peptide epitopes of mouse iNOS and nitrotyrosine, respectfully. Adjuvant administration resulted in a persistent ileitis, featuring gut thickening, crypt hyperplasia, villus tip swelling and disruption, and cellular infiltration. Lavage levels of PGE2 and nitrite were markedly elevated by adjuvant treatment. Immunoreactive iNOS and nitrotyrosine bordered on detectability in normal animals but were markedly evident with adjuvant treatment at day 7 and particularly day 14. Immunohistochemistry suggested that enteric neurons and epithelia were major sites of iNOS activity and peroxynitrite formation. We conclude that local administration of adjuvant establishes a chronic ileitis. Inducible nitric oxide synthase may contribute to the inflammatory process.

  2. Betaine Treatment Attenuates Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatic Steatosis and Alterations to the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Proteome

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    Kusum K. Kharbanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Mitochondrial damage and disruption in oxidative phosphorylation contributes to the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that the hepatoprotective actions of betaine against alcoholic liver injury occur at the level of the mitochondrial proteome. Methods. Male Wister rats were pair-fed control or ethanol-containing liquid diets supplemented with or without betaine (10 mg/mL for 4-5 wks. Liver was examined for triglyceride accumulation, levels of methionine cycle metabolites, and alterations in mitochondrial proteins. Results. Chronic ethanol ingestion resulted in triglyceride accumulation which was attenuated in the ethanol plus betaine group. Blue native gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE revealed significant decreases in the content of the intact oxidative phosphorylation complexes in mitochondria from ethanol-fed animals. The alcohol-dependent loss in many of the low molecular weight oxidative phosphorylation proteins was prevented by betaine supplementation. This protection by betaine was associated with normalization of SAM : S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH ratios and the attenuation of the ethanol-induced increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide generation in the liver. Discussion/Conclusion. In summary, betaine attenuates alcoholic steatosis and alterations to the oxidative phosphorylation system. Therefore, preservation of mitochondrial function may be another key molecular mechanism responsible for betaine hepatoprotection.

  3. Endothelial surface glycocalyx can regulate flow-induced nitric oxide production in microvessels in vivo.

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    Wanyi Yen

    Full Text Available Due to its unique location, the endothelial surface glycocalyx (ESG at the luminal side of the microvessel wall may serve as a mechano-sensor and transducer of blood flow and thus regulate endothelial functions. To examine this role of the ESG, we used fluorescence microscopy to measure nitric oxide (NO production in post-capillary venules and arterioles of rat mesentery under reduced (low and normal (high flow conditions, with and without enzyme pretreatment to remove heparan sulfate (HS of the ESG and in the presence of an endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS inhibitor, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA. Rats (SD, 250-300 g were anesthetized. The mesentery was gently taken out from the abdominal cavity and arranged on the surface of a glass coverslip for the measurement. An individual post-capillary venule or arteriole was cannulated and loaded for 45 min with 5 μM 4, 5-Diaminofluorescein diacetate, a membrane permeable fluorescent indictor for NO, then the NO production was measured for ~10 min under a low flow (~300 μm/s and for ~60 min under a high flow (~1000 μm/s. In the 15 min after switching to the high flow, DAF-2-NO fluorescence intensity increased to 1.27-fold of its baseline, DAF-2-NO continuously increased under the high flow, to 1.53-fold of its baseline in 60 min. Inhibition of eNOS by 1 mM L-NMMA attenuated the flow-induced NO production to 1.13-fold in 15 min and 1.30-fold of its baseline in 60 min, respectively. In contrast, no significant increase in NO production was observed after switching to the high flow for 60 min when 1 h pretreatment with 50 mU/mL heparanase III to degrade the ESG was applied. Similar NO production was observed in arterioles under low and high flows and under eNOS inhibition. Our results suggest that ESG participates in endothelial cell mechanosensing and transduction through its heparan sulfate to activate eNOS.

  4. Nitric oxide increases Wnt-induced secreted protein-1 (WISP-1/CCN4) expression and function in colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongying; Zhang, Rui; Wen, Shoubin; McCafferty, Donna-Marie; Beck, Paul L; MacNaughton, Wallace K

    2009-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) derived from the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) is an important and complex mediator of inflammation in the intestine. Wnt-inducible secreted protein (WISP)-1 (CCN4), a member of the connective tissue growth factor family, is involved in tissue repair. We sought to determine the relationship between iNOS and WISP-1 in colitis. By analyzing human colonic biopsy samples, we showed that the expression of mRNA for both iNOS and WISP-1 was significantly higher in ulcerative colitis samples compared with control tissue. The upregulation of WISP-1 was positively correlated with iNOS expression in two models of colitis, induced by intrarectal trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) or occurring spontaneously in IL-10 deficient mice. Loss of iNOS, studied using iNOS(-/-) mice in both TNBS-induced and IL-10(-/-) colitis models, significantly attenuated the colitis-related WISP-1 increase. In human colonic epithelial cell lines, the NO donor, DETA-NONOate, elevated WISP-1 mRNA and protein expression through a beta-catenin and CREB-dependent, but Wnt-1-independent, pathway. In addition, NO-induced WISP-1 directly induced secretion of soluble collagen in colonic fibroblast cells. NO increases WISP-1 expression both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a new role for iNOS and NO in colitis.

  5. Chondroitin sulfate attenuates formalin-induced persistent tactile allodynia

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    Wataru Nemoto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of chondroitin sulfate (CS, a compound used in the treatment of osteoarthritis and joint pain, on the formalin-induced tactile allodynia in mice. A repeated oral administration of CS (300 mg/kg, b.i.d. significantly ameliorated the formalin-induced tactile allodynia from day 10 after formalin injection. On day 14, the phosphorylation of spinal p38 MAPK and subsequent increase in c-Fos-immunoreactive dorsal lumbar neurons were attenuated by the repeated administration of CS. These findings suggest that CS attenuates formalin-induced tactile allodynia through the inhibition of p38 MAPK phosphorylation and subsequent up-regulation of c-Fos expression in the dorsal lumbar spinal cord.

  6. Attenuated store-operated Ca2+ entry underpins the dual inhibition of nitric oxide and EDHF-type relaxations by iodinated contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rodriguez, Sofia; Edwards, David H; Newton, Ben; Griffith, Tudor M

    2009-12-01

    Our objective was to investigate whether alterations in endothelial Ca(2+) homeostasis contribute to the clinical toxicity of iodinated radiographic contrast media (IRCM) by modulating nitric oxide (NO) production and the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) phenomenon. The triiodinated monomer iohexol caused concentration-dependent reductions in store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) in rabbit aortic valve endothelium incubated in Ca(2+)-free buffer with cyclopiazonic acid (CPA, 30 microM) to deplete endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores. This action was mimicked by Gd(3+) ions and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, two established inhibitors of SOCE, whereas Ca(2+) entry was unaffected by the osmotic agent mannitol. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that iohexol did not prevent CPA-evoked membrane clustering of Orai1, the key pore element of the store-operated Ca(2+) channel (SOC) apparatus. In myograph studies with rabbit iliac artery rings, iohexol, and the hexaiodinated dimer iodixanol (both at 90 mg I/mL) attenuated NO-mediated and EDHF-type arterial relaxations evoked by CPA, but did not affect EDHF-type relaxations to acetylcholine, whose principal mode of action is to mobilize Ca(2+) via inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3))-induced Ca(2+) release. Iohexol also exerted inhibitory effects on NO-mediated relaxation and smooth muscle contraction that were not evident with iodixanol. The data support the hypothesis that IRCM induce generalized endothelial dysfunction by inhibiting Ca(2+) influx via SOCs rather than their assembly. The presence of organically bound iodine, rather than osmolar effects, may underpin this previously unrecognized phenomenon. In contrast, direct effects of IRCM on smooth muscle function may correlate with osmolarity rather than iodine concentration.

  7. Nitric oxide synthase inhibitor aminoguanidine potentiates iminodipropionitrile-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, M; Khan, H A; Al Deeb, S; Al Moutaery, K

    1999-11-26

    This investigation was undertaken to study the effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, aminoguanidine on iminodipropionitrile (IDPN)-induced neurobehavioral and vestibular toxicity in rats. The dyskinetic syndrome was produced in male Wistar rats by i.p. injections of IDPN (100 mg/kg) for 6 days. Aminoguanidine was administered orally in the doses of 50, 150 and 300 mg/kg, 60 min before IDPN in three different groups. Control rats received vehicle only, whereas another group was treated with 300 mg/kg of aminoguanidine alone (without IDPN). Our results showed that aminoguanidine significantly and dose dependently exacerbated the incidence and intensity of IDPN-induced dyskinetic head movements. Aminoguanidine potentiated IDPN-induced loss of air righting reflex. The histopathological examination of inner ear showed aggravation of IDPN-induced degeneration of sensory hair cells in the crista ampullaris by aminoguanidine. These results suggest the role of nitric oxide in IDPN-induced neurobehavioral and vestibular toxicity.

  8. Acetazolamide Attenuates Lithium-Induced Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Theun; Sinke, Anne P; Kortenoeven, Marleen L A; Alsady, Mohammad; Baumgarten, Ruben; Devuyst, Olivier; Loffing, Johannes; Wetzels, Jack F; Deen, Peter M T

    2016-07-01

    To reduce lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (lithium-NDI), patients with bipolar disorder are treated with thiazide and amiloride, which are thought to induce antidiuresis by a compensatory increase in prourine uptake in proximal tubules. However, thiazides induced antidiuresis and alkalinized the urine in lithium-NDI mice lacking the sodium-chloride cotransporter, suggesting that inhibition of carbonic anhydrases (CAs) confers the beneficial thiazide effect. Therefore, we tested the effect of the CA-specific blocker acetazolamide in lithium-NDI. In collecting duct (mpkCCD) cells, acetazolamide reduced the cellular lithium content and attenuated lithium-induced downregulation of aquaporin-2 through a mechanism different from that of amiloride. Treatment of lithium-NDI mice with acetazolamide or thiazide/amiloride induced similar antidiuresis and increased urine osmolality and aquaporin-2 abundance. Thiazide/amiloride-treated mice showed hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, hypercalcemia, metabolic acidosis, and increased serum lithium concentrations, adverse effects previously observed in patients but not in acetazolamide-treated mice in this study. Furthermore, acetazolamide treatment reduced inulin clearance and cortical expression of sodium/hydrogen exchanger 3 and attenuated the increased expression of urinary PGE2 observed in lithium-NDI mice. These results show that the antidiuresis with acetazolamide was partially caused by a tubular-glomerular feedback response and reduced GFR. The tubular-glomerular feedback response and/or direct effect on collecting duct principal or intercalated cells may underlie the reduced urinary PGE2 levels with acetazolamide, thereby contributing to the attenuation of lithium-NDI. In conclusion, CA activity contributes to lithium-NDI development, and acetazolamide attenuates lithium-NDI development in mice similar to thiazide/amiloride but with fewer adverse effects. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  9. Astrocytes and microglia express inducible nitric oxide synthase in mice with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, E H; Hardin-Pouzet, H; Verge, G

    1997-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), produced by inducible NO synthase (iNOS), may play a role in inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). We show upregulation of iNOS mRNA in CNS of SJL/J mice with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). Using antibodies against mouse i...

  10. Formation of nitric oxide in an industrial burner measured by 2-D laser induced fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, A.; Bombach, R.; Kaeppeli, B. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    We have performed two-dimensional Laser Induced Fluorescence (2-D LIF) measurements of nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical distributions in an industrial burner at atmospheric pressure. The relative 2-D LIF data of NO were set to an absolute scale by calibration with probe sampling combined with gas analysis. (author) 3 figs., 7 refs.

  11. Constitutive expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the normal human colonic epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Andresen, Lars; Normark, M

    2002-01-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the human colon is considered expressed only in inflammatory states such as ulcerative or collagenous colitis. As subtle iNOS labelling was previously observed in some colonic mucosal biopsies from a heterogeneous group of controls with non-inflamed bowel...

  12. Nitric oxide-dependent vasodilation and Ca2+ signalling induced by erythrodiol in rat aorta

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    Fidèle Ntchapda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the pharmacological property of erythrodiol, a natural triterpenoid contained in propolis, as vasodilatory agent, and to determine its mechanism of action. Methods: Rats aortic rings were isolated and suspended in organ baths, and the effects of erythrodiol were studied by means of isometric tension recording experiments. Nitric oxide (NO was detected by ozone-induced chemiluminescence. The technique used to evaluate changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration in intact endothelium was opened aortic ring and loaded with 16 µmol Fura-2/AM for 60 min at room temperature, washed and fixed by small pins with the luminal face up. In situ, ECs were visualized by an upright epifluorescence Axiolab microscope (Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany equipped with a Zeiss×63 Achroplan objective (water immersion, 2.0 mm working distance, 0.9 numerical apertures. ECs were excited alternately at 340 and 380 nm, and the emitted light was detected at 510 nm. Results: In aortic rings with intact endothelium pre-contracted with norepinephrine (10-4 mol/L, the addition of erythrodiol (10-8-10-4 mol/L induced vasorelaxation in a concentration-dependent manner; in endothelium-denuded rings, the relaxant response induced by erythrodiol was almost completely abolished suggesting that vasorelaxation was endothelium-dependent. They had almost no relaxant effect on depolarised or endothelium-denuded aortic segments. The relaxation was significantly attenuated by pre-treatment with the NO synthase inhibitor Nvnitro-L-arginine-methylester. Erythrodiol (10-4 mol/L was able to significantly increase NOx levels. This effect was completely abolished after removal of the vascular endothelium. Erythrodiol (100 µmol/L caused a slow, long-lasting increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration. These results further supported the hypothesis that erythrodiol can induce activation of the NO/soluble guanylate cyclase/cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway, as

  13. Effects of an endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor on phorbol myristate acetate-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hen I; Chu, Shi Jye; Wang, David; Chen, Hsing I; Hsu, Kang

    2003-01-01

    1. In the present study, we determined whether the endogenous nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) inhibitor Nomega-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) could ameliorate the acute lung injury (ALI) induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) in rat isolated lung. 2. Typical ALI was induced successfully by PMA during 60 min of observation. At 2 micro g/kg, PMA elicited a significant increase in microvascular permeability (measured using the capillary filtration coefficient Kfc), lung weight gain, lung weight/bodyweight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) and protein concentration of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. 3. Pretreatment with the NOS inhibitor l-NAME (5 mmol/L) significantly attenuated ALI. None of the parameters reflective of lung injury showed significant increase, except for PAP (P < 0.001). The addition of l-arginine (4 mmol/L) blocked the protective effective of l-NAME. Pretreatment with l-arginine exacerbated PMA-induced lung injury. 4. These data suggest that l-NAME significantly ameliorates ALI induced by PMA in rats, indicating that endogenous NO plays a key role in the development of lung oedema in PMA-induced lung injury.

  14. Regulation of Injury-Induced Neurogenesis by Nitric Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Bruno P.; Carvalho, Caetana M.; Araújo, Inês M.

    2012-01-01

    The finding that neural stem cells (NSCs) are able to divide, migrate, and differentiate into several cellular types in the adult brain raised a new hope for restorative neurology. Nitric oxide (NO), a pleiotropic signaling molecule in the central nervous system (CNS), has been described to be able to modulate neurogenesis, acting as a pro- or antineurogenic agent. Some authors suggest that NO is a physiological inhibitor of neurogenesis, while others described NO to favor neurogenesis, particularly under inflammatory conditions. Thus, targeting the NO system may be a powerful strategy to control the formation of new neurons. However, the exact mechanisms by which NO regulates neural proliferation and differentiation are not yet completely clarified. In this paper we will discuss the potential interest of the modulation of the NO system for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases or other pathological conditions that may affect the CNS. PMID:22997523

  15. Attenuation of sepsis-induced rat liver injury by epigallocatechin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v16i12.11. Original Research Article. Attenuation of sepsis-induced rat liver injury by epigallocatechin gallate via suppression of oxidative stress-related inflammation. Jian-xin Yang1, Yu-lin Li1*, Ning-chuan Shi2. 1Department of Emergency, The Second Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, ...

  16. Quercetin Attenuates Vascular Calcification through Suppressed Oxidative Stress in Adenine-Induced Chronic Renal Failure Rats

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    Xue-ying Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study investigated whether quercetin could alleviate vascular calcification in experimental chronic renal failure rats induced by adenine. Methods. 32 adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups fed normal diet, normal diet with quercetin supplementation (25 mg/kg·BW/d, 0.75% adenine diet, or adenine diet with quercetin supplementation. All rats were sacrificed after 6 weeks of intervention. Serum renal functions biomarkers and oxidative stress biomarkers were measured and status of vascular calcification in aorta was assessed. Furthermore, the induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS/p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38MAPK pathway was determined to explore the potential mechanism. Results. Adenine successfully induced renal failure and vascular calcification in rat model. Quercetin supplementation reversed unfavorable changes of phosphorous, uric acid (UA and creatinine levels, malonaldehyde (MDA content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in serum and the increases of calcium and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity in the aorta (P<0.05 and attenuated calcification and calcium accumulation in the medial layer of vasculature in histopathology. Western blot analysis showed that iNOS/p38MAPK pathway was normalized by the quercetin supplementation. Conclusions. Quercetin exerted a protective effect on vascular calcification in adenine-induced chronic renal failure rats, possibly through the modulation of oxidative stress and iNOs/p38MAPK pathway.

  17. Arginase Inhibition Restores Peroxynitrite-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction via L-Arginine-Dependent Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Cong; Park, Jong Taek; Jeon, Yeong Gwan; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Hoe, Kwang Lae; Kim, Young Myeong; Lim, Hyun Kyo; Ryoo, Sungwoo

    2016-11-01

    Peroxynitrite plays a critical role in vascular pathophysiology by increasing arginase activity and decreasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate whether arginase inhibition and L-arginine supplement could restore peroxynitrite-induced endothelial dysfunction and determine the involved mechanism. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with SIN-1, a peroxynitrite generator, and arginase activity, nitrite/nitrate production, and expression levels of proteins were measured. eNOS activation was evaluated via Western blot and dimer blot analysis. We also tested nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and performed a vascular tension assay. SIN-1 treatment increased arginase activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner and reciprocally decreased nitrite/nitrate production that was prevented by peroxynitrite scavenger in HUVECs. Furthermore, SIN-1 induced an increase in the expression level of arginase I and II, though not in eNOS protein. The decreased eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177 and the increased at Thr495 by SIN-1 were restored with arginase inhibitor and L-arginine. The changed eNOS phosphorylation was consistent in the stability of eNOS dimers. SIN-1 decreased NO production and increased ROS generation in the aortic endothelium, all of which was reversed by arginase inhibitor or L-arginine. N(G)-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) prevented SIN-1-induced ROS generation. In the vascular tension assay, SIN-1 enhanced vasoconstrictor responses to U46619 and attenuated vasorelaxant responses to acetylcholine that were reversed by arginase inhibition. These findings may explain the beneficial effect of arginase inhibition and L-arginine supplement on endothelial dysfunction under redox imbalance-dependent pathophysiological conditions.

  18. The methanol seed extract of Garcinia kola attenuated angiotensin II- and lipopolyssacharide-inducedvascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and nitric oxide production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeolu A. Adedapo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available All over the world, cardiovascular diseases are a risk factor for poor health and early death with predisposing factors to include age, gender, tobacco use, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet, obesity, family history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, psychosocial factors, poverty and low educational status, and air pollution. It is envisaged that herbal products that can stem this trend would be of great benefit. Garcinia kola (GK, also known as bitter kola is one of such plants. Generally used as a social snack and offered to guests in some cultural settings, bitter kola has been indicated in the treatment of laryngitis, general inflammation, bronchitis, viral infections and diabetes. In this study, the effects of methanol seed extract of Garcinia kola on the proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (VSMCs in cell culture by Angiotensin II (Ang II and LPS-induced NO production were carried out. Confluent VSMCs were exposed to GK (25, 50 and 100 μg/ml before or after treatment with lipopolyssacharide (100μg/ml, and Angiotensin II (10-8-10-6M. Cellular proliferation was determined by MTT assay and NO production by Griess assay. Treatment with Angiotensin II (10-8, 10-6 or LPS significantly enhanced proliferation of VSM cells while LPS significantly increased nitric oxide (NO production. Treatment with GK (25, 50 & 100 μg/ml attenuated VSM cell proliferation. The results indicate that GK has potential to inhibit mitogen activated vascular cell growth and possibly inhibit inflammatory responses to LPS. Thus GK may be useful in condition that is characterized by cellular proliferation and inflammatory responses.

  19. Nitric oxide attenuates overexpression of Giα proteins in vascular smooth muscle cells from SHR: Role of ROS and ROS-mediated signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oli Sarkar

    Full Text Available Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR exhibit decreased levels of nitric oxide (NO that may be responsible for the overexpression of Giα proteins that has been shown as a contributing factor for the pathogenesis of hypertension in SHR. The present study was undertaken to investigate if increasing the intracellular levels of NO by NO donor S-Nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine (SNAP could attenuate the enhanced expression of Giα proteins in VSMC from SHR and explore the underlying mechanisms responsible for this response. The expression of Giα proteins and phosphorylation of ERK1/2, growth factor receptors and c-Src was determined by Western blotting using specific antibodies. Treatment of VSMC from SHR with SNAP for 24 hrs decreased the enhanced expression of Giα-2 and Giα-3 proteins and hyperproliferation that was not reversed by 1H (1, 2, 4 oxadiazole (4, 3-a quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, an inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase, however, PD98059, a MEK inhibitor restored the SNAP-induced decreased expression of Giα proteins towards control levels. In addition, the increased production of superoxide anion, NAD(PH oxidase activity, overexpression of AT1 receptor, Nox4, p22phox and p47phox proteins, enhanced levels of TBARS and protein carbonyl, increased phosphorylation of PDGF-R, EGF-R, c-Src and ERK1/2 in VSMC from SHR were all decreased to control levels by SNAP treatment. These results suggest that NO decreased the enhanced expression of Giα-2/3 proteins and hyperproliferation of VSMC from SHR by cGMP-independent mechanism and involves ROS and ROS-mediated transactivation of EGF-R/PDGF-R and MAP kinase signaling pathways.

  20. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuates cadmium-induced chronic renal injury and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinglou; Du, Lifen; Li, Jingjing; Song, Hongping

    2016-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution is a serious environmental problem. Kidney is a main target organ of Cd toxicity. This study was undertaken to investigate the potential protective effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) against chronic renal injury and fibrosis induced by CdCl2. Rat model was induced by exposing to 250 mg/L CdCl2 through drinking water. The renal function was evaluated by detecting the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCR). The oxidative stress was measured by detecting the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) and renal enzymatic antioxidant status. Additionally, the renal levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), Smad3, phosphorylation-Smad3 (pp-Smad3), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), vimentin and E-cadherin were measured by western blot assay. Renal levels of microRNA-21 (miR-21), miR-29a/b/c and miR-192 were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. It was found that EGCG ameliorated the CdCl2-induced renal injury, inhibited the level of oxidative stress, normalized renal enzymatic antioxidant status and E-cadherin level, as well as attenuated the over generation of TGF-β1, pp-Smad3, vimentin and α-SMA. EGCG also decreased the production of miR-21 and miR-192, and enhanced the levels of miR-29a/b/c. These results showed that EGCG could attenuate Cd induced chronic renal injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Thalidomide attenuates the development and expression of antinociceptive tolerance to μ-opioid agonist morphine through l-arginine-iNOS and nitric oxide pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Imran; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Mumtaz, Faiza; Momeny, Majid; Moghaddaskho, Farima; Hassanipour, Mahsa; Ejtemaei-Mehr, Shahram; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2017-01-01

    Morphine is a μ-opioid analgesic drug which is used in the treatment and management of chronic pain. However, due to development of antinociceptive tolerance its clinical use is limited. Thalidomide is an old glutamic acid derivative which recently reemerged because of its potential to counteract a number of disorders including neurodegenerative disorders. The potential underlying mechanisms and effects of thalidomide on morphine-induced antinociceptive tolerance is still elusive. Hence, the present study was designed to explore the effect of thalidomide on the development and expression of morphine antinociceptive tolerance targeting l-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway in mice and T98G human glioblastoma cell line. When thalidomide was administered in a dose of 17.5mg/kg before each dose of morphine chronically for 5days it prevented the development of antinociceptive tolerance. Also, a single dose of thalidomide 20mg/kg attenuated the expression phase of antinociceptive tolerance. The protective effect of thalidomide was augmented in development phase when co-administration with NOS inhibitors like L-NAME (non- selective NOS inhibitor; 2mg/kg) or aminoguanidine (selective inducible NOS inhibitor; 50mg/kg). Also, the reversal effect of thalidomide in expression phase was potentiated when concomitantly administrated with L-NAME (5mg/kg) or aminoguanidine (100mg/kg). Co-administration of ODQ (a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor) 10mg/kg in developmental phase or 20mg/kg in expression phase also progressively increased the pain threshold. In addition, thalidomide (20μM) also significantly inhibited the overexpression of iNOS gene induced by morphine (2.5μM) in T98G cell line. Hence, our findings suggest that thalidomide has protective effect both in the development and expression phases of morphine antinociceptive tolerance. It is also evident that this effect of thalidomide is induced by the inhibition of NOS enzyme predominantly iNOS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson

  2. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in tumor biology: the two sides of the same coin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lechner, Matthias; Lirk, Philipp; Rieder, Josef

    2005-01-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is one of three key enzymes generating nitric oxide (NO) from the amino acid l-arginine. iNOS-derived NO plays an important role in numerous physiological (e.g. blood pressure regulation, wound repair and host defence mechanisms) and pathophysiological

  3. Nicorandil attenuates monocrotaline-induced vascular endothelial damage and pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Sahara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An antianginal K(ATP channel opener nicorandil has various beneficial effects on cardiovascular systems; however, its effects on pulmonary vasculature under pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we attempted to determine whether nicorandil can attenuate monocrotaline (MCT-induced PAH in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats injected intraperitoneally with 60 mg/kg MCT were randomized to receive either vehicle; nicorandil (5.0 mg·kg(-1·day(-1 alone; or nicorandil as well as either a K(ATP channel blocker glibenclamide or a nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor N(ω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, from immediately or 21 days after MCT injection. Four or five weeks later, right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP was measured, and lung tissue was harvested. Also, we evaluated the nicorandil-induced anti-apoptotic effects and activation status of several molecules in cell survival signaling pathway in vitro using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. RESULTS: Four weeks after MCT injection, RVSP was significantly increased in the vehicle-treated group (51.0±4.7 mm Hg, whereas it was attenuated by nicorandil treatment (33.2±3.9 mm Hg; P<0.01. Nicorandil protected pulmonary endothelium from the MCT-induced thromboemboli formation and induction of apoptosis, accompanied with both upregulation of endothelial NOS (eNOS expression and downregulation of cleaved caspase-3 expression. Late treatment with nicorandil for the established PAH was also effective in suppressing the additional progression of PAH. These beneficial effects of nicorandil were blocked similarly by glibenclamide and l-NAME. Next, HUVECs were incubated in serum-free medium and then exhibited apoptotic morphology, while these changes were significantly attenuated by nicorandil administration. Nicorandil activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK

  4. Resveratrol Attenuates Copper-Induced Senescence by Improving Cellular Proteostasis

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    Liliana Matos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper sulfate-induced premature senescence (CuSO4-SIPS consistently mimetized molecular mechanisms of replicative senescence, particularly at the endoplasmic reticulum proteostasis level. In fact, disruption of protein homeostasis has been associated to age-related cell/tissue dysfunction and human disorders susceptibility. Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound with proved antiaging properties under particular conditions. In this setting, we aimed to evaluate resveratrol ability to attenuate cellular senescence induction and to unravel related molecular mechanisms. Using CuSO4-SIPS WI-38 fibroblasts, resveratrol is shown to attenuate typical senescence alterations on cell morphology, senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity, and cell proliferation. The mechanisms implicated in this antisenescence effect seem to be independent of senescence-associated genes and proteins regulation but are reliant on cellular proteostasis improvement. In fact, resveratrol supplementation restores copper-induced increased protein content, attenuates BiP level, and reduces carbonylated and polyubiquitinated proteins by autophagy induction. Our data provide compelling evidence for the beneficial effects of resveratrol by mitigating CuSO4-SIPS stressful consequences by the modulation of protein quality control systems. These findings highlight the importance of a balanced cellular proteostasis and add further knowledge on molecular mechanisms mediating resveratrol antisenescence effects. Moreover, they contribute to identifying specific molecular targets whose modulation will prevent age-associated cell dysfunction and improve human healthspan.

  5. Surfactants attenuate gas embolism-induced thrombin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmann, David M; Diamond, Scott L

    2004-01-01

    There are no pharmacologic strategies to prevent embolism bubble-induced blood clot formation. The authors conducted experiments to measure thrombin production in sheared whole blood in the presence and absence of bubbles and three surface-active compounds. Blood samples were obtained from six volunteers seven times. The thrombin-specific substrate Boc-VPR-MCA was added to citrated blood diluted with HEPES-buffered saline. Experimental groups were as follows: sparging (air microbubble embolization) with surfactant present; sparging alone; surfactant alone; and neither surfactant nor sparging. The surfactants were Dow Corning Antifoam 1510US, Perftoran, and Pluronic F-127. Blood was sheared by a cone-plate viscometer at 100 and 500 s-1 for 5, 10, and 20 min at 37 degrees C, pipetted into excess stop buffer, and evaluated fluorimetrically. Mean values of fluorescence intensity +/- SDs for each group were compared using ANOVA. Differences were considered significant at P Surfactant addition without sparging did not change thrombin production (P > 0.05). Surfactants attenuated thrombin production in sparged samples 31.8-70.9% (P Surfactants added before sparging attenuate thrombin production. Surfactants may have a clinical application to attenuate gas embolism-induced clotting.

  6. Flavanol-rich cocoa induces nitric-oxide-dependent vasodilation in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Naomi D L; Hughes, Meghan; Gerhard-Herman, Marie; Hollenberg, Norman K

    2003-12-01

    Consumption of flavonoid-rich beverages, including tea and red wine, has been associated with a reduction in coronary events, but the physiological mechanism remains obscure. Cocoa can contain extraordinary concentrations of flavanols, a flavonoid subclass shown to activate nitric oxide synthase in vitro. To test the hypothesis that flavanol-rich cocoa induces nitric-oxide-dependent vasodilation in humans. The study prospectively assessed the effects of Flavanol-rich cocoa, using both time and beverage controls. Participants were blinded to intervention; the endpoint was objective and blinded. Pulse wave amplitude was measured on the finger in 27 healthy people with a volume-sensitive validated calibrated plethysmograph, before and after 5 days of consumption of Flavanol-rich cocoa [821 mg of flavanols/day, quantitated as (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, and related procyanidin oligomers]. The specific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) was infused intravenously on day 1, before cocoa, and on day 5, after an acute ingestion of cocoa. Four days of flavanol-rich cocoa induced consistent and striking peripheral vasodilation (P = 0.009). On day 5, pulse wave amplitude exhibited a large additional acute response to cocoa (P = 0.01). L-NAME completely reversed this vasodilation (P = 0.004). In addition, intake of flavanol-rich cocoa augmented the vasodilator response to ischemia. Flavanol-poor cocoa induced much smaller responses (P = 0.005), and none was induced in the time-control study. Flavanol-rich cocoa also amplified the systemic pressor effects of L-NAME (P = 0.005). In healthy humans, flavanol-rich cocoa induced vasodilation via activation of the nitric oxide system, providing a plausible mechanism for the protection that flavanol-rich foods induce against coronary events.

  7. Ferric Carboxymaltose-Mediated Attenuation of Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in an Iron Deficiency Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Toblli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (AIC, a complication of anthracycline-based chemotherapies, is thought to involve iron, concerns exist about using iron for anaemia treatment in anthracycline-receiving cancer patients. This study evaluated how intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM modulates the influence of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA and doxorubicin (3–5 mg per kg body weight [BW] on oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation, and cardiorenal function in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone (SHR-SP rats. FCM was given as repeated small or single total dose (15 mg iron per kg BW, either concurrent with or three days after doxorubicin. IDA (after dietary iron restriction induced cardiac and renal oxidative stress (markers included malondialdehyde, catalase, Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase, nitrosative stress (inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitrotyrosine, inflammation (tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6, and functional/morphological abnormalities (left ventricle end-diastolic and end-systolic diameter, fractional shortening, density of cardiomyocytes and capillaries, caveolin-1 expression, creatinine clearance, and urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin that were aggravated by doxorubicin. Notably, iron treatment with FCM did not exacerbate but attenuated the cardiorenal effects of IDA and doxorubicin independent of the iron dosing regimen. The results of this model suggest that intravenous FCM can be used concomitantly with an anthracycline-based chemotherapy without increasing signs of AIC.

  8. Sesame Oil Attenuates Ovalbumin-Induced Pulmonary Edema and Bronchial Neutrophilic Inflammation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dur-Zong Hsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Allergic asthma is one of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases of airways. Severe asthma may lead to hospitalization and death. Sesame oil is a natural product with anti-inflammatory property. However, the effect of sesame oil on allergic asthma has never been studied. Objective. We investigate the effect of sesame oil on pulmonary inflammation in allergic asthma model. Methods. Allergic airway inflammation was induced by sensitizing with two doses of 10 mg ovalbumin (OVA and then challenged with 1% OVA nebulizer exposure (1 h/day for 3 days. Sesame oil (0.25, 0.5, or 1 mL/kg/day was given orally 30 min before each challenge. Samples were collected 24 h after the last challenge. Results. Data showed that sesame oil inhibited pulmonary edema and decreased interleukin (IL-1β and IL-6 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in OVA-treated mice. Sesame oil also decreased pulmonary nitrite level, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and neutrophil infiltration induced by OVA. Further, sesame oil decreased serum IgE level in OVA-treated mice. Conclusion. Sesame oil may attenuate pulmonary edema and bronchial neutrophilic inflammation by inhibiting systemic IgE level in allergic asthma.

  9. Nitric Oxide-Induced Polycystic Ovaries in The Wistar Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Hassani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitric oxide (NO involves in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, a causeof infertility in women during the reproductive age. The PCOS is now categorized as aninflammatory phenomenon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of NO, a proinflammatoryagent, in this syndrome at histological and biochemical levels.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, animals were female Wistar rats(weighing 200-250 g kept under standard conditions. L-Arginine (50-200 mg/kg, a precursorof NO, was injected intra-peritoneally (i.p. through a period ranging from 9 to14 days/once a day. The rats' estrous cycle was studied using Papanicolaou test; those showing phaseof Diestrous were grouped into experimental and control groups. The control group solelyreceived saline (1 ml/kg, i.p. throughout all experiments. To evaluate the inflammatory effectof NO, the rats were treated an anti-inflammatory agent, naloxone hydrochloride (0.4 mg/kg,i.p., prior to L-arginine. At the end of the treatment period all animals’ ovaries were assessedfor histopathological and histochemical investigations. Also, activation of NO synthase (NOSin the experiments was studied using NADPH-diaphorase technique.Results: The ovaries of rats treated with L-arginine showed polycystic characteristics incontrast to those collected from control or naloxone pretreated groups, based on image analysis.A difference in enzyme activation was also shown in the sections that belonged to thegroups that received L-arginine when compared with the pre-naloxone and control groups.Conclusion: Based on these results, we believe that NO may play a major role in thepathophysiology of PCOS.

  10. Epigallocatechin 3-gallate attenuates neuronal damage induced by 3-hydroxykynurenine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ji Hoon; Kim, Hyung Jun; Lee, Tae Jin; Kim, Mi Kyung; Park, Eon Sub; Choi, Byung Sun

    2004-01-15

    3-Hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), which is an endogenous metabolite of tryptophan in the kynurenine pathway, is a potential neurotoxin in several neurodegenerative disorders. Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), a major compound of green tea, is recognized as a promising natural substance for protection against neuronal diseases. This study investigated the possible protective roles and mechanism of EGCG, against 3-HK-induced cell death. It was found that 3-HK induces neuronal cell death in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line. The reduced cell viability produced characteristic features such as cell shrinkages, plasma membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, and nuclear fragmentation. The cells treated with 3-HK showed an increase in the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as in caspase activity. In addition, both are involved in the 3-HK-induced apoptosis. EGCG attenuated the cell viability reduction by 3-HK in both a dose- and time-dependent manner. Optical microscopy showed that EGCG inhibited the cell morphological features in the 3-HK-treated cells. Furthermore, the increase in the ROS concentration and the caspase activities by 3-HK were also attenuated by EGCG. These results showed that EGCG has a protective effect on the 3-HK induced cell death by inhibiting ROS production and caspase activity. The results suggest that EGCG might be a promising protective substance against the neuronal degenerative diseases.

  11. Ursolic acid improves survival and attenuates lung injury in septic rats induced by cecal ligation and puncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhansheng; Gu, Zhilong; Sun, Meina; Zhang, Ke; Gao, Penghui; Yang, Qinwu; Yuan, Yuan

    2015-04-01

    Sepsis is characterized as a systemic inflammatory response syndrome during infection, which can result in multiple organ dysfunction and death. Ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid, has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to detect the possible protective effects of UA on sepsis-evoked acute lung injury. A rat model of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was used. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with UA (10 mg/kg) after CLP, and then the survival was determined twice a day for 4 d. The protective effects of UA on CLP-induced acute lung injury were assayed at 24 h after CLP. The results revealed that UA treatment markedly improved the survival of septic rats, and attenuated CLP-induced lung injury, including reduction of lung wet/dry weight ratio, infiltration of leukocytes and proteins, myeloperoxidase activity, and malondialdehyde content. In addition, UA significantly decreased the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β, inhibited the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in the lung, which are involved in the productions of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2. These findings indicate that UA exerts protective effects on CLP-induced septic rats. UA may be a potential therapeutic agent against sepsis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and effects of L-arginine on colonic nitric oxide production and fluid transport in patients with "minimal colitis"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, Anders; Andresen, Lars; Normark, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Some patients with idiopathic, chronic diarrhoea have minimal, non-specific colonic inflammation. As nitric oxide (NO) acts as a secretagogue in the colon, we studied the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in mucosal biopsies and the effects of NOS stimulation on colonic transfer of fluid...

  13. Roles of mitochondrial Src tyrosine kinase and zinc in nitric oxide-induced cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Xing, F; Zheng, H; Xi, J; Cui, X; Xu, Z

    2013-07-01

    While nitric oxide (NO) induces cardioprotection by targeting the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), the precise mitochondrial signaling events that mediate the action of NO remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test whether NO induces cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion by inhibiting oxidative stress through mitochondrial zinc and Src tyrosine kinase. The NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP) given before the onset of ischemia reduced cell death in rat cardiomyocytes subjected to simulated ischemia/reperfusion, and this was abolished by the zinc chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) and the Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP2. SNAP also prevented loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) at reperfusion, an effect that was blocked by TPEN and PP2. SNAP increased mitochondrion-free zinc upon reperfusion and enhanced mitochondrial Src phosphorylation in a zinc-dependent manner. SNAP inhibited both mitochondrial complex I activity and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation at reperfusion through zinc and Src tyrosine kinase. Finally, the anti-infarct effect of SNAP was abrogated by TPEN and PP2 applied at reperfusion in isolated rat hearts. In conclusion, NO induces cardioprotection at reperfusion by targeting mitochondria through attenuation of oxidative stress resulted from the inhibition of complex I at reperfusion. Activation of mitochondrial Src tyrosine kinase by zinc may account for the inhibition of complex I.

  14. Azadirachta indica attenuates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E; Othman, Mohamed S; Aref, Ahmed M

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of methanolic leaves extract of Azadirachta indica (MLEN, 500 mg/kg bwt) on cisplatin- (CP-) induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. CP (5 mg/kg bwt) was injected intraperitoneally and MLEN was given by gastric gavage for 5 days before or after CP injection. After 5 days of CP injection, CP-induced injury of the renal tissue was evidenced (i) as histopathological damage of the renal tissue, (ii) as increases in serum uric acid, urea, and creatinine, (iii) as increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO), (iv) as decreases in the level of glutathione and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase, and (v) as increase in the expression of nuclear factor kappa B and apoptosis in kidney tissues. However, the oral administration of MLEN to CP-intoxicated rats for 5 days brought back MDA, NO production, and enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants to near normalcy. Moreover, the histological observations evidenced that neem extract effectively rescues the kidney from CP-mediated oxidative damage. Furthermore, PCR results for caspase-3 and caspase-9 and Bax genes showed downregulation in MLEN treated groups. Therefore, Azadirachta indica can be considered a potential candidate for protection of nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin.

  15. Azadirachta indica Attenuates Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed E. Abdel Moneim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of methanolic leaves extract of Azadirachta indica (MLEN, 500 mg/kg bwt on cisplatin- (CP- induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. CP (5 mg/kg bwt was injected intraperitoneally and MLEN was given by gastric gavage for 5 days before or after CP injection. After 5 days of CP injection, CP-induced injury of the renal tissue was evidenced (i as histopathological damage of the renal tissue, (ii as increases in serum uric acid, urea, and creatinine, (iii as increases in malondialdehyde (MDA and nitric oxide (NO, (iv as decreases in the level of glutathione and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase, and (v as increase in the expression of nuclear factor kappa B and apoptosis in kidney tissues. However, the oral administration of MLEN to CP-intoxicated rats for 5 days brought back MDA, NO production, and enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants to near normalcy. Moreover, the histological observations evidenced that neem extract effectively rescues the kidney from CP-mediated oxidative damage. Furthermore, PCR results for caspase-3 and caspase-9 and Bax genes showed downregulation in MLEN treated groups. Therefore, Azadirachta indica can be considered a potential candidate for protection of nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin.

  16. Hypobaric intermittent hypoxia attenuates hypoxia-induced depressor response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Cui

    Full Text Available Hypobaric intermittent hypoxia (HIH produces many favorable effects in the cardiovascular system such as anti-hypertensive effect. In this study, we showed that HIH significantly attenuated a depressor response induced by acute hypoxia.Sprague-Dawley rats received HIH in a hypobaric chamber simulating an altitude of 5000 m. The artery blood pressure (ABP, heart rate (HR and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA were recorded in anesthetized control rats and rats received HIH. The baseline ABP, HR and RSNA were not different between HIH and control rats. Acute hypoxia-induced decrease in ABP was significantly attenuated in HIH rat compared with control rats. However, acute hypoxia-induced increases in HR and RSNA were greater in HIH rat than in control rats. After removal of bilateral ascending depressor nerves, acute hypoxia-induced depressor and sympathoexcitatory responses were comparable in control and HIH rats. Furthermore, acute hypoxia-induced depressor and sympathoexcitatory responses did not differ between control and HIH groups after blocking ATP-dependent K(+ channels by glibenclamide. The baroreflex function evaluated by intravenous injection of phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside was markedly augmented in HIH rats compared with control rats. The pressor and sympathoexcitatory responses evoked by intravenous injection of cyanide potassium were also significantly greater in HIH rats than in control rats.Our findings suggest that HIH suppresses acute hypoxia-induced depressor response through enhancement of baroreflex and chemoreflex function, which involves activation of ATP-dependent K(+ channels. This study provides new information and underlying mechanism on the beneficiary effect of HIH on maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis.

  17. Acute chemical pneumonitis caused by nitric acid inhalation: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Hyung Shim; Lee, In Jae; Ko, Eun Young; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Hyun Beom; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Lee, Kwan Seop; Lee, Yul; Bae, Sang Hoon [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-01

    Chemical pneumonitis induced by nitric acid inhalation is a rare clinical condition. The previously reported radiologic findings of this disease include acute permeability pulmonary edema, delayed bronchiolitis obliterans, and bronchiectasis. In very few published rare radiologic reports has this disease manifested as acute alveolar injury; we report a case of acute chemical pneumonitis induced by nitric acid inhalation which at radiography manifested as bilateral perihilar consolidation and ground-glass attenuation, suggesting acute alveolar injury.

  18. Extract of Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus induces angiogenesis in vitro and activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Wei, Jianteng; Wang, Hui; Ding, Lili; Zhang, Yuyan; Lin, Xiukun

    2012-09-01

    Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus has long been used as traditional Chinese medicine in oriental medicine. The angiogentic activity of the extract of M. meretrix was investigated in this study, using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Extract of M. meretrix Linnaeus (AFG-25) was prepared with acetone and ethanol precipitation, and further separated by Sephadex G-25 column. The results show that AFG-25 promoted proliferation, migration, and capillary-like tube formation in HUVECs, and in the presence of eNOS inhibitor NMA, the tube formation induced by AFG-25 is inhibited significantly. Moreover, AFG-25 could also promote the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and the resultant elevation of nitric oxide (NO) production. The results suggested that M. meretrix contains active ingredients with angiogentic activity and eNOS/NO signal pathway is in part involved in the proangiogenesis effect induced by AFG-25.

  19. Intersection of interferon and hypoxia signal transduction pathways in nitric oxide-induced tumor apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendler, D S; Bao, C; Wang, T; Huang, E L; Ratovitski, E A; Pardoll, D A; Lowenstein, C J

    2001-05-01

    Activated macrophages play a central role in antitumor immunity. However, the stimuli that activate macrophages to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. Because the center of solid tumors can be hypoxic, we hypothesized that hypoxia may be an important signal in activating macrophages to kill tumor cells. Hypoxia stimulates IFN-primed macrophages to express the inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) and to synthesize nitric oxide (NO). We show that this synergy between IFN and hypoxia is mediated by the direct interaction of the hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and IFN regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1), which are both required for the hypoxic transcription of NOS2. This interaction between HIF-1 and IRF-1 may explain the mechanism by which macrophages infiltrating into tumors are activated to express NOS2 and to produce NO, a mediator of tumor apoptosis.

  20. Inducible and neuronal nitric oxide synthases exert contrasting effects during rat intestinal recovery following fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Junta; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Machida, Naomi; Ohtake, Kazuo; Saito, Yuki; Kobayashi, Jun

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the effects of endogenous inducible (iNOS) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase on recovery from intestinal mucosal atrophy caused by fasting-induced apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation during refeeding in rats. Rats were divided into five groups, one of which was fed ad libitum, and four of which underwent 72 h of fasting, followed by refeeding for 0, 6, 24, and 48 h, respectively. iNOS and neuronal nitric oxide synthase mRNA and protein levels in jejunal tissues were measured, and mucosal height was histologically evaluated. Apoptotic indices, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) transcription levels, nitrite levels (as a measure of nitric oxide [NO] production),8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine formation (indicating reactive oxygen species [ROS] levels), crypt cell proliferation, and the motility indices (MI) were also estimated. Associations between mucosal height and NOS protein levels were determined using Spearman's rank correlation test. Notably, we observed significant increases in mucosal height and in neuronal nitric oxide synthase mRNA and protein expression as refeeding time increased. Indeed, there was a significant positive correlation between neuronal nitric oxide synthase protein level and mucosal height during the 48-h refeeding period ( r = 0.725, P fasting. Our finding suggests that refeeding likely repairs fasting-induced jejunal atrophy by suppressing iNOS expression and subsequently inhibiting NO, ROS, and IFN-γ as apoptosis mediators, and by promoting neuronal nitric oxide synthase production and inducing crypt cell proliferation via mechanical stimulation. Impact statement Besides providing new data confirming the involvement of iNOS and nNOS in intestinal mucosal atrophy caused by fasting, this study details their expression and function during recovery from this condition following refeeding. We demonstrate a significant negative correlation between iNOS and nNOS levels during refeeding, and associate this with cell proliferation

  1. Crosstalk between nitric oxide and hypoxia-inducible factor signaling pathways: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrickson MD; Poyton RO

    2015-01-01

    Marina D Hendrickson, Robert O Poyton Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA Abstract: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is responsible for cellular adaptations to hypoxia. While oxygen (O2) negatively regulates its stability, many other factors affect HIF-1 stability and activity, including nitric oxide (NO). NO derived from l-arginine and nitrite (NO2–) could nitrosylate or nitrate HIF-1 and multiple proteins involv...

  2. Protective effect of nitric oxide against arsenic-induced oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... alleviated arsenic-induced electrolyte leakage and malondiadehyde (MDA) content in tall fescue leaves, ... 1, singlet oxygen) increased and ..... However, ONOO- can be protonated and decomposed to a nitrate anion and a proton, or it can react with hydrogen peroxide to yield a nitrite anion and oxygen.

  3. Auxin-induced nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins were involved in the gravitropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weiming; Hu, Liwei; Hu, Xiangyang; Cui, Dayong; Cai, Weiming

    Gravitropism is the asymmetric growth or curvature of plant organs in response to gravistimulation. There is a complex signal transduction cascade which involved in the differential growth of plants in response to changes in the gravity vector. The role of auxin in gravitropism has been demonstrated by many experiments, but little is known regarding the molecular details of such effects. In our studies before, mediation of the gravitropic bending of soybean roots and rice leaf sheath bases by nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins, are induced by auxin. The asymmetrical distribution of nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins resulted from the asymmetrical synthesis of them in bending sites. In soybean roots, inhibitions of NO and cGMP synthesis reduced differential NO and cGMP accumulation respectively, which both of these effects can lead to the reduction of gravitropic bending. Gibberellin-induced OsXET, OsEXPA4 and OsRWC3 were also found involved in the gravitropic bending. These data indicated that auxin-induced nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins were involved in the gravitropism. More experiments need to prove the more detailed mechanism of them.

  4. Gentamicin induced nitric oxide-related oxidative damages on vestibular afferents in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Hwa; Park, Sook Kyung; Cho, Yang-Sun; Lee, Hyun-Seok; Kim, Ki Ryung; Kim, Myung Gu; Chung, Won-Ho

    2006-01-01

    Gentamicin is a well-known ototoxic aminoglycoside. However, the mechanism underlying this ototoxicity remains unclear. One of the mechanisms which may be responsible for this ototoxicity is excitotoxic damage to hair cells. The overstimulation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors increases the production of nitric oxide (NO), which induces oxidative stress on hair cells. In order to determine the mechanism underlying this excitotoxicity, we treated guinea pigs with gentamicin by placing gentamicin (0.5 mg) pellets into a round window niche. After the sacrifice of the animals, which occurred at 3, 7 and 14 days after the treatment, the numbers of hair cells in the animals were counted with a scanning electron microscope. We then performed immunostaining using neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine antibodies. The number of hair cells in the animals was found to decrease significantly after 7 days. nNOS and iNOS expression levels were observed to have increased 3 days after treatment. Nitrotyrosine was expressed primarily at the calyceal afferents of the type I hair cells 3 days after treatment. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining revealed positive hair cells 3 days after treatment. Our results suggest that inner ear treatment with gentamicin may upregulate nNOS and iNOS to induce oxidative stress in the calyceal afferents of type I hair cells, via nitric oxide overproduction.

  5. Vaccinium myrtillus ameliorates unpredictable chronic mild stress induced depression: possible involvement of nitric oxide pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Baldeep; Arora, Vipin; Kuhad, Anurag; Chopra, Kanwaljit

    2012-04-01

    Chronic unpredictable stressors can produce a situation similar to clinical depression and such animal models can be used for the preclinical evaluation of antidepressants. Nitric oxide, a secondary messenger molecule, has been implicated in neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity, learning, aggression and depression. Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry) extract is a potent inhibitor of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and cytokine production. The present study investigated the role of nitric oxide in the antidepressant action of Vaccinium myrtillus in unpredictable chronic mild stress-induced depression in mice. Animals were subjected to different stress paradigms daily for a period of 21 days to induce depressive-like behavior. Pretreatment with L-arginine significantly reversed the protective effect of bilberry (500 mg/kg) on chronic stress-induced behavioral (immobility period, sucrose preference) and biochemical (lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels; endogenous antioxidant activities) in stressed mice. Furthermore, L-NAME (10 mg/kg) pretreatment with a sub-effective dose of bilberry (250 mg/kg) significantly potentiated the protective effect of bilberry extract. The study revealed that modulation of the nitric oxide pathway might be involved in antidepressant-like effects of Vaccinium myrtillus in stressed mice. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Manganese-induced effects on cerebral trace element and nitric oxide of Hyline cocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofei; Zuo, Nan; Guan, Huanan; Han, Chunran; Xu, Shi Wen

    2013-08-01

    Exposure to Manganese (Mn) is a common phenomenon due to its environmental pervasiveness. To investigate the Mn-induced toxicity on cerebral trace element levels and crucial nitric oxide parameters on brain of birds, 50-day-old male Hyline cocks were fed either a commercial diet or a Mn-supplemented diet containing 600, 900, 1,800 mg kg(-1). After being treated with Mn for 30, 60, and 90 days, the following were determined: the changes in contents of copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca), selenium (Se) in brain; inducible nitric oxide synthase-nitric oxide (iNOS-NO) system activity in brain; and histopathology and ultrastructure changes of cerebral cortex. The results showed that Mn was accumulated in brain and the content of Cu and Fe increased. However, the levels of Zn and Se decreased and the Ca content presented no obvious regularity. Exposure to Mn significantly elevated the content of NO and the expression of iNOS mRNA. Activity of total NO synthase (T NOS) and iNOS appeared with an increased tendency. These findings suggested that Mn exposure resulted in the imbalance of cerebral trace elements and influenced iNOS in the molecular level, which are possible underlying nervous system injury mechanisms induced by Mn exposure.

  7. Amygdalin suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in mouse BV2 microglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hye-Young; Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Jin-Woo; Kim, Young-Sick; Kim, Hong; Lee, Myoung-Hwa; Shin, Mal-Soon; Ham, Dae-Hyun; Park, Hun-Kuk; Lee, Hyejung; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2007-01-01

    Amygdalin (D-mandelonitrile-beta-D-gentiobioside) is a cynogenic compound found in sweet and bitter almonds, Persicae semen and Armeniacae semen. Amygdalin has been used for the treatment of cancers and for the relief of the pain. We made an aqueous extraction of amygdalin from Armeniacae semen. In this study, the effect of amygdalin on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation was investigated. The effects of amygdalin extracted from Armeniacae semen on the LPS-stimulated mRNA expressions of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the mouse BV2 microglial cells were investigated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The effects of amygdalin on the prostaglandins E(2) synthesis and the nitric oxide production were also studied by performing prostaglandins E(2) immunoassay and by detecting nitric oxide. The present results showed that amygdalin suppressed the prostaglandin E(2) synthesis and the nitric oxide production by inhibiting the LPS-stimulated mRNA expressions of COX-2 and iNOS in the mouse BV2 cells. These results show that amygdalin exerts anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects and it dose so probably by suppressing the mRNA expressions of COX-2 and iNOS.

  8. Cannabidiol attenuates high glucose-induced endothelial cell inflammatory response and barrier disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, Mohanraj; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Bátkai, Sándor; Haskó, György; Liaudet, Lucas; Drel, Viktor R.; Obrosova, Irina G.; Pacher, Pál

    2008-01-01

    A nonpsychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and has recently been reported to lower the incidence of diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice and to preserve the blood-retinal barrier in experimental diabetes. In this study we have investigated the effects of CBD on high glucose (HG)-induced, mitochondrial superoxide generation, NF-κB activation, nitrotyrosine formation, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression, monocyte-endothelial adhesion, transendothelial migration of monocytes, and disruption of endothelial barrier function in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). HG markedly increased mitochondrial superoxide generation (measured by flow cytometry using MitoSOX), NF-κB activation, nitrotyrosine formation, upregulation of iNOS and adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, transendothelial migration of monocytes, and monocyte-endothelial adhesion in HCAECs. HG also decreased endothelial barrier function measured by increased permeability and diminished expression of vascular endothelial cadherin in HCAECs. Remarkably, all the above mentioned effects of HG were attenuated by CBD pretreatment. Since a disruption of the endothelial function and integrity by HG is a crucial early event underlying the development of various diabetic complications, our results suggest that CBD, which has recently been approved for the treatment of inflammation, pain, and spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis in humans, may have significant therapeutic benefits against diabetic complications and atherosclerosis. PMID:17384130

  9. Relaxin deficiency attenuates pregnancy-induced adaptation of the mesenteric artery to angiotensin II in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Sarah A; Leo, Chen Huei; Senadheera, Sevvandi N; Girling, Jane E; Tare, Marianne; Parry, Laura J

    2016-05-01

    Pregnancy is associated with reduced peripheral vascular resistance, underpinned by changes in endothelial and smooth muscle function. Failure of the maternal vasculature to adapt correctly leads to serious pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia. The peptide hormone relaxin regulates the maternal renal vasculature during pregnancy; however, little is known about its effects in other vascular beds. This study tested the hypothesis that functional adaptation of the mesenteric and uterine arteries during pregnancy will be compromised in relaxin-deficient (Rln(-/-)) mice. Smooth muscle and endothelial reactivity were examined in small mesenteric and uterine arteries of nonpregnant (estrus) and late-pregnant (day 17.5) wild-type (Rln(+/+)) and Rln(-/-) mice using wire myography. Pregnancy per se was associated with significant reductions in contraction to phenylephrine, endothelin-1, and ANG II in small mesenteric arteries, while sensitivity to endothelin-1 was reduced in uterine arteries of Rln(+/+) mice. The normal pregnancy-associated attenuation of ANG II-mediated vasoconstriction in mesenteric arteries did not occur in Rln(-/-) mice. This adaptive failure was endothelium-independent and did not result from altered expression of ANG II receptors or regulator of G protein signaling 5 (Rgs5) or increases in reactive oxygen species generation. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase with l-NAME enhanced ANG II-mediated contraction in mesenteric arteries of both genotypes, whereas blockade of prostanoid production with indomethacin only increased ANG II-induced contraction in arteries of pregnant Rln(+/+) mice. In conclusion, relaxin deficiency prevents the normal pregnancy-induced attenuation of ANG II-mediated vasoconstriction in small mesenteric arteries. This is associated with reduced smooth muscle-derived vasodilator prostanoids. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. The inhibition of the constitutive and inducible nitric oxide synthase isoforms by indazole agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, D J; Gribin, B J

    1994-06-01

    Citrulline formation by Ca(2+)-calmodulin (CaM)-dependent nitric oxide synthase from bovine brain is inhibited reversibly by indazole, 5-nitro-, 6-nitro-, and 7-nitroindazole with IC50 values of 2.3 mM, 1.15 mM, 40 microM, and 2.5 microM, respectively. Inhibition of citrulline formation by 7-nitroindazole exhibited a Ki value of 0.16 microM and was competitive versus both arginine substrate and (6R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin cofactor. The NADPH oxidase activity of bovine brain CaM-dependent nitric oxide synthase was inhibited by 7-nitroindazole with an IC50 value of 0.6 microM. Citrulline formation by the interferon-gamma/lipopolysaccharide-inducible nitric oxide synthase of murine macrophages (264.7 cell line) is inhibited reversibly by indazole, 5-nitro-, 6-nitro-, and 7-nitroindazole with IC50 values of 470, 240, 56, and 20 microM, respectively. Inhibition of citrulline formation by 7-nitroindazole exhibited a Ki value of 1.6 microM and was noncompetitive versus arginine substrate but competitive versus (6R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin cofactor. None of the indazoles tested inhibited the cytochrome c reductase activity of either nitric oxide synthase isoform at concentrations up to 1000-fold higher than their IC50 values for inhibition of citrulline formation. These observations are consistent with the proposal that the indazoles exert their inhibitory actions by interaction with the heme-iron of nitric oxide synthase such that oxygen does not bind.

  11. Sphaeranthus indicus attenuates testosterone induced prostatic hypertrophy in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, Alok; Dixit, Vinod Kumar

    2011-12-01

    The present study reports the attenuating effect of Sphaeranthus indicus extracts (SI) on prostatic hyperplasia induced by testosterone in albino rats. In vitro studies were conducted to assess the 5α-reductase inhibitory potential of the petroleum ether, ethanolic and aqueous extracts of SI. A biochemical marker, β-sitosterol, was isolated and extracts were characterized utilizing HPTLC. Testosterone (3 mg/kg s.c.) was administered to the rats along with the test extracts and isolated β-sitosterol for a period of 28 days. The weight of the rats, the urine output, serum testosterone concentrations and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were recorded. The prostate/body weight ratio (P/BW) was calculated and histological studies were performed to observe the changes in the histoarchitecture of the prostate. Finasteride was used as a positive control (1 mg/kg p.o.). Sphaeranthus indicus extracts attenuated the increase in the P/BW ratio induced by testosterone in the treated groups. The petroleum ether extract exhibited the best activity, although the ethanol and aqueous extracts also exhibited significant activity. Urine output was also improved significantly, demonstrating the clinical implications of the study. Histological studies, testosterone levels which were measured weekly and PSA levels measured at the end of the study also support claims for the potential use of Sphaeranthus indicus in the treatment of prostatic hyperplasia. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Attenuation of cryocooler induced vibration in spaceborne infrared payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veprik, A.; Twitto, A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancement of operational responsive space programs calls for a development of compact, reliable, low power and vibration free cryogenic cooling for sophisticated infrared payloads. The refrigeration in a typical closed cycle split Stirling linear cryocooler is achieved by a cyclic compression and expansion of a gaseous working agent due to a synchronized reciprocation of electro-dynamically and pneumatically actuated compressor and expander pistons. Attenuation of the cryocooler induced vibration usually relies on the concept of actively assisted momentum cancellation. In a typical dual-piston compressor this objective is achieved by actively synchronizing the motion of oppositely moving piston assemblies; a typical single-piston expander may be counterbalanced by a motorized counter-balancer. The above approach produces complexity, weight, size, high incurred costs and affects reliability. The authors analyze the case of passive attenuation the vibration export induced by the split Stirling linear cryocooler comprised of inline mounted single-piston compressor and expander. Placement of all the moving components onto a common axis results in a single axis consolidation of vibration export and enables use of single tuned dynamic absorber and low frequency vibration mount. From theoretical analysis and full-scale testing, the performance of such vibration protection arrangement is similar to known systems of active vibration cancellation.

  13. Minocycline attenuates noise-induced hearing loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Song, Yong-Li; Tian, Ke-Yong; Qiu, Jian-Hua

    2017-02-03

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a serious health concern and prevention of hair cell death or therapeutic intervention at the early stage of NIHL is critical to preserve hearing. Minocycline is a semi-synthetic derivative of tetracycline and has been shown to have otoprotective effects in ototoxic drug-induced hearing impairment, however, whether minocycline can protect against NIHL has not been investigated. The present study demonstrated elevated ABR (auditory brainstem response) thresholds and outer hair cell loss following traumatic noise exposure, which was mitigated by intraperitoneal administration of minocycline (45mg/kg/d) for 5 consecutive days. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that minocycline, a clinically approved drug with a good safety profile, can attenuate NIHL in rats and may potentially be used for treatment of hearing loss in clinic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Allicin protects spinal cord neurons from glutamate-induced oxidative stress through regulating the heat shock protein 70/inducible nitric oxide synthase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Guang; Ren, Peng-Yu; Wang, Guo-Yu; Yao, Shu-Xin; He, Xi-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Allicin, the main biologically active compound derived from garlic, exerts a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities and is considered to have therapeutic potential in many neurological disorders. Using an in vitro spinal cord injury model induced by glutamate treatment, we sought to investigate the neuroprotective effects of allicin in primary cultured spinal cord neurons. We found that allicin treatment significantly attenuated glutamate-induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, loss of cell viability and apoptotic neuronal death. This protection was associated with reduced oxidative stress, as evidenced by decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, reduced lipid peroxidation and preservation of antioxidant enzyme activities. The results of western blot analysis showed that allicin decreased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), but had no effects on the expression of neuronal NOS (nNOS) following glutamate exposure. Moreover, allicin treatment significantly increased the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) at both mRNA and protein levels. Knockdown of HSP70 by specific targeted small interfere RNA (siRNA) not only mitigated allicin-induced protective activity, but also partially nullified its effects on the regulation of iNOS. Collectively, these data demonstrate that allicin treatment may be an effective therapeutic strategy for spinal cord injury, and that the potential underlying mechanism involves HSP70/iNOS pathway-mediated inhibition of oxidative stress.

  15. Pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats: Modulation of oxidative stress, fibrosis, and inflammatory parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaafan, Mai A; Zaki, Hala F; El-Brairy, Amany I; Kenawy, Sanaa A

    The current study aimed to investigate the modulatory effects of pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC; 100 mg/kg) on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis (5 mg/kg; intratracheal) in rats. Rats were randomly assigned to three groups: normal control, bleomycin control, and PDTC-treated groups. Lung injury was evaluated through histological examination, immunohistochemical detection of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lung tissue and evaluating the total and differential leucocytes count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Lung tissue was used for biochemical assessment of lung content of hydroxyproline, transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) as well as analysis of lipid peroxides, reduced glutathione (GSH), and total nitrite contents. PDTC attenuated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis as evidenced by histological observations, decreased iNOS expression and prevention of bleomycin-induced altered total and differential leukocytes count. Additionally, PDTC caused a significant decrease in lung contents of hydroxyproline, TGF-β1, TNF-α, lipid peroxides, and total nitrite coupled with increase in lung GSH content as compared to bleomycin control group. PDTC attenuated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats via its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antifibrotic activities.

  16. Pu-erh Tea Reduces Nitric Oxide Levels in Rats by Inhibiting Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression through Toll-Like Receptor 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Wang, Guan; Li, Chunjie; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Hang; Sheng, Jun; Shi, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Pu-erh tea undergoes a unique fermentation process and contains theabrownins, polysaccharides and caffeine; although it is unclear about which component is associated with the down regulation of nitric oxide levels or how this process is mediated. To address this question we examined the effects of pu-erh tea on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) genes. Cohorts of rats were separately given four-week treatments of water as control, pu-erh tea, or the tea components: theabrownins, caffeine or polysaccharides. Five experimental groups were injected with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to induce nitric oxide (NO) production, while the corresponding five control groups were injected with saline as a negative control. The serum and liver NO concentrations were examined and the NOS expression of both mRNA and protein was measured in liver. The results showed that the rats which were fed pu-erh tea or polysaccharides had lower levels of NO which corresponded with the down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. We further demonstrate that this effect is mediated through reduction of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling. Thus we find that the polysaccharide components in pu-erh tea reduce NO levels in an animal model by inhibiting the iNOS expression via signaling through TLR4. PMID:22837686

  17. Korean Red Ginseng Extract Attenuates 3-Nitropropionic Acid-Induced Huntington’s-Like Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhee Jang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Korean red ginseng (KRG possesses neuroprotective activity. However, the potential neuroprotective value of KRG for the striatal toxicity is largely unknown. We investigated whether KRG extract (KRGE could have a neuroprotective effect in a 3-nitropropionic acid- (3-NP induced (i.p. Huntington’s disease (HD model. KRGE (50, 100, and 250 mg/kg/day, p.o. was administrated 10 days before 3-NP injection (pre-administration, from the same time with 3-NP injection (co-administration, or from the peak point of neurological impairment by 3-NP injection (post-administration. Pre-administration of KRGE produced the greatest neuroprotective effect in this model. Pre-administration of KRGE significantly decreased 3-NP-induced neurological impairment, lethality, lesion area, and neuronal loss in the 3-NP-injected striatum. KRGE attenuated microglial activation and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB signal pathway. KRGE also reduced the level of mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin- (IL- 1β, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and OX-42. Interestingly, the intrathecal administration of SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor or PD98059 (an inhibitor of MAPK Kinase, MEK increased the survival rate in the 3-NP-induced HD model. Pre-administration of KRGE may effectively inhibit 3-NP-induced striatal toxicity via the inhibition of the phosphorylation of MAPKs and NF-κB pathways, indicating its therapeutic potential for suppressing Huntington’s-like symptoms.

  18. Osteopontin protects against hyperoxia-induced lung injury by inhibiting nitric oxide synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang-Feng; Liu, Shuang; Zhou, Yu-Jie; Zhu, Guang-Fa; Foda, Hussein D

    2010-04-05

    Exposure of adult mice to more than 95% O(2) produces a lethal injury by 72 hours. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of murine hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Osteopontin (OPN) is a phosphorylated glycoprotein produced principally by macrophages. OPN inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which generates large amounts of nitric oxide production. However, the relationship between nitric oxide and endogenous OPN in lung tissue during hyperoxia-induced ALI has not yet been elucidated, thus we examined the role that OPN plays in the hyperoxia-induced lung injury and its relationships with NOS. One hundred and forty-four osteopontin knock-out (KO) mice and their matched wild type background control (WT) were exposed in sealed cages > 95% oxygen or room air for 24- 72 hours, and the severity of lung injury was assessed; expression of OPN, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and iNOS mRNA in lung tissues at 24, 48 and 72 hours of hyperoxia were studied by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed for the detection of iNOS, eNOS, and OPN protein in lung tissues. OPN KO mice developed more severe acute lung injury at 72 hours of hyperoxia. The wet/dry weight ratio increased to 6.85 +/- 0.66 in the KO mice at 72 hours of hyperoxia as compared to 5.31 +/- 0.92 in the WT group (P < 0.05). iNOS mRNA (48 hours: 1.04 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.63 +/- 0.09, P < 0.01; 72 hours: 0.89 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.72 +/- 0.09, P < 0.05) and eNOS mRNA (48 hours: 0.62 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.43 +/- 0.09, P < 0.05; 72 hours: 0.67 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.45 +/- 0.09, P < 0.05) expression was more significantly increased in OPN KO mice than their matched WT mice when exposed to hyperoxia. IHC study showed higher expression of iNOS (20.54 +/- 3.18 vs. 12.52 +/- 2.46, P < 0.05) and eNOS (19.83 +/- 5.64 vs. 9.45 +/- 3.82, P < 0.05) in lung tissues of OPN KO mice at 72 hours of hyperoxia. OPN can protect against

  19. Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase Attenuates Alcohol-Induced Hepatosteatosis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamarneh, Sulaiman R; Kim, Byeong-Moo; Kaliannan, Kanakaraju; Morrison, Sara A; Tantillo, Tyler J; Tao, Qingsong; Mohamed, Mussa M Rafat; Ramirez, Juan M; Karas, Aaron; Liu, Wei; Hu, Dong; Teshager, Abeba; Gul, Sarah Shireen; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P; Bhan, Atul K; Malo, Madhu S; Choi, Michael Y; Hodin, Richard A

    2017-08-01

    Bacterially derived factors from the gut play a major role in the activation of inflammatory pathways in the liver and in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. The intestinal brush-border enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) detoxifies a variety of bacterial pro-inflammatory factors and also functions to preserve gut barrier function. The aim of this study was to investigate whether oral IAP supplementation could protect against alcohol-induced liver disease. Mice underwent acute binge or chronic ethanol exposure to induce alcoholic liver injury and steatosis ± IAP supplementation. Liver tissue was assessed for biochemical, inflammatory, and histopathological changes. An ex vivo co-culture system was used to examine the effects of alcohol and IAP treatment in regard to the activation of hepatic stellate cells and their role in the development of alcoholic liver disease. Pretreatment with IAP resulted in significantly lower serum alanine aminotransferase compared to the ethanol alone group in the acute binge model. IAP treatment attenuated the development of alcohol-induced fatty liver, lowered hepatic pro-inflammatory cytokine and serum LPS levels, and prevented alcohol-induced gut barrier dysfunction. Finally, IAP ameliorated the activation of hepatic stellate cells and prevented their lipogenic effect on hepatocytes. IAP treatment protected mice from alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity and steatosis. Oral IAP supplementation could represent a novel therapy to prevent alcoholic-related liver disease in humans.

  20. 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, a plant-derived oxylipin, attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in microglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taki-Nakano, Nozomi [Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-B-65 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); Advanced Drug Research Laboratories, Sohyaku. Innovative Research Division, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, 2-2-50, Kawagishi, Toda, Saitama 335-8505 (Japan); Kotera, Jun [Advanced Drug Research Laboratories, Sohyaku. Innovative Research Division, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, 2-2-50, Kawagishi, Toda, Saitama 335-8505 (Japan); Ohta, Hiroyuki, E-mail: ohta.h.ab@m.titech.ac.jp [Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-B-65 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); School of Life Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-B-65 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan)

    2016-05-13

    Jasmonates are plant lipid–derived oxylipins that act as key signaling compounds in plant immunity, germination, and development. Although some physiological activities of natural jasmonates in mammalian cells have been investigated, their anti-inflammatory actions in mammalian cells remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether jasmonates protect mouse microglial MG5 cells against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)–induced inflammation. Among the jasmonates tested, only 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) suppressed LPS-induced expression of the typical inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor α. In addition, only OPDA reduced LPS-induced nitric oxide production through a decrease in the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Further mechanistic studies showed that OPDA suppressed neuroinflammation by inhibiting nuclear factor κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in LPS-activated MG5 cells. In addition, OPDA induced expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1), a negative regulator of inflammation, in MG5 cells. Finally, we found that the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 signaling cascade induced by OPDA is not involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of OPDA. These results demonstrate that OPDA inhibited LPS-induced cell inflammation in mouse microglial cells via multiple pathways, including suppression of nuclear factor κB, inhibition of p38, and activation of SOCS-1 signaling. -- Highlights: •OPDA attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α. •OPDA reduces LPS-induced iNOS expression and NO production. •OPDA suppresses NF-κB and p38 pathways and activates SOCS-1 signaling.

  1. Anticonvulsion effect of acupuncture might be related to the decrease of neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, R; Huang, Z N; Cheng, J S

    1999-01-01

    To measure the levels of hippocampal nitric oxide synthase isoforms in penicillin induced epilepsy and to test the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on changes of these levels during epilepsy, we injected penicillin into rat hippocampus to make an epilepsy model and performed electroacupuncture treatment on "Feng Fu" (DU 16) and "Jin Suo" (DU 8) points in Wistar rats. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) mRNA levels of rat hippocampus were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) mRNA markedly increased (pepilepsy, whereas no significant change in epithelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mRNA was observed. EA inhibited the epilepsy and decreased nNOS (pepilepsy caused an increase in nNOS and iNOS, and the EA anticonvulsant effect might be related to the decrease of these nitric oxide synthases.

  2. The endogenous nitric oxide mediates selenium-induced phytotoxicity by promoting ROS generation in Brassica rapa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Chen

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is suggested as an emerging pollutant in agricultural environment because of the increasing anthropogenic release of Se, which in turn results in phytotoxicity. The most common consequence of Se-induced toxicity in plants is oxidative injury, but how Se induces reactive oxygen species (ROS burst remains unclear. In this work, histofluorescent staining was applied to monitor the dynamics of ROS and nitric oxide (NO in the root of Brassica rapa under Se(IV stress. Se(IV-induced faster accumulation of NO than ROS. Both NO and ROS accumulation were positively correlated with Se(IV-induced inhibition of root growth. The NO accumulation was nitrate reductase (NR- and nitric oxide synthase (NOS-dependent while ROS accumulation was NADPH oxidase-dependent. The removal of NO by NR inhibitor, NOS inhibitor, and NO scavenger could alleviate Se(IV-induced expression of Br_Rbohs coding for NADPH oxidase and the following ROS accumulation in roots, which further resulted in the amelioration of Se(IV-induced oxidative injury and growth inhibition. Thus, we proposed that the endogenous NO played a toxic role in B. rapa under Se(IV stress by triggering ROS burst. Such findings can be used to evaluate the toxic effects of Se contamination on crop plants.

  3. Nitric oxide mediates glial-induced neurodegeneration in Alexander disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liqun; Hagemann, Tracy L; Kalwa, Hermann; Michel, Thomas; Messing, Albee; Feany, Mel B

    2015-11-26

    Glia play critical roles in maintaining the structure and function of the nervous system; however, the specific contribution that astroglia make to neurodegeneration in human disease states remains largely undefined. Here we use Alexander disease, a serious degenerative neurological disorder caused by astrocyte dysfunction, to identify glial-derived NO as a signalling molecule triggering astrocyte-mediated neuronal degeneration. We further find that NO acts through cGMP signalling in neurons to promote cell death. Glial cells themselves also degenerate, via the DNA damage response and p53. Our findings thus define a specific mechanism for glial-induced non-cell autonomous neuronal cell death, and identify a potential therapeutic target for reducing cellular toxicity in Alexander disease, and possibly other neurodegenerative disorders with glial dysfunction.

  4. Treatment Of Sunitinib-Induced Hypertension In Solid Tumors By Nitric Oxid Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís A. Leon

    2015-08-01

    Hypertension (HT is one of the most common adverse effects of angiogenesis inhibitors. Hypertension observed in clinical trials appears to correlate with the potency of VEGF kinase inhibitor against VEGFR-2: agents with higher potency are associated with a higher incidence of hypertension. Although the exact mechanism by TKIs induce hypertension has not yet been completely clarified, two key hypotheses have been postulated. First, some studies have pointed to a VEGF inhibitors-induced decrease in nitric oxide synthase (NOS and nitric oxide (NO production, that can result in vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure. VEGF, mediated by PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathway, upregulates the endothelial nitric oxide synthase enzyme leading to up-regulation of NO production. So inhibition of signaling through the VEGF pathway would lead to a decrease in NO production, resulting in an increase in vascular resistance and blood pressure. Secondly a decrease in the number of microvascular endothelial cells and subsequent depletion of normal microvessel density (rarefaction occurs upon VEGF signaling inhibition.

  5. Crosstalk between nitric oxide and hypoxia-inducible factor signaling pathways: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrickson MD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Marina D Hendrickson, Robert O Poyton Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA Abstract: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1 is responsible for cellular adaptations to hypoxia. While oxygen (O2 negatively regulates its stability, many other factors affect HIF-1 stability and activity, including nitric oxide (NO. NO derived from l-arginine and nitrite (NO2– could nitrosylate or nitrate HIF-1 and multiple proteins involved in HIF-1 regulation, and can allow HIF-1 to escape normoxic degradation. In turn, HIF-1 can increase NO production through multiple mechanisms, including increased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression and subunit 4-2 of cytochrome c oxidase (COX4-2 expression. There is therefore a high degree of crosstalk between HIF-1 and NO signaling. As such, many cellular responses to NO are mediated by HIF-1, and vice versa. This includes, but is not limited to, angiogenesis, apoptosis, senescence, and metabolic changes. These pathways all have important functions in normal physiology and when altered can contribute or, in some cases, lead to pathogenesis. Keywords: HIF, nitric oxide, Cco/NO mitochondrial signaling, ROS/RNS, cancer

  6. Glutamate-induced production of nitric oxide in guinea pig vestibular sensory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takumida, M; Anniko, M

    2000-06-01

    Glutamate-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) in the vestibular organ of the guinea pig was investigated using the new fluorescence indicator, DAF-2DA, for direct detection of NO. Utricular maculae and isolated vestibular sensory cells were examined to locate NO production sites. The fluorescence intensity of the sensory cells was augmented by stimulation with glutamate, NMDA and AMPA. This is the first direct evidence of NO production in the vestibular end organs. NO may play an important role in the glutamate-induced ototoxicity and also be involved in disease of the inner ear.

  7. Effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure and vascular reactivity in nitric oxide synthase inhibition-induced hypertension model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basralı, Filiz; Koçer, Günnur; Ülker Karadamar, Pınar; Nasırcılar Ülker, Seher; Satı, Leyla; Özen, Nur; Özyurt, Dilek; Şentürk, Ümit Kemal

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of oral magnesium supplementation (Mg-supp) on blood pressure (BP) and possible mechanism in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition-induced hypertension model. Hypertension and/or Mg-supp were created by N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (25 mg/kg/day by drinking water) and magnesium-oxide (0.8% by diet) for 6 weeks. Systolic BP was measured weekly by tail-cuff method. The effects of hypertension and/or Mg-supp in thoracic aorta and third branch of mesenteric artery constriction and relaxation responses were evaluated. NOS-inhibition produced a gradually developing hypertension and the magnitude of the BP was significantly attenuated after five weeks of Mg-supp. The increased phenylephrine-induced contractile and decreased acetylcholine (ACh)-induced dilation responses were found in both artery segments of hypertensive groups. Mg-supp was restored ACh-relaxation response in both arterial segments and also Phe-constriction response in thoracic aorta but not in mesenteric arteries. The contributions of NO, prostaglandins and K(+) channels to the dilator response of ACh were similar in the aorta of all the groups. The contribution of the NO to the ACh-mediated relaxation response of mesenteric arteries was suppressed in hypertensive rats, whereas this was corrected by Mg-supp. The flow-mediated dilation response of mesenteric arteries in hypertensive rats failed and could not be corrected by Mg-supp. Whereas, vascular eNOS protein and magnesium levels were not changed and plasma nitrite levels were reduced in hypertensive rats. The results of this study showed that Mg-supp lowered the arterial BP in NOS-inhibition induced hypertension model by restoring the agonist-induced relaxation response of the arteries.

  8. Lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of nitric oxide synthase II in the guinea pig vestibular end organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takumida, M; Anniko, M

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to ascertain whether inoculation of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the vestibular organ of the guinea pig might induce formation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) II. Forty-eight hours after the animals were injected with 1 mg transtympanic LPS, varying degrees of impaired caloric responses were observed with similar degeneration of vestibular hair cells. These effects could be blocked with N-nitro-L-arginine methylester, a competitive inhibitor of NOS. Findings suggested that NOS II, which was not normally detectable in the guinea pig vestibular organ but was present following inoculation of LPS, produced the nitric oxide as the toxic factor causing cell damage. If true, LPS may represent a reproducible method for studying the vestibular pathogenesis of inner ear disease.

  9. Metformin attenuates ER stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qun; Thompson, Jeremy; Hu, Ying; Das, Anindita; Lesnefsky, Edward J

    2017-12-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, a disturbance of the ER function, contributes to cardiac injury. ER and mitochondria are closely connected organelles within cells. ER stress contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction, which is a key factor to increase cardiac injury. Metformin, a traditional anti-diabetic drug, decreases cardiac injury during ischemia-reperfusion. Metformin also inhibits ER stress in cultured cells. We hypothesized that metformin can attenuate the ER stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent cardiac injury. Thapsigargin (THAP, 3 mg/kg) was used to induce ER stress in C57BL/6 mice. Cell injury and mitochondrial function were evaluated in the mouse heart 48 hours after 1-time THAP treatment. Metformin was dissolved in drinking water (0.5 g/250 ml) and fed to mice for 7 days before THAP injection. Metformin feeding continued after THAP treatment. THAP treatment increased apoptosis in mouse myocardium compared to control. THAP also led to decreased oxidative phosphorylation in heart mitochondria-oxidizing complex I substrates. THAP decreased the calcium retention capacity, indicating that ER stress sensitizes mitochondria to mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. The cytosolic C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) content was markedly increased in THAP-treated hearts compared to control, particularly in the nucleus. Metformin prevented the THAP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced CHOP content in cytosol and nucleus. Thus, metformin reduces cardiac injury during ER stress through the protection of cardiac mitochondria and attenuation of CHOP expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthetic and natural antioxidants attenuate cisplatin-induced vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Javaid; Subhan, Fazal; Ullah, Ihsan; Shahid, Muhammad; Ali, Gowhar; Sewell, Robert D E

    2017-01-13

    Synthetic and natural antioxidants including Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell (Scrophulariaceae) which also possess anti-dopaminergic properties, have been proposed to be useful for emetogenic chemotherapy. In this study, synthetic [N-(2-mercaptopropionyl) glycine (MPG), vitamin C (Vit-C)] and natural [grape seed proanthocyanidin (GP), B. monnieri n-butanolic fraction (BM-ButFr)] antioxidants and their combinations were evaluated against cisplatin-induced emesis in pigeons during a 24 h observation period. Emesis was induced using cisplatin (7.0 mg/kg, i.v). MPG (10, 20, 30 mg/kg), Vit-C (100, 200, 300 mg/kg), GP (50, 100, 150 mg/kg) and BM-ButFr (5, 10, 20 mg/kg) and their combinations were administered i.m., 15 min before cisplatin administration. The number of vomiting bouts, retching, emetic latency and % weight loss were recorded to assess antiemetic potential. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by the DPPH free radical scavenging assay (FRSA). Significant attenuation of vomiting bouts, retching, % weight loss along with an increase in latency was produced by all the antioxidants and their combinations compared to cisplatin alone and this is the first report of this activity of GP in pigeons. Low EC50 values in the FRSA for MPG (67.66 μg/mL), Vit-C (69.42 μg/mL), GP (6.498 μg/mL) and BM-ButFr (55.61 μg/mL) compared to BHT standard (98.17 μg/mL) demonstrated their radical scavenging capacity. Correlation between the antioxidant activity and antiemetic efficacy disclosed a high degree of correlation for the tested antioxidants. The selected synthetic and natural antioxidants and their combinations were able to attenuate cisplatin-induced vomiting, which correlated with their potent in vitro antioxidant activity.

  11. Losartan treatment attenuates tumor-induced myocardial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Sarah C W; Velten, Markus; Youtz, Dane J; Clark, Yvonne; Jing, Runfeng; Reiser, Peter J; Bicer, Sabahattin; Devine, Raymond D; McCarthy, Donna O; Wold, Loren E

    2015-08-01

    Fatigue and muscle wasting are common symptoms experienced by cancer patients. Data from animal models demonstrate that angiotensin is involved in tumor-induced muscle wasting, and that tumor growth can independently affect myocardial function, which could contribute to fatigue in cancer patients. In clinical studies, inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) can prevent the development of chemotherapy-induced cardiovascular dysfunction, suggesting a mechanistic role for the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). In the present study, we investigated whether an angiotensin (AT) 1-receptor antagonist could prevent the development of tumor-associated myocardial dysfunction. Colon26 adenocarcinoma (c26) cells were implanted into female CD2F1 mice at 8weeks of age. Simultaneously, mice were administered Losartan (10mg/kg) daily via their drinking water. In vivo echocardiography, blood pressure, in vitro cardiomyocyte function, cell proliferation assays, and measures of systemic inflammation and myocardial protein degradation were performed 19days following tumor cell injection. Losartan treatment prevented tumor-induced loss of muscle mass and in vitro c26 cell proliferation, decreased tumor weight, and attenuated myocardial expression of interleukin-6. Furthermore, Losartan treatment mitigated tumor-associated alterations in calcium signaling in cardiomyocytes, which was associated with improved myocyte contraction velocity, systolic function, and blood pressures in the hearts of tumor-bearing mice. These data suggest that Losartan may mitigate tumor-induced myocardial dysfunction and inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Interleukin-11 attenuates ifosfamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Mota

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible protective effect of recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11 against ifosfamide (IFS-induced hemorrhagic cystitis (HC MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Swiss mice (20-30g were pretreated with rhIL-11 (25-625 mg, subcutaneously. 30 min before intraperitoneal injection of IFS (400 mg/kg or with saline (control group. Twelve hours later, HC was evaluated by bladder wet weight (BWW to quantify edema, Evans blue extravasation (EBE to measure vascular permeability, and macroscopic and microscopic analysis. All bladders were assessed by histopathological analysis RESULTS: rhIL-11 (at 125 and 625 mg attenuated the IFS- induced increase of BWW (37.48% and 45.44%, respectively, p < 0.05 and EBE (62.35% and 56.47%, respectively, p < 0.05. IFS- induced macroscopic edema and hemorrhage and microscopic alterations, were also prevented by rhIL-11 at 625 mg. (p < 0.05 CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate a protective effect of rhIL-11 on experimental IFS- induced HC, not previously reported.

  13. Nitric oxide prevents axonal degeneration by inducing HIF-1-dependent expression of erythropoietin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keswani, Sanjay C; Bosch-Marcé, Marta; Reed, Nicole; Fischer, Angela; Semenza, Gregg L; Höke, Ahmet

    2011-03-22

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling molecule that can trigger adaptive (physiological) or maladaptive (pathological) responses to stress stimuli in a context-dependent manner. We have previously reported that NO may signal axonal injury to neighboring glial cells. In this study, we show that mice deficient in neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS-/-) are more vulnerable than WT mice to toxin-induced peripheral neuropathy. The administration of NO donors to primary dorsal root ganglion cultures prevents axonal degeneration induced by acrylamide in a dose-dependent manner. We demonstrate that NO-induced axonal protection is dependent on hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1-mediated transcription of erythropoietin (EPO) within glial (Schwann) cells present in the cultures. Transduction of Schwann cells with adenovirus AdCA5 encoding a constitutively active form of HIF-1α results in amelioration of acrylamide-induced axonal degeneration in an EPO-dependent manner. Mice that are partially deficient in HIF-1α (HIF-1α+/-) are also more susceptible than WT littermates to toxic neuropathy. Our results indicate that NO→HIF-1→EPO signaling represents an adaptive mechanism that protects against axonal degeneration.

  14. Iptakalim attenuates hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats by endothelial function protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rong; Bi, Li-Qing; Wu, Su-Ling; Li, Lan; Kong, Hui; Xie, Wei-Ping; Wang, Hong; Meng, Zi-Li

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of iptakalim, an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium channel opener, on the inflammation of the pulmonary artery and endothelial cell injury in a hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) rat model. Ninety-six Sprague-Dawley rats were placed into normobaric hypoxia chambers for four weeks and were treated with iptakalim (1.5 mg/kg/day) or saline for 28 days. The right ventricle systolic pressures (RVSP) were measured and small pulmonary arterial morphological alterations were analyzed with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to analyze the content of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10. Immunohistochemical analysis for ED1(+) monocytes was performed to detect the inflammatory cells surrounding the pulmonary arterioles. Western blot analysis was performed to analyze the expression levels of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the lung tissue. Alterations in small pulmonary arteriole morphology and the ultrastructure of pulmonary arterial endothelial cells were observed via light and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Iptakalim significantly attenuated the increase in mean pulmonary artery pressure, RVSP, right ventricle to left ventricle plus septum ratio and small pulmonary artery wall remodeling in hypoxia-induced PAH rats. Iptakalim also prevented an increase in IL-1β and a decrease in IL-10 in the peripheral blood and lung tissue, and alleviated inflammatory cell infiltration in hypoxia-induced PAH rats. Furthermore, iptakalim enhanced PECAM-1 and eNOS expression and prevented the endothelial cell injury induced by hypoxic stimuli. Iptakalim suppressed the pulmonary arteriole and systemic inflammatory responses and protected against the endothelial damage associated with the upregulation of PECAM-1 and eNOS, suggesting that iptakalim may represent a

  15. Azadirachta indica attenuates cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Moneim, Ahmed Esmat

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Azadirachta indica leaves against cisplatin (CP)-induced neurotoxicity. Female Wistar rats were treated with vehicle (control); a single intraperitoneal 5 mg/kg CP (CP group); neem leaves (orally 500 mg/kg) for 5 and 10 days, N5 and N10 groups, respectively; neem leaves (500 mg/kg) for 5 days after CP injection, collagenous protein nitrogen (CPN) group; neem leaves (500 mg/kg) for 5 days before CP injection, noncollagenous protein group and neem leaves in a dose of 500 mg/kg for 5 days before and after CP injection, noncollagenous protein nitrogen group. Rats were sacrificed 5 days after CP injection to determine neural lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide (NO), and glutathione (GSH) levels. The neuronal antioxidant enzymes were evaluated in brain homogenates. CP injection increased LPO, NO levels and decreased GSH level, whereas neem reversed these effects. Morphological brain damage and apoptosis induction were apparent in the CP group. In the CPN group, the histological damage and apoptosis induction caused by CP was improved, whereas morphological findings of neem before and after CP injection implied a well preserved brain tissue. No changes, in biochemical parameters were observed with neem treated groups. This study suggests that methanolic extract of neem leaves may be of therapeutic benefit when used with CP.

  16. [Nitric oxide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, I

    1995-01-01

    Nitric oxide was identified as the relaxing factor derived from the endothelium in 1987. Nitric oxide synthesis allows the vascular system to maintain a state of vasodilation, thereby regulating arterial pressure. Nitric oxide is also found in platelets, where it inhibits adhesion and aggregation; in the immune system, where it is responsible for the cytotoxic action of macrophages; and in the nervous system, where it acts as neurotransmitter. A deficit in endogenous synthesis of nitric oxide contributes to such conditions as essential arterial hypertension, pulmonary hypertension and heart disease. An excess of nitrous oxide induced by endotoxins and cytokinins, meanwhile, is believed to be responsible for hypotension in septic shock and for hyperdynamic circulatory state in cirrhosis of the liver. Nitric oxide has also been implicated in the rejection of transplanted organs and in cell damage after reperfusion. Inhaled nitrous oxide gas reduces pulmonary hypertension without triggering systemic hypotension in both experimental and clinical conditions. It also produces selective vasodilation when used to ventilate specific pulmonary areas, thereby improving the ventilation/perfusion ratio and, hence, oxygenation. Nitric oxide inhalation is effective in pulmonary hypertension-coincident with chronic obstructive lung disease, in persistent neonatal pulmonary hypertension and in pulmonary hypertension with congenital or acquired heart disease. Likewise, it reduces intrapulmonary shunt in acute respiratory failure and improves gas exchange. Under experimental conditions nitric oxide acts as a bronchodilator, although it seems to be less effective for this purpose in clinical use.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Ferulic acid and its water-soluble derivatives inhibit nitric oxide production and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in rat primary astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikugawa, Masaki; Ida, Tomoaki; Ihara, Hideshi; Sakamoto, Tatsuji

    2017-08-01

    We recently reported that two water-soluble derivatives of ferulic acid (1-feruloyl glycerol, 1-feruloyl diglycerol) previously developed by our group exhibited protective effects against amyloid-β-induced neurodegeneration in vitro and in vivo. In the current study, we aimed to further understand this process by examining the derivatives' ability to suppress abnormal activation of astrocytes, the key event of neurodegeneration. We investigated the effects of ferulic acid (FA) derivatives on nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in rat primary astrocytes. The results showed that these compounds inhibited NO production and iNOS expression in a concentration-dependent manner and that the mechanism underlying these effects was the suppression of the nuclear factor-κB pathway. This evidence suggests that FA and its derivatives may be effective neuroprotective agents and could be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.

  18. Seismic attenuation due to wave-induced flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pride, S.R.; Berryman, J.G.; Harris, J.M.

    2003-10-09

    Analytical expressions for three P-wave attenuation mechanisms in sedimentary rocks are given a unified theoretical framework. Two of the models concern wave-induced flow due to heterogeneity in the elastic moduli at mesoscopic scales (scales greater than grain sizes but smaller than wavelengths). In the first model, the heterogeneity is due to lithological variations (e.g., mixtures of sands and clays) with a single fluid saturating all the pores. In the second model, a single uniform lithology is saturated in mesoscopic ''patches'' by two immiscible fluids (e.g., air and water). In the third model, the heterogeneity is at ''microscopic'' grain scales (broken grain contacts and/or micro-cracks in the grains) and the associated fluid response corresponds to ''squirt flow''. The model of squirt flow derived here reduces to proper limits as any of the fluid bulk modulus, crack porosity, and/or frequency is reduced to zero. It is shown that squirt flow is incapable of explaining the measured level of loss (10{sup -2} < Q{sup -1} < 10{sup -1}) within the seismic band of frequencies (1 to 10{sup 4} Hz); however, either of the two mesoscopic scale models easily produce enough attenuation to explain the field data.

  19. Hydrogen sulfide enhances nitric oxide-induced tolerance of hypoxia in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Renyi; Bian, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Lina; Cheng, Wei; Hai, Na; Yang, Changquan; Yang, Tao; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Chongying

    2016-11-01

    Our data present H 2 S in a new role, serving as a multi-faceted transducer to different response mechanisms during NO-induced acquisition of tolerance to flooding-induced hypoxia in maize seedling roots. Nitric oxide (NO), serving as a secondary messenger, modulates physiological processes in plants. Recently, hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) has been demonstrated to have similar signaling functions. This study focused on the effects of treatment with H 2 S on NO-induced hypoxia tolerance in maize seedlings. The results showed that treatment with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) enhanced survival rate of submerged maize roots through induced accumulation of endogenous H 2 S. The induced H 2 S then enhanced endogenous Ca 2+ levels as well as the Ca 2+ -dependent activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), improving the capacity for antioxidant defense and, ultimately, the hypoxia tolerance in maize seedlings. In addition, NO induced the activities of key enzymes in H 2 S biosynthesis, such as L-cysteine desulfhydrases (L-CDs), O-acetyl-L-serine (thiol)lyase (OAS-TL), and β-Cyanoalanine Synthase (CAS). SNP-induced hypoxia tolerance was enhanced by the application of NaHS, but was eliminated by the H 2 S-synthesis inhibitor hydroxylamine (HA) and the H 2 S-scavenger hypotaurine (HT). H 2 S concurrently enhanced the transcriptional levels of relative hypoxia-induced genes. Together, our findings indicated that H 2 S serves as a multi-faceted transducer that enhances the nitric oxide-induced hypoxia tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.).

  20. Attenuation of cryocooler induced vibration using multimodal tuned dynamic absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veprik, A.; Babitsky, V.; Tuito, A.

    2017-12-01

    Modern infrared imagers often rely on low Size, Weight and Power split Stirling linear cryocoolers comprised of side-by-side packed compressor and expander units fixedly mounted upon a common frame and interconnected by the configurable transfer line. Imbalanced reciprocation of moving assemblies generates vibration export in the form of tonal force couple producing angular and translational dynamic responses. Resulting line of sight jitter and dynamic defocusing may affect the image quality. The authors explore the concept of multimodal tuned dynamic absorber, the translational and tilting modal frequencies of which are essentially matched to the driving frequency. Dynamic analysis and full-scale testing show that the dynamic reactions (forces and moments) produced by such a device may effectively attenuate both translational and angular components of cryocooler-induced vibration.

  1. Nitric Oxide Suppresses β-Cell Apoptosis by Inhibiting the DNA Damage Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Bryndon J.; Broniowska, Katarzyna A.; Naatz, Aaron; Hogg, Neil; Tarakanova, Vera L.

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide, produced in pancreatic β cells in response to proinflammatory cytokines, plays a dual role in the regulation of β-cell fate. While nitric oxide induces cellular damage and impairs β-cell function, it also promotes β-cell survival through activation of protective pathways that promote β-cell recovery. In this study, we identify a novel mechanism in which nitric oxide prevents β-cell apoptosis by attenuating the DNA damage response (DDR). Nitric oxide suppresses activation of the DDR (as measured by γH2AX formation and the phosphorylation of KAP1 and p53) in response to multiple genotoxic agents, including camptothecin, H2O2, and nitric oxide itself, despite the presence of DNA damage. While camptothecin and H2O2 both induce DDR activation, nitric oxide suppresses only camptothecin-induced apoptosis and not H2O2-induced necrosis. The ability of nitric oxide to suppress the DDR appears to be selective for pancreatic β cells, as nitric oxide fails to inhibit DDR signaling in macrophages, hepatocytes, and fibroblasts, three additional cell types examined. While originally described as the damaging agent responsible for cytokine-induced β-cell death, these studies identify a novel role for nitric oxide as a protective molecule that promotes β-cell survival by suppressing DDR signaling and attenuating DNA damage-induced apoptosis. PMID:27185882

  2. Selenium Administration Attenuates 5-Flurouracil-Induced Intestinal Mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Min; Chun, Hoon Jai; Choi, Hyuk Soon; Kim, Eun Sun; Seo, Yeon Seok; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chul Hwan; Sul, Donggeun

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced mucositis is mediated by the release of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species. Selenium has several metabolic functions, including the protection of membrane lipids and macromolecules against oxidative damage. However, to date, there is little evidence on the effect of trace elements on intestinal mucositis after chemotherapy. This study investigated the protective effect of selenium against chemotherapy-induced mucositis in rats. Twenty-four 9-wk-old female Wistar rats were randomized to 4 groups: control, selenium, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and 5-FU plus selenium. Mucositis was induced by a single dose of 5-FU (400 mg/kg BW) via intraperitoneal injection, and selenium was administered by a single intraperitoneal dose of sodium selenite (0.2 mg/kg BW). Diarrhea and weight loss after 5-FU administration were attenuated by selenium treatment. The mean villus height in the 5-FU plus selenium group was significantly taller than rats administered with 5-FU alone, but not significantly different compared to the control group. Interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α mRNA expression were significantly lower in the 5-FU plus selenium group than in the 5-FU only group (IL-1β, P selenium protects the mucosa during chemotherapy via its anti-inflammatory effects and its suppression of cytotoxic cytokine production.

  3. Corilagin Attenuates Aerosol Bleomycin-Induced Experimental Lung Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Guo, Qiong-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Ju; Li, Xiao; Li, Wen-Ting; Ma, Xi-Tao; Ma, Li-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressing lethal disease with few clinically effective therapies. Corilagin is a tannin derivative which shows anti-inflammatory and antifibrotics properties and is potentiated in treating IPF. Here, we investigated the effect of corilagin on lung injury following bleomycin exposure in an animal model of pulmonary fibrosis. Corilagin abrogated bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis as assessed by H&E; Masson’s trichrome staining and lung hydroxyproline content in lung tissue. Corilagin reduced the number of apoptotic lung cells and prevented lung epithelial cells from membrane breakdown, effluence of lamellar bodies and thickening of the respiratory membrane. Bleomycin exposure induced expression of MDA, IKKα, phosphorylated IKKα (p-IKKα), NF-κB P65, TNF-α and IL-1β, and reduced I-κB expression in mice lung tissue or in BALF. These changes were reversed by high-dose corilagin (100 mg/kg i.p) more dramatically than by low dose (10 mg/kg i.p). Last, corilagin inhibits TGF-β1 production and α-SMA expression in lung tissue samples. Taken together, these findings confirmed that corilagin attenuates bleomycin-induced epithelial injury and fibrosis via inactivation of oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokine release and NF-κB and TGF-β1 signaling. Corilagin may serve as a promising therapeutic agent for pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:24886817

  4. Cilastatin attenuates cisplatin-induced proximal tubular cell damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camano, Sonia; Lazaro, Alberto; Moreno-Gordaliza, Estefania; Torres, Ana M; de Lucas, Carmen; Humanes, Blanca; Lazaro, Jose A; Milagros Gomez-Gomez, M; Bosca, Lisardo; Tejedor, Alberto

    2010-08-01

    A major area in cancer therapy is the search for protective strategies against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. We investigated the protective effect of cilastatin on cisplatin-induced injury to renal proximal tubular cells. Cilastatin is a specific inhibitor of renal dehydrodipeptidase I (DHP-I), which prevents hydrolysis of imipenem and its accumulation in the proximal tubule. Primary cultures of proximal cells were treated with cisplatin (1-30 microM) in the presence or absence of cilastatin (200 microg/ml). Apoptosis and mitochondrial injury were assessed by different techniques. Cisplatin uptake and DNA binding were measured by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. HeLa cells were used to control the effect of cilastatin on the tumoricidal activity of cisplatin. Cisplatin increased cell death, apoptotic-like morphology, caspase activation, and mitochondrial injury in proximal tubular cells in a dose- and time-dependent way. Concomitant treatment with cilastatin reduced cisplatin-induced changes. Cilastatin also reduced the DNA-bound platinum but did not modify cisplatin-dependent up-regulation of death receptors (Fas) or ligands (tumor necrosis factor alpha, Fas ligand). In contrast, cilastatin did not show any effects on cisplatin-treated HeLa cells. Renal DHP-I was virtually absent in HeLa cells. Cilastatin attenuates cisplatin-induced cell death in proximal tubular cells without reducing the cytotoxic activity of cisplatin in tumor cells. Our findings suggest that the affinity of cilastatin for renal dipeptidase makes this effect specific for proximal tubular cells and may be related to a reduction in intracellular drug accumulation. Therefore, cilastatin administration might represent a novel strategy in the prevention of cisplatin-induced acute renal injury.

  5. Myeloperoxidase deficiency attenuates nitrogen mustard-induced skin injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anil K; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Inturi, Swetha; Orlicky, David J.; White, Carl W.; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    The pathologic mechanisms of skin injuries, following the acute inflammatory response induced by vesicating agents sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM) exposure, are poorly understood. Neutrophils which accumulate at the site of injury, abundantly express myeloperoxidase (MPO), a heme protein that is implicated in oxidant-related antimicrobial and cytotoxic responses. Our previous studies have shown that exposure to SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) or NM results in an inflammatory response including increased neutrophilic infiltration and MPO activity. To further define the role of neutrophil-derived MPO in NM-induced skin injury, here we used a genetic approach and examined the effect of NM exposure (12 h and 24 h) on previously established injury endpoints in C57BL/6J wild type (WT) and B6.129X1-MPOtm1Lus/J mice (MPO KO), homozygous null for MPO gene. NM exposure caused a significant increase in skin bi-fold thickness, epidermal thickness, microvesication, DNA damage and apoptosis in WT mice compared to MPO KO mice. MPO KO mice showed relatively insignificant effect. Similarly, NM-induced increases in the expression of inflammatory and proteolytic mediators, including COX-2, iNOS and MMP-9 in WT mice, while having a significantly lower effect in MPO KO mice. Collectively, these results show that MPO, which generates microbicidal oxidants, plays an important role in NM-induced skin injuries. This suggests the development of mechanism-based treatments against NM- and SM-induced skin injuries that inhibit MPO activity and attenuate MPO-derived oxidants. PMID:24631667

  6. Antiflammin-1 attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wan, Jing; Han, Jian-Zhong; Li, Chen; Feng, Dan-Dan; Yue, Shao-Jie; Huang, Yan-Hong; Chen, Yi; Cheng, Qing-Mei; Li, Yang; Luo, Zi-Qiang

    2013-10-08

    Antiflammin-1 (AF-1), a derivative of uteroglobin (UG), is a synthetic nonapeptide with diverse biological functions. In the present study, we investigated whether AF-1 has a protective effect against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. C57BL/6 mice were injected with bleomycin intratracheally to create an animal model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. On Day 7 and Day 28, we examined the anti-inflammatory effect and antifibrotic effect, respectively, of AF-1 on the bleomycin-treated mice. The effects of AF-1 on the transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1)-induced proliferation of murine lung fibroblasts (NIH3T3) were examined by a bromodeoxycytidine (BrdU) incorporation assay and cell cycle analysis. Severe lung inflammation and fibrosis were observed in the bleomycin-treated mice on Day 7 and Day 28, respectively. Administration of AF-1 significantly reduced the number of neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) in the lung homogenates on Day 7. Histological examination revealed that AF-1 markedly reduced the number of infiltrating cells on Day 7 and attenuated the collagen deposition and destruction of lung architecture on Day 28. The hydroxyproline (HYP) content was significantly decreased in the AF-1-treated mice. In vitro, AF-1 inhibited the TGF-β1-induced proliferation of NIH3T3 cells, which was mediated by the UG receptor. AF-1 has anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic actions in bleomycin-induced lung injury. We propose that the antifibrotic effect of AF-1 might be related to its suppression of fibroblast growth in bleomycin-treated lungs and that AF-1 has potential as a new therapeutic tool for pulmonary fibrosis.

  7. Blockade of TRPA1 with HC-030031 attenuates visceral nociception by a mechanism independent of inflammatory resident cells, nitric oxide and the opioid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, L M S; Lima-Júnior, R C P; Bem, A X C; Teixeira, C G; Grassi, L S; Medeiros, R P; Marques-Neto, R D; Callado, R B; Aragão, K S; Wong, D V T; Vale, M L; Brito, G A C; Ribeiro, R A

    2013-02-01

    Some studies have shown a somatic nociceptive response due to the activation of transient receptor potential A1 channels (TRPA1), which is modulated by the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031. However, a few studies report the role of TRPA1 in visceral pain. Therefore, we investigated the participation of TRPA1 in visceral nociception and the involvement of nitric oxide, the opioid system and resident cells in the modulation of these channels. Mice were treated with vehicle or HC-030031 (18.75-300 mg/kg) before ifosfamide (400 mg/kg), 0.75% mustard oil (50 μL/colon), acetic acid 0.6% (10 mL/kg), zymosan (1 mg/cavity) or misoprostol (1 μg/cavity) injection. Visceral nociception was assessed through the electronic von Frey test or the writhing response. Ifosfamide-administered mice were euthanized for bladder analysis. The involvement of nitric oxide and the opioid system were investigated in mice injected with ifosfamide and mustard oil, respectively. The participation of resident peritoneal cells in acetic acid-, zymosan- or misoprostol-induced nociception was also evaluated. HC-030031 failed to protect animals against ifosfamide-induced bladder injury (p > 0.05). However, a marked antinociceptive effect against ifosfamide, mustard oil, acetic acid, zymosan and misoprostol was observed (p nociception by a mechanism independent of the modulation of resident cells, nitric oxide and opioid pathways. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  8. Effects and Mechanism of Action of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase on Apoptosis in a Rat Model of Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li; Ding, Junli; Wang, Jianwei; Zhou, Changman; Zhang, Weiguang

    2016-02-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is a key enzyme in regulating nitric oxide (NO) synthesis under stress, and NO has varying ability to regulate apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and possible mechanism of action of iNOS on neuronal apoptosis in a rat model of cerebral focal ischemia and reperfusion injury in rats treated with S-methylisothiourea sulfate (SMT), a high-selective inhibitor of iNOS. Seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups: the sham, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) + vehicle, and MCAO + SMT groups. Neurobehavioral deficits, infarct zone size, and cortical neuron morphology were evaluated through the modified Garcia scores, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC), and Nissl staining, respectively. Brain tissues and serum samples were collected at 72 hr post-reperfusion for immunohistochemical analysis, Western blotting, Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin Nick End Labeling assay (TUNEL) staining, and enzyme assays. The study found that inhibition of iNOS significantly attenuated the severity of the pathological changes observed as a result of ischemia-reperfusion injury: SMT reduced NO content as well as total nitric oxide synthase (tNOS) and iNOS activities in both ischemic cerebral hemisphere and serum, improved neurobehavioral scores, reduced mortality, reduced the infarct volume ratio, attenuated morphological changes in cortical neurons, decreased the rate of apoptosis (TUNEL and caspase-3-positive), and increased phospho (p)-AKT expression in ischemic penumbra. These results suggested that inhibition of iNOS might reduce the severity of ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibiting neuronal apoptosis via maintaining p-AKT activity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase contributes to pentylenetetrazole-kindling-induced hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinjian; Dong, Jingde; Shen, Kai; Bai, Ying; Chao, Jie; Yao, Honghong

    2016-03-01

    Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), the major nitric oxide synthase isoform in the mammalian brain, is implicated in the pathophysiology of several neurological conditions, including epilepsy. Neurogenesis in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) persists throughout life in the adult brain. Alterations in this process occur in many neurological diseases, including epilepsy. Few studies, however, have addressed the role of nNOS in hippocampal DG neurogenesis in epileptic brain. The present study, therefore, investigated the role of nNOS in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindling-induced neurogenesis in hippocampal DG. Our results showed that nNOS expression and enzymatic activity were significantly increased in the hippocampus of PTZ-kindled mice. Meanwhile, these PTZ-kindled mice were characterized by significant enhancement of new born cells proliferation and survival in hippocampal DG, and these survived cells are co-labeled with NeuN and GFAP. Selective inhibition of nNOS by 7-NI, however, suppressed PTZ-kindling-induced hippocampal DG new born cells proliferation and survival, suggesting that nNOS contributes to PTZ-kindling-induced hippocampal neurogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Chamomile, an anti-inflammatory agent inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by blocking RelA/p65 activity

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaskaran, Natarajan; Shukla, Sanjeev; Srivastava, Janmejai K.; Gupta, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Chamomile has long been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammation-related disorders. In this study we aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of chamomile on nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and to explore its potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms using RAW 264.7 macrophages. Chamomile treatment inhibited LPS-induced NO production and significantly blocked IL-1β , IL-6 and TNFα-induced NO levels in RAW 264.7 macropha...

  11. [Salidroside attenuates high glucose-induced apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells via activating the Ca(2)+/CaM/CAMKIIδ/eNOS pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ziwei; Wu, Xiang

    2014-04-01

    Endothelial oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Salidroside, a phenylpropanoid glycoside isolated from Rhodiola rosea L, could exert potent antioxidant properties. In this study, we investigated the protective effects, and related mechanism of salidroside against high glucose (33 mmol/L)-induced cell damage in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were cultured in normal glucose (5.5 mmol/L), high glucose (33 mmol/L), high salidroside (10 µg/ml+33 mmol/L glucose), moderate salidroside (4 µg/ml+33 mmol/L glucose), low salidroside (1 µg/ml+33 mmol/L glucose) and very low salidroside (0.1 µg/ml+33 mmol/L glucose) for 48 h. Cell viability, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) , reactive oxygen species (ROS) , nitric oxide (NO) , [Ca(2)+]i, calmodulin (CaM) , calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK) IIδ, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) , active caspase-3 protein expression and eNOS ser 1177 phosphorylation of HUVECs post various treatments were measured. The cell viability was assessed with MTT assay, and the level of ROS, and [Ca(2)+]i was analyzed using flow cytometry. Nitric oxide and MDA was detected by Nitric Oxide Assay Kit and MDA Assay Kit. Western blot was performed to detect the protein expressions of eNOS, active caspase-3 and eNOS ser 1177 phosphorylation. Comparing to the normal glucose group, high glucose treatment increased the cell damage, the level of NO and [Ca(2)+]i (P Salidroside treatment significantly attenuated high glucose-induce cell damage on cultured HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner. Comparing to the high glucose group, 10 µg/ml Salidroside significantly increased cell viability (P salidroside could attenuate high glucose induced apoptosis in HUVEC, partly through activating the Ca(2)+/CaM/CAMKIIδ/eNOS pathway.

  12. Mycobacterial glycolipids di-O-acylated trehalose and tri-O-acylated trehalose downregulate inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide production in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Cueto, Patricia; Escalera-Zamudio, Marina; Magallanes-Puebla, Alejandro; López-Marín, Luz María; Segura-Salinas, Erika; Mancilla, Raúl

    2015-06-23

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious human health problem that affects millions of people in the world. Understanding the biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is essential for tackling this devastating disease. Mtb possesses a very complex cell envelope containing a variety of lipid components that participate in the establishment of the infection. We have previously demonstrated that di-O-acylated trehalose (DAT), a non-covalently linked cell wall glycolipid, inhibits the proliferation of T lymphocytes and the production of cytokines. In this work we show that DAT and the closely related tri-O-acylated trehalose (TAT) inhibits nitric oxide (NO) production and the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in macrophages (MØ). These findings show that DAT and TAT are cell-wall located virulence factors that downregulate an important effector of the immune response against mycobacteria.

  13. Acoustic stimulation promotes the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the vestibule of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ken-ichi; Inai, Shunta; Hess, Alexander; Michel, Olaf; Yagi, Toshiaki

    2004-08-01

    Loud acoustic stimulation is known to cause inner ear disturbance. We examined immunohistochemically the vestibule of 12 guinea pigs after acoustic stimulation. The animals were divided into two equal groups: a control group and an acoustic stimulation group. The temporal bones were fixed by means of a cardiac infusion of fixative and immunohistochemically stained for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The temporal bones in the control group did not show any iNOS. In the acoustic stimulation group, immunoreactivity for iNOS was detected in the supporting cells and sensory cells of the sensory epithelium, in the dark cell areas and in the vestibular ganglion cells. These findings suggest that free radicals are involved in the pathogenesis of noise-induced inner ear damage. Furthermore, free radicals may cause vestibular damage, as is seen in noise-induced inner ear damage.

  14. Pseudoguaianolides isolated from Inula britannica var. chinenis as inhibitory constituents against inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Tai; Yang, Seung-Won; Kim, Kyeong Ho; Seo, Eun-Kyoung; Mar, Woongchon

    2002-04-01

    Three pseudoguaianolide type sesquiterpenes, bigelovin (1), 2,3-dihydroaromaticin (2), and ergolide (3) were isolated as inhibitory constituents against inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) from the flowers of Inula britannica var. chinensis. Bigelovin (1) exhibited a highly potent inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced iNOS in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells with an IC50 value of 0.46 mM, which is about 8 times more potent than the known selective inhibitor of iNOS, L-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine (IC50 3.49 microM). 2,3-Dihydroaromaticin (2) and ergolide (3) also exhibited potent inhibitory activities on LPS-induced iNOS with IC50 values of 1.05 and 0.69 microM, respectively.

  15. Negative feedback regulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression by heme oxygenase-1 induction in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashino, Takashi; Yamanaka, Rieko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Sekikawa, Kenji; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Shioda, Seiji; Numazawa, Satoshi; Yoshida, Takemi

    2008-04-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is induced under infectious diseases in macrophages. We performed experiments using various gene deficient mouse-derived macrophages to determine a detailed induction mechanism of HO-1 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the functional role of HO-1 induction in macrophages. LPS (1 microg/mL) maximally induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and HO-1 mRNAs in wild-type (WT) macrophages at 6h and 12h after treatment, respectively, and liberated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) from WT macrophages. LPS also induced iNOS and HO-1 in TNFalpha(-/-) macrophages, but not in iNOS(-/-) macrophages. Interestingly, although LPS strongly induced iNOS, it failed to induce HO-1 almost completely in nuclear-factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)(-/-) macrophages. The LPS-induced iNOS gene expression was suppressed by pretreatment with HO-1 inducers, hemin and Co-protoporphyrin (CoPP), but not with HO-1 inhibitor, Sn-protoporphyrin in WT macrophages. In the Nrf2(-/-) macrophages, the ability of CoPP to induce HO-1 and its inhibitory effect on the LPS-induced iNOS gene expression were lower than seen in WT macrophages. The present findings suggest that HO-1 is induced via NO-induced nuclear translocation of Nrf2, and the enzymatic function of HO-1 inhibits the overproduction of NO in macrophages.

  16. Red blood cell storage increases hypoxia-induced nitric oxide bioavailability and methemoglobin formation in vitro and in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almac, Emre; Bezemer, Rick; Hilarius-Stokman, Petra M.; Goedhart, Peter; de Korte, Dirk; Verhoeven, Arthur J.; Ince, Can

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated whether storage of red blood cells (RBCs) leads to alterations in nitrite reductase activity, hence in altered hypoxia-induced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and methemoglobin formation. Hypoxia-induced NO bioavailability and methemoglobin formation were measured in

  17. Nitric oxide acts as a positive regulator to induce metamorphosis of the ascidian Herdmania momus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuo Ueda

    Full Text Available Marine invertebrates commonly have a biphasic life cycle in which the metamorphic transition from a pelagic larva to a benthic post-larva is mediated by the nitric oxide signalling pathway. Nitric oxide (NO is synthesised by nitric oxide synthase (NOS, which is a client protein of the molecular chaperon heat shock protein 90 (HSP90. It is notable, then, that both NO and HSP90 have been implicated in regulating metamorphosis in marine invertebrates as diverse as urochordates, echinoderms, molluscs, annelids, and crustaceans. Specifically, the suppression of NOS activity by the application of either NOS- or HSP90-inhibiting pharmacological agents has been shown consistently to induce the initiation of metamorphosis, leading to the hypothesis that a negative regulatory role of NO is widely conserved in biphasic life cycles. Further, the induction of metamorphosis by heat-shock has been demonstrated for multiple species. Here, we investigate the regulatory role of NO in induction of metamorphosis of the solitary tropical ascidian, Herdmania momus. By coupling pharmacological treatments with analysis of HmNOS and HmHSP90 gene expression, we present compelling evidence of a positive regulatory role for NO in metamorphosis of this species, in contrast to all existing ascidian data that supports the hypothesis of NO as a conserved negative regulator of metamorphosis. The exposure of competent H. momus larvae to a NOS inhibitor or an NO donor results in an up-regulation of NOS and HSP90 genes. Heat shock of competent larvae induces metamorphosis in a temperature dependent manner, up to a thermal tolerance that approaches 35°C. Both larval/post-larval survival and the appearance of abnormal morphologies in H. momus post-larvae reflect the magnitude of up-regulation of the HSP90 gene in response to heat-shock. The demonstrated role of NO as a positive metamorphic regulator in H. momus suggests the existence of inter-specific adaptations of NO regulation

  18. Muscle contraction induced arterial shear stress increases endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Darren P; Ueda, Kenichi; Wegman-Points, Lauren; Pierce, Gary L

    2017-10-01

    We determined if local increases in brachial artery shear during repetitive muscle contractions induce changes in protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and/or phosphorylated (p-)eNOS at Ser1177, the primary activation site on eNOS, in endothelial cells (ECs) of humans. Seven young male subjects (25 ± 1 yr) performed 20 separate bouts (3 min each) of rhythmic forearm exercise at 20% of maximum over a 2-h period. Each bout of exercise was separated by 3 min of rest. An additional six male subjects (24 ± 1 yr) served as time controls (no exercise). ECs were freshly isolated from the brachial artery using sterile J-wires through an arterial catheter at baseline and again after the 2-h exercise or time control period. Expression of eNOS or p-eNOS Ser1177 in ECs was determined via immunofluorescence. Brachial artery mean shear rate was elevated compared with baseline and the time control group throughout the 2-h exercise protocol (P 0.05 for both). Our novel results suggest that elevations in brachial artery shear increase eNOS Ser1177 phosphorylation in the absence of changes in total eNOS in ECs of young healthy male subjects, suggesting that this model is sufficient to alter posttranslational modification of eNOS activity in vivo in humans.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Elevations in brachial artery shear in response to forearm exercise increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase Ser1177 phosphorylation in brachial artery endothelial cells of healthy humans. Our present study provides the first evidence in humans that muscle contraction-induced increases in conduit arterial shear lead to in vivo posttranslational modification of endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in endothelial cells. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Hypobaric hypoxia induced arginase expression limits nitric oxide availability and signaling in rodent heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manjulata; Padhy, Gayatri; Vats, Praveen; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sethy, Niroj Kumar

    2014-06-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate regulation of cardiac arginase expression during hypobaric hypoxia and subsequent effect on nitric oxide availability and signaling. Rats were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia (282mmHg for 3h) and ARG1 expression was monitored. The expression levels of eNOS and eNOS(Ser1177) were determined by Western blotting, cGMP levels were measured by ELISA and amino acid concentrations were measured by HPLC analysis. Transcription regulation of arginase was monitored by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay with anti-c-Jun antibody for AP-1 consensus binding site on ARG1 promoter. Arginase activity was inhibited by intra-venous dose of N-(ω)-hydroxy-nor-l-arginine (nor-NOHA) prior to hypoxia exposure and subsequent effect on NO availability and oxidative stress were evaluated. Hypobaric hypoxia induced cardiac arginase expression by recruiting c-Jun to AP-1 binding site on ARG1 promoter. This increased expression redirected l-arginine towards arginase and resulted in limited endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity, nitric oxide (NO) availability and cGMP mediated signaling. Inhibition of arginase restored the eNOS activity, promoted cardiac NO availability and ameliorated peroxynitrite formation during hypoxia. Hypoxic induced arginase under transcription control of AP-1 reciprocally regulates eNOS activity and NO availability in the heart. This also results in cardiac oxidative stress. This study provides understanding of hypoxia-mediated transcriptional regulation of arginase expression in the heart and its subsequent effect on eNOS activity, NO availability and signaling as well as cardiac oxidative stress. This information will support the use of arginase inhibitors as therapeutics for pathological hypoxia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Nitric oxide mediates the anticonvulsant effects of thalidomide on pentylenetetrazole-induced clonic seizures in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payandemehr, Borna; Rahimian, Reza; Gooshe, Maziar; Bahremand, Arash; Gholizadeh, Ramtin; Berijani, Sina; Ahmadi-Dastgerdi, Mohammad; Aminizade, Mehdi; Sarreshte-Dari, Ali; Dianati, Vahid; Amanlou, Massoud; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2014-05-01

    Thalidomide is an old glutamic acid derivative which was initially used as a sedative medication but withdrawn from the market due to the high incidence of teratogenicity. Recently, it has reemerged because of its potential for counteracting number of diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders. Other than the antiemetic and hypnotic aspects, thalidomide exerts some anticonvulsant properties in experimental settings. However, the underlying mechanisms of thalidomide actions are not fully realized yet. Some investigations revealed that thalidomide could elicit immunomodulatory or neuromodulatory properties by affecting different targets, including cytokines (such as TNF α), neurotransmitters, and nitric oxide (NO). In this regard, we used a model of clonic seizure induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in male NMRI mice to investigate whether the anticonvulsant effect of thalidomide is affected through modulation of the l-arginine-nitric oxide pathway or not. Injection of a single effective dose of thalidomide (10 mg/kg, i.p. or higher) significantly increased the seizure threshold (Pthalidomide. On the other hand, NOS inhibitors [l-NAME and 7-NI] augmented the anticonvulsant effect of a subeffective dose of thalidomide (1 and 5 mg/kg, i.p.) at relatively low doses. Meanwhile, several doses of aminoguanidine [an inducible NOS inhibitor] (20, 50 and 100 mg/kg) failed to alter the anticonvulsant effect of thalidomide significantly. In summary, our findings demonstrated that the l-arginine-nitric oxide pathway can be involved in the anticonvulsant properties of thalidomide, and the role of constitutive nNOS is prominent in the reported neuroprotective feature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Gastrin attenuates ischemia-reperfusion-induced intestinal injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihao; Luo, Yongli; Cheng, Yunjiu; Zou, Dezhi; Zeng, Aihong; Yang, Chunhua; Xu, Jia; Zhan, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a devastating complication when the blood supply is reflowed in ischemic organs. Gastrin has critical function in regulating acid secretion, proliferation, and differentiation in the gastric mucosa. We aimed to determine whether gastrin has an effect on intestinal I/R damage. Intestinal I/R injury was induced by 60-min occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery followed by 60-min reperfusion, and the rats were induced to be hypergastrinemic by pretreated with omeprazole or directly injected with gastrin. Some hypergastrinemic rats were injected with cholecystokinin-2 (CCK-2) receptor antagonist prior to I/R operation. After the animal surgery, the intestine was collected for histological analysis. Isolated intestinal epithelial cells or crypts were harvested for RNA and protein analysis. CCK-2 receptor expression, intestinal mucosal damage, cell apoptosis, and apoptotic protein caspase-3 activity were measured. We found that high gastrin in serum significantly reduced intestinal hemorrhage, alleviated extensive epithelial disruption, decreased disintegration of lamina propria, downregulated myeloperoxidase activity, tumor necrosis factor-α, and caspase-3 activity, and lead to low mortality in response to I/R injury. On the contrary, CCK-2 receptor antagonist L365260 could markedly impair intestinal protection by gastrin on intestinal I/R. Severe edema of mucosal villi with severe intestinal crypt injury and numerous intestinal villi disintegrated were observed again in the hypergastrinemic rats with L365260. The survival in the hypergastrinemic rats after intestinal I/R injury was shortened by L365260. Finally, gastrin could remarkably upregulated intestinal CCK-2 receptor expression. Our data suggest that gastrin by omeprazole remarkably attenuated I/R induced intestinal injury by enhancing CCK-2 receptor expression and gastrin could be a potential mitigator for intestinal I/R damage in the clinical setting.

  2. Targeting sphingosine kinase 1 attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Long Shuang; Berdyshev, Evgeny; Mathew, Biji; Fu, Panfeng; Gorshkova, Irina A; He, Donghong; Ma, Wenli; Noth, Imre; Ma, Shwu-Fan; Pendyala, Srikanth; Reddy, Sekhar P; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Wei; Garzon, Steven A; Garcia, Joe G N; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2013-04-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and progressive interstitial lung disease, wherein transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) contribute to the pathogenesis of fibrosis. However, the in vivo contribution of sphingosine kinase (SphK) in fibrotic processes has not been documented. Microarray analysis of blood mononuclear cells from patients with IPF and SphK1- or SphK2-knockdown mice and SphK inhibitor were used to assess the role of SphKs in fibrogenesis. The expression of SphK1/2 negatively correlated with lung function and survival in patients with IPF. Also, the expression of SphK1 was increased in lung tissues from patients with IPF and bleomycin-challenged mice. Knockdown of SphK1, but not SphK2, increased survival and resistance to pulmonary fibrosis in bleomycin-challenged mice. Administration of SphK inhibitor reduced bleomycin-induced mortality and pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Knockdown of SphK1 or treatment with SphK inhibitor attenuated S1P generation and TGF-β secretion in a bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis mouse model that was accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of Smad2 and MAPKs in lung tissue. In vitro, bleomycin-induced expression of SphK1 in lung fibroblast was found to be TGF-β dependent. Taken together, these data indicate that SphK1 plays a critical role in the pathology of lung fibrosis and is a novel therapeutic target.

  3. Nitric oxide supersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, J; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Thomsen, L L

    1993-01-01

    Nitroglycerin, which may be regarded as a prodrug for nitric oxide, induces a mild to moderate headache in healthy subjects. In order to study whether migraine patients are more sensitive to nitric oxide than non-migrainous subjects, four different doses of intravenous nitroglycerin were given...... previously shown a similar supersensitivity to histamine which in human cerebral arteries activates endothelial H1 receptors and causes endothelial production of nitric oxide. Migraine patients are thus supersensitive to exogenous nitric oxide from nitroglycerin as well as to endothelially produced nitric...... oxide. It is suggested that nitric oxide may be partially or completely responsible for migraine pain....

  4. Interleukin-18 Binding Protein Pretreatment Attenuates Kidney Injury Induced by Hepatic Ischemia Reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonul, Yucel; Kazandı, Senem; Kocak, Ahmet; Ahsen, Ahmet; Bal, Ahmet; Karavelioglu, Afra; Hazman, Omer; Turamanlar, Ozan; Kokulu, Serdar; Yuksel, Seref

    2016-08-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious condition that can be induced by liver transplantation, major hepatic resection or prolonged portal vein occlusion. AKI can increase the frequency of postoperative complications. In the current study, we aimed to investigate whether interleukin-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) pretreatment has a protective effect against possible kidney injury following liver ischemia-reperfusion (IR) achieved by Pringle maneuver in an experimental rat model. A total of 24 male Wistar albino rats were included in this study. Animals were equally and randomly separated into 3 groups as follows: I, Sham group, II, IR group (1-hour ischemia and 4-hour reperfusion) and III, IR + IL-18BP group (50μg/kg IL-18BP was intraperitoneally administered 30 minutes before surgery). Blood, liver and kidney samples were collected for histopathological and biochemical (hepatic and renal function, nitric oxide, malondialdehyde and glutathione levels) analysis. In addition, proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels were measured in kidney tissues. IL-18BP has improved kidney functions in acute kidney damage, restored structural changes, exhibited anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing proinflammatory cytokines and regulated the oxidative stress parameters by antioxidant effect. Current study would be the first to evaluate the protective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of IL-18BP on renal damage induced by liver ischemia (1 hour) and reperfusion (4 hours). As a result, we have demonstrated that AKI may develop after hepatic IR with Pringle maneuver and IL-18BP pretreatment can attenuate this damage. By this way, complications related to liver IR could be minimized and also postoperative hospitalization durations, treatment costs and healing periods could be decreased. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Inflammasome-derived IL-1β production induces nitric oxide-mediated resistance to Leishmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Junior, Djalma S; Costa, Diego L; Carregaro, Vanessa; Cunha, Larissa D; Silva, Alexandre L N; Mineo, Tiago W P; Gutierrez, Fredy R S; Bellio, Maria; Bortoluci, Karina R; Flavell, Richard A; Bozza, Marcelo T; Silva, João S; Zamboni, Dario S

    2013-07-01

    Parasites of the Leishmania genus are the causative agents of leishmaniasis in humans, a disease that affects more than 12 million people worldwide. These parasites replicate intracellularly in macrophages, and the primary mechanisms underlying host resistance involve the production of nitric oxide (NO). In this study we show that the Nlrp3 inflammasome is activated in response to Leishmania infection and is important for the restriction of parasite replication both in macrophages and in vivo as demonstrated through the infection of inflammasome-deficient mice with Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania infantum chagasi. Inflammasome-driven interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production facilitated host resistance to infection, as signaling through IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) and MyD88 was necessary and sufficient to trigger inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2)-mediated production of NO. In this manuscript we identify a major signaling platform for host resistance to Leishmania spp. infection and describe the molecular mechanisms underlying Leishmania-induced NO production.

  6. Quercetin Isolated from Toona sinensis Leaves Attenuates Hyperglycemia and Protects Hepatocytes in High-Carbohydrate/High-Fat Diet and Alloxan Induced Experimental Diabetic Mice

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    Yali Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of diabetes mellitus is related to oxidant stress induced by a high carbohydrate/high-fat diet (HFD. Quercetin, as a major bioactive component in Toona sinensis leaves (QTL, is a natural antioxidant. However, the exact mechanism by which QTL ameliorate diabetes mellitus is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the hypoglycemic effects and hepatocytes protection of QTL on HFD and alloxan induced diabetic mice. Intragastric administration of QTL significantly reduced body weight gain, serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase serum levels compared to those of diabetic mice. Furthermore, it significantly attenuated oxidative stress, as determined by lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide content, and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity and as a result attenuated liver injury. QTL also significantly suppressed the diabetes-induced activation of the p65/NF-κB and ERK1/2/MAPK pathways, as well as caspase-9 and caspase-3 levels in liver tissues of diabetic mice. Finally, micrograph analysis of liver samples showed decreased cellular organelle injury in hepatocytes of QTL treated mice. Taken together, QTL can be viewed as a promising dietary agent that can be used to reduce the risk of diabetes mellitus and its secondary complications by ameliorating oxidative stress in the liver.

  7. Radiation-induced nitric oxide mitigates tumor hypoxia and radioresistance in a murine SCCVII tumor model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagane, Masaki, E-mail: nagane@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Yasui, Hironobu, E-mail: yassan@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Yamamori, Tohru, E-mail: yamamorit@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Zhao, Songji, E-mail: zsi@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Tracer Kinetics and Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Kuge, Yuji, E-mail: kuge@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Central Institute of Isotope Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Tamaki, Nagara, E-mail: natamaki@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Kameya, Hiromi, E-mail: kameya@affrc.go.jp [Food Safety Division, National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Nakamura, Hideo, E-mail: naka@science-edu.org [Department of Chemistry, Hokkaido University of Education, Hakodate (Japan); Fujii, Hirotada, E-mail: hgfujii@sapmed.ac.jp [Center for Medical Education, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo (Japan); Inanami, Osamu, E-mail: inanami@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    2013-08-02

    Highlights: •IR-induced NO increased tissue perfusion and pO{sub 2}. •IR increased NO production in tumors without changes in the mRNA and protein levels of NOS isoforms. •NOS activity assay showed that IR upregulated eNOS activity in tumors. •IR-induced NO decreased tumor hypoxia and altered tumor radiosensitivity. -- Abstract: Tumor hypoxia, which occurs mainly as a result of inadequate tissue perfusion in solid tumors, is a well-known challenge for successful radiotherapy. Recent evidence suggests that ionizing radiation (IR) upregulates nitric oxide (NO) production and that IR-induced NO has the potential to increase intratumoral circulation. However, the kinetics of NO production and the responsible isoforms for NO synthase in tumors exposed to IR remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the mechanism by which IR stimulates NO production in tumors and the effect of IR-induced NO on tumor radiosensitivity. Hoechst33342 perfusion assay and electron spin resonance oxymetry showed that IR increased tissue perfusion and pO{sub 2} in tumor tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis using two different hypoxic probes showed that IR decreased hypoxic regions in tumors; treatment with a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-NAME, abrogated the effects of IR. Moreover, IR increased endothelial NOS (eNOS) activity without affecting its mRNA or protein expression levels in SCCVII-transplanted tumors. Tumor growth delay assay showed that L-NAME decreased the anti-tumor effect of fractionated radiation (10 Gy × 2). These results suggested that IR increased eNOS activity and subsequent tissue perfusion in tumors. Increases in intratumoral circulation simultaneously decreased tumor hypoxia. As a result, IR-induced NO increased tumor radiosensitivity. Our study provides a new insight into the NO-dependent mechanism for efficient fractionated radiotherapy.

  8. The administration of Fructus Schisandrae attenuates dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, JOO WAN; KU, SAE-KWANG; HAN, MIN HO; KIM, KI YOUNG; KIM, SUNG GOO; KIM, GI-YOUNG; HWANG, HYE JIN; KIM, BYUNG WOO; KIM, CHEOL MIN; CHOI, YUNG HYUN

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to determine whether ethanol extracts of Fructus Schisandrae (FS), the dried fruit of Schizandra chinensis Baillon, mitigates the development of dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy. Adult SPF/VAT outbred CrljOri:CD1 (ICR) mice were either treated with dexamethasone to induce muscle atrophy. Some mice were treated with various concentrations of FS or oxymetholone, a 17α-alkylated anabolic-androgenic steroid. Muscle thickness and weight, calf muscle strength, and serum creatine and creatine kinase (CK) levels were then measured. The administration of FS attenuated the decrease in calf thickness, gastrocnemius muscle thickness, muscle strength and weight, fiber diameter and serum lactate dehydrogenase levels in the gastrocnemius muscle bundles which was induced by dexamethasone in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with FS also prevented the dexamethasone-induced increase in serum creatine and creatine kinase levels, histopathological muscle fiber microvacuolation and fibrosis, and the immunoreactivity of muscle fibers for nitrotyrosine, 4-hydroxynonenal, inducible nitric oxide synthase and myostatin. In addition, the destruction of the gastrocnemius antioxidant defense system was also inhibited by the administration of FS in a dose-dependent manner. FS downregulated the mRNA expression of atrogin-1 and muscle RING-finger protein-1 (involved in muscle protein degradation), myostatin (a potent negative regulator of muscle growth) and sirtuin 1 (a representative inhibitor of muscle regeneration), but upregulated the mRNA expression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt1, adenosine A1 receptor and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4, involved in muscle growth and the activation of protein synthesis. The overall effects of treatment with 500 mg/kg FS were comparable to those observed following treatment with 50 mg/kg oxymetholone. The results from the present study support the hypothesis that FS has a favorable

  9. Co-transplantation with Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Protects Cell Transplants: A Crucial Role of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Yusuke; Qin, Jie; Chou, Hong-Shuie; Bhatt, Sumantha; Wang, Lianfu; Stuehr, Dennis; Ghosh, Arnab; Fung, John J.; Lu, Lina; Qian, Shiguang

    2014-01-01

    Background Islet transplantation is an alternative to pancreas transplantation to cure type 1 diabetes, but both require chronic immunosuppression, which is often accompanied by deleterious side effects. The purpose of this study was to explore prolongation of islet allograft survival by co-transplantation with myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) without requirement of immunosuppression, and determine the role of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) produced by MDSCs in immune regulation. Methods Bone marrow cells were isolated from wild type (WT) or iNOS−/− mice and cultured in the presence of GM-CSF and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), resulting in the generation of MDSCs. WT or iNOS−/− MDSCs were co-transplanted with islet allografts under the renal capsule of diabetic recipient mice. Results Addition of HSCs into DC culture promoted generation of MDSCs (instead of DCs). MDSCs had elevated expression of iNOS upon exposure to IFN-γ and inhibited T cell responses in an MLR culture. Co-transplantation with WT MDSCs markedly prolonged survival of islet allografts, which was associated with reduced infiltration of CD8+ T cells due to inhibited proliferative response. These effects were significantly attenuated when MDSCs were deficient in iNOS. Furthermore, iNOS−/− MDSCs largely lost their ability to protect islet allografts. Conclusions Co-transplantation with HSC-induced MDSCs significantly extends islet allograft survival through iNOS-mediated T cell inhibition. The results demonstrate the potential use of in vitro generated MDSCs as a novel adjunctive immunotherapy for islet transplantation. PMID:24642686

  10. Trifluoperazine-Induced Suicidal Erythrocyte Death and S-Nitrosylation Inhibition, Reversed by the Nitric Oxide Donor Sodium Nitroprusside

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    Mehrdad Ghashghaeinia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The high potency antipsychotic drug trifluoperazine (10-[3-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl-propyl]-2-(trifluoromethyl-(10H-phenothiazine dihydrochloride; TFP may either counteract or promote suicidal cell death or apoptosis. Similar to apoptosis, erythrocytes may enter eryptosis, characterized by phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface and cell shrinkage. Eryptosis can be stimulated by an increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i and inhibited by nitric oxide (NO. We explored whether TFP treatment of erythrocytes induces phosphatidylserine exposure, cell shrinkage, and calcium influx, whether it impairs S-nitrosylation and whether these effects are inhibited by NO. Methods: Phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, and protein nitrosylation from fluorescence switch of the Bodipy-TMR/Sypro Ruby signal. Results: Exposure of human erythrocytes to TFP significantly enhanced the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells, raised [Ca2+]i, and decreased S-nitrosylation. The effect of TFP on annexin-V-binding was not affected by removal of extracellular Ca2+ alone, but was significantly inhibited by pre-treatment with sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an effect significantly augmented by additional removal of extracellular Ca2+. A 3 hours treatment with 0.1 µM Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin triggered annexin-V-binding and cell shrinkage, effects fully reversed by removal of extracellular Ca2+. Conclusions: TFP induces eryptosis and decreases protein S-nitrosylation, effects blunted by nitroprusside. The effect of nitroprusside is attenuated in the presence of extracellular Ca2+.

  11. Fractalkine Attenuates Microglial Cell Activation Induced by Prenatal Stress

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    Joanna Ślusarczyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential contribution of inflammation to the development of neuropsychiatric diseases has recently received substantial attention. In the brain, the main immune cells are the microglia. As they are the main source of inflammatory factors, it is plausible that the regulation of their activation may be a potential therapeutic target. Fractalkine (CX3CL1 and its receptor CX3CR1 play a crucial role in the control of the biological activity of the microglia. In the present study, using microglial cultures we investigated whether fractalkine is able to reverse changes in microglia caused by a prenatal stress procedure. Our study found that the microglia do not express fractalkine. Prenatal stress decreases the expression of the fractalkine receptor, which in turn is enhanced by the administration of exogenous fractalkine. Moreover, treatment with fractalkine diminishes the prenatal stress-induced overproduction of proinflammatory factors such as IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6, TNF-α, CCL2, or NO in the microglial cells derived from prenatally stressed newborns. In conclusion, the present results revealed that the pathological activation of microglia in prenatally stressed newborns may be attenuated by fractalkine administration. Therefore, understanding of the role of the CX3CL1-CX3CR1 system may help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the neuron-microglia interaction and its role in pathological conditions in the brain.

  12. Panax notoginseng Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Mice

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    Kuen-Daw Tsai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Panax notoginseng (PN is a traditional Chinese herb experimentally proven to have anti-inflammatory effects, and it is used clinically for the treatment of atherosclerosis, cerebral infarction, and cerebral ischemia. This study aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of PN against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. First, in an in vitro study, culture media containing lipopolysaccharide (LPS was used to stimulate macrophage cells (RAW 264.7 cell line. TNF-α and IL-6 levels were then determined before and after treatment with PN extract. In an animal model (C57BL/6 mice, a single dose of PN (0.5 mg/kg was administered orally on Day 2 or Day 7 postbleomycin treatment. The results showed that TNF-α and IL-6 levels increased in the culture media of LPS-stimulated macrophage cells, and this effect was significantly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by PN extract. Histopathologic examination revealed that PN administered on Day 7 postbleomycin treatment significantly decreased inflammatory cell infiltrates, fibrosis scores, and TNF-α, TGF-β, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid when compared with PN given on Day 2 postbleomycin treatment. These results suggest that PN administered in the early fibrotic stage can attenuate pulmonary fibrosis in an animal model of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  13. Dexmedetomidine Attenuates Neurotoxicity Induced by Prenatal Propofol Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Xiong, Ming; Nadavaluru, Pratap R; Zuo, Wanhong; Ye, Jiang Hong; Eloy, Jean D; Bekker, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Anesthetic agents (eg, isoflurane, propofol) may cause neurodegeneration in the developing brains and impair animals' learning ability. Dexmedetomidine (DEX), a selective alpha 2-adrenoreceptor agonist, has antiapoptotic properties in several brain injury models. Here, we tested whether DEX can protect the brain from neurodegeneration in rats exposed to propofol in utero. Fetal rats of embryonic day 20 were exposed in utero for 1 hour to propofol anesthesia with DEX or saline, or no anesthesia (control). The fetal brains were harvested 6 hours later. Cleaved caspase-3 levels and the relative number of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (IBA1)-positive cells were assessed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Learning and memory functions of the offspring in a separate cohort were assessed at postnatal day 35 by using an 8-arm radial maze. Propofol anesthesia in pregnant rats augmented caspase-3 activation by 217% in the brain tissues of fetal rats and increased the number of IBA1-positive cells in the cortex by 40% and in the thalamus by 270%. Juvenile rats exposed prenatally to propofol were not different than controls on spontaneous locomotor activity, but made more errors of omission and took longer to complete visiting all 8 arms on days 1, 2, and 3 across a 5-day test in the radial arm maze. This neurocognitive deficit was prevented by administration of DEX (5.0 µg/kg, IP), which also significantly inhibited propofol-induced caspase-3 activation and microglial response in the fetal brains. DEX attenuates neuronal injury induced by maternal propofol anesthesia in the fetal brains, providing neurocognitive protection in the offspring rats.

  14. Curcumin Attenuates Hepatotoxicity Induced by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Rats

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    Layasadat Khorsandi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (NZnO are increasingly used in modern life. Most metal nanoparticles have adverse effects on the liver. Aims: To explore the protective action of curcumin (Cur against hepatotoxicity induced by NZnO in rats. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Control group animals received normal saline, while the Cur group animals were treated with 200 mg/kg of Cur orally for 21 days. NZnO-intoxicated rats received 50 mg/kg of NZnO for 14 days by gavage method. In the NZnO+Cur group, rats were pretreated with Cur for 7 days before NZnO administration. Plasma activities of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were measured as biomarkers of hepatotoxicity. Hepatic levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities were measured for detection of oxidative stress in liver tissue. Histological changes and apoptosis in liver tissue were studied by using Hematoxylin-eosin staining and the transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL method. Results: NZnO induced a significant increase in plasma AST (2.8-fold, ALT (2.7-fold and ALP (1.97-fold activity in comparison to the control group (p<0.01. NZnO increased MDA content and reduced SOD and GPx activities. NZnO caused liver damage including centrilobular necrosis and microvesicular steatosis. The percentage of apoptosis in hepatocytes was increased in NZnO-treated rats (p<0.01. Pre-treatment of Cur significantly reduced lipid peroxidation (39%, increased SOD (156% and GPx (26% activities, and attenuated ALT (47%, AST (41% and ALP (30% activities. Pre-treatment with Cur also decreased the histology changes and apoptotic index of hepatocytes (p<0.05. Conclusion: These findings indicate that Cur effectively protects against NZnO-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. However, future studies are required to propose Cur as a potential protective agent against hepatotoxicity

  15. Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) in Microglia of the Developing Quail Retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Ana; Navascués, Julio; Cuadros, Miguel A.; Calvente, Ruth; Martín-Oliva, David; Ferrer-Martín, Rosa M.; Martín-Estebané, María; Carrasco, María-Carmen; Marín-Teva, José L.

    2014-01-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which produce large amounts of nitric oxide (NO), is induced in macrophages and microglia in response to inflammatory mediators such as LPS and cytokines. Although iNOS is mainly expressed by microglia that become activated in different pathological and experimental situations, it was recently reported that undifferentiated amoeboid microglia can also express iNOS during normal development. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of iNOS expression in microglial cells during normal development and after their activation with LPS by using the quail retina as model. iNOS expression was analyzed by iNOS immunolabeling, western-blot, and RT-PCR. NO production was determined by using DAR-4M AM, a reliable fluorescent indicator of subcellular NO production by iNOS. Embryonic, postnatal, and adult in situ quail retinas were used to analyze the pattern of iNOS expression in microglial cells during normal development. iNOS expression and NO production in LPS-treated microglial cells were investigated by an in vitro approach based on organotypic cultures of E8 retinas, in which microglial cell behavior is similar to that of the in situ retina, as previously demonstrated in our laboratory. We show here that amoeboid microglia in the quail retina express iNOS during normal development. This expression is stronger in microglial cells migrating tangentially in the vitreal part of the retina and is downregulated, albeit maintained, when microglia differentiate and become ramified. LPS treatment of retina explants also induces changes in the morphology of amoeboid microglia compatible with their activation, increasing their lysosomal compartment and upregulating iNOS expression with a concomitant production of NO. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that immature microglial cells express iNOS during normal development, suggesting a certain degree of activation. Furthermore, LPS treatment induces overactivation of amoeboid

  16. Endogenous nitric oxide protects against platelet-activating factor-induced bowel injury in the rat.

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    MacKendrick, W; Caplan, M; Hsueh, W

    1993-08-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) causes bowel necrosis in animal models that is histologically identical to that seen in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis, but little is known about endogenous mechanisms that might protect against PAF-induced bowel injury. We hypothesized that endogenous nitric oxide might represent such a protective mechanism. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with 2.5 mg/kg NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a potent nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, and given injections of 1.5 micrograms/kg PAF 15 min later. Animals treated with normal saline placebo, L-NAME alone, and PAF alone were also studied. Superior mesenteric artery blood flow and blood pressure were continuously recorded. At the end of 2 h or upon death of the animal, hematocrit was measured and intestinal samples were taken for histologic examination and determination of myeloperoxidase activity, a measure of intestinal neutrophil content. Compared with animals given PAF alone, animals pretreated with L-NAME followed by PAF developed significantly worse bowel injury (median injury scores: 2.5 versus 0.5, p = 0.005), hemoconcentration (final hematocrit 65.2 +/- 2.0% versus 53.9 +/- 1.0%, p < 0.001), and intestinal myeloperoxidase activity (12.45 +/- 1.94 U/g versus 6.51 +/- 0.57 U/g, p < 0.01). The last two effects were further accentuated when 10 mg/kg L-NAME was given before PAF. Treatment with sodium nitroprusside, a nitric oxide donor, for 10 min before and after PAF administration reversed the effects of L-NAME. Animals pretreated with phenylephrine rather than L-NAME did not develop worse injury than animals treated with PAF alone despite comparable reductions in superior mesenteric blood flow before PAF treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Doxycycline Attenuated Pulmonary Fibrosis Induced by Bleomycin in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Masaki; Ye, Qing; Ouchi, Hiroshi; Harada, Eiji; Inoshima, Ichiro; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2006-01-01

    The administration of doxycycline prior to bleomycin in mice attenuated pulmonary fibrosis. Bronchoalveolar neutrophil influx and gelatinase activity, but not caseinolytic activity, were attenuated by doxycycline. Established fibrosis was not affected by doxycycline. Thus, doxycycline might be useful for slowing down pulmonary fibrosis by biological activity other than antibacterial activity.

  18. Estriol-induced fibrinolysis due to the activation of plasminogen to plasmin by nitric oxide synthesis in platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Pradipta; Maiti, Smarajit; Kahn, Nighat N; Sinha, Asru K

    2015-04-01

    Estriol, an oestrogen, at 0.6 nmol/l was reported to inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation through nitric oxide synthesis. As nitric oxide has been reported to cause fibrinolysis due to the activation of plasminogen to plasmin, the role of estriol as a fibrinolytic agent was investigated. Also, the mechanism of estriol-induced nitric oxide synthesis in anucleated platelets was investigated. The estriol-induced lysis of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) clot was determined by photography of the clot lysis and by the assay of fibrin degradation products in the lysate and was obtained by SDS-PAGE. Nitric oxide was determined by methemoglobin method. The platelet membrane protein was isolated from the platelets by using Triton X-100 (0.05% v/v). The binding of estriol to the protein was determined by Scatchard plot by using an ELISA for estriol. Estriol at 0.6 nmol/l was found to lyse the clotted PRP due to fibrinolysis that produced fibrin degradation products in the lysate. The amino acid analysis of the platelet membrane protein, which resembles with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, was activated nearly 10-fold over the control in the presence of estriol and was identified to be a human serum albumin precursor (Mr. 69 kDa) that binds to estriol with Kd1 of 6.0 × 10 mol/l and 39 ± 2 molecules of estriol bound the NOS molecule. The estriol-induced nitric oxide is capable of inducing fibrinolysis of the clotted PRP. The binding of estriol to platelet membrane NOS activated the enzyme in the absence of DNA in the platelet.

  19. Folic acid attenuates cobalt chloride-induced PGE2 production in HUVECs via the NO/HIF-1alpha/COX-2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuming; Zhen, Xiaozhou; Wang, Kaiwen; Ma, Jing

    2017-08-19

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), an important lipid inflammatory mediator involved in the progression of vascular diseases, can be induced by hypoxia in many cell types. While folic acid has been shown to protect against inflammation in THP-1 cells during hypoxia and hypoxia-induced endothelial cell injury, whether it might do so by attenuating PGE2 production remains unclear. To investigate this we constructed a hypoxia-induced injury model by treating human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with cobalt chloride (CoCl2), which mimics the effects of hypoxia. In CoCl2-treated HUVECs, folic acid significantly attenuated PGE2 production and increased vasoprotective nitric oxide (NO) content. Folic acid also decreased cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) expression and altered endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signaling by increasing p-eNOS((Ser1177)) and decreasing p-eNOS((Thr495)) in a dose-dependent manner. Further investigation of the pathway demonstrated that treatment with 2-Methoxyestradiol (2-MeOE2) and celecoxib both decreased CoCl2-induced COX-2 expression but only 2-MeOE2 decreased HIF-1α expression. The ability of folic acid to down-regulate HIF-1α and COX-2 protein levels was dramatically abrogated by L-NAME treatment, which also decreased eNOS mRNA and NO production. The NO donor sodium nitroprusside also dose-dependently down-regulated HIF-1α and COX-2 protein levels. Overall, these findings suggest a novel application for folic acid in attenuating CoCl2-induced PGE2 production in HUVECs via regulation of the NO/HIF-1α/COX-2 pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Enhancement of lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide and interleukin-6 production by PEGylated gold nanoparticles in RAW264.7 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhimin; Li, Wenqing; Wang, Feng; Sun, Chunyang; Wang, Lu; Wang, Jun; Sun, Fei

    2012-10-01

    While the immunogenicity and cytotoxicity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are noted by many researchers, the mechanisms by which AuNPs exert these effects are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of polyethylene glycolylated AuNPs (PEG@AuNPs) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production and the associated molecular mechanism in RAW264.7 cells. The results showed that PEG@AuNPs were internalized more quickly by LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells than unstimulated cells, and they reached saturation within 24 hours. PEG@AuNPs enhanced LPS-induced production of NO and IL-6 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in RAW264.7 cells, partially by activating p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK) and nuclear factor-kappaB pathways. In addition, the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 attenuated PEG@AuNP-enhanced LPS-induced NO production and iNOS expression. Overproduction of NO and IL-6 is known to be closely correlated with the pathology of many diseases and inflammations. Thus, it is speculated that the highly biocompatible gold nanoparticles can induce immunotoxicity due to their potency to stimulate macrophages to release aberrant or excessive pro-inflammatory mediators.While the immunogenicity and cytotoxicity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are noted by many researchers, the mechanisms by which AuNPs exert these effects are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of polyethylene glycolylated AuNPs (PEG@AuNPs) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production and the associated molecular mechanism in RAW264.7 cells. The results showed that PEG@AuNPs were internalized more quickly by LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells than unstimulated cells, and they reached saturation within 24 hours. PEG@AuNPs enhanced LPS-induced production of NO and IL-6 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in RAW264.7 cells, partially by activating

  1. An inducible nitric oxide synthase polymorphism is associated with the risk of recurrent depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałecki, Piotr; Maes, Michael; Florkowski, Antoni; Lewiński, Andrzej; Gałecka, Elżbieta; Bieńkiewicz, Małgorzata; Szemraj, Janusz

    2010-12-17

    Evidence indicates that depressive disorder is a heterogenic disease, and oxidative stress, inflammation and impairment of neurogenesis play a role in its aetiology. Moreover, there are data suggesting that genetic factors affect the development of depression. Nitric oxide (NO) is a biological molecule with both a beneficial and a detrimental role in brain. One of the three enzymes generating NO is inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Recent studies have shown that depressed patients are characterised by excessive NO production. In addition, iNOS inhibitors are effective in depression treatment. This study investigated the importance of a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), -1026C/A, located in the promoter region of the human NOS2A gene, for the risk of recurrent depressive disorder (RDD) vulnerability. The study was carried out in a group of 181 patients with RDD and 149 ethnically matched controls. Genotyping was performed by direct sequencing of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products. The genotype distribution of the -1026C/A polymorphism between depressed patients and healthy controls was significantly different. Individuals who were homozygous for the CC genotype exhibited an increased risk of developing RDD. In conclusion we cautiously conclude that polymorphism in the NOS2A gene promoter may play a role in the background of RDD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Oxidative stress, nitric oxide production, and renal sodium handling in leptin-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltowski, Jerzy; Wójcicka, Grazyna; Marciniak, Andrzej; Jamroz, Anna

    2004-04-30

    Chronic hyperleptinemia induces arterial hypertension in experimental animals and may contribute to the development of hypertension in obese humans; however, the mechanism of hypertensive effect of leptin is not completely elucidated. We investigated the effect of leptin on whole-body oxidative stress, nitric oxide production, and renal sodium handling. The study was performed on male Wistar rats divided into 3 groups: 1) control, fed standard chow ad libitum, 2) leptin-treated group, receiving leptin injections (0.25 mg/kg twice daily s.c. for 7 days), 3) pair-fed group, in which food intake was adjusted to the leptin group. Leptin caused 30.5% increase in systolic blood pressure. Plasma concentration and urinary excretion of 8-isoprostanes in animals receiving leptin was 46.4% and 49.2% higher, respectively. The level of lipid peroxidation products, malonyldialdehyde + 4-hydroxyalkenals, increased by 52.5% in the renal cortex and by 48.4% in the renal medulla following leptin treatment, whereas aconitase activity decreased in these regions of the kidney by 45.3% and 39.2%, respectively. Urinary excretion of nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) was 55.0% lower, and fractional excretion of NOx was 55.8% lower in the leptin-treated group. Urinary excretion of cGMP decreased in leptin-treated rats by 26.3%. Following leptin treatment, absolute and fractional sodium excretion decreased by 35.0% and 41.2%, respectively. These results indicate that hyperleptinemia induces systemic and intrarenal oxidative stress, decreases the amount of bioactive NO possibly due to its degradation by reactive oxygen species, and causes renal sodium retention by stimulating tubular sodium reabsorption. NO deficiency and abnormal renal Na+ handling may contribute to leptin-induced hypertension.

  3. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Mediates Caffeine Antagonism of Alcohol-Induced Cerebral Artery Constriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jennifer; Fedinec, Alexander L.; Kuntamallappanavar, Guruprasad; Leffler, Charles W.; Bukiya, Anna N.

    2016-01-01

    Despite preventive education, the combined consumption of alcohol and caffeine (particularly from “energy drinks”) continues to rise. Physiologic perturbations by separate intake of ethanol and caffeine have been widely documented. However, the biologic actions of the alcohol-caffeine combination and their underlying subcellular mechanisms have been scarcely studied. Using intravital microscopy on a closed-cranial window and isolated, pressurized vessels, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro action of ethanol-caffeine mixtures on cerebral arteries from rats and mice, widely recognized models to address cerebrovascular pathophysiology and pharmacology. Caffeine at concentrations found in human circulation after ingestion of one to two cups of coffee (10 µM) antagonized the endothelium-independent constriction of cerebral arteries evoked by ethanol concentrations found in blood during moderate-heavy alcohol intoxication (40–70 mM). Caffeine antagonism against alcohol was similar whether evaluated in vivo or in vitro, suggesting independence of systemic factors and drug metabolism, but required a functional endothelium. Moreover, caffeine protection against alcohol increased nitric oxide (NO•) levels over those found in the presence of ethanol alone, disappeared upon blocking NO• synthase, and could not be detected in pressurized cerebral arteries from endothelial nitric-oxide synthase knockout (eNOS−/−) mice. Finally, incubation of de-endothelialized cerebral arteries with the NO• donor sodium nitroprusside (10 µM) fully restored the protective effect of caffeine. This study demonstrates for the first time that caffeine antagonizes ethanol-induced cerebral artery constriction and identifies endothelial NO• as the critical caffeine effector on smooth muscle targets. Conceivably, situations that perturb endothelial function and/or NO• availability will critically alter caffeine antagonism of alcohol-induced cerebrovascular constriction without

  4. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Mediates Caffeine Antagonism of Alcohol-Induced Cerebral Artery Constriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jennifer; Fedinec, Alexander L; Kuntamallappanavar, Guruprasad; Leffler, Charles W; Bukiya, Anna N; Dopico, Alex M

    2016-01-01

    Despite preventive education, the combined consumption of alcohol and caffeine (particularly from "energy drinks") continues to rise. Physiologic perturbations by separate intake of ethanol and caffeine have been widely documented. However, the biologic actions of the alcohol-caffeine combination and their underlying subcellular mechanisms have been scarcely studied. Using intravital microscopy on a closed-cranial window and isolated, pressurized vessels, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro action of ethanol-caffeine mixtures on cerebral arteries from rats and mice, widely recognized models to address cerebrovascular pathophysiology and pharmacology. Caffeine at concentrations found in human circulation after ingestion of one to two cups of coffee (10 µM) antagonized the endothelium-independent constriction of cerebral arteries evoked by ethanol concentrations found in blood during moderate-heavy alcohol intoxication (40-70 mM). Caffeine antagonism against alcohol was similar whether evaluated in vivo or in vitro, suggesting independence of systemic factors and drug metabolism, but required a functional endothelium. Moreover, caffeine protection against alcohol increased nitric oxide (NO•) levels over those found in the presence of ethanol alone, disappeared upon blocking NO• synthase, and could not be detected in pressurized cerebral arteries from endothelial nitric-oxide synthase knockout (eNOS(-/-)) mice. Finally, incubation of de-endothelialized cerebral arteries with the NO• donor sodium nitroprusside (10 µM) fully restored the protective effect of caffeine. This study demonstrates for the first time that caffeine antagonizes ethanol-induced cerebral artery constriction and identifies endothelial NO• as the critical caffeine effector on smooth muscle targets. Conceivably, situations that perturb endothelial function and/or NO• availability will critically alter caffeine antagonism of alcohol-induced cerebrovascular constriction without

  5. Dexamethasone prevents granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-induced nuclear factor-κB activation, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nitric oxide production in a skin dendritic cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Vital

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Nitric oxide (NO has been increasingly implicated in inflammatory skin diseases, namely in allergic contact dermatitis. In this work, we investigated the effect of dexamethasone on NO production induced by the epidermal cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF in a mouse fetal skin dendritic cell line.

  6. The nitric oxide donor, isosorbide dinitrate, induces a cephalic cutaneous hypersensitivity, associated with sensitization of the medullary dorsal horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Ramos, José María; Devoize, Laurent; Descheemaeker, Amélie; Molat, Jean-Louis; Luccarini, Philippe; Dallel, Radhouane

    2017-03-06

    Nitric oxide donors are known to produce headache in healthy as well as migraine subjects, and to induce extracephalic cutaneous hypersensitivity in rodents. However, little is known on the effect of nitric oxide donors on cephalic cutaneous sensitivity. Combining behavioral, immunohistochemical, and in vivo electrophysiological approaches, this study investigated the effect of systemic administration of the nitric oxide donor, isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), on cephalic and extracephalic cutaneous sensitivity and on neuronal activation within the medullary dorsal horn (MDH) in the rat. Systemic administration of ISDN increased selectively the first phase and interphase of the facial formalin test, but had no effect on the hindpaw formalin one. Monitoring neuronal activity within the MDH with phospho-ERK1/2 immunoreactivity revealed that ISDN alone did not activate MDH neurons, but significantly increased the number of formalin-evoked phospho-ERK1/2-immunoreactive cells in the ipsilateral, but not contralateral, MDH. Using in vivo electrophysiological unit recordings, we show that ISDN administration never affected the spontaneous activity of trigeminal wide dynamic range neurons, but, facilitated C-fiber-evoked responses in half the neurons tested. This research demonstrates that a nitric oxide donor, isosorbide dinitrate, induces selectively cephalic hyperalgesia that arises as a consequence of central sensitization in pain pathways that subserve meningeal nociception. This model better mimics the clinical condition and offers another possibility of studying the role of nitric oxide donor in the physiopathology of headache. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Danggui Buxue Tang, Chinese Herbal Decoction Containing Astragali Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Induces Production of Nitric Oxide in Endothelial Cells: Signaling Mediated by Phosphorylation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Amy G W; Lau, K M; Zhang, Laura M L; Lin, H Q; Dong, Tina T X; Tsim, Karl W K

    2016-03-01

    Danggui Buxue Tang, an ancient Chinese herbal decoction containing Astragali Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix at the weight ratio of 5:1, is used to mitigate menopausal syndromes in women. The pharmacological properties of Danggui Buxue Tang have been illustrated in bone development, blood enhancement, and immune stimulation. Here, we extended the possible pharmacological role of Danggui Buxue Tang in cardiovascular function. In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells, the application of Danggui Buxue Tang induced the release of nitric oxide and the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and Akt kinase in time- and dose-dependent manners. The robust activation of nitric oxide signaling, however, required the boiling of Astragali Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix together, i.e., as Danggui Buxue Tang instead of other herbal extracts. The Danggui Buxue Tang-induced phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and Akt kinase in human umbilical vein endothelial cells were fully blocked by treatment with an endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME), a PI3K/Akt inhibitor (LY294002), and a Ca(2+) chelator (BAPTA-AM). In parallel, the blockage of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and Akt activation subsequently fully abolished the Danggui Buxue Tang-induced nitric oxide production. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Proton-pump inhibitor omeprazole attenuates hyperoxia induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Jute; Jimenez, Julio; Nagatomo, Taro; Toelen, Jaan; Brady, Paul; Salaets, Thomas; Lesage, Flore; Vanoirbeek, Jeroen; Deprest, Jan

    2016-08-27

    The administration of supplemental oxygen to treat ventilatory insufficiency may lead to the formation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent tissue damage. Cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) can modulate hyperoxic lung injury by a currently unknown mechanism. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of administration of omeprazole on the induction of CYP1A1 and its influence on hyperoxic lung injury in an established preterm rabbit model. Omeprazole was administered either (1) directly to the fetus, (2) to the mother or (3) after birth to the pups in different doses (2-10 or 20 mg/kg). Controls were injected with the same amount of saline. Pups were housed in normoxia (21 %) or hyperoxia (>95 %) for 5 days. Outcome parameters were induction of CYP1A1 measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) immediately after delivery, at day 3 and day 5 as well as lung function, morphometry and immunohistochemistry assessed at day 5 of life. Transcriptome analysis was used to define the targeted pathways. Daily neonatal injections demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in CYP1A1. Lung function tests showed a significant improvement in tissue damping, tissue elasticity, total lung capacity, static compliance and elastance. Morphometry revealed a more developed lung architecture with thinned septae in animals treated with the highest dose (20 mg/kg) of omeprazole. Surfactant protein B, vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor were significantly increased on immunohistochemical stainings after omeprazole treatment. Neonatal administration of omeprazole induces CYP1A1 in a dose-dependent matter and combined pre- and postnatal administration attenuates hyperoxic lung injury in preterm rabbits, even with the lowest dose of omeprazole without clear CYP1A1 induction.

  9. Rosiglitazone attenuates pulmonary fibrosis and radiation-induced intestinal damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangoni, M.; Gerini, C.; Sottili, M.; Cassani, S.; Stefania, G.; Biti, G. [Radiotherapy Unit, Clinical Physiopathology Department, University of Florence, Firenze (Italy); Castiglione, F. [Department of Human Pathology and Oncology, University of Florence, Firenze (Italy); Vanzi, E.; Bottoncetti, A.; Pupi, A. [Nuclear Medicine Unit, Clinical Physiopathology Department, University of Florence, Firenze (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    Full text of publication follows: Purpose.-The aim of the study was to evaluate radioprotective effect of rosiglitazone (RGZ) on a murine model of late pulmonary damage and of acute intestinal damage. Methods.- Lung fibrosis: C57 mice were treated with the radiomimetic agent bleomycin, with or without rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg/day). To obtain an independent qualitative and quantitative measure for lung fibrosis we used high resolution CT, performed twice a week during the entire observation period. Hounsfield Units (HU) of section slides from the upper and lower lung region were determined. On day 31 lungs were collected for histological analysis. Acute intestinal damage: mice underwent 12 Gy total body irradiation with or without rosiglitazone. Mice were sacrificed 24 or 72 h after total body irradiation and ileum and colon were collected. Results.- Lung fibrosis: after bleomycin treatment, mice showed typical CT features of lung fibrosis, including irregular septal thickening and patchy peripheral reticular abnormalities. Accordingly, HU lung density was dramatically increased. Rosiglitazone markedly attenuated the radiological signs of fibrosis and strongly inhibited HU lung density increase (60% inhibition at the end of the observation period). Histological analysis revealed that in bleomycin-treated mice, fibrosis involved 50-55% of pulmonary parenchyma and caused an alteration of the alveolar structures in 10% of parenchyma, while in rosiglitazone-treated mice, fibrosis involved only 20-25% of pulmonary parenchyma, without alterations of the alveolar structures. Acute intestinal damage: 24 h after 12 Gy of total body irradiation intestinal mucosa showed villi shortening, mucosal thickness and crypt necrotic changes. Rosiglitazone showed a histological improvement of tissue structure, with villi and crypts normalization and oedema reduction. Conclusion.- These results demonstrate that rosiglitazone displays a protective effect on pulmonary fibrosis and radiation-induced

  10. Inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibition by 1400W limits pain hypersensitivity in a neuropathic pain rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, C A; Barrett-Jolley, R; Djouhri, L; Thippeswamy, T

    2018-02-13

    Peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP) resulting from injury or dysfunction to a peripheral nerve, is a major health problem affecting 7-8% of the population. It is inadequately controlled by current drugs, and is characterized by pain hypersensitivity which is believed to be due to sensitization of peripheral and CNS neurons by various inflammatory mediators. Here we examined, in a rat model of PNP: a) whether reducing levels of nitric oxide (NO), with 1400 W, a highly selective inhibitor of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), would prevent/attenuate pain hypersensitivity, and b) the effects of 1400 W on plasma levels of several cytokines that are secreted post iNOS upregulation during chronic pain states. The L5-spinal nerve axotomy (SNA) model of PNP was used, and 1400 W (20 mg kg -1 ) administered intraperitoneally at 8 hour intervals for three days starting at 18 hours post-SNA. Changes in plasma concentrations of 12 cytokines in SNA rats treated with 1400 W were examined using multiplex ELISA. SNA rats developed behavioural signs of mechanical and heat hypersensitivity. Compared with the vehicle/control, 1400 W significantly: (a) limited development of mechanical hypersensitivity at 66 hours post-SNA, as well as heat hypersensitivity at 42 hours and at several time-points tested thereafter, and (b) increased the plasma concentrations of IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-10 in the SNA rats. The findings suggest that 1400 W may exert its analgesic effects by reducing iNOS and altering the balance between the pro-inflammatory (IL-1β and IL-1α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines and that therapies targeting NO or its enzymes may be effective for the treatment of PNP. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Nitric oxide and chronic colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Grisham

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is thought to play an important role in modulating the inflammatory response by virtue of its ability to affect bloodflow, leukocyte function and cell viability. The objective of this study was to assess the role that NO may play in mediating the mucosal injury and inflammation in a model of chronic granulomatous colitis using two pharmacologically different inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS. Chronic granulomatous colitis with liver and spleen inflammation was induced in female Lewis rats via the subserosal (intramural injection of peptidoglycan/polysaccharide (PG/PS derived from group A streptococci. Chronic NOS inhibition by oral administration of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME (15 µmol/kg/day or amino-guanidine (AG (15 µmol/ kg/day was found to attenuate the PG/PS-induced increases in macroscopic colonic inflammation scores and colonic myeloperoxidase activity. Only AG -- not L-NAME – attenuated the PG/PS-induced increases in colon dry weight. Both L-NAME and AG significantly attenuated the PG/PS-induced increases in spleen weight whereas neither was effective at significantly attenuating the PG/PS-induced increases in liver weight. Although both L-NAME and AG inhibited NO production in vivo, as measured by decreases in plasma nitrite and nitrate levels, only AG produced significantly lower values (38±3 versus 83±8 µM, respectively, P<0.05. Finally, L-NAME, but not AG, administration significantly increased mean arterial pressure from 83 mmHg in colitic animals to 105 mmHg in the PG/PS+ L-NAME-treated animals (P<0.05. It is concluded that NO may play an important role in mediating some of the pathophysiology associated with this model of chronic granulomatous colitis.

  12. Mycobacteria exploit nitric oxide-induced transformation of macrophages into permissive giant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharun, Kourosh; Senges, Julia; Seidl, Maximilian; Lösslein, Anne; Kolter, Julia; Lohrmann, Florens; Fliegauf, Manfred; Elgizouli, Magdeldin; Vavra, Martina; Schachtrup, Kristina; Illert, Anna L; Gilleron, Martine; Kirschning, Carsten J; Triantafyllopoulou, Antigoni; Henneke, Philipp

    2017-11-02

    Immunity to mycobacteria involves the formation of granulomas, characterized by a unique macrophage (MΦ) species, so-called multinucleated giant cells (MGC). It remains unresolved whether MGC are beneficial to the host, that is, by prevention of bacterial spread, or whether they promote mycobacterial persistence. Here, we show that the prototypical antimycobacterial molecule nitric oxide (NO), which is produced by MGC in excessive amounts, is a double-edged sword. Next to its antibacterial capacity, NO propagates the transformation of MΦ into MGC, which are relatively permissive for mycobacterial persistence. The mechanism underlying MGC formation involves NO-induced DNA damage and impairment of p53 function. Moreover, MGC have an unsurpassed potential to engulf mycobacteria-infected apoptotic cells, which adds a further burden to their antimycobacterial capacity. Accordingly, mycobacteria take paradoxical advantage of antimicrobial cellular efforts by driving effector MΦ into a permissive MGC state. © 2017 The Authors.

  13. Lignans from Arctium lappa and their inhibition of LPS-induced nitric oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Young; Hong, Seong Su; Han, Xiang Hua; Hwang, Ji Sang; Lee, Dongho; Ro, Jai Seup; Hwang, Bang Yeon

    2007-01-01

    A new butyrolactone sesquilignan, isolappaol C (1), together with four known lignans, lappaol C (2), lappaol D (3), lappaol F (4), and diarctigenin (5), were isolated from the methanolic extract of the seeds from the Arctium lappa plant. The structure of isolappaol C (1) was determined by spectral analysis including 1D- and 2D-NMR. All the isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on the LPS-induced nitric oxide production using murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Lappaol F (4) and diarctigenin (5) strongly inhibited NO production in the LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells with IC(50) values of 9.5 and 9.6 microM, respectively.

  14. Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Skin Lesions of Patients with American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadoumi, Muna; Becker, Inge; Donhauser, Norbert; Röllinghoff, Martin; Bogdan, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Cytokine-inducible (or type 2) nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is indispensable for the resolution of Leishmania major or Leishmania donovani infections in mice. In contrast, little is known about the expression and function of iNOS in human leishmaniasis. Here, we show by immunohistological analysis of skin biopsies from Mexican patients with local (LCL) or diffuse (DCL) cutaneous leishmaniasis that the expression of iNOS was most prominent in LCL lesions with small numbers of parasites whereas lesions with a high parasite burden (LCL or DCL) contained considerably fewer iNOS-positive cells. This is the first study to suggest an antileishmanial function of iNOS in human Leishmania infections in vivo. PMID:12117977

  15. Nitric oxide is involved in phosphorus deficiency-induced cluster root development and citrate exudation in white lupin

    Science.gov (United States)

    White lupin (Lupinus albus) forms specialized cluster roots characterized by exudation of organic anions under phosphorus (P) deficiency. Here, we evaluated the role of nitric oxide (NO) in P deficiency-induced cluster-root formation and citrate exudation in white lupin. Plants were treated with NO ...

  16. The expression of cyclooxygenase 2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase indicates no active inflammation in vulvar vestibulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm-Starke, N; Falconer, C; Rylander, E; Hilliges, M

    2001-07-01

    Although women with vulvar vestibulitis syndrome have principal symptoms of inflammation such as local erythema and pain in the mucosa around the vaginal introitus, it is not clear if vestibulitis is an inflammatory condition. Cyclooxygenase 2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase are known to be upregulated during inflammation. The aim of the present study was to analyze the expression of these enzymes in the vestibular mucosa in order to evaluate the inflammatory activity in the tissue. Ten women fulfilling Friedrich's criteria of vulvar vestibulitis syndrome and ten control subjects were included in the study. Punch biopsies were obtained from the vestibular mucosa for analysis of cyclooxygenas 2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase, using indirect immunohistochemistry and Western dot-blot analyses. Both methods used showed low expression of cyclooxygenas 2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the vestibular mucosa of all women. There was no difference observed between the groups. There is a low expression of the inflammatory markers cyclooxygenas 2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the vestibular mucosa of women with vulvar vestibulitis syndrome as well as in healthy control subjects. The results indicate no active inflammation present and imply that topical corticosteroids in the treatment of vulvar vestibulitis are unfounded.

  17. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in human ovarian tumors and tumor-associated macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klimp, AH; Hollema, H; Kempinga, C; van der Zee, AGJ; de Vries, EGE; Daemen, T

    2001-01-01

    This study investigates whether and to what extent cyclooxygenase type-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide-synthase (iNOS), both known to have an immunosuppressive effect, are expressed in human ovarian tumors. Because COX-2 and iNOS can be expressed by activated macrophages, the presence of

  18. Human endogenous retrovirus W env increases nitric oxide production and enhances the migration ability of microglia by regulating the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ran; Li, Shan; Cao, Qian; Wang, Xiuling; Yan, Qiujin; Tu, Xiaoning; Zhu, Ying; Zhu, Fan

    2017-06-01

    Human endogenous retrovirus W env (HERV-W env) plays a critical role in many neuropsychological diseases such as schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis (MS). These diseases are accompanied by immunological reactions in the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia are important immunocytes in brain inflammation that can produce a gasotransmitter-nitric oxide (NO). NO not only plays a role in the function of neuronal cells but also participates in the pathogenesis of various neuropsychological diseases. In this study, we reported increased NO production in CHME-5 microglia cells after they were transfected with HERV-W env. Moreover, HERV-W env increased the expression and function of human inducible nitric oxide synthase (hiNOS) and enhanced the promoter activity of hiNOS. Microglial migration was also enhanced. These data revealed that HERV-W env might contribute to increase NO production and microglial migration ability in neuropsychological disorders by regulating the expression of inducible NOS. Results from this study might lead to the identification of novel targets for the treatment of neuropsychological diseases, including neuroinflammatory diseases, stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. The Mechanism of Helium-Induced Preconditioning: A Direct Role for Nitric Oxide in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, Paul S.; Krolikowski, John G.; Pratt, Phillip F.; Shim, Yon Hee; Amour, Julien; Warltier, David C.; Weihrauch, Dorothee

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Helium produces preconditioning against myocardial infarction by activating prosurvival signaling, but whether nitric oxide (NO) generated by endothelial NO synthase plays a role in this phenomenon is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that NO mediates helium-induced cardioprotection in vivo. METHODS Rabbits (n = 62) instrumented for hemodynamic measurement were subjected to a 30-min left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion and 3 h reperfusion, and received 0.9% saline (control) or three cycles of 70% helium–30% oxygen administered for 5 min interspersed with 5 min of an air–oxygen mixture before left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion in the absence or presence of pretreatment with the nonselective NOS inhibitor N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10 mg/kg), the selective inducible NOS inhibitor aminoguanidine hydrochloride (AG; 300 mg/kg), or selective neuronal NOS inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (7-NI; 50 mg/kg). In additional rabbits, the fluorescent probe 4,5-diaminofluroscein diacetate (DAF-2DA) and confocal laser microscopy were used to detect NO production in the absence or presence of helium with or without L-NAME pretreatment. RESULTS Helium reduced (P helium-induced cardioprotection. Helium enhanced DAF-2DA fluorescence compared with control (26 ± 8 vs 15 ± 5 U, respectively). Pretreatment with L-NAME abolished these helium-induced increases in DAF-2DA fluorescence. CONCLUSIONS The results indicate that cardioprotection by helium is mediated by NO that is probably generated by endothelial NOS in vivo. PMID:18713880

  20. Regulation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase and sodium pump in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakula, Zorica; Koricanac, Goran; Putnikovic, Biljana; Markovic, Ljiljana; Isenovic, Esma R

    2007-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a hormone and growth factor closely related to insulin. The autocrine/paracrine actions of IGF-1 involve activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase sodium pump in cardiovascular tissues. Data from literature indicate that iNOS is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and that IGF-1-induced release of NO is both rapid and delayed. We hypothesize that impaired IGF-1-induced sodium pump activity/expression in rats with type 1 diabetes is related to activation of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/cytosolic phospholipase 2 (cPLA(2))/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling, and that IGF-1 prevents acute and chronic dysfunction of iNOS and sodium pump activity in a chemically induced model of type 1 diabetes, the streptozotocin-treated rat heart (STZ). Understanding how iNOS and sodium pump activity are regulated by IGF-1 activation of the PI3K/cPLA(2)/Akt cascade should provide novel and fundamental knowledge regarding the regulatory actions of IGF-1 in promoting vasodilation. Since insulin resistance is currently a major focus of research, the use of IGF-1 to improve insulin resistance and glucose metabolism has opened a new arena for treatment of comorbid conditions. Future investigations should now focus on mechanisms of action of IGF-1 and its clinical applicability.

  1. [Effect of hydrogen sulfide on inducible nitric oxide synthase in kidneys of Type 1 diabetic rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Jia, Qiang; Ma, Shanfeng; Cui, Shujun; Liu, Xiaofen; Wang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Qin

    2017-04-28

    To investigate effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in kidneys of Type 1 diabetic rats.
 Methods: Thirty-two male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: A normal control (NC) group, a diabetes mellitus (DM) group, a NaHS (NaHS+DM) group, and a NaHS control (NaHS) group (n=8 per group). Type 1 diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). After successful establishment of models, the rats in NaHS+DM and NaHS groups were injected with NaHS solution (56 μmol/kg) intraperitoneally. Eight weeks later, the activities of total nitric oxide synthase (T-NOS) and iNOS, as well as the level of nitric oxide (NO) were detected in serum and renal tissues, respectively. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) was determined in renal tissues. The ultrastructures of renal tissues were observed by transmission electron microscope. The protein expression of iNOS in renal tissues was detected by Western blot.
 Results: Compared with the NC group, there was no significant difference in the various indexes in the NaHS group (P>0.05). However, in the DM group, the activities of T-NOS and iNOS, and the level of NO were all increased significantly in serum and renal tissues, while the activity of GSH-Px was decreased in renal tissues. Under the electronic microscope, the thickening of the glomerular capillary basement membrane, the proliferation of mesangial matrix, and the foot fusion were observed. The protein expression of iNOS was increased obviously in renal tissues in the DM group (P<0.01). Compared with the DM group, the activities of T-NOS and iNOS and the level of NO were all decreased in serum and renal tissues, while the activity of GSH-Px was increased in renal tissues in the NaHS+DM group (P<0.01). The renal ultrastructural damages were ameliorated obviously. The protein expression of iNOS was decreased significantly (P<0.01).
 Conclusion: H2S exerts a protective effect on

  2. Nitric oxide and prostaglandins in the clenbuterol-induced ACTH and corticosterone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadek-Michalska, A; Bugajski, A J; Bugajski, J

    2008-03-01

    The present study was designed to determine the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PG) in the stimulatory action of clenbuterol, a selective beta(2)-adrenergic receptor agonist on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis under basal and social crowding stress conditions. Clenbuterol given i.c.v. (10 microg) or i.p. (0.2 mg/kg) considerably increased ACTH and corticosterone secretion. A selective beta(2)-receptor antagonist compound ICI 118551 and non-selective beta-receptor antagonist propranolol given by either route reduced the stimulatory action of clenbuterol. Crowding stress (21 rats in a cage for 7) for 3-7 days significantly reduced the i.c.v. clenbuterol-induced ACTH and corticosterone secretion and i.p. clenbuterol-elicited ACTH secretion. L-NAME, mainly endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) blocker, stronger than L-NNA, a neuronal NOS blocker, reduced the clenbuterol-evoked ACTH and corticosterone secretion in control rats but did not significantly alter this secretion already reduced by crowding stress. Piroxicam, predominantly constitutive cyclooxygenase (COX-1) inhibitor, given i.p. significantly diminished the i.p. clenbuterol-induced ACTH and corticosterone secretion in control rats and tended to reverse the reduction of ACTH secretion by crowding stress. These results indicate that clenbuterol, a selective beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonist, is much stronger stimulator of the HPA axis than isoprenaline, a non-selective beta-receptor agonist. Social crowding stress reduces to a larger extent the HPA response to beta(2)-receptor stimulation. Likewise, in the HPA axis stimulation via beta(2)-adrenoceptors endogenous NO and prostaglandins are significantly involved. Beta2-adrenoceptor is a dominant functional subtype of beta-receptor in the stimulatory and modulatory signals regulating the HPA axis activity under basal and social stress conditions.

  3. Citrus nobiletin suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in interleukin-1β-treated hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshigai, Emi [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization (R-GIRO), Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Machida, Toru [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Okuyama, Tetsuya [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization (R-GIRO), Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Mori, Masatoshi; Murase, Hiromitsu; Yamanishi, Ryota [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Okumura, Tadayoshi [Research Organization of Science and Technology, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Department of Surgery, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata, Osaka (Japan); Ikeya, Yukinobu [Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Nishino, Hoyoku [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization (R-GIRO), Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Nishizawa, Mikio, E-mail: nishizaw@sk.ritsumei.ac.jp [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan)

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone that is abundant in citrus peels. •Nobiletin is a major constituent of the Citrus unshiu peel extract. •Nobiletin suppresses induction of NO and reduces iNOS expression in hepatocytes. •Nobiletin reduces the iNOS promoter activity and the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. -- Abstract: Background: Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone that is abundant in the peels of citrus fruits, such as Citrus unshiu (Satsuma mandarin) and Citrus sinensis. The dried peels of C. unshiu (chinpi) have been included in several formulae of Japanese Kampo medicines. Nobiletin may suppress the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which synthesizes the inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO) in hepatocytes. Methods: A C. unshiu peel (CUP) extract was prepared. Primary cultured rat hepatocytes were treated with the CUP extract or nobiletin in the presence of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), which induces iNOS expression. NO production and iNOS gene expression were analyzed. Results: High-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed that the nobiletin content in the CUP extract was 0.14%. Nobiletin dose-dependently reduced the NO levels and decreased iNOS expression at the protein, mRNA and antisense transcript levels. Flavone, which does not contain any methoxy groups, also suppressed iNOS induction. Nobiletin reduced the transcriptional activity of iNOS promoter-luciferase constructs and the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in the nuclei. Conclusions: The suppression of iNOS induction by nobiletin suggests that nobiletin may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of citrus peels and have a therapeutic potential for liver diseases.

  4. Ubiquitination of inducible nitric oxide synthase is required for its degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejski, Pawel J.; Musial, Aleksandra; Koo, Ja-Seok; Eissa, N. Tony

    2002-01-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is responsible for nitric oxide (NO) synthesis from l-arginine in response to inflammatory mediators. We have previously shown that iNOS is degraded through the 26S proteasome. Targeting of proteins for proteasomal degradation may or may not require their covalent linkage to multiubiquitin chains (ubiquitination). In addition, ubiquitination of a protein can serve functions other than signaling proteolysis. In this context, it is not known whether iNOS is subject to ubiquitination or whether ubiquitination is required for its degradation. In this study, we show that iNOS, expressed in HEK293 cells or induced in primary bronchial epithelial cells, A549 cells, or murine macrophages, is subject to ubiquitination. To investigate whether iNOS ubiquitination is required for its degradation, HEK293T cells were cotransfected with plasmids containing cDNAs of human iNOS and of the dominant negative ubiquitin mutant K48R. Disruption of ubiquitination by K48R ubiquitin resulted in inhibition of iNOS degradation. ts20 is a mutant cell line that contains a thermolabile ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1) that is inactivated at elevated temperature, preventing ubiquitination. Incubation of ts20 cells, stably expressing human iNOS, at the nonpermissive temperature (40°C) resulted in inhibition of iNOS degradation and marked accumulation of iNOS. These studies indicate that iNOS is subject to ubiquitination and that ubiquitination is required for its degradation. PMID:12221289

  5. Centella asiatica Attenuates D-Galactose-Induced Cognitive Impairment, Oxidative and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    l (D-galactose. Centella asiatica also attenuated enhanced acetylcholine esterase enzyme level in D-galactose senescence mice. Present study highlights the protective effect of Centella asiatica against D-galactose induced behavioral, biochemical and mitochondrial dysfunction in mice.

  6. Melatonin attenuates thiocyanate-induced vasoconstriction in aortic rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Prusa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking not only has a carcinogenic effect but also leads to an increase in arterial blood pressure. Besides its main components, i.e. nicotine, tar, and carbon monoxide, cigarette smoke also contains thiocyanate. Thiocyanate anions (SCN− arise from the detoxification of hydrogen cyanide and its plasma concentrations were found to correlate significantly with cigarette consumption. There is also evidence that atherosclerotic disease progression is much more rapid when serum SCN− levels are increased. Melatonin, a non-toxic indolamine with various physiologic functions, is believed to protect against inflammatory processes and oxidative stress. It has been demonstrated that melatonin serves as free radical scavenger and represents a potent antioxidant. Therefore, it is believed that melatonin with its atheroprotective effects may be useful either as a sole therapy or in conjunction with others. The aim of this study was to quantify the thiocyanate-induced vasomotor response in aortic tissue and further to examine the potential of melatonin in affecting the generated vasoreactivity. Aortic rings of adult male normotensive Wistar rats were cut into 4-mm rings. Following the administration of thiocyanate in various concentrations, vasomotor response of aortic vessel segments was measured. To assess the effect of melatonin on vasomotor activity, organ bath concentrations were modulated from 60 to 360 pM, which corresponds to physiologic plasma up to the levels of patients with regular oral intake of 3 mg of melatonin as a supplement. Thirty-six rat aortic rings were studied. When exposed to thiocyanate, vessel segments revealed vasoconstriction in a concentration-dependent manner. In rings which were preincubated with melatonin at a concentration of 360 pM, a 56.5% reduction of effect size could be achieved (4.09 ± 1.22 mN versus 9.41 ± 1.74 mN, P < 0.0001. Additionally, administration of 360 pM melatonin at a

  7. Nitric oxide ameliorates zinc oxide nanoparticles-induced phytotoxicity in rice seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Chao; Yin, Shan-Shan; Li, Xiu-Ling; Hu, Wen-Jun; Simon, Martin; Shen, Zhi-Jun; Xiao, Qiang; Chu, Cheng-Cai; Peng, Xin-Xiang; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2015-10-30

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been found to function in enhancing plant tolerance to various environmental stresses. However, role of NO in relieving zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs)-induced phytotoxicity remains unknown. Here, sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a NO donor) was used to investigate the possible roles and the regulatory mechanisms of NO in counteracting ZnO NPs toxicity in rice seedlings. Our results showed that 10 μM SNP significantly inhibited the appearance of ZnO NP toxicity symptoms. SNP addition significantly reduced Zn accumulation, reactive oxygen species production and lipid peroxidation caused by ZnO NPs. The protective role of SNP in reducing ZnO NPs-induced oxidative damage is closely related to NO-mediated antioxidant system. A decrease in superoxide dismutase activity, as well as an increase in reduced glutathione content and peroxidase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activity was observed under SNP and ZnO NPs combined treatments, compared to ZnO NPs treatment alone. The relative transcript abundance of corresponding antioxidant genes exhibited a similar change. The role of NO in enhancing ZnO NPs tolerance was further confirmed by genetic analysis using a NO excess mutant (noe1) and an OsNOA1-silenced plant (noa1) of rice. Together, this study provides the first evidence indicating that NO functions in ameliorating ZnO NPs-induced phytotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Bixa orellana leaves extract inhibits bradykinin-induced inflammation through suppression of nitric oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoke Keong, Y; Arifah, A K; Sukardi, S; Roslida, A H; Somchit, M N; Zuraini, A

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of a crude aqueous extract of Bixa orellana leaves (AEBO) and to examine the possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in its anti-inflammatory mechanism. The air-dried, powdered leaves were soaked in distilled water (1:20 w/v) at 50°C for 24 h and the supernatant obtained was freeze-dried (yield 8.5% w/w). The dosage was recorded as the mass of extract per kg b.w. of rats in all inflammatory assays (bradykinin-induced paw edema, peritoneal vascular permeability and NO assay). Pretreatment with AEBO for 4 consecutive days exhibited significant inhibitory activity against inflammatory models, the bradykinin-induced hind paw edema model and bradykinin-induced increased peritoneal vascular permeability at both doses in dose-dependent manner. In addition, AEBO was also found to significantly suppress the production of NO at doses of 50 and 150 mg/kg. This study provides scientific data to support the traditional use of B. orellana leaves in treating inflammation. Results from this study suggest that AEBO exerts anti-inflammatory effects. Part of this anti-inflammatory effect may be associated with its antibradykinin activity and may be related to a reduction of the NO production. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Nitric oxide protects carbon assimilation process of watermelon from boron-induced oxidative injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed; Najeeb, Ullah; Yang, Jinghua; Hu, Zhongyuan; Fang, Zhang Ming

    2017-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) mediates plant response to a variety of abiotic stresses; however, limited information is available on its effect on boron (B)-stressed watermelon plants. The present study investigates the mechanism through which NO protects watermelon seedlings from B deficiency and toxicity stresses. Five days old watermelon seedlings were exposed to B (0, 0.5 and 10 mg L-1) alone or with 75 μmole of NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) for 30 days. Both low and high B concentrations in the media altered nutrient accumulation and impaired various physiological processes of watermelon seedlings, leading to a significant reduction in biomass production. The plants exposed to B deficient or toxic concentrations had 66 and 69% lower shoot dry weight, respectively compared with optimum B levels. B toxicity-induced growth inhibition of watermelon seedlings was associated with high B translocation to shoot tissues, which caused lipid membrane peroxidation (12% increase) and chlorophyll destruction (25% reduction). In contrast, B deficiency accelerated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), specifically OH-1 and induced cellular oxidative injury. Exogenously applied SNP promoted leaf chlorophyll, photosynthesis and consequently biomass production in B-stressed watermelon seedlings by reducing B accumulation, lipid membrane peroxidation and ROS generation. It also activated antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, POD and APX, and protected the seedlings from ROS-induced cellular burst. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. PKC-Dependent Signaling Pathways within PAG and Thalamus Contribute to the Nitric Oxide-Induced Nociceptive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Galeotti, Nicoletta; Ghelardini, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important molecule involved in nociceptive processing in the central nervous system. The release of NO within the spinal cord has long been implicated in the mechanisms underlying exaggerated pain sensitivity, and administration of NO donors can induce hyperalgesia. To elucidate the supraspinal mechanism responsible for NO-induced nociceptive hypersensitivity, we investigated the modulation of protein kinase C (PKC) and downstream effectors following treatment with the...

  11. Genetically Modified Live Attenuated Leishmania donovani Parasites Induce Innate Immunity through Classical Activation of Macrophages That Direct the Th1 Response in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Parna; Dey, Ranadhir; Dagur, Pradeep K.; Kruhlak, Michael; Ismail, Nevien; Debrabant, Alain; Joshi, Amritanshu B.; Akue, Adovi; Kukuruga, Mark; Takeda, Kazuyo; Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; McCoy, John Philip

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) causes significant mortality and there is no effective vaccine. Previously, we have shown that genetically modified Leishmania donovani parasites, here described as live attenuated parasites, induce a host protective adaptive immune response in various animal models. In this study, we demonstrate an innate immune response upon infection with live attenuated parasites in macrophages from BALB/c mice both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro infection of macrophages with live attenuated parasites (compared to that with wild-type [WT] L. donovani parasites) induced significantly higher production of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin-12 [IL-12], gamma interferon [IFN-γ], and IL-6), chemokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1/CCL-2, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α/CCL-3, and IP-10), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and nitric oxide, while concomitantly reducing anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and arginase-1 activities, suggesting a dominant classically activated/M1 macrophage response. The classically activated response in turn helps in presenting antigen to T cells, as observed with robust CD4+ T cell activation in vitro. Similarly, parasitized splenic macrophages from live attenuated parasite-infected mice also demonstrated induction of an M1 macrophage phenotype, indicated by upregulation of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-12, and inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 and downregulation of genes associated with the M2 phenotype, i.e., the IL-10, YM1, Arg-1, and MRC-1 genes, compared to WT L. donovani-infected mice. Furthermore, an ex vivo antigen presentation assay showed macrophages from live attenuated parasite-infected mice induced higher IFN-γ and IL-2 but significantly less IL-10 production by ovalbumin-specific CD4+ T cells, resulting in proliferation of Th1 cells. These data suggest that infection with live attenuated parasites promotes a state of classical activation (M1 dominant) in macrophages that

  12. Genetically Modified Live Attenuated Leishmania donovani Parasites Induce Innate Immunity through Classical Activation of Macrophages That Direct the Th1 Response in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Parna; Dey, Ranadhir; Dagur, Pradeep K; Kruhlak, Michael; Ismail, Nevien; Debrabant, Alain; Joshi, Amritanshu B; Akue, Adovi; Kukuruga, Mark; Takeda, Kazuyo; Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; McCoy, John Philip; Nakhasi, Hira L

    2015-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) causes significant mortality and there is no effective vaccine. Previously, we have shown that genetically modified Leishmania donovani parasites, here described as live attenuated parasites, induce a host protective adaptive immune response in various animal models. In this study, we demonstrate an innate immune response upon infection with live attenuated parasites in macrophages from BALB/c mice both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro infection of macrophages with live attenuated parasites (compared to that with wild-type [WT] L. donovani parasites) induced significantly higher production of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin-12 [IL-12], gamma interferon [IFN-γ], and IL-6), chemokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1/CCL-2, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α/CCL-3, and IP-10), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and nitric oxide, while concomitantly reducing anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and arginase-1 activities, suggesting a dominant classically activated/M1 macrophage response. The classically activated response in turn helps in presenting antigen to T cells, as observed with robust CD4(+) T cell activation in vitro. Similarly, parasitized splenic macrophages from live attenuated parasite-infected mice also demonstrated induction of an M1 macrophage phenotype, indicated by upregulation of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-12, and inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 and downregulation of genes associated with the M2 phenotype, i.e., the IL-10, YM1, Arg-1, and MRC-1 genes, compared to WT L. donovani-infected mice. Furthermore, an ex vivo antigen presentation assay showed macrophages from live attenuated parasite-infected mice induced higher IFN-γ and IL-2 but significantly less IL-10 production by ovalbumin-specific CD4(+) T cells, resulting in proliferation of Th1 cells. These data suggest that infection with live attenuated parasites promotes a state of classical activation (M1 dominant) in macrophages that

  13. L-arginine, a nitric oxide precursor, reduces dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Valadares de Moraes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dapsone use is frequently associated to hematological side effects such as methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia, which are related to N-hydroxylation mediated by the P450 enzyme system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of L-arginine supplementation, a precursor for the synthesis of nitric oxide, as single or multiple dose regimens on dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia. Male Wistar rats were treated with L-arginine at 5, 15, 30, 60 and 180 mg/kg doses (p.o., gavage in single or multiple dose regimens 2 hours prior to dapsone administration (40 mg/kg, i.p.. The effect of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME was investigated by treatment with multiple doses of 30 mg/kg (p.o., gavage 2 hours before dapsone administration. Blood samples were collected 2 hours after dapsone administration. Erythrocytic methemoglobin levels were assayed by spectrophotometry. The results showed that multiple dose supplementations with 5 and 15 mg/kg L-arginine reduced dapsone-induced methemoglobin levels. This effect is mediated by nitric oxide formation, since the reduction in methemoglobin levels by L-arginine is blocked by simultaneous administration with L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor.O uso da dapsona é frequentemente associado a efeitos adversos hematológicos, como a metemoglobinemia e anemia hemolítica, ambos relacionados com a N-hidroxilação mediada pelo sistema P450. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a influência da suplementação de L-arginina, um precursor da síntese de óxido nítrico, administrado em regime de dose única ou múltipla na metemoglobinemia induzida pela dapsona. Ratos machos Wistar foram tratados com L-arginina (po, gavagem em dose única ou múltipla de 5, 15, 30, 60 e 180 mg/kg 2 horas antes da administração de dapsona (40 mg/kg, ip. O efeito do L-NAME, um inibidor de óxido nítrico sintase (NOS, foi avaliado através do tratamento com doses múltiplas de 30 mg/kg. Amostras de sangue

  14. Dual effect of interferon (IFNγ)-induced nitric oxide on tumorigenesis and intracellular bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea, Arnold H; Aiyar, Ashok; Tate, David

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a key messenger involved in numerous physiological functions including inflammatory and immune responses. The functions of NO and their underlying mechanisms have been elucidated by extensive studies over the past 10 years. However, the complexity of the interactions between different levels of NO and multiple aspects of tumor development/progression as well as bacterial pathogenesis has led to apparently conflicting findings. The precise role of NO in bacterial and tumor pathogenesis involves a multitude of inter- and intracellular signaling pathways in which interferon gamma signaling and L-arginine metabolism are the major pathways involved in NO synthesis and regulation. The availability of the amino acid L-Arg can be a key factor to control the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) and cellular NO levels. The role played by the NOS2/NO system both in bacterial pathogenesis and in tumor development is complex due to the dual role these molecules can play promoting or inhibiting infections and cancer. This duality brings to the table a double challenge to determine the net impact of NO on cancer or bacterial behavior and to define the therapeutic role of NO-centered anticancer or antibacterial strategies. We believe that a comprehensive and dynamic understanding of the cascade of molecular and cellular events underlying tumor biology and bacterial pathogenesis that are affected by NO will allow researchers to exploit the potential antitumor and antibacterial properties of drugs interfering with NO metabolism. The contrasting roles of NO/NOS2 in these processes are clarified in this chapter. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of Nitric Oxide in Stress-Induced Anxiety: From Pathophysiology to Therapeutic Target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Chanana, P

    2017-01-01

    Stress is often marked by a state of hyperarousal to aid the initiation of necessary stress response for the successful management of stressful stimuli. It can be manifested as a challenge (stimulus) that requires behavioral, psychological, and physiological adaptations for the maintenance of a state of homeostasis in response to stressful stimuli. In an organism, miscellaneous stressors trigger a wide spectrum of alterations in hormonal and neuronal physiologies, resulting in behavioral (anxiety and depression disorders, diminished food intake and gastrointestinal dysfunctions, decline in sexual behavior, diabetes, and loss of cognitive function) and other physiological responses. Stress serves as a potent etiological link to development of several neuropsychiatric diseases such as depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairments. Exposure to stressful stimuli has been found to be associated with activation of nitric oxide synthase and generation of NO which reacts with spontaneous oxygen species to aid formation of active nitrogen radicals. High concentrations of reactive nitrogen radicals may cause damage to intracellular proteins, in addition to causing impairment to components of the mitochondrial transport chain, leading to cellular energy deficiency. This may further serve as an etiological link to the development of secondary neurological diseases associated with chronic stress. Also, during stress exposure, pharmacological inhibition of nitric oxide production displays reduction in indicators of anxiety- and depressive-like behavior in animal models. Therefore, the purpose of this chapter is to present an overview on the role of NO in stress-evoked emergence of secondary neurological disorders like anxiety as well as citing examples where NO has been used as a therapeutic target for the management of stress-induced anxiety-like behavior. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Trans fatty acids induce vascular inflammation and reduce vascular nitric oxide production in endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi G Iwata

    Full Text Available Intake of trans fatty acids (TFA, which are consumed by eating foods made from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. This relation can be explained by many factors including TFA's negative effect on endothelial function and reduced nitric oxide (NO bioavailability. In this study we investigated the effects of three different TFA (2 common isomers of C18 found in partially hydrogenated vegetable oil and a C18 isomer found from ruminant-derived-dairy products and meat on endothelial NF-κB activation and nitric oxide (NO production. Human endothelial cells were treated with increasing concentrations of Elaidic (trans-C18:1 (9 trans, Linoelaidic (trans-C18:2 (9 trans, 12 trans, and Transvaccenic (trans-C18:1 (11 trans for 3 h. Both Elaidic and Linoelaidic acids were associated with increasing NF-κB activation as measured by IL-6 levels and phosphorylation of IκBα, and impairment of endothelial insulin signaling and NO production, whereas Transvaccenic acid was not associated with these responses. We also measured superoxide production, which has been hypothesized to be necessary in fatty acid-dependent activation of NF-κB. Both Elaidic acid and Linoelaidic acid are associated with increased superoxide production, whereas Transvaccenic acid (which did not induce inflammatory responses did not increase superoxide production. We observed differential activation of endothelial superoxide production, NF-κB activation, and reduction in NO production by different C18 isomers suggesting that the location and number of trans double bonds effect endothelial NF-κB activation.

  17. Mas receptor is involved in the estrogen-receptor induced nitric oxide-dependent vasorelaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino, Agua; Vallejo, Susana; Novella, Susana; Lázaro-Franco, Macarena; Mompeón, Ana; Bueno-Betí, Carlos; Walther, Thomas; Sánchez-Ferrer, Carlos; Peiró, Concepción; Hermenegildo, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    The Mas receptor is involved in the angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) vasodilatory actions by increasing nitric oxide production (NO). We have previously demonstrated an increased production of Ang-(1-7) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) exposed to estradiol (E2), suggesting a potential cross-talk between E2 and the Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis. Here, we explored whether the vasoactive response and NO-related signalling exerted by E2 are influenced by Mas. HUVEC were exposed to 10nM E2 for 24h in the presence or absence of the selective Mas receptor antagonist A779, and the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI182780 (ICI). E2 increased Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mRNA and protein expression, measured by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Furthermore, E2 increased Akt activity (determined by the levels of phospho-Ser(473)) and eNOS activity (by the enhanced phosphorylation of Ser(1177), the activated form), resulting in increased NO production, which was measured by the fluorescence probe DAF-2-FM. These signalling events were dependent on ER and Mas receptor activation, since they were abolished in the presence of ICI or A779. In ex-vivo functional experiments performed with a small-vessel myograph in isolated mesenteric vessels from wild-type mice pre-contracted with noradrenaline, the relaxant response to physiological concentrations of E2 was blocked by ICI and A779, to the same extent to that obtained in the vessels isolated from Mas-deficient. In conclusion, E2 induces NO production and vasodilation through mechanisms that require Mas receptor activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cannabidiol attenuates catalepsy induced by distinct pharmacological mechanisms via 5-HT1A receptor activation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Felipe V; Del Bel, Elaine A; Guimarães, Francisco S

    2013-10-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychotomimetic compound from Cannabis sativa plant that produces antipsychotic effects in rodents and humans. It also reverses L-dopa-induced psychotic symptoms and improves motor function in Parkinson's patients. This latter effect raised the possibility that CBD could have beneficial effects on motor related striatal disorders. To investigate this possibility we evaluated if CBD would prevent catalepsy induced by drugs with distinct pharmacological mechanisms. The catalepsy test is largely used to investigate impairments of motor function caused by interference on striatal function. Male Swiss mice received acute pretreatment with CBD (5, 15, 30 or 60mg/kg, ip) 30min prior to the D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol (0.6mg/kg), the non-selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-nitro-N-arginine (L-NOARG, 80mg/kg) or the CB1 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (5mg/kg). The mice were tested 1, 2 or 4h after haloperidol, L-NOARG or WIN55,212-2 injection. These drugs significantly increased catalepsy time and this effect was attenuated dose-dependently by CBD. CBD, by itself, did not induce catalepsy. In a second set of experiments the mechanism of CBD effects was investigated. Thirty minutes before CBD (30mg/kg) the animals received the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 (0.1mg/kg). The anticataleptic effect of CBD was prevented by WAY100635. These findings indicate that CBD can attenuate catalepsy caused by different mechanisms (D2 blockade, NOS inhibition and CB1 agonism) via 5-HT1A receptor activation, suggesting that it could be useful in the treatment of striatal disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Metronidazole-Resistant Isolate of Blastocystis spp. Is Susceptible to Nitric Oxide and Downregulates Intestinal Epithelial Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase by a Novel Parasite Survival Mechanism ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Haris; Wu, Zhaona; Kidwai, Fahad; Tan, Kevin S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Blastocystis, one of the most common parasites colonizing the human intestine, is an extracellular, noninvasive, luminal protozoan with controversial pathogenesis. Blastocystis infections can be asymptomatic or cause intestinal symptoms of vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Although chronic infections are frequently reported, Blastocystis infections have also been reported to be self-limiting in immunocompetent patients. Characterizing the host innate response to Blastocystis would lead to a better understanding of the parasite's pathogenesis. Intestinal epithelial cells produce nitric oxide (NO), primarily on the apical side, in order to target luminal pathogens. In this study, we show that NO production by intestinal cells may be a host defense mechanism against Blastocystis. Two clinically relevant isolates of Blastocystis, ST-7 (B) and ST-4 (WR-1), were found to be susceptible to a range of NO donors. ST-7 (B), a metronidazole-resistant isolate, was found to be more sensitive to nitrosative stress. Using the Caco-2 model of human intestinal epithelium, Blastocystis ST-7 (B) but not ST-4 (WR-1) exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of Caco-2 NO production, and this was associated with downregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Despite its higher susceptibility to NO, Blastocystis ST-7 (B) may have evolved unique strategies to evade this potential host defense by depressing host NO production. This is the first study to highlight a strain-to-strain variation in the ability of Blastocystis to evade the host antiparasitic NO response. PMID:21930763

  20. A metronidazole-resistant isolate of Blastocystis spp. is susceptible to nitric oxide and downregulates intestinal epithelial inducible nitric oxide synthase by a novel parasite survival mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Haris; Wu, Zhaona; Kidwai, Fahad; Tan, Kevin S W

    2011-12-01

    Blastocystis, one of the most common parasites colonizing the human intestine, is an extracellular, noninvasive, luminal protozoan with controversial pathogenesis. Blastocystis infections can be asymptomatic or cause intestinal symptoms of vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Although chronic infections are frequently reported, Blastocystis infections have also been reported to be self-limiting in immunocompetent patients. Characterizing the host innate response to Blastocystis would lead to a better understanding of the parasite's pathogenesis. Intestinal epithelial cells produce nitric oxide (NO), primarily on the apical side, in order to target luminal pathogens. In this study, we show that NO production by intestinal cells may be a host defense mechanism against Blastocystis. Two clinically relevant isolates of Blastocystis, ST-7 (B) and ST-4 (WR-1), were found to be susceptible to a range of NO donors. ST-7 (B), a metronidazole-resistant isolate, was found to be more sensitive to nitrosative stress. Using the Caco-2 model of human intestinal epithelium, Blastocystis ST-7 (B) but not ST-4 (WR-1) exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of Caco-2 NO production, and this was associated with downregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Despite its higher susceptibility to NO, Blastocystis ST-7 (B) may have evolved unique strategies to evade this potential host defense by depressing host NO production. This is the first study to highlight a strain-to-strain variation in the ability of Blastocystis to evade the host antiparasitic NO response.

  1. Role of Polymorphisms of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase in Idiopathic Environmental Intolerances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara De Luca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and inflammation play a pathogenetic role in idiopathic environmental intolerances (IEI, namely, multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS, fibromyalgia (FM, and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. Given the reported association of nitric oxide synthase (NOS gene polymorphisms with inflammatory disorders, we aimed to investigate the distribution of NOS2A −2.5 kb (CCTTTn as well as Ser608Leu and NOS3 −786T>C variants and their correlation with nitrite/nitrate levels, in a study cohort including 170 MCS, 108 suspected MCS (SMCS, 89 FM/CFS, and 196 healthy subjects. Patients and controls had similar distributions of NOS2A Ser608Leu and NOS3 −786T>C polymorphisms. Interestingly, the NOS3 −786TT genotype was associated with increased nitrite/nitrate levels only in IEI patients. We also found that the NOS2A −2.5 kb (CCTTT11 allele represents a genetic determinant for FM/CFS, and the (CCTTT16 allele discriminates MCS from SMCS patients. Instead, the (CCTTT8 allele reduces by three-, six-, and tenfold, respectively, the risk for MCS, SMCS, and FM/CFS. Moreover, a short number of (CCTTT repeats is associated with higher concentrations of nitrites/nitrates. Here, we first demonstrate that NOS3 −786T>C variant affects nitrite/nitrate levels in IEI patients and that screening for NOS2A −2.5 kb (CCTTTn polymorphism may be useful for differential diagnosis of various IEI.

  2. Attenuation of salt-induced changes in photosynthesis by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In parallel, NO application in salt-stressed plants attenuated the decrease in the photosynthetic parameters such as leaf chlorophyll, net photosynthetic rate (PN), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (E), the ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence (Fv/Fm), electron transport rate (ETR), the efficiency of excitation ...

  3. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide production in the mud-dwelled air-breathing singhi catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis under condition of water shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Mahua G; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2012-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is known to be an important regulator molecule for regulating the multiple signaling pathways and also to play diverse physiological functions in mammals including that of adaptation to various stresses. The present study reports on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) enzyme that produces NO from l-arginine in the freshwater air-breathing catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) while dwelling inside the mud peat under semidry conditions. Desiccation stress, due to mud-dwelling for 2 weeks, led to significant increase of NO concentration in different tissues and in plasma of singhi catfish, and also the increase of NO efflux from the perfused liver with an accompanying increase of toxic ammonia level in different tissues. Mud-dwelling also resulted to induction of iNOS activity, expression of iNOS protein in different tissues after 7 days with further increase after 14 days, which otherwise was not detectable in control fish. Further, mud-dwelling also resulted to a significant expression of iNOS mRNA after 7 days with a more increase of mRNA level after 14 days, suggesting that the desiccation stress caused transcriptional regulation of iNOS gene. Immunocytochemical analysis indicated the zonal specific expression of iNOS protein in different tissues. Desiccation stress also led to activation and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor кB (NFкB) in hepatic cells. These results suggest that the activation of iNOS gene under desiccation-induced stresses such as high ammonia load was probably mediated through the activation of one of the major transcription factors, the NFкB. This is the first report of desiccation-induced induction of iNOS gene, iNOS protein expression leading to more generation of NO while living inside the mud peat under condition of water shortage in any air-breathing teleosts. 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved

  4. Nitric oxide-mediated bystander signal transduction induced by heavy-ion microbeam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Masanori; Matsumoto, Hideki; Funayama, Tomoo; Yokota, Yuichiro; Otsuka, Kensuke; Maeda, Munetoshi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2015-07-01

    In general, a radiation-induced bystander response is known to be a cellular response induced in non-irradiated cells after receiving bystander signaling factors released from directly irradiated cells within a cell population. Bystander responses induced by high-linear energy transfer (LET) heavy ions at low fluence are an important health problem for astronauts in space. Bystander responses are mediated via physical cell-cell contact, such as gap-junction intercellular communication (GJIC) and/or diffusive factors released into the medium in cell culture conditions. Nitric oxide (NO) is a well-known major initiator/mediator of intercellular signaling within culture medium during bystander responses. In this study, we investigated the NO-mediated bystander signal transduction induced by high-LET argon (Ar)-ion microbeam irradiation of normal human fibroblasts. Foci formation by DNA double-strand break repair proteins was induced in non-irradiated cells, which were co-cultured with those irradiated by high-LET Ar-ion microbeams in the same culture plate. Foci formation was suppressed significantly by pretreatment with an NO scavenger. Furthermore, NO-mediated reproductive cell death was also induced in bystander cells. Phosphorylation of NF-κB and Akt were induced during NO-mediated bystander signaling in the irradiated and bystander cells. However, the activation of these proteins depended on the incubation time after irradiation. The accumulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a downstream target of NO and NF-κB, was observed in the bystander cells 6 h after irradiation but not in the directly irradiated cells. Our findings suggest that Akt- and NF-κB-dependent signaling pathways involving COX-2 play important roles in NO-mediated high-LET heavy-ion-induced bystander responses. In addition, COX-2 may be used as a molecular marker of high-LET heavy-ion-induced bystander cells to distinguish them from directly irradiated cells, although this may depend on the time

  5. Experimental Model of Zymosan-Induced Arthritis in the Rat Temporomandibular Joint: Role of Nitric Oxide and Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellíada Vasconcelos Chaves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To establish a new model of zymosan-induced temporomandibular joint (TMJ arthritis in the rat and to investigate the role of nitric oxide. Methods. Inflammation was induced by an intra-articular injection of zymosan into the left TMJ. Mechanical hypernociception, cell influx, vascular permeability, myeloperoxidase activity, nitrite levels, and histological changes were measured in TMJ lavages or tissues at selected time points. These parameters were also evaluated after treatment with the nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitors L-NAME or 1400 W. Results. Zymosan-induced TMJ arthritis caused a time-dependent leucocyte migration, plasma extravasation, mechanical hypernociception, and neutrophil accumulation between 4 and 24 h. TMJ immunohistochemical analyses showed increased inducible NOS expression. Treatment with L-NAME or 1400 W inhibited these parameters. Conclusion. Zymosan-induced TMJ arthritis is a reproducible model that may be used to assess both the mechanisms underlying TMJ inflammation and the potential tools for therapies. Nitric oxide may participate in the inflammatory temporomandibular dysfunction mechanisms.

  6. Chronic nitric oxide deprivation induces an adaptive antioxidant status in human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Maria Grazia; Cappellini, Elisa; Ragni, Maurizio; Tacchini, Lorenza; Scaccabarozzi, Diletta; Nisoli, Enzo; Vicentini, Lucia Maria

    2013-11-01

    In a previous work, we showed an increased cell motility due to the accumulation and transcriptional activation of the Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α (HIF-1α) and a reduced mitochondrial energy production in an in vitro model of endothelial dysfunction (ED) represented by human endothelial cells (ECs) chronically deprived of nitric oxide (NO) by L-NAME treatment. In the present study, in the attempt to unravel the pathway(s) linking NO deficiency to HIF-1α accumulation and activation, we focused our attention on Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). We found that ROS were partially involved in HIF-1α stabilization, but not in the pro-migratory phenotype. Regarding mitochondrial dysfunction, it did not require neither ROS generation nor HIF-1α activity, and was not due to autophagy. Very interestingly, while acute treatment with L-NAME induced a transient increase in ROS formation, chronic NO deprivation by long term L-NAME exposure drastically reduced cellular ROS content giving rise to an antioxidant environment characterized by an increase in superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD-2) expression and activity, and by nuclear accumulation of the transcription factor NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2). These results might have important implications for our understanding of the consequences of NO deprivation in endothelium behavior and in the onset of cardiovascular diseases. © 2013.

  7. Exogenous nitric oxide-induced postharvest disease resistance in citrus fruit to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yahan; Li, Shunmin; Zeng, Kaifang

    2016-01-30

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule involved in numerous plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. To investigate the effects of NO on the control of postharvest anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in citrus fruit and its possible mechanisms, citrus fruit were treated with an NO donor. The results showed that exogenous NO released from 50 µmol L(-1) sodium nitroprusside aqueous solution could effectively reduce the disease incidence and lesion diameter of citrus fruit inoculated with C. gloeosporioides during storage at 20 °C. Exogenous NO could regulate hydrogen peroxide levels, stimulate the synthesis of phenolic compounds, and induce phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase activities, and the ascorbate-glutathione cycle. Furthermore, exogenous NO could inhibit weight loss, improve the ascorbic acid and titratable acidity content, and delay the increase in total soluble solids content in citrus fruit during storage at 20 °C. The results suggest that the use of exogenous NO is a potential method for inducing the disease resistance of fruit to fungal pathogens and for extending the postharvest life of citrus fruit. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Involvement of Nitric Oxide in a Rat Model of Carrageenin-Induced Pleurisy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Iwata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some evidence indicates that nitric oxide (NO contributes to inflammation, while other evidence supports the opposite conclusion. To clarify the role of NO in inflammation, we studied carrageenin-induced pleurisy in rats treated with an NO donor (NOC-18, a substrate for NO formation (L-arginine, and/or an NO synthase inhibitor (S-(2-aminoethyl isothiourea or NG-nitro-L-arginine. We assessed inflammatory cell migration, nitrite/nitrate values, lipid peroxidation and pro-inflammatory mediators. NOC-18 and L-arginine reduced the migration of inflammatory cells and edema, lowered oxidative stress, and normalized antioxidant enzyme activities. NO synthase inhibitors increased the exudate formation and inflammatory cell number, contributed to oxidative stress, induced an oxidant/antioxidant imbalance by maintaining high O−2, and enhanced the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. L-arginine and NOC-18 reversed the proinflammatory effects of NO synthase inhibitors, perhaps by reducing the expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells. Thus, our results indicate that NO is involved in blunting—not enhancing—the inflammatory response.

  9. T cell–derived inducible nitric oxide synthase switches off TH17 cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianjun; Zhang, Ruihua; Lu, Geming; Shen, Yu; Peng, Liang; Zhu, Chen; Cui, Miao; Wang, Weidong; Arnaboldi, Paul; Tang, Meng; Gupta, Monica; Qi, Chen-Feng; Jayaraman, Padmini; Zhu, Hongfa; Jiang, Bo; Chen, Shu-hsia; He, John Cijiang; Ting, Adrian T.; Zhou, Ming-Ming; Kuchroo, Vijay K.; Morse, Herbert C.; Ozato, Keiko; Sikora, Andrew G.

    2013-01-01

    RORγt is necessary for the generation of TH17 cells but the molecular mechanisms for the regulation of TH17 cells are still not fully understood. We show that activation of CD4+ T cells results in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). iNOS-deficient mice displayed enhanced TH17 cell differentiation but without major effects on either TH1 or TH2 cell lineages, whereas endothelial NOS (eNOS) or neuronal NOS (nNOS) mutant mice showed comparable TH17 cell differentiation compared with wild-type control mice. The addition of N6-(1-iminoethyl)-l-lysine dihydrochloride (L-NIL), the iNOS inhibitor, significantly enhanced TH17 cell differentiation, and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), the NO donor, dose-dependently reduced the percentage of IL-17–producing CD4+ T cells. NO mediates nitration of tyrosine residues in RORγt, leading to the suppression of RORγt-induced IL-17 promoter activation, indicating that NO regulates IL-17 expression at the transcriptional level. Finally, studies of an experimental model of colitis showed that iNOS deficiency results in more severe inflammation with an enhanced TH17 phenotype. These results suggest that NO derived from iNOS in activated T cells plays a negative role in the regulation of TH17 cell differentiation and highlight the importance of intrinsic programs for the control of TH17 immune responses. PMID:23797094

  10. The effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibition on histamine induced headache and arterial dilatation in migraineurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, L H; Christiansen, I; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    2003-01-01

    , temporal and radial arteries. In a double blind crossover design 12 patients were randomized to receive pretreatment with L-NMMA (6 mg/kg) or placebo i.v. over 15 min followed on both study days by histamine (0.5 microg/kg/min) i.v. for 20 min. Headache scores, mean maximal blood velocity (Vmean......We have previously proposed that histamine causes migraine via increased NO production. To test this hypothesis, we here examined if the NOS inhibitor, L-NG methylarginine hydrochloride (L-NMMA:546C88), could block or attenuate histamine induced migraine attacks and responses of the middle cerebral...... the use of a NOS inhibitor in the highest possible dose did not block the histamine-induced headache response or arterial dilatation. Either the concentration of L-NMMA reaching the smooth muscle cell was insufficient or, histamine dilates arteries and causes headache via NO independent mechanisms. Our...

  11. Hydrogen Gas Is Involved in Auxin-Induced Lateral Root Formation by Modulating Nitric Oxide Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyu Cao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolism of molecular hydrogen (H2 in bacteria and algae has been widely studied, and it has attracted increasing attention in the context of animals and plants. However, the role of endogenous H2 in lateral root (LR formation is still unclear. Here, our results showed that H2-induced lateral root formation is a universal event. Naphthalene-1-acetic acid (NAA; the auxin analog was able to trigger endogenous H2 production in tomato seedlings, and a contrasting response was observed in the presence of N-1-naphthyphthalamic acid (NPA, an auxin transport inhibitor. NPA-triggered the inhibition of H2 production and thereafter lateral root development was rescued by exogenously applied H2. Detection of endogenous nitric oxide (NO by the specific probe 4-amino-5-methylamino-2′,7′-difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF-FM DA and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR analyses revealed that the NO level was increased in both NAA- and H2-treated tomato seedlings. Furthermore, NO production and thereafter LR formation induced by auxin and H2 were prevented by 2-4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO; a specific scavenger of NO and the inhibitor of nitrate reductase (NR; an important NO synthetic enzyme. Molecular evidence confirmed that some representative NO-targeted cell cycle regulatory genes were also induced by H2, but was impaired by the removal of endogenous NO. Genetic evidence suggested that in the presence of H2, Arabidopsis mutants nia2 (in particular and nia1 (two nitrate reductases (NR-defective mutants exhibited defects in lateral root length. Together, these results demonstrated that auxin-induced H2 production was associated with lateral root formation, at least partially via a NR-dependent NO synthesis.

  12. Statins attenuate the development of atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction induced by exposure to urban particulate matter (PM{sub 10})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Ryohei; Hiraiwa, Kunihiko; Cheng, Jui Chih [UBC James Hogg Research Centre, St. Paul' s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Bai, Ni [UBC James Hogg Research Centre, St. Paul' s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Vincent, Renaud [Environmental Health Sciences and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Francis, Gordon A.; Sin, Don D. [UBC James Hogg Research Centre, St. Paul' s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Van Eeden, Stephan F., E-mail: Stephan.vanEeden@hli.ubc.ca [UBC James Hogg Research Centre, St. Paul' s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to ambient air particulate matter (particles less than 10 μm or PM{sub 10}) has been shown to be an independent risk factor for the development and progression of atherosclerosis. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) have well-established anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of statins on the adverse functional and morphological changes in blood vessels induced by PM{sub 10}. New Zealand White rabbits fed with a high fat diet were subjected to balloon injury to their abdominal aorta followed by PM{sub 10}/saline exposure for 4 weeks ± lovastatin (5 mg/kg/day) treatment. PM{sub 10} exposure accelerated balloon catheter induced plaque formation and increased intimal macrophages and lipid accumulation while lovastatin attenuated these changes and promoted smooth muscle cell recruitment into plaques. PM{sub 10} impaired vascular acetylcholine (Ach) responses and increased vasoconstriction induced by phenylephrine as assessed by wire myograph. Supplementation of nitric oxide improved the impaired Ach responses. PM{sub 10} increased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in blood vessels and increased the plasma levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1). Incubation with specific inhibitors for iNOS, COX-2 or ET-1 in the myograph chambers significantly improved the impaired vascular function. Lovastatin decreased the expression of these mediators in atherosclerotic lesions and improved endothelial dysfunction. However, lovastatin was unable to reduce blood lipid levels to the baseline level in rabbits exposed to PM{sub 10}. Taken together, statins protect against PM{sub 10}-induced cardiovascular disease by reducing atherosclerosis and improving endothelial function via their anti-inflammatory properties. - Highlights: • Coarse particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) accelerated balloon injury-induced plaque formation. • Lovastatin decreased intimal

  13. Role of nitric oxide in glucose-, fructose and galactose-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous studies have shown that the infusion of glucose, fructose and galactose resulted in significant increases in intestinal glucose uptake (IGU) and the role of nitric oxide in these responses was not known. The present study was designed to investigate the role of nitric oxide in the observed increases in IGU.

  14. Attenuation of collagen induced arthritis by Centella asiatica methanol fraction via modulation of cytokines and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shikha; Gupta, Ritu; Thakur, Sonu Chand

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-arthritic effects of Centella asiatica methanolfraction (CaME) on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis was induced in female wistar rats by immunization with porcine type II collagen. The CIA rats were treated orally with CaME (50, 150, and 250 mg/kg/day) for 15 d (beginning on day 21 of the experimental period). The clinical, histological, biochemical, and immunological parameters were assessed. CaME treatment (150 and 250 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the severity of CIA and reduced the synovial inflammation, cartilage erosion, and bone erosion as evident from both histological and radiographic data. The escalated plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12 alongwith nitric oxide in CIA rats decreased significantly on CaME treatment. The serum levels of type-II collagen antibody were significantly lower in rats of CaME (150 and 250 mg/kg) treated group than those in the arthritic group. Furthermore, by inhibiting the above mediators, CaME also contributed towards the reversal of the disturbed antioxidant levels and peroxidative damage. Our results clearly indicate that oral administration of CaME suppresses joint inflammation, cytokine expression as well as antioxidant imbalance, thereby contributing to an amelioration of arthritis severity in CIA rats. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhaled nitric oxide improves lung structure and pulmonary hypertension in a model of bleomycin-induced bronchopulmonary dysplasia in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourneux, Pierre; Markham, Neil; Seedorf, Gregory; Balasubramaniam, Vivek; Abman, Steven H

    2009-12-01

    Whether inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) prevents the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants is controversial. In adult rats, bleomycin (Bleo) induces lung fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension, but the effects of Bleo on the developing lung and iNO treatment on Bleo-induced neonatal lung injury are uncertain. Therefore, we sought to determine whether early and prolonged iNO therapy attenuates changes of pulmonary vascular and alveolar structure in a model of BPD induced by Bleo treatment of neonatal rats. Sprague-Dawley rat pups were treated with Bleo (1 mg/kg ip daily) or vehicle (controls) from day 2 to 10, followed by recovery from day 11 to 19. Treatment groups received early (days 2-10), late (days 11-19), or prolonged iNO therapy (10 ppm; days 2-19). We found that compared with controls, Bleo increased right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), and pulmonary arterial wall thickness, and reduced vessel density alveolarization. In each iNO treatment group, iNO decreased RVH (P rats, and that early and prolonged iNO therapy prevents right ventricle hypertrophy and pulmonary vascular remodeling and partially improves lung structure.

  16. Attenuation of prostaglandin E1‑induced osteoprotegerin synthesis in osteoblasts by normoxic HIF inducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroyanagi, Gen; Tokuda, Haruhiko; Yamamoto, Naohiro; Kainuma, Shingo; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Ohguchi, Reou; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Kozawa, Osamu; Otsuka, Takanobu

    2017-04-01

    Mimosine, which is a natural plant amino acid present in the Leucaena genus, is able to induce hypoxia‑inducible factors (HIFs). Previous evidence has indicated that HIF regulates angiogenesis‑osteogenesis coupling in bone metabolism, and it has previously been reported that mimosine inhibits prostaglandin (PG)F2α‑induced osteoprotegerin (OPG) synthesis without affecting interleukin‑6 (IL‑6) production in osteoblast‑like MC3T3‑E1 cells. In addition, PGE1 has been demonstrated to induce OPG synthesis via activation of p38 mitogen‑activated protein (MAP) kinase and stress‑activated protein kinase/c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK) in these cells, and PGE1 stimulates IL‑6 production via the activation of protein kinase A. In the present study, the effects of mimosine on the PGE1‑stimulated synthesis of OPG and IL‑6 were investigated in osteoblast‑like MC3T3‑E1 cells. The concentrations of OPG and IL‑6 were measured using relevant ELISA kits. OPG mRNA was measured by semi‑quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase and SAPK/JNK was analyzed by western blotting. Mimosine significantly reduced PGE1‑induced release of OPG and OPG mRNA expression levels without affecting the release of IL‑6. In addition, deferoxamine, which is also a normoxic HIF inducer, significantly inhibited PGE1‑induced OPG release and OPG mRNA expression levels; however, it had little effect on IL‑6 release. Furthermore, mimosine and deferoxamine failed to affect PGE1‑stimulated phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase or SAPK/JNK. These results strongly suggest that normoxic HIF inducers attenuate PGE1‑stimulated OPG synthesis without affecting IL‑6 production in osteoblasts.

  17. YC-1 potentiates cAMP-induced CREB activation and nitric oxide production in alveolar macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Tsong-Long, E-mail: htl@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Natural Products, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chinese Herbal Medicine Research Team, Healthy Aging Research Center, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Tang, Ming-Chi [Graduate Institute of Natural Products, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Liang-Mou [Department of General Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Chia-Yi, Taiwan (China); Chang, Wen-De; Chung, Pei-Jen; Chang, Ya-Wen; Fang, Yao-Ching [Graduate Institute of Natural Products, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2012-04-15

    Alveolar macrophages play significant roles in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory lung diseases. Increases in exhaled nitric oxide (NO) are well documented to reflect disease severity in the airway. In this study, we investigated the effect of 3-(5′-hydroxymethyl-2′-furyl)-1-benzyl indazole (YC-1), a known activator of soluble guanylyl cyclase, on prostaglandin (PG)E{sub 1} (a stable PGE{sub 2} analogue) and forskolin (a adenylate cyclase activator) induced NO production and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression in rat alveolar macrophages (NR8383). YC-1 did not directly cause NO production or iNOS expression, but drastically potentiated PGE{sub 1}- or forskolin-induced NO production and iNOS expression in NR8383 alveolar macrophages. Combination treatment with YC-1 and PGE{sub 1} significantly increased phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), but not nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation. The combined effect on NO production, iNOS expression, and CREB phosphorylation was reversed by a protein kinase (PK)A inhibitor (H89), suggesting that the potentiating functions were mediated through a cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. Consistent with this, cAMP analogues, but not the cGMP analogue, caused NO release, iNOS expression, and CREB activation. YC-1 treatment induced an increase in PGE{sub 1}-induced cAMP formation, which occurred through the inhibition of cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity. Furthermore, the combination of rolipram (an inhibitor of PDE4), but not milronone (an inhibitor of PDE3), and PGE{sub 1} also triggered NO production and iNOS expression. In summary, YC-1 potentiates PGE{sub 1}-induced NO production and iNOS expression in alveolar macrophages through inhibition of cAMP PDE activity and activation of the cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway. Highlights: ► YC-1 potentiated PGE1-induced iNOS expression in alveolar macrophages. ► The combination of YC-1 and PGE1 increased CREB but not NFκB activation.

  18. Role of nitric oxide in hypoxia-induced hyperventilation and hypothermia: participation of the locus coeruleus

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    Fabris G.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia elicits hyperventilation and hypothermia, but the mechanisms involved are not well understood. The nitric oxide (NO pathway is involved in hypoxia-induced hypothermia and hyperventilation, and works as a neuromodulator in the central nervous system, including the locus coeruleus (LC, which is a noradrenergic nucleus in the pons. The LC plays a role in a number of stress-induced responses, but its participation in the control of breathing and thermoregulation is unclear. Thus, in the present study, we tested the hypothesis that LC plays a role in the hypoxia-induced hypothermia and hyperventilation, and that NO is involved in these responses. Electrolytic lesions were performed bilaterally within the LC in awake unrestrained adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-350 g. Body temperature and pulmonary ventilation (VE were measured. The rats were divided into 3 groups: control (N = 16, sham operated (N = 7 and LC lesioned (N = 19, and each group received a saline or an NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 250 µg/µl intracerebroventricular (icv injection. No significant difference was observed between control and sham-operated rats. Hypoxia (7% inspired O2 caused hyperventilation and hypothermia in both control (from 541.62 ± 35.02 to 1816.18 ± 170.7 and 36.3 ± 0.12 to 34.4 ± 0.09, respectively and LC-lesioned rats (LCLR (from 694.65 ± 63.17 to 2670.29 ± 471.33 and 36 ± 0.12 to 35.3 ± 0.12, respectively, but the increase in VE was higher (P<0.05 and hypothermia was reduced (P<0.05 in LCLR. L-NAME caused no significant change in VE or in body temperature under normoxia, but abolished both the hypoxia-induced hyperventilation and hypothermia. Hypoxia-induced hyperventilation was reduced in LCLR treated with L-NAME. L-NAME also abolished the hypoxia-induced hypothermia in LCLR. The present data indicate that hypoxia-induced hyperventilation and hypothermia may be related to the LC, and that NO is involved in these responses.

  19. Apoptosis of bladder transitional cell carcinoma T24 cells induced by adenovirus-mediated inducible nitric oxide synthase gene transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jing; Zeng, Qing; Jiang, Xian-Zheng; He, Le-Ye; Wang, Jin-Rong; Yao, Kun; Wang, Chang-Hui

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the effects of adenovirus-mediated inducible nitric oxide synthase gene transfection on bladder transitional cell carcinoma T24 cells, and to provide novel insights and approaches to clinical therapies against bladder transitional cell carcinoma. Firstly, construct recombinant adenovirus vector pAd-iNOS of iNOS, followed by transfection of pAd-iNOS into HECK293 packaging cells. Thirdly, harvest recombinant adenovirus rAd-iNOS after amplification and purification procedures. Finally, transfect the recombinant adenovirus rAd-iNOS into human bladder carcinoma T24 cells and examine the effect of rAd-iNOS transfection on apoptosis of T24 and possible mechanism. As shown by this study, the recombinant adenovirus rAd-iNOS was constructed successfully. The virus titer was 5.8×10(8) PFU/mL and recombinant was verified by PCR analysis. Transfection of adenovirus rAd-iNOS into T24 cells could induce secretion of high NO concentration, P53 protein expression up-regulation, as well as promotion of T24 cell apoptosis. The transfection of human bladder carcinoma T24 cells from recombinant adenovirus rAd-iNOS was confirmed to induce intracellular iNOS over-expression, high production of NO, up-regulation of intracellular P53 expression and promotion of cell apoptosis.

  20. Nitric oxide mediates lung injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Shang Jyh; Peng, Tai-Chu; Lee, Ru Ping; Hsu, Kang; Chen, Chao-Fuh; Hung, Yu-Kuen; Wang, David; Chen, Hsing I

    2003-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been reported to play a role in lung injury (LI) induced by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). However, controversy exists as to the potential beneficial or detrimental effect of NO. In the present study, an in situ, perfused rat lung model was used to study the possible role of NO in the LI induced by I/R. The filtration coefficient (Kfc), lung weight gain (LWG), protein concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage (PCBAL), and pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) were measured to evaluate the degree of pulmonary hypertension and LI. I/R resulted in increased Kfc, LWG, and PCBAL. These changes were exacerbated by inhalation of NO (20-30 ppm) or 4 mM L-arginine, an NO precursor. The permeability increase and LI caused by I/R could be blocked by exposure to 5 mM N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; a nonspecific NO synthase inhibitor), and this protective effect of L-NAME was reversed with NO inhalation. Inhaled NO prevented the increase in PAP caused by I/R, while L-arginine had no such effect. L-NAME tended to diminish the I/R-induced elevation in PAP, but the suppression was not statistically significant when compared to the values in the I/R group. These results indicate that I/R increases Kfc and promotes alveolar edema by stimulating endogenous NO synthesis. Exogenous NO, either generated from L-arginine or delivered into the airway, is apparently also injurious to the lung following I/R. Copyright 2003 National Science Council, ROC and S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. The Peptidylarginine Deiminase Inhibitor Cl-Amidine Suppresses Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression in Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byungki Jang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of peptidylarginine into peptidylcitrulline by calcium-dependent peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases, identifying PADs as therapeutic targets for various diseases. The PAD inhibitor Cl-amidine ameliorates the disease course, severity, and clinical manifestation in multiple disease models, and it also modulates dendritic cell (DC functions such as cytokine production, antigen presentation, and T cell proliferation. The beneficial effects of Cl-amidine make it an attractive compound for PAD-targeting therapeutic strategies in inflammatory diseases. Here, we found that Cl-amidine inhibited nitric oxide (NO generation in a time- and dose-dependent manner in maturing DCs activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. This suppression of NO generation was independent of changes in NO synthase (NOS enzyme activity levels but was instead dependent on changes in inducible NO synthase (iNOS transcription and expression levels. Several upstream signaling pathways for iNOS expression, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase, nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 pathways, were not affected by Cl-amidine. By contrast, the LPS-induced signal transducer and the activator of transcription (STAT phosphorylation and activator protein-1 (AP-1 transcriptional activities (c-Fos, JunD, and phosphorylated c-Jun were decreased in Cl-amidine-treated DCs. Inhibition of Janus kinase/STAT signaling dramatically suppressed iNOS expression and NO production, whereas AP-1 inhibition had no effect. These results indicate that Cl-amidine-inhibited STAT activation may suppress iNOS expression. Additionally, we found mildly reduced cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 production in Cl-amidine-treated DCs. Our findings indicate that Cl-amidine acts as a novel suppressor of iNOS expression, suggesting that Cl-amidine has the potential to ameliorate the effects of

  2. Interactions between nitric oxide and hypoxia-inducible factor signaling pathways in inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Nels; van der Vliet, Albert

    2011-08-01

    Induction and activation of nitric oxide (NO) synthases (NOS) and excessive production of NO are common features of almost all diseases associated with infection and acute or chronic inflammation, although the contribution of NO to the pathophysiology of these diseases is highly multifactorial and often still a matter of controversy. Because of its direct impact on tissue oxygenation and cellular oxygen (O(2)) consumption and re-distribution, the ability of NO to regulate various aspects of hypoxia-induced signaling has received widespread attention. Conditions of tissue hypoxia and the activation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) have been implicated in hypoxia or in cancer biology, but are also being increasingly recognized as important features of acute and chronic inflammation. Thus, the activation of HIF transcription factors has been increasingly implicated in inflammatory diseases, and recent studies have indicated its critical importance in regulating phagocyte function, inflammatory mediator production, and regulation of epithelial integrity and repair processes. Finally, HIF also appears to contribute to important features of tissue fibrosis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, processes that are associated with tissue remodeling in various non-malignant chronic inflammatory disorders. In this review, we briefly summarize the current state of knowledge with respect to the general mechanisms involved in HIF regulation and the impact of NO on HIF activation. Secondly, we will summarize the major recent findings demonstrating a role for HIF signaling in infection, inflammation, and tissue repair and remodeling, and will address the involvement of NO. The growing interest in hypoxia-induced signaling and its relation with NO biology is expected to lead to further insights into the complex roles of NO in acute or chronic inflammatory diseases and may point to the importance of HIF signaling as key feature of NO-mediated events during these disorders

  3. Involvement of nitric oxide in myotoxicity produced by diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP)-induced muscle hyperactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Ramesh C. [Toxicology Department, Breathitt Veterinary Center, Murray State University, PO Box 2000, Hopkinsville, KY 42240 (United States); Milatovic, Dejan [Department of Pathology, Medical Center North, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Dettbarn, Wolf-D. [Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee (United States)

    2002-12-01

    Oxidative stress, as determined by increased lipid peroxidation, has been implicated in the pathology of myotoxicity. As a model system to study the response of muscle to oxidative insults, we have studied the effects of diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP)-induced muscle hyperactivity on levels of nitric oxide (NO) and energy metabolites in rat skeletal muscles. In in vivo experiments, citrulline levels as indicators of NO and NO synthase (NOS), and ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr) as indicators of mitochondrial dysfunction, were determined using HPLC methods 15 min, 30 min, 60 min, 2 h, and 24 h after intoxication. Within 15 min of DFP exposure, with onset of fasciculations, citrulline levels were significantly elevated in all three muscles [soleus, extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and diaphragm]. Maximum increases in citrulline (272-288%) were noted 60 min after DFP injection. At this time point, acetylcholinesterase activity was reduced by 90-96% (soleus < diaphragm < EDL). The levels of ATP and PCr were maximally reduced (30-43%), and total adenine nucleotides, and total creatine compounds showed declines. The findings revealed that the increase in NOS activity and NO was greater than the decrease of ATP and PCr. Since memantine (MEM) has been shown to reduce nerve and muscle hyperactivity, we have studied the possible protective effect of MEM on the DFP-induced biochemical changes. Pretreatment with MEM (18 mg/kg s.c.) and atropine sulfate (16 mg/kg s.c.), 60 min and 15 min, respectively, before DFP injection prevented the increase in citrulline and muscle hyperactivity and the decrease in ATP and PCr. These data suggest that free radical reactions by depleting high-energy phosphates may be initiating the cascade of events leading to myotoxicity during DFP-induced muscle hyperactivity. (orig.)

  4. Nitric oxide mediates brassinosteroid-induced flavonoid biosynthesis in Camellia sinensis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Lan; Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Li, Zhi-Xin; Wei, Ji-Peng; Shen, Chen; Yan, Peng; Zhang, Li-Ping; Han, Wen-Yan

    2017-07-01

    Flavonoids are one of the key secondary metabolites determining the quality of tea. Although exogenous brassinosteroid (BR), a steroidal plant hormone, can stimulate polyphenol biosynthesis in tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.), the relevance of endogenous BR in flavonoid accumulation and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we show that BR enhances flavonoid concentration in tea leaves by inducing an increase in the endogenous concentration of nitric oxide (NO). Notably, exogenous BR increased levels of flavonoids as well as NO in a concentration dependent manner, while suppression of BR levels by an inhibitor of BR biosynthesis, brassinazole (BRz), decreased the concentrations of both flavonoids and NO in tea leaves. Interestingly, combined treatment of BR and BRz reversed the inhibitory effect of BRz alone on the concentrations of flavonoids and NO. Likewise, exogenous NO also increased flavonoids and NO levels dose-dependently. When the NO level in tea leaves was suppressed by using a NO scavenger, 2,4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO), flavonoid concentration dramatically decreased. Although individual application of 0.1μM BR increased the concentrations of flavonoids and NO, combined treatment with exogenous NO scavenger, cPTIO, reversed the effect of BR on flavonoid concentration. Furthermore, BR or sodium nitroprusside (SNP) promoted but cPTIO inhibited the transcription and activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in leaves, while combined treatment of BR with SNP or cPTIO had no additive effect. The results of this study suggest that an optimal level of endogenous NO is essential for BR-induced promotion of flavonoid biosynthesis in tea leaves. In conclusion, this study unveiled a crucial mechanism of BR-induced flavonoid biosynthesis, which might have potential implication in improving the quality of tea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Bronchoconstriction induced by citric acid inhalation in guinea pigs: role of tachykinins, bradykinin, and nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardolo, F L; Rado, V; Fabbri, L M; Sterk, P J; Di Maria, G U; Geppetti, P

    1999-02-01

    Gastroesophageal acid reflux into the airways can trigger asthma attacks. Indeed, citric acid inhalation causes bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs, but the mechanism of this effect has not been fully clarified. We investigated the role of tachykinins, bradykinin, and nitric oxide (NO) on the citric acid- induced bronchoconstriction in anesthetized and artificially ventilated guinea pigs. Citric acid inhalation (2-20 breaths) caused a dose-dependent increase in total pulmonary resistance (RL). RL value obtained after 10 breaths of citric acid inhalation was not significantly different from the value obtained after 20 breaths (p = 0.22). The effect produced by a half-submaximum dose of citric acid (5 breaths) was halved by the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist HOE 140 (0.1 micromol x kg-1, intravenous) and abolished by the tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonist SR 48968 (0.3 micromol x kg-1, intravenous). Bronchoconstriction induced by a submaximum dose of citric acid (10 breaths) was partially reduced by the administration of HOE 140, SR 48968, or the NK1 receptor antagonist CP-99,994 (8 micromol x kg-1, intravenous) alone and completely abolished by the combination of SR 48968 and CP-99,994. Pretreatment with the NO synthase inhibitor, L-NMMA (1 mM, 10 breaths every 5 min for 30 min) increased in an L-arginine-dependent manner the effect of citric acid inhalation on RL. HOE 140 and CP-99,994 markedly reduced the L-NMMA-potentiated bronchoconstriction to inhaled citric acid. We conclude that citric acid-induced bronchoconstriction is caused by tachykinin release from sensory nerves, which, in part, is mediated by endogenously released bradykinin. Simultaneous release of NO by citric acid inhalation counteracts tachykinin-mediated bronchoconstriction. Our study suggests a possible implication of these mechanisms in asthma associated with gastroesophageal acid reflux and a potential therapeutic role of tachykinin and bradykinin antagonists.

  6. Suppression of azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamori, T; Takahashi, M; Watanabe, K; Ohta, T; Nakatsugi, S; Sugimura, T; Wakabayashi, K

    2000-01-01

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS), an important bioregulator of a variety of biological processes, is overexpressed in colonic tumors of humans and rodents. In this study, effects of L-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a NOS inhibitor, on development of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) induced by azoxymethane (AOM) in F344 male rats were investigated. Six-week-old male F344 rats were fed diets containing 0 or 100 ppm L-NAME, and given s.c. injections of AOM at 15 mg/kg body wt, once a week for 2 weeks. At 17 weeks of age, all animals were sacrificed and their colons were evaluated for numbers of ACF. Feeding of 100 ppm L-NAME inhibited the development of ACF in different sizes by 24-39%, those containing four or more crypts being most markedly affected. Assessment of silver-stained nucleolar organizer regions protein (AgNORs)/nucleus further revealed a 44% reduction by administration of L-NAME. These results suggest that the NOS inhibitor, L-NAME, may be an effective chemopreventive agent against colon carcinogenesis due to depression of cell proliferation.

  7. Contribution of myeloperoxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase to pathogenesis of psoriasis

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    Nursel Dilek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Histological changes of psoriasis include invasion of neutrophils into the epidermis and formation of Munro abscesses in the epidermis. Neutrophils are the predominant white blood cells in circulation when stimulated; they discharge the abundant myeloperoxidase (MPO enzyme that uses hydrogen peroxide to oxidize chloride for killing ingested bacteria. Aim: To investigate the contribution of neutrophils to the pathogenesis of psoriasis at the blood and tissue levels through inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and MPO. Material and methods: A total of 50 adult patients with a chronic plaque form of psoriasis and 25 healthy controls were enrolled to this study. Serum MPO and iNOS levels were measured using ELISA method. Two biopsy specimens were taken in each patient from the center of the lesion and uninvolved skin. Immunohistochemistry was performed for MPO and iNOS on both normal and psoriasis vulgaris biopsies. Results: While a significant difference between serum myeloperoxidase levels were detected, a similar statistical difference between participants in the serum iNOS levels was not found. In immunohistochemistry, intensely stained leukocytes with MPO and intensely staining with iNOS in psoriatic skin was observed. Conclusions : Neutrophils in psoriasis lesions are actively producing MPO and this indirectly triggers the synthesis of iNOS. Targeting of MPO or synthesis of MPO in the lesion area may contribute to development of a new treatment option.

  8. Impaired Healing of a Cutaneous Wound in an Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase-Knockout Mouse

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    Takashi Kitano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated the effects of loss of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS on the healing process of cutaneous excisional injury by using iNOS-null (KO mice. Population of granulation tissue-related cell types, that is, myofibroblasts and macrophages, growth factor expression, and reepithelialization were evaluated. Methods. KO and wild type (WT mice of C57BL/6 background were used. Under general anesthesia two round full-thickness excision wounds of 5.0 mm in diameter were produced in dorsal skin. After specific intervals of healing, macroscopic observation, histology, immunohistochemistry, and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR were employed to evaluate the healing process. Results. The loss of iNOS retards granulation tissue formation and reepithelialization in excision wound model in mice. Detailed analyses showed that myofibroblast appearance, macrophage infiltration, and mRNA expression of transforming growth factor b and of collagen 1α2 were all suppressed by lacking iNOS. Conclusions. iNOS is required in the process of cutaneous wound healing. Lacking iNOS retards macrophage invasion and its expression of fibrogenic components that might further impair fibrogenic behaviors of fibroblasts.

  9. Role of nitric oxide in the radiation-induced bystander effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, Vasily A

    2015-12-01

    Cells that are not irradiated but are affected by "stress signal factors" released from irradiated cells are called bystander cells. These cells, as well as directly irradiated ones, express DNA damage-related proteins and display excess DNA damage, chromosome aberrations, mutations, and malignant transformation. This phenomenon has been studied widely in the past 20 years, since its first description by Nagasawa and Little in 1992, and is known as the radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE). Several factors have been identified as playing a role in the bystander response. This review will focus on one of them, nitric oxide (NO), and its role in the stimulation and propagation of RIBE. The hydrophobic properties of NO, which permit its diffusion through the cytoplasm and plasma membranes, allow this signaling molecule to easily spread from irradiated cells to bystander cells without the involvement of gap junction intercellular communication. NO produced in irradiated tissues mediates cellular regulation through posttranslational modification of a number of regulatory proteins. The best studied of these modifications are S-nitrosylation (reversible oxidation of cysteine) and tyrosine nitration. These modifications can up- or down-regulate the functions of many proteins modulating different NO-dependent effects. These NO-dependent effects include the stimulation of genomic instability (GI) and the accumulation of DNA errors in bystander cells without direct DNA damage. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 attenuates chronic amphetamine-induced behavior disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikiric, Predrag; Jelovac, Nikola; Jelovac-Gjeldum, Andjelka; Dodig, Goran; Staresinic, Mario; Anic, Tomislav; Zoricic, Ivan; Rak, Davor; Perovic, Darko; Aralica, Gorana; Buljat, Gojko; Prkacin, Ingrid; Lovric-Bencic, Martina; Separovic, Jadranka; Seiwerth, Sven; Rucman, Rudolf; Petek, Marijan; Turkovic, Branko; Ziger, Tihomil; Boban-Blagaic, Alenka; Bedekovic, Vlado; Tonkic, Ante; Babic, Slaven

    2002-05-01

    To investigate the effect of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on chronic exposure to amphetamine in rats, particularly the changes commonly referred in chronic amphetamine studies as tolerance (lesser grade of stereotyped behavior, without increased excitability) and reverse tolerance (ie, prominent stereotyped behavior and heightened startle response upon late amphetamine challenges). After initial application (initial single dose-regimen), amphetamine (10 mg/kg,ip) was given once daily till d 5 (continuous administration-regimen), and thereafter on d 8, 16, and 46 (intermittent administration regimen). Fo r stereotyped behavior and heightened startle response the observation period was 120 min after amphetamine application, and each animal was observed for 10 s in 5 min intervals. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (10 microg/kg or 10 ng/k g, ip) or saline (5.0 mL/kg, ip) were given only at the beginning of the experiment, simultaneously with the initial dose of amphetamine. In relation to applied initial-single/continuous/intermittent amphetamine applications regimen, the control amphetamine rats throughout the experiment showed the changes in stereotyped behavior and heightened startle response, increment or decrement, commonly explained in chronic amphetamine studies as tolerance and reverse tolerance. After t he initial application of the amphetamine, the higher BPC 157 dosage apparently attenuated the stereotyped behavior, while the lower dosage of BPC 157 did not reach a statistical significance. Considering the forthcoming amphetamine challenges, in the rats initially treated with pentadecapeptide BPC 157, either 10 microg- or 10 ng-dose, at the time of the first application of amphetamine, the stereotyped behavior remains to be attenuated after all additional amphetamine challenges (on d 2-5, 8, 16, and 46). This attenuation was not limited to stereotyped behavior only. After the initial application of the amphetamine the heighten ed startle response was also apparently

  11. Spinal motoneuron synaptic plasticity after axotomy in the absence of inducible nitric oxide synthase

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    Zanon Renata G

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Astrocytes play a major role in preserving and restoring structural and physiological integrity following injury to the nervous system. After peripheral axotomy, reactive gliosis propagates within adjacent spinal segments, influenced by the local synthesis of nitric oxide (NO. The present work investigated the importance of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS activity in acute and late glial responses after injury and in major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I expression and synaptic plasticity of inputs to lesioned alpha motoneurons. Methods In vivo analyses were carried out using C57BL/6J-iNOS knockout (iNOS-/- and C57BL/6J mice. Glial response after axotomy, glial MHC I expression, and the effects of axotomy on synaptic contacts were measured using immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. For this purpose, 2-month-old animals were sacrificed and fixed one or two weeks after unilateral sciatic nerve transection, and spinal cord sections were incubated with antibodies against classical MHC I, GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein - an astroglial marker, Iba-1 (an ionized calcium binding adaptor protein and a microglial marker or synaptophysin (a presynaptic terminal marker. Western blotting analysis of MHC I and nNOS expression one week after lesion were also performed. The data were analyzed using a two-tailed Student's t test for parametric data or a two-tailed Mann-Whitney U test for nonparametric data. Results A statistical difference was shown with respect to astrogliosis between strains at the different time points studied. Also, MHC I expression by iNOS-/- microglial cells did not increase at one or two weeks after unilateral axotomy. There was a difference in synaptophysin expression reflecting synaptic elimination, in which iNOS-/- mice displayed a decreased number of the inputs to alpha motoneurons, in comparison to that of C57BL/6J. Conclusion The findings herein indicate that i

  12. Oxidative stress and inhibition of nitric oxide generation underlie methotrexate-induced senescence in human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, Magdalena; Uram, Lukasz; Zielinski, Zbigniew; Rode, Wojciech; Sikora, Ewa

    2017-07-21

    The response of human colon cancer C85 cells to methotrexate takes the form of reversible growth arrest of the type of stress-induced senescence. In the present study it is shown that during C85 cell progression into methotrexate-induced senescence, dihydrofolate reductase, the primary intracellular target for the drug, is stabilized at the protein level and its enzymatic activity, assayed in crude cellular extracts, decreases by 2-fold. Dihydrofolate reductase inhibition results in an increase in dihydrobiopterin level and an ultimate decrease in the tetrahydrobiopterin: dihydrobiopterin ratio in senescent cells. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression declines. Despite concomitant upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, no nitric oxide generation in senescent cells is detected. Progressing oxidative stress accompanies establishment of the state of senescence. DNA damage, in the form of double strand-breaks, occurs at the highest level at the senescence initiation phase and decreases as cells progress into the senescence maintenance phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of nitric oxide in the effects of cumin (Cuminum Cyminum L.) fruit essential oil on the acquisition of morphine-induced conditioned place preference in adult male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermani, Mojtaba; Azizi, Pegah; Haghparast, Abbas

    2012-01-12

    OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide is a neural messenger molecule in the central nervous system that is generated from L-arginine via the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and is involved in many important oplold-induced effects. In Iranian ancient medicine, Cuminum cyminum L (green seed) has been used for the treatment of some diseases. In the present study, the effect of intraperitoneal (ip) administration of different doses of cumin fruit essential oil (FEO) on the acquisition of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (GPP) in L-arginine-treated mice was investigated. METHODS: A total of 213 adult male albino Wistar mice were used in these experiments. The CPP paradigm was carried out in 5 continuous days, pre-conditioning, conditioning and post-conditioning. Animals were randomly assigned to one of the two groups for place conditioning. CPP was induced by subcutaneous (sc) injection of morphine (5 mg/kg) in 3 days conditioning schedule. On the test day, conditioning scores and locomotor activity were recorded by Ethovision software. RESULTS: Sole administration of different doses of cumin FEO (0.01%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1% and 2%; lp) or L-arginine (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg; lp) during the CPP protocol could not induce CPP. Nonetheless, morphine-induced CPP was decreased by different doses of cumin FEO (0.01%-2%), whereas it was increased by L-arginine (50-200 mg/kg) when they were injected before morphine (5 rug/kg) during a 3-day conditioning phase (acquisition period). Additionally, cumin FEO could interestingly attenuate the raising effect of L-arginine on morphine-induced CPP in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that some components of the Cuminum cyminum L. seed attenuate the excessive effect of L-arginine on morphine-induced CPP through the NOS inhibitory mechanism. It seems that cumin FEO possibly acts as a NOS inhibitor.

  14. Hypoxia inducible factor signaling modulates susceptibility to mycobacterial infection via a nitric oxide dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elks, Philip M; Brizee, Sabrina; van der Vaart, Michiel; Walmsley, Sarah R; van Eeden, Fredericus J; Renshaw, Stephen A; Meijer, Annemarie H

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a current major world-health problem, exacerbated by the causative pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), becoming increasingly resistant to conventional antibiotic treatment. Mtb is able to counteract the bactericidal mechanisms of leukocytes to survive intracellularly and develop a niche permissive for proliferation and dissemination. Understanding of the pathogenesis of mycobacterial infections such as tuberculosis (TB) remains limited, especially for early infection and for reactivation of latent infection. Signaling via hypoxia inducible factor α (HIF-α) transcription factors has previously been implicated in leukocyte activation and host defence. We have previously shown that hypoxic signaling via stabilization of Hif-1α prolongs the functionality of leukocytes in the innate immune response to injury. We sought to manipulate Hif-α signaling in a well-established Mycobacterium marinum (Mm) zebrafish model of TB to investigate effects on the host's ability to combat mycobacterial infection. Stabilization of host Hif-1α, both pharmacologically and genetically, at early stages of Mm infection was able to reduce the bacterial burden of infected larvae. Increasing Hif-1α signaling enhanced levels of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in neutrophils prior to infection and was able to reduce larval mycobacterial burden. Conversely, decreasing Hif-2α signaling enhanced RNS levels and reduced bacterial burden, demonstrating that Hif-1α and Hif-2α have opposing effects on host susceptibility to mycobacterial infection. The antimicrobial effect of Hif-1α stabilization, and Hif-2α reduction, were demonstrated to be dependent on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) signaling at early stages of infection. Our findings indicate that induction of leukocyte iNOS by stabilizing Hif-1α, or reducing Hif-2α, aids the host during early stages of Mm infection. Stabilization of Hif-1α therefore represents a potential target for therapeutic

  15. Hypoxia inducible factor signaling modulates susceptibility to mycobacterial infection via a nitric oxide dependent mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M Elks

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a current major world-health problem, exacerbated by the causative pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, becoming increasingly resistant to conventional antibiotic treatment. Mtb is able to counteract the bactericidal mechanisms of leukocytes to survive intracellularly and develop a niche permissive for proliferation and dissemination. Understanding of the pathogenesis of mycobacterial infections such as tuberculosis (TB remains limited, especially for early infection and for reactivation of latent infection. Signaling via hypoxia inducible factor α (HIF-α transcription factors has previously been implicated in leukocyte activation and host defence. We have previously shown that hypoxic signaling via stabilization of Hif-1α prolongs the functionality of leukocytes in the innate immune response to injury. We sought to manipulate Hif-α signaling in a well-established Mycobacterium marinum (Mm zebrafish model of TB to investigate effects on the host's ability to combat mycobacterial infection. Stabilization of host Hif-1α, both pharmacologically and genetically, at early stages of Mm infection was able to reduce the bacterial burden of infected larvae. Increasing Hif-1α signaling enhanced levels of reactive nitrogen species (RNS in neutrophils prior to infection and was able to reduce larval mycobacterial burden. Conversely, decreasing Hif-2α signaling enhanced RNS levels and reduced bacterial burden, demonstrating that Hif-1α and Hif-2α have opposing effects on host susceptibility to mycobacterial infection. The antimicrobial effect of Hif-1α stabilization, and Hif-2α reduction, were demonstrated to be dependent on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS signaling at early stages of infection. Our findings indicate that induction of leukocyte iNOS by stabilizing Hif-1α, or reducing Hif-2α, aids the host during early stages of Mm infection. Stabilization of Hif-1α therefore represents a potential target for

  16. Oridonin attenuates Aβ1-42-induced neuroinflammation and inhibits NF-κB pathway.

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    Sulei Wang

    Full Text Available Neuroinflammation induced by beta-amyloid (Aβ plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD, and inhibiting Aβ-induced neuroinflammation serves as a potential strategy for the treatment of AD. Oridonin (Ori, a compound of Rabdosia rubescens, has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we demonstrated that Ori inhibited glial activation and decreased the release of inflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus of Aβ1-42-induced AD mice. In addition, Ori inhibited the NF-κB pathway and Aβ1-42-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, Ori could attenuate memory deficits in Aβ1-42-induced AD mice. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that Ori inhibited the neuroinflammation and attenuated memory deficits induced by Aβ1-42, suggesting that Ori might be a promising candidate for AD treatment.

  17. ACE inhibition attenuates radiation-induced cardiopulmonary damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Sonja J.; Ghobadi, Ghazaleh; de Boer, Rudolf A; Faber, Hette; Cannon, Megan V; Nagle, Peter W; Brandenburg, Sytze; Langendijk, Johannes A; van Luijk, Peter; Coppes, Robert P

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In thoracic irradiation, the maximum radiation dose is restricted by the risk of radiation-induced cardiopulmonary damage and dysfunction limiting tumor control. We showed that radiation-induced sub-clinical cardiac damage and lung damage in rats mutually interact and that

  18. Possible Involvement of Nitric Oxide Modulatory Mechanisms in the Neuroprotective Effect of Centella asiatica Against Sleep Deprivation Induced Anxiety Like Behaviour, Oxidative Damage and Neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanana, Priyanka; Kumar, Anil

    2016-04-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) is an experience of inadequate or poor quality of sleep that may produce significant alterations in multiple neural systems. Centella asiatica (CA) is a psychoactive medicinal herb with immense therapeutic potential. The present study was designed to explore the possible nitric oxide (NO) modulatory mechanism in the neuroprotective effect of CA against SD induced anxiety like behaviour, oxidative damage and neuroinflammation. Male laca mice were sleep deprived for 72 h, and CA (150 and 300 mg/kg) was administered alone and in combination with NO modulators for 8 days, starting five days before 72-h SD exposure. Various behavioural (locomotor activity, elevated plus maze) and biochemical (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, catalase, nitrite levels and superoxide dismutase activity), neuroinflammation marker (TNF-alpha) were assessed subsequently. CA (150 and 300 mg/kg) treatment for 8 days significantly improved locomotor activity, anti-anxiety like effect and attenuated oxidative damage and TNF α level as compared to sleep-deprived 72-h group. Also while the neuroprotective effect of CA was increased by NO antagonists, it was diminished by NO agonists. The present study suggests that NO modulatory mechanism could be involved in the protective effect of CA against SD-induced anxiety-like behaviour, oxidative damage and neuroinflammation in mice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Negatively Regulates Zinc-Induced Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Brajesh Kumar; Kumar, Vinod; Chauhan, Amit Kumar; Dwivedi, Ashish; Singh, Shweta; Kumar, Ashutosh; Singh, Deepali; Patel, Devendra Kumar; Ray, Ratan Singh; Jain, Swatantra Kumar; Singh, Chetna

    2017-05-01

    The study aimed to investigate the role of NO and neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) in Zn-induced neurodegeneration. Animals were treated with zinc sulfate (20 mg/kg), twice a week, for 2-12 weeks along with control. In a few sets, animals were also treated with/without a NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), or S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP) for 12 weeks. Moreover, human neuroblastoma (SH-SY-5Y) cells were also employed to investigate the role of nNOS in Zn-induced toxicity in in vitro in the presence/absence of nNOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI). Zn caused time-dependent reduction in nitrite content and total/nNOS activity/expression. SNP/SNAP discernibly alleviated Zn-induced neurobehavioral impairments, dopaminergic neurodegeneration, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression, and striatal dopamine depletion. NO donors also salvage from Zn-induced increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO), mitochondrial cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 activation. While Zn elevated LPO content, it attenuated nitrite content, nNOS activity, and glutathione level along with the expression of TH and nNOS in SH-SY-5Y cells. 7-NI further augmented Zn-induced changes in the cell viability, oxidative stress, and expression of TH and nNOS. The results obtained thus demonstrate that Zn inhibits nNOS that partially contributes to an increase in oxidative stress, which subsequently leads to the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration.

  20. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Uncoupling: A Novel Pathway in OSA Induced Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Porter, Kyle; Pleister, Adam; Wannemacher, Jacob; Sow, Angela; Jarjoura, David; Zweier, Jay L.; Khayat, Rami N.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) and cardiovascular disease in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is unknown. We performed a comprehensive evaluation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function directly in the microcirculatory endothelial tissue of OSA patients who have very low cardiovascular risk status. Nineteen OSA patients underwent gluteal biopsies before, and after effective treatment of OSA. We measured superoxide (O2−·) and nitric oxide (NO) in the microcir...

  1. H2S-induced HCO3- secretion in the rat stomach--involvement of nitric oxide, prostaglandins, and capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Koji; Ise, Fumitaka; Takahashi, Kento; Aihara, Eitaro; Hayashi, Shusaku

    2015-04-30

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is known to be an important gaseous mediator that affects various functions under physiological and pathological conditions. We examined the effects of NaHS, a H2S donor, on HCO3(-) secretion in rat stomachs and investigated the mechanism involved in this response. Under urethane anesthesia, rat stomachs were mounted on an ex vivo chamber and perfused with saline. Acid secretion had been inhibited by omeprazole. The secretion of HCO3(-) was measured at pH 7.0 using a pH-stat method and by the addition of 10 mM HCl. NaHS (0.5-10 mM) was perfused in the stomach for 5 min. Indomethacin or L-NAME was administered s.c. before NaHS treatment, while glibenclamide (a KATP channel blocker), ONO-8711 (an EP1 antagonist), or propargylglycine (a cystathionine γ-lyase inhibitor) was given i.p. before. The mucosal perfusion of NaHS dose-dependently increased the secretion of HCO3(-), and this effect was significantly attenuated by indomethacin, L-NAME, and sensory deafferentation, but not by glibenclamide or ONO-8711. The luminal output of nitric oxide, but not the mucosal production of prostaglandin E2, was increased by the perfusion of NaHS. Mucosal acidification stimulated HCO3(-) secretion, and this response was inhibited by sensory deafferentation, indomethacin, L-NAME, and ONO-8711, but not by propargylglycine. These results suggested that H2S increased HCO3(-) secretion in the stomach, and this effect was mediated by capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons and dependent on nitric oxide and prostaglandins, but not ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. Further study is needed to define the role of endogenous H2S in the mechanism underlying acid-induced gastric HCO3(-) secretion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lycopene protects against memory impairment and mito-oxidative damage induced by colchicine in rats: an evidence of nitric oxide signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Atish; Kumar, Anil

    2013-12-05

    Oxidative-nitrosative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in the onset of various neurodegenerative diseases. Lycopene, a carotenoid antioxidant, has received considerable scientific interest in recent years. Present study was designed to evaluate the possible nitric oxide mechanism in protective effects of lycopene against the colchicine induced cognitive impairment and mito-oxidative damage in rats. Wistar rats were received i.c.v. colchicine (15 µg/5 µl). Lycopene (2.5 and 5mg/kg), NO modulators e.g. l-Arginine (50mg/kg) l-NAME (5mg/kg) administered for 21 days. Behavioural alterations were assessed in between study period. Animals were killed immediately following the last behavioral session, and mitochondrial enzymes, oxidative parameters, inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6) and caspase-3 activity were measured. I.C.V. administration of colchicine impaired memory performance in Morris water maze, oxidative defense and mitochondrial complex enzymes activities as compared to sham group. A significant increase of TNF-α, IL-6 and caspase-3 activity in hippocampus and cortex was also noted. Chronic treatment lycopene significantly improved memory retention and attenuated mito-oxidative damage parameters, inflammatory markers and apoptosis in colchicine treated rats. Further, l-arginine pretreatment with sub effective dose of lycopene significantly reversed the protective effect of lycopene. However, l-NAME pretreatment with sub effective dose of lycopene significantly potentiated the protective effect of lycopene which was significant as compared to their effect per se. These results suggest that lycopene exhibit a neuroprotective effect by accelerating brain anti-oxidant defense mechanisms and down regulating nitric oxide pathways. Thus, lycopene may be used as therapeutic agent in preventing complications in memory dysfunction. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Neurokinin-1 Receptor Modulates the Methamphetamine-Induced Striatal Apoptosis and Nitric Oxide Formation in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Judy; Xu, Wenjing; Wang, Jing; Ali, Syed F.; Angulo, Jesus A.

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study we showed that pharmacological blockade of the neurokinin-1 receptors attenuated the methamphetamine-induced toxicity of the striatal dopamine terminals. In the present study we examined the role of the neurokinin-1 receptors on the methamphetamine-induced apoptosis of some striatal neurons. To that end, we administered a single injection of METH (30 mg/kg, i.p.) to male mice. METH induced the apoptosis (TUNEL) of approximately 20% of striatal neurons. This percentage of M...

  4. Lithium attenuated the depressant and anxiogenic effect of juvenile social stress through mitigating the negative impact of interlukin-1β and nitric oxide on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Mirzaian, A; Amiri, S; Kordjazy, N; Momeny, M; Razmi, A; Rahimi-Balaei, M; Amini-Khoei, H; Haj-Mirzaian, A; Marzban, H; Mehr, S E; Ghaffari, S H; Dehpour, A R

    2016-02-19

    The neuroimmune-endocrine dysfunction has been accepted as one of fundamental mechanisms contributing to the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders including depression and anxiety. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the involvement of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, interleukin-1β, and nitrergic system in mediating the negative behavioral impacts of juvenile social isolation stress (SIS) in male mice. We also investigated the possible protective effects of lithium on behavioral and neurochemical changes in socially isolated animals. Results showed that experiencing 4-weeks of juvenile SIS provoked depressive and anxiety-like behaviors that were associated with hyper responsiveness of HPA axis, upregulation of interleukin-1β, and nitric oxide (NO) overproduction in the pre-frontal cortex and hippocampus. Administration of lithium (10 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the depressant and anxiogenic effects of SIS in behavioral tests. Lithium also restored the negative effects of SIS on cortical and hippocampal interleukin-1β and NO as well as HPA axis deregulation. Unlike the neutralizing effects of l-arginine (NO precursor), administration of l-NAME (3 mg/kg) and aminoguanidine (20 mg/kg) potentiated the positive effects of lithium on the behavioral and neurochemical profile of isolated mice. In conclusion, our results revealed that juvenile SIS-induced behavioral deficits are associated with abnormalities in HPA-immune function. Also, we suggest that alleviating effects of lithium on behavioral profile of isolated mice may be partly mediated by mitigating the negative impact of NO on HPA-immune function. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Tetramethylpyrazine attenuates oleic acid-induced acute lung injury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-28

    ARDS) induced by oleic acid (0.15 ml/kg, intravenous (i.v.)) ... infiltrating leukocytes is the hallmark of pulmonary inflammation associated with ... different reagents including, but not limited to bleomycin, bacterial lipopolysaccharide ...

  6. Hypercapnia attenuates ventilator-induced diaphragm atrophy and modulates dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, W.J.M.; Hees, H.W.H. van; Kox, M.; Linkels, M.; Acuna, G.L.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Scheffer, G.J.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Heunks, L.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Diaphragm weakness induced by prolonged mechanical ventilation may contribute to difficult weaning from the ventilator. Hypercapnia is an accepted side effect of low tidal volume mechanical ventilation, but the effects of hypercapnia on respiratory muscle function are largely unknown.

  7. Low concentrations of salicylic acid delay methyl jasmonate-induced leaf senescence by up-regulating nitric oxide synthase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yingbin; Liu, Jian; Xing, Da

    2016-09-01

    In plants, extensive efforts have been devoted to understanding the crosstalk between salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling in pathogen defenses, but this crosstalk has scarcely been addressed during senescence. In this study, the effect of SA application on methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-induced leaf senescence was assessed. We found that low concentrations of SA (1-50 μM) played a delayed role against the senescence promoted by MeJA. Furthermore, low concentrations of SA enhanced plant antioxidant defenses and restricted reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in MeJA-treated leaves. When applied simultaneously with MeJA, low concentrations of SA triggered a nitric oxide (NO) burst, and the elevated NO levels were linked to the nitric oxide associated 1 (NOA1)-dependent pathway via nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. The ability of SA to up-regulate plant antioxidant defenses, reduce ROS accumulation, and suppress leaf senescence was lost in NO-deficient Atnoa1 plants. In a converse manner, exogenous addition of NO donors increased the plant antioxidant capacity and lowered the ROS levels in MeJA-treated leaves. Taken together, the results indicate that SA at low concentrations counteracts MeJA-induced leaf senescence through NOA1-dependent NO signaling and strengthening of the antioxidant defense. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS/NOS II) in the hydropic vestibule after injection of keyhole limpet hemocyanin into the endolymphatic sac of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K; Tomiyama, S; Jinnouchi, K; Hess, A; Michel, O; Yagi, T

    2001-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS / NOS II) in the hydropic vestibule of guinea pigs. Animals were systemically sensitized with 500 microg of keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Two weeks after the first injection, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (100 microg/5 microl) was injected into the endolymphatic sac following the intradural approach, and the next day temporal bones were removed for the immunohistochemical examination. Endolymphatic hydrops was evidenced by the expansion of the Reissner's membrane in the cochlea after direct injection of keyhole limpet hemocyanin into the endolymphatic sac. Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression was increased in the sensory cells, supporting cells and vestibular ganglion cells, while temporal bones, where only phosphate buffered saline was injected, did not show any inducible nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity. High levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase-catalyzed nitric oxide were detected prior to the development of the inner ear dysfunction. Our results suggest that the occurrence of inducible nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity parallels the inner ear disturbance as seen in endolymphatic hydrops.

  9. The Effect of Artemisia fragrans Willd: Essential Oil on Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Expression and Nitric Oxide Production in Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated Murine Macrophage Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farghadan, Maryam; Ghafoori, Hosein; Vakhshiteh, Faezeh; Shahzadeh Fazeli, Seyed Abolhassan; Farzaneh, Parvaneh; Kokhaei, Parviz

    2016-12-01

    The genus Artemisia is estimated to comprise over 800 species with anti-cancer, anti-fungal, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Artemisia fragrans (A. fragrans), a species that belongs to genus Artemisia, is rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes derivatives. Due to anti-inflammatory properties of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, we aimed to investigate the effect of A. fragrans essential oil on mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene and nitric oxide (NO) production in Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -stimulated RAW264.7 cell line. NO, which is synthesized by iNOS, is the main macrophage-derived inflammatory mediator. The oil obtained from the A. fragrans was prepared from aerial parts of the plant. Chemical composition of essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS).The cytotoxicity of various concentrations of essential oil was evaluated by mitochondrial reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test assay. The effect of different doses (1.75-7 mg/mL) of A. fragrans oil on mRNA expression of iNOS gene and NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells was assessed by real-time PCR method and Griess reagent, respectively. In GC/MS analyses of A. fragrans oil, 32 compounds were identified. The main components of the oil were camphor and 1, 8-cineole. The results demonstrated that the essential oil of A. fragrans (1.75- 7 mg/mL), in a dose-dependent manner, inhibits mRNA expression of iNOS induced by LPS in the RAW264.7 cells without cytotoxic effect even at higher doses. The results of iNOS were consistent with the results of NO production. Our preliminary results suggest the possible anti-inflammatory effect of A. fragrans. Further studies are needed to determine the full pharmacokinetics of A. fragrans activity in vivo.

  10. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nitric oxide production in plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) at high altitude on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ling; Zhang, Xuze; Qi, Delin; Guo, Xinyi; Pang, Bo; Du, Yurong; Zou, Xiaoyan; Guo, Songchang; Zhao, Xinquan

    2014-04-30

    Nitric oxide (NO), a potent vasodilator, plays an important role in preventing hypoxia induced pulmonary hypertension. Endogenous NO is synthesized by nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) from l-arginine. In mammals, three different NOSs have been identified, including neuronal NOS (nNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS). Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) is a typical hypoxia tolerant mammal that lives at 3000-5000 m above sea level on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The aim of this study was to investigate whether NOS expression and NO production are regulated by chronic hypoxia in plateau pika. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analyses were conducted to quantify relative abundances of iNOS and eNOS transcripts and proteins in the lung tissues of plateau pikas at different altitudes (4550, 3950 and 3200 m). Plasma NO metabolites, nitrite/nitrate (NO(x)⁻) levels were also examined by Ion chromatography to determine the correlation between NO production and altitude level. The results revealed that iNOS transcript levels were significantly lower in animals at high altitudes (decreased by 53% and 57% at altitude of 3950 and 4550 m compared with that at 3200 m). Similar trends in iNOS protein abundances were observed (26% and 41% at 3950 and 4550 m comparing with at 3200 m). There were no significant differences in eNOS mRNA and protein levels in the pika lungs among different altitudes. The plasma NO(x)⁻ levels of the plateau pikas at high altitudes significantly decreased (1.65±0.19 μg/mL at 3200 m to 0.44±0.03 μg/mL at 3950 m and 0.24±0.01 μg/mL at 4550 m). This is the first evidence describing the effects of chronic hypoxia on NOS expression and NO levels in the plateau pika in high altitude adaptation. We conclude that iNOS expression and NO production are suppressed at high altitudes, and the lower NO concentration at high altitudes may serve crucial roles for helping the plateau pika to survive at hypoxic environment. Copyright © 2014

  11. Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Promoter Haplotypes and Residential Traffic-Related Air Pollution Jointly Influence Exhaled Nitric Oxide Level in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad T Salam

    Full Text Available Exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO, a biomarker of airway inflammation, predicts asthma risk in children. We previously found that the promoter haplotypes in inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2 and exposure to residential traffic independently influence FeNO level. Because NOS2 is inducible by environmental exposures such as traffic-related exposure, we tested the hypothesis that common NOS2 promoter haplotypes modulate the relationship between residential traffic-related exposure and FeNO level in children.In a cross-sectional population-based study, subjects (N = 2,457; 7-11 year-old were Hispanic and non-Hispanic white children who participated in the Southern California Children's Health Study and had FeNO measurements. For residential traffic, lengths of local roads within circular buffers (50m, 100m and 200m radii around homes around the subjects' homes were estimated using geographic information system (GIS methods. We interrogated the two most common NOS2 promoter haplotypes that were found to affect FeNO level.The relationship between local road lengths within 100m and 200m circular buffers and FeNO level varied significantly by one of the NOS2 promoter haplotypes (P-values for interaction between road length and NOS2 promoter haplotype = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively. In children who had ≤250m of local road lengths within 100m buffer around their homes, those with two copies of the haplotype had significantly lower FeNO (adjusted geometric mean = 11.74ppb; 95% confidence intervals (CI: 9.99 to 13.80 than those with no copies (adjusted geometric mean = 15.28ppb; 95% CI: 14.04 to 16.63 with statistically significant trend of lower FeNO level with increasing number of haplotype copy (P-value for trend = 0.002. In contrast, among children who had >250m of local road lengths within 100m buffer, FeNO level did not significantly differ by the haplotype copy-number (P-value for trend = 0.34. Similar interactive effects of this haplotype and local

  12. Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Promoter Haplotypes and Residential Traffic-Related Air Pollution Jointly Influence Exhaled Nitric Oxide Level in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Muhammad T; Lin, Pi-Chu; Eckel, Sandrah P; Gauderman, W James; Gilliland, Frank D

    2015-01-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), a biomarker of airway inflammation, predicts asthma risk in children. We previously found that the promoter haplotypes in inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) and exposure to residential traffic independently influence FeNO level. Because NOS2 is inducible by environmental exposures such as traffic-related exposure, we tested the hypothesis that common NOS2 promoter haplotypes modulate the relationship between residential traffic-related exposure and FeNO level in children. In a cross-sectional population-based study, subjects (N = 2,457; 7-11 year-old) were Hispanic and non-Hispanic white children who participated in the Southern California Children's Health Study and had FeNO measurements. For residential traffic, lengths of local roads within circular buffers (50m, 100m and 200m radii around homes) around the subjects' homes were estimated using geographic information system (GIS) methods. We interrogated the two most common NOS2 promoter haplotypes that were found to affect FeNO level. The relationship between local road lengths within 100m and 200m circular buffers and FeNO level varied significantly by one of the NOS2 promoter haplotypes (P-values for interaction between road length and NOS2 promoter haplotype = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively). In children who had ≤250m of local road lengths within 100m buffer around their homes, those with two copies of the haplotype had significantly lower FeNO (adjusted geometric mean = 11.74ppb; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 9.99 to 13.80) than those with no copies (adjusted geometric mean = 15.28ppb; 95% CI: 14.04 to 16.63) with statistically significant trend of lower FeNO level with increasing number of haplotype copy (P-value for trend = 0.002). In contrast, among children who had >250m of local road lengths within 100m buffer, FeNO level did not significantly differ by the haplotype copy-number (P-value for trend = 0.34). Similar interactive effects of this haplotype and local road

  13. Genistein suppresses Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in macrophages and attenuates alveolar bone loss in ligature-induced periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Young; Bae, Seung Han; Ha, Min Hee; Choe, So-Hui; Hyeon, Jin-Yi; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2016-02-01

    Genistein is a major isoflavone subclass of flavonoids found in soybean and a potent tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The present study aimed to assess the effect of genistein on the production of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen associated with different forms of periodontal disease, and to evaluate its possible influence on alveolar bone loss in ligature-induced periodontitis using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis as well. LPS was isolated from P. intermedia ATCC 25611 by using the standard hot phenol-water method. Culture supernatants were analyzed for nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) protein expression was evaluated by immunoblot analysis. Real-time PCR was carried out to measure iNOS and IL-6 mRNA expression. In addition, effect of genistein on alveolar bone loss was evaluated in a rat model of experimental periodontitis using micro-CT analysis. Genistein significantly attenuated P. intermedia LPS-induced production of iNOS-derived NO and IL-6 with attendant decrease in their mRNA expression in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, when genistein was administered to rats, decreases in alveolar bone height and bone volume fraction induced by ligature placement were significantly inhibited. Genistein administration also prevented ligature-induced alterations in the microstructural parameters of trabecular bone, including trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, bone mineral density and structure model index. While additional studies are required, we suggest that genistein could be utilized for the therapy of human periodontitis in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Flavonoids of Polygonum hydropiper L. attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory injury via suppressing phosphorylation in MAPKs pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Junyu; Wei, Yingyi; Hu, Tingjun

    2016-01-22

    Polygonum hydropiper L. is widely used as a traditional remedy for the treatment of dysentery, gastroenteritis. It has been used to relieve swelling and pain, dispel wind and remove dampness, eliminate abundant phlegm and inflammatory for a long time. Previous study showed that antioxidants especially flavonoids pretreatment alleviated sepsis-induced injury in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, the possible anti-inflammatory effect of flavonoids from normal butanol fraction of Polygonum hydropiper L. extract (FNP) against inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. The content of total flavonoid of FNP was determined by the aluminum colorimetric method. The content of rutin, quercetin and quercitrin was determined by HPLC method. Mice received FNP orally 3 days before an intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Total superoxidase dismutase (T-SOD), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), glutathione (GSH), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured. Tumor necrosis factor-α levels in serum and tissue was measured. mRNA expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lung were assessed by Real-Time PCR. Histopathological changes were evaluated in lung, ileum and colon. We also investigated FNP on reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8) production, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression, phosphorylation of MAPKs and AMPK in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. FNP increased the levels of T-SOD, T-AOC, GSH-PX and GSH, decreased the levels of TNF-α, MPO and MDA, attenuate the histopathological lesion in LPS-stimulated mice. FNP inhibited production of inflammatory cytokines, ROS and NO, protein expressions of iNOS and COX-2, phosphorylation of ERK, JNK and c-JUN in MAPKs, promoted phosphorylation of AMPKα suppressed by LPS. These results

  15. Hepatic inducible nitric oxide synthase expression increases upon exposure to hypergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.S. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Department of Pathology and Translational Genomics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Republic of Korea Air Force Medical Center, Aerospace Medicine Research Center, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Y.Y. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Department of Pathology and Translational Genomics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Do, S.I. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-29

    Stimulation by a number of conditions, including infection, cytokines, mechanical injury, and hypoxia, can upregulate inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in hepatocytes. We observed that exposure to hypergravity significantly upregulated the transcription of the hepatic iNOS gene. The aim of this study was to confirm our preliminary data, and to further investigate the distribution of the iNOS protein in the livers of mice exposed to hypergravity. ICR mice were exposed to +3 Gz for 1 h. We investigated the time course of change in the iNOS expression. Hepatic iNOS mRNA expression progressively increased in centrifuged mice from 0 to 12 h, and then decreased rapidly by 18 h. iNOS mRNA levels in the livers of centrifuged mice was significantly higher at 3, 6, and 12 h than in uncentrifuged control mice. The pattern of iNOS protein expression paralleled that of the mRNA expression. At 0 and 1 h, weak cytoplasmic iNOS immunoreactivity was found in some hepatocytes surrounding terminal hepatic venules. It was noted that at 6 h there was an increase in the number of perivenular hepatocytes with moderate to strong cytoplasmic immunoreactivity. The number of iNOS-positive hepatocytes was maximally increased at 12 h. The majority of positively stained cells showed a strong intensity of iNOS expression. The expression levels of iNOS mRNA and protein were significantly increased in the livers of mice exposed to hypergravity. These results suggest that exposure to hypergravity significantly upregulates iNOS at both transcriptional and translational levels.

  16. Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression is increased in the alveolar compartment of asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufvesson, E; Andersson, C; Weidner, J; Erjefält, J S; Bjermer, L

    2017-04-01

    Increased exhaled nitric oxide (NO) levels in asthma are suggested to be through inducible NO synthase (iNOS). The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of iNOS in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells and tissue from central and peripheral airways and compare it with the exhaled bronchial and alveolar NO levels in patients with asthma vs a control group. Thirty-two patients with asthma (defined as controlled or uncontrolled according to Asthma Control Test score cut-off: 20) and eight healthy controls were included. Exhaled NO was measured, and alveolar concentration and bronchial flux were calculated. iNOS was measured in central and peripheral lung biopsies, as well as BAL cells. Bronchoalveolar lavage macrophages were stimulated in vitro, and iNOS expression and NO production were investigated. Expression of iNOS was increased in central airway tissue and the alveolar compartment in uncontrolled as compared to controlled asthmatics and healthy controls. There were no differences, however, in iNOS mRNA levels in total BAL cells in uncontrolled as compared to controlled asthma. Bronchoalveolar lavage cell mRNA levels of iNOS or iNOS expression in central and alveolar tissue did not relate to alveolar NO, nor to bronchial flux of NO. In vitro stimulation with leukotriene D4 increased iNOS mRNA levels and NO production in cultured BAL macrophages. The levels of both bronchial and alveolar iNOS are increased in uncontrolled as compared to controlled asthma. However, levels of iNOS in BAL macrophages were not reflected by alveolar NO. Both central and distal iNOS levels may reflect responsiveness to steroid treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Anandamide Induces Sperm Release from Oviductal Epithelia through Nitric Oxide Pathway in Bovines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osycka-Salut, Claudia; Gervasi, María Gracia; Pereyra, Elba; Cella, Maximiliano; Ribeiro, María Laura; Franchi, Ana María; Perez-Martinez, Silvina

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa are not able to fertilize an egg immediately upon ejaculation. They acquire this ability during their transit through the female genital tract in a process known as capacitation. The mammalian oviduct acts as a functional sperm reservoir providing a suitable environment that allows the maintenance of sperm fertilization competence until ovulation occurs. After ovulation, spermatozoa are gradually released from the oviductal reservoir in the caudal isthmus and ascend to the site of fertilization. Capacitating-related changes in sperm plasma membrane seem to be responsible for sperm release from oviductal epithelium. Anandamide is a lipid mediator that participates in the regulation of several female and male reproductive functions. Previously we have demonstrated that anandamide was capable to release spermatozoa from oviductal epithelia by induction of sperm capacitation in bovines. In the present work we studied whether anandamide might exert its effect by activating the nitric oxide (NO) pathway since this molecule has been described as a capacitating agent in spermatozoa from different species. First, we demonstrated that 1 µM NOC-18, a NO donor, and 10 mM L-Arginine, NO synthase substrate, induced the release of spermatozoa from the oviductal epithelia. Then, we observed that the anandamide effect on sperm oviduct interaction was reversed by the addition of 1 µM L-NAME, a NO synthase inhibitor, or 30 µg/ml Hemoglobin, a NO scavenger. We also demonstrated that the induction of bull sperm capacitation by nanomolar concentrations of R(+)-methanandamide or anandamide was inhibited by adding L-NAME or Hemoglobin. To study whether anandamide is able to produce NO, we measured this compound in both sperm and oviductal cells. We observed that anandamide increased the levels of NO in spermatozoa, but not in oviductal cells. These findings suggest that anandamide regulates the sperm release from oviductal epithelia probably by activating the NO

  18. Anandamide induces sperm release from oviductal epithelia through nitric oxide pathway in bovines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Osycka-Salut

    Full Text Available Mammalian spermatozoa are not able to fertilize an egg immediately upon ejaculation. They acquire this ability during their transit through the female genital tract in a process known as capacitation. The mammalian oviduct acts as a functional sperm reservoir providing a suitable environment that allows the maintenance of sperm fertilization competence until ovulation occurs. After ovulation, spermatozoa are gradually released from the oviductal reservoir in the caudal isthmus and ascend to the site of fertilization. Capacitating-related changes in sperm plasma membrane seem to be responsible for sperm release from oviductal epithelium. Anandamide is a lipid mediator that participates in the regulation of several female and male reproductive functions. Previously we have demonstrated that anandamide was capable to release spermatozoa from oviductal epithelia by induction of sperm capacitation in bovines. In the present work we studied whether anandamide might exert its effect by activating the nitric oxide (NO pathway since this molecule has been described as a capacitating agent in spermatozoa from different species. First, we demonstrated that 1 µM NOC-18, a NO donor, and 10 mM L-Arginine, NO synthase substrate, induced the release of spermatozoa from the oviductal epithelia. Then, we observed that the anandamide effect on sperm oviduct interaction was reversed by the addition of 1 µM L-NAME, a NO synthase inhibitor, or 30 µg/ml Hemoglobin, a NO scavenger. We also demonstrated that the induction of bull sperm capacitation by nanomolar concentrations of R(+-methanandamide or anandamide was inhibited by adding L-NAME or Hemoglobin. To study whether anandamide is able to produce NO, we measured this compound in both sperm and oviductal cells. We observed that anandamide increased the levels of NO in spermatozoa, but not in oviductal cells. These findings suggest that anandamide regulates the sperm release from oviductal epithelia probably by

  19. Involvement of nitric oxide generation in noise-induced temporary threshold shift in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuh-Shyang; Tseng, Fen-Yu; Liu, Tien-Chen; Lin-Shiau, Shoei Yn; Hsu, Chuan-Jen

    2005-05-01

    The present study explored the role of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) in the temporary threshold shift caused by acoustic trauma. Guinea pigs were exposed to broadband white noise at a level of 105+/-2dB sound pressure level (SPL) for 10min, causing a temporary threshold shift (TTS). The guinea pigs were divided into six groups (N-1 to N-6) according to survival days after noise exposure (0, 1, 2, 3, 7, 28days). Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) were recorded before noise exposure, immediately after noise exposure and before sacrifice. Immediately after animals were sacrificed, the stria vascularis and the spiral ligament of the lateral wall of each individual cochlea were harvest as a unit and prepared for assay of NO. There was a significant correlation (Pconcentration and final ABR threshold in the noise exposure groups. But the return of ABR threshold to pre-noise-exposed level is early than that of NO concentration. An average 16.2dB threshold shift was found immediately after noise exposure. The threshold returned to the pre-noise-exposed level on the second post-exposure day. Comparing to unexposed control animals, the NO concentration increased nearly threefold immediately following noise exposure and decreased to twofold when the hearing threshold had returned to the pre-noise-exposed level. On the seventh post-exposure day the NO concentration was not different from that in unexposed control animals. Those findings indicate that endogenous NO is generated in the noise-induced temporal threshold shift and its concentration is correlated with the hearing loss.

  20. Participation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in experimental neuropathic pain induced by sciatic nerve transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chacur

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nerve injury leads to a neuropathic pain state that results from central sensitization. This phenomenom is mediated by NMDA receptors and may involve the production of nitric oxide (NO. In this study, we investigated the expression of the neuronal isoform of NO synthase (nNOS in the spinal cord of 3-month-old male, Wistar rats after sciatic nerve transection (SNT. Our attention was focused on the dorsal part of L3-L5 segments receiving sensory inputs from the sciatic nerve. SNT resulted in the development of neuropathic pain symptoms confirmed by evaluating mechanical hyperalgesia (Randall and Selitto test and allodynia (von Frey hair test. Control animals did not present any alteration (sham-animals. The selective inhibitor of nNOS, 7-nitroindazole (0.2 and 2 µg in 50 µL, blocked hyperalgesia and allodynia induced by SNT. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that nNOS was increased (48% by day 30 in the lumbar spinal cord after SNT. This increase was observed near the central canal (Rexed’s lamina X and also in lamina I-IV of the dorsal horn. Real-time PCR results indicated an increase of nNOS mRNA detected from 1 to 30 days after SNT, with the highest increase observed 1 day after injury (1469%. Immunoblotting confirmed the increase of nNOS in the spinal cord between 1 and 15 days post-lesion (20%, reaching the greatest increase (60% 30 days after surgery. The present findings demonstrate an increase of nNOS after peripheral nerve injury that may contribute to the increase of NO production observed after peripheral neuropathy.

  1. Croton schiedeanus Schltd prevents experimental hypertension in rats induced by nitric oxide deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Páez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Croton schiedeanus Schltd (N.V.: "almizclillo" is a plant used in traditional medicine as an antihypertensive in Colombia. It contains flavonoid, diterpenoid and fenilbutanoid metabolites that have vasodilatation effects linked to the NO/cGMP pathway. This work aimed to assess the capacity of a 96% EtOH extract to prevent the hypertension induced by nitric oxide (NO deficiency in rats. The NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME (10 mg/kg/d, i.p was administered during five weeks to three groups of rats (6-7 animals: C. Schiedeanus (200 mg/kg/d, p.o, enalapril (reference, 10 mg/kg/d, p.o and vehicle (control: olive oil 1 ml/kg/d, p.o. In addition, the blank group received only vehicle. The arterial blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR were measured daily for six weeks. After sacrificing the animals, the aortic rings were isolated, contraction was triggered with phenylephrine (PE 10-6 M and relaxant responses were achieved with cumulative concentrations of acetylcholine (ACh, 10-10 - 10-4 M. L-NAME increased the systolic arterial pressure in the control group, attaining mean values of 131 mm Hg at week 5, whereas the C. schiedeanus, enalapril and blank groups maintained blood pressure under 100 mm Hg. The capacity of PE to contract aortic rings was greater in the C. schiedeanus, enalapril and blank groups than in the control group (2157, 2005, 1910 and 1646 mg, respectively. The pEC50 values for ACh were as follows: C. Schiedeanus (6.89 >enalapril (6.39 > blank (5.68 > control (5.09. These results give support to C. Schiedeanus as a natural antihypertensive source.

  2. The Role of Nitric Oxide in Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity: Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşenur Bahadır

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the myocardial damage in rats treated with doxorubicin (DOX alone and in combination with nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitors. METHODS: Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats (12 weeks old, weighing 262±18 g were randomly assigned into 4 groups (n=6. Group I was the control group. In Group II, rats were treated with intraperitoneal (ip injections of 3 mg/kg DOX once a week for 5 weeks. In Group III, rats received weekly ip injections of 30 mg/kg L-NAME (nonspecific NOS inhibitor 30 min before DOX injections for 5 weeks. In Group IV, rats received weekly ip injections of 3 mg/kg L-NIL (inducible NOS inhibitor 30 min before DOX injections for 5 weeks. Rats were weighed 2 times a week. At the end of 6 weeks, hearts were excised and then fixed for light and electron microscopy evaluation and tissue lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde. Blood samples were also obtained for measuring plasma lipid peroxidation. RESULTS: Weight loss was observed in Group II, Group III, and Group IV. Weight loss was statistically significant in the DOX group. Findings of myocardial damage were significantly higher in animals treated with DOX only than in the control group. Histopathological findings of cardiotoxicity in rats treated with DOX in combination with L-NAME and L-NIL were not significantly different compared with the control group. The level of plasma malondialdehyde in the DOX group (9.3±3.4 μmol/L was higher than those of all other groups. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that DOX cardiotoxicity was significantly decreased when DOX was given with NO synthase inhibitors.

  3. Aspirin induces nitric oxide release from vascular endothelium: a novel mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubert, D; Berkels, R; Grosser, N; Schröder, H; Gründemann, D; Schömig, E

    2004-09-01

    1. The study was designed to test the hypothesis that aspirin may stimulate nitric oxide (NO) release from vascular endothelium, a pivotal factor for maintenance of vascular homeostasis. 2. Clinical evidence suggests that low-dose aspirin may improve vascular endothelial function. Since other cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors showed no beneficial vascular effects, aspirin may exhibit a vasculoprotective, COX-independent mechanism. 3. Luminal NO release was monitored in real time on dissected porcine coronary arteries (PCA) by an amperometric, NO-selective sensor. Additionally, endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity was measured in EA.hy 926 cell homogenates by an l-[(3)H]citrulline/l-[(3)H]arginine conversion assay. Superoxide scavenging capacity was assessed by lucigenin-enhanced luminescence. 4. Aspirin induced an immediate concentration-dependent NO release from PCA with an EC(50) of 50 nm and potentiated the NO stimulation by the receptor-dependent agonist substance P. These effects were independent of an increase in intracellular calcium and could be mimicked by stimulation with acetylating aspirin derivatives. The aspirin metabolite salicylic acid or the reversible cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin failed to modulate NO release. Incubation of soluble eNOS for 15 min with 100 microm aspirin or acetylating aspirin analogues increased the l-[(3)H]citrulline yield by 40-80%, while salicylic acid had no effect. Aspirin and salicylic acid showed a similar, but only modest, magnitude and velocity of superoxide scavenging. 5. Our findings demonstrate that therapeutically relevant concentrations of aspirin elicit NO release from vascular endothelium. This effect appears to be due to a direct acetylation of the eNOS protein, but is independent of COX inhibition or inhibition of superoxide-mediated NO degradation.

  4. Korean mistletoe lectin (KML-IIU) and its subchains induce nitric oxide (NO) production in murine macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae Bong; Yoo, Yung Choon; Lee, Kwan Hee; Yoon, Ho Sup; Her, Erk; Kim, Jong Bae; Song, Seong Kyu

    2008-03-01

    Synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) is one of the important effector functions of innate immune cells. Although several reports have indicated mistletoe lectins induce immune cells to produce cytokines, studies regarding the activities of the lectins in the production of NO have been very limited. Here, we report on the induction of NO synthesis in a murine macrophage cell line, RAW264.7, by Korean mistletoe lectin (KML-IIU). When the macrophage cells were treated with KML-IIU in the presence of a suboptimal concentration of IFN-gamma, NO production was induced in a concentration-dependent manner. Significantly higher levels of NO were induced by subchains of the KML-IIU (A and B), which have lower toxicities, as compared to the hololectin. Furthermore, expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene was elevated in accordance with the level of NO production. When the synthase was inhibited by iNOS inhibitors (L-NIL and L-NAME), NO production was specifically reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. Our studies demonstrate that the KML-IIU and its subchains induce NO production in murine macrophage cells via activation of the iNOS gene expression, suggesting that the KML-IIU subchains may be used as an immunomodulator to enhance the effector functions of innate immune cells.

  5. Chamomile, an anti-inflammatory agent inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by blocking RelA/p65 activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, Natarajan; Shukla, Sanjeev; Srivastava, Janmejai K; Gupta, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Chamomile has long been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammation-related disorders. In this study we aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of chamomile on nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and to explore its potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms using RAW 264.7 macrophages. Chamomile treatment inhibited LPS-induced NO production and significantly blocked IL-1β , IL-6 and TNFα-induced NO levels in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Chamomile caused reduction in LPS-induced iNOS mRNA and protein expression. In RAW 264.7 macrophages, LPS-induced DNA binding activity of RelA/p65 was significantly inhibited by chamomile, an effect that was mediated through the inhibition of IKKβ , the upstream kinase regulating NF-κ B/Rel activity, and degradation of inhibitory factor-κ B. These results demonstrate that chamomile inhibits NO production and iNOS gene expression by inhibiting RelA/p65 activation and supports the utilization of chamomile as an effective anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:21042790

  6. Chamomile: an anti-inflammatory agent inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by blocking RelA/p65 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, Natarajan; Shukla, Sanjeev; Srivastava, Janmejai K; Gupta, Sanjay

    2010-12-01

    Chamomile has long been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammation-related disorders. In this study we investigated the inhibitory effects of chamomile on nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and explored its potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms using RAW 264.7 macrophages. Chamomile treatment inhibited LPS-induced NO production and significantly blocked IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα-induced NO levels in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Chamomile caused reduction in LPS-induced iNOS mRNA and protein expression. In RAW 264.7 macrophages, LPS-induced DNA binding activity of RelA/p65 was significantly inhibited by chamomile, an effect that was mediated through the inhibition of IKKβ, the upstream kinase regulating NF-κB/Rel activity, and degradation of inhibitory factor-κB. These results demonstrate that chamomile inhibits NO production and iNOS gene expression by inhibiting RelA/p65 activation and supports the utilization of chamomile as an effective anti-inflammatory agent.

  7. Acetaminophen attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced cognitive impairment through antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei-Xing; Zhang, Jun-Han; Cao, Jiang-Bei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Dong-Xin; Zhang, Xiao-Ying; Yu, Jun; Zhang, Yong-Yi; Zhang, You-Zhi; Mi, Wei-Dong

    2017-01-21

    Considerable evidence has shown that neuroinflammation and oxidative stress play an important role in the pathophysiology of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) and other progressive neurodegenerative disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that acetaminophen (APAP) has unappreciated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the impact of APAP on the cognitive sequelae of inflammatory and oxidative stress is unknown. The objective of this study is to explore whether APAP could have neuroprotective effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cognitive impairment in mice. A mouse model of LPS-induced cognitive impairment was established to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of APAP against LPS-induced cognitive impairment. Adult C57BL/6 mice were treated with APAP half an hour prior to intracerebroventricular microinjection of LPS and every day thereafter, until the end of the study period. The Morris water maze was used to assess cognitive function from postinjection days 1 to 3. Animal behavioural tests as well as pathological and biochemical assays were performed to evaluate LPS-induced hippocampal damage and the neuroprotective effect of APAP. Mice treated with LPS exhibited impaired performance in the Morris water maze without changing spontaneous locomotor activity, which was ameliorated by treatment with APAP. APAP suppressed the accumulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and microglial activation induced by LPS in the hippocampus. In addition, APAP increased SOD activity, reduced MDA levels, modulated glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) activity and elevated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus. Moreover, APAP significantly decreased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and neuron apoptosis in the hippocampus of LPS-treated mice. Our results suggest that APAP may possess a neuroprotective effect against LPS-induced cognitive impairment and inflammatory and oxidative stress via mechanisms involving its antioxidant and

  8. Novel monohydroxamate drugs attenuate myocardial reperfusion-induced arrhythmias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collis, C S; Rice-Evans, C; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1996-01-01

    heart. Here we compare their effects and that of the trihydroxamate desferrioxamine on reperfusion-induced arrhythmias following short duration ischaemia (10 min). Isolated rat hearts were perfused by the Langendorff method, subjected to regional ischaemia and reperfusion. Arrhythmias induced during...... the first 5 min of reperfusion were quantified. Drugs (all at 150 microM) were introduced during the last 2 min of ischaemia and remained throughout reperfusion. Although the monohydroxamate- and desferrioxamine-treated hearts showed a reduction in the incidence of ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation...

  9. A practical MGA-ARIMA model for forecasting real-time dynamic rain-induced attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Shuhong; Gao, Yifeng; Shi, Houbao; Zhao, Ge

    2013-05-01

    novel and practical modified genetic algorithm (MGA)-autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model for forecasting real-time dynamic rain-induced attenuation has been established by combining genetic algorithm ideas with the ARIMA model. It is proved that due to the introduction of MGA into the ARIMA(1,1,7) model, the MGA-ARIMA model has the potential to be conveniently applied in every country or area by creating a parameter database used by the ARIMA(1,1,7) model. The parameter database is given in this paper based on attenuation data measured in Xi'an, China. The methods to create the parameter databases in other countries or areas are offered, too. Based on the experimental results, the MGA-ARIMA model has been proved practical for forecasting dynamic rain-induced attenuation in real time. The novel model given in this paper is significant for developing adaptive fade mitigation technologies at millimeter wave bands.

  10. extract attenuates MPTP-induced oxidative stress and behavioral

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the protective effects of Cuminum cyminum Linn (Apiaceae, CCY) against 1- methyl-4 phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced oxidative stress and behavioral impairments in mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: MPTP-intoxicated mice model of PD was used for evaluating ...

  11. The effects of benfotiamine in attenuating hyperglycemia-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In particular, we emphasize the role of hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress in the activation of non-oxidative glucose pathways (NOGPs), that may contribute to cardiac pathology. For the second part, we evaluate the utility of benfotiamine (a vitamin B1 derivative) in treating diabetes-related cardiac pathology. The focus ...

  12. extract attenuates MPTP-induced oxidative stress and behavioral

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Received: 9 November 2015. Revised accepted: 17 March 2016. Abstract. Purpose: To evaluate ... ability to induce oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in ... On day 22, all the brain tissues were rinsed in ice-cold isotonic saline, homogenized with 1 mL of ice-cold 0.1 M ...

  13. Tamoxifen Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide/Galactosamine-induced Acute Liver Failure by Antagonizing Hepatic Inflammation and Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Meisheng; Wan, Mengqi; Huang, Xiaoliu; Jiang, Yan; Xu, Siying; Luo, Mansheng

    2017-04-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver failure (ALF) is a common severe clinical syndrome in intensive care unit. No other methods are available for its prevention apart from supportive treatment and liver transplantation. Tamoxifen (TAM) was reported to attenuate ALF induced by excessive acetaminophen, while its effect on LPS-induced ALF remained unknown. For this, in the present study, we comprehensively assessed whether TAM can attenuate ALF induced by LPS/galactosamine (GaIN). Mice were given TAM once a day for three times. Twelve hours after the last treatment, mice were given LPS/GaIN (intraperitoneally [i.p.]). Survival, plasma transaminases, and histopathology were examined. Serum TNF-α and IL-1β were analyzed by ELISA. Hepatic apoptosis was analyzed by TUNEL and caspase-3 Western blotting, respectively. Compared to the model group, ALF induced by LPS/GaIN was alleviated remarkably following TAM administration, as evidenced by the improvement of survival (87.5% vs. 37.5%), hepatic swell, moderate transaminases, slightly increased serum TNF-α, IL-1β (P < 0.05), and moderate histopathology. In respect of apoptosis, severe hepatocellular apoptosis was reduced notably by TAM treatment confirmed by less TUNEL-positive hepatocytes and decreased caspase-3 cleavage. The results demonstrated that TAM could attenuate LPS/GaIN-induced ALF effectively, probably due to hepatic inflammation and apoptosis antagonism. Furthermore, it was the first report about the effect of TAM on LPS/GaIN-induced ALF.

  14. Attenuation of salt-induced hypertension by aqueous calyx extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: The aqueous calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) has a folk reputation as an antihypertensive agent. On account of its antioxidant properties and probably high K+ concentration, we hypothesized that HS may attenuate the development of salt-induced hypertension. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8 each) were ...

  15. Attenuation of salt-induced hypertension by aqueous calyx extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The MAP of salt+HS and control rats did not differ significantly and the effect of HS was comparable to furosemide. The pressor response to noradrenalin or vasodilator response to acetylcholine remained similar in all groups. These results suggest that HS attenuated the development of salt-induced hypertension and this ...

  16. Attenuation of endoplasmic reticulum stress by caffeine ameliorates hyperoxia-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Ru-Jeng; Jing, Xigang; Michalkiewicz, Teresa; Afolayan, Adeleye J; Wu, Tzong-Jin; Konduri, Girija G

    2017-05-01

    Rodent pups exposed to hyperoxia develop lung changes similar to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in extremely premature infants. Oxidative stress from hyperoxia can injure developing lungs through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Early caffeine treatment decreases the rate of BPD, but the mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized that caffeine attenuates hyperoxia-induced lung injury through its chemical chaperone property. Sprague-Dawley rat pups were raised either in 90 (hyperoxia) or 21% (normoxia) oxygen from postnatal day 1 (P1) to postnatal day 10 (P10) and then recovered in 21% oxygen until P21. Caffeine (20 mg/kg) or normal saline (control) was administered intraperitoneally daily starting from P2. Lungs were inflation-fixed for histology or snap-frozen for immunoblots. Blood caffeine levels were measured in treated pups at euthanasia and were found to be 18.4 ± 4.9 μg/ml. Hyperoxia impaired alveolar formation and increased ER stress markers and downstream effectors; caffeine treatment attenuated these changes at P10. Caffeine also attenuated the hyperoxia-induced activation of cyclooxygenase-2 and markers of apoptosis. In conclusion, hyperoxia-induced alveolar growth impairment is mediated, in part, by ER stress. Early caffeine treatment protects developing lungs from hyperoxia-induced injury by attenuating ER stress. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Taurine attenuates radiation-induced lung fibrosis in C57/Bl6 fibrosis prone mice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Robb, W B

    2010-03-01

    The amino acid taurine has an established role in attenuating lung fibrosis secondary to bleomycin-induced injury. This study evaluates taurine\\'s effect on TGF-beta1 expression and the development of lung fibrosis after single-dose thoracic radiotherapy.

  18. Extinction-induced neuroplasticity attenuates stress-induced cocaine seeking: a state-dependent learning hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, David W; Choi, Kwang-Ho

    2004-09-01

    Chronic drug use weakens excitatory neocortical input to the nucleus accumbens (NAc). We previously reported that extinction training, a form of inhibitory learning that progressively reduces cocaine-seeking behaviour when reward is withheld, reverses this deficit by up-regulating GluR1 and GluR2/3 subunits of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptors in the NAc. The level of GluR1 up-regulation is positively associated with a reduction in cocaine seeking, suggesting that extinction-induced up-regulation in AMPA receptors in the NAc opposes motivational influences that maintain cocaine seeking. This hypothesis is supported by the finding that over-expression of GluR1 and GluR2 in the NAc facilitates extinction of cocaine self-administration. Furthermore, a single extinction training session conducted during GluR1 and GluR2 over-expression strongly and selectively attenuates the ability of an environmental stressor to trigger relapse to cocaine seeking long after GluR1 and GluR2 over-expression declines. These results could suggest that excitatory input to the NAc promotes extinction learning, but only when memory is recalled under stressful situations. Recent studies indicate that both environmental stress and the frustrative stress of withholding reward during extinction of drug self-administration induce similar neurochemical events in the NAc. These neurochemical events could impose a "state-dependency" on extinction learning such that subsequent exposure to stress acts as a cue to enhance retrieval of extinction memory. Our results suggest that extinction-induced up-regulation in NAc AMPA receptors acts reciprocally to facilitate state-dependent extinction learning, as stressful situations evoke extinction memories that exert powerful inhibitory control over drug-seeking behaviour. These results may have important therapeutic implications for behaviour-based approaches aimed at treating drug addiction.

  19. Study of Nitric Oxide production by murine peritoneal macrophages induced by Brucella Lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavoosi G

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Brueclla is a gram negative bacteria that causes Brucellosis. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS ", the pathogenic agent of Brucella is composed of O-chain, core oligosaccharide and lipid A. in addition, the structural and biological properties of different LPS extracted from different strains are not identical. The first defense system against LPS is nonspecific immunity that causes macrophage activation. Activated macrophages produce oxygen and nitrogen radicals that enhance the protection against intracellular pathogens.In this experiment LPS was extracted by hot phenol- water procedure and the effect of various LPSs on nitric oxide prodution by peritoneal mouse macrophages was examined.Our results demonstrated that the effect of LPS on nitric oxide production is concentration-dependent we observed the maximum response in concentration of 10-20 microgram per milliliter. Also our results demonstrate that LPS extracted from vaccine Brucella abortus (S 19 had a highe effect on nitric oxide production than the LPS from other strains

  20. Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Heart Tissue and Nitric Oxide in Serum of Trypanosoma cruzi-Infected Rhesus Monkeys: Association with Heart Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Cristiano Marcelo Espinola; Silverio, Jaline Coutinho; da Silva, Andrea Alice; Pereira, Isabela Resende; Coelho, Janice Mery Chicarino; Britto, Constança Carvalho; Moreira, Otacílio Cruz; Marchevsky, Renato Sergio; Xavier, Sergio Salles; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; da Glória Bonecini-Almeida, Maria; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli

    2012-01-01

    Background The factors contributing to chronic Chagas' heart disease remain unknown. High nitric oxide (NO) levels have been shown to be associated with cardiomyopathy severity in patients. Further, NO produced via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS/NOS2) is proposed to play a role in Trypanosoma cruzi control. However, the participation of iNOS/NOS2 and NO in T. cruzi control and heart injury has been questioned. Here, using chronically infected rhesus monkeys and iNOS/NOS2-deficient (Nos2 −/−) mice we explored the participation of iNOS/NOS2-derived NO in heart injury in T. cruzi infection. Methodology Rhesus monkeys and C57BL/6 and Nos2 −/− mice were infected with the Colombian T. cruzi strain. Parasite DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction, T. cruzi antigens and iNOS/NOS2+ cells were immunohistochemically detected in heart sections and NO levels in serum were determined by Griess reagent. Heart injury was assessed by electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram (ECHO), creatine kinase heart isoenzyme (CK-MB) activity levels in serum and connexin 43 (Cx43) expression in the cardiac tissue. Results Chronically infected monkeys presented conduction abnormalities, cardiac inflammation and fibrosis, which resembled the spectrum of human chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC). Importantly, chronic myocarditis was associated with parasite persistence. Moreover, Cx43 loss and increased CK-MB activity levels were primarily correlated with iNOS/NOS2+ cells infiltrating the cardiac tissue and NO levels in serum. Studies in Nos2 −/− mice reinforced that the iNOS/NOS2-NO pathway plays a pivotal role in T. cruzi-elicited cardiomyocyte injury and in conduction abnormalities that were associated with Cx43 loss in the cardiac tissue. Conclusion T. cruzi-infected rhesus monkeys reproduce features of CCC. Moreover, our data support that in T. cruzi infection persistent parasite-triggered iNOS/NOS2 in the cardiac tissue and NO overproduction might contribute to CCC

  1. Inducible nitric oxide synthase in heart tissue and nitric oxide in serum of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected rhesus monkeys: association with heart injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Marcelo Espinola Carvalho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The factors contributing to chronic Chagas' heart disease remain unknown. High nitric oxide (NO levels have been shown to be associated with cardiomyopathy severity in patients. Further, NO produced via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS/NOS2 is proposed to play a role in Trypanosoma cruzi control. However, the participation of iNOS/NOS2 and NO in T. cruzi control and heart injury has been questioned. Here, using chronically infected rhesus monkeys and iNOS/NOS2-deficient (Nos2(-/- mice we explored the participation of iNOS/NOS2-derived NO in heart injury in T. cruzi infection. METHODOLOGY: Rhesus monkeys and C57BL/6 and Nos2(-/- mice were infected with the Colombian T. cruzi strain. Parasite DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction, T. cruzi antigens and iNOS/NOS2(+ cells were immunohistochemically detected in heart sections and NO levels in serum were determined by Griess reagent. Heart injury was assessed by electrocardiogram (ECG, echocardiogram (ECHO, creatine kinase heart isoenzyme (CK-MB activity levels in serum and connexin 43 (Cx43 expression in the cardiac tissue. RESULTS: Chronically infected monkeys presented conduction abnormalities, cardiac inflammation and fibrosis, which resembled the spectrum of human chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC. Importantly, chronic myocarditis was associated with parasite persistence. Moreover, Cx43 loss and increased CK-MB activity levels were primarily correlated with iNOS/NOS2(+ cells infiltrating the cardiac tissue and NO levels in serum. Studies in Nos2(-/- mice reinforced that the iNOS/NOS2-NO pathway plays a pivotal role in T. cruzi-elicited cardiomyocyte injury and in conduction abnormalities that were associated with Cx43 loss in the cardiac tissue. CONCLUSION: T. cruzi-infected rhesus monkeys reproduce features of CCC. Moreover, our data support that in T. cruzi infection persistent parasite-triggered iNOS/NOS2 in the cardiac tissue and NO overproduction might contribute

  2. PTTG1 attenuates drug-induced cellular senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunguang Tong

    Full Text Available As PTTG1 (pituitary tumor transforming gene abundance correlates with adverse outcomes in cancer treatment, we determined mechanisms underlying this observation by assessing the role of PTTG1 in regulating cell response to anti-neoplastic drugs. HCT116 cells devoid of PTTG1 (PTTG1(-/- exhibited enhanced drug sensitivity as assessed by measuring BrdU incorporation in vitro. Apoptosis, mitosis catastrophe or DNA damage were not detected, but features of senescence were observed using low doses of doxorubicin and TSA. The number of drug-induced PTTG1(-/- senescent cells increased ∼4 fold as compared to WT PTTG1-replete cells (p<0.001. p21, an important regulator of cell senescence, was induced ∼3 fold in HCT116 PTTG1(-/- cells upon doxorubicin or Trichostatin A treatment. Binding of Sp1, p53 and p300 to the p21 promoter was enhanced in PTTG1(-/- cells after treatment, suggesting transcriptional regulation of p21. p21 knock down abrogated the observed senescent effects of these drugs, indicating that PTTG1 likely suppresses p21 to regulate drug-induced senescence. PTTG1 also regulated SW620 colon cancer cells response to doxorubicin and TSA mediated by p21. Subcutaneously xenografted PTTG1(-/- HCT116 cells developed smaller tumors and exhibited enhanced responses to doxorubicin. PTTG1(-/- tumor tissue derived from excised tumors exhibited increased doxorubicin-induced senescence. As senescence is a determinant of cell responses to anti-neoplastic treatments, these findings suggest PTTG1 as a tumor cell marker to predict anti-neoplastic treatment outcomes.

  3. Treatment with Dimethyl Fumarate attenuates calcineurin inhibitor-induced Nephrotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Takasu, Chie; Vaziri, Nosratola D.; Li, Shiri; Robles, Lourdes; Vo, Kelly; Takasu, Mizuki; Pham, Christine; Liu, Shuman; Farzaneh, Seyed H.; Foster, Clarence E; Stamos, Michael J; Ichii, Hirohito

    2015-01-01

    Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Background. Cyclosporine A (CsA) is an immunosuppressive drug which has been widely used to prevent rejection after organ transplantation. However, its therapeutic use is limited by nephrotoxicity, in part mediated by oxidative stress. The present study aims to investigate the protective effects of dimethyl fumarate (DMF) on CsA-induced nephrotoxicity by enhancing the antioxidant defense system. Methods. Male Sprague-Dawley rat...

  4. Vitamin C attenuates copper-induced oxidative damage in broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of vitamin C on copper-induced oxidative damage in the erythrocyte and liver of broiler chickens. Three week old birds were fed a basal diet (n = 40), or basal diet supplemented with 250 mg CuSO4/kg diet (n = 40) for 56 days. On the 57th day, the birds of the two ...

  5. Melatonin Attenuates Colistin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Jumana M.; Chen, Gong; Hill, Prue A.; Nation, Roger L.; Li, Jian

    2011-01-01

    Colistin-induced nephrotoxicity is a dose-limiting adverse effect when colistin is used against Gram-negative pathogens. This study examined the nephroprotective effect of melatonin against colistin in rats. Rats (n = 7 per group) were treated intravenously twice daily with saline, colistin (at increasing doses from 0.5 to 4.0 mg/kg), melatonin (5 mg/kg), or both melatonin and colistin for 7 days. The severity of renal alteration was examined both biochemically and histologically. The effect of coadministration of melatonin on colistin pharmacokinetics was investigated. Significantly lower urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase excretion was observed from day 1 in the colistin-melatonin group compared to the colistin group (P colistin group on day 6. Significant histological abnormalities (P colistin group. Melatonin altered colistin pharmacokinetics; the total body clearance in the colistin-melatonin group (1.82 ± 0.26 ml/min/kg) was lower than in the colistin group (4.28 ± 0.93 ml/min/kg). This is the first study demonstrating the protective effect of melatonin against colistin-induced nephrotoxicity, which indicates that colistin-induced nephrotoxicity is mediated through oxidative stress. It also highlights the potential of coadministering an antioxidant to widen the therapeutic window of this very important last-line antibiotic. PMID:21709095

  6. Quercetin attenuates, indomethacin-induced acute gastric ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkushi, A G R; Elsawy, N A M

    2017-01-01

    Peptic ulcer diseases are common and are induced by many factors, including stress, smoking, and ingestion of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Quercetin is considered to be an anti-oxidant with healing effects on many experimental toxic injuries. The present study aimed to explore the possible effect of quercetin on acute gastric ulcer induced by indomethacin in rats. Three groups received indomethacin (30 mg/kg body weight) orally by orogastric gavage on two consecutive days. The rats received famotidine (50 mg/kg body weight), quercetin (50 mg/kg body weight), or vehicle alone for 15 consecutive days by oral gavage. The control group received no indomethacin but received vehicle for 15 days by oral gavage. The ulcer index, volume, and pH of gastric juice were measured, and the stomachs were examined by routine light microscopy. Compared with the control group, the indomethacin-treated rats showed a marked damage of the gastric mucosal surface and a high ulcer index. In the famotidine- and quercetin-treated groups, significantly increased antioxidant enzyme activities were observed. The congestion, erosions, and necrosis were reduced with mild inflammatory cell infiltration while no major damage of endothelial cells was observed in the treated rats. The findings of the study show that quercetin had antioxidant effect and can protect gastric mucosa against indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration than famotidine.

  7. N-nitro-L-arginine, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, aggravates iminodipropionitrile-induced neurobehavioral and vestibular toxicities in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haseeb Ahmad

    2012-11-01

    Exposure of iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) to rodents produces permanent behavioral syndrome characterized by repetitive head movements, circling and back walking. Other synthetic nitriles of industrial importance such as crotonitrile and allylnitrile are also able to produce similar motor deficits in experimental animals. However, due to the well-defined behavioral deficits and their easy quantification, IDPN-induced behavioral syndrome is a preferential animal model to test the interaction of various agents with synthetic nitriles. This study reports the effect of non-specific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine (NARG) on IDPN-induced neurobehavioral toxicity in adult male Wistar rats. Four groups of animals were given i.p. injections of IDPN (100 mg/kg) for 6 days. These rats were treated with oral administration of NARG in the doses of 0 (IDPN alone group), 50, 150 and 300 mg/kg, 60 min before IDPN, respectively. Control rats received vehicle only, whereas another group was treated with 300 mg/kg of NARG alone (without IDPN). The results showed that NARG significantly exacerbated the incidence and intensity of IDPN-induced dyskinetic head movements, circling and back walking. The histology of inner ear showed massive degeneration of the sensory hair cells in the crista ampullaris of rats receiving the combined treatment with IDPN and NARG, suggesting a possible role of nitric oxide in IDPN-induced neurobehavioral syndrome in rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. A Brief Overview of Nitric Oxide and Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling in Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaitovich, Ariel; Jourd'heuil, David

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by increased vasoconstriction and smooth muscle cell hyperplasia driving pathological vascular remodeling of arterial vessels. In this short review, we discuss the primary source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) relevant to PH and the mechanism by which dysregulation of their production contributes to PH. Specifically, hypoxia-induced PH is associated with diminished endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-derived NO production and increased production of superoxide (O 2 •- ) through eNOS uncoupling and defective mitochondrial respiration. This drives the inhibition of the NO/soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) pathway and activation of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) with consequential dysregulation of the pulmonary vasculature. Therapeutics aimed at increasing NO or cGMP bioavailabilities are amenable to hypoxia disease-induced PH. Similarly, strategies targeting HIF-1α are now considered. Overall, pulmonary hypertension including hypoxia-induced PH offers unique opportunities for the rational development of therapeutics centered on modulating redox signaling.

  9. Inhibition of IFN-γ-Induced Nitric Oxide Dependent Antimycobacterial Activity by miR-155 and C/EBPβ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwei Qin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available miR-155 (microRNA-155 is an important non-coding RNA in regulating host crucial biological regulators. However, its regulatory function in mycobacterium infection remains unclear. Our study demonstrates that miR-155 expression is significantly increased in macrophages after Mycobacterium marinum (M.m infection. Transfection with anti-miR-155 enhances nitric oxide (NO synthesis and decreases the mycobacterium burden, and vice versa, in interferon γ (IFN-γ activated macrophages. More importantly, miR-155 can directly bind to the 3′UTR of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ, a positive transcriptional regulator of nitric oxide synthase (NOS2, and regulate C/EBPβ expression negatively. Knockdown of C/EBPβ inhibit the production of nitric oxide synthase and promoted mycobacterium survival. Collectively, these data suggest that M.m-induced upregulation of miR-155 downregulated the expression of C/EBPβ, thus decreasing the production of NO and promoting mycobacterium survival, which may provide an insight into the function of miRNA in subverting the host innate immune response by using mycobacterium for its own profit. Understanding how miRNAs partly regulate microbicidal mechanisms may represent an attractive way to control tuberculosis infectious.

  10. Effects of nitric oxide synthesis inhibition on methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotoxicity in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abekawa, T; Ohmori, T; Koyama, T

    1996-01-01

    We examined effects of nitric oxide (NO.) synthesis inhibition on methamphetamine (MA)-induced dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotoxicity. The toxic dose of MA (5 mg/kg, sc, x4) significantly decreased contents of dopamine (DA), dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in the striatum (ST), and significantly decreased contents of serotonin (5-HT) in the ST, nucleus accumbens (NA) and medial frontal contex (MFC). Coadministration with a NO. synthase inhibitor, N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (LNAME) (30 mg/kg, i.p., x2), reduced the MA-induced decreases in contents of DA, DOPAC and HVA in the ST, but not reduced the MA-induced decreases in contents of 5-HT in the ST, NA and MFC. These findings suggest that the MA-induced dopaminergic, but not serotonergic neurotoxicity, may be related to the neural process such as NO. formation caused by the activation of postsynaptic DA receptor.

  11. High nitric oxide production, secondary to inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, is essential for regulation of the tumour-initiating properties of colon cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Maria Ausiliatrice; Cenciarelli, Carlo; Tesori, Valentina; Cappellari, Marianna; Martini, Maurizio; Di Francesco, Angela Maria; Giorda, Ezio; Carsetti, Rita; Ricci-Vitiani, Lucia; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Chronic inflammation is a leading cause of neoplastic transformation in many human cancers and especially in colon cancer (CC), in part due to tumour promotion by nitric oxide (NO) generated at inflammatory sites. It has also been suggested that high NO synthesis, secondary to inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression, is a distinctive feature of cancer stem cells (CSCs), a small subset of tumour cells with self-renewal capacity. In this study we explored the contribution of NO to the development of colon CSC features and evaluated potential strategies to treat CC by modulating NO production. Our data show an integral role for endogenous NO and iNOS activity in the biology of colon CSCs. Indeed, colon CSCs with high endogenous NO production (NO(high)) displayed higher tumourigenic abilities than NO(low) fractions. The blockade of endogenous NO availability, using either a specific iNOS inhibitor or a genetic knock-down of iNOS, resulted in a significant reduction of colon CSC tumourigenic capacities in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, analysis of genes altered by iNOS-directed shRNA showed that the knockdown of iNOS expression was associated with a significant down-regulation of signalling pathways involved in stemness and tumour progression in colon CSCs. These findings confirm that endogenous NO plays an important role in defining the stemness properties of colon CSCs through cross-regulation of several cellular signalling pathways. This discovery could shed light on the mechanisms by which NO induces the growth and invasiveness of CC, providing new insights into the link between inflammation and colon tumourigenesis. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Gastroprotection of Suaveolol, Isolated from Hyptis suaveolens, against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions in Wistar Rats: Role of Prostaglandins, Nitric Oxide and Sulfhydryls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Sánchez-Mendoza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyptis suaveolens is a medicinal plant that is, according to traditional medicine, considered useful in the treatment of gastric ulcers. Although its gastroprotective activity was reported, the active compounds have not been identified. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify at least one active compound potentially responsible for the gastroprotective activity of H. suaveolens by using a bioassay guided study with an ethanol-induced gastric ulcer experimental model in rats. The results show that the hexane extract had protective activity (close to 70% when using doses between 10 and 100 mg/kg, and that the compound suaveolol, isolated from this extract, was one of the active gastroprotective agents. This is the first report about the gastroprotective activity of suaveolol. Rats treated with this compound at 3, 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg showed 12.6, 21.3, 39.6 and 70.2% gastroprotection respectively. The effect elicited by suaveolol (at 100 mg/kg was attenuated by pretreatment with either NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (70 mg/kg, i.p., a nitric oxide (NO synthase inhibitor, indomethacin (10 mg/kg, s.c., a blocker of prostaglandin synthesis, or N-ethylmaleimide (10 mg/kg, s.c., a blocker of sulfhydryl groups. This suggests that the gastroprotective mechanism of action of this compound involves NO, prostaglandins and sulfhydryl groups.

  13. Identifying the Long-Term Role of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury Using a Transgenic Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Dominic M; Singh, Amanpreet; Iorgulescu, J Bryan; Bleicher, Drew H; Ghosh, Mousumi; Lopez, Michael M; Tuesta, Luis M; Flora, Govinder; Dietrich, W Dalton; Pearse, Damien D

    2017-01-25

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is a potent mediator of oxidative stress during neuroinflammation triggered by neurotrauma or neurodegeneration. We previously demonstrated that acute iNOS inhibition attenuated iNOS levels and promoted neuroprotection and functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). The present study investigated the effects of chronic iNOS ablation after SCI using inos-null mice. iNOS-/- knockout and wild-type (WT) control mice underwent a moderate thoracic (T8) contusive SCI. Locomotor function was assessed weekly, using the Basso Mouse Scale (BMS), and at the endpoint (six weeks), by footprint analysis. At the endpoint, the volume of preserved white and gray matter, as well as the number of dorsal column axons and perilesional blood vessels rostral to the injury, were quantified. At weeks two and three after SCI, iNOS-/- mice exhibited a significant locomotor improvement compared to WT controls, although a sustained improvement was not observed during later weeks. At the endpoint, iNOS-/- mice showed significantly less preserved white and gray matter, as well as fewer dorsal column axons and perilesional blood vessels, compared to WT controls. While short-term antagonism of iNOS provides histological and functional benefits, its long-term ablation after SCI may be deleterious, blocking protective or reparative processes important for angiogenesis and tissue preservation.

  14. Gastroprotection of suaveolol, isolated from Hyptis suaveolens, against ethanol-induced gastric lesions in Wistar rats: role of prostaglandins, nitric oxide and sulfhydryls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Arzave, Carlos; Antonio, Leticia Cruz; Arrieta, Jesús; Cruz-Hernández, Gerardo; Velasquez-Mendez, Antonio Magdiel; Reyes-Ramírez, Adelfo; Sánchez-Mendoza, María Elena

    2012-07-26

    Hyptis suaveolens is a medicinal plant that is, according to traditional medicine, considered useful in the treatment of gastric ulcers. Although its gastroprotective activity was reported, the active compounds have not been identified. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify at least one active compound potentially responsible for the gastroprotective activity of H. suaveolens by using a bioassay guided study with an ethanol-induced gastric ulcer experimental model in rats. The results show that the hexane extract had protective activity (close to 70% when using doses between 10 and 100 mg/kg), and that the compound suaveolol, isolated from this extract, was one of the active gastroprotective agents. This is the first report about the gastroprotective activity of suaveolol. Rats treated with this compound at 3, 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg showed 12.6, 21.3, 39.6 and 70.2% gastroprotection respectively. The effect elicited by suaveolol (at 100 mg/kg) was attenuated by pretreatment with either N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (70 mg/kg, i.p.), a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, indomethacin (10 mg/kg, s.c.), a blocker of prostaglandin synthesis, or N-ethylmaleimide (10 mg/kg, s.c.), a blocker of sulfhydryl groups. This suggests that the gastroprotective mechanism of action of this compound involves NO, prostaglandins and sulfhydryl groups.

  15. RAGE deficiency attenuates the protective effect of Lidocaine against sepsis-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Zhou, Jie; Liao, Changli; Li, Xiaobing; Liu, Minghua; Song, Daqiang; Jiang, Xian

    2017-04-01

    Lidocaine (Lido) is reported to suppress inflammatory responses and exhibit a therapeutic effect in models of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). The receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE) exerts pro-inflammatory effects by enhancing pro-inflammatory cytokine production. However, the precise mechanism by which Lido confers protection against ALI is not clear. ALI was induced in RAGE WT and RAGE knockout (KO) rats using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) operations for 24 h. The results showed that Lido significantly inhibited CLP-induced lung inflammation and histopathological lung injury. Furthermore, Lido significantly reduced CLP-induced upregulation of HMGB1 and RAGE expression and activation of the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. With the use of RAGE KO rats, we demonstrate here that RAGE deficiency attenuates the protective effect of Lido against CLP-induced lung inflammatory cell infiltration and histopathological lung injury. These results suggest that RAGE deficiency attenuates the protective effect of Lido against CLP-induced ALI by attenuating the pro-inflammatory cytokines production.

  16. Propofol and magnesium attenuate isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation via inhibiting mitochondrial permeability transition pore

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    Zhang Yiying

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inhalation anesthetic isoflurane has been shown to open the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP and induce caspase activation and apoptosis, which may lead to learning and memory impairment. Cyclosporine A, a blocker of mPTP opening might attenuate the isoflurane-induced mPTP opening, lessening its ripple effects. Magnesium and anesthetic propofol are also mPTP blockers. We therefore set out to determine whether propofol and magnesium can attenuate the isoflurane-induced caspase activation and mPTP opening. Methods We investigated the effects of magnesium sulfate (Mg2+, propofol, and isoflurane on the opening of mPTP and caspase activation in H4 human neuroglioma cells stably transfected to express full-length human amyloid precursor protein (APP (H4 APP cells and in six day-old wild-type mice, employing Western blot analysis and flowcytometry. Results Here we show that Mg2+ and propofol attenuated the isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation in H4-APP cells and mouse brain tissue. Moreover, Mg2+ and propofol, the blockers of mPTP opening, mitigated the isoflurane-induced mPTP opening in the H4-APP cells. Conclusion These data illustrate that Mg2+ and propofol may ameliorate the isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity by inhibiting its mitochondrial dysfunction. Pending further studies, these findings may suggest the use of Mg2+ and propofol in preventing and treating anesthesia neurotoxicity.

  17. Ranolazine attenuation of CFA-induced mechanical hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Gregory P; Roberts, Jomar S; Paul, Dennis; Diamond, Ivan; Gould, Harry J

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether ranolazine, a new anti-angina medication, could be an effective analgesic agent in complete Freund's adjuvant-induced inflammatory pain. Plantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) produces an extended period of hyperalgesia that is associated with a dramatic up-regulation of Na(v) 1.7 sodium channels in populations of large and small dorsal root ganglion neurons related to the injection site. Ranolazine appears to produce its anti-angina effect through blocking the late sodium current associated with the voltage-gated sodium channel, Na(v) 1.5. Because ranolazine also inhibits Na(v) 1.7, and 1.8, we sought to determine whether it could be an effective analgesic agent in CFA-induced inflammatory pain. Baseline determinations of withdrawal from thermal and mechanical stimulation were made in Sprague-Dawley rats ( approximately 300-350 x g). Following determination of baseline, one hindpaw in each group was injected with 0.1 mL of CFA. The contralateral paw received saline. Thermal and mechanical stimulation was repeated on the third day post-injection. Vehicle (0.9% isotonic saline; pH 3.0) or ranolazine was then administered in randomized and blinded doses either by intraperitoneal (ip) injection (0, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) or by oral gavage (po; 0, 20, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg). Animals were again tested 30 minutes (ip) and 1 hour (po) after drug administration. Ranolazine produced dose-dependant analgesia on mechanical allodynia induced by CFA injection, but had no effect on thermal hyperalgesia. Ranolazine's potential as a new option for managing both angina and chronic inflammatory pain warrants further study.

  18. Cinnamaldehyde attenuates pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Wu, Qing-Qing; Liu, Yuan; Hu, Zhe-Fu; Bian, Zhou-Yan; Tang, Qi-Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamaldehyde is a major bioactive compound isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum osmophloeum. Studies have demonstrated that cinnamaldehyde has anti-bacterial activity, anti-tumorigenic effect, immunomodulatory effect, anti-fungal activity, anti-oxidative effect, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effect. It has been proven that Cinnamaldehyde improves ischemia/reperfusion injury of pre-treatment. However, little is known about the effect of cinnamaldehyde on cardiac hypertrophy. Aortic banding (AB) was performed to induce cardiac hypertrophy in mice. Cinnamaldehyde premixed in diets was administered to mice after one week of AB. Echocardiography and catheter-based measurements of hemodynamic parameters were performed at week 7 after starting cinnamaldehyde (8 weeks after surgery). The extent of cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by pathological and molecular analyses of heart samples. Meanwhile, the effect of cinnamaldehyde on myocardial hypertrophy, fibrosis and dysfunction induced by AB was investigated, as was assessed by heart weigh/body weight, lung weight/body weight, heart weight/tibia length, echocardiographic and haemodynamic parameters, histological analysis, and gene expression of hypertrophic and fibrotic markers. Our data demonstrated that echocardiography and catheter-based measurements of hemodynamic parameters at week 7 revealed the amelioration of systolic and diastolic abnormalities by cinnamaldehyde intervention. Cardiac fibrosis in AB mice was also decreased by cinnamaldehyde. Moreover, the beneficial effect of cinnamaldehyde was associated with the normalization in gene expression of hypertrophic and fibrotic markers. Further studies showed that pressure overload significantly induced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway, which was blocked by cinnamaldehyde. Cinnamaldehyde may be able to retard the progression of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, probably via blocking ERK signaling pathway.

  19. The role of constitutive nitric-oxide synthase in ultraviolet B light-induced nuclear factor κB activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Lingying; Wu, Shiyong

    2014-09-19

    NF-κB is a transcription factor involved in many signaling pathways that also plays an important role in UV-induced skin tumorigenesis. UV radiation can activate NF-κB, but the detailed mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we provided evidence that the activation of constitutive nitric-oxide synthase plays a role in regulation of IκB reduction and NF-κB activation in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells in early phase (within 6 h) post-UVB. Treating the cells with l-NAME, a selective inhibitor of constitutive nitric-oxide synthase (cNOS), can partially reverse the IκB reduction and inhibit the DNA binding activity as well as nuclear translocation of NF-κB after UVB radiation. A luciferase reporter assay indicates that UVB-induced NF-κB activation is totally diminished in cNOS null cells. The cNOS-mediated reduction of IκB is likely due to the imbalance of nitric oxide/peroxynitrite because treating the cells with lower (50 μm), but not higher (100-500 μm), concentration of S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) can reverse the effect of l-NAME in partial restore IκB level post-UVB. Our data also showed that NF-κB activity was required for maintaining a stable IκB kinase α subunit (IKKα) level because treating the cells with NF-κB or cNOS inhibitors could reduce IKKα level upon UVB radiation. In addition, our data demonstrated that although NF-κB protects cells from UVB-induced death, its pro-survival activity was likely neutralized by the pro-death activity of peroxynitrite after UVB radiation. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Antenatal betamethasone attenuates intrauterine infection-aggravated hyperoxia-induced lung injury in neonatal rats.

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    Yoo, Hye Soo; Chang, Yun Sil; Kim, Jin Kyu; Ahn, So Yoon; Kim, Eun Sun; Sung, Dong Kyung; Jeon, Ga Won; Hwang, Jong Hee; Shim, Jae Won; Park, Won Soon

    2013-06-01

    Intrauterine infection can exacerbate postnatal hyperoxic lung injury. We hypothesized that antenatal betamethasone treatment attenuates hyperoxic lung injury aggravated by intrauterine infection in neonatal rats. Newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into eight experimental groups according to (i) whether rats were exposed to normoxia (N) or hyperoxia (H, 85% oxygen) from postnatal day (P)1 to P14, (ii) whether antenatal betamethasone (0.2 mg/dose) or vehicle was administered to pregnant rats at gestation days (E)19 and E20, and (iii) whether intrauterine infection was induced or not antenatally. Intrauterine infection was induced by intracervical inoculation of Escherichia coli into pregnant rats on E19. We measured cytokine levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β in P1 rat lungs and performed morphometric analyses and assessed inflammatory responses in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) at P14 by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining and measurement of myeloperoxidase activity, collagen, and cytokine levels. Cytokine levels in P1 rat lungs were increased by intrauterine infection, and these increases were attenuated by antenatal betamethasone. Hyperoxic lung injuries, indicated by morphometric changes and an inflammatory response in the lung and BAL fluid, were aggravated by intrauterine infection at P14. This aggravation was significantly attenuated by antenatal betamethasone. Antenatal betamethasone attenuated aggravated hyperoxic lung injuries induced by intrauterine infection in neonatal rats via its anti-inflammatory actions.

  1. Lithium attenuates peripheral neuropathy induced by paclitaxel in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmohammadi, Nasir; Alimoradi, Houman; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaei; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Hadian, Mohammad Reza; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Bakhtiarian, Azam; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2012-03-01

    As a cancer chemotherapeutic agent, paclitaxel (Taxol® ) causes dose-related peripheral neuropathy in human beings. The mechanisms underlying this toxicity are currently unknown, and there are no validated treatments for its prevention or control. To assess whether lithium as a pre-treatment and at subtherapeutic dose could prevent the peripheral neuropathy produced by it, rats were treated with paclitaxel (2 mg/kg i.p. every other day for a total of 16 times) and/or lithium chloride (300 mg/l) via water supply. General toxicity and body-weight were measured regularly during the experiment. To evaluate the sensory and motor neuropathy hot-plate, open-field test and nerve conduction velocity were used. In rats treated with only paclitaxel, there was behavioural, electrophysiological and histological evidence of a mixed sensorimotor neuropathy after 16 injections. Lithium robustly reduced the rate of mortality and general toxicity. Paclitaxel-induced sensorimotor neuropathy was significantly improved as indicated by changes in hotplate latency, total distance moved and a significant increase in sciatic, sural and tail sensory or motor nerve conduction velocity. The same results were observed in histopathological examinations; however, dorsal root ganglion neurons did not significantly change in the paclitaxel-treated groups. These results suggest that lithium, at subtherapeutic doses, can prevent both motor and sensory components of paclitaxel neuropathy in rats. Thus, lithium at these doses, as an inexpensive and relatively safe salt, may be useful clinically in preventing the neuropathy induced by paclitaxel treatment. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  2. Antioxidant treatment attenuates hyperglycemia-induced cardiomyocyte death in rats.

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    Fiordaliso, Fabio; Bianchi, Roberto; Staszewsky, Lidia; Cuccovillo, Ivan; Doni, Mirko; Laragione, Teresa; Salio, Monica; Savino, Costanza; Melucci, Silvia; Santangelo, Francesco; Scanziani, Eugenio; Masson, Serge; Ghezzi, Pietro; Latini, Roberto

    2004-11-01

    Diabetes and oxidative stress concur to cardiac myocyte death in various experimental settings. We assessed whether N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an antioxidant and glutathione precursor, has a protective role in a rat model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes and in isolated myocytes exposed to high glucose (HG). Diabetic rats were treated with NAC (0.5 g/kg per day) or vehicle for 3 months. At sacrifice left ventricle (LV) myocyte number and size, collagen deposition and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by quantitative histological methods. Diabetes reduced LV myocyte number by 29% and increased myocyte volume by 20% compared to non-diabetic controls. NAC protected from myocyte loss (+25% vs. untreated diabetics, P < 0.05) and reduced reactive hypertrophy (-16% vs. untreated diabetics, P < 0.05). Perivascular fibrosis was high in diabetic rats (+88% vs. control, P < 0.001) but prevented by NAC. ROS production and fraction of ROS-positive cardiomyocyte nuclei were drastically raised in diabetic rats (2.4- and 5.1-fold vs. control, P < 0.001) and normalized by NAC. In separate experiments, isolated adult rat ventricular myocytes were incubated in a medium containing high concentrations of glucose (HG, 25 mM) +/- 0.01 mM NAC; myocyte survival (Trypan blue exclusion and apoptosis by TUNEL) and glutathione content were evaluated. The number of dead and apoptotic myocytes increased five and 6.7-fold in HG and glutathione decreased by 48% (P < 0.05). NAC normalized cell death and apoptosis and prevented glutathione loss. NAC effectively protects from hyperglycemia-induced myocyte cell death and compensatory hypertrophy through direct scavenging of ROS and replenishment of the intracellular glutathione content.

  3. Simvastatin attenuates radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu L

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Liping Xu,* Xi Yang,* Jiayan Chen, Xiaolin Ge, Qin Qin, Hongcheng Zhu, Chi Zhang, Xinchen Sun Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: Statins are widely used lipid-lowering drugs, which have pleiotropic effects, such as anti-inflammation, and vascular protection. In our study, we investigated the radioprotective potential of simvastatin (SIM in a murine model of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Design: Ninety-six Institute of Cancer Research mice were randomly divided into four groups: solvent + sham irradiation (IR (Group I, SIM + sham IR (Group II, IR + solvent (Group III, and IR + SIM (Group IV. SIM (10 mg/kg body weight, three times per week was administered intraperitoneally 1 week prior to IR through to the end of the experiment. Saliva and submandibular gland tissues were obtained for biochemical, morphological (hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson’s trichrome, and Western blot analysis at 8 hours, 24 hours, and 4 weeks after head and neck IR. Results: IR caused a significant reduction of salivary secretion and amylase activity but elevation of malondialdehyde. SIM remitted the reduction of saliva secretion and restored salivary amylase activity. The protective benefits of SIM may be attributed to scavenging malondialdehyde, remitting collagen deposition, and reducing and delaying the elevation of transforming growth factor β1 expression induced by radiation. Conclusion: SIM may be clinically useful to alleviate side effects of radiotherapy on salivary gland. Keywords: simvastatin, radiation protection, submandibular gland, transforming growth factor-β1, mice

  4. Treatment With Dimethyl Fumarate Attenuates Calcineurin Inhibitor-induced Nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasu, Chie; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Li, Shiri; Robles, Lourdes; Vo, Kelly; Takasu, Mizuki; Pham, Christine; Liu, Shuman; Farzaneh, Seyed H; Foster, Clarence E; Stamos, Michael J; Ichii, Hirohito

    2015-06-01

    Cyclosporine A (CsA) is an immunosuppressive drug which has been widely used to prevent rejection after organ transplantation. However, its therapeutic use is limited by nephrotoxicity, in part mediated by oxidative stress. The present study aims to investigate the protective effects of dimethyl fumarate (DMF) on CsA-induced nephrotoxicity by enhancing the antioxidant defense system. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with CsA (n = 8, 20 mg/kg per day intraperitoneally) or CsA + DMF (n = 7, 50 mg/kg per day orally) for 28 days. Renal function, histopathology, malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase levels, and antioxidant enzyme expression were determined. The DMF cotreatment ameliorated CsA-induced renal dysfunction as evidenced by significant decrease in serum creatinine (CsA 0.79 ± 0.02 mg/dL vs CsA + DMF 0.62 ± 0.04 mg/dL, P = 0.001) and urea (CsA 66.9 ± 0.4 mg/dL vs CsA + DMF 53.3 ± 2.6 mg/dl, P fumarate also significantly decreased serum MDA and renal tissue MDA and myeloperoxidase contents. The protein expression of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase-1, a major cellular antioxidant and detoxifying enzyme, was significantly enhanced by DMF administration in kidney. Administration of DMF has a protective potential against CsA nephrotoxicity. The protection afforded by DMF is mediated in part through inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation and enhancing the antioxidant capacity.

  5. Cilostazol attenuates gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsameea, Ahmed A; Mohamed, Ahmed M; Amer, Mona G; Attia, Shahera M

    2016-04-01

    Gentamycin is a widely used antibiotic. The nephrotoxic adverse effects of the drug may limit its use. Cilostazol, a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, was reported to protect from renal oxidative stress. This work aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of cilostazol on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and the possible underlying mechanisms. 40 male albino rats were divided into 4 equal groups: (1) Control; (2) Cilostazol, 10mg/kg, p.o.; (3) Gentamicin, 80 mg/kg, i.p.; (4) Gentamicin 80 mg/kg, i.p. along with cilostazol 10mg/kg, p.o. All drugs were administered once daily for 8 days. On 9th day blood samples were collected for the estimation of creatinine, urea and uric acid in serum. Then the rats were sacrificed and kidneys were removed for light and electron microscope studies. Moreover, reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as well as catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined in renal tissues. Gentamicin elevated the serum levels of creatinine, urea and uric acid as well as the MDA level in the renal tissue, while it decreased CAT, SOD activities and GSH levels as well as produced degenerative changes in glomeruli and tubules associated with increased expression of apoptotic markers and decreased expression of anti-apoptotic markers. Administration of cilostazol decreased urea, creatinine, uric acid and MDA levels while increased CAT and SOD activities and GSH levels as well as ameliorated the histopathological changes in relation to gentamicin group. Cilostazol protected rats from gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity possibly, in part through its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression is upregulated in oral submucous fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We tested the hypothesis that inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS modulates angiogenesis in human models and this information could be extrapolated in elucidating the pathophysiology of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF. A hypothesis which looks inadequate, but is deep rooted in literature is the epithelial alteration ("atrophy" seen in OSF and the events that lead to its causation. This aspect was tried to be addressed and an alternative pathogenetic pathway for the disease is proposed. Materials and Methods: This immunohistochemical study sought to investigate the expression of iNOS in OSF samples (n= 30 a using monospecific antibody (SC- 2050, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc to the protein and also to correlate it with different grades of epithelial dysplasia associated with the disease. Twenty (20 healthy adults acted as controls. Results: iNOS staining was not demonstrated in normal oral epithelium. In oral epithelial dysplasia, staining was seen in all cases (100% in the basal layers of the epithelium and in 30% of cases it extended into the parabasal compartments as well. iNOS staining was uniformly positive in moderate dysplasia with an increase in intensity and distribution noted as the severity of dysplasia progressed. There were highly significant differences in overall positivity for iNOS in epithelium between cases and controls (Mann-Whitney U = 11.000, Wilcoxon W = 221.00, P = 0.000. Significant comparisons were made of mild Vs moderate dysplasia (Mann-Whitney U = 48.000, P = 0.014 Conclusions: This study supports our earlier morphological assessment (image analysis of the nature of vascularity in OSF mucosa. The significant vasodilation noticed in these cases argues against the concept of ischemic atrophy of the epithelium. This observation of vascularity and iNOS expression helped to explain the vasodilation noticed (sinusoids in this disease; NO being a net vasodilator. The mechanism of activation of iNOS in dysplasia is

  7. Artichoke, Cynarin and Cyanidin Downregulate the Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Human Coronary Smooth Muscle Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Xia; Andrea Pautz; Ursula Wollscheid; Gisela Reifenberg; Ulrich Förstermann; Huige Li

    2014-01-01

    Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is one of the world’s oldest medicinal plants with multiple health benefits. We have previously shown that artichoke leaf extracts and artichoke flavonoids upregulate the gene expression of endothelial-type nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human endothelial cells. Whereas NO produced by the eNOS is a vasoprotective molecule, NO derived from the inducible iNOS plays a pro-inflammatory role in the vasculature. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects ...

  8. Vascular gene transfer of the human inducible nitric oxide synthase: characterization of activity and effects on myointimal hyperplasia.

    OpenAIRE

    E.; Tzeng; Shears, L. L.; Robbins, P. D.; Pitt, B.R.; Geller, D. A.; Watkins, S C; Simmons, R.L.; Billiar, T R

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to decrease myointimal hyperplasia in injured blood vessels. We hypothesize inducible No synthase (iNOS) gene transfer even at low efficiency will provide adequate local no production to achieve this goal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retroviral vector containing the human iNOS cDNA (DFGiNOS) was used to transfer the iNOS gene into vascular cells and isolated blood vessels to answer the following questions: can vascular endothelial and smooth muscle ce...

  9. Immunocytochemical localization of inducible nitric oxide synthase and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in leprosy lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanolkar-Young, S; Snowdon, D; Lockwood, D N

    1998-09-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and TGF-beta were localized by immunocytochemistry in skin lesions from patients across the leprosy spectrum, and from patients undergoing reversal reaction. iNOS expression was highest at the tuberculoid pole of the spectrum, and increased during reversal reaction. TGF-beta was observed throughout the leprosy spectrum, but was highest at the lepromatous pole. Levels of TGF-beta decreased during reversal reaction. Reduced levels of TGF-beta may contribute to unregulated inflammatory responses during reactional episodes.

  10. Nitric oxide donor seed priming enhances defense responses and induces resistance against pearl millet downy mildew disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manjunatha, G.; Raj, S. Niranjan; Shetty, Nandini Prasad

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) donors Nitroso-R-Salt, 2-Nitroso-1-Naphthol and Sodium Nitro Prusside (SNP) were evaluated for their effectiveness in protecting pearl millet [(Pennisetum glaucum L.) R. Br.] plants against downy mildew disease caused by Sclerospora graminicola [(Sacc). Schroet]. Optimization...... between the inducer treatment and subsequent pathogen inoculation was necessary for maximum resistance development. Disease protection ability of NO donors was also validated as durable in nature. Conversely, prior-treatment with NO scavenger 2-4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5 tetrazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium...

  11. Irisolidone attenuates ethanol-induced gastric injury in mice by inhibiting the infiltration of neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Geum-Dan; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Jang, Se-Eun; Han, Myung Joo; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2017-02-01

    This study was designed to determine whether irisolidone and its glycoside kakkalide, which are the major constituents of the flower of Pueraria lobata (Kudzu) can attenuate ethanol-induced gastritic injury in mice. Irisolidone and kakkalide inhibited IL-8 secretion and NF-κB activation in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated KATO III cells. Therefore, we investigated their protective effects against ethanol-induced gastric injury in mice. Pretreatment with kakkalide or irisolidone decreased the area of hemorrhagic ulcerative lesions caused by ethanol and suppressed stomach myeloperoxidase activity, CXCL4 secretion, and NF-κB activation. The ameliorating effect of irisolidone was more potent than that of kakkalide. Irisolidone may attenuate ethanol-induced gastritis by inhibiting the infiltration of immune cells, particularly neutrophils, through the regulation of CXCL-4 or IL-8 secretion. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Nitric oxide and heat shock protein 90 co-regulate temperature-induced bleaching in the soft coral Eunicea fusca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Cliff

    2014-06-01

    Coral bleaching represents a complex physiological process that is affected not only by environmental conditions but by the dynamic internal cellular biology of symbiotic dinoflagellates ( Symbiodinium spp.) and their cnidarian hosts. Recently, nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a key molecule involved with the expulsion of Symbiodinium from host cnidarian cells. However, the site of production remains under debate, and the corresponding signaling pathways within and between host and endosymbiont remain elusive. In this study, using freshly isolated Symbiodinium from the soft coral Eunicea fusca, I demonstrate that thermally induced stress causes an upregulation in Symbiodinium heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90). In turn, Hsp90 shows a concomitant ability to enhance the activity of a constitutively expressed isoform of NO synthase. The resulting production of NO constitutes a signaling molecule capable of inducing Symbiodinium expulsion. Using nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and Hsp90 polyclonal antibodies, thermal stress-induced Hsp90 was shown to co-immunoprecipitate with a constitutive isoform of NOS. The specific blocking of Hsp90 activity, with the Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin, was capable of inhibiting NO production implicating the involvement of a coordinated regulatory system. These results have strong evolutionary implications for Hsp90-NOS chaperone complexes among biological kingdoms and provide evidence for a new functional role in symbiotic associations.

  13. Nitric Oxide Functions as a Signal in Ultraviolet-B-Induced Baicalin Accumulation in Scutellaria baicalensis Suspension Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Jie Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Stress induced by ultraviolet-B (UV-B irradiation stimulates the accumulation of various secondary metabolites in plants. Nitric oxide (NO serves as an important secondary messenger in UV-B stress-induced signal transduction pathways. NO can be synthesized in plants by either enzymatic catalysis or an inorganic nitrogen pathway. The effects of UV-B irradiation on the production of baicalin and the associated molecular pathways in plant cells are poorly understood. In this study, nitric oxide synthase (NOS activity, NO release and the generation of baicalin were investigated in cell suspension cultures of Scutellaria baicalensis exposed to UV-B irradiation. UV-B irradiation significantly increased NOS activity, NO release and baicalin biosynthesis in S. baicalensis cells. Additionally, exogenous NO supplied by the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP, led to a similar increase in the baicalin content as the UV-B treatment. The NOS inhibitor, Nω-nitro-l-arginine (LNNA, and NO scavenger, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO partially inhibited UV-B-induced NO release and baicalin accumulation. These results suggest that NO is generated by NOS or NOS-like enzymes and plays an important role in baicalin biosynthesis as part of the defense response of S. baicalensis cells to UV-B irradiation.

  14. Nitric oxide induced by polyamines involves antioxidant systems against chilling stress in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seedling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Qian-Nan; Song, Yong-Jun; Shi, Dong-Mei; Qi, Hong-Yan

    Polyamines (PAs) and nitric oxide (NO) are vital signals in modulating plant response to abiotic stress. However, to our knowledge, studies on the relationship between NO and PAs in response to cold stress in tomato are limited. Accordingly, in this study, we investigated the effects of putrescine (Put) and spermidine (Spd) on NO generation and the function of Spd-induced NO in the tolerance of tomato seedling under chilling stress. Spd increased NO release via the nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like and nitrate reductase (NR) enzymatic pathways in the seedlings, whereas Put had no such effect. Moreover, H 2 O 2 might act as an upstream signal to stimulate NO production. Both exogenous NO donor (sodium nitroprusside (SNP)) and Spd enhanced chilling tolerance in tomato, thereby protecting the photosynthetic system from damage. Compared to chilling treatment alone, Spd enhanced the gene expressions of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and their enzyme activities in tomato leaves. However, a scavenger or inhibitor of NO abolished Spd-induced chilling tolerance and blocked the increased expression and activity due to Spd of these antioxidant enzymes in tomato leaves under chilling stress. The results showed that NO induced by Spd plays a crucial role in tomato's response to chilling stress.

  15. Nitric oxide induced by polyamines involves antioxidant systems against chilling stress in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seedling*#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Qian-Nan; Song, Yong-Jun; Shi, Dong-Mei; Qi, Hong-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Polyamines (PAs) and nitric oxide (NO) are vital signals in modulating plant response to abiotic stress. However, to our knowledge, studies on the relationship between NO and PAs in response to cold stress in tomato are limited. Accordingly, in this study, we investigated the effects of putrescine (Put) and spermidine (Spd) on NO generation and the function of Spd-induced NO in the tolerance of tomato seedling under chilling stress. Spd increased NO release via the nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like and nitrate reductase (NR) enzymatic pathways in the seedlings, whereas Put had no such effect. Moreover, H2O2 might act as an upstream signal to stimulate NO production. Both exogenous NO donor (sodium nitroprusside (SNP)) and Spd enhanced chilling tolerance in tomato, thereby protecting the photosynthetic system from damage. Compared to chilling treatment alone, Spd enhanced the gene expressions of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and their enzyme activities in tomato leaves. However, a scavenger or inhibitor of NO abolished Spd-induced chilling tolerance and blocked the increased expression and activity due to Spd of these antioxidant enzymes in tomato leaves under chilling stress. The results showed that NO induced by Spd plays a crucial role in tomato’s response to chilling stress. PMID:27921397

  16. H. pylori attenuates TNBS-induced colitis via increasing mucosal Th2 cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Zhong; Tan, Gao; Wu, Fang; Zhi, Fa-Chao

    2017-09-26

    There is an epidemiological inverse relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and Crohn's disease (CD). However, whether H. pylori plays a protective role against CD remains unclear. Since 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis is thought to resemble CD, we investigated whether H. pylori can attenuate TNBS-induced colitis in mice. Here we show that H. pylori can attenuate the severity of TNBS-induced colitis. In addition, H. pylori not only down-regulates Th17 and Th1 cytokine expression, but can up-regulate Th2 cytokine expression and increase the Th2:Th17 ratio of CD4+ T in the colonic mucosa of TNBS-induced colitis. Our results indicate that H. pylori attenuates TNBS-induced colitis mainly through increasing Th2 cells in murine colonic mucosa. Our finding offers a novel view on the role of H. pylori in regulating gastrointestinal immunity, and may open a new avenue for development of therapeutic strategies in CD by making use of asymptomatic H. pylori colonization.

  17. Interaction between abscisic acid and nitric oxide in PB90-induced catharanthine biosynthesis of catharanthus roseus cell suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Chen, Zunwei; Lu, Li; Jin, Haihong; Sun, Lina; Yu, Qin; Xu, Hongke; Yang, Fengxia; Fu, Mengna; Li, Shengchao; Wang, Huizhong; Xu, Maojun

    2013-01-01

    Elicitations are considered to be an important strategy to improve production of secondary metabolites of plant cell cultures. However, mechanisms responsible for the elicitor-induced production of secondary metabolites of plant cells have not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we report that treatment of Catharanthus roseus cell suspension cultures with PB90, a protein elicitor from Phytophthora boehmeriae, induced rapid increases of abscisic acid (ABA) and nitric oxide (NO), subsequently followed by the enhancement of catharanthine production and up-regulation of Str and Tdc, two important genes in catharanthine biosynthesis. PB90-induced catharanthine production and the gene expression were suppressed by the ABA inhibitor and NO scavenger respectively, showing that ABA and NO are essential for the elicitor-induced catharanthine biosynthesis. The relationship between ABA and NO in mediating catharanthine biosynthesis was further investigated. Treatment of the cells with ABA triggered NO accumulation and induced catharanthine production and up-regulation of Str and Tdc. ABA-induced catharanthine production and gene expressions were suppressed by the NO scavenger. Conversely, exogenous application of NO did not stimulate ABA generation and treatment with ABA inhibitor did not suppress NO-induced catharanthine production and gene expressions. Together, the results showed that both NO and ABA were involved in PB90-induced catharanthine biosynthesis of C. roseus cells. Furthermore, our data demonstrated that ABA acted upstream of NO in the signaling cascade leading to PB90-induced catharanthine biosynthesis of C. roseus cells. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  18. Rosiglitazone Attenuated Endothelin-1-Induced Vasoconstriction of Pulmonary Arteries in the Rat Model of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension via Differential Regulation of ET-1 Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahan Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a fatal disease characterized by a progressive increase in pulmonary arterial pressure leading to right ventricular failure and death. Activation of the endothelin (ET-1 system has been demonstrated in plasma and lung tissue of PAH patients as well as in animal models of PAH. Recently, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ agonists have been shown to ameliorate PAH. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism for the antivasoconstrictive effects of rosiglitazone in response to ET-1 in PAH. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to chronic hypoxia (10% oxygen for 3 weeks. Pulmonary arteries from PAH rats showed an enhanced vasoconstriction in response to ET-1. Treatment with PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone (20 mg/kg per day with oral gavage for 3 days attenuated the vasocontractive effect of ET-1. The effect of rosiglitazone was lost in the presence of L-NAME, indicating a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. Western blotting revealed that rosiglitazone increased ETBR but decreased ETAR level in pulmonary arteries from PAH rats. ETBR antagonist A192621 diminished the effect of rosiglitazone on ET-1-induced contraction. These results demonstrated that rosiglitazone attenuated ET-1-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction in PAH through differential regulation of the subtypes of ET-1 receptors and, thus, provided a new mechanism for the therapeutic use of PPARγ agonists in PAH.

  19. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy attenuates central sensitization induced by a thermal injury in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, V M; Borgen, A E; Jansen, E C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2 ) treatment has in animal experiments demonstrated antinociceptive effects. It was hypothesized that these effects would attenuate secondary hyperalgesia areas (SHAs), an expression of central sensitization, after a first-degree thermal injury in humans. METHODS...... was demonstrated. However, in the nine volunteers starting with the control session, a statistical significant attenuation of SHAs was demonstrated in the HBO2 session (P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that HBO2 therapy in humans attenuates central sensitization induced by a thermal skin injury......, compared with control. These new and original findings in humans corroborate animal experimental data. The thermal injury model may give impetus to future human neurophysiological studies exploring the central effects of hyperbaric oxygen treatment....

  20. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 deficiency attenuates cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang Joo; Ha, Chae-Myeong; Choi, Young-Keun; Park, Sungmi; Choe, Mi Sun; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Huh, Yang Hoon; Kim, Hyo-Jeong; Kweon, Hee-Seok; Lee, Ji-Min; Lee, Sun Joo; Jeon, Jae-Han; Harris, Robert A; Park, Keun-Gyu; Lee, In-Kyu

    2017-04-01

    Clinical prescription of cisplatin, one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents, is limited by its side effects, particularly tubular injury-associated nephrotoxicity. Since details of the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, we investigated the role of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury. Among the PDK isoforms, PDK4 mRNA and protein levels were markedly increased in the kidneys of mice treated with cisplatin, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation was involved in cisplatin-induced renal PDK4 expression. Treatment with the PDK inhibitor sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) or genetic knockout of PDK4 attenuated the signs of cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury, including apoptotic morphology of the kidney tubules along with numbers of TUNEL-positive cells, cleaved caspase-3, and renal tubular injury markers. Cisplatin-induced suppression of the mitochondrial membrane potential, oxygen consumption rate, expression of electron transport chain components, cytochrome c oxidase activity, and disruption of mitochondrial morphology were noticeably improved in the kidneys of DCA-treated or PDK4 knockout mice. Additionally, levels of the oxidative stress marker 4-hydroxynonenal and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species were attenuated, whereas superoxide dismutase 2 and catalase expression and glutathione synthetase and glutathione levels were recovered in DCA-treated or PDK4 knockout mice. Interestingly, lipid accumulation was considerably attenuated in DCA-treated or PDK4 knockout mice via recovered expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and coactivator PGC-1α, which was accompanied by recovery of mitochondrial biogenesis. Thus, PDK4 mediates cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury, suggesting that PDK4 might be a therapeutic target for attenuating cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. ATP induced vasodilatation and purinergic receptors in the human leg: roles of nitric oxide, prostaglandins and adenosine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan P; Gonzalez-Alonso, Jose; Bune, Laurids

    2009-01-01

    Plasma adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) is thought to contribute to the local regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow. Intravascular ATP infusion can induce profound limb muscle vasodilatation, but the purinergic receptors and downstream signals involved in this response remain unclear. This study...... investigated: 1) the role of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandins and adenosine as mediators of ATP induced limb vasodilation and 2) the expression and distribution of purinergic P2 receptors in human skeletal muscle. Systemic and leg hemodynamics were measured before and during 5-7 min of femoral intra.......05) and was associated with a parallel lowering in leg vascular conductance and cardiac output and a compensatory increase in leg O2 extraction. Infusion of theophylline did not alter the ATP induced leg hyperemia or systemic variables. Real time PCR analysis of the mRNA content from the vastus lateralus muscle of 8...

  2. Nitric oxide, as a downstream signal, plays vital role in auxin induced cucumber tolerance to sodic alkaline stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Biao; Miao, Li; Kong, Wenjie; Bai, Ji-Gang; Wang, Xiufeng; Wei, Min; Shi, Qinghua

    2014-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA) play vital roles in regulating plants tolerance to abiotic stresses. This study showed that both NO and IAA could induce cucumber plants tolerance to sodic alkaline stress, which depended on their roles in regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, antioxidative enzymes activities, Na(+) accumulation and protecting photosystems II (PSII) from damage. In addition, IAA has significant effect on NO accumulation in cucumber root, which could be responsible for IAA-induced sodic alkaline stress tolerance. Further investigation indicated that the function of IAA could be abolished by NO scavenger (cPTIO). On the contrary, IAA transport inhibitor (NPA) showed no significant effects on abolishing the function of NO. Based on these results, it could be concluded that NO is an essential downstream signal for IAA-induced cucumber tolerance to sodic alkaline stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. How the Location of Superoxide Generation Influences the β-Cell Response to Nitric Oxide*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broniowska, Katarzyna A.; Oleson, Bryndon J.; McGraw, Jennifer; Naatz, Aaron; Mathews, Clayton E.; Corbett, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines impair the function and decrease the viability of insulin-producing β-cells by a pathway that requires the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and generation of high levels of nitric oxide. In addition to nitric oxide, excessive formation of reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, has been shown to cause β-cell damage. Although the reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide results in the formation of peroxynitrite, we have shown that β-cells do not have the capacity to produce this powerful oxidant in response to cytokines. When β-cells are forced to generate peroxynitrite using nitric oxide donors and superoxide-generating redox cycling agents, superoxide scavenges nitric oxide and prevents the inhibitory and destructive actions of nitric oxide on mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and β-cell viability. In this study, we show that the β-cell response to nitric oxide is regulated by the location of superoxide generation. Nitric oxide freely diffuses through cell membranes, and it reacts with superoxide produced within cells and in the extracellular space, generating peroxynitrite. However, only when it is produced within cells does superoxide attenuate nitric oxide-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, gene expression, and toxicity. These findings suggest that the location of radical generation and the site of radical reactions are key determinants in the functional response of β-cells to reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. Although nitric oxide is freely diffusible, its biological function can be controlled by the local generation of superoxide, such that when this reaction occurs within β-cells, superoxide protects β-cells by scavenging nitric oxide. PMID:25648890

  4. Okanin, effective constituent of the flower tea Coreopsis tinctoria, attenuates LPS-induced microglial activation through inhibition of the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yue; Li, Guoxun; Wang, Jian; Pan, Yingni; Jiao, Kun; Du, Juan; Chen, Ru; Wang, Bing; Li, Ning

    2017-04-01

    The EtOAc extract of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. significantly inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, as judged by the Griess reaction, and attenuated the LPS-induced elevation in iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA levels, as determined by quantitative real-time PCR, when incubated with BV-2 microglial cells. Immunohistochemical results showed that the EtOAc extract significantly decreased the number of Iba-1-positive cells in the hippocampal region of LPS-treated mouse brains. The major effective constituent of the EtOAc extract, okanin, was further investigated. Okanin significantly suppressed LPS-induced iNOS expression and also inhibited IL-6 and TNF-α production and mRNA expression in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. Western blot analysis indicated that okanin suppressed LPS-induced activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway by inhibiting the phosphorylation of IκBα and decreasing the level of nuclear NF-κB p65 after LPS treatment. Immunofluorescence staining results showed that okanin inhibited the translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit from the cytosol to the nucleus. Moreover, okanin significantly inhibited LPS-induced TLR4 expression in BV-2 cells. In summary, okanin attenuates LPS-induced activation of microglia. This effect may be associated with its capacity to inhibit the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathways. These results suggest that okanin may have potential as a nutritional preventive strategy for neurodegenerative disorders.

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of exhaled nitric oxide in exercise-induced bronchospasm: Systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A.S. Feitosa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The gold-standard method for the diagnosis of exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB is an exercise test combined with spirometry. However, this test is expensive, time consuming and requires specialized equipment and trained personnel. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO is a fast, easy, noninvasive method for the diagnosis of EIB. The aim of the present study was to assess the accuracy of the measurement of eNO for the diagnosis of EIB through a systematic review of the literature. Methods: A search was carried out in the PubMed, Lilacs, SciELO and SCOPUS databases by two independent researchers. Results: Fifty-six papers were found. Following the application of the eligibility criteria to the title, abstract and text, six papers remained for analysis. There was a significant heterogeneity in sex (X2 = 56.44, p = 0.000 and clinical spectrum (X2 = 504.00, p = 0.000 between studies. In children between 3.8 and 7.8 years old a cutoff point >28 ppb EIB can be ruled in and in children between 5 and 16 years old at a cutoff point 12. Four papers reported negative predictive values above 88%. Conclusion: The measurement of eNO seems to be effective for ruling in and ruling out EIB in some specific groups. Therefore, the meansurement of eNO levels could be an important tool to safely avoid the need for an exercise test when the result is negative, reducing the individual and economic impact of this disease. Resumo: Introdução: O método padrão de ouro para o diagnóstico de broncoespasmos induzidos por exercício (BIE é a prova de esforço combinada com a espirometria. Contudo, esta prova é dispendiosa, demorada e requer equipamento específico e pessoal especializado. O óxido nítrico exalado (eNO é um método rápido, simples e não invasivo para o diagnóstico de BIE. O objectivo do presente estudo foi o de aferir a acurácia do eNO para o diagnóstico do BIE através da revisão sistemática da literatura. Métodos: Foi efectuada

  6. The effect of the nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor L-NAME on amitriptyline-induced hypotension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncok, Yesim; Kalkan, Sule; Murat, Nergis; Arkan, Filiz; Guven, Hulya; Aygoren, Oguz; Kurt, Serdar

    2002-01-01

    Hypotension induced by tricyclic antidepressants is multifactorial. Previous animal experiments suggest a contribution from nitric oxide production. Our study aimed to evaluate the role of nitric oxide in amitriptyline-induced hypotension using N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor, and 3-morpholino sydnonimine, a nitric oxide donor, in anesthetized rats. Amitriptyline intoxication was induced by the continuous infusion of amitriptyline 0.625 mg/kg/min throughout the experiment in anesthetized rats. Fifteen and 25 minutes after amitriptyline infusion began, two bolus doses of 10 mg/kg of N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (n = 8) or an equivalent volume of 5% dextrose solution (n = 8) was administered to each rat (Protocol 1). To investigate whether the effect of N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester on blood pressure is counteracted by 3-morpholino sydnonimine, after the same protocol of amitriptyline infusion and 5 minutes after an N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester bolus, a bolus of 3000 nmol/kg of 3-morpholino sydnonimine was administered (n = 8) to each rat (Protocol 2). To investigate the effect of N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester on 3-morpholino sydnonimine induced hypotension, a group of rats received a continuous infusion of 0.54 mg/kg/h of 3-morpholino sydnonimine until 50% reduction was observed in mean arterial blood pressure followed by a bolus dose of 10 mg/kg of N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (n = 6) or 5% dextrose solution (n = 6) (Protocol 3). Outcome measures included mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and QRS duration in electrocardiogram. Student's t test and survival analysis were used for selected comparisons. For all parameters, the treatment groups were similar at baseline and at postamitriptyline periods before therapy was rendered. Amitriptyline infusion significantly reduced mean arterial blood pressure by 50.8 +/- 2.2% and prolonged QRS by 23.9 +/- 7.2% after 15 minutes. In Protocol 1, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl

  7. Losartan attenuates paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, F; Sun, Y B; Su, L; Li, S; Liu, Z F; Li, J; Hu, X T; Li, J

    2015-05-01

    Paraquat (PQ) is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world and can cause pulmonary fibrosis in the cases with intoxication. Losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, has beneficial effects on the treatment of fibrosis. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of losartan on pulmonary fibrosis in PQ-intoxicated rats. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 32, 180-220 g) were randomly assigned to four groups: (i) control group; (ii) PQ group; (iii) PQ + losartan 7d group; and (iv) PQ + losartan 14d group. Losartan treatment (intragastrically (i.g.), 10 mg/kg) was performed for 7 and 14 days after a single i.g. dose of 40 mg/kg PQ. All rats were killed on the 16th day, and hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome staining were used to examine lung injury and fibrosis. The levels of hydroxyproline and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), matrix metallopeptidase 9 (Mmp9), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and relative expression levels of collagen type I and III were also detected. PQ caused a significant increase in hydroxyproline content, mRNA expression of TGF-β1, Mmp9, and TIMP-1, and relative expression levels of collagen type I and III ( p losartan significantly decreased the amount of hydroxyproline and downregulated TGF-β1, Mmp9, and TIMP-1 mRNA and collagen type I and III expressions ( p losartan could markedly reduce such damage and prevent pulmonary fibrosis. The results of this study indicated that losartan could reduce lung damage and prevent pulmonary fibrosis induced by PQ. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Rikkunshi-to attenuates adverse gastrointestinal symptoms induced by fluvoxamine

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    Kodama Naoki

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upper gastrointestinal (GI symptoms such as nausea and vomiting are common adverse events associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, and may result in discontinuation of drug therapy in patients with depressive disorder. Rikkunshi-to (formulation TJ-43, a traditional herbal medicine, has been reported to improve upper GI symptoms and comorbid depressive symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia. The aim of the present study was to determine if TJ-43 reduces GI symptoms and potentiates an antidepressant effect in a randomized controlled study of depressed patients treated with fluvoxamine (FLV. Methods Fifty patients with depressive disorder (19–78 years, mean age 40.2 years were treated with FLV (n = 25 or FLV in combination with TJ-43 (FLV+TJ-43 (n = 25 for eight weeks. The following parameters of the two groups were compared: The number of patients who complained of adverse events and their symptoms; GI symptoms quality of life (QOL score, assessed by the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS, Japanese edition, before and two weeks after beginning treatment; and depressive symptoms assessed by the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS, before and 2, 4, and 8 weeks after beginning treatment. Results The number of patients who complained of adverse events in the FLV+TJ-43 group (n = 6 was significantly lower than the number complaining in the FLV group (n = 13 (P P Conclusion This study suggests that Rikkunshi-to reduces FLV-induced adverse events, especially nausea, and improves QOL related to GI symptoms without affecting the antidepressant effect of FLV.

  9. Sequential expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nitrotyrosine in odontoblasts and pulp cells during dentin repair after tooth preparation in rat molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yu Feng; Yamaza, Takayoshi; Atsuta, Ikiru; Danjo, Atsushi; Yamashita, Yoshio; Kido, Mizuho A; Goto, Masaaki; Akamine, Akifumi; Tanaka, Teruo

    2007-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) stimulates osteoblast differentiation, but whether NO contributes to odontoblast differentiation during dentin repair is unknown. By using reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining, we investigated the gene expression and/or immunolocalization of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS), and nitrotyrosine (a biomarker for NO-derived peroxinitrite), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (early and terminal differentiation markers of odontoblasts, respectively) in dental pulp tissue after rat tooth preparation. At the early stage (1-3 days) post-preparation, markedly increased expression of iNOS and nitrotyrosine was found in odontoblasts and pulp cells beneath the cavity, whereas eNOS expression was significantly decreased. ALP mRNA expression was significantly increased after 1 day but decreased after 3 days, whereas ALP activity was weak in the dentin-pulp interface under the cavity after 1 day but strong after 3 days. Osteocalcin mRNA expression was significantly increased at this stage. At 7 days post-preparation, tertiary dentin was formed under the cavity. All the molecules studied were expressed at control levels in odontoblasts/pulp cells beneath the cavity. These findings show that abundant NO is released from odontoblasts and pulp cells at an early stage after tooth preparation and indicate that, after tooth preparation, the up-regulation of iNOS and nitrotyrosine in odontoblasts is synchronized with increased cellular expression of ALP and osteocalcin. Therefore, the NO synthesized by iNOS after tooth preparation probably participates in regulating odontoblast differentiation during tertiary dentinogenesis.

  10. Sepiapterin decreases acute rejection and apoptosis in cardiac transplants independently of changes in nitric oxide and inducible nitric-oxide synthase dimerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Galen M; Ionova, Irina A; Cooley, Brian C; Migrino, Raymond Q; Khanna, Ashwani K; Whitsett, Jennifer; Vásquez-Vivar, Jeannette

    2009-06-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)), a cofactor of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), is an important post-translational regulator of NO bioactivity. We examined whether treatment of cardiac allograft recipients with sepiapterin [S-(-)-2-amino-7,8-dihydro-6-(2-hydroxy-1-oxopropyl)-4-(1H)-pteridinone], a precursor of BH(4), inhibited acute rejection and apoptosis in cardiac transplants. Heterotopic cardiac transplantation was performed in Wistar-Furth donor to Lewis recipient strain rats. Recipients were treated daily after transplantation with 10 mg/kg sepiapterin. Grafts were harvested on post-transplant day 6 for analysis of BH(4) (high-performance liquid chromatography), expression of inflammatory cytokines (reverse transcription- and real-time polymerase chain reaction), iNOS (Western blots), and NO (Griess reaction and NO analyzer). Histological rejection grade was scored, and graft function was determined by echocardiography. Apoptosis, protein nitration, and oxidative stress were determined by immunohistochemistry. Treatment of allografts with sepiapterin increased cardiac BH(4) levels by 3-fold without changing protein levels of GTP cyclohydrolase, the enzyme that regulates de novo BH(4) synthesis. Sepiapterin decreased inflammatory cell infiltrate and significantly inhibited histological rejection scores and apoptosis similar in magnitude to cyclosporine. Sepiapterin also decreased nitrative and oxidative stress. Sepiapterin caused a smaller increase in left ventricular mass versus untreated allografts but without improving fractional shortening. Sepiapterin did not alter tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma expression, whereas it decreased interleukin (IL)-2 expression. Sepiapterin did not change total iNOS protein or monomer levels, or plasma and tissue NO metabolites levels. It is concluded that the mechanism(s) of antirejection are due in part to decreased apoptosis, protein nitration, and oxidation of cardiomyocytes, which seems to be

  11. Hypotonic swelling promotes nitric oxide release in cardiac ventricular myocytes: impact on swelling-induced negative inotropic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonano, Luis Alberto; Morell, Malena; Burgos, Juan Ignacio; Dulce, Raul Ariel; De Giusti, Verónica Celeste; Aiello, Ernesto Alejandro; Hare, Joshua Michael; Vila Petroff, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Cardiomyocyte swelling occurs in multiple pathological situations and has been associated with contractile dysfunction, cell death, and enhanced propensity to arrhythmias. We investigate whether hypotonic swelling promotes nitric oxide (NO) release in cardiomyocytes, and whether it impacts on swelling-induced contractile dysfunction. Superfusing rat cardiomyocytes with a hypotonic solution (HS; 217 mOsm), increased cell volume, reduced myocyte contraction and Ca(2+) transient, and increased NO-sensitive 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF-FM) fluorescence. When cells were exposed to HS + 2.5 mM of the NO synthase inhibitor l-NAME, cell swelling occurred in the absence of NO release. Swelling-induced NO release was also prevented by the nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1) inhibitor, nitroguanidine, and significantly reduced in NOS1 knockout mice. Additionally, colchicine (inhibitor of microtubule polymerization) prevented the increase in DAF-FM fluorescence induced by HS, indicating that microtubule integrity is necessary for swelling-induced NO release. The swelling-induced negative inotropic effect was exacerbated in the presence of either l-NAME, nitroguandine, the guanylate cyclase inhibitor, ODQ, or the PKG inhibitor, KT5823, suggesting that NOS1-derived NO provides contractile support via a cGMP/PKG-dependent mechanism. Indeed, ODQ reduced Ca(2+) wave velocity and both ODQ and KT5823 reduced the HS-induced increment in ryanodine receptor (RyR2, Ser2808) phosphorylation, suggesting that in this context, cGMP/PKG may contribute to preserve contractile function by enhancing sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release. Our findings suggest a novel mechanism for NO release in cardiomyocytes with putative pathophysiological relevance determined, at least in part, by its capability to reduce the extent of contractile dysfunction associated with hypotonic swelling. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The

  12. Effects of exercise training on stress-induced vascular reactivity alterations: role of nitric oxide and prostanoids

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    Thiago Bruder-Nascimento

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical exercise may modify biologic stress responses. Objective: To investigate the impact of exercise training on vascular alterations induced by acute stress, focusing on nitric oxide and cyclooxygenase pathways. Method: Wistar rats were separated into: sedentary, trained (60-min swimming, 5 days/week during 8 weeks, carrying a 5% body-weight load, stressed (2 h-immobilization, and trained/stressed. Response curves for noradrenaline, in the absence and presence of L-NAME or indomethacin, were obtained in intact and denuded aortas (n=7-10. Results: None of the procedures altered the denuded aorta reactivity. Intact aortas from stressed, trained, and trained/stressed rats showed similar reduction in noradrenaline maximal responses (sedentary 3.54±0.15, stressed 2.80±0.10*, trained 2.82±0.11*, trained/stressed 2.97± 0.21*, *P<0.05 relate to sedentary. Endothelium removal and L-NAME abolished this hyporeactivity in all experimental groups, except in trained/stressed rats that showed a partial aorta reactivity recovery in L-NAME presence (L-NAME: sedentary 5.23±0,26#, stressed 5.55±0.38#, trained 5.28±0.30#, trained/stressed 4.42±0.41, #P<0.05 related to trained/stressed. Indomethacin determined a decrease in sensitivity (EC50 in intact aortas of trained rats without abolishing the aortal hyporeactivity in trained, stressed, and trained/stressed rats. Conclusions: Exercise-induced vascular adaptive response involved an increase in endothelial vasodilator prostaglandins and nitric oxide. Stress-induced vascular adaptive response involved an increase in endothelial nitric oxide. Beside the involvement of the endothelial nitric oxide pathway, the vascular response of trained/stressed rats involved an additional mechanism yet to be elucidated. These findings advance on the understanding of the vascular processes after exercise and stress alone and in combination.

  13. Influence of cholesterol and fish oil dietary intake on nitric oxide-induced apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Sonia; Alejandre, Ma José; Palomino-Morales, Rogelio; Torres, Carolina; Linares, Ana

    2010-04-01

    Apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) is critically involved in the progression of atherosclerosis. We previously reported that dietary cholesterol intake induces changes in SMC at molecular and gene expression levels. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the differential response to nitric oxide of vascular SMC obtained from chicks after cholesterol and fish oil dietary intake and to examine effects on the main pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes. Dietary cholesterol intake reduced the Bcl-2/Bax (anti-apoptotic/pro-apoptotic) protein ratio in SMC, making them more susceptible to apoptosis. When cholesterol was withdrawn and replaced with a fish oil-enriched diet, the Bcl-xl/Bax protein ratio significantly increased, reversing the changes induced by cholesterol. The decrease in c-myc gene expression after apoptotic stimuli and the increase in Bcl-xl/Bax ratio indicate that fish oil has a protective role against apoptosis in SMC. Nitroprussiate-like nitric oxide donors exerted an intensive action on vascular SMC cultures. However, SMC-C (isolated from animals fed with control diet) and SMC-Ch (isolated from animals fed with cholesterol-enriched diet) responded differently to nitric oxide, especially in their bcl-2 and bcl-xl gene expression. SMC isolated from animals fed with cholesterol-enriched and then fish oil-enriched diet (SMC-Ch-FO cultures) showed an intermediate apoptosis level (Bcl-2/Bax ratio) between SMC-C and SMC-Ch, induction of c-myc expression and elevated p53 expression. These findings indicate that fish oil protects SMC against apoptosis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of weight loss on serum concentrations of nitric oxide induced by short - term exercise in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Olszanecka-Glinianowicz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of present study was to examine the effect of weight loss comprising regular moderate physical activity on resting serum concentrations of nitric oxide metabolites and exercise induced NO release. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in 43 obese women without additional diseases (age 41.8±11.9y, body weight 94.5±15.1kg, BMI 36.5±4.6kg/m2. All obese patients participated in a 3-month weight reduction programme that consisted of 1 a group instruction in behavioural and dietary methods of weight control every two weeks; 2 1000-1400kcal/day balanced diet, and 3 moderate physical exercises (30 minutes, 3 times a week. Before and after treatment body mass and height were measured, body mass index (BMI was calculated. Body composition was determined by impedance analysis using a Bodystat analyser. The serum concentration of nitric oxide metabolites before and after exercise was measured using spectrophotometry method by Griess. The serum concentrations of lactate before and after exercise were measured with the use of strip test (ACCUSPORT analyzer. Serum concentration of insulin was measured with the use of RIA. Plasma glucose, cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglicerydes were determined by enzymatic procedure. Results: The mean weight loss during treatment was 8.3±4.3 kg. We did not observe differences between resting serum concentrations of NO and lactate before and after weight loss. During exercise serum NO concentrations increased significantly both before and after weight loss treatment. After the weight reduction treatment, the time of exercise test increased significantly P<0.005, but there were no significant differences between the value of NO before and after weight loss. Conclusion: 3 – month regular physical activity and weight loss did not influence exercise-induced nitric oxide production.

  15. Formalin attenuates the stress-induced increase in plasma epinephrine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mravec, B; Bodnar, I; Uhereczky, G; Nagy, G M; Kvetnansky, R; Palkovits, M

    2005-11-01

    Subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of formalin into rats is frequently used as a painful stressor that produces a three-phase nociceptive response. We have shown previously that s.c. administered formalin (0.2 ml of 4% solution per 100 g body weight) unexpectedly attenuated the increase of plasma epinephrine levels in rats exposed to exteroceptive stressors (handling, immobilisation). To clarify the mechanism(s) responsible for this phenomenon, the effect of formalin applications on epinephrine plasma levels was investigated in various experimental conditions. Subcutaneous application of formalin combined with exposures of animals to an interoceptive stressor, insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, significantly attenuated the stress-induced increase in plasma epinephrine levels, whereas plasma norepinephrine levels remained highly elevated. Moreover, administration of formalin to unstressed animals also manifested signs of an attenuated epinephrine secretion. Interestingly, intraperitoneal administration of formalin did not reduce the elevated levels of plasma epinephrine. We suggest that formalin attenuates epinephrine secretion from the adrenal medulla most probably via irritation of s.c. somatosensory receptors. We hypothesise that the irritation of the primary sensory afferents fibres might reduce the activity of the sympathetic preganglionic neurones innervating adrenal medullary chromaffin cells. Further investigations are required to establish whether the observed reduction of epinephrine secretion from the adrenal medulla is controlled by either spinal or supraspinal neuronal circuits.

  16. D-cycloserine attenuates scopolamine-induced learning and memory deficits in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishkin, R J; Ince, E S; Carlezon, W A; Dunn, R W

    1993-03-01

    The muscarinic antagonist scopolamine (SCOP; 1.0 mg/kg, ip) impaired both the acquisition of a learning task in the Morris water maze (MWM) and choice accuracy in the T-maze reinforced alternation procedure in rats. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) have been shown to attenuate these deficits. D-Cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist at the strychnine-insensitive glycine site on the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor complex, was investigated for its effects on SCOP-induced dementia in the MWM and T-maze paradigms. Combined administration of SCOP and DCS (3.0, 10.0, or 30.0 mg/kg, ip; 30 min pretreat) significantly reversed SCOP-induced deficits in the T-maze as measured by percentage correct choices. In addition, DCS (3.0 or 10.0 mg/kg, ip) significantly attenuated SCOP-induced deficits in the MWM as measured by latency to find the submerged platform. For comparison, the long-acting acetylcholinesterase inhibitor galanthamine (GAL) was tested in the T-maze (1.25, 2.5, or 5.0 mg/kg, ip) and the MWM (2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg, ip). GAL attenuated SCOP-induced deficits in both learning and memory models similar to DCS. These data suggest that the strychnine-insensitive partial glycine agonist, D-cycloserine, may be efficacious in disease states of central cholinergic hypofunction such as Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Inhibition of neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase does not affect the analgesic effects of NMDA antagonists in visceral inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srebro, Dragana; Vučković, Sonja; Prostran, Milica

    2016-01-01

    Previously we described the antinociceptive effect of magnesium sulfate and dizocilpine (MK-801) in the visceral and somatic rat models of pain. In the somatic model of pain, we established the influence of selective inhibitors of neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase on the antihyperalgesic effects of magnesium sulfate and dizocilpine. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine in the rat model of visceral pain whether same mechanisms are involved in the antinociceptive action of magnesium sulfate and dizocilpine. Analgesic activity was assessed using the acetic acid-induced writhing test in rats. Subcutaneous injection of either magnesium sulfate (15 mg/kg) or dizocilpine (0.01 mg/kg) decreased the number of writhes by about 60 and 70%, respectively. The role of nitric oxide on the effects of magnesium sulfate and dizocilpine was evaluated using selective inhibitor of neuronal (N-ω-Propyl-L-arginine hydrochloride (L-NPA)) and inducible (S-methylisothiourea (SMT)) nitric oxide synthase, which per se did not affect the number of writhes. We observed that the antinociceptive effect of magnesium sulfate or dizocilpine did not change in the presence of L-NPA (2 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) and SMT (0.015 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.). We conclude that, nitric oxide produced by neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase does not modulate the effects of magnesium sulfate and dizocilpine in the visceral inflammatory model of pain in the rat.

  18. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase induces ultrastructural changes in the neurohypophysis of dehydrated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beagley, G H; Cobbett, P

    1997-02-07

    Neuroglial relation in the rat neurohypophysis have been shown previously to change significantly after an acute dehydration stimulus. Here, we demonstrate a significant role for nitric oxide as a mediator of this response. Adult male rats were injected (i.p.) with 1.5 M NaCl or with 1.5 M NaCl and N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. Five hours after the dehydration stimulus, animals were perfusion fixed and the ultrastructure of their neurohypophyses examined. Neurohypophyses of animals injected with L-NAME and NaCl had significantly less contact between the basal lamina and the membrane of axon terminals than those of animals injected only with NaCl. There was also a significantly larger number of axonal profiles enclosed within neurohypophysial astrocytes in L-NAME and NaCl injected animals than in animals injected only with NaCl.

  19. Centella asiatica attenuates β-amyloid-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Nora E.; Sampath, Harini; Zweig, Jonathan A.; Quinn, Joseph F.; Soumyanath, Amala

    2015-01-01

    Background We previously showed that a water extract of the medicinal plant Centella asiatica (CAW) attenuates β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced cognitive deficits in vivo, and prevents Aβ-induced cytotoxicity in vitro. Yet the neuroprotective mechanism of CAW is unknown. Objective The goal of this study was to identify biochemical pathways altered by CAW using in vitro models of Aβ toxicity. Methods The effects of CAW on aberrations in antioxidant response, calcium homeostasis and mitochondrial function induced by Aβ were evaluated in MC65 and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Results CAW decreased intracellular ROS and calcium levels elevated in response to Aβ, and induced the expression of antioxidant response genes in both cell lines. In SH-SY5Y cells, CAW increased basal and maximal oxygen consumption without altering spare capacity, and attenuated Aβ-induced decreases in mitochondrial respiration. CAW also prevented Aβ –induced decreases in ATP and induced the expression of mitochondrial genes and proteins in both cell types. Caffeoylquinic acids from CAW were shown to have a similar effect on antioxidant and mitochondrial gene expression in neuroblastoma cells. Primary rat hippocampal neurons treated with CAW also showed an increase in mitochondrial and antioxidant gene expression. Conclusions These data suggest an effect of CAW on mitochondrial biogenesis, which in conjunction with activation of antioxidant response genes and normalizing calcium homeostasis, likely contributes to its neuroprotective action against Aβ toxicity. PMID:25633675

  20. Centella asiatica Attenuates Amyloid-β-Induced Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Nora E; Sampath, Harini; Zweig, Jonathan A; Quinn, Joseph F; Soumyanath, Amala

    2015-01-01

    We previously showed that a water extract of the medicinal plant Centella asiatica (CAW) attenuates amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced cognitive deficits in vivo, and prevents Aβ-induced cytotoxicity in vitro. Yet the neuroprotective mechanism of CAW is unknown. The goal of this study was to identify biochemical pathways altered by CAW using in vitro models of Aβ toxicity. The effects of CAW on aberrations in antioxidant response, calcium homeostasis, and mitochondrial function induced by Aβ were evaluated in MC65 and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. CAW decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species and calcium levels elevated in response to Aβ, and induced the expression of antioxidant response genes in both cell lines. In SH-SY5Y cells, CAW increased basal and maximal oxygen consumption without altering spare capacity, and attenuated Aβ-induced decreases in mitochondrial respiration. CAW also prevented Aβ-induced decreases in ATP and induced the expression of mitochondrial genes and proteins in both cell types. Caffeoylquinic acids from CAW were shown to have a similar effect on antioxidant and mitochondrial gene expression in neuroblastoma cells. Primary rat hippocampal neurons treated with CAW also showed an increase in mitochondrial and antioxidant gene expression. These data suggest an effect of CAW on mitochondrial biogenesis, which in conjunction with activation of antioxidant response genes and normalizing calcium homeostasis, likely contributes to its neuroprotective action against Aβ toxicity.

  1. Interactions between Nitric Oxide and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Signaling Pathways in Inflammatory Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Nels; van der Vliet, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Induction and activation of nitric oxide (NO) synthases (NOS) and excessive production of NO are common features of almost all diseases associated with infection and acute or chronic inflammation, although the contribution of NO to the pathophysiology of these diseases is highly multifactorial and often still a matter of controversy. Because of its direct impact on tissue oxygenation and cellular oxygen (O2) consumption and redistribution, the ability of NO to regulate various aspects of hypo...

  2. Aspirin induces nitric oxide release from vascular endothelium: a novel mechanism of action

    OpenAIRE

    Taubert, D; Berkels, R; Grosser, N; Schröder, H; Gründemann, D; Schömig, E

    2004-01-01

    The study was designed to test the hypothesis that aspirin may stimulate nitric oxide (NO) release from vascular endothelium, a pivotal factor for maintenance of vascular homeostasis.Clinical evidence suggests that low-dose aspirin may improve vascular endothelial function. Since other cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors showed no beneficial vascular effects, aspirin may exhibit a vasculoprotective, COX-independent mechanism.Luminal NO release was monitored in real time on dissected porcine coron...

  3. Nitric Oxide Mediates 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Induced Antioxidant Defense in Leaves of Elymus nutans Griseb. Exposed to Chilling Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Juanjuan; Chu, Xitong; Sun, Yongfang; Miao, Yanjun; Xu, Yuefei; Hu, Tianming

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) are both extremely important signalling molecules employed by plants to control many aspects of physiology. In the present study, the role of NO in ALA-induced antioxidant defense in leaves of two sources of Elymus nutans Griseb. (Damxung, DX and Zhengdao, ZD) was investigated. Chilling stress enhanced electrolyte leakage, accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide radical in two E. nutans, which were substantially alleviated by exogenous ALA and NO application. Pretreatment with NO scavenger PTIO or NOS inhibitor L-NNA alone and in combination with ALA induced enhancements in electrolyte leakage and the accumulation of MDA, H2O2 and superoxide radical in leaves of DX and ZD exposed to chilling stress, indicating that the inhibition of NO biosynthesis reduced the chilling resistance of E. nutans and the ALA-enhanced chilling resistance. Further analyses showed that ALA and NO enhanced antioxidant defense and activated plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase and decreased the accumulation of ROS induced by chilling stress. A pronounced increase in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and NO release by exogenous ALA treatment was found in chilling-resistant DX plants exposed to chilling stress, while only a little increase was observed in chilling-sensitive ZD. Furthermore, inhibition of NO accumulation by PTIO or L-NNA blocked the protective effect of exogenous ALA, while both exogenous NO treatment and inhibition of endogenous NO accumulation did not induce ALA production. These results suggested that NO might be a downstream signal mediating ALA-induced chilling resistance in E. nutans.

  4. The mechanism of the nitric oxide-mediated enhancement of tert-butylhydroperoxide-induced DNA single strand breakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidarelli, Andrea; Clementi, Emilio; Sciorati, Clara; Cantoni, Orazio

    1998-01-01

    Caffeine (Cf) enhances the DNA cleavage induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (tB-OOH) in U937 cells via a mechanism involving Ca2+-dependent mitochondrial formation of DNA-damaging species (Guidarelli et al., 1997b). Nitric oxide (NO) is not involved in this process since U937 cells do not express the constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS).Treatment with the NO donors S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP, 10 μM), or S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO, 300 μM), however, potentiated the DNA strand scission induced by 200 μM tB-OOH. The DNA lesions generated by tB-OOH alone, or combined with SNAP, were repaired with superimposable kinetics and were insensitive to anti-oxidants and peroxynitrite scavengers but suppressed by iron chelators.SNAP or GSNO did not cause mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation but their enhancing effects on the tB-OOH-induced DNA strand scission were prevented by ruthenium red, an inhibitor of the calcium uniporter of mitochondria. Furthermore, the enhancing effects of both SNAP and GSNO were identical to and not additive with those promoted by the Ca2+-mobilizing agents Cf or ATP.The SNAP- or GSNO-mediated enhancement of the tB-OOH-induced DNA cleavage was abolished by the respiratory chain inhibitors rotenone and myxothiazol and was not apparent in respiration-deficient cells.It is concluded that, in cells which do not express the enzyme cNOS, exogenous NO enhances the accumulation of DNA single strand breaks induced by tB-OOH via a mechanism involving inhibition of complex III. PMID:9846647

  5. Nitric Oxide Mediates 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Induced Antioxidant Defense in Leaves of Elymus nutans Griseb. Exposed to Chilling Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan Fu

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO and 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA are both extremely important signalling molecules employed by plants to control many aspects of physiology. In the present study, the role of NO in ALA-induced antioxidant defense in leaves of two sources of Elymus nutans Griseb. (Damxung, DX and Zhengdao, ZD was investigated. Chilling stress enhanced electrolyte leakage, accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and superoxide radical in two E. nutans, which were substantially alleviated by exogenous ALA and NO application. Pretreatment with NO scavenger PTIO or NOS inhibitor L-NNA alone and in combination with ALA induced enhancements in electrolyte leakage and the accumulation of MDA, H2O2 and superoxide radical in leaves of DX and ZD exposed to chilling stress, indicating that the inhibition of NO biosynthesis reduced the chilling resistance of E. nutans and the ALA-enhanced chilling resistance. Further analyses showed that ALA and NO enhanced antioxidant defense and activated plasma membrane (PM H+-ATPase and decreased the accumulation of ROS induced by chilling stress. A pronounced increase in nitric oxide synthase (NOS activity and NO release by exogenous ALA treatment was found in chilling-resistant DX plants exposed to chilling stress, while only a little increase was observed in chilling-sensitive ZD. Furthermore, inhibition of NO accumulation by PTIO or L-NNA blocked the protective effect of exogenous ALA, while both exogenous NO treatment and inhibition of endogenous NO accumulation did not induce ALA production. These results suggested that NO might be a downstream signal mediating ALA-induced chilling resistance in E. nutans.

  6. Selective Irreversible Inhibition of Neuronal and Inducible Nitric-oxide Synthase in the Combined Presence of Hydrogen Sulfide and Nitric Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Christian L; Schmidt, Renate; Geckl, Kerstin; Schrammel, Astrid; Gesslbauer, Bernd; Schmidt, Kurt; Mayer, Bernd; Gorren, Antonius C F

    2015-10-09

    Citrulline formation by both human neuronal nitric-oxide synthase (nNOS) and mouse macrophage inducible NOS was inhibited by the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor Na2S with IC50 values of ∼2.4·10(-5) and ∼7.9·10(-5) m, respectively, whereas human endothelial NOS was hardly affected at all. Inhibition of nNOS was not affected by the concentrations of l-arginine (Arg), NADPH, FAD, FMN, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), and calmodulin, indicating that H2S does not interfere with substrate or cofactor binding. The IC50 decreased to ∼1.5·10(-5) m at pH 6.0 and increased to ∼8.3·10(-5) m at pH 8.0. Preincubation of concentrated nNOS with H2S under turnover conditions decreased activity after dilution by ∼70%, suggesting irreversible inhibition. However, when calmodulin was omitted during preincubation, activity was not affected, suggesting that irreversible inhibition requires both H2S and NO. Likewise, NADPH oxidation was inhibited with an IC50 of ∼1.9·10(-5) m in the presence of Arg and BH4 but exhibited much higher IC50 values (∼1.0-6.1·10(-4) m) when Arg and/or BH4 was omitted. Moreover, the relatively weak inhibition of nNOS by Na2S in the absence of Arg and/or BH4 was markedly potentiated by the NO donor 1-(hydroxy-NNO-azoxy)-l-proline, disodium salt (IC50 ∼ 1.3-2.0·10(-5) m). These results suggest that nNOS and inducible NOS but not endothelial NOS are irreversibly inhibited by H2S/NO at modest concentrations of H2S in a reaction that may allow feedback inhibition of NO production under conditions of excessive NO/H2S formation. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Consumption of both low and high (-)-epicatechin apple puree attenuates platelet reactivity and increases plasma concentrations of nitric oxide metabolites: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasper, A.; Hollands, W.; Casgrain, A.; Saha, S.; Teucher, B.; Dainty, J.R.; Venema, D.P.; Hollman, P.C.H.

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesised that consumption of flavanol-containing apple puree would modulate platelet activity and increase nitric oxide metabolite status, and that high flavanol apple puree would exert a greater effect than low flavanol apple puree. 25 subjects consumed 230 g of apple puree containing 25 and

  8. Possible nitric oxide mechanism in the protective effect of hesperidin against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling and associated cognitive dysfunction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Lalitha, Sree; Mishra, Jitendriya

    2013-10-01

    Epilepsy is a complex neurological disorder manifested by recurrent episodes of convulsive seizures, loss of consciousness, and sensory disturbances. Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling primarily represents a model of generalized epilepsy. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the neuroprotective potential of hesperidin and its interaction with nitric oxide modulators against PTZ-induced kindling and associated cognitive dysfunction in mice. The experimental protocol comprised of eleven groups (n=6), where a subconvulsive dose of PTZ (40 mg/kg, i.p.) had been administered every other day for a period of 12 days, and seizure episodes were noted after each PTZ injection over a period of 30 min. The memory performance tests were carried out on days 13 and 14 followed by the estimation of biochemical and mitochondrial parameters. Chronic administration of a subconvulsive dose of PTZ resulted in an increase in convulsive activity culminating in generalized clonic-tonic seizures, as revealed by a progressive increase in seizure score as well as alteration in antioxidant enzyme levels (lipid peroxidation, nitrite, glutathione, super oxide dismutase, and catalase) and mitochondrial complex (I, II, and IV) activities, whereas chronic treatment with hesperidin (200 mg/kg) significantly attenuated these behavioral, biochemical, and mitochondrial alterations. Further, treatment with l-arginine (100 mg/kg) or l-NAME (10 mg/kg) in combination with hesperidin significantly modulated the protective effect of hesperidin which was significant as compared to their effects per se in PTZ-treated animals. Thus, the present study suggests a possible involvement of the NO-cGMP pathway in the neuroprotective effect of hesperidin in PTZ-kindled mice. © 2013.

  9. Attenuation of CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice by vaccinating against TGF-β1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobao Fan

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 is the pivotal pro-fibrogenic cytokine in hepatic fibrosis. Reducing the over-produced expression of TGF-β1 or blocking its signaling pathways is considered to be a promising therapeutic strategy for hepatic fibrosis. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of attenuating hepatic fibrosis by vaccination against TGF-β1 with TGF-β1 kinoids. Two TGF-β1 kinoid vaccines were prepared by cross-linking TGF-β1-derived polypeptides (TGF-β1(25-[41-65] and TGF-β1(30-[83-112] to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH. Immunization with the two TGF-β1 kinoids efficiently elicited the production of high-levels of TGF-β1-specific antibodies against in BALB/c mice as tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and Western blotting. The antisera neutralized TGF-β1-induced growth-inhibition on mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu and attenuated TGF-β1-induced Smad2/3 phosphorylation, α-SMA, collagen type 1 alpha 2 (COL1A2, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1 expression in the rat hepatic stellate cell (HSC line, HSC-T6. Vaccination against TGF-β1 with the kinoids significantly suppressed CCl4-induced collagen deposition and the expression of α-SMA and desmin, attenuated hepatocyte apoptosis and accelerated hepatocyte proliferation in BALB/c mice. These results demonstrated that immunization with the TGF-β1 kinoids efficiently attenuated CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis and liver injury. Our study suggests that vaccination against TGF-β1 might be developed into a feasible therapeutic approach for the treatment of chronic fibrotic liver diseases.

  10. Probiotic Cheese Attenuates Exercise-induced Immune Suppression In Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lollo P.C.B.; Cruz A.G.; Morato P.N.; Moura C.S.; Carvalho-Silva L.B.; Oliveira C.A.F.; Faria J.A.F.; Amaya-Farfan J.

    2012-01-01

    Intense physical activity results in a substantial volume of stress and hence a significant probability of immunosuppression in athletes, with milk proteins being, perhaps, the most recommended protein supplements. Consumption of a probiotic cheese can attenuate immune suppression induced by exhausting exercise in rats. A popular Brazilian fresh cheese (Minas Frescal cheese) containing Lactobacillus acidophilus LA14 and Bifidobacterium longum BL05 was fed for 2 wk to adult Wistar rats, which ...

  11. IL-33 attenuates anoxia/reoxygenation-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by inhibition of PKCβ/JNK pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Rui

    Full Text Available Interleukin-33 (IL-33 is a new member of the IL-1 cytokine family. The objectives of present study are to assess whether IL-33 can protect cardiomyocytes from anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R-induced injury and the mechanism involved in the protection.Cardiomyocytes derived from either wild type or JNK1(-/- mice were challenged with an A/R with or without IL-33. Myocyte apoptosis was assessed by measuring caspase 3 activity, fragmented DNA and TUNEL staining. In addition, cardiomyocyte oxidative stress was assessed by measuring DHR123 oxidation; PKCβII and JNK phosphorylation were assessed with Western blot.Challenge of cardiomyocytes with an A/R resulted in cardiomyocyte oxidative stress, PKCβII and JNK phosphorylation, and myocyte apoptosis. Treatment of the cardiomyocytes with IL-33 attenuated the A/R-induced myocyte oxidative stress, prevented PKCβII and JNK phosphorylation and attenuated the A/R-induced myocyte apoptosis. The protective effect of the IL-33 did not show in cardiac myocytes with siRNA specific to PKCβII or myocytes deficient in JNK1. Inhibition of PKCβII prevented the A/R-induced JNK phosphorylation, but inhibition of JNK1 showed no effect on A/R-induced PKCβII phosphorylation.Our results indicate that IL-33 prevents the A/R-induced myocyte apoptosis through inhibition of PKCβ/JNK pathway.

  12. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) attenuates arsenic-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao-Li; Liu, Zhi; Qi, Zheng-Jun; Huang, Yong-Pan; Gao, Xiao-Qin; Zhang, Yan-Yan

    2016-07-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure in drinking water is associated with the abnormalities of cardiac tissue. Excessive generation of ROS induced by arsenic has a central role in arsenic-induced cardiotoxicity. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant polyphenol in green tea, possesses a potent antioxidant capacity and exhibits extensive pharmacological activities. This study was aim to evaluate the effect of EGCG on arsenic-induced cardiotoxicity in vivo and in vitro. Treatment with NaAsO2 seriously affected the morphology and ultrastructure of myocardium, and induced cardiac injuries, oxidative stress, intracellular calcium accumulation and apoptosis in rats. In consistent with in vivo study, the injuries, oxidative stress and apoptosis were also observed in NaAsO2-treated H9c2 cells. All of these effects induced by NaAsO2 were attenuated by EGCG. These results suggest EGCG could attenuate NaAsO2-induced cardiotoxicity, and the mechanism may involve its potent antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Selenium pretreatment attenuates formaldehyde-induced genotoxicity in A549 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu-Qin; Chen, Xin; Dai, Juan; Jiang, Zhong-Fa; Li, Ning; Zhang, Ben-Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Bing

    2014-11-01

    Formaldehyde is a major industrial chemical and has been extensively used in the manufacture of synthetic resins and chemicals. Numerous studies indicate that formaldehyde can induce various genotoxic effects in vitro and in vivo. A recent study indicated that formaldehyde impaired antioxidant cellular defences and enhanced lipid peroxidation. Selenium is an important antioxidant. We hypothesized that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation are involved in formaldehyde-induced genotoxicity in human lung cancer cell line, A549 cell line. To test the hypothesis, we investigated the effects of selenium on formaldehyde-induced genotoxicity in A549 cell lines. The results indicated that exposure to formaldehyde showed the induction of DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs). Formaldehyde significantly increased the malondialdehyde levels and decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. In addition, the activations of necrosis factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) were induced by the formaldehyde treatment. The pretreatment with selenium counteracted the formaldehyde-induced oxidative stress, ameliorated DPCs and attenuated the activation of NF-κB and AP-1 in A549 cell lines. All the results suggested that the pretreatment with selenium attenuated the formaldehyde-induced genotoxicity through its ROS scavenging and anti-DPCs effects in A549 cell lines. © The Author(s) 2012.

  14. Environmental Enrichment Attenuated Sevoflurane-Induced Neurotoxicity through the PPAR-γ Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yupeng Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sevoflurane is the most widely used inhaled anesthetic. Environmental enrichment (EE can reverse sevoflurane-induced learning and memory impairment in young mice. However, the mechanism by which EE elicits this effect is unclear. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR regulatory pathway plays a critical role in the regulation of inflammation in central nervous system diseases. In this study, we investigated whether EE attenuates sevoflurane-induced learning and memory disability via the PPAR signaling pathway. Six-day-old mice were treated with 3% sevoflurane for 2 hours daily from postnatal day 6 (P6 to P8. Then, the mice were treated with EE. The effects of sevoflurane on learning and memory function, PPAR-γ expression in the brain, and the numbers of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells and 5-bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells in the hippocampus were determined. Sevoflurane induced neuronal apoptosis and neurogenesis inhibition, which may impair learning and memory in young mice. Furthermore, sevoflurane downregulated PPAR-γ expression. Both EE and the PPAR-γ agonist, rosiglitazone, attenuated sevoflurane-induced neuronal apoptosis, neurogenesis inhibition, and learning and memory impairment. Our findings suggest that EE ameliorated sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity and learning and memory impairment through the PPAR-γ signaling pathway. PPAR-γ may be a potential therapeutic target for preventing or treating sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity.

  15. Dexamethasone and N-acetyl-cysteine attenuate Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced mucus expression in human airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Lisa; Goldmann, Torsten; Vollmer, Ekkehard; Steffen, Armin; Wollenberg, Barbara; Zabel, Peter; Hauber, Hans-Peter

    2011-04-01

    Infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) induces mucus hypersecretion in airways. Therapeutic options to attenuate excessive mucus expression are sparse. To investigate the effect of steroids and N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) on PA-induced mucus expression. Calu-3 cells and explanted human mucosa from the upper airways were stimulated with either PA, lipopolysaccharide from alginate producing PA (smooth, sPA-LPS) or non-alginate producing PA (rough, rPA-LPS). Dexamethasone (DEX) and NAC were added in different concentrations. Expression of mucin (MUC5AC) gene and mucin protein expression was quantified using PAS (periodic acids Schiff) staining and real time PCR. PA, sPA-LPS or rPA-LPS significantly induced mucin protein and MUC5AC gene expression in Calu-3 cells and explanted mucosal tissue (P NAC significantly decreased PA-, sPA-LPS- and rPA-LPS-induced mucin protein expression both in vitro and ex vivo (P 0.05). Our data show that both an anti-inflammatory drug (DEX) and an anti-oxidative agent (NAC) can attenuate PA-induced mucus expression in human airways. These results support the use of steroids and NAC in clinical practice to treat PA-induced mucus hypersecretion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids attenuating hypotonic-induced apoptosis of IMCD cells via γ-ENaC inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luyun; Liu, Yang; Wang, Huamin; Liu, Xun; Chen, Jie; Wang, Mong-Heng; Wang, Jingfeng; Huang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Inner medulla collecting duct (IMCD) cells are the key part for urinary concentration. Hypotonic stress may trigger apoptosis of IMCD cells and induce renal injury. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) play an important role in anti-apoptosis, but their roles in hypotonic-induced apoptosis of IMCD cells are still unclear. Here we found increasing exogenous 11, 12-EET or endogenous EETs with Ad-CMV-CYP2C23-EGFP transfection decreased apoptosis of IMCD cells induced by hypotonic stress. Moreover, up-regulation of γ-ENaC induced by hypotonic stress was abolished by elevation of exogenous or endogenous EETs. Collectively, this study illustrated that EETs attenuated hypotonic-induced apoptosis of IMCD cells, and that regulation of γ-ENAC may be a possible mechanism contributing to the anti-apoptotic effect of EETs in response to hypotonic stress.

  17. Blueberry Anthocyanins-Enriched Extracts Attenuate Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cardiac Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunen Liu

    Full Text Available We sought to explore the effect of blueberry anthocyanins-enriched extracts (BAE on cyclophosphamide (CTX-induced cardiac injury. The rats were divided randomly into five groups including normal control, CTX 100 mg/kg, BAE 80mg/kg, CTX+BAE 20mg/kg and CTX+BAE 80mg/kg groups. The rats in the three BAE-treated groups were administered BAE for four weeks. Seven days after BAE administration, rats in CTX group and two BAE-treated groups were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of 100 mg/kg CTX. Cardiac injury was assessed using physiological parameters, Echo, morphological staining, real-time PCR and western blot. In addition, cardiotoxicity indices, inflammatory cytokines expression and oxidative stress markers were also detected. Four weeks 20mg/kg and 80mg/kg dose of BAE treatment following CTX exposure attenuated mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate and activities of heart enzymes, improved cardiac dysfunction, left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis. Importantly, BAE also attenuated CTX-induced LV leukocyte infiltration and inflammatory cytokines expression, ameliorated oxidative stress as well as cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In conclusion, BAE attenuated the CTX-induced cardiac injury and the protective mechanisms were related closely to the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory characteristics of BAE.

  18. Reinfection immunity in schistosomiasis. With special reference to immunity induced by radiation attenuated Cercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Haruo

    1987-07-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most important parasitic diseases in the world, especially in endemic areas of developing countries. This situation has prompted parasitologist to attempt intensive researches on immune mechanisms, especially those of reinfection immunity associated with eliminating challenge infection. The current knowledge of reinfection immunity against Schistosoma spp. infection was therefore reviewed briefly and discussed with special reference to our data on protective immune responses induced by radiation-attenuated cercarial infection. A recently developed technique of compressed organ autoradiography (COA) has contributed to assessing parasite attrition in immune animals following challenge infection. Our study using COA has demonstrated that major attrition of schistosomula from challenge infection occurs in the skin of CBA/Ca mice vaccinated with 20 Krad gamma radiation-attenuated cercariae of S. mansoni, while in both lungs and liver of similarly vaccinated guinea pig model. Furthermore, gamma-irradiation to cercariae affected their migration potential and surface-antigen profiles. The immunizing stimuli of gamma radiation-attenuated cercariae profoundly affected the expression of responsiveness in vaccinated animals. The change in antigenic profiles and migration potential of those vaccinating population was discussed in relation to the kinetics of reinfection immunity induced in vaccinated amimal models. These works might provide a base line data to develop a practical vaccine for schistosomiasis using defined antigens. It must be emphasized that these vaccines could serve as a practical prophylactic measure for schistosomiasis in the endemic areas, even if the vaccines fail to induce sterilizing immunity. (author). 141 refs.

  19. Blueberry Anthocyanins-Enriched Extracts Attenuate Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cardiac Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunen; Tan, Dehong; Shi, Lin; Liu, Xinwei; Zhang, Yubiao; Tong, Changci; Song, Dequn; Hou, Mingxiao

    2015-01-01

    We sought to explore the effect of blueberry anthocyanins-enriched extracts (BAE) on cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced cardiac injury. The rats were divided randomly into five groups including normal control, CTX 100 mg/kg, BAE 80mg/kg, CTX+BAE 20mg/kg and CTX+BAE 80mg/kg groups. The rats in the three BAE-treated groups were administered BAE for four weeks. Seven days after BAE administration, rats in CTX group and two BAE-treated groups were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of 100 mg/kg CTX. Cardiac injury was assessed using physiological parameters, Echo, morphological staining, real-time PCR and western blot. In addition, cardiotoxicity indices, inflammatory cytokines expression and oxidative stress markers were also detected. Four weeks 20mg/kg and 80mg/kg dose of BAE treatment following CTX exposure attenuated mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate and activities of heart enzymes, improved cardiac dysfunction, left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis. Importantly, BAE also attenuated CTX-induced LV leukocyte infiltration and inflammatory cytokines expression, ameliorated oxidative stress as well as cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In conclusion, BAE attenuated the CTX-induced cardiac injury and the protective mechanisms were related closely to the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory characteristics of BAE.

  20. Ethanol extract of Cordyceps militaris grown on germinated soybeans attenuates dextran-sodium-sulfate- (DSS-) induced colitis by suppressing the expression of matrix metalloproteinases and inflammatory mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Ki; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Cordyceps militaris (CM) grown on germinated soybeans (GSC) in the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) model was studied. To demonstrate the preventive effect of GSC extract in a dextran-sodium-sulfate- (DSS-) induced acute colitis mouse model, GSC was administered 2 days before DSS coadministration. GSC significantly suppressed DSS-induced disease activity index (DAI) as well as histopathological scores, compared to control or CM-treated group. To elucidate the anti-IBD activity of GSC, we checked the level of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and inflammatory mediators. GSC extract decreased the level of MMP-3 and -9 mRNAs and p53 proteins. The level and activity of LPS-induced MMP-9 were reduced in GSC-treated RAW264.7 cells. It also attenuated the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α mRNAs both in colon tissue and in macrophage cells. These results suggest that GSC can be applied as a protective agent against IBDs.

  1. Involvement of nitric oxide and auxin in signal transduction of copper-induced morphological responses in Arabidopsis seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pető, Andrea; Lehotai, Nóra; Lozano-Juste, Jorge; León, José; Tari, Irma; Erdei, László; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Plants are able to adapt to the environment dynamically through regulation of their growth and development. Excess copper (Cu2+), a toxic heavy metal, induces morphological alterations in plant organs; however, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. With this in mind, the multiple signalling functions of nitric oxide (NO) in plant cells and its possible regulatory role and relationship with auxin were examined during Cu2+-induced morphological responses. Methods Endogenous auxin distribution was determined by microscopic observation of X-Gluc-stained DR5::GUS arabidopsis, and the levels of NO, superoxide and peroxynitrite were detected by fluorescence microscopy. As well as wild-type, NO-overproducer (nox1) and -deficient (nia1nia2 and nia1nia2noa1-2) arabidopsis plants were used. Key Results Cu2+ at a concentration of 50 µm resulted in a large reduction in cotyledon area and hypocotyl and primary root lengths, accompanied by an increase in auxin levels. In cotyledons, a low Cu2+ concentration promoted NO accumulation, which was arrested by nitric oxide synthase or nitrate reductase inhibitors. The 5-μm Cu2+-induced NO synthesis was not detectable in nia1nia2 or nia1nia2noa1-2 plants. In roots, Cu2+ caused a decrease of the NO level which was not associated with superoxide and peroxynitrite formation. Inhibition of auxin transport resulted in an increase in NO levels, while exogenous application of an NO donor reduced DR5::GUS expression. The elongation processes of nox1 were not sensitive to Cu2+, but NO-deficient plants showed diverse growth responses. Conclusions In plant organs, Cu2+ excess results in severe morphological responses during which the endogenous hormonal balance and signal transduction are affected. Auxin and NO negatively regulate each other's level and NO intensifies the metal-induced cotyledon expansion, but mitigates elongation processes under Cu2+ exposure. PMID:21856638

  2. Hypoxia-induced nitric oxide production and tumour perfusion is inhibited by pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG20).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Natalie; Cane, Gaelle; Robson, Mathew; Gaude, Edoardo; Howat, William J; Szlosarek, Peter W; Pedley, R Barbara; Frezza, Christian; Ashcroft, Margaret; Maxwell, Patrick H

    2016-03-14

    The hypoxic tumour microenvironment represents an aggressive, therapy-resistant compartment. As arginine is required for specific hypoxia-induced processes, we hypothesised that arginine-deprivation therapy may be useful in targeting hypoxic cancer cells. We explored the effects of the arginine-degrading agent ADI-PEG20 on hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) activation, the hypoxia-induced nitric oxide (NO) pathway and proliferation using HCT116 and UMUC3 cells and xenografts. The latter lack argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS1) making them auxotrophic for arginine. In HCT116 cells, ADI-PEG20 inhibited hypoxic-activation of HIF-1α and HIF-2α, leading to decreased inducible-nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), NO-production, and VEGF. Interestingly, combining hypoxia and ADI-PEG20 synergistically inhibited ASS1. ADI-PEG20 inhibited mTORC1 and activated the unfolded protein response providing a mechanism for inhibition of HIF and ASS1. ADI-PEG20 inhibited tumour growth, impaired hypoxia-associated NO-production, and decreased vascular perfusion. Expression of HIF-1α/HIF-2α/iNOS and VEGF were reduced, despite an increased hypoxic tumour fraction. Similar effects were observed in UMUC3 xenografts. In summary, ADI-PEG20 inhibits HIF-activated processes in two tumour models with widely different arginine biology. Thus, ADI-PEG20 may be useful in the clinic to target therapy-resistant hypoxic cells in ASS1-proficient tumours and ASS1-deficient tumours.

  3. Protective role of theophylline and their interaction with nitric oxide (NO) in adjuvant-induced rheumatoid arthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Rishi; Chaudhary, Manju J; Tiwari, Prafulla C; Babu, Suresh; Pant, K K

    2015-12-01

    Theophylline (non-specific PDE inhibitor) and their interactions with nitric oxide modulators were evaluated in adjuvant-induced arthritic model of rats. Wistar rats (200-300g), 8 animals per group were used in the study. The animals were injected with 0.1mL of squalene and 0.2mL of complete Freund's adjuvant on day (0) in sub-planter region of right hind paw controls received only saline. The treatment with theophylline and nitric oxide modulators were done from day 14 to day 28. Arthritis indexes, ankle diameter, paw volume, and body weight were determined to assess RA progression from day (0) to day 28. On day 28 animals were sacrificed and their blood collected for IL-10 and TNF-α cytokine levels and hind paw for pathological analysis. Synovial fluid from joint spaces of CFA inoculated rats was collected to estimate TNF-α level in synovial fluid. The data obtained was analyzed by two-way ANOVA followed by the Newman-Keuls post-hoc test. Theophylline (10 and 20mg/kg) significantly decreased adjuvant induced increased arthritis-index, paw volume and ankle diameter (ptheophylline 20mg/kg suppressed TNF-α and elevates IL-10 level as well as reversed adjuvant-induced elevated arthritic parameters as compared to only adjuvant and prednisone group (ptheophylline 20mg/kg significantly reduces synovial TNF-α level as compared to adjuvant only group. Theophylline 20mg/kg+L-NAME 10mg/kg significantly reversed these adjuvant-induced changes in immunological, histopathological and arthritis parameters (p<0.05). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Resveratrol attenuates methylglyoxal-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis by Sestrin2 induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Kyuhwa; Seo, Suho; Han, Jae Yun; Ki, Sung Hwan; Shin, Sang Mi, E-mail: smshin@chosun.ac.kr

    2014-10-15

    Methylglyoxal is found in high levels in the blood and other tissues of diabetic patients and exerts deleterious effects on cells and tissues. Previously, we reported that resveratrol, a polyphenol in grapes, induced the expression of Sestrin2 (SESN2), a novel antioxidant protein, and inhibited hepatic lipogenesis. This study investigated whether resveratrol protects cells from the methylglyoxal-induced toxicity via SESN2 induction. Methylglyoxal significantly induced cell death in HepG2 cells. However, cells pretreated with resveratrol were rescued from methylglyoxal-induced apoptosis. Resveratrol attenuated glutathione (GSH) depletion and ROS production promoted by methylglyoxal. Moreover, mitochondrial damage was observed by methylglyoxal treatment, but resveratrol restored mitochondrial function, as evidenced by the observed lack of mitochondrial permeability transition and increased ADP/ATP ratio. Resveratrol treatment inhibited SESN2 depletion elicited by methylglyoxal. SESN2 overexpression repressed methylglyoxal-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Likewise, rotenone-induced cytotoxicity was not observed in SESN2 overexpressed cells. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of SESN2 reduced the ability of resveratrol to prevent methylglyoxal-induced mitochondrial permeability transition. In addition, when mice were exposed to methylglyoxal after infection of Ad-SESN2, the plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and GSH depletion by methylglyoxal in liver was reduced in Ad-SESN2 infected mice. Our results demonstrated that resveratrol is capable of protecting cells from methylglyoxal-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress via SESN2 induction. - Highlights: • Resveratrol decreased methylglyoxal-induced apoptosis. • Resveratrol attenuated GSH depletion and ROS production promoted by methylglyoxal. • Resveratrol restored the mitochondrial function by Sestrin2 induction. • Induction of Sestrin2

  5. Genetically attenuated, P36p-deficient malarial sporozoites induce protective immunity and apoptosis of infected liver cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, M.R. van; Douradinha, B.G.; Franke-Fayard, B.; Heussler, V.; Dooren, M.W. van; Schaijk, B.C.L. van; Gemert, G.J.A. van; Sauerwein, R.W.; Mota, M.M.; Waters, A.P.; Janse, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Immunization with Plasmodium sporozoites that have been attenuated by gamma-irradiation or specific genetic modification can induce protective immunity against subsequent malaria infection. The mechanism of protection is only known for radiation-attenuated sporozoites, involving cell-mediated and

  6. PKC-Dependent Signaling Pathways within PAG and Thalamus Contribute to the Nitric Oxide-Induced Nociceptive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeotti, Nicoletta; Ghelardini, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important molecule involved in nociceptive processing in the central nervous system. The release of NO within the spinal cord has long been implicated in the mechanisms underlying exaggerated pain sensitivity, and administration of NO donors can induce hyperalgesia. To elucidate the supraspinal mechanism responsible for NO-induced nociceptive hypersensitivity, we investigated the modulation of protein kinase C (PKC) and downstream effectors following treatment with the NO donors nitroglycerin and sodium nitroprusside. Both compounds induced a prolonged cold allodynia and heat hyperalgesia, increased levels of c-Fos and IL-1β, and activated NF-κB within periaqueductal grey matter and thalamus. Simultaneously, an increased expression and phosphorylation of PKC γ and ε were detected. To clarify the cellular mechanism involved in the NO-induced hypernociception, we examined the expression of transcription factors that act as PKC downstream effectors. A dramatic hyperphosphorylation of CREB and STAT1 was observed. The i.c.v. administration of the PKC blocker calphostin C prevented the NO-induced hypernociception, the hyperphosphorylation of CREB and STAT1, and partially reduced NF-κB activation. Conversely, the increase of IL-1β was unmodified by calphostin C. These results suggest the relevance of cerebral PKC-mediated CREB and STAT1 activation in the NO donor-induced nociceptive behavior.

  7. Nitric oxide induces cotyledon senescence involving co-operation of the NES1/MAD1 and EIN2-associated ORE1 signalling pathways in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jing; Li, Manli; Kong, Dongdong; Wang, Lei; Lv, Qiang; Wang, Jinzheng; Bao, Fang; Gong, Qingqiu; Xia, Jinchan; He, Yikun

    2014-07-01

    After germination, cotyledons undertake the major role in supplying nutrients to the pre-photoautorophy angiosperm seedlings until they senesce. Like other senescence processes, cotyledon senescence is a programmed degenerative process. Nitric oxide can induce premature cotyledon senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana, yet the underlying mechanism remains elusive. A screen for genetic mutants identified the nes1 mutant, in which cotyledon senescence was accelerated by nitric oxide. Map-based cloning revealed that NES1 is allelic to a previously reported mitotic checkpoint family gene, MAD1. The nes1/mad1 mutants were restored to the wild type, in response to nitric oxide, by transforming them with pNES1::NES1. Ectopic expression of NES1 in the wild type delayed nitric oxide-mediated cotyledon senescence, confirming the repressive role of NES1. Moreover, two positive regulators of leaf senescence, the ethylene signalling component EIN2 and the transcription factor ORE1/AtNAC2/ANAC092, were found to function during nitric oxide-induced senescence in cotyledons. The block of ORE1 function delayed senescence and ectopic expression induced the process, revealing the positive role of ORE1. EIN2 was required to induce ORE1. Furthermore, the genetic interaction analysis between NES1 and ORE1 showed that the ore1 loss-of-function mutants were epistatic to nes1, suggesting the dominant role of ORE1 and the antagonistic role of NES1 during nitric oxide-induced cotyledon senescence in Arabidopsis. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. Hemin Attenuates Cisplatin-Induced Acute Renal Injury in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Al-Kahtani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effects of hemin (the heme oxygenase-1 [OH-1] inducer against nephrotoxic effects induced by cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II (CP] in male rats. Methods. The evaluation was performed through monitoring renal redox parameters: lipid peroxidation (LPO, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione reductase (GR, and reduced glutathione (GSH. The work also examined renal function tests (urea and creatinine, tissue proinflammatory mediator like nitric oxide (NO, and kidney cytopathology. Results. A single intraperitoneal dose of CP (10 mg/kg b.w. caused significant elevation of blood urea, serum creatinine, and renal LPO and NO, along with significant decline of the activities of GPx and GR, but renal SOD activity and GSH level were statistically insignificant as compared to control group. Subcutaneous injection of hemin (40 µmol/kg b.w. partially ameliorated CP-induced renal damage, based on suppression of blood urea, serum creatinine, the renal MDA and NO levels, and increased antioxidant capacity in CP-treated rats. The results of histopathological and ultrastructural investigations supported the renoprotective effect of hemin against CP-induced acute toxicity. Conclusion. The induction of HO-1 by hemin is a promising approach in the treatment of CP-induced nephrotoxicity. However, further preclinical studies are warranted to test effectiveness of CP/hemin on the outcome of tumor chemotherapy.

  9. Edaravone attenuates monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhijuan, E-mail: zjlee038@163.com; Cheng, Jianxin; Wang, Liping

    2015-10-30

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) plays a vital role in recruitment of monocytes to endothelial cells, which is important during early stages of atherosclerosis development. Edaravone, a potent and novel scavenger of free radicals inhibiting hydroxyl radicals, has been clinically used to reduce the neuronal damage following ischemic stroke. In the present study, Edaravone was revealed to markedly reduce oxLDL-induced monocyte adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The inhibitory mechanism of Edaravone was associated with suppression of the chemokine MCP-1 and adhesion molecule VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression. In addition, luciferase reporter assay results revealed that administration of Edaravone attenuated the increase in NF-κB transcriptional activity induced by oxLDL. Notably, it's also shown that Edaravone treatment blocked oxLDL induced p65 nuclear translocation in HUVECs. Results indicate that Edaravone negatively regulates endothelial inflammation. - Highlights: • Edaravone reduces oxLDL-induced monocyte adhesion to HUVECs. • Edaravone attenuates oxLDL-induced expression of MCP-1, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1. • Edaravone reduces NF-κB transcriptional activity and p65 nuclear translocation.

  10. Silibinin attenuates radiation-induced intestinal fibrosis and reverses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joong Sun; Han, Na-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Ho; Lee, Hae-June

    2017-09-19

    Radiotherapy is a common treatment for cancer patients, but its use is often restricted by the tolerance of normal tissue. As cancer patients live longer, delayed radiation effects on normal tissue have become a concern. Radiation-induced enteropathy, including inflammatory bowel disease and fibrosis, are major issues for long-term cancer survivors. To investigate whether silibinin attenuates delayed radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice, we focused on intestinal fibrotic changes. Silibinin improved delayed radiation injuries in mice in association with decreased collagen deposition within the intestines and deceased transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 levels in the intestine and plasma. Treating mice bearing CT26 mouse colon cancer tumors with both silibinin and radiation stimulated tumor regression more than radiation alone. We also investigated the effect of silibinin on the radiation-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the primary mechanism of fibrosis. We assessed changes in E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and α-smooth muscle actin expression, and demonstrated that silibinin attenuates radiation-induced EMT. Irradiating intestinal epithelial cells increased TGF-β1 levels, but silibinin suppressed TGF-β1 expression by inhibiting Smad2/3 phosphorylation. These results suggest silibinin has the potential to serve as a useful therapeutic agent in patients with radiation-induced intestinal fibrosis.

  11. Salidroside Protects Against 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Cytotoxicity by Attenuating ER Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Kai; Wang, Bao; Feng, Dayun; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Fangfang; Lai, Juan; Huang, Lu; Nie, Tiejian; Yang, Qian

    2016-02-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a persistent decline of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Despite its frequency, effective therapeutic strategies that halt the neurodegenerative processes are lacking, reinforcing the need to better understand the molecular drivers of this disease. Importantly, increasing evidence suggests that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced unfolded protein response is likely involved in DA neuronal death. Salidroside, a major compound isolated from Rhodiola rosea L., possesses potent anti-oxidative stress properties and protects against DA neuronal death. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that salidroside prevents 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced cytotoxicity by attenuating ER stress. Furthermore, treatment of a DA neuronal cell line (SN4741) and primary cortical neurons with salidroside significantly reduced neurotoxin-induced increases in cytoplasmic reactive oxygen species and calcium, both of which cause ER stress, and cleaved caspase-12, which is responsible for ER stress-induced cell death. Together, these results suggest that salidroside protects SN4741 cells and primary cortical neurons from 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity by attenuating ER stress. This provides a rationale for the investigation of salidroside as a potential therapeutic agent in animal models of PD.

  12. Minocycline attenuates cognitive impairment induced by isoflurane anesthesia in aged rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feijuan Kong

    Full Text Available Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD is a clinical phenomenon characterized by cognitive deficits in patients after anesthesia and surgery, especially in geriatric surgical patients. Although it has been documented that isoflurane exposure impaired cognitive function in several aged animal models, there are few clinical interventions and treatments available to prevent this disorder. Minocycline has been well established to exert neuroprotective effects in various experimental animal models and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we hypothesized that pretreatment with minocycline attenuates isoflurane-induced cognitive decline in aged rats. In the present study, twenty-month-old rats were administered minocycline or an equal volume of saline by intraperitoneal injection 12 h before exposure to isoflurane. Then the rats were exposed to 1.3% isoflurane for 4 h. Two weeks later, spatial learning and memory of the rats were examined using the Morris Water Maze. We found that pretreatment with minocycline mitigated isoflurane-induced cognitive deficits and suppressed the isoflurane-induced excessive release of IL-1β and caspase-3 in the hippocampal CA1 region at 4 h after isoflurane exposure, as well as the number of TUNEL-positive nuclei. In addition, minocycline treatment also prevented the changes of synaptic ultrastructure in the hippocampal CA1 region induced by isoflurane. In conclusion, pretreatment with minocycline attenuated isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment in aged rats.

  13. Interleukin-1 beta-induced nitric oxide production from isolated rat islets is modulated by D-glucose and 3-isobutyl-1-methyl xanthine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H U; Mauricio, D; Karlsen, Allan Ertman

    1996-01-01

    -glucose-mediated modulation of interleukin-1 beta effects on insulin release from isolated rat islets was related to modulation of nitric oxide production. Further, we wished to investigate the effects of agents increasing the intracellular concentration of cAMP on interleukin-1 beta-induced nitrite production. We......Interleukin-1 beta has been proposed to cause selective beta-cell destruction via the induction of nitric oxide synthesis. The cytotoxic effect of interleukin-1 beta is modulated by the concentration of D-glucose in the medium. The aim of this study was to investigate if D...... effects on acute insulin release was found at high (28 mmol/l) concentrations of D-glucose, and blocking nitrite production by the L-arginine analog aminoguanidine, which selectively inhibits the cytokine-inducible nitric oxide synthase, did not result in protection against the inhibitory action...

  14. Role of inducible nitric oxide synthase and interleukin-6 expression in estimation of skin burn age and vitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo El-Noor, Mona M; Elgazzar, Fatma M; Alshenawy, Hanan A

    2017-11-01

    Estimation of age and vitality of burn injury both in the living and dead is essential in forensic practice. Nitric oxide and interleukin-6 (IL-6) play an important role in skin burn healing. In this study, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and IL-6 proteins during skin burn healing in rats was studied for purposes of burn dating and to differentiate between ante-mortem and post-mortem burn. Ante-mortem skin burns were created on forty five rats. Normal and burnt skin samples were taken at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15 and 21 days following burn induction (5 rats for each stage). Post-mortem burn was inflicted 6 h after scarification in another five rats. There was a statistically significant difference in both iNOS and IL-6 expression between the different time intervals of the ante-mortem burn. Expression of both iNOS and IL-6 decreased remarkably in the post-mortem burn with a statistically significant difference from ante-mortem intervals. A statistically significant positive association between the two markers was found. These results indicate that both iNOS and IL-6 expression in ante-mortem burnt skin was time dependent and significantly differed from post-mortem burn. Further research on humans is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. Nitric oxide-dependent vasorelaxation induced by extractive solutions and fractions of Maytenus ilicifolia Mart ex Reissek (Celastraceae) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattmann, Yanna D; Cipriani, Thales R; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Iacomini, Marcello; Rieck, Lia; Marques, Maria C A; da Silva-Santos, José E

    2006-04-06

    This study reveals that an ethanolic supernatant obtained from an aqueous extractive solution prepared from residues of methanolic extracts of ground leaves of Maytenus ilicifolia is able to cause a concentration- and endothelium-dependent relaxation in pre-contract rat aorta rings, with EC(50) of 199.7 (190-210) microg/ml. The non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitors l-NAME and l-NMMA abolished this effect, while superoxide dismutase and MnTBAP (a non-enzymatic superoxide dismutase mimetic) enhanced it. Further, relaxation induced by this ethanolic supernatant have been strongly inhibited by the guanylate cyclase inhibitors methylene blue and ODQ, as well as by the potassium channel blockers 4-aminopyridine and tetraethylammonium, but was unchanged by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin and the membrane receptor antagonists atropine, HOE-140 and pirilamine. Partition of the ethanolic supernatant between H(2)O and EtOAc generated a fraction several times more potent, able to fully relax endothelium-intact aorta rings with an EC(50) of 4.3 (3.9-4.8) microg/ml. (13)C NMR spectrum of this fraction showed signals typical of catechin. This study reveals that the leaves of M. ilicifolia possess one or more potent substances able to relax endothelium-intact rat aorta rings, an event that appears to involve nitric oxide production, guanylate cyclase activation and potassium channel opening.

  16. Suppressive effects of coumarins from Mammea siamensis on inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Toshio; Sueyoshi, Mayumi; Chaipech, Saowanee; Matsuda, Hisashi; Nomura, Yukiko; Yabe, Mikuko; Matsumoto, Tomoko; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Pongpiriyadacha, Yutana; Hayakawa, Takao; Muraoka, Osamu

    2012-08-15

    A methanol extract of the flowers of Mammea siamensis (Calophyllaceae) was found to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW264.7 cells. From the extract, two new geranylated coumarins, mammeasins A (1) and B (2), were isolated together with 17 known compounds including 15 coumarins. The structures of 1 and 2 were determined on the basis of their spectroscopic properties as well as of their chemical evidence. Among the isolates, 1 (IC(50) = 1.8 μM), 2 (6.4 μM), surangins B (3, 5.0 μM), C (4, 6.8 μM), and D (5, 6.2 μM), kayeassamins E (7, 6.1 μM), F (8, 6.0 μM), and G (9, 0.8 μM), mammea A/AD (11, 1.3 μM), and mammea E/BB (16, 7.9 μM) showed NO production inhibitory activity. Compounds 1, 9, and 11 were found to inhibit induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). With regard to mechanism of action of these active constituents (1, 9, and 11), suppression of STAT1 activation is suggested to be mainly involved in their suppression of iNOS induction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Scuba diving induces nitric oxide synthesis and the expression of inflammatory and regulatory genes of the immune response in neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Antoni; Batle, Juan M; Capó, Xavier; Martorell, Miquel; Córdova, Alfredo; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni

    2014-09-01

    Scuba diving, characterized by hyperoxia and hyperbaria, could increase reactive oxygen species production which acts as signaling molecules to induce adaptation against oxidative stress. The aim was to study the effects of scuba diving immersion on neutrophil inflammatory response, the induction of oxidative damage, and the NO synthesis. Nine male divers performed a dive at 50 m depth for a total time of 35 min. Blood samples were obtained at rest before the dive, after the dive, and 3 h after the diving session. Markers of oxidative and nitrosative damage, nitrite, and the gene expression of genes related with the synthesis of nitric oxide and lipid mediators, cytokine synthesis, and inflammation were determined in neutrophils. The mRNA levels of genes related with the inflammatory and immune response of neutrophils, except TNF-α, myeloperoxidase, and toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, significantly increased after the recovery period respect to predive and postdive levels. NF-κB, IL-6, and TLR4 gene expression reported significant differences immediately after diving respect to the predive values. Protein nitrotyrosine levels significantly rose after diving and remained high during recovery, whereas no significant differences were reported in malondialdehyde. Neutrophil nitrite levels as indicative of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity progressively increased after diving and recovery. The iNOS protein levels maintained the basal values in all situations. Scuba diving which combines hyperoxia, hyperbaria, and acute exercise induces nitrosative damage with increased nitrotyrosine levels and an inflammatory response in neutrophils. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Folic Acid Promotes Recycling of Tetrahydrobiopterin and Protects Against Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension by Recoupling Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupsky, Karel; Kračun, Damir; Kanchev, Ivan; Bertram, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Nitric oxide (NO) derived from endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) has been implicated in the adaptive response to hypoxia. An imbalance between 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and 7,8-dihydrobiopterin (BH2) can result in eNOS uncoupling and the generation of superoxide instead of NO. Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) can recycle BH2 to BH4, leading to eNOS recoupling. However, the role of DHFR and eNOS recoupling in the response to hypoxia is not well understood. We hypothesized that increasing the capacity to recycle BH4 from BH2 would improve NO bioavailability as well as pulmonary vascular remodeling (PVR) and right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) as indicators of pulmonary hypertension (PH) under hypoxic conditions. Results: In human pulmonary artery endothelial cells and murine pulmonary arteries exposed to hypoxia, eNOS was uncoupled as indicated by reduced superoxide production in the presence of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Concomitantly, NO levels, BH4 availability, and expression of DHFR were diminished under hypoxia. Application of folic acid (FA) restored DHFR levels, NO bioavailability, and BH4 levels under hypoxia. Importantly, FA prevented the development of hypoxia-induced PVR, right ventricular pressure increase, and RVH. Innovation: FA-induced upregulation of DHFR recouples eNOS under hypoxia by improving BH4 recycling, thus preventing hypoxia-induced PH. Conclusion: FA might serve as a novel therapeutic option combating PH. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 1076–1091. PMID:26414244

  19. iNOS-Derived Nitric Oxide Induces Integrin-Linked Kinase Endocytic Lysosome-Mediated Degradation in the Vascular Endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reventun, Paula; Alique, Matilde; Cuadrado, Irene; Márquez, Susana; Toro, Rocío; Zaragoza, Carlos; Saura, Marta

    2017-07-01

    ILK (integrin-linked kinase) plays a key role in controlling vasomotor tone and is decreased in atherosclerosis. The objective of this study is to test whether nitric oxide (NO) regulates ILK in vascular remodeling. We found a striking correlation between increased levels of inducible nitric oxide and decreased ILK levels in human atherosclerosis and in a mouse model of vascular remodeling (carotid artery ligation) comparing with iNOS (inducible NO synthase) knockout mice. iNOS induction produced the same result in mouse aortic endothelial cells, and these effects were mimicked by an NO donor in a time-dependent manner. We found that NO decreased ILK protein stability by promoting the dissociation of the complex ILK/Hsp90 (heat shock protein 90)/eNOS (endothelial NO synthase), leading to eNOS uncoupling. NO also destabilized ILK signaling platform and lead to decreased levels of paxillin and α-parvin. ILK phosphorylation of its downstream target GSK3-β (glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta) was decreased by NO. Mechanistically, NO increased ILK ubiquitination mediated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP (C terminus of HSC70-interacting protein), but ILK ubiquitination was not followed by proteasome degradation. Alternatively, NO drove ILK to degradation through the endocytic-lysosomal pathway. ILK colocalized with the lysosome marker LAMP-1 (lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1) in endothelial cells, and inhibition of lysosome activity with chloroquine reversed the effect of NO. Likewise, ILK colocalized with the early endosome marker EEA1 (early endosome antigen 1). ILK endocytosis proceeded via dynamin because a specific inhibitor of dynamin (Dyngo 4a) was able to reverse ILK endocytosis and its lysosome degradation. Endocytosis regulates ILK signaling in vascular remodeling where there is an overload of inducible NO, and thus its inhibition may represent a novel target to fight atherosclerotic disease. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Resveratrol induces acute endothelium-dependent renal vasodilation mediated through nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species scavenging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordish, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol is suggested to have beneficial cardiovascular and renoprotective effects. Resveratrol increases endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. We hypothesized resveratrol acts as an acute renal vasodilator, mediated through increased NO production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In anesthetized rats, we found 5.0 mg/kg body weight (bw) of resveratrol increased renal blood flow (RBF) by 8% [from 6.98 ± 0.42 to 7.54 ± 0.17 ml·min−1·gram of kidney weight−1 (gkw); n = 8; P resveratrol before and after 10 mg/kg bw of the NOS inhibitor N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME). l-NAME reduced the increase in RBF to resveratrol by 54% (from 0.59 ± 0.05 to 0.27 ± 0.06 ml·min−1·gkw−1; n = 10; P resveratrol before and after 1 mg/kg bw tempol, a superoxide dismutase mimetic. Resveratrol increased RBF 7.6% (from 5.91 ± 0.32 to 6.36 ± 0.12 ml·min−1·gkw−1; n = 7; P resveratrol-induced increase in RBF (from 0.45 ± 0.12 to 0.10 ± 0.05 ml·min−1·gkw−1; n = 7; P Resveratrol-induced vasodilation remained unaffected. We conclude intravenous resveratrol acts as an acute renal vasodilator, partially mediated by increased NO production/NO bioavailability and superoxide scavenging but not by inducing vasodilatory cyclooxygenase products. PMID:24431202

  1. Calcium Montmorillonite-based dietary supplement attenuates Necrotic Enteritis induced by Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens in broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    We provide the first description of Dietary Supplement of sorbent minerals attenuates Necrotic Enteritis Induced by Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens in Broilers. Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a poultry disease caused by Clostridium perfringens and characterized by severe intestinal necrosis....

  2. Consumption of both low and high (-)-epicatechin apple puree attenuates platelet reactivity and increases plasma concentrations of nitric oxide metabolites: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, A; Hollands, W; Casgrain, A; Saha, S.; Teucher, B.; Dainty, JR; Venema, DP; Hollman, PC; Rein, MJ; Nelson, R; Williamson, G; Kroon, PA

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesised that consumption of flavanol-containing apple puree would modulate platelet activity and increase nitric oxide metabolite status, and that high flavanol apple puree would exert a greater effect than low flavanol apple puree. 25 subjects consumed 230 g of apple puree containing 25 and 100 mg epicatechin (low and high flavanol apple puree, respectively) and aspirin (75 mg) in random order. Measurements were made at baseline, acutely after treatment (2, 6 and 24 h), and after 14 ...

  3. Herbal supplement attenuation of cardiac fibrosis in rats with CCl₄-induced liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiao-Chuan; Chiu, Yung-Wei; Lin, Yueh-Min; Chen, Ray-Jade; Lin, James A; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Kuo, Yu-Chun; Liu, Jer-Yuh; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2014-02-28

    Previously we found carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄) induced cirrhosis associated cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis. The purpose of this study is to determine whether further CCl₄ treatment would induce cardiac cell fibrosis. The cardiac tissues were analyzed by H&E. histological staining, Trichrome Masson staining and Western blotting. The results showed that the CCl₄-treated-only group exhibits more trichrome staining, meaning that more fibrosis is present. Moreover, CCl₄ could further induce cardiac-fibrosis via TGF-β-p-Smad2/3-CTGF pathway. However, our data showed that the CCl₄- indcued cardiac abnormalities were attenuated by Ocimum gratissimum extract (OGE) and silymarin co- treatments. In conclusion, our results indicated that the OGE and silymarin may be a potential traditional herb for the protection of cardiac tissues from the CCl4 induced cirrhosis associated cardiac fibrosis through modulating the TGF-β signaling pathway.

  4. NOX2 Antisense Attenuates Hypoxia-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Cardiomyocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bo; Meng, Fanbo; Yang, Yushuang; Liu, Dongna; Shi, Kaiyao

    2016-01-01

    Heart ischemia is a hypoxia related disease. NOX2 and HIF-1α proteins were increased in cardiomyocytes after acute myocardial infarction. However, the relationship of the hypoxia-induced HIF-1α. NOX2-derived oxidative stress and apoptosis in cardiomyocyte remains unclear. In the current study, we use NOX2 antisense strategy to investigate the role of NOX2 in hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat cardiomyocytes. Here, we show that transduction of ADV-NOX2-AS induces potent silencing of NOX2 in cardiomyocytes, and resulting in attenuation of hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. This study indicates the potential of antisense-based therapies and validates NOX2 as a potent therapeutic candidate for heart ischemia.

  5. S-Propargyl-cysteine (SPRC) attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in H9c2 cells involved in a hydrogen sulfide-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Li-Long; Liu, Xin-Hua; Gong, Qi-Hai; Zhu, Yi-Zhun

    2011-06-01

    The present study attempts to investigate the effects of S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC), a sulfur-containing amino acid, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in H9c2 cardiac myocytes. We found that SPRC prevented nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation assessed by NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and IκBα degradation, suppressed LPS-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Furthermore, incubation of H9c2 cells with SPRC induced phosphorylation of Akt in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. In addition, SPRC attenuated LPS-induced mRNA and protein expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and mRNA expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The effects of SPRC were abolished by cystathionine γ-lyase [CSE-an enzyme that synthesizes hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S)] inhibitor, DL: -propargylglycine (PAG), SPRC-induced Akt phosphorylation and TNF-α release was also abolished by the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002. Furthermore, SPRC also increased LPS-induced down-regulation expression of CSE and H(2)S level in H9c2 cells. PAG abolished SPRC-induced up-regulation of H(2)S level. Therefore, we concluded that SPRC produced an anti-inflammatory effect in LPS-stimulated H9c2 cells partly through the CSE/H(2)S pathway by impairing IκBα/NF-κB signaling and by activating PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  6. Lidocaine attenuates anisomycin-induced amnesia and release of norepinephrine in the amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Renee N.; Canal, Clint E.; Gold, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    When administered near the time of training, protein synthesis inhibitors such as anisomycin impair later memory. A common interpretation of these findings is that memory consolidation requires new protein synthesis initiated by training. However, recent findings support an alternative interpretation that abnormally large increases in neurotransmitter release after injections of anisomycin may be responsible for producing amnesia. In the present study, a local anesthetic was administered prior to anisomycin injections in an attempt to mitigate neurotransmitter actions and thereby attenuate the resulting amnesia. Rats received lidocaine and anisomycin injections into the amygdala 130 and 120 min, respectively, prior to inhibitory avoidance training. Memory tests 48 hr later revealed that lidocaine attenuated anisomycin-induced amnesia. In other rats, in vivo microdialysis was performed at the site of amygdala infusion of lidocaine and anisomycin. As seen previously, anisomycin injections produced large increases in release of norepinephrine in the amygdala. Lidocaine attenuated the anisomycin-induced increase in release of norepinephrine but did not reverse anisomycin inhibition of protein synthesis, as assessed by c-Fos immunohistochemistry. These findings are consistent with past evidence suggesting that anisomycin causes amnesia by initiating abnormal release of neurotransmitters in response to the inhibition of protein synthesis. PMID:21453778

  7. Puerarin attenuates learning and memory impairments and inhibits oxidative stress in STZ-induced SAD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shan-shan; Yang, Wei-na; Jin, Hui; Ma, Kai-ge; Feng, Gai-feng

    2015-12-01

    Puerarin (PUE), an isoflavone purified from the root of Pueraria lobata (Chinese herb), has been reported to attenuate learning and memory impairments in the transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we tested PUE in a sporadic AD (SAD) mouse model which was induced by the intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The mice were administrated PUE (25, 50, or 100mg/kg/d) for 28 days. Learning and memory abilities were assessed by the Morris water maze test. After behavioral test, the biochemical parameters of oxidative stress (glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutases (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA)) were measured in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The SAD mice exhibited significantly decreased learning and memory ability, while PUE attenuated these impairments. The activities of GSH-Px and SOD were decreased while MDA was increased in the SAD animals. After PUE treatment, the activities of GSH-Px and SOD were elevated, and the level of MDA was decreased. The middle dose PUE was more effective than others. These results indicate that PUE attenuates learning and memory impairments and inhibits oxidative stress in STZ-induced SAD mice. PUE may be a promising therapeutic agent for SAD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. AAV-BDNF mediated attenuation of quinolinic acid-induced neuropathology and motor function impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kells, A P; Henry, R A; Connor, B

    2008-07-01

    Maintenance and plasticity of striatal neurons is dependent on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is depleted in the Huntington's disease striatum due to reduced expression and disrupted corticostriatal transportation. In this study we demonstrate that overexpression of BDNF in the striatum attenuates motor impairment and reduces the extent of striatal damage following quinolinic acid lesioning. Transfer of the BDNF gene to striatal neurons using serotype 1/2 adeno-associated viral vectors enhanced BDNF protein levels in the striatum, but induced weight loss and seizure activity following long-term high-level expression. Lower concentration BDNF expression supported striatal neurons against excitotoxic insult, as demonstrated by enhanced krox-24 immunopositive neuron survival, reduction of striatal atrophy and maintenance of the patch/matrix organization. Additionally, BDNF expression attenuated motor impairment in the forelimb use cylinder test, sensorimotor neglect in the corridor food selection task and reversed apomorphine-induced rotational behaviour. Direct correlations were shown for the first time between BDNF-mediated attenuation of behavioural impairment and the integrity of the globus pallidus, seemingly independent from the severity of striatal lesioning. These results demonstrate that BDNF holds considerable therapeutic potential for alleviating both neuropathological and motor function deficits in the Huntington's disease brain, and the critical role of pallidal neurons in facilitating motor performance.

  9. Potential of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase as a Therapeutic Target for Allergen-Induced Airway Hyperresponsiveness: A Critical Connection to Nitric Oxide Levels and PARP Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibba, Salome' V; Ghonim, Mohamed A; Pyakurel, Kusma; Lammi, Matthew R; Mishra, Anil; Boulares, A Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Although expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in the lungs of asthmatics and associated nitrosative damage are established, iNOS failed as a therapeutic target for blocking airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation in asthmatics. This dichotomy calls for better strategies with which the enzyme is adequately targeted. Here, we confirm iNOS expression in the asthmatic lung with concomitant protein nitration and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation. We show, for the first time, that iNOS is highly expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of asthmatics with uncontrolled disease, which did not correspond to protein nitration. Selective iNOS inhibition with L-NIL protected against AHR upon acute, but not chronic, exposure to ovalbumin or house dust mite (HDM) in mice. Supplementation of NO by nitrite administration significantly blocked AHR in chronically HDM-exposed mice that were treated with L-NIL. Protection against chronic HDM exposure-induced AHR by olaparib-mediated PARP inhibition may be associated with the partial but not the complete blockade of iNOS expression. Indeed, L-NIL administration prevented olaparib-mediated protection against AHR in chronically HDM-exposed mice. Our study suggests that the amount of iNOS and NO are critical determinants in the modulation of AHR by selective iNOS inhibitors and renews the potential of iNOS as a therapeutic target for asthma.

  10. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling: a novel pathway in OSA induced vascular endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Porter, Kyle; Pleister, Adam; Wannemacher, Jacob; Sow, Angela; Jarjoura, David; Zweier, Jay L; Khayat, Rami N

    2015-02-01

    The mechanism of vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) and cardiovascular disease in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is unknown. We performed a comprehensive evaluation of end