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Sample records for attenuates weight gain

  1. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... more. Stony Point, NY 10980 Close X Home > Pregnancy > Nutrition, weight & fitness > Weight gain during pregnancy Weight gain ...

  2. Weight gain - unintentional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be due to menstruation, heart or kidney failure, preeclampsia, or medicines you take. A rapid weight gain ... al. Position of the American Dietetic Association: weight management. J Am Diet Assoc . 2009;109:330-46. ...

  3. Preventing Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page, enter your email address: Enter Email Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button About Us Division Information Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition ...

  4. Should I Gain Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If you're having trouble with your body image, talk about how you feel with someone you like and trust who's been through it — maybe a parent, doctor, counselor, coach, or teacher. continue It's the Growth, Not the Gain No ...

  5. Salvianolic Acid B Inhibited PPARγ Expression and Attenuated Weight Gain in Mice with High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peijian Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Obesity contributes to the development of cardiometabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B is a molecule derived from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen, which is a traditional Chinese medicine that is widely used to treat cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of Sal B in obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders is unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of Sal B on high-fat diet-induced obesity and determine the possible mechanisms involved. Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet for 12 weeks received a supplement of Sal B (100 mg/kg/day by gavage for a further 8 weeks. These mice were compared to control mice fed an un-supplemented high-fat diet. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were used in vitro studies. Results: Sal B administration significantly decreased body weight, white adipose tissue weight, adipocyte size and lipid (triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in obese mice. Eight weeks of Sal B administration also improved the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test (IPITT scores in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes that were cultured in vitro and induced to differentiate, Sal B reduced the accumulation of lipid droplets and lipid content in a dose-dependent manner. Immunoblotting indicated that Sal B decreased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα expression but increased the expression of GATA binding protein 2 and 3 (GATA 2, GATA 3 both in vivo and in vitro. Conclusion: Our data suggest that Sal B may reduce obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders by suppressing adipogenesis. The effects of Sal B in adipose tissue may be related to its action on PPARγ, C/EBPα, GATA-2 and GATA-3.

  6. Factors influencing weight gain after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C P; Gallagher-Lepak, S; Zhu, Y R; Porth, C; Kelber, S; Roza, A M; Adams, M B

    1993-10-01

    Weight gain following renal transplantation occurs frequently but has not been investigated quantitatively. A retrospective chart review of 115 adult renal transplant recipients was used to describe patterns of weight gain during the first 5 years after transplantation. Only 23 subjects (21%) were overweight before their transplant. Sixty-six subjects (57%) experienced a weight gain of greater than or equal to 10%, and 49 subjects (43%) were overweight according to Metropolitan relative weight criteria at 1 year after transplantation. There was an inverse correlation between advancing age and weight gain, with the youngest patients (18-29 years) having a 13.3% weight gain and the oldest patients (age greater than 50 years) having the lowest gain of 8.3% at 1 year (P = 0.047). Black recipients experienced a greater weight gain than whites during the first posttransplant year (14.6% vs. 9.0%; P = 0.043), and maintained or increased this difference over the 5-year period. Men and women experienced comparable weight gain during the first year (9.5% vs. 12.1%), but women continued to gain weight throughout the 5-year study (21.0% total weight gain). The men remained stable after the first year (10.8% total weight gain). Recipients who experienced at least a 10% weight gain also increased their serum cholesterol (mean 261 vs. 219) and triglyceride (mean 277 vs. 159) levels significantly, whereas those without weight gain did not. Weight gain did not correlate with cumulative steroid dose, donor source (living-related versus cadaver), rejection history, pre-existing obesity, the number of months on dialysis before transplantation, or posttransplant renal function. Posttransplant weight gain is related mainly to demographic factors, not to treatment factors associated with the transplant. The average weight gain during the first year after renal transplantation is approximately 10%. This increased weight, coupled with changes in lipid metabolism, may be significant in

  7. Weight and weight gain during early infancy predict childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lise Geisler; Holst, Claus; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2012-01-01

    Infant weight and weight gain are positively associated with later obesity, but whether there is a particular critical time during infancy remains uncertain.......Infant weight and weight gain are positively associated with later obesity, but whether there is a particular critical time during infancy remains uncertain....

  8. The apolipoprotein-AI mimetic peptide L4F at a modest dose does not attenuate weight gain, inflammation, or atherosclerosis in LDLR-null mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M Averill

    Full Text Available High density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels are inversely related to cardiovascular disease risk and associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I; major HDL protein mimetics have been reported to reduce atherosclerosis and decrease adiposity. This study investigated the effect of L4F mimetic peptide and apoA-I overexpression on weight gain, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis in an LDL receptor deficient (Ldlr-/- model fed a high fat high sucrose with cholesterol (HFHSC diet.Studies in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes tested whether L4F could inhibit palmitate-induced adipocyte inflammation. In vivo studies used male Ldlr-/- mice fed a HFHSC diet for 12 weeks and were injected daily with L4F (100 µg/mouse subcutaneously during the last 8 weeks. Wild-type and apoA-I overexpressing Ldlr-/- mice were fed HFHSC diet for 16 weeks.Neither L4F administration nor apoA-I overexpression affected weight gain, total plasma cholesterol or triglycerides in our studies. While pre-treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with either L4F or HDL abolished palmitate-induced cytokine expression in vitro, L4F treatment did not affect circulating or adipose tissue inflammatory markers in vivo. Neither L4F administration nor apoA-I overexpression affected glucose tolerance. ApoA-I overexpression significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion size, yet L4F treatment did not affect atherosclerosis.Our results suggest that neither L4F (100 µg/day/mouse nor apoA-I overexpression affects adiposity or insulin resistance in this model. We also were unable to confirm a reduction in atherosclerosis with L4F in our particular model. Further studies on the effect of apoA-I mimetics on atherosclerosis and insulin resistance in a variety of dietary contexts are warranted.

  9. Organic Causes of Weight Gain and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Organic Causes of Weight Gain and Obesity Page Content ... as children, before they became heavy. Still other organic factors partly determine which kids can eat anything ...

  10. [Atypical antipsychotic-induced weight gain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewska, Beata R; Olajossy-Hilkesberger, Luiza; Marmurowska-Michałowska, Halina; Olajossy, Marcin; Landowski, Jerzy

    2006-01-01

    Introduction of a new group of antipsychotic drugs, called atypical because of the proprieties differing them from classical neuroleptics, gave hope for the beginning of a new era in treatment of psychoses, including schizophrenia. Different mechanisms of action not only resulted in a broader spectrum of action and high efficacy but also in a relative lack of extrapiramidal symptoms. However, atypical neuroleptics are not totally free from adverse effects. Symptoms such as sedation, metabolic changes and weight gain, often very quick and severe - present also in the case of classical drugs, but put to the background by extrapiramidal symptoms--have become prominent. Weight gain is important both from the clinical and subjective point of view--as associated with serious somatic consequences and as a source of enormous mental distress. These problems are addressed in this review, with the focus on weight gain associated with the use of specific atypical neuroleptics.

  11. Body weight gain and deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieu, Isabelle; Derost, Philippe; Ulla, Miguel; Marques, Ana; Debilly, Bérangère; De Chazeron, Ingrid; Chéreau, Isabelle; Lemaire, Jean Jacques; Boirie, Yves; Llorca, Pierre Michel; Durif, Franck

    2011-11-15

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical technique that has now been available for some 25 years. It is used in the treatment of various motor disorders, e.g. Parkinson's disease (PD), essential tremor and dystonia, and neuropsychiatric illnesses, e.g. obsessive-compulsive disorder and Tourette syndrome. The surgical targets of DBS include the thalamic ventralis intermedius nucleus (Vim), the globus pallidus internus (GPi) and more recently the subthalamic nucleus (STN), currently considered as the reference target in the treatment of PD. In the last ten years, most studies in PD patients have described a rapid and marked weight gain in the months following DBS of the STN. This weight gain sometimes induces obesity and can have metabolic repercussions. The physiopathological mechanisms responsible for the weight gain are multifactorial (changes in energy metabolism and eating behaviour, reduction of motor complications, etc.). This review reports current knowledge concerning weight changes in patients treated by DBS with different surgical targets. It also describes the mechanisms responsible for weight gain and the health outcome for the patients.

  12. Association between maternal weight gain and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne;

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the association between maternal weight gain and birth weight less than 3,000 g and greater than or equal to 4,000 g in underweight (body mass index [BMI] less than 19.8 kg/m(2)), normal weight (BMI 19.8-26.0 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI 26.1-29.0 kg/m(2)), and obese (BMI greater than...

  13. Causes and Consequences of Interdialytic weight gain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ipema, Karin J. R.; Kuipers, Johanna; Westerhuis, Ralf; Gaillard, Carlo A. J. M.; Schans, van der Cees P.; Krijnen, Wim P.; Franssen, Casper F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Higher interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) is associated with higher predialysis blood pressure and increased mortality. IDWG is also increasingly being recognized as an indicator of nutritional status. We studied in detail the associations of various patient factors and nutritional pa

  14. Pregnancy weight gain and breast cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemminki Elina

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated pregnancy estrogen levels are associated with increased risk of developing breast cancer in mothers. We studied whether pregnancy weight gain that has been linked to high circulating estrogen levels, affects a mother's breast cancer risk. Methods Our cohort consisted of women who were pregnant between 1954–1963 in Helsinki, Finland, 2,089 of which were eligible for the study. Pregnancy data were collected from patient records of maternity centers. 123 subsequent breast cancer cases were identified through a record linkage to the Finnish Cancer Registry, and the mean age at diagnosis was 56 years (range 35 – 74. A sample of 979 women (123 cases, 856 controls from the cohort was linked to the Hospital Inpatient Registry to obtain information on the women's stay in hospitals. Results Mothers in the upper tertile of pregnancy weight gain (>15 kg had a 1.62-fold (95% CI 1.03–2.53 higher breast cancer risk than mothers who gained the recommended amount (the middle tertile, mean: 12.9 kg, range 11–15 kg, after adjusting for mother's age at menarche, age at first birth, age at index pregnancy, parity at the index birth, and body mass index (BMI before the index pregnancy. In a separate nested case-control study (n = 65 cases and 431 controls, adjustment for BMI at the time of breast cancer diagnosis did not modify the findings. Conclusions Our study suggests that high pregnancy weight gain increases later breast cancer risk, independently from body weight at the time of diagnosis.

  15. A CMOS Wideband Linear Current Attenuator with Electronically Variable Gain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerink, Remco J.

    1993-01-01

    A CMOS highly linear current attenuator is described. The circuit is suited for both differential and single input currents. The current gain is electronically variable between -1 and +1 by means of two controlling currents. A simple additional circuit is described to obtain a gain that is linearly

  16. Fetal Programming of Obesity: Maternal Obesity and Excessive Weight Gain

    OpenAIRE

    Seray Kabaran

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is an increasing health problem throughout the world. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight, maternal nutrition and maternal weight gain are among the factors that can cause childhood obesity. Both maternal obesity and excessive weight gain increase the risks of excessive fetal weight gain and high birth weight. Rapid weight gain during fetal period leads to changes in the newborn body composition. Specifically, the increase in body fat ratio in the early periods is associat...

  17. Menopause Weight Gain: Stop the Middle Age Spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including breast, colon and endometrial cancer. There's no magic formula for preventing — or reversing — menopause weight gain. ... lifestyle/womens-health/in-depth/menopause-weight-gain/art-20046058 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  18. Effect of Smoking Cessation on Gestational and Postpartum Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Damm, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight.......To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight....

  19. Some Environmental Factors Affecting Birth Weight, Weaning Weight and Daily Live Weight Gain of Holstein Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Yaylak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine some environmental factors affecting birth weight, weaning weight and daily live weight gain of Holstein calves of a livestock facility in Izmir, Turkey. The data on 2091 calves born between the years 2005-2010 were used to assess the relevant parameters. Effects of calving year, calving month, calf gender and the interaction between calving year and calving month on calves’ birth weights were highly significant. The overall mean of birth weights was 39.6±0.15 kg. In addition, effects of calving year, calving month, gender, birth weight, weaning age, calving year x calving month, calving year x gender and calving year x calving month x gender interactions on weaning weight (WW and daily live weight gain (DLWG were highly significant. The overall means of WW and DLWG were respectively found to be 79.7±0.20 kg and 525±2.5 g. A one kilogram increase in birth weight resulted in an increase of 0.89 kg in weaning weight and a decrease of 1.26 g in daily live weight gain. Prenatal temperature-humidity index (THI affected birth weight of calves (R2=0.67. Increasing THI from 50 to 80 resulted in 3.8 kg decrease in birth weight.

  20. Role of maternal weight gain on perinatal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Alwani

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Maternal weight gain may be a determinant of pregnancy outcomes. Therefore antenatal care are to be offered to all women to help them reach a healthy weight before conceiving and normal weight gain during pregnancy [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(1.000: 30-32

  1. Weight Gain Through Self-Control Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulanick, Nancy; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Underweight subjects were assigned to either a self-reinforcement condition, a self-punishment condition, or to a discussion/reflection control condition. The subjects received one treatment session per week over a five-week period. After treatment, the self-reinforcement groups gained significantly more pounds (kilograms) than either of the other…

  2. Association between Maternal Fish Consumption and Gestational Weight Gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Laurin, Charles;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that fish consumption can restrict weight gain. However, little is known about how fish consumption affects gestational weight gain (GWG), and whether this relationship depends on genetic makeup. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between fish consumption and GWG...

  3. Obesity and gestational weight gain: cesarean delivery and labor complications

    OpenAIRE

    Seligman, Luiz Carlos; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Branchtein,Leandro; Gaio, Dea Suzana Miranda; Mengue, Sotero Serrate; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between pre-gestational obesity and weight gain with cesarean delivery and labor complications. METHODS: A total of 4,486 women 20-28 weeks pregnant attending general prenatal care clinics of the national health system in Brazil from 1991 to 1995 were enrolled and followed up through birth. Body mass index categories based on prepregnancy weight and total weight gain were calculated. Associations between body mass index categories and labor complications w...

  4. Fetal Programming of Obesity: Maternal Obesity and Excessive Weight Gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seray Kabaran

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity is an increasing health problem throughout the world. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight, maternal nutrition and maternal weight gain are among the factors that can cause childhood obesity. Both maternal obesity and excessive weight gain increase the risks of excessive fetal weight gain and high birth weight. Rapid weight gain during fetal period leads to changes in the newborn body composition. Specifically, the increase in body fat ratio in the early periods is associated with an increased risk of obesity in the later periods. It was reported that over-nutrition during fetal period could cause excessive food intake during postpartum period as a result of metabolic programming. By influencing the fetal metabolism and tissue development, maternal obesity and excessive weight gain change the amounts of nutrients and metabolites that pass to the fetus, thus causing excessive fetal weight gain which in turn increases the risk of obesity. Fetal over-nutrition and excessive weight gain cause permanent metabolic and physiologic changes in developing organs. While mechanisms that affect these organs are not fully understood, it is thought that the changes may occur as a result of the changes in fetal energy metabolism, appetite control, neuroendocrine functions, adipose tissue mass, epigenetic mechanisms and gene expression. In this review article, the effects of maternal body weight and weight gain on fetal development, newborn birth weight and risk of obesity were evaluated, and additionally potential mechanisms that can explain the effects of fetal over-nutrition on the risk of obesity were investigated [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(5.000: 427-434

  5. Nutritional status and weight gain in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ana Paula Sayuri; Fujimori, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study described the nutritional status of 228 pregnant women and the influence of this on birth weight. This is a retrospective study, developed in a health center in the municipality of São Paulo, with data obtained from medical records. Linear regression analysis was carried out. An association was verified between the initial and final nutritional status (ppregnancy underweight was higher compared those who started overweight/obese (p=0.005). Weight gain was insufficient for 43.4% of the pregnant women with adequate initial weight and for 36.4% of all the pregnant women studied. However, 37.1% of those who began the pregnancy overweight/obese finished with excessive weight gain, a condition that ultimately affected almost a quarter of the pregnant women. Anemia and low birth weight were uncommon, however, in the linear regression analysis, birth weight was associated with weight gain (pnutritional care before and during pregnancy to promote maternal-infant health.

  6. Intestinal Microbiota and Weight-Gain in Preterm Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboleya, Silvia; Martinez-Camblor, Pablo; Solís, Gonzalo; Suárez, Marta; Fernández, Nuria; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G.; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The involvement of the gut microbiota on weight-gain and its relationship with childhood undernutrition and growth has been reported. Thus, the gut microbiota constitutes a potential therapeutic target for preventing growth impairment. However, our knowledge in this area is limited. In this study we aimed at evaluating the relationship among early microbiota, growth, and development in preterm infants. To this end we assessed the levels of specific microorganisms by qPCR, and those of short chain fatty acids by mean of gas-chromatography, in feces from 63 preterm newborns and determined their weight-gain during the first months. The statistical analyses performed indicate an influence of the intestinal microbiota in weight-gain, with the levels of some microorganisms showing a significant association with the weight-gain of the infant. The levels of specific microbial groups during the first days of life were found to affect weight gain by the age of 1 month. Moreover, clustering of the infants on the basis of the microbiota composition at 1 month of age rendered groups which showed differences in weight z-scores. Our results suggest an association between the gut microbiota composition and weight-gain in preterm infants at early life and point out potential microbial targets for favoring growth and maturation in these infants. PMID:28228752

  7. The Association of Antidepressant Medication and Body Weight Gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ranjbar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature and discover which antidepressants are responsible for weight gain and then to discuss the areas with lack of adequate knowledge. Method: An electronic search was conducted through Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane library, and ScienceDirect. Forty nine empirical researches were identified and reviewed. Results: Amitriptyline, clomipramine, and mirtazapine have been associated with more weight gain induction in clinical studies, but not in animal-based studies. All TCAs have been reported to cause weight gain except protriptyline. MAOIs have been associated with weight gain. In SSRI group, citalopram and ecitalopram induce weight, yet mixed results exist for paroxetine and fluoxetine. Researches unanimously reported weight loss effect for bupropion. Some studies suggest contributing factors in the relationship of antidepressants with body weight changes including age, gender, base-line weights and treatment duration. Various results of different treatment durations have been reported in some cases but there are not continuous time-dependent studies for the influences of antidepressants on body weight changes. Conclusion: More studies are required to discover underlying mechanisms and the time-dependent effects of antidepressants on body weight changes.

  8. Compulsive eating and weight gain related to dopamine agonist use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirenberg, Melissa J; Waters, Cheryl

    2006-04-01

    Dopamine agonists have been implicated in causing compulsive behaviors in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). These have included gambling, hypersexuality, hobbyism, and other repetitive, purposeless behaviors ("punding"). In this report, we describe 7 patients in whom compulsive eating developed in the context of pramipexole use. All of the affected patients had significant, undesired weight gain; 4 had other comorbid compulsive behaviors. In the 5 patients who lowered the dose of pramipexole or discontinued dopamine agonist treatment, the behavior remitted and no further weight gain occurred. Physicians should be aware that compulsive eating resulting in significant weight gain may occur in PD as a side-effect of dopamine agonist medications such as pramipexole. Given the known risks of the associated weight gain and obesity, further investigation is warranted.

  9. Weight Gain following Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation: A PET Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sauleau, Paul; Drapier, Sophie; Duprez, Joan; Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Dondaine, Thibaut; Haegelen, Claire; Drapier, Dominique; Jannin, Pierre; Robert, Gabriel; Le Jeune, Florence; Vérin, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms behind weight gain following deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery seem to be multifactorial and suspected depending on the target, either the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or the globus pallidus internus (GPi). Decreased energy expenditure following motor improvement and behavioral and/or metabolic changes are possible explanations. Focusing on GPi target, our objective was to analyze correlations between changes in brain metabolism (measured with PET) and weight gain following GPi...

  10. Food groups and weight gain in Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, Y; Takahashi, Y; Sone, H

    2014-06-01

    Identifying subjects at high risk of weight gain according to consumption of food groups is important for individualizing nutritional education, but prospective studies of this issue have been few. We determined whether intake of specific food groups could predict future weight gain. We evaluated data from health checkups on 1236 Japanese men aged 28 to 87 years in 2005 and 2006. Dietary intake was assessed by a 24-h dietary recall at baseline. Weight change was measured after 1 year. Weight increased in 44.7% (n = 553) of participants. Multivariate regression analysis involving many food groups showed a significant association between sugar intake and weight gain after adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), total energy intake, alcohol, smoking and regular physical exercise (β = 0.22, P = 0.04). The effect of intake of 'fats and oils' was significant when adjusted for age and BMI, however, it became insignificant after adjustment for age, BMI and total energy intake. Intake of sugar, which was evaluated as a food group, was predictive of subsequent weight gain among Japanese men, even after adjustment for many confounders. This corroborates the evidence so far concerning the links between sugar intake and weight gain. Further long-term research is required to give robust recommendation to the public.

  11. Exercise during pregnancy and its association with gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Shericka T; Liu, Jihong; Wilcox, Sara; Moran, Robert; Gallagher, Alexa

    2015-03-01

    We examined the association between exercise during pregnancy and meeting gestational weight gain recommendations. Data came from the 2009 South Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (n = 856). Women reported their participation in exercise/sports activities before and during pregnancy, including the number of months and types of exercise. We developed an exercise index (EI), the product of the number of months spent in exercise and average metabolic equivalents for specific exercise. The 2009 Institute of Medicine's guideline was used to categorize gestational weight gain into three classes: inadequate, adequate, and excessive. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to adjust for confounders. Over 46 % of women exceeded the recommended weight gain during pregnancy. Nearly one third (31.9 %) of women reported exercising ≥3 times a week at any time during pregnancy. Compared to women who did not report this level of exercise during pregnancy, exercising women were more likely to meet gestational weight gain recommendations (32.7 vs. 18.7 %) and had a lower odds of excessive gestational weight gain [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.43, 95 % confidence interval 0.24-0.78]. Women with an EI above the median value of those women who exercised or women who exercised ≥3 times a week for 6-9 months during pregnancy had lower odds of excessive gestational weight gain (AOR for EI 0.20, 0.08-0.49; AOR for months 0.26, 0.12-0.56, respectively). Our findings support the need to promote or increase exercise during pregnancy to reduce the high proportion of women who are gaining excessive weight.

  12. Do low-calorie sweeteners promote weight gain in rodents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendinning, John I

    2016-10-01

    Low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) are used globally to increase the palatability of foods and beverages, without the calories of sugar. Recently, however, there have been claims that LCSs promote obesity. Here, I review the literature linking LCS consumption to elevated body weight in rodents. A recent systematic review found when the LCSs were presented in water or chow, only a minority of the studies reported elevated weight gain. In contrast, when the LCSs were presented in yogurt, the majority of the studies reported elevated weight gain. This review focuses on this latter subset of studies, and asks why the combination of LCSs and yogurt promoted weight gain. First, LCSs have been hypothesized to induce metabolic derangement because they uncouple sweet taste and calories. However, the available evidence indicates that the LCS-treated yogurts did not actually taste sweet to rats in the published studies. Without a sweet taste, the concerns about uncoupling sweet taste and calories would not be relevant. Second, in several studies, the LCS-treated yogurt increased weight gain without increasing caloric intake. This indicates that caloric intake alone cannot explain the elevated weight gain. Third, there is evidence that LCSs and yogurt can each alter the gut microbiota of rodents. Given recent work indicating that changes in gut microbiota can modulate body weight, it is possible that the combination of LCS and yogurt alters the gut microbiota in ways that promote weight gain. While this hypothesis remains speculative, it is consistent with the observed rodent data. In human studies, LCSs are usually presented in beverages. Based on the rodent work, it might be worthwhile to evaluate the impact of LCS-treated yogurt in humans.

  13. Prior exercise training blunts short-term high-fat diet-induced weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, Laelie A; MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Monaco, Cynthia M F; Frendo-Cumbo, Scott; Castellani, Laura; Peppler, Willem T; Anderson, Zachary G; Buzelle, Samyra L; LeBlanc, Paul J; Holloway, Graham P; Wright, David C

    2016-08-01

    High-fat diets rapidly cause weight gain and glucose intolerance. We sought to determine whether these changes could be mitigated with prior exercise training. Male C57BL/6J mice were exercise-trained by treadmill running (1 h/day, 5 days/wk) for 4 wk. Twenty-four hours after the final bout of exercise, mice were provided with a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal from lard) for 4 days, with no further exercise. In mice fed the HFD prior to exercise training, the results were blunted weight gain, reduced fat mass, and a slight attenuation in glucose intolerance that was mirrored by greater insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle compared with sedentary mice fed the HFD. When ad libitum-fed sedentary mice were compared with sedentary high-fat fed mice that were calorie restricted (-30%) to match the weight gain of the previously trained high-fat fed mice, the same attenuated impairments in glucose tolerance were found. Blunted weight gain was associated with a greater capacity to increase energy expenditure in trained compared with sedentary mice when challenged with a HFD. Although mitochondrial enzymes in white adipose tissue and UCP-1 protein content in brown adipose tissue were increased in previously exercised compared with sedentary mice fed a HFD, ex vivo mitochondrial respiration was not increased in either tissue. Our data suggest that prior exercise training attenuates high-fat diet-induced weight gain and glucose intolerance and is associated with a greater ability to increase energy expenditure in response to a high-fat diet.

  14. Weight Gain following Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation: A PET Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauleau, Paul; Drapier, Sophie; Duprez, Joan; Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Dondaine, Thibaut; Haegelen, Claire; Drapier, Dominique; Jannin, Pierre; Robert, Gabriel; Le Jeune, Florence; Vérin, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms behind weight gain following deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery seem to be multifactorial and suspected depending on the target, either the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or the globus pallidus internus (GPi). Decreased energy expenditure following motor improvement and behavioral and/or metabolic changes are possible explanations. Focusing on GPi target, our objective was to analyze correlations between changes in brain metabolism (measured with PET) and weight gain following GPi-DBS in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Body mass index was calculated and brain activity prospectively measured using 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose PET four months before and four months after the start of GPi-DBS in 19 PD patients. Dopaminergic medication was included in the analysis to control for its possible influence on brain metabolism. Body mass index increased significantly by 0.66 ± 1.3 kg/m2 (p = 0.040). There were correlations between weight gain and changes in brain metabolism in premotor areas, including the left and right superior gyri (Brodmann area, BA 6), left superior gyrus (BA 8), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (right middle gyrus, BAs 9 and 46), and the left and right somatosensory association cortices (BA 7). However, we found no correlation between weight gain and metabolic changes in limbic and associative areas. Additionally, there was a trend toward a correlation between reduced dyskinesia and weight gain (r = 0.428, p = 0.067). These findings suggest that, unlike STN-DBS, motor improvement is the major contributing factor for weight gain following GPi-DBS PD, confirming the motor selectivity of this target.

  15. Weight gain in freshman college students and perceived health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul de Vos

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Students experienced hindrance in physical exercise and mental well-being. Students with a high BMI without irregular eating habits were willing to change their lifestyle. However, students who had irregular lifestyles exhibited the lowest willingness to change their eating behaviors and to lose weight. Our study provides insight into means by which adolescents at high risk for weight gain can be approached to improve experienced quality of life.

  16. Prospective associations of eating behaviors with weight gain in infants

    OpenAIRE

    Shepard, Desti N.; Paula C. Chandler-Laney

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether maternal reports of infant eating behaviors are stable over time and whether eating behaviors are prospectively associated with weight gain. Methods In an ongoing study of infant growth, weight and length were measured at 2-weeks, 3-months, and 5-months of age. Food responsiveness (FR), satiety responsiveness (SR), enjoyment of feeding (EF), and slow eating (SE) were assessed with the Baby Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to examine...

  17. Gestational Weight Gain and Fetal Birth Weight in Rural Regions of Rasht/Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Panahandeh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Proper nutrition during pregnancy is essential for optimal fetal growth. Investigation of the relation between pregnancy weight gain and birth weight in rural regions of Rasht, center of Guilan Province in Iran, was the purpose of this study. Methods: In this cohort study, prenatal data of 918 women who attended local health centers with singleton term pregnancies were recorded. Maternal demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, total pregnancy weight gain and birth weight were recorded by health workers. The women were stratified based on their pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI into four groups: underweight women, women with normal weight, overweight women and obese women. The relation between weight gain and low birth weight (LBW, birth weight <2500 g and macrosomia (birth weight >4000 g was studied in these four groups. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, independent t-test, Pearson correlation and logistic regression with 95% confidence intervals. Findings: More than 50% of underweight women and women with normal weight and almost 30% of overweight and obese women gained weight less than what is mentioned in the Institute of Medicine (IOM recommendations. The incidence rate of LBW was 7.1% and that of macrosomia was 5%. Mean weight gain of women with LBW was significantly less than mean weight gain of women who had an infant with a birth weight more than 2500 g (P=0.002. Women who gained weight less than the recommended range had higher rate of LBW in their infants (P=0.01 and the incidence of macrosomia in women with a weight gain above the recommended weight was higher than that in others (P=0.012. Pregnancy weight gain less than what is mentioned in the IOM guideline was the only predictor for LBW (OR=2.79, CI=1.16-6.73, P=0.02. Conclusion:Pregnancy weight gains less than what is mentioned in the IOM recommendation was a significant predictor of LBW, regardless of pre-pregnancy BMI.

  18. The effect of the Thanksgiving Holiday on weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinger Mary K

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More people than ever are considered obese and the resulting health problems are evident. These facts highlight the need for identification of critical time periods for weight gain. Therefore the purpose was to assess potential changes that occur in body weight during the Thanksgiving holiday break in college students. Methods 94 college students (23.0 ± 4.6 yrs, 72.1 ± 14.0 kg, 172.6 ± 9.3 cm, 24.0 ± 3.9 kg/m2 reported to the human body composition laboratory at the University of Oklahoma following a 6-hour fast with testing occurring prior to, and immediately following the Thanksgiving holiday break (13 ± 3 days. Body weight (BW was assessed using a balance beam scale while participants were dressed in minimal clothing. Paired t-tests were used to assess changes in BW pre and post Thanksgiving holiday with additional analysis by gender, body mass index (BMI, and class standing (i.e. undergraduate vs. graduate. Results Overall, a significant (P P P 2 group compared to a non significant 0.2 kg gain in the normal group (2. Conclusion These data indicate that participants in our study gained a significant amount of BW (0.5 kg during the Thanksgiving holiday. While an increase in BW of half a kilogram may not be cause for alarm, the increase could have potential long-term health consequences if participants retained this weight gain throughout the college year. Additionally, because the overweight/obese participants gained the greatest amount of BW, this group may be at increased risk for weight gain and further obesity development during the holiday season.

  19. What is the strongest predictor of birth weight: Gestational age, hbalc, maternal weight, weight gain, or birth weight of sibling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Dethlefsen, Claus

    Aim: To assess the effect of various maternal characteristics in diabetic pregnancies on birthweight (BW) taking into account birthweight of an elderly sibling.  Method: We identified all pregnant diabetic women in North Jutland County. Birthweight and certain maternal characteristics including H...... for various increments in each of the 9 variables are seen in the table. All significant values are in bold face.  Conclusion: Weight of sibling is a very strong predictor of birthweight attenuating the predictive power of all other variablesapart from gestational age....... adjusted for age and sex using a Danish reference. E.g. an observed sibling weight of 3800 g with expected BW 3400 g predicts 11.8% extra weight equal to 134 grams (114x11.8) and one extra gestational day predicts an additional weight of 27 grams.  Results: The effects in terms of additional grams in BW...

  20. The contribution of fat component to gestational weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V N Pokusaeva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate the role of adipose tissue in gestational weight gain (GWG and preferential fat deposition among normal-weight women. Subjects and methods: prospective cohort study of 84 pregnancies: maternal body mass index 18,5–24,9 kg/m2, singleton term pregnancy, nondiabetic women, somatically well. GWG and skinfold thickness were evaluated in the 1st, 2nd, 3d trimesters, on the 3d day after delivery. Results: fat mass gain in low GWG was similar to recommended GWG and in the high-GWG group was greater one. Women with recommended and low GWG returned to their initial fat level on the 3d day after delivery, in excessive weight gain fat significantly increased (р=0,025. Compared to initial recommended GWG resulted in triceps skinfold thicknesses loss (р=0,001, in abdominal skinfold gained nothing and in thighs skinfold thicknesses increasing (р=0,021. Inadequate GWG leads to fat loss in arms (р=0,017, fat of abdominal area and thighs return to initial level. In excessive GWG fat in the upper trunk and arms not changed, in the lower area (thighs significantly increased compared to initial level (р=0,001 or other groups (р=0,001. Conclusion: excessive GWG was associated with greater adipose tissue cumulation and its deposition preferentially over the thighs. Inadequate GWG was clearly linked to low fat-free mass gain.

  1. Soft Drinks and Weight Gain: How Strong Is the Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Emily; Dansinger, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    Context Soft drink consumption in the United States has tripled in recent decades, paralleling the dramatic increases in obesity prevalence. The purpose of this clinical review is to evaluate the extent to which current scientific evidence supports a causal link between sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption and weight gain. Evidence acquisition MEDLINE search of articles published in all languages between 1966 and December 2006 containing key words or medical subheadings, such as “soft drinks” and “weight.” Additional articles were obtained by reviewing references of retrieved articles, including a recent systematic review. All reports with cross-sectional, prospective cohort, or clinical trial data in humans were considered. Evidence synthesis Six of 15 cross-sectional and 6 of 10 prospective cohort studies identified statistically significant associations between soft drink consumption and increased body weight. There were 5 clinical trials; the two that involved adolescents indicated that efforts to reduce sugar-sweetened soft drinks slowed weight gain. In adults, 3 small experimental studies suggested that consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks caused weight gain; however, no trial in adults was longer than 10 weeks or included more than 41 participants. No trial reported the effects on lipids. Conclusions Although observational studies support the hypothesis that sugar-sweetened soft drinks cause weight gain, a paucity of hypothesis-confirming clinical trial data has left the issue open to debate. Given the magnitude of the public health concern, larger and longer intervention trials should be considered to clarify the specific effects of sugar-sweetened soft drinks on body weight and other cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:18924641

  2. Maternal Behavior and Infant Weight Gain in the First Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worobey, John; Lopez, Maria Islas; Hoffman, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relative contributions of maternal characteristics and behaviors in predicting infant weight gain over the first year of postpartum life. Design: Longitudinal study of maternal feeding style throughout infancy. Setting: A Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children center. Participants:…

  3. [Antipsychotic-induced weight gain--pharmacogenetic studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olajossy-Hilkesberger, Luiza; Godlewska, Beata; Marmurowska-Michałowskal, Halina; Olajossy, Marcin; Landowski, Jerzy

    2006-01-01

    Drug-naive patients with schizophrenia often present metabolic abnormalities and obesity. Weight gain may be the side effect of treatment with many antipsychotic drugs. Genetic effects, besides many other factors, are known to influence obesity in patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotics. Numerous studies of several genes' polymorphisms have been performed. -759C/T polymorphism of 5HT2C gene attracted most attention. In 5 independent studies of this polymorphism the association between T allele with the lower AP-induced weight gain was detected. No associations could be detected between weight gain and other polymorphisms of serotonergic system genes as well as histaminergic system genes. Studies of adrenergic and dopaminergic system have neither produced any unambiguous results. Analysis of the newest candidate genes (SAP-25, leptin gene) confirmed the role of genetic factors in AP-induced weight gain. It is worth emphasising, that the studies have been conducted in relatively small and heterogenic groups and that various treatment strategies were used.

  4. Zonisamide prevents olanzapine-associated hyperphagia, weight gain, and elevated blood glucose in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallingford, Nicholas M; Sinnayah, Puspha; Bymaster, Frank P; Gadde, Kishore M; Krishnan, Ranga K; McKinney, Anthony A; Landbloom, Ronald P; Tollefson, Gary D; Cowley, Michael A

    2008-11-01

    Olanzapine (OLZ), one of the second-generation atypical antipsychotics (SGAs), has shown relative advantages in patient adherence and outcomes. However, OLZ has also been associated with a higher incidence of weight gain than most other SGAs. Excessive weight gain may in turn contribute to long-term health concerns for some individuals. Zonisamide (ZNS), a medication approved in the United States as an adjunct in the management of epilepsy, has a diverse pharmacological profile, including sodium channel blockade, monoamine enhancement, and inhibition of carbonic anhydrase. ZNS has also been reported to cause weight loss in both humans and rodents. We hypothesized that this profile might be beneficial when co-administered with OLZ. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of OLZ on body weight, as well as the pathways known to regulate feeding behavior and arousal in the Sprague-Dawley rat. As indicated via c-Fos expression, we found an OLZ-induced activation in the nucleus accumbens and orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. An OLZ-associated development of hyperphagia, weight gain and elevated blood glucose in the rat was also found. These outcomes were attenuated and reversed in the presence of concomitant ZNS. These results suggest the hypothesis that ZNS may effectively treat or prevent weight gain or metabolic changes associated with the SGAs. Future studies of this combination in patients through appropriately designed human clinical studies are encouraged.

  5. Outrunning major weight gain: a prospective study of 8,340consistent runners during 7 years of follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-06

    Background: Body weight increases with aging. Short-term,longitudinal exercise training studies suggest that increasing exerciseproduces acute weight loss, but it is not clear if the maintenance oflong-term, vigorous exercise attenuates age-related weight gain inproportion to the exercise dose. Methods: Prospective study of 6,119 maleand 2,221 female runners whose running distance changed less than 5 km/wkbetween their baseline and follow-up survey 7 years later. Results: Onaverage, men who ran modest (0-24 km/wk), intermediate (24-48 km/wk) orprolonged distances (>_48 km/wk) all gained weight throughage 64,however, those who ran ?48 km/wk had one-half the average annual weightgain of those who ran<24 km/wk. Age-related weight gain, and itsreduction by running, were both greater in younger than older men. Incontrast, men s gain in waist circumference with age, and its reductionby running, were the same in older and younger men. Women increased theirbody weight and waist and hip circumferences over time, regardless ofage, which was also reduced in proportion to running distance. In bothsexes, running did not attenuate weight gain uniformly, but ratherdisproportionately prevented more extreme increases. Conclusion: Men andwomen who remain vigorously active gain less weight as they age and thereduction is in proportion to the exercise dose.

  6. Association between Maternal Fish Consumption and Gestational Weight Gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Laurin, Charles

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that fish consumption can restrict weight gain. However, little is known about how fish consumption affects gestational weight gain (GWG), and whether this relationship depends on genetic makeup. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between fish consumption and GWG......, and whether this relationship is dependent on molecular genetic predisposition to obesity. DESIGN: A nested case-cohort study based on the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) sampling the most obese women (n = 990) and a random sample of the remaining participants (n = 1,128). Replication of statistically......). Associations between consumption of fish, GRS or individual variants and GWG were analysed, and interactions between fish and the GRS or individual variants were examined. RESULTS: In the DNBC, each portion/week (150 g) of fatty fish was associated with a higher GWG of 0.58 kg (95% CI: 0.16, 0.99, P

  7. Peer Effects, Fast Food Consumption and Adolescent Weight Gain

    OpenAIRE

    Fortin, Bernard; Yazbeck, Myra

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at opening the black box of peer effects in adolescent weight gain. Using Add Health data on secondary schools in the U.S., we investigate whether these effects partly flow through the eating habits channel. Adolescents are assumed to interact through a friendship social network. We propose a two-equation model. The first equation provides a social interaction model of fast food consumption. To estimate this equation we use a quasi maximum likelihood approach that allows us to...

  8. Predictors of weight variation and weight gain in peri- and post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Filipa; Maroco, João; Ramos, Catarina; Leal, Isabel

    2014-08-01

    This research encompasses a community sample of 497 women in peri- and post-menopause and uses structural equation modelling to investigate the structural models of weight variation and weight gain. Variables such as body shape concerns, depression, stress and life events are explored. Weight gain (from pre-menopause to current menopausal status) was observed in 69 per cent of participants. The predictors of weight gain were lower education level (β = -.146, p = .017), less or no physical exercise (β = -.111, p = .021), having a recent psychological problem (β = .191, p post-menopause (β = .147, p = .013) and more frequent body shape concerns (β = .313, p menopause is recommended; risk groups should be targeted considering the predictors of weight increase.

  9. Gestational Weight Gain and Peripartum Cardiomyopathy in a Twin Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Matsumiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclamptic twin pregnancy with larger gestational weight gain (GWG is suggested to have a higher risk of peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM. This was true in a 5-year experience at a single center. A primiparous woman with twins and prepregnancy weight of 51.0 kg exhibited hypertension at gestational week (GW 32−6/7 and GWG of 18.3 kg (6.0 kg and 2.9 kg during the last four weeks and one week of gestation, resp. concomitant with generalized edema, gave birth at GW 34−4/7, developed proteinuria, cough, and dyspnea postpartum, and was diagnosed with preeclampsia and PPCM showing left ventricular ejection fraction of 34% and plasma BNP level of 1530 pg/mL. This was the only case of PPCM among 101 (12 with preeclampsia and 3266 women with twin and singleton pregnancies, respectively. Thus, PPCM occurred significantly more often in women with preeclamptic twin pregnancies than in women with singleton pregnancies (8.3% [1/12] versus 0.0% [0/3266], P=0.0355. This patient showed the greatest weight gain of 6.0 kg during the last four weeks of gestation and the greatest weight loss of 19.2 kg during one month postpartum among 90 women with twin deliveries at GW ≥ 32.

  10. Is gestational weight gain associated with diet quality during pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dayeon; Bianchi, Leonard; Chung, Hwan; Weatherspoon, Lorraine; Song, Won O

    2014-08-01

    The gestational weight gain (GWG) guidelines of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) aim to optimize birth outcomes and reduce pregnancy complications. The GWG guidelines are set based on the prepregnancy weight status and optimal weight gain at different trimesters of pregnancy. Dietary references intakes (DRIs) of the IOM are set for each trimester of pregnancy for energy intake and other essential nutrients by age groups (≤ 18, 19-30, 31-51 years). The DRIs, however, do not take into account the differing energy and nutrient requirements of women with different prepregnancy weights. In this cross-sectional study, we tested the hypothesis that diet quality during pregnancy is associated with adequate GWG at different stages of pregnancy. Diet quality during pregnancy was assessed from a 24-h recall measured by the healthy eating index of 2005 (HEI-2005). Both GWG and diet quality data were from 490 pregnant women aged 16-43 years included in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006, a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in the US, during which pregnant women were oversampled. Logistic regression models adjusted for age, trimester of gestation, race/ethnicity, education level, marital status, family poverty income ratio, daily supplement use, physical activity, and prepregnancy BMI were used to investigate if HEI-2005 is a determinant of GWG status at different trimesters of pregnancy. We found that HEI-2005 scores were not determinants of adequate GWG, although inadequate intake of total vegetables (OR 3.8, CI 1.1-13.2, p = 0.03) and oils were associated with excessive GWG (OR 2.8, CI 1.2-6.4, p = 0.02) when covariates were controlled. Although adequate GWG was not associated with diet quality as measured by HEI-2005 during pregnancy in this study, comprehensive prenatal counseling is still important to reduce adverse birth outcomes.

  11. Peer effects, fast food consumption and adolescent weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Bernard; Yazbeck, Myra

    2015-07-01

    This paper aims at opening the black box of peer effects in adolescent weight gain. Using Add Health data on secondary schools in the U.S., we investigate whether these effects partly flow through the eating habits channel. Adolescents are assumed to interact through a friendship social network. We propose a two-equation model. The first equation provides a social interaction model of fast food consumption. To estimate this equation we use a quasi maximum likelihood approach that allows us to control for common environment at the network level and to solve the simultaneity (reflection) problem. Our second equation is a panel dynamic weight production function relating an individual's Body Mass Index z-score (zBMI) to his fast food consumption and his lagged zBMI, and allowing for irregular intervals in the data. Results show that there are positive but small peer effects in fast food consumption among adolescents belonging to a same friendship school network. Based on our preferred specification, the estimated social multiplier is 1.15. Our results also suggest that, in the long run, an extra day of weekly fast food restaurant visits increases zBMI by 4.45% when ignoring peer effects and by 5.11%, when they are taken into account.

  12. Physician counseling of young adults with rapid weight gain: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Jason

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of weight gain is highest during young adulthood. Our study aims to describe weight gain patterns among young adults and to evaluate physician recognition of and counseling for rapid weight gain. Methods This retrospective cohort study included patients ages 18-35 at an academic internal medicine clinic between 2004-2008. We conducted chart reviews to determine weight change over time, whether weight gain greater than 3 lbs/year was documented, whether counseling was provided, and whether patients became overweight. We categorized weight gain documentation by location on the problem list, encounter diagnosis, or note text. We categorized counseling as weight-specific or general diet and exercise counseling. We used Chi-square tests to evaluate the relationship between weight change over time and the following variables: gender, diagnosis of weight gain, and counseling for weight gain. Fisher's Exact test was used to test for an association between diagnosis and counseling category. Results The study included 365 patients. Weight gain was greater than 3 lbs/year for 24% (90/365 of patients, of whom 56 (15% gained 3-5.9 lbs/year, and 34 (9% gained more than 6 lbs/year. Among patients gaining more than 3 lbs/year, physicians documented weight gain as a problem in only 10% (9/90. Of the 9 patients for whom weight gain was documented, physicians provided weight-specific counseling in three, and general diet and exercise counseling in four. Of the 81 individuals with no documented diagnosis of weight gain, 63% had no documented counseling, but 34% received general diet and exercise counseling. Among patients with over 180 days of follow-up, 8% (10/126 became overweight. Conclusions Physicians infrequently recognize or counsel for weight gain among young adult patients. Improving identification of patients with rapid weight gain can provide an opportunity for tailored weight-related counseling.

  13. The effects of changing exercise levels on weight and age-relatedweight gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.; Wood, Peter D.

    2004-06-01

    To determine prospectively whether physical activity canprevent age-related weight gain and whether changing levels of activityaffect body weight. DESIGN/SUBJECTS: The study consisted of 8,080 maleand 4,871 female runners who completed two questionnaires an average(+/-standard deviation (s.d.)) of 3.20+/-2.30 and 2.59+/-2.17 yearsapart, respectively, as part of the National Runners' Health Study.RESULTS: Changes in running distance were inversely related to changes inmen's and women's body mass indices (BMIs) (slope+/-standard error(s.e.): -0.015+/-0.001 and -0.009+/-0.001 kg/m(2) per Deltakm/week,respectively), waist circumferences (-0.030+/-0.002 and -0.022+/-0.005 cmper Deltakm/week, respectively) and percent changes in body weight(-0.062+/-0.003 and -0.041+/-0.003 percent per Deltakm/week,respectively, all P<0.0001). The regression slopes were significantlysteeper (more negative) in men than women for DeltaBMI and Deltapercentbody weight (P<0.0001). A longer history of running diminishedthe impact of changing running distance on men's weights. When adjustedfor Deltakm/week, years of aging in men and years of aging in women wereassociated with increases of 0.066+/-0.005 and 0.056+/-0.006 kg/m(2) inBMI, respectively, increases of 0.294+/-0.019 and 0.279+/-0.028 percentin Delta percentbody weight, respectively, and increases of 0.203+/-0.016and 0.271+/-0.033 cm in waist circumference, respectively (allP<0.0001). These regression slopes suggest that vigorous exercise mayneed to increase 4.4 km/week annually in men and 6.2 km/week annually inwomen to compensate for the expected gain in weight associated with aging(2.7 and 3.9 km/week annually when correct for the attenuation due tomeasurement error). CONCLUSIONS: Age-related weight gain occurs evenamong the most active individuals when exercise is constant.Theoretically, vigorous exercise must increase significantly with age tocompensate for the expected gain in weight associated withaging.

  14. Prediction of excessive weight gain in insulin treated patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cichosz, Simon Lebech; Lundby-Christensen, Louise; Johansen, Mette D.;

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Weight gain is an ongoing challenge when initiating insulin therapy in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, if prediction of insulin associated weight gain was possible on an individualized level, targeted initiatives could be implemented to reduce weight gain. The objective...... of this study was to identify predictors of weight gain in insulin treated patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A total of 412 individuals with Type 2 diabetes mellitus were, in addition to metformin or placebo, randomized into 18-month treatment groups with three different insulin analogue...... treatment regimens. Participants with excessive weight gain were defined as the group with weight gain in the 4(th) quartile. We developed a pattern classification method to predict individuals prone to excessive weight gain. RESULTS: The median weight gain among all patients (n = 412) was 2.4 (95...

  15. Feedback models allowing estimation of thresholds for self-promoting body weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Edmund; Swann, Andrew; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.

    2008-01-01

    . The difference between the two situations is typically an energy imbalance of about 1% over a long period of time. THEORY: Weight gain increases basal metabolic rate. Weight gain is often associated with a decrease in physical activity, although not to such an extent that it prevents an increase in total energy...... expenditure and energy intake. Dependent on the precise balance between these effects of weight gain, they may make the body weight unstable and tend to further promote weight gain. With the aim of identifying the thresholds beyond which such self-promoting weight gain may take place, we develop a simple...... cases do they take values that make weight gain self-promoting. RESULTS: We determine the quantitative conditions under which body weight gain becomes self-promoting. We find that these conditions can easily be met, and that they are so small that they are not observable with currently available...

  16. Impact of birth weight and early infant weight gain on insulin resistance and associated cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius-Bjerre, Signe; Jensen, Rikke Beck; Færch, Kristine;

    2011-01-01

    Low birth weight followed by accelerated weight gain during early childhood has been associated with adverse metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes later in life. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of early infant weight gain on glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors in ad...

  17. The consequences of obesity and excess weight gain in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Jane E; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Reynolds, Rebecca

    2011-11-01

    The prevalence of obesity in pregnancy is rising exponentially; about 15-20% of pregnant women now enter pregnancy with a BMI which would define them as obese. This paper provides a review of the strong links between obesity and adverse pregnancy outcome which operate across a range of pregnancy complications. For example, obesity is associated with an increased risk of maternal mortality, gestational diabetes mellitus, thromboembolism, pre-eclampsia and postpartum haemorrhage. Obesity also complicates operative delivery; it makes operative delivery more difficult, increases complications and paradoxically increases the need for operative delivery. The risk of the majority of these complications is amplified by excess weight gain in pregnancy and increases in proportion to the degree of obesity, for example, women with extreme obesity have OR of 7·89 for gestational diabetes and 3·84 for postpartum haemorrhage compared to their lean counterparts. The consequences of maternal obesity do not stop once the baby is born. Maternal obesity programmes a variety of long-term adverse outcomes, including obesity in the offspring at adulthood. Such an effect is mediated at least in part via high birthweight; a recent study has suggested that the odds of adult obesity are two-fold greater in babies weighing more than 4 kg at birth. The mechanism by which obesity causes adverse pregnancy outcome is uncertain. This paper reviews the emerging evidence that hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance may both play a role: the links between hyperglycaemia in pregnancy and both increased birthweight and insulin resistance have been demonstrated in two large studies. Lastly, we discuss the nature and rationale for possible intervention strategies in obese pregnant women.

  18. Consuming fire ants reduces northern bobwhite survival and weight gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, P.E.; Allen, Craig R.; Birge, Hannah E.

    2014-01-01

    Northern bobwhite quail, Colinus virginianus (L.) (Galliformes: Odontophoridae), population declines are well documented, but pinpointing the reasons for these decreases has proven elusive. Bobwhite population declines are attributed primarily to loss of habitat and land use changes. This, however, does not entirely explain population declines in areas intensively managed for bobwhites. Although previous research demonstrates the negative impact of red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on northern bobwhites, the mechanisms underlying this effect are largely unknown. To meet the protein demands of early growth and development, bobwhite chicks predominantly consume small insects, of which ants are a substantial proportion. Fire ants alter ant community dynamics by often reducing native ant diversity and abundance while concurrently increasing the abundance of individuals. Fire ants have negative effects on chicks, but they are also a large potential protein source, making it difficult to disentangle their net effect on bobwhite chicks. To help investigate these effects, we conducted a laboratory experiment to understand (1) whether or not bobwhites consume fire ants, and (2) how the benefits of this consumption compare to the deleterious impacts of bobwhite chick exposure to fire ants. Sixty bobwhite chicks were separated into two groups of 30; one group was provided with starter feed only and the second group was provided with feed and fire ants. Bobwhite chicks were observed feeding on fire ants. Chicks that fed on fire ants had reduced survival and weight gain. Our results show that, while fire ants increase potential food sources for northern bobwhite, their net effect on bobwhite chicks is deleterious. This information will help inform land managers and commercial bobwhite rearing operations.

  19. Compact Weighted Class Association Rule Mining using Information Gain

    CERN Document Server

    Ibrahim, S P Syed

    2011-01-01

    Weighted association rule mining reflects semantic significance of item by considering its weight. Classification constructs the classifier and predicts the new data instance. This paper proposes compact weighted class association rule mining method, which applies weighted association rule mining in the classification and constructs an efficient weighted associative classifier. This proposed associative classification algorithm chooses one non class informative attribute from dataset and all the weighted class association rules are generated based on that attribute. The weight of the item is considered as one of the parameter in generating the weighted class association rules. This proposed algorithm calculates the weight using the HITS model. Experimental results show that the proposed system generates less number of high quality rules which improves the classification accuracy.

  20. Offspring subcutaneous adipose markers are sensitive to the timing of maternal gestational weight gain

    OpenAIRE

    Giblin, Linda; Darimont, Christian; Leone, Patricia; McNamara, Louise B; Blancher, Florence; Berry, Donagh; Castañeda-Gutiérrez, Eurídice; Lawlor, Peadar G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy impacts on offspring health. This study focused on the timing of maternal gestational weight gain, using a porcine model with mothers of normal pre-pregnancy weight. Methods Trial design ensured the trajectory of maternal gestational weight gain differed across treatments in early, mid and late gestation. Diet composition did not differ. On day 25 gestation, sows were assigned to one of five treatments: Control sows received a standar...

  1. Almost all antipsychotics result in weight gain: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Bak

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Antipsychotics (AP induce weight gain. However, reviews and meta-analyses generally are restricted to second generation antipsychotics (SGA and do not stratify for duration of AP use. It is hypothesised that patients gain more weight if duration of AP use is longer. METHOD: A meta-analysis was conducted of clinical trials of AP that reported weight change. Outcome measures were body weight change, change in BMI and clinically relevant weight change (7% weight gain or loss. Duration of AP-use was stratified as follows: ≤6 weeks, 6-16 weeks, 16-38 weeks and >38 weeks. Forest plots stratified by AP as well as by duration of use were generated and results were summarised in figures. RESULTS: 307 articles met inclusion criteria. The majority were AP switch studies. Almost all AP showed a degree of weight gain after prolonged use, except for amisulpride, aripiprazole and ziprasidone, for which prolonged exposure resulted in negligible weight change. The level of weight gain per AP varied from discrete to severe. Contrary to expectations, switch of AP did not result in weight loss for amisulpride, aripiprazole or ziprasidone. In AP-naive patients, weight gain was much more pronounced for all AP. CONCLUSION: Given prolonged exposure, virtually all AP are associated with weight gain. The rational of switching AP to achieve weight reduction may be overrated. In AP-naive patients, weight gain is more pronounced.

  2. The effect of betahistine, a histamine H1 receptor agonist/H3 antagonist, on olanzapine-induced weight gain in first-episode schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyurovsky, Michael; Pashinian, Artashes; Levi, Aya; Weizman, Ronit; Weizman, Abraham

    2005-03-01

    Histamine antagonism has been implicated in antipsychotic drug-induced weight gain. Betahistine, a histamine enhancer with H1 agonistic/H3 antagonistic properties (48 mg t.i.d.), was coadministered with olanzapine (10 mg/day) in three first-episode schizophrenia patients for 6 weeks. Body weight was measured at baseline and weekly thereafter. Clinical rating scales were completed at baseline and at week 6. All participants gained weight (mean weight gain 3.1+/-0.9 kg) and a similar pattern of weight gain was observed: an increase during the first 2 weeks and no additional weight gain (two patients) or minor weight loss (one patient) from weeks 3 to 6. None gained 7% of baseline weight, which is the cut-off for clinically significant weight gain. Betahistine was safe and well tolerated and did not interfere with the antipsychotic effect of olanzapine. Our findings justify a placebo-controlled evaluation of the putative weight-attenuating effect of betahistine in olanzapine-induced weight gain.

  3. Fetal growth in relation to gestational weight gain in women with Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parellada, C B; Asbjörnsdóttir, Björg; Ringholm, Lene;

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate fetal growth in relation to gestational weight gain in women with Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 142 consecutive pregnancies in 28 women of normal weight, 39 overweight women and 75 obese women with Type 2 diabetes (pre-pregnancy BMI ... kg/m2, respectively). Gestational weight gain was categorized as excessive (exceeding the US Institute of Medicine recommendations) or as non-excessive (within or below the Institute of Medicine recommendations). RESULTS: Excessive and non-excessive gestational weight gain were seen in 61 (43......%) and 81 women (57%) with a median (range) gestational weight gain of 14.3 (9-32) vs. 7.0 (-5-16) kg (P gestational weight gain were characterized by higher birth weight (3712 vs. 3258 g; P = 0.001), birth weight z-score (1.14 vs. -0.01, P = 0...

  4. Health profile of young adults born preterm: Negative effects of rapid weight gain in early life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Kerkhof (Gerthe); R.H. Willemsen (Ruben); R.W.J. Leunissen (Ralph); P.E. Breukhoven (Petra); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Early postnatal weight gain is associated with determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) in adults born term. We aimed to investigate the association of weight gain during different periods, and weight trajectories in early life after p

  5. A low TSH profile predicts olanzapine-induced weight gain and relief by adjunctive topiramate in healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Simon S; van Vliet, André; van Vugt, Barbara; Scheurink, Anton J W; van Dijk, Gertjan

    2016-04-01

    Second generation antipsychotics, like olanzapine (OLZ), have become the first line drug treatment for patients with schizophrenia. However, OLZ treatment is often associated with body weight (BW) gain and metabolic derangements. Therefore, the search for prospective markers for OLZ's negative side effects as well as adjunctive treatments to inhibit these has been of major interest. The aim of this study was to investigate in healthy male volunteers (age: 36 ± 11 years; BW: 84 ± 12 kg; BMI=25.5 ± 2.5) whether adjunctive topiramate (TPM) administration opposes OLZ-induced weight gain over the course of 14 days treatment. In addition, we investigated behavioral, endocrine and metabolic characteristics as underlying and potentially predictive factors for weight regulation and/or metabolic derangements associated with OLZ and TPM treatment. While adjunctive TPM indeed reduced OLZ-induced weight gain (PTPM. Using multiple regression analysis, BW gain was the key factor explaining metabolic disturbances (e.g., plasma insulin- LDL interaction: PTPM treatment, nor its circulating levels, contributed to variation observed in ΔBW. In a second multiple regression analysis, we observed that a low baseline thyrotropin profile (TSHAUC) before the start of drug treatment was associated with an increase in ΔBW over the course of drug treatment (PTPM treatment did attenuate OLZ induced BW gain (PTPM treatment blocking OLZ-induced ΔBW gain. Others have shown that OLZ-induced BW gain is associated with improvement in brief psychiatric rating scores (BPRS); adjunctive TPM treatment may be a solution specifically for those subjects susceptible to OLZ-induced rapid weight gain who-on a therapeutic level-benefit most of OLZ treatment.

  6. Misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status predicts excessive gestational weight gain: findings from a US cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifas-Shiman Sheryl L

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive gestational weight gain promotes poor maternal and child health outcomes. Weight misperception is associated with weight gain in non-pregnant women, but no data exist during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status with excessive gestational weight gain. Methods At study enrollment, participants in Project Viva reported weight, height, and perceived body weight status by questionnaire. Our study sample comprised 1537 women who had either normal or overweight/obese pre-pregnancy BMI. We created 2 categories of pre-pregnancy body weight status misperception: normal weight women who identified themselves as overweight ('overassessors' and overweight/obese women who identified themselves as average or underweight ('underassessors'. Women who correctly perceived their body weight status were classified as either normal weight or overweight/obese accurate assessors. We performed multivariable logistic regression to determine the odds of excessive gestational weight gain according to 1990 Institute of Medicine guidelines. Results Of the 1029 women with normal pre-pregnancy BMI, 898 (87% accurately perceived and 131 (13% overassessed their weight status. 508 women were overweight/obese, of whom 438 (86% accurately perceived and 70 (14% underassessed their pre-pregnancy weight status. By the end of pregnancy, 823 women (54% gained excessively. Compared with normal weight accurate assessors, the adjusted odds of excessive gestational weight gain was 2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3, 3.0 in normal weight overassessors, 2.9 (95% CI: 2.2, 3.9 in overweight/obese accurate assessors, and 7.6 (95% CI: 3.4, 17.0 in overweight/obese underassessors. Conclusion Misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status was associated with excessive gestational weight gain among both normal weight and overweight/obese women, with the greatest likelihood of excessive

  7. Assessment of residual body weight gain and residual intake and body weight gain as feed efficiency traits in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Owen W; Miller, Stephen P.; Wood, Benjamin J

    2013-01-01

    Background Since feed represents 70% of the total cost in poultry production systems, an animal’s ability to convert feed is an important trait. In this study, residual feed intake (RFI) and residual body weight gain (RG), and their linear combination into residual feed intake and body weight gain (RIG) were studied to estimate their genetic parameters and analyze the potential differences in feed intake between the top ranked birds based on the criteria for each trait. Methods Phenotypic and...

  8. Factors that influence excessive gestational weight gain: moving beyond assessment and counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Emily E; Dworatzek, Paula D N; Penava, Debbie; de Vrijer, Barbra; Gilliland, Jason; Matthews, June I; Seabrook, Jamie A

    2016-11-01

    One in four Canadian adults is obese, and more women are entering pregnancy with a higher body mass index (BMI) than in the past. Pregnant women who are overweight or obese have a higher risk of pregnancy-related complications than women of normal weight. Gestational weight gain (GWG) is also associated with childhood obesity. Although the factors influencing weight gain during pregnancy are multifaceted, little is known about the social inequality of GWG. This review will address some of the socioeconomic factors and maternal characteristics influencing weight gain and the impact that excessive GWG has on health outcomes such as post-partum weight retention. The effects of an overweight or obese pre-pregnancy BMI on GWG and neonatal outcomes will also be addressed. The timing of weight gain is also important, as recommendations now include trimester-specific guidelines. While not conclusive, preliminary evidence suggests that excessive weight gain during the first trimester is most detrimental.

  9. Gestational weight gain and pregnancy outcomes in 481 obese glucose-tolerant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Ovesen, Per; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of gestational weight gain in obese glucose-tolerant women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a historical cohort study of 481 women with prepregnancy BMI > or = 30 kg/m2 and a normal 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) during the third trimester.......0-11.0]). There was no difference in rates of small-for-gestational-age infants. Significant predictors for birth weight (determined by multiple linear regression) were gestational weight gain, 2-h OGTT result, pre-gestational BMI, maternal age, gestational age, and smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing weight gain in obese women...... is associated with increasing pregnancy complications. Our data suggest that minimal gestational weight gain might normalize birth weight. Prospective studies should be performed to clarify the safety of recommending limited gestational weight gain....

  10. Investigating College Learning Gain: Exploring a Propensity Score Weighting Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Liu, Huili; Roohr, Katrina Crotts; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2016-01-01

    Learning outcomes assessment has been widely used by higher education institutions both nationally and internationally. One of its popular uses is to document learning gains of students. Prior studies have recognized the potential imbalance between freshmen and seniors in terms of their background characteristics and their prior academic…

  11. Association Between Gestational Weight Gain According to Body Mass Index and Postpartum Weight in a Large Cohort of Danish Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Ottesen, Bent;

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) and postpartum weight retention (PWR) in pre-pregnancy underweight, normal weight, overweight or obese women, with emphasis on the American Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations. We performed secondary analyses...

  12. Gaining effciency via weighted estimators for multivariate failure time data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Multivariate failure time data arise frequently in survival analysis.A commonly used tech-nique is the working independence estimator for marginal hazard models.Two natural questions are how to improve the effciency of the working independence estimator and how to identify the situations under which such an estimator has high statistical effciency.In this paper,three weighted estimators are proposed based on three different optimal criteria in terms of the asymptotic covariance of weighted estimators.Simplifiedclose-form solutions are found,which always outperform the working indepen-dence estimator.We also prove that the working independence estimator has high statistical effciency,when asymptotic covariance of derivatives of partial log-likelihood functions is nearly exchangeable or diagonal.Simulations are conducted to compare the performance of the weighted estimator and work-ing independence estimator.A data set from Busselton population health surveys is analyzed using the proposed estimators.

  13. Predictors of Gestational Weight Gain among White and Latina Women and Associations with Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Monica L.; Bodenlos, Jamie S.; Sankey, Heather Z.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined racial/ethnic differences in gestational weight gain (GWG) predictors and association of first-trimester GWG to overall GWG among 271 White women and 300 Latina women. Rates of within-guideline GWG were higher among Latinas than among Whites (28.7% versus 24.4%, p < 0.016). Adjusted odds of above-guideline GWG were higher among prepregnancy overweight (OR = 3.4, CI = 1.8–6.5) and obese (OR = 4.5, CI = 2.3–9.0) women than among healthy weight women and among women with above-guideline first-trimester GWG than among those with within-guideline first-trimester GWG (OR = 4.9, CI = 2.8–8.8). GWG was positively associated with neonate birth size (p < 0.001). Interventions targeting prepregnancy overweight or obese women and those with excessive first-trimester GWG are needed. PMID:27688913

  14. Association of Second and Third Trimester Weight Gain in Pregnancy with Maternal and Fetal Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drehmer, Michele; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Kac, Gilberto; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between weekly weight gain, during the second and third trimesters, classified according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM/NRC) recommendations, and maternal and fetal outcomes. Methods Gestational weight gain was evaluated in 2,244 pregnant women of the Brazilian Study of Gestational Diabetes (Estudo Brasileiro do Diabetes Gestacional – EBDG). Outcomes were cesarean delivery, preterm birth and small or large for gestational age birth (SGA, LGA). Associations between inadequate weight gain and outcomes were estimated using robust Poisson regression adjusting for pre-pregnancy body mass index, trimester-specific weight gain, age, height, skin color, parity, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Results In fully adjusted models, in the second trimester, insufficient weight gain was associated with SGA (relative risk [RR] 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26–2.33), and excessive weight gain with LGA (RR 1.64, 95% CI 1.16–2.31); in third trimester, excessive weight gain with preterm birth (RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.08–2.70) and cesarean delivery (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.03–1.44). Women with less than recommended gestational weight gain in the 2nd trimester had a lesser risk of cesarean deliveries (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.71–0.96) than women with adequate gestational weight gain in this trimester. Conclusion Though insufficient weight gain in the 3rd trimester was not associated with adverse outcomes, other deviations from recommended weight gain during second and third trimester were associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. These findings support, in part, the 2009 IOM/NRC recommendations for nutritional monitoring during pregnancy. PMID:23382944

  15. Association of second and third trimester weight gain in pregnancy with maternal and fetal outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Drehmer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between weekly weight gain, during the second and third trimesters, classified according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM/NRC recommendations, and maternal and fetal outcomes. METHODS: Gestational weight gain was evaluated in 2,244 pregnant women of the Brazilian Study of Gestational Diabetes (Estudo Brasileiro do Diabetes Gestacional--EBDG. Outcomes were cesarean delivery, preterm birth and small or large for gestational age birth (SGA, LGA. Associations between inadequate weight gain and outcomes were estimated using robust Poisson regression adjusting for pre-pregnancy body mass index, trimester-specific weight gain, age, height, skin color, parity, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, in the second trimester, insufficient weight gain was associated with SGA (relative risk [RR] 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26-2.33, and excessive weight gain with LGA (RR 1.64, 95% CI 1.16-2.31; in third trimester, excessive weight gain with preterm birth (RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.08-2.70 and cesarean delivery (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.03-1.44. Women with less than recommended gestational weight gain in the 2nd trimester had a lesser risk of cesarean deliveries (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.71-0.96 than women with adequate gestational weight gain in this trimester. CONCLUSION: Though insufficient weight gain in the 3rd trimester was not associated with adverse outcomes, other deviations from recommended weight gain during second and third trimester were associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. These findings support, in part, the 2009 IOM/NRC recommendations for nutritional monitoring during pregnancy.

  16. Preterm birth, infant weight gain, and childhood asthma risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M M; Arends, Lidia R; de Jongste, Johan C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preterm birth, low birth weight, and infant catch-up growth seem associated with an increased risk of respiratory diseases in later life, but individual studies showed conflicting results. OBJECTIVES: We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis for 147,252 children of 31...

  17. Annual and spatial variability in gains of body weight in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukema, J.J.; Cadée, G.C.A.; Dekker, R.; Philippart, C.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The present paper reports on the results of a long-term field study on the simultaneous influence of 2 environmental factors (temperature and food supply) on annual growth rates in the tellinid bivalve Macoma balthica. For > 30 y (1978–2009) we monitored twice-annually the weight changes of soft par

  18. Assessing Weight Gain by the 2009 Institute of Medicine Guidelines and Perinatal Outcomes in Twin Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Tulin; Bacak, Stephen J; Zozzaro-Smith, Paula; Li, Dongmei; Sagcan, Seyhan; Seligman, Neil; Glantz, Christopher J

    2016-07-23

    Objective The objective is to estimate the impact of maternal weight gain outside the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations on perinatal outcomes in twin pregnancies. Study Design Twin pregnancies with two live births between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2014 delivered after 23 weeks Finger Lakes Region Perinatal Data System (FLRPDS) and Central New York Region Perinatal Data System were included. Women were classified into three groups using pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). Perinatal outcomes in women with low or excessive weekly maternal weight gain were assessed using normal weekly weight gain as the referent in each BMI group. Results Low weight gain increased the risk of preterm delivery, birth weight less than the 10th percentile for one or both twins and decreased risk of macrosomia across all BMI groups. There was a decreased risk of hypertensive disorders in women with normal pre-pregnancy weight and an increased risk of gestational diabetes with low weight gain in obese women. Excessive weight gain increased the risk of hypertensive disorders and macrosomia across all BMI groups and decreased the risk of birth weight less than 10th percentile one twin in normal pre-pregnancy BMI group. Conclusion Among twin pregnancies, low weight gain is associated with low birth weight and preterm delivery in all BMI groups and increased risk of gestational diabetes in obese women. Our study did not reveal any benefit from excessive weekly weight gain with potential harm of an increase in risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Normal weight gain per 2009 IOM guidelines should be encouraged to improve pregnancy outcome in all pre-pregnancy BMI groups.

  19. The "Freshman 5": A Meta-Analysis of Weight Gain in the Freshman Year of College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella-Zarb, Rachel A.; Elgar, Frank J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: (1) To use the available research to estimate the amount of weight gained by college freshman during their first year of college. (2) To identify potential predictors of freshman weight gain. Methods: A meta-analysis was conducted in November 2008. The analysis focused on articles published in English scientific journals between 1985…

  20. Genetic factors as predictors of weight gain in young adult Dutch men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, van C.T.M.; Hoebee, B.; Seidell, J.C.; Bouchard, C.; Baak, van M.A.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Chagnon, M.; Graaf, de C.; Saris, W.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between DNA polymorphisms in several candidate genes for obesity and weight gain. Polymorphisms in these genes may contribute to weight gain through effects on energy intake, energy expenditure or adipogenesis. DESIGN AND METHODS: From two large cohorts in T

  1. Effect of Herbal Immunodulator on Body weight gain in immunosuppressed broiler birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Mode

    Full Text Available The herbal immunomodulator was evaluated in immunosupressed broiler birds in terms of body weight gain. The treatment with Ocimum sanctum and Emblica officinalis @ 3 gm /kg feed for 2 weeks were found to be effective immunomodulator in increasing body weight gain in broiler birds. [Vet World 2009; 2(7.000: 269-270

  2. Gestational weight gain by reduced brain melanocortin activity affects offspring energy balance in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinsbroek, A. C. M.; van Dijk, G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Excessive gestational body weight gain of mothers may predispose offspring towards obesity and metabolic derangements. It is difficult to discern the effects of maternal obesogenic factors-such as diet and/or thrifty genetic predisposition-from gestational weight gain per se. Methods:

  3. Beliefs about weight gain among young adults: potential challenges to prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokee LaRose, Jessica; Gorin, Amy A; Clarke, Megan M; Wing, Rena R

    2011-09-01

    This study assessed young adults' beliefs about weight gain with the goal of improving intervention efforts with this high-risk group. A total of 1,347 incoming freshman (45% male; 81% non-Hispanic white; 18.6 ± 1.7 years; BMI = 23.3 ± 2.3 kg/m2) at a large state university in the Northeast completed a survey designed to assess: (i) degree of concern about weight gain, (ii) level of interest in weight control programs, and (iii) the most acceptable setting for an intervention. Perceptions about freshman weight gain were consistent across gender, with men and women reporting that the average student gains 5.4 ± 1.9 kg and 5.6 ± 1.9 kg respectively. Men in general were less concerned about weight gain (P gain 6.2 ± 4.2 kg before becoming concerned compared to 3.1 ± 1.7 kg among women (P gaining weight than normal weight (NW) men (P gain less weight before becoming concerned (5.0 ± 3.0 kg vs. 6.7 ± 4.5 kg, P prevent weight gain (17% men vs. 40% women, P prevention program did not vary by weight status (P = 0.59). Both men and women were most likely to report a willingness to attend classes on a local college campus compared to other settings. Findings highlight the challenges of engaging young adults in weight gain prevention programs, particularly young men, and are discussed in terms of implications for improving recruitment efforts and intervention development with this population.

  4. Diminished creatinine clearance in anorexia nervosa: reversal with weight gain.

    OpenAIRE

    Boag, F; Weerakoon, J; Ginsburg, J.; Havard, C W; Dandona, P

    1985-01-01

    To assess whether patients with anorexia nervosa have abnormalities in creatinine clearance, we measured plasma creatinine concentration, urinary creatinine excretion, and creatinine clearance in 10 patients with anorexia nervosa before and during treatment. Urinary creatinine excretion and creatinine clearance were diminished in all patients. Nine patients had significant decreases in their plasma creatinine and creatinine clearance was increased even when corrected for body weight and body ...

  5. Can metformin limit weight gain in the obese with pregnancy?

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Maternal overweight and obesity is associated with many obstetric complications. Obesity is linked to insulin resistance. Improving insulin sensitivity may therefore account for weight reduction. Metformin was found to be effective in type 2 diabetes and polycystic ovarian syndrome through improving insulin sensitivity. Several studies proved its efficacy in the obese non- pregnants, but its role during pregnancy is not yet well-established. In this study, we are testing the abil...

  6. Working conditions and major weight gain-a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Eira; Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Laaksonen, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the associations of working conditions with major weight gain. Three different groups of work-related factors were examined: (i) work arrangements, (ii) physical working conditions, and (iii) psychosocial working conditions. The data are based on the Helsinki Health Study (HHS) questionnaire surveys. A baseline mail survey was made among middle-aged employees of the City of Helsinki in 2000-2002. A follow-up survey was made in 2007. Regression analyses with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. During the 5- to 7-year follow-up, 26% of women and 24% of men gained in weight 5 kg or more. Working conditions were mostly unassociated with weight gain. However, nighttime shift work, physical threat at work, and hazardous exposures at work were moderately associated with weight gain. More attention should be devoted to the prevention of weight gain in general and among risk groups in particular.

  7. Determinants of Weight Gain in Women with Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    weight gain after being diagnosed with breast cancer. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Sex hormone, genetic polymorphisms, weight gain, cohort study, diet, physical ...gain may be treatment-related reductions in ovarian function and/or increases in cortisol level due to physical and psychological stress. Since sex ...pathways; 3) energy intake, physical activity , and psychosocial factors; and 4) characteristics of the cancer and treatments received. A prospective

  8. Weight-Gain in Psychiatric Treatment: Risks, Implications, and Strategies for Prevention and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava Amresh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight-gain in psychiatric populations is a common clinical challenge. Many patients suffering from mental disorders, when exposed to psychotropic medications, gain significant weight with or without other side-effects. In addition to reducing the patients′ willingness to comply with treatment, this weight-gain may create added psychological or physiological problems that need to be addressed. Thus, it is critical that clinicians take precautions to monitor and control weight-gain and take into account and treat all problems facing an individual. In this review, we examine some of the key issues surrounding weight-gain in individuals suffering from mental disorders for contemporary practitioners in community clinics. We describe some factors known to make certain patients more susceptible to treatment-induced weight-gain and mechanisms implicated in this process. We also highlight a few psychological and pharmacological interventions that have proven effective in weight management. Importantly, we provide critical steps for management and prevention of weight-gain and related issues in the clinical practice of psychopharmacology.

  9. Gestational Weight Gain: Results from the Delta Healthy Sprouts Comparative Impact Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olender, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Delta Healthy Sprouts trial was designed to test the comparative impact of two home visiting programs on weight status, dietary intake, and health behaviors of Southern African American women and their infants. Results pertaining to the primary outcome, gestational weight gain, are reported. Methods. Participants (n = 82), enrolled early in their second trimester of pregnancy, were randomly assigned to one of two treatment arms. Gestational weight gain, measured at six monthly home visits, was calculated by subtracting measured weight at each visit from self-reported prepregnancy weight. Weight gain was classified as under, within, or exceeding the Institute of Medicine recommendations based on prepregnancy body mass index. Chi-square tests and generalized linear mixed models were used to test for significant differences in percentages of participants within recommended weight gain ranges. Results. Differences in percentages of participants within the gestational weight gain guidelines were not significant between treatment arms across all visits. Conclusions. Enhancing the gestational nutrition and physical activity components of an existing home visiting program is feasible in a high risk population of primarily low income African American women. The impact of these enhancements on appropriate gestational weight gain is questionable given the more basic living needs of such women. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01746394, registered 4 December 2012. PMID:27595023

  10. Gestational Weight Gain: Results from the Delta Healthy Sprouts Comparative Impact Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Thomson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Delta Healthy Sprouts trial was designed to test the comparative impact of two home visiting programs on weight status, dietary intake, and health behaviors of Southern African American women and their infants. Results pertaining to the primary outcome, gestational weight gain, are reported. Methods. Participants (n=82, enrolled early in their second trimester of pregnancy, were randomly assigned to one of two treatment arms. Gestational weight gain, measured at six monthly home visits, was calculated by subtracting measured weight at each visit from self-reported prepregnancy weight. Weight gain was classified as under, within, or exceeding the Institute of Medicine recommendations based on prepregnancy body mass index. Chi-square tests and generalized linear mixed models were used to test for significant differences in percentages of participants within recommended weight gain ranges. Results. Differences in percentages of participants within the gestational weight gain guidelines were not significant between treatment arms across all visits. Conclusions. Enhancing the gestational nutrition and physical activity components of an existing home visiting program is feasible in a high risk population of primarily low income African American women. The impact of these enhancements on appropriate gestational weight gain is questionable given the more basic living needs of such women. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01746394, registered 4 December 2012.

  11. Short-lived success: assessment of an intervention to improve pregnancy weight gain in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Sue; Tolliver, Rickey; Schwalberg, Renee

    2014-05-01

    Inadequate weight gain in pregnancy is a major contributor to low birth weight in Colorado, where the low birth weight rate is among the highest in the nation. In 2004, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment implemented a population-based intervention in 9 counties, including provider training and a public media campaign, to encourage pregnant women to gain an adequate amount of weight in pregnancy as defined by the 1990 Institute of Medicine guidelines. Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System survey data were used to track weight gain in pregnancy in 1997 through 2004 (baseline), 2005 (post-intervention), and 2006 and 2007 (after the intervention had concluded). During the period immediately after the implementation of the intervention, the percentage of women delivering in the 9 study counties who gained an inadequate amount of weight during pregnancy dropped from 18.4 at baseline to 12.8 in 2005. However, this progress was reversed in 2006, when the percentage of women with inadequate weight gain rose to 19.7. Training providers to educate women about the importance of adequate weight gain in pregnancy, in conjunction with a social marketing campaign, appears to be a promising approach to addressing a major contributor to low birth weight. However, a time-limited intervention is likely to have temporary results.

  12. Is weight gain really a catalyst for broader recovery?: The impact of weight gain on psychological symptoms in the treatment of adolescent anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurso, Erin C; Ciao, Anna C; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Lock, James D; Le Grange, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    The main aims of this study were to describe change in psychological outcomes for adolescents with anorexia nervosa across two treatments, and to explore predictors of change, including baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as weight gain over time. Participants were 121 adolescents with anorexia nervosa from a two-site (Chicago and Stanford) randomized controlled trial who received either family-based treatment or individual adolescent supportive psychotherapy. Psychological symptoms (i.e., eating disorder psychopathology, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem) were assessed at baseline, end of treatment, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up. Conditional multilevel growth models were used to test for predictors of slope for each outcome. Most psychological symptoms improved significantly from baseline to 12 month follow-up, regardless of treatment type. Depressive symptoms and dietary restraint were most improved, weight and shape concerns were least improved, and self-esteem was not at all improved. Weight gain emerged as a significant predictor of improved eating disorder pathology, with earlier weight gain having a greater impact on symptom improvement than later weight gain. Adolescents who presented with more severe, complex, and enduring clinical presentations (i.e., longer duration of illness, greater eating disorder pathology, binge-eating/purging subtype) also appeared to benefit more psychologically from treatment.

  13. Impact of birth weight and early infant weight gain on insulin resistance and associated cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Fabricius-Bjerre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight followed by accelerated weight gain during early childhood has been associated with adverse metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes later in life. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of early infant weight gain on glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence and to study if the effect differed between adolescents born small for gestational age (SGA vs. appropriate for gestational age (AGA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data from 30 SGA and 57 AGA healthy young Danish adolescents were analysed. They had a mean age of 17.6 years and all were born at term. Data on early infant weight gain from birth to three months as well as from birth to one year were available in the majority of subjects. In adolescence, glucose metabolism was assessed by a simplified intravenous glucose tolerance test and body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood pressures as well as plasma concentrations of triglycerides and cholesterol were measured. Early infant weight gain from birth to three months was positively associated with the fasting insulin concentration, HOMA-IR, basal lipid levels and systolic blood pressure at 17 years. There was a differential effect of postnatal weight gain on HOMA-IR in AGA and SGA participants (P for interaction = 0.03. No significant associations were seen between postnatal weight gain and body composition or parameters of glucose metabolism assessed by the simplified intravenous glucose tolerance test. In subgroup analysis, all associations with early infant weight gain were absent in the AGA group, but the associations with basal insulin and HOMA-IR were still present in the SGA group. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that accelerated growth during the first three months of life may confer an increased risk of later metabolic disturbances--particularly of glucose metabolism--in individuals born SGA.

  14. Health behaviours of pregnant women and gestational weight gains – a pilot study

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    Edyta Suliga

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Abnormal weight gain during pregnancy may exert a negative effect on the development of the foetus, the course of pregnancy, and later the state of health of the mother and her baby. Due to the unfavourable health consequences of abnormal body weight gains in expectant mothers studies of the factors that determine the amount of these gains are important. Aim of the research : Evaluation of the relationship between health behaviours in pregnancy, nutritional status before pregnancy, selected socio-demographic factors, and gestational weight gain. Material and methods : The investigation included 274 women. Using a questionnaire, information was collected pertaining to the place of residence, age, body height and weight, cigarette smoking, and eating habits during pregnancy. The total weight gain during pregnancy was calculated as the difference between perinatal weight and pre-pregnancy body weight. Gestational weight gains were classified as low, recommended, or high. Results: Increased risk of high weight gain was associated with the consumption of alcoholic beverages (odds ratio (OR = 2.82, especially beer (OR = 2.72, high consumption of products supplying proteins of animal origin (OR = 2.87, and overweight before pregnancy (OR = 3.37, as well as the delivery being the mother’s first, compared to the third and subsequent childbirth (OR = 4.17. Conclusions: This study indicates that there is a need for health education among females at reproductive age in order to reduce excess weight before conception, and promotion of adequate health behaviours in pregnancy, which would allow the maintenance of normal weight gain during this period.

  15. Acculturation and gestational weight gain in a predominantly puerto rican population

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    Tovar Alison

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying risk factors that affect excess weight gain during pregnancy is critical, especially among women who are at a higher risk for obesity. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation, a possible risk factor, was associated with gestational weight gain in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. Methods We utilized data from Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study of Hispanic women in Western Massachusetts, United States. Height, weight and gestational age were abstracted from medical records among participants with full-term pregnancies (n=952. Gestational weight gain was calculated as the difference between delivery and prepregnancy weight. Acculturation (measured via a psychological acculturation scale, generation in the US, place of birth and spoken language preference was assessed in early pregnancy. Results Adjusting for age, parity, perceived stress, gestational age, and prepregnancy weight, women who had at least one parent born in Puerto Rico/Dominican Republic (PR/DR and both grandparents born in PR/DR had a significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (0.9 kg for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 2.2kg for grandparents born in PR/DR and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 0.06 kg/wk for grandparents born in PR/DR vs. women who were of PR/DR born. Similarly, women born in the US had significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (1.0 kg and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk vs. women who were PR/ DR born. Spoken language preference and psychological acculturation were not significantly associated with total or rate of pregnancy weight gain. Conclusion We found that psychological acculturation was not associated with gestational weight gain while place of birth and higher generation in the US were significantly associated with higher gestational weight gain. We interpret these findings to suggest the potential importance of the

  16. Preventing weight gain: the baseline weight related behaviors and delivery of a randomized controlled intervention in community based women

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    Teede Helena J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women aged 25–45 years represent a high risk group for weight gain and those with children are at increased risk because of weight gain associated with pregnancy and subsequent lifestyle change. Average self-reported weight gain is approximately 0.60 kg per year, and weight gain is associated with increased risk of chronic disease. There are barriers to reaching, engaging and delivering lifestyle interventions to prevent weight gain in this population. Methods This study investigated the baseline weight related behaviors and feasibility of recruiting and delivering a low intensity self-management lifestyle intervention to community based women with children in order to prevent weight gain, compared to standard education. The recruitment and delivery of the cluster-randomized controlled intervention was in conjunction with 12 primary (elementary schools. Baseline data collection included demographic, anthropometric, behavioral and biological measures. Results Two hundred and fifty community based women were randomized as clusters to intervention (n = 127 or control (n = 123. Mean age was 40.4 years (SD 4.7 and mean BMI 27.8 kg/m2 (SD 5.6. All components of this intervention were successfully delivered and retention rates were excellent, 97% at 4 months. Nearly all women (90% reported being dissatisfied with their weight and 72% attempted to self-manage their weight. Women were more confident of changing their diet (mean score 3.2 than physical activity (mean score 2.7. This population perceived they were engaging in prevention behaviors, with 71% reporting actively trying to prevent weight gain, yet they consumed a mean of 68 g fat/day (SD30 g and 27 g saturated fat/day (SD12 g representing 32% and 13% of energy respectively. The women had a high rate of dyslipidemia (33% and engaged in an average of 9187 steps/day (SD 3671. Conclusion Delivery of this low intensity intervention to a broad cross-section of community based

  17. Trimester-Specific Gestational Weight Gain and Infant Size for Gestational Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Sneha B.; Xu, Fei; Hedderson, Monique M.

    2016-01-01

    Gestational weight gain is known to influence fetal growth. However, it is unclear whether the associations between gestational weight gain and fetal growth vary by trimester. In a diverse cohort of 8,977 women who delivered a singleton between 2011 and 2013, we evaluated the associations between trimester-specific gestational weight gain and infant size for gestational age. Gestational weight gain was categorized per the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations; meeting the recommendations was the referent. Large for gestational age and small for gestational age were defined as birthweight > 90th percentile or <10th percentile, respectively, based on a national reference standard birthweight distribution. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of having a large or small for gestational age versus an appropriate for gestational age infant. Only gestational weight gain exceeding the IOM recommendations in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters independently increased the odds of delivering a large for gestational age infant (Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval): 1st: 1.17 [0.94, 1.44], 2nd: 1.47 [1.13, 1.92], 3rd: 1.70 [1.30, 2.22]). Gestational weight gain below the IOM recommendations increased the likelihood of having a small for gestational age infant in the 2nd trimester only (1.76 [1.23, 2.52]). There was effect modification, and gestational weight gain below the IOM recommendations increased the likelihood of having a small for gestational age infant in the 2nd trimester and only among women with a pre-pregnancy body mass index from 18.5–24.9 kg/m2 (2.06 [1.35, 3.15]). These findings indicate that gestational weight gain during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters is more strongly associated with infant growth. Interventions to achieve appropriate gestational weight gain may optimize infant size at birth. PMID:27442137

  18. Short inter-pregnancy intervals, parity, excessive pregnancy weight gain and risk of maternal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Esa M; Babineau, Denise C; Wang, Xuelei; Zyzanski, Stephen; Abrams, Barbara; Bodnar, Lisa M; Horwitz, Ralph I

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the relationship among parity, length of the inter-pregnancy intervals and excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the risk of obesity. Using a prospective cohort study of 3,422 non-obese, non-pregnant US women aged 14-22 years at baseline, adjusted Cox models were used to estimate the association among parity, inter-pregnancy intervals, and excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the relative hazard rate (HR) of obesity. Compared to nulliparous women, primiparous women with excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy had a HR of obesity of 1.79 (95% CI 1.40, 2.29); no significant difference was seen between primiparous without excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and nulliparous women. Among women with the same pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the same number of inter-pregnancy intervals (12 and 18 months or ≥18 months), the HR of obesity increased 2.43-fold (95% CI 1.21, 4.89; p = 0.01) for every additional inter-pregnancy interval of pregnancy intervals. Among women with the same parity and inter-pregnancy interval pattern, women with excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy had an HR of obesity 2.41 times higher (95% CI 1.81, 3.21; p obesity risk unless the primiparous women had excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy, then their risk of obesity was greater. Multiparous women with the same excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and at least one additional short inter-pregnancy interval had a significant risk of obesity after childbirth. Perinatal interventions that prevent excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy or lengthen the inter-pregnancy interval are necessary for reducing maternal obesity.

  19. Body weight gain during adulthood and uterine myomas: Pró-Saúde Study

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    Karine de Lima Sírio Boclin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to investigate whether body weight gain during adulthood is associated with uterine myomas. 1,560 subjects were evaluated in a Pró-Saúde Study. Weight gain was evaluated in a continuous fashion and also in quintiles. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated through logistic regression models that were adjusted for education levels, color/race, body mass indices at age 20, age of menarche, parity, use of oral contraceptive methods, smoking, health insurance, and the Papanicolaou tests. No relevant differences were observed regarding the presence of uterine myomas among weight gain quintiles in that studied population.

  20. Glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs against antipsychotic-induced weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Knop, Filip K; Ishøy, Pelle L;

    2012-01-01

    between schizophrenia and overweight patients. DISCUSSION: Current interventions against antipsychotic-induced weight gain do not facilitate a substantial and lasting weight loss. GLP-1 analogues used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes are associated with significant and sustained weight loss...... are already compromised in normal weight patients with schizophrenia. Here we outline the current strategies against antipsychotic-induced weight gain, and we describe peripheral and cerebral effects of the gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Moreover, we account for similarities in brain changes...... in overweight patients. Potential effects of treating schizophrenia patients with antipsychotic-induced weight gain with GLP-1 analogues are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that adjunctive treatment with GLP-1 analogues may constitute a new avenue to treat and prevent metabolic and cerebral deficiencies...

  1. Gestational weight gain and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus among Chinese women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zheng; Ao Deng; Yang Huixia; Wang Yan

    2014-01-01

    Background Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common complication during pregnancy,and gestational weight gain is one of the major and modifiable risk factors.This study aims to estimate the relationship between the rate of gestational weight gain before diagnosis of GDM and the subsequent risk of GDM.Methods A case-control study was conducted with 90 GDM cases and 165 women in the control group from May 2012 to August 2012 at Peking University First Affiliated Hospital.GDM was diagnosed according to the standards issued by the Ministry of Health of China in 2011.The plasma glucose levels,weights,and covariate data of the women were obtained based on medical records.Univariate analysis and unconditional Logistic regression model were used to estimate the associations.Results After adjusting for age at delivery,parity,and pre-pregnancy body mass index,the risk of GDM increased with increasing rates of gestational weight gain.Compared with the lower rate of gestational weight gain (less than 0.28 kg per week),a rate of weight gain of 0.28 kg per week or more was associated with increased risk of GDM (odds ratio:2.03; 95% confidence interval:1.15 to 3.59).The association between the rate of gestational weight gain and GDM was primarily attributed to the increased weight gain in the first trimester.Conclusion High rates of gestational weight gain,particular during early pregnancy,may increase a woman's risk of GDM.

  2. Successful Use of Add - On Topiramate for Antipsychotic - Induced Weight Gain

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    Venkataram Shivakumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antipsychotic induced weight gain is the most common and distressing side effect. This also affects the compliance toward the treatment and hence the prognosis. Non - pharmacological interventions such as exercise and diet modifications alone might not be sufficient most of the times; also ensuring compliance toward this is difficult in patients with psychiatric illness. So, the role of weight - reducing drugs become important. In this case report, we describe the use of low - dose topiramate as a weight - reducing agent, in a patient with a bipolar affective disorder - mania with psychotic symptoms, who had significant risperidone - induced weight gain.

  3. Body weight gain rate in patients with Parkinson's disease and deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barichella, Michela; Marczewska, Agnieszka M; Mariani, Claudio; Landi, Andrea; Vairo, Antonella; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2003-11-01

    We evaluated body weight changes in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) after electrode implantation for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in relation to clinical improvement. Thirty PD patients who received STN DBS were included (22 men, 8 women; mean age, 60.0 +/- 7.1 years; mean PD duration, 13.5 +/- 3.7 years; mean body mass index [BMI], 21.6 +/- 3.0 kg/m2). Body weight, physical activity, and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores were noted before and 3 and 12 months after the procedure. Significant weight gain occurred in 29 patients; the mean increase was 14.8 +/- 9.8% of initial body weight in 1 year. Of the patients, 46.5% reported weight gain in the first 3 months, 21.4% gradual weight gain in the first 6 months, and 32.1% a slow increase for 1 year. Mean BMI increased up to 24.7 +/- 3.7 kg/m2. After 1 year, mean UPDRS motor score improved significantly in off and in on; and therapy complications improved by 91.0 +/- 17.0%. BMI changes at 3 and 12 months were significantly correlated to dyskinesia score changes, and levodopa dosage was not. In PD, STN DBS produces not only symptom control, but also weight gain. DBS candidates should be given nutritional counseling before the intervention to prevent rapid and/or excessive weight gain.

  4. Psychosocial and Biological Factors Contributing to Body Weight Gain in Schizophrenia

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    Shae-Leigh C. Vella

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity are frequently reported to be a significant issue in schizophrenia resulting in the inherent complications of these disorders. Body weight gain also commonly results from treatment with the most tolerable and efficacious pharmacological treatments, second-generation antipsychotics. However there are numerous other factors that contribute to increased body mass in individuals with schizophrenia prior to the initiation of treatment. With prior research indicating that individuals with schizophrenia have higher rates of overweight and obesity before treatment. Therefore this article provides a review of pertinent issues associated with body weight gain in schizophrenia in an attempt to delineate the impact of both the disease and treatment upon body weight gain. The results of the review indicate that body weight gain in schizophrenia occurs from both psychosocial and biological factors that are further compounded by antipsychotic treatment. The article concludes with recommendations for future research.

  5. Optimizing weight gain in pregnancy to prevent obesity in women and children

    OpenAIRE

    Herring, Sharon J.; Rose, Marisa Z.; Skouteris, Helen; Oken, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Pregnancy is now considered to be an important risk factor for new or persistent obesity among women during the childbearing years. High gestational weight gain is the strongest predictor of maternal overweight or obesity following pregnancy. A growing body of evidence also suggests that both high and low gestational weight gains are independently associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity, suggesting that influences occurring very early in life are contributing to obesity onset. ...

  6. Role of 5-HT2C receptor gene variants in antipsychotic-induced weight gain

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    Brandl EJ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Tessa JM Wallace, Clement C Zai, Eva J Brandl, Daniel J MüllerNeurogenetics Section, Center for Addiction and Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaAbstract: Antipsychotic-induced weight gain is a serious side effect of antipsychotic medication that can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and non-compliance in patients. Numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms have been studied for association with antipsychotic-induced weight gain in an attempt to find genetic predictors of this side effect. An ability to predict this side effect could lead to personalized treatment plans for predisposed individuals, which could significantly decrease the prevalence and severity of weight gain. Variations in the serotonin receptor 2c gene (HTR2C have emerged as promising candidates for prediction of antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Specifically, the well-studied -759C/T promoter polymorphism has been associated with weight gain in diverse populations, although some studies have reported no association. This discrepancy is likely due to heterogeneity in study design with respect to ethnicity, treatment duration, and other variables. Notably, the association between HTR2C and antipsychotic-induced weight gain appears strongest in short-term studies on patients with limited or no previous antipsychotic treatment. Other, less extensively studied promoter polymorphisms (-697C/G, -997G/A, and -1165A/G have also emerged as potential predictors of antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Conversely, the well-studied intronic polymorphism Cys23Ser does not appear to be associated. With further research on both HTR2C and other genetic and environmental predictors of antipsychotic-induced weight gain, a predictive test could one day be created to screen patients and provide preventative or alternative treatment for those who are predisposed to this serious side effect.Keywords: HTR2C, pharmacogenomics, promoter polymorphism

  7. Body weight gain in free-living Pima Indians: effect of energy intake vs expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tataranni, P A; Harper, I T; Snitker, S;

    2003-01-01

    Obesity results from a chronic imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. However, experimental evidence of the relative contribution of interindividual differences in energy intake and expenditure (resting or due to physical activity) to weight gain is limited.......Obesity results from a chronic imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. However, experimental evidence of the relative contribution of interindividual differences in energy intake and expenditure (resting or due to physical activity) to weight gain is limited....

  8. Maternal feeding practices predict weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors in young children: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgers Rachel F; Paxton Susan J; Massey Robin; Campbell Karen J; Wertheim Eleanor H; Skouteris Helen; Gibbons Kay

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Maternal feeding practices have been proposed to play an important role in early child weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors. However, to date longitudinal investigations in young children exploring these relationships have been lacking. The aim of the present study was to explore prospective relationships between maternal feeding practices, child weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors in 2-year-old children. The competing hypothesis that child eating behaviors ...

  9. Resistant starch and exercise independently attenuate weight regain on a high fat diet in a rat model of obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Long-term weight reduction remains elusive for many obese individuals. Resistant starch (RS) and exercise may be useful for weight maintenance. The effects of RS, with or without exercise, on weight regain was examined during relapse to obesity on a high carbohydrate, high fat (HC/HF) diet. Methods Obesity-prone rats were fed ad libitum for 16 weeks then weight reduced on a low fat diet to induce a 17% body weight loss (weight reduced rats). Weight reduced rats were maintained on an energy-restricted low fat diet for 18 weeks, with or without a daily bout of treadmill exercise. Rats were then allowed free access to HC/HF diet containing low (0.3%) or high (5.9%) levels of RS. Weight regain, energy balance, body composition, adipocyte cellularity, and fuel utilization were monitored as rats relapsed to obesity and surpassed their original, obese weight. Results Both RS and exercise independently attenuated weight regain by reducing the energy gap between the drive to eat and suppressed energy requirements. Exercise attenuated the deposition of lean mass during relapse, whereas its combination with RS sustained lean mass accrual as body weight returned. Early in relapse, RS lowered insulin levels and reduced the deposition of fat in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Exercise cessation at five weeks of relapse led to increased weight gain, body fat, subcutaneous adipocytes, and decreased lean mass; all detrimental consequences to overall metabolic health. Conclusions These data are the first to show the complimentary effects of dietary RS and regular exercise in countering the metabolic drive to regain weight following weight loss and suggest that exercise cessation, in the context of relapse on a HC/HF diet, may have dire metabolic consequences. PMID:21736742

  10. Resistant starch and exercise independently attenuate weight regain on a high fat diet in a rat model of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Ginger C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term weight reduction remains elusive for many obese individuals. Resistant starch (RS and exercise may be useful for weight maintenance. The effects of RS, with or without exercise, on weight regain was examined during relapse to obesity on a high carbohydrate, high fat (HC/HF diet. Methods Obesity-prone rats were fed ad libitum for 16 weeks then weight reduced on a low fat diet to induce a 17% body weight loss (weight reduced rats. Weight reduced rats were maintained on an energy-restricted low fat diet for 18 weeks, with or without a daily bout of treadmill exercise. Rats were then allowed free access to HC/HF diet containing low (0.3% or high (5.9% levels of RS. Weight regain, energy balance, body composition, adipocyte cellularity, and fuel utilization were monitored as rats relapsed to obesity and surpassed their original, obese weight. Results Both RS and exercise independently attenuated weight regain by reducing the energy gap between the drive to eat and suppressed energy requirements. Exercise attenuated the deposition of lean mass during relapse, whereas its combination with RS sustained lean mass accrual as body weight returned. Early in relapse, RS lowered insulin levels and reduced the deposition of fat in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Exercise cessation at five weeks of relapse led to increased weight gain, body fat, subcutaneous adipocytes, and decreased lean mass; all detrimental consequences to overall metabolic health. Conclusions These data are the first to show the complimentary effects of dietary RS and regular exercise in countering the metabolic drive to regain weight following weight loss and suggest that exercise cessation, in the context of relapse on a HC/HF diet, may have dire metabolic consequences.

  11. Optimizing weight gain in pregnancy to prevent obesity in women and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, S J; Rose, M Z; Skouteris, H; Oken, E

    2012-03-01

    Pregnancy is now considered to be an important risk factor for new or persistent obesity among women during the childbearing years. High gestational weight gain is the strongest predictor of maternal overweight or obesity following pregnancy. A growing body of evidence also suggests that both high and low gestational weight gains are independently associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity, suggesting that influences occurring very early in life are contributing to obesity onset. In response to these data, the US Institute of Medicine (IOM) revised gestational weight gain guidelines in 2009 for the first time in nearly two decades. However, less than one third of pregnant women achieve guideline-recommended gains, with the majority gaining above IOM recommended levels. To date, interventions to optimize pregnancy weight gains have had mixed success. In this paper, we summarize the evidence from human and animal studies linking over-nutrition and under-nutrition in pregnancy to maternal and child obesity. In addition, we discuss published trials and ongoing interventions to achieve appropriate gestational weight gain as a strategy for obesity prevention in women and their children.

  12. The Effect of Early Excessive Weight Gain on the Development of Hypertension in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhstaller, Kelly E; Bastek, Jamie A; Thomas, Ann; Mcelrath, Thomas F; Parry, Samuel I; Durnwald, Celeste P

    2016-10-01

    Background Previous studies have shown an association between total excessive gestational weight gain and hypertension in pregnancy. However, this may be a reflection of excessive water retention associated with the pathophysiology of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Early excessive weight gain, prior to the third trimester, results in greater maternal fat deposition and inflammation, which has also been associated with the development of hypertension. By focusing on early excessive weight gain, the association between maternal weight gain and the future development of hypertension can be examined. Objective To evaluate the association between early excessive maternal weight gain and the development of hypertension during pregnancy. Study Design This was a secondary analysis of a longitudinal cohort study of 1,441 women without chronic hypertension who were enrolled in a prospective study evaluating maternal angiogenic factors and the prediction of preeclampsia. Initial body mass index (BMI) was calculated by weight and height at the first study visit. Early excessive maternal weight gain was defined as weight gain by 28 weeks that exceeded the Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines and was calculated utilizing the maximum amount of weight gain per week recommended by the IOM based on the patient's starting BMI (normal: 0.45 kg; overweight: 0.32 kg; obese: 0.27 kg). Hypertension was defined as a sustained systolic blood pressure of ≥140 mm Hg or a diastolic blood pressure of ≥90 mm Hg. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between early excessive weight gain, initial BMI, and the development of hypertension, including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia, during pregnancy. Results Of 1,441 women, 767 (53.2%) had weight gain that exceeded the IOM guidelines in the first 28 weeks and 154 (10.8%) developed hypertension during pregnancy. Women whose weight gain exceeded the IOM guidelines were more likely to develop

  13. Olanzapine-induced weight gain: lessons learned from developing rat models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaal, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Olanzapine is an effective and commonly prescribed antipsychotic drug, used for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Unfortunately significant weight gain is a common side effect. In order to effectively address this side effect, it is crucial to gain insight into the underlying mech

  14. Genetic Variation in the Leptin Receptor Gene, Leptin, and Weight Gain in Young Dutch Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, van C.T.M.; Hoebee, B.; Baak, van M.A.; Mars, M.; Saris, W.H.M.; Seidell, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between leptin levels, polymorphisms in the leptin receptor (LEPR) gene, and weight gain. Research Methods and Procedures: From two large prospective cohorts in The Netherlands (n = 17, 500), we compared the baseline leptin of 259 subjects who had gained an

  15. Simultaneous Measurement of Antenna Gain and Complex Permittivity of Liquid in Near-Field Region Using Weighted Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Nozomu; Shiga, Hiroki; Ikarashi, Naoto; Sato, Ken-Ichi; Hamada, Lira; Watanabe, Soichi

    As a technique for calibrating electric-field probes used in standardized SAR (Specific Absorption Rate) assessment, we have studied the technique using the Friis transmission formula in the tissue-equivalent liquid. It is difficult to measure power transmission between two reference antennas in the far-field region due to large attenuation in the liquid. This means that the conventional Friis transmission formula cannot be applied to our measurement so that we developed an extension of this formula that is valid in the near-field region. In this paper, the method of weighted least squares is introduced to reduce the effect of the noise in the measurement system when the gain of the antenna operated in the liquid is determined by the curve-fitting technique. And we examine how to choose the fitting range to reduce the uncertainty of the estimated gain.

  16. Changes in Energy Expenditure with Weight Gain and Weight Loss in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Manfred J; Enderle, Janna; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2016-12-01

    Metabolic adaptation to weight changes relates to body weight control, obesity and malnutrition. Adaptive thermogenesis (AT) refers to changes in resting and non-resting energy expenditure (REE and nREE) which are independent from changes in fat-free mass (FFM) and FFM composition. AT differs in response to changes in energy balance. With negative energy balance, AT is directed towards energy sparing. It relates to a reset of biological defence of body weight and mainly refers to REE. After weight loss, AT of nREE adds to weight maintenance. During overfeeding, energy dissipation is explained by AT of the nREE component only. As to body weight regulation during weight loss, AT relates to two different set points with a settling between them. During early weight loss, the first set is related to depleted glycogen stores associated with the fall in insulin secretion where AT adds to meet brain's energy needs. During maintenance of reduced weight, the second set is related to low leptin levels keeping energy expenditure low to prevent triglyceride stores getting too low which is a risk for some basic biological functions (e.g., reproduction). Innovative topics of AT in humans are on its definition and assessment, its dynamics related to weight loss and its constitutional and neuro-endocrine determinants.

  17. Evaluating Provider Advice and Women's Beliefs on Total Weight Gain During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinze, Nkiruka V; Karp, Sharon M; Gesell, Sabina B

    2016-02-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with complications for both mother and child. Minority women are at increased risk for excessive GWG, yet are underrepresented in published weight control interventions. To inform future interventions, we examined the prevalence and accuracy of provider advice and its association with personal beliefs about necessary maternal weight gain among predominantly Latina pregnant women. Secondary analysis examining baseline data (N = 123) from a healthy lifestyle randomized controlled trial conducted in and urban area of the South East. Only 23.6 % of women reported being told how much weight to gain during pregnancy; although 58.6 % received advice that met Institute of Medicine recommendations. Concordance of mothers' personal weight gain target with clinical recommendations varied by mothers' pre-pregnancy weight status [χ (4) (2)  = 9.781, p = 0.044]. Findings suggest the need for prenatal providers of low-income, minority women to engage patients in shaping healthy weight gain targets as a precursor to preventing excessive GWG and its complications.

  18. The effect of massage with medium-chain triglyceride oil on weight gain in premature neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeadi, Reza; Ghorbani, Zahra; Shapouri Moghaddam, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Prematurity and poor weight gaining are important causes for neonatal hospitalization. The present study aimed to investigate the role of medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil via massage therapy as a supplementary nutritional method on the weight gain of Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU)-hospitalized neonates. This randomized clinical trial performed among 121 stable premature neonates hospitalized in the NICU of Qaem Educational Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. They were randomly divided into three groups: oil-massage, massage alone and control groups. These groups were compared on the basis of weight gain during a one-week interval. The three groups were matched for sex, mean gestational age, birth weight, head circumference, delivery, and feeding type (P>0.05). The mean weight gain on the 7th day in the oil massage group was 105±1.3gr and 52±0.1gr in the massage group; whereas 54±1.3gr weight loss was observed in the control group. Significant differences were observed between the oil-massage group and the other two groups, respectively (P=0.002 and P=0.000). The findings of this study suggest that transcutaneous feeding with MCT oil massage therapy in premature neonates can result in accelerated weight gain in this age group with no risk of NEC.

  19. The effect of massage with medium-chain triglyceride oil on weight gain in premature neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Saeadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prematurity and poor weight gaining are important causes for neonatal hospitalization. The present study aimed to investigate the role of medium-chain triglyceride (MCT oil via massage therapy as a supplementary nutritional method on the weight gain of Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU-hospitalized neonates. This randomized clinical trial performed among 121 stable premature neonates hospitalized in the NICU of Qaem Educational Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. They were randomly divided into three groups: oil-massage, massage alone and control groups. These groups were compared on the basis of weight gain during a one-week interval. The three groups were matched for sex, mean gestational age, birth weight, head circumference, delivery, and feeding type (P>0.05. The mean weight gain on the 7th day in the oil massage group was 105±1.3gr and 52±0.1gr in the massage group; whereas 54±1.3gr weight loss was observed in the control group. Significant differences were observed between the oil-massage group and the other two groups, respectively (P=0.002 and P=0.000. The findings of this study suggest that transcutaneous feeding with MCT oil massage therapy in premature neonates can result in accelerated weight gain in this age group with no risk of NEC.

  20. Are breaks in daily self-weighing associated with weight gain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina E Helander

    Full Text Available Regular self-weighing is linked to successful weight loss and maintenance. However, an individual's self-weighing frequency typically varies over time. This study examined temporal associations between time differences of consecutive weight measurements and the corresponding weight changes by analysing longitudinal self-weighing data, including 2,838 weight observations from 40 individuals attending a health-promoting programme. The relationship between temporal weighing frequency and corresponding weight change was studied primarily using a linear mixed effects model. Weight change between consecutive weight measurements was associated with the corresponding time difference (β = 0.021% per day, p<0.001. Weight loss took place during periods of daily self-weighing, whereas breaks longer than one month posed a risk of weight gain. The findings emphasize that missing data in weight management studies with a weight-monitoring component may be associated with non-adherence to the weight loss programme and an early sign of weight gain.

  1. Serum PCT and its Relation to Body Weight Gain in Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohini, K; Bhat, Surekha; Srikumar, P S; Mahesh Kumar, A

    2015-07-01

    The present study was aimed at assessing alterations in serum PCT in terms of its relation to body weight gain in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients undergoing treatment. Among patients (25-75 years) diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis, those that were new smear positive, showed sputum conversion at the end of 2 months and were declared clinically cured at the end of 6 months, were included in the study (n = 40). Serum procalcitonin was determined by BRAHMS PCT-Q kit. Patients were divided into two study groups-Group 1 (n = 21; serum PCT > 2 ng/ml at diagnosis), Group 2 (n = 19; serum PCT > 10 ng/ml at diagnosis). Body weights of all patients were obtained at three different time points, PTB-0 (at diagnosis), PTB-2 (after 2 months of intensive treatment) and PTB-6 (after 6 months of treatment). In both groups, mean body weights at PTB-2 and PTB-6 were significantly higher than those at PTB-0 and at PTB-6 were significantly higher than those at PTB-2. However, percentage body weight gain following 2 months of intensive treatment was higher in group 1 (4.05 % gain, p < 0.01) than in group 2 (2.75 % body weight gain, p < 0.05). Thus, the percentage gain in group 1 was tending more towards the desirable minimum gain of 5 % during intensive phase. Increase in serum PCT levels in pulmonary tuberculosis is inversely associated with body weight gain during treatment. Thus, PCT could play a role in regulation of body weight gain in anorectic conditions like tuberculosis.

  2. Effect of Weight Gain on Cardiac Autonomic Control During Wakefulness and Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Taro; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima H.; Calvin, Andrew D.; Singh, Prachi; Romero-Corral, Abel; van der Walt, Christelle; Davison, Diane E.; Bukartyk, Jan; Konecny, Tomas; Pusalavidyasagar, Snigdha; Sierra-Johnson, Justo; Somers, Virend K.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with increased cardiac sympathetic activation during wakefulness, but the effect on sleep-related sympathetic modulation is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fat gain on cardiac autonomic control during wakefulness and sleep in humans. We performed a randomized controlled study to assess the effects of fat gain on heart rate variability (HRV). We recruited 36 healthy volunteers, who were randomized to either a standardized diet to gain approximately 4 kg over 8 weeks followed by an 8 week weight loss period (n=20), or to serve as a weight-maintainer control (n=16). An overnight polysomnogram with power spectral analysis of HRV was performed at baseline, after weight gain, and after weight loss to determine the ratio of low frequency (LF) to high frequency (HF) power, and to examine the relationship between changes in HRV and changes in insulin, leptin and adiponectin levels. Mean weight gain was 3.9 kg in the fat gain group versus 0.1 kg in the maintainer group. LF/HF increased both during wakefulness and sleep after fat gain and returned to baseline after fat loss in the fat gain group, and did not change in the control group. Insulin, leptin and adiponectin also increased after fat gain and fell after fat loss, but no clear pattern of changes were seen that correlated consistently with changes in HRV. Short-term fat gain in healthy subjects is associated with increased cardiac sympathetic activation during wakefulness and sleep but the mechanisms remain unclear. PMID:21357280

  3. Gestational weight gain: results from the Delta Healthy Sprouts comparative impact trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction. Delta Healthy Sprouts was designed to test the comparative impact of two home visiting programs on weight status, dietary intake, and health behaviors of Southern African American women and their infants. Results pertaining to the primary outcome, gestational weight gain, are reporte...

  4. Designing a Weight Gain Prevention Trial for Young Adults: The CHOICES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Leslie A.; Moe, Stacey G.; Nanney, M. Susie; Laska, Melissa N.; Linde, Jennifer A.; Petrich, Christine A.; Sevcik, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Young adults are at risk for weight gain. Little is known about how to design weight control programs to meet the needs of young adults and few theory-based interventions have been evaluated in a randomized control trial. The Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings (CHOICES) study was funded to create a…

  5. The role of environmental quality in gestational weight gain among U.S. pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    From 2000-2009, 44% of United States (US) pregnant women had gestational weight gain (GWG) above and 20% had GWG below the recommended range of 15 to 40 pounds, which depends on starting weight. GWG outside the recommended range is associated with adverse outcomes including pre-e...

  6. The role of diet and physical activity in post-transplant weight gain after renal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelle, Dorien M.; Kok, Trijntje; Dontje, Manon L.; Danchell, Eva I.; Navis, Gerjan; van Son, Willem J.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Background Long-term survival of renal transplant recipients (RTR) has not improved over the past 20yr. The question rises to what extent lifestyle factors play a role in post-transplant weight gain and its associated risks after transplantation. Methods Twenty-six RTR were measured for body weight,

  7. HelpDesk answers: do hormonal contraceptives lead to weight gain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Maria; Rani, Saira; Gavagan, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    It depends. Weight doesn't appear to increase with combined oral contraception (OC) compared with nonhormonal contraception, but percent body fat may increase slightly. Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate injection (DMPA) users experience weight gain compared with OC and nonhormonal contraception (NH) users.

  8. Dietary protein-to-carbohydrate ratio and added sugar as determinants of excessive gestational weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Astrup, Arne;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between the protein:carbohydrate (P/C) ratio and added sugar intake in pregnancy and gestational weight gain (GWG). DESIGN: A prebirth cohort including 103 119 pregnancies enrolled between 1996 and 2003. SETTING: All women in Denmark were eligible to participate...... and defined as gain in g/week. We used multivariable linear regression, including adjusting for pre-pregnancy body mass index, to calculate relative change in GWG and 95% CI. RESULTS: Average GWG was 471(224) g/week. The adjusted weight gain was 16 g/week lower (95% CI 9 to 22, p for trend ....001) in the highest (Q5) versus lowest (Q1) quintile of the P/C ratio (∼3% average reduction across the entire pregnancy). Weight gain for those with >20%E vs

  9. Weight Gain While Switching from Polypharmacy to Ziprasidone: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chin-Pang; Chen, Alice Pei-Jung; Juang, Yeong-Yuh

    2015-01-01

    Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs), valproate, and sulpiride are related to significant weight gain and risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Among SGAs, olanzapine and clozapine are associated with the highest metabolic risk while ziprasidone is among one of the SGAs with the lowest risk. Several reports suggest that weight loss is observed in switching other antipsychotics to ziprasidone. Here we describe a female patient with chronic paranoid schizophrenia who had an unexpected weight gain and developed MetS during a cross-switch from a polypharmacy of olanzapine, valproate and sulpiride to ziprasidone monotherapy.

  10. Weight gain is associated with medial contact site of subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Růžička, Filip; Jech, Robert; Nováková, Lucie; Urgošík, Dušan; Vymazal, Josef; Růžička, Evžen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess changes in body-weight in relation to active electrode contact position in the subthalamic nucleus. Regular body weight measurements were done in 20 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease within a period of 18 months after implantation. T1-weighted (1.5T) magnetic resonance images were used to determine electrode position in the subthalamic nucleus and the Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS-III) was used for motor assessment. The distance of the contacts from the wall of the third ventricle in the mediolateral direction inversely correlated with weight gain (r = -0.55, pweight gain (9.4 ± (SD)4.4 kg, N = 11) than those with both contacts located laterally (3.9 ± 2.7 kg, N = 9) (pweight gain, suggesting a regional effect of subthalamic stimulation on adjacent structures involved in the central regulation of energy balance, food intake or reward.

  11. Could Reward-Disturbances Caused by Antipsychotic Medication Lead to Weight Gain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard; Rostrup, Egill; Nørbak, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Disturbances of the brain reward system are suggested to play an important role in the development of central psychopathological symptoms in schizophrenia, and antipsychotic medication partly acts by modulating the reward system. Further, the reward system is known to be central...... putamen (r=0.541, p=0.001). There was no relation between weight gain and treatment response or medication dose. DISCUSSION As expected, antipsychotic treatment on average caused a moderate weight gain in the patients. The highest weight gain was found in the patients with the most aberrant f...... to assume that it is related to changes in dopamine transmission. Thus our results suggest that by altering the dopaminergic transmission in putamen, antipsychotic medication might through the influence on reward system affect appetite regulation and thereby, together with other mechanisms, lead to weight...

  12. Adequate weight gain in pregnancy: An analysis of its determinants in a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Alina Delia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Prenatal care is considered an important tool for promoting a healthy lifestyle, but has not been studied as a predictor for maternal weight gain during pregnancy, especially in Romania, where evidence about pregnancy and nutrition is scarce. Objective. This study has aimed to explore the relationship between pre-gestational body mass index (BMI, adequacy of prenatal care and weight gain during pregnancy. Methods. We carried a cross-sectional study on a sample of 400 pregnant women admitted at the “Cuza Voda” Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital in Iasi. Information regarding demographic characteristics, number of prenatal visits, date of the initial hospital record, nutritional education during pregnancy were registered throughout a questionnaire filled out by means of a direct interview. The anthropometric indicators analyzed were the pre-gestational BMI and the pregnancy weight gain. Data on caloric intake were obtained using a food frequency questionnaire. Results. Weight gain within the limits of the Institute of Medicine recommendations was noticed at 44.35% of the women who declared that they received nutritional advice compared to 40.7% of those who did not receive advice regarding diet during pregnancy. Overweight (53.1% and obese women (66.7% had a larger weight gain than those with a normal pre-pregnancy BMI (29.8% (p<0.001. The variables that were identified with an effect on weight gain in this sample of pregnant women were: inadequate prenatal care, pre-gestational BMI and energy intake. Conclusion. Identifying the pre-gestational BMI and diet changes as predictors of weight gain underline the importance of an individualized prenatal care.

  13. Early Weight Gain Predicts Outcome in Two Treatments for Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grange, Daniel; Accurso, Erin C.; Lock, James; Agras, Stewart; Bryson, Susan W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Determine whether early weight gain predicts full remission at end-of-treatment (EOT) and follow-up in two different treatments for adolescent anorexia nervosa, and to track the rate of weight gain throughout treatment and follow-up. Method Participants were 121 adolescents with AN (mean age = 14.4 years, SD = 1.6), from a two-site (Chicago and Stanford) randomized controlled trial. Adolescents were randomly assigned to family-based treatment (FBT) (n=61) or individual adolescent supportive psychotherapy (AFT) (n=60). Treatment response was assessed using percent of expected body weight (EBW) and the global score on the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE). Full remission was defined as having achieved ≥95% EBW and within one standard deviation of the community norms of the EDE. Full remission was assessed at EOT as well as 12-month follow-up. Results Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed that the earliest predictor of remission at EOT was a gain of 5.8 pounds (2.65 kg) by session 3 in FBT (AUC = .670; p=.043), and a gain of 7.1 pounds (3.20 kg) by session 4 in AFT (AUC=0.754, p=.014). Early weight gain did not predict remission at follow-up for either treatment. A survival analysis showed that weight was marginally superior in FBT as opposed to AFT (Wald chi-square=3.692, df=1, p=.055). Conclusion Adolescents with AN who receive either FBT or AFT, and show early weight gain, are likely to remit at EOT. However, FBT is superior to AFT in terms of weight gain throughout treatment and follow-up. PMID:24190844

  14. The design of maternal centered life-style modification program for weight gain management during pregnancy — a study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Farajzadegan, Ziba; Pozveh, Zahra Amini

    2013-01-01

    Background: Abnormal weight gain during pregnancy increases the adverse health outcomes during the pregnancy, delivery, and the postpartum period. Most of the pregnant women develop weight gain more than the recommended limits; therefore, interventions to manage such disproportionate weight gain are needed. In this paper, the design of the maternal centered life-style intervention study is described, which focuses on controlling weight gaining during pregnancy for all body mass index (BMI) gr...

  15. Estrogen response element-independent signaling partially restores post-ovariectomy body weight gain but is not sufficient for 17β-estradiol’s control of energy homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamounis, Kyle J.; Yang, Jennifer A.; Yasrebi, Ali; Roepke, Troy A.

    2013-01-01

    The steroid 17β-estradiol (E2) modulates energy homeostasis by reducing feeding behavior and increasing energy expenditure primarily through estrogen receptor α (ERα)-mediated mechanisms. Intact ERαKO female mice develop obesity as adults exhibiting decreased energy expenditure and increased fat deposition. However, intact transgenic female mice expressing a DNA-binding-deficient ERα (KIKO) are not obese and have similar energy expenditure, activity and fat deposition to wild type (WT) females, suggesting that non-Estrogen Response Element (ERE)-mediated signaling is important in E2 regulation of energy homeostasis. However, initial reports did not examine the effects of ovariectomy on energy homeostasis or E2’s attenuation of post-ovariectomy body weight gain. Therefore, we sought to determine if low physiological doses of E2 (250 ng QOD) known to suppress post-ovariectomy body weight gain in WT females, would suppress body weight gain in ovariectomized KIKO females. We observed that the post-ovariectomy increase in body weight was significantly greater in WT females than in KIKO females. Furthermore, E2 did not significantly attenuate the body weight gain in KIKO females as it did in WT females. E2 replacement suppressed food intake and fat accumulation while increasing nighttime oxygen consumption and activity only in WT females. E2 replacement also increased arcuate POMC gene expression in WT females only. These data suggest that in the intact female, ERE-independent mechanisms are sufficient to maintain normal energy homeostasis and to partially restore the normal response to ovariectomy. However, they are not sufficient for E2’s suppression of post-ovariectomy body weight gain and attenuation of decreases in metabolism and activity. PMID:24252383

  16. Selective Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR-II Antagonist Reduces Body Weight Gain in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Asagami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that mifepristone can prevent and reverse weight gain in animals and human subjects taking antipsychotic medications. This proof-of-concept study tested whether a more potent and selective glucocorticoid receptor antagonist could block dietary-induced weight gain and increase insulin sensitivity in mice. Ten-week-old, male, C57BL/6J mice were fed a diet containing 60% fat calories and water supplemented with 11% sucrose for 4 weeks. Groups (=8 received one of the following: CORT 108297 (80 mg/kg QD, CORT 108297 (40 mg/kg BID, mifepristone (30 mg/kg BID, rosiglitazone (10 mg/kg QD, or vehicle. Compared to mice receiving a high-fat, high-sugar diet plus vehicle, mice receiving a high-fat, high-sugar diet plus either mifepristone or CORT 108297 gained significantly less weight. At the end of the four week treatment period, mice receiving CORT 108297 40 mg/kg BID or CORT 108297 80 mg/kg QD also had significantly lower steady plasma glucose than mice receiving vehicle. However, steady state plasma glucose after treatment was not highly correlated with reduced weight gain, suggesting that the effect of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist on insulin sensitivity may be independent of its mitigating effect on weight gain.

  17. Weight gain following subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation: a PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauleau, Paul; Le Jeune, Florence; Drapier, Sophie; Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Dondaine, Thibaut; Haegelen, Claire; Lalys, Florent; Robert, Gabriel; Drapier, Dominique; Vérin, Marc

    2014-12-01

    Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain weight gain after deep brain stimulation (DBS), but none provides a fully satisfactory account of this adverse effect. We analyzed the correlation between changes in brain metabolism (using positron emission tomography [PET] imaging) and weight gain after bilateral subthalamic nucleus DBS in patients with Parkinson's disease. Body mass index was calculated and brain activity prospectively measured using 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose 3 months before and 4 months after the start of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in 23 patients with Parkinson's disease. Motor complications (United Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale [UPDRS]-IV scores) and dopaminergic medication were included in the analysis to control for their possible influence on brain metabolism. Mean ± standard deviation (SD) body mass index increased significantly by 0.8 ± 1.5 kg/m(2) (P = 0.03). Correlations were found between weight gain and changes in brain metabolism in limbic and associative areas, including the orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann areas [BAs] 10 and 11), lateral and medial parts of the temporal lobe (BAs 20, 21, 22,39 and 42), anterior cingulate cortex (BA 32), and retrosplenial cortex (BA 30). However, we found no correlation between weight gain and metabolic changes in sensorimotor areas. These findings suggest that changes in associative and limbic processes contribute to weight gain after subthalamic nucleus DBS in Parkinson's disease.

  18. Weight Gain and Serum TSH Increase within the Reference Range after Hemithyroidectomy Indicate Lowered Thyroid Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft Kristensen, Tina; Larsen, Jacob; Pedersen, Palle Lyngsie;

    2014-01-01

    -up period. Results. Two years after hemithyroidectomy, median serum TSH was increased over preoperative levels (1.23 versus 2.08 mIU/L, P weight (75.0 versus 77.3 kg, P = 0.02). Matched healthy controls had unchanged median serum TSH (1.70 versus 1.60 mIU/L, P = 0......Background. Weight gain is frequently reported after hemithyroidectomy but the significance is recently discussed. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine changes in body weight of hemithyroidectomized patients and to evaluate if TSH increase within the reference range could be related...... to weight gain. Methods. In a controlled follow-up study, two years after hemithyroidectomy for benign euthyroid goiter, postoperative TSH and body weight of 28 patients were compared to preoperative values and further compared to the results in 47 matched control persons, after a comparable follow...

  19. Childhood maltreatment and the risk of pre-pregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel, Jill C; Bodnar, Lisa M; Day, Nancy L; Larkby, Cynthia A

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate whether maternal history of childhood maltreatment was associated with pre-pregnancy obesity or excessive gestational weight gain. Pregnant women (n = 472) reported pre-pregnancy weight and height and gestational weight gain and were followed up to 16 years post-partum when they reported maltreatment on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). CTQ score ranged from no maltreatment (25) to severe maltreatment (125). Prenatal mental health modified the association between CTQ score and maternal weight (P alcohol use, a one standard deviation (1 SD) increase in CTQ score was associated with a 45% increase in the risk of pre-pregnancy obesity among the 141 women with elevated anxiety (≥75th percentile on the State Trait Anxiety Inventory) [relative risk, RR (95% confidence interval, CI): 1.45 (1.12, 1.88)], but was not associated among less anxious (maltreatment and weight gain. Factors such as psychological status and traumatic experiences in early childhood may contribute to pre-pregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain.

  20. Comparative effectiveness of group and individual prenatal care on gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Steinka-Fry, Katarzyna T; Gesell, Sabina B

    2014-09-01

    This study examined differences in gestational weight gain for women in CenteringPregnancy (CP) group prenatal care versus individually delivered prenatal care. We conducted a retrospective chart review and used propensity scores to form a matched sample of 393 women (76 % African-American, 13 % Latina, 11 % White; average age 22 years) receiving prenatal care at a community health center in the South. Women were matched on a wide range of demographic and medical background characteristics. Compared to the matched group of women receiving standard individual prenatal care, CP participants were less likely to have excessive gestational weight gain, regardless of their pre-pregnancy weight (b = -.99, 95 % CI [-1.92, -.06], RRR = .37). CP reduced the risk of excessive weight gain during pregnancy to 54 % of what it would have been in the standard model of prenatal care (NNT = 5). The beneficial effect of CP was largest for women who were overweight or obese prior to their pregnancy. Effects did not vary by gestational age at delivery. Post-hoc analyses provided no evidence of adverse effects on newborn birth weight outcomes. Group prenatal care had statistically and clinically significant beneficial effects on reducing excessive gestational weight gain relative to traditional individual prenatal care.

  1. Food consumption and weight gain after cessation of chronic amphetamine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Caitlin A; Ginton, Guy; Shimp, Kristy G; Avena, Nicole M; Gold, Mark S; Setlow, Barry

    2014-07-01

    Cessation of drug use often coincides with increased food consumption and weight gain in recovering addicts. However, it is not known whether this phenomenon (particularly the weight gain) is uniquely human, or whether it represents a consequence of drug cessation common across species. To address this issue, rats (n = 10/group) were given systemic injections of D-amphetamine (3 mg/kg) or an equal volume of saline vehicle for 9 consecutive days. Beginning 2 days after the final injection, rats were given free access to a highly palatable food mixture (consisting of sugar and butter) along with their standard chow diet, and food consumption and body weight were measured every 48 h for 30 days. Consistent with clinical observations, amphetamine-treated rats showed a greater increase in body weight over the course of the 30 days relative to vehicle-treated rats. Surprisingly, there was no difference in highly palatable food consumption between amphetamine- and vehicle-treated groups, but the amphetamine-treated group consumed significantly more standard chow than the control group. The finding that a history of chronic amphetamine exposure increases food consumption is consistent with previous work in humans showing that withdrawal from drugs of abuse is associated with overeating and weight gain. The current findings may reflect amphetamine-induced sensitization of mechanisms involved in reward motivation, suggesting that weight gain following drug cessation in humans could be due to similar mechanisms.

  2. Evaluation of Yeast (Saccharomyces Cerevisiae in Weight Gain of Crossbred Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Daniel Cifuentes Ruiz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics has been used to substitute antibiotic treatments used as growth promoters and to improve productive performance. The term probiotic is used to namelive micro-organisms such as microbes and bacteria with beneficial effects to livestock farms when consumed as dietary supplements. This review investigates the evidence for the use of probiotics in sheep’s final body weight gain combined with livestock grazing management system with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Twenty one native sheep were chosen randomly for this study, with an average weight of 14.71 kg ± 1.9 under continuous grazing; the meadows are used as sheep pastures where Kikuyo grass grows (Pennisetum clandestinum and water ad libitum. Sheep were classified in three different treatments: T1, control treatment, without adding yeast; T2, added with 5 g/day of yeast; and T3, supplemented with 15 g/day of yeast. Throughout this study was possible to find a beneficial effect on final weight and average daily gain. The results were compared by ANOVA with a significance level of 95%. A significant difference was observed on final body weight of sheep for T3 (p ≤ 0.05. In addition, it was found that daily weight gain was 100 g, 120 g and 220 g for T1, T2 and T3 respectively. This research leads us to conclude that the addition of 15 g of yeast improves daily bodyweight gain and final weight of grazing native sheep.

  3. Substantial weight gains are common prior to treatment-seeking in obese patients with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2013-10-01

    This study examined weight trajectories in obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED) during the year prior to treatment initiation and explored potential correlates of these weight changes. One hundred thirty (N=130) consecutive, treatment-seeking, obese patients with BED were assessed with structured interviews and self-report questionnaires. Eighty-three percent (83%; n=108) of treatment seeking obese BED patients gained weight, and 65% (n=84) gained a clinically significant amount of weight (greater than or equal to 5% body weight), in the year preceding treatment. Overall, participants reported a mean percent weight gain of 8% (16.6 pounds) during the 12months prior to treatment with a wide range of weight changes across participants (from a 52% weight gain to a 13% weight loss). A substantial proportion of patients (35%), categorized as High Weight Gainers (defined as gaining more than 10% of body weight during previous year), reported gaining an average of 16.7% of body weight. Low Weight Gainers (defined as gaining greater than 5%, but less than 10%) comprised 29% of the sample and were characterized by a mean gain of 6.9% of body weight. Weight Maintainers/Losers (defined as having maintained or lost weight during the 12months prior to treatment) comprised 17% of the sample and reported losing on average 2.8% of body weight. These three groups did not differ significantly in their current weight and eating behaviors or eating disorder psychopathology. The majority of treatment-seeking obese patients with BED reported having gained substantial amounts of weight during the previous year. These findings provide an important context for interpreting the modest weight losses typically reported in treatment studies of BED. Failure to produce weight loss in these studies may be reinterpreted as stabilization of weight and prevention of further weight gain.

  4. The antipsychotic olanzapine interacts with the gut microbiome to cause weight gain in mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Morgan

    Full Text Available The second-generation antipsychotic olanzapine is effective in reducing psychotic symptoms but can cause extreme weight gain in human patients. We investigated the role of the gut microbiota in this adverse drug effect using a mouse model. First, we used germ-free C57BL/6J mice to demonstrate that gut bacteria are necessary and sufficient for weight gain caused by oral delivery of olanzapine. Second, we surveyed fecal microbiota before, during, and after treatment and found that olanzapine potentiated a shift towards an "obesogenic" bacterial profile. Finally, we demonstrated that olanzapine has antimicrobial activity in vitro against resident enteric bacterial strains. These results collectively provide strong evidence for a mechanism underlying olanzapine-induced weight gain in mouse and a hypothesis for clinical translation in human patients.

  5. Intake of Sweets, Snacks and Soft Drinks Predicts Weight Gain in Obese Pregnant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, Kristina M; Carlsen, Emma M; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    type of diet and physical activity intervention (D+PA); physical activity intervention alone (PA); or control (C). Diet was assessed at baseline (weeks 11-14) and endpoint (weeks 36-37) using a validated food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: During the intervention women in the D+PA group...... for soft drinks were more conflicting, as women with high weight gain tended to favour artificially sweetened soft drinks. CONCLUSION: In our sample of obese pregnant women, craving for sweets, snacks, and soft drinks strongly predicts GWG. Emphasis on reducing intakes of these foods may be more relevant...... analyses revealed that foods that contributed to intake of added sugars, including sweets, snacks, cakes, and soft drinks were strongly associated with weight gain, with women consuming sweets ≥2/day having 5.4 kg (95% CI 2.1-8.7) greater weight gain than those with a low (

  6. Early Weight Gain, Linear Growth, and Mid-Childhood Blood Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perng, Wei; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Kramer, Michael S;

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension increased markedly among children and adolescents, highlighting the importance of identifying determinants of elevated blood pressure early in life. Low birth weight and rapid early childhood weight gain are associated with higher...... future blood pressure. However, few studies have examined the timing of postnatal weight gain in relation to later blood pressure, and little is known regarding the contribution of linear growth. We studied 957 participants in Project Viva, an ongoing US prebirth cohort. We examined the relations...... of gains in body mass index z-score and length/height z-score during 4 early life age intervals (birth to 6 months, 6 months to 1 year, 1 to 2 years, and 2 to 3 years) with blood pressure during mid-childhood (6-10 years) and evaluated whether these relations differed by birth size. After accounting...

  7. Childhood consequences of maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Romy; Felix, Janine F; Duijts, Liesbeth; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2014-11-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern. In western countries, the prevalence of obesity in pregnant women has strongly increased, with reported prevalence rates reaching 30%. Also, up to 40% of women gain an excessive amount of weight during pregnancy. Recent observational studies and meta-analyses strongly suggest long-term impact of maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy on adiposity, cardiovascular and respiratory related health outcomes in their children. These observations suggest that maternal adiposity during pregnancy may program common health problems in the offspring. Currently, it remains unclear whether the observed associations are causal, or just reflect confounding by family-based sociodemographic or lifestyle-related factors. Parent-offspring studies, sibling comparison studies, Mendelian randomization studies and randomized trials can help to explore the causality and underlying mechanisms. Also, the potential for prevention of common diseases in future generations by reducing maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy needs to be explored.

  8. Compensatory weight gain due to dopaminergic hypofunction: new evidence and own incidental observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohr Iwo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is increasing evidence for a role of dopamine in the development of obesity. More specifically, dopaminergic hypofunction might lead to (overcompensatory food intake. Overeating and resulting weight gain may be induced by genetic predisposition for lower dopaminergic activity, but might also be a behavioral mechanism of compensating for decreased dopamine signaling after dopaminergic overstimulation, for example after smoking cessation or overconsumption of high palatable food. This hypothesis is in line with our incidental finding of increased weight gain after discontinuation of pharmaceutical dopaminergic overstimulation in rats. These findings support the crucial role of dopaminergic signaling for eating behaviors and offer an explanation for weight-gain after cessation of activities associated with high dopaminergic signaling. They further support the possibility that dopaminergic medication could be used to moderate food intake.

  9. Could Reward-disturbances caused by antipsychotic medication lead to weight gain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard; Rostrup, Egill; Nørbak-Emig, Henrik

    BACKGROUND The reward system is known to be central to the regulation of appetite. Further, disturbances of the brain reward system are suggested to play an important role in the development of central psychopathological symptoms in schizophrenia. Antipsychotic medication partly acts by modulating...... response in right putamen (r=0.541, p=0.001). There was no relation between weight gain and treatment response or medication dose. DISCUSSION As expected, antipsychotic treatment on average caused a moderate weight gain in the patients. The highest weight gain was found in the patients with the most......, it seems reasonable to assume that it is related to changes in dopamine transmission. Thus our results suggest that by altering the dopaminergic transmission in putamen, antipsychotic medication might affect appetite regulation through its influence on the reward system and thereby, together with other...

  10. Mechanisms of body weight gain in patients with Parkinson's disease after subthalamic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaurier, C; Morio, B; Bannier, S; Derost, P; Arnaud, P; Brandolini-Bunlon, M; Giraudet, C; Boirie, Y; Durif, F

    2007-07-01

    Chronic bilateral subthalamic stimulation leads to a spectacular clinical improvement in patients with motor complications. However, the post-operative body weight gain involved may limit the benefits of surgery and induce critical metabolic disorders. Twenty-four Parkinsonians (61.1 +/- 1.4 years) were examined 1 month before (M - 1) and 3 months after (M + 3) surgery. Body composition and energy expenditure (EE) were measured (1) over 36 h in calorimetric chambers (CC) with rigorous control of food intakes and activities [sleep metabolic rate, resting activities, meals, 3 or 4 sessions of 20 min on a training bicycle at 13 km/h and daily EE] and (2) in resting conditions (basal metabolic rate) during an acute L-dopa challenge (M - 1) or according to acute 'off' and 'on' stimulation (M + 3). Before surgery, EE was compared between the Parkinsonian patients and healthy subjects matched for height and body composition (metabolic rate during sleep, daily EE) or matched to predicted values (basal metabolic rate). Before surgery, in Parkinsonian men but not women, (1) daily EE was higher while sleep metabolic rate was lower compared to healthy matched men (+9.2 +/- 3.9 and -8.2 +/- 2.3%, respectively, P weight gain. Parkinson's disease is associated with profound alterations in the central control of energy metabolism. Normalization of energy metabolism after DBS-STN implantation may favour body weight gain, of which quality was gender specific. As men gained primarily fat-free mass, a reasonable weight gain may be tolerated, in contrast with women who gained only fat. Other factors such as changes in free-living physical activity may help to limit body weight gain in some patients.

  11. Pregnancy weight gain and postpartum loss: avoiding obesity while optimizing the growth and development of the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, S A

    2001-01-01

    Weight gain during pregnancy may contribute to obesity development. Concerns about possible adverse effects of pregnancy weight gain on later maternal weight and on labor and delivery must be rigorously evaluated in light of possible benefits for fetal growth and development. Birth-weight rises with increased pregnancy weight gain, and perinatal and neonatal mortality fall as birthweight increases in both preterm and term infants. The lowest mortality is observed at 3500 to 4500 g in infants of white women. Although often thought to be at high risk, infants termed "macrosomic" include infants of the lowest mortality rate. Thus, restricting weight gain may be detrimental to the baby. Weight gain that is optimal for the mother and the baby differs according to the mother's prepregnancy weight. Pregnancy weight gain exceeding current recommendations is associated with increases in maternal fat gain, pregnancy complications, and delivery problems and should be discouraged. Postpartum weight loss is essential to prevent permanent weight increase. Smoking cessation during pregnancy, reduced postpartum physical activity, and other lifestyle changes can contribute to increased postpartum weight. Health care providers can help to reduce obesity risk by regularly monitoring women's weight; promoting appropriate prepregnancy weight, pregnancy weight gain, and postpartum weight less; and explicitly encouraging maintenance of an active postpartum lifestyle.

  12. Electroacupuncture Reduces Weight Gain Induced by Rosiglitazone through PPARγ and Leptin Receptor in CNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyue Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA on protecting the weight gain side effect of rosiglitazone (RSG in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM rats and its possible mechanism in central nervous system (CNS. Our study showed that RSG (5 mg/kg significantly increased the body weight and food intake of the T2DM rats. After six-week treatment with RSG combined with EA, body weight, food intake, and the ratio of IWAT to body weight decreased significantly, whereas the ratio of BAT to body weight increased markedly. HE staining indicated that the T2DM-RSG rats had increased size of adipocytes in their IWAT, but EA treatment reduced the size of adipocytes. EA effectively reduced the lipid contents without affecting the antidiabetic effect of RSG. Furthermore, we noticed that the expression of PPARγ gene in hypothalamus was reduced by EA, while the expressions of leptin receptor and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 were increased. Our results suggest that EA is an effective approach for inhibiting weight gain in T2DM rats treated by RSG. The possible mechanism might be through increased levels of leptin receptor and STAT3 and decreased PPARγ expression, by which food intake of the rats was reduced and RSG-induced weight gain was inhibited.

  13. Pregnant women's perceptions of weight gain, physical activity, and nutrition using Theory of Planned Behavior constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Kara M; Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong; Blair, Steven N; Pate, Russell R

    2016-02-01

    A better understanding of women's perceptions of weight gain and related behaviors during pregnancy is necessary to inform behavioral interventions. We used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to examine pregnant women's perceptions and intentions toward weight gain, physical activity (PA), and nutrition using a mixed methods study design. Women between 20 and 30 weeks gestation (n = 189) were recruited to complete an Internet-based survey. Salient beliefs toward weight gain, PA, and nutrition were captured through open-ended responses and content analyzed into themes. TPB constructs (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, intentions) were examined using Pearson correlations and hierarchical linear regression models. Salient beliefs were consistent with the existing literature in non-pregnant populations, with the addition of many pregnancy-specific beliefs. TPB constructs accounted for 23-39 % of the variance in weight gain, PA, and nutrition intentions, and made varying contributions across outcomes. The TPB is a useful framework for examining women's weight-related intentions during pregnancy. Study implications for intervention development are discussed.

  14. Excessive weight gain after remission of depression in a schizophrenic patient treated with risperidone: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psarros Constantin

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of atypical antipsychotics in schizophrenic patients has been associated with a risk of weight gain. Similarly, recovery from depression is often followed by improved appetite, greater food intake and potential increase in weight. Case presentation A Caucasian 33-year-old schizophrenic female patient was being treated with 6 mg/day of risperidone and 15 mg/day of clorazepate. She developed depressive symptomatology and 40 mg/day of fluoxetine was gradually added to her treatment regimen for about 9 months. After the remission of depression, and the discontinuation of fluoxetine, she experienced an increase in appetite and subsequently excessive weight gain of 52 kg. Re-administration of fluoxetine did not reverse the situation. The patient developed diabetes mellitus, which was successfully controlled with metformin 1700 mg/day. The addition at first of orlistat 360 mg/day and later of topiramate 200 mg/day has helped her to lose a significant part of the weight gained (30 kg. Conclusion The case suggests a probable association between the remission of depressive symptomatology and weight gain in a schizophrenic patient.

  15. Gut microbiota Modulated by Probiotics and Garcinia cambogia Extract Correlate with Weight Gain and Adipocyte Sizes in High Fat-Fed Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jaeyoung Heo; Minseok Seo; Hwanhee Park; Woon Kyu Lee; Le Luo Guan; Joon Yoon; Kelsey Caetano-Anolles; Hyeonju Ahn; Se-Young Kim; Yoon-Mo Kang; Seoae Cho; Heebal Kim

    2016-01-01

    Results of recent studies on gut microbiota have suggested that obesogenic bacteria exacerbate obesity and metabolic dysfunction in the host when fed a high fat diet (HFD). In order to explore obesity-associated bacterial candidates and their response to diet, the composition of faecal bacterial communities was investigated by analyzing 16S rRNA gene sequences in mice. Dietary intervention with probiotics and Garcinia cambogia extract attenuated weight gain and adipocyte size in HFD-fed mice....

  16. Weight gain restriction during pregnancy is safe for both the mother and neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claesson, Ing-Marie; Brynhildsen, Jan; Cedergren, Marie; Jeppsson, Annika; Sydsjö, Adam; Josefsson, Ann

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal outcome among obese pregnant women who took part in an intervention study for weight restriction differed from a group of obese pregnant women attending regular antenatal care. The intervention group consisted of 155 obese pregnant women and 193 obese pregnant women who formed a control group. We found that a weight gain restriction of less than 7 kg during pregnancy is safe for both the mother and the neonate.

  17. Psychological workload is associated with weight gain between 1993 and 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Gamborg, M; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2004-01-01

    AIMS: To examine associations between psychological workload and subsequent 6-y weight changes. METHODS: In total, 6704 Danish nurses, aged 45-65 y and employed both in 1993 and 1999, answered questionnaires about psychological workload, including busyness in job, job speed and job influence...... who attained influence in job over the 6-y period. CONCLUSION: : Psychological workload, particularly both low and high busyness in job and low influence in job, was associated with higher 6-y weight gain among female Danish nurses....

  18. Perceived psychosocial stress and gestational weight gain among women with gestational diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Ai; Ferrara, Assiamira; Brown, Susan D.; Ehrlich, Samantha F.; Tsai, Ai-Lin; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Crites, Yvonne; Hedderson, Monique M.

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence links perceived stress—a potentially modifiable psychosocial risk factor—with health behaviors and obesity. Yet little is known about the relationship between stress during pregnancy and gestational weight gain, particularly among women with pregnancy complications. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to examine associations between psychosocial stress during pregnancy and gestational weight gain among women with gestational diabetes. We used baseline data from the Gestational Diabetes’s Effects on Moms (GEM) study: 1,353 women with gestational diabetes who delivered a term singleton within Kaiser Permanente Northern California were included. Perceived stress near the time of gestational diabetes diagnosis was measured using the validated Perceived Stress Scale (PSS10). Gestational weight gain was categorized according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations. Binomial regression analyses adjusted for gestational age and maternal age at the time of gestational diabetes diagnosis, and race/ethnicity and estimated rate ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence interval (CI). Among women with a normal pregravid Body Mass Index (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2), there was a significant association between high (Q4) PSS score and risk of both exceeding and gaining below the Institute of Medicine recommendations compared to those with lower stress (Q1) [adjusted RR = 2.16 95% CI 1.45–3.21; RR = 1.39 95% CI 1.01–1.91, respectively.] Among women with pregravid overweight/obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2), there was no association. Although the temporal relationship could not be established from this study, there may be a complex interplay between psychosocial stress and gestational weight gain among women with gestational diabetes. Further studies examining stress earlier in pregnancy, risk of developing gestational diabetes and excess/inadequate gestational weight gain are warranted to clarify these complex relationships. PMID:28350836

  19. Olanzapine-high potency antipsychotic drug inducing significant weight gain: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Nađa P.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Olanzapine is a second generation antipsychotic (SGA with a high level of therapeutic effectiveness in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Along with the positive therapeutic effects, an increase of the body weight frequently occurs. According to the literature, the average weight gain is about 6-7 kg during several months of treatment. This could be valued as a moderate weight increase. CASE OUTLINE This article presents a case of a young female with schizophrenia, without clinical improvement with several antipsychotics (clozapine, risperidone, haloperidol and with the occurrence of significant neurological side effects. The treatment started with olanzapine (baseline was associated with good initial response (PANSS reduction 20% in the first two weeks and the improvement was maintained further on (PANSS reduction 50% after 16 weeks. Significant increase (20 kg, 40% in weight appeared during the following 16 weeks (BMI at baseline 17.9 kg/m2; BMI 16 weeks later 25.1 kg/m2. CONCLUSION High effectiveness of olanzapine in schizophrenia symptoms reduction was accompanied by a significant weight gain. However, this drug leads to impaired glucoregulation, dyslipidaemia etc. It also increases the risk of diabetes and cardio-vascular diseases, i.e. the main causes of mortality in schizophrenia after a suicide. Therefore, clinicians are suggested to focus on possible predictors of weight gain during olanzapine therapy, and act accordingly in order to prevent serious health consequences.

  20. Weight gain is associated with medial contact site of subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Růžička

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to assess changes in body-weight in relation to active electrode contact position in the subthalamic nucleus. Regular body weight measurements were done in 20 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease within a period of 18 months after implantation. T1-weighted (1.5T magnetic resonance images were used to determine electrode position in the subthalamic nucleus and the Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS-III was used for motor assessment. The distance of the contacts from the wall of the third ventricle in the mediolateral direction inversely correlated with weight gain (r = -0.55, p<0.01 and with neurostimulation-related motor condition expressed as the contralateral hemi-body UPDRS-III (r = -0.42, p<0.01. Patients with at least one contact within 9.3 mm of the wall experienced significantly greater weight gain (9.4 ± (SD4.4 kg, N = 11 than those with both contacts located laterally (3.9 ± 2.7 kg, N = 9 (p<0.001. The position of the active contact is critical not only for motor outcome but is also associated with weight gain, suggesting a regional effect of subthalamic stimulation on adjacent structures involved in the central regulation of energy balance, food intake or reward.

  1. [Effects of obesity and weight gain during pregnancy on obstetrical factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisaka, K; Ando, S; Kokuho, K; Tawada, T; Kaneda, S; Tomonari, R; Yoshimatsu, J; Sasaki, S; Yoshida, K

    1988-12-01

    The relationship between the body weight or weight gain during pregnancy and various obstetrical factors was investigated in 731 patients who delivered in San-ikukai Hospital for in the year 1986. The patients were classified into three groups according to their body weight in non-pregnant states: slender (n = 214), ordinary (n = 379) and obese (n = 138), according to the standard for "The decision diagram for the estimation of obesity and emaciation in Japanese" published in 1986 by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Japan. Each of these groups was further divided into two groups according to the degree of weight gain during pregnancy (more or less than 15kg). Then, the duration of labor, the blood loss during delivery, the birth weight, the placental weight and the obstetrical abnormalities (prolonged labor, arrested labor, blood loss of more than 500 ml, fetal distress and toxemia of pregnancy) were investigated in these groups. The blood loss, the neonatal birth weight and the placental weight in the obese groups were much greater than those in the ordinary or the slender group (p less than 0.005). However, there was no significant difference in the duration of the labor among these groups. The incidence of obstetrical abnormalities in the obese group was significantly higher than in the ordinary or the slender group (chi 2 = 4.37, p less than 0.05, chi 2 = 5.27, p less than 0.025).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Determinants of rapid weight gain during infancy: baseline results from the NOURISH randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihrshahi Seema

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid weight gain in infancy is an important predictor of obesity in later childhood. Our aim was to determine which modifiable variables are associated with rapid weight gain in early life. Methods Subjects were healthy infants enrolled in NOURISH, a randomised, controlled trial evaluating an intervention to promote positive early feeding practices. This analysis used the birth and baseline data for NOURISH. Birthweight was collected from hospital records and infants were also weighed at baseline assessment when they were aged 4-7 months and before randomisation. Infant feeding practices and demographic variables were collected from the mother using a self administered questionnaire. Rapid weight gain was defined as an increase in weight-for-age Z-score (using WHO standards above 0.67 SD from birth to baseline assessment, which is interpreted clinically as crossing centile lines on a growth chart. Variables associated with rapid weight gain were evaluated using a multivariable logistic regression model. Results Complete data were available for 612 infants (88% of the total sample recruited with a mean (SD age of 4.3 (1.0 months at baseline assessment. After adjusting for mother's age, smoking in pregnancy, BMI, and education and infant birthweight, age, gender and introduction of solid foods, the only two modifiable factors associated with rapid weight gain to attain statistical significance were formula feeding [OR = 1.72 (95%CI 1.01-2.94, P = 0.047] and feeding on schedule [OR = 2.29 (95%CI 1.14-4.61, P = 0.020]. Male gender and lower birthweight were non-modifiable factors associated with rapid weight gain. Conclusions This analysis supports the contention that there is an association between formula feeding, feeding to schedule and weight gain in the first months of life. Mechanisms may include the actual content of formula milk (e.g. higher protein intake or differences in feeding styles, such as feeding to schedule

  3. Body mass index, gestational weight gain and fatty acid concentrations during pregnancy: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidakovic, Aleksandra Jelena; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Gishti, Olta; Felix, Janine F; Williams, Michelle A; Hofman, Albert; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold; Tiemeier, Henning; Gaillard, Romy

    2015-11-01

    Obesity during pregnancy may be correlated with an adverse nutritional status affecting pregnancy and offspring outcomes. We examined the associations of prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with plasma fatty acid concentrations in mid-pregnancy. This study was embedded in a population-based prospective cohort study among 5636 women. We obtained prepregnancy body mass index and maximum weight gain during pregnancy by questionnaires. We measured concentrations of saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA) at a median gestational age of 20.5 (95% range 17.1-24.9) weeks. We used multivariate linear regression models. As compared to normal weight women, obese women had higher total SFA concentrations [difference: 0.10 standard deviation (SD) (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0, 0.19)] and lower total n-3 PUFA concentrations [difference: - 0.11 SD (95% CI - 0.20, - 0.02)]. As compared to women with sufficient gestational weight gain, those with excessive gestational weight gain had higher SFA concentrations [difference: 0.16 SD (95% CI 0.08, 0.25)], MUFA concentrations [difference: 0.16 SD (95% CI 0.08, 0.24)] and n-6 PUFA concentrations [difference: 0.12 SD (95% CI 0.04, 0.21)]. These results were not materially affected by adjustment for maternal characteristics. Our results suggest that obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy are associated with an adverse fatty acids profile. Further studies are needed to assess causality and direction of the observed associations.

  4. Chocolate-candy consumption and three-year weight gain among postmenopausal U.S. women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, James A.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buijsse, Brian; Wang, Lu; Allison, Matthew A.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Tinker, Lesley; Waring, Molly E.; Isasi, Carmen R.; Martin, Lisa W.; Thomson, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that greater chocolate-candy intake is associated with more weight gain in postmenopausal women. DESIGN AND METHODS Prospective cohort study involving 107,243 post-menopausal American women aged 50–79 years (mean=60.7) at enrolment in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI), with three-year follow up. Chocolate-candy consumption was assessed by food frequency questionnaire and body weight was measured. Linear mixed models, adjusted for demographic, socio-economic, anthropomorphic and behavioral variables, were used to test our main hypotheses. RESULTS Compared to women who ate a 1 oz (~28 g) serving of chocolate candy <1 per month, those who ate this amount 1 per month to <1 per week, 1 per week to < 3 per week and ≥3 per week showed greater three-year prospective weight gains (kg) of 0.76 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.85), 0.95 (0.84, 1.06) and 1.40 (1.27, 1.53), respectively, (p for linear trend<0.0001). Each additional 1 oz/day was associated with a greater three-year weight gain (kg) of 0.92 (0.80, 1.05). The weight gain in each chocolate-candy intake level increased as BMI increased above the normal range (18.5–25 kg/m2), and as age decreased. CONCLUSIONS Greater chocolate-candy intake was associated with greater prospective weight gain in this cohort of post-menopausal women. PMID:25644711

  5. Prospect theory and body mass: characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices.

  6. Prospect theory and body mass: Characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Lark eLim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices.

  7. Association between socioeconomic and biological factors and infant weight gain: Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey - PNDS-2006/07

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between socioeconomic and biological factors and infant weight gain. METHODS: All infants (0-23 months of age) with available birth and postnatal weight data (n = 1763) were selected from the last nationally representative survey with complex probability sampling conducted in Brazil (2006/07). The outcome variable was conditional weight gain (CWG), which represents how much an individual has deviated from his/her expected weight gain, given the birth wei...

  8. Dietary fat drives whole-body insulin resistance and promotes intestinal inflammation independent of body weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech; Nielsen, Thomas Svava; Fritzen, Andreas Mæchel

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The obesogenic potential of high-fat diets (HFD) in rodents is attenuated when the protein:carbohydrate ratio is increased. However, it is not known if intake of an HFD irrespective of the protein:carbohydrate ratio and in the absence of weight gain, affects glucose homeostasis...... no differences were observed during insulin tolerance tests. The hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp revealed tissue-specific effects on glucose homeostasis in all HFD-fed groups. HFD-fed mice exhibited decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in white but not in brown adipose tissue, and sustained endogenous...... glucose production under insulin-stimulated conditions. We observed no impairment of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscles of different fiber type composition. HFD-feeding altered the gut microbiota composition paralleled by increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and genes...

  9. Obesity and the Odds of Weight Gain following Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lior Z. Braunstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Increasing body mass index (BMI is associated with increased risk of mortality; however, quantifying weight gain in men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT for prostate cancer (PC remains unexplored. Methods. Between 1995 and 2001, 206 men were enrolled in a randomized trial evaluating the survival difference of adding 6 months of ADT to radiation therapy (RT. BMI measurements were available in 171 men comprising the study cohort. The primary endpoint was weight gain of ≥10 lbs by 6-month followup. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess whether baseline BMI or treatment received was associated with this endpoint adjusting for known prognostic factors. Results. By the 6-month followup, 12 men gained ≥10 lbs, of which 10 (83% received RT + ADT and, of these, 7 (70% were obese at randomization. Men treated with RT as compared to RT + ADT were less likely to gain ≥10 lbs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 0.18 [95% CI: 0.04–0.89]; P=0.04, whereas this risk increased with increasing BMI (AOR: 1.15 [95% CI: 1.01–1.31]; P=0.04. Conclusions. Consideration should be given to avoid ADT in obese men with low- or favorable-intermediate risk PC where improved cancer control has not been observed, but shortened life expectancy from weight gain is expected.

  10. Economic evaluation of an occupational health care guideline for prevention of weight gain among employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wier, M.F. van; Verweij, L.M.; Proper, K.I.; Hulshof, C.T.J.; Tulder, M.W. van; Mechelen, W. van

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To determine the cost-effectiveness and the financial return of a guideline for occupational physicians (OPs), aimed at the prevention of weight gain among employees. METHODS:: The guideline consisted of a company-environment scan and up to five individual sessions with an OP. Sixteen OP

  11. The association between portion size, nutrient intake and gestational weight gain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blumfield, M.L.; Schreurs, M.; Rollo, M.E.; Macdonald-Wicks, L.K.; Kokavec, A.; Collins, C.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with adverse maternal-child health outcomes. Managing energy intake and GWG versus optimising nutrient intake can be challenging. The present study aimed to examine the relationships between dietary portion size, GWG and nutrient i

  12. Adipose gene expression patterns of weight gain suggest counteracting steroid hormone synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van E.M.; Franssen-Hal, van N.L.W.; Schaap, M.M.; Pennings, J.; Hoebee, B.; Keijer, J.

    2005-01-01

    VAN SCHOTHORST, EVERT M., NICOLE FRANSSEN-VAN HAL, MIRJAM M. SCHAAP, JEROEN PENNINGS, BARBARA HOEBEE, AND JAAP KEIJER. Adipose gene expression patterns of weight gain suggest counteracting steroid hormone synthesis. Obes Res. 2005;13:1031-1041. Objective: To identify early molecular changes in weigh

  13. Energy intake and energy expenditure for determining excess weight gain in pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    To conduct a secondary analysis designed to test whether gestational weight gain is the result of increased energy intake or adaptive changes in energy expenditures. In this secondary analysis, energy intake and energy expenditure of 45 pregnant women (body mass index [BMI] 18.5-24.9 [n=33] and BMI ...

  14. Obesity, gestational weight gain and preterm birth: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Vaeth, Michael;

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of obesity and gestational weight gain on the risk of subtypes of preterm birth, because little is known about these associations. The study included 62 167 women within the Danish National Birth Cohort for whom self-reported information about...

  15. Effect of olive oil massage on weight gain in preterm infants: A randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Jabraeile

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the fact that effect of massage with or without oil on the baby′s weight gain is not clear, but recent studies have shown that massage with essential oils make lipid absorption through the skin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of olive oil massage on weight gain in preterm infants. Materials and Methods: This study was a single-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial. In this study, infants who met inclusion criteria for the study were divided into two groups by using random numbers table. Newborns in intervention group were under massage for 10 days and 3 times for 15 min daily; the mother of these newborns had been trained already using olive oil. Moreover, the infants of the control group were under massaging without oil same as the above-mentioned method. Researchers weighed babies daily during 10 days and recorded it at the checklist. Data from the study were reviewed and analyzed by descriptive statistics and repeated measure test using the statistical software SPSS/13. Results: This study showed that the neonatal weight gain in the infants with the oil massage was 21 g daily in average, whereas the increase in infant massage without oil was 7 g. This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Considering the positive effect of infant massage on weight gain in premature infants with olive oil, it is recommended that nurses use oil in infant massage in the neonatal units.

  16. Freshmen Women and the "Freshman 15": Perspectives on Prevalence and Causes of College Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Jackson, TeriSue; Reel, Justine J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Freshman weight gain has been assessed using quantitative inquiry, but this qualitative study allowed for an in-depth exploration of freshmen women's experiences surrounding body image, nutrition, and exercise. The purpose of this study was to better understand the impact and explanations for the "Freshman 15." Participants: Freshmen…

  17. Perceived Importance of Dietary Protein to Prevent Weight Gain: A National Survey among Midlife Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Noel D.; Perry, Courtney; Thomas, William; Raatz, Susan K.; Reicks, Marla

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate reported use of the practice of "eating more protein" to prevent weight gain among midlife women. Design: Cross-sectional national survey. Participants: One thousand eight hundred twenty-four midlife women (40-60 y) from the 9 United States geographic regions, primarily married (71%), white (76%), and well educated; half were…

  18. The Parent-Child Relationship as Predictor of Eating Pathology and Weight Gain in Preadolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Lien; Braet, Caroline; Van Durme, Kim; Decaluwe, Veerle; Bosmans, Guy

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the role of attachment toward mother and father as a predictor of eating pathology and weight gain among preadolescent boys and girls. Self-report questionnaires and adjusted body mass index (BMI) were administered from a community sample of 601 preadolescents (8-11 years; 48% female) at baseline and once again 1 year…

  19. Estrogen response element-independent signaling partially restores post-ovariectomy body weight gain but is not sufficient for 17β-estradiol's control of energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamounis, Kyle J; Yang, Jennifer A; Yasrebi, Ali; Roepke, Troy A

    2014-03-01

    The steroid 17β-estradiol (E2) modulates energy homeostasis by reducing feeding behavior and increasing energy expenditure primarily through estrogen receptor α (ERα)-mediated mechanisms. Intact ERαKO female mice develop obesity as adults exhibiting decreased energy expenditure and increased fat deposition. However, intact transgenic female mice expressing a DNA-binding-deficient ERα (KIKO) are not obese and have similar energy expenditure, activity and fat deposition as to wild type (WT) females, suggesting that non-estrogen response element (ERE)-mediated signaling is important in E2 regulation of energy homeostasis. Initial reports did not examine the effects of ovariectomy on energy homeostasis or E2's attenuation of post-ovariectomy body weight gain. Therefore, we sought to determine if low physiological doses of E2 (250 ng QOD) known to suppress post-ovariectomy body weight gain in WT females would suppress body weight gain in ovariectomized KIKO females. We observed that the post-ovariectomy increase in body weight was significantly greater in WT females than in KIKO females. Furthermore, E2 did not significantly attenuate the body weight gain in KIKO females as it did in WT females. E2 replacement suppressed food intake and fat accumulation while increasing nighttime oxygen consumption and activity only in WT females. E2 replacement also increased arcuate POMC gene expression in WT females only. These data suggest that in the intact female, ERE-independent mechanisms are sufficient to maintain normal energy homeostasis and to partially restore the normal response to ovariectomy. However, they are not sufficient for E2's suppression of post-ovariectomy body weight gain and its effects on metabolism and activity.

  20. Effects of the pacifier activated lullaby on weight gain of premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevasco, Andrea M; Grant, Roy E

    2005-01-01

    Within the past 5 years there has been an increase of premature infants surviving in the neonatal intensive care unit as well as an increasing cost for each day the infant is kept there. It is important for the premature infant to acquire the feeding skills necessary for weight gain, which lead to discharge from the hospital, and recent advancements have indicated the effectiveness in using contingent music to teach sucking skills to premature infants. The purpose of the first analysis in this study was to determine the effects of Pacifier Activated Lullaby (PAL) trials on weight gain of premature infants. During a 2-year time period, 62 infants from a sample of 188 met criteria for analysis. A one-way analysis of variance showed no significance in daily weight gain for the number of PAL trials completed. The mean weight gains for infants with 1 PAL trial = 13.85 grams, 2 trials = 26.67, 3 trials = 29.64, and 4 or more = 22.89. The Pearson product-moment correlation between the mean percent of music earned via nonnutritive sucking (NNS) and mean weight gain of all trials approached significance (p = .077, r = 0.18). In a second analysis, weight gained prior to use of PAL, during use of PAL, and post use of PAL was analyzed. Results indicated no significant difference between weight gain 1 day prior to use of PAL, the day of PAL trial, and 1 day post use of PAL. Mean weight gain for those infants who participated in 1 PAL trial was 8.49 grams for 1 day prior to use of PAL, 18.73 the day of PAL trial, and 24.81 for 1 day post use of PAL. Mean weight gain for 3 days prior to using the PAL was 10.78, 11.30 on the day of PAL trial, and 24.78 grams for 3 days post PAL use. The analyses show definite trends of greater weight gain with PAL use; however, individual variability within groups was greater than group differences leading to no significance in statistical analysis. In the third analysis the effect of proximity between premature infants' feeding schedule and PAL

  1. Pre-pregnancy obesity and maternal circadian cortisol regulation: Moderation by gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L; Bublitz, Margaret H; Stroud, Laura R

    2014-10-01

    We investigated main and interactive effects of maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and gestational weight gain on circadian cortisol from the second to third trimester. A diverse sample of 215 pregnant women was enrolled. Maternal height and most recent pre-pregnancy weight were collected at study initiation (22% obese). Weight and circadian salivary cortisol samples were measured during second (24±4) and third (35±1 weeks) trimesters. During the third trimester, women who were obese prior to conception showed elevated evening cortisol versus normal weight women. This pattern was moderated by weight gain in excess of Institute of Medicine guidelines, such that women who were obese prior to conception and gained greater than 7.94kg by the 35±1 week visit displayed greatest elevations in evening cortisol. Given links between excessive prenatal glucocorticoid exposure and both poor maternal and offspring health outcomes, elevated maternal cortisol may be one mechanism underlying links between maternal obesity and adverse perinatal outcomes.

  2. Ameliorating antipsychotic-induced weight gain by betahistine: Mechanisms and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Pai, Nagesh; Deng, Chao

    2016-04-01

    Second generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) cause substantial body weight gain/obesity and other metabolic side-effects such as dyslipidaemia. Their antagonistic affinity to the histaminergic H1 receptor (H1R) has been identified as one of the main contributors to weight gain/obesity side-effects. The effects and mechanisms of betahistine (a histaminergic H1R agonist and H3 receptor antagonist) have been investigated for ameliorating SGA-induced weight gain/obesity in both animal models and clinical trials. It has been demonstrated that co-treatment with betahistine is effective in reducing weight gain, associated with olanzapine in drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia, as well as in the animal models of both drug-naïve rats and rats with chronic, repeated exposure to olanzapine. Betahistine co-treatment can reduce food intake and increase the effect of thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue by modulating hypothalamic H1R-NPY-AMPKα (NPY: neuropeptide Y; AMPKα: AMP-activated protein kinase α) pathways, and ameliorate olanzapine-induced dyslipidaemia through modulation of AMPKα-SREBP-1-PPARα-dependent pathways (SREBP-1: Sterol regulatory element binding protein 1; PPARα: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α) in the liver. Although reduced locomotor activity was observed from antipsychotic treatment in rats, betahistine did not affect locomotor activity. Importantly, betahistine co-treatment did not influence the effects of antipsychotics on serotonergic receptors in the key brain regions for antipsychotic therapeutic efficacy. However, betahistine co-treatment reverses the upregulated dopamine D2 binding caused by chronic olanzapine administration, which may be beneficial in reducing D2 supersensitivity often observed in chronic antipsychotic treatment. Therefore, these results provide solid evidence supporting further clinical trials in treating antipsychotics-induced weight gain using betahistine in patients with schizophrenia and other mental

  3. Genetic markers of adult obesity risk are associated with greater early infancy weight gain and growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy E Elks

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome-wide studies have identified several common genetic variants that are robustly associated with adult obesity risk. Exploration of these genotype associations in children may provide insights into the timing of weight changes leading to adult obesity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC birth cohort were genotyped for ten genetic variants previously associated with adult BMI. Eight variants that showed individual associations with childhood BMI (in/near: FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, GNPDA2, KCTD15, NEGR1, BDNF, and ETV5 were used to derive an "obesity-risk-allele score" comprising the total number of risk alleles (range: 2-15 alleles in each child with complete genotype data (n = 7,146. Repeated measurements of weight, length/height, and body mass index from birth to age 11 years were expressed as standard deviation scores (SDS. Early infancy was defined as birth to age 6 weeks, and early infancy failure to thrive was defined as weight gain between below the 5th centile, adjusted for birth weight. The obesity-risk-allele score showed little association with birth weight (regression coefficient: 0.01 SDS per allele; 95% CI 0.00-0.02, but had an apparently much larger positive effect on early infancy weight gain (0.119 SDS/allele/year; 0.023-0.216 than on subsequent childhood weight gain (0.004 SDS/allele/year; 0.004-0.005. The obesity-risk-allele score was also positively associated with early infancy length gain (0.158 SDS/allele/year; 0.032-0.284 and with reduced risk of early infancy failure to thrive (odds ratio = 0.92 per allele; 0.86-0.98; p = 0.009. CONCLUSIONS: The use of robust genetic markers identified greater early infancy gains in weight and length as being on the pathway to adult obesity risk in a contemporary birth cohort.

  4. Weight Gain, Schizophrenia and Antipsychotics: New Findings from Animal Model and Pharmacogenomic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Panariello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess body weight is one of the most common physical health problems among patients with schizophrenia that increases the risk for many medical problems, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, osteoarthritis, and hypertension, and accounts in part for 20% shorter life expectancy than in general population. Among patients with severe mental illness, obesity can be attributed to an unhealthy lifestyle, personal genetic profile, as well as the effects of psychotropic medications, above all antipsychotic drugs. Novel “atypical” antipsychotic drugs represent a substantial improvement on older “typical” drugs. However, clinical experience has shown that some, but not all, of these drugs can induce substantial weight gain. Animal models of antipsychotic-related weight gain and animal transgenic models of knockout or overexpressed genes of antipsychotic receptors have been largely evaluated by scientific community for changes in obesity-related gene expression or phenotypes. Moreover, pharmacogenomic approaches have allowed to detect more than 300 possible candidate genes for antipsychotics-induced body weight gain. In this paper, we summarize current thinking on: (1 the role of polymorphisms in several candidate genes, (2 the possible roles of various neurotransmitters and neuropeptides in this adverse drug reaction, and (3 the state of development of animal models in this matter. We also outline major areas for future research.

  5. Dehydration and acute weight gain in mixed martial arts fighters before competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetton, Adam M; Lawrence, Marcus M; Meucci, Marco; Haines, Tracie L; Collier, Scott R; Morris, David M; Utter, Alan C

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the magnitude of acute weight gain (AWG) and dehydration in mixed martial arts (MMA) fighters before competition. Urinary measures of hydration status and body mass were determined approximately 24 hours before and then again approximately 2 hours before competition in 40 MMA fighters (mean ± SE, age: 25.2 ± 0.65 years, height: 1.77 ± 0.01 m, body mass: 75.8 ± 1.5 kg). The AWG was defined as the amount of body weight the fighters gained in the approximately 22-hour period between the official weigh-in and the actual competition. On average, the MMA fighters gained 3.40 ± 2.2 kg or 4.4% of their body weight in the approximately 22-hour period before competition. Urine specific gravity significantly decreased (p 1.021 immediately before competition indicating significant or serious dehydration. The MMA fighters undergo significant dehydration and fluctuations in body mass (4.4% avg.) in the 24-hour period before competition. Urinary measures of hydration status indicate that a significant proportion of MMA fighters are not successfully rehydrating before competition and subsequently are competing in a dehydrated state. Weight management guidelines to prevent acute dehydration in MMA fighters are warranted to prevent unnecessary adverse health events secondary to dehydration.

  6. Alterations to melanocortinergic, GABAergic and cannabinoid neurotransmission associated with olanzapine-induced weight gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Weston-Green

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIM: Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs are used to treat schizophrenia but can cause serious metabolic side-effects, such as obesity and diabetes. This study examined the effects of low to high doses of olanzapine on appetite/metabolic regulatory signals in the hypothalamus and brainstem to elucidate the mechanisms underlying olanzapine-induced obesity. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: Levels of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC, neuropeptide Y (NPY and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD(65, enzyme for GABA synthesis mRNA expression, and cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R binding density (using [(3H]SR-141716A were examined in the arcuate nucleus (Arc and dorsal vagal complex (DVC of female Sprague Dawley rats following 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg olanzapine or vehicle (3×/day, 14-days. Consistent with its weight gain liability, olanzapine significantly decreased anorexigenic POMC and increased orexigenic NPY mRNA expression in a dose-sensitive manner in the Arc. GAD(65 mRNA expression increased and CB1R binding density decreased in the Arc and DVC. Alterations to neurotransmission signals in the brain significantly correlated with body weight and adiposity. The minimum dosage threshold required to induce weight gain in the rat was 0.5 mg/kg olanzapine. CONCLUSIONS: Olanzapine-induced weight gain is associated with reduced appetite-inhibiting POMC and increased NPY. This study also supports a role for the CB1R and GABA in the mechanisms underlying weight gain side-effects, possibly by altering POMC transmission. Metabolic dysfunction can be modelled in the female rat using low, clinically-comparable olanzapine doses when administered in-line with the half-life of the drug.

  7. Estimation of the benchmark duration of shiftwork associated with weight gain in male Japanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kumihiko; Sakata, Kouichi; Oishi, Mitsuhiro; Morimoto, Hideki; Nakada, Satoru; Uetani, Mirei; Nogawa, Kazuhiro; Suwazono, Yasushi

    2010-10-01

    The authors estimated the benchmark durations (BMDs) and their 95% lower confidence limit (BMDL) for the reference duration of shiftwork for weight gain. A 14-yr prospective cohort study was conducted in male workers at a Japanese steel company (n = 7254) who had received annual health check-ups between 1991 and 2005. The endpoints in the study were either a 5%, 7.5%, or 10% increase in body mass index (BMI) during the period of observation, compared to the BMI at entry. The association between the duration of shiftwork and weight gain was investigated using multivariate pooled logistic regression analyses with stepwise selection of covariates, including age, BMI measured during the study, drinking and smoking habits, and habitual exercise. The BMDL/BMD for shiftwork in subjects aged in their 40s or ≥50 yrs was estimated using benchmark responses (BMRs) of 5% or 10% and parameters for the duration of shiftwork and other covariates. For workers aged in their 40s, the BMDL/BMD for shiftwork with a BMR of 5% was 18.6/23.0 yrs (≥7.5%) and 16.9/19.4 yrs (≥10%). For workers aged ≥50 yrs, the BMDL/BMD with a BMR of 5% was 22.9/28.2 yrs (≥7.5%) and 20.6/23.6 yrs (≥10%). The reference duration of shiftwork that associated with weight gain was shown to be at least 17 yrs in middle-aged workers. Special attention should be paid to prevent weight gain at an earlier stage and not when this increase in weight has become apparent.

  8. Pregnancy as a window to future health: Excessive gestational weight gain and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, L Anne; Klempel-Donchenko, Monica; Redman, Leanne M

    2015-06-01

    Metabolic and behavioral changes that occur during pregnancy have well-known effects on maternal and fetal health during the immediate pregnancy and now are thought to be a catalyst for future health throughout later life. Recommendations for appropriate gestational weight gain (GWG) and lifestyle modifications during pregnancy have changed throughout history as more is known about this crucial time. Herein we discuss the current GWG recommendations and the impact of pregnancy and excess GWG gain on the current and future health of women and children including risk of obesity, gestational diabetes, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome.

  9. Effect of Nutrition Education by Paraprofessionals on Dietary Intake, Maternal Weight Gain, and Infant Birth Weight in Pregnant Native American and Caucasian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Janice; Williams, Glenna; Hunt, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of nutrition instruction provided to 366 pregnant Native American and Caucasian teens by paraprofessionals determined that it effectively improved their dietary intake, maternal weight gain, and infant birth weight. Further modifications for Native Americans were suggested. (SK)

  10. Preventing Weight Gain in Women in Rural Communities: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Lombard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions in both developed and developing countries. Even modest weight gain increases the risk for chronic illness, yet evidence-based interventions to prevent weight gain are rare. This trial will determine if a simple low-intensity intervention can prevent weight gain in women compared to general health information.We conducted a 1-yr pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial in 41 Australian towns (clusters randomised using a computer-generated randomisation list for intervention (n = 21 or control (n = 20. Women aged 18 to 50 yr were recruited from the general population to receive a 1-yr self-management lifestyle intervention (HeLP-her consisting of one group session, monthly SMS text messages, one phone coaching session, and a program manual, or to a control group receiving one general women's health education session. From October 2012 to April 2014 we studied 649 women, mean age 39.6 yr (+/- SD 6.7 and BMI of 28.8 kg/m(2 (+/- SD 6.9 with the primary outcome weight change between groups at 1 yr. The mean change in the control was +0.44 kg (95% CI -0.09 to 0.97 and in the intervention group -0.48 kg (95% CI -0.99 to 0.03 with an unadjusted between group difference of -0.92 kg (95% CI -1.67 to -0.16 or -0.87 kg (95% CI -1.62 to -0.13 adjusted for baseline values and clustering. Secondary outcomes included improved diet quality and greater self-management behaviours. The intervention appeared to be equally efficacious across all age, BMI, income, and education subgroups. Loss to follow-up included 23.8% in the intervention group and 21.8% in the control group and was within the anticipated range. Limitations include lack of sensitive tools to measure the small changes to energy intake and physical activity. Those who gained weight may have been less inclined to return for 1 yr weight measures.A low intensity lifestyle program can prevent the persistent weight gain observed in women. Key features included

  11. Systematic review of clinical trials on dietary interventions to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy among normal weight, overweight and obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanentsapf, Ida; Heitmann, Berit L; Adegboye, Amanda R A

    2011-01-01

    Excessive weight gain during pregnancy and subsequent postpartum weight retention may contribute to the epidemic of obesity among women of childbearing age. Preventing excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) to optimize maternal, fetal and infant wellbeing is therefore of great importance. A number...... of dietary interventions in this area has been conducted with inconsistent results, which has made it difficult to identify effective strategies to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy among normal weight, overweight and obese women. The primary objective of this review was to evaluate the effect...

  12. European energy balance research to prevent excessive weight gain among youth (ENERGY) project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stralen, Maartje M. van; Velde, Saskia J. te; Singh, Amika S.

    2011-01-01

    to measure and assess outcomes (i.e. height, weight, waist circumference), EBRBs and potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours including the social-cultural, physical, political, and economic environmental factors. In addition, a selection of countries conducted......Background: Obesity treatment is by large ineffective long term, and more emphasis on the prevention of excessive weight gain in childhood and adolescence is warranted. To inform energy balance related behaviour (EBRB) change interventions, insight in the potential personal, family and school...

  13. Combined associations of prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with the outcome of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nohr, Ellen A; Vaeth, Michael; Baker, Jennifer Lyn

    2008-01-01

    the combined associations of prepregnancy BMI and GWG with pregnancy outcomes and to evaluate the trade-offs between mother and infant for different weight gains. DESIGN: Data for 60892 term pregnancies in the Danish National Birth Cohort were linked to birth and hospital discharge registers. Self....... Generally, low GWG was advantageous for the mother, but it increased the risk of having a small baby, particularly for underweight women. CONCLUSIONS: Heavier women may benefit from avoiding high and very high GWG, which brings only a slight increase in the risk of growth restriction for the infant. High...... weight gain in underweight women does not appear to have deleterious consequences for them or their infants, but they may want to avoid low GWG to prevent having a small baby....

  14. Combined associations of prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with the outcome of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nohr, E.A.; Vaeth, M.; Baker, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    the combined associations of prepregnancy BMI and GWG with pregnancy outcomes and to evaluate the trade-offs between mother and infant for different weight gains. DESIGN: Data for 60892 term pregnancies in the Danish National Birth Cohort were linked to birth and hospital discharge registers. Self....... Generally, low GWG was advantageous for the mother, but it increased the risk of having a small baby, particularly for underweight women. CONCLUSIONS: Heavier women may benefit from avoiding high and very high GWG, which brings only a slight increase in the risk of growth restriction for the infant. High...... weight gain in underweight women does not appear to have deleterious consequences for them or their infants, but they may want to avoid low GWG to prevent having a small baby Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6...

  15. Low plasma adiponectin concentrations do not predict weight gain in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Stefan, Norbert; Lindsay, Robert S;

    2002-01-01

    Low concentrations of plasma adiponectin, the most abundant adipose-specific protein, are observed in obese individuals and predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Administration of adiponectin to rodents prevented diet-induced weight gain, suggesting a potential etiologic role...... of hypoadiponectinemia in the development of obesity. Our aim was to prospectively examine whether low plasma adiponectin concentrations predict future weight gain in Pima Indians, explaining the predictive effect of adiponectin on the development of type 2 diabetes. We measured plasma adiponectin concentrations in 219...... an etiologic role in development of obesity in Pima Indians. Therefore, the predictive effect of low plasma adiponectin concentrations on the development of type 2 diabetes seems to be mediated by factors other than increased adiposity....

  16. Comparison of gestational weight gain-related pregnancy outcomes in American primiparous and multiparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lan-Pidhainy, Xiaomiao; Nohr, Ellen A; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Danish data, the tradeoffs between mother and infant in the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes were reached at lower gestational weight gain (GWG) among multiparous than among primiparous women. It is unknown whether the same difference exists among American women. OBJECTIVE......: The objective was to determine whether these tradeoffs also differ by parity among women in a contemporary American birth cohort. DESIGN: Data from 822 primiparous and 2055 multiparous American women who participated in the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (2005-2007), a national cohort study, were analyzed...... by multiple logistic regression analyses for women in 3 categories of prepregnancy body mass index. RESULTS: Primiparous women gained more weight during pregnancy than did multiparous women (mean ± SD: 15.9 ± 6.9 compared with 13.5 ± 6.2 kg; P

  17. Comparison of weight gain and energy intake after subthalamic versus pallidal stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauleau, Paul; Leray, Emmanuelle; Rouaud, Tiphaine; Drapier, Sophie; Drapier, Dominique; Blanchard, Sophie; Drillet, Gwenolla; Péron, Julie; Vérin, Marc

    2009-10-30

    To compare body mass index (BMI) and daily energy intake (DEI) after subthalamic versus pallidal deep brain stimulation (DBS). Weight gain following DBS in Parkinson's disease patients remains largely unexplained and no comparison of subthalamic and pallidal (GPi) stimulation has yet been performed. BMI and DEI, dopaminergic drug administration and motor scores were recorded in 46 patients with PD before STN (n = 32) or GPi (n = 14) DBS and 3 and 6 months after. At M6, BMI had increased by an average of 8.4% in the STN group and 3.2% in the GPi group. BMI increased in 28 STN and 9 GPi patients. This increase was significantly higher in the STN group (P weight gain, inadequately explained by motor improvement or reduced dopaminergic drug dosage, occurred in subthalamic DBS patients. The difference between groups suggests additional factors in the STN group, such as homeostatic control center involvement.

  18. Immunoglobulin transfer and weight gains in suckled beef calves force-fed stored colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, J A; Niilo, L

    1985-04-01

    Concentrations of immunoglobulins and total proteins in second-day post-partum serum samples of 62 beef calves from multiparous dams were measured by zinc sulphate turbidity, electrophoresis, radial immunodiffusion and refractometry. These results, together with health records and weight gains, were used to evaluate the practice of routinely force-feeding 1 L of stored colostrum to suckled beef calves immediately after birth. There was no apparent benefit from such force-feeding. It did not result in greater 48-hour serum immunoglobulin levels, nor did it improve weight gains at 42 days. None of the calves required treatment for neonatal disease, but one force-fed calf died from inhalation of regurgitated colostrum.

  19. Weight Gain, Metabolic Syndrome, and Breast Cancer Recurrence: Are Dietary Recommendations Supported by the Data?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin E. Champ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome, which can include weight gain and central obesity, elevated serum insulin and glucose, and insulin resistance, has been strongly associated with breast cancer recurrence and worse outcomes after treatment. Epidemiologic and prospective data do not show conclusive evidence as to which dietary factors may be responsible for these results. Current strategies employ low-fat diets which emphasize supplementing calories with increased intake of fruit, grain, and vegetable carbohydrate sources. Although results thus far have been inconclusive, recent randomized trials employing markedly different dietary strategies in noncancer patients may hold the key to reducing multiple risk factors in metabolic syndrome simultaneously which may prove to increase the long-term outcome of breast cancer patients and decrease recurrences. Since weight gain after breast cancer treatment confers a poor prognosis and may increase recurrence rates, large-scale randomized trials are needed to evaluate appropriate dietary interventions for our breast cancer patients.

  20. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens;

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota...

  1. Immunoglobulin transfer and weight gains in suckled beef calves force-fed stored colostrum.

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, J. A.; Niilo, L.

    1985-01-01

    Concentrations of immunoglobulins and total proteins in second-day post-partum serum samples of 62 beef calves from multiparous dams were measured by zinc sulphate turbidity, electrophoresis, radial immunodiffusion and refractometry. These results, together with health records and weight gains, were used to evaluate the practice of routinely force-feeding 1 L of stored colostrum to suckled beef calves immediately after birth. There was no apparent benefit from such force-feeding. It did not r...

  2. Genetic parameters and trends of morphometric traits of GIFT tilapia under selection for weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vilhena Reis Neto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The main factor considered in breeding programs for fish is growth, which can be assessed in terms of a gain in either weight or body measurements. This study was undertaken to evaluate the morphometric traits of GIFT strain tilapia (Oreochromis sp. selected for weight gain. The data set used contained information on 6,650 animals. The genetic values of 8,590 animals in a relationship matrix of five generations were predicted. The following morphometric measurements were evaluated: standard length; body depth and body width. Body area and volume were also calculated. Bi-character analyses involving morphometric traits were used to estimate (covariance components. Heritability, larval and fingerling common environmental effects were estimated for each trait, together with the genetic and phenotypic correlations between traits. Bayesian procedures were utilised by Gibbs chains, and the convergence of the chains was tested using the Heidelberger and Welch method. Genetic trends were estimated by segmented regression of the fish breeding values of the generations considered in this study. Estimates of heritability (0.28 a 0.31 had moderate to high magnitudes for all traits. Genetic correlations between traits were all above 0.8, and the genetic gains were satisfactory from the third generation onwards. From the estimates of the genetic parameters and genetic gain the morphometric traits evaluated have good potential for selection.

  3. Estado nutricional materno, ganho de peso gestacional e peso ao nascer Maternal nutritional status, gestational weight gain and birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Suely de Oliveira Melo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Tanto o estado nutricional materno como o ganho de peso gestacional vem sendo estudado em relação ao papel determinante que desempenham sobre o crescimento fetal e o peso ao nascer. O peso inadequado ao nascer é uma das grandes preocupações da saúde pública devido ao aumento da morbimortalidade no primeiro ano de vida e ao maior risco de desenvolver doenças na vida adulta, tais como a síndrome metabólica, nos casos de baixo peso, e diabetes e obesidade, nos casos de macrossomia. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever uma coorte de gestantes, classificando-as de acordo com o estado nutricional inicial, o ganho ponderal gestacional, a resistência nas artérias uterinas e o peso dos recém-nascidos. MÉTODOS: foi acompanhada, a cada quatro semanas gestacionais, uma coorte de 115 gestantes atendidas pelo Programa de Saúde da Família do município de Campina Grande, PB. O estado nutricional inicial foi determinado através do índice de massa corporal (kg/m² para a idade gestacional, e as gestantes classificadas de acordo com os critérios de Atalah. Na 20ª semana, foi estudada a resistência das artérias uterinas, através da dopplervelocimetria. RESULTADOS: o estado nutricional inicial mostrou uma alta prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade (27%, e uma prevalência significante de desnutrição (23%. Um alto percentual de gestantes ganhou peso excessivo tanto no segundo (44% como no terceiro trimestre (45%. A distribuição do peso ao nascer, indicou uma incidência de 10% de baixo peso e de 9% de macrossomia. Observou-se ainda, uma alta prevalência de incisuras nas artérias uterinas.INTRODUCTION: Maternal nutritional status and gestational weight gain have been addressed because of their importance to fetal growth and birth weight. Inadequate birth weight is a major concern to public health given it has been associated with increasing morbidity-mortality during the first year of life and with increased risks of

  4. [Gestational weight gain and nutritional state of the newborn: a descriptive study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Kelen Cristina Ramos; Muraro, Luana Oliveira; Witkowski, Maria Carolina; Breigeirond, Márcia Koja

    2014-03-01

    The objective was to characterize puerperal women in relation to gestational weight gain and their newborns in accordance with the nutritional state at birth. This is a descriptive, quantitative and retrospective study approved by the Ethics Committee at the institution responsible. The collection of data was from December 2012 to May 2013. The sample was composed of 24 puerperal women and their children. The participants presented an average age of 26.5 (DP=5.4) years, 79.2% white; 91.7% married; 58.3% multiparous; 75% with a level of education between secondary school and higher education; 58.3% with a low family income; 54.1% presented an altered pre-gestational nutritional state and 75% obtained an inadequate gestational weight gain. 79.2% of the newborns were classified as Adequate for Gestational Age (AIG). The newborns classified as Large for Gestational Age (GIG) were from pregnant women that had excessive weight gain or were overweight. It was concluded that health professionals should be attentive to nutritional deviations with the intention of avoiding complications for maternal/fetal health.

  5. Betahistine decreases olanzapine-induced weight gain and somnolence in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Nir; Beck, Yaffa; Albeck, Joseph H

    2016-03-01

    Olanzapine's efficacy in schizophrenia is attributed to antagonism of dopamine and serotonin receptors. Olanzapine is also a potent histamine-H1 antagonist that results in weight gain and somnolence. Betahistine is a centrally acting histamine-H1 agonist, and therefore may reduce olanzapine's effect on histamine receptors in the brain. Olanzapine's high affinity for the histamine-H1 receptor warrants the use of high doses of betahistine. Forty-eight healthy women were recruited and randomized to receive either betahistine 144 mg/day or matching placebo for 4 weeks. Due to the high dose of betahistine, olanzapine was started only on the second week and titrated up to 10 mg/day, and co-administration continued for an additional 2 weeks. Only nominal differences in adverse events were noted between the treatment groups. Betahistine caused a 37% reduction in mean weight gain (1.24 kg in the betahistine arm vs. 1.93 kg in the placebo arm; p=.049) and 60% reduction in the mean increase in daytime Epworth sleepiness scores (1.82 units in the betahistine group vs. 3.57 units in the placebo group; p=.042). The present study suggests that betahistine-olanzapine co-administration, in healthy female subjects, yields an acceptable safety profile with mitigation of weight gain and somnolence. This should be further tested in a patient cohort.

  6. Preventing bone loss and weight gain with combinations of vitamin D and phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-Yi; Yang, Jeong-Yeh; Rayalam, Srujana; Della-Fera, Mary Anne; Ambati, Suresh; Lewis, Richard D; Hamrick, Mark W; Hartzell, Diane L; Baile, Clifton A

    2011-11-01

    Vitamin D and certain natural compounds have been shown to regulate both lipid metabolism and bone formation. Treatments that prevent or reverse age-related increase in bone marrow adiposity could both increase new bone formation and inhibit bone destruction. We tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with combinations of vitamin D and phytochemicals inhibits bone loss and decreases adiposity to a greater extent than control or vitamin D-alone diets. Aged ovariectomized female rats (12 months old, n=50, initial body weight=240 g) were given control (AIN-93M diet), vitamin D (2,400 IU/kg), or vitamin D plus resveratrol (16, 80, or 400 mg/kg of diet [low, medium, and high dose, respectively]), quercetin (80, 400, or 2,000 mg/kg of diet), and genistein (64, 256, or 1,040 mg/kg of diet) for 8 weeks. The high-dose treatment (vitamin D+400 mg/kg resveratrol+2,000 mg/kg quercetin+1,040 mg/kg genistein) reduced body weight gain (P<.05) and the fat pad weights (P<.05). This treatment also increased the serum concentration of insulin-like growth factor-1 (P<.05) and the bone mineral content of the femur. Micro-computed tomography and histomorphometric analyses indicated that the high-dose treatment prevented loss of trabecular bone (P<.05) and reduced marrow adipocytes (P<.001) and osteoclasts (P<.05) compared with the control and vitamin D alone (P<.05). We conclude that aged ovariectomized female rats supplemented with vitamin D combined with genistein, quercetin, and resveratrol had improved bone mineral density and reduced body weight gain and a significant decrease in bone marrow adipocytes. The synergistic effects of a combination of phytochemicals with vitamin D may be effective in reducing bone loss and weight gain after menopause.

  7. Body weight gain in patients with bilateral deep brain stimulation for dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Marc E; Capelle, Hans-Holger; Lütjens, Götz; Ebert, Anne D; Hennerici, Michael G; Krauss, Joachim K; Blahak, Christian

    2016-03-01

    In patients with Parkinson's disease, significant weight gain following chronic deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been reported. Recently, relevant weight gain could be demonstrated also following subthalamic nucleus DBS in patients with primary cervical dystonia. Prospective analyses of body weight changes following DBS in patients with dystonia, however, have not been published so far. We aimed to analyse the changes of body weight following DBS in patients with dystonia. The body mass index (BMI) of 17 consecutive patients with segmental or generalised dystonia (mean age 54.6 ± 16.1 years) treated with bilateral DBS of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) (n = 14) or the thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus (n = 3) was measured preoperatively (pre-OP) and at three follow-up (FU) time points post-DBS surgery (FU1 = 7 months, FU2 = 17 months, FU3 = 72 months). All patients benefited from marked improvement in their dystonia. The mean BMI pre-OP (SD) was 22.5 (±3.7) kg/m(2) and increased stepwise to 24.0 (±3.3) kg/m(2) at FU1, 24.4 (±3.7) kg/m(2) at FU2 and 24.9 (±3.7) kg/m(2) at FU3 (p weight gain, in particular during the first 6 months post-OP. This probably is a result of improvement of dystonic motor symptoms and recovery of eating dysfunction rather than a target-specific phenomenon.

  8. Influence of immunocastration (Bopriva® in weight gain, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nellore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Andreo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was evaluate the effects of immunocastration on body weight gain, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nellore beef cattle. Eighty Nellore beef cattle, with initial body weight of 357±8.63 kg, were placed in feedlots and distributed in two treatments (40 animals per treatments as follow: one - non-vaccinated bulls and two - immunocastrated bulls (Bopriva®, Pfizer Animal Health. The animals placed on treatment two were vaccinated in two doses, first application 30 days before they arrive on the feedlots and second on the day they arrive on feedlots. After 67 days of experimental period, was calculated the daily gain of live weight in kg/day of the 80 animals and selected 20 animals from each treatment for the slaughter and carcass evaluations, and ten from each group for the meat analyzes. The data were submitted to analysis of variance. Immunocastrated animals showed lower daily weight gain, hot carcass weight, carcass yield, pH, leg thickness, muscle depth, loin muscle area, carcass muscle percentage, shear force and moisture. However, this animals had higher concentration of lactate and cortisol blood, chest depth, fat thickness, finishing degree, a *, b * and c*, liquid loss in thawing process, myofibrillar fragmentation index and ether extract of meat when compared to non-vaccinated bulss. The immunocastration (Bopriva® is an alternative for improving the quality of meat by the higher fat deposition and by the reduction of the shear force of the meat when compared to non-vaccinated bulls.

  9. Voluntary Fasting to Control Post-Ramadan Weight Gain among Overweight and Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriani Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of an Islamic voluntary fasting intervention to control post-Ramadan weight gain. Methods: This study was conducted between July and November 2011. Two weight loss intervention programmes were developed and implemented among groups of overweight or obese Malay women living in the Malaysian cities of Putrajaya and Seremban: a standard programme promoting control of food intake according to national dietary guidelines (group B and a faith-based programme promoting voluntary fasting in addition to the standard programme (group A. Participants’ dietary practices (i.e., voluntary fasting practices, frequency of fruit/vegetable consumption per week and quantity of carbohydrates/protein consumed per day, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, fasting blood high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and total cholesterol (TC:HDL-C ratio were assessed before Ramadan and three months post-Ramadan. Results: Voluntary fasting practices increased only in group A (P <0.01. Additionally, the quantity of protein/carbohydrates consumed per day, mean diastolic pressure and TC:HDL-C ratio decreased only in group A (P <0.01, 0.05, 0.02 and <0.01, respectively. Frequency of fruit/vegetable consumption per week, as well as HDL-C levels, increased only in group A (P = 0.03 and <0.01, respectively. Although changes in BMI between the groups was not significant (P = 0.08, BMI decrease among participants in group A was significant (P <0.01. Conclusion: Control of post-Ramadan weight gain was more evident in the faith-based intervention group. Healthcare providers should consider faith-based interventions to encourage weight loss during Ramadan and to prevent post-Ramadan weight gain among patients.

  10. The association between inadequate gestational weight gain and infant mortality among U.S. infants born in 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Regina R; Hofferth, Sandra L

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relative importance of inadequate gestational weight gain as a cause of infant mortality. Birth and infant death certificate data were obtained from a random sample of 100,000 records from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) 2002 Birth Cohort Linked Birth/Infant Death Data File. Descriptive and proportional hazards regression analyses were used to assess the odds of infant mortality associated with inadequate gestational weight gain compared to normal weight gain. Nearly 30% of women experienced inadequate weight gain. Infants born to women with inadequate gestational weight gain had odds of infant death that were 2.23 times the odds for infants born to women with normal weight gain. Increased odds remained after adjustment for gestational age, low birth weight, maternal age, maternal education, and maternal race. Among racial or ethnic subgroups, African American women were 1.3 times as likely as white women to have an infant die, but they were no more likely to have an infant die than white women if they had inadequate weight gain. There is a substantial and significant association between inadequate gestational weight gain and infant death that does not differ by race, ethnic group membership, or maternal age.

  11. Preventing weight gain by lifestyle intervention in a general practice setting - three-year results of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Bogt, Nancy C. W.; Bemelmans, Wanda J. E.; Beltman, Frank W.; Broer, Jan; Smit, Andries J.; van der Meer, Klaas

    2011-01-01

    Background: Weight regain after initial loss of weight is common, which indicates a need for lifestyle counseling aimed at preventing weight gain instead of weight loss. This study was conducted to determine whether structured lifestyle counseling by nurse practitioners (NPs) group compared with usu

  12. School year versus summer differences in child weight gain: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; O'Connor, Teresia; Johnston, Craig; Hughes, Sheryl; Moreno, Jennette; Chen, Tzu-An; Meltzer, Lisa; Baranowski, Janice

    2014-02-01

    The causes of the current high prevalence of overweight and obesity among children are not clearly known. Schools have been implicated in the causal chain to high child obesity prevalence. Recent studies have compared school year versus summertime changes (herein called seasonal differences) in child adiposity or related phenomena. The most common seasonal pattern in six longitudinal descriptive studies was that overweight and obese children experienced accelerated gain in weight or some BMI indicator during the summer, whereas healthy weight children gained less or not at all. Four physical activity (PA) intervention studies demonstrated that school year fitness improvements were lost during the summer. One study showed that PA declined across the summer. Another study provided conflicting results of lower total energy expenditure in the summer, but no seasonal difference in total energy expenditure after adjusting for fat-free mass. This pattern of fairly rapid seasonal differences suggests that PA is the primary factor contributing to seasonal differences in weight or BMI, but the documented seasonal pattern in PA (i.e., higher in summer) does not support this relationship. Sleep duration has also been inversely related to child adiposity. Seasonal patterns in adiposity, PA, and sleep need to be clearly established separately for overweight and healthy weight children in further longitudinal research to provide a clear focus for national policy.

  13. Maternal Weight Gain in Pregnancy and Risk of Obesity among Offspring: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Y. Lau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To systematically review the evidence from prospective and retrospective cohort studies on the association between gestational weight gain (GWG and offspring’s body weight. Methods. Electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Academic Search Premiere were searched from inception through March 18, 2013. Included studies (n=23 were English articles that examined the independent associations of GWG with body mass index (BMI and/or overweight status in the offspring aged 2 to 18.9 years. Two authors independently extracted the data and assessed methodological quality of the included studies. Results. Evidence from cohort studies supports that total GWG and exceeding the Institute of Medicine maternal weight gain recommendation were associated with higher BMI z-score and elevated risk of overweight or obesity in offspring. The evidence of high rate of GWG during early- and mid-pregnancy is suggestive. Additionally, the evidence on inadequate GWG and net GWG in relation to body weight outcomes in offspring is insufficient to draw conclusions. Conclusions. These findings suggest that GWG is a potential risk factor for childhood obesity. However, findings should be interpreted with caution due to measurement issues of GWG and potential confounding effects of shared familial characteristics (i.e., genetics and maternal and child’s lifestyle factors.

  14. Excess Gestational Weight Gain in Pregnancy and the Role of Lifestyle Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Rebecca; Teede, Helena; Thangaratinam, Shakila; Boyle, Jacqueline

    2016-03-01

    With increasingly adverse lifestyles, young women in many countries have rapid weight gain and rising obesity. In keeping with this, most pregnant women exceed recommended gestational weight gain (GWG) and then retain weight postpartum. The consequences of excess GWG include maternal risks during pregnancy, neonatal risks and maternal obesity and chronic disease longer term, presenting a significant public health and economic burden worldwide. This article discusses the adverse maternal and infant risks with excess GWG apparent from observational studies, summarizes the existing guidelines for optimal GWG and highlights the need for further research to identify optimal GWG recommendations across the different ethnicities and weight ranges.We also review the evidence for lifestyle interventions in pregnancy to prevent excess GWG and highlighting the work underway to integrate large scale meta-analyses of individual patient data from lifestyle intervention studies to inform clinical practice beyond current observational data. Finally, we address the need to implement lifestyle interventions into routine pregnancy care to improve short and long term maternal health outcomes.

  15. Gain weight by "going diet?" Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings: Neuroscience 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing

    2010-06-01

    America's obesity epidemic has gathered much media attention recently. A rise in the percent of the population who are obese coincides with an increase in the widespread use of non-caloric artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame (e.g., Diet Coke) and sucralose (e.g., Pepsi One), in food products (Figure 1). Both forward and reverse causalities have been proposed. While people often choose "diet" or "light" products to lose weight, research studies suggest that artificial sweeteners may contribute to weight gain. In this mini-review, inspired by a discussion with Dr. Dana Small at Yale's Neuroscience 2010 conference in April, I first examine the development of artificial sweeteners in a historic context. I then summarize the epidemiological and experimental evidence concerning their effects on weight. Finally, I attempt to explain those effects in light of the neurobiology of food reward.

  16. Natural mixtures of POPs affected body weight gain and induced transcription of genes involved in weight regulation and insulin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyche, Jan L; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Karlsson, Camilla; Stavik, Benedicte; Berg, Vidar; Skåre, Janneche Utne; Alestrøm, Peter; Ropstad, Erik

    2011-04-01

    Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions worldwide, and is associated with chronic illnesses such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and dyslipidemias (metabolic syndrome). Commonly held causes of obesity are overeating coupled with a sedentary lifestyle. However, it has also been postulated that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be related to the significant increase in the prevalence of obesity and associated diseases. In the present study, developmental and reproductive effects of lifelong exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of two natural mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were investigated using classical and molecular methods in a controlled zebrafish model. The mixtures used were extracted from burbot (Lota lota) liver originating from freshwater systems in Norway (Lake Mjøsa and Lake Losna). The concentration of POPs in the zebrafish ranged from levels detected in wild fish (Lake Mjøsa and Lake Losna), to concentrations reported in human and wildlife populations. Phenotypic effects observed in both exposure groups included (1) earlier onset of puberty, (2) elevated male/female sex ratio, and (3) increased body weight at 5 months of age. Interestingly, genome-wide transcription profiling identified functional networks of genes, in which key regulators of weight homeostasis (PPARs, glucocoricoids, CEBPs, estradiol), steroid hormone functions (glucocoricoids, estradiol, NCOA3) and insulin signaling (HNF4A, CEBPs, PPARG) occupied central positions. The increased weight and the regulation of genes associated with weight homeostasis and insulin signaling observed in the present study suggest that environmental pollution may affect the endocrine regulation of the metabolism, possibly leading to increased weight gain and obesity.

  17. Structural equation modeling of latent growth curves of weight gain among treated tuberculosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahalingam Vasantha

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis still remains a major public health problem even though it is treatable and curable. Weight gain measurement during anti tuberculosis (TB treatment period is an important component to assess the progress of TB patients. In this study, Latent Growth Models (LGMs were implemented in a longitudinal design to predict the change in weight of TB patients who were given three different regimens under randomized controlled clinical trial for anti-TB treatment. Linear and Quadratic LGMs were fitted using Mplus software. The age, sex and treatment response of the TB patients were used as time invariant independent variables of the growth trajectories. The quadratic trend was found to be better in explaining the changes in weight without grouping than the quadratic model for three group comparisons. A significant increase in the change of weight over time was identified while a significant quadratic effect indicated that weights were sustained over time. The growth rate was similar in both the groups. The treatment response had significant association with the growth rate of weight scores of the patients.

  18. Gestational weight gain and body mass index in children: results from three german cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Beyerlein

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Previous studies suggested potential priming effects of gestational weight gain (GWG on offspring's body composition in later life. However, consistency of these effects in normal weight, overweight and obese mothers is less clear. METHODS: We combined the individual data of three German cohorts and assessed associations of total and excessive GWG (as defined by criteria of the Institute of Medicine with offspring's mean body mass index (BMI standard deviation scores (SDS and overweight at the age of 5-6 years (total: n = 6,254. Quantile regression was used to examine potentially different effects on different parts of the BMI SDS distribution. All models were adjusted for birth weight, maternal age and maternal smoking during pregnancy and stratified by maternal pre-pregnancy weight status. RESULTS: In adjusted models, positive associations of total and excessive GWG with mean BMI SDS and overweight were observed only in children of non- overweight mothers. For example, excessive GWG was associated with a mean increase of 0.08 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.15 units of BMI SDS (0.13 (0.02, 0.24 kg/m(2 of 'real' BMI in children of normal-weight mothers. The effects of total and excessive GWG on BMI SDS increased for higher- BMI children of normal-weight mothers. DISCUSSION: Increased GWG is likely to be associated with overweight in offspring of non-overweight mothers.

  19. Genetic gain for body weight, feed conversion and carcass traits in selected broiler strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS Schmidt

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Swine and Poultry Research Center (Embrapa Suínos e Aves maintains a chicken breeding program for meat production since 1985. Two control lines (LLc and PPc are maintained, whereas two male lines (TT and ZZ and three female lines (PP, VV and KK have been selected. This paper reports the genetic gain after 15 generations of combined selection (mass and independent culling levels in order to develop the commercial broiler stocks Embrapa 021 and Embrapa 022. Selection pressure has been exerted on weight gain, carcass traits and fertility. In addition, female lines have also been selected for egg production, whereas males have been selected for feed efficiency since 1992. All lines have been selected for breast area instead of carcass traits since 1999. The genetic gain was estimated as the deviation between selected lines and the respective unselected lines at 42 days of age. In female lines, body weight improved 504, 548 and 587 g; average breast area increased 27.60; 16.99 and 26.43 cm²; adjusted feed conversion (42-49 d improved -1.46; -0.97 and 1.76 units, and egg production varied 6.99; 7.12 and -3.43% units for PP, VV and KK, respectively. In male lines, body weight improved 758 and 408 g; average breast area increased 31.95 and 19.38 cm², and adjusted feed conversion improved (42-49 d -0.99 and 1.26 for TT and ZZ, respectively. This breeding program has been effective to generate genetic gain and to develop two commercial products, Embrapa 021 (standard and Embrapa 022 (high yield. Nevertheless, feed efficiency is still not satisfactory.

  20. Maternal feeding practices predict weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors in young children: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgers Rachel F

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal feeding practices have been proposed to play an important role in early child weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors. However, to date longitudinal investigations in young children exploring these relationships have been lacking. The aim of the present study was to explore prospective relationships between maternal feeding practices, child weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors in 2-year-old children. The competing hypothesis that child eating behaviors predict changes in maternal feeding practices was also examined. Methods A sample of 323 mother (mean age = 35 years, ± 0.37 and child dyads (mean age = 2.03 years, ± 0.37 at recruitment were participants. Mothers completed a questionnaire assessing parental feeding practices and child eating behaviors at baseline and again one year later. Child BMI (predominantly objectively measured was obtained at both time points. Results Increases in child BMI z-scores over the follow-up period were predicted by maternal instrumental feeding practices. Furthermore, restriction, emotional feeding, encouragement to eat, weight-based restriction and fat restriction were associated prospectively with the development of obesogenic eating behaviors in children including emotional eating, tendency to overeat and food approach behaviors (such as enjoyment of food and good appetite. Maternal monitoring, however, predicted decreases in food approach eating behaviors. Partial support was also observed for child eating behaviors predicting maternal feeding practices. Conclusions Maternal feeding practices play an important role in the development of weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors in young children and are potential targets for effective prevention interventions aiming to decrease child obesity.

  1. Weight Gain in Infancy and Overweight or Obesity in Childhood across the Gestational Spectrum: a Prospective Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoying; Johnson, Sara; Gong, Yiwei; Polk, Sarah; Divall, Sara; Radovick, Sally; Moon, Margaret; Paige, David; Hong, Xiumei; Caruso, Deanna; Chen, Zhu; Mallow, Eric; Walker, Sheila O; Mao, Guangyun; Pearson, Colleen; Wang, Mei-Cheng; Zuckerman, Barry; Cheng, Tina L; Wang, Xiaobin

    2016-07-15

    This study aimed to investigate the optimal degree of weight gain across the gestational spectrum in 1971 children enrolled at birth and followed up to age 7 years. Weight gain in infancy was categorized into four groups based on weight gain z-scores: slow (1.28). Underweight and overweight or obesity (OWO) were defined as a body mass index ≤5(th) and ≥85(th) percentile, respectively, for age and gender. In our population, OWO was far more common than underweight (39.7% vs. 3.6%). Weight gain tracked strongly from age 4 to 24 months, and was positively associated with OWO and an unfavorable pattern of metabolic biomarkers, although the degree of weight gain for the risk was different across gestational categories. Extremely rapid weight gain led to a particularly high risk of OWO among children born early term and late preterm: odds ratio: 3.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.9 to 5.5) and 3.7 (1.8 to 7.5), respectively, as compared to those with on track weight gain. Our findings suggest that monitoring and ensuring optimal weight gain across the entire gestational spectrum beginning from birth represents a first step towards primary prevention of childhood obesity.

  2. Infant weight gain, duration of exclusive breast-feeding and childhood BMI - two similar follow-up cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2010-01-01

    To describe the association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF), weight gain in infancy and childhood BMI in two populations with a long duration of EBF.......To describe the association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF), weight gain in infancy and childhood BMI in two populations with a long duration of EBF....

  3. Predicting the "Freshman 15": Environmental and Psychological Predictors of Weight Gain in First-Year University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella-Zarb, Rachel A.; Elgar, Frank J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To investigate weight gain in first-year university students; and (2) to examine whether environmental and psychological factors, specifically accommodation and stress, predict weight gain. Methods: Eighty-four first-year university students (77 per cent female) were weighed and completed the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen, Kamarck…

  4. Weight gain in different periods of pregnancy and offspring's body mass index at 7 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Camilla Schou; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-01-01

    We investigated how average weekly gestational weight gain rates during three periods of pregnancy were related to the offspring's body mass index (BMI) at 7 years of age.......We investigated how average weekly gestational weight gain rates during three periods of pregnancy were related to the offspring's body mass index (BMI) at 7 years of age....

  5. Chronic treatment with antipsychotics in rats as a model for antipsychotic-induced weight gain in human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouzet, B; Mow, T; Kreilgaard, Mads;

    2003-01-01

    Several clinical reports have demonstrated that most antipsychotics of the new generation, but not the typical antipsychotic haloperidol, induce weight gain in schizophrenic patients. Since weight gain induces serious health complications in humans, it is crucial to test upcoming antipsychotic co...

  6. Complications of fat grafts growth after weight gain: report of a severe diplopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhoux, Alexandre; Chennoufi, Mehdi; Lantieri, Laurent; Hivelin, Mikael

    2013-07-01

    A 47 years old woman underwent autologous fat grafting to treat a 5×4 cm depression of the lower lid and the upper cheek secondary resection of squamous cell carcinoma and subsequent coverage by full thickness skin graft. 20 mL of autologous fat were harvested from lower abdomen, centrifuged and injected subcutaneously. The patient then gained a total of 15 kg over a period of 24 months. Eye dystopia developed while the grafted area became convex. MRI confirmed subcutaneous fat mass going to the orbital floor through the inferior septal defect. The fat excess was removed through a trans-conjonctival approach allowing for a progressive regression of diplopia after 2 months while the oedema reduced. The overall follow up from the resection-coverage and last examination was 5 years. In this case with a context of noticeable weight gain, the growth of a fat graft trapped between a sclerous plane and the eye, that penetrated the orbital cavity through a septal defect led have led to exophthalmos, ocular dystopia and diplopia. Systematic overcorrection in autologous fat grafting should be prevented, especially in functional areas and on low body mass index patient that might gain weight.

  7. Gain ratio based fuzzy weighted association rule mining classifier for medical diagnostic interface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N S Nithya; K Duraiswamy

    2014-02-01

    The health care environment still needs knowledge based discovery for handling wealth of data. Extraction of the potential causes of the diseases is the most important factor for medical data mining. Fuzzy association rule mining is wellperformed better than traditional classifiers but it suffers from the exponential growth of the rules produced. In the past, we have proposed an information gain based fuzzy association rule mining algorithm for extracting both association rules and membership functions of medical data to reduce the rules. It used a ranking based weight value to identify the potential attribute. When we take a large number of distinct values, the computation of information gain value is not feasible. In this paper, an enhanced approach, called gain ratio based fuzzy weighted association rule mining, is thus proposed for distinct diseases and also increase the learning time of the previous one. Experimental results show that there is a marginal improvement in the attribute selection process and also improvement in the classifier accuracy. The system has been implemented in Java platform and verified by using benchmark data from the UCI machine learning repository.

  8. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt Tranberg

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of PCR-derived 16S rRNA gene (V3-region amplicons. At the end of the study, plasma samples were collected and assayed for glucose, insulin and lipids. Whey significantly reduced body weight gain during the first four weeks of the study compared with casein (P<0.001-0.05. Hereafter weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, P<0.001. Food intake was unaffected by protein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P<0.01 and glucose clearance was improved after an oral glucose challenge (P<0.05. Plasma cholesterol was lowered by whey compared to casein (P<0.001. The composition of the fecal microbiota differed between high- and low-fat groups at 13 weeks (P<0.05 whereas no difference was seen between whey and casein. In conclusion, whey initially reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota composition. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms behind the metabolic effects of whey.

  9. The application of taylor weighting, digital phase shifters, and digital attenuators to phased-array antennas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, Billy C.

    2008-03-01

    Application of Taylor weighting (taper) to an antenna aperture can achieve low peak sidelobes, but combining the Taylor weighting with quantized attenuators and phase shifters at each radiating element will impact the performance of a phased-array antenna. An examination of array performance is undertaken from the simple point of view of the characteristics of the array factor. Design rules and guidelines for determining the Taylor-weighting parameters, the number of bits required for the digital phase shifter, and the dynamic range and number of bits required for the digital attenuator are developed. For a radar application, when each element is fed directly from a transmit/receive module, the total power radiated by the array will be reduced as a result of the taper. Consequently, the issue of whether to apply the taper on both transmit and receive configurations, or only on the receive configuration is examined with respect to two-way sidelobe performance.

  10. Opportunities for primary and secondary prevention of excess gestational weight gain: General Practitioners' perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Pligt Paige

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of excess gestational weight gain (GWG on maternal and child health outcomes is well documented. Understanding how health care providers view and manage GWG may assist with influencing healthy gestational weight outcomes. This study aimed to assess General Practitioner's (GPs perspectives regarding the management and assessment of GWG and to understand how GPs can be best supported to provide healthy GWG advice to pregnant women. Methods Descriptive qualitative research methods utilising semi - structured interview questions to assess GPs perspectives and management of GWG. GPs participating in shared antenatal care in Geelong, Victoria and Sydney, New South Wales were invited to participate in semi - structured, individual interviews via telephone or in person. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data was analysed utilising thematic analysis for common emerging themes. Results Twenty eight GPs participated, 14 from each state. Common themes emerged relating to awareness of the implications of excess GWG, advice regarding weight gain, regularity of gestational weighing by GPs, options for GPs to seek support to provide healthy lifestyle behaviour advice and barriers to engaging pregnant women about their weight. GPs perspectives concerning excess GWG were varied. They frequently acknowledged maternal and child health complications resulting from excess GWG yet weighing practices and GWG advice appeared to be inconsistent. The preferred support option to promote healthy weight was referral to allied health practitioners yet GPs noted that cost and limited access were barriers to achieving this. Conclusions GPs were aware of the importance of healthy GWG yet routine weighing was not standard practice for diverse reasons. Management of GWG and perspectives of the issue varied widely. Time efficient and cost effective interventions may assist GPs in ensuring women are supported in achieving

  11. 'Battling my biology': psychological effects of genetic testing for risk of weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, S F; Wardle, J

    2014-04-01

    The availability of genetic tests for multifactorial conditions such as obesity raises concerns that higher-risk results could lead to fatalistic reactions or lower-risk results to complacency. No study has investigated the effects of genetic test feedback for the risk of obesity in non-clinical samples. The present study explored psychological and behavioral reactions to genetic test feedback for a weight related gene (FTO) in a volunteer sample (n = 18) using semi-structured interviews. Respondents perceived the gene test result as scientifically objective; removing some of the emotion attached to the issue of weight control. Those who were struggling with weight control reported relief of self-blame. There was no evidence for either complacency or fatalism; all respondents emphasized the importance of lifestyle choices in long-term weight management, although they recognized the role of both genes and environment. Regardless of the test result, respondents evaluated the testing positively and found it motivating and informative. Genetic test feedback for risk of weight gain may offer psychological benefits beyond its objectively limited clinical utility. As the role of genetic counselors is likely to expand, awareness of reasons for genetic testing for common, complex conditions and reactions to the test result is important.

  12. Pregnancy outcome according to pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gesche, Joanna; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess birth weight in relation to gestational weight gain (GWG) among women who were and were not obese before pregnancy. METHODS: For a retrospective cohort study, data were obtained for women with a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided......). RESULTS: A total of 231 obese women were included in analyses. In non-obese and obese women, fetal weight was highest when GWG was above the recommended amount. Among women who had a GWG in line with the recommendations, mean birth weight was higher among those with a pre-pregnancy BMI of 35.0-39.9 (3758...... by the square of height in meters) of at least 30 who had a singleton delivery at a center in Denmark in 2010-2011. Data were also obtained for 455 non-obese women (BMI 20.0-24.9). GWG was expressed in absolute terms and relative to published recommendations (11-16kg in non-obese women; 5-9kg in obese women...

  13. The relationship between gestational weight gain and fetal growth: time to take stock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Higgins, Amy C; Doolan, Anne; Mullaney, Laura; Daly, Niamh; McCartney, Daniel; Turner, Michael J

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this article is to review the current evidence on gestational weight gain (GWG). Maternal obesity has emerged as one of the great challenges in modern obstetrics as it is becoming increasingly common and is associated with increased maternal and fetal complications. There has been an upsurge of interest in GWG with an emphasis on the relationship between excessive GWG and increased fetal growth. Recent recommendations from the Institute of Medicine in the USA have revised downwards the weight gain recommendations in pregnancy for obese mothers. We believe that it is time to take stock again about the advice that pregnant women are given about GWG and their lifestyle before, during, and after pregnancy. The epidemiological links between excessive GWG and aberrant fetal growth are weak, particularly in obese women. There is little evidence that intervention studies decrease excessive GWG or improve intrauterine fetal growth. Indeed, there is a potential risk that inappropriate interventions during the course of pregnancy may lead to fetal malnutrition that may have adverse clinical consequences, both in the short- and long-term. It may be more appropriate to shift the focus of attention from monitoring maternal weight to increasing physical activity levels and improving nutritional intakes.

  14. Can a health coaching intervention delivered during pregnancy help prevent excessive gestational weight gain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Briony; Skouteris, Helen; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McPhie, Skye

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated: (1) the efficacy of a health coaching (HC) intervention designed to prevent excessive gestational weight gain (GWG); and (2) whether there were improved psychological, motivational, and behavioural outcomes for women in the HC intervention compared to a "usual care" control group. In this quasi-experimental study, 267 pregnant women ≤18 weeks gestation were recruited between August 2011 and June 2013 from two hospital antenatal clinics in Melbourne, Australia. Intervention women received four individual HC and two group HC/educational sessions informed by theories of behaviour change. Women completed questionnaires assessing psychological, motivational and behavioural outcomes at 16-18 (baseline) and 33 (post-intervention) weeks gestation. Weight measures were collected. Compared to usual care, the intervention did not limit GWG or prevent excessive GWG. However, HC women reported greater use of active coping skills post-intervention. Despite lack of success of the HC intervention, given the risks associated with excessive weight gain in pregnancy, health professionals should continue to recommend appropriate GWG.

  15. Cup or bottle for preterm infants: effects on oxygen saturation, weight gain, and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Neide M N; Martinez, Francisco E; Jorge, Salim M

    2002-05-01

    The impact of cup-feeding or bottle-feeding on weight gain, oxygen saturation, and breastfeeding rates of preterm infants was studied in 34 bottle-fed and 44 cup-fed preterm infants. At initiation of oral feeding, postconceptional age and weight were 37.2 +/- 2.2 weeks and 1676 +/- 83 g for the bottle-fed group (BF) and 37.0 +/- 1.6 weeks and 1637 +/- 40 g for the cup-fed (CF) group, respectively. No significant differences between groups were found with regard to time spent feeding, feeding problems, weight gain, or breastfeeding prevalence at discharge or at 3-month follow-up. Possible beneficial effects of cup-feeding were lower incidence of desaturation episodes (13.6% vs 35.3%, CF vs BF, P = .024) and a higher prevalence of breastfeeding at 3 months among those still breastfeeding at the first follow-up visit (68.4% vs 33.3%, CF vs BF, P = .04).

  16. Linear Growth Arrest Without Weight Gain Due to Overuse of Topical Clobetasol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Razavi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged potent topical glucocorticoid therapy in infants can cause iatrogenic Cushing’s syndrome. This case highlights the rarity of poor weight gain in iatrogenic Cushing’s syndrome. A 17-month-old boy was referred to outpatients pediatric endocrine clinic for evaluation of growth failure. On presentation his weight was 9.7kg (5th percentile and height was 72cm (-3.6 SD below mean for age and sex. Systemic examination revealed grossly moon-like face, hypertrichosis and thin skin in the genital area. His mother reported using local clobetasol for the previous seven months for his diaper dermatitis. Baseline plasma cortisol was low (0.3ng/ml, normal range: 60 to 280ng/ml. During standard dose of synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone test, the peak cortisol level was 0.4ng/ml (N>180ng/ml and was consistent with hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis suppression. The patient’s clinical presentation and laboratory investigations confirmed the diagnosis of secondary adrenal insufficiency and iatrogenic Cushing’s syndrome. He was treated successfully by discontinuing use of clobetasol. His appearance and growth returned to normal within two months. Morning cortisol was 101.2ng/ml after stopping the oral physiologic dose of hydrocortisone. Our case differed from other reports of iatrogenic Cushing’s syndrome by presenting in poor weight gain rather than obesity.

  17. Treatment with FGFR2-IIIc monoclonal antibody suppresses weight gain and adiposity in KKAy mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonogaki, K; Kaji, T; Yamazaki, T; Murakami, Mari

    2016-01-01

    Expression of β-Kotho, fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)-1c and 2c, which bind FGF21, is decreased in the white adipose tissue of obese mice. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of FGFR2c in the development of obesity and diabetes in KKAy mice. Treatment with mouse monoclonal FGFR2-IIIc antibody (0.5 mg kg−1) significantly suppressed body weight gain and epididymal white adipose tissue weight in individually housed KKAy mice while having no effect on daily food intake. In addition, treatment with FGFR2-IIIc antibody significantly increased plasma-free fatty acid levels while having no effect on blood glucose or plasma FGF21 levels. Moreover, treatment with FGFR2-IIIc antibody had no significant effect on the expression of uncoupling protein-1, uncoupling protein-2 or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α in the epididymal white adipose tissue. The treatment with FGFR2-IIIc antibody had no significant effects on daily food intake and body weight gain in individually housed KK mice. These findings suggest that FGFR2-IIIc upregulates the adiposity induced by social isolation in KKAy mice, and that decreased expression and/or function of FGFR2c might be a compensatory response to enhanced adiposity. Inhibition of FGFR2-IIIc function might be a novel therapeutic approach for obesity. PMID:27892934

  18. Attribution of Causes of Weight Loss and Weight Gain to 3-Year Mortality in Older Adults : Results From the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Hanneke A. H.; van Zon, Sander K. R.; Twisk, Jos; Visser, Marjolein

    2014-01-01

    Background. Weight loss is associated with a higher mortality risk in old age, but the underlying cause may impact this association. We examined associations between causes of intentional and unintentional weight loss and weight gain and mortality. Methods. We used data of five triannual examination

  19. Succession of the turkey gastrointestinal bacterial microbiome related to weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Danzeisen

    2013-12-01

    the absence of antibiotics could involve target dominant bacteria identified in the turkey ileum that are associated with increased weight gain.

  20. GDM Women's Pre-Pregnancy Overweight/Obesity and Gestational Weight Gain on Offspring Overweight Status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhong Leng

    Full Text Available To examine the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG with anthropometry in the offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM.We performed a retrospective cohort study in 1263 GDM mother-child pairs. General linear models and Logistic regression models were used to assess the single and joint associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (normal weight, overweight, and obesity and GWG (inadequate, adequate and excessive GWG with anthropometry and overweight status in the offspring from birth to 1-5 years old.Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG were positively associated with birth weight for gestational age Z score and birth weight for length for gestational age Z score at birth, and weight for age Z score, length/height for age Z score, and weight for length/height Z score at of 1-5 years old offspring. Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight, obesity, and excessive GWG were associated with increased risks of large for gestational age [ORs 95% CIs = 1.87 (1.37-2.55, 2.98 (1.89-4.69, and 2.93 (2.07-4.13, respectively] and macrosomia [ORs 95% CIs = 2.06 (1.50-2.84, 2.89 (1.78-4.70, and 2.84 (1.98-4.06, respectively] at birth and childhood overweight at 1-5 years old [ORs 95% CIs = 1.26 (0.92-1.73, 1.96 (1.24-3.09, and 1.59 (1.15-2.21, respectively].Offspring born to GDM mothers with pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity or excessive GWG were associated with increased risks of large for gestational age and macrosomia at birth, and childhood overweight at 1-5 years old, compared with those born to GDM mothers with pre-pregnancy normal weight and adequate GWG.

  1. Influence of porcine coat colour genotypes on haematological parameters, piglet birth weight and body weight gain until weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fésüs, L; Zsolnai, A; Komlósi, I

    2005-04-01

    Two F2 generations of an intercross between Hampshire boars and Hungarian Large White sows were produced to estimate the effects of the porcine KIT genotypes (II, Ii and ii) on quantitative and qualitative haematological indices, on piglet birth weight and growth performance until weaning. Piglets carrying the I allele had significantly fewer lymphocytes (p = 0.041) than the ii homozygotes, heterozygotes had measures between the two homozygotes. KIT genotypes did not influence white blood cells, red blood cells, haemoglobin and haematocrite. II genotype piglets were significantly lighter at birth than the ones carrying the recessive i allele, the effect of KIT genotypes on gain until weaning was not significant, but II piglets tended to gain less. The results of this study support the hypothesis of M. Johansson, H. Ellegren, L. Marklund, U. Gustavsson, E. Ringmar-Cederberg, K. Andersson, I. Edfors-Lilja and L. Andersson [(1992) Genomics, 14, 965] that the pleiotrophic effect of the porcine KIT mutations on haematopoietic cells must be mild.

  2. Sucrose exposure in early life alters adult motivation and weight gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristianne R M Frazier

    Full Text Available The cause of the current increase in obesity in westernized nations is poorly understood but is frequently attributed to a 'thrifty genotype,' an evolutionary predisposition to store calories in times of plenty to protect against future scarcity. In modern, industrialized environments that provide a ready, uninterrupted supply of energy-rich foods at low cost, this genetic predisposition is hypothesized to lead to obesity. Children are also exposed to this 'obesogenic' environment; however, whether such early dietary experience has developmental effects and contributes to adult vulnerability to obesity is unknown. Using mice, we tested the hypothesis that dietary experience during childhood and adolescence affects adult obesity risk. We gave mice unlimited or no access to sucrose for a short period post-weaning and measured sucrose-seeking, food consumption, and weight gain in adulthood. Unlimited access to sucrose early in life reduced sucrose-seeking when work was required to obtain it. When high-sugar/high-fat dietary options were made freely-available, however, the sucrose-exposed mice gained more weight than mice without early sucrose exposure. These results suggest that early, unlimited exposure to sucrose reduces motivation to acquire sucrose but promotes weight gain in adulthood when the cost of acquiring palatable, energy dense foods is low. This study demonstrates that early post-weaning experience can modify the expression of a 'thrifty genotype' and alter an adult animal's response to its environment, a finding consistent with evidence of pre- and peri-natal programming of adult obesity risk by maternal nutritional status. Our findings suggest the window for developmental effects of diet may extend into childhood, an observation with potentially important implications for both research and public policy in addressing the rising incidence of obesity.

  3. Betahistine ameliorates olanzapine-induced weight gain through modulation of histaminergic, NPY and AMPK pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Pai, Nagesh; Deng, Chao

    2014-10-01

    Olanzapine is widely used to treat schizophrenia and other disorders, but causes adverse obesity and other metabolic side-effects. Both animal and clinical studies have shown that co-treatment with betahistine (a histaminergic H1 receptor agonist and H3 receptor antagonist) is effective for ameliorating olanzapine-induced weight gain/obesity. To reveal the mechanisms underlying these effects, this study investigated the effects of co-treatment of olanzapine and betahistine (O+B) on expressions of histaminergic H1 receptor (H1R), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in the hypothalamus associated with reducing olanzapine-induced weight gain. Olanzapine significantly upregulated the mRNA and protein expressions of H1R, while O+B co-treatment significantly downregulated the H1R levels, compared to the olanzapine-only treatment group. The NPY mRNA expression was significantly enhanced by olanzapine, but it was significantly reversed by O+B co-treatment. The hypothalamic H1R expression was positively correlated with total food intake, and NPY expression. Olanzapine also increased AMPKα activation measured by the AMPKα phosphorylation (pAMPKα)/AMPKα ratio compared with controls, whereas O+B co-treatment decreased the pAMPKα/AMPKα ratio, compared with olanzapine only treatment. The pAMPKα/AMPKα ratio was positively correlated with total food intake and H1R expression. Although olanzapine administration decreased the POMC mRNA level, this level was not affected by O+B co-treatment. Therefore, these results suggested that co-treatment with betahistine may reverse olanzapine-induced body weight gain via the H1R-NPY and H1R-pAMPKα pathways.

  4. Behavioral intervention to promote smoking cessation and prevent weight gain: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Bonnie; Howe, Dorothea; Berendsen, Mark; McFadden, H. Gene; Hitchcock, Kristin; Rademaker, Alfred W.; Hitsman, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Aims The prospect of weight gain discourages many cigarette smokers from quitting. Practice guidelines offer varied advice about managing weight gain after quitting smoking, but no systematic review and meta-analysis have been available. We reviewed evidence to determine whether behavioral weight control intervention compromises smoking cessation attempts, and if it offers an effective way to reduce post-cessation weight gain. Methods We identified randomized controlled trials that compared combined smoking treatment and behavioral weight control to smoking treatment alone for adult smokers. English-language studies were identified through searches of PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Of 779 articles identified and 35 potentially relevant RCTs screened, 10 met criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Results Patients who received both smoking treatment and weight treatment showed increased abstinence (OR=1.29, 95% CI=1.01,1.64) and reduced weight gain (g = -0.30, 95% CI=-0.63, -0.04) in the short term (6 months). Conclusions Findings provide no evidence that combining smoking treatment and behavioral weight control produces any harm and significant evidence of short-term benefit for both abstinence and weight control. However, the absence of long-term enhancement of either smoking cessation or weight control by the time-limited interventions studied to date provides insufficient basis to recommend societal expenditures on weight gain prevention treatment for patients who are quitting smoking. PMID:19549058

  5. The Effect of Fast Food Restaurants on Obesity and Weight Gain

    OpenAIRE

    Janet Currie; Stefano DellaVigna; Enrico Moretti; Vikram Pathania

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the health consequences of changes in the supply of fast food using the exact geographical location of fast food restaurants. Specifically, we ask how the supply of fast food affects the obesity rates of 3 million school children and the weight gain of over 3 million pregnant women. We find that among 9th grade children, a fast food restaurant within a tenth of a mile of a school is associated with at least a 5.2 percent increase in obesity rates. There is no discernable effect...

  6. Food availability as a determinant of weight gain among renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodworth, Robin F; Ward, Kenneth D; Relyea, George E; Cashion, Ann K

    2014-06-01

    Excessive weight gain is common after renal transplantation, but it is unknown whether environmental factors, such as food availability, contribute to this important clinical problem. We evaluated the effects of food availability (fast food restaurants, convenience stores, and grocery stores within 1, 2, and 3 mile buffers of transplant recipients' residences) on body mass index (BMI) change during the first year post-transplant. Participants (n = 299) resided in Memphis, Tennessee. BMI increased by 1.42 units (p restaurants and convenience stores were not significantly associated with BMI change.

  7. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, Pprotein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P

  8. Dietary protein-to-carbohydrate ratio and added sugar as determinants of excessive gestational weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Astrup, Arne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between the protein:carbohydrate (P/C) ratio and added sugar intake in pregnancy and gestational weight gain (GWG). DESIGN: A prebirth cohort including 103 119 pregnancies enrolled between 1996 and 2003. SETTING: All women in Denmark were eligible to participate...... for the analysis. EXPOSURE: Macronutrient intake was quantified using a validated food frequency questionnaire administered in the 25th week of gestation. The P/C ratio and added sugar intake were examined in quintiles. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: GWG was based on self-reported weight in gestational weeks 12 and 30...... sugars. Added sugar consumption was strongly associated with GWG (Q5 vs Q1: 34, 95% CI 28 to 40 g/week, p for trend intake of added sugar. These results are consistent...

  9. Parkinson's disease patients with bilateral subthalamic deep brain stimulation gain weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macia, Frédéric; Perlemoine, Caroline; Coman, Irène; Guehl, Dominique; Burbaud, Pierre; Cuny, Emmanuel; Gin, Henri; Rigalleau, Vincent; Tison, François

    2004-02-01

    Weight, body mass index (BMI) and energy expenditure/energy intake (EE/EI) was studied in 19 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients after subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) versus 14 nonoperated ones. Operated patients had a significant weight gain (WG, + 9.7 +/- 7 kg) and BMI increase (+ 4.7 kg/m2). The fat mass was higher after STN-DBS. Resting EE (REE; offdrug/ON stimulation) was significantly decreased in STN-DBS patients, while their daily energy expenditure (DEI) was not significantly different. A significant correlation was found among WG, BMI increase, and pre-operative levodopa-equivalent daily dose, their reduction after STN-DBS, and the differential REE related to stimulation and the REE in the offdrug/OFF stimulation condition. In conclusion, STN-DBS in PD induces a significant WG associated with a reduction in REE without DEI adjustment.

  10. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens;

    2013-01-01

    be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, PFasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P... after an oral glucose challenge (Pmicrobiota differed between high- and low-fat groups at 13 weeks (P

  11. Food cue reactivity and craving predict eating and weight gain: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Rebecca G; Kober, Hedy

    2016-02-01

    According to learning-based models of behavior, food cue reactivity and craving are conditioned responses that lead to increased eating and subsequent weight gain. However, evidence supporting this relationship has been mixed. We conducted a quantitative meta-analysis to assess the predictive effects of food cue reactivity and craving on eating and weight-related outcomes. Across 69 reported statistics from 45 published reports representing 3,292 participants, we found an overall medium effect of food cue reactivity and craving on outcomes (r = 0.33, p food cues (e.g. pictures and videos) were associated with a similar effect size to real food exposure and a stronger effect size than olfactory cues. Overall, the present findings suggest that food cue reactivity, cue-induced craving and tonic craving systematically and prospectively predict food-related outcomes. These results have theoretical, methodological, public health and clinical implications.

  12. Early Gestational Weight Gain Rate and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Korean Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Hee Cho

    Full Text Available During pregnancy, many women gain excessive weight, which is related to adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. In this study, we evaluated whether rate of gestational weight gain (RGWG in early, mid, and late pregnancy is strongly associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. A retrospective chart review of 2,789 pregnant Korean women was performed. Weights were recorded at the first clinic visit, during the screening test for fetal anomaly, and during the 50g oral glucose challenge test and delivery, to represent early, mid, and late pregnancy, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between RGWG and adverse pregnancy outcomes. At early pregnancy, the RGWG was significantly associated with high risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH, large for gestational age (LGA infants, macrosomia, and primary cesarean section (P-CS. The RGWG of mid pregnancy was not significantly associated with any adverse pregnancy outcomes. The RGWG at late pregnancy was significantly associated with a lower risk of developing GDM, preterm birth and P-CS, but with a higher risk of developing LGA infants and macrosomia. When the subjects were divided into three groups (Underweight, Normal, and Obese, based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, the relationship between early RGWG and adverse pregnancy outcomes was significantly different across the three BMI groups. At early pregnancy, RGWG was not significantly associated to adverse pregnancy outcomes for subjects in the Underweight group. In the Normal group, however, early RGWG was significantly associated with GDM, PIH, LGA infants, macrosomia, P-CS, and small for gestational weight (SGA infants, whereas early RGWG was significantly associated with only a high risk of PIH in the Obese group. The results of our study suggest that early RGWG is significantly associated with various adverse pregnancy outcomes

  13. Hypothalamic deep brain stimulation reduces weight gain in an obesity-animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P Melega

    Full Text Available Prior studies of appetite regulatory networks, primarily in rodents, have established that targeted electrical stimulation of ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH can alter food intake patterns and metabolic homeostasis. Consideration of this method for weight modulation in humans with severe overeating disorders and morbid obesity can be further advanced by modeling procedures and assessing endpoints that can provide preclinical data on efficacy and safety. In this study we adapted human deep brain stimulation (DBS stereotactic methods and instrumentation to demonstrate in a large animal model the modulation of weight gain with VMH-DBS. Female Göttingen minipigs were used because of their dietary habits, physiologic characteristics, and brain structures that resemble those of primates. Further, these animals become obese on extra-feeding regimens. DBS electrodes were first bilaterally implanted into the VMH of the animals (n = 8 which were then maintained on a restricted food regimen for 1 mo following the surgery. The daily amount of food was then doubled for the next 2 mo in all animals to produce obesity associated with extra calorie intake, with half of the animals (n = 4 concurrently receiving continuous low frequency (50 Hz VMH-DBS. Adverse motoric or behavioral effects were not observed subsequent to the surgical procedure or during the DBS period. Throughout this 2 mo DBS period, all animals consumed the doubled amount of daily food. However, the animals that had received VMH-DBS showed a cumulative weight gain (6.1±0.4 kg; mean ± SEM that was lower than the nonstimulated VMH-DBS animals (9.4±1.3 kg; p<0.05, suggestive of a DBS-associated increase in metabolic rate. These results in a porcine obesity model demonstrate the efficacy and behavioral safety of a low frequency VMH-DBS application as a potential clinical strategy for modulation of body weight.

  14. Hypothalamic deep brain stimulation reduces weight gain in an obesity-animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melega, William P; Lacan, Goran; Gorgulho, Alessandra A; Behnke, Eric J; De Salles, Antonio A F

    2012-01-01

    Prior studies of appetite regulatory networks, primarily in rodents, have established that targeted electrical stimulation of ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) can alter food intake patterns and metabolic homeostasis. Consideration of this method for weight modulation in humans with severe overeating disorders and morbid obesity can be further advanced by modeling procedures and assessing endpoints that can provide preclinical data on efficacy and safety. In this study we adapted human deep brain stimulation (DBS) stereotactic methods and instrumentation to demonstrate in a large animal model the modulation of weight gain with VMH-DBS. Female Göttingen minipigs were used because of their dietary habits, physiologic characteristics, and brain structures that resemble those of primates. Further, these animals become obese on extra-feeding regimens. DBS electrodes were first bilaterally implanted into the VMH of the animals (n = 8) which were then maintained on a restricted food regimen for 1 mo following the surgery. The daily amount of food was then doubled for the next 2 mo in all animals to produce obesity associated with extra calorie intake, with half of the animals (n = 4) concurrently receiving continuous low frequency (50 Hz) VMH-DBS. Adverse motoric or behavioral effects were not observed subsequent to the surgical procedure or during the DBS period. Throughout this 2 mo DBS period, all animals consumed the doubled amount of daily food. However, the animals that had received VMH-DBS showed a cumulative weight gain (6.1±0.4 kg; mean ± SEM) that was lower than the nonstimulated VMH-DBS animals (9.4±1.3 kg; p<0.05), suggestive of a DBS-associated increase in metabolic rate. These results in a porcine obesity model demonstrate the efficacy and behavioral safety of a low frequency VMH-DBS application as a potential clinical strategy for modulation of body weight.

  15. Extreme Rapid Weight Loss and Rapid Weight Gain Observed in UK Mixed Martial Arts Athletes Preparing for Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Joseph John; Nicholas, Ceri

    2016-10-06

    There is a lack of research documenting the weight-making practices of mixed-martial-arts (MMA) competitors. The purpose of the investigation was to quantify the magnitude and identify the methods of rapid weight loss (RWL) and rapid weight gain (RWG) in MMA athletes preparing for competition. Seven athletes (mean ± SD, age 24.6 ± 3.5 yrs, body mass 69.9 ± 5.7 kg, competitive experience 3.1 ± 2.2 yrs) participated in a repeated-measures design. Measures of dietary intake, urinary hydration status, and body mass were recorded in the week preceding competition. Body mass decreased significantly (p<0.0005) from baseline by 5.6 ± 1.4 kg (8 ± 1.8%). During the RWG period (32 ± 1 hours) body mass increased significantly (p<0.001) by 7.4 ± 2.8 kg (11.7 ± 4.7%), exceeding RWL. Mean energy and carbohydrate intake were 3176 ± 482 kcal·day(-1) and 471 ± 124 g·day(-1), respectively. At the official weigh-in 57% of athletes were dehydrated (1033 ± 19 mOsmol·kg(-1)) and the remaining 43% were severely dehydrated (1267 ± 47 mOsmol·kg(-1)). Athletes reported using harmful dehydration-based RWL strategies, including sauna (43%) and training in plastic suits (43%). Results demonstrated RWG greater than RWL, this is a novel finding and may be attributable to the 32 hour duration from weigh-in till competition. The observed magnitude of RWL and strategies used are comparable to those which have previously resulted in fatalities. Rule changes which make RWL impractical should be implemented with immediate effect to ensure the health, safety and wellbeing of competitors.

  16. Healthy gestational weight gain prevalence and associated risk factors: A population-based study in the far South of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Patricia MARMITT

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To measure and identify the factors associated with healthy weight gain during pregnancy in the municipality of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methods This was a population-based, cross-sectional study that included all parturient women from the municipality who gave birth at its maternity hospitals in 2013. Information was collected by interview with the mothers in the first 48 hours following parturition and from the prenatal care cards. Healthy weight gain was evaluated according to the Institute of Medicine guidelines. Data analysis used Poisson regression with robust variance using previous hierarchical model. Results Among the 1,784 pregnant participants, 89% attended at least six prenatal care visits, and 32% had healthy weight gain during pregnancy. Higher education level and fewer children resulted in a higher prevalence ratio for healthy weight gain (p=0.003 and p=0.029, respectively. Underweight women at conception had a higher proportion of healthy weight gain (p<0.001. Despite extensive coverage, prenatal care did not affect healthy weight gain during pregnancy (p=0.104. Conclusion The low proportion of women with healthy gestational weight gain suggests a need of better prenatal care services. Women who are overweight, have lower education levels, and had had multiple pregnancies at conception need special attention.

  17. Laminin α4 deficient mice exhibit decreased capacity for adipose tissue expansion and weight gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella K Vaicik

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global epidemic that contributes to the increasing medical burdens related to type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. A better understanding of the mechanisms regulating adipose tissue expansion could lead to therapeutics that eliminate or reduce obesity-associated morbidity and mortality. The extracellular matrix (ECM has been shown to regulate the development and function of numerous tissues and organs. However, there is little understanding of its function in adipose tissue. In this manuscript we describe the role of laminin α4, a specialized ECM protein surrounding adipocytes, on weight gain and adipose tissue function. Adipose tissue accumulation, lipogenesis, and structure were examined in mice with a null mutation of the laminin α4 gene (Lama4-/- and compared to wild-type (Lama4+/+ control animals. Lama4-/- mice exhibited reduced weight gain in response to both age and high fat diet. Interestingly, the mice had decreased adipose tissue mass and altered lipogenesis in a depot-specific manner. In particular, epididymal adipose tissue mass was specifically decreased in knock-out mice, and there was also a defect in lipogenesis in this depot as well. In contrast, no such differences were observed in subcutaneous adipose tissue at 14 weeks. The results suggest that laminin α4 influences adipose tissue structure and function in a depot-specific manner. Alterations in laminin composition offers insight into the roll the ECM potentially plays in modulating cellular behavior in adipose tissue expansion.

  18. Laminin α4 deficient mice exhibit decreased capacity for adipose tissue expansion and weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaicik, Marcella K; Thyboll Kortesmaa, Jill; Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Kortesmaa, Jarkko; Soininen, Raija; Bergström, Göran; Ohlsson, Claes; Chong, Li Yen; Rozell, Björn; Emont, Margo; Cohen, Ronald N; Brey, Eric M; Tryggvason, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic that contributes to the increasing medical burdens related to type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. A better understanding of the mechanisms regulating adipose tissue expansion could lead to therapeutics that eliminate or reduce obesity-associated morbidity and mortality. The extracellular matrix (ECM) has been shown to regulate the development and function of numerous tissues and organs. However, there is little understanding of its function in adipose tissue. In this manuscript we describe the role of laminin α4, a specialized ECM protein surrounding adipocytes, on weight gain and adipose tissue function. Adipose tissue accumulation, lipogenesis, and structure were examined in mice with a null mutation of the laminin α4 gene (Lama4-/-) and compared to wild-type (Lama4+/+) control animals. Lama4-/- mice exhibited reduced weight gain in response to both age and high fat diet. Interestingly, the mice had decreased adipose tissue mass and altered lipogenesis in a depot-specific manner. In particular, epididymal adipose tissue mass was specifically decreased in knock-out mice, and there was also a defect in lipogenesis in this depot as well. In contrast, no such differences were observed in subcutaneous adipose tissue at 14 weeks. The results suggest that laminin α4 influences adipose tissue structure and function in a depot-specific manner. Alterations in laminin composition offers insight into the roll the ECM potentially plays in modulating cellular behavior in adipose tissue expansion.

  19. Parasitism level by helminths and weight gain of calves kept in organic and conventional grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable production is a principle in which we must meet the needs of the present without compromising the capacity of future generations. Despite the successful development of pesticides against endo and ectoparasites found in domestic ruminants, these parasites are still the major problem of the herbivore production system. The purpose of this study was to know the population of gastrintestinal parasites and their influence on weight gain of calves kept in organic and conventional grazing. Thus, organic and conventional calves were randomly selected in 2008 and 2009. The fecal egg count (FEC indentified the following genders of helminths: Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Oesophagostomum, Cooperia, Strongyloides, Trichuris and oocysts of Eimeria. There was no significant difference (p>0.05 between FEC in organic and conventional animals. Calves younger than 6 months showed significant higher infection (p<0.05 than calves between 7 and 12 months of age. The weight gain observed during the study was of 327g/day and 280g/day for conventional and organic systems animals, respectively. Consequently, the combination of sustainable practices of grazing associated with the selective application of anthelmintics may be a feasible alternative for nematode control in a conventional system and in transition to an organic one.

  20. Tungstate decreases weight gain and adiposity in obese rats through increased thermogenesis and lipid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claret, Marc; Corominola, Helena; Canals, Ignasi; Saura, Josep; Barcelo-Batllori, Silvia; Guinovart, Joan J; Gomis, Ramon

    2005-10-01

    The increasing worldwide incidence of obesity and the limitations of current treatments raise the need for finding novel therapeutic approaches to treat this disease. The purpose of the current study was first to investigate the effects of tungstate on body weight and insulin sensitivity in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. Second, we aimed to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying its action. Oral administration of tungstate significantly decreased body weight gain and adiposity without modifying caloric intake, intestinal fat absorption, or growth rate in obese rats. Moreover, the treatment ameliorated dislipemia and insulin resistance of obese rats. These effects were mediated by an increase in whole-body energy dissipation and by changes in the expression of genes involved in the oxidation of fatty acids and mitochondrial uncoupling in adipose tissue. Furthermore, treatment increased the number of small adipocytes with a concomitant induction of apoptosis. Our results indicate that tungstate treatment may provide the basis for a promising novel therapy for obesity.

  1. Modification of Hidden Layer Weight in Extreme Learning Machine Using Gain Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggraeny Fetty Tri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme Learning Machine (ELM is a method of learning feed forward neural network quickly and has a fairly good accuracy. This method is devoted to a feed forward neural network with one hidden layer where the parameters (i.e. weight and bias are adjusted one time randomly at the beginning of the learning process. In neural network, the input layer is connected to all characteristics/features, and the output layer is connected to all classes of species. This research used three datasets from UCI database, which were Iris, Breast Wisconsin, and Dermatology, with each dataset having several features. Each characteristic/feature of the data has a role in the process of classification levels, starting from the most influencing role to non-influencing at all. Gain ratio was used to extract each feature role on each datasets. Gain ratio is a method to extract feature role in order to develop a decision tree structure. In this study, ELM structure has been modified, where the random weights of the hidden layer were adjusted to the level of each feature role in determining the species class, so as to improve the level of training and testing accuracy. The proposed method has higher classification accuracy rate than basic ELM on all three datasets, which were 99%, 96%, and 82%, respectively.

  2. Risk Factors for Excessive Gestational Weight Gain in a Healthy, Nulliparous Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Restall

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG is associated with adverse maternal and child outcomes and contributes to obesity in women. Our aim was to identify early pregnancy factors associated with excessive GWG, in a contemporary nulliparous cohort. Methods. Participants in the SCOPE study were classified into GWG categories (“not excessive” versus “excessive” based on pregravid body mass index (BMI using 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM guidelines. Maternal characteristics and pregnancy risk factors at 14–16 weeks were compared between categories and multivariable analysis controlled for confounding factors. Results. Of 1950 women, 17% gained weight within the recommended range, 74% had excessive and 9% inadequate GWG. Women with excessive GWG were more likely to be overweight (adjOR 2.9 (95% CI 2.2–3.8 or obese (adjOR 2.5 (95% CI 1.8–3.5 before pregnancy compared to women with a normal BMI. Other factors independently associated with excessive GWG included recruitment in Ireland, younger maternal age, increasing maternal birthweight, cessation of smoking by 14–16 weeks, increased nightly sleep duration, high seafood diet, recent immigrant, limiting behaviour, and decreasing exercise by 14–16 weeks. Fertility treatment was protective. Conclusions. Identification of potentially modifiable risk factors for excessive GWG provides opportunities for intervention studies to improve pregnancy outcome and prevent maternal obesity.

  3. Initiating and continuing behaviour change within a weight gain prevention trial: a qualitative investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Kozica

    Full Text Available Preventing obesity is an international health priority. In Australia, young women who live in rural communities are at high risk of unhealthy weight gain. Interventions which engage young women and support sustainable behaviour change are needed and comprehensive evaluation of such interventions generates knowledge for population scale-up. This qualitative sub-study aims to identify enablers and barriers to behaviour change initiation and continuation within a community weight gain prevention program.In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with program participants 6 months after baseline. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed independently by two investigators via thematic analysis.A total of 28 women with a mean age of 39.9±6.2years and a BMI of 28.6±5.2kg/m2 were purposively recruited from the larger cohort (n = 649 that participated in the prevention trial.Four behaviour change groups emerged were identified from participant interviews: (i no change, (ii relapse, (iii intermittent and (iv continued change. Factors influencing behaviour change initiation and continuation included realistic program expectations and the participant's ability to apply the core program elements including: setting small, achievable behaviour change goals, problem solving and using self-management techniques. Personal knowledge, skills, motivation, self-efficacy, accountability and perceived social and environmental barriers also affected behaviour change. Satisfaction with personal program progress and the perceived amount of program supports required to achieve ongoing behaviour change varied amongst participants. Women who relapsed expressed a desire for more intensive and regular support from health professionals, identified more barriers unrelated to the program, anticipated significant weight loss and had lower satisfaction with their progress.Initiating and continuing behaviour change is a complex

  4. Maternal prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain on pregnancy outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the single and joint associations of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG with pregnancy outcomes in Tianjin, China. METHODS: Between June 2009 and May 2011, health care records of 33,973 pregnant women were collected and their children were measured for birth weight and birth length. The independent and joint associations of prepregnancy BMI and GWG based on the Institute of Medicine (IOM guidelines with the risks of pregnancy and neonatal outcomes were examined by using Logistic Regression. RESULTS: After adjustment for all confounding factors, maternal prepregnancy BMI was positively associated with risks of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean delivery, preterm delivery, large-for-gestational age infant (LGA, and macrosomia, and inversely associated with risks of small-for-gestational age infant (SGA and low birth weight. Maternal excessive GWG was associated with increased risks of pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean delivery, LGA, and macrosomia, and decreased risks of preterm delivery, SGA, and low birth weight. Maternal inadequate GWG was associated with increased risks of preterm delivery and SGA, and decreased risks of LGA and macrosomia, compared with maternal adequate GWG. Women with both prepregnancy obesity and excessive GWG had 2.2-5.9 folds higher risks of GDM, pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean delivery, LGA, and macrosomia compared with women with normal prepregnancy BMI and adequate GWG. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal prepregnancy obesity and excessive GWG were associated with greater risks of pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean delivery, and greater infant size at birth. Health care providers should inform women to start the pregnancy with a BMI in the normal weight category and limit their GWG to the range specified for their prepregnancy BMI.

  5. Physical training prevents body weight gain but does not modify adipose tissue gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Higa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship of body weight (BW with white adipose tissue (WAT mass and WAT gene expression pattern was investigated in mice submitted to physical training (PT. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to two 1.5-h daily swimming sessions (T, N = 18, 5 days/week for 4 weeks or maintained sedentary (S, N = 15. Citrate synthase activity increased significantly in the T group (P < 0.05. S mice had a substantial weight gain compared to T mice (4.06 ± 0.43 vs 0.38 ± 0.28 g, P < 0.01. WAT mass, adipocyte size, and the weights of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, lung, kidney, and adrenal gland were not different. Liver and heart were larger and the spleen was smaller in T compared to S mice (P < 0.05. Food intake was higher in T than S mice (4.7 ± 0.2 vs 4.0 ± 0.3 g/animal, P < 0.05 but oxygen consumption at rest did not differ between groups. T animals showed higher serum leptin concentration compared to S animals (6.37 ± 0.5 vs 3.11 ± 0.12 ng/mL. WAT gene expression pattern obtained by transcription factor adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1, fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipocyte lipid binding protein, leptin, and adiponectin did not differ significantly between groups. Collectively, our results showed that PT prevents BW gain and maintains WAT mass due to an increase in food intake and unchanged resting metabolic rate. These responses are closely related to unchanged WAT gene expression patterns.

  6. Physical training prevents body weight gain but does not modify adipose tissue gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higa, T.S. [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bergamo, F.C. [Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mazzucatto, F. [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca-Alaniz, M.H. [Instituto do Coração, Departamento de Medicina-LIM13, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Evangelista, F.S. [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto do Coração, Departamento de Medicina-LIM13, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-06-08

    The relationship of body weight (BW) with white adipose tissue (WAT) mass and WAT gene expression pattern was investigated in mice submitted to physical training (PT). Adult male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to two 1.5-h daily swimming sessions (T, N = 18), 5 days/week for 4 weeks or maintained sedentary (S, N = 15). Citrate synthase activity increased significantly in the T group (P < 0.05). S mice had a substantial weight gain compared to T mice (4.06 ± 0.43 vs 0.38 ± 0.28 g, P < 0.01). WAT mass, adipocyte size, and the weights of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, lung, kidney, and adrenal gland were not different. Liver and heart were larger and the spleen was smaller in T compared to S mice (P < 0.05). Food intake was higher in T than S mice (4.7 ± 0.2 vs 4.0 ± 0.3 g/animal, P < 0.05) but oxygen consumption at rest did not differ between groups. T animals showed higher serum leptin concentration compared to S animals (6.37 ± 0.5 vs 3.11 ± 0.12 ng/mL). WAT gene expression pattern obtained by transcription factor adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1, fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipocyte lipid binding protein, leptin, and adiponectin did not differ significantly between groups. Collectively, our results showed that PT prevents BW gain and maintains WAT mass due to an increase in food intake and unchanged resting metabolic rate. These responses are closely related to unchanged WAT gene expression patterns.

  7. Determinants of Weight Gain during the First Two Years of Life--The GECKO Drenthe Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne K Küpers

    Full Text Available To explain weight gain patterns in the first two years of life, we compared the predictive values of potential risk factors individually and within four different domains: prenatal, nutrition, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors.In a Dutch population-based birth cohort, length and weight were measured in 2475 infants at 1, 6, 12 and 24 months. Factors that might influence weight gain (e.g. birth weight, parental BMI, breastfeeding, hours of sleep and maternal education were retrieved from health care files and parental questionnaires. Factors were compared with linear regression to best explain differences in weight gain, defined as changes in Z-score of weight-for-age and weight-for-length over 1-6, 6-12 and 12-24 months. In a two-step approach, factors were first studied individually for their association with growth velocity, followed by a comparison of the explained variance of the four domains.Birth weight and type of feeding were most importantly related to weight gain in the first six months. Breastfeeding versus formula feeding showed distinct growth patterns in the first six months, but not thereafter. From six months onwards, the ability to explain differences in weight gain decreased substantially (from R2total = 38.7% to R2total<7%.Birth weight and breast feeding were most important to explain early weight gain, especially in the first six months of life. After the first six months of life other yet undetermined factors start to play a role.

  8. Targeting Policy for Obesity Prevention: Identifying the Critical Age for Weight Gain in Women

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    Trevor J. B. Dummer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The obesity epidemic requires the development of prevention policy targeting individuals most likely to benefit. We used self-reported prepregnancy body weight of all women giving birth in Nova Scotia between 1988 and 2006 to define obesity and evaluated socioeconomic, demographic, and temporal trends in obesity using linear regression. There were 172,373 deliveries in this cohort of 110,743 women. Maternal body weight increased significantly by 0.5 kg per year from 1988, and lower income and rural residence were both associated significantly with increasing obesity. We estimated an additional 82,000 overweight or obese women in Nova Scotia in 2010, compared to the number that would be expected from obesity rates of just two decades ago. The critical age for weight gain was identified as being between 20 and 24 years. This age group is an important transition age between adolescence and adulthood when individuals first begin to accept responsibility for food planning, purchasing, and preparation. Policy and public health interventions must target those most at risk, namely, younger women and the socially deprived, whilst tackling the marketing of low-cost energy-dense foods at the expense of healthier options.

  9. Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved.

  10. Hypothalamic over-expression of VGF in the Siberian hamster increases energy expenditure and reduces body weight gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brameld, John M.; Hill, Phil; Cocco, Cristina; Noli, Barbara; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Barrett, Perry; Ebling, Francis J. P.; Jethwa, Preeti H.

    2017-01-01

    VGF (non-acronymic) was first highlighted to have a role in energy homeostasis through experiments involving dietary manipulation in mice. Fasting increased VGF mRNA in the Arc and levels were subsequently reduced upon refeeding. This anabolic role for VGF was supported by observations in a VGF null (VGF-/-) mouse and in the diet-induced and gold-thioglucose obese mice. However, this anabolic role for VGF has not been supported by a number of subsequent studies investigating the physiological effects of VGF-derived peptides. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of TLQP-21 increased resting energy expenditure and rectal temperature in mice and protected against diet-induced obesity. Similarly, ICV infusion of TLQP-21 into Siberian hamsters significantly reduced body weight, but this was due to a decrease in food intake, with no effect on energy expenditure. Subsequently NERP-2 was shown to increase food intake in rats via the orexin system, suggesting opposing roles for these VGF-derived peptides. Thus to further elucidate the role of hypothalamic VGF in the regulation of energy homeostasis we utilised a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector to over-express VGF in adult male Siberian hamsters, thus avoiding any developmental effects or associated functional compensation. Initially, hypothalamic over-expression of VGF in adult Siberian hamsters produced no effect on metabolic parameters, but by 12 weeks post-infusion hamsters had increased oxygen consumption and a tendency to increased carbon dioxide production; this attenuated body weight gain, reduced interscapular white adipose tissue and resulted in a compensatory increase in food intake. These observed changes in energy expenditure and food intake were associated with an increase in the hypothalamic contents of the VGF-derived peptides AQEE, TLQP and NERP-2. The complex phenotype of the VGF-/- mice is a likely consequence of global ablation of the gene and its derived peptides during development, as well

  11. Maternal prepregnant body mass index, duration of breastfeeding, and timing of complementary food introduction are associated with infant weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Michaelsen, Kim F; Rasmussen, Kathleen M;

    2004-01-01

    later in life. OBJECTIVE: We examined how maternal prepregnant body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) and infant feeding pattern are associated with infant weight gain. DESIGN: In this prospective, observational study, we used multiple regression analyses adjusted for potential confounding factors to examine...... these associations among 3768 mother-infant dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort. RESULTS: In multiple regression analyses, increasing maternal prepregnant BMI, decreasing durations of breastfeeding, and earlier complementary food introduction were associated with increased infant weight gain. An interaction......). In this sample, prepregnant obesity (BMI > or = 30.0), short durations of breastfeeding, and earlier introduction of complementary food were associated with 0.7 kg of additional weight gain during infancy. CONCLUSIONS: Infant weight gain is associated with maternal prepregnant BMI and with an interaction between...

  12. Heritability of childhood weight gain from birth and risk markers for adult metabolic disease in prepubertal twins.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Beardsall, Kathryn

    2009-10-01

    Associations between size at birth, postnatal weight gain, and potential risk for adult disease have been variably explained by in utero exposures or genetic risk that could affect both outcomes. We utilized a twin model to explore these hypotheses.

  13. Gaining weight and components of metabolic syndrome in the period of menopause

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    Simoncig-Netjasov Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Menopause induces redistribution of fat mass and development of abdominal obesity, increasing risk for metabolic syndrome (MS by 60%. Related cardiovascular diseases become a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in women after fifty years of age. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gaining weight on components of MS in the menopause. METHOD The study included 50 obese women, BMI=31.92± 5.83 kg/m2, age 54.40±3.64, time since menopause 5.90±5.46 years, and 37 normal weight women, BMI=23.50±2.13 kg/m2, age 53.92±3.95, time since menopause 5.96±4.92 years. Both groups were divided according to the presence of MS into two subgroups. Anthropometric characteristics and blood pressure were measured. Blood was taken at 8 am for the following: fasting glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, apolipoprotein A (ApoA, apolipoprotein B (ApoB, lipoprotein(a (Lp(a, C-reactive protein (CRP, fibrinogen, FSH, LH, prolactin, oestrogen, progesterone, testosterone and sex hormonebinding globulin (SHBG. RESULTS 66% of obese women had MS compared with 22% normal weight women. Significant differences between groups were found for the following: weight, BMI, waist, hip circumference, waist/hip ratio, diastolic blood pressure, Lp(a, FSH, LH, prolactin (all p<0.01 and fasting glucose (p<0.05. Obese women with and without MS were significantly diverse for the following: waist/hip ratio, systolic blood pressure and fasting glucose (all p<0.01; age, BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides, HDL, Lp(a and SHBG (all p<0.05. Normal weight women with and without MS had significantly different values of waist/hip ratio, systolic, diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides (all p<0.01; HDL and testosterone (p<0.05. Significant differences were found between obese and normal weight women with MS in anthropometric characteristics, ApoA, Lp(a, fibrinogen (all p<0.01 and FSH (p<0.05. CONCLUSION Abdominal obesity significantly

  14. Higher gestational weight gain is associated with increasing offspring birth weight independent of maternal glycemic control in women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Anna L; Parellada, Clara B; Ringholm, Lene;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We evaluate the association between gestational weight gain and offspring birth weight in singleton term pregnancies of women with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: One hundred fifteen consecutive women referred at classified as underweight...... (prepregnancy BMI class. Women...

  15. Lifestyle Risk Factors for Weight Gain in Children with and without Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E. Jensen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A higher proportion of children with asthma are overweight and obese compared to children without asthma; however, it is unknown whether asthmatic children are at increased risk of weight gain due to modifiable lifestyle factors. Thus, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare weight-gain risk factors (sleep, appetite, diet, activity in an opportunistic sample of children with and without asthma. Non-obese children with (n = 17; age 10.7 (2.4 years and without asthma (n = 17; age 10.8 (2.3 years, referred for overnight polysomnography, underwent measurement of lung function, plasma appetite hormones, dietary intake and food cravings, activity, and daytime sleepiness. Sleep latency (56.6 (25.5 vs. 40.9 (16.9 min, p = 0.042 and plasma triglycerides (1.0 (0.8, 1.2 vs. 0.7 (0.7, 0.8 mmol/L, p = 0.013 were significantly greater in asthmatic versus non-asthmatic children. No group difference was observed in appetite hormones, dietary intake, or activity levels (p > 0.05. Sleep duration paralleled overall diet quality (r = 0.36, p = 0.04, whilst daytime sleepiness paralleled plasma lipids (r = 0.61, p =0.001 and sedentary time (r = 0.39, p = 0.02. Disturbances in sleep quality and plasma triglycerides were evident in non-obese asthmatic children referred for polysomnography, versus non-asthmatic children. Observed associations between diet quality, sedentary behavior, and metabolic and sleep-related outcomes warrant further investigation, particularly the long-term health implications.

  16. MR fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging as routine brain T2-weighted imaging

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    Arakia, Yutaka; Ashikaga, Ryuichiro; Fujii, Koichi; Nishimura, Yasumasa; Ueda, Jun; Fujita, Norihiko

    1999-11-01

    We tried to investigate if magnetic resonance (MR) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging can be used as a routine brain screening examination instead of spin-echo T2-weighted imaging. Three hundred and ninety-four patients with clinically suspected brain diseases were randomly selected and examined with both brain MR FLAIR and T2-weighted imaging on the axial plane. These two imaging techniques were evaluated by two neuroradiologists as to which imaging was better for routine brain T2-weighted imaging. In 123 of 394 cases (31%), FLAIR imaging was superior to spin-echo T2-weighted imaging. Especially in cases with inflammatory diseases, traumatic diseases and demyelinating diseases, FLAIR imaging was particularly useful. Small lesions bordering cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are often detected only by FLAIR imaging. In 259 cases (66%), including 147 normal cases (37%), they were equally evaluated. Only in 12 cases (3%) was conventional T2-weighted imaging superior to FLAIR imaging. Cerebrovascular lesions like cerebral aneurysm and Moyamoya disease could not be detected on FLAIR images because these structures were obscured by a low signal from the CSF. Also, because old infarctions tend to appear as low signal intensity on FLAIR images, the condition was sometimes hard to detect. Finally, FLAIR imaging could be used as routine brain T2-weighted imaging instead of conventional spin-echo T2-weighted imaging if these vascular lesions were watched.

  17. Psychological responses to genetic testing for weight gain: a vignette study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Susanne F; Walker, Catherine; Wardle, Jane

    2012-03-01

    Genetic testing for obesity risk is increasingly available to the public but few studies have examined motivational or affective reactions. Here we report findings from a "vignette" study investigating reactions to "higher-risk" and "average-risk" results for the obesity-related FTO gene in two groups: a panel sample of individuals with weight concerns, for whom testing may have treatment implications (n = 306, mean age = 45 years, mean BMI = 35) and a student sample (n = 395, mean age = 25 years, mean BMI = 23), for whom testing would have implications for obesity prevention. Participants were given FTO gene information that described higher-risk alleles as linked with modest weight gain and slightly higher risk of obesity. They responded to both higher- and average-risk vignettes, with order randomized. Interest in genetic testing was high overall, and higher in panel respondents than students (93% vs. 78% would "probably" or "definitely" have the test; P testing has the potential to be a useful clinical or preventive tool when combined with appropriate information.

  18. Low Birthweight, Rapid Weight Gain and Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescence: An Illustrative Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyiriuka Alphonsus N.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 16-year-old boy whose diabetes mellitus was diagnosed 3 months previously in a private hospital but was not placed on medication. The presenting complaints were fast breathing for 24 hours, weakness for 2 hours, and unresponsiveness to calls for 0.5 hours. His father was obese with type 2 diabetes mellitus and died 8 months earlier from cardiac arrest. His birthweight was low, 2.2kg. At first presentation, his weight, BMI and blood pressure were 60kg (25th-50th percentile, 19.4kg/m2 (25thpercentile and 110/70mmHg (systolic BP 50th percentile, diastolic BP 50th-90th percentile, respectively. He was managed for diabetic ketoacidosis and was discharged on subcutaneous premixed insulin, 1 Unit/kg/day. At point of discharge, weight and BP were 60.5 kg and 120/70 mmHg, respectively. The patient defaulted but presented again 6 months later at the age of 17 years. At second presentation, his weight, BMI and BP were 89 kg (95th percentile, 27.5 kg/m2 (90th-95th percentile and 180/80 mmHg (systolic 99th percentile; diastolic 90th percentile, respectively. His waist circumference was 98.7cm (> 90th percentile. We had no record of previous waist circumference. His lipid profile showed low HDL-cholesterol 0.7252 mmol/L [(28mg/dl; <5thpercentile]. His fasting blood glucose and HbA1C were 6.5 mmol/L (117mg/dl and 34 mol/mol (5.3%, respectively. A diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in a patient with ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes was made. He was referred to the pediatric cardiologist for management of his hypertension. He defaulted again and was lost to follow up. Conclusion: This report illustrates the association of low birth weight and rapid weight gain with metabolic syndrome in adolescence.

  19. Efficacy Trial of a Selective Prevention Program Targeting Both Eating Disorder Symptoms and Unhealthy Weight Gain among Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate a selective prevention program targeting both eating disorder symptoms and unhealthy weight gain in young women. Method: Female college students at high-risk for these outcomes by virtue of body image concerns (N = 398; M age = 18.4 years, SD = 0.6) were randomized to the Healthy Weight group-based 4-hr prevention program,…

  20. Prevention of weight gain among overweight adults: development and evaluation of a computer-tailored self-regulation intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Genugten (Lenneke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe increasing prevalence of obesity is a major public health problem because of its negative effect on health. The long-term-effects of weight loss treatment for obesity are limited and therefore, prevention of obesity is very important. This might be achieved by weight gain prevention.

  1. Feed intake, digestibility and body weight gain of sheep fed Napier grass mixed with different levels of Sesbania sesban

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tibebu, M.; Tollera, A.; Tessema, Z.K.

    2009-01-01

    A randomized complete block design was employed to assess the feed intake, nutrient digestibility and live weight gains of hair type local sheep (~ 18.0 kg initial live weight) fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) mixed with different levels of Sesbania (Sesbania sesban). The treatments were sole

  2. An exploratory examination of patient and parental self-efficacy as predictors of weight gain in adolescents with anorexia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Catherine E.; Accurso, Erin C.; Arnow, Katherine D.; Lock, James; Le Grange, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether increases in adolescent or parental self-efficacy predicted subsequent weight gain in two different therapies for adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN). Method Participants were 121 adolescents with AN (M = 14.4 years, SD = 1.6), from a two-site randomized clinical trial for family-based treatment (FBT) and individual adolescent focused therapy (AFT). Both adolescent and parental self-efficacy were assessed at baseline and sessions 2, 4, 6, and 8. Adolescent self-efficacy was assessed using a generic measure of self-efficacy, while parental self-efficacy was assessed using a measure specific to the recovery of an eating disorder. Weight was assessed at baseline, sessions 1 through 8, and end of treatment. Mixed-effects models were used to evaluate the relation between patient and parent self-efficacy and subsequent weight gain, controlling for weight at the previous time point. Results For families who received FBT, greater within-treatment increases in parental self-efficacy predicted greater subsequent adolescent weight gain compared to those who received FBT with lesser change in parental self-efficacy and those who received AFT. Interestingly, adolescent self-efficacy did not significantly predict subsequent weight gain. Discussion Greater increases in parental self-efficacy predicted significantly greater subsequent weight gain for adolescents who received FBT, but the same was not true for adolescents who received AFT. Neither overall level nor change in adolescent self-efficacy significantly predicted subsequent weight gain in either treatment group. These findings emphasize the importance of increasing parental self-efficacy in FBT in order to impact adolescent weight outcomes. PMID:25808269

  3. Low-dose Naltrexone Augmentation of Nicotine Replacement for Smoking Cessation with Reduced Weight Gain: A Randomized Trial*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Benjamin A.; White, Marney; Wu, Ran; Meandzija, Boris; Jatlow, Peter; Makuch, Robert; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Fear of weight gain is a significant obstacle to smoking cessation, preventing some smokers from attempting to quit. Several previous studies of naltrexone yielded promising results for minimization of post-quit weight gain. Given these encouraging findings, we endeavored to test whether minimization of weight gain might translate to better quit outcomes for a population that is particularly concerned about gaining weight upon quitting. Methods Smokers (N = 172) in this investigation were prospectively randomized to receive either 25 mg naltrexone or placebo for 27 weeks (1 week pre-, 26 weeks post-quit) for minimization of post-quit weight gain and smoking cessation. All participants received open label therapy with the nicotine patch for the first 8 weeks post-quit and behavioral counseling over the 27 week treatment. The 2 pre-specified primary outcomes were change in weight for continuously abstinent participants and biologically verified end-of-treatment 7-day point prevalence abstinence at 26 weeks after the quit date. Results The difference in weight at 26 weeks post-quit between the naltrexone and placebo groups (naltrexone: 6.8 lbs ± 8.94 vs placebo: 9.7 lbs ± 9.19, p = .45) was not statistically different. Seven-day point prevalence smoking abstinence rates at 26 weeks post-quit was not significantly different between the 2 groups (naltrexone: 22% vs placebo: 27%, p = .43). Conclusions For smokers high in weight concern, the relatively small reduction in weight gain with low dose naltrexone is not worth the potential for somewhat lower rates of smoking abstinence. PMID:20542391

  4. Relationship between sociodemographics, dietary intake, and physical activity with gestational weight gain among pregnant women in Rafsanjan City, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Tabatabaei, Seyed Zia; Fathollahi, Mahmood Sheikh; Mun, Chan Yoke; Nazari, Mozhgan

    2015-03-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) is a determinant of health and nutrition of mothers and offspring. However, many factors associated with GWG are not completely understood. The present study assessed the relationship between sociodemographics, dietary intake, and physical activity with GWG in 308 Iranian pregnant women attending government healthcare centres in Rafsanjan city, Iran. Women gained an average of 12.87±3.57 kg during pregnancy while 54% did not gain weight within the Institute of Medicine (IOM)-recommended range. Univariate logistic models showed that gestaional weight gain was related to age, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), energy intake, and sitting time. Cumulative logit model showed positive relationship between age (p=0.0137) and pre-pregnancy BMI (pnutritional status and physical activity should be emphasized in antenatal care.

  5. Excess pregnancy weight gain leads to early indications of metabolic syndrome in a swine model of fetal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arentson-Lantz, Emily J; Buhman, Kimberly K; Ajuwon, Kolapo; Donkin, Shawn S

    2014-03-01

    Few data exist on the impact of maternal weight gain on offspring despite evidence demonstrating that early-life environment precipitates risks for metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that excessive weight gain during pregnancy results in programming that predisposes offspring to obesity and metabolic syndrome. We further hypothesized that early postweaning nutrition alters the effects of maternal weight gain on indications of metabolic syndrome in offspring. Pregnant sows and their offspring were used for these experiments due to similarities with human digestive physiology, metabolism, and neonatal development. First parity sows fed a high-energy (maternal nutrition high energy [MatHE]) diet gained 12.4 kg (42%) more weight during pregnancy than sows fed a normal energy (maternal nutrition normal energy) diet. Birth weight and litter characteristics did not differ, but offspring MatHE gilts weighed more (P pregnancy. These data indicate that excessive gestational weight gain during pregnancy in a pig model promotes early indications of metabolic syndrome in offspring that are further promoted by a high-energy postweaning diet.

  6. Reducing olanzapine-induced weight gain side effect by using betahistine: a study in the rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chao; Lian, Jiamei; Pai, Nagesh; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2012-09-01

    Olanzapine is effective at treating multiple domains of schizophrenia symptoms. However, it induces serious metabolic side effects. Antipsychotic drug's antagonistic affinity to histamine H₁ receptors has been identified as a main contributor for weight gain/obesity side effects. This study therefore investigated whether a combined treatment of betahistine (a H₁ receptor agonist and H₃ receptor antagonist) could reduce the body weight/obesity induced by olanzapine. Female Sprague Dawley rats were treated orally with olanzapine (1 mg/kg, t.i.d.) and/or betahistine (2.67 mg/kg, t.i.d.), or vehicle for two weeks. Rats treated with olanzapine exhibited significant body weight gain and increased food intake. Co-treatment of olanzapine with betahistine significantly prevented (-45%) weight gain and reduced feeding efficiency compared to sole olanzapine treatment. Betahistine treatment alone had no effect on weight gain and food intake. Olanzapine reduced locomotor activity, but not betahistine. These findings demonstrate that olanzapine-induced body weight gain can partially be reduced by co-treatment with betahistine. Betahistine has H₃ receptor antagonistic effects to increase histamine release, which may augment its direct agonistic effects on H₁ receptors. These findings have important implications for clinical trials using betahistine to control antipsychotic-induced obesity side effects.

  7. Influence of tail biting on weight gain, lesions and condemnations at slaughter of finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Maria F.P.P. Marques

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study assessed the association of tail-biting lesions in finishing pigs with weight gain, occurrence of locomotion or respiratory disorders and abscesses during finishing period, and carcass condemnation at slaughter. The study was carried out on 4 different farms. For each animal with a tail biting lesion, two control pigs were selected. The total number of animals in the study was 312, with 104 of them being tail-bitten. Tail lesions were classified according to the degree of severity into four scores: score 0 -normal tail withou lesion; score 1-3 - increasing lesion severity, and score 4 - healed lesions. Overall, the occurrence of severe tail lesions (score 3 varied from 55 to 73% of tail-bitten pigs among farms. On all farms, healing of tail lesions was observed in 95% to 100% of the animals at the evaluation performed within 41-43 days after the commencement of the study. In two out of the four evaluated farms, pigs with score of 3 showed lower weight gain (P<0.05 compared with score 0 pigs. Before slaughter, the occurrence of locomotion problems and nodules/abscesses was associated (P<0.05 with the presence of tail-biting lesions. At slaughter, tail-biting lesions were associated (P<0.05 with the presence of abscesses, lung lesions (pleuritis and embolic pneumonia or arthritis in carcasses. Carcass condemnation was associated with the presence of tail-biting lesions (P<0.05. Overall, carcass condemnation rate was 21.4%, of which animals with tail-biting lesions accounted for 66.7% of condemnations. Among the animals diagnosed with cannibalism at farm level, only two had not healed their lesions at slaughter. The fact that there were a lot of carcass condemnations, despite the fact that tail-bitten animals had no more active lesions, suggests that different situations may be observed between the field and slaughter, reinforcing the need to analyze pigs both at farm and slaughter to allow proper assessment of losses related to

  8. Association between Maternal Fish Consumption and Gestational Weight Gain: Influence of Molecular Genetic Predisposition to Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofus C Larsen

    Full Text Available Studies suggest that fish consumption can restrict weight gain. However, little is known about how fish consumption affects gestational weight gain (GWG, and whether this relationship depends on genetic makeup.To examine the association between fish consumption and GWG, and whether this relationship is dependent on molecular genetic predisposition to obesity.A nested case-cohort study based on the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC sampling the most obese women (n = 990 and a random sample of the remaining participants (n = 1,128. Replication of statistically significant findings was attempted in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC (n = 4,841. We included 32 body mass index (BMI associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and 5 SNPs found associated with GWG. BMI associated SNPs were combined in a genetic risk score (GRS. Associations between consumption of fish, GRS or individual variants and GWG were analysed, and interactions between fish and the GRS or individual variants were examined.In the DNBC, each portion/week (150 g of fatty fish was associated with a higher GWG of 0.58 kg (95% CI: 0.16, 0.99, P<0.01. For total fish and lean fish, similar patterns were observed, but these associations were not statistically significant. We found no association between GRS and GWG, and no interactions between GRS and dietary fish on GWG. However, we found an interaction between the PPARG Pro12Ala variant and dietary fish. Each additional Pro12Ala G-allele was associated with a GWG of -0.83 kg (95% CI: -1.29, -0.37, P<0.01 per portion/week of dietary fish, with the same pattern for both lean and fatty fish. In ALSPAC, we were unable to replicate these findings.We found no consistent evidence of association between fish consumption and GWG, and our results indicate that the association between dietary fish and GWG has little or no dependency on GRS or individual SNPs.

  9. Migrant background and weight gain in early infancy: results from the German study sample of the IDEFICS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Reeske

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine variations in infant weight gain between children of parents with and without migrant background and to investigate how these differences are explained by pre- and perinatal factors. METHODS: We used data on birth weight and weight at six months from well-child check-up books that were collected from a population-based German sample of children in the IDEFICS study (n = 1,287. We calculated unadjusted and adjusted means for weight z-scores at birth and six months later. We applied linear regression for change in weight z-score and we calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI for rapid weight gain by logistic regression, adjusted for biological, social and behavioural factors. RESULTS: Weight z-scores for migrants and Germans differed slightly at birth, but were markedly increased for Turkish and Eastern European infants at age six months. Turkish infants showed the highest change in weight z-score during the first 6 months (ß = 0.35; 95% CI 0.14-0.56 and an increased probability of rapid weight gain compared with German infants. Examination of the joint effect of migrant and socioeconomic status (SES showed the greatest change in weight z-scores in Turkish infants from middle SES families (ß = 0.77; 95% CI 0.40-1.14 and infants of parents from Eastern European countries with high SES (ß = 0.72; 95% CI 0.13-1.32. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that migrant background is an independent risk factor for infant weight gain and suggest that the onset of health inequalities in overweight starts in early infancy.

  10. Mothers' pre-pregnancy BMI and weight gain during pregnancy and risk of breast cancer in daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kathryn M; Willett, Walter C; Michels, Karin B

    2011-11-01

    Previous studies have established that higher birthweight is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. We explored whether maternal pregnancy weight gain and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), which influence birthweight, are associated with risk of breast cancer in offspring. The Nurses' Mothers case-control study of breast cancer was nested in the Nurses' Health Study I and II cohorts. Mothers of 814 nurses with and 1,809 nurses without breast cancer completed questionnaires with information on pre-pregnancy height and weight, pregnancy weight gain, and other aspects of their pregnancies with the nurse daughters. We calculated odds ratios for breast cancer using conditional logistic regression. Mean pregnancy weight gain was 23 lb, and average pre-pregnancy BMI was 21 kg/m². Mothers' weight gain during pregnancy was not associated with the daughters' risk of breast cancer. Compared to women whose mothers gained 20-29 lb, women whose mothers gained less than 10 lb had a relative risk of 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62-1.36), adjusting for the age of the nurses. Women whose mothers gained 40 or more pounds had a relative risk of 0.82 (95% CI: 0.55-1.23). Mothers' pre-pregnancy BMI was not associated with the daughters' risk of breast cancer. Women whose mothers had a pre-pregnancy BMI of 30 or more had a relative risk of 0.77 (95% CI: 0.34-1.74) compared to those with BMI less than 20. Additional adjustment for prenatal factors or for nurses' characteristics later in life had no effect on the results. The association between birthweight and breast cancer risk is likely due to factors independent of mothers' weight gain during pregnancy or pre-pregnancy BMI. Because BMIs and pregnancy weight gains were lower in this population than today, we cannot rule out associations for very high pre-pregnancy BMIs or pregnancy weight gains.

  11. Long-term treatment with proton pump inhibitor is associated with undesired weight gain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ichiro Yoshikawa; Makiko Nagato; Masahiro Yamasaki; Keiichiro Kume; Makoto Otsuki

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To examine the effects of long-term proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy on body weight (BW) and body mass index (BMI) in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). METHODS: The subjects were 52 patients with GERD and 58 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. GERD patients were treated with PPI for a mean of 2.2 years (range, 0.8-5.7 years), and also advised on lifestyle modifications (e.g. selective diet, weight management). BW, BMI and other parameters were measured at baseline and end of study. RESULTS: Twenty-four GERD patients were treated daily with 10 mg omeprazole, 12 with 20 mg omeprazole, 8 with 10 mg rabeprazole, 5 with 15 mg lansoprazole, and 3 patients with 30 mg lansoprazole. At baseline, there were no differences in BW and BMI between reflux patients and controls. Patients with GERD showed increases in BW (baseline: 56.4 ± 10.4 kg, end: 58.6 ± 10.8 kg, mean ± SD, P < 0.0001) and BMI (baseline: 23.1 ± 3.1 kg/m~2, end: 24.0 ± 3.1 kg/m~2, P < 0.001), but no such changes were noted in the control group. Mean BW increased by 3.5 kg (6.2% of baseline) in 37 (71%) reflux patients but decreased in only 6 (12%) patients during treatment. CONCLUSION: Long-term PPI treatment was associated with BW gain in patients with GERD. Reflux patients receiving PPI should be encouraged to manage BW through lifestyle modifications.

  12. Moderate and Vigorous Intensity Exercise during Pregnancy and Gestational Weight Gain in Women with Gestational Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Samantha F.; Sternfeld, Barbara; Krefman, Amy E.; Hedderson, Monique M.; Brown, Susan D.; Mevi, Ashley; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Ferrara, Assiamira

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the associations of moderate and vigorous intensity exercise during pregnancy with the rate of gestational weight gain (GWG) from gestational diabetes (GDM) diagnosis to delivery, overall and stratified by prepregnancy overweight/obesity. Methods Prospective cohort study with physical activity reported shortly after the GDM diagnosis and prepregnancy weight and post-diagnosis GWG obtained from electronic medical records (n= 1,055). Multinomial logistic regression models in the full cohort and stratified by prepregnancy overweight/obesity estimated associations of moderate and vigorous intensity exercise with GWG below and above the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM) prepregnancy BMI-specific recommended ranges for weekly rate of GWG in the second and third trimesters. Results In the full cohort, any participation in vigorous intensity exercise was associated with decreased odds of GWG above recommended ranges as compared to no participation [Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval): 0.63 (0.40, 0.99)], with a significant trend for decreasing odds of excess GWG with increasing level of vigorous intensity exercise. Upon stratification by prepregnancy overweight/obesity, significant associations were only observed for BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m2: any vigorous intensity exercise, as compared to none, was associated with 54% decreased odds of excess GWG [0.46 (0.27, 0.79)] and significant trends were detected for decreasing odds of GWG both below and above the IOM’s recommended ranges with increasing level of vigorous exercise (both P ≤ 0.03). No associations were observed for moderate intensity exercise. Conclusions In women with GDM, particularly overweight and obese women, vigorous intensity exercise during pregnancy may reduce the odds of excess GWG. PMID:26955997

  13. A review of national health policies and professional guidelines on maternal obesity and weight gain in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, N L; Brinsden, H; Lobstein, T

    2014-08-01

    Maternal obesity creates an additional demand for health-care services, as the routine obstetric care pathway requires alterations to ensure the most optimal care for obese women of childbearing age. This review examines the extent to which relevant national health documents reflect and respond to the health implications of maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain. A targeted search of peer-reviewed publications and grey literature was conducted for each country to identify national health documents, which were subsequently content analyzed according to an adapted framework. A total of 37 documents were identified, including one policy, 10 strategies and 26 guidelines, published within the last 10 years. Out of the 31 countries investigated, only 13 countries address maternal obesity while none address excessive gestational weight gain. We found inconsistencies and gaps in the recommendations to health-care service providers for the management of maternal obesity and weight gain in pregnancy. The findings show that only limited guidance on maternal obesity and gestational weight gain exists. The authors recommend that international, evidence-based guidelines on the management of maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain should be developed to reduce the associated health-care and economic costs.

  14. Evolutionary Transition from Pathogenicity to Commensalism: Global Regulator Mutations Mediate Fitness Gains through Virulence Attenuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Gunther; Crummenerl, Lena L; Gilbert, Felix; Mohr, Timm; Pfefferkorn, Roxana; Thänert, Robert; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schulenburg, Hinrich

    2015-11-01

    Symbiotic interactions are indispensable for metazoan function, but their origin and evolution remain elusive. We use a controlled evolution experiment to demonstrate the emergence of novel commensal interactions between Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an initially pathogenic bacterium, and a metazoan host, Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that commensalism evolves through loss of virulence, because it provides bacteria with a double fitness advantage: Increased within-host fitness and a larger host population to infect. Commensalism arises irrespective of host immune status, as the adaptive path in immunocompromised C. elegans knockouts does not differ from that in wild type. Dissection of temporal dynamics of genomic adaptation for 125 bacterial populations reveals highly parallel evolution of incipient commensalism across independent biological replicates. Adaptation is mainly achieved through frame shift mutations in the global regulator lasR and nonsynonymous point mutations in the polymerase gene rpoB that arise early in evolution. Genetic knockouts of lasR not only corroborate its role in virulence attenuation but also show that further mutations are necessary for the fully commensal phenotype. The evolutionary transition from pathogenicity to commensalism as we observe here is facilitated by mutations in global regulators such as lasR, because few genetic changes cause pleiotropic effects across the genome with large phenotypic effects. Finally, we found that nucleotide diversity increased more quickly in bacteria adapting to immunocompromised hosts than in those adapting to immunocompetent hosts. Nevertheless, the outcome of evolution was comparable across host types. Commensalism can thus evolve independently of host immune state solely as a side-effect of bacterial adaptation to novel hosts.

  15. Maternal obesity, gestational weight gain, and risk of asthma and atopic disease in offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Maria C; Basit, Saima; Bager, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) are suggested to influence risk of asthma and atopic disease in offspring. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effect of BMI and GWG on risk of asthma, wheezing, atopic eczema (AE), and hay fever in children......-onset wheezing (adjusted OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.28-2.73). Maternal BMI and GWG were not associated with AE or hay fever. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal obesity during pregnancy was associated with increased risk of asthma and wheezing in offspring but not with AE and hay fever, suggesting that pathways may be nonallergic....... during the first 7 years of life. METHODS: This was a cohort study of 38,874 mother-child pairs from the Danish National Birth Cohort (enrollment 1996-2002) with information from the 16th week of pregnancy and at age 6 months, 18 months, and 7 years of the child. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs were...

  16. Maternal obesity, gestational weight gain, and risk of asthma and atopic disease in offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Maria C; Basit, Saima; Bager, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) are suggested to influence risk of asthma and atopic disease in offspring. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effect of BMI and GWG on risk of asthma, wheezing, atopic eczema (AE), and hay fever in children......-onset wheezing (adjusted OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.28-2.73). Maternal BMI and GWG were not associated with AE or hay fever. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal obesity during pregnancy was associated with increased risk of asthma and wheezing in offspring but not with AE and hay fever, suggesting that pathways may be nonallergic....... during the first 7 years of life. METHODS: This was a cohort study of 38,874 mother-child pairs from the Danish National Birth Cohort (enrollment 1996-2002) with information from the 16th week of pregnancy and at age 6 months, 18 months, and 7 years of the child. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs were...

  17. Maternal and Neonatal Levels of Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Relation to Gestational Weight Gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian Ashley-Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs are ubiquitous, persistent pollutants widely used in the production of common household and consumer goods. There is a limited body of literature suggesting that these chemicals may alter metabolic pathways and growth trajectories. The relationship between prenatal exposures to these chemicals and gestational weight gain (GWG has received limited attention. One objective was to analyze the associations among maternal plasma levels of three common perfluoroalkyl substances (perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS, perfluorohexanesulfanoate (PFHxS and GWG. Additionally, we explored whether GWG was associated with cord blood PFAS levels. This study utilized data collected in the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC Study, a trans-Canada cohort study of 2001 pregnant women. Our analysis quantified associations between (1 maternal PFAS concentrations and GWG and (2 GWG and cord blood PFAS concentrations. Maternal PFOS concentrations were positively associated with GWG (β = 0.39 95% CI: 0.02, 0.75. Interquartile increases in GWG were significantly associated with elevated cord blood PFOA (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.56 and PFOS (OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.40 concentrations. No statistically significant associations were observed between GWG and either measure of PFHxS. These findings warrant elucidation of the potential underlying mechanisms.

  18. Overexpression of Jazf1 reduces body weight gain and regulates lipid metabolism in high fat diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Woo Young; Bae, Ki Beom; Kim, Sung Hyun; Yu, Dong Hun; Kim, Hei Jung; Ji, Young Rae; Park, Seo Jin; Park, Si Jun; Kang, Min-Cheol; Jeong, Ja In [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang-Joon [College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Gyu [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Inkyu [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 680 Gukchaebosang-ro, Jung-gu, Daegu 700-842 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myoung Ok [School of Animal BT Sciences, Sangju Campus, Kyungpook National University, 386 Gajang-dong, Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do 742-211 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Duhak, E-mail: dhyoon@knu.ac.kr [School of Animal BT Sciences, Sangju Campus, Kyungpook National University, 386 Gajang-dong, Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do 742-211 (Korea, Republic of); Ryoo, Zae Young, E-mail: jaewoong64@hanmail.net [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-14

    Highlights: • The expression of Jazf1 in the liver suppressed lipid accumulation. • Jazf1 significantly increases transcription of fatty acid synthase. • Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and lipid homeostasis. • Jazf1 associates the development of metabolic disorder. • Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of metabolic disorder. - Abstract: Jazf1 is a 27 kDa nuclear protein containing three putative zinc finger motifs that is associated with diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer; however, little is known about the role that this gene plays in regulation of metabolism. Recent evidence indicates that Jazf1 transcription factors bind to the nuclear orphan receptor TR4. This receptor regulates PEPCK, the key enzyme involved in gluconeogenesis. To elucidate Jazf1’s role in metabolism, we fed a 60% fat diet for up to 15 weeks. In Jazf1 overexpression mice, weight gain was found to be significantly decreased. The expression of Jazf1 in the liver also suppressed lipid accumulation and decreased droplet size. These results suggest that Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Finally, Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of obesity and diabetes.

  19. Parent-offspring conflict theory, signaling of need, and weight gain in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jonathan C

    2003-06-01

    Human growth in early life has major implications for fitness. During this period, the mother regulates the growth of her offspring through placental nutrition and lactation. However, parent-offspring conflict theory predicts that offspring are selected to demand more resources than the mother is selected to provide. This general issue has prompted the development of begging theory, which attempts to find the optimal levels of offspring demand and parental provisioning. Several models have been proposed to account for begging behavior, whether by biochemical or behavioral pathways, including: (1) blackmail of parents; (2) scramble competition between multiple offspring; (3) honest signaling of nutritional need; and (4) honest signaling of offspring worth. These models are all supported by data from nonhuman animals, with species varying according to which model is relevant. This paper examines the evidence that human suckling and crying signal nutritional demand, need, and worth to the mother. While suckling provides hormonal stimulation of breast milk production and signals hunger, crying fulfills a different role, with evidence suggesting that it signals both worth and need for resources (nutrition and thermoregulation). The role of signaling in nutritional demand is examined in the context of three common health problems that have traditionally been assumed to have physiological rather than behavioral causes: excess weight gain, failure to thrive, and colic. The value of such an evolutionary approach lies in its potential to enhance behavioral management of these conditions.

  20. Uroguanylin Action in the Brain Reduces Weight Gain in Obese Mice via Different Efferent Autonomic Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folgueira, Cintia; Beiroa, Daniel; Callon, Aurelie; Al-Massadi, Omar; Barja-Fernandez, Silvia; Senra, Ana; Fernø, Johan; López, Miguel; Dieguez, Carlos; Casanueva, Felipe F; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, Françoise; Seoane, Luisa M; Nogueiras, Ruben

    2016-02-01

    The gut-brain axis is of great importance in the control of energy homeostasis. The identification of uroguanylin (UGN), a peptide released in the intestines that is regulated by nutritional status and anorectic actions, as the endogenous ligand for the guanylyl cyclase 2C receptor has revealed a new system in the regulation of energy balance. We show that chronic central infusion of UGN reduces weight gain and adiposity in diet-induced obese mice. These effects were independent of food intake and involved specific efferent autonomic pathways. On one hand, brain UGN induces brown adipose tissue thermogenesis, as well as browning and lipid mobilization in white adipose tissue through stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. On the other hand, brain UGN augments fecal output through the vagus nerve. These findings are of relevance as they suggest that the beneficial metabolic actions of UGN through the sympathetic nervous system do not involve nondesirable gastrointestinal adverse effects, such as diarrhea. The present work provides mechanistic insights into how UGN influences energy homeostasis and suggests that UGN action in the brain represents a feasible pharmacological target in the treatment of obesity.

  1. Sugar sweetened beverages and weight gain over 4 years in a Thai national cohort--a prospective analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynette Lim

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs are implicated in the rising prevalence of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide. However, little is known about their contribution to weight gain in Asian populations. This study aimed to investigate weight change associated with SSB consumption between 2005 and 2009 in a large national cohort of Thai university students. METHODS: Questionnaire data were collected from a large Thai cohort (the Thai Health-Risk Transition: a National Cohort Study. The analysis was based on responses from 59 283 of the 60 569 (98% cohort members who had valid SSB consumption and weight variables in 2005 and 2009. The relationship between SSB consumption in 2005 and self-reported weight change was analysed using multiple linear regression models controlled for socio-demographic, activity and (non-validated dietary factors shown to influence weight. RESULTS: Higher frequency of SSB consumption in 2005 was significantly associated with greater weight gain between 2005 and 2009 in all age groups and in both sexes (p once per day between 2005 and 2009 compared to those who maintained it was 0.3 kgs, while persons who reduced their consumption frequency (once a day to > once a month gained 0.2 kgs less than those whose consumption remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: SSB consumption is independently associated with weight gain in the Thai population. Research and health promotion in Thailand and other economically transitioning countries should focus on reducing their contribution to population weight gain and to diet-related chronic diseases.

  2. Weight gain as a consequence of living a modern lifestyle: a discussion of barriers to effective weight control and how to overcome them

    OpenAIRE

    Seaman, David R

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this commentary is to discuss modern lifestyle factors that promote weight gain and to suggest methods for clinicians to more effectively educate patients about weight management. Discussion Most adults in the United States are overweight or obese. Multiple factors related to the modern lifestyle appear to play causal roles. In general, the population maintains sedentary lives and overconsumes calorie-dense foods. In particular, refined carbohydrates negatively impact...

  3. Trial gain of weight and hospital length stay of the low birth weight preterm infant in assistance for kangaroo mother care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Aparecida Giacomini Rodrigues

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate if the Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC interferes in the gain of weight and in the hospital length stay of the low birth weight preterm newborn (LWBPTN. For this, it was realized an analytic retrospective study, through the evaluation of the medical records of 60 LWBPTN with born weight less than 2000 g that received assistance by KMC, for a period of 2 hours per day and, 60 LWBPTN that received assistance by the Traditional Method of Care (TMC, admitted in the unity of neonatal intensive care and unity of premature of a private maternity in the city of Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil, comparing the gain of weight and the hospital length stay. We did not find differences statistically significant in relation to the gain of weight of the LWBPTN assisted by KMC, in relation to LWBPTN assisted by the TMC, 15,8 and 14,9 g/per day, respectively. In relation to the time of admission, we also did not find differences statistically significant, 27,3 and 26,2 days, for the LWBPTN in the KMC and TMC, respectively, although in the stratification of the sample, the LBWPTN with pregnancy age < 30 weeks or birth weight < 1500 g left the hospital 3 days earlier in the KMC. It was concluded that the KMC, in the conditions of this study, it seems not to interfere significatively in the gain of weight and in the time of admission of LWBPTN. We emphasize that the utilization of KMC in the assistance to the LWBPTN of low weight is a viable model, even for the private health institution.

  4. The effect of maternal breast variations on neonatal weight gain in the first seven days of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeili Abbas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to examine whether specific maternal breast variations (such as flat nipple, inverted nipple, large breast or/and large nipple are barriers for weight gain in breastfed infants during the first seven days of life. Methods In this prospective cohort study, 100 healthy term neonates were followed from birth to day seven in two groups; Group A: fifty neonates born to mothers with specified breast variations and Group B: fifty neonates born to mothers without such breast variations ("normal breasts". All neonates were the first child of their families and there was no sex ratio difference between the two groups. Neonates' weight at birth and day seven were measured and the mean weight differences in the two groups were compared using paired t-test. Results Neonates born to mothers without the specified breast variations had a mean weight gain of (+ 53 ± 154.4 g at day seven., Not only there was no increase in the mean weight of neonates in the other group, but they had a mean decrease of weight of (- 162 ± 125.5 g by the seventh day of their life compared to birth weight. Thus, neonates born to mothers without breast variations had significantly greater weight gain than neonates born to the mothers with the specified variations (p Conclusion Breast variation among first-time mothers acts as an important barrier to weight gain among breastfed neonates in the early days of life. Health professionals need skills in the management of breastfeeding among mothers with the specified breast variations, so that mothers are given appropriate advice on how to breastfeed and overcome these problems.

  5. Relationship of serum somatomedin-like activity and fibroblast proliferative activity with age and body weight gain in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, R F; Wangsness, P J; Patton, W H; Martin, R J

    1981-01-01

    The relationship between serum growth factors and body weight gain was examined in five Dorset lambs. The lambs were weighed and bled by jugular puncture at 2-week intervals between 2 and 18 weeks of age. Somatomedin-like activity (Sm) declined from initially high concentrations at 2 weeks to fairly constant concentrations between 6 and 18 weeks. Relative weight gain--i.e., gain expressed as a percentage of body weight--declined in a manner similar to that of Sm. Mean relative weight gain and mean Sm for the eight 2-week intervals were significantly related (r = .84). Absolute body weight gain--i.e., gain expressed in kilograms--remained fairly constant throughout the study and was not significantly correlated to Sm (r = .15). Serum fibroblast proliferative activity (FPA) was measured as a possible indicator of collective activities of serum growth factors. FPA initially followed a pattern similar to that of Sm, decreasing between 2 and 6 weeks and plateauing until 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, FPA increased to concentrations similar to those observed at 2 weeks. The increase in FPA after 12 weeks was apparently due to an increase in a non-Sm growth factor and had no obvious relationship to body weight changes. Results of the in vitro cell assay system might have been more meaningful if cell type(s) other than WI-38 fibroblasts (e.g., myogenic cells) had been used for estimating collective activities of serum mitogenic factors. The data suggest that serum Sm-like activity may be important in the regulation of growth in sheep.

  6. Moving beyond quantity of participation in process evaluation of an intervention to prevent excessive pregnancy weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Keriann H

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few lifestyle interventions have successfully prevented excessive gestational weight gain. Understanding the program processes through which successful interventions achieve outcomes is important for the design of effective programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the quantity and quality of participation in a healthy lifestyle intervention on risk of excessive gestational weight gain. Findings Pregnant women (N = 179 received five newsletters about weight, nutrition, and exercise plus postcards on which they were asked to set related goals and return to investigators. The quantity of participation (dose was defined as low for returning few or some vs. high for many postcards (N = 89, 49.7%. Quality of participation was low for setting few vs. high for some or many appropriate goals (N = 92, 51.4%. Fisher’s exact tests and multivariate logistic regression were used to analyze the effect of participation variables on the proportion with excessive weight gain. Quantity and quality of participation alone were each not significantly associated with excessive gestational weight gain, while quality of participation among those with high-levels of participation approached significance (p = 0.07. The odds of gaining excessively was decreased when women had both a high quantity and quality of participation (OR = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.005, 0.30. Conclusions Both quantity and quality of participation are important program process measures in evaluations of lifestyle interventions to promote healthy weight gain during pregnancy.

  7. THE EFFECT OF FERMENTED OIL PALM FRONDS IN DIET ON BODY WEIGHT GAIN AND MEAT QUALITY OF GOAT

    OpenAIRE

    E. Musnandar; A. Hamidah; R. A. Muthalib

    2014-01-01

    The aims of study were to evaluate the use of fermented of oil palm fronds (FOPF) on body weight gain and meat quality of goat. This experiment was arranged in Completely Randomized Design with 3 treatments i.e. R1 (grass 0%: FOPF 100%), R2 (grass 50%: FOPF 50%) and R3 (grass 100%: FOPF 0%) and 5 replications. The parameters of the study were feed intake, average daily gain (ADG), weight and percentage of carcass and meat quality. The results indicated that feed intake and meat quality of goa...

  8. Prospect theory and body mass: Characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in in...

  9. Influence of Maternal Obesity and Gestational Weight Gain on Maternal and Foetal Lipid Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Cinelli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids (FAs are fundamental for a foetus’s growth, serving as an energy source, structural constituents of cellular membranes and precursors of bioactive molecules, as well as being essential for cell signalling. Long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LC-PUFAs are pivotal in brain and visual development. It is of interest to investigate whether and how specific pregnancy conditions, which alter fatty acid metabolism (excessive pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI or gestational weight gain (GWG, affect lipid supply to the foetus. For this purpose, we evaluated the erythrocyte FAs of mothers and offspring (cord-blood at birth, in relation to pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG. A total of 435 mothers and their offspring (237 males, 51% were included in the study. Distribution of linoleic acid (LA and α-linolenic acid (ALA, and their metabolites, arachidonic acid, dihomogamma linoleic (DGLA and ecosapentanoic acid, was significantly different in maternal and foetal erythrocytes. Pre-pregnancy BMI was significantly associated with maternal percentage of MUFAs (Coeff: −0.112; p = 0.021, LA (Coeff: −0.033; p = 0.044 and DHA (Coeff. = 0.055; p = 0.0016; inadequate GWG with DPA (Coeff: 0.637; p = 0.001; excessive GWG with docosaexahenoic acid (DHA (Coeff. = −0.714; p = 0.004. Moreover, pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with foetus percentage of PUFAs (Coeff: −0.172; p = 0.009, omega 6 (Coeff: −0.098; p = 0.015 and DHA (Coeff: −0.0285; p = 0.036, even after adjusting for maternal lipids. Our findings show that maternal GWG affects maternal but not foetal lipid profile, differently from pre-pregnancy BMI, which influences both.

  10. Replacing sugary drinks with milk is inversely associated with weight gain among young obesity-predisposed children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Rangan, Anna; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Rohde, Jeanett Friis; Olsen, Nanna Julie; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2015-11-14

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of sugary drink consumption and its substitution with alternative beverages with body weight gain among young children predisposed to future weight gain. Secondary analysis of the Healthy Start Study, a 1·5-year randomised controlled trial designed to prevent overweight among Danish children aged 2-6 years (n 366), was carried out. Multivariate linear regression models were used to investigate the associations of beverage consumption with change in body weightweight) or BMI(ΔBMI) z-score. Substitution models were used to extrapolate the influence of replacing sugary drinks with alternative beverages (water, milk and diet drinks) on Δweight or ΔBMI z-score. Sugary drink intake at baseline and substitution of sugary drinks with milk were associated with both Δweight and ΔBMI z-score. Every 100 g/d increase in sugary drink intake was associated with 0·10 kg and 0·06 unit increases in body weight (P=0·048) and BMI z-score (P=0·04), respectively. Substitution of 100 g/d sugary drinks with 100 g/d milk was inversely associated with Δweight (β=-0·16 kg; P=0·045) and ΔBMI z-score (β=-0·07 units; P=0·04). The results of this study suggest that sugary drink consumption was associated with body weight gain among young children with high predisposition for future overweight. In line with the current recommendations, sugary drinks, whether high in added or natural sugar, should be discouraged to help prevent childhood obesity. Milk may be a good alternative to sugary drinks with regard to weight management among young obesity-predisposed children.

  11. Insulin resistance as a predictor of gains in body fat, weight, and abdominal fat in nondiabetic women: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Larry A; Tucker, Jared M

    2012-07-01

    The purpose was to determine the relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and risk of gaining body fat percentage (BF%), body weight, and abdominal fat over 18 months. A prospective cohort study was conducted using a sample of 226 women. IR was assessed using fasting blood insulin and glucose levels to calculate homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). Participants were divided into High (4th quartile) Moderate (2nd and 3rd quartiles), and Low (1st quartile) HOMA categories. BF% was estimated using plethysmography (Bod Pod), weight was measured in a standard swimsuit, and abdominal fat was indexed using the average of two circumferences taken at the umbilicus. Participants wore accelerometers and completed weighed food logs for 7 consecutive days to control for the effect of physical activity (PA) and energy intake, respectively. On average, women in the High HOMA group decreased in BF% (-0.48 ± 3.60), whereas those in the Moderate (0.40 ± 3.66) and Low HOMA (1.17 ± 3.15) groups gained BF% (F = 5.4, P = 0.0211). Changes in body weight showed a similar dose-response relationship (F = 4.7, P = 0.0317). However, baseline IR was not predictive of changes in abdominal fat (F = 0.8, P = 0.3635). Controlling for several covariates had little effect on gains in BF% and weight, but adjusting for initial BF% and/or initial weight nullified changes in BF% and weight across the IR groups. In conclusion, women with High HOMA tend to gain significantly less BF% and weight than women with low or moderate HOMA. The decreased risk appears unrelated to several covariates, except initial BF% and weight levels, which seem to play key roles in the relationships.

  12. Do early infant feeding patterns relate to breast-feeding continuation and weight gain ? data from a longitudinal cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Casiday, R. E.; Wright, C. M.; Panter-Brick, C.; Parkinson, K.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the first-week feeding patterns for breast- vs bottle-fed babies, and their association with sustained breast-feeding and infant weight gain at 6 weeks. Design: A longitudinal cohort study. Setting: Feeding diaries were completed by mothers in an urban UK community shortly after birth; follow-up weight and feeding data were collected at routine health checks. Subjects: Mothers of 923 full-term infants born during the recruiting period agreed to join the stud...

  13. Trial gain of weight and hospital length stay of the low birth weight preterm infant in assistance for kangaroo mother care

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Aparecida Giacomini Rodrigues; Maria Aparecida Tedeschi Cano

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if the Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) interferes in the gain of weight and in the hospital length stay of the low birth weight preterm newborn (LWBPTN). For this, it was realized an analytic retrospective study, through the evaluation of the medical records of 60 LWBPTN with born weight less than 2000 g that received assistance by KMC, for a period of 2 hours per day and, 60 LWBPTN that received assistance by the Traditional Method of Care (TMC), admitted in ...

  14. Weight Gain Prevention among Midlife Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial to Address Needs Related to the Physical and Social Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney D. Perry

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Women tend to gain weight at midlife (40–60 years increasing risk of obesity-related chronic diseases. Within specific eating occasions, needs related to the physical and social environment may result in less healthy eating behavior, which can lead to weight gain over time. The purpose of this study was to determine if a dietitian-delivered nutrition counseling intervention tailored to eating occasion needs could improve diet and prevent weight gain among midlife women over two years. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with healthy midlife women (n = 354 in one U.S. metropolitan area. The intervention group (n = 185 received ten hours of individual nutrition counseling from dietitians over six months, while women in a control group (n = 169 received no counseling. Measured height, weight and waist circumference, and dietary intakes were collected at baseline and every six months over two years. Mixed linear models were used to test for intervention effect on change in outcome variables over time. Dietary intakes of fruit, reduced/low-fat dairy foods and refined grains were significantly improved over time in the intervention compared to control group. However, the intervention had no effect on weight over time (p = 0.48. Nutrition counseling tailored to address eating occasion needs improved self-reported diet but did not significantly affect weight change.

  15. Preventing olanzapine-induced weight gain using betahistine: a study in a rat model with chronic olanzapine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Pai, Nagesh; Deng, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Olanzapine is the one of first line antipsychotic drug for schizophrenia and other serious mental illness. However, it is associated with troublesome metabolic side-effects, particularly body weight gain and obesity. The antagonistic affinity to histamine H1 receptors (H1R) of antipsychotic drugs has been identified as one of the main contributors to weight gain/obesity side-effects. Our previous study showed that a short term (2 weeks) combination treatment of betahistine (an H1R agonist and H3R antagonist) and olanzapine (O+B) reduced (-45%) body weight gain induced by olanzapine in drug-naïve rats. A key issue is that clinical patients suffering with schizophrenia, bipolar disease and other mental disorders often face chronic, even life-time, antipsychotic treatment, in which they have often had previous antipsychotic exposure. Therefore, we investigated the effects of chronic O+B co-treatment in controlling body weight in female rats with chronic and repeated exposure of olanzapine. The results showed that co-administration of olanzapine (3 mg/kg, t.i.d.) and betahistine (9.6 mg/kg, t.i.d.) significantly reduced (-51.4%) weight gain induced by olanzapine. Co-treatment of O+B also led to a decrease in feeding efficiency, liver and fat mass. Consistently, the olanzapine-only treatment increased hypothalamic H1R protein levels, as well as hypothalamic pAMPKα, AMPKα and NPY protein levels, while reducing the hypothalamic POMC, and UCP1 and PGC-1α protein levels in brown adipose tissue (BAT). The olanzapine induced changes in hypothalamic H1R, pAMPKα, BAT UCP1 and PGC-1α could be reversed by co-treatment of O+B. These results supported further clinical trials to test the effectiveness of co-treatment of O+B for controlling weight gain/obesity side-effects in schizophrenia with chronic antipsychotic treatment.

  16. Impact of Restricted Maternal Weight Gain on Fetal Growth and Perinatal Morbidity in Obese Women With Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asbjörnsdóttir, Björg; Rasmussen, S.S.; Kelstrup, Louise

    2013-01-01

    ) gestational weight gains were 3.7 kg (-4.7 to 5 kg) and 12.1 kg (5.5-25.5 kg), respectively. Prepregnancy BMI was 33.5 kg/m(2) (30-53 kg/m(2)) vs. 36.8 kg/m(2) (30-48 kg/m(2)), P = 0.037, and median HbA(1c) was 6.7% at first visit in both groups and decreased to 5.7 and 6.0%, P = 0.620, in late pregnancy......OBJECTIVESince January 2008, obese women with type 2 diabetes were advised to gain 0-5 kg during pregnancy. The aim with this study was to evaluate fetal growth and perinatal morbidity in relation to gestational weight gain in these women.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSA retrospective cohort comprised...... the records of 58 singleton pregnancies in obese women (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)) with type 2 diabetes giving birth between 2008 and 2011. Birth weight was evaluated by SD z score to adjust for gestational age and sex.RESULTSSeventeen women (29%) gained ≤5 kg, and the remaining 41 gained >5 kg. The median (range...

  17. Risperidone-induced weight gain is mediated through shifts in the gut microbiome and suppression of energy expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Bahr

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Risperidone is a second-generation antipsychotic that causes weight gain. We hypothesized that risperidone-induced shifts in the gut microbiome are mechanistically involved in its metabolic consequences. Wild-type female C57BL/6J mice treated with risperidone (80 μg/day exhibited significant excess weight gain, due to reduced energy expenditure, which correlated with an altered gut microbiome. Fecal transplant from risperidone-treated mice caused a 16% reduction in total resting metabolic rate in naïve recipients, attributable to suppression of non-aerobic metabolism. Risperidone inhibited growth of cultured fecal bacteria grown anaerobically more than those grown aerobically. Finally, transplant of the fecal phage fraction from risperidone-treated mice was sufficient to cause excess weight gain in naïve recipients, again through reduced energy expenditure. Collectively, these data highlight a major role for the gut microbiome in weight gain following chronic use of risperidone, and specifically implicates the modulation of non-aerobic resting metabolism in this mechanism.

  18. Teaching Goal-Setting for Weight-Gain Prevention in a College Population: Insights from the CHOICES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jolynn; Kjolhaug, Jerri; Linde, Jennifer A.; Sevcik, Sarah; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article describes the effectiveness of goal setting instruction in the CHOICES (Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings) study, an intervention evaluating the effectiveness of weight gain prevention strategies for 2-year college students. Methods: Four hundred and forty-one participants from three community…

  19. Newborn regional body composition is influenced by maternal obesity, gestational weight gain and the birthweight standard score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, E M; Renault, Kristina Martha; Nørgaard, K;

    2014-01-01

    AIM: This study investigated whether newborn body composition is influenced by prepregnancy obesity and gestational weight gain (GWG) and explored any associations between body composition and birthweight standard score (z-score), categorised by size for gestational age. METHODS: We recruited 231...

  20. Effects of perceptual body image distortion and early weight gain on long-term outcome of adolescent anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Ilka; Finke, Beatrice; Tam, Friederike I; Fittig, Eike; Scholz, Michael; Gantchev, Krassimir; Roessner, Veit; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN), a severe mental disorder with an onset during adolescence, has been found to be difficult to treat. Identifying variables that predict long-term outcome may help to develop better treatment strategies. Since body image distortion and weight gain are central elements of diagnosis and treatment of AN, the current study investigated perceptual body image distortion, defined as the accuracy of evaluating one's own perceived body size in relation to the actual body size, as well as total and early weight gain during inpatient treatment as predictors for long-term outcome in a sample of 76 female adolescent AN patients. Long-term outcome was defined by physical, psychological and psychosocial adjustment using the Morgan-Russell outcome assessment schedule as well as by the mere physical outcome consisting of menses and/or BMI approximately 3 years after treatment. Perceptual body image distortion and early weight gain predicted long-term outcome (explained variance 13.3 %), but not the physical outcome alone. This study provides first evidence for an association of perceptual body image distortion with long-term outcome of adolescent anorexia nervosa and underlines the importance of sufficient early weight gain.

  1. The effect of music on weight gain of preterm infants older than 32 weeks: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Maria L. Auto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of recorded music with multimodal stimulation on the weight gain of preterm infants included in the Kangaroo-Mother Program. Methods: Randomized clinical trial with 61 premature infants, of both sexes, with postconceptional age greater or equal to 32 weeks and at least ten days of life, without detected abnormalities in the visual and hearing systems, and hospitalized in the Kangaroo-Mother Unit. Patients were randomized in two groups: of 31 preterm infants received multimodal stimulation with music daily, for seven days; 30 preterm infants received only multimodal stimulation. The following characteristics were evaluated: weight gain, energy consumption, heart rate and respiratory rate, stress signs and feeding method. Comparison between groups was made by Student’s t-test, Mann Whitney test and chi-square test, being significant p<0.05. Results: The two groups did not present significant differences in relation to the feeding method and energy consumption (p=0.46; however, weight gain was greater in the Experimental Group (p=0.002, which also presented better stability in cardiac and respiratory rates (p<0.001 and a significant reduction of stress signs (p=0.007, compared with the Control Group. Conclusions: The recorded music with multimodal stimulation is associated with a greater gain in body weight of hospitalized preterm infants as well as presents a positive influence on vital and stress signs (Clinical Trials Registry - UTN: U1111-1153-9301.

  2. Steps Ahead: Adaptation of physical activity and dietary guidelines for reducing unhealthy weight gain in the Lower Misissippi Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of our study was to test the effectiveness of adapting the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2010) (DG), with and without a physical activity (PA) component, in reducing weight gain in the Lower Mississippi Delta region (LMD) of the United States. A sample of 121 White and African-Americ...

  3. The influence of nutritional and management factors on piglet weight gain to weaning in a commercial herd in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, J; Halas, D; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik;

    2007-01-01

    The effects of weaning age, type of creep diet and the classification of piglets as ‘eaters' or ‘non eaters' of creep feed on weight gain to weaning were examined. Four antimicrobial-free diets were offered from day 14 of lactation: (i) wheat-soy based diet with animal and vegetable (‘mixed...

  4. Gut microbiota Modulated by Probiotics and Garcinia cambogia Extract Correlate with Weight Gain and Adipocyte Sizes in High Fat-Fed Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jaeyoung; Seo, Minseok; Park, Hwanhee; Lee, Woon Kyu; Guan, Le Luo; Yoon, Joon; Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey; Ahn, Hyeonju; Kim, Se-Young; Kang, Yoon-Mo; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2016-01-01

    Results of recent studies on gut microbiota have suggested that obesogenic bacteria exacerbate obesity and metabolic dysfunction in the host when fed a high fat diet (HFD). In order to explore obesity-associated bacterial candidates and their response to diet, the composition of faecal bacterial communities was investigated by analyzing 16S rRNA gene sequences in mice. Dietary intervention with probiotics and Garcinia cambogia extract attenuated weight gain and adipocyte size in HFD-fed mice. To identify obesity-causative microbiota, two statistical analyses were performed. Forty-eight bacterial species were found to overlap between the two analyses, indicating the commonly identified species as diet-driven and obesity-associated, which would make them strong candidates for host-microbiome interaction on obesity. Finally, correlation based network analysis between diet, microbe, and host revealed that Clostridium aminophilum, a hyper-ammonia-producing bacterium, was highly correlated with obesity phenotypes and other associated bacteria, and shown to be suppressed by the combination of probiotics and Garcinia cambogia extract. Results of the present study suggest that probiotics and Garcinia cambogia extract alleviate weight gain and adiposity, in part via differentially modulating the composition of gut microbiota in HFD fed mice. PMID:27658722

  5. Gut microbiota Modulated by Probiotics and Garcinia cambogia Extract Correlate with Weight Gain and Adipocyte Sizes in High Fat-Fed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jaeyoung; Seo, Minseok; Park, Hwanhee; Lee, Woon Kyu; Guan, Le Luo; Yoon, Joon; Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey; Ahn, Hyeonju; Kim, Se-Young; Kang, Yoon-Mo; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2016-09-23

    Results of recent studies on gut microbiota have suggested that obesogenic bacteria exacerbate obesity and metabolic dysfunction in the host when fed a high fat diet (HFD). In order to explore obesity-associated bacterial candidates and their response to diet, the composition of faecal bacterial communities was investigated by analyzing 16S rRNA gene sequences in mice. Dietary intervention with probiotics and Garcinia cambogia extract attenuated weight gain and adipocyte size in HFD-fed mice. To identify obesity-causative microbiota, two statistical analyses were performed. Forty-eight bacterial species were found to overlap between the two analyses, indicating the commonly identified species as diet-driven and obesity-associated, which would make them strong candidates for host-microbiome interaction on obesity. Finally, correlation based network analysis between diet, microbe, and host revealed that Clostridium aminophilum, a hyper-ammonia-producing bacterium, was highly correlated with obesity phenotypes and other associated bacteria, and shown to be suppressed by the combination of probiotics and Garcinia cambogia extract. Results of the present study suggest that probiotics and Garcinia cambogia extract alleviate weight gain and adiposity, in part via differentially modulating the composition of gut microbiota in HFD fed mice.

  6. Pregnancy in Sickle Cell-Haemoglobin C (SC) Disease, A Retrospective Study of Birth Size and Maternal Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thame, Minerva M.; Singh-Minott, Indira; Osmond, Clive; Melbourne-Chambers, Roxanne H.; Serjeant, Graham R

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess pregnancy and fetal outcomes in Jamaican subjects with sickle cell-haemoglobin C (SC) disease. Study Design A retrospective chart review over 21 years (1992-2012) of all pregnancies in SC disease and a comparison group matched by gender and date of delivery in mothers with a normal haemoglobin (AA) phenotype at the University Hospital of the West Indies, Jamaica. There were 118 pregnancies in 81 patients with SC disease and 110 pregnancies in 110 in the normal comparison group. Corrections were made for repeat pregnancies from the same mother. Outcome measures included maternal weight at 20, 25, 30, 35 and 38 weeks gestation, maternal pregnancy complications, birth weight, head circumference and crown heel length and were used to analyse possible predictors of birth weight. Results First antenatal visits occurred later in women with SC disease, who also had lower haemoglobin level and lower systolic blood pressure. The prevalence of pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia, ante-partum or postpartum haemorrhage did not differ between genotypes. Maternal weight gain was significantly lower in SC disease and there was a significantly lower birth weight, head circumference, and gestational age. Conclusions Pregnancy in SC disease is generally benign but mothers had lower weight gain and lower birth weight babies, the difference persisting after correction for gestational age. PMID:27235631

  7. Basolateral amygdala response to food cues in the absence of hunger is associated with weight gain susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xue; Kroemer, Nils B; Veldhuizen, Maria G; Babbs, Amanda E; de Araujo, Ivan E; Gitelman, Darren R; Sherwin, Robert S; Sinha, Rajita; Small, Dana M

    2015-05-20

    In rodents, food-predictive cues elicit eating in the absence of hunger (Weingarten, 1983). This behavior is disrupted by the disconnection of amygdala pathways to the lateral hypothalamus (Petrovich et al., 2002). Whether this circuit contributes to long-term weight gain is unknown. Using fMRI in 32 healthy individuals, we demonstrate here that the amygdala response to the taste of a milkshake when sated but not hungry positively predicts weight change. This effect is independent of sex, initial BMI, and total circulating ghrelin levels, but it is only present in individuals who do not carry a copy of the A1 allele of the Taq1A polymorphism. In contrast, A1 allele carriers, who have decreased D2 receptor density (Blum et al., 1996), show a positive association between caudate response and weight change. Regardless of genotype, however, dynamic causal modeling supports unidirectional gustatory input from basolateral amygdala (BLA) to hypothalamus in sated subjects. This finding suggests that, as in rodents, external cues gain access to the homeostatic control circuits of the human hypothalamus via the amygdala. In contrast, during hunger, gustatory inputs enter the hypothalamus and drive bidirectional connectivity with the amygdala. These findings implicate the BLA-hypothalamic circuit in long-term weight change related to nonhomeostatic eating and provide compelling evidence that distinct brain mechanisms confer susceptibility to weight gain depending upon individual differences in dopamine signaling.

  8. Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Sources on Daily Weight Gain and Digestive Enzyme Activities of Juvenile Peanut Worm(Sipunculus nudus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qin; Xu Mingzhu; Tong Tong; Dong Lanfang

    2015-01-01

    In the study,glucose,sucrose,dextrin,tapioca starch,potato starch,corn starch and gelatinized corn starch were selected to make the diets with same nitrogen and lipid,and Juvenile peanut worms( Sipunculus nudus) were fed with the diets came from different carbohydrate sources,effects of diets with different carbohydrate sources on daily weight gain and digestive enzyme activities of S. nudus were studied. Results showed that diets with different carbohydrate sources had significant influences on daily weight gain and digestive enzyme activities of S. nudus( P < 0. 05). Daily weight gain in gelatinized corn starch group was significantly higher than that in other groups( P < 0. 05); daily weight gain in glucose group was significantly lower than that in other groups( P < 0. 05); daily weight gain in the three ungelatinized starch groups was significantly higher than that in glucose,sucrose and dextrin groups( P < 0. 05). Analysis of digestive enzyme activities showed that dietary carbohydrate sources had significant influences on digestive enzyme activities of S. nudus( P < 0. 05). Protease activities and amylase activities of S. nudus in sucrose group were the highest,which were significantly higher than that in the other groups( P < 0. 05); lipase activities of S. nudus in glucose group were the lowest,which were significantly lower than that in other groups( P < 0. 05). In conclusion,growth-promoting effects of macromolecules carbohydrates( starch) were better than that of disaccharide( sucrose) and monosaccharide( glucose),which of gelatinized starch were better than that of ungelatinized starch.

  9. Obstetric outcomes in normal weight and obese women in relation to gestational weight gain: comparison between Institute of Medicine guidelines and Cedergren criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potti, Sushma; Sliwinski, Christopher S; Jain, Neetu J; Dandolu, Vani

    2010-05-01

    We compared obstetric outcomes based on gestational weight gain in normal-weight and obese women using traditional Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines and newly recommended Cedergren criteria. Using the New Jersey Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) database and electronic birth records, perinatal outcomes were analyzed to estimate the independent effects of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain by IOM versus Cedergren criteria. Of 9125 subjects in PRAMS database from 2002 to 2006, 53.7% had normal BMI, 12.3% were overweight, 18.2% were obese, and the rest were underweight. Among normal-weight mothers, when compared with the IOM guidelines, macrosomia (6.45% versus 4.27%) and cesarean delivery rates (30.42% versus 29.83%) were lower using Cedergren criteria but the rates of preterm delivery (5.06% versus 9.44%), low birth weight (0.38% versus 2.42%), and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admissions (7.02% versus 10.86%) were higher with the Cedergren criteria. Similarly, among obese patients, when compared with IOM guidelines, macrosomia (10.79% versus 5.47%) and cesarean delivery rates (43.95% versus 40.71%) were lower using Cedergren criteria but the rates of preterm delivery (6.83% versus 8.32%), low birth weight (0.87% versus 1.88%), and NICU admissions (8.92% versus 13.78%) were higher with the Cedergren criteria. Based on our results, ideal gestational weight gain is presumably somewhere between the IOM and Cedergren's guidelines.

  10. The effects of weight gain after smoking cessation on atherogenic α1-antitrypsin-low-density lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, Maki; Wada, Hiromichi; Ura, Shuichi; Yamakage, Hajime; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko; Shimada, Sayaka; Akao, Masaharu; Koyama, Hiroshi; Kono, Koichi; Shimatsu, Akira; Takahashi, Yuko; Hasegawa, Koji

    2015-11-01

    Although cardiovascular risks decrease after quitting smoking, body weight often increases in the early period after smoking cessation. We have previously reported that the serum level of the α1-antitrypsin-low-density lipoprotein complex (AT-LDL)-an oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein that accelerates atherosclerosis-is high in current smokers, and that the level rapidly decreases after smoking cessation. However, the effects of weight gain after smoking cessation on this cardiovascular marker are unknown. In 183 outpatients (134 males, 49 females) who had successfully quit smoking, serum AT-LDL levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For all persons who had successfully quit smoking, body mass index (BMI) significantly increased 12 weeks after the first examination (p smoking is influenced by weight gain after smoking cessation.

  11. Interleukin-18 activates skeletal muscle AMPK and reduces weight gain and insulin resistance in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Birgitte Lindegaard; Matthews, Vance B; Brandt, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Circulating interleukin (IL)-18 is elevated in obesity, but paradoxically causes hypophagia. We hypothesized that IL-18 may attenuate high fat diet induced insulin resistance by activating AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK). We studied mice with a global deletion of the α isoform of the IL-18...

  12. Weight Gain Is Associated with Medial Contact Site of Subthalamic Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Filip Růžička; Robert Jech; Lucie Nováková; Dušan Urgošík; Josef Vymazal; Evžen Růžička

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess changes in body-weight in relation to active electrode contact position in the subthalamic nucleus. Regular body weight measurements were done in 20 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease within a period of 18 months after implantation. T1-weighted (1.5T) magnetic resonance images were used to determine electrode position in the subthalamic nucleus and the Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS-III) was used for motor assessment. The distance of...

  13. Weight cycling promotes fat gain and altered clock gene expression in adipose tissue in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankel, S N; Degerud, E M; Borkowski, K; Fjære, E; Midtbø, L K; Haugen, C; Solsvik, M H; Lavigne, A M; Liaset, B; Sagen, J V; Kristiansen, K; Mellgren, G; Madsen, L

    2014-01-15

    Repeated attempts to lose weight by temporary dieting may result in weight cycling, eventually further gain of body fat, and possible metabolic adaptation. We tested this with a controlled experiment in C57BL/6J mice subjected to four weight cycles (WC), continuous hypercaloric feeding (HF), or low-fat feeding (LF). To search for genes involved in an adaptive mechanism to former weight cycling and avoid acute effects of the last cycle, the last hypercaloric feeding period was prolonged by an additional 2 wk before euthanization. Total energy intake was identical in WC and HF. However, compared with HF, the WC mice gained significantly more total body mass and fat mass and showed increased levels of circulating leptin and lipids in liver. Both the HF and WC groups showed increased adipocyte size and insulin resistance. Despite these effects, we also observed an interesting maintenance of circulating adiponectin and free fatty acid levels after WC, whereas changes in these parameters were observed in HF mice. Global gene expression was analyzed by microarrays. Weight-cycled mice were characterized by a downregulation of several clock genes (Dbp, Tef, Per1, Per2, Per3, and Nr1d2) in adipose tissues, which was confirmed by quantitative PCR. In 3T3-L1 cells, we found reduced expression of Dbp and Tef early in adipogenic differentiation, which was mediated via cAMP-dependent signaling. Our data suggest that clock genes in adipose tissue may play a role in metabolic adaptation to weight cycling.

  14. Insulin Detemir Causes Lesser Weight Gain in Comparison to Insulin Glargine: Role on Hypothalamic NPY and Galanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ishraq Zafar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Compared with other insulin analogues, insulin detemir induces less weight gain. This study investigated whether this effect was achieved by influencing the hypothalamic appetite regulators neuropeptide Y (NPY and galanin (GAL. Methods. Type  2 diabetic rat models were established with a high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of STZ. All rats were divided into NC, DM, DM+DE and DM+GLA groups. Glycemic levels of all study groups were checked at study onset and after 4 weeks of insulin treatment. Food intake and body weight were monitored during treatment. After 4 weeks, the hypothalamus of rats was examined for NPY and GAL mRNA and protein expression. Results. After 4 weeks of treatment, compared with the DM+GLA group, the DM+DE group exhibited less food intake (P<0.05 and less weight gain (P<0.05, but showed similar glycemic control. The expression of hypothalamic NPY and GAL at both mRNA and protein level were significantly lower (P<0.05 in the DM+DE group. Conclusion. Insulin detemir decreased food intake in type 2 diabetic rats, which led to reduced weight gain when compared to insulin glargine treatment. This effect is likely due to downregulation of hypothalamic NPY and GAL.

  15. Novel regulator of acylated ghrelin, CF801, reduces weight gain, rebound feeding after a fast, and adiposity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin K Wellman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is a 28 amino-acid hormonal peptide that is intimately related to the regulation of food intake and body weight. Once secreted, ghrelin binds to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor-1a (GHSR-1a, the only known receptor for ghrelin and is capable of activating a number of signaling cascades ultimately resulting in an increase in food intake and adiposity. Because ghrelin has been linked to overeating and the development of obesity, a number of pharmacological interventions have been generated in order to interfere with either the activation of ghrelin or interrupting ghrelin signaling as a means to reducing appetite and decrease weight gain. Here we present a novel peptide, CF801, capable of reducing circulating acylated ghrelin levels and subsequent body weight gain and adiposity. To this end, we show that IP administration of CF801 is sufficient to reduce circulating plasma acylated ghrelin levels. Acutely, intraperitoneal injections of CF801 resulted in decreased rebound feeding after an overnight fast. When delivered chronically decreased weight gain and adiposity without affecting caloric intake. CF801, however, did cause a change in diet preference, decreasing preference for a high fat diet and increasing preference for regular chow diet. Given the complexity of ghrelin receptor function, we propose that CF801 along with other compounds that regulate ghrelin secretion may prove to be a beneficial tool in the study of the ghrelin system, and potential targets for ghrelin based obesity treatments without altering the function of ghrelin receptors.

  16. Trypsin inhibitor from tamarindus indica L. seeds reduces weight gain and food consumption and increases plasmatic cholecystokinin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joycellane Alline do Nascimento Campos Ribeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Seeds are excellent sources of proteinase inhibitors, some of which may have satietogenic and slimming actions. We evaluated the effect of a trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus indica L. seeds on weight gain, food consumption and cholecystokinin levels in Wistar rats. METHODS: A trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus was isolated using ammonium sulfate (30-60% following precipitation with acetone and was further isolated with Trypsin-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Analyses were conducted to assess the in vivo digestibility, food intake, body weight evolution and cholecystokinin levels in Wistar rats. Histological analyses of organs and biochemical analyses of sera were performed. RESULTS: The trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus reduced food consumption, thereby reducing weight gain. The in vivo true digestibility was not significantly different between the control and Tamarindus trypsin inhibitor-treated groups. The trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus did not cause alterations in biochemical parameters or liver, stomach, intestine or pancreas histology. Rats treated with the trypsin inhibitor showed significantly elevated cholecystokinin levels compared with animals receiving casein or water. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the isolated trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus reduces weight gain by reducing food consumption, an effect that may be mediated by increased cholecystokinin. Thus, the potential use of this trypsin inhibitor in obesity prevention and/or treatment should be evaluated.

  17. General and persistent effects of high-intensity sweeteners on body weight gain and caloric compensation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swithers, Susan E; Baker, Chelsea R; Davidson, T L

    2009-08-01

    In an earlier work (S. E. Swithers & T. L. Davidson, 2008), rats provided with a fixed amount of a yogurt diet mixed with saccharin gained more weight and showed impaired caloric compensation relative to rats given the same amount of yogurt mixed with glucose. The present 4 experiments examined the generality of these findings and demonstrated that increased body weight gain was also demonstrated when animals consumed a yogurt diet sweetened with an alternative high-intensity sweetener (acesulfame potassium; AceK) as well as in animals given a saccharin-sweetened base diet (refried beans) that was calorically similar but nutritionally distinct from low-fat yogurt. These studies also extended earlier findings by showing that body weight differences persist after saccharin-sweetened diets are discontinued and following a shift to a diet sweetened with glucose. In addition, rats first exposed to a diet sweetened with glucose still gain additional weight when subsequently exposed to a saccharin-sweetened diet. The results of these experiments add support to the hypothesis that exposure to weak or nonpredictive relationships between sweet tastes and caloric consequences may lead to positive energy balance.

  18. A Longitudinal Study of Childhood Depression and Anxiety in Relation to Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofey, Dana L.; Kolko, Rachel P.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Silk, Jennifer S.; Bost, James E.; Feng, Wentao; Szigethy, Eva M.; Noll, Robert B.; Ryan, Neal D.; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2009-01-01

    Adult mood disturbances are highly correlated with obesity, although little is known about the developmental relationship between mood disorders and weight. This study investigated the relationship between childhood psychopathology and weight over the course of 3 years. Body Mass Index (BMI) percentiles and demographic data of children (ages 8-18)…

  19. Metformin in prevention and treatment of antipsychotic induced weight gain: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varuni Asanka de Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most antipsychotics are associated with weight gain and other metabolic complications. Several randomized trials have shown metformin to be effective, but this still hasn’t been included in clinical guidelines on managing antipsychotic induced weight gain. Methods All double blind placebo controlled trials assessing the efficacy of metformin in the treatment of antipsychotic induced weight gain were included. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL and MEDLINE were searched for the period January 2000-December 2015. Meta-analysis was carried out using the random effects model. Results Meta analysis of 12 published studies with a total of 743 patients found that in patients treated with antipsychotics, metformin treatment resulted in significantly better anthropometric and metabolic parameters than placebo. The mean change in weight was −3.27 kg (95 % CI −4.66 to −1.89 (Z = 4.64, p < 0.001. Metformin compared to placebo resulted in significant reduction in BMI [−1.13 kg/m2 (95 % CI −1.61 to −0.66] and insulin resistance index [−1.49 (95 % CI −2.40 to −0.59] but not fasting blood sugar [−2.48 mg/dl (95 % CI −5.54 to 0.57]. Conclusion This meta-analysis confirms that metformin is effective in treating antipsychotic induced weight gain in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

  20. Exercise Training and Weight Gain in Obese Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial (ETIP Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Krohn Garnæs

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of exercise training for preventing excessive gestational weight gain (GWG and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is still uncertain. As maternal obesity is associated with both GWG and GDM, there is a special need to assess whether prenatal exercise training programs provided to obese women reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Our primary aim was to assess whether regular supervised exercise training in pregnancy could reduce GWG in women with prepregnancy overweight/obesity. Secondary aims were to examine the effects of exercise in pregnancy on 30 outcomes including GDM incidence, blood pressure, blood measurements, skinfold thickness, and body composition.This was a single-center study where we randomized (1:1 91 pregnant women with a prepregnancy body mass index (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2 to exercise training (n = 46 or control (standard maternity care (n = 45. Assessments were done at baseline (pregnancy week 12-18 and in late pregnancy (week 34-37, as well as at delivery. The exercise group was offered thrice weekly supervised sessions of 35 min of moderate intensity endurance exercise and 25 min of strength training. Seventeen women were lost to follow-up (eight in the exercise group and nine in the control group. Our primary endpoint was GWG from baseline testing to delivery. The principal analyses were done as intention-to-treat analyses, with supplementary per protocol analyses where we assessed outcomes in the women who adhered to the exercise program (n = 19 compared to the control group. Mean GWG from baseline to delivery was 10.5 kg in the exercise group and 9.2 kg in the control group, with a mean difference of 0.92 kg (95% CI -1.35, 3.18; p = 0.43. Among the 30 secondary outcomes in late pregnancy, an apparent reduction was recorded in the incidence of GDM (2009 WHO definition in the exercise group (2 cases; 6.1% compared to the control group (9 cases; 27.3%, with an odds ratio of 0.1 (95% CI 0.02, 0.95; p = 0

  1. Weight gain is associated with improved glycaemic control but with adverse changes in plasma lipids and blood pressure isn Type 1 diabetes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ferriss, J B

    2012-02-03

    AIMS: To assess the effects of weight gain on metabolic control, plasma lipids and blood pressure in patients with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Patients in the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study (n = 3250) were examined at baseline and 1800 (55%) were re-examined a mean of 7.3 years later. Patients had Type 1 diabetes, defined as a diagnosis made before age 36 years and with a need for continuous insulin therapy within a year of diagnosis. Patients were aged 15-60 years at baseline and were stratified for age, sex and duration of diabetes. RESULTS: The change in HbA(1c) from baseline to follow-up examination was significantly more favourable in those who gained 5 kg or more during follow-up (\\'marked weight gain\\') than in patients who gained less or no weight or lost weight (\\'less or no weight gain\\'). In those with marked weight gain, there was a significantly greater rise in plasma triglycerides and total cholesterol and significantly less favourable changes in low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with those with less or no weight gain, with or without adjustment for HbA(1c). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure also rose significantly more in the group with marked weight gain. CONCLUSION: Weight gain in patients with Type 1 diabetes has adverse effects on plasma lipids and blood pressure, despite a small improvement in glycaemic control.

  2. Carbohydrate modified diet & insulin sensitizers reduce body weight & modulate metabolic syndrome measures in EMPOWIR (enhance the metabolic profile of women with insulin resistance: a randomized trial of normoglycemic women with midlife weight gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriette R Mogul

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Progressive midlife weight gain is associated with multiple adverse health outcomes and may represent an early manifestation of insulin resistance in a distinct subset of women. Emerging data implicate hyperinsulinema as a proximate cause of weight gain and support strategies that attenuate insulin secretion. OBJECTIVE: To assess a previously reported novel hypocaloric carbohydrate modified diet alone (D, and in combination with metformin (M and metformin plus low-dose rosiglitazone (MR, in diverse women with midlife weight gain (defined as >20lbs since the twenties, normal glucose tolerance, and hyperinsulinemia. PARTICIPANTS: 46 women, mean age 46.6±1.0, BMI 30.5±0.04 kg/m2, 54.5% white, 22.7% black, 15.9% Hispanic, at 2 university medical centers. METHODS: A dietary intervention designed to reduce insulin excursions was implemented in 4 weekly nutritional group workshops prior to randomization. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Change in 6-month fasting insulin. Pre-specified secondary outcomes were changes in body weight, HOMA-IR, metabolic syndrome (MS measures, leptin, and adiponectin. RESULTS: Six-month fasting insulin declined significantly in the M group: 12.5 to 8.0 µU/ml, p = .026. Mean 6-month weight decreased significantly and comparably in D, M, and MR groups: 4.7, 5.4, and 5.5% (p's.049, .002, and.032. HOMA-IR decreased in M and MR groups (2.5 to 1.6 and 1.9 to 1.3, p's = .054, .013. Additional improvement in MS measures included reduced waist circumference in D and MR groups and increased HDL in the D and M groups. Notably, mean fasting leptin did not decline in a subset of subjects with weight loss (26.15±2.01 ng/ml to 25.99±2.61 ng/ml, p = .907. Adiponectin increased significantly in the MR group (11.1±1.0 to 18.5±7.4, p<.001 Study medications were well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that EMPOWIR's easily implemented dietary interventions, alone and in combination with pharmacotherapies that

  3. Comparison of the Effects of Coconut Oil and Soyabean Oil on TSH Level and Weight Gain in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidushi Gupta

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted on 12 albino rabbits of either sex and weighing between 1-1.5kg to see the influence of coconut oil and soyabean oil on serum TSH levels and weight gain for a period of 12 weeks.  The rabbits were divided into 2 groups of six each.  Rabbits in group 1 were fed on coconut oil and in group 2 were fed on soyabean oil in addition to their standard diet.  At the end of 12 weeks we found that rabbits fed on soyabean oil had significant increase in TSH levels (p= 0.003 and gained more weight (p=0.000 when compared to rabbits fed on coconut oil.

  4. Risperidone-induced polydipsia and polyphagia associated with galactorrhea, abdominal pain, and rapid weight gain in an adolescent Hispanic female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Khalid I; Briones, David F; DeVargas, Cecilia

    2007-11-01

    A 15-year-old Hispanic female was started on risperidone for new-onset psychosis. The patient responded well to the gradual dose increase but developed rapid weight gain secondary to polydipsia and polyphagia. She also began complaining of nipple discharge and griping abdominal pain on the left lower quadrant by the third week of treatment. Her prolactin level escalated to three times normal with a weight gain of 12 pounds in 16 days. Risperidone was switched to another antipsychotic. Her prolactin level then dropped to a normal level within 7 days and she lost 7 pounds in the next 2 weeks. Her abdominal pain, galactorrhea, polydipsia, and polyphagia subsided within the first few days of the cessation of risperdione.

  5. The Impact of Weight Gain on Motivation, Compliance, and Metabolic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes, approximately 85% of whom are overweight or obese, often have an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as hypertension and dyslipidemia. Both type 2 diabetes and obesity are independent risk factors for CVD. Unfortunately, many therapies aimed at maintaining and improving glucose control are associated with weight gain. Among the older antidiabetes agents, most, including the insulin secretagogues and sensitizers, can lead to weig...

  6. Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome Risk Is Increased with Higher Infancy Weight Gain and Decreased with Longer Breast Feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Khuc; Estela Blanco; Raquel Burrows; Marcela Reyes; Marcela Castillo; Betsy Lozoff; Sheila Gahagan

    2012-01-01

    Background. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is increasing in pediatric age groups worldwide. Meeting the criteria for the metabolic syndrome puts children at risk for later cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Methods. Using linear regression, we examined the association between infant weight gain from birth to 3 months and risk for the metabolic syndrome among 16- to 17-year-old Chilean adolescents (n = 357), accounting for the extent of breastfeeding in infancy and known covariates in...

  7. Pregnancy outcomes related to gestational weight gain in women defined by their body mass index, parity, height, and smoking status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Vaeth, Michael; Baker, Jennifer L

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recommendations for gestational weight gain (GWG) account for a woman's prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), but other factors may be important. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to investigate whether, within BMI categories, the GWG with the lowest risks to mother and infant varied...... of women. RESULTS: The risk of SGA decreased with increasing GWG in both parity groups, but SGA risk present only in obese primiparae and multiparae, but the PPWR risk increased with increasing GWG...

  8. Proliferation capacity of T-lymphocytes is affected transiently after a long-term weight gain in Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, H; Janssens, G P J; Rochus, K; Duchateau, L; Scharek-Tedin, L; Zentek, J; Nguyen, P; Cox, E; Buyse, J; Biourge, V; Hesta, M

    2013-04-15

    Across species obesity is associated with several disorders but in companion animals little information is available on the impact of chronic obesity on immune competence. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether weight gain and stable obese bodyweight affects the immune cell response. Obesity was induced in eight adult healthy beagle dogs (weight gain group; WGG) by a weight gain period (WGP) of 47 weeks, which was immediately followed by a period (stable period: SP) of stable obesity of 26 weeks. Eight adult healthy beagle dogs were included as a control group (CG) and remained at their ideal bodyweight throughout the entire study. Body composition was measured at five intervening time-points. Concentration of serum leptin and inflammatory cytokines, functionality of lymphocytes and phagocytic activity of neutrophils and monocytes were evaluated at ten intervening time-points. Serum leptin concentration was rising during the WGP in the WGG but went to lower concentrations during the SP. At the end of long-term weight gain, a decreased mitogen-induced proliferation of T-lymphocytes was noted but this alteration seemed to be transient after stabilization of bodyweight. This finding may imply an altered immune response for dogs with different energy balances. However, no systemic low grade inflammation or alteration in other immune cell functions was observed. Consequently it is suggested that the change in energy balance during the onset of obesity (becoming obese versus being obese), evokes an additional obesity-related disorder in dogs, i.e. impaired T-lymphocyte immune function.

  9. High Adherence to CPAP Treatment Does Not Prevent the Continuation of Weight Gain among Severely Obese OSAS Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllylä, Minna; Kurki, Samu; Anttalainen, Ulla; Saaresranta, Tarja; Laitinen, Tarja

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients benefit from continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in a dose-response manner. We determined adherence and weight control, as well as their predictors, among long-term CPAP users. Methods: Cohort of 1,023 OSAS patients had used CPAP on average of 6.6 ± 1.2 years. BMI was determined at baseline and at follow-up visits. There were 7.4 ± 1.7 BMI and 6.5 ± 1.8 CPAP usage measurements per patient on average. Using the Bayesian hierarchical model, we determined the patients' individual trends of BMI and adherence development. Patients with significantly increasing or decreasing trends were identified at the posterior probability level of > 90%. Results: The mean age in the cohort was 55.6 ± 9.8 years, BMI 33.5 ± 6.4 kg/m2, apnea-hypopnea index 33.7 ± 23.1, and CPAP usage 6.0 ± 1.8 h/day. The majority of patients had no significant change in BMI (mean annual weight gain 0.04 ± 0.29 kg/m2) or CPAP adherence (mean annual increase 11.4 ± 7.0 min/day). However, at the individual level, 10% of the patients showed significant annual weight gain (0.63 ± 0.35 kg/m2) during the 5-year follow-up period. At baseline these patients were already more severely obese (mean BMI 40.0 ± 5.9 kg/m2) despite being younger (mean 50.9 ± 9.5 years) than the rest of the cohort. Conclusions: In the majority of CPAP-treated OSAS patients, weight did not significantly change but gained slightly slower than in age-matched population in general. However, in 10% of patients, high adherence to CPAP treatment did not prevent the continuation of weight gain. These patients present a high-risk group for OSAS-related multimorbidity later in life. Citation: Myllylä M, Kurki S, Anttalainen U, Saaresranta T, Laitinen T. High adherence to CPAP treatment does not prevent the continuation of weight gain among severely obese OSAS patients. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(4):519–528. PMID:26888588

  10. Preventing olanzapine-induced weight gain using betahistine: a study in a rat model with chronic olanzapine treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiamei Lian

    Full Text Available Olanzapine is the one of first line antipsychotic drug for schizophrenia and other serious mental illness. However, it is associated with troublesome metabolic side-effects, particularly body weight gain and obesity. The antagonistic affinity to histamine H1 receptors (H1R of antipsychotic drugs has been identified as one of the main contributors to weight gain/obesity side-effects. Our previous study showed that a short term (2 weeks combination treatment of betahistine (an H1R agonist and H3R antagonist and olanzapine (O+B reduced (-45% body weight gain induced by olanzapine in drug-naïve rats. A key issue is that clinical patients suffering with schizophrenia, bipolar disease and other mental disorders often face chronic, even life-time, antipsychotic treatment, in which they have often had previous antipsychotic exposure. Therefore, we investigated the effects of chronic O+B co-treatment in controlling body weight in female rats with chronic and repeated exposure of olanzapine. The results showed that co-administration of olanzapine (3 mg/kg, t.i.d. and betahistine (9.6 mg/kg, t.i.d. significantly reduced (-51.4% weight gain induced by olanzapine. Co-treatment of O+B also led to a decrease in feeding efficiency, liver and fat mass. Consistently, the olanzapine-only treatment increased hypothalamic H1R protein levels, as well as hypothalamic pAMPKα, AMPKα and NPY protein levels, while reducing the hypothalamic POMC, and UCP1 and PGC-1α protein levels in brown adipose tissue (BAT. The olanzapine induced changes in hypothalamic H1R, pAMPKα, BAT UCP1 and PGC-1α could be reversed by co-treatment of O+B. These results supported further clinical trials to test the effectiveness of co-treatment of O+B for controlling weight gain/obesity side-effects in schizophrenia with chronic antipsychotic treatment.

  11. Reflections from a systematic review of dietary energy density and weight gain: is the inclusion of drinks valid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L; Wilks, D C; Lindroos, A K; Jebb, S A

    2009-11-01

    The association between dietary energy density, increased energy intake and weight gain is supported by experimental evidence, but confirmation of an effect in free-living humans is limited. Experimental evidence supports a role of energy density in obesity through changes in food composition, not drinks consumption. The inclusion of drinks in the calculation creates a variable of questionable validity and has a substantive impact on the estimated energy density of the diet. We posit, based on the experimental evidence, that calculating the energy density of diets by excluding drinks and including calories from drinks as a covariate in the analysis is the most valid and reliable method of testing the relationship between energy density and weight gain in free-living humans. We demonstrate, by systematically reviewing existing observational studies of dietary energy density and weight gain in free-living humans, how current variation in the method for calculating energy density hampers the interpretation of these data. Reaching an a priori decision on the appropriate methodology will reduce the error caused by multiple comparisons and facilitate meaningful interpretation of epidemiological evidence to inform the development of effective obesity prevention strategies.

  12. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Karen B.; Kennelly, John P.; Ordonez, Marta; Nelson, Randal; Leonard, Kelly; Stabler, Sally; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio; Field, Catherine J.; Jacobs, René L.

    2016-01-01

    Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA) intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA) intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF) diet or 60% energy high fat (HF) diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA) fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA) fed rats (p < 0.05). In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet. PMID:27669293

  13. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen B. Kelly

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF diet or 60% energy high fat (HF diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p < 0.05. Gene expression analysis showed increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ and some of its target genes in adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA fed rats (p < 0.05. In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet.

  14. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Karen B; Kennelly, John P; Ordonez, Marta; Nelson, Randal; Leonard, Kelly; Stabler, Sally; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio; Field, Catherine J; Jacobs, René L

    2016-09-23

    Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA) intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA) intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF) diet or 60% energy high fat (HF) diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p folic acid (HF-EFA) fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA) fed rats (p folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet.

  15. Association study of olanzapine-induced weight gain and therapeutic response with SERT gene polymorphisms in female schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozina, Nada; Medved, Vesna; Kuzman, Martina Rojnic; Sain, Ivica; Sertic, Jadranka

    2007-09-01

    We investigated the relationships between L/S promoter (SERTPR) and l/s intron2 (SERTin2) genetic variants of serotonin transporter (SERT) polymorphisms with olanzapine-induced weight gain and treatment response in 94 female schizophrenic patients treated with olanzapine for up to 3 months. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated for each patient prior to olanzapine administration and 3 months afterwards. To assess and evaluate improvement of clinical psychotic symptoms and therapeutic response to the antipsychotic, all patients were rated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome ScaLe (PANSS). Overall, the presence of S SERTPR allelic variant and SS genotype was associated with significantly higher weight gain in subjects who were non-obese at the time of admission. The presence of L SERTPR variant was associated with significantly better treatment response measured with total PANSS and general PANSS subscale, while the presence of l SERTin2 variant determined better treatment response only in several items. No evidence of linkage disequilibrium between the two loci was found in the sample. These findings identify genetic factors associated with oLanzapine-induced weight gain and treatment response in femaLe schizophrenic patients.

  16. Quercetin decreases high-fat diet induced body weight gain and accumulation of hepatic and circulating lipids in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek-van den Hil, E F; van Schothorst, E M; van der Stelt, I; Swarts, H J M; Venema, D; Sailer, M; Vervoort, J J M; Hollman, P C H; Rietjens, I M C M; Keijer, J

    2014-09-01

    Dietary flavonoids may protect against cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Increased circulating lipid levels and hepatic lipid accumulation are known risk factors for CVD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of the flavonoid quercetin on hepatic lipid metabolism in mice with high-fat diet induced body weight gain and hepatic lipid accumulation. Adult male mice received a 40 energy% high-fat diet without or with supplementation of 0.33 % (w/w) quercetin for 12 weeks. Body weight gain was 29 % lower in quercetin fed mice (p lipid accumulation to 29 % of the amount present in the control mice (p lipid profiling revealed that the supplementation significantly lowered serum lipid levels. Global gene expression profiling of liver showed that cytochrome P450 2b (Cyp2b) genes, key target genes of the transcription factor constitutive androstane receptor (Car; official symbol Nr1i3), were downregulated. Quercetin decreased high-fat diet induced body weight gain, hepatic lipid accumulation and serum lipid levels. This was accompanied by regulation of cytochrome P450 2b genes in liver, which are possibly under transcriptional control of CAR. The quercetin effects are likely dependent on the fat content of the diet.

  17. Effects of agave nectar versus sucrose on weight gain, adiposity, blood glucose, insulin, and lipid responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshmand, Shirin; Holloway, Brittany; Nemoseck, Tricia; Cole, Sarah; Petrisko, Yumi; Hong, Mee Young; Kern, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Agave nectar is a fructose-rich liquid sweetener derived from a plant, and is often promoted as a low glycemic alternative to refined sugar. However, little scientific research has been conducted in animals or humans to determine its metabolic and/or health effects. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of agave nectar versus sucrose on weight gain, adiposity, fasting plasma blood glucose, insulin, and lipid levels. Eighteen (n=18) male ICR mice (33.8±1.6 g) were divided into two groups (n=6 for agave nectar and n=12 for sucrose) and provided free access to one of two diets of equal energy densities differing only in a portion of the carbohydrate provided. Diets contained 20% carbohydrate (by weight of total diet) from either raw agave nectar or sucrose. Epididymal fat pads were excised, and blood was collected after 34 days. Weight gain (4.3±2.2 vs. 8.4±3.4 g), fat pad weights (0.95±0.54 vs. 1.75±0.66 g), plasma glucose (77.8±12.2 vs. 111.0±27.9 mg/dL), and insulin (0.61±0.29 vs. 1.46±0.81 ng/mL) were significantly lower (P≤.05) for agave nectar-fed mice compared to sucrose-fed mice respectively. No statistically significant differences in total cholesterol or triglycerides were detected. These results suggest that in comparison to sucrose, agave nectar may have a positive influence on weight gain and glucose control. However, more research with a larger sample of animals and/or with human subjects is warranted.

  18. Weight Loss Instead of Weight Gain within the Guidelines in Obese Women during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of Maternal and Infant Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mufiza Zia Kapadia

    Full Text Available Controversy exists about how much, if any, weight obese pregnant women should gain. While the revised Institute of Medicine guidelines on gestational weight gain (GWG in 2009 recommended a weight gain of 5-9 kg for obese pregnant women, many studies suggested even gestational weight loss (GWL for obese women.A systematic review was conducted to summarize pregnancy outcomes in obese women with GWL compared to GWG within the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines (5-9 kg.Five databases were searched from 1 January 2009 to 31 July 2014. The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and the PRISMA Statement were followed. A modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to assess individual study quality. Small for gestational age (SGA, large for gestational age (LGA and preterm birth were our primary outcomes.Six cohort studies were included, none of which assessed preterm birth. Compared to GWG within the guidelines, women with GWL had higher odds of SGA 90th percentile (AOR 0.57; 95% CI 0.52-0.62. There was a trend towards a graded relationship between SGA <10th percentile and each of three obesity classes (I: AOR 1.73; 95% CI 1.53-1.97; II: AOR 1.63; 95% CI 1.44-1.85 and III: AOR 1.39; 95% CI 1.17-1.66, respectively.Despite decreased odds of LGA, increased odds of SGA and a lack of information on preterm birth indicate that GWL should not be advocated in general for obese women.

  19. Effect of propolis alcoholic extract on the weight gain, carcass traits and cecal pH of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseli Alves Ferreira Zanato

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of different rates of propolis alcoholic extract (PAE on the weight gain, carcass traits and cecal pH of growing rabbits. Forty White New Zealand rabbits were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design consisting of four treatments and ten replicates per treatment. The rabbits were allocated individually in wire cages containing a nipple drinker and a semi-automatic feeder. The treatments were: T1 = control, T2 = 1ml of ethanol, T3 = 0.8ml of PAE, and T4 = 1.5ml of PAE. Commercial feed and water were provided ad libitum to the animals, and the treatment with cereal alcohol and PAE was administered orally using a 2ml syringe. It was concluded that the addition of PAE to the rabbits’ feeding resulted in weight gain, carcass traits and cecal pH similar to those of animals which received the diets with ethanol without any addition, except for the paw weight, that was higher in the rabbits which were given PAE, and for the gastric system, that had a higher weight in the rabbits which received no addition to their diet.

  20. Impact of two myostatin (MSTN mutations on weight gain and lamb carcass classification in Norwegian White Sheep (Ovis aries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blichfeldt Thor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to estimate the effect of two myostatin (MSTN mutations in Norwegian White Sheep, one of which is close to fixation in the Texel breed. Methods The impact of two known MSTN mutations was examined in a field experiment with Norwegian White Sheep. The joint effect of the two MSTN mutations on live weight gain and weaning weight was studied on 644 lambs. Carcass weight gain from birth to slaughter, carcass weight, carcass conformation and carcass fat classes were calculated in a subset of 508 lambs. All analyses were carried out with a univariate linear animal model. Results The most significant impact of both mutations was on conformation and fat classes. The largest difference between the genotype groups was between the wild type for both mutations and the homozygotes for the c.960delG mutation. Compared to the wild types, these mutants obtained a conformation score 5.1 classes higher and a fat score 3.0 classes lower, both on a 15-point scale. Conclusions Both mutations reduced fatness and increased muscle mass, although the effect of the frameshift mutation (c.960delG was more important as compared to the 3'-UTR mutation (c.2360G>A. Lambs homozygous for the c.960delG mutation grew more slowly than those with other MSTN genotypes, but had the least fat and the largest muscle mass. Only c.960delG showed dominance effects.

  1. Reductions in knee joint forces with weight loss are attenuated by gait adaptations in class III obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVita, Paul; Rider, Patrick; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2016-03-01

    A consensus exists that high knee joint forces are a precursor to knee osteoarthritis and weight loss reduces these forces. Because large weight loss also leads to increased step length and walking velocity, knee contact forces may be reduced less than predicted by the magnitude of weight loss. The purpose was to determine the effects of weight loss on knee muscle and joint loads during walking in Class III obese adults. We determined through motion capture, force platform measures and biomechanical modeling the effects of weight loss produced by gastric bypass surgery over one year on knee muscle and joint loads during walking at a standard, controlled velocity and at self-selected walking velocities. Weight loss equaling 412 N or 34% of initial body weight reduced maximum knee compressive force by 824 N or 67% of initial body weight when walking at the controlled velocity. These changes represent a 2:1 reduction in knee force relative to weight loss when walking velocity is constrained to the baseline value. However, behavioral adaptations including increased stride length and walking velocity in the self-selected velocity condition attenuated this effect by ∼50% leading to a 392 N or 32% initial body weight reduction in compressive force in the knee joint. Thus, unconstrained walking elicited approximately 1:1 ratio of reduction in knee force relative to weight loss and is more indicative of walking behavior than the standard velocity condition. In conclusion, massive weight loss produces dramatic reductions in knee forces during walking but when patients stride out and walk faster, these favorable reductions become substantially attenuated.

  2. GLUTAMIC ACID IMPROVES BODY WEIGHT GAIN AND INTESTINAL MORPHOLOGY OF BROILER CHICKENS SUBMITTED TO HEAT STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML Porto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 1% dietary glutamic acid on the body weight, intestinal morphometry, and anti-Newcastle antibody titers of broiler chickens submitted to heat stress. One-d-old male broiler chicks (n=120 were distributed according to a 2 x 2 factorial design with two environmental temperatures (thermoneutral or heat stress and two diets (with 0 or 1% glutamic acid. Heat stress temperature was constantly maintained (24h/day 5 ºC higher than the thermoneutral temperature. Diets supplied the nutritional requirements of broilers in the pre-starter (1 to 7d and starter (8 to 21d phases. Birds were vaccinated against Newcastle disease on d 7 via eye drop. On days 5, 10, 15, and 20, individual body weight was determined, serum samples were collected from five birds, and duodenum samples were collected from four birds per treatment. Serum anti-Newcastle antibody titers were determined by enzyme immunoassay and transformed into log10. Villus height, crypt depth, and villus: crypt ratio were measured in the duodenum. Data were analyzed by ANOVA. Chronic heat stress negatively affected body weight and intestinal morphometry during the pre-starter and starter phases, but had no effect on antibody titers. Dietary glutamic acid supplementation (1% improved body weight and intestinal integrity of birds submitted to heat stress when compared with non-supplemented and heat-stressed birds.

  3. Weight Loss Self-Efficacy and Modelled Behaviour: Gaining Competence through Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Benjamin R.; McDonald, Marvin J.

    2011-01-01

    The Weight Efficacy Life-Style Questionnaire (WEL) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) assessed self-efficacy and physical activity for 124 volunteers aged 17-61. It was administered before and after participants attended a video modelling workshop. Half of the participants in the treatment and control groups were given…

  4. Astrovirus, reovirus and rotavirus concomitant infection causes decreased weight gain in broad-breasted white poults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkey astrovirus type-2 (TAstV-2), turkey rotavirus (TRotV) and turkey reovirus (TReoV) were evaluated for pathogenesis in 3 day-old turkey poults in all possible combinations of one, two or three viruses. Body-weights were recorded at 2, 4, 7, 10 and 14 days post inoculation (PI) and were decreas...

  5. INSIG2 is Associated with Lower Gain in Weight-for-Length Between Birth and Age 6 Months

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    Ann Chen Wu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have described the association of a common DNA polymorphism, rs7566605, near INSIG2 (insulin-induced gene 2 with obesity in multiple independent populations that include subjects ages 11–60 years.1 To our knowledge, no studies have examined the association of this polymorphism with weight status during early childhood. We explored the association of the rs7566605 polymorphism with weight-for-length among 319 children at 6 months and 3 years participating in Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort study. In contrast to studies of older individuals, CC homozygosity was associated with lower gain in weight-for-length z-score between birth and age 6 months than GG homozygosity or GC heterozygosity. At age 3, we did not find an association. The association of INSIG2 gene with obesity may change direction with age.

  6. Leptin and inhibin B as predictors of reproductive recovery in patients with anorexia nervosa during weight gain

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    Ćetković Aleksandar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anorexia nervosa represents an eating disorder that is associated with substantial psychological, social and physiological abnormalities, involving 0.5-2% of female population. Objective: The secretion patterns of inhibin B, as marker of gonadal activity, and leptin, as an indicator of energy balance and body composition, were analyzed in our cross-sectional study in order to asses the restoration of reproductive function in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN during gaining of normal weight. Method: The study included 20 patients with low weight AN (BMI 14.3±0.3 kg/mI, 22 partially recovered AN (BMI 17.4±0.1 kg/mI, and 29 gained regular weight, out of whom 16 had no restoration of menstrual cycle (BMI 19.5±0.1 kg/mI, and 13 had at least six consecutive menstrual cycles (BMI 19.3±1.0 kg/mI. Nineteen eumenorrheic females with BMI 19.8±0.4 kg/mI were the controls. Results: Significant correlation between leptin and inhibin B (ς=0.446; p=0.000, leptin and delta LH (ς=0.611; p<0.001, and inhibin B and delta LH (ς=0.574; p<0.001 was found in patients with anorexia nervosa during weight gain. Leptin (p=0.0039, inhibin B (p=0.0173, LH (p=0.0323 and delta LH (p=0.0087 were important predictors of reproductive recovery in patients with anorexia nervosa during gaining of normal weight. Among aforementioned parameters, leptin (p=0.0057 appeared to be the most important. Conclusion: Leptin is the most important predictor of reproductive recovery in patients with anorexia nervosa during weight normalization. These findings suggest that decreased leptin levels may be responsible for several neuroendocrine abnormalities seen in anorexia nervosa. Thus, interventional studies involving administration of recombinant leptin are required to fully clarify the physiologic and potentially therapeutic role of leptin in anorexia nervosa.

  7. Preventing large birth size in women with preexisting diabetes mellitus: The benefit of appropriate gestational weight gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin Y.; Sharma, Andrea J.; Sappenfield, William; Salihu, Hamisu M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the percentage of infants with large birth size attributable to excess gestational weight gain (GWG), independent of prepregnancy body mass index, among mothers with preexisting diabetes mellitus (PDM). Study design We analyzed 2004–2008 Florida linked birth certificate and maternal hospital discharge data of live, term (37–41 weeks) singleton deliveries (N = 641,857). We calculated prevalence of large-for-gestational age (LGA) (birth weight-for-gestational age ≥ 90th percentile) and macrosomia (birth weight > 4500 g) by GWG categories (inadequate, appropriate, or excess). We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate the relative risk (RR) of large birth size associated with excess compared to appropriate GWG among mothers with PDM. We then estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) of large birth size due to excess GWG among mothers with PDM (n = 4427). Results Regardless of diabetes status, half of mothers (51.2%) gained weight in excess of recommendations. Large birth size was higher in infants of mothers with PDM than in infants of mothers without diabetes (28.8% versus 9.4% for LGA, 5.8% versus 0.9% for macrosomia). Among women with PDM, the adjusted RR of having an LGA infant was 1.7 (95% CI 1.5, 1.9) for women with excess GWG compared to those with appropriate gain; the PAF was 27.7% (95% CI 22.0, 33.3). For macrosomia, the adjusted RR associated with excess GWG was 2.1 (95% CI 1.5, 2.9) and the PAF was 38.6% (95% CI 24.9, 52.4). Conclusion Preventing excess GWG may avert over one-third of macrosomic term infants of mothers with PDM. Effective strategies to prevent excess GWG are needed. PMID:27539071

  8. Risperidone-Induced Weight Gain in Referred Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Is Associated with a Common Polymorphism in the 5-Hydroxytryptamine 2C Receptor Gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Troost, Pieter W.; Lahuis, Bertine E.; Mulder, Hans; Mulder, Erik J.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Anderson, George M.; Scahill, Lawrence; Minderaa, Ruud B.

    2010-01-01

    Weight gain is an important adverse effect of risperidone, but predictors of significant weight gain have yet to be identified in pediatric patients. Here, we investigated differences between age-and gender-normed body mass index-standardized z scores at baseline and after 8 weeks of open-label, fle

  9. Risperidone-Induced Weight Gain in Referred Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Is Associated with a Common Polymorphism in the 5-Hydroxytryptamine 2C Receptor Gene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, P.J.; Troost, P.W.; Lahuis, B.E.; Mulder, H.; Mulder, E.J.H.; Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Anderson, G.M.; Scahill, L.; Minderaa, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Weight gain is an important adverse effect of risperidone, but predictors of significant weight gain have yet to be identified in pediatric patients. Here, we investigated differences between age- and gender-normed body mass index-standardized z scores at baseline and after 8 weeks of open-

  10. Educational Intervention to Modify Bottle-Feeding Behaviors among Formula-Feeding Mothers in the WIC Program: Impact on Infant Formula Intake and Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Katherine F.; Cohen, Roberta J.; Heinig, M. Jane; Dewey, Kathryn G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Formula-fed infants gain weight faster than breastfed infants. This study evaluated whether encouraging formula-feeding caregivers to be sensitive to infant satiety cues would alter feeding practices and reduce infant formula intake and weight gain. Design: Double-blind, randomized educational intervention, with intake and growth…

  11. Development and Validation of a Risk Score Predicting Substantial Weight Gain over 5 Years in Middle-Aged European Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffen, Annika; Sørensen, Thorkild; Knüppel, Sven;

    2013-01-01

    Identifying individuals at high risk of excess weight gain may help targeting prevention efforts at those at risk of various metabolic diseases associated with weight gain. Our aim was to develop a risk score to identify these individuals and validate it in an external population....

  12. A meta-analysis comparing the effect of vaccines against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae on daily weight gain in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, C S; Ersbøll, A K; Nielsen, J P

    2002-07-25

    Our aims were to evaluate the published literature concerning the effect of swine vaccination against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae on the average daily weight gain (ADWG). This was done by re-evaluating the influence of selected factors on ADWG by a meta-analysis of published studies from 1991 to 1999, fulfilling certain inclusion criteria. With ADWG as the outcome, an analysis of variance was performed for such variables as treatment, vaccination schedule, age during study, housing system and publication quality. Each clinical trial was considered as a random effect and the numbers of pigs in each trial were weightings. Of 63 published studies, 16 describing three commercial vaccines fulfilled the criteria for the meta-analysis. Due to few studies with one of the vaccines (n=3), only two vaccines were included. Vaccinated pigs gained an average of 592g (S.E.=15) with Stellamune and 590g (S.E.=15) with Suvaxyne compared to non-vaccinated pigs that gained an average of 569g (S.E.=14)(P<0.01) when adjusted for age during the study. Vaccine type, vaccination schedule, housing system and publication quality were not significantly associated with ADWG.

  13. Electrical vagus nerve stimulation decreases food consumption and weight gain in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Krzysztof; Bugajski, A; Thor, P

    2011-12-01

    There is growing evidence that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has a suppressive effect on both short- and long-term feeding in animal models. We previously showed that long-term VNS (102 days) with low-frequency electrical impulses (0.05 Hz) decreased food intake and body weight in rats. In the present study, we investigated the effect of high frequency (10 Hz) VNS on feeding behavior and appetite in rats fed a high-fat diet; peptide secretion and other parameters were assessed as well. Adult male Wistar rats were each implanted subcutaneously with a microstimulator (MS) and fed a high-fat diet throughout the entire study period (42 days). The left vagus nerve was stimulated by rectangular electrical pulses (10 ms, 200 mV, 10 Hz, 12 h a day) generated by the MS. Body weight and food intake were measured each morning. At the end of the experimental period, animals were euthanized and blood samples were taken. Serum levels of ghrelin, leptin and nesfatin-1 were assessed using radioimmunoassays. Adipose tissue content was evaluated by weighing epididymal fat pads, which were incised at the time of sacrifice. To determine whether VNS activated the food-related areas of the brain, neuronal c-Fos induction in the nuclei of the solitary tract (NTS) was assessed. Chronic vagus nerve stimulation significantly decreased food intake, body weight gain and epididymal fat pad weight in animals that received VNS compared with control animals. Significant neuronal responses in the NTS were observed following VNS. Finally, serum concentrations of ghrelin were increased, while serum levels of leptin were decreased. Although not significant, serum nesfatin-1 levels were also elevated. These results support the theory that VNS leads to reductions in food intake, body weight gain and adipose tissue by increasing brain satiety signals conducted through the vagal afferents. VNS also evoked a feed-related hormonal response, including elevated blood concentrations of nesfatin-1.

  14. A Qualitative Study to Examine Perceptions and Barriers to Appropriate Gestational Weight Gain among Participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women Infants and Children Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loan Pham Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Women of reproductive age are particularly at risk of obesity because of excessive gestational weight gain (GWG and postpartum weight retention, resulting in poor health outcomes for both mothers and infants. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine perceptions and barriers to GWG among low-income women in the WIC program to inform the development of an intervention study. Eleven focus groups were conducted and stratified by ethnicity, and each group included women of varying age, parity, and prepregnancy BMI ranges. Participants reported receiving pressure from spouse and family members to “eat for two” among multiple barriers to appropriate weight gain during pregnancy. Participants were concerned about gaining too much weight but had minimal knowledge of weight gain goals during pregnancy. Receiving regular weight monitoring was reported, but participants had inconsistent discussions about weight gain with healthcare providers. Most were not aware of the IOM guidelines nor the fact that gestational weight gain goals differed by prepregnancy weight status. Results of these focus groups analyses informed the design of a pregnancy weight tracker and accompanying educational handout for use in an intervention study. These findings suggest an important opportunity for GWG education in all settings where pregnant women are seen.

  15. Replacing sugary drinks with milk is inversely associated with weight gain among young obesity-predisposed children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Rangan, Anna; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    to extrapolate the influence of replacing sugary drinks with alternative beverages (water, milk and diet drinks) on Δweight or ΔBMI z-score. Sugary drink intake at baseline and substitution of sugary drinks with milk were associated with both Δweight and ΔBMI z-score. Every 100 g/d increase in sugary drink...... intake was associated with 0·10 kg and 0·06 unit increases in body weight (P=0·048) and BMI z-score (P=0·04), respectively. Substitution of 100 g/d sugary drinks with 100 g/d milk was inversely associated with Δweight (β=-0·16 kg; P=0·045) and ΔBMI z-score (β=-0·07 units; P=0·04). The results...... of this study suggest that sugary drink consumption was associated with body weight gain among young children with high predisposition for future overweight. In line with the current recommendations, sugary drinks, whether high in added or natural sugar, should be discouraged to help prevent childhood obesity...

  16. A Priori and a Posteriori Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy and Gestational Weight Gain: The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tielemans, Myrte J; Erler, Nicole S; Leermakers, Elisabeth T M; van den Broek, Marion; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Steegers, Eric A P; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Franco, Oscar H

    2015-11-12

    Abnormal gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We examined whether dietary patterns are associated with GWG. Participants included 3374 pregnant women from a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Dietary intake during pregnancy was assessed with food-frequency questionnaires. Three a posteriori-derived dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis: a "Vegetable, oil and fish", a "Nuts, high-fiber cereals and soy", and a "Margarine, sugar and snacks" pattern. The a priori-defined dietary pattern was based on national dietary recommendations. Weight was repeatedly measured around 13, 20 and 30 weeks of pregnancy; pre-pregnancy and maximum weight were self-reported. Normal weight women with high adherence to the "Vegetable, oil and fish" pattern had higher early-pregnancy GWG than those with low adherence (43 g/week (95% CI 16; 69) for highest vs. lowest quartile (Q)). Adherence to the "Margarine, sugar and snacks" pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of excessive GWG (OR 1.45 (95% CI 1.06; 1.99) Q4 vs. Q1). Normal weight women with higher scores on the "Nuts, high-fiber cereals and soy" pattern had more moderate GWG than women with lower scores (-0.01 (95% CI -0.02; -0.00) per SD). The a priori-defined pattern was not associated with GWG. To conclude, specific dietary patterns may play a role in early pregnancy but are not consistently associated with GWG.

  17. Arctigenin Inhibits Adipogenesis by Inducing AMPK Activation and Reduces Weight Gain in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yo-Han; Kee, Ji-Ye; Park, Jinbong; Kim, Hye-Lin; Jeong, Mi-Young; Kim, Dae-Seung; Jeon, Yong-Deok; Jung, Yunu; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Kang, JongWook; So, Hong-Seob; Park, Raekil; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Shin, Soyoung; Kim, Su-Jin; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon

    2016-09-01

    Although arctigenin (ARC) has been reported to have some pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, and antioxidant, there have been no reports on the anti-obesity effect of ARC. The aim of this study is to investigate whether ARC has an anti-obesity effect and mediates the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. We investigated the anti-adipogenic effect of ARC using 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs). In high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, whether ARC can inhibit weight gain was investigated. We found that ARC reduced weight gain, fat pad weight, and triglycerides in HFD-induced obese mice. ARC also inhibited the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) in in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, ARC induced the AMPK activation resulting in down-modulation of adipogenesis-related factors including PPARγ, C/EBPα, fatty acid synthase, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase. This study demonstrates that ARC can reduce key adipogenic factors by activating the AMPK in vitro and in vivo and suggests a therapeutic implication of ARC for obesity treatment. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2067-2077, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome Risk Is Increased with Higher Infancy Weight Gain and Decreased with Longer Breast Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Khuc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is increasing in pediatric age groups worldwide. Meeting the criteria for the metabolic syndrome puts children at risk for later cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Methods. Using linear regression, we examined the association between infant weight gain from birth to 3 months and risk for the metabolic syndrome among 16- to 17-year-old Chilean adolescents (n=357, accounting for the extent of breastfeeding in infancy and known covariates including gender, birth weight, and socioeconomic status. Results. Participants were approximately half male (51%, born at 40 weeks of gestation weighing 3.5 kg, and 48% were exclusively breastfed for ≥90 days. Factors independently associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome in adolescence were faster weight gain in the first 3 months of life (B=0.16, P<0.05 and male gender (B=0.24, P<0.05. Breastfeeding as the sole source of milk for ≥90 days was associated with significantly decreased risk of metabolic syndrome (B=−0.16. Conclusion. This study adds to current knowledge about early infant growth and breastfeeding and their long-term health effects.

  19. Total body sodium depletion and poor weight gain in children and young adults with an ileostomy: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Megan; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Harris, Mary Beth

    2014-06-01

    Patients with high-output small bowel ostomies are at risk for total body sodium depletion (TBSD), defined as a urine sodium level children. The records of all children beyond the age of infancy with a small bowel ostomy cared for in our Children's Intestinal Rehabilitation Program from 2010-2012 were reviewed. Four patients between the ages of 18 months and 19 years were identified as having TBSD. All 4 patients experienced unintentional weight loss, despite adequate energy intake based on calculated needs, which was associated with a urine sodium level ≤10 mmol/L. With the supplementation of sodium, either enteral or intravenous, all patients demonstrated improved weight gain and correction of TBSD. The following cases suggest that the relationship between TBSD and FTT may extend well beyond the neonatal period and possibly into adulthood. We advise that patients of all ages with high stoma output have routine urine sodium levels checked, particularly in the setting of weight loss or poor gain. Furthermore, instances of TBSD should be treated with sodium supplementation. Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between TBSD and FTT and to establish intervention guidelines.

  20. The Impact of Eating and Exercise Frequency on Weight Gain - A Cross-Sectional Study on Medical Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padavinangadi, Abhinitha; Xuan, Lee Zi; Chandrasekaran, Nishalini; Johari, Nursyahirah; Jetti, Raghu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Diverse factors influence an individual’s ability to successfully achieve and maintain energy balance consistent with a healthy body weight. Eating frequency is one among the varied feature that thought to have a direct impact on the body weight gain. Aim The present cross-sectional study has been carried out with the intention of awareness of food habit that specifically emphasize the frequency of eating and its effect on weight gain of an individual. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study involved 265 medical undergraduate students. Faculty validated close ended questionnaire was distributed to the students and the responses given by them were then analysed. Statistical evaluation of data with Spearman correlation coefficient (r) was done. Results Among the total 265 participants, 177 (66.8%) were noted to have normal Body Mass Index (BMI 18.5-24.9). Out of them, 113 (64%) found to have eating frequency 3-4 meals/day, 44 (25%) with 1-2 meals/day, 18 (10%) with 5-6 meals/day and 2 (1%) with more than 6 meals/day. Low positive correlation (r=0.09) between mean frequency of eating and the number of subjects with normal BMI was observed. Conclusion An increase in the eating frequency can also be correlated with an increased prevalence of normal BMI individuals provided adequate physical exercise.

  1. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study of Betahistine to Counteract Olanzapine-Associated Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Nir; Beck, Yaffa; Albeck, Joseph H

    2016-06-01

    Patients with schizophrenia experience higher rates of obesity and related morbidity and mortality than the general population does. Given preclinical studies revealing the role of histamine H1 receptor in human eating behavior, and the potential of olanzapine to block with this system, we hypothesized that histamine H1 receptor agonists may be beneficial in reducing antipsychotic-associated weight gain. In the present study, 36 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and treated with olanzapine were randomized to betahistine (48 mg/d) or matching placebo for 16 weeks. Study outcomes were change in body weight from baseline and effect on antipsychotic efficacy of olanzapine. The patients in the betahistine group had less weight gain (-1.95 kg) compared with placebo group (5.6 + 5.5 kg vs 6.9 + 5.6 kg, respectively). Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Questionnaire showed improvement within each group and that subjects treated with betahistine enjoyed an improvement (reduction) by a mean of 35.7 points, higher when compared with placebo subjects who had a reduction of 26.6 points (P = 0.233). An almost equal amount of subjects in both groups experienced adverse effects during the course of this study (87.5% of betahistine vs 85.0% of placebo-treated subjects). Overall, there were no clinically marked differences in safety signals between both groups. A larger study addressing the weaknesses of this pilot study is warranted.

  2. A binary-weighted 64-dB programmable gain amplifier with a DCOC and AB-class buffer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶向阳; 王云峰; 张海英; 王卿璞

    2012-01-01

    This paper designs a binary-weighted programmable gain amplifier (PGA) with a DC offset cancellation (DCOC) circuit and an AB-class output buffer.The PGA adopts the circuit topology of a differential amplifier with diode-connected loads.Simulation shows that the performance of the PGA is not sensitive to temperature and process variation.According to test results,controlled by a digital signal of six bits,the PGA can realize a dynamic gain of-2 to 61 dB,and a gain step of 1 dB with a step error within ±0.38 dB.The minimum 3 dB bandwidth is 92 MHz.At low-gain mode,IIP3 is 17 dBm,and a 1 dB compression point can reach 5.7 dBm.The DCOC circuit enables the amplifier to be used in a direct-conversion receiver and the AB-class output buffer circuit reduces the overall static power consumption.

  3. Maternal dietary glycaemic load during pregnancy and gestational weight gain, birth weight and postpartum weight retention: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Heitmann, Berit L.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.

    2013-01-01

    -for-gestational age (LGA) or small-for-gestational age and postpartum weight retention (PPWR). Data were derived from the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996–2002), including data on gestational and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and 18 months postpartum. Dietary data were collected using a validated FFQ. Information...

  4. BAP guidelines on the management of weight gain, metabolic disturbances and cardiovascular risk associated with psychosis and antipsychotic drug treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Stephen J; Reynolds, Gavin P; Barnes, Tre; England, E; Haddad, P M; Heald, A; Holt, Rig; Lingford-Hughes, A; Osborn, D; McGowan, O; Patel, M X; Paton, C; Reid, P; Shiers, D; Smith, J

    2016-08-01

    Excess deaths from cardiovascular disease are a major contributor to the significant reduction in life expectancy experienced by people with schizophrenia. Important risk factors in this are smoking, alcohol misuse, excessive weight gain and diabetes. Weight gain also reinforces service users' negative views of themselves and is a factor in poor adherence with treatment. Monitoring of relevant physical health risk factors is frequently inadequate, as is provision of interventions to modify these. These guidelines review issues surrounding monitoring of physical health risk factors and make recommendations about an appropriate approach. Overweight and obesity, partly driven by antipsychotic drug treatment, are important factors contributing to the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in people with schizophrenia. There have been clinical trials of many interventions for people experiencing weight gain when taking antipsychotic medications but there is a lack of clear consensus regarding which may be appropriate in usual clinical practice. These guidelines review these trials and make recommendations regarding appropriate interventions. Interventions for smoking and alcohol misuse are reviewed, but more briefly as these are similar to those recommended for the general population. The management of impaired fasting glycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance ('pre-diabetes'), diabetes and other cardiovascular risks, such as dyslipidaemia, are also reviewed with respect to other currently available guidelines.These guidelines were compiled following a consensus meeting of experts involved in various aspects of these problems. They reviewed key areas of evidence and their clinical implications. Wider issues relating to primary care/secondary care interfaces are discussed but cannot be resolved within guidelines such as these.

  5. Post-weaning isolation promotes food intake and body weight gain in rats that experienced neonatal maternal separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Vitaly; Yoo, Sang Bae; Kang, Dong-Won; Lee, Jong-Ho; Jahng, Jeong Won

    2009-10-27

    Neonatal maternal separation (MS) in rats has been reported to result in permanent dysfunctions of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the development of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors later in life. In this study, we examined the effects of post-weaning social isolation stress on food intake and body weight gain of rats with MS experience. MS was performed daily for 180 min during the first 2 weeks of birth and nonhandled control (NH) pups were left undisturbed. Weanling male pups were caged either in a group of three or singly (social isolation), and then subjected to behavioral sessions for anxiety- or depression-like behaviors at 2 months of age. Social isolation following MS experience, but neither MS nor social isolation alone, significantly increased food intake and weight gain. MS pups showed increased immobility in forced swim test, compared to NH pups, regardless of their housing conditions. In elevated plus maze test, group-caged MS pups spent less time in the open arms and more time in the closed arms than group-caged NH pups, but social isolation did not further affect the arm stay of MS pups. However, statistical analyses revealed an interaction between MS and social isolation not only in the time spent in each arms, but also in defecation scores during the ambulatory activity test. These results suggest that post-weaning social isolation may promote hyperphagia and weight gain in young rats that experienced neonatal maternal separation, perhaps, in relation with its impact on the psycho-emotional behaviors of MS pups.

  6. Perspectives on weight gain and lifestyle practices during pregnancy among women with a history of macrosomia: a qualitative study in the Republic of Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Heery, Emily; McConnon, Áine; Kelleher, Cecily C; Wall, Patrick G.; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is a major risk factor for macrosomia (high birth weight delivery). This study aimed to explore views about weight gain and lifestyle practices during pregnancy among women with a history of macrosomia. Methods A qualitative descriptive study was conducted. Twenty-one second-time mothers whose first infant was macrosomic (>4 kg) were recruited from a randomised trial in a large maternity hospital in the Republic of Ireland. Semi-structured int...

  7. Comparison of T1-weighted fast spin-echo and T1-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images of the lumbar spine at 3.0 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavdas, Eleftherios; Vlychou, Marianna; Arikidis, Nikos; Kapsalaki, Eftychia; Roka, Violetta; Fezoulidis, Ioannis V. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital of Larissa, Medical School of Thessaly, Mezourlo (Greece)), e-mail: mvlychou@med.uth.gr

    2010-04-15

    Background: T1-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence has been reported to provide improved contrast between lesions and normal anatomical structures compared to T1-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) imaging at 1.5T regarding imaging of the lumbar spine. Purpose: To compare T1-weighted FSE and fast T1-weighted FLAIR imaging in normal anatomic structures and degenerative and metastatic lesions of the lumbar spine at 3.0T. Material and Methods: Thirty-two consecutive patients (19 females, 13 males; mean age 44 years, range 30-67 years) with lesions of the lumbar spine were prospectively evaluated. Sagittal images of the lumbar spine were obtained using T1-weighted FSE and fast T1-weighted FLAIR sequences. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses measuring the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and relative contrast (ReCon) between degenerative and metastatic lesions and normal anatomic structures were conducted, comparing these sequences. Results: On quantitative evaluation, SNRs of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), nerve root, and fat around the root of fast T1-weighted FLAIR imaging were significantly lower than those of T1-weighted FSE images (P<0.001). CNRs of normal spinal cord/CSF and disc herniation/ CSF for fast T1-weighted FLAIR images were significantly higher than those for T1-weighted FSE images (P<0.001). ReCon of normal spinal cord/CSF, disc herniation/CSF, and vertebral lesions/CSF for fast T1-weighted FLAIR images were significantly higher than those for T1-weighted FSE images (P<0.001). On qualitative evaluation, it was found that CSF nulling and contrast at the spinal cord (cauda equina)/CSF interface for T1-weighted FLAIR images were significantly superior compared to those for T1-weighted FSE images (P<0.001), and the disc/spinal cord (cauda equina) interface was better for T1-weighted FLAIR images (P<0.05). Conclusion: The T1-weighted FLAIR sequence may be considered as the preferred lumbar spine imaging

  8. THE EFFECT OF FERMENTED OIL PALM FRONDS IN DIET ON BODY WEIGHT GAIN AND MEAT QUALITY OF GOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Musnandar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of study were to evaluate the use of fermented of oil palm fronds (FOPF on body weight gain and meat quality of goat. This experiment was arranged in Completely Randomized Design with 3 treatments i.e. R1 (grass 0%: FOPF 100%, R2 (grass 50%: FOPF 50% and R3 (grass 100%: FOPF 0% and 5 replications. The parameters of the study were feed intake, average daily gain (ADG, weight and percentage of carcass and meat quality. The results indicated that feed intake and meat quality of goat was not affected by treatment, but the average daily gain, carcass weight, and percentage of carcass, was affected by the differences of percentage of FOPF in the pellet complete feed. The best ration was in the R1 ration (grass 0%: FOPF 100% that significantly different (P<0.05 from the other rations. The feed intake tended to be higher in goat fed R1 (895.87 g/d compared to those in goat with the R2 (854.38 g/d and R3 (851.53 g/d. The average daily gain and carcass weight were higher in goat fed R1 ration compared to those in goat fed R2 and R3. Consequently, the carcass percentage in R1 was higher than those in R2 and R3. The carcass percentage was ranged from 38.41-41.38%. The Ribeye area was higher in goat fed R1 (9.73 cm2 than R2 (8.34 cm2 and R3 (7.76 cm2. In this study, the protein content of goat meat was ranged from 19.06 to 20.71%, lipid content was ranged from 0.703 to 1.106% and water content was range from 72.45% to 74.12%, in which were not different among the treatments. It can be concluded that the use of FOPF in a complete feed could improve performance and meat quality of goat.

  9. Normocaloric Diet Restores Weight Gain and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Enrico Lombardo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An increased incidence of obesity is registered worldwide, and its association with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes is closely related with increased morbidity and mortality for cardiovascular diseases. A major clinical problem in the management of obesity is the non-adherence or low adherence of patients to a hypo-caloric dietetic restriction. In this study we evaluated in obese mice the effects on insulin sensitivity of shifting from high-calorie foods to normal diet. Male C57BL/6JolaHsd mice (n=20 were fed with high fat diet for a 24 weeks period. Afterwards, body weight, energy and food intake were measured in all animals, together with parameters of insulin sensitivity by homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and plasma glucose levels in response to insulin administration. Moreover, in half of these mice, Glut4 mRNA levels were measured in muscle at the end of the high fat treatment, whereas the rest of the animals (n=10 were shifted to normocaloric diet for 10 weeks, after which the same analyses were carried out. A significant reduction of body weight was found after the transition from high to normal fat diet, and this decrease correlated well with an improvement in insulin sensitivity. In fact, we found a reduction in serum insulin levels and the recovery of insulin responsiveness in terms of glucose disposal measured by insulin tolerance test and Glut4 mRNA and protein expression. These results indicate that obesity related insulin resistance may be rescued by shifting from high fat diet to normocaloric diet.

  10. Adaptive Jamming Suppression in Coherent FFH System Using Weighted Equal Gain Combining Receiver over Fading Channels with Imperfect CSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yishan He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast frequency hopping (FFH is commonly used as an antijamming communication method. In this paper, we propose efficient adaptive jamming suppression schemes for binary phase shift keying (BPSK based coherent FFH system, namely, weighted equal gain combining (W-EGC with the optimum and suboptimum weighting coefficient. We analyze the bit error ratio (BER of EGC and W-EGC receivers with partial band noise jamming (PBNJ, frequency selective Rayleigh fading, and channel estimation errors. Particularly, closed-form BER expressions are presented with diversity order two. Our analysis is verified by simulations. It is shown that W-EGC receivers significantly outperform EGC. As compared to the maximum likelihood (ML receiver in conventional noncoherent frequency shift keying (FSK based FFH, coherent FFH/BPSK W-EGC receivers also show significant advantages in terms of BER. Moreover, W-EGC receivers greatly reduce the hostile jammers’ jamming efficiency.

  11. Feasibility of a controlled trial aiming to prevent excessive pregnancy-related weight gain in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiderpass Elisabete

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention may predispose women to long-term overweight and other health problems. Intervention studies aiming at preventing excessive pregnancy-related weight gain are needed. The feasibility of implementing such a study protocol in primary health care setting was evaluated in this pilot study. Methods A non-randomized controlled trial was conducted in three intervention and three control maternity and child health clinics in primary health care in Finland. Altogether, 132 pregnant and 92 postpartum women and 23 public health nurses (PHN participated in the study. The intervention consisted of individual counselling on physical activity and diet at five routine visits to a PHN and of an option for supervised group exercise until 37 weeks' gestation or ten months postpartum. The control clinics continued their usual care. The components of the feasibility evaluation were 1 recruitment and participation, 2 completion of data collection, 3 realization of the intervention and 4 the public health nurses' experiences. Results 1 The recruitment rate was slower than expected and the recruitment period had to be prolonged from the initially planned three months to six months. The average participation rate of eligible women at study enrolment was 77% and the drop-out rate 15%. 2 In total, 99% of the data on weight, physical activity and diet and 96% of the blood samples were obtained. 3 In the intervention clinics, 98% of the counselling sessions were realized, their contents and average durations were as intended, 87% of participants regularly completed the weekly records for physical activity and diet, and the average participation percentage in the group exercise sessions was 45%. 4 The PHNs regarded the extra training as a major advantage and the high additional workload as a disadvantage of the study. Conclusion The study protocol was mostly feasible to implement, which

  12. Effect of weight fraction of different constituent elements on the total mass attenuation coefficients of biological materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Karamjit Singh; Charanjeet Singh; Parjit S Singh; Gurmel S Mudahar

    2002-07-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients, m, of biological materials have been studied as a function of weight fraction of constituent elements (hydrogen, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen). A considerable change in m is seen only in low energy region whereas no change is observed with the increasing percentage of constituent elements in high energy region up to 10 MeV. The results have been presented in graphical form.

  13. Inhibitory effects of Leonurus sibiricus on weight gain after menopause in ovariectomized and high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jangseon; Kim, Mi Hye; Choi, You Yeon; Hong, Jongki; Yang, Woong Mo

    2016-07-01

    Leonurus sibiricus, also called motherwort, is a well-known functional food and medicinal herb. It has been known to possess beneficial properties for women's health, especially for aged women. Estrogen deficiency in the menopause could induce lipid metabolic abnormalities in body fat, resulting in obesity. In this study, the inhibitory effects of L. sibiricus on obesity after the menopause were investigated. Female C57BL/6 mice were ovariectomized and fed high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Following an induction period, aqueous extracts of L. sibiricus (LS) were orally administrated for 6 weeks. The body, uterine, and visceral fat weights were measured immediately after the animals were killed. Histological analysis was performed to monitor fat and liver. Serum levels of glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were evaluated. In addition, the expression of lipases was analyzed. Total body weight was significantly decreased by LS treatment. Histological changes in adipocyte size were shown along with a decrease of visceral fat weight in the LS-treated group. In addition, the fat infiltration of liver was reduced by LS administration. LS-treated mice experienced decreases of serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol levels. The expression of HSL and ATGL was significantly increased by LS treatment. These results suggest that LS could regulate the lipid metabolism via an increase of lipases expression in ovariectomized and HFD-fed mice. LS might be a novel candidate for a functional food to inhibit weight gain after the menopause.

  14. Substitution Models of Water for Other Beverages, and the Incidence of Obesity and Weight Gain in the SUN Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujué Fresán

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major epidemic for developed countries in the 21st century. The main cause of obesity is energy imbalance, of which contributing factors include a sedentary lifestyle, epigenetic factors and excessive caloric intake through food and beverages. A high consumption of caloric beverages, such as alcoholic or sweetened drinks, may particularly contribute to weight gain, and lower satiety has been associated with the intake of liquid instead of solid calories. Our objective was to evaluate the association between the substitution of a serving per day of water for another beverage (or group of them and the incidence of obesity and weight change in a Mediterranean cohort, using mathematical models. We followed 15,765 adults without obesity at baseline. The intake of 17 beverage items was assessed at baseline through a validated food-frequency questionnaire. The outcomes were average change in body weight in a four-year period and new-onset obesity and their association with the substitution of one serving per day of water for one of the other beverages. During the follow-up, 873 incident cases of obesity were identified. In substitution models, the consumption of water instead of beer or sugar-sweetened soda beverages was associated with a lower obesity incidence (the Odds Ratio (OR 0.80 (95% confidence interval (CI 0.68 to 0.94 and OR 0.85 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.97; respectively and, in the case of beer, it was also associated with a higher average weight loss (weight change difference = −328 g; (95% CI −566 to −89. Thus, this study found that replacing one sugar-sweetened soda beverage or beer with one serving of water per day at baseline was related to a lower incidence of obesity and to a higher weight loss over a four-year period time in the case of beer, based on mathematical models.

  15. Substitution Models of Water for Other Beverages, and the Incidence of Obesity and Weight Gain in the SUN Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresán, Ujué; Gea, Alfredo; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Martínez-Gonzalez, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major epidemic for developed countries in the 21st century. The main cause of obesity is energy imbalance, of which contributing factors include a sedentary lifestyle, epigenetic factors and excessive caloric intake through food and beverages. A high consumption of caloric beverages, such as alcoholic or sweetened drinks, may particularly contribute to weight gain, and lower satiety has been associated with the intake of liquid instead of solid calories. Our objective was to evaluate the association between the substitution of a serving per day of water for another beverage (or group of them) and the incidence of obesity and weight change in a Mediterranean cohort, using mathematical models. We followed 15,765 adults without obesity at baseline. The intake of 17 beverage items was assessed at baseline through a validated food-frequency questionnaire. The outcomes were average change in body weight in a four-year period and new-onset obesity and their association with the substitution of one serving per day of water for one of the other beverages. During the follow-up, 873 incident cases of obesity were identified. In substitution models, the consumption of water instead of beer or sugar-sweetened soda beverages was associated with a lower obesity incidence (the Odds Ratio (OR) 0.80 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68 to 0.94) and OR 0.85 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.97); respectively) and, in the case of beer, it was also associated with a higher average weight loss (weight change difference = −328 g; (95% CI −566 to −89)). Thus, this study found that replacing one sugar-sweetened soda beverage or beer with one serving of water per day at baseline was related to a lower incidence of obesity and to a higher weight loss over a four-year period time in the case of beer, based on mathematical models. PMID:27809239

  16. Substitution Models of Water for Other Beverages, and the Incidence of Obesity and Weight Gain in the SUN Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresán, Ujué; Gea, Alfredo; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Martínez-Gonzalez, Miguel A

    2016-10-31

    Obesity is a major epidemic for developed countries in the 21st century. The main cause of obesity is energy imbalance, of which contributing factors include a sedentary lifestyle, epigenetic factors and excessive caloric intake through food and beverages. A high consumption of caloric beverages, such as alcoholic or sweetened drinks, may particularly contribute to weight gain, and lower satiety has been associated with the intake of liquid instead of solid calories. Our objective was to evaluate the association between the substitution of a serving per day of water for another beverage (or group of them) and the incidence of obesity and weight change in a Mediterranean cohort, using mathematical models. We followed 15,765 adults without obesity at baseline. The intake of 17 beverage items was assessed at baseline through a validated food-frequency questionnaire. The outcomes were average change in body weight in a four-year period and new-onset obesity and their association with the substitution of one serving per day of water for one of the other beverages. During the follow-up, 873 incident cases of obesity were identified. In substitution models, the consumption of water instead of beer or sugar-sweetened soda beverages was associated with a lower obesity incidence (the Odds Ratio (OR) 0.80 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68 to 0.94) and OR 0.85 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.97); respectively) and, in the case of beer, it was also associated with a higher average weight loss (weight change difference = -328 g; (95% CI -566 to -89)). Thus, this study found that replacing one sugar-sweetened soda beverage or beer with one serving of water per day at baseline was related to a lower incidence of obesity and to a higher weight loss over a four-year period time in the case of beer, based on mathematical models.

  17. Recent evidence and potential mechanisms underlying weight gain and insulin resistance due to atypical antipsychotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Volpato

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Atypical antipsychotics (AAPs promote obesity and insulin resistance. In this regard, the main objective of this study was to present potential mechanisms and evidence concerning side effects of atypical antipsychotics in humans and rodents. Method: A systematic review of the literature was performed using the MEDLINE database. We checked the references of selected articles, review articles, and books on the subject. Results: This review provides consistent results concerning the side effects of olanzapine (OL and clozapine (CLZ, whereas we found conflicting results related to other AAPs. Most studies involving humans describe the effects on body weight, adiposity, lipid profile, and blood glucose levels. However, it seems difficult to identify an animal model replicating the wide range of changes observed in humans. Animal lineage, route of administration, dose, and duration of treatment should be carefully chosen for the replication of the findings in humans. Conclusions: Patients undergoing treatment with AAPs are at higher risk of developing adverse metabolic changes. This increased risk must be taken into account when making decisions about treatment. The influence of AAPs on multiple systems is certainly the cause of such effects. Specifically, muscarinic and histaminergic pathways seem to play important roles.

  18. Dark chocolate: an obesity paradox or a culprit for weight gain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Grace; Drummond, Sandra; Fyfe, Lorna; Al-Dujaili, E A S

    2014-06-01

    Obesity remains a major public health challenge, and its prevalence is dramatically increasing. Diet and exercise are typically recommended to prevent and manage obesity; however, the results are often conflicting. Polyphenols, a class of phytochemicals that have been shown to reduce the risk factors for diabetes type II and cardiovascular diseases, are recently suggested as complementary agents in the management of obesity through several mechanisms such as decreasing fat absorption and/or fat synthesis. Dark chocolate, a high source of polyphenols, and flavanols in particular, has lately received attention for its possible role in modulating obesity because of its potential effect on fat and carbohydrate metabolism, as well as on satiety. This outcome was investigated in animal models of obesity, cell cultures and few human observational and clinical studies. The research undertaken to date has shown promising results, with the possible implication of cocoa/dark chocolate in the modulation of obesity and body weight through several mechanisms including decreasing the expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis, reducing the digestion and absorption of fats and carbohydrates and increasing satiety.

  19. Association of pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain with cesarean section in term deliveries of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Chao; Zhou, Aifen; Cao, Zhongqiang; Zhang, Yaqi; Qiu, Lin; Yao, Cong; Wang, Youjie; Zhang, Bin

    2016-11-22

    China has one of the highest rates of cesarean sections in the world. However, limited epidemiological studies have evaluated the risk factors for cesarean section among Chinese women. Thus, the aim of this cohort study was to investigate the associations between pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain (GWG) and the risk of cesarean section in China. A total of 57,891 women with singleton, live-born, term pregnancies were included in this analysis. We found that women who were overweight or obese before pregnancy had an elevated risk of cesarean section. Women with a total GWG above the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations had an adjusted OR for cesarean section of 1.45 (95% CI, 1.40-1.51) compared with women who had GWG within the IOM recommendations. Women with excessive BMI gain during pregnancy also had an increased risk of cesarean section. When stratified by maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, there was a significant association between excessive GWG and increased odds of cesarean section across all pre-pregnancy BMI categories. These results suggest that weight control efforts before and during pregnancy may help to reduce the rate of cesarean sections.

  20. Semi-physical Identification and State Estimation of Energy Intake for Interventions to Manage Gestational Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Penghong; Rivera, Daniel E.; Downs, Danielle S.; Savage, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain (i.e., weight gain during pregnancy) is a significant public health concern, and has been the recent focus of novel, control systems-based interventions. This paper develops a control-oriented dynamical systems model based on a first-principles energy balance model from the literature, which is evaluated against participant data from a study targeted to obese and overweight pregnant women. The results indicate significant under-reporting of energy intake among the participant population. A series of approaches based on system identification and state estimation are developed in the paper to better understand and characterize the extent of under-reporting; these range from back-calculating energy intake from a closed-form of the energy balance model, to a constrained semi-physical identification approach that estimates the extent of systematic under-reporting in the presence of noise and possibly missing data. Additionally, we describe an adaptive algorithm based on Kalman filtering to estimate energy intake in real-time. The approaches are illustrated with data from both simulated and actual intervention participants. PMID:27570366

  1. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on weight gain, immune competence, and disease incidence in barley-fed beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrson, B; Hakkarainen, J; Törnquist, M; Edfors, K; Fossum, C

    1991-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether vitamin E supplements in larger amounts than recommended could reduce incidence of disease, improve immune competence, and increase rate of weight gain of conventionally barley-fed beef cattle. Mean daily intake of vitamin E by individual calves in the experimental group was 200 mg during the first 2 mo, 400 mg during the next 2 mo, and 600 mg during the rest of the period. Corresponding daily intakes of vitamin E for the control group were 50, 100, and 150 mg. Mean plasma vitamin E of the experimental group increased from .49 mg/L at the start of the trial to 2.03 mg/L at the end, but that of the control group was lower at the end (.36 mg/L) than at the beginning (.53 mg/L). No significant differences were observed between the groups concerning incidence of disease or magnitude of lymphocyte stimulation. The results indicated that there was a surprisingly poor biological availability of the dietary vitamin. Therefore, a comparison in reality was made between calves with inadequate and normal vitamin E status. The differences in daily BW gain and time to reach slaughter weight thus probably were effects of the low vitamin E status rather than positive effects of additional vitamin in the diet.

  2. [Grazing systems, rotenone and parasites control in crossbred calves: effect on live weight gain and on parasites burdens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catto, João B; Bianchin, Ivo; Santurio, Jânio M; Feijó, Gelson L D; Kichel, Armindo N; Silva, José M da

    2009-01-01

    Practices for endo and ectoparasite control in beef cattle were evaluated in two independent experiments. First, the effects of rotenone on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks were evaluated in vitro and in experimentally infected calves. In the second trial, the effects of grazing systems associated with endo and ectoparasite treatments on parasite burden and weight gain of naturally parasited animals were evaluated. Rotenone showed acaricide action on larvae and engorged ticks during in vitro tests and on larvae in experimentally infected calves. Three treatments with endectocide decreased (P parasited by horn fly, tick and larvae of Dermatobia hominis and the group treated with rotenone were significantly less parasited by horn fly in relation to control. Animals under rotational grazing showed significantly higher EPG than those under continuous grazing. Three treatments with endectocide in the dry season plus three acaricide treatments with fipronil in the raining season reduced EPG, tick, and screw worm larva counts, and provided a significant increase (23 kg) of live weight gain in relation to untreated animals.

  3. Possible association between moderate intellectual disability and weight gain in valproic acid–treated patients with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanamachi Y

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Yukiko Tanamachi,1 Junji Saruwatari,1 Madoka Noai,1 Ryoko Kamihashi,1 Hiromi Soraoka,1 Yuki Yoshimori,1 Naoki Ogusu,1 Kentaro Oniki,1 Norio Yasui-Furukori,2 Takateru Ishitsu,3,4 Kazuko Nakagawa1,5 1Division of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan; 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan; 3Kumamoto Saishunso National Hospital, Koshi, Japan; 4Kumamoto Ezuko Ryoiku Iryo Center, Kumamoto, Japan; 5Center for Clinical Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan Background: Although patients with moderate intellectual disability (ID are known to have higher rates of being overweight and obese than those without ID, there are no current data regarding the relationship between ID and weight gain in epilepsy patients treated with valproic acid (VPA. Patients and methods: The possible association between moderate ID and an overweight status at the time of initiation of VPA therapy (baseline was investigated using a logistic regression analysis in 143 patients with epilepsy. Among the 119 nonoverweight patients at baseline, the longitudinal association between moderate ID and the weight status during VPA therapy was retrospectively examined using a Cox hazards regression analysis and the generalized estimating equations approach, while also paying careful attention to associations with other patient characteristics. Results: The proportion of patients with moderate ID was 52.4% among the 143 study subjects. The presence of moderate ID was not associated with an overweight status at baseline (P=0.762. Among the nonoverweight patients at baseline, 16 subjects were newly diagnosed as being overweight during treatment with VPA (3.6±2.1 years. The presence of moderate ID was significantly associated with the incidence of an overweight status after starting VPA therapy (adjusted hazard ratio =6.72, P=0.007. The patient age

  4. Knowledge, Attitudes and Provider Advice by Pre-Pregnancy Weight Status: A Qualitative Study of Pregnant Latinas With Excessive Gestational Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Monica L; Arroyo, Julie; Druker, Susan; Sankey, Heather Z; Rosal, Milagros C

    2015-01-01

    Latina women are at high risk of excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) during pregnancy; yet little is known about whether factors related to GWG differ by pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) within this population. We conducted in-depth interviews with 62 pregnant Latina women with pre-pregnancy BMIs in the healthy, overweight, and obese ranges, gestational age ≥22 weeks, and GWG for gestational age above Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines. Compared to healthy weight and obese women, overweight women least often reported viewing weight as important, making efforts to control their GWG, being aware of the role of diet on GWG, and receiving GWG advice from health-care providers. Among those who received GWG advice, overweight women more often recalled a target GWG above IOM guidelines. Obese women more often reported low acceptance of their GWG, concern about GWG, having received GWG advice from providers, difficulty following providers' dietary advice, and emotional eating as a challenge for controlling GWG. Participants welcomed practical advice to manage GWG. Future interventions to prevent excessive GWG among Latina women should consider differences among women of varying pre-pregnancy BMIs and include multi-level strategies to address psychosocial as well as provider factors.

  5. Effect of Tactile-Kinesthetic Stimulation in weight gaining of pre-term infants hospitalized in intensive care unit

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    Keshavarz M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Many studies have demonstrated that pre-term neonates gained more weight over the 10 days stimulation period. This research has been conducted to determine the effects of five days Tactile- Kinesthetic stimulation (TKS on weight gaining of pre-term infants hospitalized in Fatemiye neonatal intensive care unit."n"n Methods: Fifty one babies who graduated from the NICU to the intermediate care nursery were randomly allocated into test and control groups (24 and 27 neonate respectively. TKS was provided for three 20 minute periods per day for five consecutive days to the test group, with the massages consisting of moderate pressure strokes in left and right lateral position and kinesthetic exercises consisting of flexion and extension of the limbs. They were observed for changes in physiologic parameters and weight gaining during five days stimulation in hospital."n"n Results: Over the five days TKS an increase in weight was seen in the test group (p=0.018, 43.1 vs 5.4. Infants in both the test and control groups were matched for mean weight before study and days in which they received antibiotics and photo therapy. Mean temperature and O² saturation had no meaningful difference, but an increase in

  6. Sex-specific effect of body weight gain on systemic inflammation in subjects with COPD: results from the SAPALDIA cohort study 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridevaux, P-O; Gerbase, M W; Schindler, C; Dietrich, D Felber; Curjuric, I; Dratva, J; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Probst-Hensch, N M; Gaspoz, J-M; Rochat, T

    2009-08-01

    Systemic inflammation may mediate the association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and extrapulmonary comorbidities. We measured high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in COPD and quantified the effect modification by body weight change and sex. Using data from the Swiss study on Air Pollution and Lung Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA; n = 5,479) with measurements of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), body weight and hs-CRP, we examined the association of hs-CRP and categories of body weight change (lost weight and weight gained 0-5%, 5-9%, 9-14% and >14%) with fast FEV(1) decline. hs-CRP was elevated both in association with fast FEV(1) decline and body weight gain. Subjects with fast FEV(1) decline and weight gain (>14%) had higher hs-CRP (2.0 mg L(-1) for females versus 1.6 mg L(-1) for males). After adjustment for age, smoking, physical activity, hormonal therapy and diabetes, elevated hs-CRP (>3 mg) was found to be more likely in subjects with fast FEV(1) decline (OR(males) 1.38, OR(females) 1.42) and in those with weight gain >14% (OR(males) 2.04, OR(females) 4.51). The association of weight gain and fast FEV(1) decline predicts a higher level of systemic inflammation. Since the effect of weight gain on systemic inflammation is larger in females than in males, weight gain may be a risk factor for extrapulmonary comorbidities in females with COPD.

  7. A Priori and a Posteriori Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy and Gestational Weight Gain: The Generation R Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrte J. Tielemans

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal gestational weight gain (GWG is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We examined whether dietary patterns are associated with GWG. Participants included 3374 pregnant women from a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Dietary intake during pregnancy was assessed with food-frequency questionnaires. Three a posteriori-derived dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis: a “Vegetable, oil and fish”, a “Nuts, high-fiber cereals and soy”, and a “Margarine, sugar and snacks” pattern. The a priori-defined dietary pattern was based on national dietary recommendations. Weight was repeatedly measured around 13, 20 and 30 weeks of pregnancy; pre-pregnancy and maximum weight were self-reported. Normal weight women with high adherence to the “Vegetable, oil and fish” pattern had higher early-pregnancy GWG than those with low adherence (43 g/week (95% CI 16; 69 for highest vs. lowest quartile (Q. Adherence to the “Margarine, sugar and snacks” pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of excessive GWG (OR 1.45 (95% CI 1.06; 1.99 Q4 vs. Q1. Normal weight women with higher scores on the “Nuts, high-fiber cereals and soy” pattern had more moderate GWG than women with lower scores (−0.01 (95% CI −0.02; −0.00 per SD. The a priori-defined pattern was not associated with GWG. To conclude, specific dietary patterns may play a role in early pregnancy but are not consistently associated with GWG.

  8. Differential Rearing Alters Forced Swim Test Behavior, Fluoxetine Efficacy, and Post-Test Weight Gain in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, David L; Peterson, Christy J; Cain, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors play a key role in the etiology of depression. The rodent forced swim test (FST) is commonly used as a preclinical model of depression, with increases in escape-directed behavior reflecting antidepressant effects, and increases in immobility reflecting behavioral despair. Environmental enrichment leads to serotonergic alterations in rats, but it is unknown whether these alterations may influence the efficacy of common antidepressants. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were reared in enriched (EC), standard (SC), or isolated (IC) conditions. Following the rearing period, fluoxetine (10 or 20 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 23.5 hrs, 5 hrs, and 1 hr before locomotor and FST measures. Following locomotor testing and FST exposure, rats were weighed to assess fluoxetine-, FST-, and environmental condition-induced moderations in weight gain. Results revealed an antidepressant effect of environmental enrichment and a depressant effect of isolation. Regardless of significant fluoxetine effects on locomotor activity, fluoxetine generally decreased swimming and increased immobility in all three environmental conditions, with IC-fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) rats and EC-fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) rats swimming less than vehicle counterparts. Subchronic 20 mg/kg fluoxetine also induced significant weight loss, and differential rearing appeared to moderate weight gain following FST stress. These results suggest that differential rearing has the ability to alter FST behaviors, fluoxetine efficacy, and post-stressor well-being. Moreover, 20 mg/kg fluoxetine, administered subchronically, may lead to atypical effects of those commonly observed in the FST, highlighting the importance and impact of both environmental condition and dosing regimen in common animal models of depression.

  9. Associations between Yogurt Consumption and Weight Gain and Risk of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayon-Orea, Carmen; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira

    2017-01-01

    The role of yogurt consumption in the risk of developing overweight, obesity, or metabolic syndrome has been the subject of epidemiologic studies over the last 10 y. A comprehensive literature search on MEDLINE and ISI Web of Knowledge from 1966 through June 2016 was conducted to examine the relation between yogurt consumption and weight gain, as well as the risk of overweight, obesity, or metabolic syndrome, in prospective cohort studies. Ten articles met all the inclusion criteria and were included in our systematic review. Of the 10 cohort studies, 3 analyzed the relation between yogurt consumption and the risk of overweight or obesity, 8 analyzed changes in waist circumference or weight changes, 3 studied the association with the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, and 1 studied the probability of abdominal obesity reversion. Although an inverse association between yogurt consumption and the risk of developing overweight or obesity was not fully consistent or always statistically significant, all studies but one showed in their point estimates inverse associations between yogurt consumption and changes in waist circumference, changes in weight, risk of overweight or obesity, and risk of metabolic syndrome during follow-up, although not all estimates were statistically significant (2 studies). Prospective cohort studies consistently suggested that yogurt consumption may contribute to a reduction in adiposity indexes and the risk of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, there is a need for more prospective studies and high-quality randomized clinical trials to confirm this apparent inverse association.

  10. Whey protein improves HDL/non-HDL ratio and body weight gain in rats subjected to the resistance exercise

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    Kely Raspante Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance exercise, such as weight-lifting (WL on the biochemical parameters of lipid metabolism and cardiovascular disease risk in the rats fed casein (control or whey protein (WP diets. Thirty-two male Fisher rats were randomly assigned to sedentary or exercise-trained groups and were fed control or WP diets. The WL program consisted of inducing the animals to perform the sets of jumps with weights attached to the chest. After seven weeks, arteriovenous blood samples were collected for analysis. The WL or WP ingestion were able to improve the lipid profile, reducing the TC and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations, but only WP treatment significantly increased the serum HDL concentrations, thereby also affecting the TC/HDL and HDL/non-HDL ratios. However, WL plus WP was more effective in improving the HDL/non-HDL ratio than the exercise or WP ingestion alone and the body weight gain than exercise without WP ingestion.

  11. Association of allelic variation in genes mediating aspects of energy homeostasis with weight gain during administration of antipsychotic drugs (CATIE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant K Tiwari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Antipsychotic drugs are widely used in treating schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other psychiatric disorders. Many of these drugs, despite their therapeutic advantages, substantially increase body weight. We assessed the association of alleles of 31 genes implicated in body weight regulation with weight gain among patients being treated with specific antipsychotic medications in the CATIE trial, we found that rs2237988 in ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 8 (ABCC8 , and rs11643744 and rs9922047 in Fat Mass and Obesity Associated (FTO were associated with such weight gain.

  12. THE EFFECT OF FERMENTED OIL PALM FRONDS IN DIET ON BODY WEIGHT GAIN AND MEAT QUALITY OF GOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Musnandar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of study were to evaluate the use of fermented of oil palm fronds (FOPF on body weightgain and meat quality of goat. This experiment was arranged in Completely Randomized Design with 3treatments i.e. R1 (grass 0%: FOPF 100%, R2 (grass 50%: FOPF 50% and R3 (grass 100%: FOPF 0%and 5 replications. The parameters of the study were feed intake, average daily gain (ADG, weight andpercentage of carcass and meat quality. The results indicated that feed intake and meat quality of goatwas not affected by treatment, but the average daily gain, carcass weight, and percentage of carcass, wasaffected by the differences of percentage of FOPF in the pellet complete feed. The best ration was in theR1 ration (grass 0%: FOPF 100% that significantly different (P<0.05 from the other rations. The feedintake tended to be higher in goat fed R1 (895.87 g/d compared to those in goat with the R2 (854.38g/d and R3 (851.53 g/d. The average daily gain and carcass weight were higher in goat fed R1 rationcompared to those in goat fed R2 and R3. Consequently, the carcass percentage in R1 was higher thanthose in R2 and R3. The carcass percentage was ranged from 38.41-41.38%. The Ribeye area was higherin goat fed R1 (9.73 cm2 than R2 (8.34 cm2 and R3 (7.76 cm2. In this study, the protein content ofgoat meat was ranged from 19.06 to 20.71%, lipid content was ranged from 0.703 to 1.106% and watercontent was range from 72.45% to 74.12%, in which were not different among the treatments. It can beconcluded that the use of FOPF in a complete feed could improve performance and meat quality of goat.

  13. Ratio of weight to height gain: a useful tool for identifying children at risk of becoming overweight or obese at preschool age

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    Viviane G. Nascimento

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze the usefulness of the weight gain/height gain ratio from birth to two and three years of age as a predictive risk indicator of excess weight at preschool age. METHODS: The weight and height/length of 409 preschool children at daycare centers were measured according to internationally recommended rules. The weight values and body mass indices of the children were transformed into a z-score per the standard method described by the World Health Organization. The Pearson correlation coefficients (rP and the linear regressions between the anthropometric parameters and the body mass index z-scores of preschool children were statistically analyzed (alpha = 0.05. RESULTS: The mean age of the study population was 3.2 years (± 0.3 years. The prevalence of excess weight was 28.8%, and the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 8.8%. The correlation coefficients between the body mass index z-scores of the preschool children and the birth weights or body mass indices at birth were low (0.09 and 0.10, respectively. There was a high correlation coefficient (rP = 0.79 between the mean monthly gain of weight and the body mass index z-score of preschool children. A higher coefficient (rP = 0.93 was observed between the ratio of the mean weight gain per height gain (g/cm and the preschool children body mass index z-score. The coefficients and their differences were statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Regardless of weight or length at birth, the mean ratio between the weight gain per g/cm of height growth from birth presented a strong correlation with the body mass index of preschool children. These results suggest that this ratio may be a good indicator of the risk of excess weight and obesity in preschool-aged children.

  14. The use of LeptiCore® in reducing fat gain and managing weight loss in patients with metabolic syndrome

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    Ngondi Judith L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background LeptiCore® is a proprietary combination of various ingredients which have been shown to have properties which could be beneficial to weight loss in obese and overweight human subjects. This study evaluates the effect of Lepticore® on bodyweight as well as parameters associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Methods The study was an 8 week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design involving 92 obese (mean BMI > 30 kg/m2 participants (37 males; 55 females; ages 19-52; mean age = 30.7. The participants were randomly divided into three groups: placebo (n = 30, LeptiCore® formula A (low dose (n = 31 and LeptiCore® formula B (high dose (n = 31. Capsules containing the placebo or active formulations were administered twice daily before meals with 300 ml of water. None of the participants followed any specific diet nor took any weight-reducing medications for the duration of the study. A total of 12 anthropomorphic and serological measurements were taken at the beginning of the study and after 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of treatment. Results Compared to the placebo group, the two active groups showed statistically significant differences on all 12 variables by week 8. These included four anthropomorphic variables (body weight, body fat, waist and hip size and eight measures of serological levels (plasma total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, blood glucose, serotonin, leptin, C-reactive protein. The two active groups also showed significant intra-group differences on all 12 variables between study onset and week 8. Conclusion The LeptiCore® formulation at both the low and high dosages appears to be helpful in the management of fat gain and its related complications. The higher dosage resulted in significantly greater reductions in body weight and triglyceride, blood glucose, and C-reactive protein levels, as well as increased serotonin levels.

  15. Sodium intake may promote weight gain: results of the FANPE study in a representative sample of the adult Spanish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Navia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent studies have indicated that diets rich in sodium may predispose to the development of obesity, either directly, or be associated with the consumption of foods that promote weight gain. Objetive: The aims of this study were to analyze the association between urinary sodium and the presence of excess of weight. Additionally, the study investigated the relationships between salt intake and dietary habits, as a high salt intake may be associated with inadequate eating habits and a high incidence of obesity. Methods: This study involved 418 adults (196 men and 222 women aged 18 to 60 years old. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured, and we calculated, BMI and waist/height ratio. Dietary intake was estimated using a "24 h recalls", for two consecutive days, and sodium content was determined from 24 h urine sample. Results: The 34.4% of the population had overweight and 13.6% had obesity. A positive association was seen between BMI and urinary sodium concentration. Urine sodium values were also positively associated with others adiposity indicators such as waist circumference and waist/height ratio. Body weight, BMI, waist circumference, and waist/height ratio were higher in the group of individuals with a urinary sodium excretion > 154 mmol/l (Percentile 50 (P50. Additionally, individuals placed in this group presented a higher caloric intake and total food intake, in particular, more meat, processed food and snacks. Adjusting by energy intake, a higher sodium intake was a risk factor of being overweight or obese (OR = 1.0041, IC 95% 1.0015-1.0067, p < 0.01. Conclusions: Salt intake was associated with obesity; since people with higher sodium intake consumed more energy and presented worse eating habits. Additionally, sodium intake itself appears to be related to obesity.

  16. Energy Gap in the Aetiology of Body Weight Gain and Obesity: A Challenging Concept with a Complex Evaluation and Pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Schutz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of energy gap(s is useful for understanding the consequence of a small daily, weekly, or monthly positive energy balance and the inconspicuous shift in weight gain ultimately leading to overweight and obesity. Energy gap is a dynamic concept: an initial positive energy gap incurred via an increase in energy intake (or a decrease in physical activity is not constant, may fade out with time if the initial conditions are maintained, and depends on the ‘efficiency' with which the readjustment of the energy imbalance gap occurs with time. The metabolic response to an energy imbalance gap and the magnitude of the energy gap(s can be estimated by at least two methods, i.e. i assessment by longitudinal overfeeding studies, imposing (by design an initial positive energy imbalance gap; ii retrospective assessment based on epidemiological surveys, whereby the accumulated endogenous energy storage per unit of time is calculated from the change in body weight and body composition. In order to illustrate the difficulty of accurately assessing an energy gap we have used, as an illustrative example, a recent epidemiological study which tracked changes in total energy intake (estimated by gross food availability and body weight over 3 decades in the US, combined with total energy expenditure prediction from body weight using doubly labelled water data. At the population level, the study attempted to assess the cause of the energy gap purported to be entirely due to increased food intake. Based on an estimate of change in energy intake judged to be more reliable (i.e. in the same study population and together with calculations of simple energetic indices, our analysis suggests that conclusions about the fundamental causes of obesity development in a population (excess intake vs. low physical activity or both is clouded by a high level of uncertainty.

  17. Worry vs. knowledge about treatment-associated hypoglycaemia and weight gain in type 2 diabetic patients on metformin and/or sulphonylurea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Asger; Knop, Filip K

    2012-01-01

    Hypoglycaemia and body weight gain are side effects of certain glucose-lowering drugs, e.g. sulphonylurea (SU) compounds. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is often treated with multiple oral antidiabetic drugs complicating patient insight into drug safety and side effects. We aimed to elucidate th...... the extent of patient worry about hypoglycaemia and body weight gain contra their knowledge about these two phenomena being actual side effects of SU....

  18. MVPA Is Associated with Lower Weight Gain in 8–10 Year Old Children: A Prospective Study with 1 Year Follow-Up

    OpenAIRE

    Abigail Fisher; Claire Hill; Laura Webber; Lisa Purslow; Jane Wardle

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies relating physical activity (PA) to weight gain in children have produced mixed results, although there is some evidence for stronger associations with more intense physical activities. The present study tested the hypothesis that weight gain over one year in 8-10 year olds would be more strongly predicted by moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) than total physical activity (total PA) or sedentary behaviour. METHODOLOGY: Participants were 280 children taking part ...

  19. Intermittent Fever, Progressive Weight Gain, and Personality Changes in a Five-Year-Old Girl: Unusual Paraneoplastic Syndrome due to Presacral Ganglioneuroma

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    Chao Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganglioneuromas are rare tumors in the neuroblastoma group. Paraneoplastic syndrome (PNS due to presacral ganglioneuromas was hardly reported in previous literature. Here, we reported that a case of a 5-year-old girl with a presacral ganglioneuroma presented with PNS, who presented with intermittent fever, progressive weight gain, and personality changes. Our report revealed intermittent fever, progressive weight gain, and personality changes may represent rare paraneoplastic syndromes in ganglioneuromas.

  20. Pre-Pregnancy Maternal Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants and Gestational Weight Gain: A Prospective Cohort Study

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    Lindsay M. Jaacks

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants (POPs have been implicated in the development of obesity in non-pregnant adults. However, few studies have explored the association of POPs with gestational weight gain (GWG, an important predictor of future risk of obesity in both the mother and offspring. We estimated the association of maternal pre-pregnancy levels of 63 POPs with GWG. Data are from women (18–40 years; n = 218 participating in a prospective cohort study. POPs were assessed using established protocols in pre-pregnancy, non-fasting blood samples. GWG was assessed using three techniques: (1 total GWG (difference between measured pre-pregnancy weight and final self-reported pre-delivery weight; (2 category based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI-specific Institute of Medicine (IOM recommendations; and (3 area under the GWG curve (AUC. In an exploratory analysis, effects were estimated separately for women with BMI < 25 kg/m2 versus BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Multivariable polytomous logistic regression and linear regression were used to estimate the association between each chemical or congener and the three GWG outcomes. p,p’-dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (p,p’-DDT was significantly inversely associated with AUC after adjustment for lipids and pre-pregnancy BMI: beta {95% confidence interval (CI}, −378.03 (−724.02, −32.05. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS was significantly positively associated with AUC after adjustment for lipids among women with a BMI < 25 kg/m2 {beta (95% CI, 280.29 (13.71, 546.86}, but not among women with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 {beta (95% CI, 56.99 (−328.36, 442.34}. In summary, pre-pregnancy levels of select POPs, namely, p,p’-DDT and PFOS, were moderately associated with GWG. The association between POPs and weight gain during pregnancy may be more complex than previously thought, and adiposity prior to pregnancy may be an important effect modifier.

  1. Telmisartan prevents weight gain and obesity through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta-dependent pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Hongbo; Yang, Dachun; Ma, Liqun

    2010-01-01

    -gamma expression, whereas neither candesartan nor losartan affected PPAR-delta expression. In vivo, long-term administration of telmisartan significantly reduced visceral fat and prevented high-fat diet-induced obesity in wild-type mice and hypertensive rats but not in PPAR-delta knockout mice. Administration...... and increased uncoupling protein 2 and 3 expression in skeletal muscle in wild-type mice but not in PPAR-delta knockout mice. We conclude that telmisartan prevents adipogenesis and weight gain through activation of PPAR-delta-dependent lipolytic pathways and energy uncoupling in several tissues.......)-delta-dependent pathways in several tissues. In vitro, telmisartan significantly upregulated PPAR-delta expression in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Other than enhancing PPAR-delta expression by 68.2+/-17.3% and PPAR-delta activity by 102.0+/-9.0%, telmisartan also upregulated PPAR...

  2. Pregnancy and perinatal outcomes according to surgery to conception interval and gestational weight gain in women with previous gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stentebjerg, Louise Laage; Andersen, Lise Lotte Torvin; Renault, Kristina;

    2016-01-01

    's recommendations for GWG. Secondary outcomes were birthweight, preterm delivery, cesarean section (CS), iron deficiency and post partum hemorrhage (PPH). RESULTS: Forty-three (61%) women conceived less than 18 months after gastric bypass surgery. Women in the late group had a significantly higher risk of requiring......OBJECTIVE: To compare perinatal and pregnancy outcomes including adherence to the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) recommendations for gestational weight gain (GWG) in pregnant women with conception late group). METHODS...... CS or receiving intravenous iron supplementation compared to the early group (57% versus 30%, p = 0.03 and 29% versus 7%, p = 0.02, respectively). Early conception was not significantly associated with insufficient GWG, preterm delivery or birthweight. Among 54 women with information on GWG, only 13...

  3. Modest weight loss through a 12-week weight management program with behavioral modification seems to attenuate inflammatory responses in young obese Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, AeJin; Jeon, Kyeong Jin; Kim, Min Soo; Kim, Hye-Kyeong; Han, Sung Nim

    2015-04-01

    Obesity has been reported to impair immune functions and lead to low-grade long-term inflammation; however, studies that have investigated the impact of weight loss on these among the young and slightly obese are limited. Thus, we investigated the effect of a 12-week weight management program with behavioral modifications on cell-mediated immune functions and inflammatory responses in young obese participants. Our hypothesis was that weight loss would result in improved immune functions and decreased inflammatory responses. Sixty-four participants (45 obese and 19 normal weight) finished the program. Obese (body mass index ≥25) participants took part in 5 group education and 6 individual counseling sessions. Normal-weight (body mass index 18.5-23) participants only attended 6 individual sessions. The goal for the obese was to lose 0.5 kg/wk by reducing their intake by 300 to 500 kcal/d and increasing their physical activity. Program participation resulted in a modest but significant decrease in weight (2.7 ± 0.4 kg, P < .001) and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated interleukin-1β production (from 0.85 ± 0.07 to 0.67 ± 0.07 ng/mL, P < .05) in the obese. In the obese group, increase in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated interleukin-10 production, a TH2 and anti-inflammatory cytokine, approached significance after program participation (from 6181 ± 475 to 6970 ± 632 pg/mL, P = .06). No significant changes in proliferative responses to the optimal concentration of concanavalin A or phytohemagglutinin were observed in the obese after program participation. Collectively, modest weight loss did not change the cell-mediated immune functions significantly but did attenuate the inflammatory response in young and otherwise healthy obese adults.

  4. Chronic maternal depression is associated with reduced weight gain in latino infants from birth to 2 years of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M Wojcicki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Latino children are at increased risk for mirconutrient deficiencies and problems of overweight and obesity. Exposures in pregnancy and early postpartum may impact future growth trajectories. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between prenatal and postnatal maternal depressive symptoms experienced in pregnancy and infant growth from birth to 2 years of age in a cohort of Latino infants. METHODS: We recruited pregnant Latina mothers at two San Francisco hospitals and followed their healthy infants to 24 months of age. At 6, 12 and 24 months of age, infants were weighed and measured. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed prenatally and at 4-6 weeks postpartum. Women who had high depressive symptoms at both time periods were defined as having chronic depression. Logistic mixed models were applied to compare growth curves and risk for overweight and underweight based on exposure to maternal depression. RESULTS: We followed 181 infants to 24 months. At 12 and 24 months, respectively, 27.4% and 40.5% were overweight, and 5.6% and 2.2% were underweight. Exposure to chronic maternal depression was associated with underweight (OR = 12.12, 95%CI 1.86-78.78 and with reduced weight gain in the first 2 years of life (Coef = -0.48, 95% CI -0.94-0.01 compared with unexposed infants or infants exposed to episodic depression (depression at one time point. Exposure to chronic depression was also associated with reduced risk for overweight in the first 2 years of life (OR 0.28, 95%CI 0.03-0.92. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to chronic maternal depression in the pre- and postnatal period was associated with reduced weight gain in the first two years of life and greater risk for failure to thrive, in comparison with unexposed infants or those exposed episodically. The infants of mothers with chronic depression may need additional nutritional monitoring and intervention.

  5. A systematic review investigating healthy lifestyle interventions incorporating goal setting strategies for preventing excess gestational weight gain.

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    Mary Jane Brown

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excess gestational weight gain (GWG is an important risk factor for long term obesity in women. However, current interventions aimed at preventing excess GWG appear to have a limited effect. Several studies have highlighted the importance of linking theory with empirical evidence for producing effective interventions for behaviour change. Theorists have demonstrated that goals can be an important source of human motivation and goal setting has shown promise in promoting diet and physical activity behaviour change within non-pregnant individuals. The use of goal setting as a behaviour change strategy has been systematically evaluated within overweight and obese individuals, yet its use within pregnancy has not yet been systematically explored. AIM OF REVIEW: To explore the use of goal setting within healthy lifestyle interventions for the prevention of excess GWG. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Searches were conducted in seven databases alongside hand searching of relevant journals and citation tracking. Studies were included if interventions used goal setting alongside modification of diet and/or physical activity with an aim to prevent excess GWG. The PRISMA guidelines were followed and a two-stage methodological approach was used. Stage one focused on systematically evaluating the methodological quality of included interventions. The second stage assessed intervention integrity and the implementation of key goal setting components. FINDINGS: From a total of 839 citations, 54 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility and 5 studies met the inclusion criteria. Among interventions reporting positive results a combination of individualised diet and physical activity goals, self-monitoring and performance feedback indicators were described as active components. CONCLUSION: Interventions based on goal setting appear to be useful for helping women achieve optimal weight gain during pregnancy. However, overweight and obese women may

  6. Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources for Professionals MyPlate Tip Sheets Print Materials Infographics MyPlate Videos Recipes & Menus Seasonal Winter Spring Summer ... bring awareness to patients in a preventative healthcare environment. Many of the patients love MyPlate's simple-to- ...

  7. Gestational weight gain and its related social and demographic factors in health care settings of rural and urban areas in northwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasalizad Farhangi, Mahdieh

    2016-01-01

    The current study was aimed to evaluate gestational weight gain and its socio-demographic determinants among pregnant women in north-west of Iran. In the current cross-sectional study, four hundred eighty one pregnant women aged 26.12 ± 7.45 years were enrolled. Data on pre-pregnancy weight, height, age, educational attainment, parity, household size, hemoglobin status and total pregnancy weight gain were extracted from routine health center records. The pregnant women were categorized based on their pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) as underweight, normal weight and overweight or obese according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations. Participants were also classified according to their educational level into three 'some school', 'high school' and 'college' groups. Gestational weight gain in 27.6% of pregnant women was in normal IOM recommended range; while, weight gain in 49% and 23.2% of pregnant women was below and above recommended range respectively. Women with high educational attainment (≥12 years) have significantly higher weight gain compared with low-educated women (nutritional status and health care programs in current health care services in Iran.

  8. The effects of pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain on perinatal outcomes in Korean women: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Jong-chul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and gestational weight gain on perinatal outcomes in a population of Korean women. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 2,454 women who had received antenatal care at Seoul St. Mary's Hospital from January 2007 to December 2009. We used World Health Organization definitions for Asian populations of underweight (BMI Results Among obese women, the adjusted ORs for gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorder, and incompetent internal os of cervix were 4.46, 2.53, and 3.70 (95% CI = 2.63-7.59, 1.26-5.07, and 1.50-9.12, respectively, and the adjusted ORs for neonatal complications such as macrosomia and low Apgar score were 2.08 and 1.98 (95% CI = 1.34-3.22 and 1.19-3.29, respectively, compared with normal weight women. However, there was no positive linear association between gestational weight gain and obstetric outcomes. In normal weight women, maternal and neonatal complications were significantly increased with inadequate weight gain during pregnancy (p Conclusions This study shows that pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity are more closely related to the adverse obstetric outcomes than excess weight gain during pregnancy. In addition, inadequate weight gain during pregnancy can result in significant complications.

  9. Higher Calorie Diets Increase Rate of Weight Gain and Shorten Hospital Stay in Hospitalized Adolescents With Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Andrea K.; Mauldin, Kasuen; Michihata, Nobuaki; Buckelew, Sara M.; Shafer, Mary-Ann; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Current recommendations for refeeding in anorexia nervosa (AN) are conservative, beginning around 1,200 calories to avoid refeeding syndrome. We previously showed poor weight gain and long hospital stay using this approach and hypothesized that a higher calorie approach would improve outcomes. Methods Adolescents hospitalized for malnutrition due to AN were included in this quasi-experimental study comparing lower and higher calories during refeeding. Participants enrolled between 2002 and 2012; higher calories were prescribed starting around 2008. Daily prospective measures included weight, heart rate, temperature, hydration markers and serum phosphorus. Participants received formula only to replace refused food. Percent Median Body Mass Index (% MBMI) was calculated using 50th percentile body mass index for age and sex. Unpaired t-tests compared two groups split at 1,200 calories. Results Fifty-six adolescents with mean (±SEM) age 16.2 (±.3) years and admit %MBMI 79.2% (±1.5%) were hospitalized for 14.9 (±.9) days. The only significant difference between groups (N = 28 each) at baseline was starting calories (1,764 [±60] vs. 1,093 [±28], p refeeding syndrome were seen using phosphate supplementation. These findings lend further support to the move toward more aggressive refeeding in AN. PMID:24054812

  10. Appetite enhancement and weight gain by peripheral administration of TrkB agonists in non-human primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Lin

    Full Text Available Loss of function mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase TrkB pathway resulted in hyperphagia and morbid obesity in human and rodents. Conversely, peripheral or central stimulation of TrkB by its natural ligands BDNF or NT4 reduced body weight and food intake in mice, supporting the idea that TrkB is a key anorexigenic signal downstream of the melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r system. Here we show that in non-human primates TrkB agonists were anorexigenic when applied centrally, but surprisingly orexigenic, leading to gain in appetite, body weight, fat deposits and serum leptin levels, when given peripherally. The orexigenic and pro-obesity effects of peripherally administered TrkB agonists appear to be dose dependent, not associated with fluid retention nor with evidence of receptor down regulation. Our findings revealed that TrkB signaling exerts dual control on energy homeostasis in the primates that could be targeted for the treatment of either wasting disorders or obesity.

  11. Associations of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with birth outcomes in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lingli; Ding, Guodong; Vinturache, Angela; Xu, Jian; Ding, Yifang; Guo, Jialin; Huang, Liping; Yin, Xuelei; Qiao, Jing; Thureraja, Inesh; Ben, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Recent data suggests that abnormal maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) or gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with unfavorable delivery outcomes. However, limited clinical evidence is available to support this correlation in China. Participating 510 mother-infant pairs were recruited from the Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, China, between January 1st and 30th 2016. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was categorized according to the China’s classification and GWG according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations (IOM). Linear regression tested the associations between pre-pregnancy BMI or GWG and length of gestation, birthweight, length, and head circumference. Logistic regression assessed the associations between pre-pregnancy BMI or GWG and macrosomic, small- (SGA) and large- (LGA) for-gestational-age infants. Overweight/obese women showed increased length of gestation and birthweight, but did not have a higher risk of macrosomic and LGA infants compared with normal weight women. Women with excessive GWG showed increased length of gestation, birthweight, length, and head circumference, and were more likely to deliver macrosomic and LGA infants compared with women with adequate GWG. Although a relatively low proportion of women from Shanghai area are overweight/obese or exhibit excessive GWG, both high pre-pregnancy BMI and excessive GWG influence perinatal outcomes. PMID:28120879

  12. Subchronic and mild social defeat stress accelerates food intake and body weight gain with polydipsia-like features in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tatsuhiko; Kubota, Yoshifumi; Tanaka, Yuki; Iio, Wataru; Moriya, Naoko; Toyoda, Atsushi

    2014-08-15

    Development and characterization of animal models of depression are essential for fully understanding the pathogenesis of depression in humans. We made and analyzed a mouse model exhibiting social deficit and hyperphagia-like behavior using a subchronic and mild social defeat stress (sCSDS) paradigm. The body weight, food and water intake of mice were monitored during a test period, and their behaviors and serum components were analyzed at two stages: immediately after the sCSDS period and 1 month after the sCSDS. The body weight and food intake of defeated mice were significantly higher than control mice at the sCSDS period, and these differences were sustained until 1 month after the sCSDS, whereas the water intake of defeated mice was significantly higher than control mice for the period of sCSDS only. Behavioral analyses revealed that the defeated mice exhibit significant social aversion to unfamiliar mice in a social interaction test and a trend of anxiety-like behavior in an elevated-plus maze test. Possibly due to polydipsia-like symptoms, defeated mice had significantly lower levels of albumin and blood urea nitrogen than control mice immediately after the sCSDS period but not at 1 month after sCSDS. The present study revealed that our sCSDS mice keep much more water in their body than control mice. This study reports the first step toward an understanding of the mechanisms of stress-induced overhydration, over-eating and resultant weight gain.

  13. A randomised clinical trial on the efficacy of oxytetracycline dose through water medication of nursery pigs on diarrhoea, faecal shedding of Lawsonia intracellularis and average daily weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Inge-Lise; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Holm, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    the efficacy of three oral dosage regimens (5, 10 and 20mg/kg body weight) of oxytetracycline (OTC) in drinking water over a five-day period on diarrhoea, faecal shedding of LI and average daily weight gain (ADG). A randomised clinical trial was carried out in four Danish pig herds. In total, 539 animals from...

  14. Preventing Weight Gain One-Year Results of a Randomized Lifestyle Intervention : one-year results of a randomized lifestyle intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Bogt, Nancy C. W.; Bemelmans, Wanda J. E.; Beltman, Frank W.; Broer, Jan; Smit, Andries J.; van der Meer, Klaas

    2009-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle interventions targeting prevention of weight gain may have better long-term success than when aimed at weight loss. Limited evidence exists about such an approach in the primary care setting. Design: An RCT was conducted. Setting/Participants were 457 overweight or obese patien

  15. Impact attenuation during weight bearing activities in barefoot vs. shod conditions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong Yan, Alycia; Sinclair, Peter J; Hiller, Claire; Wegener, Caleb; Smith, Richard M

    2013-06-01

    Although it could be perceived that there is extensive research on the impact attenuation characteristics of shoes, the approach and findings of researchers in this area are varied. This review aimed to clarify the effect of shoes on impact attenuation to the foot and lower leg and was limited to those studies that compared the shoe condition(s) with barefoot. A systematic search of the literature yielded 26 studies that investigated vertical ground reaction force, axial tibial acceleration, loading rate and local plantar pressures. Meta-analyses of the effect of shoes on each variable during walking and running were performed using the inverse variance technique. Variables were collected at their peak or at the impact transient, but when grouped together as previous comparisons have done, shoes reduced local plantar pressure and tibial acceleration, but did not affect vertical force or loading rate for walking. During running, shoes reduced tibial acceleration but did not affect loading rate or vertical force. Further meta-analyses were performed, isolating shoe type and when the measurements were collected. Athletic shoes reduced peak vertical force during walking, but increased vertical force at the impact transient and no change occurred for the other variables. During running, athletic shoes reduced loading rate but did not affect vertical force. The range of variables examined and variety of measurements used appears to be a reason for the discrepancies across the literature. The impact attenuating effect of shoes has potentially both adverse and beneficial effects depending on the variable and activity under investigation.

  16. The risk of emergency cesarean section after failure of vaginal delivery according to prepregnancy body mass index or gestational weight gain by the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ha Yan; Kwon, Ja-Young; Park, Yong Won

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the risk of emergency cesarean section according to the prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain per the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines. Methods A retrospective analysis of data from 2,765 women with singleton full-term births (2009 to 2012) who attempted a vaginal delivery was conducted. Pregnancies with preeclampsia, chronic hypertension, diabetes, planned cesarean section, placenta previa, or cesarean section due to fetal anomalies or intrauterine growth restriction were excluded. Odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) for emergency cesarean section were calculated after adjusting for prepregnancy BMI or gestational weight gain. Results Three-hundred and fifty nine (13.0%) women underwent emergency cesarean section. The adjusted OR for overweight, obese, and extremely obese women indicated a significantly increased risk of cesarean delivery. Gestational weight gain by Institute of Medicine guidelines was not associated with an increased risk of cesarean delivery. However, inadequate and excessive weight gain in obese women was highly associated with an increased risk of emergency cesarean section, compared to these in normal BMI (OR, 5.56; 95% CI, 1.36 to 22.72; OR, 3.63; 95% CI, 1.05 to 12.54; respectively), while there was no significant difference between normal BMI and obese women with adequate weight gain. Conclusion Obese women should be provided special advice before and during pregnancy for controlling weight and careful consideration should be needed at the time of vaginal delivery to avoid emergency cesarean section. PMID:27200306

  17. Counseling about gestational weight gain and healthy lifestyle during pregnancy: Canadian maternity care providers' self-evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferraro ZM

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Zachary M Ferraro,1 Kaitlin S Boehm,1 Laura M Gaudet,2,3 Kristi B Adamo1,4,5 1Healthy Active Living and Obesity Research Group, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 2Horizon Health Network, Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada; 4School of Human Kinetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, 5Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Introduction: There is discord between the recall of maternity care providers and patients when it comes to discussion of gestational weight gain (GWG and obesity management. Few women report being advised on GWG, physical activity (PA, and nutrition, yet the majority of health care providers report discussing these topics with patients. We evaluated whether various Canadian maternal health care providers can identify appropriate GWG targets for patients with obesity and determine if providers report counseling on GWG, physical activity, and nutrition. Methods: A valid and reliable e-survey was created using SurveyMonkey software and distributed by the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada listserve. A total of 174 health care providers finished the survey. Respondents self-identified as general practitioners, obstetricians, maternal-fetal medicine specialists, midwives, or registered nurses. Results: GWG recommendations between disciplines for all body mass index categories were similar and fell within Health Canada/Institute of Medicine (IOM guidelines. Of those who answered this question, 110/160 (68.8% were able to correctly identify the maximum IOM GWG recommended for patients with obesity, yet midwives tended to recommend 0.5–1 kg more GWG (P = 0.05. PA counseling during pregnancy differed between disciplines (P < 0.01, as did nutrition counseling during pregnancy (P < 0.05. Conclusion: In

  18. A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial of Maternal Postpartum Deworming to Improve Infant Weight Gain in the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casapía, Martín; Aguilar, Eder; Silva, Hermánn; Montresor, Antonio; Rahme, Elham; Fraser, William D.; Marquis, Grace S.; Vercruysse, Jozef; Allen, Lindsay H.; Blouin, Brittany; Razuri, Hugo; Pezo, Lidsky

    2017-01-01

    Background Nutritional interventions targeting the critical growth and development period before two years of age can have the greatest impact on health trajectories over the life course. Compelling evidence has demonstrated that interventions investing in maternal health in the first 1000 days of life are beneficial for both mothers and their children. One such potential intervention is deworming integrated into maternal postpartum care in areas where soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are endemic. Methodology/Principal Findings From February to August 2014, 1010 mother-infant pairs were recruited into a trial aimed at assessing the effectiveness of maternal postpartum deworming on infant and maternal health outcomes. Following delivery, mothers were randomly assigned to receive either single-dose 400 mg albendazole or placebo. Participants were followed-up at 1 and 6 months postpartum. There was no statistically significant difference in mean weight gain between infants in the experimental and control groups (mean difference: -0.02; 95% CI: -0.1, 0.08) at 6 months of age. Further, deworming had no effect on measured infant morbidity indicators. However, ad hoc analyses restricted to mothers who tested positive for STHs at baseline suggest that infants of mothers in the experimental group had greater mean length gain in cm (mean difference: 0.8; 95% CI: 0.1, 1.4) and length-for-age z-score (mean difference: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.8) at 6 months of age. Conclusions/Significance In a study population composed of both STH-infected and uninfected mothers, maternal postpartum deworming was insufficient to impact infant growth and morbidity indicators up to 6 months postpartum. Among STH-infected mothers, however, important improvements in infant length gain and length-for-age were observed. The benefits of maternal postpartum deworming should be further investigated in study populations having higher overall prevalences and intensities of STH infections and, in

  19. Differences in gestational weight gain between pregnancies before and after maternal bariatric surgery correlate with differences in birth weight but not with scores on the body mass index in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglind, D; Willmer, M; Näslund, E;

    2013-01-01

    Large maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with increased birth weight and increased risk of obesity in offspring, but these associations may be confounded by genetic and environmental factors. The aim was to investigate the effects of differences in GWG in all three trimesters on...

  20. Caffeine prevents weight gain and cognitive impairment caused by a high-fat diet while elevating hippocampal BDNF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Gregory A; McNay, Ewan C

    2013-01-17

    Obesity, high-fat diets, and subsequent type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are associated with cognitive impairment. Moreover, T2DM increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and leads to abnormal elevation of brain beta-amyloid levels, one of the hallmarks of AD. The psychoactive alkaloid caffeine has been shown to have therapeutic potential in AD but the central impact of caffeine has not been well-studied in the context of a high-fat diet. Here we investigated the impact of caffeine administration on metabolism and cognitive performance, both in control rats and in rats placed on a high-fat diet. The effects of caffeine were significant: caffeine both (i) prevented the weight-gain associated with the high-fat diet and (ii) prevented cognitive impairment. Caffeine did not alter hippocampal metabolism or insulin signaling, likely because the high-fat-fed animals did not develop full-blown diabetes; however, caffeine did prevent or reverse a decrease in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) seen in high-fat-fed animals. These data confirm that caffeine may serve as a neuroprotective agent against cognitive impairment caused by obesity and/or a high-fat diet. Increased hippocampal BDNF following caffeine administration could explain, at least in part, the effects of caffeine on cognition and metabolism.

  1. Effects of sires with different weight gain potentials and varying planes of nutrition on growth of growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Duck-Min; Jung, Dae-Yun; Park, Man Jong; Park, Byung-Chul; Lee, C Young

    2014-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effects of two groups of sires with 'medium' and 'high' weight gain potentials (M-sires and H-sires, respectively) on growth of their progenies on varying planes of nutrition during the growing-finishing period. The ADG of the M-sires' progeny was greater (P plane of nutrition (H plane) followed by the medium (M) and low (L) planes (0.65, 0.61, and 0.51 kg, respectively; P planes vs. L plane (0.63, 0.62, and 0.54 kg, respectively). The ADG of pigs on the M or H plane during the grower phase and switched to the H plane thereafter (M-to-H or H-to-H planes) was greater than that of pigs on the L-to-L planes (0.99 vs. 0.78 kg) during the early finisher phase in the M-sires' progeny (P planes did not differ from that of pigs on the M-to-M or H-to-M planes (0.94 vs. 0.96 kg). Results suggest that the H-to-H or H-to-M planes and M-to-M or M-to-L planes are optimal for maximal growth of the M- and H-sires' progenies, respectively.

  2. Single-center assessment of nutritional counseling in preventing excessive weight gain in pediatric renal transplants recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Camilla; Krmar, Rafael T

    2016-05-01

    Post-transplantation obesity is a common complication that is associated with a higher risk for decreased allograft function and hypertension. However, the role of diet intervention on reducing post-transplantation obesity is relatively unknown. We investigated the clinical relevance of dietary counseling on the prevalence of overweight/obesity during the first two yr following renal transplantation. The computerized patient records of 42 recipients (31 males) aged 6.3 ± 4.8 yr at transplantation were reviewed. All patients systematically underwent yearly dietary assessment/counseling (motivational interviewing technique) and measurement of renal function and ABPM. At transplantation, 14.2% of patients were overweight/obese, which increased to 42.8% by two yr post-transplantation (p = 0.004). The majority of patients experienced a significant increase in BMI SDS during the first six months post-transplantation that remained sustained throughout the duration of the follow-up period (p = 0.001). By two yr post-transplantation, there were no observable differences between patients classified as having normal BMI or being overweight/obese with regard to renal function and controlled hypertension. The application of yearly tailored dietary assessment/counseling had a poor effect on preventing post-transplantation weight gain, suggesting the need for more comprehensive interventions to reduce post-transplant obesity.

  3. A Population-Based Study on Gestational Weight Gain according to Body Mass Index in the Southeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Godoy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gestational weight gain (GWG may interfere in perinatal outcomes and also cause future problems throughout woman’s life. The aim of this population-based study is to evaluate the GWG in Campinas city, southeast of Brazil. A total of 1052 women, who delivered in the three major maternity hospitals in Campinas, were interviewed during postpartum period. The general average of GWG was 13.08±6.08. Of total women, 13.6% were obese and 24.6% were overweight and, in these groups, 55.9% and 53.7%, respectively, exceeded GWG according to the Institute of Medicine recommendations. 6.2% of total women had low body mass index (BMI and 35.5% in this group had insufficient GWG. Overweight and obese women had a higher risk of excessive GWG and delivery by c-section. The c-section rate was 58.9% and increased according to GWG. Prematurity was more prevalent first in obese and then in low BMI women. Considering the high BMI in women in reproductive age, it is necessary to take effective guidelines about lifestyle and nutritional orientation in order to help women reach adequate GWG. All of them could improve prenatal outcomes and women’s heath as a whole.

  4. Implementation of Knowledge Against Hearth Mother, Nutrient Intake, Weight Gain and Less Toddler Nutritional Status in Jayapura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melva Verawaty Siagian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Growth or nutritional status of children is not only related to the consumption of food but was associated with behavior in this case nutrition parenting, and influenced by the environment. Solving nutritional problems with positive deviance approach by post nutrition is an alternative that should be considered for development in Papua, which insists on the principle of mobilization and community empowerment in addressing the health problems faced at the front. This study aims to determine the effect of nutrition on post implementation mother's knowledge stunting, nutrition, weight gain, nutritional status of children malnutrition in Jayapura. This research is a quasi experimental with giving a treatment and its impact will be measured later. The study design is a Pre-Post Test Design, which only involves one group of subjects and measured the post-test group. The study was conducted in three villages in the city of Jayapura. The study was conducted from August to September 2016. Data analysis technique used statistical analysis to compare the knowledge of the mother, weight and nutritional status before and after the implementation of nutrition by using statistical test paired t-test. For nutritional intake data is presented in tabular form distribution. Results of a study of mothers of malnourished children found there are differences in the proportion of mothers knowledge of stunting between before implementation implements post after post nutrition with nutrition, but there is no significant relationship is with paired T test significance values greater than 0.05; there is no difference in the proportion of the nutritional intake of stunting among prior to the implementation of nutrition post with after implements nutrition post, there are differences in the proportion of weight stunting between before implementation of nutrition post with after implements Hearth and significant correlation with a value of significance paired T test less

  5. Relationship between gestational weight gain and birthweight among clients enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), Hawaii, 2003-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, Izumi; Hayes, Donald K; Chock, Linda R; Fuddy, Loretta J; Rosenberg, Deborah L; Handler, Arden S

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between gestational weight gain (GWG) and birthweight outcomes among a low-income population in Hawaii using GWG recommendations from the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines. Data were analyzed for 19,130 mother-infant pairs who participated in Hawaii's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children from 2003 through 2005. GWG was categorized as inadequate, adequate, or excessive on the basis of GWG charts in the guidelines. Generalized logit models assessed the relationship between mothers' GWG and their child's birthweight category (low birthweight [LBW: < 2,500 g], normal birthweight [2,500 g ≤ BW < 4,000 g], or high birthweight [HBW: ≥ 4,000 g]). Final models were stratified by prepregnancy body mass index (underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese) and adjusted for maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, smoking status, parity, and marital status. Overall, 62% of the sample had excessive weight gain and 15% had inadequate weight gain. Women with excessive weight gain were more likely to deliver a HBW infant; this relationship was observed for women in all prepregnancy weight categories. Among women with underweight or normal weight prior to pregnancy, those with inadequate weight gain during pregnancy were more likely to deliver a LBW infant. Among the low-income population of Hawaii, women with GWG within the range recommended in the 2009 IOM guidelines had better birthweight outcomes than those with GWG outside the recommended range. Further study is needed to identify optimal GWG goals for women with an obese BMI prior to pregnancy.

  6. Efecto de la ganancia de peso gestacional en la madre y el neonato The effect of gestational weight gain on maternal and neonatal outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Zonana-Nacach

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de la ganancia de peso gestacional (GPG en la madre y el neonato. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se incluyeron 1 000 mujeres en puerperio inmediato atendidas en el Hospital de Ginecología del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, en Tijuana, Baja California, México. Se consideró una GPG óptima si en las mujeres con bajo peso, peso normal, sobrepeso u obesidad previo al embarazo, la GPG fue OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of gestational weight gain (GWG on maternal and neonatal outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During 2009, women in the immediate puerperium were assessed at the Gynecology and Obstetrics Hospital in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico. GWG was considered optimal when < 18 kg, < 16 kg, < 11.5 kg and <9 kg for women who, before pregnancy, were underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 38% of women gained more than the recommended weight during pregnancy Women with normal weight previous to pregnancy who exceeded gestational weight-gain recommendations had a risk of oligo/polyhydramnios (OR 2.1, CI 95% 1.04-4.2 and cesarean delivery; overweight women previous to pregnancy had an increased risk of preeclampsia (OR 2.2 CI 95% I.I-4.6 and newborn macrosomia (OR 2.5, CI 95% 1.1-5.6; and obese women had a risk of newborn macrosomía (OR 6.6 IC 95% I.8-23. Pre-pregnancy weight was more greatly associated with gestational diabetes than gestational weight gain. CONCLUSIONS: Women whose weight gain during pregnancy is outside of the recommended ranges had an increased risk of adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes.

  7. Influence of caffeine used at various temperature ranges on the concentrations of glucose and total serum protein as well as body weight gain in pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cendrowska-Pinkosz Monika

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine (120 mg/kg was administered intragastrically to pregnant rats daily on gestational days 8-21. An increase in serum concentration of glucose and total protein was found in animals, which were given caffeine. The protein content proved to be highly significant in the experimental group of animals. The control group showed a negative interdependence between body weight gain and glucose concentration. No correlation was found between body weight gain and total protein concentration, yet the glucose concentration significantly influenced the total protein concentration in this group of animals. Among animals which received caffeine, correlations between total protein and glucose concentrations were observed. The analysis did not show that the glucose or total protein concentration significantly influenced the body weight gain of pregnant female rats in the experimental group. The research conducted suggests the possibility of modulating effects of caffeine on adaptive processes during pregnancy.

  8. Effect of selection for growth on normal and reduced protein diets on weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency and body composition in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, V H; Korsgaard, I R

    2006-12-01

    Mice selected for weight gain from 3 to 9 weeks of age on a normal (N) protein diet containing 19.3% protein and a reduced (R) protein diet with 5.1% protein were reared on both diets in generations 7 and 9. The lines NH, NC, NL, RH, RC and RL (H, high; C, control; L, low) were tested for weight gain on diet N and R and for feed intake and feed efficiency on diet N in generation 7. In generation 9, the lines were tested for body composition traits (fat, protein and water percentage) at 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks of age on both diets. A significant (p < 0.0001) genotype x environment interaction for growth rate was observed in generation 7. Weight gain at both the protein levels was best improved by selection at the protein level itself. Furthermore, the ranking of the lines on diet N was similar for weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency. In generation 9 at 9 weeks of age, the ranking of the lines for fat percentage was equal to the ranking for weight gain in generation 7 on both test-diets. The association between weight gain and protein or water percentage was less pronounced, particularly on diet R. These results suggest that the largest genetic improvement in growth rate is obtained when the protein content of the feed is the same in selection and production. However, when selection is carried out in one environment while the animals have to perform under conditions with varying nutrient protein contents, selection in an inferior environment may be advantageous.

  9. Development and validation of a risk score predicting substantial weight gain over 5 years in middle-aged European men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Steffen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Identifying individuals at high risk of excess weight gain may help targeting prevention efforts at those at risk of various metabolic diseases associated with weight gain. Our aim was to develop a risk score to identify these individuals and validate it in an external population. METHODS: We used lifestyle and nutritional data from 53°758 individuals followed for a median of 5.4 years from six centers of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC to develop a risk score to predict substantial weight gain (SWG for the next 5 years (derivation sample. Assuming linear weight gain, SWG was defined as gaining ≥ 10% of baseline weight during follow-up. Proportional hazards models were used to identify significant predictors of SWG separately by EPIC center. Regression coefficients of predictors were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Pooled coefficients were used to assign weights to each predictor. The risk score was calculated as a linear combination of the predictors. External validity of the score was evaluated in nine other centers of the EPIC study (validation sample. RESULTS: Our final model included age, sex, baseline weight, level of education, baseline smoking, sports activity, alcohol use, and intake of six food groups. The model's discriminatory ability measured by the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.64 (95% CI = 0.63-0.65 in the derivation sample and 0.57 (95% CI = 0.56-0.58 in the validation sample, with variation between centers. Positive and negative predictive values for the optimal cut-off value of ≥ 200 points were 9% and 96%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The present risk score confidently excluded a large proportion of individuals from being at any appreciable risk to develop SWG within the next 5 years. Future studies, however, may attempt to further refine the positive prediction of the score.

  10. Nativity status/length of stay in the US and excessive gestational weight gain in New York City teens, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Mary H; Borrell, Luisa N; Chambers, Earle C

    2015-02-01

    Nativity status/length of stay in the US has been found to be associated with obesity. However, little work has examined the role of nativity status/length of stay in excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG) in adolescents. This study utilized New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene birth certificate data in a cross-sectional analysis of 15,715 singleton births to primiparous teen mothers (12-19 years) between 2008 and 2010. Nativity and length of stay in the United States (US) were obtained from birth certificates. EGWG was calculated using weight at delivery and pre-pregnancy weight. Prevalence ratios were calculated through generalized estimating equations to assess the strength of the association between nativity status/length of US residence and EGWG. For US-born teens, 43 % gained more weight than recommended as compared to 32 % for foreign-born teens who have lived in the US for less than 5 years (FB teens (adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) (CI) 1.26 [1.18,1.34]), FB 10+ years (APR (CI) 1.17 [1.07,1.28]), and FB 5-10 years (APR (CI) 1.11 [1.01,1.21]) were more likely to have gained weight excessively as compared to FB teens and FB teens that have been in the US longer than 5 years are more likely to gain weight excessively during pregnancy as compared to teens with fewer than 5 years in the US. These results identify a critical period when adolescents are in frequent contact with health care providers and can receive counseling regarding healthy weight gain.

  11. The puzzle of self-reported weight gain in a month of fasting (Ramadan among a cohort of Saudi families in Jeddah, Western Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhotmah Balkees

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During Ramadan fast, approximately one billion Muslims abstain from food and fluid between the hours of sunrise to sunset, and usually eat a large meal after sunset and another meal before sunrise. Many studies reported good health-related outcomes of fasting including weight loss. The objective of this study is to identify the local pattern of expenditure on food consumption, dietary habits during Ramadan and correlate that to self-reported weight gain after Ramadan in a group of families in Jeddah, Western Saudi Arabia. Methods A Cross-section study using a pre-designed questionnaire to identify the local pattern of expenditure on food consumption, dietary habits during Ramadan and correlate that to self-reported weight gain after Ramadan in a representative cohort of Saudis living in Jeddah. It was piloted on 173 nutrition students and administered by them to their families. Results A total of 173 Saudi families were interviewed. One out of 5 indicated that their expenditure increases during Ramadan. Approximately two thirds of the respondents (59.5% reported weight gain after Ramadan. When asked about their perspective explanations for that: 40% attributed that to types of foods being rich in fat and carbohydrates particularly date in (Sunset meal 97.7% and rice in (Dawn meal 80.9%. One third (31.2% indicated that it was due to relative lack of physical exercise in Ramadan and 14.5% referred that to increase in food consumption. Two thirds (65.2% of those with increased expenditure reported weight gain. Conclusion Surprisingly weight gain and not weight loss was reported after Ramadan by Saudis which indicates timely needed life-style and dietary modification programs for a population which reports one of the highest prevalence rates of diabetes.

  12. The Role of Drinking Alcohol, Coffee, Tea Habits, Fear of Gaining Weight and Treatment Methods in Smoking Cessation Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İzzet Fidancı1

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate the role of drinking alcohol, coffee and tea habits, fear of gaining weight and treatment methods in smoking cessation success. Methods: In our study, we applied a questionnaire and Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence to 128 participants consulting Family Medicine Smoking Cessation Outpatient Clinic of Ankara Training and Research Hospital. Among participants, 67 of them were people quitted smoking while the other 61 did not. With questionnaire, we investigated factors possibly affecting smoking cessation success like drinking alcohol, coffee and tea habits and also marital status and occupations of participants. By adding Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence to questionnaire we defined the dependence status of participants. Results: Study comprised of 128 participants, 50 of them being female and 78 being male. Mean age of participants was 34.01 (±12.24 in patients quitted smoking and 32.82 (±13.45 in patients still smoking. Tea and alcohol drinking habits were found to be higher in smoking group and difference was statistically significant (p<0,05. When examining smoking cessation success according to occupational groups, civil servants and unemployed people were more successful than other occupational groups, but there was no statistically significant difference. People having coffee drinking habits quitted smoking in a significantly higher rate (p<0,05. Among given treatments, although statistically insignificant, the most effective one was varenicline. Conclusion: According to our results, smoking cessation success is lower among people having tea and alcohol drinking habits. In smokers, we should investigate the relationship with additional substance usage and aim to decrease these additional substance usage habits for increasing smoking cessation success.

  13. Resveratrol Co-Treatment Attenuates the Effects of HIV Protease Inhibitors on Rat Body Weight and Enhances Cardiac Mitochondrial Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symington, Burger; Mapanga, Rudo F.; Norton, Gavin R.

    2017-01-01

    Since the early 1990s human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) emerged as a global health pandemic, with sub-Saharan Africa the hardest hit. While the successful roll-out of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy provided significant relief to HIV-positive individuals, such treatment can also elicit damaging side-effects. Here especially HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) are implicated in the onset of cardio-metabolic complications such as type-2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. As there is a paucity of data regarding suitable co-treatments within this context, this preclinical study investigated whether resveratrol (RSV), aspirin (ASP) or vitamin C (VitC) co-treatment is able to blunt side-effects in a rat model of chronic PI exposure (Lopinavir/Ritonavir treatment for 4 months). Body weights and weight gain, blood metabolite levels (total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides), echocardiography and cardiac mitochondrial respiration were assessed in PI-treated rats ± various co-treatments. Our data reveal that PI treatment significantly lowered body weight and cardiac respiratory function while no significant changes were found for heart function and blood metabolite levels. Moreover, all co-treatments ameliorated the PI-induced decrease in body weight after 4 months of PI treatment, while RSV co-treatment enhanced cardiac mitochondrial respiratory capacity in PI-treated rats. This pilot study therefore provides novel hypotheses regarding RSV co-treatment that should be further assessed in greater detail. PMID:28107484

  14. Significant progression of load on the musculoskeletal system with extremely high loads, with rapid weekly weight gains, using the Anatoly Gravitational System, in a 10-week training period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke DT

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available David T Burke,1 David Tran,1 Di Cui,1 Daniel P Burke,2 Samir Al-Adawi,3 Atsu SS Dorvlo41Emory University Medical School, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Georgia College and State University, GA, USA; 3Department of Behavioral Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman; 4Department of Mathematics and Statistics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, OmanAbstract: In an age of increasing numbers of lifestyle diseases and plasticity of longevity, exercise and weight training have been increasingly recognized as both preventing and mitigating the severity of many illnesses. This study was designed to determine whether significant weight-lifting gains could be realized through the Anatoly Gravitational System. Specifically, this study sought to determine whether this once-weekly weight-training system could result in significant weekly strength gains during a 10-week training period. A total of 50 participants, ranging in age from 17 to 67 years, completed at least 10 weekly 30-minute training sessions. The results suggest participants could, on average, double their weight-lifting capacity within 10 sessions. This preliminary study, which would require further scrutiny, suggests the Anatoly Gravitational System provides a rather unique opportunity to load the musculoskeletal system with extremely high loads, with rapid weekly weight gains, using only short weekly training sessions. More studies are warranted to scrutinize these findings.Keywords: Anatoly Gravitational System, weight training, musculoskeletal system

  15. Associations between prenatal and infancy weight gain and BMI, fat mass, and fat distribution in young adulthood: A prospective cohort study in males and females born very preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euser, A.M.; Finken, M.J.J.; Keijzer-Veen, M.G.; Hille, E.T.M.; Wit, J.M.; Dekker, F.W.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Increasing evidence indicates that adult body composition is associated with prenatal and infancy weight gain, but the relative importance of different time periods has not been elucidated. Objective: The objective was to study the association between prenatal, early postnatal, and late

  16. Feasibility and Initial Efficacy Evaluation of a Community-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Lifestyle Intervention to Prevent Excessive Weight Gain During Pregnancy in Latina Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesell, Sabina B; Katula, Jeffrey A; Strickland, Carmen; Vitolins, Mara Z

    2015-08-01

    About 48 % of US women gain more weight during pregnancy than recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Excessive gestational weight gain is a major risk factor for obesity in both women and offspring over their lifetimes, and should be avoided. This study was designed to test the feasibility and initial efficacy of a prenatal behavioral intervention in a sample of low-income, predominantly Latina women. The intervention was delivered in groups of 8-10 women in a community recreation center, and structured to reduce the proportion of women who gained weight in excess of IOM guidelines. Recruitment targets were met in 3 months: 135 pregnant women (>10 and lifestyle intervention during pregnancy was feasible in a hard-to-reach, high-risk population of low-income Latina women, and showed efficacy in preventing excessive gestational weight gain. Due to frequently changing work schedules, strategies are needed to either increase attendance at group sessions (e.g., within a group prenatal care format) or to build core skills necessary for behavior change through other modalities.

  17. Cannabidiol-2',6'-dimethyl ether stimulates body weight gain in apolipoprotein E-deficient BALB/c. KOR/Stm Slc-Apoe(shl) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shuso; Hirota, Rena; Teradaira, Sari; Takeda-Imoto, Masumi; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Toda, Akihisa; Aramaki, Hironori

    2015-12-01

    The biological activities of cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotropic constituent of the fiber-type cannabis plant, have been examined in detail (e.g., CBD modulation of body weight in mice and rats). However, few studies have investigated the biological activities of cannabidiol-2',6'-dimethyl ether (CBDD), a dimethyl ether derivative of the parent CBD. We herein focused on the effects of CBDD on body weight changes in mice, and demonstrated that it stimulated body weight gain in apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-deficient BALB/c. KOR/Stm Slc-Apoe(shl) mice, especially between 10 and 20 weeks of age.

  18. The role of histaminergic H1 and H3 receptors in food intake: a mechanism for atypical antipsychotic-induced weight gain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chao; Weston-Green, Katrina; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2010-02-01

    Atypical antipsychotics such as olanzapine and clozapine are effective at treating the multiple domains of schizophrenia, with a low risk of extra-pyramidal side-effects. However a major downfall to their use is metabolic side-effects particularly weight gain/obesity, which occurs by unknown mechanisms. The present paper explores the potential candidature of histaminergic neurotransmission in the mechanisms of atypical antipsychotic-induced weight gain, with a focus on the histaminergic H1 and H3 receptors. Olanzapine and clozapine have a high affinity for the H1 receptor, and meta-analyses show a strong correlation between risk of weight gain and H1 receptor affinity. In addition, olanzapine treatment decreases H1 receptor binding and mRNA expression in the rat hypothalamus. Furthermore, a complex role is emerging for the histamine H3 receptor in the control of hunger. The H3 receptor is a pre-synaptic autoreceptor that inhibits the synthesis and release of histamine, and a heteroreceptor that inhibits other neurotransmitters such as serotonin (5-HT), noradrenaline (NA) and acetylcholine (ACh), which are also implicated in the regulation of food intake. Thus, the H3 receptor is in a prime position to regulate food intake, both through its control of histamine and its influence on other feeding pathways. We proposed that a mechanism for atypical antipsychotic-induced weight gain may be partly through the H3 receptor, as a drug-induced decrease in H1 receptor activity may decrease histamine tone through the H3 autoreceptors, compounding the weight gain problem. In addition, atypical antipsychotics may affect food intake by influencing 5-HT, NA and ACh release via interactions with the H3 heteroreceptor.

  19. The impact of food assistance on weight gain and disease progression among HIV-infected individuals accessing AIDS care and treatment services in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNamara Paul E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evidence evaluating the benefits of programmatic nutrition interventions to HIV-infected individuals in developing countries, where there is a large overlap between HIV prevalence and malnutrition, is limited. This study evaluates the impact of food assistance (FA on change in weight and disease progression as measured by WHO staging. Methods We utilize program data from The AIDS Support Organization (TASO in Uganda to compare outcomes among FA recipients to a control group, using propensity score matching (PSM methods among 14,481 HIV-infected TASO clients. Results FA resulted in a significant mean weight gain of 0.36 kg over one year period. This impact was conditional on anti-retroviral therapy (ART receipt and disease stage at baseline. FA resulted in mean weight gain of 0.36 kg among individuals not receiving ART compared to their matched controls. HIV-infected individuals receiving FA with baseline WHO stage II and III had a significant weight gain (0.26 kg and 0.2 kg respectively compared to their matched controls. Individuals with the most advanced disease at baseline (WHO stage IV had the highest weight gain of 1.9 kg. The impact on disease progression was minimal. Individuals receiving FA were 2 percentage points less likely to progress by one or more WHO stage compared to their matched controls. There were no significant impacts on either outcome among individuals receiving ART. Conclusions Given the widespread overlap of HIV and malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa, FA programs have the potential to improve weight and delay disease progression, especially among HIV-infected individuals not yet on ART. Additional well designed prospective studies evaluating the impact of FA are urgently needed.

  20. Infant adiposity at birth and early postnatal weight gain predict increased aortic intima-media thickness at 6 weeks of age: a population-derived cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Kate; Burgner, David; Carlin, John B; Skilton, Michael R; Cheung, Michael; Dwyer, Terence; Vuillermin, Peter; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise

    2016-03-01

    Infant body composition and postnatal weight gain have been implicated in the development of adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, but there are limited prospective data regarding the association between infant adiposity, postnatal growth and early cardiovascular parameters. Increased aortic intima-media thickness (aortic IMT) is an intermediate phenotype of early atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between weight and adiposity at birth, postnatal growth and aortic IMT. The Barwon Infant Study (n=1074 mother-infant pairs) is a population-derived birth cohort. Infant weight and other anthropometry were measured at birth and 6 weeks of age. Aortic IMT was measured by trans-abdominal ultrasound at 6 weeks of age (n=835). After adjustment for aortic size and other factors, markers of adiposity including increased birth weight (β=19.9 μm/kg, 95%CI 11.1, 28.6; Pinfant weight and adiposity at birth, as well as increased early weight gain, were positively associated with aortic IMT. Excessive accumulation of adiposity during gestation and early infancy may have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk.

  1. Socioeconomic position and risk of short-term weight gain: Prospective study of 14,619 middle-aged men and women

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    Luben Robert N

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between socioeconomic position in middle age and risk of subsequent, short-term weight gain is unknown. We therefore assessed this association in a prospective population based cohort study in Norfolk, UK. Methods We analysed data on 14,619 middle-aged men and women (aged between 40–75 at baseline with repeated objective measures of weight and height at baseline (1993–1997 and follow up (1998–2000. Results During follow up 5,064 people gained more than 2.5 kg. Compared with the highest social class, individuals in the lowest social class had around a 30% greater risk of gaining more than 2.5 kg (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.11–1.51; p for trend = 0.002. This association remained statistically significant following adjustment for sex, age, baseline BMI, smoking, and follow up time (OR 1.25; CI 1.07–1.46; p for trend Conclusion Individuals of low socioeconomic position are at greatest risk of gaining weight during middle age, which is not explained by classical correlates of socioeconomic position and risk factors for obesity.

  2. Neuroticism and clinical course of weight restoration in a meal-based, rapid-weight gain, inpatient-partial hospitalization program for eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Laura K; Schreyer, Colleen C; Coughlin, Janelle W; Redgrave, Graham W; Guarda, Angela S

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of personality on weight restoration in 211 underweight (BMI ≤ 19 kg/m(2)) females admitted to an inpatient-partial hospitalization program for eating disorders. Symptomatology and personality were assessed by questionnaires, and clinical and demographic variables were assessed by chart review. Neuroticism, a personality trait associated with reactivity to stress, was correlated with higher symptomatology, chronicity, length of stay, and income source. Contrary to our hypothesis, neuroticism was positively associated with weight restoration. Length of stay mediated this relationship such that longer length of stay in patients with high neuroticism explained their higher likelihood of weight restoration prior to program discharge. Higher neuroticism is therefore associated with better weight restoration outcomes but may also indicate greater difficulty transitioning out of intensive treatment.

  3. Levamisole: A positive allosteric modulator for the α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors prevents weight gain in CD-1 mice on a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jeanne A; Yakel, Jerrel L; Pandya, Anshul A

    2016-12-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) regulate the function of multiple neurotransmitter pathways throughout the central nervous system. This includes nAChRs found on the proopiomelanocortin neurons in the hypothalamus. Activation of these nAChRs by nicotine causes a decrease in consumption of food in rodents. In this study, we tested the effect of subtype selective allosteric modulators for nAChRs on the body weight of CD-1 mice. Levamisole, an allosteric modulator for the α3β4 subtype of nAChRs, prevented weight gain in mice that were fed a high fat diet. PNU-120596 and desformylflustrabromine are selective PAMs for the α7 and α4β2 nAChR, respectively. Both of these compounds failed to prevent weight gain in CD-1 mice. These results suggest that modulation of hypothalamic α3β4 nAChRs is an important factor in regulating food intake, and the PAMs for these receptors need further investigation as potential therapeutic agents for controlling weight gain.

  4. High-fat-diet-induced weight gain ameliorates bone loss without exacerbating AβPP processing and cognition in female APP/PS1 mice

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    Yunhua ePeng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is negatively correlated with body mass, whereas both osteoporosis and weight loss occur at higher incidence during the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD than the age-matched non-dementia individuals. Given that there is no evidence that overweight associated with AD-type cognitive dysfunction, we hypothesized that moderate weight gain might have a protective effect on the bone loss in AD without exacerbating cognitive dysfunction. In the present study, feeding a high-fat-diet (HFD, 45% calorie from fat to female APP/PS1 transgenic mice, an AD animal model, induced weight gain. The bone mineral density, microarchitecture, and biomechanical properties of the femurs were then evaluated. The results showed that the middle-aged female APP/PS1 transgenic mice were susceptible to osteoporosis of the femoral bones and that weight gain significantly enhanced bone mass and mechanical properties. Notably, HFD was not detrimental to brain insulin signaling and AβPP processing, as well as to exploration ability and working, learning and memory performance of the transgenic mice measured by T maze and water maze, compared with the mice fed a normal fat diet (10% calorie from fat. In addition, the circulating levels of leptin but not estradiol were remarkably elevated in HFD-treated mice. These results suggest that a body weight gain induced by the HFD feeding regimen significantly improved bone mass in female APP/PS1 mice with no detriments to exploration ability and spatial memory, most likely via the action of elevated circulating leptin.

  5. Obesity and gestational weight gain: cesarean delivery and labor complications Obesidade e ganho de peso gestacional: cesariana e complicações de parto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Seligman

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between pre-gestational obesity and weight gain with cesarean delivery and labor complications. METHODS: A total of 4,486 women 20-28 weeks pregnant attending general prenatal care clinics of the national health system in Brazil from 1991 to 1995 were enrolled and followed up through birth. Body mass index categories based on prepregnancy weight and total weight gain were calculated. Associations between body mass index categories and labor complications were adjusted through logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Obesity was present in 308 (6.9% patients. Cesarean delivery was performed in 164 (53.2% obese, 407 (43.1% pre-obese, 1,045 (35.1% normal weight and 64 (24.5% underweight women. The relative risk for cesarean delivery in obese women was 1.8 (95% CI: 1.5-2.0 compared to normal weight women. Greater weight gain was particularly associated with cesarean among the obese (RR 4th vs 2nd weight gain quartile 2.2; 95% CI: 1.4-3.2. Increased weight at the beginning of pregnancy was associated with a significantly higher adjusted risk of meconium with vaginal delivery and perinatal death and infection in women submitted to cesarean section. Similarly, greater weight gain during pregnancy increased the risk for meconium and hemorrhage in women submitted to vaginal delivery and for prematurity with cesarean. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-gestational obesity and greater weight gain independently increase the risk of cesarean delivery, as well as of several adverse outcomes with vaginal delivery. These findings provide further evidence of the negative effects of prepregnancy obesity and greater gestational weight gain on pregnancy outcomes.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação de obesidade pré-gestacional e ganho de peso excessivo com cesariana e outras complicações do parto. MÉTODOS: Um total de 4.486 mulheres com 20-28 semanas de gravidez do pré-natal geral do Sistema Único de Saúde de seis capitais brasileiras foram

  6. Prediction of genetic values for feed intake from individual body weight gain and total feed intake of the pen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A J; Ferrell, C L; Cundiff, L V; Van Vleck, L D

    2010-06-01

    Records of individual feed intake (FI) and BW gain (GN) were obtained from the Germ Plasm Evaluation (GPE) program at US Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC). Animals were randomly assigned to pens. Only pens with 6 to 9 steers (n = 289) were used for this study (data set 1). Variance components and genetic parameters were estimated using data set 1. Estimated genetic values (EGV) for FI were calculated by 5 methods using single and 2-trait analyses: 1) individual FI and individual GN, 2) individual FI alone, 3) 2-trait with individual GN but with FI missing, 4) individual GN and pen total FI, and 5) pen total FI alone. Analyses were repeated but with some of the same records assigned artificially to 36 pens of 5 and 4 paternal half sibs per pen (data sets 2 and 3). Models included year as a fixed factor and birth and weaning weights, age on test, and days fed as covariates. Estimates of heritability were 0.42 +/- 0.16 and 0.34 +/- 0.17 for FI and GN. The estimate of the genetic correlation was 0.57 +/- 0.23. Empirical responses to selection were calculated as the average EGV for the top and bottom 10% based on rank for each method but with EGV from method 1 substituted for the EGV on which ranking was based. With data set 1, rank correlations between EGV from method 1 and EGV from methods 2, 3, 4, and 5 were 0.99, 0.53, 0.32, and 0.15, respectively. Empirical responses relative to method 1 agreed with the rank correlations. Accuracy of EGV for method 4 (0.44) was greater than for method 3 (0.35) and for method 5 (0.29). Accuracies for methods 4 and 5 were greater than indicated by empirical responses and correlations with EGV from method 1. Comparisons of the 5 methods were similar for data sets 2 and 3. With data set 2, rank correlations between EGV from method 1 and EGV from methods 3, 4, and 5 were 0.47, 0.64, and 0.62. Average accuracies of 56, 75, and 75% relative to method 1 (0.67) generally agreed with the empirical responses to selection. As expected

  7. Effects of gestational weight gain on the birth weight of offspring%孕期孕妇体质量增加对新生儿出生体质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚春燕

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨孕妇孕期体质量增加对新生儿出生体质量及分娩结局的影响,以为临床围产期的保健研究提供依据。方法选取我院2014年1月至12月收治的420名健康孕妇为研究对象,分析孕妇孕前体质量指数(BM I)、孕期体质量增长等情况,并比较孕妇孕期体质量增加对分娩结局及新生儿出生体质量的影响。结果孕前超重组孕期体质量增加明显低于孕前低体质量组及正常体质量组( P <0.05);孕前超重组巨大儿的发生率高于其他2组;孕期体质量增加过多孕妇新生儿出生体质量、巨大儿出生率及剖宫产率明显高于体质量增加适宜组及过少组,体质量增加适宜孕妇明显高于体质量增加过少孕妇( P <0.05);孕期体质量增加过少孕妇低体质量新生儿出生率明显高于体质量增加适宜及过多孕妇(P <0.05),孕妇最佳体质量增长区间为16.0kg。结论适宜的孕期体质量增加对于孕妇改善分娩结局,控制新生儿状况具有积极的临床意义。%Objective To investigate the effects of gestational weight gain on the birth weight of offspring and birth outcomes of pregnancy ,and to provide reference for studying clinical perinatal health care.Methods A total of 420 pregnant women who delivered were chosen .To analyze maternal pregestational body mass index (BMI) and body weight gain during pregnancy ;and to compare the impacts of gestational weight gain on pregnan‐cy outcomes and neonatal birth weight.Results Body weight gain during pregnancy in pregnant women with pre‐gestational overweight was statistically significantly lower than those in pregnant women with pregestational low and normal weight( P <0 .05) ,birth rate of macrosomia and pregestational body weight of pregnant women ,neo‐natal birth weight and birth rate of macrosomia in pregnant women with pregestational overweight were statistical‐ly significantly

  8. Diffusion-weighted imaging and fluid attenuated inversion recovery imaging in the evaluation of primitive neuroectodermal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdem, E.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Haselgrove, J.C.; Bilaniuk, L.T.; Hunter, J.V. [Hospital of the Univ. of Pennsylvania (HUP), Philadelphia (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2001-11-01

    The aim of our study was to determine whether fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) would be helpful in characterizing primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) from other pediatric brain tumors. We expected that the compact cellular nature and the relatively small extracellular space of this tumor would affect the signal intensity on both pulse sequences relative to the more sparsely cellular glial tumors that have larger extracellular spaces. Eighteen pediatric patients with PNET were examined on a 1.5 T MRI with routine imaging plus FLAIR and compared with 28 patients with non-PNET. DWI was also performed in 7 PNET and 18 non-PNET. Seventy-eight percent of PNET were isointense to gray matter on FLAIR while 82 % of non-PNET were hyperintense and only one was isointense (3 %). Diffusion was abnormally restricted in all 7 PNET examined (100 %) but was restricted in non-PNET in only 1 out of 18 (6 %) patients who had DWI. The differences in the histologic architecture between PNET and non-PNET are reflected in both FLAIR imaging and in DWI. (orig.)

  9. Prenatal immune challenge in rats: altered responses to dopaminergic and glutamatergic agents, prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle, and reduced route-based learning as a function of maternal body weight gain after prenatal exposure to poly IC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorhees, Charles V; Graham, Devon L; Braun, Amanda A; Schaefer, Tori L; Skelton, Matthew R; Richtand, Neil M; Williams, Michael T

    2012-08-01

    Prenatal maternal immune activation has been used to test the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. Most of the data are in mouse models; far less is available for rats. We previously showed that maternal weight change in response to the immune activator polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly IC) in rats differentially affects offspring. Therefore, we treated gravid Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats i.p. on embryonic day 14 with 8 mg/kg of Poly IC or Saline. The Poly IC group was divided into those that lost or gained the least weight, Poly IC (L), versus those that gained the most weight, Poly IC (H), following treatment. The study design controlled for litter size, litter sampling, sex distribution, and test experience. We found no effects of Poly IC on elevated zero maze, open-field activity, object burying, light-dark test, straight channel swimming, Morris water maze spatial acquisition, reversal, or shift navigation or spatial working or reference memory, or conditioned contextual or cued fear or latent inhibition. The Poly IC (H) group showed a significant decrease in the rate of route-based learning when visible cues were unavailable in the Cincinnati water maze and reduced prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle in females, but not males. The Poly IC (L) group exhibited altered responses to acute pharmacological challenges: exaggerated hyperactivity in response to (+)-amphetamine and an attenuated hyperactivity in response to MK-801. This model did not exhibit the cognitive, or latent inhibition deficits reported in Poly IC-treated rats but showed changes in response to drugs acting on neurotransmitter systems implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (dopaminergic hyperfunction and glutamatergic hypofunction).

  10. Joint and Independent Associations of Gestational Weight Gain and Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index with Outcomes of Pregnancy in Chinese Women: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunming Li

    Full Text Available To explore the joint and independent effects of gestational weight gain (GWG and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI on pregnancy outcomes in a population of Chinese Han women and to evaluate pregnant women's adherence to the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM gestational weight gain guidelines.This was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study of 48,867 primiparous women from mainland China who had a full-term singleton birth between January 1, 2011 and December 30, 2011. The independent associations of pre-pregnancy BMI, GWG and categories of combined pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG with outcomes of interest were examined using an adjusted multivariate regression model. In addition, women with pre-pregnancy hypertension were excluded from the analysis of the relationship between GWG and delivery of small-for-gestational-age (SGA infants, and women with gestational diabetes (GDM were excluded from the analysis of the relationship between GWG and delivery of large-for-gestational-age (LGA infants.Only 36.8% of the women had a weight gain that was within the recommended range; 25% and 38.2% had weight gains that were below and above the recommended range, respectively. The contribution of GWG to the risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes was modest. Women with excessive GWG had an increased likelihood of gestational hypertension (adjusted OR 2.55; 95% CI = 1.92-2.80, postpartum hemorrhage (adjusted OR 1.30; 95% CI = 1.17-1.45, cesarean section (adjusted OR 1.31; 95% CI = 1.18-1.36 and delivery of an LGA infant (adjusted OR 2.1; 95% CI = 1.76-2.26 compared with women with normal weight gain. Conversely, the incidence of GDM (adjusted OR 1.64; 95% CI = 1.20-1.85 and SGA infants (adjusted OR 1.51; 95% CI = 1.32-1.72 was increased in the group of women with inadequate GWG. Moreover, in the obese women, excessive GWG was associated with an apparent increased risk of delivering an LGA infant. In the women who were underweight, poor weight gain was

  11. Fructans from Agave tequilana with a Lower Degree of Polymerization Prevent Weight Gain, Hyperglycemia and Liver Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez-Aguirre, A. L.; Camacho-Ruíz, R. M.; Gutiérrez-Mercado, Y. K.; Padilla-Camberos, E.; González-Ávila, M.; Gálvez-Gastélum, F. J.; N.E. Díaz-Martínez; Ortuño-Sahagún, D.

    2016-01-01

    Fructans from agave have received specific attention because of their highly branched fructan content. We have previously reported that the degree of polymerization (dp) influences their biological activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of unfractionated and fractionated fructans (higher and lower dps) from Agave tequilana in high-fat diet-induced (HFD) obese mice. Fructans with a lower dp (HFD+ScF) decreased weight gain by 30 %, body fat mass by 51 %, hyperg...

  12. Impact of Korean pine nut oil on weight gain and immune responses in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soyoung; Lim, Yeseo; Shin, Sunhye; Han, Sung Nim

    2013-10-01

    Korean pine nut oil (PNO) has been reported to have favorable effects on lipid metabolism and appetite control. We investigated whether PNO consumption could influence weight gain, and whether the PNO-induced effect would result in an improvement of immune function in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. C57BL/6 mice were fed control diets with 10% energy fat from either PNO or soybean oil (SBO), or HFDs with 45% energy fat from 10% PNO or SBO and 35% lard, 20% PNO or SBO and 25% lard, or 30% PNO or SBO and 15% lard for 12 weeks. The proliferative responses of splenocytes upon stimulation with concanavalin A (Con A) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Con A-stimulated production of interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ, and LPS-stimulated production of IL-6, IL-1β, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by splenocytes were determined. Consumption of HFDs containing PNO resulted in significantly less weight gain (17% less, P PNO consumption resulted in a higher production of IL-1β (P = 0.04). Replacement of SBO with PNO had no effect on the production of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-6, or PGE2 in mice fed with either the control diets or HFDs. In conclusion, consumption of PNO reduced weight gain in mice fed with HFD, but this effect did not result in the overall improvement in immune responses.

  13. No evidence for a role of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) genes in antipsychotic-induced weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, Eva J; Tiwari, Arun K; Zai, Clement C; Chowdhury, Nabilah I; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Meltzer, Herbert Y; Kennedy, James L; Müller, Daniel J

    2014-10-30

    Antipsychotics frequently cause changes in glucose metabolism followed by development of weight gain and/or diabetes. Recent findings from our group indicated an influence of glucose-related genes on this serious side effect. With this study, we aimed to extend previous research and performed a comprehensive study on the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) and the adiponectin (ADIPOQ) genes. In 216 schizophrenic patients receiving antipsychotics for up to 14 weeks, we investigated single-nucleotide polymorphisms in or near PPARG (N=24) and ADIPOQ (N=18). Statistical analysis was done using ANCOVA in SPSS. Haplotype analysis was performed in UNPHASED 3.1.4 and Haploview 4.2. None of the PPARG or ADIPOQ variants showed significant association with antipsychotic-induced weight gain in our combined sample or in a refined subsample of patients of European ancestry treated with clozapine or olanzapine after correction for multiple testing. Similarly, no haplotype association could withstand multiple test correction. Although we could not find a significant influence of ADIPOQ and PPARG on antipsychotic-induced weight gain, our comprehensive examination of these two genes contributes to understanding the biology of this serious side effect. More research on glucose metabolism genes is warranted to elucidate their role in metabolic changes during antipsychotic treatment.

  14. Smoking Cessation Carries a Short-Term Rising Risk for Newly Diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus Independently of Weight Gain: A 6-Year Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ting Sung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The effects of smoking on human metabolism are complex. Although smoking increases risk for diabetes mellitus, smoking cessation was also reported to be associated with weight gain and incident diabetes mellitus. We therefore conducted this study to clarify the association between smoking status and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. Methods. An analysis was done using the data of a mass health examination performed annually in an industrial park from 2007 to 2013. The association between smoking status and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus was analyzed with adjustment for weight gain and other potential confounders. Results. Compared with never-smokers, not only current smokers but also ex-smokers in their first two years of abstinence had higher odds ratios (ORs for newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus (never-smokers 3.6%, OR as 1; current smokers 5.5%, OR = 1.499, 95% CI = 1.147–1.960, and p=0.003; ex-smokers in their first year of abstinence 7.5%, OR = 1.829, 95% CI = 0.906–3.694, and p=0.092; and ex-smokers in their second year of abstinence 9.0%, OR = 2.020, 95% CI = 1.031–3.955, and p=0.040. Conclusion. Smoking cessation generally decreased risk for newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. However, increased odds were seen within the first 2 years of abstinence independently of weight gain.

  15. The Role of Food Parenting Skills and the Home Food Environment in Children's Weight Gain and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerards, S M P L; Kremers, S P J

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents an overview to provide readers with an update on the literature about the relation between parental influences (general parenting and food parenting practices) and children's weight-related outcomes. It first summarizes the evidence regarding the role of food parenting practices in shaping and maintaining children's nutritional and weight status. It then describes empirical evidence on the relation between general parenting and children's weight status. This evidence is less convincing, possibly because general parenting has a different, more distal role in influencing child behavior than parenting practices. General parenting may moderate the impact of food parenting practices on children's nutrition behaviors. Finally, we discuss studies on interventions targeting childhood overweight and obesity. There is no consensus on the optimal intervention targets (i.e., general parenting and/or food parenting practices). Based on the overview, we offer suggestions for future research.

  16. Transgenic Rescue of Adipocyte Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Receptor Expression Restores High Fat Diet-induced Body Weight Gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugleholdt, Randi; Pedersen, Jens; Bassi, Maria Rosaria

    2011-01-01

    that was similar between the groups. In contrast, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide-mediated insulin secretion does not seem to be important for regulation of body weight after high fat feeding. The study supports a role of the adipocyte GIPr in nutrient-dependent regulation of body weight and lean mass...... and the direct effects on adipose tissue, we generated transgenic mice with targeted expression of the human GIPr to white adipose tissue or beta-cells, respectively. These mice were then cross-bred with the GIPr knock-out strain. The central findings of the study are that mice with GIPr expression targeted...

  17. The centre for healthy weights--shapedown BC: a family-centered, multidisciplinary program that reduces weight gain in obese children over the short-term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotopoulos, Constadina; Ronsley, Rebecca; Al-Dubayee, Mohammed; Brant, Rollin; Kuzeljevic, Boris; Rurak, Erin; Cristall, Arlene; Marks, Glynis; Sneddon, Penny; Hinchliffe, Mary; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre; Mâsse, Louise C

    2011-12-01

    The objective was to conduct a program evaluation of the Centre for Healthy Weights-Shapedown BC (CHW-SB), a family-centered, multidisciplinary program for obese children, by assessing the change in weight trajectories from program intake to completion. Secondary outcomes included changes in clinical, biochemical and psychological parameters, and in physical activity (PA) levels. The CHW-SB program was evaluated over 10 weeks. Data collection included anthropometric, metabolic, PA and psychological measures. Longitudinal mixed effects regression was performed to evaluate weight change from Phase 1 (before program on waitlist) to Phase 2 (during program). 238 children weight trajectory in children following program entry. Participants experienced an average .89% monthly increase before program entry, compared to a .37% monthly decline afterwards, a drop of 1.26% (p < 0.0001, 95%CI 1.08 to 1.44). zBMI (2.26 ± 0.33 to 2.20 ± 0.36, p < 0.001), waist circumference (99 ± 15.7 to 97 ± 16 cm, p < 0.0001) and fasting insulin (137 ± 94.8 to 121 ± 83.4 pmol/L, p < 0.001) also decreased in participants who attended the final visit. Significant improvements were seen in all measures of PA, self-concept, and anxiety. CHW-SB, a government-funded program, is the first obesity-treatment program to be evaluated in Canada. While short-term evaluation revealed significant improvements in adiposity, PA, and psychological measures, the lack of full follow-up is a limitation in interpreting the clinical effectiveness of this program, as drop-out may be associated with lack of success in meeting program goals. These data also emphasize the need for ongoing evaluation to assess the long-term implications of this unique program and ultimately optimize utilization of governmental resources.

  18. The Effect of Marriage