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  1. Lipid-based nutrient supplements containing vitamins and minerals attenuate renal electrolyte loss in HIV/AIDS patients starting antiretroviral therapy: A randomized controlled trial in Zambia.

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    Munkombwe, D; Muungo, T L; Michelo, C; Kelly, P; Chirwa, S; Filteau, S

    2016-06-01

    Advanced HIV infection combined with undernutrition and antiretroviral therapy (ART) places HIV/AIDS patients at high risk of electrolyte abnormalities and increased morbidity and mortality. Here, in a sub-study of a large published randomized trial, we evaluated if nutritional supplements will help curtail renal electrolyte loss in HIV/AIDS patients starting ART. 130 malnourished HIV-positive patients referred for ART received lipid-based nutrient supplements alone (LNS, n = 63) or together with vitamins and minerals (LNS-VM, n = 67). Serum and spot urine samples were collected and assayed for creatinine, potassium, magnesium and phosphate concentrations at baseline and after 12 weeks of ART, and fractional excretion and reabsorption were calculated using standard equations. Eighteen (28.6%) patients from the LNS and 16 (23.9%) from LNS-VM groups died, most during the referral interval before starting ART. Phosphate excretion at baseline, was high in both LNS (mean ± SD: 1.2 ± 0.6 mg/mg creatinine) and LNS-VM (1.1 ± 0.8 mg/mg creatinine) groups relative to normal physiological ranges. Phosphate excretion remained high in the LNS group (1.1 ± 0.41 mg/mg creatinine) but significantly decreased in the LNS-VM group (0.6 ± 0.28 mg/mg creatinine; p 6.4%) reflecting renal potassium wasting. However, FEK was significantly lowered in the LNS-VM group (6.2 ± 3.4%) but not in the LNS group (12.8 ± 4.7%) after 12 weeks of ART (p < 0.001). Finally, the fractional excretion of magnesium was not significantly different between the two groups at baseline (p = 0.68) and remained unchanged within normal physiological ranges at 12 weeks of ART (p = 0.82) in both groups. The LNS-VM regimen appeared to offer protection against phosphate and potassium loss during HIV/AIDS treatment. This offers potential opportunities to improve care and support of poorly nourished HIV-infected patients in resource-limited settings. www.pactr.org ID number: PACTR

  2. Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yujun [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Li, Jian-Dong [Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection, and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Yan, Chen, E-mail: Chen_Yan@urmc.rochester.edu [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Vinpocetine attenuates hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. •Vinpocetine antagonizes ox-LDL uptake and accumulation in macrophages. •Vinpocetine blocks the induction of ox-LDL receptor LOX-1 in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis.

  3. Serum Lipid Indices and Renal Function Among Persons with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum Lipid Indices and Renal Function Among Persons with Chronic Kidney Disease in Jos, North Central Nigeria. J N Uwakwe, F Akanbi, O F Agboghoroma, C D Mathias, J O Edah, F H Puepet, F P Amacchi ...

  4. Acetaminophen attenuates lipid peroxidation in children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Scott A; Zaccagni, Hayden; Bichell, David P; Christian, Karla G; Mettler, Bret A; Donahue, Brian S; Roberts, L Jackson; Pretorius, Mias

    2014-07-01

    Hemolysis, occurring during cardiopulmonary bypass, is associated with lipid peroxidation and postoperative acute kidney injury. Acetaminophen inhibits lipid peroxidation catalyzed by hemeproteins and in an animal model attenuated rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury. This pilot study tests the hypothesis that acetaminophen attenuates lipid peroxidation in children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Single-center prospective randomized double-blinded study. University-affiliated pediatric hospital. Thirty children undergoing elective surgical correction of a congenital heart defect. Patients were randomized to acetaminophen (OFIRMEV [acetaminophen] injection; Cadence Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, CA) or placebo every 6 hours for four doses starting before the onset of cardiopulmonary bypass. Markers of hemolysis, lipid peroxidation (isofurans and F2-isoprostanes), and acute kidney injury were measured throughout the perioperative period. Cardiopulmonary bypass was associated with a significant increase in free hemoglobin (from a prebypass level of 9.8 ± 6.2 mg/dL to a peak of 201.5 ± 42.6 mg/dL postbypass). Plasma and urine isofuran and F2-isoprostane concentrations increased significantly during surgery. The magnitude of increase in plasma isofurans was greater than the magnitude in increase in plasma F2-isoprostanes. Acetaminophen attenuated the increase in plasma isofurans compared with placebo (p = 0.02 for effect of study drug). There was no significant effect of acetaminophen on plasma F2-isoprostanes or urinary makers of lipid peroxidation. Acetaminophen did not affect postoperative creatinine, urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, or prevalence of acute kidney injury. Cardiopulmonary bypass in children is associated with hemolysis and lipid peroxidation. Acetaminophen attenuated the increase in plasma isofuran concentrations. Future studies are needed to establish whether other therapies that attenuate or prevent the effects of free

  5. Multiple low-dose radiation prevents type 2 diabetes-induced renal damage through attenuation of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance and subsequent renal inflammation and oxidative stress.

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    Minglong Shao

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia and lipotoxicity-induced insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress are the key pathogeneses of renal damage in type 2 diabetes. Increasing evidence shows that whole-body low dose radiation (LDR plays a critical role in attenuating insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress.The aims of the present study were to investigate whether LDR can prevent type 2 diabetes-induced renal damage and the underlying mechanisms.Mice were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD, 40% of calories from fat for 12 weeks to induce obesity followed by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg to develop a type 2 diabetic mouse model. The mice were exposed to LDR at different doses (25, 50 and 75 mGy for 4 or 8 weeks along with HFD treatment. At each time-point, the kidney weight, renal function, blood glucose level and insulin resistance were examined. The pathological changes, renal lipid profiles, inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis were also measured.HFD/STZ-induced type 2 diabetic mice exhibited severe pathological changes in the kidney and renal dysfunction. Exposure of the mice to LDR for 4 weeks, especially at 50 and 75 mGy, significantly improved lipid profiles, insulin sensitivity and protein kinase B activation, meanwhile, attenuated inflammation and oxidative stress in the diabetic kidney. The LDR-induced anti-oxidative effect was associated with up-regulation of renal nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf-2 expression and function. However, the above beneficial effects were weakened once LDR treatment was extended to 8 weeks.These results suggest that LDR exposure significantly prevented type 2 diabetes-induced kidney injury characterized by renal dysfunction and pathological changes. The protective mechanisms of LDR are complicated but may be mainly attributed to the attenuation of dyslipidemia and the subsequent lipotoxicity-induced insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress.

  6. Effects of dietary lipids on renal function of aged rats

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    Valente Gamba C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal aging is accompanied by renal functional and morphological deterioration and dietetic manipulation has been used to delay this age-related decline. We examined the effects of chronic administration of diets containing 5% lipid-enriched diet (LD, w/w on renal function of rats at different ages. Three types of LD were tested: canola oil, fish oil and butter. Mean systemic tail-cuff blood pressure and glycemia remained within the normal range whatever the age and the diet of the animals. Proteinuria began to rise from the 8th month in the groups ingesting LD, while in the control group it increased significantly (above 10 mg/24 h only after the 10th month. With age, a significant and progressive decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR and renal plasma flow was observed in the LD groups but after 6 months of lipid supplementation, the decline in these parameters was more marked in the butter and fish oil groups. By the 18th month, the lowest GFR level was observed in the group ingesting the butter diet (2.93 ± 0.22 vs 5.01 ± 0.21 ml min-1 kg-1 in control, P<0.05. Net acid excretion, evaluated in 9- and 18-month-old rats, was stimulated in the fish oil group when compared both to control and to the other two LD groups. These results suggest that even low levels of LD in a chronic nutritional regimen can modify the age-related changes in renal function and that the impact of different types of lipid-supplemented diets on renal function depends on the kind of lipid present in the diet.

  7. Brazilian red propolis attenuates hypertension and renal damage in 5/6 renal ablation model.

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    Flávio Teles

    Full Text Available The pathogenic role of inflammation and oxidative stress in chronic kidney disease (CKD is well known. Anti-inflammatories and antioxidant drugs has demonstrated significant renoprotection in experimental nephropathies. Moreover, the inclusion of natural antioxidants derived from food and herbal extracts (such as polyphenols, curcumin and lycopene as an adjuvant therapy for slowing CKD progression has been largely tested. Brazilian propolis is a honeybee product, whose anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects have been widely shown in models of sepsis, cancer, skin irritation and liver fibrosis. Furthermore, previous studies demonstrated that this compound promotes vasodilation and reduces hypertension. However, potential renoprotective effects of propolis in CKD have never been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a subtype of Brazilian propolis, the Red Propolis (RP, in the 5/6 renal ablation model (Nx. Adult male Wistar rats underwent Nx and were divided into untreated (Nx and RP-treated (Nx+RP groups, after 30 days of surgery; when rats already exhibited marked hypertension and proteinuria. Animals were observed for 90 days from the surgery day, when Nx+RP group showed significant reduction of hypertension, proteinuria, serum creatinine retention, glomerulosclerosis, renal macrophage infiltration and oxidative stress, compared to age-matched untreated Nx rats, which worsened progressively over time. In conclusion, RP treatment attenuated hypertension and structural renal damage in Nx model. Reduction of renal inflammation and oxidative stress could be a plausible mechanism to explain this renoprotection.

  8. [Activation of lipid peroxidation in patients with renal hypertension].

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    Demikhova, N; Sukhonos, V; Vynnychenko, L; Psareva, V; Prikhodko, O

    2013-02-01

    The study involved 53 patients with arterial hypertension in chronic kidney disease (chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN)). Lipid peroxidation was studied based on the content of diene conjugates and malondialdehyde. Protein peroxidation was studied based on the content of 2,4-dinitphenyl-aldogidrazons. The patients in all clinical variants of the CGN revealed increased activity of lipid peroxidation and the protein peroxidation, which is most pronounced in patients with nephrotic variant of CGN: increased levels of serum malondialdehyde medians occurred in 3.92 times and diene conjugates in 1.52 times (plipids and proteins has a negative impact on the organization of cell membranes of the renal structures and leads to loss of membrane barrier function.

  9. STUDY OF LIPID PROFILE IN CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE

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    Mudunuri Sita Rama

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic kidney disease (CKD is an irreversible deterioration of renal function, which results from diminished effective functioning of renal tissue. Ensuing impairment of excretory, metabolic and endocrine functions of the kidney leads to the development of clinical syndrome of uraemia. Dyslipidaemia is found in many patients that lead to cardiovascular complication. MATERIAL AND METHOD Cases of chronic kidney disease admitted in the medical wards of Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences from June 2013 to October 2015 were taken for study. RESULT Total cholesterol value in controls and CKD patients are 185.2±24.51 and 187±43.5 mg/dL respectively. Triglyceride values in patients and controls were 174±60.7 and 97±17 mg/dL respectively. HDL values in chronic kidney disease patients are decreased compared to controls, 36±5.1 and 48.8±10.3 mg/dL. VLDL- Significant increase in VLDL was found in CKD patients as compared to controls, 34.88±12.15 and 19.3±3.49 respectively. LDL values were almost similar in both CKD patients and control group, 116.49±38.34 and 116.8±26.78 respectively. CONCLUSION Lipid abnormalities in chronic kidney disease accelerates the progression of the renal failure and predisposes to atherosclerosis, it is worthwhile detecting and treating hyperlipidaemia in chronic kidney disease patients.

  10. Neutralization of transforming growth factor-beta attenuates hypertension and prevents renal injury in uremic rats.

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    Lavoie, Philippe; Robitaille, Geneviève; Agharazii, Mohsen; Ledbetter, Steve; Lebel, Marcel; Larivière, Richard

    2005-10-01

    We investigate the role of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in hypertension and renal failure progression in uremic rats, and whether it modulates the endothelin (ET) system. Following renal mass reduction, uremic rats (Nx) received the pan-specific TGF-beta neutralizing antibody 1D11 (0.5 mg/kg, three times/week), the isotype control antibody 13C4 or the AT1 antagonist losartan (10 mg/kg per day) for 6 weeks. Before treatment, the blood pressure was higher in Nx rats and increased further over time in Nx+13C4 rats. At the end of the study, Nx+13C4 rats exhibited increased serum creatinine, proteinuria and renal expression and excretion of TGF-beta1 and ET-1. ET-1 concentrations were greater in vascular and renal tissues, whereas the ETB receptor expression was reduced. Renal injuries were comprised of blood vessel hypertrophy, glomerular sclerosis, tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis, which was associated with increased alpha-smooth muscle actin expression. Treatment of uremic rats with the 1D11 antibody attenuated the increase in blood pressure and the decline in renal function. Losartan normalized the blood pressure and significantly attenuated the increase in serum creatinine and proteinuria. However, both treatments prevented renal TGF-beta1 and ET-1 overexpression, and prevented all renal histological injuries. The 1D11 antibody only improved ETB receptor expression. Neutralization of TGF-beta attenuates hypertension and renal failure progression in uremic animals, in part, by preventing renal injury processes. These effects may be related to the modulation of the ET system, preventing renal ET-1 overproduction and the reduction of ETB receptor expression. Our data also suggest that TGF-beta1 is involved, at least in part, in the pathological effects related to angiotensin II in chronic renal failure.

  11. Chronic diuretic therapy attenuates renal BOLD magnetic resonance response to an acute furosemide stimulus.

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    Hall, Michael E; Rocco, Michael V; Morgan, Timothy M; Hamilton, Craig A; Edwards, Matthew S; Jordan, Jennifer H; Hurie, Justin B; Hundley, W Gregory

    2014-02-03

    Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance (MR) is a novel imaging tool that detects changes in tissue oxygenation. Increases in renal oxygenation in response to a standard 20 mg intravenous furosemide stimulus have been evaluated to assess kidney viability in patients with renal artery stenosis (RAS). The effect of prior exposure to furosemide on the ability of BOLD MR techniques to evaluate renal function is unknown.This study tested the hypothesis that chronic loop diuretic therapy is associated with attenuated responses in renal tissue oxygenation as measured by BOLD MR with an acute 20 mg intravenous furosemide stimulus in participants undergoing evaluation for RAS. Thirty-eight participants referred for evaluation of RAS were recruited for this study. We examined renal cortical and medullary BOLD signal (T2*) intensities before and after a 20 mg intravenous furosemide stimulus. Additionally, we measured changes in renal artery blood flow using phase contrast techniques. After controlling for covariates age, race, gender, diabetes, glomerular filtration rate, body mass index, and stenosis severity, daily oral furosemide dose was an independent, negative predictor of renal medullary T2* response (p=0.01) to a standard 20 mg intravenous furosemide stimulus. Stenosis severity and ethnicity were also significant independent predictors of changes in T2* signal intensity in response to an acute furosemide challenge. Changes in renal blood flow in response to acute furosemide administration were correlated with changes in T2* in the renal cortex (r=0.29, p=0.03) but not the medulla suggesting changes in renal medullary oxygenation were not due to reduced renal medullary blood flow. Chronic furosemide therapy attenuates BOLD MR responses to an acute furosemide stimulus in patients with RAS being evaluated for renal artery revascularization procedures. Thus, patients who are chronically administered loop diuretics may need a different dosing strategy to

  12. Chronic Administration of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Leaves Extract Attenuates Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress and Improves Renal Histopathology and Function in Experimental Diabetes

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    Varatharajan Rajavel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis leaves extract (OPLE has antioxidant properties and because oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN, we tested the hypothesis that OPLE prevents diabetes renal oxidative stress, attenuating injury. Sprague-Dawley rats received OPLE (200 and 500 mg kg−1 for 4 and 12 weeks after diabetes induction (streptozotocin 60 mg kg−1. Blood glucose level, body and kidney weights, urine flow rate (UFR, glomerular filtration rate (GFR, and proteinuria were assessed. Oxidative stress variables such as 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, glutathione (GSH, and lipid peroxides (LPO were quantified. Renal morphology was analysed, and plasma transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1 was measured. Diabetic rats demonstrated increase in blood glucose and decreased body and increased kidney weights. Renal dysfunction (proteinuria, elevations in UFR and GFR was observed in association with increases in LPO, 8-OHdG, and TGF-β1 and a decrease in GSH. Histological evaluation of diabetic kidney demonstrated glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. OPLE attenuated renal dysfunction, improved oxidative stress markers, and reduced renal pathology in diabetic animals. These results suggest OPLE improves renal dysfunction and pathology in diabetes by reducing oxidative stress; furthermore, the protective effect of OPLE against renal damage in diabetes depends on the dose of OPLE as well as progression of DN.

  13. Chronic Administration of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Leaves Extract Attenuates Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress and Improves Renal Histopathology and Function in Experimental Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajavel, Varatharajan; Abdul Sattar, Munavvar Zubaid; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Kassim, Normadiah M; Abdullah, Nor Azizan

    2012-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) leaves extract (OPLE) has antioxidant properties and because oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN), we tested the hypothesis that OPLE prevents diabetes renal oxidative stress, attenuating injury. Sprague-Dawley rats received OPLE (200 and 500 mg kg(-1)) for 4 and 12 weeks after diabetes induction (streptozotocin 60 mg kg(-1)). Blood glucose level, body and kidney weights, urine flow rate (UFR), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and proteinuria were assessed. Oxidative stress variables such as 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), glutathione (GSH), and lipid peroxides (LPO) were quantified. Renal morphology was analysed, and plasma transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) was measured. Diabetic rats demonstrated increase in blood glucose and decreased body and increased kidney weights. Renal dysfunction (proteinuria, elevations in UFR and GFR) was observed in association with increases in LPO, 8-OHdG, and TGF-β1 and a decrease in GSH. Histological evaluation of diabetic kidney demonstrated glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. OPLE attenuated renal dysfunction, improved oxidative stress markers, and reduced renal pathology in diabetic animals. These results suggest OPLE improves renal dysfunction and pathology in diabetes by reducing oxidative stress; furthermore, the protective effect of OPLE against renal damage in diabetes depends on the dose of OPLE as well as progression of DN.

  14. Danish Guidelines for Lipid-lowering Treatment in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieperink, Hans; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of lipid profile in adults with CKD 1-5: We recommend measuring the lipid profile (T cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides) in all adults with newly diagnosed CKD 1-5 (including patients in renal replacement therapy). Monitoring of lipid profile in adults...

  15. Serum Lipids In Pre Dialysis Chronic Renal Failure Patients In Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective study of serum lipids in pre dialysis chronic renal failure (CRF) patients in the Jos university teaching hospital over a twelve month period undertaken to determine the pattern of lipid abnormalities associated with this disease. Lipids were measured in the fasting state using standard methods in 67 patients with ...

  16. Danish guidelines for lipid-lowering treatment in patients with chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieperink, Hans; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of lipid profile in adults with CKD 1-5: We recommend measuring the lipid profile (T cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides) in all adults with newly diagnosed CKD 1-5 (including patients in renal replacement therapy). Monitoring of lipid profile in adults wit...

  17. Danish Guidelines for Lipid-lowering Treatment in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieperink, Hans; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of lipid profile in adults with CKD 1-5: We recommend measuring the lipid profile (T cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides) in all adults with newly diagnosed CKD 1-5 (including patients in renal replacement therapy). Monitoring of lipid profile in adults wit...

  18. Danish guidelines for lipid-lowering treatment in patients with chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieperink, Hans; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of lipid profile in adults with CKD 1-5: We recommend measuring the lipid profile (T cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides) in all adults with newly diagnosed CKD 1-5 (including patients in renal replacement therapy). Monitoring of lipid profile in adults...

  19. Curcumin attenuates renal ischemia and reperfusion injury-induced restrictive respiratory insufficiency.

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    Yeh, J-H; Yang, Y-C; Wang, J-C; Wang, D; Wang, J-J

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary failure, instead of kidney failure, is one of the leading causes of acute kidney injury (AKI)-related death. Volume overload was previously regarded as the primary cause of lung injury, presumably by impaired renal fluid clearance. Recent evidence suggested that proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and free radicals released during AKI are playing a crucial role in the lung injury. We aimed to examine the protective efficacy of lung function with curcumin pretreatment. AKI was induced by 45 minutes of kidney ischemia (bilateral occlusion of renal pedicles) followed by 3 hours of reperfusion. Rats were divided into 3 groups: sham-operated, kidney ischemia and reperfusion (I/R), and a group with 2 days of oral pretreatment with curcumin (12.5 mg/kg/d) before I/R injury. The pulmonary function test (PFT) was conducted at baseline and after 3 hours of reperfusion, yielding parameters of lung volumes, chord compliance (Cchord), inspiratory resistance (RI), and forced expiratory volume at the first 200 millisecond (FEV200). We also examined levels of protein concentration (PC), methylguanidine (MG), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Ischemic AKI-induced restrictive lung disease was demonstrated by the decreased Cchord, total lung capacitance (TLC), and FEV200, in addition to the increased lavage PCBAL, MG, TNF-α, and MDA level. Curcumin pretreatment ameliorated lung function impairment and alveolar vascular protein leak and attenuated lung inflammation. The protective effect of curcumin pretreatment against restrictive lung disease is most likely associated with decreasing hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation in the lungs and improving alveolar vascular permeability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of Small Focal Renal Lesions: Diagnostic Accuracy with Single-Phase Contrast-enhanced Dual-Energy CT with Material Attenuation Analysis Compared with Conventional Attenuation Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Daniele; Davis, Drew; Roy Choudhury, Kingshuk; Patel, Bhavik; Gupta, Rajan T; Mileto, Achille; Nelson, Rendon C

    2017-09-01

    Purpose To determine whether single-phase contrast material-enhanced dual-energy material attenuation analysis improves the characterization of small (1-4 cm) renal lesions compared with conventional attenuation measurements by using histopathologic analysis and follow-up imaging as the clinical reference standards. Materials and Methods In this retrospective, HIPAA-compliant, institutional review board-approved study, 136 consecutive patients (95 men and 41 women; mean age, 54 years) with 144 renal lesions (111 benign, 33 malignant) measuring 1-4 cm underwent single-energy unenhanced and contrast-enhanced dual-energy computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen. For each renal lesion, attenuation measurements were obtained; attenuation change of greater than or equal to 15 HU was considered evidence of enhancement. Dual-energy attenuation measurements were also obtained by using iodine-water, water-iodine, calcium-water, and water-calcium material basis pairs. Mean lesion attenuation values and material densities were compared between benign and malignant renal lesions by using the two-sample t test. Diagnostic accuracy of attenuation measurements and dual-energy material densities was assessed and validated by using 10-fold cross-validation to limit the effect of optimistic bias. Results By using cross-validated optimal thresholds at 100% sensitivity, iodine-water material attenuation images significantly improved specificity for differentiating between benign and malignant renal lesions compared with conventional enhancement measurements (93% [103 of 111]; 95% confidence interval: 86%, 97%; vs 81% [90 of 111]; 95% confidence interval: 73%, 88%) (P = .02). Sensitivity with iodine-water and calcium-water material attenuation images was also higher than that with conventional enhancement measurements, although the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion Contrast-enhanced dual-energy CT with material attenuation analysis improves specificity for

  1. Serum lipid profile of Nigerian diabetics with end stage renal disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary. Background: End stage renal disease (ESRD) and diabetes mellitus may have lipid abnormalities that act synergistically to place diabetics with ESRD at an augmented risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We studied serum lipid profile and risk ratio in Nigerian diabetics with ESRD as there is no data in ...

  2. Serum lipid profile of Nigerian diabetics with end stage renal disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: End stage renal disease (ESRD) and diabetes mellitus may have lipid abnormalities that act synergistically to place diabetics with ESRD at an augmented risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We studied serum lipid profile and risk ratio in Nigerian diabetics with ESRD as there is no data in this regard ...

  3. Lipid and other management to improve arterial disease and survival in end stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmitt, Simon B; Martin, Jennifer H

    2017-03-01

    Arterial disease is common in advancing renal failure, culminating in myocardial infarction with cardiac failure, strokes and peripheral and renal artery disease. Attention to cardiac and arterial disease may slow deterioration of renal function. Management of risk factors can reduce these sequelae. Areas covered: Modifiable risk factors for arterial disease and relevant pharmacotherapies. Expert opinion: Cardiovascular disease is the biggest killer in renal failure. Statins are viewed as essential in symptomatic coronary disease and have been shown in non-renal patients to improve survival after myocardial infarction. Cochrane recommends statins in renal failure but not in end stage renal disease or transplant patients. Large well powered clinical trials focussed specifically on renal patients failed to demonstrate cardiovascular outcome or mortality benefits of statins when compared to placebo. Other lipid lowering pharmacotherapies are weaker and adverse effects may account for the absence of net clinical benefit in non-renal patients in published clinical trials. Patients should be started on a statin after myocardial infarction, regardless of lipid levels, but the risk of adverse effects in advanced renal failure with its comorbidities predicates employing only essential doses. Optimal antihypertensive and antithrombotic pharmacotherapy are also priorities.

  4. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuates cadmium-induced chronic renal injury and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinglou; Du, Lifen; Li, Jingjing; Song, Hongping

    2016-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution is a serious environmental problem. Kidney is a main target organ of Cd toxicity. This study was undertaken to investigate the potential protective effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) against chronic renal injury and fibrosis induced by CdCl2. Rat model was induced by exposing to 250 mg/L CdCl2 through drinking water. The renal function was evaluated by detecting the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCR). The oxidative stress was measured by detecting the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) and renal enzymatic antioxidant status. Additionally, the renal levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), Smad3, phosphorylation-Smad3 (pp-Smad3), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), vimentin and E-cadherin were measured by western blot assay. Renal levels of microRNA-21 (miR-21), miR-29a/b/c and miR-192 were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. It was found that EGCG ameliorated the CdCl2-induced renal injury, inhibited the level of oxidative stress, normalized renal enzymatic antioxidant status and E-cadherin level, as well as attenuated the over generation of TGF-β1, pp-Smad3, vimentin and α-SMA. EGCG also decreased the production of miR-21 and miR-192, and enhanced the levels of miR-29a/b/c. These results showed that EGCG could attenuate Cd induced chronic renal injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Perioperative intravenous acetaminophen attenuates lipid peroxidation in adults undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass: a randomized clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic T Billings

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB lyses erythrocytes and induces lipid peroxidation, indicated by increasing plasma concentrations of free hemoglobin, F2-isoprostanes, and isofurans. Acetaminophen attenuates hemeprotein-mediated lipid peroxidation, reduces plasma and urine concentrations of F2-isoprostanes, and preserves kidney function in an animal model of rhabdomyolysis. Acetaminophen also attenuates plasma concentrations of isofurans in children undergoing CPB. The effect of acetaminophen on lipid peroxidation in adults has not been studied. This was a pilot study designed to test the hypothesis that acetaminophen attenuates lipid peroxidation in adults undergoing CPB and to generate data for a clinical trial aimed to reduce acute kidney injury following cardiac surgery.In a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, sixty adult patients were randomized to receive intravenous acetaminophen or placebo starting prior to initiation of CPB and for every 6 hours for 4 doses. Acetaminophen concentrations measured 30 min into CPB and post-CPB were 11.9 ± 0.6 μg/mL (78.9 ± 3.9 μM and 8.7 ± 0.3 μg/mL (57.6 ± 2.0 μM, respectively. Plasma free hemoglobin increased more than 15-fold during CPB, and haptoglobin decreased 73%, indicating hemolysis. Plasma and urinary markers of lipid peroxidation also increased during CPB but returned to baseline by the first postoperative day. Acetaminophen reduced plasma isofuran concentrations over the duration of the study (P = 0.05, and the intraoperative plasma isofuran concentrations that corresponded to peak hemolysis were attenuated in those subjects randomized to acetaminophen (P = 0.03. Perioperative acetaminophen did not affect plasma concentrations of F2-isoprostanes or urinary markers of lipid peroxidation.Intravenous acetaminophen attenuates the increase in intraoperative plasma isofuran concentrations that occurs during CPB, while urinary markers were unaffected.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  6. Pycnogenol attenuates atherosclerosis by regulating lipid metabolism through the TLR4-NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hong; Wang, Jing; Qiao, Chenhui; Ma, Ning; Liu, Donghai; Zhang, Weihua

    2015-10-23

    Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of death worldwide and is characterized by lipid-laden foam cell formation. Recently, pycnogenol (PYC) has drawn much attention because of its prominent effect on cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, its protective effect against atherosclerosis and the underlying mechanism remains undefined. Here PYC treatment reduced areas of plaque and lipid deposition in atherosclerotic mice, concomitant with decreases in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels and increases in HDL cholesterol levels, indicating a potential antiatherosclerotic effect of PYC through the regulation of lipid levels. Additionally, PYC preconditioning markedly decreased foam cell formation and lipid accumulation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human THP-1 monocytes. A mechanistic analysis indicated that PYC decreased the lipid-related protein expression of adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) and adipocyte lipid-binding protein (ALBP/aP2) in a dose-dependent manner. Further analysis confirmed that PYC attenuated LPS-induced lipid droplet formation via ADRP and ALBP expression through the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway, because pretreatment with anti-TLR4 antibody or a specific inhibitor of NF-κB (PDTC) strikingly mitigated the LPS-induced increase in ADRP and ALBP. Together, our results provide insight into the ability of PYC to attenuate bacterial infection-triggered pathological processes associated with atherosclerosis. Thus PYC may be a potential lead compound for the future development of antiatherosclerotic CVD therapy.

  7. Activation of TRPV1 reduces vascular lipid accumulation and attenuates atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Liqun; Zhong, Jian; Zhao, Zhigang

    2011-01-01

    Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channels may affect lipid storage and the cellular inflammatory response. Now, we tested the hypothesis that activation of TRPV1 channels attenuates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout mice (ApoE(-/-)) but not Apo...

  8. Hemin Attenuates Cisplatin-Induced Acute Renal Injury in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Al-Kahtani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effects of hemin (the heme oxygenase-1 [OH-1] inducer against nephrotoxic effects induced by cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II (CP] in male rats. Methods. The evaluation was performed through monitoring renal redox parameters: lipid peroxidation (LPO, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione reductase (GR, and reduced glutathione (GSH. The work also examined renal function tests (urea and creatinine, tissue proinflammatory mediator like nitric oxide (NO, and kidney cytopathology. Results. A single intraperitoneal dose of CP (10 mg/kg b.w. caused significant elevation of blood urea, serum creatinine, and renal LPO and NO, along with significant decline of the activities of GPx and GR, but renal SOD activity and GSH level were statistically insignificant as compared to control group. Subcutaneous injection of hemin (40 µmol/kg b.w. partially ameliorated CP-induced renal damage, based on suppression of blood urea, serum creatinine, the renal MDA and NO levels, and increased antioxidant capacity in CP-treated rats. The results of histopathological and ultrastructural investigations supported the renoprotective effect of hemin against CP-induced acute toxicity. Conclusion. The induction of HO-1 by hemin is a promising approach in the treatment of CP-induced nephrotoxicity. However, further preclinical studies are warranted to test effectiveness of CP/hemin on the outcome of tumor chemotherapy.

  9. Metformin attenuates albumin-induced alterations in renal tubular cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouch, Soumaya; Munusamy, Shankar

    2017-12-01

    Proteinuria (albuminuria) plays a crucial role in the etiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD) via alteration of multiple signaling pathways and cellular process in renal cells. The objectives of this study are to investigate the effects of activation of the energy-sensing molecule AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) in renal cells using metformin on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, AKT, mTOR, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), autophagy, and apoptosis that are thought to mediate renal cell injury during proteinuria, and to dissect the AMPK- and non-AMPK mediated effects of metformin using an in vitro model of albumin-induced renal cell injury. Rat renal proximal tubular (NRK-52E) cells were exposed to 10 and 15 mg/ml of albumin for 72 h in the presence of 1 mM Metformin and/or 0.5 µM compound C, and assessed for alterations in the aforementioned pathways. Metformin treatment restored AMPK phosphorylation and augmented autophagy in renal cells exposed to albumin. In addition, metformin treatment attenuated the albumin-induced phosphorylation of AKT and the downstream targets of mTOR, and prevented albumin-mediated inductions of EMT marker (α-SMA), pro-apoptotic ER stress marker CHOP, and apoptotic caspases -12 and -3 in renal cells. Blockade of metformin-induced AMPK activation with compound C blunted the ER defense response and autophagy but had no effect on the markers of EMT and apoptosis in our model. Our studies suggest that metformin protects renal cells against proteinuric cytotoxicity via suppression of AKT and mTOR activation, inhibition of EMT and apoptosis, and augmentation of autophagy and ER defense response through AMPK-independent and AMPK-dependent mechanisms, respectively. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Differentiating Renal Neoplasms From Simple Cysts on Contrast-Enhanced CT on the Basis of Attenuation and Homogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agochukwu, Nnenaya; Huber, Steffen; Spektor, Michael; Goehler, Alexander; Israel, Gary M

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the attenuation and homogeneity of renal neoplasms with those of cysts on contrast-enhanced CT. A total of 129 renal neoplasms and 24 simple cysts were evaluated. Two readers determined whether each mass was qualitatively heterogeneous or homogeneous. Mean, minimum, and maximum attenuation values were measured. Statistical analysis was performed. A total of 116 heterogeneous renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) (99 clear cell, four papillary, four oncocytic, seven chromophobe, and two unclassified RCCs), 13 homogeneous RCCs (10 papillary, two oncocytic, and one chromophobe RCC), and 24 cysts (all of which were homogeneous) were evaluated. All homogeneous RCCs had mean attenuation values of more than 42 HU, whereas renal cysts had mean attenuation values of up to 30 HU (p attenuation values of up to 30 HU, as determined by contrast-enhanced CT, whereas homogeneous RCCs have mean attenuation values as low as 42 HU, with no overlap occurring between the two groups. These data suggest that further evaluation of a homogeneous renal mass with a mean attenuation value of 30 HU or less on a contrast-enhanced CT scan likely is unwarranted.

  11. Renal sympathetic denervation attenuates hypertension and vascular remodeling in renovascular hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Huang, Pei-Pei; Yang, Yun; Liu, Chi; Lu, Yan; Wang, Fang; Sun, Wei; Kong, Xiang-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Li P, Huang P, Yang Y, Liu C, Lu Y, Wang F, Sun W, Kong X. Renal sympathetic denervation attenuates hypertension and vascular remodeling in renovascular hypertensive rats. J Appl Physiol 122: 121-129, 2017. First published October 14, 2016; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01019.2015-Sympathetic activity is enhanced in patients with essential or secondary hypertension, as well as in various hypertensive animal models. Therapeutic targeting of sympathetic activation is considered an effective antihypertensive strategy. We hypothesized that renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) attenuates hypertension and improves vascular remodeling and renal disease in the 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K1C) rat model. Rats underwent 2K1C modeling or sham surgery; then rats underwent RSD or sham surgery 4 wk later, thus resulting in four groups (normotensive-sham, normotensive-RSD, 2K1C-sham, and 2K1C-RSD). Norepinephrine was measured by ELISA. Echocardiography was used to assess heart function. Fibrosis and apoptosis were assessed by Masson and TUNEL staining. Changes in mean arterial blood pressure in response to hexamethonium and plasma norepinephrine levels were used to evaluate basal sympathetic nerve activity. The 2K1C modeling success rate was 86.8%. RSD reversed the elevated systolic blood pressure induced by 2K1C, but had no effect on body weight. Compared with rats in the 2K1C-sham group, rats in the 2K1C-RSD group showed lower left ventricular mass/body weight ratio, interventricular septal thickness in diastole, left ventricular end-systolic diameter, and left ventricular posterior wall thickness in systole, whereas fractional shortening and ejection fraction were higher. Right kidney apoptosis and left kidney hypertrophy were not changed by RSD. Arterial fibrosis was lower in animals in the 2K1C-RSD group compared with those in the 2K1C-sham group. RSD reduced plasma norepinephrine and basal sympathetic activity in rats in the 2K1C-RSD group compared with rats in the 2K1C-sham group. These

  12. Calcium-deficient diet attenuates carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice through suppression of lipid peroxidation and inflammatory response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Yoshioka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate whether a Ca-deficient diet has an attenuating effect on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. Four-week-old male ddY mice were fed a Ca-deficient diet for 4 weeks as a part of the experimental protocol. While hypocalcemia was observed, there was no significant change in body weight. The CCl4-exposed hypocalcemic mice exhibited a significant decrease in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities at both 6 h and 24 h even though markers of renal function remained unchanged. Moreover, lipid peroxidation was impaired and total antioxidant power was partially recovered in the liver. Studies conducted in parallel with the biochemical analysis revealed that hepatic histopathological damage was attenuated 24 h post CCl4 injection in hypocalcemic mice fed the Ca-deficient diet. Finally, this diet impaired CCl4-induced inflammatory responses. Although upregulation of Ca concentration is a known indicator of terminal progression to cell death in the liver, these results suggest that Ca is also involved in other phases of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity, via regulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

  13. Lipid profile and lipoprotein(a) in chronic renal failure patients with and without hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hariom Sharma; Tejas J Shah; Jignesh H Gorasia; Dipika P Baria

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Chronic renal failure (CRF) is complicated by characteristic dyslipidemias. CRF patients on hemodialysis have abnormalities in lipid profile and have a high incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is now considered as a novel cardiovascular risk factor and its level is increased in CRF patients with and without hemodialysis. We sought to evaluate the pattern of lipid profile including Lp(a) level in CRF patients with and without hemodialysis. Methodol...

  14. Nintedanib, a triple tyrosine kinase inhibitor, attenuates renal fibrosis in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Wang, Li; Qi, Hualin; Wang, Jun; Wang, Yi; Jiang, Wei; Xu, Liuqing; Liu, Na; Zhuang, Shougang

    2017-08-15

    Nintedanib (BIBF1120) is a triple kinase inhibitor of platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), and Src family kinase, which has recently been approved by FDA to treat idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Whether it affects renal fibrosis remains unknown. Here, we demonstrated that administration of nintedanib immediately or 3 days after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) injury and with folic acid (FA) injection attenuated renal fibrosis and inhibited activation of renal interstitial fibroblasts. Delayed administration of nintedanib also partially reversed established renal fibrosis. Treatment with nintedanib blocked UUO-induced phosphorylation of PDGFRβ, FGFR1, FGFR2, VEGFR2, and several Src family kinases including Src, Lck, Lyn as well as activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and Smad-3 in the kidney. Furthermore, nintedanib inhibited UUO-elicited renal proinflammatory cytokine expression and macrophage infiltration. These data indicate that nintedanib is a potent anti-fibrotic agent in the kidney and may hold therapeutic potential as a treatment of chronic fibrotic kidney disease. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  15. Xenon treatment attenuates early renal allograft injury associated with prolonged hypothermic storage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hailin; Yoshida, Akira; Xiao, Wei; Ologunde, Rele; O'Dea, Kieran P; Takata, Masao; Tralau-Stewart, Catherine; George, Andrew J T; Ma, Daqing

    2013-10-01

    Prolonged hypothermic storage elicits severe ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) to renal grafts, contributing to delayed graft function (DGF) and episodes of acute immune rejection and shortened graft survival. Organoprotective strategies are therefore needed for improving long-term transplant outcome. The aim of this study is to investigate the renoprotective effect of xenon on early allograft injury associated with prolonged hypothermic storage. Xenon exposure enhanced the expression of heat-shock protein 70 (HSP-70) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and promoted cell survival after hypothermia-hypoxia insult in human proximal tubular (HK-2) cells, which was abolished by HSP-70 or HO-1 siRNA. In the brown Norway to Lewis rat renal transplantation, xenon administered to donor or recipient decreased the renal tubular cell death, inflammation, and MHC II expression, while delayed graft function (DGF) was therefore reduced. Pathological changes associated with acute rejection, including T-cell, macrophage, and fibroblast infiltration, were also decreased with xenon treatment. Donors or recipients treated with xenon in combination with cyclosporin A had prolonged renal allograft survival. Xenon protects allografts against delayed graft function, attenuates acute immune rejection, and enhances graft survival after prolonged hypothermic storage. Furthermore, xenon works additively with cyclosporin A to preserve post-transplant renal function.

  16. PARP Inhibition Attenuates Histopathological Lesion in Ischemia/Reperfusion Renal Mouse Model after Cold Prolonged Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo M. G. del Moral

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We test the hypothesis that PARP inhibition can decrease acute tubular necrosis (ATN and other renal lesions related to prolonged cold ischemia/reperfusion (IR in kidneys preserved at 4°C in University of Wisconsin (UW solution. Material and Methods. We used 30 male Parp1+/+ wild-type and 15 male Parp10/0 knockout C57BL/6 mice. Fifteen of these wild-type mice were pretreated with 3,4-dihydro-5-[4-(1-piperidinylbutoxyl]-1(2H-isoquinolinone (DPQ at a concentration of 15 mg/kg body weight, used as PARP inhibitor. Subgroups of mice were established (A: IR 45 min/6 h; B: IR + 48 h in UW solution; and C: IR + 48 h in UW solution plus DPQ. We processed samples for morphological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and western-blotting studies. Results. Prolonged cold ischemia time in UW solution increased PARP-1 expression and kidney injury. Preconditioning with PARP inhibitor DPQ plus DPQ supplementation in UW solution decreased PARP-1 nuclear expression in renal tubules and renal damage. Parp10/0 knockout mice were more resistant to IR-induced renal lesion. In conclusion, PARP inhibition attenuates ATN and other IR-related renal lesions in mouse kidneys under prolonged cold storage in UW solution. If confirmed, these data suggest that pharmacological manipulation of PARP activity may have salutary effects in cold-stored organs at transplantation.

  17. Effect of Thyroid on Lipid Profile and Renal Function: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %), of which 36/64 (56.3%) were hypothyroid and 28/64 (43.8%) were hyperthyroid. No relation was found with renal function, but cholesterol was found high (>250 mg/dl) among hypothyroid patients and significant increase in TG, LDL levels ...

  18. Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid Attenuates Renal Tubular Injury in a Mouse Model of Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Renal tubular injury is a critical factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress is involved in diabetic nephropathy. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA is an effective inhibitor of ER stress. Here, we investigated the role of TUDCA in the progression of tubular injury in DN. For eight weeks, being treated with TUDCA at 250 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection (i.p. twice a day, diabetic db/db mice had significantly reduced blood glucose, albuminuria and attenuated renal histopathology. These changes were associated with a significant decreased expression of ER stress markers. At the same time, diabetic db/db mice had more TUNEL-positive nuclei in the renal tubule, which were attenuated by TUDCA treatment, along with decreases in ER stress–associated apoptotic markers in the kidneys. In summary, the effect of TUDCA on tubular injury, in part, is associated with inhibition of ER stress in the kidneys of diabetic db/db mice. TUDCA shows potential as a therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of DN.

  19. Attenuation of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury by açaí extract preconditioning in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Morsy, Engy M; Ahmed, Maha A E; Ahmed, Amany A E

    2015-02-15

    Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is highly associated with morbidity and mortality. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis play pivotal roles in the development of renal dysfunction following renal I/R. Experimental studies have reported the effectiveness of many antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds against renal I/R injury. On the other hand, açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart. Palmae, Arecaceae) has recently gained considerable appreciation as a natural source of antioxidants. However, the effect of açaí extract has not been studied before on renal I/R. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the possible mechanisms of renal injury attenuation by açaí extract in a rat renal I/R model. To achieve the aim of the study, rats were administered açaí extract at two dose levels (500 and 1000 mg/kg) for 15 consecutive days before bilateral renal I/R induction. Serum and kidneys were isolated and used for subsequent biochemical analysis. The present data showed that açai extract significantly and dose-dependently attenuated I/R-induced renal damage. It suppressed the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, and renal tissue content of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1). In addition, it inhibited serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. Moreover, renal contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), caspase-3, collagen IV, and endothelin-1 were reduced, while renal interleukin-10 (IL-10) content was increased by açaí extract administration to rats before renal I/R induction. Açaí extract ameliorated bilateral I/R-induced renal injury in rats in a dose-dependent manner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Triiodothyronine attenuates the progression of renal injury in a rat model of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Agaty, Sahar Mohamed

    2018-02-06

    This study was designed to investigate whether and how triiodothyronine (T3) affects renal function in an experimental model of chronic kidney disease. Twenty four female rats were divided into: sham operated control group (n=8) , 5/6 nephrectomized group (Nx, n=8) and 5/6 nephrectomized group treated with T3 for 2 weeks (T3-Nx, n=8). T3 administration significantly decreased serum levels of urea, creatinine, tumour necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-6 compared to Nx group. The levels of malondialdehyde , transforming growth factor beta, fibronectin, and collagen IV as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor kappa B, poly ADP ribose polymerase, caspase-3 and Bax all were significantly decreased , though not normalized, in the remnant kidney of T3-Nx group compared to Nx rats. Glutathione, and Heme oxygenase-1 levels as well as the endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression were increased in the remnant kidney of T3-Nx group. Histological studies revealed focal necrosis of renal tubules associated with inflammatory cells infiltration, and fibrosis in Nx group. These changes were alleviated in T3-Nx rats. T3 administration attenuated the clinical and histological signs of renal injury in 5/6 nephrectomized rats by mitigating renal oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis as well as fibrosis.

  1. RAGE-aptamer attenuates deoxycorticosterone acetate/salt-induced renal injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Kensei; Yamagishi, Sho-Ichi; Yokoro, Miyuki; Ito, Sakuya; Kodama, Goh; Kaida, Yusuke; Nakayama, Yosuke; Ando, Ryotaro; Yamada-Obara, Nana; Asanuma, Katsuhiko; Matsui, Takanori; Higashimoto, Yuichiro; Brooks, Craig R; Ueda, Seiji; Okuda, Seiya; Fukami, Kei

    2018-02-08

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and its downstream signaling play an important role in hypertensive renal injury. The interaction of advanced glycation end products (AGE) with their receptor (RAGE) is involved in the progression of renal disease. However, the pathological crosstalk between AGE-RAGE axis and MR system in kidney derangement remains unclear. We screened DNA-aptamer directed against RAGE (RAGE-apt) in vitro and examined its effects on renal injury in uninephrectomized deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)/salt-induced hypertensive mice. RAGE, GTP-bound Rac-1 (Rac1), and MR were co-localized in the podocytes of DOCA mice. The deletion of RAGE gene significantly inhibited mesangial matrix expansion and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in DOCA mice, which was associated with the reduction of glomerular oxidative stress, MR, Rac1, and urinary albumin excretion (UAE) levels. RAGE-apt attenuated the increase in carboxymethyllysine (CML), RAGE, nitrotyrosine, Rac1, and MR levels in the kidneys and reduced UAE in DOCA mice. Aldosterone (Aldo) increased nitrotyrosine, CML, and RAGE gene expression in murine podocytes, whereas CML stimulated MR and Rac1 levels, which were blocked by RAGE-apt. The present study indicates the crosstalk between the AGE-RAGE axis and Aldo-MR system, suggesting that RAGE-apt may be a novel therapeutic tool for the treatment of MR-associated renal diseases.

  2. Quercetin Attenuates Vascular Calcification through Suppressed Oxidative Stress in Adenine-Induced Chronic Renal Failure Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-ying Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study investigated whether quercetin could alleviate vascular calcification in experimental chronic renal failure rats induced by adenine. Methods. 32 adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups fed normal diet, normal diet with quercetin supplementation (25 mg/kg·BW/d, 0.75% adenine diet, or adenine diet with quercetin supplementation. All rats were sacrificed after 6 weeks of intervention. Serum renal functions biomarkers and oxidative stress biomarkers were measured and status of vascular calcification in aorta was assessed. Furthermore, the induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS/p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38MAPK pathway was determined to explore the potential mechanism. Results. Adenine successfully induced renal failure and vascular calcification in rat model. Quercetin supplementation reversed unfavorable changes of phosphorous, uric acid (UA and creatinine levels, malonaldehyde (MDA content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in serum and the increases of calcium and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity in the aorta (P<0.05 and attenuated calcification and calcium accumulation in the medial layer of vasculature in histopathology. Western blot analysis showed that iNOS/p38MAPK pathway was normalized by the quercetin supplementation. Conclusions. Quercetin exerted a protective effect on vascular calcification in adenine-induced chronic renal failure rats, possibly through the modulation of oxidative stress and iNOs/p38MAPK pathway.

  3. Attenuation of KBrO3-induced renal and hepatic toxicity by cloudy apple juice in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawska, Małgorzata; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Ewertowska, Małgorzata; Adamska, Teresa; Markowski, Jarosław; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate a protective effect of apple juice on KBrO3-induced oxidative stress in rats. Male Wistar rats were administered apple juice per os, 10 ml/kg b.w. for 28 days. On 27 day of the experiment, some rats were given i.p. a single 125 mg/kg b.w. dose of KBrO3 . Markers of oxidative damage and clinical chemistry parameters were determined. Treatment with apple juice prior to KBrO3 challenge prevented an increase in hepatic and renal microsomal lipid peroxidation by 25 and 44%, respectively, increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the liver by 29 - 59% and decreased the plasma content of carbonyl groups by 19%. Aminotransferases activity in plasma was reduced by 19% and 36%, concentrations of plasma bilirubin, cholesterol and creatinine were suppressed by 21%, 16% and 26%, respectively, in rats supplemented with juice before KBrO3 injection. No protective effect of apple juice on nuclear DNA was observed. Supplementation with cloudy apple juice to some extent attenuated oxidative damage induced by KBrO3 in the liver and kidney of rats as evidenced by alterations of certain oxidative stress markers and clinical chemistry parameters. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Mechanisms of HO-1 mediated attenuation of renal immune injury: a gene profiling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duann, Pu; Lianos, Elias A

    2011-10-01

    Using a mouse model of immune injury directed against the renal glomerular vasculature and resembling human forms of glomerulonephritis (GN), we assessed the effect of targeted expression of the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase (HO)-1. A human (h) HO-1 complementary DNAN (cDNA) sequence was targeted to glomerular epithelial cells (GECs) using a GEC-specific murine nephrin promoter. Injury by administration of antibody against the glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) to transgenic (TG) mice with GEC-targeted hHO-1 was attenuated compared with wild-type (WT) controls. To explore changes in the expression of genes that could mediate this salutary effect, we performed gene expression profiling using a microarray analysis of RNA isolated from the renal cortex of WT or TG mice with or without anti-GBM antibody-induced injury. Significant increases in expression were detected in 9 major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-class II genes, 2 interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-inducible guanosine triphosphate (GTP)ases, and 3 genes of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The increase in MHC-class II and proteasome gene expression in TG mice with injury was validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or Western blot analysis. The observations point to novel mechanisms underlying the cytoprotective effect of HO-1 in renal immune injury. Copyright © 2011. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  5. Attenuation by phenylbutazone of the renal effects and excretion of frusemide in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, T M; Hinchcliff, K W; Sams, R A

    1999-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of phenylbutazone premedication on the pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of frusemide in horses; and on frusemide-induced changes in urinary electrolyte excretion. Six Standardbred mares were used in a 3-way crossover design. The pharmacokinetics and renal effects of frusemide (1 mg/kg bwt i.v.) were studied with and without phenylbutazone premedication (8.8 mg/kg bwt per os 24 h before, followed by 4.4 mg/kg bwt i.v. 30 min before frusemide administration). A control (saline) treatment was also studied. Administration of frusemide without phenylbutazone led to diuresis, natriuresis, kaliuresis and chloruresis, and altered the ratio of sodium:chloride excretion from 0.4 to 1.0 in the first hour of diuresis. When frusemide and phenylbutazone were administered, sodium and chloride excretion in the first hour were significantly (Pphenylbutazone. The fractional clearance of sodium and chloride was also significantly reduced. Potassium excretion, potassium fractional clearance and the ratio of sodium to chloride excretion were not affected by administration of phenylbutazone. During peak diuresis, phenylbutazone did not affect the efficiency of frusemide with respect to electrolyte excretion. The plasma disposition of frusemide was not affected by phenylbutazone. However, the renal excretion of frusemide decreased by approximately 25%. We conclude that the decreased urinary excretion of frusemide by phenylbutazone led to an attenuation of frusemide-induced increases in urinary excretion of sodium and chloride. Since the efficiency of frusemide was not affected by phenylbutazone, we conclude that phenylbutazone attenuates the renal excretion of frusemide without inhibiting the intrarenal activity of frusemide in horses.

  6. Valsartan attenuates cardiac and renal hypertrophy in rats with experimental cardiorenal syndrome possibly through down-regulating galectin-3 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M-J; Gu, Y; Wang, H; Zhu, P-F; Liu, X-Y; Wu, J

    2016-01-01

    Aortocaval fistula (AV) induced chronic volume overload in rats with preexisting mild renal dysfunction (right kidney remove: UNX) could mimic the type 4 cardiorenal syndrome (CRS): chronic renocardiac syndrome. Galectin-3, a β-galactoside binding lectin, is an emerging biomarker in cardiovascular as well as renal diseases. We observed the impact of valsartan on cardiac and renal hypertrophy and galectin-3 changes in this model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (200-250 g) were divided into S (Sham, n = 7), M (UNX+AV, n = 7) and M+V (UNX+AV+valsartan, n = 7) groups. Eight weeks later, cardiac function was measured by echocardiography. Renal outcome was measured by glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, renal blood flow and 24 hours albuminuria. Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR were used to evaluate the expressions of galectin-3 in heart and renal. Cardiac hypertrophy and renal hypertrophy as well as cardiac enlargement were evidenced in this AV shunt induced chronic volume overload rat model with preexisting mild renal dysfunction. Cardiac and renal hypertrophy were significantly attenuated but cardiac enlargement was unaffected by valsartan independent of its blood pressure lowering effect. 24 hours urine albumin was significantly increased, which was significantly reduced by valsartan in this model. Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR evidenced significantly up-regulated galectin-3 expression in heart and kidney and borderline increased myocardial collagen I expression, which tended to be lower post valsartan treatment. Up-regulated galectin-3 signaling might also be involved in the pathogenesis in this CRS model. The beneficial effects of valsartan in terms of attenuating cardiac and renal hypertrophy and reducing 24 hours albumin in this model might partly be mediated through down-regulating galectin-3 signal pathway.

  7. STUDY OF LIPID PROFILE IN CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE PATIENTS UNDERGOING HAEMODIALYSIS: A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivasulu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chronic renal failure (CRF is decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR to 3 consecut ive months with multiple etiologies. CRF results in profound lipid disorder which stems largely from dysregulation of high density lipoproteins (HDL & triglyceride - rich lipoprotein metabolism. Many a time CRF patients live on hemodialysis on regular basis . Present study was done to know whether hemodialysis has any impact on the lipid profile of the CRF patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study were divided into 7 groups, Group - 1: healthy controls (40, Group - 2: CRF patients who never undergone hemodialysis (40, Group - 3: CRF patients on hemodialysis (40, Group - 4: Healthy males (28, Group - 5: Healthy females (12, Group - 6: males with chronic renal failure (28, Group - 7: females with chronic renal failure (12. Sample analysed for high density lipoproteins (H DL, low density lipoproteins (LDL & very low density lipoproteins (VLDL. RESULTS: Among the various parameters tested triglyceride and VLDL levels were significantly higher in group - 2 and3 as compared to controls (p<0.0001. HDL levels were significant ly lower in group - 2 compared to Group - 1(p <0.0001. HDL level was found reduced in group - 3 as compare to Group - 2(p=0.0035. There was no significant change (p=0.132 observed in total cholesterol between healthy controls and CRF patients with hemodialysis. There is a significant change (p=0.0309 observed in LDL - c between CRF patients and controls and no significant change observed (P=0.6070 between Group - 2 and Group - 3. CONCLUSION: CRF patients are at risk of cardiovascular diseases due to the elevation of various forms of lipids. Prescribing lipid lowering treatment in CRF patients with dyslipidemias for preventing future episode of cardiovascular events and will a lso preserve renal function.

  8. Variations in the lipid profile of patients with chronic renal failure treated with pyridoxine

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    Touceda Luis A

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperhomocysteinemia and lipid abnormalities are commonly found in patients with chronic renal failure; both are recognized as risk factors for atherosclerosis. The homocysteine-lowering effect of pyridoxine is controversial. This study was performed to determine the effect of a high dose of pyridoxine (300 mg i.v. three times a week on plasma and red blood cell lipid profile and plasma homocysteine concentration in twelve chronic renal failure patients on regular hemodialysis. Fasting blood samples were taken at the beginning of the study (basal 1, after 30 and 60 days of treatment and 4 months after withdrawal (basal 2. Results Pyridoxine supplementation induced a significant decrease in total plasma homocysteine level and also a lowering effect in plasma total cholesterol and triglycerides. These biochemical data increased when the samples were taken at basal 2, reaching the levels obtained at the beginning of the experiment. LDL cholesterol increased whereas HDL cholesterol was reduced during the treatment. In erythrocyte membranes vitamin B6 therapy enhanced the cholesterol/phospholipid ratio as well as the fluorescence anisotropy of diphenyl-hexatriene. Conclusions We conclude that high doses of pyridoxine represent an effective strategy to ameliorate both plasma homocysteine levels and lipid profiles in chronic renal failure patients, protecting them from atherosclerosis. Further research using a long-term treatment would be necessary in an attempt to restore the fatty acid pattern and the fluidity of red cell membranes.

  9. Jiao Tai Wan Attenuates Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Zhaoyi Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Jiao Tai Wan (JTW, a Chinese herbal formula containing Rhizoma Coptidis and Cortex Cinnamomi, has been used for diabetic treatment for many years. The aim of this study was to determine the main components in JTW and to investigate the effects of JTW on hepatic lipid accumulation in diabetic rats and humans. JTW extract was prepared and the main components were assayed by HPLC. An animal model of diabetes mellitus was established and JTW was administered intragastrically. In the clinical study, diabetic patients with poor glycemic control were treated with JTW. Blood glucose and lipid parameters, liver histology, hepatic triglyceride content and lipogenic gene expression were examined. Our data demonstrated that JTW significantly improved hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and hepatic lipid accumulation in diabetic rats. This was accompanied by the down-regulation of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC and fatty acid synthase (FAS protein expressions, and the up-regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and phosphorylated-ACC (pACC protein expressions in the liver tissues. Diabetic patients also exhibited decreases in their hepatic triglyceride content. The results suggest that JTW attenuates hepatic lipid accumulation in diabetic rats and humans. These beneficial effects are possibly associated with the inhibition of lipogenic gene expression in the liver.

  10. Danish Guidelines for Lipid-lowering Treatment in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieperink, Hans; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of lipid profile in adults with CKD 1-5: We recommend measuring the lipid profile (T cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides) in all adults with newly diagnosed CKD 1-5 (including patients in renal replacement therapy). Monitoring of lipid profile in adults...... of fatal cardiovascular disease > 5% (SCORE). Patients with CKD stage 5D: We suggest that these patients not be given a statin or started on statin/ezetimibe treatment (evidence level A). Patients who start dialysis and are already being treated with a statin or statin/ezetimibe: We suggest that treatment...... be continued (evidence level C). Adult kidney transplanted patients: We suggest that these patients be treated with a statin (evidence level B)....

  11. Danish guidelines for lipid-lowering treatment in patients with chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieperink, Hans; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of lipid profile in adults with CKD 1-5: We recommend measuring the lipid profile (T cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides) in all adults with newly diagnosed CKD 1-5 (including patients in renal replacement therapy). Monitoring of lipid profile in adults...... of fatal cardiovascular disease > 5% (SCORE). Patients with CKD stage 5D: We suggest that these patients not be given a statin or started on statin/ezetimibe treatment (evidence level A). Patients who start dialysis and are already being treated with a statin or statin/ezetimibe: We suggest that treatment...... be continued (evidence level C). Adult kidney transplanted patients: We suggest that these patients be treated with a statin (evidence level B)....

  12. Lobeglitazone, a Novel Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Agonist, Attenuates Renal Fibrosis Caused by Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction in Mice

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    Kwi-Hyun Bae

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRenal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a common feature of the final stage of nearly all cause types of chronic kidney disease. Although classic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ agonists have a protective effect on diabetic nephropathy, much less is known about their direct effects in renal fibrosis. This study aimed to investigate possible beneficial effects of lobeglitazone, a novel PPARγ agonist, on renal fibrosis in mice.MethodsWe examined the effects of lobeglitazone on renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO induced renal fibrosis mice. We further defined the role of lobeglitazone on transforming growth factor (TGF-signaling pathways in renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis through in vivo and in vitro study.ResultsThrough hematoxylin/eosin and sirius red staining, we observed that lobeglitazone effectively attenuates UUO-induced renal atrophy and fibrosis. Immunohistochemical analysis in conjunction with quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis revealed that lobeglitazone treatment inhibited UUO-induced upregulation of renal Smad-3 phosphorylation, α-smooth muscle actin, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, and type 1 collagen. In vitro experiments with rat mesangial cells and NRK-49F renal fibroblast cells suggested that the effects of lobeglitazone on UUO-induced renal fibrosis are mediated by inhibition of the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway.ConclusionThe present study demonstrates that lobeglitazone has a protective effect on UUO-induced renal fibrosis, suggesting that its clinical applications could extend to the treatment of non-diabetic origin renal disease.

  13. Mizoribine ameliorates renal injury and hypertension along with the attenuation of renal caspase-1 expression in aldosterone-salt-treated rats.

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    Doi, Toshiki; Doi, Shigehiro; Nakashima, Ayumu; Ueno, Toshinori; Yokoyama, Yukio; Kohno, Nobuoki; Masaki, Takao

    2014-01-01

    Aldosterone-salt treatment induces not only hypertension but also extensive inflammation that contributes to fibrosis in the rat kidney. However, the mechanism underlying aldosterone-salt-induced renal inflammation remains unclear. Pyroptosis has recently been identified as a new type of cell death that is accompanied by the activation of inflammatory cytokines. We hypothesized that aldosterone-salt treatment could induce inflammation through pyroptosis and that mizoribine, an effective immunosuppressant, would ameliorate the renal inflammation that would otherwise cause renal fibrosis. Ten days after recovery from left uninephrectomy, rats were given drinking water with 1% sodium chloride. The animals were divided into three groups (n = 7 per group): (1) vehicle infusion group, (2) aldosterone infusion group, or (3) aldosterone infusion plus oral mizoribine group. Aldosterone-salt treatment increased the expression of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain containing 3 and caspase-1, and also increased the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells. However, the oral administration of mizoribine attenuated these alterations. Furthermore, mizoribine inhibited hypertension and renal fibrosis, and also attenuated the aldosterone-induced expression of serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase and α epithelial sodium channel. These results suggest that caspase-1 activation plays an important role in the development of inflammation induced by aldosterone-salt treatment and that it functions as an anti-inflammatory strategy that protects against renal injury and hypertension.

  14. Attenuated associations between increasing BMI and unfavorable lipid profiles in Chinese Buddhist vegetarians.

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    Zhang, Hui-Jie; Han, Peng; Sun, Su-Yun; Wang, Li-Ying; Yan, Bing; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Shu-Yu; Li, Xue-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is related to hyperlipidemia and risk of cardiovascular disease. Health benefits of vegetarian diets have well-documented in the Western countries where both obesity and hyperlipidemia were prevalent. We studied the association between BMI and various lipid/lipoprotein measures, as well as between BMI and predicted coronary heart disease probability in lean, low risk populations in Southern China. The study included 170 Buddhist monks (vegetarians) and 126 omnivore men. Interaction between BMI and vegetarian status was tested in the multivariable regression analysis adjusting for age, education, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity. Compared with omnivores, vegetarians had significantly lower mean BMI, blood pressures, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein ratio, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B and A-I, as well as lower predicted probability of coronary heart disease. Higher BMI was associated with unfavorable lipid/lipoprotein profile and predicted probability of coronary heart disease in both vegetarians and omnivores. However, the associations were significantly diminished in Buddhist vegetarians. Vegetarian diets not only lower BMI, but also attenuate the BMI-related increases of atherogenic lipid/ lipoprotein and the probability of coronary heart disease.

  15. Interleukin-6 inhibition attenuates hypertension and associated renal damage in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

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    Hashmat, Shireen; Rudemiller, Nathan; Lund, Hayley; Abais-Battad, Justine M; Van Why, Scott; Mattson, David L

    2016-09-01

    Immune cells in the kidney are implicated in the development of hypertension and renal damage in the Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rat. Interestingly, interleukin 6 (IL-6) mRNA is 54-fold higher in T-lymphocytes isolated from the kidney compared with circulating T-lymphocytes. The present experiments assessed the role of IL-6 in the development of SS hypertension by treating rats (n = 13-14/group) with an IL-6 neutralizing antibody or normal IgG during an 11-day period of high-salt (4.0% NaCl chow) intake. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) and urine albumin excretion rates (Ualb) were not different between the groups fed low salt (0.4% NaCl). Following 11 days of drug treatment and high salt, however, the rats receiving anti-IL-6 demonstrated a 47% reduction of IL-6 in the renal medulla compared with control SS. Moreover, the increase in MAP following 11 days of high-NaCl intake was significantly attenuated in SS administered anti-IL-6 compared with the control group (138 ± 3 vs. 149 ± 3 mmHg) as was the salt-induced increase in Ualb and glomerular and tubular damage. To investigate potential mechanisms of action, a flow cytometric analysis of immune cells in the kidney (n = 8-9/group) demonstrated that the total number of monocytes and macrophages was significantly lower in the treatment vs. the control group. The total number of T- and B-lymphocytes in the kidneys was not different between groups. These studies indicate that IL-6 production may participate in the development of SS hypertension and end-organ damage by mediating increased infiltration or proliferation of macrophages into the kidney. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Disruption of gap junctions attenuates aminoglycoside-elicited renal tubular cell injury

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    Yao, Jian; Huang, Tao; Fang, Xin; Chi, Yuan; Zhu, Ying; Wan, Yigang; Matsue, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Masanori

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Gap junctions play important roles in the regulation of cell phenotype and in determining cell survival after various insults. Here, we investigated the role of gap junctions in aminoglycoside-induced injury to renal tubular cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Two tubular epithelial cell lines NRK-E52 and LLC-PK1 were compared for gap junction protein expression and function by immunofluorescent staining, Western blot and dye transfer assay. Cell viability after exposure to aminoglycosides was evaluated by WST assay. Gap junctions were modulated by transfection of the gap junction protein, connexin 43 (Cx43), use of Cx43 siRNA and gap junction inhibitors. KEY RESULTS NRK-E52 cells expressed abundant Cx43 and were functionally coupled by gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). Exposure of NRK-E52 cells to aminoglycosides, G418 and hygromycin, increased Cx43 phosphorylation and GJIC. The aminoglycosides also decreased cell viability that was prevented by gap junction inhibitors and Cx43 siRNA. LLC-PK1 cells were gap junction-deficient and resistant to aminoglycoside-induced cytotoxicity. Over-expression of a wild-type Cx43 converted LLC-PK1 cells to a drug-sensitive phenotype. The gap junction inhibitor α-glycyrrhetinic acid (α-GA) activated Akt in NRK-E52 cells. Inhibition of the Akt pathway enhanced cell toxicity to G418 and abolished the protective effects of α-GA. In addition, gentamycin-elicited cytotoxicity in NRK-E52 cells was also significantly attenuated by α-GA. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS Gap junctions contributed to the cytotoxic effects of aminoglycosides. Modulation of gap junctions could be a promising approach for prevention and treatment of aminoglycoside-induced renal tubular cell injury. PMID:20649601

  17. Pycnogenol attenuates atherosclerosis by regulating lipid metabolism through the TLR4–NF-κB pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hong; Wang, Jing; Qiao, Chenhui; Ma, Ning; Liu, Donghai; Zhang, Weihua

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of death worldwide and is characterized by lipid-laden foam cell formation. Recently, pycnogenol (PYC) has drawn much attention because of its prominent effect on cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, its protective effect against atherosclerosis and the underlying mechanism remains undefined. Here PYC treatment reduced areas of plaque and lipid deposition in atherosclerotic mice, concomitant with decreases in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels and increases in HDL cholesterol levels, indicating a potential antiatherosclerotic effect of PYC through the regulation of lipid levels. Additionally, PYC preconditioning markedly decreased foam cell formation and lipid accumulation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human THP-1 monocytes. A mechanistic analysis indicated that PYC decreased the lipid-related protein expression of adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) and adipocyte lipid-binding protein (ALBP/aP2) in a dose-dependent manner. Further analysis confirmed that PYC attenuated LPS-induced lipid droplet formation via ADRP and ALBP expression through the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway, because pretreatment with anti-TLR4 antibody or a specific inhibitor of NF-κB (PDTC) strikingly mitigated the LPS-induced increase in ADRP and ALBP. Together, our results provide insight into the ability of PYC to attenuate bacterial infection-triggered pathological processes associated with atherosclerosis. Thus PYC may be a potential lead compound for the future development of antiatherosclerotic CVD therapy. PMID:26492950

  18. The Attenuation of Moutan Cortex on Oxidative Stress for Renal Injury in AGEs-Induced Mesangial Cell Dysfunction and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy Rats

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    Minghua Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress (OS has been regarded as one of the major pathogeneses of diabetic nephropathy (DN through damaging kidney which is associated with renal cells dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Moutan Cortex (MC could protect kidney function against oxidative stress in vitro or in vivo. The compounds in MC extract were analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS. High-glucose-fat diet and STZ (30 mg kg−1 were used to induce DN rats model, while 200 μg mL−1 AGEs were for HBZY-1 mesangial cell damage. The treatment with MC could significantly increase the activity of SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX, and catalase (CAT. However, lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde (MDA was reduced markedly in vitro or in vivo. Furthermore, MC decreased markedly the levels of blood glucose, serum creatinine, and urine protein in DN rats. Immunohistochemical assay showed that MC downregulated significantly transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-β2 protein expression in renal tissue. Our data provided evidence to support this fact that MC attenuated OS in AGEs-induced mesangial cell dysfunction and also in high-glucose-fat diet and STZ-induced DN rats.

  19. Stem cell conditioned culture media attenuated albumin-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in renal tubular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junping; Zhu, Qing; Li, Pin-Lan; Wang, Weili; Yi, Fan; Li, Ningjun

    2015-01-01

    Proteinuria-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in progressive renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis in chronic renal disease. Stem cell therapy has been used for different diseases. Stem cell conditioned culture media (SCM) exhibits similar beneficial effects as stem cell therapy. The present study tested the hypothesis that SCM inhibits albumin-induced EMT in cultured renal tubular cells. Rat renal tubular cells were treated with/without albumin (20 µmg/ml) plus SCM or control cell media (CCM). EMT markers and inflammatory factors were measured by Western blot and fluorescent images. Albumin induced EMT as shown by significant decreases in levels of epithelial marker E-cadherin, increases in mesenchymal markers fibroblast-specific protein 1 and α-smooth muscle actin, and elevations in collagen I. SCM inhibited all these changes. Meanwhile, albumin induced NF-κB translocation from cytosol into nucleus and that SCM blocked the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Albumin also increased the levels of pro-inflammatory factor monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP)-1 by nearly 30 fold compared with control. SCM almost abolished albumin-induced increase of MCP-1. These results suggest that SCM attenuated albumin-induced EMT in renal tubular cells via inhibiting activation of inflammatory factors, which may serve as a new therapeutic approach for chronic kidney diseases. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Protective Effects of Curcumin on Renal Oxidative Stress and Lipid Metabolism in a Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetic Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo Hwan; Lee, Eun Soo; Choi, Ran; Nawaboot, Jarinyaporn; Lee, Mi Young; Lee, Eun Young; Kim, Hyeon Soo; Chung, Choon Hee

    2016-05-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a serious complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and delaying the development of diabetic nephropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus is very important. In this study, we investigated inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipid metabolism to assess whether curcumin ameliorates diabetic nephropathy. Animals were divided into three groups: Long-Evans-Tokushima-Otsuka rats for normal controls, Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats for the diabetic group, and curcumin-treated (100 mg/kg/day) OLETF rats. We measured body and epididymal fat weights, and examined plasma glucose, adiponectin, and lipid profiles at 45 weeks. To confirm renal damage, we measured albumin-creatinine ratio, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in urine samples. Glomerular basement membrane thickness and slit pore density were evaluated in the renal cortex tissue of rats. Furthermore, we conducted adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and oxidative stress-related nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) signaling to investigate mechanisms of lipotoxicity in kidneys. Curcumin ameliorated albuminuria, pathophysiologic changes on the glomerulus, urinary MDA, and urinary SOD related with elevated Nrf2 signaling, as well as serum lipid-related index and ectopic lipid accumulation through activation of AMPK signaling. Collectively, these findings indicate that curcumin exerts renoprotective effects by inhibiting renal lipid accumulation and oxidative stress through AMPK and Nrf2 signaling pathway.

  1. Lipid Emulsion Inhibits Vasodilation Induced by a Toxic Dose of Bupivacaine via Attenuated Dephosphorylation of Myosin Phosphatase Target Subunit 1 in Isolated Rat Aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Seong-Ho; Byon, Hyo-Jin; Kwon, Seong-Chun; Park, Jungchul; Lee, Youngju; Hwang, Yeran; Baik, Jiseok; Choi, Mun-Jeoung; Sohn, Ju-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Lipid emulsions are widely used for the treatment of systemic toxicity that arises from local anesthetics. The goal of this in vitro study was to examine the cellular mechanism associated with the lipid emulsion-mediated attenuation of vasodilation induced by a toxic dose of bupivacaine in isolated endothelium-denuded rat aorta. The effects of lipid emulsion on vasodilation induced by bupivacaine, mepivacaine, and verapamil were assessed in isolated aorta precontracted with phenylephrine, the Rho kinase stimulant NaF, and the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu). The effects of Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 on contraction induced by phenylephrine or NaF were assessed. The effects of bupivacaine on intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) and tension induced by NaF were simultaneously measured. The effects of bupivacaine alone and lipid emulsion plus bupivacaine on myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) phosphorylation induced by NaF were examined in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. In precontracted aorta, the lipid emulsion attenuated bupivacaine-induced vasodilation but had no effect on mepivacaine-induced vasodilation. Y-27632 attenuated contraction induced by either phenylephrine or NaF. The lipid emulsion attenuated verapamil-induced vasodilation. Compared with phenylephrine-induced precontracted aorta, bupivacaine-induced vasodilation was slightly attenuated in NaF-induced precontracted aorta. The magnitude of the bupivacaine-induced vasodilation was higher than that of a bupivacaine-induced decrease in [Ca2+]i. Bupivacaine attenuated NaF-induced MYPT1 phosphorylation, whereas lipid emulsion pretreatment attenuated the bupivacaine-induced inhibition of MYPT1 phosphorylation induced by NaF. Taken together, these results suggest that lipid emulsions attenuate bupivacaine-induced vasodilation via the attenuation of inhibition of MYPT1 phosphorylation evoked by NaF. PMID:26664257

  2. Dietary Tributyrin Supplementation Attenuates Insulin Resistance and Abnormal Lipid Metabolism in Suckling Piglets with Intrauterine Growth Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jintian; Dong, Li; Xu, Wen; Bai, Kaiwen; Lu, Changhui; Wu, Yanan; Huang, Qiang; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with insulin resistance and lipid disorder. Tributyrin (TB), a pro-drug of butyrate, can attenuate dysfunctions in body metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of TB supplementation on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in neonatal piglets with IUGR. Eight neonatal piglets with normal birth weight (NBW) and 16 neonatal piglets with IUGR were selected, weaned on the 7th day, and fed basic milk diets (NBW and IUGR groups) or basic milk diets supplemented with 0.1% tributyrin (IT group, IUGR piglets) until day 21 (n = 8). Relative parameters for lipid metabolism and mRNA expression were measured. Piglets with IUGR showed higher (P IUGR, which was efficiently (P IUGR piglets by increasing enzyme activities and upregulating mRNA expression, leading to an early improvement in the metabolic efficiency of IUGR piglets.

  3. Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) attenuates antioxidant defense in aged spinal cord and inhibits copper induced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidative modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjeev K; Dua, Anita; Vohra, Bhupinder P S

    2003-01-01

    Withania somnifera is classified in Ayurveda, the ancient Indian system of medicine, as a rasayana, a group of plant-derived drugs which promote physical and mental health, augment resistance of the body against disease and diverse adverse environmental factors, revitalize the body in debilitated conditions and increase longevity. We investigated the effects of Withania somnifera on copper-induced lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in aging spinal cord of Wistar rats. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) decreased significantly in the spinal cord from adult to aged mice. Treatment with Withania somnifera successfully attenuated GPx activity and inhibited lipid peroxidation in a dose dependent manner. Withania somnifera inhibited both the lipid peroxidation and protein oxidative modification induced by copper. These effects were similar to those of superoxide dismutase and mannitol. The results indicate the therapeutic potential of Withania somnifera in aging and copper-induced pathophysiological conditions.

  4. Neuroprotective effect of tacrolimus on injured spinal cord of rats via attenuating lipid peroxidation

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    Feng PAN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To study the neuroprotective effect of tacrolimus on early injury of rats' spinal cord and its underlying mechanism. Methods  Forty-five healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into injury group (n=20 and tacrolimus group (n=20. The rats in the two groups were subjected to contusion of spinal cord injury (SCI at the T10 level with weight-drop impact (Allen's method. Animals in tacrolimus group were administered with tacrolimus (0.3mg/kg 5min intravenously after SCI, while those in the injury group received equal volume of normal saline. BBB scales were used to assess the neurological function of hind limbs 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after SCI. Superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and malonaldehyde (MDA level in the plasma were measured by xanthine oxidase and thiobarbituric acid (TBA method respectively. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in spinal cord was detected by immunohistochemistry staining. Results  The BBB score was significantly higher, the plasma MDA level was obviously lower and SOD activity was remarkably higher in tacrolimus group than those in injury group (P<0.05, P<0.01. The expression of iNOS protein in spinal cord began to increase on the 3rd day after SCI and reached the peak at the 7th day in both injury and tacrolimus group, and the iNOS positive cell rate was significantly lower in tacrolimus group than in injury group at each time point (P<0.05, P<0.01. Conclusion  Tacrolimus may inhibit the expression of iNOS and decrease the generation of free oxygen radicals after SCI, thus attenuate lipid peroxidation and improve neurological function.

  5. Renal denervation attenuates NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative stress and hypertension in rats with hydronephrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peleli, Maria; Al-Mashhadi, Ammar; Yang, Ting

    2016-01-01

    ) regulation in the development of hypertension in rats with hydronephrosis. Hydronephrosis was induced by partial unilateral ureteral obstruction (PUUO) in young rats. Sham surgery or renal denervation was performed at the same time. Blood pressure was measured during normal, high and low salt diets. Renal...

  6. Off-pump coronary revascularization attenuates transient renal damage compared with on-pump coronary revascularization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loef, BG; Epema, AH; Navis, G; Ebels, T; van Oeveren, W; Henning, RH

    Study objectives: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) represents a specific risk factor for renal damage during coronary, revascularization. The purpose of this study, was to compare the perioperative renal damage in patients undergoing on-pump and off-pump Coronary, surgery.. Design and patients: The

  7. Attenuation of hyperlipidemia- and diabetes-induced early-stage apoptosis and late-stage renal dysfunction via administration of fibroblast growth factor-21 is associated with suppression of renal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Shao, Minglong; Yang, Hong; Chen, Liangmiao; Yu, Lechu; Cong, Weitao; Tian, Haishan; Zhang, Fangfang; Cheng, Peng; Jin, Litai; Tan, Yi; Li, Xiaokun; Cai, Lu; Lu, Xuemian

    2013-01-01

    Lipotoxicity is a key feature of the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease, and is attributed to excessive lipid accumulation (hyperlipidemia). Increasing evidence suggests that fibroblast growth factor (FGF)21 has a crucial role in lipid metabolism under diabetic conditions. The present study investigated whether FGF21 can prevent hyperlipidemia- or diabetes-induced renal damage, and if so, the possible mechanism. Mice were injected with free fatty acids (FFAs, 10 mg/10 g body weight) or streptozotocin (150 mg/kg) to establish a lipotoxic model or type 1 diabetic model, respectively. Simultaneously the mice were treated with FGF21 (100 µg/kg) for 10 or 80 days. The kidney weight-to-tibia length ratio and renal function were assessed. Systematic and renal lipid levels were detected by ELISA and Oil Red O staining. Renal apoptosis was examined by TUNEL assay. Inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis were assessed by Western blot. Acute FFA administration and chronic diabetes were associated with lower kidney-to-tibia length ratio, higher lipid levels, severe renal apoptosis and renal dysfunction. Obvious inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis also observed in the kidney of both mice models. Deletion of the fgf21 gene further enhanced the above pathological changes, which were significantly prevented by administration of exogenous FGF21. These results suggest that FFA administration and diabetes induced renal damage, which was further enhanced in FGF21 knock-out mice. Administration of FGF21 significantly prevented both FFA- and diabetes-induced renal damage partially by decreasing renal lipid accumulation and suppressing inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis.

  8. Attenuation of hyperlipidemia- and diabetes-induced early-stage apoptosis and late-stage renal dysfunction via administration of fibroblast growth factor-21 is associated with suppression of renal inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lipotoxicity is a key feature of the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease, and is attributed to excessive lipid accumulation (hyperlipidemia. Increasing evidence suggests that fibroblast growth factor (FGF21 has a crucial role in lipid metabolism under diabetic conditions. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated whether FGF21 can prevent hyperlipidemia- or diabetes-induced renal damage, and if so, the possible mechanism. METHODS: Mice were injected with free fatty acids (FFAs, 10 mg/10 g body weight or streptozotocin (150 mg/kg to establish a lipotoxic model or type 1 diabetic model, respectively. Simultaneously the mice were treated with FGF21 (100 µg/kg for 10 or 80 days. The kidney weight-to-tibia length ratio and renal function were assessed. Systematic and renal lipid levels were detected by ELISA and Oil Red O staining. Renal apoptosis was examined by TUNEL assay. Inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis were assessed by Western blot. RESULTS: Acute FFA administration and chronic diabetes were associated with lower kidney-to-tibia length ratio, higher lipid levels, severe renal apoptosis and renal dysfunction. Obvious inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis also observed in the kidney of both mice models. Deletion of the fgf21 gene further enhanced the above pathological changes, which were significantly prevented by administration of exogenous FGF21. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that FFA administration and diabetes induced renal damage, which was further enhanced in FGF21 knock-out mice. Administration of FGF21 significantly prevented both FFA- and diabetes-induced renal damage partially by decreasing renal lipid accumulation and suppressing inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis.

  9. Protocatechuic aldehyde attenuates cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury by suppressing Nox-mediated oxidative stress and renal inflammation

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    Li Gao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin is a classic chemotherapeutic agent widely used to treat different types of cancers including ovarian, head and neck, testicular and uterine cervical carcinomas. However, cisplatin induces acute kidney injury by directly triggering an excessive inflammatory response, oxidative stress and programmed cell death of renal tubular epithelial cells. All of which lead to higher mortality rates in patients. In this study we examined the protective effect of protocatechuic aldehyde (PA in vitro in cisplatin-treated tubular epithelial cells and in vivo in cisplatin nephropathy. PA is a monomer of Traditional Chinese Medicine isolated from the root of S. miltiorrhiza. Results show that PA prevented cisplatin-induced decline of renal function and histological damage, which was confirmed by attenuation of KIM1 in both mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, PA reduced renal inflammation by suppressing oxidative stress and programmed cell death in response to cisplatin, which was further evidenced by in vitro data. Of note, PA suppressed NAPDH oxidases, including Nox2 and Nox4, in a dosage-dependent manner. Moreover, silencing Nox4, but not Nox2, removed the inhibitory effect of PA on cisplatin-induced renal injury, indicating that Nox4 may play a pivotal role in mediating the protective effect of PA in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury. Collectively, our data indicate that PA largely blocked cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury by suppressing Nox-mediated oxidative stress and renal inflammation without compromising anti-tumor activity of cisplatin. These findings suggest that PA and its derivatives may serve as potential protective agents for cancer patients with cisplatin treatment.

  10. Açai berry extract attenuates glycerol-induced acute renal failure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unis, Amina

    2015-03-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is one of the most common problems encountered in hospitalized critically ill patients. In recent years great effort has been focused on the introduction of herbal medicine as a novel therapeutic agent for prevention of ARF. Hence, the current study was designed to investigate the effect of Açai berry extract (ABE) on glycerol-induced ARF in rats. Results of the present study showed that rat groups that received oral ABE in a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day for 7 days before or 7 days after induction of ARF by a single intramuscular glycerol injection reported a significant improvement in kidney functions tests [decrease in serum urea, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN)] when compared to the ARF model groups. Moreover, there was significant amelioration in renal oxidative stress markers [renal catalase (CAT), renal reduced glutathione (GSH)] and renal histopathological changes in the ABE-treated groups when compared to ARF model groups. The most significant improvement was reported in the groups where ABE was administered in a dose 200 mg/kg/day. These results indicate that ABE has a potential role in ameliorating renal damage involved in ARF.

  11. Attenuation of proton currents by methanol in a dioxolane-linked gramicidin A channel in different lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, E P; Emerick, A J; Crumrine, D S; Cukierman, S

    1998-12-01

    The mobility of protons in a dioxolane-linked gramicidin A channel (D1) is comparable to the mobility of protons in aqueous solutions (Cukierman, S., E. P. Quigley, and D. S. Crumrine. 1997. Biophys. J. 73:2489-2502). Aliphatic alcohols decrease the mobility of H+ in aqueous solutions. In this study, the effects of methanol on proton conduction through D1 channels were investigated in different lipid bilayers and at different HCl concentrations. Methanol attenuated H+ currents in a voltage-independent manner. Attenuation of proton currents was also independent of H+ concentrations in solution. In phospholipid bilayers, methanol decreased the single channel conductance to protons without affecting the binding affinity of protons to bilayers. In glycerylmonooleate membranes, the attenuation of single channel proton conductances qualitatively resembled the decrease of conductivities of HCl solutions by methanol. However, in both types of lipid bilayers, single channel proton conductances through D1 channels were considerably more attenuated than the conductivities of different HCl solutions. This suggests that methanol modulates single proton currents through D1 channels. It is proposed that, on average, one methanol molecule binds to a D1 channel, and attenuates H+ conductance. The Gibbs free energy of this process (DeltaG0) is approximately 1.2 kcal/mol, which is comparable to the free energy of decrease of HCl conductivity in methanol solutions (1.6 kcal/mol). Apolar substances like urea and glucose that do not transport protons in HCl solutions and do not permeate D1 channels decreased solution conductivity and single channel conductance by a considerably larger proportion than methanol. Cs+ currents through D1 channels were considerably less (fivefold) attenuated by methanol than proton currents. It is proposed that methanol partitions inside the pore of gramicidin channels and delays the transfer of protons between water and methanol molecules, causing a

  12. Expression of apolipoprotein B in the kidney attenuates renal lipid accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krzystanek, Marcin; Pedersen, Tanja Xenia; Bartels, Emil Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The ability to produce apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoproteins enables hepatocytes, enterocytes, and cardiomyocytes to export triglycerides. In this study, we examined secretion of apoB-containing lipoproteins from mouse kidney and its putative impact on triglyceride accumulation in the tu......The ability to produce apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoproteins enables hepatocytes, enterocytes, and cardiomyocytes to export triglycerides. In this study, we examined secretion of apoB-containing lipoproteins from mouse kidney and its putative impact on triglyceride accumulation...

  13. Action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome: diagnostic applications of activity-based probes and lipid analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Paulo; Kallemeijn, Wouter W; Strijland, Anneke; Scheij, Saskia; Van Eijk, Marco; Aten, Jan; Overkleeft, Herman S; Balreira, Andrea; Zunke, Friederike; Schwake, Michael; Sá Miranda, Clara; Aerts, Johannes M F G

    2014-01-01

    Lysosomal integral membrane protein-2 (LIMP2) mediates trafficking of glucocerebrosidase (GBA) to lysosomes. Deficiency of LIMP2 causes action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome (AMRF). LIMP2-deficient fibroblasts virtually lack GBA like the cells of patients with Gaucher disease (GD), a lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the GBA gene. While GD is characterized by the presence of glucosylceramide-laden macrophages, AMRF patients do not show these. We studied the fate of GBA in relation to LIMP2 deficiency by employing recently designed activity-based probes labeling active GBA molecules. We demonstrate that GBA is almost absent in lysosomes of AMRF fibroblasts. However, white blood cells contain considerable amounts of residual enzyme. Consequently, AMRF patients do not acquire lipid-laden macrophages and do not show increased plasma levels of macrophage markers, such as chitotriosidase, in contrast to GD patients. We next investigated the consequences of LIMP2 deficiency with respect to plasma glycosphingolipid levels. Plasma glucosylceramide concentration was normal in the AMRF patients investigated as well as in LIMP2-deficient mice. However, a marked increase in the sphingoid base, glucosylsphingosine, was observed in AMRF patients and LIMP2-deficient mice. Our results suggest that combined measurements of chitotriosidase and glucosylsphingosine can be used for convenient differential laboratory diagnosis of GD and AMRF.

  14. High-fat diet causes increased serum insulin and glucose which synergistically lead to renal tubular lipid deposition and extracellular matrix accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jun; Liu, Shu-Xia; Zhao, Song; Liu, Qing-Juan; Liu, Wei; Duan, Hui-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Renal tubular lipid accumulation is associated with renal injury in the metabolic syndrome, but its mechanisms are not fully elucidated. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the exact mechanism of renal tubular lipid accumulation in the diet-induced metabolic syndrome. The in vivo experiments showed that a high-fat diet induced hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and hypertriacylglycerolaemia, subsequent increases in sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), lipid droplet deposit in renal tubular cells and interstitial extracellular matrix accumulation in Wistar rats. A human renal proximal tubular epithelial cell line (HKC) was used to determine the direct role of insulin, and the results revealed that insulin induced SREBP-1, fatty acid synthase (FASN), TGF-β1 expressions, lipid droplet and extracellular matrix deposits. Knockdown of SREBP-1 by RNA interference technology significantly inhibited FASN, TGF-β1 up-regulation, lipid and extracellular matrix accumulation caused by insulin. In addition, we found that insulin and high glucose could synergistically increase SREBP-1, FASN, TGF-β1 and fibronectin expressions in HKC cells. These results indicate that high-fat diet-induced increased serum insulin and glucose synergistically cause renal tubular lipid deposit and extracellular matrix accumulation via the SREBP-1 pathway.

  15. Attenuation of proton currents by methanol in a dioxolane-linked gramicidin A channel in different lipid bilayers.

    OpenAIRE

    Quigley, Edward P.; Emerick, April J.; Crumrine, David S.; Cukierman, Samuel

    1998-01-01

    The mobility of protons in a dioxolane-linked gramicidin A channel (D1) is comparable to the mobility of protons in aqueous solutions (Cukierman, S., E. P. Quigley, and D. S. Crumrine. 1997. Biophys. J. 73:2489-2502). Aliphatic alcohols decrease the mobility of H+ in aqueous solutions. In this study, the effects of methanol on proton conduction through D1 channels were investigated in different lipid bilayers and at different HCl concentrations. Methanol attenuated H+ currents in a voltage-in...

  16. Celastrol, an NF-κB inhibitor, improves insulin resistance and attenuates renal injury in db/db mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Eun Kim

    Full Text Available The NF-κB pathway plays an important role in chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Recently, NF-κB has also been suggested as an important mechanism linking obesity, inflammation, and metabolic disorders. However, there is no current evidence regarding the mechanism of action of NF-κB inhibition in insulin resistance and diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetic animal models. We investigated the effects of the NF-κB inhibitor celastrol in db/db mice. The treatment with celastrol for 2 months significantly lowered fasting plasma glucose (FPG, HbA1C and homeostasis model assessment index (HOMA-IR levels. Celastrol also exhibited significant decreases in body weight, kidney/body weight and adiposity. Celastrol reduced insulin resistance and lipid abnormalities and led to higher plasma adiponectin levels. Celastrol treatment also significantly mitigated lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in organs including the kidney, liver and adipose tissue. The treated group also exhibited significantly lower creatinine levels and urinary albumin excretion was markedly reduced. Celastrol treatment significantly lowered mesangial expansion and suppressed type IV collagen, PAI-1 and TGFβ1 expressions in renal tissues. Celastrol also improved abnormal lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine activity in the kidney. In cultured podocytes, celastrol treatment abolished saturated fatty acid-induced proinflammatory cytokine synthesis. Taken together, celastrol treatment not only improved insulin resistance, glycemic control and oxidative stress, but also improved renal functional and structural changes through both metabolic and anti-inflammatory effects in the kidney. These results suggest that targeted therapy for NF-κB may be a useful new therapeutic approach for the management of type II diabetes and diabetic nephropathy.

  17. Boesenbergia pandurata attenuates diet-induced obesity by activating AMP-activated protein kinase and regulating lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Young; Kim, Myung-Suk; Sa, Bo-Kyung; Kim, Mi-Bo; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2012-01-01

    Obesity, a chronic metabolic disorder, is characterized by enlarged fat mass and dysregulation of lipid metabolism. The medicinal plant, Boesenbergia pandurata (Roxb.) Schltr., has been reported to possess anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties; however, its anti-obesity activity is unexplored. The present study was conducted to determine whether B. pandurata extract (BPE), prepared from its rhizome parts, attenuated high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in C57BL/6J mice. The molecular mechanism was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and HepG2 human hepatoma cells. BPE treatment decreased triglyceride accumulation in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and HepG2 hepatocytes by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and regulating the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins. In the animal model, oral administration of BPE (200 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks) significantly reduced HFD-induced body weight gain without altering the amount of food intake. In addition, elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were suppressed by BPE administration. Fat pad masses were reduced in BPE-treated mice, as evidenced by reduced adipocyte size. Furthermore, BPE protected against the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver by decreasing hepatic triglyceride accumulation. BPE also activated AMPK signaling and altered the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins in white adipose tissue and liver. Taken together, these findings indicate that BPE attenuates HFD-induced obesity by activating AMPK and regulating lipid metabolism, suggesting a potent anti-obesity agent.

  18. Dietary Tributyrin Supplementation Attenuates Insulin Resistance and Abnormal Lipid Metabolism in Suckling Piglets with Intrauterine Growth Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jintian; Dong, Li; Xu, Wen; Bai, Kaiwen; Lu, Changhui; Wu, Yanan; Huang, Qiang; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with insulin resistance and lipid disorder. Tributyrin (TB), a pro-drug of butyrate, can attenuate dysfunctions in body metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of TB supplementation on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in neonatal piglets with IUGR. Eight neonatal piglets with normal birth weight (NBW) and 16 neonatal piglets with IUGR were selected, weaned on the 7th day, and fed basic milk diets (NBW and IUGR groups) or basic milk diets supplemented with 0.1% tributyrin (IT group, IUGR piglets) until day 21 (n = 8). Relative parameters for lipid metabolism and mRNA expression were measured. Piglets with IUGR showed higher (P insulin in the serum, higher (P insulin, HOMA-IR, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum, and the concentrations of TG and NEFA in the liver, and increased (P insulin signal transduction pathway and hepatic lipogenic pathway (including transcription factors and nuclear factors) was significantly (P insulin resistance and abnormal lipid metabolism in IUGR piglets by increasing enzyme activities and upregulating mRNA expression, leading to an early improvement in the metabolic efficiency of IUGR piglets. PMID:26317832

  19. Renal denervation attenuates NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative stress and hypertension in rats with hydronephrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peleli, Maria; Al-Mashhadi, Ammar; Yang, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Hydronephrosis is associated with development of salt-sensitive hypertension. Studies suggest that increased sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and oxidative stress play important roles in renovascular hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the link between renal SNA and NADPH oxidase (NOX...

  20. Demeclocycline Attenuates Hyponatremia by Reducing Aquaporin-2 Expression in the Renal Inner Medulla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortenoeven, Marleen L. A.; Sinke, Anne P.; Hadrup, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Binding of vasopressin to its type-2 receptor in renal collecting ducts induces cAMP signaling, transcription and translocation of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels to the plasma membrane and water reabsorption from the pro-urine. Demeclocycline is currently used to treat hyponatremia in patients...

  1. Attenuation of renal damage in type I diabetic rats by umbelliferone - a coumarin derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garud, Mayuresh S; Kulkarni, Yogesh A

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that diabetes is one of the non-communicable disease affecting a large population worldwide. When diabetes remains untreated or uncontrolled, it leads to further serious complications, affecting vital organs like eyes, kidney, heart, etc. The present study was designed to evaluate effects of umbelliferone, a phytochemical, in treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Experimental model used was streptozotocin (55mg/kg, ip) induced diabetic nephropathy in male Sprague Dawley rats. After 28days of streptozotocin administration, diabetic animals were treated with umbelliferone at two dose levels, 20 and 40mg/kg for next 28days. The results of the study showed that umbelliferone treatment significantly decreased the elevated plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen level while significantly increased the total protein and albumin level in diabetic animals. Creatinine clearance was improved in umbelliferone treated animals. Renal oxidative stress was decreased in umbelliferone treated animals significantly. Histopathological study of the kidney was carried out by specific stains like Hematoxylin-Eosin, Periodic Acid Schiff and Masson Trichrome stain. The sections of the kidney showed that umbelliferone treatment decreased the glomerular damage, mesangial matrix expansion as well as the renal fibrosis. Determination of renal transforming growth factor beta one (TGF-β1) expression by immunohistochemical analysis, western blotting and circulating TGF-β1 by ELISA assay showed that umbelliferone decreased the renal tissue and circulating TGF-β1 level. Umbelliferone treatment can significantly reduce the diabetes induced renal damage and can improve the pathological conditions related to the diabetic nephropathy by down regulation of TGF-β. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  2. Prolonged hypobaric hypoxemia attenuates vasopressin secretion and renal response to osmostimulation in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bestle, Morten H; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Poulsen, Troels D

    2002-01-01

    Effects of hypobaric hypoxemia on endocrine and renal parameters of body fluid homeostasis were investigated in eight normal men during a sojourn of 8 days at an altitude of 4,559 m. Endocrine and renal responses to an osmotic stimulus (5% hypertonic saline, 3.6 ml/kg over 1 h) were investigated...... at sea level and on day 6 at altitude. Several days of hypobaric hypoxemia reduced body weight (-2.1 +/- 0.4 kg), increased plasma osmolality (+5.3 +/- 1.4 mosmol/kgH(2)O), elevated blood pressure (+12 +/- 1 mmHg), reduced creatinine clearance (122 +/- 6 to 96 +/- 10 ml/min), inhibited the renin system...... P hypoxemia 1) elevates the set point of plasma osmolality...

  3. Thrombin inhibition with melagatran does not attenuate renal ischaemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nitescu, Nicoletta; Grimberg, Elisabeth; Ricksten, Sven-Erik

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Renal ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) is associated with activation of the coagulation system and inflammation within the kidney. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of selective thrombin inhibition with melagatran on kidney morphology and function in rats subjected...... of saline vehicle or melagatran [0.5 mumol/kg, subcutaneously (s.c.)] followed by a continuous infusion throughout (0.08 micromol/kg/h, s.c.). Forty-eight hours after IR, renal function was assessed in anaesthetized animals and kidney histology was analysed semi-quantitatively. RESULTS: Rats in group IR...... characterized by tubular necrosis and atrophy, tubular cast formation and interstitial inflammation. In addition, there was significant vascular congestion in the inner stripe of the outer medullary zone. Melagatran treatment had no significant effects on any of the abnormalities in kidney morphology...

  4. Low Protein Diet Inhibits Uric Acid Synthesis and Attenuates Renal Damage in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Ran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Several studies indicated that hyperuricemia may link to the worsening of diabetic nephropathy (DN. Meanwhile, low protein diet (LPD retards exacerbation of renal damage in chronic kidney disease. We then assessed whether LPD influences uric acid metabolism and benefits the progression of DN in streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic rats. Methods. STZ-induced and control rats were both fed with LPD (5% and normal protein diet (18%, respectively, for 12 weeks. Vital signs, blood and urinary samples for UA metabolism were taken and analyzed every 3 weeks. Kidneys were removed at the end of the experiment. Results. Diabetic rats developed into constantly high levels of serum UA (SUA, creatinine (SCr and 24 h amounts of urinary albumin excretion (UAE, creatintine (UCr, urea nitrogen (UUN, and uric acid (UUA. LPD significantly decreased SUA, UAE, and blood glucose, yet left SCr, UCr, and UUN unchanged. A stepwise regression showed that high UUA is an independent risk factor for DN. LPD remarkably ameliorated degrees of enlarged glomeruli, proliferated mesangial cells, and hyaline-degenerated tubular epithelial cells in diabetic rats. Expression of TNF-α in tubulointerstitium significantly decreased in LPD-fed diabetic rats. Conclusion. LPD inhibits endogenous uric acid synthesis and might accordingly attenuate renal damage in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  5. Attenuation of hypoosmotic stress-induced ANP secretion via I(Cl,swell) in renal hypertensive rat atria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Guang Yi; Yuan, Kuichang; Park, Woo Hyun; Kim, Sung Zoo; Kim, Suhn Hee

    2008-09-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy, an adaptive process to an increased hemodynamic overload, includes not only an increase in cell size but also qualitative changes in constituent proteins. Although swelling-activated chloride channels (I(Cl,swell)) chronically activate in hypertrophied atrial myocytes, the role of I(Cl,swell) in regulation of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) release is poorly understood. We investigated the effects of I(Cl,swell) on ANP release and contractility and its modification in hypertrophied rat atria. To stimulate I(Cl,swell), hypoosmotic HEPES buffered solution (0.8T, 0.7T and 0.6T) was perfused into isolated perfused beating atria. The hypoosmotic HEPES buffered solution increased ANP release as compared to isoosmotic buffered solution (1T) in an osmolarity-reduction dependent manner. Atrial contractility and extracellular fluid translocation did not change. Exposure to hypoosmotic buffer (0.8T) containing low chloride (8mM), tamoxifen or diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS) significantly attenuated hypoosmolarity-induced ANP release. The pretreatment with genistein, okdaic acid, U73122, GF109203x, and staurosporine attenuated hypoosmolarity-induced ANP release whereas orthovanadate augmented it significantly. In hypertrophied atria from renal hypertensive rats, hypoosmolarity-induced ANP release was markedly attenuated and DIDS-induced decrease in ANP release and negative inotropy were augmented as compared to sham-operated rat atria. Therefore, we suggest that I(Cl,swell) may partly participate hypoosmolarity-induced ANP release through protein tyrosine kinase and phospholipase C-protein kinase C pathway. The modification of responses of ANP release to hypoosmolarity and DIDS in hypertrophied atria may relate to changes in I(Cl,swell) activity by persistent high blood pressure.

  6. Immune suppression attenuates hypertension and renal disease in the Dahl salt-sensitive rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David L; James, Leilani; Berdan, Elizabeth A; Meister, Carla J

    2006-07-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the importance of activation or infiltration of immune cells in the kidney during the development of hypertension and renal disease in Dahl salt-sensitive rats (SS/Mcw) fed a 4.0% NaCl diet. Compared with vehicle-treated rats, chronic administration of mycophenolate mofetil ([MMF] 30 mg/kg per day, IP), an immunosuppressive agent that has cytostatic effects on T and B cells, decreased cell-specific markers of T and B cells by 50% to 60% in the kidneys of SS/Mcw rats (n=5 per group). Further studies were performed on Dahl SS/Mcw rats, which were instrumented with chronic indwelling catheters and studied after 3 weeks on the 4.0% NaCl diet. Rats were administered MMF or 5% dextrose vehicle daily during the 3-week period of high NaCl intake. Mean arterial blood pressure in the rats administered MMF (122+/-2 mm Hg; n=11) was significantly decreased compared with vehicle-treated rats (139+/-4 mm Hg; n=9). Furthermore, the rate of protein (112+/-13 mg per day) and albumin excretion (15+/-3 mg per day) in the MMF-treated rats was significantly lower than the protein and albumin excretion rate in vehicle-treated rats (167+/-25 and 31+/-7 mg per day, respectively). Creatinine clearance and body weight were not different between the groups, averaging 0.52+/-0.08 mL/min per gram kidney weight and 322+/-10 g, respectively, in the MMF-treated group. These experiments indicate that the activation of the immune system or renal infiltration of immune cells plays an important role in the development of hypertension and renal disease in Dahl SS/Mcw rats consuming an elevated NaCl diet.

  7. Simvastatin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers attenuate the atherogenic risk of erythrocytes in hyperlipidemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harisa, Gamaleldin I; Alomrani, Abdullah H; Badran, Mohamed M

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of simvastatin (SV) loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (SV loaded NLCs) on atherogenic index (AI), erythrocytes membrane lipid and antioxidant/pro-oxidant status in hyperlipidemic rats. SV loaded NLCs were successfully prepared with desired nano-particles size, spherical shape, high encapsulation efficiency (EE %) and sustained SV release. The results of biological studies revealed that administration of SV loaded NLCs to rats increased SV bioavailability compared to SV suspension. Intraperitoneal injection of tyloxapol as hyperlipidemic agent induces a significant increase of plasma AI, uric acid, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation. While, plasma total antioxidant capacity and paraoxonase-1 activity were significantly decreased. Moreover, tyloxapol induced-hyperlipidemia increases erythrocyte's membrane cholesterol and deteriorates erythrocyte's antioxidant enzyme activity, GSH/GSSG ratio and NO level However, the propagation of erythrocyte's pro-oxidant activity and hemolysis was observed. On the contrast, the treatment of these rats with SV loaded NLCs improved the measured parameters compared to rats received SV suspension and hyperlipidemic rats. The predominant effect of SV loaded NLCs may be attributed to the enhancement of absorption, prolonged duration and improvement of bioavailability of SV. Accordingly, SV loaded NLCs showed advantageous effects on the blood lipid levels and atherogenic risk of erythrocytes in hyperlipidemic conditions compared to SV suspension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Vitamins C and E attenuate lipid dystrophy in tissues of rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the effects of aluminum chloride (AlCl3) in the deviation of tissue lipid profiles and ways to reduce its effect using antioxidant vitamins C and E, thirty-six male albino rats (120-150g) were divided into six groups with six rats each. Group (1) received normal saline and served as control, Group (2) was ...

  9. (-) Epicatechin regulates blood lipids and attenuates hepatic steatosis in rats fed high fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    (-)-Epicatechin (EC) is a natural flavanol monomer found in cocoa, green tea and a variety of other plant foods. Recent studies have shown that EC and foods rich in EC exerted vascular protective effects. In this study, effects of EC on blood lipids and hepatic steatosis, and the underlying mechani...

  10. Chemopreventive and renal protective effects for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA: implications of CRP and lipid peroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darweish MM

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fish oil-derived ω-3 fatty acids, like docosahexanoic (DHA, claim a plethora of health benefits. We currently evaluated the antitumor effects of DHA, alone or in combination with cisplatin (CP in the EAC solid tumor mice model, and monitored concomitant changes in serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, lipid peroxidation (measured as malondialdehyde; MDA and leukocytic count (LC. Further, we verified the capacity of DHA to ameliorate the lethal, CP-induced nephrotoxicity in rats and the molecular mechanisms involved therein. Results EAC-bearing mice exhibited markedly elevated LC (2-fold, CRP (11-fold and MDA levels (2.7-fold. DHA (125, 250 mg/kg elicited significant, dose-dependent reductions in tumor size (38%, 79%; respectively, as well as in LC, CRP and MDA levels. These effects for CP were appreciably lower than those of DHA (250 mg/kg. Interestingly, DHA (125 mg/kg markedly enhanced the chemopreventive effects of CP and boosted its ability to reduce serum CRP and MDA levels. Correlation studies revealed a high degree of positive association between tumor growth and each of CRP (r = 0.85 and leukocytosis (r = 0.89, thus attesting to a diagnostic/prognostic role for CRP. On the other hand, a single CP dose (10 mg/kg induced nephrotoxicity in rats that was evidenced by proteinuria, deterioration of glomerular filtration rate (GFR, -4-fold, a rise in serum creatinine/urea levels (2–5-fold after 4 days, and globally-induced animal fatalities after 7 days. Kidney-homogenates from CP-treated rats displayed significantly elevated MDA- and TNF-α-, but reduced GSH-, levels. Rats treated with DHA (250 mg/kg, but not 125 mg/kg survived the lethal effects of CP, and showed a significant recovery of GFR; while their homogenates had markedly-reduced MDA- and TNF-α-, but -increased GSH-levels. Significant association was detected between creatinine level and those of MDA (r = 0.81, TNF-α r = 0.92 and GSH (r = -0

  11. Comparative effect of olmesartan and candesartan on lipid metabolism and renal function in patients with hypertension: a retrospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakayama Tomohiro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs, including olmesartan and candesartan, are widely used antihypertensive agents. Many clinical studies have demonstrated that ARBs have organ-protecting effects, e.g., cardioprotection, vasculoprotection and renoprotection. However, the effect of prolonged olmesartan monotherapy on lipid metabolism in patients with hypertension is less well studied. We performed a retrospective observational study to compare the effects of olmesartan with those of candesartan, focusing on lipid metabolism and renal function. Methods We used data from the Clinical Data Warehouse of Nihon University School of Medicine obtained between Nov 1, 2004 and Feb 28, 2011, to identify cohorts of new olmesartan users (n = 168 and candesartan users (n = 266. We used propensity-score weighting to adjust for differences in all covariates (age, sex, comorbid diseases, previous drugs between olmesartan and candesartan users, and compared serum chemical data including serum triglyceride (TG, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, total cholesterol (TC, potassium, creatinine and urea nitrogen. The mean exposure of olmesartan and candesartan users was 126.1 and 122.8 days, respectively. Results After adjustment, there were no statistically significant differences in all covariates between olmesartan and candesartan users. The mean age was 60.7 and 61.0 years, and 33.4% and 33.7% of olmesartan and candesartan users were women, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in mean values for all laboratory tests between baseline and during the exposure period in both olmesartan and candesartan users. In olmesartan users, the reduction of serum TG level was significant in comparison with that in candesartan users. Other parameters of lipid profile and renal function showed no statistically significant difference in the change from baseline to during the exposure period between olmesartan and candesartan users. Conclusions

  12. Comparative effect of olmesartan and candesartan on lipid metabolism and renal function in patients with hypertension: a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Yayoi; Takahashi, Yasuo; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Soma, Masayoshi; Asai, Satoshi

    2011-08-10

    Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), including olmesartan and candesartan, are widely used antihypertensive agents. Many clinical studies have demonstrated that ARBs have organ-protecting effects, e.g., cardioprotection, vasculoprotection and renoprotection. However, the effect of prolonged olmesartan monotherapy on lipid metabolism in patients with hypertension is less well studied. We performed a retrospective observational study to compare the effects of olmesartan with those of candesartan, focusing on lipid metabolism and renal function. We used data from the Clinical Data Warehouse of Nihon University School of Medicine obtained between Nov 1, 2004 and Feb 28, 2011, to identify cohorts of new olmesartan users (n = 168) and candesartan users (n = 266). We used propensity-score weighting to adjust for differences in all covariates (age, sex, comorbid diseases, previous drugs) between olmesartan and candesartan users, and compared serum chemical data including serum triglyceride (TG), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), potassium, creatinine and urea nitrogen. The mean exposure of olmesartan and candesartan users was 126.1 and 122.8 days, respectively. After adjustment, there were no statistically significant differences in all covariates between olmesartan and candesartan users. The mean age was 60.7 and 61.0 years, and 33.4% and 33.7% of olmesartan and candesartan users were women, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in mean values for all laboratory tests between baseline and during the exposure period in both olmesartan and candesartan users. In olmesartan users, the reduction of serum TG level was significant in comparison with that in candesartan users. Other parameters of lipid profile and renal function showed no statistically significant difference in the change from baseline to during the exposure period between olmesartan and candesartan users. In this study, we observed a more beneficial effect on lipid

  13. Apple cider vinegar attenuates lipid profile in normal and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishehbor, F; Mansoori, A; Sarkaki, A R; Jalali, M T; Latifi, S M

    2008-12-01

    In this study, the effect of apple cider vinegar on Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and lipid profile in normal and diabetic rats was investigated. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats (300+/-30 g) by the intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg kg(-1) of body weight). Both normal and diabetic animals were fed with standard animal food containing apple cider vinegar (6% w/w) for 4 weeks. Fasting blood glucose did not change, while HbA1c significantly decreased by apple cider vinegar in diabetic group (pvinegar, significant reduction of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) (pApple cider vinegar also reduced serum triglyceride (TG) levels (papple cider vinegar improved the serum lipid profile in normal and diabetic rats by decreasing serum TG, LDL-c and increasing serum HDL-c and may be of great value in managing the diabetic complications.

  14. Mitochondrial modulators improve lipid composition and attenuate memory deficits in experimental model of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Arpit; Sood, Abhilasha; Sandhir, Rajat

    2015-12-01

    3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) is an irreversible inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase and induces neuropathological changes similar to those observed in Huntington's disease (HD). The objective of the present study was to investigate neuroprotective effect of mitochondrial modulators; alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) and acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) on 3-NP-induced alterations in mitochondrial lipid composition, mitochondrial structure and memory functions. Experimental model of HD was developed by administering 3-NP at sub-chronic doses, twice daily for 17 days. The levels of conjugated dienes, cholesterol and glycolipids were significantly increased, whereas the levels of phospholipids (phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine) including cardiolipin were significantly decreased in the mitochondria isolated from the striatum of 3-NP-treated animals. In addition, the difference in molecular composition of each phospholipid class was also evaluated using mass spectrometry. Mitochondria lipid from 3-NP-treated animals showed increased cholesterol to phospholipid ratio, suggesting decreased mitochondrial membrane fluidity. 3-NP administration also resulted in ultra-structural changes in mitochondria, accompanied by swelling as assessed by transmission electron microscopy. The 3-NP administered animals had impaired spatial memory evaluated using elevated plus maze test. However, combined supplementation with ALA + ALCAR for 21 days normalized mitochondrial lipid composition, improved mitochondrial structure and ameliorated memory impairments in 3-NP-treated animals, suggesting an imperative role of these two modulators in combination in the management of HD.

  15. Betulinic acid attenuates renal fibrosis in rat chronic kidney disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anshuk; Thakur, Richa; Lingaraju, Madhu C; Kumar, Dhirendra; Mathesh, Karikalan; Telang, Avinash G; Singh, Thakur Uttam; Kumar, Dinesh

    2017-05-01

    Most chronic kidney diseases (CKDs), regardless of the nature of the initial injury, progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) characterized by fibrosis with irreversible loss of tissue and function. Thus, improved and more effective therapies are critical. Betulinic acid (BA), a pentacyclic triterpene is a compound in the pipeline of anti-cancer drug development. It has been shown to a possess variety of beneficial effects in many disease conditions. However, its efficacy against CKD is yet to be explored. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of BA on renal fibrosis in the rat model of adenine-induced CKD. CKD rats gained significantly less weight during the experimental period when compared to control rats and BA treatment did not significantly increase the weight gain in CKD rats. CKD rats showed elevated levels of serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine and uric acid along with increased levels of kidney injury markers such as cystatin C and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). Further, in comparison to control rats, kidney samples from CKD rats revealed increased profibrotic protein levels like transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), fibronectin, collagen type I and hydroxyproline indicating a progressive fibrotic response. These data are further fortified by histological findings where kidney damage and fibrosis are clearly evident as dilatation of tubules, glomerular degeneration and vacuolation along with deposition of collagen fibers. However, the above-mentioned findings in CKD rats were significantly reversed by BA-treatment revealing its nephroprotective potential and anti-fibrotic activity. The biochemical mechanism of the nephroprotective and anti-fibrotic effect of BA in the adenine-induced CKD rats might be mediated by inhibition of pro-fibrotic protein production thereby hindering the kidney tissue damage along with improvement in kidney function. Thus, BA could be

  16. CSF-1R inhibition attenuates renal and neuropsychiatric disease in murine lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Samantha A; Wen, Jing; Shum, Justine; Doerner, Jessica; Herlitz, Leal; Putterman, Chaim

    2016-08-26

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease that can affect multiple end organs. Kidney and brain are two of the organs most commonly involved in SLE. Past studies have suggested the importance of macrophages in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis (LN). Furthermore, as the immune effectors of the brain, microglia have been implicated in pathways leading to neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE). We depleted macrophages and microglia using GW2580, a small colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) kinase inhibitor, in MRL-lpr/lpr (MRL/lpr) mice, a classic murine lupus model that displays features of both LN and NPSLE. Treatment was initiated before the onset of disease, and mice were followed for the development of LN and neurobehavioral dysfunction throughout the study. Treatment with GW2580 significantly ameliorated kidney disease, as evidenced by decreased proteinuria, BUN, and improved renal histopathology, despite equivalent levels of IgG and C3 deposition in the kidneys of treated and control mice. We were able to confirm macrophage depletion within the kidney via IBA-1 staining. Furthermore, we observed specific improvement in the depression-like behavioral deficit of MRL/lpr mice with GW2580 treatment. Circulating antibody and autoantibody levels were, however, not affected. These results provide additional support for the role of macrophages as a potentially valuable therapeutic target in SLE. Inhibiting CSF-1 receptor signaling would be more targeted than current immunosuppressive therapies, and may hold promise for the treatment of renal and neuropsychiatric end organ disease manifestations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Leishmanial lipid suppresses the bacterial endotoxin-induced inflammatory response with attenuation of tissue injury in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Nabanita; Das, Subhadip; Bose, Dipayan; Banerjee, Somenath; Jha, Tarun; Saha, Krishna Das

    2014-08-01

    The use of live, attenuated, or genetically modified microbes or their cellular component(s) or metabolites has begun to emerge as a potential new approach in medicinal research to deliver biologically active entities. Thus, advancing our knowledge of such microbe-mediated therapy may suggest new avenues for therapeutic intervention in many diseases. We had earlier reported that the total lipid of attenuated Leishmania donovani suppressed the inflammatory responses in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Our present study reveals that the pLLD, isolated from pathogenic L. donovani, decreases the inflammatory level of bacterial endotoxin in stimulated mouse macrophages, as also in the in vivo murine system. It exerts the activity by reducing the level of different mediators, such as cytokine-chemokine(s). It also suppresses the expression of the ubiquitous transcription factor NF-κBp65 in stimulated macrophage cells, improves the endotoxin-associated liver damage, reduces the vascular permeability factors, such as VEGF, and suppresses the expression of cell adhesion molecules, including ICAM-1, VCAM-1, PECAM-1, P-selectin, and E-selectin, in liver of septic mice. These findings indicate that pLLD may prove to be a potential anti-inflammatory agent and protect from endotoxin-induced sepsis in hepatic impairment. © 2014 Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  18. Aloin protects against chronic alcoholic liver injury via attenuating lipid accumulation, oxidative stress and inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yan; Ye, Qing; Wang, Heya; Li, Yingchao; Xia, Xiuhua; Yao, Weirong; Qian, He

    2014-12-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of aloin against alcoholic liver disease in a chronic alcohol feeding mouse model. Mice were given alcohol twice a day by intragastric administration for 11 weeks (4.0, 4.7, 5.5 g/kg bw/day for the first 3 weeks respectively, 6.3 g/kg bw/day for the following 8 weeks). Aloin (10, 30 mg/kg bw) or vehicle was given by gavage to mice after each alcohol administration. Alcohol elevated the serum transaminases alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels which were significantly attenuated by the co-administration of aloin (p aloin significantly suppressed the alcohol-dependent induction of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c expression (p aloin supplementation significantly inhibited the alcohol-dependent elevation of malondialdehyde and cytochrome P4502E1 expression (p aloin (p aloin may represent a novel, protective strategy against chronic alcoholic liver injury by attenuating lipid accumulation, oxidative stress and LPS-induced inflammatory response.

  19. Interference with Tim-3 protein expression attenuates the invasion of clear cell renal cell carcinoma and aggravates anoikis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Muming; Lu, Bin; Liu, Yancun; Me, Ying; Wang, Lijun; Li, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Tumor cells resistant to anoikis are considered to be candidates for metastasis. In the present study, the role of Tim-3 in anoikis and its influence on the invasion of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) was investigated. Here, polyhydroxylethylmethacrylate (poly-HEMA) was applied to two ccRCC cell lines, 786-O and Caki-2, to induce detachment from the extracellular matrix (ECM). Tim-3 mRNA and protein expression levels were assayed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot, respectively. Anoikis was measured by Ho33342/PI double staining, acridine orange staining, and further determined using the CytoSelect™ 24-well Anoikis Assay kit. Apoptosis was measured using flow cytometry, E-cadherin and N-cadherin protein expression were determined using western blotting and a Chemicon cell invasion assay kit was used to quantify the invasive capacity of 786-O and Caki-2 cells. It was demonstrated that detachment from the ECM decreases transcription and the protein expression level of Tim-3 in 786-O and Caki-2 cells compared with control cells. Interference with Tim-3 expression using small interfering RNA exacerbated anoikis in 786-O and Caki-2 cells induced by poly-HEMA treatment. E-cadherin upregulation, N-cadherin downregulation, and ECM detachment-induced reduction in invasion ability were all exacerbated by knockdown of Tim-3. In conclusion, interference with Tim-3 expression may attenuate the invasion of renal cell carcinoma by aggravating anoikis, indicating Tim-3 as a potential therapeutic target for treating ccRCC. PMID:28112366

  20. Sphinganine-1-phosphate attenuates both hepatic and renal injury induced by hepatic ischemia and reperfusion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Won; Kim, Mihwa; Chen, Sean W C; D'Agati, Vivette D; Lee, H Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a major complication after liver transplantation, major hepatic resection, or prolonged portal vein occlusion. Furthermore, acute kidney injury is frequent after hepatic I/R and greatly increases postoperative complications. Sphinganine-1-phosphate is a sphingolipid with uncharacterized physiological effects. We serendipitously determined that plasma levels of sphinganine-1-phosphate fell significantly after liver I/R in mice. In this study, we hypothesized that repletion of plasma sphinganine-1-phosphate would protect against liver and kidney injuries after liver I/R. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 60 min of partial hepatic I/R and treated with either vehicle or with sphinganine-1-phosphate (given immediately before and 2 h after reperfusion). Vehicle-treated mice subjected to liver I/R developed acute liver and kidney injuries with elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase and creatinine 5 and 24 h after liver I/R. However, liver and kidney injuries were significantly attenuated with sphinganine-1-phosphate treatment. Sphinganine-1-phosphate markedly inhibited liver and kidney necrosis and apoptosis 24 h after liver I/R. Moreover, sphinganine-1-phosphate attenuated neutrophil infiltration, reduced plasma IL-6 and TNF-alpha upregulation, and preserved liver and kidney vascular integrity while reducing liver and kidney F-actin degradation after liver I/R. Finally, sphinganine-1-phosphate-mediated hepatic and renal protection was blocked by VPC23019, an antagonist for sphingosine-1-phosphate type 1 receptor. Therefore, sphinganine-1-phosphate improves acute liver and kidney injuries after hepatic I/R via sphingosine-1-phosphate type 1 receptor-mediated inhibition of necrosis and apoptosis and by improving vascular integrity. Harnessing the mechanisms of cytoprotection with sphinganine-1-phosphate activation may lead to new therapies for perioperative hepatic I/R injury and subsequent remote organ injury.

  1. The Effect of Exercise Training on Quality and Quantity of Sleep and Lipid Profile in Renal Transplant Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Pooranfar, S; Shakoor, E; Shafahi, MJ; Salesi, M; Karimi, MH; Roozbeh, J; Hasheminasab, M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients undergoing renal transplantation consume immunosuppressive drugs to prevent graft rejection. Cardiovascular complications and reduced quality of sleep are among the side effects of these drugs. Studies have indicated that the use of non-therapeutic methods such as exercise is important to reduce these complications. Objective: To evaluate the effect of a period of exercise training, as a non-therapeutic method, on quality and quantity of sleep and lipid profile in renal t...

  2. JTT-130, a novel intestine-specific inhibitor of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, ameliorates lipid metabolism and attenuates atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuko Mera

    2015-11-01

    From these results, JTT-130 ameliorates lipid metabolism accompanied with the enhancement of the anti-atherosclerotic function of HDL, and attenuates the progression of atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic animals. These findings indicate that intestinal MTP inhibition may be atherogenic in vivo and that JTT-130 may be a useful compound for the treatment of dyslipidemia and a potential anti-atherogenic drug.

  3. Exogenous L-Arginine Attenuates the Effects of Angiotensin II on Renal Hemodynamics and the Pressure Natriuresis-Diuresis Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Satarupa; Mattson, David L.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Administration of exogenous L-Arginine (L-Arg) attenuates Angiotensin II (AngII)-mediated hypertension and kidney disease in rats. The present study assessed renal hemodynamics and pressure-diuresis-natriuresis in anesthetized rats infused with vehicle, AngII (20 ng/kg/min, iv) or AngII + L-Arg (300 µg/kg/min, iv). Increasing renal perfusion pressure (RPP) from approximately 100 to 140 mmHg resulted in a 9–10 fold increase in urine flow and sodium excretion rate in control animals. In comparison, AngII infusion significantly reduced renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by 40–42% and blunted the pressure-dependent increase in urine flow and sodium excretion rate by 54–58% at elevated RPP. Supplementation of L-Arg reversed the vasoconstrictor effects of AngII and restored pressure-dependent diuresis to levels not significantly different from control rats. Experiments in isolated aortic rings were performed to assess L-Arg effects on the vasculature. Dose-dependent contraction to AngII (10−10M to 10−7M) was observed with a maximal force equal to 27±3% of the response to 10−5M phenylephrine. Contraction to 10−7M AngII was blunted by 75±3% with 10−4M L-Arg. The influence of L-Arg to blunt AngII mediated contraction was eliminated by endothelial denudation or incubation with nitric oxide synthase inhibitors. Moreover, the addition of 10−3M cationic or neutral amino acids, which compete with L-Arg for cellular uptake, blocked the effect of L-Arg. Anionic amino acids did not influence the effects of L-Arg on AngII-mediated contraction. These studies indicate that L-Arg blunts AngII-mediated vascular contraction by an endothelial- and NOS-dependent mechanism involving cellular uptake of L-Arg. PMID:24472006

  4. Exercise-induced attenuation of obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and skeletal muscle lipid peroxidation in the OLETF rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R Tyler; Laye, Matthew J; Lees, Simon J; Rector, R Scott; Thyfault, John P; Booth, Frank W

    2008-03-01

    The Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rat is a model of hyperphagic obesity in which the animals retain the desire to run voluntarily. Running wheels were provided for 4-wk-old OLETF rats for 16 wk before they were killed 5 h (WL5), 53 h (WL53), or 173 h (WL173) after the wheels were locked. Sedentary (SED) OLETF rats that were not given access to running wheels served as age-matched cohorts. Epididymal fat pad mass, adipocyte volume, and adipocyte number were 58%, 39%, and 47% less, respectively, in WL5 than SED rats. Contrary to cessation of daily running in Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats, epididymal fat did not increase during the first 173 h of running cessation in the OLETF runners. Serum insulin and glucose levels were 77% and 29% less, respectively, in WL5 than SED rats. Oil red O staining for intramyocellular lipid accumulation was not statistically different among groups. However, lipid peroxidation levels, as determined by total trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) and 4-HNE normalized to oil red O, was higher in epitrochlearis muscles of SED than WL5, WL53, and WL173 rats. mRNA levels of glutathione S-transferase-alpha type 4, an enzyme involved in cellular defense against electrophilic compounds such as 4-HNE, were higher in epitrochlearis muscle of WL53 than WL173 and SED rats. In contrast, 4-HNE levels in omental fat were unaltered. Epitrochlearis muscle palmitate oxidation and relative transcript levels for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator type 1 were surprisingly not different between runners and SED rats. In summary, voluntary running was associated with lower levels of lipid peroxidation in skeletal muscle without significant changes in intramyocellular lipids or mitochondrial markers in OLETF rats at 20 wk of age. Therefore, even in a genetic animal model of extreme overeating, daily physical activity promotes improved health of skeletal muscle.

  5. Do insulin resistance conditions further impair the lipid and inflammatory profile in end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciagiú, Leonardo; González, Ana I; Elbert, Alicia; De'Marziani, Guillermo; Machida, Tetsuo; Murakami, Masami; López, Graciela I; Wikinski, Regina; Nakajima, Katsuyuki; Schreier, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and chronic renal disease constitute important risk factors of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, associated with lipid abnormalities, and proinflammatory states. Advances in renal replacement therapy such as hemodialysis (HD) have not reduced morbi-mortality. It has not been elucidated if the concomitant presence of T2DM or metabolic syndrome with end-stage renal disease further impairs the atherogenic profiles. We studied 122 HD patients, among which 44 presented with T2DM (HD-T2DM) and 30 with metabolic syndrome (HD-MS); 48 had neither T2DM nor metabolic syndrome (HD-C). Lipoprotein profile, including atherogenic remnant lipoproteins (RLP), and inflammation markers--high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), adiponectin, and interleukin-6 (IL-6)--were measured. In all HD patients, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and RLP showed no differences between HD groups, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was decreased, particularly in HD-T2DM and HD-MS, with respect to HD-C (Pprofile further altered in HD patients in the presence of insulin resistance conditions.

  6. Paternal High Fat Diet in Rats Leads to Renal Accumulation of Lipid and Tubular Changes in Adult Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiha S. Chowdhury

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Along with diabetes and obesity, chronic kidney disease (CKD is increasing across the globe. Although some data support an effect of maternal obesity on offspring kidney, the impact of paternal obesity is unknown; thus, we have studied the effect of paternal obesity prior to conception. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed chow diet or high fat diet (HFD for 13–14 weeks before mating with chow-fed females. Male offspring were weaned onto chow and killed at 27 weeks for renal gene expression and histology. Fathers on HFD were 30% heavier than Controls at mating. At 27 weeks of age offspring of obese fathers weighed 10% less; kidney triglyceride content was significantly increased (5.35 ± 0.84 vs. 2.99 ± 0.47 μg/mg, p < 0.05, n = 8 litters per group. Histological analysis of the kidney demonstrated signs of tubule damage, with significantly greater loss of brush border, and increased cell sloughing in offspring of obese compared to Control fathers. Acat1, involved in entry of fatty acid for beta-oxidation, was significantly upregulated, possibly to counteract increased triglyceride storage. However other genes involved in lipid metabolism, inflammation and kidney injury showed no changes. Paternal obesity was associated with renal triglyceride accumulation and histological changes in tubules, suggesting a mild renal insult in offspring, who may be at risk of developing CKD.

  7. Polyphenols of Hibiscus sabdariffa improved diabetic nephropathy via attenuating renal epithelial mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Sun; Wang, Chau-Jong; Huang, Chien-Ning; Chen, Mu-Lin; Chen, Ming-Jinn; Peng, Chiung-Huei

    2013-08-07

    We previously reported that Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenol extracts (HPE) are beneficial for diabetic nephropathy. Since an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is critical in renal fibrosis, the present study aimed to investigate whether HPE could prevent EMT of tubular cells. Treatment of HPE reduced angiotensin II receptors (AT)-1 and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) evoked by high glucose and recovered the increased vimentin and decreased E-cadherin. HPE decreased fibronectin, thus avoiding EMT and accompanying fibrosis. AT-1 was upstream to TGF-β1, while there were recruitment signals between AT-1 and TGF-β1. Scan electron microscopy (SEM) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed that the interacting filaments of tubular cells disappeared when treated with high glucose, and type IV collagen of tubulointerstitial decreased in diabetic kidneys. Treatment of HPE recovered morphological changes of cell junction and basement membrane. We suggest that HPE has the potential to be an adjuvant for diabetic nephropathy by regulating AT-1/TGF-β1 and EMT.

  8. Chronic administration of the soluble, nonbacterial fraction of kefir attenuates lipid deposition in LDLr(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santanna, Adriélly F; Filete, Placielle F; Lima, Ewelyne M; Porto, Marcella L; Meyrelles, Silvana S; Vasquez, Elisardo C; Endringer, Denise C; Lenz, Dominik; Abdalla, Dulcineia S P; Pereira, Thiago M C; Andrade, Tadeu U

    2017-03-01

    Kefir is obtained by the action of acidic bacteria and yeasts that exist in symbiotic association in kefir grains. Recently, this fermented milk drink has been recommended for the treatment of several clinical conditions, such as inflammatory, gastrointestinal, or cardiovascular-related diseases, or a combination of these diseases. However, its effects on atherosclerosis are not yet clear. The aim of this study was to prove that chronic treatment with a soluble, nonbacterial fraction of kefir could reduce the progression of atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLr(-/-)) mice. LDLr(-/-) mice were divided into four groups as follows: RESULTS: The soluble, nonbacterial fraction of kefir reduced lipid deposition (P kefir was capable of diminishing the circulating proinflammatory intereukin (IL)-6 level and the ratio of tumor necrosis factor-α to IL-10 (50% and 42%, P kefir was able to decrease the lipid deposition in LDLr(-/-) hypercholesteremic mice, at least in part through modifying the circulating cytokine profile. The beneficial effects of kefir provide new perspectives for its use as an adjuvant in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The exenatide analogue AC3174 attenuates hypertension, insulin resistance, and renal dysfunction in Dahl salt-sensitive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Rayne

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 receptors improves insulin sensitivity and induces vasodilatation and diuresis. AC3174 is a peptide analogue with pharmacologic properties similar to the GLP-1 receptor agonist, exenatide. Hypothetically, chronic AC3174 treatment could attenuate salt-induced hypertension, cardiac morbidity, insulin resistance, and renal dysfunction in Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS rats. Methods DSS rats were fed low salt (LS, 0.3% NaCl or high salt (HS, 8% NaCl diets. HS rats were treated with vehicle, AC3174 (1.7 pmol/kg/min, or GLP-1 (25 pmol/kg/min for 4 weeks via subcutaneous infusion. Other HS rats received captopril (150 mg/kg/day or AC3174 plus captopril. Results HS rat survival was improved by all treatments except GLP-1. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was lower in LS rats and in GLP-1, AC3174, captopril, or AC3174 plus captopril HS rats than in vehicle HS rats (p Conclusions Thus, AC3174 had antihypertensive, cardioprotective, insulin-sensitizing, and renoprotective effects in the DSS hypertensive rat model. Furthermore, AC3174 improved animal survival, an effect not observed with GLP-1.

  10. Comparison between swallowing and chewing of garlic on levels of serum lipids, cyclosporine, creatinine and lipid peroxidation in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbanihaghjo Amir

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Abstract Hyperlipidemia and increased degree of oxidative stress are among the important risk factors for Atherosclerosis in renal transplant recipients (RTR. The Medical treatment of hyperlipidemia in RTR because of drugs side effects has been problematic, therefore alternative methods such as using of Garlic as an effective material in cholesterol lowering and inhibition of LDL Oxidation has been noted. For evaluation of garlic effect on RTR, 50 renal transplant patients with stable renal function were selected and divided into 2 groups. They took one clove of garlic (1 gr by chewing or swallowing for two months, after one month wash-out period, they took garlic by the other route. Results indicated that although lipid profile, BUN, Cr, serum levels of cyclosporine and diastolic blood pressure did not change, Systolic blood pressure decreased from138.2 to 132.8 mmHg (p=0.001 and Malondialdehyde (MDA decreased from 2.4 to1.7 nmol/ml (p=0.009 by swallowing route, Cholesterol decreased from 205.1 to 195.3 mg/dl (p=0.03, triglyceride decreased from 195.7 to 174.8 mg/dl (p=0.008, MDA decreased from 2.5 to 1.6 nmol/ml (p=0.001, systolic blood pressure decreased from 137.5 to 129.8 mmHg (p=0.001, diastolic blood pressure decreased from 84.6 to 77.6 mmHg (p=0.001 and Cr decreased from 1.51 to 1.44 mg/dl (p=0.03 by chewing route too. However HDL, LDL and cyclosporine serum levels had no significant differences by both of swallowing and chewing routes. We conclude that undamaged garlic (swallowed had no lowering effect on lipid level of serum. But Crushed garlic (chewed reduces cholesterol, triglyceride, MDA and blood pressure. Additionally creatinine reduced without notable decrease in cyclosporine serum levels may be due to cyclosporine nephrotoxicity ameliorating effect of garlic.

  11. Mouse organic solute transporter alpha deficiency enhances renal excretion of bile acids and attenuates cholestasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroka, Carol J; Mennone, Albert; Hagey, Lee R; Ballatori, Nazzareno; Boyer, James L

    2010-01-01

    Organic solute transporter alpha-beta (Ostalpha-Ostbeta) is a heteromeric bile acid and sterol transporter that facilitates the enterohepatic and renal-hepatic circulation of bile acids. Hepatic expression of this basolateral membrane protein is increased in cholestasis, presumably to facilitate removal of toxic bile acids from the liver. In this study, we show that the cholestatic phenotype induced by common bile duct ligation (BDL) is reduced in mice genetically deficient in Ostalpha. Although Ostalpha(-/-) mice have a smaller bile acid pool size, which could explain lower serum and hepatic levels of bile acids after BDL, gallbladder bilirubin and urinary bile acid concentrations were significantly greater in Ostalpha(-/-) BDL mice, suggesting additional alternative adaptive responses. Livers of Ostalpha(-/-) mice had higher messenger RNA levels of constitutive androstane receptor (Car) than wild-type BDL mice and increased expression of Phase I enzymes (Cyp7a1, Cyp2b10, Cyp3a11), Phase II enzymes (Sult2a1, Ugt1a1), and Phase III transporters (Mrp2, Mrp3). Following BDL, the bile acid pool size increased in Ostalpha(-/-) mice and protein levels for the hepatic basolateral membrane export transporters, multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 (Mrp3) and Mrp4, and for the apical bilirubin transporter, Mrp2, were all increased. In the kidney of Ostalpha(-/-) mice after BDL, the apical bile acid uptake transporter Asbt is further reduced, whereas the apical export transporters Mrp2 and Mrp4 are increased, resulting in a significant increase in urinary bile acid excretion. These findings indicate that loss of Ostalpha provides protection from liver injury in obstructive cholestasis through adaptive responses in both the kidney and liver that enhance clearance of bile acids into urine and through detoxification pathways most likely mediated by the nuclear receptor Car.

  12. Mouse organic solute transporter α deficiency enhances renal excretion of bile acids and attenuates cholestasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroka, Carol J.; Mennone, Albert; Hagey, Lee R.; Ballatori, Nazzareno; Boyer, James L.

    2010-01-01

    Organic solute transporter alpha-beta (Ostα-Ostβ) is a heteromeric bile acid and sterol transporter that facilitates the entero- and renal-hepatic circulation of bile acids. Hepatic expression of this basolateral membrane protein is increased in cholestasis, presumably to facilitate removal of toxic bile acids from the liver. In this study we show that the cholestatic phenotype induced by common bile duct ligation (BDL) is reduced in mice genetically deficient in Ostα. Although Ostα−/− mice have a smaller bile acid pool size which could explain lower serum and hepatic levels of bile acids after BDL, gallbladder bilirubin and urinary bile acid concentrations were significantly greater in Ostα−/− BDL mice, suggesting additional alternative adaptive responses. Livers of Ostα−/− mice had higher mRNA levels of constitutive androstane receptor (Car) than wild-type BDL mice and increased expression of Phase I enzymes (Cyp7a1, Cyp2b10, Cyp3a11), Phase II enzymes (Sult2a1, Ugt1a1) and Phase III transporters (Mrp2, Mrp3). Following BDL, the bile acid pool size increased in Ostα−/− mice and protein levels for the hepatic basolateral membrane export transporters, Mrp3 and Mrp4, and for the apical bilirubin transporter, Mrp2, were all increased. In the kidney of Ostα−/− mice after BDL the apical bile acid uptake transporter, Asbt, is further reduced, while apical export transporters, Mrp2 and Mrp4, are increased, resulting in a significant increase in urinary bile acid excretion. Conclusions: These findings indicate that loss of Ostα provides protection from liver injury in obstructive cholestasis through adaptive responses in both the kidney and liver that enhance clearance of bile acids into urine and through detoxification pathways most likely mediated by the nuclear receptor, Car. PMID:19902485

  13. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor-α Agonist Slows the Progression of Hypertension, Attenuates Plasma Interleukin-6 Levels and Renal Inflammatory Markers in Angiotensin II Infused Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Justin L; Duan, Rong; El-Marakby, Ahmed; Alhashim, Abdulmohsin; Lee, Dexter L

    2012-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory properties of PPAR-α plays an important role in attenuating hypertension. The current study determines the anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory role of PPAR-α agonist during a slow-pressor dose of Ang II (400 ng/kg/min). Ten to twelve week old male PPAR-α KO mice and their WT controls were implanted with telemetry devices and infused with Ang II for 12 days. On day 12 of Ang II infusion, MAP was elevated in PPAR-α KO mice compared to WT (161 ± 4 mmHg versus 145 ± 4 mmHg) and fenofibrate (145 mg/kg/day) reduced MAP in WT + Ang II mice (134 ± 7 mmHg). Plasma IL-6 levels were higher in PPAR-α KO mice on day 12 of Ang II infusion (30 ± 4 versus 8 ± 2 pg/mL) and fenofibrate reduced plasma IL-6 in Ang II-treated WT mice (10 ± 3 pg/mL). Fenofibrate increased renal expression of CYP4A, restored renal CYP2J expression, reduced the elevation in renal ICAM-1, MCP-1 and COX-2 in WT + Ang II mice. Our results demonstrate that activation of PPAR-α attenuates Ang II-induced hypertension through up-regulation of CYP4A and CYP2J and an attenuation of inflammatory markers such as plasma IL-6, renal MCP-1, renal expression of ICAM-1 and COX-2.

  14. Action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome: diagnostic applications of activity-based probes and lipid analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaspar, Paulo; Kallemeijn, Wouter W.; Strijland, Anneke; Scheij, Saskia; van Eijk, Marco; Aten, Jan; Overkleeft, Herman S.; Balreira, Andrea; Zunke, Friederike; Schwake, Michael; Sá Miranda, Clara; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.

    2014-01-01

    Lysosomal integral membrane protein-2 (LIMP2) mediates trafficking of glucocerebrosidase (GBA) to lysosomes. Deficiency of LIMP2 causes action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome (AMRF). LIMP2-deficient fibroblasts virtually lack GBA like the cells of patients with Gaucher disease (GD), a lysosomal

  15. ' RENAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    METASTASE OSSEUSE: SOLITAIRE D'UN ADENOCARCINOME RENAL. Fig. 2: TDM ... du gène de résistance aux médicaments. NIDR1. ... vie. La néphrectomie trouve sa place dans quatre situations: En cas de métastase unique, dans un but de réduction tumorale avant immunothérapie, elle peut être adjuvante après.

  16. Honokiol activates the LKB1–AMPK signaling pathway and attenuates the lipid accumulation in hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Min Suk; Kim, Jung Hwan; Kim, Hye Jung; Chang, Ki Churl; Park, Sang Won, E-mail: parksw@gnu.ac.kr

    2015-04-15

    Honokiol is a bioactive neolignan compound isolated from the species of Magnolia. This study was designed to elucidate the cellular mechanism by which honokiol alleviates the development of non-alcoholic steatosis. HepG2 cells were treated with honokiol for 1 h, and then exposed to 1 mM free fatty acid (FFA) for 24 h to simulate non-alcoholic steatosis in vitro. C57BL/6 mice were fed with a high-fat diet for 28 days, and honokiol (10 mg/kg/day) was daily treated. Honokiol concentration-dependently attenuated intracellular fat overloading and triglyceride (TG) accumulation in FFA-exposed HepG2 cells. These effects were blocked by pretreatment with an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor. Honokiol significantly inhibited sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) maturation and the induction of lipogenic proteins, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) in FFA-exposed HepG2 cells, but these effects were blocked by pretreatment of an AMPK inhibitor. Honokiol induced AMPK phosphorylation and subsequent acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation, which were inhibited by genetic deletion of liver kinase B1 (LKB1). Honokiol stimulated LKB1 phosphorylation, and genetic deletion of LKB1 blocked the effect of honokiol on SREBP-1c maturation and the induction of SCD-1 and FAS proteins in FFA-exposed HepG2 cells. Honokiol attenuated the increases in hepatic TG and lipogenic protein levels and fat accumulation in the mice fed with high-fat diet, while significantly induced LKB1 and AMPK phosphorylation. Taken together, our findings suggest that honokiol has an anti-lipogenic effect in hepatocytes, and this effect may be mediated by the LKB1–AMPK signaling pathway, which induces ACC phosphorylation and inhibits SREBP-1c maturation in hepatocytes. - Highlights: • Honokiol attenuates lipid accumulation induced by free fatty acid in hepatocyte. • Honokiol inhibits the increase in lipogenic enzyme levels induced by free fatty

  17. Lipid disorders in patients with renal failure: Role in cardiovascular events and progression of chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Visconti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of lipid disorders in chronic kidney disease (CKD is usually characterized by high triglycerides and reduced high dense lipoprotein (HDL, associated with normal or slightly reduced low dense lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol. This dyslipidemia is associated with an increased risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Keys for the cardiovascular risk reduction in these patients are lowering the number and modifying the composition of the cholesterol-carrying atherogenic lipoprotein particles. Statins have an important role in primary prevention of cardiovascular events and mortality in non-hemodialyzed CKD patients. The benefits in terms of progression of renal failure are contradictory. Patient education regarding dietary regimen should be part of the CKD clinical management.

  18. Characterization of renal cell carcinoma, oncocytoma, and lipid-poor angiomyolipoma by unenhanced, nephrographic, and delayed phase contrast-enhanced computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigami, Kousei; Pakalniskis, Marius G; Leite, Leandro V; Lee, Daniel K; Holanda, Danniele G; Rajput, Maheen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the characterization of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and benign renal tumors by unenhanced, nephrographic, and delayed phase computed tomography (CT). The study group consisted of 129 renal tumors including 79 clear cell RCCs, 17 papillary RCCs, 6 chromophobe RCCs, 21 oncocytoma, and 6 lipid-poor angiomyolipomas (AMLs). CT studies were retrospectively reviewed. Our results suggested that it was possible to discriminate clear cell RCC from papillary RCC, chromophobe RCC, and lipid-poor AML. CT findings of oncocytoma overlapped with both clear cell and non-clear cell RCCs, although oncocytoma more commonly became homogeneous in the delayed phase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Vildagliptin restores renal myogenic function and attenuates renal sclerosis independently of effects on blood glucose or proteinuria in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vavrinec, Peter; Henning, Robert H.; Landheer, Sjoerd W.; Wang, Yumei; Deelman, Leo E.; van Dokkum, Richard P. E.; Buikema, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD), which is associated with a decrease in renal myogenic tone - part of renal autoregulatory mechanisms. Novel class of drugs used for the treatment of T2DM, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, have

  20. Dimethylfumarate attenuates renal fibrosis via NF-E2-related factor 2-mediated inhibition of transforming growth factor-β/Smad signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Joo Oh

    Full Text Available TGF-β plays a key role in the development of renal fibrosis. Suppressing the TGF-β signaling pathway is a possible therapeutic approach for preventing this disease, and reports have suggested that Nrf2 protects against renal fibrosis by inhibiting TGF-β signaling. This study examines whether dimethylfumarate (DMF, which stimulates Nrf2, prevents renal fibrosis via the Nrf2-mediated suppression of TGF-β signaling. Results showed that DMF increased nuclear levels of Nrf2, and both DMF and adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Nrf2 (Ad-Nrf2 decreased PAI-1, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, fibronectin and type 1 collagen expression in TGF-β-treated rat mesangial cells (RMCs and renal fibroblast cells (NRK-49F. Additionally, DMF and Ad-Nrf2 repressed TGF-β-stimulated Smad3 activity by inhibiting Smad3 phosphorylation, which was restored by siRNA-mediated knockdown of Nrf2 expression. However, downregulation of the antioxidant response element (ARE-driven Nrf2 target genes such as NQO1, HO-1 and glutathione S-transferase (GST did not reverse the inhibitory effect of DMF on TGF-β-induced upregulation of profibrotic genes or extracellular matrix proteins, suggesting an ARE-independent anti-fibrotic activity of DMF. Finally, DMF suppressed unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO-induced renal fibrosis and α-SMA, fibronectin and type 1 collagen expression in the obstructed kidneys from UUO mice, along with increased and decreased expression of Nrf2 and phospho-Smad3, respectively. In summary, DMF attenuated renal fibrosis via the Nrf2-mediated inhibition of TGF-β/Smad3 signaling in an ARE-independent manner, suggesting that DMF could be used to treat renal fibrosis.

  1. Iridoid glycosides fraction from Picrorhiza kurroa attenuates cyclophosphamide-induced renal toxicity and peripheral neuropathy via PPAR-γ mediated inhibition of inflammation and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Supriya; Sharma, Pallavi; Kulurkar, Pankaj; Singh, Damanpreet; Kumar, Dinesh; Patial, Vikram

    2017-12-01

    Picrorhiza kurroa Royle (Scrophulariaceae) is an important medicinal herb being widely used in variety of ailments. The present study was envisaged to evaluate the effects of iridoid glycosides enriched fraction (IGs) from Picrorhiza kurroa rhizome against cyclophosphamide (CP) -induced renal toxicity and peripheral neuropathy. Mice in different groups were pretreated with 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg; p.o. doses of IGs for 21 days, followed by cyclophosphamide intoxication for consecutive two days. Further, to identify the putative role of PPAR-γ receptors for the protective effect of IGs, an additional group of mice were pretreated with PPAR-γ antagonist BADGE (5 mg/kg; i.p.) followed by IGs (100 mg/kg; p.o.) for 21 days before CP intoxication. IGs pretreatment decreased the hyperalgesic responses toward acetone and heat in acetone drop and tail immersion tests. The abolition of intramyelin odema, cytoplasmic vacuolization and axonal degeneration of sciatic nerve were observed in IGs pretreated mice in a dose-dependent manner. IGs treatment also attenuated the altered serum biochemical markers for renal injury. Furthermore, the treatment prevented renal tubular swelling, granular degeneration and glomerular damage. The levels of IL-1β and TNFα in different group revealed the anti-inflammatory effect of IGs, which was further confirmed by improvement in altered expressions of NF-kB in kidney and sciatic serve. Bax/Bcl-2 expressions and caspase 3/9 activity in renal tissues showed the anti-apoptotic effect of IGs. IGs pretreatment also improved the PPAR-γ expression in the kidney tissues. All the observed protective effects of IGs were suppressed after pretreatment with BADGE. Present study concludes that IGs from Picrorhiza kurroa attenuates CP-induced renal toxicity and peripheral neuropathy via PPAR-γ -mediated pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. A novel chalcone derivative attenuates the diabetes-induced renal injury via inhibition of high glucose-mediated inflammatory response and macrophage infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Qilu [Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zhao, Leping [Department of Pharmacy, the Affiliated Yueqing Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Wang, Yi; Zhang, Yali [Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Li, Zhaoyu [Department of International High School, Shanghai Jiaotong University Nanyang Affiliated (Kunshan) School, Minhang District, Shanghai (China); Pan, Yong; Kanchana, Karvannan; Wang, Jingying; Tong, Chao [Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Li, Dan, E-mail: yqyyld@163.com [Department of Nephrology, the Affiliated Yueqing Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Liang, Guang, E-mail: wzmcliangguang@163.com [Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2015-01-15

    Inflammation plays a central role in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Researches on novel anti-inflammatory agents may offer new opportunities for the treatment of DN. We previously found a chalcone derivative L6H21 could inhibit LPS-induced cytokine release from macrophages. The aim of this study was to investigate whether L6H21 could ameliorate the high glucose-mediated inflammation in NRK-52E cells and attenuate the inflammation-mediated renal injury. According to the results, L6H21 showed a great inhibitory effect on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, chemokines, and macrophage adhesion via down-regulation of NF-κB/MAPKs activity in high glucose-stimulated renal NRK-52E cells. Further, in vivo oral administration with L6H21 at a dosage of 20 mg/kg/2 days showed a decreased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, which subsequently contributed to the inhibition on renal macrophage infiltration, the reduction of serum creatinine and BUN levels, and the improvement on the fibrosis and pathological changes in the renal tissues of diabetic mice. These findings provided that chalcone derived L6H21 may be a promising anti-inflammatory agent and have the potential in the therapy of diabetic nephropathy, and importantly, MAPK/NF-κB signaling system may be a novel therapeutic target for human DN in the future. - Highlights: • Inflammation plays a central role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. • Compound L6H21 reduced the high glucose-mediated inflammation in NRK-52E cells. • Compound L6H21 attenuated the inflammation-mediated renal injury. • L6H21 exhibited anti-inflammatory effects via inactivation of NF-κB/MAPKs. • MAPKs/NF-κB may be a novel therapeutic target in diabetic nephropathy treatment.

  3. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) for Rapid Determination of Microbial Cell Lipid Content: Correlation with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan-Oropeza, Aaron; Rebois, Rolando; David, Michelle; Moussa, Fathi; Dazzi, Alexandre; Bleton, Jean; Virolle, Marie-Joelle; Deniset-Besseau, Ariane

    2017-10-01

    There is a growing interest worldwide for the production of renewable oil without mobilizing agriculture lands; fast and reliable methods are needed to identify highly oleaginous microorganisms of potential industrial interest. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the relevance of attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy to achieve this goal. To do so, the total lipid content of lyophilized samples of five Streptomyces strains with varying lipid content was assessed with two classical quantitative but time-consuming methods, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ATR Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy in transmission mode with KBr pellets and the fast ATR method, often questioned for its lack of reliability. A linear correlation between these three methods was demonstrated allowing the establishment of equations to convert ATR values expressed as CO/amide I ratio, into micrograms of lipid per milligram of biomass. The ATR method proved to be as reliable and quantitative as the classical GC-MS and FT-IR in transmission mode methods but faster and more reproducible than the latter since it involves far less manipulation for sample preparation than the two others. Attenuated total reflection could be regarded as an efficient fast screening method to identify natural or genetically modified oleaginous microorganisms by the scientific community working in the field of bio-lipids.

  4. Conversion from cyclosporine to tacrolimus improves renal function and lipid profile after cardiac transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlicki, Mirosław; Czub, Paweł; Labuś, Krzysztof; Ehrlich, Marek P; Rdzanek, Hanna

    2006-01-01

    Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) have become the cornerstone of immunosuppressive regimens following heart transplantation, but their use is associated with nephrotoxicity. The impact on renal function after conversion from cyclosporine (CsA) to tacrolimus (TAC) is reported. Fifteen patients (men age 42 +/- 11 years) after cardiac transplantation (HTX) were switched from CsA to TAC (mean time after HTX 21 +/- 6 months). There were 13 male and 2 female patients. Mean cholesterol and LDL level at the time of conversion were 217 +/- 65 ml/dl and and 136 +/- 51 mg/100 ml respectively. Indication for HTX was ischemic cardiomyopathy (CMP) in 8, congenital in 3 and dilatative CMP in the remaining 4 patients. Mean tacrolimus level (microg/dl) at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months were 8.6 +/- 3.3, 8.6 +/- 1.4, 9.2 +/- 2.8 and 9.8 +/- 2.5 respectively. There was a statistically significant improvement in creatinine levels at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after conversion from baseline 1.9 +/- 0.7 mg/dl to 1.4 +/- 0.5 mg/dl, 1.4 +/- 0.4 mg/dl, 1.3 +/- 0.4 mg/dl and 1.2 +/- 0.4 mg/dl, respectively (p transplantation improves renal function.

  5. Low-ω3 Fatty Acid and Soy Protein Attenuate Alcohol-Induced Fatty Liver and Injury by Regulating the Opposing Lipid Oxidation and Lipogenic Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Reyes-Gordillo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic ethanol-induced downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α and upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-beta (PGC1β affect hepatic lipid oxidation and lipogenesis, respectively, leading to fatty liver injury. Low-ω3 fatty acid (Low-ω3FA that primarily regulates PGC1α and soy protein (SP that seems to have its major regulatory effect on PGC1β were evaluated for their protective effects against ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis in rats fed with Lieber-deCarli control or ethanol liquid diets with high or low ω3FA fish oil and soy protein. Low-ω3FA and SP opposed the actions of chronic ethanol by reducing serum and liver lipids with concomitant decreased fatty liver. They also prevented the downregulation of hepatic Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 and PGC1α and their target fatty acid oxidation pathway genes and attenuated the upregulation of hepatic PGC1β and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c and their target lipogenic pathway genes via the phosphorylation of 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK. Thus, these two novel modulators attenuate ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis and consequent liver injury potentially by regulating the two opposing lipid oxidation and lipogenic pathways.

  6. Fluorofenidone Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Renal Fibrosis in Obstructive Nephropathy via Blocking NOX2 (gp91phox Expression and Inhibiting ERK/MAPK Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Qin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: We evaluated the therapeutic effects of fluorofenidone (AKF-PD, a novel pyridone agent, targeting oxidative stress and fibrosis in obstructive nephropathy. Methods: AKF-PD was used to treat renal interstitial fibrosis in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO obstructive nephropathy in rats. The expression of NOX2 (gp91phox, fibronectin and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK were detected by western blot. A level of Malondialdehyde (MDA, an oxidative stress marker, was measured by ELISA. In addition, ROS and the expressions of NOX2, collagen I (a1, fibronectin and p-ERK were measured in angiotensin (Ang II-stimulated rat proximal tubular epithelial cells (NRK-52E in culture. Results: In NRK-52E cells, AKF-PD reduced AngII induced expressions of ROS, NOX2, fibronectin, collagen I (a1 and p-ERK. In UUO kidney cortex, AKF-PD attenuated the degree of renal interstitial fibrosis, which was associated with reduced the expressions of collagen I (a1 and fibronectin. Furthermore, AKF-PD downregulated the expressions of NOX2, MDA and p-ERK. Conclusion: AKF-PD treatment inhibits the progression of renal interstitial fibrosis by suppressing oxidative stress and ERK/MAPK signaling pathway.

  7. Renal ischemia and reperfusion injury: influence of chorpromazine on renal function and lipid peroxidation Lesão de isquemia e reperfusão renal: influência da clorpromazina na função renal e na peroxidação lipídica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Tucci Junior

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of chlorpromazine (CPZ on renal function and lipid peroxidation in a rat model of kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury. METHODS: Forty eight Wistar rats underwent a laparotomy for hilar clamping of left kidney with a bulldog clamp for 60 minutes followed by organ reperfusion and contralateral nephrectomy. Of these, 26 received 3mg/kg of CPZ intravenously 15 minutes before renal ischemia (G-E while the remaining 22 were used as ischemic control group (G-C. Eleven rats of G-E and 8 of G-C were followed for blood urea nitrogen and creatinine determinations before renal ischemia and at 1st, 4th and 7th postoperative days. Samplings of left renal tissue were obtained at 5 minutes (5 rats from each group and 24 hours (9 G-C and 10 of G-E of reperfusion for malondialdehy (MDA content determination. Controls of renal MDA content were determined in kidneys harvested from 6 additional normal rats. RESULTS: Acute renal failure occurred in all animals but levels of BUN and creatinine were significantly lower in G-E (p0.05 and returned near to normal levels 24 hours later. CONCLUSION: CPZ conferred partial protection of renal function to kidneys submitted to ischemia/reperfusion injury that seems to be not dependent on inhibition of lipid peroxidation.OBJETIVO: avaliar a influência da clorpromazina (CPZ na função renal e na peroxidação lipídica num modelo de lesão de isquemia/reperfusão renal em ratos. MÉTODOS: 48 ratos Wistar foram submetidos à laparotomia para clampamento da artéria renal esquerda durante 60 minutos, seguido da reperfusão e nefrectomia contralateral. Destes animais, 26 receberam 3 mg/kg de CPZ intravenosa 15 minutos antes da isquemia renal (G-E, sendo os 22 animais restantes utilizados como grupo controle isquêmico (G-C. Em 11 ratos do G-E e 8 do G-C foi feita a dosagem de uréia e creatinina sérica antes da isquemia renal e no 1º, 4º e 7º dia pós-operatório. Amostras de tecido do rim

  8. Lipid emulsion mitigates impaired pulmonary function induced by limb I/R in rats through attenuation of local cellular injury and the subsequent systemic inflammatory response/inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fangfang; Xia, Yun; Chen, Sisi; Chen, Lulu; Zhu, Weijuan; Chen, Yuanqing; Papadimos, Thomas J; Xu, Xuzhong; Liu, Le

    2017-06-19

    Limb ischemia/reperfusion causes inflammation and elicits oxidative stress that may lead to local tissue damage and remote organ such as lung injury. This study investigates pulmonary function after limb ischemia/reperfusion and the protective effect of a lipid emulsion (Intralipid). Twenty-four rats were divided into three groups: sham operation group (group S), ischemia/reperfusion group (group IR), and lipid emulsion treatment group (group LE). limb ischemia/reperfusion was induced through occlusion of the infrarenal abdominal aorta for 3 h. The microvascular clamp was removed carefully and reperfusion was provided for 3 h. The mean arterial pressure in group LE was higher than group IR during the reperfusion period (P = 0.024). The heart rate of both group LE and IR are significantly higher than group S during the ischemia period(P emulsion (Intralipid) effectively reversed the damage. In summary, Intralipid administration resulted in several beneficial effects as compared to group IR, such as the pulmonary gas exchange and inflammatory. The ischemic/reperfusion injury of limb muscles with resultant inflammatory damage to lung tissue can be mitigated by administration of a lipid emulsion (Intralipid, 20%, 5 ml/kg). The mechanisms attenuating such a physiological may be attributed to reduction of the degree of limb injury through a decrease in the release of local inflammatory mediators, a reduction of lipid peroxidation, and a blunting of the subsequent remote inflammatory response.

  9. Attenuation of partial unilateral ureteral obstruction – induced renal damage with hyperbaric oxygen therapy in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyup Burak Sancak

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of HBO therapy on biochemical parameters, renal morphology and renal scintigraphy in rats undergoing chronic unilateral partial ureteral obstruction (UPUO. Material and methods: Thirty-five rats were divided into five equal groups: Control group; Sham group; HBO group; UPUO group and UPUO/HBO group. The effects of HBO therapy were examined using biochemical parameters and histopathological changes. After calculating the score for each histopathological change, the total histopathological score was obtained by adding all the scores. In addition, dynamic renal scintigraphy findings were evaluated. Results: Serum parameters indicating inflammation, serum tumor necrosis factor- alpha, ischemia modified-albumin, IMA/albumin ratio and Pentraxin-3 levels, were observed to be high in the UPUO group and low in the UPUO/HBO treatment group. Similarly, in the treatment group, the reduction in malondialdehyde, total oxidant status and oxidative stress index levels and increase in total antioxidant capacity values were observed to be statistically significant compared to the UPUO group (p<0.001, p=0.007, p<0.001, p=0.001, respectively. The total score and apoptosis index significantly decreased after administration of HBO treatment. Dynamic 99mTc-MAG3 renal scintigraphy also showed convincing evidence regarding the protective nature of HBO against kidney injury. In the UPUO/HBO therapy group, the percentage contribution of each operated kidney increased significantly compared to the UPUO group (41.73% versus 32.72%. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that HBO therapy had a reno-protective effect by reducing inflammation and oxidative stress, and preserving renal function after renal tissue damage due to induction of UPUO.

  10. Resveratrol Attenuates Nicotine-mediated Oxidative Injury by Inducing Manganese Superoxide Dismutase in Renal Proximal Tubule Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Samuel; DIXIT, MEHUL; Arany, Istvan

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aim: Nicotine (NIC) exposure – via smoking and the increasingly popular E-cigarettes- increases oxidative stress and hence, renal risk in smokers. Resveratrol (RES) may help ameliorate this risk by mounting anti-oxidant responses in the kidney. Materials and Methods: Renal proximal tubule cells (NRK52E) were treated with vehicle or 20 μM RES prior to treatment with 200 μM NIC and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as cell viability was determined. RES-induced antio...

  11. Inhibition of αvβ5 Integrin Attenuates Vascular Permeability and Protects against Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurley, Amy; Alimperti, Stella; Campos-Bilderback, Silvia B; Sandoval, Ruben M; Calvino, Jenna E; Reynolds, Taylor L; Quigley, Catherine; Mugford, Joshua W; Polacheck, William J; Gomez, Ivan G; Dovey, Jennifer; Marsh, Graham; Huang, Angela; Qian, Fang; Weinreb, Paul H; Dolinski, Brian M; Moore, Shaun; Duffield, Jeremy S; Chen, Christopher S; Molitoris, Bruce A; Violette, Shelia M; Crackower, Michael A

    2017-06-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a leading cause of AKI. This common clinical complication lacks effective therapies and can lead to the development of CKD. The αvβ5 integrin may have an important role in acute injury, including septic shock and acute lung injury. To examine its function in AKI, we utilized a specific function-blocking antibody to inhibit αvβ5 in a rat model of renal IRI. Pretreatment with this anti-αvβ5 antibody significantly reduced serum creatinine levels, diminished renal damage detected by histopathologic evaluation, and decreased levels of injury biomarkers. Notably, therapeutic treatment with the αvβ5 antibody 8 hours after IRI also provided protection from injury. Global gene expression profiling of post-ischemic kidneys showed that αvβ5 inhibition affected established injury markers and induced pathway alterations previously shown to be protective. Intravital imaging of post-ischemic kidneys revealed reduced vascular leak with αvβ5 antibody treatment. Immunostaining for αvβ5 in the kidney detected evident expression in perivascular cells, with negligible expression in the endothelium. Studies in a three-dimensional microfluidics system identified a pericyte-dependent role for αvβ5 in modulating vascular leak. Additional studies showed αvβ5 functions in the adhesion and migration of kidney pericytes in vitro Initial studies monitoring renal blood flow after IRI did not find significant effects with αvβ5 inhibition; however, future studies should explore the contribution of vasomotor effects. These studies identify a role for αvβ5 in modulating injury-induced renal vascular leak, possibly through effects on pericyte adhesion and migration, and reveal αvβ5 inhibition as a promising therapeutic strategy for AKI. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  12. Ethanolic extract of Commiphora mukul gum resin attenuates streptozotocin-induced alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, B.; Karuna, R.; Sreenivasa Reddy, S.; Sudhakara, G.; Saralakumari, D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Commiphora mukul gum resin ethanolic extract (CMEEt) administration against altered activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism and changes in glycogen content (liver and muscle) and lipids (liver and heart) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced insulin deficient diabetic Wistar albino rats. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg body wt) to male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: Control (C), control-treated (C+CM), diabetic (D) and diabetic-treated group (D+CM). Diabetic-treated and control-treated rats were treated with C. mukul gum resin ethanolic extract (CMEEt) in 2 ml distilled water, orally (200 mg/kg body weight/day for 60 days). At the end of the experimental period, biochemical parameters related to carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were assayed. The significant enhancement in tissue lipids (heart and liver) total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and free fatty acids of diabetic rats were nearer to normalized in diabetic treated rats (D+CM). Alterations in the activities of enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and lipid metabolism (fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme and lipoprotein lipase) as observed in diabetic (D) rats were prevented with CMEEt administration. In conclusion, our findings indicate improvement of glucose and lipid metabolisms in STZ induced diabetic rats by treatment with Commiphora mukul and suggest that the plant can be used as an adjuvant for the prevention and/or management of insulin deficiency and disorder related to it. PMID:27004047

  13. DHEA-induced modulation of renal gluconeogenesis, insulin sensitivity and plasma lipid profile in the control- and dexamethasone-treated rabbits. Metabolic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiersztan, Anna; Nagalski, Andrzej; Nalepa, Paweł; Tempes, Aleksandra; Trojan, Nina; Usarek, Michał; Jagielski, Adam K

    2016-02-01

    In view of antidiabetic and antiglucocorticoid effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) both in vitro and in vivo studies were undertaken: (i) to elucidate the mechanism of action of both dexamethasone phosphate (dexP) and DHEA on glucose synthesis in primary cultured rabbit kidney-cortex tubules and (ii) to investigate the influence of DHEA on glucose synthesis, insulin sensitivity and plasma lipid profile in the control- and dexP-treated rabbits. Data show, that in cultured kidney-cortex tubules dexP significantly stimulated gluconeogenesis by increasing flux through fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase). DexP-induced effects were dependent only upon glucocorticoid receptor. DHEA decreased glucose synthesis via inhibition of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and suppressed the dexP-induced stimulation of renal gluconeogenesis. Studies with the use of inhibitors of DHEA metabolism in cultured renal tubules showed for the first time that DHEA directly affects renal gluconeogenesis. However, in view of analysis of glucocorticoids and DHEA metabolites levels in urine, it seems likely, that testosterone may also contribute to DHEA-evoked effects. In dexP-treated rabbits, plasma glucose level was not altered despite increased renal and hepatic FBPase and G6Pase activities, while a significant elevation of both plasma insulin and HOMA-IR was accompanied by a decline of ISI index. It thus appears that increased insulin levels were required to maintain normoglycaemia and to compensate the insulin resistance. DHEA alone affected neither plasma glucose nor lipid levels, while it increased insulin sensitivity and diminished both renal and hepatic G6Pase activities. Surprisingly, DHEA co-administrated with dexP did not alter insulin sensitivity, while it partially suppressed the dexP-induced elevation of renal G6Pase activity and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride contents. As (i) gluconeogenic pathway in rabbit is similar to that in human, and (ii) DHEA counteracts several

  14. The effect of exercise training on quality and quantity of sleep and lipid profile in renal transplant patients: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooranfar, S; Shakoor, E; Shafahi, Mj; Salesi, M; Karimi, Mh; Roozbeh, J; Hasheminasab, M

    2014-01-01

    Patients undergoing renal transplantation consume immunosuppressive drugs to prevent graft rejection. Cardiovascular complications and reduced quality of sleep are among the side effects of these drugs. Studies have indicated that the use of non-therapeutic methods such as exercise is important to reduce these complications. To evaluate the effect of a period of exercise training, as a non-therapeutic method, on quality and quantity of sleep and lipid profile in renal transplant patients. 44 renal transplant recipients were selected to participate in the study and randomized into exercise (n=29) and control (n=15) groups. The exercise group participated in a cumulative exercise program 3 days a week for 10 weeks in 60-90-minute exercise sessions. Control group subjects did not participate in any regular exercise activity during this period. Sleep quality of the subjects was evaluated using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire; the sleep quantity was assessed by recording the duration of convenient nocturnal sleep of the subjects. Physiological sleep-related variables (serum triglyceride [TG], and total, high-density lipoprotein [HDL], and low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol) were measured before and after 10 weeks of exercise training In exercise training group, sleep quality of the subjects was improved by 27%; the sleep quantity was increased by 30 minutes (pexercise training in the exercise group compared to the control group, however, no change was observed in serum HDL level in exercise group compared to the control. There was also a significant (p=0.05) difference in sleep quality and quantity between control and exercise groups. However, there was no correlation between changing quality and quantity of sleep with sleep-related physiological factors. 10 weeks of exercise activity improved the quality and quantity of sleep as well as a number of sleep-related physiological parameters in renal transplant recipients, and would be an

  15. Resveratrol Attenuates Nicotine-mediated Oxidative Injury by Inducing Manganese Superoxide Dismutase in Renal Proximal Tubule Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Samuel; Dixit, Mehul; Arany, Istvan

    2017-01-01

    Nicotine (NIC) exposure - via smoking and the increasingly popular E-cigarettes- increases oxidative stress and hence, renal risk in smokers. Resveratrol (RES) may help ameliorate this risk by mounting anti-oxidant responses in the kidney. Renal proximal tubule cells (NRK52E) were treated with vehicle or 20 μM RES prior to treatment with 200 μM NIC and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as cell viability was determined. RES-induced antioxidant responses were determined in reporter luciferase assays. Gene silencing was used to determine mechanism of RES action. RES protected NRK52E cells from NIC-induced oxidative injury. RES activated the promoter of the anti-oxidant manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene via activation of the forkhead box O (FoxO3a) transcription factor. Silencing of MnSOD abolished the protective effects of RES on NIC-associated oxidative injury. RES may provide protection to the kidney from the adverse effects of NIC in smokers. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  16. Combined therapy with melatonin and exendin-4 effectively attenuated the deterioration of renal function in rat cardiorenal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Hung; Chen, Chih-Hung; Wallace, Christopher Glenn; Chen, Yen-Ta; Yang, Chih-Chao; Sung, Pei-Hsun; Chiang, Hsin-Ju; Chen, Yi-Ling; Chua, Sarah; Yip, Hon-Kan; Cheng, Jiin-Tsuey

    2017-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that combined therapy with melatonin (Mel) and exendin-4 (Ex4) would be superior to either therapy alone for preventing the deterioration of renal function in cardiorenal syndrome (CRS). Male adult Sprague Dawley rats (n = 48) were randomly and equally divided into sham-control (SC), chronic kidney disease (CKD; induced by 5/6 nephrectomy), CRS (CKD + dilated cardiomyopathy, DCM; induced by doxorubicin 7 mg/kg i.p. every 5 days, 4 doses), CRS-Mel (20 mg/kg/day), CRS-Ex4 (10 µg/kg/day) and CRS-Mel-Ex4. They were euthanized by day 60 after CRS induction. By day 60, plasma creatinine level, urine protein/creatinine ratio and kidney injury histopathology score were highest in CRS, lowest in SC, and progressively decreased from CKD, CRS-Mel, CRS-Ex4 to CRS-Mel-Ex4 (all P<0.0001). The kidney protein expressions of inflammation (TNF-α/NF-κB/MMP-9/iNOS/RANTES), oxidative stress (NOX-1/NOX-2/NOX-4/oxidized protein), apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3/cleaved PARP/Bax), DNA-damaged marker (γ-H2AX) and fibrosis (p-mad3/TFG-β) showed identical patterns of creatinine level, whereas kidney protein expressions of GLP-1R showed a progressive increase from SC to CRS-Mel-Ex4 (all P<0.0001). Cellular expressions of inflammatory (CD14/CD68), DNA/kidney-damaged (γ-H2AX/KIM-1) and podocyte/renal tubule dysfunction signaling (β-catenin/Wnt1/Wnt4) biomarkers in kidney tissue exhibited an identical pattern of creatinine level (all P<0.0001). Podocyte components (podocin/dystroglycan/p-cadherin/synatopodin) were highest in SC, lowest in CRS, and significantly progressively increased from CKD to CRS-Mel-Ex4 (all P<0.0001). In conclusion, combined Mel-Ex4 therapy was superior to either one alone in preserving renal-function and kidney architectural integrity in the setting of CRS.

  17. Attenuation of Immune-Mediated Renal Injury by Telmisartan, an Angiotensin Receptor Blocker and a Selective PPAR-γ Activator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Hamano

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM nephritis is characterized by activation of the renin-angiotensin system. This study aimed to determine the question of whether a temporary angiotensin II blockade at the initial stage of anti-GBM nephritis is able to attenuate the disease as well as differences in renoprotection among angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs with distinct peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ-modulating activities. Methods: C57BL/6J mice were immunized with rabbit IgG, followed by intravenous injection of rabbit anti-mouse antibodies. Mice were then treated with telmisartan, losartan, and telmisartan + GW9662 (a PPAR-γ antagonist for 5 days, or hydralazine for 9 days. On days 8 and 13, mice were sacrificed to obtain tissues for histological analysis. Results: The temporary administration of telmisartan significantly suppressed glomerular damage compared to hydralazine. Losartan showed a similar effect but was less effective. Co-administration of GW9662 attenuated the renoprotective effect of telmisartan, almost to levels observed with losartan. In particular, it limited the decreased infiltration of inflammatory cells and preservation of capillaries in the glomeruli induced by telmisartan. Conclusion: Temporary angiotensin II blockade at the initial stage of anti-GBM disease dramatically inhibited its progression. In addition to a class effect of ARBs, telmisartan modified inflammation and endothelial damage in the kidney through its PPAR-γ-agonistic action.

  18. Caffeine attenuates lipid accumulation via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Hai Yan; Kim, Do Yeon; Chung, Sung Hyun

    2013-04-01

    The main purpose of this study is to examine the effect of caffeine on lipid accumulation in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Significant decreases in the accumulation of hepatic lipids, such as triglyceride (TG), and cholesterol were observed when HepG2 cells were treated with caffeine as indicated. Caffeine decreased the mRNA level of lipogenesis-associated genes (SREBP1c, SREBP2, FAS, SCD1, HMGR and LDLR). In contrast, mRNA level of CD36, which is responsible for lipid uptake and catabolism, was increased. Next, the effect of caffeine on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway was examined. Phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase were evidently increased when the cells were treated with caffeine as indicated for 24 h. These effects were all reversed in the presence of compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. In summary, these data indicate that caffeine effectively depleted TG and cholesterol levels by inhibition of lipogenesis and stimulation of lipolysis through modulating AMPK-SREBP signaling pathways.

  19. Renal angiomyolipoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, P; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1988-01-01

    features. However, a smaller number of smooth muscle cells also contained lipid, thus simulating an intermediate cell stage between adipose- and smooth muscle cells. The abnormal thickening of the subendothelial spaces contained collagen fibrils in a homogeneous matrix, fibroblast-like cells and non......-specific vesicular structures. These findings suggest a secondary vascular damage, i.e. the thickened vessels may not be a primary, integral part of renal angiomyolipoma. Evidence of a common precursor cell of renal angiomyolipoma was not disclosed. It is concluded that renal angiomyolipoma is a hamartoma composed...

  20. Alpha8 Integrin (Itga8 Signalling Attenuates Chronic Renal Interstitial Fibrosis by Reducing Fibroblast Activation, Not by Interfering with Regulation of Cell Turnover.

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    Ines Marek

    Full Text Available The α8 integrin (Itga8 chain contributes to the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis in renal glomerular cells. In unilateral ureteral obstruction Itga8 is de novo expressed in the tubulointerstitium and a deficiency of Itga8 results in more severe renal fibrosis after unilateral ureteral obstruction. We hypothesized that the increased tubulointerstitial damage after unilateral ureteral obstruction observed in mice deficient for Itga8 is associated with altered tubulointerstitial cell turnover and apoptotic mechanisms resulting from the lack of Itga8 in cells of the tubulointerstitium. Induction of unilateral ureteral obstruction was achieved by ligation of the right ureter in mice lacking Itga8. Unilateral ureteral obstruction increased proliferation and apoptosis rates of tubuloepithelial and interstitial cells, however, no differences were observed in the tubulointerstitium of mice lacking Itga8 and wild type controls regarding fibroblast or proliferating cell numbers as well as markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis after unilateral ureteral obstruction. In contrast, unilateral ureteral obstruction in mice lacking Itga8 led to more pronounced tubulointerstitial cell activation i.e. to the appearance of more phospho-SMAD2/3-positive cells and more α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells in the tubulointerstitium. Furthermore, a more severe macrophage and T-cell infiltration was observed in these animals compared to controls. Thus, Itga8 seems to attenuate tubulointerstitial fibrosis in unilateral ureteral obstruction not via regulation of cell turnover, but via regulation of TGF-β signalling, fibroblast activation and/or immune cell infiltration.

  1. Stevia-derived compounds attenuate the toxic effects of ectopic lipid accumulation in the liver of obese mice: a transcriptomic and metabolomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvoet, Paul; Rull, Anna; García-Heredia, Anabel; López-Sanromà, Sílvia; Geeraert, Benjamine; Joven, Jorge; Camps, Jordi

    2015-03-01

    There is a close interaction between Type 2 Diabetes, obesity and liver disease. We have studied the effects of the two most abundant Stevia-derived steviol glycosides, stevioside and rebaudioside A, and their aglycol derivative steviol on liver steatosis and the hepatic effects of lipotoxicity using a mouse model of obesity and insulin resistance. We treated ob/ob and LDLR-double deficient mice with stevioside (10 mg⋅kg(-1)⋅day-1 p.o., n = 8), rebaudioside A (12 mg⋅kg(-1)⋅day-1 p.o., n = 8), or steviol (5 mg⋅kg(-1)⋅day(-1) p.o., n = 8). We determined their effects on liver steatosis and on the metabolic effects of lipotoxicity by histological analysis, and by combined gene-expression and metabolomic analyses. All compounds attenuated hepatic steatosis. This could be explained by improved glucose metabolism, fat catabolism, bile acid metabolism, and lipid storage and transport. We identified PPARs as important regulators and observed differences in effects on insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress between Stevia-derived compounds. We conclude that Stevia-derived compounds reduce hepatic steatosis to a similar extent, despite differences in effects on glucose and lipid metabolism, and inflammation and oxidative stress. Thus our data show that liver toxicity can be reduced through several pathophysiological changes. Further identification of active metabolites and underlying mechanisms are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Alpha-lipoic acid attenuates adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells via AMPK-dependent autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Jong Ryeal; Noh, Hae Sook; Ha, Ji Hye; Roh, Gu Seob; Kim, Deok Ryong

    2014-04-01

    During the adipocyte differentiation, some intracellular organelles are degraded and instead lipid droplets are gradually accumulated in the cytoplasm for energy storage. Autophagy, a self-eating process, has been implicated in the removal of intracellular components in adipogenesis, but its mechanism is poorly understood. In this work we examined how α-lipoic acid modulates the autophagic process during the adipocyte differentiation. 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were differentiated in the medium containing insulin, dexamethasone, and 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine. Lipid contents in adipocytes were determined by Oil-Red O staining. Autophagy was evaluated by Western blotting, accumulation of acidic vacuoles in cells. We observed that formation of LC3-II, an indicative marker for autophagy, was greatly down-regulated at the beginning stage of differentiation, but it was gradually increased with respect to earlier differentiation time. In addition, ATG5-12 conjugates were similarly produced, and acidic autophagic vacuoles were greatly elevated at the earlier stages of differentiation. Furthermore, α-lipoic acid deteriorated the intracellular accumulation of lipid droplets by blocking the production of acidic autophagic vacuoles, LC3-II, and other autophagy-related proteins during the adipocyte differentiation and influenced expression of adipocyte-stimulating factors. It also specifically suppressed activation of AMPK, an essential modulator for autophagy, at the earlier step of adipocyte differentiation. These data suggest that α-lipoic acid significantly attenuates adipocyte differentiation via the direct modulation of intracellular degradation process and consequently decrease intracellular fat deposit of adipocytes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The pro-resolving lipid mediator maresin 1 (MaR1 attenuates inflammatory signaling pathways in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuran Chatterjee

    Full Text Available Inflammation and its resolution are central to vascular injury and repair. Maresins comprise a new family of bioactive lipid mediators synthesized from docosahexaenoic acid, an ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid. They have been found to exert anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving responses in macrophages, neutrophils and bronchial epithelial cells and impart beneficial actions in murine models of peritonitis and colitis. We investigated the impact of maresin-1 (MaR1 on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α induced inflammatory responses in human vascular endothelial (EC and smooth muscle cells (VSMC.Primary cultures of human saphenous vein EC and VSMC were employed. We tested the naturally occurring MaR1 as modulator of TNF-α effects, with examination of monocyte adhesion, oxidant stress, and intracellular inflammatory signaling pathways.MaR1 attenuated TNF-α induced monocyte adhesion and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation in both EC and VSMC, associated with down-regulated expression (cell surface of the adhesion molecule E-selectin (in EC and NADPH-oxidases (NOX4, NOX1, NOX2. MaR1 attenuated TNF-α induced release of pro-inflammatory mediators by EC and VSMC. MaR1 caused an attenuation of TNF-α induced NF-κB activation in both cell types associated with inhibition of I-κ Kinase (IKK phosphorylation, IκB-α degradation and nuclear translocation of the NF- κB p65 subunit. MaR1 also caused a time-dependent increase in intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP in both naive and TNF-α stimulated VSMC and EC.MaR1 has broad anti-inflammatory actions on EC and VSMC, which may be partly mediated through up-regulation of cAMP and down-regulation of the transcription factor NF-κB. The results suggest that the pro-resolving lipid mediator MaR1 exerts homeostatic actions on vascular cells that counteract pro-inflammatory signals. These findings may have direct relevance for acute and chronic states of vascular inflammation.

  4. Usefulness of liver test and controlled attenuation parameter in detection of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with chronic renal failure and coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolasevic, Ivana; Orlic, Lidija; Zaputovic, Luka; Racki, Sanjin; Cubranic, Zlatko; Anic, Kata; Devcic, Bosiljka; Stimac, Davor

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was recognized as an important factor in chronic kidney disease (CKD) pathogenesis. The concentrations of serum aminotransferases in both chronic dialysis and chronic renal failure (CRF) patients most commonly fall within the lower end of the range of normal values. The aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of four liver tests and four biological scores in detection of NAFLD in comparison with transient elastography (TE) findings in different groups of patients. The study was cross-sectional analysis collected data from a single tertiary care center. Of 202 patents there were 52 patients with CKD, 50 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) treated with haemodialysis (HD), 50 renal transplant recipients (RTRs) and 50 patients with proven coronary heart disease (CHD). Fifty sex- and age-matched individuals without NAFLD and with normal liver and kidney function tests served as controls. With the help of TE (FibroScan®, Echosense SA, Paris, France), liver stiffness was selected as the parameter to quantify liver fibrosis and Controlled Attenuation Parameter (CAP) was used to detect and quantify liver steatosis. According to the CAP findings 76.9 %CKD patients, 82 %HD patients, 74 %RTRs and 69.1 % CHD patients had CAP > 238 dB.m(-1) and thus by definition NAFLD. We have found that ALT, AST and GGT levels were positively correlated with CAP values while ALT and AST showed positive correlation with liver stiffness acquired with TE only in CHD patients. According to TE findings APRI (AUC 0.796) and FIB-4 (AUC 0.790) scores were correlated with the presence of fibrosis, while HIS score was correlated with the presence of steatosis (AUC 0.867) only in CHD patients. Liver tests and biological scores are not useful for NAFLD detection in CRF patients. TE with CAP provides the opportunity of noninvasive screening for NAFLD as well as liver fibrosis in patients with CRF.

  5. Serum uric acid is a GFR-independent long-term predictor of acute and chronic renal insufficiency: the Jerusalem Lipid Research Clinic cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kark, Jeremy D.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Kidney disease is commonly accompanied by hyperuricemia. However, the contribution of serum uric acid (SUA) to kidney injury is debated. Our objective was to assess the long-term prediction of renal failure by SUA. Methods. Visit 2 participants in the Jerusalem Lipid Research Clinic cohort with normal baseline kidney function were followed for 24–28 years. SUA levels were assessed for associations with acute renal failure (ARF) and chronic renal failure (CRF) as defined by hospital discharge records, and mortality, ascertained through linkage with the national population registry. Results. Among 2449 eligible participants (1470 men, 979 women aged 35–78 years in 1976–79), SUA was positively linked with male sex, serum creatinine and components of the metabolic syndrome but was lower in smokers and in diabetic subjects. The 22- to 25-year incidence of hospital-diagnosed kidney failure (145 first events, 67% CRF) and the 24- to 28-year mortality (587 events) were higher in subject with hyperuricemia (>6.5 mg/dL in men and >5.3 mg/dL in women, reflecting the upper quintiles), independent of baseline kidney function and covariates. Hyperuricemia conferred adjusted hazard ratios of 1.36 (P = 0.003), 2.14 (P < 0.001) and 2.87 (P = 0.003) for mortality, CRF and ARF, respectively. Conclusions. SUA predicts renal failure incidence and all-cause mortality independently of demographic and clinical covariates. These results lend support to the undertaking of clinical trials to examine the effect of uric acid-lowering strategies on kidney outcomes. PMID:21220750

  6. Quantitative computer-aided diagnostic algorithm for automated detection of peak lesion attenuation in differentiating clear cell from papillary and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, oncocytoma, and fat-poor angiomyolipoma on multiphasic multidetector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Heidi; Young, Jonathan R; Douek, Michael L; Brown, Matthew S; Sayre, James; Raman, Steven S

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the performance of a novel, quantitative computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) algorithm on four-phase multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to detect peak lesion attenuation to enable differentiation of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) from chromophobe RCC (chRCC), papillary RCC (pRCC), oncocytoma, and fat-poor angiomyolipoma (fp-AML). We queried our clinical databases to obtain a cohort of histologically proven renal masses with preoperative MDCT with four phases [unenhanced (U), corticomedullary (CM), nephrographic (NP), and excretory (E)]. A whole lesion 3D contour was obtained in all four phases. The CAD algorithm determined a region of interest (ROI) of peak lesion attenuation within the 3D lesion contour. For comparison, a manual ROI was separately placed in the most enhancing portion of the lesion by visual inspection for a reference standard, and in uninvolved renal cortex. Relative lesion attenuation for both CAD and manual methods was obtained by normalizing the CAD peak lesion attenuation ROI (and the reference standard manually placed ROI) to uninvolved renal cortex with the formula [(peak lesion attenuation ROI - cortex ROI)/cortex ROI] × 100%. ROC analysis and area under the curve (AUC) were used to assess diagnostic performance. Bland-Altman analysis was used to compare peak ROI between CAD and manual method. The study cohort comprised 200 patients with 200 unique renal masses: 106 (53%) ccRCC, 32 (16%) oncocytomas, 18 (9%) chRCCs, 34 (17%) pRCCs, and 10 (5%) fp-AMLs. In the CM phase, CAD-derived ROI enabled characterization of ccRCC from chRCC, pRCC, oncocytoma, and fp-AML with AUCs of 0.850 (95% CI 0.732-0.968), 0.959 (95% CI 0.930-0.989), 0.792 (95% CI 0.716-0.869), and 0.825 (95% CI 0.703-0.948), respectively. On Bland-Altman analysis, there was excellent agreement of CAD and manual methods with mean differences between 14 and 26 HU in each phase. A novel, quantitative CAD algorithm enabled robust peak HU lesion detection

  7. Concomitant inhibition of renin angiotensin system and Toll-like receptor 2 attenuates renal injury in unilateral ureteral obstructed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sarah; Jeong, Jin Young; Chang, Yoon Kyung; Choi, Dae Eun; Na, Ki Ryang; Lim, Beom Jin; Lee, Kang Wook

    2016-03-01

    There has been controversy about the role of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in renal injury following ureteric obstruction. Although inhibition of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) reduces TLR2 expression in mice, the exact relationship between TLR2 and RAS is not known. The aim of this study was to determine whether the RAS modulates TLR2. We used 8-week-old male wild type (WT) and TLR2-knockout (KO) mice on a C57Bl/6 background. Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) was induced by complete ligation of the left ureter. Angiotensin (Ang) II (1,000 ng/kg/min) and the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren (25 mg/kg/day) were administrated to mice using an osmotic minipump. Molecular and histologic evaluations were performed. Ang II infusion increased mRNA expression of TLR2 in WT mouse kidneys (p renin mRNA in TLR2-KO UUO kidneys was significantly higher than that in WT UUO kidneys (p < 0.05). There were no differences in tissue injury score or mRNA expression of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), osteopontin (OPN), or transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) between TLR2-KO UUO and WT UUO kidneys. However, aliskiren decreased the tissue injury score and mRNA expression of TLR2, MCP-1, OPN, and TGF-β in WT UUO kidneys (p < 0.05). Aliskiren-treated TLR2-KO UUO kidneys showed less kidney injury than aliskiren-treated WT UUO kidneys. TLR2 deletion induced activation of the RAS in UUO kidneys. Moreover, inhibition of both RAS and TLR2 had an additive ameliorative effect on UUO injury of the kidney.

  8. Dioscorea alata attenuates renal interstitial cellular fibrosis by regulating Smad- and epithelial-mesenchymal transition signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Fen Liu

    Full Text Available Renal interstitial fibrosis is characterized by increased extracellular matrix (ECM synthesis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in kidneys is driven by regulated expression of fibrogenic cytokines such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β. Yam, or Dioscorea alata (DA is an important herb in Chinese medicine widely used for the treatment of clinical diabetes mellitus. However, the fibrosis regulatory effect of DA is unclear. Thus, we examined TGF-β signaling mechanisms against EMT in rat fibroblast cells (NRK-49F. The characterization of DA water-extracts used various methods; after inducing cellular fibrosis in NRK-49F cells by treatment with β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB (10 mM, we used Western blotting to examine the protein expression in the TGF-β-related signal protein type I and type II TGF-β receptors, Smads2 and Smad3 (Smad2/3, pSmad2 and Smad3 (pSmad2/3, Smads4, Smads7, and EMT markers. These markers included E-cadherin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2. Bioactive TGF-β and fibronectin levels in the culture media were determined using ELISA. Expressions of fibronectin and Snail transcription factor, an EMT-regulatory transcription factor, were assessed by immunofluorescence staining. DA extract dose-dependently (50-200 µg/mL suppressed β-HB-induced expression of fibronectin in NRK-49F cells concomitantly with the inhibition of Smad2/3, pSmad2/3, and Smad4. By contrast, Smad7 expression was significantly increased. DA extract caused a decrease in α-SMA (α-smooth muscle actin and MMP-2 levels, and an increase in E-cadherin expression. We propose that DA extract might act as a novel fibrosis antagonist, which acts partly by down regulating the TGF-β/smad signaling pathway and modulating EMT expression.

  9. Intracellular lipid in papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC): T2 weighted (T2W) MRI and pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieda, Nicola; Van der Pol, Christian B.; Moosavi, Bardia; McInnes, Matthew D.F. [The Ottawa Hospital, The University of Ottawa, Department of Medical Imaging, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Mai, Kien T.; Flood, Trevor A. [The Ottawa Hospital, The University of Ottawa, Department of Anatomical Pathology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-07-15

    To evaluate if pRCCs demonstrate intracellular lipid (i-lipid) at chemical-shift (CS) MRI, and assess T2W-MRI and pathologic characteristics. Sixty-two patients with a pRCC diagnosis underwent MRI over 11 years (IRB-approved). Two radiologists independently assessed for presence of i-lipid on CS-MRI and homogeneity on T2W-MRI. Inter-observer agreement was assessed via an intraclass correlation and results were compared using the Chi-square test. Discordant cases were reviewed to establish consensus. T2W SI-ratios (SI.tumor/SI.kidney) and CS-SI index were compared using independent t-tests and Spearman correlation. Two pathologists re-evaluated the histopathology. Nine of the 62 pRCCs (14.5 %) demonstrated i-lipid; agreement was moderate (ICC = 0.63). Pathology review depicted clear cells in four tumours and foamy histiocytes in five tumours. 25.8-35.4 % (ICC = 0.65) of tumours were homogeneous on T2W-MRI. No pRCC with i-lipid was considered homogeneous (p = 0.01-0.04). Overall, T2W SI-ratio and CS-SI index were 0.89 (±0.29) and -3.63 % (-7.27 to 11.42). pRCC with i-lipid had significantly higher T2W SI-ratio (p = 0.003). There was a correlation between the CS-SI index and T2W SI-ratio, (r = 0.44, p < 0.001). Intracellular lipid is uncommonly detected in pRCCs due to clear cell changes and foamy histiocytes. These tumours are associated with heterogeneously-increased SI in T2W-MRI. (orig.)

  10. Osthole attenuates lipid accumulation, regulates the expression of inflammatory mediators, and increases antioxidants in FL83B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Chung; Liao, Po-Chen; Huang, Chun-Hsun; Hu, Sindy; Huang, Shih-Chun; Wu, Shu-Ju

    2017-07-01

    Osthole is found in Cnidium monnieri (L.) and has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. It also inhibits the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. This study aimed to evaluate the osthole suppressive nonalcoholic fatty liver disease effects in oleic acid (OA)-induced hepatic steatosis and if it can modulate inflammatory responses and oxidative stress. FL83B cells were pretreated with OA (250μΜ) for 24h, and then added different concentrations of osthole (3-100μM) for 24h. Subsequently, lipolysis and transcription factors of adipogenesis and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase proteins were measured. In addition, cells with OA-induced steatosis were H2O2-stimulated, and then incubated with osthole to evaluated if it could suppress its progression to steatohepatitis. Osthole significantly enhanced glycerol release and lipolysis protein expression. Osthole also promoted phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinases and increased the activity of triglyceride lipase and hormone- sensitive lipase. Osthole suppressed the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and decreased the malondialdehyde concentration in FL83B cells with OA-induced steatosis that were treated with H2O2. These results suggest that osthole might suppress nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by decreasing lipid accumulation, and through its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects via blocked NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Urtica dioica attenuates ovalbumin-induced inflammation and lipid peroxidation of lung tissues in rat asthma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemmouri, Hanene; Sekiou, Omar; Ammar, Sonda; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Messarah, Mahfoud; Boumendjel, Amel

    2017-12-01

    To find bioactive medicinal herbs exerting anti-asthmatic activity, we investigated the effect of an aqueous extract of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) leaves (UD), the closest extract to the Algerian traditional use. In this study, we investigated the in vivo anti-asthmatic and antioxidant activities of nettle extract. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Group I: negative control; group II: Ovalbumin sensitized/challenged rats (positive control); group III: received UD extract (1.5 g/kg/day) orally along the experimental protocol; group IV: received UD extract (1.5 g/kg/day) orally along the experimental protocol and sensitized/challenged with ovalbumin. After 25 days, blood and tissue samples were collected for haematological and histopathological analysis, respectively. The oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in the lungs, liver and erythrocytes. Then, correlations between markers of airway inflammation and markers of oxidative stress were explored. UD extract significantly (p effectively suppressed inflammatory cells recruitment in the asthmatic rat model. Besides, the lipid peroxidation generated by allergen administration was significantly (p effects of this extract against airway inflammation.

  12. Intake of a Western diet containing cod instead of pork alters fatty acid composition in tissue phospholipids and attenuates obesity and hepatic lipid accumulation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liisberg, Ulrike; Fauske, Kristin Røen; Kuda, Ondrej; Fjære, Even; Myrmel, Lene Secher; Norberg, Nina; Frøyland, Livar; Graff, Ingvild Eide; Liaset, Bjørn; Kristiansen, Karsten; Kopecky, Jan; Madsen, Lise

    2016-07-01

    The content of the marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is far lower in lean than in fatty seafood. Cod filets contain less than 2g fat per kg, whereof approximately 50% is EPA and DHA. However, a large fraction of these n-3 PUFAs is present in the phospholipid (PL) fraction and may have high bioavailability and capacity to change the endocannabinoid profile. Here we investigated whether exchanging meat from a lean terrestrial animal with cod in a background Western diet would alter the endocannabinoid tone in mice and thereby attenuate obesity development and hepatic lipid accumulation. Accordingly, we prepared iso-caloric diets with 15.1 energy (e) % protein, 39.1 e% fat and 45.8 e% carbohydrates using freeze-dried meat from cod filets or pork sirloins, and using a combination of soybean oil, corn oil, margarine, milk fat, and lard as the fat source. Compared with mice receiving diets containing pork, mice fed cod gained less adipose tissue mass and had a lower content of hepatic lipids. This was accompanied by a lower n-6 to n-3 ratio in liver PLs and in red blood cells (RBCs) in the mice. Furthermore, mice receiving the cod-containing diet had lower circulating levels of the two major endocannabinoids, N-arachidonoylethanolamine and 2-arachidonoylglycerol. Together, our data demonstrate that despite the relatively low content of n-3 PUFAs in cod fillets, the cod-containing diet could exert beneficial metabolic effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Recombinant human erythropoietin pretreatment attenuates acute renal tubular injury against ischemia-reperfusion by restoring transient receptor potential channel-6 expression and function in collecting ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sai'e; Jin, Yi; Li, Weiyan; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Tingting; Xia, Weiliang; Wang, Yingwei; Ma, Ke

    2014-10-01

    Acute renal tubular injury is a serious complication in the postoperative period, which is associated with high mortality and increased ICU stay. We aimed to demonstrate the protective effect of rhEPO against acute tubular injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion and to explore the mechanism of canonical transient receptor potential channel-6. Randomized laboratory animal study. Animal research laboratory. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: the sham group, the control group, and the rhEPO group. Experimental acute tubular injury was established in rats by bilateral renal arterial occlusion for 30 minutes followed by reperfusion. Blood samples were obtained for cystatin-C and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin measurements by enzyme-linked immunosorbance assays. Seventy-two hours after reperfusion, urine samples were collected for osmolality and fractional excretion of sodium (%) assays on a chemistry analyzer. Kidneys were harvested at 24, 48, and 72 hours after reperfusion. Transient receptor potential channel-6, aquaporin-2, and Na,K-ATPase expression in collecting ducts were studied by immunofluorescence and Western blot. Coimmunoprecipitations were also performed to identify the possible signalplex relation between transient receptor potential channel-6 and aquaporin-2 or Na,K-ATPase channels. RhEPO pretreatment significantly inhibited serum cystatin-C (2 hr: 453 ± 64 μg/L vs 337 ± 28 μg/L, p human erythropoietin greatly improved the ischemia-reperfusion-induced attenuation of transient receptor potential channel-6 expression (48 hr: 42% ± 2% vs 67% ± 2% and 72 hr: 55% ± 2% vs 66% ± 2%), as well as aquaporin-2 and Na,K-ATPase expression in collecting ducts. Transient receptor potential channel-6 functionally interacted with Na,K-ATPase but not aquaporin-2. Recombinant human erythropoietin pretreatment at the dose of 5,000 IU/kg potently prevented ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute tubular injury, which might be

  14. Renal arteriography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal angiogram; Angiography - kidney; Renal angiography; Renal artery stenosis - arteriography ... an artery by a blood clot Renal artery stenosis Renal cell cancer Angiomyolipomas (noncancerous tumors of the ...

  15. Insuficiências respiratória e renal desencadeadas por miopatia metabólica por acúmulo de lipídios: relato de caso Respiratory and renal dysfunctions due to lipid storage metabolic myopathy: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walther de Oliveira Campos Filho

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos o caso de um paciente de 26 anos que apresentou quadro clínico de rabdomiólise e mioglobinúria associadas a insuficiência renal e respiratória, três dias após o início de infecção de vias aéreas superiores. Os dados clínicos e laboratoriais, eletroneuromiografia e biópsia muscular conduziram ao diagnóstico de miopatia metabólica por deficiência enzimática relacionada ao metabolismo dos ácidos graxos. O paciente evoluiu favoravelmente com a instituição de suporte avançado de vida, incluindo assistência ventilatória e terapia dialítica, adequação dietética e reposição de L-carnitina. Discorremos sobre as diversas miopatias metabólicas, o diagnóstico, o diagnóstico diferencial e o tratamento.We report a case of a 26-years old male patient with rhabdomyolisis with myoglobinuria associated with acute renal and respiratory failure, that occurred three days after upper airway infection. In the clinical and laboratory investigation of the patient, including electromyography and muscular biopsy, the diagnostic lead to a metabolic myopathy due to an enzymatic deficiency related to a disorder of lipid metabolism. The patient improved successfully with institution of advanced life support, including ventilatory assistence, dialysis, dietary adjust and L-carnitine reposition.

  16. Curcuma oil attenuates accelerated atherosclerosis and macrophage foam-cell formation by modulating genes involved in plaque stability, lipid homeostasis and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vishal; Rana, Minakshi; Jain, Manish; Singh, Niharika; Naqvi, Arshi; Malasoni, Richa; Dwivedi, Anil Kumar; Dikshit, Madhu; Barthwal, Manoj Kumar

    2015-01-14

    In the present study, the anti-atherosclerotic effect and the underlying mechanism of curcuma oil (C. oil), a lipophilic fraction from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), was evaluated in a hamster model of accelerated atherosclerosis and in THP-1 macrophages. Male golden Syrian hamsters were subjected to partial carotid ligation (PCL) or FeCl3-induced arterial oxidative injury (Ox-injury) after 1 week of treatment with a high-cholesterol (HC) diet or HC diet plus C. oil (100 and 300 mg/kg, orally). Hamsters fed with the HC diet were analysed at 1, 3 and 5 weeks following carotid injury. The HC diet plus C. oil-fed group was analysed at 5 weeks. In hyperlipidaemic hamsters with PCL or Ox-injury, C. oil (300 mg/kg) reduced elevated plasma and aortic lipid levels, arterial macrophage accumulation, and stenosis when compared with those subjected to arterial injury alone. Similarly, elevated mRNA transcripts of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, cluster of differentiation 45 (CD45), TNF-α, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-1β and IL-6 were reduced in atherosclerotic arteries, while those of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and IL-10 were increased after the C. oil treatment (300 mg/kg). The treatment with C. oil prevented HC diet- and oxidised LDL (OxLDL)-induced lipid accumulation, decreased the mRNA expression of CD68 and CD36, and increased the mRNA expression of PPARα, LXRα, ABCA1 and ABCG1 in both hyperlipidaemic hamster-derived peritoneal and THP-1 macrophages. The administration of C. oil suppressed the mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IFN-γ and increased the expression of TGF-β in peritoneal macrophages. In THP-1 macrophages, C. oil supplementation prevented OxLDL-induced production of TNF-α and IL-1β and increased the levels of TGF-β. The present study shows that C. oil attenuates arterial injury-induced accelerated atherosclerosis, inflammation and macrophage foam-cell formation.

  17. Berberine Attenuates Development of the Hepatic Gluconeogenesis and Lipid Metabolism Disorder in Type 2 Diabetic Mice and in Palmitate-Incubated HepG2 Cells through Suppression of the HNF-4α miR122 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shengnan; Zhang, Ming; Yu, Yang; Lan, Xiaoxin; Yao, Fan; Yan, Xin; Chen, Li; Hatch, Grant M

    2016-01-01

    Berberine (BBR) has been shown to exhibit protective effects against diabetes and dyslipidemia. Previous studies have indicated that BBR modulates lipid metabolism and inhibits hepatic gluconeogensis by decreasing expression of Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-4α (HNF-4α). However, the mechanism involved in this process was unknown. In the current study, we examined the mechanism of how BBR attenuates hepatic gluconeogenesis and the lipid metabolism alterations observed in type 2 diabetic (T2D) mice and in palmitate (PA)-incubated HepG2 cells. Treatment with BBR for 4 weeks improve all biochemical parameters compared to T2D mice. Treatment of T2D mice for 4 weeks or treatment of PA-incubated HepG2 cells for 24 h with BBR decreased expression of HNF-4α and the microRNA miR122, the key gluconeogenesis enzymes Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and the key lipid metabolism proteins Sterol response element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), Fatty acid synthase-1 (FAS-1) and Acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCα) and increased Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1(CPT-1) compared to T2D mice or PA-incubated HepG2 cells. Expression of HNF-4α in HepG2 cells increased expression of gluconeogenic and lipid metabolism enzymes and BBR treatment or knock down of miR122 attenuated the effect of HNF-4α expression. In contrast, BBR treatment did not alter expression of gluconeogenic and lipid metabolism enzymes in HepG2 cells with knockdown of HNF-4α. In addition, miR122 mimic increased expression of gluconeogenic and lipid metabolism enzymes in HepG2 cells with knockdown of HNF-4α. These data indicate that miR122 is a critical regulator in the downstream pathway of HNF-4α in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism in HepG2 cells. The effect of BBR on hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism is mediated through HNF-4α and is regulated downstream of miR122. Our data provide new evidence to support HNF-4α and miR122

  18. The changes of lipid metabolism in advanced renal cell carcinoma patients treated with everolimus: a new pharmacodynamic marker?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pantano

    Full Text Available Everolimus is a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor approved for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC. We aimed to assess the association between the baseline values and treatmentrelated modifications of total serum cholesterol (C, triglycerides (T, body mass index (BMI, fasting blood glucose level (FBG and blood pressure (BP levels and the outcome of patients treated with everolimus for mRCC.177 patients were included in this retrospective analysis. Time to progression (TTP, clinical benefit (CB and overall survival (OS were evaluated.Basal BMI was significantly higher in patients who experienced a CB (p=0,0145. C,T and C+T raises were significantly associated with baseline BMI (p=0.0412, 0.0283 and 0.0001. Median TTP was significantly longer in patients with T raise compared to patients without T (10 vs 6, p=0.030, C (8 vs 5, p=0.042 and C+T raise (10.9 vs 5.0, p=0.003. At the multivariate analysis, only C+T increase was associated with improved TTP (p=0.005. T raise (21.0 vs 14.0, p=0.002 and C+T increase (21.0 vs 14.0, p=0.006 were correlated with improved OS but were not significant at multivariate analysis.C+T raise is an early predictor for everolimus efficacy for patients with mRCC.

  19. Effect of exogenous leptin on serum levels of lipids, glucose, renal and hepatic variables in both genders of obese and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichehr Hayatdavoudi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Leptin exerts various effects on appetite and body weight. Disruption of the obesitygene is precedent to fatness. Insulin or glucose elevates leptin, but streptozotocin reduces it. However, controversial data exist for the effects of leptin on diabetes and leptin level in each gender. Leptin can damage the kidney function but little evidence exists for its hepatic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the probable sex-dependent differences in blood sugar levels, lipid profile, and renal and hepatic biochemical factors in the obesity and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after leptin administration. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats of both sexes were randomly divided into two groups, namely obese and diabetic rats. Each group was further divided into male and female subgroups. Extra fat and carbohydrate was added to the diet to induce obesity. Furthermore, streptozotocin (55 mg/kg, IP was injected to induce diabetes. The treatment groups received leptin (0.1 mg/kg SC for 10 days, and then, blood samples were taken from the orbital sinus for laboratory evaluations. Results: Leptin resulted in a significant weight loss in both sexes (P

  20. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation on inflammation, oxidative stress, and serum lipid profile levels in patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabbazi, Tannaz; Mahdavi, Reza; Safa, Javid; Pour-Abdollahi, Parvin

    2012-03-01

    We examined the effects of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) supplementation on inflammation, oxidative stress, and serum lipid profile levels in hemodialysis (HD) patients. This was a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The present study involved HD centers in Tabriz, Iran. Participants included 63 patients with end-stage renal disease (43 men and 20 women; age range: 22-79 years) undergoing maintenance HD. HD patients were randomly assigned into the supplemented group (n = 31), receiving a daily dose of ALA (600 mg), or a control group (n = 32), receiving placebo for 8 weeks. High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), malondialdehyde, total antioxidant status, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured at baseline and after 8 weeks of supplementation. At the end of intervention, 11 patients were excluded from the study. HsCRP levels decreased by 18.7% in the supplemented group after 8 weeks of supplementation, and the reduction was significant in comparison with the placebo group (P profile parameters within each group during the study. ALA supplementation significantly reduced hsCRP levels, which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in HD patients. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Attenuation correction for renal scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA: analysis between Raynaud and the geometric mean methods; Correcao de atenuacao em aquisicoes renais com {sup 99m}TC-DMSA: comparacao entre os metodos de Raynaud e da media geometrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argenta, Jackson; Brambilla, Claudia R.; Silva, Ana Maria M. da [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC/RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Fisica. Nucleo de Pesquisa em Imagens Medicas], e-mail: ana.marques@pucrs.br

    2010-03-15

    The evaluation of the index of renal function (IF) requires soft-tissue attenuation correction. This paper investigates the impact over the IF, when attenuation correction is applied using the Raynaud method and the Geometric Mean method in renal planar scintigraphy, using posterior and anterior views. The study was conducted with Monte Carlo simulated images of five GSF family voxel phantoms with different relative uptakes in each kidney from normal (50% -50%) to pathological (10% -90%). The results showed that Raynaud method corrects more efficiently the cases where the renal depth is close to the value of the standard phantom. The geometric mean method showed similar results to the Raynaud method for Baby, Child and Golem. For Helga and Donna models, the errors were above 20%, increasing with relative uptake. Further studies should be conducted to assess the influences of the standard phantom in the correcting attenuation methods. (author)

  2. Attenuation correction for renal scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc - DMSA: comparison between Raynaud and the geometric mean methods;Correcao de atenuacao em aquisicoes renais com {sup 99m}Tc - DMSA: comparacao entre os metodos de Raynaud e da media geometrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argenta, J.; Brambilla, C.R.; Marques da Silva, A.M. [Pontifcia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Fac. de Fisica. Nucleo de Pesquisa em Imagens Medicas

    2009-07-01

    The evaluation of the index of renal function (IF) requires soft-tissue attenuation correction. This paper investigates the impact over the IF, when attenuation correction is applied using the Raynaud method and the geometric mean method in renal planar scintigraphy, using posterior and anterior views. The study was conducted with Monte Carlo simulated images of five GSF family voxel phantoms with different relative uptakes in each kidney from normal (50% -50%) to pathological (10% -90%). The results showed that Raynaud method corrects more efficiently the cases where the renal depth is close to the value of the standard phantom. The geometric mean method showed similar results to the Raynaud method for Baby, Child and Golem. For Helga and Donna models, the errors were above 20%, increasing with relative uptake. Further studies should be conducted to assess the influences of the standard phantom in the correcting attenuation methods. (author)

  3. Effect of Commiphora mukul gum resin on hepatic and renal marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants status in pancreas and heart in fructose fed insulin resistant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ramesh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to study the antioxidant efficacy of Commiphora mukul (C. mukul gum resin ethanolic extract in high fructose diet (HFD insulin resistant rats. The male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each; two of these groups (Control group [C] and Control treated with C. mukul [C + CM] were fed with standard pellet diet and the other two groups (Fructose fed rats [F-group] and fructose fed with C. mukul treated group [F + CM] were fed with high fructose diet (HFD (66%. C. mukul gum resin ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg body weight/day was administered orally to group C + CM and group F + CM. At the end of 60-day experimental period biochemical parameters related to antioxidant, oxidative stress marker enzymes and hepatic and renal marker enzymes of tissues were performed. The fructose fed rats showed increased level of enzymatic activities aspartate aminotransminases (AST, alanine aminotransminases (ALT in liver and kidney and oxidative markers like lipid peroxidation (LPO and protein oxidation (PO in pancreas and heart. Antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly decreased in the pancreas and heart compared to control groups. Administration of C. mukul (200 mg/kg bwt to fructose fed insulin resistant rats for 60 days significantly reversed the above parameters toward normal. In conclusion, our data indicate the preventive role of C. mukul against fructose-induced insulin resistance and oxidative stress; hence this plant could be used as an adjuvant therapy for the prevention and/or management of chronic diseases characterized by hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and aggravated antioxidant status.

  4. Mice with targeted disruption of the acyl-CoA binding protein display attenuated urine concentrating ability and diminished renal aquaporin-3 abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langaa, Stine; Bloksgaard, Maria; Bek, Signe

    2012-01-01

    epithelial cells. Here we show that ACBP is widely expressed in human and mouse kidney epithelium with the highest expression in the proximal convoluted tubules. To elucidate the role of ACBP in the renal epithelium, mice with targeted disruption of the ACBP gene (ACBP(-/-)) were used to study water and Na...... deprivation, ACBP(-/-) mice exhibited increased diuresis, reduced urine osmolality, elevated hematocrit and higher relative weight loss compared to (+/+) mice. There were no significant differences in plasma concentrations of renin, corticosterone and aldosterone between mice of the two genotypes. At baseline......, renal medullary interstitial fluid osmolality was not different between genotypes. After water deprivation, renal medullary interstitial fluid osmolality rose significantly while osmolality and concentrations of Na(+), K(+) and urea did not differ between ACBP(-/-) and (+/+). Cyclic AMP excretion...

  5. Puerarin attenuates renal fibrosis by reducing oxidative stress induced-epithelial cell apoptosis via MAPK signal pathways in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangjun; Bai, Chen; Sun, Xinbo; Gong, Xiaoxin; Yang, Yong; Chen, Congbo; Shan, Guang; Yao, Qisheng

    2017-11-01

    Puerarin (PR) is an isoflavonoid isolated from the root of the plant Pueraria lobata and has been widely used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Oxidative stress and epithelial cell apoptosis play important roles in the renal fibrotic process. The present study aimed to determine whether or not PR inhibits renal fibrosis by reducing oxidative stress induced-epithelial cell apoptosis. In vivo, unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) induced renal fibrosis, and epithelial cell apoptosis. A total of 24 mice were randomly assigned to four experimental groups: sham, UUO alone, UUO +50 mg/kg PR, and UUO +100 mg/kg PR. In vitro, 200 μM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced epithelial cell apoptosis. The experiments were dived into four groups: control, H2O2 alone, H2O2+50 μM PR, and H2O2+100 μM PR. Tubular injury was measured in the renal cortex of the mice through periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining, and the extracellular matrix (ECM) was measured through Sirius red (SR), immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining, and Western blot. Renal epithelial cell apoptosis was measured through terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP Nick-End labeling (TUNEL), flow cytometry (FCM), and Hoechst assays. The protein expression of NOX4, caspase3, ERK, P38, and JNK was assessed through Western blot. PAS staining showed that PR decreased renal tubular injury in UUO mice. SR and IHC staining demonstrated that PR decreased the accumulation of ECM. PR treatment significantly inhibited epithelial cell apoptosis according to the results of TUNEL, FCM, Hoechst, and Western blot. Furthermore, NOX4 increased in UUO mice and decreased with PR treatment. H2O2-derived oxidative stress activated epithelial apoptosis and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and PR treatment significantly reversed it. These results suggest that PR treatment ameliorates renal fibrosis by inhibiting oxidative stress induced-epithelial cell apoptosis through

  6. Renal Infarction Caused by Isolated Spontaneous Renal Artery Intramural Hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sihyung; Lee, Ga Hee; Jin, Kyubok; Park, Kang Min; Kim, Yang Wook; Park, Bong Soo

    2015-11-24

    Acute renal infarction is an uncommon condition resulting from an obstruction or a decrease in renal arterial blood flow. Isolated spontaneous renal artery intramural hematoma is a rare cause of renal infarction. A 46-year-old healthy man presented to our emergency room because of sudden onset of severe right flank pain. An enhanced abdominal computed tomography scan showed a low-attenuated lesion in the lateral portion of the right kidney but no visible thromboembolisms in the main vessels. Computed tomography angiography revealed acute infarction resulting from intramural hematoma of the anterior segmental artery of the right kidney, with distal occlusion. The rarity and non-specific clinical presentation of renal infarction often lead to a delayed diagnosis that may result in impaired renal function. Clinical suspicion is important in the early diagnosis, and intramural hematoma of the renal artery should be considered the cause of renal infarction even in healthy patients without predisposing factors.

  7. Intake of a Western diet containing cod instead of pork alters fatty acid composition in tissue phospholipids and attenuates obesity and hepatic lipid accumulation in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liisberg, U.; Fauske, K. R.; Kuda, Ondřej; Fjare, E.; Myrmel, L. S.; Norberg, N.; Froyland, L.; Graff, I. E.; Liaset, B.; Kristiansen, K.; Kopecký, Jan; Madsen, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 33, Jul (2016), s. 119-127 ISSN 0955-2863 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : diet * dietary lipids * endocannabinoids * fish oil * phospholipids * liver * obesity Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 4.518, year: 2016

  8. Valproate attenuates the proteinuria, podocyte and renal injury by facilitating autophagy and inactivation of NF-κB/iNOS signaling in diabetic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sabbir; Jena, Gopabandhu; Tikoo, Kulbhushan; Kumar, Vinod

    2015-03-01

    Epigenetic modifications are increasingly recognized to play a significant contribution in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are the emerging target in the pathogenesis and progression of DN. Valproic acid (VPA), a widely used anti-epileptic drug and has been proven as an HDAC inhibitor. This study was aimed to evaluate the protective roles of VPA on HDAC-mediated NF-κB/iNOS signaling and autophagy in DN. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of STZ (50 mg/kg), whereas VPA at the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks was administered by oral route in Sprague-Dawley rat. Blood and urine were collected before animal were sacrificed, while kidneys were dissected after sacrificed. The podocyte and renal injuries were assessed using biochemical markers, histology, podocyte effacement, DNA damage and apoptosis as well as protein expression evaluation. VPA treatment improves the plasma and urinary biomarkers of renal function, decreased expression of iNOS, 3-nitrotyrosine, NF-κB, p-NF-κB, HDAC4/5, calmodulin, calbindin, apoptosis and DNA damage. Further, VPA treatment increased histone acetylation and ameliorated the histological alterations and podocyte effacement. Interestingly, VPA treatment also restored diabetes-associated perturbations in autophagy by HDAC inhibition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report, which highlights the beneficial role of VPA in DN. The present results clearly exhibited that VPA treatment ameliorates the podocyte and renal injuries mainly by facilitating the autophagy and inactivation of NF-κB/iNOS signaling. The present findings demonstrated that VPA may be useful in the treatment of DN, since the present experimental doses are clinically relevant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  9. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor- α Agonist Slows the Progression of Hypertension, Attenuates Plasma Interleukin-6 Levels and Renal Inflammatory Markers in Angiotensin II Infused Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Justin L.; Duan, Rong; El-Marakby, Ahmed; Alhashim, Abdulmohsin; Lee, Dexter L.

    2012-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory properties of PPAR- α plays an important role in attenuating hypertension. The current study determines the anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory role of PPAR- α agonist during a slow-pressor dose of Ang II (400 ng/kg/min). Ten to twelve week old male PPAR- α KO mice and their WT controls were implanted with telemetry devices and infused with Ang II for 12 days. On day 12 of Ang II infusion, MAP was elevated in PPAR- α KO mice compared to WT (161 ± 4 mmHg versus 145 ± ...

  10. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Capacities and Attenuation of Lipid Accumulation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes by Low-Molecular-Weight Fucoidans Prepared from Compressional-Puffing-Pretreated Sargassum Crassifolium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yung Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we extracted fucoidan from compressional-puffing-pretreated Sargassum crassifolium by hot water. The crude extract of fucoidan (SC was degraded by various degradation reagents and four low-molecular-weight (LMW fucoidans, namely SCO (degradation by hydrogen peroxide, SCA (degradation by ascorbic acid, SCOA (degradation by hydrogen peroxide + ascorbic acid, and SCH (degradation by hydrogen chloride were obtained. The degradation reagents studied could effectively degrade fucoidan into LMW fucoidans, as revealed by intrinsic viscosity, agarose gel electrophoresis, and molecular weight analyses. These LMW fucoidans had higher uronic acid content and sulfate content than those of SC. It was found that SCOA exhibited antibacterial activity. All LMW fucoidans showed antioxidant activities as revealed by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt, and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power methods. Biological experiments showed that SC and SCOA had relatively high activity for the reversal of H2O2-induced cell death in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and SCOA showed the highest effect on attenuation of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Therefore, for the LMW fucoidans tested, SCOA showed antibacterial activity and had a high fucose content, high sulfate content, high activity for the reversal of H2O2-induced cell death, and a marked effect on attenuation of lipid accumulation. It can thus be recommended as a natural and safe antibacterial and anti-adipogenic agent for food, cosmetic, and nutraceutical applications.

  11. Hypothyroidism attenuates protein tyrosine nitration, oxidative stress and renal damage induced by ischemia and reperfusion: effect unrelated to antioxidant enzymes activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio-Velázquez, Verónica M; Barrera, Diana; Franco, Martha; Tapia, Edilia; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Pedraza-Chaverri, José

    2005-01-01

    Background It has been established that hypothyroidism protects rats against renal ischemia and reperfusion (IR) oxidative damage. However, it is not clear if hypothyroidism is able to prevent protein tyrosine nitration, an index of nitrosative stress, induced by IR or if antioxidant enzymes have involved in this protective effect. In this work it was explored if hypothyroidism is able to prevent the increase in nitrosative and oxidative stress induced by IR. In addition the activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase was studied. Control and thyroidectomized (HTX) rats were studied 24 h of reperfusion after 60 min ischemia. Methods Male Wistar rats weighing 380 ± 22 g were subjected to surgical thyroidectomy. Rats were studied 15 days after surgery. Euthyroid sham-operated rats were used as controls (CT). Both groups of rats underwent a right kidney nephrectomy and suffered a 60 min left renal ischemia with 24 h of reperfusion. Rats were divided in four groups: CT, HTX, IR and HTX+IR. Rats were sacrificed and samples of plasma and kidney were obtained. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine were measured in blood plasma. Kidney damage was evaluated by histological analysis. Oxidative stress was measured by immunohistochemical localization of protein carbonyls and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal modified proteins. The protein carbonyl content was measured using antibodies against dinitrophenol (DNP)-modified proteins. Nitrosative stress was measured by immunohistochemical analysis of 3-nitrotyrosine modified proteins. The activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase was measured by spectrophotometric methods. Multiple comparisons were performed with ANOVA followed by Bonferroni t test. Results The histological damage and the rise in plasma creatinine and BUN induced by IR were significantly lower in HTX+IR group. The increase in protein carbonyls and in 3-nitrotyrosine and 4

  12. Hypothyroidism attenuates protein tyrosine nitration, oxidative stress and renal damage induced by ischemia and reperfusion: effect unrelated to antioxidant enzymes activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina-Campos Omar

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been established that hypothyroidism protects rats against renal ischemia and reperfusion (IR oxidative damage. However, it is not clear if hypothyroidism is able to prevent protein tyrosine nitration, an index of nitrosative stress, induced by IR or if antioxidant enzymes have involved in this protective effect. In this work it was explored if hypothyroidism is able to prevent the increase in nitrosative and oxidative stress induced by IR. In addition the activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase was studied. Control and thyroidectomized (HTX rats were studied 24 h of reperfusion after 60 min ischemia. Methods Male Wistar rats weighing 380 ± 22 g were subjected to surgical thyroidectomy. Rats were studied 15 days after surgery. Euthyroid sham-operated rats were used as controls (CT. Both groups of rats underwent a right kidney nephrectomy and suffered a 60 min left renal ischemia with 24 h of reperfusion. Rats were divided in four groups: CT, HTX, IR and HTX+IR. Rats were sacrificed and samples of plasma and kidney were obtained. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine were measured in blood plasma. Kidney damage was evaluated by histological analysis. Oxidative stress was measured by immunohistochemical localization of protein carbonyls and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal modified proteins. The protein carbonyl content was measured using antibodies against dinitrophenol (DNP-modified proteins. Nitrosative stress was measured by immunohistochemical analysis of 3-nitrotyrosine modified proteins. The activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase was measured by spectrophotometric methods. Multiple comparisons were performed with ANOVA followed by Bonferroni t test. Results The histological damage and the rise in plasma creatinine and BUN induced by IR were significantly lower in HTX+IR group. The increase in protein carbonyls and

  13. Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 attenuates brain death-induced renal injury by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines and the SAPK and JAK-STAT signalings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yifu; Xiong, Yunyi; Zhang, Huanxi; Li, Jun; Wang, Dong; Chen, Wenfang; Yuan, Xiaopeng; Su, Qiao; Li, Wenwen; Huang, Huiting; Bi, Zirong; Liu, Longshan; Wang, Changxi

    2017-03-23

    This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of EGb761, a Ginkgo Biloba extract, against brain death-induced kidney injury. Sixty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups: sham, brain-death (BD), BD + EGb b48h (48 hours before BD), BD + EGb 2 h (2 hours after BD), BD + EGb 1 h, and BD + EGb 0.5 h. Six hours after BD, serum sample and kidney tissues were collected for analyses. The levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine significantly elevated in the BD group than in sham group. In all the EGb761-treated BD animals except for the BD + Gb 2 h group, the levels of BUN and serum creatinine significantly reduced (all P < 0.01). EGb761 attenuated tubular injury and lowered the histological score. In addition, the longer duration of drug treatment was, the better protective efficacy could be observed. EGb761 significantly reduced IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1, IP-10 mRNA expression and macrophage infiltration in the kidney. EGb761 treatment at 48 hour before brain death significantly attenuate the levels of p-JNK-MAPK, p-p38-MAPK, and p-STAT3 proteins (all P < 0.05, compared to BD group). In summary, our data showed that EGb761 treatment protected donor kidney from BD-induced damages by blocking SAPK and JAK-STAT signalings. Early administration of EGb761 can provide better protective efficacy.

  14. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) attenuates myocardial inflammation and mitochondrial injury induced by venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) in a healthy piglet model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Juanhong; Yu, Wenkui; Chen, Qiyi; Shi, Jialiang; Hu, Yimin; Zhang, Juanjuan; Gao, Tao; Xi, Fengchan; He, Changsheng; Gong, Jianfeng; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the myocardial inflammation and mitochondrial function during venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) and further evaluated the effects of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) on them. Eighteen piglets were assigned to the control group, ECMO group, and ECMO+CRRT group. Myocardial inflammation was assessed by the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), myocardial concentrations, and mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6; mitochondrial function was assessed by activities of mitochondrial complexes I-V. VV ECMO elicited a general activation of serum and myocardial inflammation and significantly decreased the activities of mitochondrial complexes I and IV. After being combined with CRRT, serum and myocardial concentrations of IL-1β and IL-6, myocardial mRNA expression of IL-6, and the activity of MPO were decreased significantly; the activities of mitochondrial complexes were increased. We conclude that myocardial inflammation was activated during ECMO therapy, inducing mitochondrial injury; moreover, CRRT reduced myocardial inflammation and partially ameliorated mitochondrial function.

  15. The effect of the initiation of renal replacement therapy on lipid profile and oxidative stress during the first 6 months of treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeveen, S.H.A.; Verhoeven, G.H.; Palen, J. van der; Dikkeschei, B.L.; Tits, L.J.H. van; Kolsters, G.; Offerman, J.J.; Bilo, H.J.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disturbed lipoproteins and increased oxidative stress are two of the "non-traditional" cardiovascular risk factors in chronic renal failure. There are very few prospective data of the influence of dialysis on these two factors. In the present study we investigated the effects of the

  16. Cytotoxic therapy for membranous nephropathy and renal insufficiency: improved renal survival but high relapse rate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buf-Vereijken, P.W.G. du; Branten, A.J.W.; Wetzels, J.F.M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (iMN) and renal insufficiency have a high risk for progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In the short term, treatment with oral cyclophosphamide and steroids attenuates the deterioration of renal function in these patients;

  17. Acacetin from Traditionally Used Saussurea involucrata Kar. et Kir. Suppressed Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and Attenuated Lipid Accumulation in Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chian-Jiun Liou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Acacetin, a flavone that can be isolated from the Saussurea involucrata plant, has anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory properties that ameliorate airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic mice. This study investigated whether acacetin has anti-adipogenic effects in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and whether it regulates the inflammatory response in adipocytes and macrophages. It also investigated whether acacetin ameliorates lipid accumulation in high-fat diet- (HFD induced obese mice. Differentiated 3T3-L1 cells were treated with acacetin. The glycerol levels in the culture medium were measured, and the expression of proteins and genes involved in adipogenesis and lipolysis were assayed by Western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. Inflammatory cytokine signaling pathway activity was assessed in macrophages that were treated with acacetin and cultured with differentiated medium from 3T3-L1 cells. Intraperitoneal injections of acacetin were administered to HFD-induced obese mice twice a week for 10 weeks. Acacetin significantly increased the levels of glycerol in the culture medium and significantly inhibited lipid accumulation in adipocytes. Acacetin reduced the expression of adipogenesis-related transcription factors, including the expression of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein; it also increased sirtuin 1 expression and AMPK phosphorylation in adipocytes. In macrophages cultured with differentiated media from 3T3-L1 adipocytes, acacetin reduced the levels of inflammatory mediators and the activity of the mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-κB pathways. In obese mice, acacetin reduced both body weight and visceral adipose tissue weight. These results demonstrate that acacetin inhibited adipogenesis in adipocytes and in obese mice. Acacetin also reduced the inflammatory response of macrophages that were stimulated with differentiated media from 3T3-L1 cells.

  18. Cordyceps militaris fruit body extract ameliorates membranous glomerulonephritis by attenuating oxidative stress and renal inflammation via the NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jingjing; Wang, Yingwu; Liu, Chungang; Huang, Yan; He, Liying; Cai, Xueying; Lu, Jiahui; Liu, Yan; Wang, Di

    2016-04-01

    Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) is a common pathogenesis of nephritic syndrome in adult patients. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) serves as the main transcription factor for the inflammatory response mediated nephropathy. Cordyceps militaris, containing various pharmacological components, has been used as a kind of crude drug and folk tonic food for improving immunity and reducing inflammation. The current study aims to investigate the renoprotective activity of Cordyceps militaris aqueous extract (CM) in the cationic bovine serum albumin (C-BSA)-induced rat model of membranous glomerulonephritis. Significant renal dysfunction was observed in MGN rats; comparatively, 4-week CM administration strongly decreased the levels of 24 h urine protein, total cholesterol, triglyceride, blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, and increased the levels of serum albumin and total serum protein. Strikingly, recovery of the kidney histological architecture was noted in CM-treated MGN rats. A significant improvement in the glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase levels, and a reduced malondialdehyde concentration were observed in the serum and kidney of CM-treated rats. Altered levels of inflammatory cytokines including interleukins, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, vascular adhesion molecule 1, tumor necrosis factor-α, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α, and nuclear transcriptional factor subunit NF-κB p65 reverted to normal levels upon treatment with CM. The present data suggest that CM protects rats against membranous glomerulonephritis via the normalization of NF-κB activity, thereby inhibiting oxidative damage and reducing inflammatory cytokine levels, which further provide experimental evidence in support of the clinical use of CM as an effective renoprotective agent.

  19. Sporotrichosis in Renal Transplant Patients

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    Paulo Gewehr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current report describes two renal transplant recipients who presented with sporotrichosis. In addition, the authors review the general aspects of sporotrichosis in renal transplant recipients reported in the literature. Sporotrichosis is a rare fungal infection in transplant patients and has been reported primarily in renal transplant recipients not treated with antifungal prophylaxis. Extracutaneous forms of sporotrichosis without skin manifestations and no previous history of traumatic injuries have been described in such patients and are difficult to diagnose. Renal transplant recipients with sporotrichosis described in the present report were successfully treated with antifungal therapy including amphotericin B deoxycholate, lipid amphotericin B formulations, fluconazole and itraconazole.

  20. Potential applications of lipid peroxidation products - F4-neuroprostanes, F3-neuroprostanesn-6 DPA, F2-dihomo-isoprostanes and F2-isoprostanes - in the evaluation of the allograft function in renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Las Heras-Gómez, Ignacio; Medina, Sonia; Casas-Pina, Teresa; Marín-Soler, Lidia; Tomás, Anna; Martínez-Hernández, Pedro; Oger, Camille; Galano, Jean-Marie; Durand, Thierry; Jimeno, Luisa; Llorente, Santiago; Lozoya, Elena; Ferreres, Federico; Gil-Izquierdo, Ángel

    2017-03-01

    F4-neuroprostanes, F3-neuroprostanesn-6 DPA, and F2-dihomo-isoprostanes, metabolites of non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids [docosahexaenoic acid, n-6 docosapentanoic acid, and adrenic acid respectively], have become important biomarkers for oxidative stress in several diseases like epilepsy and alzheimer. These biomarkers and the 15-F2t-isoprostane (also known as 8-iso-PGF2α), a F2-isoprostane isomer measured as reference oxidative marker at systemic level, were analyzed by UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS in the urine of 60 renal recipients from cadaveric donors of the Nephrology Unit of the University Hospital Virgen de la Arrixaca, at six different times during the first six months after renal transplantation, and were compared with a control group of 60 healthy subjects from the same hospital. A total of 11 metabolites were analyzed and different patterns were observed. A tendency to decrease was observed in three metabolites (4-epi-4-F3t- NeuroPn-6 DPA, ent-7(RS)-7-F2t-dihomo-IsoP, and ent-7(S)-7-F2t-dihomo-IsoP) and in our reference oxidative marker (15-F2t-IsoP) when kidney function improved and the excretion of urine proteins decreased. These results suggest that these three biomarkers of oxidative stress could be useful to assess renal function in the postransplant phase. Unfortunately, little is known about this kind of biomarker in this cohort of patients, so further investigation would be required in the clinical field to clarify the relationship between oxidative stress and the graft function, as well as the usefulness of these biomarkers as rejection markers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Renal Leiomyosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Pastora Beardo; Maria José Ledo; Jose Luis Ruiz Campos

    2013-01-01

    Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a rare malignant tumor of smooth muscle origin that generally stems from soft tissues and uterine tissue. Although, a small percentage of these may originate from the smooth muscle or vessel walls, most of which are of venous origin. Renal leiomyosarcomas may arise from the smooth muscle fibers of renal pelvis, renal capsule or renal vessels, last one is the most frequent. We report a case of renal LMS that could be originated in the renal capsule.

  2. Purification of nonspecific lipid transfer protein (sterol carrier protein 2) from human liver and its deficiency in livers from patients with cerebro-hepato-renal (Zellweger) syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amerongen, A. van; Helms, J.B.; Krift, T.P. van der; Schutgens, R.B.H.; Wirtz, K.W.A.

    1987-01-01

    The nonspecific lipid transfer protein (i.e., sterol carrier protein 2) from human liver was purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulfate precipitation, CM-cellulose chromatography, molecular sieve chromatography and fast protein liquid chromatography. Its amino acid composition was determined and

  3. Treatment-resistant hypertension and the incidence of cardiovascular disease and end-stage renal disease: results from the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntner, Paul; Davis, Barry R; Cushman, William C; Bangalore, Sripal; Calhoun, David A; Pressel, Sara L; Black, Henry R; Kostis, John B; Probstfield, Jeffrey L; Whelton, Paul K; Rahman, Mahboob

    2014-11-01

    Apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (aTRH) is defined as uncontrolled hypertension despite the use of ≥3 antihypertensive medication classes or controlled hypertension while treated with ≥4 antihypertensive medication classes. Although a high prevalence of aTRH has been reported, few data are available on its association with cardiovascular and renal outcomes. We analyzed data on 14 684 Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) participants to determine the association between aTRH (n=1870) with coronary heart disease, stroke, all-cause mortality, heart failure, peripheral artery disease, and end-stage renal disease. We defined aTRH as blood pressure not at goal (systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg) while taking ≥3 classes of antihypertensive medication or taking ≥4 classes of antihypertensive medication with blood pressure at goal during the year 2 ALLHAT study visit (1996-2000). Use of a diuretic was not required to meet the definition of aTRH. Follow-up occurred through 2002. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) comparing participants with versus without aTRH were as follows: coronary heart disease (1.44 [1.18-1.76]), stroke (1.57 [1.18-2.08]), all-cause mortality (1.30 [1.11-1.52]), heart failure (1.88 [1.52-2.34]), peripheral artery disease (1.23 [0.85-1.79]), and end-stage renal disease (1.95 [1.11-3.41]). aTRH was also associated with the pooled outcomes of combined coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 1.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.71) and combined cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-1.64). These results demonstrate that aTRH increases the risk for cardiovascular disease and end-stage renal disease. Studies are needed to identify approaches to prevent aTRH and reduce risk for adverse outcomes among individuals with aTRH. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Curcuma longa polyphenols improve insulin-mediated lipid accumulation and attenuate proinflammatory response of 3T3-L1 adipose cells during oxidative stress through regulation of key adipokines and antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septembre-Malaterre, Axelle; Le Sage, Fanny; Hatia, Sarah; Catan, Aurélie; Janci, Laurent; Gonthier, Marie-Paule

    2016-07-08

    Plant polyphenols may exert beneficial action against obesity-related oxidative stress and inflammation which promote insulin resistance. This study evaluated the effect of polyphenols extracted from French Curcuma longa on 3T3-L1 adipose cells exposed to H2 O2 -mediated oxidative stress. We found that Curcuma longa extract exhibited high amounts of curcuminoids identified as curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, which exerted free radical-scavenging activities. Curcuma longa polyphenols improved insulin-mediated lipid accumulation and upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma gene expression and adiponectin secretion which decreased in H2 O2 -treated cells. Curcuminoids attenuated H2 O2 -enhanced production of pro-inflammatory molecules such as interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and nuclear factor κappa B. Moreover, they reduced intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species elevated by H2 O2 and modulated the expression of genes encoding superoxide dismutase and catalase antioxidant enzymes. Collectively, these findings highlight that Curcuma longa polyphenols protect adipose cells against oxidative stress and may improve obesity-related metabolic disorders. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(4):418-430, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  5. Administration of exogenous erythropoietin beta affects lipid peroxidation and serum paraoxonase-1 activity and concentration in predialysis patients with chronic renal disease and anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsillach, Judit; Martínez-Vea, Albert; Marcas, Luis; Mackness, Bharti; Mackness, Michael; Ferré, Natàlia; Joven, Jorge; Camps, Jordi

    2007-04-01

    1. Patients with advanced chronic renal disease and anaemia have decreased serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity and an increased degree of oxidative stress compared with normal subjects. The present study investigated the effects of treatment of anaemia with exogenous recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) beta and iron on levels of antibodies against oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL), as well as on serum PON1 activity and concentration, in predialysis patients with chronic renal disease. 2. Forty-nine patients with chronic renal failure and haemoglobin (Hb) < 11 g/dL were treated over a period of 6 months with EPObeta (80-120 U/kg per week, s.c.) and variable doses of iron. Selected biochemical variables were determined before and after treatment. 3. Treatment with EPObeta and iron was associated with a significant increase in mean (+/-SD) blood Hb concentration compared with pretreatment values (12.8 +/- 1.5 vs 9.9 +/- 0.6 g/dL, respectively; P < 0.001). The average dose of EPObeta was 6160 +/- 3000 U/week. After 6 months of treatment, compared with pretreatment values, the median levels (95% confidence intervals) of antibodies against ox-LDL were decreased (17.5 (10.6-24.4) vs 24.8 (11.5-38.1) U/mL, respectively; P < 0.001), serum PON1 activity was slightly but significantly increased (123.6 (76.1-343.6) vs 101.0 (50.0-332.5) U/L, respectively; P = 0.016) and the concentration of PON1 was significantly decreased (37.3 (11.8-76.2) vs 46.7 (24.6-98.0) mg/L, respectively; P < 0.001). There were no significant changes in total cholesterol, triglycerides or cholesterol fraction concentrations before and after treatment. 4. We suggest that EPObeta and iron treatment of anaemia promotes significant changes in serum PON1 activity and concentration and has a beneficial effect on oxidative stress in predialysis patients with chronic renal disease.

  6. N-acetyl-l-cysteine Prevents Bile Duct Ligation Induced Renal Injury by Modulating Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhir, Rajat; Kaur, Sandeep; Dhanda, Saurabh

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) on bile duct ligation (BDL) induced oxidative stress in kidneys. Male Wistar rats were randomly segregated into four groups; sham control (SC), SC + NAC, BDL and BDL + NAC group. Liver damage was induced following BDL and renal injury was assessed by kidney function tests along with lipid peroxidation, nitrite levels, thiols and antioxidant enzymes. Three weeks after BDL, rats developed renal dysfunction in terms of elevated serum creatinine levels. BDL animals exhibited an increase in lipid peroxidation, reduction in thiols and redox ratio in liver and kidney tissue along with altered antioxidant enzymes in kidneys. BDL animals that were orally administered NAC at a daily dose 100 mg/kg for duration of two weeks, showed significant reduction in serum creatinine levels. NAC was effective in lowering lipid peroxidation and was able to restore thiol levels along with GSH/GSSG ratio in both liver and kidneys along with the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the kidneys of BDL animals. The results clearly demonstrate the efficacy of NAC in attenuating oxidative stress in kidneys, suggesting a therapeutic role for NAC in individuals with renal dysfunction following BDL.

  7. Renal leiomyosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Gelincik, İ; Tok, A

    2013-01-01

    Renal leiomyosarcomas are very rare and only account for 1-3% of primary renal malignancies. The prognosis for a renal sarcoma is poor, and differentiation from sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma and a renal sarcoma is particularly necessary. The patient's clinical presentation and imaging findings are not helpful for accurate preoperative diagnosis. The primary treatment is radical nephrectomy with or without adjuvant radiotherapy chemotherapy. The prognosis is poor. We report a case of primar...

  8. Effect of an aqueous extract of annatto (Bixa orellana seeds on lipid profile and biochemical markers of renal and hepatic function in hipercholesterolemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heberth de Paula

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Annatto extract is a natural food color obtained from the outer coatings of the seeds of the Annatto tree (Bixa orellana L.. This is the first report in the literature that shows the relationship between the aqueous annatto extract and its influence on lipid profile in animals. Male Fisher rats were divided into three groups (n=12: C group, fed standard diet and water; H group, fed high-lipid diet and water and; HU group, with high-lipid diet and aqueous annatto extract for 60 days. The treatment with annatto extract in animals fed with the high-lipid diet lowered the LDL- and total cholesterol and raised the HDL-cholesterol, suggesting a hypocholesterolemic effect. Neither high-fat diet nor aqueous annatto extract had any significant effect on serum levels of albumin or serum activities of transaminases which suggested that no liver injury was induced.Extrato de urucum é um corante alimentar natural que é obtido da casca das sementes do urucueiro (Bixa orellana L.. Este é o primeiro trabalho da literatura que mostra a relação entre o extrato aquoso de urucum e sua influência no perfil lipídico de animais. Durante 60 dias, 36 ratos machos Fisher foram divididos em 3 grupos: Grupo C que recebeu uma dieta controle e água; Grupo H que recebeu uma dieta rica em lipídios e água e; Grupo HU que recebeu uma dieta rica em lipídios e extrato aquoso de semente de urucum. O tratamento com extrato de urucum nos animais alimentados com a dieta rica em lipídios abaixou o colesterol total e a fração LDL e aumentou a fração HDL, sugerindo um efeito hipocolesterolemiante. Nem a dieta rica em lipídios, nem o extrato de urucum tiveram algum efeito sobre os níveis séricos de albumina ou sobre a atividade de alanina aminotransferase e aspartato aminotransferase. Este fato sugere que o consumo do extrato não provocou injúria hepática nos animais.

  9. Camel milk attenuates the biochemical and morphological features of diabetic nephropathy: inhibition of Smad1 and collagen type IV synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korish, Aida A; Abdel Gader, Abdel Galil; Korashy, Hesham M; Al-Drees, Abdul Majeed; Alhaider, Abdulqader A; Arafah, Maha M

    2015-03-05

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) that worsens its morbidity and mortality. There is evidence that camel milk (CM) improves the glycemic control in DM but its effect on the renal complications especially the DN remains unclear. Thus the current study aimed to characterize the effects of CM treatment on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DN. Using STZ-induced diabetes, we investigated the effect of CM treatment on kidney function, proteinuria, renal Smad1, collagen type IV (Col4), blood glucose, insulin resistance (IR), lipid peroxidation, the antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH). In addition renal morphology was also examined. The current results showed that rats with untreated diabetes exhibited marked hyperglycemia, IR, high serum urea and creatinine levels, excessive proteinuria, increased renal Smad1 and Col4, glomerular expansion, and extracellular matrix deposition. There was also increased lipid peroxidation products, decreased antioxidant enzyme activity and GSH levels. Camel milk treatment decreased blood glucose, IR, and lipid peroxidation. Superoxide dismutase and CAT expression, CAT activity, and GSH levels were increased. The renoprotective effects of CM were demonstrated by the decreased serum urea and creatinine, proteinuria, Smad1, Col4, and preserved normal tubulo-glomerular morphology. In conclusion, beside its hypoglycemic action, CM attenuates the early changes of DN, decreased renal Smad1 and Col4. This could be attributed to a primary action on the glomerular mesangial cells, or secondarily to the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of CM. The protective effects of CM against DN support its use as an adjuvant anti-diabetes therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Renal Osteodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Metin Terzibaşoğlu

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic renal insufficiency is a functional definition which is characterized by irreversible and progressive decreasing in renal functions. This impairment is in collaboration with glomeruler filtration rate and serum creatinine levels. Besides this, different grades of bone metabolism disorders develop in chronic renal insufficiency. Pathologic changes in bone tissue due to loss of renal paranchyme is interrelated with calcium, phosphorus vitamine-D and parathyroid hormone. Clinically we can see high turnover bone disease, low turnover bone disease, osteomalacia, osteosclerosis and osteoporosis in renal osteodystropy. In this article we aimed to review pathology of bone metabolism disorders due to chronic renal insufficiency, clinic aspects and treatment approaches briefly.

  11. Effects of Oral L-Carnitine Supplementation on Lipid Profile, Anemia, and Quality of Life in Chronic Renal Disease Patients under Hemodialysis: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsoon Emami Naini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In patients on maintenance hemodialysis several factors reduce the body stored carnitine which could lead to dyslipidemia, anemia, and general health in these patients. We evaluated the effect of oral L-carnitine supplementation on lipid profiles, anemia, and quality of life (QOL in hemodialysis patients. In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients on hemodialysis received either L-carnitine 1 g/d (n=24 or placebo (27 patients for 16 weeks. At the end of the study, there was a significant decrease in triglyceride (-31.1±38.7 mg/dL, P=0.001 and a significant increase in HDL (3.7±2.8 mg/dL, P0.05. Erythropoietin dose was significantly decreased in both the carnitine (-4750±5772 mg, P=0.001 and the placebo group (-2000±4296 mg, P<0.05. No improvement was observed in QOL scores of two groups. In ESRD patients under maintenance hemodialysis, oral L-carnitine supplementation may reduce triglyceride and cholesterol and increase HDL and hemoglobin and subsequently reduce needed erythropoietin dose without effect on QOL.

  12. Catheter-Based Renal Nerve Ablation and Centrally Generated Sympathetic Activity in Difficult-to-Control Hypertensive Patients: Prospective Case Series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkmann, J.; Heusser, K.; Schmidt, B.M.; Menne, J.; Klein, G.; Bauersachs, J.; Haller, H.; Sweep, F.C.; Diedrich, A.; Jordan, J.; Tank, J.

    2012-01-01

    Endovascular renal nerve ablation has been developed to treat resistant hypertension. In addition to lowering efferent renal sympathetic activation, the intervention may attenuate central sympathetic outflow through decreased renal afferent nerve traffic, as evidenced by a recent case report. We

  13. Renal angiomyolipoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, P; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1988-01-01

    Renal angiomyolipoma is a rare lesion composed of smooth muscle cells, adipose tissue and abnormal vessels. It is currently classified as a benign, non-epithelial renal tumor. It has a high incidence in patients suffering from tuberous sclerosis but is more frequently found as an isolated renal...... lesion. Three cases of renal angiomyolipoma, 2 of which underwent perfusion-fixation, were studied by electron microscopy to clarify the cellular composition of this lesion. In the smooth muscle cells abundant accumulation of glycogen was found, whereas the lipocytes disclosed normal ultrastructural......-specific vesicular structures. These findings suggest a secondary vascular damage, i.e. the thickened vessels may not be a primary, integral part of renal angiomyolipoma. Evidence of a common precursor cell of renal angiomyolipoma was not disclosed. It is concluded that renal angiomyolipoma is a hamartoma composed...

  14. Renal Afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, Alissa A; Carmichael, Casey Y; Wainford, Richard D

    2016-09-01

    The etiology of hypertension, a critical public health issue affecting one in three US adults, involves the integration of the actions of multiple organ systems, including the renal sympathetic nerves. The renal sympathetic nerves, which are comprised of both afferent (sensory input) and efferent (sympathetic outflow) arms, have emerged as a major potential therapeutic target to treat hypertension and disease states exhibiting excess renal sympathetic activity. This review highlights recent advances in both clinical and basic science that have provided new insight into the distribution, function, and reinnervation of the renal sympathetic nerves, with a focus on the renal afferent nerves, in hypertension and hypertension-evoked disease states including salt-sensitive hypertension, obesity-induced hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. Increased understanding of the differential role of the renal afferent versus efferent nerves in the pathophysiology of hypertension has the potential to identify novel targets and refine therapeutic interventions designed to treat hypertension.

  15. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 deficiency attenuates cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang Joo; Ha, Chae-Myeong; Choi, Young-Keun; Park, Sungmi; Choe, Mi Sun; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Huh, Yang Hoon; Kim, Hyo-Jeong; Kweon, Hee-Seok; Lee, Ji-Min; Lee, Sun Joo; Jeon, Jae-Han; Harris, Robert A; Park, Keun-Gyu; Lee, In-Kyu

    2017-04-01

    Clinical prescription of cisplatin, one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents, is limited by its side effects, particularly tubular injury-associated nephrotoxicity. Since details of the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, we investigated the role of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury. Among the PDK isoforms, PDK4 mRNA and protein levels were markedly increased in the kidneys of mice treated with cisplatin, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation was involved in cisplatin-induced renal PDK4 expression. Treatment with the PDK inhibitor sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) or genetic knockout of PDK4 attenuated the signs of cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury, including apoptotic morphology of the kidney tubules along with numbers of TUNEL-positive cells, cleaved caspase-3, and renal tubular injury markers. Cisplatin-induced suppression of the mitochondrial membrane potential, oxygen consumption rate, expression of electron transport chain components, cytochrome c oxidase activity, and disruption of mitochondrial morphology were noticeably improved in the kidneys of DCA-treated or PDK4 knockout mice. Additionally, levels of the oxidative stress marker 4-hydroxynonenal and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species were attenuated, whereas superoxide dismutase 2 and catalase expression and glutathione synthetase and glutathione levels were recovered in DCA-treated or PDK4 knockout mice. Interestingly, lipid accumulation was considerably attenuated in DCA-treated or PDK4 knockout mice via recovered expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and coactivator PGC-1α, which was accompanied by recovery of mitochondrial biogenesis. Thus, PDK4 mediates cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury, suggesting that PDK4 might be a therapeutic target for attenuating cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. RENAL CRYOABLATION

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Govorov; A. O. Vasilyev; D. Yu. Pushkar

    2014-01-01

    Renal cryoablation is an alternative minimally-invasive method of treatment for localized renal cell carcinoma. The main advantages of this methodology include visualization of the tumor and the forming of "ice ball" in real time, fewer complications compared with other methods of treatment of renal cell carcinoma, as well as the possibility of conducting cryotherapy in patients with concomitant pathology. Compared with other ablative technologies cryoablation has a low rate of repeat session...

  17. Atorvastatin and the dyslipidemia of early renal failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozsoy, R. C.; Kastelein, J. J. P.; Arisz, L.; Koopman, M. G.

    2003-01-01

    Information about lipid abnormalities and the effect of lipid lowering therapy in the early stage of renal disease is limited, while preventive treatment in this stage might be much more beneficial. Lipid profiles and risk factors were assessed in 150 consecutive, non-diabetic patients. Preventive

  18. Renal liposarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo A.L. Bader

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Liposarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal tumor frequently located in retroperitoneum, and rarely presenting an isolated lesion in kidney. CASE REPORT: Female, Caucasian, 49-year old patient, with family history of renal polycystic disease, was selected for organ donation. During preoperative examinations a renal pleomorphic liposarcoma was detected. She was treated with radical nephrectomy and remains asymptomatic, without evidences of recurrence in control ecographic examinations after a 4-year follow-up. COMMENTS: Renal liposarcoma is a rare tumor. We report one case incidentally diagnosed during a routine pre-transplantation assessment in renal donor.

  19. RENAL CRYOABLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Govorov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cryoablation is an alternative minimally-invasive method of treatment for localized renal cell carcinoma. The main advantages of this methodology include visualization of the tumor and the forming of "ice ball" in real time, fewer complications compared with other methods of treatment of renal cell carcinoma, as well as the possibility of conducting cryotherapy in patients with concomitant pathology. Compared with other ablative technologies cryoablation has a low rate of repeat sessions and good intermediate oncological results. The studies of long-term oncological and functional results of renal cryoablation are presently under way.

  20. Renal disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Espinosa-Cuevas, María de Los Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Chronic renal failure in its various stages, requires certain nutritional restrictions associated with the accumulation of minerals and waste products that cannot be easily eliminated by the kidneys...

  1. Renal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, E.; Betti, M.; Gatta, G.; Roila, F.; Mulder, P.H.M. de

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  2. Renal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, Enrichetta; Betti, Maura; Gatta, Gemma; Roila, Fausto; De Mulder, Pieter H. M.

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  3. Hu-Lu-Ba-Wan Attenuates Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetic Rats through PKC-α/NADPH Oxidase Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishan Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hu-Lu-Ba-Wan (HLBW is a Chinese herbal prescription used to treat kidney deficiency. The aim of this study was to explore the effect and mechanism of HLBW on diabetic nephropathy (DN in type 2 diabetic rats. The rat model of DN was established by being fed a high-fat diet and intravenous injection of streptozotocin. Then, HLBW decoction was administered for 16 weeks. Blood glucose level, lipid profile, renal function, 24-hour total urinary protein, and albumin content were examined. Renal morphology and superoxide anion levels were evaluated. The activity of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH and protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-α related genes expression in renal tissue were also determined. Our data demonstrated that HLBW significantly improved hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and proteinuria in diabetic rats compared with those of control group. HLBW also alleviated glomerular expansion and fibrosis, extracellular matrix accumulation and effacement of the foot processes. Additionally, HLBW reduced superoxide anion level, NADPH oxidase activity, the protein and mRNA expressions of p47phox, and the protein expression of phosphorylated PKC-α in renal tissue. These results suggest that HLBW is effective in the treatment of DN in rats. The underlying mechanism may be related to the attenuation of renal oxidative stress via PKC-α/NADPH oxidase signaling pathway.

  4. Small renal Oncocytomas: Differentiation with multiphase CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gakis, Georgios, E-mail: georgios.gakis@web.de [Department of Urology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Eberhard-Karls University, Hoppe-Seyler Strasse 3, Tuebingen (Germany); Kramer, Ulrich [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Eberhard-Karls University, Tuebingen (Germany); Schilling, David; Kruck, Stephan; Stenzl, Arnulf [Department of Urology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Eberhard-Karls University, Hoppe-Seyler Strasse 3, Tuebingen (Germany); Schlemmer, Hans-Peter [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Eberhard-Karls University, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Objectives: To evaluate characteristic imaging findings of tumor attenuation in multiphase computed tomography (CT) between renal oncocytomas and clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) of small tumor size ({<=}5 cm). Methods: We retrospectively identified 20 patients with complete four-phase CT with either histologically confirmed small renal oncocytoma (N = 10) or ccRCC (N = 10) who underwent subsequent total or partial nephrectomy. Exclusion criteria for RCC were non-clear-cell components in histology and a tumor diameter >5 cm. The relative attenuation of solid renal lesions and normal renal cortex was determined in the unenhanced, corticomedullary, nephrographic and excretory phase. Statistical comparison was carried out by Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test. Results: Mean tumor size of renal oncocytomas was 2.8 {+-} 0.4 cm (1.2-5) and of ccRCC 2.5 {+-} 0.2 cm (1.7-4.4; p = 0.57). All lesions were homogenous without extended areas of necroses. In the nephrographic phase, the difference of attenuation between renal cortex and tumor lesion was highest in both entities (oncocytoma, 48.1 {+-} 5.2 HU; ccRCC, 67.5 {+-} 12.1) but not between entities (p = 0.30). In the corticomedullary phase, renal oncocytomas showed greater isodensity to the normal renal cortex (13.9 {+-} 4.3 HU) compared to clear-cell RCC (51.5 {+-} 5.0 HU; p = 0.003). No further significant differences were found for the unenhanced and excretory phase. Conclusions: In this study, the maximum tumor-to-kidney contrast coincided with the nephrographic phase which was thus the most reliable for the detection of a renal lesion <5 cm. For lesion characterization, the corticomedullary phase was most useful for differentiating both entities. This finding is particularly important for the preoperative planning of a partial nephrectomy.

  5. Renal scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003790.htm Renal scan To use the sharing features on this ... anaphylaxis . Alternative Names Renogram; Kidney scan Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Chernecky CC, ...

  6. Renal Hemangiopericytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Halil Bozkurt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiopericytoma is an uncommon perivascular tumor originating from pericytes in the pelvis, head and tneck, and the meninges; extremely rarely in the urinary system. We report a case of incidentally detected renal mass in which radiologic evaluation was suggestive of renal cell carcinoma. First, we performed partial nephrectomy, and then, radical nephrectomy because of positive surgical margins and the pathological examination of the surgical specimen that revealed a hemangiopericytoma. No additional treatment was administered.

  7. Inhibiting aerobic glycolysis suppresses renal interstitial fibroblast activation and renal fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hao; Jiang, Lei; Xu, Jing; Bai, Feng; Zhou, Yang; Yuan, Qi; Luo, Jing; Zen, Ke; Yang, Junwei

    2017-09-01

    Chronic kidney diseases generally lead to renal fibrosis. Despite great progress having been made in identifying molecular mediators of fibrosis, the mechanism that governs renal fibrosis remains unclear, and so far no effective therapeutic antifibrosis strategy is available. Here we demonstrated that a switch of metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect) in renal fibroblasts was the primary feature of fibroblast activation during renal fibrosis and that suppressing renal fibroblast aerobic glycolysis could significantly reduce renal fibrosis. Both gene and protein assay showed that the expression of glycolysis enzymes was upregulated in mouse kidneys with unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO) surgery or in transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-treated renal interstitial fibroblasts. Aerobic glycolysis flux, indicated by glucose uptake and lactate production, was increased in mouse kidney with UUO nephropathy or TGF-β1-treated renal interstitial fibroblasts and positively correlated with fibrosis process. In line with this, we found that increasing aerobic glycolysis can remarkably induce myofibroblast activation while aerobic glycolysis inhibitors shikonin and 2-deoxyglucose attenuate UUO-induced mouse renal fibrosis and TGF-β1-stimulated myofibroblast activation. Furthermore, mechanistic study indicated that shikonin inhibits renal aerobic glycolysis via reducing phosphorylation of pyruvate kinase type M2, a rate-limiting glycolytic enzyme associated with cell reliance on aerobic glycolysis. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate the critical role of aerobic glycolysis in renal fibrosis and support treatment with aerobic glycolysis inhibitors as a potential antifibrotic strategy. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Endothelin-A Receptor Antagonism after Renal Angioplasty Enhances Renal Recovery in Renovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullos, Nathan; Stewart, Nicholas J.; Surles, Bret

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty/stenting (PTRAS) is frequently used to treat renal artery stenosis and renovascular disease (RVD); however, renal function is restored in less than one half of the cases. This study was designed to test a novel intervention that could refine PTRAS and enhance renal recovery in RVD. Renal function was quantified in pigs after 6 weeks of chronic RVD (induced by unilateral renal artery stenosis), established renal damage, and hypertension. Pigs with RVD then underwent PTRAS and were randomized into three groups: placebo (RVD+PTRAS), chronic endothelin-A receptor (ET-A) blockade (RVD+PTRAS+ET-A), and chronic dual ET-A/B blockade (RVD+PTRAS+ET-A/B) for 4 weeks. Renal function was again evaluated after treatments, and then, ex vivo studies were performed on the stented kidney. PTRAS resolved renal stenosis, attenuated hypertension, and improved renal function but did not resolve renal microvascular rarefaction, remodeling, or renal fibrosis. ET-A blocker therapy after PTRAS significantly improved hypertension, microvascular rarefaction, and renal injury and led to greater recovery of renal function. Conversely, combined ET-A/B blockade therapy blunted the therapeutic effects of PTRAS alone or PTRAS followed by ET-A blockade. These data suggest that ET-A receptor blockade therapy could serve as a coadjuvant intervention to enhance the outcomes of PTRAS in RVD. These results also suggest that ET-B receptors are important for renal function in RVD and may contribute to recovery after PTRAS. Using clinically available compounds and techniques, our results could contribute to both refinement and design of new therapeutic strategies in chronic RVD. PMID:25377076

  9. Free radical scavengers in mercuric chloride-induced acute renal failure in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paller, M S

    1985-04-01

    Oxygen free radicals have recently been found to mediate cell injury after ischemia in the kidney. We sought to determine whether oxygen free radicals mediate damage in mercuric chloride (HgCl2)-induced acute renal failure, a toxic model of acute renal failure. Neither superoxide dismutase nor allopurinol, which scavenges or inhibits production of superoxide radical, respectively, provided protection against renal dysfunction after HgCl2. Similarly, the hydroxyl radical scavengers tryptophan, N-acetyl-tryptophan, and ascorbic acid were unable to protect against HgCl2. However, dimethylthiourea and dimethyl sulfoxide, both hydroxyl radical scavengers, were beneficial. Dimethylthiourea completely prevented the rise in plasma creatinine concentration after HgCL2. In control rats plasma creatinine concentration rose from 0.4 mg/dl to 3.2 +/- 0.8, 5.1 +/- 1.0, and 6.1 +/- 1.6 mg/dl at 24, 48, and 72 hours after HgCl2. Dimethylthiourea-treated rats had plasma creatinine concentration less than 0.5 mg/dl at all times. Furthermore, a mixture of HgCl2 and equimolar amounts of dimethylthiourea was less toxic than HgCl2 alone. Dimethyl sulfoxide attenuated the HgCl2-induced rise in creatinine concentration: 1.3 +/- 0.2, 3.2 +/- 0.3, and 3.1 +/- 0.2 mg/dl at 24, 48, and 72 hours after HgCl2. Measurement of kidney malondialdehyde content after HgCl2 provided no evidence for oxygen free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation. We conclude that there is no convincing role for oxygen free radicals in the pathogenesis of HgCl2-induced acute renal failure. The ability of dimethylthiourea and dimethyl sulfoxide to protect against HgCl2-induced renal dysfunction may be related to their ability to form complexes with Hg2+.

  10. Assessment of dyslipidemia in renal disease patients | Digban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dyslipidemia is elevation of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), or both, or a low high density lipoprotein level that contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Lipid pattern of renal disease patients were determined. One hundred volunteers were recruited for this study which comprised of sixty renal disease ...

  11. Lipid rafts are required for signal transduction by angiotensin II receptor type 1 in neonatal glomerular mesangial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adebiyi, Adebowale, E-mail: aadebiyi@uthsc.edu; Soni, Hitesh; John, Theresa A.; Yang, Fen

    2014-05-15

    Angiotensin II (ANG-II) receptors (AGTRs) contribute to renal physiology and pathophysiology, but the underlying mechanisms that regulate AGTR function in glomerular mesangium are poorly understood. Here, we show that AGTR1 is the functional AGTR subtype expressed in neonatal pig glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs). Cyclodextrin (CDX)-mediated cholesterol depletion attenuated cell surface AGTR1 protein expression and ANG-II-induced intracellular Ca{sup 2+} ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) elevation in the cells. The COOH-terminus of porcine AGTR1 contains a caveolin (CAV)-binding motif. However, neonatal GMCs express CAV-1, but not CAV-2 and CAV-3. Colocalization and in situ proximity ligation assay detected an association between endogenous AGTR1 and CAV-1 in the cells. A synthetic peptide corresponding to the CAV-1 scaffolding domain (CSD) sequence also reduced ANG-II-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation in the cells. Real-time imaging of cell growth revealed that ANG-II stimulates neonatal GMC proliferation. ANG-II-induced GMC growth was attenuated by EMD 66684, an AGTR1 antagonist; BAPTA, a [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} chelator; KN-93, a Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor; CDX; and a CSD peptide, but not PD 123319, a selective AGTR2 antagonist. Collectively, our data demonstrate [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-dependent proliferative effect of ANG-II and highlight a critical role for lipid raft microdomains in AGTR1-mediated signal transduction in neonatal GMCs. - Highlights: • AGTR1 is the functional AGTR subtype expressed in neonatal mesangial cells. • Endogenous AGTR1 associates with CAV-1 in neonatal mesangial cells. • Lipid raft disruption attenuates cell surface AGTR1 protein expression. • Lipid raft disruption reduces ANG-II-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation in neonatal mesangial cells. • Lipid raft disruption inhibits ANG-II-induced neonatal mesangial cell growth.

  12. Renal leiomyosarkom

    OpenAIRE

    A, Gelincik İ Tok

    2013-01-01

    Renal leiomyosarkomlar, oldukça nadirdir ve primer böbrek malignitelerinin %1-3'ünü oluştururlar. Renal sarkomların prognozu kötüdür ve özellikle sarkomatoid renal hücreli karsinomdan ayrımının yapılması gerekir. Hastanın klinik prezentasyonu ve radyolojik bulguları kesin olarak preoperatif tanı koymaya yardımcı değildir. Başlıca tedavi adjuvan radyoterapi veya kemoterapi ile birlikte veya tek başına radikal nefrektomidir. Prognozu kötüdür. Tanısını immünohistokimya ile doğruladığımız pr...

  13. Renal Denervation Prevents Immune Cell Activation and Renal Inflammation in Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liang; Kirabo, Annet; Wu, Jing; Saleh, Mohamed A; Zhu, Linjue; Wang, Feng; Takahashi, Takamune; Loperena, Roxana; Foss, Jason D; Mernaugh, Raymond L; Chen, Wei; Roberts, Jackson; Osborn, John W; Itani, Hana A; Harrison, David G

    2015-08-28

    Inflammation and adaptive immunity play a crucial role in the development of hypertension. Angiotensin II and probably other hypertensive stimuli activate the central nervous system and promote T-cell activation and end-organ damage in peripheral tissues. To determine if renal sympathetic nerves mediate renal inflammation and T-cell activation in hypertension. Bilateral renal denervation using phenol application to the renal arteries reduced renal norepinephrine levels and blunted angiotensin II-induced hypertension. Bilateral renal denervation also reduced inflammation, as reflected by decreased accumulation of total leukocytes, T cells, and both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the kidney. This was associated with a marked reduction in renal fibrosis, albuminuria, and nephrinuria. Unilateral renal denervation, which partly attenuated blood pressure, only reduced inflammation in the denervated kidney, suggesting that this effect is pressure independent. Angiotensin II also increased immunogenic isoketal-protein adducts in renal dendritic cells (DCs) and increased surface expression of costimulation markers and production of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, and IL-6 from splenic DCs. Norepinephrine also dose dependently stimulated isoketal formation in cultured DCs. Adoptive transfer of splenic DCs from angiotensin II-treated mice primed T-cell activation and hypertension in recipient mice. Renal denervation prevented these effects of hypertension on DCs. In contrast to these beneficial effects of ablating all renal nerves, renal afferent disruption with capsaicin had no effect on blood pressure or renal inflammation. Renal sympathetic nerves contribute to DC activation, subsequent T-cell infiltration and end-organ damage in the kidney in the development of hypertension. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Trauma renal

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Júnior, Gerson Alves; Paganelli, Fernando; Scarpelini, Sandro; Stracieri, Luís Donizetti Silva; Féres, Ornar; Andrade, José Ivan de

    1999-01-01

    Apresentamos uma revisão sobre trauma renal, com ênfase na avaliação radiológica, particularmente com o uso da tomografia computadorizada, que tem se tornado o exame de eleição, ao invés da urografia excretora e arteriografia. O sucesso no tratamento conservador dos pacientes com trauma renal depende de um acurado estadiamento da extensão da lesão, classificado de acordo com a Organ Injury Scaling do Colégio Americano de Cirurgiões. O tratamento conservador não-operatório é seguro e consiste ...

  15. Sarcoidose renal

    OpenAIRE

    AQUINO, MARIA ENEDINA CLAUDINO DE; SALES, ROBERTA KARLA BARBOSA DE; SANTOS, JOSÉ ANTÔNIO FREIRE DOS; RÉGIS, ANA LIDIA; MORRONE, NELSON

    2001-01-01

    Em uma mulher de 62 anos, branca, em avaliação pré-operatória de facectomia, foram detectadas alterações urinárias, tendo sido firmados os diagnósticos de calculose renal esquerda e exclusão renal homolateral. No pré-operatório da nefrectomia foram evidenciados processo pulmonar intersticial bilateral e adenopatia torácica, cuja investigação foi adiada para após a cirurgia. No rim retirado foram detectados granulomas epitelióides não necrotizantes, o mesmo ocorrendo posteriormente em biópsia ...

  16. Renal transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Bugeja, Mark

    1983-01-01

    The first Renal Transplantation ever to be carried out in Malta was performed on the 22nd April, 1983, a day that may well be included in the Medical History of our Islands. This .event is another step -forward following the introduction, not very long'ago, at St. Luke's Hospital, of Haemodialysis or as the lay- man would call it, the 'Kidney Machine'. What follows is not meant to be a case- presentation proper but is intended to serve as a base over which some pros and cons of renal transpla...

  17. Renal Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction with Hemin Augments Renal Hemodynamics, Renal Autoregulation, and Excretory Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fady T. Botros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heme oxygenases (HO-1; HO-2 catalyze conversion of heme to free iron, carbon monoxide, and biliverdin/bilirubin. To determine the effects of renal HO-1 induction on blood pressure and renal function, normal control rats (n=7 and hemin-treated rats (n=6 were studied. Renal clearance studies were performed on anesthetized rats to assess renal function; renal blood flow (RBF was measured using a transonic flow probe placed around the left renal artery. Hemin treatment significantly induced renal HO-1. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were not different (115±5 mmHg versus 112±4 mmHg and 331±16 versus 346±10 bpm. However, RBF was significantly higher (9.1±0.8 versus 7.0±0.5 mL/min/g, P<0.05, and renal vascular resistance was significantly lower (13.0±0.9 versus 16.6±1.4 [mmHg/(mL/min/g], P<0.05. Likewise, glomerular filtration rate was significantly elevated (1.4±0.2 versus 1.0±0.1 mL/min/g, P<0.05, and urine flow and sodium excretion were also higher (18.9±3.9 versus 8.2±1.0 μL/min/g, P<0.05 and 1.9±0.6 versus 0.2±0.1 μmol/min/g, P<0.05, resp.. The plateau of the autoregulation relationship was elevated, and renal vascular responses to acute angiotensin II infusion were attenuated in hemin-treated rats reflecting the vasodilatory effect of HO-1 induction. We conclude that renal HO-1 induction augments renal function which may contribute to the antihypertensive effects of HO-1 induction observed in hypertension models.

  18. Extracellular Vesicles in Renal Pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomatto, Margherita A C; Gai, Chiara; Bussolati, Benedetta; Camussi, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles are a heterogeneous population of microparticles released by virtually all living cells which have been recently widely investigated in different biological fields. They are typically composed of two primary types (exosomes and microvesicles) and are recently commanding increasing attention as mediators of cellular signaling. Indeed, these vesicles can affect recipient cells by carrying and delivering complex cargos of biomolecules (including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids), protected from enzymatic degradation in the environment. Their importance has been demonstrated in the pathophysiology of several organs, in particular in kidney, where different cell types secrete extracellular vesicles that mediate their communication with downstream urinary tract cells. Over the past few years, evidence has been shown that vesicles participate in kidney development and normal physiology. Moreover, EVs are widely demonstrated to be implicated in cellular signaling during renal regenerative and pathological processes. Although many EV mechanisms are still poorly understood, in particular in kidney, the discovery of their role could help to shed light on renal biological processes which are so far elusive. Lastly, extracellular vesicles secreted by renal cells gather in urine, thus becoming a great resource for disease or recovery markers and a promising non-invasive diagnostic instrument for renal disease. In the present review, we discuss the most recent findings on the role of extracellular vesicles in renal physiopathology and their potential implication in diagnosis and therapy.

  19. Renal and sympathoadrenal responses in space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N J; Drummer, C; Norsk, P

    2001-01-01

    According to a classic hypothesis, weightlessness should promote the renal excretion rate of sodium and water and lead to a fluid- and electrolyte-depleted state. This hypothesis is based on experiments in which weightlessness has been simulated in humans by head-down bed rest and water immersion....... However, after 5 to 6 days of space mission, the diuretic and natriuretic responses to an intravenous isotonic saline load were attenuated and plasma norepinephrine and renin concentrations increased compared with those of the acute supine position before flight. Renal fluid excretion after an oral water...... load was also attenuated in space. Similar decreases were not observed during head-down bed rest. Sympathetic activity is of major importance in regulating blood volume and renal function. Studies in space have indicated that, compared with that while in a supine position on Earth, sympathoadrenal...

  20. Hiperparatiroidismos renales

    OpenAIRE

    Malagón Castro, Valentín

    2011-01-01

    En la presente monografía presentamos una síntesis, lo más completa posible, del gran problema de los Hiperparatirodismos secundarios a lesiones renales, enfocando su estudio con un criterio unicista, con el objeto de hacer más didáctico este amplio capítulo de la patología.

  1. Renal denervation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lene Kjær; Kamper, Anne-Lise; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Renal denervation (RDN) has, within recent years, been suggested as a novel treatment option for patients with resistant hypertension. This review summarizes the current knowledge on this procedure as well as limitations and questions that remain to be answered. RECENT FINDINGS...

  2. Trauma renal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Alves Pereira Júnior

    Full Text Available Apresentamos uma revisão sobre trauma renal, com ênfase na avaliação radiológica, particularmente com o uso da tomografia computadorizada, que tem se tornado o exame de eleição, ao invés da urografia excretora e arteriografia. O sucesso no tratamento conservador dos pacientes com trauma renal depende de um acurado estadiamento da extensão da lesão, classificado de acordo com a Organ Injury Scaling do Colégio Americano de Cirurgiões. O tratamento conservador não-operatório é seguro e consiste de observação contínua, repouso no leito, hidratação endovenosa adequada e antibioti- coterapia profilática, evitando-se uma exploração cirúrgica desnecessária e possível perda renal. As indicações para exploração cirúrgica imediata são abdome agudo, rápida queda do hematócrito ou lesões associadas determinadas na avaliação radiológica. Quando indicada, a exploração renal após controle vascular prévio é segura, permitindo cuidadosa inspeção do rim e sua reconstrução com sucesso, reduzindo a probabilidade de nefrectomia.

  3. Resting Afferent Renal Nerve Discharge and Renal Inflammation: Elucidating the Role of Afferent and Efferent Renal Nerves in Deoxycorticosterone Acetate Salt Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banek, Christopher T; Knuepfer, Mark M; Foss, Jason D; Fiege, Jessica K; Asirvatham-Jeyaraj, Ninitha; Van Helden, Dusty; Shimizu, Yoji; Osborn, John W

    2016-12-01

    Renal sympathetic denervation (RDNx) has emerged as a novel therapy for hypertension; however, the therapeutic mechanisms remain unclear. Efferent renal sympathetic nerve activity has recently been implicated in trafficking renal inflammatory immune cells and inflammatory chemokine and cytokine release. Several of these inflammatory mediators are known to activate or sensitize afferent nerves. This study aimed to elucidate the roles of efferent and afferent renal nerves in renal inflammation and hypertension in the deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) salt rat model. Uninephrectomized male Sprague-Dawley rats (275-300 g) underwent afferent-selective RDNx (n=10), total RDNx (n=10), or Sham (n=10) and were instrumented for the measurement of mean arterial pressure and heart rate by radiotelemetry. Rats received 100-mg DOCA (SC) and 0.9% saline for 21 days. Resting afferent renal nerve activity in DOCA and vehicle animals was measured after the treatment protocol. Renal tissue inflammation was assessed by renal cytokine content and T-cell infiltration and activation. Resting afferent renal nerve activity, expressed as a percent of peak afferent nerve activity, was substantially increased in DOCA than in vehicle (35.8±4.4 versus 15.3±2.8 %Amax). The DOCA-Sham hypertension (132±12 mm Hg) was attenuated by ≈50% in both total RDNx (111±8 mm Hg) and afferent-selective RDNx (117±5 mm Hg) groups. Renal inflammation induced by DOCA salt was attenuated by total RDNx and unaffected by afferent-selective RDNx. These data suggest that afferent renal nerve activity may mediate the hypertensive response to DOCA salt, but inflammation may be mediated primarily by efferent renal sympathetic nerve activity. Also, resting afferent renal nerve activity is elevated in DOCA salt rats, which may highlight a crucial neural mechanism in the development and maintenance of hypertension. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Lipid somersaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther-Pomorski, Thomas; Menon, Anant K.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane lipids diffuse rapidly in the plane of the membrane but their ability to flip spontaneously across a membrane bilayer is hampered by a significant energy barrier. Thus spontaneous flip-flop of polar lipids across membranes is very slow, even though it must occur rapidly to support diverse...... aspects of cellular life. Here we discuss the mechanisms by which rapid flip-flop occurs, and what role lipid flipping plays in membrane homeostasis and cell growth. We focus on conceptual aspects, highlighting mechanistic insights from biochemical and in silico experiments, and the recent, ground...

  5. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles attenuate kidney inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eirin, Alfonso; Zhu, Xiang-Yang; Puranik, Amrutesh S; Tang, Hui; McGurren, Kelly A; van Wijnen, Andre J; Lerman, Amir; Lerman, Lilach O

    2017-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have distinct capability for renal repair, but may have safety concerns. MSC-derived extracellular vesicles emerged as a novel noncellular alternative. Using a porcine model of metabolic syndrome and renal artery stenosis we tested whether extracellular vesicles attenuate renal inflammation, and if this capacity is mediated by their cargo of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL) 10. Pigs with metabolic syndrome were studied after 16 weeks of renal artery stenosis untreated or treated four weeks earlier with a single intrarenal delivery of extracellular vesicles harvested from adipose tissue-derived autologous MSCs. Lean and sham metabolic syndrome animals served as controls (seven each). Five additional pigs with metabolic syndrome and renal artery stenosis received extracellular vesicles with pre-silenced IL10 (IL10 knock-down). Single-kidney renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, and oxygenation were studied in vivo and renal injury pathways ex vivo. Retention of extracellular vesicles in the stenotic kidney peaked two days after delivery and decreased thereafter. Four weeks after injection, extracellular vesicle fragments colocalized with stenotic-kidney tubular cells and macrophages, indicating internalization or fusion. Extracellular vesicle delivery attenuated renal inflammation, and improved medullary oxygenation and fibrosis. Renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate fell in metabolic syndrome and renal artery stenosis compared to metabolic syndrome, but was restored in pigs treated with extracellular vesicles. These renoprotective effects were blunted in pigs treated with IL10-depleted extracellular vesicles. Thus, extracellular vesicle-based regenerative strategies might be useful for patients with metabolic syndrome and renal artery stenosis. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Renale Osteopathie

    OpenAIRE

    Horn S

    2001-01-01

    Die renale Osteopathie umfaßt Erkrankungen des Knochens, die bei Patienten mit chronischen Nierenerkrankungen auftreten, wie den sekundären bzw. tertiären Hyperparathyreoidismus, die adynamische Knochenerkrankung und die Osteopathie nach Nierentransplantation. Durch die Identifikation des Kalzium-Sensing-Rezeptors bzw. des Vitamin D-Rezeptors hat sich unser Verständnis der Zusammenhänge in den letzten Jahren erheblich verbessert. Neue Medikamente versprechen effizientere Prophylaxe- und Thera...

  7. Renale Knochenerkrankungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Störungen des Mineral- und Knochenstoffwechsels sind bei fast allen Patienten mit chronischen Nierenerkrankungen anzutreffen. Pathogenetisch spielt eine Neigung zur Phosphatretention bei einer Reduktion der glomerulären Filtrationsrate die zentrale Rolle. Neben typischen, aber sehr variablen Veränderungen der Knochenstruktur (renale Osteopathie besteht auch eine sehr enge Assoziation zwischen diesen Störungen und dem massiv erhöhten kardiovaskulären Risiko der Patienten.

  8. Renal tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Džamić Zoran; Dimitrijević Vladan

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is still a significant health problem in the world, mostly in developing countries. The special significance lies in immunocompromised patients, particularly those suffering from the HIV. Urogenital tuberculosis is one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, while the most commonly involved organ is the kidney. Renal tuberculosis occurs by hematogenous dissemination of mycobacterium tuberculosis from a primary tuberculosis foci in the body. Tuberculosis is charac...

  9. Hiperparatiroidismos renales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentín Malagón Castro

    1957-04-01

    Full Text Available En la presente monografía presentamos una síntesis, lo más completa posible, del gran problema de los Hiperparatirodismos secundarios a lesiones renales, enfocando su estudio con un criterio unicista, con el objeto de hacer más didáctico este amplio capítulo de la patología.

  10. Oligonol, a low-molecular-weight polyphenol derived from lychee fruit, attenuates diabetes-induced renal damage through the advanced glycation end product-related pathway in db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Hum; Yokozawa, Takako; Noh, Jeong Sook

    2014-08-01

    This study was conducted to examine whether oligonol, a low-molecular-weight polyphenol derived from lychee fruit, has an ameliorative effect on diabetes-induced alterations, such as advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation or apoptosis in the kidneys of db/db mice with type 2 diabetes. Oligonol [10 or 20 mg/(kg body weight · d), orally] was administered every day for 8 wk to prediabetic db/db mice, and its effect was compared with vehicle-treated db/db and normal control mice (m/m). The administration of oligonol decreased the elevated renal glucose concentrations and reactive oxygen species in db/db mice (P oxidase subunits (p22 phagocytic oxidase and NAD(P)H oxidase-4), AGEs (except for pentosidine), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase B-targeting proinflammatory tumor necrosis factor-α (P < 0.05). Oligonol improved the expressions of antiapoptotic [B-cell lymphoma protein 2 (Bcl-2) and survivin] and proapoptotic [Bcl-2-associated X protein, cytochrome c, and caspase-3] proteins in the kidneys of db/db mice (P < 0.05). In conclusion, these results provide important evidence that oligonol exhibits a pleiotropic effect on AGE formation and apoptosis-related variables, representing renoprotective effects against the development of diabetic complications in db/db mice with type 2 diabetes. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Obesity-Related Chronic Kidney Disease?The Role of Lipid Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Mount; Matthew Davies; Suet-Wan Choy; Natasha Cook; David Power

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD). The mechanisms linking obesity and CKD include systemic changes such as high blood pressure and hyperglycemia, and intrarenal effects relating to lipid accumulation. Normal lipid metabolism is integral to renal physiology and disturbances of renal lipid and energy metabolism are increasingly being linked with kidney disease. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) are important regulators of f...

  12. DHEA supplementation to dexamethasone-treated rabbits alleviates oxidative stress in kidney-cortex and attenuates albuminuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiersztan, Anna; Trojan, Nina; Tempes, Aleksandra; Nalepa, Paweł; Sitek, Joanna; Winiarska, Katarzyna; Usarek, Michał

    2017-11-01

    Our recent study has shown that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) administered to rabbits partially ameliorated several dexamethasone (dexP) effects on hepatic and renal gluconeogenesis, insulin resistance and plasma lipid disorders. In the current investigation, we present the data on DHEA protective action against dexP-induced oxidative stress and albuminuria in rabbits. Four groups of adult male rabbits were used in the in vivo experiment: (1) control, (2) dexP-treated, (3) DHEA-treated and (4) both dexP- and DHEA-treated. Administration of dexP resulted in accelerated generation of renal hydroxyl free radicals (HFR) and malondialdehyde (MDA), accompanied by diminished superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities and a dramatic rise in urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. Treatment with DHEA markedly reduced dexP-induced oxidative stress in kidney-cortex due to a decline in NADPH oxidase activity and enhancement of catalase activity. Moreover, DHEA effectively attenuated dexP-evoked albuminuria. Surprisingly, dexP-treated rabbits exhibited elevation of GSH/GSSG ratio, accompanied by a decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities as well as an increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity. Treatment with DHEA resulted in a decline in GSH/GSSG ratio and glutathione reductase (GR) activity, accompanied by an elevation of GPx activity. Interestingly, rabbits treated with both dexP and DHEA remained the control values of GSH/GSSG ratio. As the co-administration of DHEA with dexP resulted in (i) reduction of oxidative stress in kidney-cortex, (ii) attenuation of albuminuria and (iii) normalization of glutathione redox state, DHEA might limit several undesirable renal side effects during chronic GC treatment of patients suffering from allergies, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. Moreover, its supplementation might be particularly beneficial for the therapy of patients with glucocorticoid-induced diabetes

  13. Obesity and renal hemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R. J.; Krikken, J. A.; van der Heide, J. J. Homan; de Jong, P. E.; Navis, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for renal damage in native kidney disease and in renal transplant recipients. Obesity is associated with several renal risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes that may convey renal risk, but obesity is also associated with an unfavorable renal hemodynamic profile

  14. Fenofibrate Attenuates Malignant Hypertension by Suppression of the Renin-angiotensin System: A Study in Cyp1a1-Ren-2 Transgenic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jíchová, Šárka; Doleželová, Šárka; Kopkan, Libor; Kompanowska-Jezierska, Elzbieta; Sadowski, Janusz; Červenka, Luděk

    2016-12-01

    Malignant hypertension is a life-threatening condition, and its pathophysiology is still poorly understood. The present study was designed to evaluate the role of interaction of the renin-angiotensin system with 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), a product of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent ω-hydroxylase pathway, in the pathophysiology of angiotensin II (ANG II)-dependent malignant hypertension in Cyp1a1-Ren-2 transgenic rats. Malignant hypertension was induced by 12 days׳ dietary administration of 0.3 % indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a natural xenobiotic that activates a mouse renin gene. We hypothesized that chronic administration of fenofibrate, 190mg/kg body weight, a lipid-lowering drug, should increase renal production of 20-HETE, a tubular transport inhibitor; an expected increase in sodium excretion would oppose the development of ANG II-dependent malignant hypertension. Blood pressure was monitored by radiotelemetry, and at the end of the experiment rats were prepared for renal functional studies to evaluate in vivo the pressure-natriuresis relationship in response to stepwise reductions in renal arterial pressure (RAP). In I3C-induced rats, the treatment with fenofibrate significantly attenuated hypertension and improved the slope of the pressure-natriuresis relationship. Although fenofibrate treatment increased kidney gene and protein expression of CYP4A1, a major isoform responsible for 20-HETE formation, it did not increase renal 20-HETE concentration. On the contrary, fenofibrate treatment significantly suppressed renin gene expression, plasma renin activity and plasma and kidney ANG II levels. Fenofibrate treatment significantly attenuated the course of malignant hypertension in I3C-induced CYP1a1-Ren-2 transgenic rats, and the mechanism responsible for antihypertensive action was fenofibrate-induced suppression of renin-angiotensin system activity. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  15. Arctigenin suppresses renal interstitial fibrosis in a rat model of obstructive nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ao; Zhang, Xiaoxun; Shu, Mao; Wu, Mingjun; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jingyao; Wang, Rui; Li, Peng; Wang, Yitao

    2017-07-01

    Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is commonly the final result of a variety of progressive injuries and leads to end-stage renal disease. There are few therapeutic agents currently available for retarding the development of renal TIF. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the role of arctigenin (ATG), a lignan component derived from dried burdock (Arctium lappa L.) fruits, in protecting the kidney against injury by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in rats. Rats were subjected to UUO and then administered with vehicle, ATG (1 and 3mg/kg/d), or losartan (20mg/kg/d) for 11 consecutive days. The renoprotective effects of ATG were evaluated by histological examination and multiple biochemical assays. Our results suggest that ATG significantly protected the kidney from injury by reducing tubular dilatation, epithelial atrophy, collagen deposition, and tubulointerstitial compartment expansion. ATG administration dramatically decreased macrophage (CD68-positive cell) infiltration. Meanwhile, ATG down-regulated the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), in the obstructed kidneys. This was associated with decreased activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). ATG attenuated UUO-induced oxidative stress by increasing the activity of renal manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2), leading to reduced levels of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, ATG inhibited the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of renal tubules by reducing the abundance of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and its type I receptor, suppressing Smad2/3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, and up-regulating Smad7 expression. Notably, the efficacy of ATG in renal protection was comparable or even superior to losartan. ATG could protect the kidney from UUO-induced injury and fibrogenesis by suppressing inflammation, oxidative

  16. Pressure surge attenuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Alan M.; Snyder, Kurt I.

    1985-01-01

    A pressure surge attenuation system for pipes having a fluted region opposite crushable metal foam. As adapted for nuclear reactor vessels and heads, crushable metal foam is disposed to attenuate pressure surges.

  17. Distribution of glucose transporters in renal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szablewski, Leszek

    2017-08-31

    Kidneys play an important role in glucose homeostasis. Renal gluconeogenesis prevents hypoglycemia by releasing glucose into the blood stream. Glucose homeostasis is also due, in part, to reabsorption and excretion of hexose in the kidney.Lipid bilayer of plasma membrane is impermeable for glucose, which is hydrophilic and soluble in water. Therefore, transport of glucose across the plasma membrane depends on carrier proteins expressed in the plasma membrane. In humans, there are three families of glucose transporters: GLUT proteins, sodium-dependent glucose transporters (SGLTs) and SWEET. In kidney, only GLUTs and SGLTs protein are expressed. Mutations within genes that code these proteins lead to different renal disorders and diseases. However, diseases, not only renal, such as diabetes, may damage expression and function of renal glucose transporters.

  18. Bilateral Renal Mass-Renal Disorder: Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Tiryaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 30-year-old woman has presented complaining of weakness and fatigue to her primary care physician. The renal sonography is a routine step in the evaluation of new onset renal failure. When the renal masses have been discovered by sonography in this setting, the functional imaging may be critical. We reported a case about bilateral renal masses in a young female patient with tuberculosis and renal insufficiency. Magnetic resonance (MR has revealed the bilateral renal masses in patient, and this patient has been referred to our hospital for further management. The patient’s past medical and surgical history was unremarkable.

  19. Proximal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - proximal; Type II RTA; RTA - proximal; Renal tubular acidosis type II ... by alkaline substances, mainly bicarbonate. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (Type II RTA) occurs when bicarbonate is not ...

  20. Renal Protective Effects of Resveratrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munehiro Kitada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene, a natural polyphenolic compound found in grapes and red wine, is reported to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases, including renal diseases. These beneficial effects are thought to be due to this compound’s antioxidative properties: resveratrol is known to be a robust scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS. In addition to scavenging ROS, resveratrol may have numerous protective effects against age-related disorders, including renal diseases, through the activation of SIRT1. SIRT1, an NAD+-dependent deacetylase, was identified as one of the molecules through which calorie restriction extends the lifespan or delays age-related diseases, and this protein may regulate multiple cellular functions, including apoptosis, mitochondrial biogenesis, inflammation, glucose/lipid metabolism, autophagy, and adaptations to cellular stress, through the deacetylation of target proteins. Previous reports have shown that resveratrol can ameliorate several types of renal injury, such as diabetic nephropathy, drug-induced injury, aldosterone-induced injury, ischemia-reperfusion injury, sepsis-related injury, and unilateral ureteral obstruction, in animal models through its antioxidant effect or SIRT1 activation. Therefore, resveratrol may be a useful supplemental treatment for preventing renal injury.

  1. Bilateral renal artery variation

    OpenAIRE

    Üçerler, Hülya; Üzüm, Yusuf; İkiz, Z. Aslı Aktan

    2015-01-01

    Each kidney is supplied by a single renal artery, although renal artery variations are common. Variations of the renal arteryhave become important with the increasing number of renal transplantations. Numerous studies describe variations in renalartery anatomy. Especially the left renal artery is among the most critical arterial variations, because it is the referred side forresecting the donor kidney. During routine dissection in a formalin fixed male cadaver, we have found a bilateral renal...

  2. Drug-induced renal injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induced renal toxicity into four major renal syndromes: • acute renal failure. • chronic renal failure. • glomerulonephritis. • tubulopathies. These major renal syndromes are discussed in further detail below (see summary in Table I). Acute renal failure. Drugs can cause acute renal failure by causing pre-renal, intrinsic or.

  3. Renal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džamić Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is still a significant health problem in the world, mostly in developing countries. The special significance lies in immunocompromised patients, particularly those suffering from the HIV. Urogenital tuberculosis is one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, while the most commonly involved organ is the kidney. Renal tuberculosis occurs by hematogenous dissemination of mycobacterium tuberculosis from a primary tuberculosis foci in the body. Tuberculosis is characterized by the formation of pathognomonic lesions in the tissues - granulomata. These granulomata may heal spontaneously or remain stable for years. In certain circumstances in the body associated with immunosuppression, the disease may be activated. Central caseous necrosis occurs within tuberculoma, leading to formation of cavities that destroy renal parenchyma. The process may gain access to the collecting system, forming the caverns. In this way, infection can be spread distally to renal pelvis, ureter and bladder. Scaring of tissue by tuberculosis process may lead to development of strictures of the urinary tract. The clinical manifestations are presented by nonspecific symptoms and signs, so tuberculosis can often be overlooked. Sterile pyuria is characteristic for urinary tuberculosis. Dysuric complaints, flank pain or hematuria may be presented in patients. Constitutional symptoms of fever, weight loss and night sweats are presented in some severe cases. Diagnosis is made by isolation of mycobacterium tuberculosis in urine samples, by cultures carried out on standard solid media optimized for mycobacterial growth. Different imaging studies are used in diagnostics - IVU, CT and NMR are the most important. Medical therapy is the main modality of tuberculosis treatment. The first line anti-tuberculosis drugs include isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. Surgical treatment is required in some cases, to remove severely damaged kidney, if

  4. Renale Osteopathie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horn S

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Die renale Osteopathie umfaßt Erkrankungen des Knochens, die bei Patienten mit chronischen Nierenerkrankungen auftreten, wie den sekundären bzw. tertiären Hyperparathyreoidismus, die adynamische Knochenerkrankung und die Osteopathie nach Nierentransplantation. Durch die Identifikation des Kalzium-Sensing-Rezeptors bzw. des Vitamin D-Rezeptors hat sich unser Verständnis der Zusammenhänge in den letzten Jahren erheblich verbessert. Neue Medikamente versprechen effizientere Prophylaxe- und Therapiemöglichkeiten. Wir beeinflussen dadurch nicht nur die Morbidität und Lebensqualität, sondern auch die Mortalität unserer Patienten.

  5. The role of the kidney in lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moestrup, Søren K; Nielsen, Lars Bo

    2005-01-01

    proteins. We describe the renal receptor system and its role in lipid metabolism in health and disease, and discuss the general effect of the diseased kidney on lipid metabolism. RECENT FINDINGS: Megalin and cubilin are receptors in the proximal tubules. An accumulating number of lipid......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cellular uptake of plasma lipids is to a large extent mediated by specific membrane-associated proteins that recognize lipid-protein complexes. In the kidney, the apical surface of proximal tubules has a high capacity for receptor-mediated uptake of filtered lipid-binding plasma......-binding and regulating proteins (e.g. albumin, apolipoprotein A-I and leptin) have been identified as ligands, suggesting that their receptors may directly take up lipids in the proximal tubules and indirectly affect plasma and tissue lipid metabolism. Recently, the amnionless protein was shown to be essential...

  6. Renal calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Pyrah, Leslie N

    1979-01-01

    Stone in the urinary tract has fascinated the medical profession from the earliest times and has played an important part in the development of surgery. The earliest major planned operations were for the removal of vesical calculus; renal and ureteric calculi provided the first stimulus for the radiological investigation of the viscera, and the biochemical investigation of the causes of calculus formation has been the training ground for surgeons interested in metabolic disorders. It is therefore no surprise that stone has been the subject of a number of monographs by eminent urologists, but the rapid development of knowledge has made it possible for each one of these authors to produce something new. There is still a technical challenge to the surgeon in the removal of renal calculi, and on this topic we are always glad to have the advice of a master craftsman; but inevitably much of the interest centres on the elucidation of the causes of stone formation and its prevention. Professor Pyrah has had a long an...

  7. Renal Denervation Prevents Immune Cell Activation and Renal Inflammation in Angiotensin II–Induced Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liang; Kirabo, Annet; Wu, Jing; Saleh, Mohamed A.; Zhu, Linjue; Wang, Feng; Takahashi, Takamune; Loperena, Roxana; Foss, Jason D.; Mernaugh, Raymond L.; Chen, Wei; Roberts, Jackson; Osborn, John W.; Itani, Hana A.; Harrison, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Inflammation and adaptive immunity plays a crucial role in the development of hypertension. Angiotensin II and likely other hypertensive stimuli activate the central nervous system and promote T cell activation and end-organ damage in peripheral tissues. Objective To determine if renal sympathetic nerves mediate renal inflammation and T cell activation in hypertension. Methods and Results Bilateral renal denervation (RDN) using phenol application to the renal arteries reduced renal norepinephrine (NE) levels and blunted angiotensin II induced hypertension. Bilateral RDN also reduced inflammation, as reflected by decreased accumulation of total leukocytes, T cells and both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the kidney. This was associated with a marked reduction in renal fibrosis, albuminuria and nephrinuria. Unilateral RDN, which partly attenuated blood pressure, only reduced inflammation in the denervated kidney, suggesting that this effect is pressure independent. Angiotensin II also increased immunogenic isoketal-protein adducts in renal dendritic cells (DCs) and increased surface expression of costimulation markers and production of IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-6 from splenic dendritic cells. NE also dose dependently stimulated isoketal formation in cultured DCs. Adoptive transfer of splenic DCs from angiotensin II-treated mice primed T cell activation and hypertension in recipient mice. RDN prevented these effects of hypertension on DCs. In contrast to these beneficial effects of ablating all renal nerves, renal afferent disruption with capsaicin had no effect on blood pressure or renal inflammation. Conclusions Renal sympathetic nerves contribute to dendritic cell activation, subsequent T cell infiltration and end-organ damage in the kidney in the development of hypertension. PMID:26156232

  8. Traumatismo Renal

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Martinez S.

    2017-01-01

    Introdução: A realização deste trabalho visa a elaboração de uma revisão sistematizada subordinada à temática da traumatologia renal. Objectivos: Os principais objectivos deste trabalho são: apurar a etiologia, definir a classificação, analisar o diagnóstico e expôr o tratamento e as complicações. Desenvolvimento: Os traumatismos são a principal causa de morte antes dos 40 anos. O rim é o órgão do aparelho génito-urinário mais frequentemente atingido. Os traumatismos renais são mais fre...

  9. TRANSPLANTE RENAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Geraldo Rozza Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue comprender el significado de espera del trasplante renal para las mujeres en hemodiálisis. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo-interpretativo, realizado con 12 mujeres en hemodiálisis en Florianópolis. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas en profundidad en el domicilio. Fue utilizado el software Etnografh 6.0 para la pre-codificación y posterior al análisis interpretativo emergieron dos categorías: “las sombras del momento actual”, que mostró que las dificultades iniciales de la enfermedad están presentes, pero las mujeres pueden hacer frente mejor a la enfermedad y el tratamiento. La segunda categoría, “la luz del trasplante renal”, muestra la esperanza impulsada por la entrada en la lista de espera para un trasplante.

  10. [Hypertension and renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A.L.; Pedersen, E.B.; Strandgaard, S.

    2009-01-01

    Renal mechanisms, in particular the renin-angiotensin system and renal salt handling, are of major importance in blood pressure regulation. Co-existence of hypertension and decreased renal function may be due to nephrosclerosis secondary to hypertension, or primary renal disease with secondary...

  11. Unusual lipid structures selectively reduce the toxicity of amphotericin B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janoff, A.S.; Boni, L.T.; Popescu, M.C.; Minchey, S.R.; Cullis, P.R.; Madden, T.D.; Taraschi, T.; Gruner, S.M.; Shyamsunder, E.; Tate, M.W.; Mendelsohn, R.; Bonner, D. (Liposome Company, Inc., Princeton, NJ (USA))

    1988-08-01

    Ribbon-like structures result when amphotericin B interacts with lipid in an aqueous environment. At high ratios of amphotericin to lipid these structures, which are lipid-stabilized amphotericin aggregates, become prevalent resulting in a dramatic attenuation of amphotericin-mediated mammalian cell, but not fungal cell, toxicity. Studies utilizing freeze-etch electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, {sup 31}P NMR, x-ray diffraction, and optical spectroscopy revealed that this toxicity attenuation is related to the macromolecular structure of the complexes in a definable fashion. It is likely that amphotericin in this specific form will have a much improved therapeutic utility.

  12. Differentiation of renal oncocytoma and renal clear cell carcinoma using relative CT enhancement ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, An; Cai, Feng; Shang, Yan-Ning; Ma, En-Sen; Huang, Zhen-Guo; Wang, Wu; Lu, Yan; Zhang, Xue-Zhe

    2015-01-20

    The difference between renal oncocytomas (RO) and renal clear cell carcinomas (RCCs) presents the greatest diagnostic challenge. The aim of this study was to retrospectively determine if RO and RCCs could be differentiated on computed tomography (CT) images on the basis of their enhancement patterns with a new enhancement correcting method. Forty-six patients with a solitary renal mass who underwent total or partial nephrectomy were included in this study. Fourteen of those were RO and 32 were RCCs. All patients were examined with contrast-enhanced CT. The pattern and degree of enhancement were evaluated. We selected the area that demonstrated the greatest degree of enhancement of the renal lesion in the corticomedullary nephrographic and excretory phase images. Regions of interest (ROI) were also placed in adjacent normal renal cortex for normalization. We used the values of the normal renal cortex that were measured at the same time as divisors. The ratios of lesion-to-renal cortex enhancement were calculated for all three phases. The Student's t-test and Pearson's Chi-square test were used for statistical analyses. All RCCs masses showed contrast that appeared to be better enhanced than RO on all contrast-enhanced phases of CT imaging, but there was no significant difference in absolute attenuation values between these two diseases (P > 0.05). The ratio of lesion-to-cortex attenuation in the corticomedullary phase showed significantly different values between RO and RCCs. The degree of contrast enhancement in RCCs was equal to or greater than that of the normal renal cortex, but it was less than that of the normal cortex in RO in the corticomedullary phase. The ratio of lesion-to-cortex attenuation in the corticomedullary phase was higher than the cut off value of 1.0 in most RCCs (84%, 27/32) and lower than 1.0 in most RO (93%, 13/14) (P renal lesion-to-cortex attenuation ratios may be helpful in differentiating RO from RCCs.

  13. BILATERAL DUPLICATION OF RENAL ARTERIES

    OpenAIRE

    Prajkta A Thete; Mehera Bhoir; M.V.Ambiye

    2014-01-01

    Routine dissection of a male cadaver revealed the presence of bilateral double renal arteries. On the right side the accessory renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta just above the main renal artery. On the left side the accessory renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta about 1 cm above the main renal artery. Knowledge of the variations of renal vascular anatomy has importance in exploration and treatment of renal trauma, renal transplantation, renal artery embolization, su...

  14. Trichloroethylene metabolite S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-l-cysteine induces lipid peroxidation-associated apoptosis via the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways in a first-trimester placental cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, Elana R; Harris, Sean M; Loch-Caruso, Rita

    2018-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE), a prevalent environmental contaminant, is a potent renal and hepatic toxicant through metabolites such as S-(1, 2-dichlorovinyl)-l-cysteine (DCVC). However, effects of TCE on other target organs such as the placenta have been minimally explored. Because elevated apoptosis and lipid peroxidation in placenta have been observed in pregnancy morbidities involving poor placentation, we evaluated the effects of DCVC exposure on apoptosis and lipid peroxidation in a human extravillous trophoblast cell line, HTR-8/SVneo. We exposed the cells in vitro to 10-100μM DCVC for various time points up to 24h. Following exposure, we measured apoptosis using flow cytometry, caspase activity using luminescence assays, gene expression using qRT-PCR, and lipid peroxidation using a malondialdehyde quantification assay. DCVC significantly increased apoptosis in time- and concentration-dependent manners (plipid peroxidation in a concentration-dependent manner. Co-treatment with the antioxidant peroxyl radical scavenger (±)-α-tocopherol attenuated caspase 3 and 7 activity, suggesting that lipid peroxidation mediates DCVC-induced apoptosis in extravillous trophoblasts. Our findings suggest that DCVC-induced apoptosis and lipid peroxidation in extravillous trophoblasts could contribute to poor placentation if similar effects occur in vivo in response to TCE exposure, indicating that further studies into this mechanism are warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Renal Protective Effects of Corn Silk and Feijoa by using in situ Rat Renal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karami

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Corn silk (CS is widely used in Iranian traditional medicine. Feijoa sellowiana (FS, on the other hand, is a non-native plant widespread in the southern part of Iran. The aim of the present study was to examine the renal protective activity of CS and FS against dosage-induced ecstasy (MDMA by in situ rat renal perfusion (IRRP system. Methods: Hydro-alcoholic extracts of CS and FS (10, 20, 40 and 100 mg/ kg were studied for their renal protective activities by IRRP system. In this study, the kidneys were perfused with Kerbs-Henseleit buffer, containing different concentrations of hydro-alcoholic (HA extracts of CS and FS (10, 20, 40, 50, and 100mg/kg added to the buffer and perfused for two hours. During the perfusion, many factors, including urea, creatinine and GSH levels assessed as indicator of renal viability. Consequently, sections of renal tissue were examined for any histopathological changes. Results: The results showed that histopathological changes in renal tissue related to HA extract of CS AND FS concentrations dose-dependently. Doses of 50, 100 mg/kg caused significant histopathological changes (P<0.05. Glutathione (GSH levels of samples perfused by HA extract of CS and FS increased compared with the positive control group. Conclusion: Renal protective effects of CS and FS decrease lipid peroxidation, although other mechanisms may also be involved.

  16. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles for renal repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargesi, Arash Aghajani; Lerman, Lilach O.; Eirin, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    Transplantation of autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been shown to attenuate renal injury and dysfunction in several animal models, and its efficacy is currently being tested in clinical trials for patients with renal disease. Accumulating evidence indicates that MSCs release extracellular vesicles (EVs) that deliver genes, microRNAs and proteins to recipient cells, acting as mediators of MSC paracrine actions. In this context, it is critical to characterize the MSC-derived EV cargo to elucidate their potential contribution to renal repair. In recent years, researchers have performed high-throughput sequencing and proteomic analysis to detect and identify genes, microRNAs, and proteins enriched in MSC-derived EVs. The present review summarizes the current knowledge of the MSC-derived EV secretome to shed light into the mechanisms mediating MSC renal repair, and discusses preclinical and clinical studies testing the efficacy of MSC-derived EVs for treating renal disease. PMID:28403795

  17. Distribution of glucose transporters in renal diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Szablewski, Leszek

    2017-01-01

    Kidneys play an important role in glucose homeostasis. Renal gluconeogenesis prevents hypoglycemia by releasing glucose into the blood stream. Glucose homeostasis is also due, in part, to reabsorption and excretion of hexose in the kidney. Lipid bilayer of plasma membrane is impermeable for glucose, which is hydrophilic and soluble in water. Therefore, transport of glucose across the plasma membrane depends on carrier proteins expressed in the plasma membrane. In humans, there are three famil...

  18. Relationship between sonographic renal length and renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Sonography, Renal length, Renal. Parenchymal Thickness, Renal Biopsy. Résumé. But: Pour determiner 1e rapport entre l'épaisseur parenchymal rénale sonographic (RPT) et la longueur rénale (RL) dans le nigérien normal (1' adulte. Conception D'Etude: Le RL et le RPT de 309 sujets normaux dans la marge ...

  19. Antihypertensive effect of rhizome part of Acorus calamus on renal artery occlusion induced hypertension in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinal Patel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The rhizomes part of Acorus calamus (AC having the calcium inhibitory effect and diuretic activity which may potentiate Na+ excretion in hypertension induced by occlusion of renal artery. Therefore this study was aimed to investigate the effect of AC on experimentally induced hypertension. Methods: Hypertension in rats was induced by clamping the left renal artery for 4h by arterial clamp (2K1C. At the end of experiment animal were anesthetized with ketamine (50 mg/kg. Carotid artery was cannulated which was connected to pressure transducer for estimation of blood pressure. Results: Ethyl acetate extract of Acorus calamus rhizomes (EAAC treated rats that underwent hypertension, demonstrated significant (P < 0.01 lower systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure when compared with 2K1C rats indicated blood pressure lowering activity. Plasma renin activity was significantly (P < 0.05 decreased in EAAC treated rats compared to 2K1C rats. EAAC treated rats that underwent hypertension demonstrated significant (P < 0.01 lower mean blood urea nitrogen and creatinine when compared with 2K1C rats. Lipid peroxidation was significantly (P < 0.001 decreased, where as nitric oxide level in tissue was significantly elevated in EAAC treated rats. Antioxidant enzymes like glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001 increased in EAAC treated rats when compared to 2K1C rats. Conclusions: In conclusions, EAAC treatment attenuated renal artery occlusion induced hypertension via nitric oxide generation and decreases the plasma renin activity.

  20. Association of dyslipidemia with renal cell carcinoma: a 1∶2 matched case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunfang Zhang

    Full Text Available Abnormal serum lipid profiles are associated with the risk of some cancers, but the direction and magnitude of the association with renal cell carcinoma is unclear. We explore the relationship between serum lipids and renal cell carcinoma via a matched case-control study. A 1∶2-matched case-control study design was applied, where one renal cell carcinoma patient was matched to two non-renal-cell-carcinoma residents with respect to age (±0 year and gender. Cases (n = 248 were inpatients with a primary diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma, confirmed by pathology after operations. Controls were sampled from a community survey database matched on age and gender with cases, 2 controls for each case. Stratified Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to obtain hazard ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals of lipids level and dyslipidemia for the risk of renal cell carcinoma. Elevated serum cholesterol (p<0.001, LDL cholesterol (p<0.001, and HDL cholesterol (p = 0.003 are associated with decreased hazard of renal cell carcinoma, adjusting for obesity, smoke, hypertension and diabetes. However, risk caused by hTG showed no statistical significance (p = 0.263. This study indicates that abnormal lipid profile influences the risk of renal cell carcinoma.

  1. Landing gear noise attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  2. Distal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this disorder. Alternative Names Renal tubular acidosis - distal; Renal tubular acidosis type I; Type I RTA; RTA - distal; Classical RTA Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Krapf R, ...

  3. Kidney (Renal) Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How is kidney failure treated? What is kidney (renal) failure? The kidneys are designed to maintain proper fluid ... marrow and strengthen the bones. The term kidney (renal) failure describes a situation in which the kidneys have ...

  4. Cardio Renal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KV Sahasranam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, physicians have recognized that the kidney and the heart are related especially when there is severe dysfunction of either of them. Dysfunction of one of these organs seldom occurs in isolation. Of late the cardio renal syndrome is assuming significance because of its increasing incidence, awareness and complications. There is no definite definition of the cardio renal syndrome. However, an attempted definition states that it is a "decline in renal function in the setting of advanced heart failure". This definition does not cover the whole gamut of the cardio renal syndrome. Cardiac diseases are associated independently with a decrease in renal function and progression of existing renal disease. Chronic Kidney disease (CKD is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events and outcome. This bidirectional nature of cardiac and renal interaction is called Cardio Renal Syndrome (CRS.

  5. Differentiation of Renal Oncocytoma and Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma Using Relative CT Enhancement Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Ren

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The difference between renal oncocytomas (RO and renal clear cell carcinomas (RCCs presents the greatest diagnostic challenge. The aim of this study was to retrospectively determine if RO and RCCs could be differentiated on computed tomography (CT images on the basis of their enhancement patterns with a new enhancement correcting method. Methods: Forty-six patients with a solitary renal mass who underwent total or partial nephrectomy were included in this study. Fourteen of those were RO and 32 were RCCs. All patients were examined with contrast-enhanced CT. The pattern and degree of enhancement were evaluated. We selected the area that demonstrated the greatest degree of enhancement of the renal lesion in the corticomedullary nephrographic and excretory phase images. Regions of interest (ROI were also placed in adjacent normal renal cortex for normalization. We used the values of the normal renal cortex that were measured at the same time as divisors. The ratios of lesion-to-renal cortex enhancement were calculated for all three phases. The Student′s t-test and Pearson′s Chi-square test were used for statistical analyses. Results: All RCCs masses showed contrast that appeared to be better enhanced than RO on all contrast-enhanced phases of CT imaging, but there was no significant difference in absolute attenuation values between these two diseases (P > 0.05. The ratio of lesion-to-cortex attenuation in the corticomedullary phase showed significantly different values between RO and RCCs. The degree of contrast enhancement in RCCs was equal to or greater than that of the normal renal cortex, but it was less than that of the normal cortex in RO in the corticomedullary phase. The ratio of lesion-to-cortex attenuation in the corticomedullary phase was higher than the cut off value of 1.0 in most RCCs (84%, 27/32 and lower than 1.0 in most RO (93%, 13/14 (P < 0.05. In the nephrographic phase, the ratio of lesion-to-cortex attenuation

  6. Relationship between sonographic renal length and renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine the relationship between sonographic renal parenchymal thickness (RPT) and renal length (RL) in normal adult Nigerian. Study design: The RL and RPT of 309 normal subjects within the age range of 18 – 80years were measured sonographically and prospectively. Correlation was performed between ...

  7. Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, S T; Jensen, C; Bagi, P

    2007-01-01

    Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare soft-tissue tumor of controversial etiology with a potential for local recurrence after incomplete surgical resection. The radiological findings in renal IMT are not well described. We report two cases in adults with a renal mass treated...

  8. Cardio-renal syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Gnanaraj; Jai Radhakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Cardio-renal syndrome is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice. Its pathogenesis is not fully understood. The purpose of this article is to highlight the interaction between the cardiovascular system and the renal system and how their interaction results in the complex syndrome of cardio-renal dysfunction. Additionally, we outline the available therapeutic strategies to manage this complex syndrome.

  9. Lipid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Lipid metabolism disorders, such as Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs disease, involve lipids. Lipids are fats or fat-like substances. They ...

  10. Renal denervation suppresses atrial fibrillation in a model of renal impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Liang

    Full Text Available A close association exists between renal impairment (RI and atrial fibrillation (AF occurrence. Increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS may contribute to the development of AF associated with RI. Renal denervation (RDN decreases central sympathetic activity.The main objective of the study was to explore the effects of RDN on AF occurrence and its possible mechanisms in beagles with RI.Unilateral RI was induced in beagles by embolization of small branches of the renal artery in the right kidney using gelatin sponge granules in Model (n = 6 and RDN group (n = 6. The Sham group (n = 6 underwent the same procedure, except for embolization. Then animals in RDN group underwent radiofrequency ablation of the renal sympathetic nerve. Cardiac electrophysiological parameters, blood pressure, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, and AF inducibility were investigated. The activity of the SNS, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS, inflammation and atrial interstitial fibrosis were measured.Embolization of small branches of the renal artery in the right kidney led to ischemic RI. Heart rate, P wave duration and BP were increased by RI, which were prevented or attenuated by RDN. Atrial effective refractory period was shortened and AF inducibility was increased by RI, which were prevented by RDN. Antegrade Wenckebach point was shortened, atrial and ventricular rates during AF were increased by RI, which were attenuated or prevented by RDN. Levels of norepinephrine, renin and aldosterone in plasma, norepinephrine, angiotensin II, aldosterone, interleukin-6 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein in atrial tissue were elevated, and atrial interstitial fibrosis was enhanced by RI, which were attenuated by RDN.RDN significantly reduced AF inducibility, prevented the atrial electrophysiological changes in a model of RI by combined reduction of sympathetic drive and RAAS activity, and inhibition of inflammation activity and fibrotic

  11. LIPID MAPS online tools for lipid research

    OpenAIRE

    Fahy, Eoin; Sud, Manish; Cotter, Dawn; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2007-01-01

    The LIPID MAPS consortium has developed a number of online tools for performing tasks such as drawing lipid structures and predicting possible structures from mass spectrometry (MS) data. A simple online interface has been developed to enable an end-user to rapidly generate a variety of lipid chemical structures, along with corresponding systematic names and ontological information. The structure-drawing tools are available for six categories of lipids: (i) fatty acyls, (ii) glycerolipids, (i...

  12. Effect of long-term losartan administration on renal haemodynamics and function in hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterna, S; Parrinello, G; Scaglione, R; Costa, R; Bova, A; Palumbo, V A; Pinto, A; Amato, P; Licata, G

    2000-10-01

    In this study the efficacy and safety of long-term losartan administration on renal haemodynamics were evaluated in mild to moderate hypertension. After a run-in period with placebo, 18 hypertensives without renal or cardiovascular disease were allocated to losartan (50 mg/die for one year) treatment. Renal haemodynamic measurements included renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by standardized radioisotope study. Effective renal blood flow (ERBF), filtration fraction (FF), and renal vascular resistance (RVR) were also calculated. Blood pressure was evaluated monthly, whereas renal haemodynamics and function were detected at baseline and after 6 and 12 months of losartan administration. Losartan induced a significant (p function after 6 months of treatment, but these favourable effects were attenuated after 1 year of treatment.

  13. Late renal dysfunction in adult survivors of bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, C.A.; Cohen, E.P.; Barber-Derus, S.W.; Murray, K.J.; Ash, R.C.; Casper, J.T.; Moulder, J.E. (Medical College of Wisconsin Affiliated Hospitals, Milwaukee (USA))

    1991-06-01

    Until recently long-term renal toxicity has not been considered a major late complication of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Late renal dysfunction has been described in a pediatric population status post-BMT which was attributable to the radiation in the preparatory regimen. A thorough review of adults with this type of late renal dysfunction has not previously been described. Fourteen of 103 evaluable adult patients undergoing allogeneic (96) or autologous (7) bone marrow transplantation, predominantly for leukemia and lymphomas, at the Medical College of Wisconsin (Milwaukee, WI) have had a syndrome of renal insufficiency characterized by increased serum creatinine, decreased glomerular filtration rate, anemia, and hypertension. This syndrome developed at a median of 9 months (range, 4.5 to 26 months) posttransplantation in the absence of specific identifiable causes. The cumulative probability of having this renal dysfunction is 20% at 1 year. Renal biopsies performed on seven of these cases showed the endothelium widely separated from the basement membrane, extreme thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, and microthrombi. Previous chemotherapy, antibiotics, and antifungals as well as cyclosporin may add to and possibly potentiate a primary chemoradiation marrow transplant renal injury, but this clinical syndrome is most analogous to clinical and experimental models of radiation nephritis. This late marrow transplant-associated nephritis should be recognized as a potentially limiting factor in the use of some intensive chemoradiation conditioning regimens used for BMT. Some selective attenuation of the radiation to the kidneys may decrease the incidence of this renal dysfunction.

  14. Amygdalin inhibits renal fibrosis in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junqi; Wu, Weizheng; Sheng, Mingxiong; Yang, Shunliang; Tan, Jianming

    2013-05-01

    Renal interstitial fibrosis is a common outcome of chronic renal diseases. Amygdalin is one of a number of nitrilosides, the natural cyanide‑containing substances abundant in the seeds of plants of the prunasin family that are used to treat cancer and relieve pain. However, whether amygdalin inhibits the progression of renal fibrosis or not remains unknown. The present study aimed to assess the therapeutic potential of amygdalin by investigating its effect and potential mechanism on the activation of renal interstitial fibroblast cells and renal fibrosis in rat unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Treatment of the cultured renal interstitial fibroblasts with amygdalin inhibited their proliferation and the production of transforming growth factor (TGF)‑β1. In the rat model of obstructive nephropathy, following ureteral obstruction, the administration of amygdalin immediately eliminated the extracellular matrix accumulation and alleviated the renal injury on the 21st day. Collectively, amygdalin attenuated kidney fibroblast (KFB) activation and rat renal interstitial fibrosis. These results indicate that amygdalin is a potent antifibrotic agent that may have therapeutic potential for patients with fibrotic kidney diseases.

  15. Insuficiencia renal aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Miyahira Arakaki

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute renal failure (ARF is a clinic syndrome characterized by decline in renal function occurring over a short time period. Is a relatively common complication in hospitalized critically ill patients and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. ARF has often a multi-factorial etiology syndrome usually approached diagnostically as pre-renal, post-renal, or intrinsic ARF. Most intrinsic ARF is caused by ischemia or nephrotoxins and is classically associated with acute tubular necrosis (ATN. High mortality is associated with severity of ARF, age more than 60 years old and presence of pulmonar and cardiovascular complications. Most patients who survive an episode of ARF recover sufficient renal function; however, 50% have subclinical functional defects in renal function or scarring on renal biopsy. ARF is irreversible in approximately 5% of patients, usually as a consequence of complete cortical necrosis. ( Rev Med Hered 2003; 14: 36-43.

  16. Evaluation of renal masses including retrograde renal brushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, W B; Bibbo, M; Thomsen, S; Lu, C T

    1976-02-01

    1. The evaluation of renal masses has become an increasingly important topic because of the increasing incidence of kidney cancer, the improved cure rate of renal carcinoma with the proper preoperative diagnosis, and the proliferation in renal mass diagnostic methodology. 2. A variety of benign entities can produce an abnormal renal mass with attendant difficulties in being distinguished from malignant neoplasms. Among these benign lesions are: simple renal cysts, polycystic kidneys, congenital variations in renal size and shape, segmental renal hypertrophy, renal infarcts, intrarenal hematomas, renal hamartomas, renal leiomyomas, renal adenomas, renal angiomas, renal fibrolipomatosis, hydronephrosis of a duplicated collecting system, renal abscesses, and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. 3. Nephrotomography, nephrosonography (ultrasound), adrenalin renal arteriography, selective magnification renal arteriography, renal venography and cavography, lymphangiography, renal scintillation scanning, abnormal levels of enzymes in blood and urine, immunologic studies (circulating antibodies and tumor-associated antigens), percutaneous needle aspirations, and retrograde renal brushing have all increased the diagnostic accuracy of determining the etiology of renal masses. None of these diagnostic procedures is infallible. A judicious combination of procedures gives the most reliable diagnostic results. 4. A search continues for (a) chemical agent(s) or a chemical profile in the blood or urine which is (are) specific for renal carcinoma, but as yet this is an investigational area and not a practical clinical reality.

  17. The association between renal impairment and cardiac structure and function in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersbøll, Mads; Valeur, Nana; Hassager, Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Renal dysfunction in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) is an important predictor of short- and long-term outcome. Cardiac abnormalities dominated by left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy are common in patients with chronic renal dysfunction. However, limited data exists...... on the association between LV systolic- and diastolic function assessed by comprehensive echocardiography and renal dysfunction in contemporary unselected patients with acute MI. METHODS: We prospectively included 1054 patients with acute MI (mean age 63 years, 73% male) and performed echocardiographic assessment...... fraction or GLS attenuated its importance considerably. CONCLUSION: Renal dysfunction in patients with acute MI is independently associated with echocardiographic evidence of increased LV filling pressure. However, the prognostic importance of renal dysfunction is attenuated to a greater degree by LV...

  18. Effects of dexmedetomidine on renal tissue after lower limb ischemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meral Erdal Erbatur

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... 30 minutes before ischemia in diabetic rats ameliorates lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, ... vation of renal blood flow, a restored and rigorous ... nistered during surgery - decreases plasma catecho- lamine levels, increases urinary output, and secures hemodynamic stability [10,11]. In animal studies,.

  19. Effect of hemodialysis on total antioxidant status of chronic renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Renal failure is accompanied by oxidative stress, which is caused by enhanced production of reactive oxygen species and impaired antioxidant defense. Aim: To assess the effect of hemodialysis (by cellulose membrane dialyzer) on plasma total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation of patients in chronic ...

  20. The dyslipidemia of chronic renal disease: effects of statin therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozsoy, Riza C.; van Leuven, Sander I.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Arisz, Lambertus; Koopman, Marion G.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dyslipidemia is a prevalent condition in patients with chronic renal disease, but is often left untreated. Statin treatment constitutes an effective way to improve lipid abnormalities. This review summarizes present studies on dyslipidemia and its treatment in patients with

  1. Refractory anemia leading to renal hemosiderosis and renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddappa, Sujatha; Mythri, K M; Kowsalya, R; Parekh, Ashish

    2011-01-01

    Renal hemosiderosis is a rare cause of renal failure and, as a result, may not be diagnosed unless a detailed history, careful interpretation of blood parameters and renal biopsy with special staining is done. Here, we present a rare case of renal hemosiderosis presenting with renal failure.

  2. Refractory anemia leading to renal hemosiderosis and renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Siddappa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal hemosiderosis is a rare cause of renal failure and, as a result, may not be diagnosed unless a detailed history, careful interpretation of blood parameters and renal biopsy with special staining is done. Here, we present a rare case of renal hemosiderosis presenting with renal failure.

  3. Salvageability of renal function following renal revascularisation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tion for the aortic arch and its branches.[1,2] It is ... Renal artery revascularisation procedures are usually carried out on children with renal artery stenosis from varied causes, including ... Salvageability of renal function in children who underwent renal revascularisation for Takayasu's arteritisinduced renal artery stenosis ...

  4. Super, Red Palm and Palm Oleins Improve the Blood Pressure, Heart Size, Aortic Media Thickness and Lipid Profile in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Chee-Meng; Ng, Mei-Han; Choo, Yuen-May; Mok, Shiueh-Lian

    2013-01-01

    Background Oleic acid has been shown to lower high blood pressure and provide cardiovascular protection. Curiosity arises as to whether super olein (SO), red palm olein (RPO) and palm olein (PO), which have high oleic acid content, are able to prevent the development of hypertension. Methodology/Principal Findings Four-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were fed 15% SO, RPO or PO supplemented diet for 15 weeks. After 15 weeks of treatment, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) of SHR treated with SO, RPO and PO were 158.4±5.0 mmHg (pOil Red O enface staining of thoracic-abdominal aorta did not show any lipid deposition in all treated rats. The SO and RPO significantly raised serum alkaline phosphatase levels in the SHR while body weight and renal biochemical indices were unaltered in both strains. Serum lipid profiles of treated SHR and WKY rats were unchanged, with the exception of a significant reduction in LDL-C level and total cholesterol/HDL ratio (atherogenic index) in SO and RPO treated SHR compared with untreated SHR. Conclusion The SO, RPO and PO attenuate the rise in blood pressure in SHR, accompanied by bradycardia and heart size reduction with SO and PO, and aortic media thickness reduction with SO, RPO and PO. The SO and RPO are antiatherogenic in nature by improving blood lipid profiles in SHR. PMID:23409085

  5. Renal Localization of {sup 67}Ga Citrate in Noninfectious Nephritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Wook; Jeong, Min Soo; Rhee, Sunn Kgoo; Kim, Sam Yong; Shin, Young Tai; Ro, Heung Kyu [Chungnam University College of Medicine, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-07-15

    {sup 67}Ga citrate scan has been requested for detection or follow-up of inflammatory or neoplastic disease. Visualization of {sup 67}Ga citrate in the kidneys at 48 and 72 hr post injection is usually interpreted as evidence of renal pathology. But precise mechanisms of abnormal {sup 67}Ga uptake in kidneys were unknown. We undertook a study to determine the clinical value of {sup 67}Ga citrate imaging of the kidneys in 68 patients with primary or secondary nephropathy confirmed by renal biopsy and 66 control patients without renal disease. Renal uptake in 48 to 72 hr images was graded as follows: Grade 0=background activity;1=faint uptake greater than background; 2=definite uptake, but less than lumbar vertebrae;3 same uptake as lumbar vertebrae, but less than liver; 4=same or higher uptake than liver. The results were as follows. 1) 42 of 68(62%) patients with noninfectious nephritis showed grade 2 or higher {sup 67}Ga renal uptake but only 10 percent of control patients showed similar uptake. 2) In 14 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, 8 of 9 (89%) patients with lupus nephritis exhibited marked renal uptake. 3) 36 of 41 patients (88%) with combined nephrotic syndrome showed Grade 2 or higher renal uptake. 4) Renal {sup 67}Ga uptake was correlated with clinical severity of nephrotic syndrome determined by serum albumin level, 24 hr urine protein excretion and serum lipid levels. 5) After complete remission of nephrotic syndrome, renal uptake in all 8 patients who were initially Grade 3 or 4, decreased to Grade 1 or 0. In conclusion, we think that the mechanism of renal {sup 67}Ga uptake in nephrotic syndrome might be related to the pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome. In systemic lupus erythematosus, {sup 67}Ga citrate scan is useful in predicting renal involvement.

  6. Recurrent renal giant leiomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öziş, Salih Erpulat; Gülpınar, Kamil; Şahlı, Zafer; Konak, Baha Burak; Keskin, Mete; Özdemir, Süleyman; Ataoğlu, Ömür

    2016-01-01

    Primary renal leiomyosarcomas are rare, aggressive tumors. They constitute 1-2% of adult malignant renal tumors. Although leiomyosarcomas are the most common histological type (50-60%) of renal sarcomas, information on renal leiomyosarcoma is limited. Local or systemic recurrences are common. The radiological appearance of renal leiomyosarcomas is not specific, therefore renal leiomyosarcoma cannot be distinguished from renal cell carcinoma by imaging methods in all patients. A 74-year-old female patient presented to our clinic complaining of a palpable mass on the right side of her abdomen in November 2012. The abdominal magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass, 25 × 24 × 23 cm in size. Her past medical history revealed that she has undergone right radical nephrectomy in 2007, due to a 11 × 12 × 13 cm renal mass that was then reported as renal cell carcinoma on abdominal magnetic resonance imaging, but the pathological diagnosis was low-grade renal leiomyosarcoma. The most recent follow-up of the patient was in 2011, with no signs of local recurrence or distant metastases within this four-year period. The patient underwent laparotomy on November 2012, and a 35 cm retroperitoneal mass was excised. The pathological examination of the mass was reported as high-grade leiomyosarcoma. The formation of this giant retroperitoneal mass in 1 year can be explained by the transformation of the lesion's pathology from low-grade to a high-grade tumor.

  7. Radiofrequency attenuator and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Benjamin P [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM; Burrell, Anthony K [Los Alamos, NM; Agrawal, Anoop [Tucson, AZ; Hall, Simon B [Palmerston North, NZ

    2009-01-20

    Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

  8. Review Article: Dyslipidaemia, Lipid Oxidation, And Free Radicals In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes mellitus is frequently associated with dyslipidaemia evidenced by high prevalence rate that range from 16%-40%, and chronically elevated level of plasma lipids, low-density lipoprotein in particular, leads to modification of structures, importantly through oxidative processes. Renal tissue particularly in diabetes ...

  9. Lipid Signaling in Tumorigenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Renyan; Huang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Lipids are important cellular building blocks and components of signaling cascades. Deregulation of lipid metabolism or signaling is frequently linked to a variety of human diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. It is widely believed that lipid molecules or their metabolic products are involved in tumorigenic inflammation and thus, lipids are implicated as significant contributors or even primary triggers of tumorigenesis. Lipids are believed to directly or indirectly...

  10. [Renal markers and predictors, and renal and cardiovascular risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Andrade, C

    2002-01-01

    prediction. And also, its possible association nexuses, its injuring mechanisms, and the characterization of the new "emergent" renal and cardiovascular risk's markers and factors. 4. The impact on the possibility to treat the end stage renal disease with effective and prolonged procedures, by hemodialisis or kidney transplantation, has been occurred. The affected population's survival with the adequacy renal-sustitution treatment, and the possibility of indefinite duration of its treatment, has also impacted on the public health, and its resources, in an evident way. Simultaneously to increase of the incidence in the population, the electivity for the treatment has been enlarged and extended increasing it exponentially. These facts are documented here, and are defined the characteristics of the factors and markers of risk, of renal and cardiovascular diseases. The defined factors are valued to mark, so far as with the well-known evidence is possible, the prediction and the progression of the renal and cardiovascular functional deterioration: The hypertension, cardiovascular remodeling, the arterial stiffness, the heart rate, the sympathetic activation, the modification of the physiological response of the target organ to the overcharge, the metabolic syndrome, the obesity, the insulin resistance, the altered lipid profile, and metabolism of the fatty acids, the salt-sensibility, the decrease of the renal functional reserve, the glomerular hyperfiltration, the absence of the arterial pressure nocturnal descent, the abnormal excretion of proteins for the urine, the phenomenon induced by dysfunctions of the clotting, superoxide production, growth factors, the production of chronic inflammation and its markers, the factors of the glomerulosclerosis progression, the hyperuricemic status, the endothelial dysfunction and others, are evaluated. As well as their association among them and with other factors of risk not changeable like the age, and in turn, with other acquired

  11. Imaging of renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jevtic, V. E-mail: vladimir.jevtic@mf.uni-lj.si

    2003-05-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, renal transplantation and administration of different medications provoke complex biochemical disturbances of the calcium-phosphate metabolism with wide spectrum of bone and soft tissue abnormalities termed renal osteodystrophy. Clinically most important manifestation of renal bone disease includes secondary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia/rickets, osteoporosis, adynamic bone disease and soft tissue calcification. As a complication of long-term hemodialysis and renal transplantation amyloid deposition, destructive spondyloarthropathy, osteonecrosis, and musculoskeletal infections may occur. Due to more sophisticated diagnostic methods and more efficient treatment classical radiographic features of secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia/rickets are now less frequently seen. Radiological investigations play an important role in early diagnosis and follow-up of the renal bone disease. Although numerous new imaging modalities have been introduced in clinical practice (scintigraphy, CT, MRI, quantitative imaging), plain film radiography, especially fine quality hand radiograph, still represents most widely used examination.

  12. Massive Renal Replacement Lipomatosis With Foci of Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis in a Horseshoe Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harutake Sawazaki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Renal replacement lipomatosis (RRL is a rare condition that occurs at the end of the spectrum of renal tissue replacement by fat. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP is a granulomatous inflammation characterized by destruction of renal parenchyma and replacement by lipid-laden macrophages. We present the case of a 75-year-old man who complained of severe anemia 34 years after right nephrolithotomy. Computed tomography revealed a huge low-density mass with renal parenchyma atrophy on the right side of horseshoe kidney. Right nephrectomy was performed. Pathological diagnosis was RRL with XGP. This is the first report of RRL with XGP in a horseshoe kidney.

  13. Mandibular brown tumor in renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Woo; Choi, Bo Ram; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Choi, Soon Chul [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gang, In Tae [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Brown tumor is a histologically benign lesion that is a serious complication of renal osteodystrophy because it may result in severe deformity and discomfort. We report a case of brown tumor, which occurred in a 35-year-old woman with chronic renal failure, who had been treated with hemodialysis for 14 years. The lesion was found on the lingual side of the mandible. Standard panoramic radiograph showed generally decreased bone mineral density, loss of lamina dura, and thin cortical plates. Computed tomography (CT) revealed multilocular expansible lesions with heterogeneous attenuation in the anterior mandible, as well as generalized trabecular alteration with homogeneous sclerosis, and thinning or obliteration of cortical plates. Excision of the mandibular lesion and curettage of the affected bone were performed.

  14. Calcified renal oncocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, N.F. (Veterans Administration, Minneapolis, MN); Ewing, S.L.

    1983-10-01

    Renal oncocytoma, a neoplasm thought to derive from cells of the proximal convoluted tubules, exhibits benign clinical features. Its preoperative distinction from typical renal cell carcinoma would enable the surgeon to perform a more limited procedure. In a patient who is a poor operative candidate, surgery might be deferred. However, preoperative diagnosis has been elusive. A rare case of bilateral renal oncocytoma is reported. One of these tumors represents the first reported oncocytoma showing radiologically demonstrable calcification.

  15. Thrombospondin in Renal Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo, Christian; Daniel, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Thrombospondins (TSPs) are multifunctional matricellular glycoproteins which are involved in the regulation of angiogenesis, proliferation, apoptosis, the NO-cGMP-dependent protein kinase pathway and transforming growth factor (TGF) _ activation. The TSP family consists of 5 members, but currently only data on effects of TSP-1 and TSP-2 in renal disease are available. Both TSPs are hardly expressed within the healthy renal cortex and can be upregulated during renal disease. Using different an...

  16. Lithium and Renal Impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, René Ernst; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Nolen, Willem A

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lithium is established as an effective treatment of mania, of depression in bipolar and unipolar disorder, and in maintenance treatment of these disorders. However, due to the necessity of monitoring and concerns about irreversible adverse effects, in particular renal impairment......, after long-term use, lithium might be underutilized. METHODS: This study reviewed 6 large observational studies addressing the risk of impaired renal function associated with lithium treatment and methodological issues impacting interpretation of results. RESULTS: An increased risk of renal impairment...

  17. Natural attenuation of herbicides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuxen, Nina; Højberg, Anker Lajer; Broholm, Mette Martina

    2002-01-01

    A field injection experiment in a sandy, aerobic aquifer showed that two phenoxy acids MCPP (mecoprop) and dichlorprop were degraded within I in downgradient of the injection wells after an apparent lag period. The plume development and microbial measurements indicated that microbial growth....... The observations may be important for application of natural attenuation as a remedy in field scale systems....

  18. Incidental renal neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabjerg, Maj; Mikkelsen, Minne Nedergaard; Walter, Steen

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of associations between tumor size, pathological stage, histological subtype and tumor grade in incidentally detected renal cell carcinoma vs symptomatic renal cell carcinoma, we discussed the need for a screening program of renal cell carcinoma in Denmark. We analyzed a consecutive...... series of 204 patients with renal tumors in 2011 and 2012. The tumors were classified according to detection mode: symptomatic and incidental and compared to pathological parameters. Eighty-nine patients (44%) were symptomatic, 113 (55%) were incidental. Information was not available in two patients...

  19. Spontaneous renal artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Santhosh G; Pillai, Unnikrishnan; Vaidyan, Philip B; Ishiyama, Takaaki

    2010-01-01

    Isolated spontaneous dissection of renal arteries or its branches are extremely rare. Most cases of renal artery dissection are associated with underlying pathology of the renal arteries. We report a case of spontaneous dissection of the left main renal artery and infarction of the left kidney with positive antiphospholipid antibody. Extensive work up of the patient including imaging studies confirmed the diagnosis of SRAD. Antiphospholipid antibodies may have a role in the pathogenesis of arterial dissection by causing endothelial dysfunction. This is a first literature report.

  20. Atheroembolic renal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk factors for atherosclerosis, including age, male gender, cigarette smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes. Alternative Names Renal disease - atheroembolic; Cholesterol embolization syndrome; Atheroemboli - ...

  1. Primary renal angiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar E. Souza

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary renal Angiosarcoma is a rare neoplasm and only 24 cases have been reported in specialized literature. We describe a case of primary renal angiosarcoma in a patient presenting with hematuria, palpable abdominal mass, left flank pain and anemia. A computerized tomography of the abdomen with contrast medium showed a tumor with 15 cm diameter, in the upper pole of the left kidney, with a low-density central area, suggesting necrosis or hemorrhage. Diagnosis was given in a morphologic base and proven by an immunohistochemical study. Primary renal angiosarcoma should be included among differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal hematoma and hemorrhagic renal tumors.

  2. A Nitric Oxide-Donor Furoxan Moiety Improves the Efficacy of Edaravone against Early Renal Dysfunction and Injury Evoked by Ischemia/Reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Chiazza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Edaravone (5-methyl-2-phenyl-2,4-dihydro-3H-pyrazol-3-one, EDV is a free-radical scavenger reduces organ ischemic injury. Here we investigated whether the protective effects of EDV in renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury may be enhanced by an EDV derivative bearing a nitric oxide- (NO- donor furoxan moiety (NO-EDV. Male Wistar rats were subjected to renal ischemia (45 minutes, followed by reperfusion (6 hours. Administration of either EDV (1.2–6–30 µmol/kg, i.v. or NO-EDV (0.3–1.2–6 µmol/kg, i.v. dose-dependently attenuated markers of renal dysfunction (serum urea and creatinine, creatinine clearance, urine flow, urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin/lipocalin-2. NO-EDV exerted protective effects in the dose-range 1.2–6 µmol/kg, while a higher dose (30 µmol/kg was needed to obtain protection by EDV. Both EDV and NO-EDV modulated tissue markers of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. NO-EDV, but not EDV, activated endothelial NO synthase (NOS and blunted I/R-induced upregulation of inducible NOS, secondary to modulation of Akt and NF-κB activation, respectively. Besides NO-EDV administration inhibited I/R-induced IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6, and TNF-α overproduction. Overall, these findings demonstrate that the NO-donor moiety contributes to the protection against early renal I/R injury and suggest that NO-donor EDV codrugs are worthy of additional study as innovative pharmacological tools.

  3. Association of High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol with Renal Function in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects in a Bangladeshi Population

    OpenAIRE

    Shoma Hayat; Shahnaj Begum; Muhammad Rezwanur Rahman; Muhammad Saiedullah; Md. Aminul Haque Khan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Abnormalities in lipid metabolism are associated with renal diseases. Association of serum lipid parameters with renal function is less studied in subjects with type 2 diabetes in Bangladeshi population. Objective: To assess the correlation of high density lipoprotein cholesterol with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in type 2 diabetic subjects. Materials and Methods: One thousand three hundred thirty confirmed diabetic subjects advised for HbA1c, serum creatinine, serum total ch...

  4. Renal cell carcinoma in patient with crossed fused renal ectopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Cakmak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary renal cell carcinomas have rarely been reported in patients with crossed fused renal ectopia. We presented a patient with right to left crossed fused kidney harbouring renal tumor. The most frequent tumor encountered in crossed fused renal ectopia is renal cell carcinoma. In this case, partial nephrectomy was performed which pave way to preservation of the uninvolved both renal units. Due to unpredictable anatomy, careful preoperative planning and meticulous delineation of renal vasculature is essential for preservation of the uninvolved renal units.

  5. LDL-cholesterol lowering and renal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, David D

    2015-06-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at high risk for cardiovascular events. Statins reduce cardiovascular risk in a broad spectrum of patients. This article summarizes the evidence that statins reduce risk in CKD patients, and that statins have a small but favorable effect on renal function. Current guidelines for lipid management in patients with CKD are also reviewed. Two well conducted randomized trials showed no significant benefit for statins among patients receiving dialysis. One large trial demonstrated that simvastatin/ezetimibe reduced cardiovascular events in a broad spectrum of CKD patients. A recent meta-analysis concluded that CKD patients benefit from statins, and that the relative benefit decreases as the severity of CKD worsens. In large trials, statin-treated patients have slightly less worsening of renal function overtime, and there are data to suggest that statins actually do not only preserve, but also increase renal function. Recent guidelines recommend a statin for CKD patients aged 50 years or older, for younger patients with known vascular disease, diabetes, or a 10-year risk greater than 10%, and for adult renal transplant recipients. Statins should be prescribed to older patients with CKD, and to younger patients with CKD who are at high CVD risk.

  6. On the interaction between fluoxetine and lipid membranes: Effect of the lipid composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Vy T.; Nguyen, Trinh Q.; Dao, Uyen P. N.; Nguyen, Trang T.

    2018-02-01

    Molecular interaction between the antidepressant fluoxetine and lipid bilayers was investigated in order to provide insights into the drug's incorporation to lipid membranes. In particular, the effects of lipid's unsaturation degree and cholesterol content on the partitioning of fluoxetine into large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) comprised of unsaturated 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and saturated 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) were evaluated using second derivative spectrophotometry and Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). It was found that fluoxetine partitioned to a greater extent into the liquid-crystalline DOPC LUVs than into the solid-gel DPPC LUVs. The lipid physical state dependence of drug partitioning was verified by increasing the temperature in which the partition coefficient of fluoxetine significantly increased upon the change of the lipid phase from solid-gel to liquid-crystalline. The incorporation of 28 mol% cholesterol into the LUVs exerted a significant influence on the drug partitioning into both DOPC and DPPC LUVs. The ATR-FTIR study revealed that fluoxetine perturbed the conformation of DOPC more strongly than that of DPPC due to the cis-double bonds in the lipid acyl chains. Fluoxetine possibly bound to the carbonyl moiety of the lipids through the hydrogen bonding formation while displaced some water molecules surrounding the PO2- regions of the lipid head groups. Cholesterol, however, could lessen the interaction between fluoxetine and the carbonyl groups of both DOPC and DPPC LUVs. These findings provided a better understanding of the role of lipid structure and cholesterol on the interaction between fluoxetine and lipid membranes, shedding more light into the drug's therapeutic action.

  7. A case of renal oncocytoma

    OpenAIRE

    村本, 将俊; 内田, 豊昭; 及能, 久隆; 石田, 裕則; 宇都宮, 拓治; 頴川, 晋; 真下, 節夫; 小柴, 健

    1994-01-01

    A case of renal oncocytoma found incidentally by routine medical checkups is reported. An asymptomatic 70-year-old male was found to have a right renal mass by abdominal ultrasonography. Selective renal arteriography supported the diagnosis of renal oncocytoma with a typical appearance of "spoke-wheel" pattern. Right radical nephrectomy was performed. However, in consideration of the possibility of renal cell carcinoma. The diagnosis of renal oncocytoma was finally confirmed pathologically. T...

  8. Distal renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    Renal acidification ability was examined in 90 recurrent renal stone formers, using fasting morning urinary pH levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in subjects with pH levels above 6.0. Fifteen patients (16.6%) revealed a distal renal tubular acidification defect: one patient...... (1.1%) had complete distal renal tubular acidosis and 14 (15.5%) incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis. Our results confirm that distal renal tubular acidification defects are associated with a more severe form of stone disease and make distal renal tubular acidosis one of the most frequent...... metabolic disturbances in renal stone formers. Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) was relatively more common in female stone formers and most often found in patients with bilateral stone disease (36%). Since prophylactic treatment in renal stone formers with renal acidification defects is available...

  9. Distal renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    (1.1%) had complete distal renal tubular acidosis and 14 (15.5%) incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis. Our results confirm that distal renal tubular acidification defects are associated with a more severe form of stone disease and make distal renal tubular acidosis one of the most frequent...... metabolic disturbances in renal stone formers. Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) was relatively more common in female stone formers and most often found in patients with bilateral stone disease (36%). Since prophylactic treatment in renal stone formers with renal acidification defects is available......Renal acidification ability was examined in 90 recurrent renal stone formers, using fasting morning urinary pH levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in subjects with pH levels above 6.0. Fifteen patients (16.6%) revealed a distal renal tubular acidification defect: one patient...

  10. Cancer - renal pelvis or ureter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney cancer - renal pelvis; Ureter cancer Images Kidney anatomy References National Cancer Institute. PDQ transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter treatment. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer ...

  11. Renal dysfunction in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrunaga, Nathalie H; Mindikoglu, Ayse L; Rockey, Don C

    2015-05-01

    Renal dysfunction causes significant morbidity in cirrhotic patients. Diagnosis is challenging because it is based on serum creatinine, which is used to calculate estimated glomerular filtration rate, which itself is not an ideal measure of renal function in patients with cirrhosis. Finding the exact cause of renal injury in patients with cirrhosis remains problematic due to the limitations of the current diagnostic tests. The purpose of this review is to highlight studies used to diagnose renal dysfunction in patients with renal dysfunction and review current treatments. New diagnostic criteria and classification of renal dysfunction, especially for acute kidney injury (AKI), have been proposed in hopes of optimizing treatment and improving outcomes. New biomarkers that help to differentiate structural from functional AKI in cirrhotic patients have been developed, but require further investigation. Vasoconstrictors are the most commonly recommended treatment of hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). Given the high mortality in patients with type 1 HRS, all patients with HRS should be evaluated for liver transplantation. When renal dysfunction is considered irreversible, combined liver-kidney transplantation is advised. Development of new biomarkers to differentiate the different types of AKI in cirrhosis holds promise. Early intervention in cirrhotic patients with renal dysfunction offers the best hope of improving outcomes.

  12. Eligibility for renal denervation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persu, Alexandre; Jin, Yu; Baelen, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Based on the SYMPLICITY studies and CE (Conformité Européenne) certification, renal denervation is currently applied as a novel treatment of resistant hypertension in Europe. However, information on the proportion of patients with resistant hypertension qualifying for renal denervation after...... a thorough work-up and treatment adjustment remains scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the proportion of patients eligible for renal denervation and the reasons for noneligibility at 11 expert centers participating in the European Network COordinating Research on renal Denervation in treatment......-resistant hypertension (ENCOReD). The analysis included 731 patients. Age averaged 61.6 years, office blood pressure at screening was 177/96 mm Hg, and the number of blood pressure-lowering drugs taken was 4.1. Specialists referred 75.6% of patients. The proportion of patients eligible for renal denervation according...

  13. Lipids, lysosomes, and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaishy, Bharat; Abel, E Dale

    2016-09-01

    Lipids are essential components of a cell providing energy substrates for cellular processes, signaling intermediates, and building blocks for biological membranes. Lipids are constantly recycled and redistributed within a cell. Lysosomes play an important role in this recycling process that involves the recruitment of lipids to lysosomes via autophagy or endocytosis for their degradation by lysosomal hydrolases. The catabolites produced are redistributed to various cellular compartments to support basic cellular function. Several studies demonstrated a bidirectional relationship between lipids and lysosomes that regulate autophagy. While lysosomal degradation pathways regulate cellular lipid metabolism, lipids also regulate lysosome function and autophagy. In this review, we focus on this bidirectional relationship in the context of dietary lipids and provide an overview of recent evidence of how lipid-overload lipotoxicity, as observed in obesity and metabolic syndrome, impairs lysosomal function and autophagy that may eventually lead to cellular dysfunction or cell death. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Parenteral Nutrition and Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Maitreyi; Almutairdi, Abdulelah; Mulesa, Leanne; Alberda, Cathy; Beattie, Colleen; Gramlich, Leah

    2017-04-14

    Lipids have multiple physiological roles that are biologically vital. Soybean oil lipid emulsions have been the mainstay of parenteral nutrition lipid formulations for decades in North America. Utilizing intravenous lipid emulsions in parenteral nutrition has minimized the dependence on dextrose as a major source of nonprotein calories and prevents the clinical consequences of essential fatty acid deficiency. Emerging literature has indicated that there are benefits to utilizing alternative lipids such as olive/soy-based formulations, and combination lipids such as soy/MCT/olive/fish oil, compared with soybean based lipids, as they have less inflammatory properties, are immune modulating, have higher antioxidant content, decrease risk of cholestasis, and improve clinical outcomes in certain subgroups of patients. The objective of this article is to review the history of IVLE, their composition, the different generations of widely available IVLE, the variables to consider when selecting lipids, and the complications of IVLE and how to minimize them.

  15. Fluid dynamic bowtie attenuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczykutowicz, Timothy P.; Hermus, James

    2015-03-01

    Fluence field modulated CT allows for improvements in image quality and dose reduction. To date, only 1-D modulators have been proposed, the extension to 2-D modulation is difficult with solid-metal attenuation-based modulators. This work proposes to use liquids and gas to attenuate the x-ray beam which can be arrayed allowing for 2-D fluence modulation. The thickness of liquid and the pressure for a given path length of gas were determined that provided the same attenuation as 30 cm of soft tissue at 80, 100, 120, and 140 kV. Gaseous Xenon and liquid Iodine, Zinc Chloride, and Cerium Chloride were studied. Additionally, we performed some proof-of-concept experiments in which (1) a single cell of liquid was connected to a reservoir which allowed the liquid thickness to be modulated and (2) a 96 cell array was constructed in which the liquid thickness in each cell was adjusted manually. Liquid thickness varied as a function of kV and chemical composition, with Zinc Chloride allowing for the smallest thickness; 1.8, 2.25, 3, and 3.6 cm compensated for 30 cm of soft tissue at 80, 100, 120, and 140 kV respectively. The 96 cell Iodine attenuator allowed for a reduction in both dynamic range to the detector and scatter to primary ratio. Successful modulation of a single cell was performed at 0, 90, and 130 degrees using a simple piston/actuator. The thickness of liquids and the Xenon gas pressure seem logistically implementable within the constraints of CBCT and diagnostic CT systems.

  16. Lipotoxicity as a trigger factor of renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Lahuerta, Adriana; Martínez-García, Cristina; Medina-Gómez, Gema

    2016-10-01

    In the last few decades, rapid changes in lifestyle have led to an alarming increase in the prevalence of obesity and obesity-associated complications. Obese patients are at increased risk of developing hypertension, heart disease, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes and kidney disease. The surplus of calories is normally stored as triglycerides in adipose tissue. However, excess lipids can also accumulate ectopically in other organs, including the kidney, contributing to their damage through toxic processes named lipotoxicity. The kidney is negatively affected by dyslipidemia, lipid accumulation and changes in circulating adipokines that bring about alterations in renal lipid metabolism and promote insulin resistance, generation of reactive oxygen species and endoplasmic reticulum stress, ultimately leading to alterations in the glomerular filtration barrier and renal failure. This review focuses on the pathogenic molecular mechanisms associated with renal lipotoxicity, and presents new insights about potential new therapeutic targets and biomarkers such as microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs, of relevance for the early detection of lipid-associated kidney disease.

  17. Sida rhomboidea.Roxb leaf extract ameliorates gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2010-10-28

    Sida rhomboidea.Roxb (SR) known as "Mahabala" in Ayurveda and marketed as "Shahadeyi" is used in ethnomedicine to treat ailments such as dysuria and urinary disorders. To evaluate nephroprotective potential of SR against gentamicin (GM) induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction. Nephrotoxicity was induced in rats with GM (100 mg/kg bodyweight (i.p.) for 8 days) and were treated with SR extract (200 and 400 mg/kg bodyweight (p.o.) for 8 days) or 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (vehicle). Plasma and urine urea and creatinine, renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants along with lipid peroxidation were evaluated in various experimental groups. GM treatment induced significant elevation (p<0.05) in plasma and urine urea, creatinine, renal lipid peroxidation along with significant decrement (p<0.05) in renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. SR treatment to GM treated rats (GM+SR) recorded significant decrement (p<0.05) in plasma and urine urea and creatinine, renal lipid peroxidation along with significant increment (p<0.05) in renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. SR leaf extract ameliorates GM induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction and thus validates its ethnomedicinal use. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Renal vascular changes in renal disease independent of hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, W. J.; Demircan, M. M.; Weening, J. J.; Krediet, R. T.; van der Wal, A. C.

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular disease is common in patients with renal disease, but little is known about the effect of renal disease and loss of renal function on vascular morphology. Intima proliferation of small renal arteries, which correlates with atherosclerosis in the aorta, is sometimes

  19. Renal replacement therapy after cardiac surgery; renal function recovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinthorsdottir, Kristin Julia; Kandler, Kristian; Agerlin Windeløv, Nis

    2013-01-01

    To assess renal outcome in patients discharged from hospital following cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) with need for renal replacement therapy.......To assess renal outcome in patients discharged from hospital following cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) with need for renal replacement therapy....

  20. CT Attenuation Analysis of Carotid Intraplaque Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, L; Francone, M; Bassareo, P P; Lai, L; Sanfilippo, R; Montisci, R; Suri, J S; De Cecco, C N; Faa, G

    2017-11-30

    Intraplaque hemorrhage is considered a leading parameter of carotid plaque vulnerability. Our purpose was to assess the CT characteristics of intraplaque hemorrhage with histopathologic correlation to identify features that allow for confirming or ruling out the intraplaque hemorrhage. This retrospective study included 91 patients (67 men; median age, 65 ± 7 years; age range, 41-83 years) who underwent CT angiography and carotid endarterectomy from March 2010 to May 2013. Histopathologic analysis was performed for the tissue characterization and identification of intraplaque hemorrhage. Two observers assessed the plaque's attenuation values by using an ROI (≥ 1 and ≤2 mm2). Receiver operating characteristic curve, Mann-Whitney, and Wilcoxon analyses were performed. A total of 169 slices were assessed (59 intraplaque hemorrhage, 63 lipid-rich necrotic core, and 47 fibrous); the average values of the intraplaque hemorrhage, lipid-rich necrotic core, and fibrous tissue were 17.475 Hounsfield units (HU) and 18.407 HU, 39.476 HU and 48.048 HU, and 91.66 HU and 93.128 HU, respectively, before and after the administration of contrast medium. The Mann-Whitney test showed a statistically significant difference of HU values both in basal and after the administration of contrast material phase. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed a statistical association between intraplaque hemorrhage and low HU values, and a threshold of 25 HU demonstrated the presence of intraplaque hemorrhage with a sensitivity and specificity of 93.22% and 92.73%, respectively. The Wilcoxon test showed that the attenuation of the plaque before and after administration of contrast material is different (intraplaque hemorrhage, lipid-rich necrotic core, and fibrous tissue had P values of .006, .0001, and .018, respectively). The results of this preliminary study suggest that CT can be used to identify the presence of intraplaque hemorrhage according to the attenuation. A threshold of 25

  1. Changes of renal sinus fat and renal parenchymal fat during an 18-month randomized weight loss trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelicha, Hila; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Shelef, Ilan; Gepner, Yftach; Tsaban, Gal; Tene, Lilac; Yaskolka Meir, Anat; Bilitzky, Avital; Komy, Oded; Cohen, Noa; Bril, Nitzan; Rein, Michal; Serfaty, Dana; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Sarusi, Benjamin; Thiery, Joachim; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Haviv, Yosef S; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2017-05-02

    Data regarding the role of kidney adiposity, its clinical implications, and its dynamics during weight-loss are sparse. We investigated the effect of long-term weight-loss induced intervention diets on dynamics of renal-sinus-fat, an ectopic fat depot, and %renal-parenchymal-fat, lipid accumulation within the renal parenchyma. We randomized 278 participants with abdominal obesity/dyslipidemia to low-fat or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate diets, with or without exercise. We quantified renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat by whole body magnetic-resonance-imaging. Participants (age = 48 years; 89% men; body-mass-index = 31 kg/m2) had 86% retention to the trial after 18 months. Both increased renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat were directly associated with hypertension, and with higher abdominal deep-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue and visceral-adipose-tissue (p of trend fat was associated with lower estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate and with higher microalbuminuria and %HbA1C beyond body weight. After 18 months of intervention, overall renal-sinus-fat (-9%; p fat (-1.7%; p = 0.13 vs. baseline) significantly decreased, and similarly across the intervention groups. Renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat changes were correlated with weight-loss per-se (p fat associated with decreased pancreatic, hepatic and cardiac fats (p fat, after adjustment for 18 months weight-loss (β = 0.15; p = 0.026) and hypertension (β = 0.14; p = 0.04). Renal-sinus-fat and renal-parenchymal-fat are fairly related to weight-loss. Decreased renal-sinus-fat is associated with improved hepatic parameters, independent of changes in weight or hepatic fat, rather than with improved renal function or blood pressure parameters. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT01530724. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. Renal Preservation Therapy for Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichun Chiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal preservation therapy has been a promising concept for the treatment of localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC for 20 years. Nowadays partial nephrectomy (PN is well accepted to treat the localized RCC and the oncological control is proved to be the same as the radical nephrectomy (RN. Under the result of well oncological control, minimal invasive method gains more popularity than the open PN, like laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN and robot assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RPN. On the other hand, thermoablative therapy and cryoablation also play an important role in the renal preservation therapy to improve the patient procedural tolerance. Novel modalities, but limited to small number of patients, include high-intensity ultrasound (HIFU, radiosurgery, microwave therapy (MWT, laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT, and pulsed cavitational ultrasound (PCU. Although initial results are encouraging, their real clinical roles are still under evaluation. On the other hand, active surveillance (AS has also been advocated by some for patients who are unfit for surgery. It is reasonable to choose the best therapeutic method among varieties of treatment modalities according to patients' age, physical status, and financial aid to maximize the treatment effect among cancer control, patient morbidity, and preservation of renal function.

  3. Renal failure (chronic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clase, Catherine

    2011-05-25

    Continued progression of renal failure will lead to renal function too low to sustain healthy life. In developed countries, such people will be offered renal replacement therapy in the form of dialysis or renal transplantation. Requirement for dialysis or transplantation is termed end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments used to reduce progression rate of chronic renal failure? What are the effects of lifestyle changes used to reduce progression rate of chronic renal failure? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 44 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: angiotensin II receptor antagonists, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (with or without angiotensin II receptor antagonists), exercise, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, fibrates, lowering blood pressure below usual targets, nicotinates, psychoeducational intervention, smoking cessation, sodium (dietary), statins, structured programmes to achieve therapeutic goals, and targeted lowering of albuminuria/proteinuria.

  4. Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna Vijaykumar Wader

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma is the most common neoplasm of the kidney comprised of different histological variants. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC is a rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC mainly diagnosed in the sixth decade of life. It is important to identify this entity because it has significantly better prognosis than the clear cell (conventional and papillary renal cell carcinomas. The chromophobe renal cell carcinoma should be differentiated from oncocytoma and clear cell carcinoma. We report a case of a 70 year-old male who presented with a six month history of hematuria, left sided flank pain and a palpable non-tender lump in the left lumbar region. On radiology, the possibility of a left renal neoplasm was raised. A left radical nephrectomy was done and histopathological diagnosis of Type 2 (mixed chromophobe renal cell carcinoma was given. We present this case owing to its relative rarity of incidence, difficulties encountered and differential diagnoses to be considered during diagnosis as the prognosis and management protocols differ with different variants.

  5. Perioperative acute renal failure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mahon, Padraig

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent biochemical evidence increasingly implicates inflammatory mechanisms as precipitants of acute renal failure. In this review, we detail some of these pathways together with potential new therapeutic targets. RECENT FINDINGS: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin appears to be a sensitive, specific and reliable biomarker of renal injury, which may be predictive of renal outcome in the perioperative setting. For estimation of glomerular filtration rate, cystatin C is superior to creatinine. No drug is definitively effective at preventing postoperative renal failure. Clinical trials of fenoldopam and atrial natriuretic peptide are, at best, equivocal. As with pharmacological preconditioning of the heart, volatile anaesthetic agents appear to offer a protective effect to the subsequently ischaemic kidney. SUMMARY: Although a greatly improved understanding of the pathophysiology of acute renal failure has offered even more therapeutic targets, the maintenance of intravascular euvolaemia and perfusion pressure is most effective at preventing new postoperative acute renal failure. In the future, strategies targeting renal regeneration after injury will use bone marrow-derived stem cells and growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor-1.

  6. Midterm renal functions following acute renal infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakir Ongun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore clinical features of renal infarction (RI that may have a role in diagnosis and treatment in our patient cohort and provide data on midterm renal functions. Medical records of patients with diagnosis of acute RI, established by contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT and at least 1 year follow-up data, who were hospitalized in our clinic between 1998 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed; including descriptive data, clinical signs and symptoms, etiologic factors, laboratory findings, and prescribed treatments. Patients with solitary infarct were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA only, whereas patients with atrial fibrillation (AF or multiple or global infarct were treated with anticoagulants. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR referring to renal functions was determined by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD formula. Twenty-seven renal units of 23 patients with acute RI were identified. The mean age was 59.7 ± 15.7 years. Fourteen patients (60.8% with RI had atrial fibrillation (AF as an etiologic factor of which four had concomitant mesenteric ischemia at diagnosis. At presentation, 20 patients (86.9% had elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, 18 patients (78.2% had leukocytosis, and 16 patients (69.5% had microscopic hematuria. Two patients with concomitant mesenteric ischemia and AF passed away during follow up. Mean eGFR was 70.8 ± 23.2 mL/min/1.73 m2 at admission and increased to 82.3 ± 23.4 mL/min/1.73 m2 at 1 year follow up. RI should be considered in patients with persistent flank or abdominal pain, particularly if they are at high risk of thromboembolism. Antiplatelet and/or anticoagulant drugs are both effective treatment options according to the amplitude of the infarct for preserving kidney functions.

  7. Effect of LDL cholesterol and treatment with losartan on end-stage renal disease in the RENAAL study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tershakovec, A.M.; Keane, W.F.; Zhang, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Renal pathology and dyslipidemia commonly coexist. Treatments that lower albuminuria/proteinuria may lower lipids, but it is not known whether lipid lowering independent of lessening albuminuria/proteinuria slows progression of kidney disease. We examined the association between LDL cholesterol...

  8. Combination therapy with paricalcitol and trandolapril reduces renal fibrosis in obstructive nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Xiaoyue; He, Weichun; Liu, Youhua

    2009-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that active vitamin D slows the progression of chronic kidney diseases. Here we compared the individual renal protective efficacy of paricalcitol and trandolapril (an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor) in obstructive nephropathy, and examined any potential additive effects of their combination on attenuating renal fibrosis and inflammation. Mice underwent unilateral ureteral obstruction and were treated individually with paricalcitol or trandolapril or their co...

  9. Effect of Thyroid on Lipid Profile and Renal Function: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 8 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Effect of Thyroid on Lipid Profile and Renal Function: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chromogenic coupler react with this solubilize LDL to develop color, which is directly proportional to the concentration of. LDL. High density lipoprotein (HDL) ... disorder level is high among native tribal of Bastar region involving more commonly female population. The reason for this is not well-known. This may be because ...

  11. Effect of Thyroid on Lipid Profile and Renal Function: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ages 15 and 55 presenting to various departments suspected of thyroid disorder visiting for the first time were screened. Blood pressure was not a desired parameter in our study. Brief clinical history and examination along with some epidemiological data were taken. After a written and informed consent samples were.

  12. Renal Branch Artery Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Zarah; Thisted, Ebbe; Andersen, Ulrik Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    Renovascular hypertension is a common cause of pediatric hypertension. In the fraction of cases that are unrelated to syndromes such as neurofibromatosis, patients with a solitary stenosis on a branch of the renal artery are common and can be diagnostically challenging. Imaging techniques...... that perform well in the diagnosis of main renal artery stenosis may fall short when it comes to branch artery stenosis. We report 2 cases that illustrate these difficulties and show that a branch artery stenosis may be overlooked even by the gold standard method, renal angiography....

  13. Renal oncocytoma: new observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, M.J.; Hartman, D.S.; Friedman, A.C.; Sherman, J.L.; Lautin, E.M.; Pyatt, R.S.; Ho, C.K.; Csere, R.; Fromowitz, F.B.

    1984-10-01

    Renal oncocytomas are uncommon, benign tumors that can be treated by local incision or heminephrectomy; their preoperative differentiation from renal cell carcinoma, treated by radical nephrectomy, would be invaluable. A particularly important finding, a central scar, not stressed in previous reports, is frequently demonstrated by CT examination. The authors evaluated radiographic studies of 18 pathologically confirmed cases of oncocytoma and compared findings with results of CT, sonography, and angiogrpahy studies of 18 renal cell carcinoma cases. Oncocytomas can be suggested if a stellate scar is identified within an otherwise homogeneous tumor on ultrasound (US) and CT; if the mass appears homogeneous but no scar is present, angiography should be performed.

  14. Litiasis coraliforme renal izquierda

    OpenAIRE

    Polo Barzallo, Humberto; Vintimilla Carzola, María Paz

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El cálculo coraliforme se denomina de esta manera porque ocupan la mayor parte del sistema colector y se asemeja al coral marino, o a las astas de un venado. (1) Estos cálculos comprometen la función renal por un fenómeno obstructivo e infeccioso, patología que de no ser tratada efectivamente lleva al daño renal progresivo e irreversible. (2) Caso Clínico: Paciente de sexo masculino de 60 años de edad.Antecedentes: Litiasis Renal Izquierda con tratamiento quirúrgico a base...

  15. Lipid exchange by ultracentrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Nikolaj Düring; Olesen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Lipids play an important role in maintaining P-type ATPase structure and function, and often they are crucial for ATPase activity. When the P-type ATPases are in the membrane, they are surrounded by a mix of different lipids species with varying aliphatic chain lengths and saturation......, and the complex interplay between the lipids and the P-type ATPases are still not well understood. We here describe a robust method to exchange the majority of the lipids surrounding the ATPase after solubilisation and/or purification with a target lipid of interest. The method is based on an ultracentrifugation...... step, where the protein sample is spun through a dense buffer containing large excess of the target lipid, which results in an approximately 80-85 % lipid exchange. The method is a very gently technique that maintains protein folding during the process, hence allowing further characterization...

  16. Nutrients and neurodevelopment: lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Horacio F; Visentin, Silvana

    2016-10-01

    Nutrients, lipids in particular, make up the central nervous system structure and play major functional roles: they stimulate development, migration, and nerve cell differentiation. They are part of gray matter, white matter, nerve nuclei, and synaptogenesis. Breast milk contains lipids which are crucial for infant brain development. The lipid profile of breast milk was used as a guideline for the development of breast milk substitutes. However, to date, no substitute has matched it. Complementary feeding should include docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, other polyunsaturated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, and complex lipids found in milk fat. The lipid composition of breast milk depends on maternal intake and nutritional status during pregnancy and breast-feeding. It has a great impact on development. Our goal is to review scientific literature regarding the role of lipids on infant brain development and the importance of breast milk lipid composition, maternal diet, and complementary feeding. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  17. Renal Autoregulation in Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlström, Mattias; Wilcox, Christopher S.; Arendshorst, William J.

    2015-01-01

    . Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide are modulators of myogenic and MD-TGF mechanisms. Attenuated renal autoregulation contributes to renal damage in many, but not all, models of renal, diabetic, and hypertensive diseases. This review provides a summary of our current knowledge regarding underlying mechanisms enabling renal autoregulation in health and disease and methods used for its study. PMID:25834230

  18. Hereditary Renal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Lakshmi; Jim, Belinda

    2017-07-01

    Hereditary kidney disease comprises approximately 10% of adults and nearly all children who require renal replacement therapy. Technologic advances have improved our ability to perform genetic diagnosis and enhanced our understanding of renal and syndromic diseases. In this article, we review the genetics of renal diseases, including common monogenic diseases such as polycystic kidney disease, Alport syndrome, and Fabry disease, as well as complex disorders such as congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. We provide the nephrologist with a general strategy to approach hereditary disorders, which includes a discussion of commonly used genetic tests, a guide to genetic counseling, and reproductive options such as prenatal diagnosis or pre-implantation genetic diagnosis for at-risk couples. Finally, we review pregnancy outcomes in certain renal diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney Patient Instructions Kidney removal - discharge Images Kidney anatomy Kidney tumor - CT scan Kidney metastases, CT scan Kidney - blood and urine flow References Campbell SC, Lane BR. Malignant renal tumors. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, ...

  20. Primary renal synovial sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish D. Bakhshi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary Renal Sarcoma is rare tumor comprising only 1% of all renal tumours. Synovial sarcomas are generally deep-seated tumors arising in the proximity of large joints of adolescents and young adults and account for 5-10% of all soft tissue tumours. Primary synovial sarcoma of kidney is rare and has poor prognosis. It can only be diagnosed by immunohistochemistry. It should be considered as a differential in sarcomatoid and spindle cell tumours. We present a case of 33-year-old female, who underwent left sided radical nephrectomy for renal tumour. Histopathology and genetic analysis diagnosed it to be primary renal synovial sarcoma. Patient underwent radiation therapy and 2 years follow up is uneventful. A brief case report with review of literature is presented.

  1. Dopamins renale virkninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1990-01-01

    is frequently employed in cases of acute oliguric renal failure but the results available concerning the therapeutic effect are frequently retrospective and uncontrolled. The results suggest that early treatment with 1-3 micrograms/kg/min dopamine combined with furosemide can postpone or possibly render...... are possible not exclusively secondary to alterations in the renal haemodynamics but may also be due to specific tubular effects. Recent investigations have revealed that dopamine does not increase RBF and GFR in patients with chronic renal failure if GFR is less than 60 ml/minute. Dopamine in low doses......Dopamine is an endogenic catecholamine which, in addition to being the direct precursor of noradrenaline, has also an effect on peripheral dopaminergic receptors. These are localized mainly in the heart, splanchnic nerves and the kidneys. Dopamine is produced in the kidneys and the renal metabolism...

  2. Renal protection in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Tarnow, L; Rossing, P

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The combination of diabetes and hypertension increases the chances of progressive renal disorder and, ultimately, renal failure. Roughly 40% of all diabetics, whether insulin-dependent or not, develop diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy is the single most important cause of end......-stage renal disease in the Western world and accounts for more than a quarter of all end-stage renal diseases. Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of increased morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Increased arterial blood pressure is an early and common phenomenon in incipient and overt diabetic...... nephropathy. The relationship between arterial blood pressure and diabetic nephropathy is a complex one, with diabetic nephropathy increasing blood pressure and blood pressure accelerating the course of nephropathy. OVERVIEW: Calcium antagonists antagonize preglomerular vasoconstriction. Additional putative...

  3. The Effects of Hyperhydrating Supplements Containing Creatine and Glucose on Plasma Lipids and Insulin Sensitivity in Endurance-Trained Athletes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Polyviou, Thelma P; Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Brown, Benjamin; Speakman, John R; Malkova, Dalia

    2015-01-01

    ...) supplement is detrimental to plasma lipids of endurance-trained individuals and find out whether modification arising can be attenuated by replacing part of the Glu with alpha lipoic acid (Ala...

  4. Persistent renal enhancement after intra-arterial versus intravenous iodixanol administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Shinn-Huey; Wang, Zhen J.; Kuo, Jonathan; Cabarrus, Miguel; Fu Yanjun; Aslam, Rizwan; Yee, Judy; Zimmet, Jeffrey M.; Shunk, Kendrick; Elicker, Brett [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States); Yeh, Benjamin M., E-mail: Benjamin.Yeh@ucsf.edu [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To examine the clinical significance of persistent renal enhancement after iodixanol administration. Methods: We retrospectively studied 166 consecutive patients who underwent non-enhanced abdominopelvic CT within 7 days after receiving intra-arterial (n = 99) or intravenous (n = 67) iodixanol. Renal attenuation was measured for each non-enhanced CT scan. Persistent renal enhancement was defined as CT attenuation >55 Hounsfield units (HU). Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) was defined as a rise in serum creatinine >0.5 mg/dL within 5 days after contrast administration. Results: While the intensity and frequency of persistent renal enhancement was higher after intra-arterial (mean CT attenuation of 73.7 HU, seen in 54 of 99 patients, or 55%) than intravenous contrast material administration (51.8 HU, seen in 21 of 67, or 31%, p < 0.005), a multivariate regression model showed that the independent predictors of persistent renal enhancement were a shorter time interval until the subsequent non-enhanced CT (p < 0.001); higher contrast dose (p < 0.001); higher baseline serum creatinine (p < 0.01); and older age (p < 0.05). The route of contrast administration was not a predictor of persistent renal enhancement in this model. Contrast-induced nephropathy was noted in 9 patients who received intra-arterial (9%) versus 3 who received intravenous iodixanol (4%), and was more common in patients with persistent renal enhancement (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Persistent renal enhancement at follow-up non-contrast CT suggests a greater risk for contrast-induced nephropathy, but the increased frequency of striking renal enhancement in patients who received intra-arterial rather than intravenous contrast material also reflects the larger doses of contrast and shorter time to subsequent follow-up CT scanning for such patients.

  5. Renal function after trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    The lack of need for immediate renal replacement treatment for military trauma victims suggests that the current policy of restricting operational deployment of those Service personnel with active inflammatory renal disease and significantly impaired renal function, combined with good prehospital care for all trauma casualties, is probably correct. No published estimates of renal function in civilian or military trauma victims in the earliest period following injury have been retrieved. The purpose of the present retrospective study was to assess the renal function of military trauma victims on arrival in the Emergency Department of the field hospital. The case records of 287 military trauma casualties with severe injury (New Injury Severity Score, NISS≥16) were retrospectively reviewed to assess renal function by calculating estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the serum creatine concentration obtained immediately on arrival in the Emergency Department of the field hospitals in Iraq and Afghanistan, 2005-2009. Correlations were attempted between eGFR and other clinical and laboratory variables. Hospital case notes recording management following repatriation were retrieved in 221/287 (77%) cases. None had required immediate renal support in the field. Serum creatine concentration on arrival in the field hospital with demographic data permitting calculation of eGFR was recorded in 158 cases. Median eGFR=76 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (range=43-144). Statistically significant correlations were found among eGFR and pulse rate (r=-0.3, p=0.0002), body temperature (r=0.24, p=0.01) and mean arterial pressure (r=0.2, p=0.02). No statistically significant correlation was found among eGFR and NISS, white cell count, or respiration rate. A stepwise multivariate regression analysis of 106 cases suggested that the best combination of clinical observations to predict renal function were pulse rate and body temperature but the prediction was overoptimistic at lower e

  6. OBSTETRIC RENAL FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshwari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Renal failure in obstetrics is rare but important complication, associated with significant mortality and long term morbidity.1,2 It includes acute renal failure due to obstetrical complications or due to deterioration of existing renal disease. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the etiology and outcome of renal failure in obstetric patients. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed 30 pregnant and puerperal women with acute renal failure or pre-existing renal disease developing renal failure during pregnancy between November 2007 to sep-2009. Patients who presented/developed ARF during the hospital stay were included in this study. RESULTS: Among 30 patients, mean age was 23 years and 33 years age group. 12 cases (40% patients were primigravidae and 9(30% patients were multigravidae and 9 cases (30% presented in post-partum period. Eighteen cases (60% with ARF were seen in third trimester, followed by in postpartum period 9 cases (30%. Most common contributing factors to ARF were Pre-eclampsia, eclampsia and HELLP syndrome 60%, sepsis 56.6%, post abortal ARF 10%. DIC 40%. Haemorrhage as the aetiology for ARF was present 46%, APH in 20% and PPH in 26.6%. The type of ARF was renal in (63% and prerenal (36%; Oliguric seen in 10 patients (33% and high mortality (30%. Among the 20 pregnant patients with ARF, The average period of gestation was 33±2 weeks (30 -36 weeks, 5 cases (25% presented with intrauterine fetal demise and 18 cases (66% had preterm vaginal delivery and 2 cases (10% had induced abortion. And the average birth weight was 2±0.5 kg (1.5 kg. Eight cases (26% required dialysis. 80% of patients recovered completely of renal functions. 63% patients recovered without renal replacement therapy whereas 17% required dialysis. the maternal mortality was 20%, the main reason for mortality was septic shock and multi organ dysfunction (66%. CONCLUSION: ARF related pregnancy was seen commonly in the primigravidae and in the third trimester, the most

  7. Renal papillary necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Geller

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1877, Dr. Nikolaus Friedreich (1825-1882; student of Virchow who became Professor of Pathology at Heidelberg and who also described Friedreich’s ataxia first described renal papillary necrosis (RPN in patients with prostatic hypertrophy and secondary hydronephrosis. Thereafter in 1937, Froboese and Günther emphasized the association of this entity with diabetes mellitus. These authors also observed renal papillary necrosis in cases of urinary tract obstruction even in the absence of diabetes mellitus.

  8. Exercise and Renal Function

    OpenAIRE

    Masato, SUZUKI; Japan Society of Exercise and Sports Physiology; Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Jikeidai University School of Medicine

    1996-01-01

    Research on renal function during exercise is very rare in the sports medicine area because it has no direct bearing on the performance of exercise. However, the kidneys play an important role in maintaining a constant internal state, which, when disturbed by exercise in a hot environment, is normalized by means of enhanced conservation of water and electrolytes by the kidneys. It is the purpose of this article to review the previous literature, to relate some of our findings on renal functio...

  9. Renal pathology in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Peernel

    2006-01-01

    The class of Reptilia varies widely. Both the gross morphology and microscopic anatomy of the kidneys are specific for each species. In each species of reptile, the physiology of the renal system has adapted to the specific conditions of life, including, among other factors, the type of food, environmental temperature, and the availability of water. The pathology of the kidneys in reptiles has been poorly studied, but in recent years a number of investigators have specifically studied reptilian renal pathology.

  10. Neonatal renal cystic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Anshika; Krishnappa, Vinod; Kumar, Deepak; Raina, Rupesh

    2017-08-02

    Neonatal renal cystic diseases have a great impact on the morbidity and mortality of the affected neonates and infants. A good insight into the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment options of various neonatal renal cystic diseases aid in early diagnosis and intervention, thereby preventing complications. PubMed search was done for articles on "neonatal renal cystic diseases" and relevant publications including reviews were considered for our article. Both hereditary and nonhereditary causes of cystic kidney diseases can result in severe morbidity and mortality. The main diagnostic modality is ultrasound imaging and most of the neonatal renal cystic diseases are detected during prenatal ultrasound screening. Commonly encountered neonatal renal cystic diseases are autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease and multicystic dysplastic kidney. A thorough knowledge of various renal cystic diseases can be of extreme prognostic value. Physicians should be aware of the impact of early diagnosis and intervention on the lives of those affected. Further research about treatment of these diseases is ongoing and can result in breakthrough therapies for these patients.

  11. Hereditary Renal Cancer Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Naomi B.

    2013-01-01

    Inherited susceptibility to kidney cancer is a fascinating and complex topic. Our knowledge about types of genetic syndromes associated with an increased risk of disease is continually expanding. Currently, there are 10 syndromes associated with an increased risk of all types of renal cancer, which are reviewed herein. Clear cell renal cancer is associated with von Hippel Lindau disease, chromosome 3 translocations, PTEN hamartomatous syndrome and mutations in BAP1, as well as several of the genes encoding the proteins comprising the succinate dehydrogenase complex (SDHB/C/D). Type 1 papillary renal cancers arise in conjunction with germline mutations in MET and type 2 as part of Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer (FH mutations). Chromophone and oncocytic renal cancers are predominantly associated with Birt Hogg Dubé syndrome. Angiomyolipomas are commonly and their malignant counterpart epitheliod angiomyolipomas rarely are found in patients with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex. The targeted therapeutic options for the renal cancer associated with these diseases are just starting to expand, and are an area of active clinical research. PMID:24359990

  12. Targeting Strategies for Renal Cell Carcinoma: From Renal Cancer Cells to Renal Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Zhi-xiang; Mo, Jingxin; Zhao, Guixian; Shu, Gang; Fu, Hua-Lin; Wei ZHAO

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common form of urologic tumor that originates from the highly heterogeneous epithelium of renal tubules. Over the last decade, targeting therapies to renal cancer cells have transformed clinical care for RCC. Recently, it was proposed that renal cancer stem cells (CSCs) isolated from renal carcinomas were responsible for driving tumor growth and resistance to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, according to the theory of CSCs; this has provided the rati...

  13. Impairment of PPARαand the Fatty Acid Oxidation Pathway Aggravates Renal Fibrosis during Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ki Wung; Lee, Eun Kyeong; Lee, Mi Kyung; Oh, Goo Taeg; Yu, Byung Pal; Chung, Hae Young

    2018-02-12

    Defects in the renal fatty acid oxidation (FAO) pathway have been implicated in the development of renal fibrosis. Although, compared with young kidneys, aged kidneys show significantly increased fibrosis with impaired kidney function, the mechanisms underlying the effects of aging on renal fibrosis have not been investigated. In this study, we investigated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR α ) and the FAO pathway as regulators of age-associated renal fibrosis. The expression of PPAR α and the FAO pathway-associated proteins significantly decreased with the accumulation of lipids in the renal tubular epithelial region during aging in rats. In particular, decreased PPAR α protein expression associated with increased expression of PPAR α -targeting microRNAs. Among the microRNAs with increased expression during aging, miR-21 efficiently decreased PPAR α expression and impaired FAO when ectopically expressed in renal epithelial cells. In cells pretreated with oleic acid to induce lipid stress, miR-21 treatment further enhanced lipid accumulation. Furthermore, treatment with miR-21 significantly exacerbated the TGF- β -induced fibroblast phenotype of epithelial cells. We verified the physiologic importance of our findings in a calorie restriction model. Calorie restriction rescued the impaired FAO pathway during aging and slowed fibrosis development. Finally, compared with kidneys of aged littermate controls, kidneys of aged PPAR α -/- mice showed exaggerated lipid accumulation, with decreased activity of the FAO pathway and a severe fibrosis phenotype. Our results suggest that impaired renal PPAR α signaling during aging aggravates renal fibrosis development, and targeting PPAR α is useful for preventing age-associated CKD. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  14. Hyperhomocysteinemia in children with renal transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldámiz-Echevarría, Luis; Sanjurjo, Pablo; Vallo, Alfredo; Aquino, Lourdes; Pérez-Nanclares, Gustavo; Gimeno, Pilar; Rueda, Miguel; Ruiz, Ignacio; Urreizti, Roser; Rodríguez-Soriano, Juan

    2002-09-01

    Many studies have demonstrated a strong association between elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcys) levels and vascular disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the plasma levels of tHcys in pediatric recipients of renal transplants, to establish possible correlations with renal function, lipid profile, and folate and vitamin B12 status, and to assess whether the C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in the 5, l0-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene were associated with a particular risk. A total of 26 transplanted children and adolescents were investigated. tHcys levels were elevated in transplanted patients (12.9+/-4.8 micro mol/l) and 73% of these displayed values above the 97th percentile of healthy children. Plasma tHcys correlated negatively with creatinine clearance ( r=-0.58, PMTHFR 677TT/1298AA genotype. In a multiple stepwise regression model plasma creatinine and triglyceride levels and MTHFR 677TT/1298 AA genotype accounted for 60% of the observed plasma tHcys variability. The MTHFR 677CT/1298 AC genotype was not a significant predictor of tHcys plasma levels. We conclude that a moderate degree of hyperhomocysteinemia is often present in renal transplant children and that folate supplementation must be considered in this population.

  15. Cancer cells differentially activate and thrive on de novo lipid synthesis pathways in a low-lipid environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle W Daniëls

    Full Text Available Increased lipogenesis is a hallmark of a wide variety of cancers and is under intense investigation as potential antineoplastic target. Although brisk lipogenesis is observed in the presence of exogenous lipids, evidence is mounting that these lipids may adversely affect the efficacy of inhibitors of lipogenic pathways. Therefore, to fully exploit the therapeutic potential of lipid synthesis inhibitors, a better understanding of the interrelationship between de novo lipid synthesis and exogenous lipids and their respective role in cancer cell proliferation and therapeutic response to lipogenesis inhibitors is of critical importance. Here, we show that the proliferation of various cancer cell lines (PC3M, HepG2, HOP62 and T24 is attenuated when cultured in lipid-reduced conditions in a cell line-dependent manner, with PC3M being the least affected. Interestingly, all cell lines--lipogenic (PC3M, HepG2, HOP62 as well as non-lipogenic (T24--raised their lipogenic activity in these conditions, albeit to a different degree. Cells that attained the highest lipogenic activity under these conditions were best able to cope with lipid reduction in term of proliferative capacity. Supplementation of the medium with very low density lipoproteins, free fatty acids and cholesterol reversed this activation, indicating that the mere lack of lipids is sufficient to activate de novo lipogenesis in cancer cells. Consequently, cancer cells grown in lipid-reduced conditions became more dependent on de novo lipid synthesis pathways and were more sensitive to inhibitors of lipogenic pathways, like Soraphen A and Simvastatin. Collectively, these data indicate that limitation of access to exogenous lipids, as may occur in intact tumors, activates de novo lipogenesis is cancer cells, helps them to thrive under these conditions and makes them more vulnerable to lipogenesis inhibitors. These observations have important implications for the design of new antineoplastic

  16. Renal lesions associated with autoimmune pancreatitis: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triantopoulou, Charikleia; Maniatis, Petros; Siafas, Ioannis; Papailiou, John (CT and Radiology Dept., ' Konstantopouleion' General Hospital, Athens (Greece)), e-mail: ctriantopoulou@gmail.com; Malachias, George; Anastopoulos, John (Radiology Dept., ' Sismanogleio' General Hospital, Athens (Greece))

    2010-07-15

    Background: Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by IgG4-positive plasma cells. Recent evidence suggests that it is a systemic disease affecting various organs. Tubulointerstitial nephritis has been reported in association with AIP. Purpose: To investigate the incidence and types of renal involvement in patients with AIP. Material and Methods: Eighteen patients with no history of renal disease and a diagnosis of AIP (on the basis of histopathologic findings or a combination of characteristic imaging features, increased serum IgG4 levels, and response to steroid treatment) were included. All patients underwent computed tomography (CT) imaging and follow-up ranged from 6 months to 2 years. CT images were reviewed for the presence of renal lesions. Results: Seven patients had renal involvement (38.8%). None of the lesions was visible on non-contrast-enhanced CT scan. Parenchymal lesions appeared as multiple nodules showing decreased enhancement (four cases). Pyelonephritis, lymphoma, and metastases were considered in the differential diagnosis. An ill-defined low-attenuation mass-like lesion was found in one patient, while diffuse thickening of the renal pelvis wall was evident in the last two cases. Renal lesions regressed in all patients after steroid treatment, the larger one leaving a fibrous cortical scar. Conclusion: Different types of renal lesions in patients with AIP are relatively common, appearing as multiple nodules with decreased enhancement. These findings support the proposed concept of an IgG4-related systemic disease. Autoimmune disease should be suspected in cases of renal involvement in association with pancreatic focal or diffuse enlargement.

  17. Reduced KCNQ4-encoded voltage-dependent potassium channel activity underlies impaired ß-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation of renal arteries in hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chadha, Preet S; Zunke, Friederike; Zhu, Hai-Lei

    2012-01-01

    expression of KCNQ1, KCNQ3, KCNQ4, KCNQ5, and Kv7.1, Kv7.4, and Kv7.5 in rat renal artery. Isoproterenol produced concentration-dependent relaxation of precontracted renal arteries and increased Kv7 channel currents in isolated smooth muscle cells. Application of the Kv7 blocker linopirdine attenuated...

  18. [The role of lipid metabolism disorders in kidney disease in metabolic syndrome associated with obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriachkova, A A; Savel'eva, S A; Kutyrina, I M

    2011-01-01

    To study the role of lipid metabolism impairment in renal disease in patients with metabolic syndrome associated with obesity. Lipid metabolism was studied in 77 patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) aged from 17 to 63 years (mean age 48 +/- 9 years). Lipid abnormalities were analysed in groups of patients with different degree of obesity: group 1 - body mass index (BMI) 25-29.9 kg/m2 (n = 13), group 2 - BMI 30-39.9 kg/m2 (n = 49), group 3 - BMI > 40 kg/m2 (n = 15), and in groups of patients with different insulin resistance (IR) : group 1 - HOMA-IR 4; n = 32). Correlation between plasma lipid composition abnormalities and markers of renal disease were studied with correlation analysis. Lipid disbolism in MS patients was characterized with elevated level of triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC), VLDLP cholesterol, low level of HDLP cholesterol. A significant relationship was detected between defective blood lipid composition and renal dysfunction: rise of microalbuminuria, proteinuria, creatinin, inhibition ofglomerular filtration rate. The changes found characterize lipid metabolism disorder as an independent factor of kidney disease in patients with MS.

  19. Midterm renal functions following acute renal infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongun, Sakir; Bozkurt, Ozan; Demir, Omer; Cimen, Sertac; Aslan, Guven

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore clinical features of renal infarction (RI) that may have a role in diagnosis and treatment in our patient cohort and provide data on midterm renal functions. Medical records of patients with diagnosis of acute RI, established by contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) and at least 1 year follow-up data, who were hospitalized in our clinic between 1998 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed; including descriptive data, clinical signs and symptoms, etiologic factors, laboratory findings, and prescribed treatments. Patients with solitary infarct were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) only, whereas patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) or multiple or global infarct were treated with anticoagulants. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) referring to renal functions was determined by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula. Twenty-seven renal units of 23 patients with acute RI were identified. The mean age was 59.7 ± 15.7 years. Fourteen patients (60.8%) with RI had atrial fibrillation (AF) as an etiologic factor of which four had concomitant mesenteric ischemia at diagnosis. At presentation, 20 patients (86.9%) had elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), 18 patients (78.2%) had leukocytosis, and 16 patients (69.5%) had microscopic hematuria. Two patients with concomitant mesenteric ischemia and AF passed away during follow up. Mean eGFR was 70.8 ± 23.2 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at admission and increased to 82.3 ± 23.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at 1 year follow up. RI should be considered in patients with persistent flank or abdominal pain, particularly if they are at high risk of thromboembolism. Antiplatelet and/or anticoagulant drugs are both effective treatment options according to the amplitude of the infarct for preserving kidney functions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  20. Fenofibrate Attenuates Hypertension in Goldblatt Hypertensive Rats: Role of 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid in the Nonclipped Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporková, Alexandra; Čertíková Chábová, Věra; Doleželová, Šárka; Jíchová, Šárka; Kopkan, Libor; Vaňourková, Zdeňka; Kompanowska-Jezierska, Elzbieta; Sadowski, Janusz; Maxová, Hana; Červenka, Luděk

    2017-06-01

    There is vast evidence that the renin-angiotensin system is not the sole determinant of blood pressure (BP) elevation in human renovascular hypertension or the relevant experimental models. This study tested the hypothesis that kidney deficiency of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), a product of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent ω-hydroxylase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism, is important in the pathophysiology of the maintenance phase of 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K1C) Goldblatt hypertension. In 2K1C Goldblatt rats with established hypertension, angiotensin II, angiotensin 1-7, 20-HETE concentrations and gene expression of CYP4A1 enzyme (responsible for 20-HETE formation) of the nonclipped kidney were determined. We examined if 14 days׳ administration of fenofibrate, a lipid-lowering drug, would increase CYP4A1 gene expression and renal 20-HETE formation, and if increased 20-HETE concentrations in the nonclipped kidney would decrease BP (telemetric measurements). CYP4A1 gene expression, 20-HETE and angiotensin 1-7 concentrations were lower and angiotensin II levels were higher in the nonclipped kidney of 2K1C rats than in sham-operated rats. Fenofibrate increased CYP4A1 gene expression and 20-HETE concentration in the nonclipped kidney and significantly decreased BP in 2K1C rats but did not restore it to normotensive range. The treatment did not change BP in sham-operated rats. Our results suggest that alterations in the RAS and CYP-dependent ω-hydroxylase metabolites of arachidonic acid in the nonclipped kidneys are both important in the pathophysiology of the maintenance phase of 2K1C Goldblatt hypertension. Therefore, fenofibrate treatment effectively attenuated hypertension, probably via stimulation of 20-HETE formation in the nonclipped kidney. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Steroid withdrawal in renal transplant patients: the Irish experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, P J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Steroid therapy is associated with significant morbidity in renal transplant recipients. However, there is concern that steroid withdrawal will adversely affect outcome. METHODS: We report on 241 renal transplant recipients on different doses of corticosteroids at 3 months (zero, <\\/= 5 mg\\/day, > 5 mg\\/day). Parameters analysed included blood pressure, lipid profile, weight change, new onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT), allograft survival and acute rejection. RESULTS: Elimination of corticosteroids had no impact on allograft survival at 1 year. There were no cases of NODAT in the steroid withdrawal group compared with over 7% in each of the steroid groups. There were no significant improvements in weight gain, blood pressure control or total cholesterol with withdrawal of steroids before 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: In renal transplant patients treated with tacrolimus and mycophenolate, early withdrawal of steroids does not appear to adversely affect allograft outcome at 1 year. It may result in less NODAT.

  2. [Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoux, V; Lechevallier, E; Pamela, A; Long, J-A; Rambeaud, J-J

    2013-06-01

    The objective was to perform a systematic review of literature concerning epidemiology, clinical and biological data, prognosis and therapy of sarcomatoid renal cell carcinomas. Data on sarcomatoid renal cell carcinomas have been sought by querying the server Medline with MeSH terms following or combination of them: "renal carcinoma", "renal cell carcinoma," "renal cancer", "sarcomatoid" "sarcomatoid transformation" and "sarcomatoid differentiation." The articles obtained were selected according to their methodology, the language in English or French, the relevance and the date of publication. Twenty papers were selected. According to the literature, a sarcomatoid contingent can be observed in all subtypes of renal cell carcinomas, with a frequency of 1 to 15% of cases. The median age at diagnosis was 60 years with a majority of symptomatic patients (90%), mainly with abdominal pain and hematuria. These tumors were often found in patients with locally advanced or metastatic (45-77%). The imaging was not specific for the diagnosis and biopsy had a low sensitivity for identifying a sarcomatoid contingent. The treatment was based on a combination of maximal surgical resection whenever possible and systemic therapy for metastastic disease. Pathological data often showed large tumors, Furhman 4 grades, combined biphasic carcinomatous contingent (clear cell carcinoma in most cases) and sarcomatoid. Genetically, there was no specific abnormality but a complex association of chromosomal additions and deletions. The prognosis was pejorative with a specific median survival of 5 to 19 months without any impact of the sarcomatoid contingent rate. Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma is a form not to ignore despite its rarity. Mainly symptomatic and discovered at an advanced stage, it has a poor prognosis, requiring multidisciplinary management quickly and correctly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Renal Lipotoxicity-Associated Inflammation and Insulin Resistance Affects Actin Cytoskeleton Organization in Podocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Martínez-García

    Full Text Available In the last few decades a change in lifestyle has led to an alarming increase in the prevalence of obesity and obesity-associated complications. Obese patients are at increased risk of developing hypertension, heart disease, insulin resistance (IR, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes and renal disease. The excess calories are stored as triglycerides in adipose tissue, but also may accumulate ectopically in other organs, including the kidney, which contributes to the damage through a toxic process named lipotoxicity. Recently, the evidence suggests that renal lipid accumulation leads to glomerular damage and, more specifically, produces dysfunction in podocytes, key cells that compose and maintain the glomerular filtration barrier. Our aim was to analyze the early mechanisms underlying the development of renal disease associated with the process of lipotoxicity in podocytes. Our results show that treatment of podocytes with palmitic acid produced intracellular accumulation of lipid droplets and abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism. This was accompanied by the development of inflammation, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress and insulin resistance. We found specific rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton and slit diaphragm proteins (Nephrin, P-Cadherin, Vimentin associated with this insulin resistance in palmitic-treated podocytes. We conclude that lipotoxicity accelerates glomerular disease through lipid accumulation and inflammation. Moreover, saturated fatty acids specifically promote insulin resistance by disturbing the cytoarchitecture of podocytes. These data suggest that renal lipid metabolism and cytoskeleton rearrangements may serve as a target for specific therapies aimed at slowing the progression of podocyte failure during metabolic syndrome.

  4. Renal Lipotoxicity-Associated Inflammation and Insulin Resistance Affects Actin Cytoskeleton Organization in Podocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Cristina; Izquierdo-Lahuerta, Adriana; Vivas, Yurena; Velasco, Ismael; Yeo, Tet-Kin; Chen, Sheldon; Medina-Gomez, Gema

    2015-01-01

    In the last few decades a change in lifestyle has led to an alarming increase in the prevalence of obesity and obesity-associated complications. Obese patients are at increased risk of developing hypertension, heart disease, insulin resistance (IR), dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes and renal disease. The excess calories are stored as triglycerides in adipose tissue, but also may accumulate ectopically in other organs, including the kidney, which contributes to the damage through a toxic process named lipotoxicity. Recently, the evidence suggests that renal lipid accumulation leads to glomerular damage and, more specifically, produces dysfunction in podocytes, key cells that compose and maintain the glomerular filtration barrier. Our aim was to analyze the early mechanisms underlying the development of renal disease associated with the process of lipotoxicity in podocytes. Our results show that treatment of podocytes with palmitic acid produced intracellular accumulation of lipid droplets and abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism. This was accompanied by the development of inflammation, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress and insulin resistance. We found specific rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton and slit diaphragm proteins (Nephrin, P-Cadherin, Vimentin) associated with this insulin resistance in palmitic-treated podocytes. We conclude that lipotoxicity accelerates glomerular disease through lipid accumulation and inflammation. Moreover, saturated fatty acids specifically promote insulin resistance by disturbing the cytoarchitecture of podocytes. These data suggest that renal lipid metabolism and cytoskeleton rearrangements may serve as a target for specific therapies aimed at slowing the progression of podocyte failure during metabolic syndrome.

  5. microRNA-21 Governs TORC1 Activation in Renal Cancer Cell Proliferation and Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Nirmalya; Das, Falguni; Ghosh-Choudhury, Nandini; Mandal, Chandi Charan; Parekh, Dipen J.; Block, Karen; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S.; Abboud, Hanna E.; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Metastatic renal cancer manifests multiple signatures of gene expression. Deviation in expression of mature miRNAs has been linked to human cancers. Importance of miR-21 in renal cell carcinomas is proposed from profiling studies using tumor tissue samples. However, the role of miR-21 function in causing renal cancer cell proliferation and invasion has not yet been shown. Using cultured renal carcinoma cells, we demonstrate enhanced expression of mature miR-21 along with pre-and pri-miR-21 by increased transcription compared to normal proximal tubular epithelial cells. Overexpression of miR-21 Sponge to quench endogenous miR-21 levels inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of renal cancer cells. In the absence of mutation in the PTEN tumor suppressor gene, PTEN protein levels are frequently downregulated in renal cancer. We show that miR-21 targets PTEN mRNA 3′untranslated region to decrease PTEN protein expression and augments Akt phosphorylation in renal cancer cells. Downregulation of PTEN as well as overexpression of constitutively active Akt kinase prevented miR-21 Sponge-induced inhibition of renal cancer cell proliferation and migration. Moreover, we show that miR-21 Sponge inhibited the inactivating phosphorylation of the tumor suppressor protein tuberin and attenuated TORC1 activation. Finally, we demonstrate that expression of constitutively active TORC1 attenuated miR-21 Sponge-mediated suppression of proliferation and migration of renal cancer cells. Our results uncover a layer of post-transcriptional regulation of PTEN by transcriptional activation of miR-21 to force the canonical oncogenic Akt/TORC1 signaling conduit to drive renal cancer cell proliferation and invasion. PMID:22685542

  6. Ginger extract diminishes chronic fructose consumption-induced kidney injury through suppression of renal overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Liu, Changjin; Jiang, Jian; Zuo, Guowei; Lin, Xuemei; Yamahara, Johji; Wang, Jianwei; Li, Yuhao

    2014-05-27

    The metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of development and progression of chronic kidney disease. Renal inflammation is well known to play an important role in the initiation and progression of tubulointerstitial injury of the kidneys. Ginger, one of the most commonly used spices and medicinal plants, has been demonstrated to improve diet-induced metabolic abnormalities. However, the efficacy of ginger on the metabolic syndrome-associated kidney injury remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impact of ginger on fructose consumption-induced adverse effects in the kidneys. The fructose control rats were treated with 10% fructose in drinking water over 5 weeks. The fructose consumption in ginger-treated rats was adjusted to match that of fructose control group. The ethanolic extract of ginger was co-administered (once daily by oral gavage). The indexes of lipid and glucose homeostasis were determined enzymatically, by ELISA and/or histologically. Gene expression was analyzed by Real-Time PCR. In addition to improve hyperinsulinemia and hypertriglyceridemia, supplement with ginger extract (50 mg/kg) attenuated liquid fructose-induced kidney injury as characterized by focal cast formation, slough and dilation of tubular epithelial cells in the cortex of the kidneys in rats. Furthermore, ginger also diminished excessive renal interstitial collagen deposit. By Real-Time PCR, renal gene expression profiles revealed that ginger suppressed fructose-stimulated monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and its receptor chemokine (C-C motif) receptor-2. In accord, overexpression of two important macrophage accumulation markers CD68 and F4/80 was downregulated. Moreover, overexpressed tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, transforming growth factor-beta1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 were downregulated. Ginger treatment also restored the downregulated ratio of urokinase-type plasminogen activator to PAI-1. The present results

  7. Idiopathic renal replacement lipomatosis: A rare renal pseudo tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailja P Wahal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal replacement lipomatosis (RRL is a rare condition that occurs as an end result of renal atrophy or destruction of renal parenchyma by excessive lipomatous tissue in renal sinus and perinephric space. We report a case of RRL presenting as a right renal mass clinically. Intra-venous pyelography and renal scan revealed a left non-functioning kidney. A left nephrectomy was performed. After histopathological examination and extensive literature search, a diagnosis of RRL was given. In majority of cases, it is associated with renal calculi. Idiopathic variety is not common. It is a rare entity and the diagnosis may be missed due to lack of experience. It has to be differentiated from other fat-containing tumors such as renal lipoma, xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, angiomyolipoma and liposarcoma.

  8. Cryoablation of Renal Angiomyolipoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makki, Ahmad; Graumann, Ole; Hoyer, Soren

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Small series have reported that cryoablation (CA) is a safe and feasible minimally invasive nephron-sparing alternative for the treatment of renal angiomyolipomas (renal AMLs). The aim of the present study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of CA in patients with renal AML....... MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of 19 renal AML lesions treated with CA at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, over a 5-year period. RESULTS: The treatment was performed as laparoscopy-assisted CA on 7 lesions, and in the remaining 12 lesions CA was performed as a percutaneous ultrasound...... 13). Mean maximum tumor volume was reduced from 50.1 cm(3) (IQR 53.3) to 12.2 cm(3) (IQR 14.1), p = 0.05. No patients presented with retroperitoneal hemorrhage or recurrence during follow-up. CONCLUSION: Treating renal AMLs with CA appears to be a safe and effective nephron-sparing approach and could...

  9. Giant renal oncocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Nebojsa; Ignjatovic, Ivan; Kostov, Milos; Mijović, Zaklina; Zivković, Sladjana; Kosević, Branko

    2013-01-01

    Renal onkocytoma is a distinctive benign tumor derived from epithelial cells of the distal renal tubules. These tumors are often clinically asymptomatic, diagnosed accidentally and difficult to distinguish from renal cell carcinoma. We presented a giant renal onkocytoma in a man aged 64, without any signs or symptoms of the urogenital system disorder. The preoperative diagnosis described the tumor mass of the right kidney, size 16 x 14 cm, and indicated a malignant tumor of kidney. The patient underwent radical nephrectomy. The tumor was encapsulated at the intersection with the characteristic central hyaline scar. Microscopically, it was built of uniform polygonal cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohystochemiclly, tumor cells were immunoreactive to CK AE1/AE3 and CD 117, but showed negative immunoreactivity to CK 7, RCC marker and Vimentin. Giant renal oncocytomas are rare tumors with benign clinical course. As a rule, they are discovered by accident. Clinical differentiation from malignant tumors of the kidney is not possible. They are treated surgically, mainly by radical nephrectomy. A definitive diagnosis is made only by histopathological examination of tumors using immunohistochemical marker panels.

  10. Giant renal oncocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Nebojša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Renal onkocytoma is a distinctive benign tumor derived from epithelial cells of the distal renal tubules. These tumors are often clinically asymptomatic, diagnosed accidentally and difficult to distinguish from renal cell carcinoma. Case report. We presented a giant renal onkocytoma in a man aged 64, without any signs or symptoms of the urogenital system disorder. The preoperative diagnosis described the tumor mass of the right kidney, size 16 x 14 cm, and indicated a malignant tumor of kidney. The patient underwent radical nephrectomy. The tumor was encapsulated at the intersection with the characteristic central hyaline scar. Microscopically, it was built of uniform polygonal cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohystochemiclly, tumor cells were immunoreactive to CK AE1/AE3 and CD 117, but showed negative immunoreactivity to CK 7, RCC marker and Vimentin. Conclusion. Giant renal oncocytomas are rare tumors with benign clinical course. As a rule, they are discovered by accident. Clinical differentiation from malignant tumors of the kidney is not possible. They are treated surgically, mainly by radical nephrectomy. A definitive diagnosis is made only by histopathological examination of tumors using immunohistochemical marker panels.

  11. [The focal renal lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuma, Jan

    2013-06-05

    The focal renal lesions are altogether common. Most frequently are found Columna Bertini hypertrophies (so called pseudotumors) and simple renal cysts. The role of sonography in the practice is to distinguish pseudotumors from real renal tumors, and simple renal cysts from complex cysts. The differentiation of complex renal cysts is possible with the help of the CEUS (= contrast enhanced ultrasound) and other imaging modalities such as CT or MRI. In these cases, the CEUS imaging agent has clear advantages over CT and MRI, because it is composed of gas bubbles, which are only slightly smaller than red blood cells and remains exclusively intravascularly while the CT and MRI contrast agents diffuse into the interstitial space without any real perfusion. The real tumors can be differentiated from certain focal non-tumorous changes based on the ultrasound and clinic. The further differentiation of individual kidney tumors and metastases using ultrasound, MRI, CT and CEUS is only partly possible. In all uncertain or unclear cases, therefore, an open or ultrasound-guided biopsy is useful.

  12. Renal effects of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin in patients with diabetes who have progressive renal disease (PLANET I) : a randomised clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, Dick; Anzalone, Deborah A.; Cain, Valerie A.; Cressman, Michael D.; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.; Molitoris, Bruce A.; Monyak, John T.; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Sowers, James R.; Vidt, Donald G.

    Background The role of lipid-lowering treatments in renoprotection for patients with diabetes is debated. We studied the renal effects of two statins in patients with diabetes who had proteinuria. Methods PLANET I was a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group trial done in 147 research centres in

  13. Protective effect of Urtica dioica L. on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayhan, Mustafa Burak; Kanter, Mehmet; Oguz, Serhat; Erboga, Mustafa

    2012-12-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury may occur after renal transplantation, thoracoabdominal aortic surgery, and renal artery interventions. This study was designed to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica L. (UD), in I/R induced renal injury. A total of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control, UD alone, I/R and I/R + UD; each group contain 8 animals. A rat model of renal I/R injury was induced by 45-min occlusion of the bilateral renal pedicles and 24-h reperfusion. In the UD group, 3 days before I/R, UD (2 ml/kg/day intraperitoneal) was administered by gastric gavage. All animals were sacrificed at the end of reperfusion and kidney tissues samples were obtained for histopathological investigation in all groups. To date, no more histopathological changes on intestinal I/R injury in rats by UD treatment have been reported. Renal I/R caused severe histopathological injury including tubular damage, atrophy dilatation, loss of brush border and hydropic epithelial cell degenerations, renal corpuscle atrophy, glomerular shrinkage, markedly focal mononuclear cell infiltrations in the kidney. UD treatment significantly attenuated the severity of intestinal I/R injury and significantly lowered tubulointerstitial damage score than the I/R group. The number of PCNA and TUNEL positive cells in the control and UD alone groups was negligible. When kidney sections were PCNA and TUNEL stained, there was a clear increase in the number of positive cells in the I/R group rats in the renal cortical tissues. However, there is a significant reduction in the activity of PCNA and TUNEL in kidney tissue of renal injury induced by renal I/R with UD therapy. Our results suggest that administration of UD attenuates renal I/R injury. These results suggest that UD treatment has a protective effect against renal damage induced by renal I/R. This protective effect is possibly due to its ability to inhibit I/R induced renal damage, apoptosis and cell proliferation.

  14. PPARγ as a therapeutic target in diabetic nephropathy and other renal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jichun; Zhou, Yunfeng; Guan, Youfei

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a ligand-activated nuclear transcription factor that regulates many important physiological processes including glucose and lipid metabolism, energy homeostasis, cell proliferation, inflammation, immunity and reproduction. The current review aims to summarize and discuss recent findings evaluating the protective effects of PPARγ against kidney diseases with a focus on diabetic nephropathy. We will also delineate the potential underlying mechanisms. PPARγ plays important roles in renal physiology and pathophysiology. Agonists of PPARγ exert protective effects against various kidney diseases including diabetic nephropathy, ischemic renal injury, IgA nephropathy, chemotherapy-associated kidney damage, polycystic kidney diseases and age-related kidney diseases via both systemic and renal actions. PPARγ agonists are effective in delaying and even preventing the progression of many renal diseases, especially diabetic nephropathy. PPARγ may represent a promising target for the treatment of renal diseases.

  15. Polyene-lipids: a new tool to image lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuerschner, Lars; Ejsing, Christer S.; Ekroos, Kim

    2005-01-01

    Microscopy of lipids in living cells is currently hampered by a lack of adequate fluorescent tags. The most frequently used tags, NBD and BODIPY, strongly influence the properties of lipids, yielding analogs with quite different characteristics. Here, we introduce polyene-lipids containing five...... conjugated double bonds as a new type of lipid tag. Polyene-lipids exhibit a unique structural similarity to natural lipids, which results in minimal effects on the lipid properties. Analyzing membrane phase partitioning, an important biophysical and biological property of lipids, we demonstrated...... the superiority of polyene-lipids to both NBD- and BODIPY-tagged lipids. Cells readily take up various polyene-lipid precursors and generate the expected end products with no apparent disturbance by the tag. Applying two-photon excitation microscopy, we imaged the distribution of polyene-lipids in living...

  16. Renal sympathetic denervation: MDCT evaluation of the renal arteries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hutchinson, Barry D

    2013-08-01

    Percutaneous transluminal renal sympathetic denervation is a new treatment of refractory systemic hypertension. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical utility of MDCT to evaluate the anatomic configuration of the renal arteries in the context of renal sympathetic denervation.

  17. Lipid bilayers and interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kik, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    In biological systems lipid bilayers are subject to many different interactions with other entities. These can range from proteins that are attached to the hydrophilic region of the bilayer or transmembrane proteins that interact with the hydrophobic region of the lipid bilayer. Interaction between

  18. The evolution of lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Y. H.; Sugai, A.; Uda, I.; Itoh, T.

    2001-01-01

    Living organisms on the Earth which are divided into three major domains - Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya, probably came from a common ancestral cell. Because there are many thermophilic microorganisms near the root of the universal phylogenetic tree, the common ancestral cell should be considered to be a thermophilic microorganism. The existence of a cell is necessary for the living organisms; the cell membrane is the essential structural component of a cell, so its amphiphilic property is vital for the molecule of lipids for cell membranes. Tetraether type glycerophospholipids with C 40 isoprenoid chains are major membrane lipids widely distributed in archaeal cells. Cyclization number of C 40 isoprenoid chains in thermophilic archaea influences the fluidity of lipids whereas the number of carbons and degree of unsaturation in fatty acids do so in bacteria and eucarya. In addition to the cyclization of the tetraether lipids, covalent bonding of two C 40 isoprenoid chains was found in hyperthermophiles. These characteristic structures of the lipids seem to contribute to their fundamental physiological roles in hyperthermophiles. Stereochemical differences between G-1-P archaeal lipids and G-3-P bacterial and eucaryal lipids might have occured by the function of some proteins long after the first cell was developed by the reactions of small organic molecules. We propose that the structure of lipids of the common ancestral cell may have been similar to those of hyperthermophilic archaea.

  19. Polyhydramnios and acute renal failure

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, D. V.; Kelly, Moira B.; Pryor, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    Acute renal failure secondary to ureteric obstruction is described in a primigravida with twin gestation and polyhydramnios. Relief of the obstruction occurred on drainage of the liquor and return to normal renal function following delivery.

  20. Cannabidiol treatment ameliorates ischemia/reperfusion renal injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Amr A; Al-Mulhim, Abdulruhman S; Jresat, Iyad

    2012-09-17

    To investigate the protective effect of cannabidiol, the major non-psychotropic Cannabis constituent, against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Bilateral renal ischemia was induced for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 24h. Cannabidiol (5mg/kg, i.v.) was given 1h before and 12h following the procedure. Ischemia/reperfusion caused significant elevations of serum creatinine and renal malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels, associated with a significant decrease in renal reduced glutathione. Cannabidiol significantly attenuated the deterioration in the measured biochemical parameters induced by ischemia/reperfusion. Histopathological examination showed that cannabidiol ameliorated ischemia/reperfusion-induced kidney damage. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that cannabidiol significantly reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, nuclear factor-κB, Fas ligand and caspase-3, and increased the expression of survivin in ischemic/reperfused kidney tissue. Cannabidiol, via its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, may represent a potential therapeutic option to protect against ischemia/reperfusion renal injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 mediates compensatory renal hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinxian; Chen, Jianchun; Dong, Zheng; Meyuhas, Oded; Chen, Jian-Kang

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanism underlying renal hypertrophy and progressive nephron damage remains poorly understood. Here we generated congenic ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) knockin mice expressing non-phosphorylatable rpS6 and found that uninephrectomy-induced renal hypertrophy was significantly blunted in these knockin mice. Uninephrectomy-induced increases in cyclin D1 and decreases in cyclin E in the remaining kidney were attenuated in the knockin mice compared to their wild-type littermates. Uninephrectomy induced rpS6 phosphorylation in the wild type mice; however, no rpS6 phosphorylation was detected in uninephrectomized or sham-operated knockin mice. Nonetheless, uninephrectomy stimulated comparable 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in both knockin and wild type mice, indicating that mTORC1 was still activated in the knockin mice. Moreover, the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin prevented both rpS6 and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, significantly blunted uninephrectomy-induced renal hypertrophy in wild type mice, but did not prevent residual renal hypertrophy despite inhibiting 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in uninephrectomized knockin mice. Thus, both genetic and pharmacological approaches unequivocally demonstrate that phosphorylated rpS6 is a downstream effector of the mTORC1-S6K1 signaling pathway mediating renal hypertrophy. Hence, rpS6 phosphorylation facilitates the increase in cyclin D1 and decrease in cyclin E1 that underlie the hypertrophic nature of uninephrectomy-induced kidney growth. PMID:25229342

  2. Lipid Structure in Triolein Lipid Droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, Vitaly V; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2014-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are primary repositories of esterified fatty acids and sterols in animal cells. These organelles originate on the lumenal or cytoplasmic side of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and are released to the cytosol. In contrast to other intracellular organelles, LDs are compose...

  3. [Renal transplantation in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros-Domingo, Mara; Romero-Navarro, Benjamín; Valverde-Rosas, Saúl; Delgadillo, Rodolfo; Varela-Fascinetto, Gustavo; Muñoz-Arizpe, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    Despite being considered a high risk procedure, renal transplantation has been recognized for more than 20 years as the best therapeutic option for children with end-stage renal disease since it is superior than any available dialytic procedure in improving the neuropsychological development and the quality of life. Today pediatric patients have similar graft survival than adults, and 10 year-old children or less have better outcome than any other age group. These remarking results are due to the development of specialized pediatric transplant centers and research programs, improvement in the selection and preparation of donors and recipients, refinement of the surgical technique and the use of new immunossupressive drugs.

  4. Renal lithiasis and nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, Felix; Costa-Bauza, Antonia; Prieto, Rafel M

    2006-01-01

    Renal lithiasis is a multifactorial disease. An important number of etiologic factors can be adequately modified trough diet, since it must be considered that the urine composition is directly related to diet. In fact, the change of inappropriate habitual diet patterns should be the main measure to prevent kidney stones. In this paper, the relation between different dietary factors (liquid intake, pH, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate, phytate, urate and vitamins) and each type of renal stone (calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary, calcium oxalate monohydrate unattached, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate/hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite, struvite infectious, brushite, uric acid, calcium oxalate/uric acid and cystine) is discussed. PMID:16956397

  5. Renal lithiasis and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto Rafel M

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Renal lithiasis is a multifactorial disease. An important number of etiologic factors can be adequately modified trough diet, since it must be considered that the urine composition is directly related to diet. In fact, the change of inappropriate habitual diet patterns should be the main measure to prevent kidney stones. In this paper, the relation between different dietary factors (liquid intake, pH, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate, phytate, urate and vitamins and each type of renal stone (calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary, calcium oxalate monohydrate unattached, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate/hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite, struvite infectious, brushite, uric acid, calcium oxalate/uric acid and cystine is discussed.

  6. Postnatal adrenalectomy impairs urinary concentrating ability by increased COX-2 and leads to renal medullary injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubbe, Jane; Madsen, Kirsten; Nielsen, Finn T

    2007-01-01

    deprivation, parecoxib attenuated weight loss and the increase in plasma Na+ concentration and osmolality. It is concluded that mineralocorticoid is required for normal postnatal development of the renal medulla. COX-2 contributes to impaired urine-concentrating ability, NaCl loss, and extracellular volume...

  7. Cilastatin attenuates cisplatin-induced proximal tubular cell damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camano, Sonia; Lazaro, Alberto; Moreno-Gordaliza, Estefania; Torres, Ana M; de Lucas, Carmen; Humanes, Blanca; Lazaro, Jose A; Milagros Gomez-Gomez, M; Bosca, Lisardo; Tejedor, Alberto

    2010-08-01

    A major area in cancer therapy is the search for protective strategies against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. We investigated the protective effect of cilastatin on cisplatin-induced injury to renal proximal tubular cells. Cilastatin is a specific inhibitor of renal dehydrodipeptidase I (DHP-I), which prevents hydrolysis of imipenem and its accumulation in the proximal tubule. Primary cultures of proximal cells were treated with cisplatin (1-30 microM) in the presence or absence of cilastatin (200 microg/ml). Apoptosis and mitochondrial injury were assessed by different techniques. Cisplatin uptake and DNA binding were measured by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. HeLa cells were used to control the effect of cilastatin on the tumoricidal activity of cisplatin. Cisplatin increased cell death, apoptotic-like morphology, caspase activation, and mitochondrial injury in proximal tubular cells in a dose- and time-dependent way. Concomitant treatment with cilastatin reduced cisplatin-induced changes. Cilastatin also reduced the DNA-bound platinum but did not modify cisplatin-dependent up-regulation of death receptors (Fas) or ligands (tumor necrosis factor alpha, Fas ligand). In contrast, cilastatin did not show any effects on cisplatin-treated HeLa cells. Renal DHP-I was virtually absent in HeLa cells. Cilastatin attenuates cisplatin-induced cell death in proximal tubular cells without reducing the cytotoxic activity of cisplatin in tumor cells. Our findings suggest that the affinity of cilastatin for renal dipeptidase makes this effect specific for proximal tubular cells and may be related to a reduction in intracellular drug accumulation. Therefore, cilastatin administration might represent a novel strategy in the prevention of cisplatin-induced acute renal injury.

  8. Renal replacement therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordzij, Marlies; Kramer, Anneke; Abad Diez, José M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article provides a summary of the 2011 ERA-EDTA Registry Annual Report (available at www.era-edta-reg.org). METHODS: Data on renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from national and regional renal registries in 30 countries in Europe and bordering the ...

  9. Management of chronic renal failure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, D.; Apperloo, AJ; de Jong, P.

    1992-01-01

    There is growing evidence that treatment of patients with renal function impairment will undergo a major shift within the next few years. Along with more or less successful attempts to alleviate the signs and symptoms of reduced renal function, new insights into renal pathophysiology as well as new

  10. Neil3-dependent base excision repair regulates lipid metabolism and prevents atherosclerosis in Apoe-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarpengland, Tonje; Holm, Sverre; Scheffler, Katja

    2016-01-01

    an atherogenic lipid profile, increased hepatic triglyceride levels and attenuated macrophage cholesterol efflux capacity. Apoe-/- Neil3-/- mice showed marked alterations in several pathways affecting hepatic lipid metabolism, but no genotypic alterations in genome integrity or genome-wide accumulation...... of oxidative DNA damage. These results suggest a novel role for the DNA glycosylase Neil3 in atherogenesis in balancing lipid metabolism and macrophage function, potentially independently of genome-wide canonical base excision repair of oxidative DNA damage....

  11. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2002-04-01

    Wave-induced variations of pore pressure in a partially-saturated reservoir result in oscillatory liquid flow. The viscous losses during this flow are responsible for wave attenuation. The same viscous effects determine the changes in the dynamic bulk modulus of the system versus frequency. These changes are necessarily linked to attenuation via the causality condition. We analytically quantify the frequency dependence of the bulk modulus of a partially saturated rock by assuming that saturation is patchy and then link these changes to the inverse quality factor. As a result, the P-wave attenuation is quantitatively linked to saturation and thus can serve as a saturation indicator.

  12. Advancements in renal protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waanders, Femke

    2008-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a rising worldwide public health problem. The prevention of progressive renal function loss of both native and transplanted kidneys is therefore the main challenge in current clinical nephrology. Blockade of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) with blood

  13. Chemokines in Renal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Segerer

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemokines, members of a large family of chemotactic cytokines, act as directional cues for sorting inflammatory cell subsets to sites of inflammation or lymphoid microenvironments. In addition to their effects on migration, chemokines can also activate effector function in leukocytes and are involved in cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Therefore, it is not surprising that chemokines play important roles in a wide range of human diseases, including genetic immunodeficiencies, infections, autoimmune diseases, and malignant tumors. In this report, we have reviewed recent developments (since mid 2003 in chemokines in renal diseases. In animal models, chemokines are produced at the site of injury, leading to inflammatory cell recruitment. The therapeutic impact of the blockade of CCR1, CCR2, CCR4, CCR5, or the corresponding ligands has been further studied in various renal disease models. Recent studies on the role of the chemokine receptors in human diseases have demonstrated the expression of CXCR1, CXCR3, CCR2, and CCR5 on different subsets of inflammatory cells. The number of CCR5- and CXCR3-positive interstitial infiltrating cells (mainly T cells correlates with renal function and proteinuria in glomerular diseases. Polymorphisms of chemokines and chemokine receptors are of impact on renal disease courses and allograft survival. Chemokine receptor blockade has approached clinical applications in nonrenal diseases and awaits the application in patients with kidney diseases.

  14. Lipid Production from Nannochloropsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Nian; Chen, Tian-Peng; Yang, Bo; Liu, Jin; Chen, Feng

    2016-03-25

    Microalgae are sunlight-driven green cell factories for the production of potential bioactive products and biofuels. Nannochloropsis represents a genus of marine microalgae with high photosynthetic efficiency and can convert carbon dioxide to storage lipids mainly in the form of triacylglycerols and to the ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Recently, Nannochloropsis has received ever-increasing interests of both research and public communities. This review aims to provide an overview of biology and biotechnological potential of Nannochloropsis, with the emphasis on lipid production. The path forward for the further exploration of Nannochloropsis for lipid production with respect to both challenges and opportunities is also discussed.

  15. Lake Superior lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish chemistry data (d13C, d15N, C:N, lipid content) published in Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 2015, 29, 2069??2077 DOI: 10.1002/rcm.7367This dataset is associated with the following publication:Hoffman , J., M. Sierszen , and A. Cotter. Fish tissue lipid-C:N relationships for correcting ä13C values and estimating lipid content in aquatic food web studies. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. Wiley InterScience, Silver Spring, MD, USA, 29(21): 2069–2077, (2015).

  16. Renal scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Reid; Daniel, Gregory B

    2014-01-01

    Renal scintigraphy is performed commonly in dogs and cats and has been used in a variety of other species. In a 2012 survey of the members of the Society of Veterinary Nuclear Medicine, 95% of the respondents indicated they perform renal scintigraphy in their practice. Renal scintigraphy is primarily used to assess renal function and to evaluate postrenal obstruction. This article reviews how renal scintigraphy is used in veterinary medicine and describes the methods of analysis. Species variation is also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The endocannabinoid system in renal cells: regulation of Na(+) transport by CB1 receptors through distinct cell signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, L S; Taveira Da Silva, R; Lima, D; Sampaio, C L C; Iannotti, F A; Mazzarella, E; Di Marzo, V; Vieyra, A; Reis, R A M; Einicker-Lamas, M

    2015-10-01

    The function of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in renal tissue is not completely understood. Kidney function is closely related to ion reabsorption in the proximal tubule, the nephron segment responsible for the re-absorption of 70-80% of the filtrate. We studied the effect of compounds modulating the activity of cannabinoid (CB) receptors on the active re-absorption of Na(+) in LLC-PK1 cells. Changes in Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase activity were assessed after treatment with WIN55,212-2 (WIN), a non-selective lipid agonist, and haemopressin (HP), an inverse peptide agonist at CB1 receptors. Pharmacological tools were used to investigate the signalling pathways involved in the modulation of Na(+) transport. In addition to CB1 and CB2 receptors and TRPV1 channels, the mRNAs encoding for enzymes of the ECS were also expressed in LLC-PK1. WIN (10(-7)  M) and HP (10(-6)  M) altered Na(+) re-absorption in LLC-PK1 in a dual manner. They both acutely (after 1 min) increased Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase activity in a TRPV1 antagonist-sensitive way. WIN's stimulating effect persisted for 30 min, and this effect was partially blocked by a CB1 antagonist or a PKC inhibitor. In contrast, HP inhibited Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase after 30 min incubation, and this effect was attenuated by a CB1 antagonist or a PKA inhibitor. The ECS is expressed in LLC-PK1 cells. Both CB1 receptors and TRPV1 channels regulate Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase activity in these cells, and are modulated by lipid and peptide CB1 receptor ligands, which act via different signalling pathways. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Iron chelation by deferoxamine prevents renal interstitial fibrosis in mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasumasa Ikeda

    Full Text Available Renal fibrosis plays an important role in the onset and progression of chronic kidney diseases (CKD. Although several mechanisms underlying renal fibrosis and candidate drugs for its treatment have been identified, the effect of iron chelator on renal fibrosis remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the effect of an iron chelator, deferoxamine (DFO, on renal fibrosis in mice with surgically induced unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO. Mice were divided into 4 groups: UUO with vehicle, UUO with DFO, sham with vehicle, and sham with DFO. One week after surgery, augmented renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis and the expression of collagen I, III, and IV increased in mice with UUO; these changes were suppressed by DFO treatment. Similarly, UUO-induced macrophage infiltration of renal interstitial tubules was reduced in UUO mice treated with DFO. UUO-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines and extracellular matrix proteins was abrogated by DFO treatment. DFO inhibited the activation of the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1-Smad3 pathway in UUO mice. UUO-induced NADPH oxidase activity and p22(phox expression were attenuated by DFO. In the kidneys of UUO mice, divalent metal transporter 1, ferroportin, and ferritin expression was higher and transferrin receptor expression was lower than in sham-operated mice. Increased renal iron content was observed in UUO mice, which was reduced by DFO treatment. These results suggest that iron reduction by DFO prevents renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis by regulating TGF-β-Smad signaling, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses.

  19. ``Aggressive`` renal angiomyolipoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cittadini, G. Jr. [Univ. of Genoa (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Pozzi Mucelli, F. [Univ. of Trieste (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Danza, F.M. [Catholic Sacro Cuore Univ., Rome (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Derchi, L.E. [Univ. of Genoa (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Pozzi Mucelli, R.S. [Univ. of Trieste (Italy). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-11-01

    We describe the US and CT examinations of 4 patients with renal angiomyolipoma with an `aggressive` appearance, and review the literature. The imaging findings in 4 patients with benign renal angiomyolipomas associated with thrombosis of the renal vein and/or inferior vena cava are presented. CT demonstrated fat densities within both tumor and thrombus. In one patient, small lymph nodes with low density internal areas were detected in the para-aortic region. When considering our patients together with those reported in the literature, we found that most angiomyolipomas with venous invasion were large and centrally located within the kidney. Venous thrombosis was observed in 9 lesions of the right kidney, and in only 4 of the left one. One patient only had symptoms due to the thrombus; 10 had problems due to the tumor; and 3 were asymptomatic. Only 4 patients with pararenal enlarged lymph nodes have been reported on in the imaging literature. Fat-containing nodes were detected by CT in one case only; the others had enlarged nodes of soft-tissue density. In one patient the diagnosis of hamartomatous lymph node invasion was established by angiography. In patients with renal angiomyolipoma, demonstration of both fatty thrombus and the fatty infiltration of lymph nodes of the renal hilum cannot be regarded as an indication of malignancy, but only of local aggessive behavior. Conservative treatment seems possible. Detection of enlarged lymph nodes of soft tissue density may cause difficult diagnostic problems, with the diagnosis addressed only by the presence of associated lesions. (orig./MG).

  20. Perspectives on marine zooplankton lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kattner, G.; Hagen, W.; Lee, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    We developed new perspectives to identify important questions and to propose approaches for future research on marine food web lipids. They were related to (i) structure and function of lipids, (ii) lipid changes during critical life phases, (iii) trophic marker lipids, and (iv) potential impact...... of climate change. The first addresses the role of lipids in membranes, storage lipids, and buoyancy with the following key question: How are the properties of membranes and deposits affected by the various types of lipids? The second deals with the importance of various types of lipids during reproduction......, development, and resting phases and addresses the role of the different storage lipids during growth and dormancy. The third relates to trophic marker lipids, which are an important tool to follow lipid and energy transfer through the food web. The central question is how can fatty acids be used to identify...

  1. Ezetimibe as a potential treatment for dyslipidemia associated with chronic renal failure and renal transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with chronic renal disease (CKD are prone to have accelerated process of atherosclerosis. Importantly, cardiovascular disease is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in kidney transplant recipients. Recent studies suggest a potential benefit of the lipid lowering medica-tions in preventing cardiovascular events in the CKD and the transplant populations. In particular, statin was shown to be effective in reducing low density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol. However, refractory dyslipidemia and difficulty in lowering LDL to target were reported with the CKD and the kidney transplant patients. The second United Kingdom Heart and Renal protection study (UK-HARP-II showed that the addition of ezetimibe to simvastatin was safe and effective in treating dyslipidemia in CKD. Furthermore, the combination of ezetimibe and statin was also effective and safe in treating dyslipidemia in kidney transplant recipients. The Study of Heart and Renal Pro-tection (SHARP trial will evaluate the effects of lowering LDL-C with ezetimibe 10 mg and simvastatin 20 mg daily versus placebo in 9,000 patients with chronic kidney disease. The current evidence suggests that the addition of ezetimibe to satin is effective and safe in treating dyslipidemia in the CKD and the kidney transplant patients. Future clinical trials are needed to determine whether ezetimibe will reduce cardiovascular risk in the CKD patients.

  2. Integrated Microfluidic Variable Optical Attenuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-28

    indices , the optical output power is gradually attenuated. We obtain a maximum attenuation of 28 dB when the fluid refractive index changes from 1.557 to...Electron. 23, pp. 1348-1354 (2005). 14. J. M. Ruano, V. Benoit, J. S. Aitchison , and J. M. Cooper, “Flame hydrolysis deposition of glass on silicon for...different refractive indices flowing in a microfluidic channel as the cladding for a segment of straight optical waveguide. Recently, the integration of

  3. Metabolism. Part III: Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, George M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the metabolic processes of complex lipids, including saponification, activation and transport, and the beta-oxidation spiral. Discusses fatty acid degradation in regard to biochemical energy and ketone bodies. (TW)

  4. Doxorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lipid complex is also in combination with another chemotherapy drug to treat multiple myeloma (a type of cancer of the bone marrow) that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other ...

  5. Vascular endothelial cell function and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, A B; Eidemak, I; Jensen, T

    1995-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors and markers of endothelial cell function were studied in nondiabetic patients with mild to moderate chronic renal failure. The transcapillary escape rate of albumin and the plasma concentrations of von Willebrand factor, fibrinogen, and plasma lipids were measured in 29...

  6. Gender difference following high cholesterol diet induced renal injury and the protective role of rutin and ascorbic acid combination in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rejaie, Salim Salih; Abuohashish, Hatem Mustafa; Alkhamees, Osama Abdelrahman; Aleisa, Abdulaziz Mohammed; Alroujayee, Abdulaziz S

    2012-03-16

    An increased interest is given to the impact of high fat diet on health worldwide. Abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by high cholesterol diet (HCD) were reported to exacerbate renal diseases via oxidative stress pathways. Rutin and ascorbic acid showed a protective role against oxidative stress-mediated diseases. Furthermore, both lipid metabolism and tissue response to oxidative stress damage was found to vary according to animal gender. Thus, the objective of this work was to examine possible gender-related differences and the possible protective effects of rutin and ascorbic acid supplementation on high cholesterol diet induced nephrotoxicity. 96 young male and female Wistar albino rats were used. HCD supplemented animals were treated with rutin alone or in combination with ascorbic acid for 6 weeks. Creatinine plasma level was estimated. Furthermore, kidney levels of nucleic acids, total protein, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), total cholesterol, and triglycerides were determined. Finally, kidney tissues were used for histopathological examination. HCD supplementation decreased kidney level of nucleic acids, which was more prominent in female animals. Both vitamin combination significantly attenuated HCD induced decrease in nucleic acids. Moreover, kidney level of MDA was significantly altered by HCD in both genders, which was inhibited by rutin and ascorbic acid alone or in combination in male groups and by both vitamins in female groups. There was a reduction in kidney level of GSH by HCD, especially in male groups, which was attenuated by rutin and ascorbic acid combination. Kidney levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased by HCD supplementation in both genders. Coadministration with rutin and/or ascorbic acid protected from such increase, which was more obvious in both vitamins combination. Histopathological investigation supported vitamins protective effect, which was more prominent in male

  7. Transplantation of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived renal stem cells improved acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Tian, Shou-Fu; Guo, Ye; Niu, Xin; Hu, Bin; Guo, Shang-Chun; Wang, Nian-Song; Wang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a severe disease with high morbidity and mortality. Methods that promote repair of the injured kidney have been extensively investigated. Cell-based therapy with mesenchymal stem cells or renal progenitor cells (RPCs) resident in the kidney has appeared to be an effective strategy for the treatment of AKI. Embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are also utilized for AKI recovery. However, the therapeutic effect of iPSC-derived RPCs for AKI has yet to be determined. In this study, we induced iPSCs differentiation into RPCs using a nephrogenic cocktail of factors combined with the renal epithelial cell growth medium. We then established the rat ischemia-reperfusion injury (IR) model and transplanted the iPSC-derived RPCs into the injured rats in combination with the hydrogel. Next, we examined the renal function-related markers and renal histology to assess the therapeutic effect of the injected cells. Moreover, we investigated the mechanism by which iPSC-derived RPCs affect AKI caused by IR. We showed that the differentiation efficiency of iPSCs to RPCs increased when cultured with renal epithelial cell growth medium after stimulation with a nephrogenic cocktail of factors. The transplantation of iPSC-derived RPCs decreased the levels of biomarkers indicative of renal injury and attenuated the necrosis and apoptosis of renal tissues, but resulted in the up-regulation of renal tubules formation, cell proliferation, and the expression of pro-renal factors. Our results revealed that iPSC-derived RPCs can protect AKI rat from renal function impairment and severe tubular injury by up-regulating the renal tubules formation, promoting cell proliferation, reducing apoptosis, and regulating the microenvironment in the injured kidney.

  8. Effects of renal function on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of lesinurad in adult volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Michael; Valdez, Shakti; Zhou, Dongmei; Kerr, Bradley; Lee, Caroline A; Shen, Zancong

    2016-01-01

    Lesinurad is a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor approved for the treatment of gout in combination with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor (XOI) in patients who have not achieved target serum uric acid (sUA) levels with an XOI alone. Most people with gout have chronic kidney disease. The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of lesinurad were assessed in subjects with impaired renal function. Two Phase I, multicenter, open-label, single-dose studies enrolled subjects with normal renal function (estimated creatinine clearance [eCrCl] >90 mL/min; N=12) or mild (eCrCl 60-89 mL/min; N=8), moderate (eCrCl 30-59 mL/min; N=16), or severe (eCrCl lesinurad dose of 200 mg (N=24) or 400 mg (N=18). Blood and urine samples were analyzed for plasma lesinurad concentrations and serum and urine uric acid concentrations. Safety was assessed by adverse events and laboratory data. Mild, moderate, and severe renal impairment increased lesinurad plasma area under the plasma concentration-time curve by 34%, 54%-65%, and 102%, respectively. Lesinurad plasma Cmax was unaffected by renal function status. Lower renal clearance and urinary excretion of lesinurad were associated with the degree of renal impairment. The sUA-lowering effect of a single dose of lesinurad was similar between mild renal impairment and normal function, reduced in moderate impairment, and greatly diminished in severe impairment. Lesinurad increased urinary urate excretion in normal function and mild renal impairment; the increase was less with moderate or severe renal impairment. Lesinurad was well tolerated by all subjects. Lesinurad exposure increased with decreasing renal function; however, the effects of lesinurad on sUA were attenuated in moderate to severe renal impairment.

  9. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: The Correlation Between Renal Doppler Ultrasound and Laboratory Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Karadeli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate whether there is alteration both right and left kidney lenght, parenchymal thickness, renal arterial,venous blood flow measurements in normotensive reproductive age women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Material and Method: Forty women with PCOS according to Rotterdam criteria and thirty-six healthy volunteers women were included in our study. Hormonal, biochemical analysis, renal Doppler ultrasonography were performed and were investigated in terms of both left and right renal lenght, parenchymal thickness, peak systolic velocity (PSV, resistive index (RI, venous impedance index (VI, metabolic characteristics having insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, serum lipid concentration. The student t test and pearson corelation test were used for statistical analysis.Results: The measurements for kidneys were not different between women with PCOS and healthy women. The peak systolic velocity of mean renal artery was lower in PCOS group. The mean renal venous impedance also was higher in PCOS group than control group. The mean renal resistive index was slightly higher in PCOS but not statistical significant. In bivariate corelation analyse including all patients, it was seen that BMI, WHR, level of serum fasting glucose, insulin, LDL, trigliserides were positively related with mean renal length and mean parenchymal thickness measurements. Discussion: We found that there was alterations kidney blood flow in normotensive reproductive age women with PCOS. This findings may indicate results of long term renal and cardiovascular complications of PCOS.

  10. Methanol-Promoted Lipid Remodelling during Cooling Sustains Cryopreservation Survival of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

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    Duanpeng Yang

    Full Text Available Cryogenic treatments and cryoprotective agents (CPAs determine the survival rate of organisms that undergo cryopreservation, but their mechanisms of operation have not yet been characterised adequately. In particular, the way in which membrane lipids respond to cryogenic treatments and CPAs is unknown. We developed comparative profiles of the changes in membrane lipids among cryogenic treatments and between the CPAs dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and methanol (MeOH for the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We found that freezing in liquid nitrogen led to a dramatic degradation of lipids, and that thawing at warm temperature (35°C induced lipid remodelling. DMSO did not protect membranes, but MeOH significantly attenuated lipid degradation. The presence of MeOH during cooling (from 25°C to -55°C at a rate of 1°C/min sustained the lipid composition to the extent that membrane integrity was maintained; this phenomenon accounts for successful cryopreservation. An increase in monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and a decrease in diacylglycerol were the major changes in lipid composition associated with survival rate, but there was no transformation between these lipid classes. Phospholipase D-mediated phosphatidic acid was not involved in freezing-induced lipid metabolism in C. reinhardtii. Lipid unsaturation changed, and the patterns of change depended on the cryogenic treatment. Our results provide new insights into the cryopreservation of, and the lipid metabolism in, algae.

  11. Dillenia indica L. attenuates diabetic nephropathy via inhibition of advanced glycation end products accumulation in STZ-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Navpreet; Kishore, Lalit; Singh, Randhir

    2018-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate advanced glycation end products (AGEs) inhibitory activity of alcohol and hydro-alcohol extract (DAE and DHE) of Dillenia indica L. (Family: Dilleniaceae) and its potential in treatment of diabetic nephropathy by targeting markers of oxidative stress. D. indica was evaluated for its in vitro inhibitory activity against formation of AGEs by using bovine serum albumin. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg i.p.) 15 min after nicotinamide (230 mg/kg, i.p.) administration. Diabetic rats were treated with different doses of extracts (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) to analyze their nephroprotective effect. Tissue antioxidant enzymes level was measured along with the formation of AGEs in kidney to assess the effect of D. indica in ameliorating oxidative stress. D. indica showed significant inhibition of AGEs formation in vitro. D. indica produced significant attenuation in the glycemic status, renal parameter, lipid profile and level of antioxidant enzymes proving efficacy in diabetic nephropathy. Moreover, D. indica produced significant reduction in the formation of AGEs in kidneys. The present study concludes that D. indica as a possible therapeutic agent against diabetic nephropathy.

  12. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

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    Alireza Sadeghipour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L. was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia.

  13. Characteristics of the Lipid Profile in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Albai Oana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims Diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the leading causes of end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD. Patients with DM and CKD have a 10 or even 20 times higher cardiovascular risk (CVR than the general population. Lipid metabolism disorders are more frequent in these patients, dyslipidemia being aggravated by the presence of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. The main purpose of our study was to identify possible correlations between lipid profile parameters and altered renal function in patients with DM. We have also analyzed the correlations between lipid parameters, CKD, quality of glycemic control and CVR.

  14. Screening renal stone formers for distal renal tubular acidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    A group of 110 consecutive renal stone formers were screened for distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) using morning fasting urinary pH (mfUpH) levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in patients with levels above 6.0. In 14 patients (12.7%) a renal acidification defect was noted......; 13 had incomplete and 1 had complete distal RTA. Distal RTA was found particularly in recurrent stone formers (17%), and especially in those with bilateral stone disease, where a distal renal tubular acidification defect was found in 50%. We have been unable to differentiate primary from secondary...... RTA in renal stone formers. Regardless of whether the acidification defect is primary or secondary to stone formation, however, all renal stone formers with distal RTA can expect to benefit from prophylactic alkaline therapy and it is recommended that the screening procedure, which is easy to use...

  15. Problemas renales de la cirrosis Renal problems of cirrhosis

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    Alvaro García

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos una revisión actualizada y condensada acerca de los problemas renales más relevantes que ocurren en la cirrosis tales como las alteraciones en el manejo del sodio y del agua, el tratamiento de la ascitis y el edema y el enfoque de la falla renal que ocurre en esta enfermedad, es decir síndrome hepato-renal y necrosis tubular aguda.

    We present a condensed and updated review on the most common renal problems occurring in cirrhosis such as the handling of sodium and water, the treatment of ascites and edema and the approach to the renal failure that frequently takes place in this disease, namely hepato-renal syndrome and acute tubular necrosis.

  16. Renal injury in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, F Clarke; Hunt, Jeremy J; Sevier, Thomas L

    2003-04-01

    Hematuria is the most common presenting sign of renal injury. Its presence in athletes may indicate a benign entity such as exercise-induced hematuria or a more serious injury in the presence of trauma. Exercise-induced hematuria can originate in the kidney, bladder, urethra, or prostate. The type of activity, as well as activity duration and intensity, contributes to its development. A wide differential diagnosis must be considered if hematuria persists longer than 24 to 72 hours. Trauma to the kidney can occur from a direct blow or deceleration; contact and collision sports are most commonly involved. Fortunately, most sports-related renal trauma is mild, and can be managed expectantly. A sporting injury rarely results in nephrectomy. Determining return to play for the athlete with a single kidney remains a controversial issue that requires patient education and an individualized approach.

  17. Renal phosphate handling: Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus is a common anion. It plays an important role in energy generation. Renal phosphate handling is regulated by three organs parathyroid, kidney and bone through feedback loops. These counter regulatory loops also regulate intestinal absorption and thus maintain serum phosphorus concentration in physiologic range. The parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, Fibrogenic growth factor 23 (FGF23 and klotho coreceptor are the key regulators of phosphorus balance in body.

  18. Systemic and Renal-Specific Sympathoinhibition in Obesity Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmeier, Thomas E.; Iliescu, Radu; Liu, Boshen; Henegar, Jeffrey R.; Maric-Bilkan, Christine; Irwin, Eric D.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pressure-mediated baroreflex activation suppresses renal sympathetic nerve activity. Recent observations indicate that chronic electrical activation of the carotid baroreflex produces sustained reductions in global sympathetic activity and arterial pressure. Thus, we investigated the effects of global and renal specific suppression of sympathetic activity in dogs with sympathetically-mediated, obesity-induced hypertension by comparing the cardiovascular, renal, and neurohormonal responses to chronic baroreflex activation and bilateral surgical renal denervation. After control measurements, the diet was supplemented with beef fat while sodium intake was held constant. After 4 weeks on the high-fat, when body weight had increased ~a 50%, fat intake was reduced to a level that maintained this body weight. This weight increase was associated with an increase in mean arterial pressure from 100±2 to 117±3 mm Hg and heart rate from 86±3 to 130±4 bpm. The hypertension was associated with a marked increase in cumulative sodium balance despite ~ a 35% increase in GFR. The importance of increased tubular reabsorption to sodium retention was further reflected by ~ a 35% decrease in fractional sodium excretion. Subsequently, both chronic baroreflex activation (7 days) and renal denervation decreased plasma renin activity and abolished the hypertension. However, baroreflex activation also suppressed systemic sympathetic activity and tachycardia and reduced glomerular hyperfiltration while increasing fractional sodium excretion. In contrast, GFR increased further after renal denervation. Thus, by improving autonomic control of cardiac function and diminishing glomerular hyperfiltration, suppression of global sympathetic activity by baroreflex activation may have beneficial effects in obesity beyond simply attenuating hypertension. PMID:22184321

  19. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging features of lipid-rich neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukukura, Yoshihiko; Shindo, Toshikazu; Higashi, Michiyo; Takumi, Koji; Umanodan, Tomokazu; Yoneyama, Tomohide; Yoshiura, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of lipid-rich pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs). METHODS: Enhanced CT and MRI performed before pancreatectomy in 29 patients with 34 histologically-confirmed PanNETs was retrospectively reviewed. Tumor attenuation on CT and signal intensities on conventional (T1- and T2-weighted) and chemical shift MRI were qualitatively analyzed and compared alongside adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) immunostaining (ADRP-positive: lipid-rich; ADRP-negative: non-lipid-rich) results using Fisher’s exact test or the Mann-Whitney U test. Signal intensity index on chemical shift MRI was quantitatively assessed. RESULTS: There were 15 lipid-rich PanNETs (44.1%) in 12 patients (41.4%). Tumor attenuation during the early, portal venous, and delayed phases of enhanced CT (P = 0.888, 0.443, and 0.359, respectively) and signal intensities on conventional MRI (P = 0.698 and 0.798, respectively) were not significantly different between lipid-rich and non-lipid-rich PanNETs. Four of the 15 lipid-rich PanNETs exhibited high signal intensity on subtraction chemical shift MRI, and the association of high signal intensity on subtraction imaging with lipid-rich PanNETs was significant (4 of 15 lipid-rich PanNETs, 26.73%, vs 0 of 19 non-lipid-rich PanNETs, 0%, P = 0.029). Lipid-rich PanNETs showed a significantly higher signal intensity index than non-lipid-rich PanNETs (0.6% ± 14.1% vs -10.4% ± 14.4%, P = 0.004). Eight of 15 lipid-rich PanNETs, vs 0 of 19 non-lipid-rich PanNETs, had positive signal intensity index values in concordance with lipid contents. CONCLUSION: CT contrast enhancement and conventional MR signal intensities are similar in lipid-rich and non-lipid-rich PanNETs. Chemical shift MRI can demonstrate cytoplasmic lipids in PanNETs. PMID:26379406

  20. Incidental Eosinophilic Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma in Renal Allograft

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    Abdullah Alharbi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC in renal allograft in transplant recipients is 0.22–0.25%. De novo clear cell, papillary, and chromophobe RCCs and RCCs with sarcomatoid differentiation originating in renal allograft have been reported. Routine surveillance for graft tumours is not routinely practiced and these tumours are commonly asymptomatic and incidentally discovered. We describe a case of incidental, eosinophilic chromophobe RCC in a 31-year-old, long-term renal transplant male recipient, who presented with acute gastroenteritis 11 years after transplantation. The graft was nonfunctional at the time of presentation. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography scan demonstrated 1.8 cm well-defined, round enhancing lesion, confined to the renal allograft and suspicious for malignancy. Pathological examination of graft nephrectomy specimen showed gross, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features of eosinophilic chromophobe RCC. Fifty-five months after surgery, the patient was alive and free of malignancy. To the best of our knowledge, only five chromophobe RCCs originating in a renal allograft were previously described in English literature. We suggest that chromophobe RCC should be considered in the differential diagnosis of renal allograft mass, including eosinophilic tumours, and emphasise the importance of periodic screening of renal allograft in all renal transplant recipients.

  1. Incidental Eosinophilic Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma in Renal Allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Abdullah; Al Turki, Maram S; Aloudah, Noura; Alsaad, Khaled O

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in renal allograft in transplant recipients is 0.22-0.25%. De novo clear cell, papillary, and chromophobe RCCs and RCCs with sarcomatoid differentiation originating in renal allograft have been reported. Routine surveillance for graft tumours is not routinely practiced and these tumours are commonly asymptomatic and incidentally discovered. We describe a case of incidental, eosinophilic chromophobe RCC in a 31-year-old, long-term renal transplant male recipient, who presented with acute gastroenteritis 11 years after transplantation. The graft was nonfunctional at the time of presentation. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography scan demonstrated 1.8 cm well-defined, round enhancing lesion, confined to the renal allograft and suspicious for malignancy. Pathological examination of graft nephrectomy specimen showed gross, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features of eosinophilic chromophobe RCC. Fifty-five months after surgery, the patient was alive and free of malignancy. To the best of our knowledge, only five chromophobe RCCs originating in a renal allograft were previously described in English literature. We suggest that chromophobe RCC should be considered in the differential diagnosis of renal allograft mass, including eosinophilic tumours, and emphasise the importance of periodic screening of renal allograft in all renal transplant recipients.

  2. Renal functional outcomes after surgery for renal cortical tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Lascano

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Historically, radical nephrectomy represented the gold standard for the treatment of small (≤ 4cm as well as larger renal masses.  Recently, for small renal masses, the risk of ensuing chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease has largely favored nephron-sparing surgical techniques, mainly partial nephrectomy. In this review, we surveyed the literature on renal functional outcomes after partial nephrectomy for renal tumors. The largest randomized control trial comparing radical and partial nephrectomy failed to show a survival benefit for partial nephrectomy. With regards to overall survival, surgically induced chronic kidney disease (GFR < 60 ml/min/ 1.73m2 caused by nephrectomy might not be as deleterious as medically induced chronic kidney disease. In evaluating patients who underwent donor nephrectomy, transplant literature further validates that surgically induced reductions in GFR may not affect patient survival, unlike medically induced GFR declines.  Yet, because patients who present with a renal mass tend to be elderly with multiple comorbidities, many develop a mixed picture of medically, and surgically-induced renal disease after extirpative renal surgery.  In this population, we believe that nephron sparing surgery optimizes oncological control while protecting renal function. 

  3. Attenuation in Superconducting Circular Waveguides

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    K. H. Yeap

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis on wave propagation in superconducting circular waveguides. In order to account for the presence of quasiparticles in the intragap states of a superconductor, we employ the characteristic equation derived from the extended Mattis-Bardeen theory to compute the values of the complex conductivity. To calculate the attenuation in a circular waveguide, the tangential fields at the boundary of the wall are first matched with the electrical properties (which includes the complex conductivity of the wall material. The matching of fields with the electrical properties results in a set of transcendental equations which is able to accurately describe the propagation constant of the fields. Our results show that although the attenuation in the superconducting waveguide above cutoff (but below the gap frequency is finite, it is considerably lower than that in a normal waveguide. Above the gap frequency, however, the attenuation in the superconducting waveguide increases sharply. The attenuation eventually surpasses that in a normal waveguide. As frequency increases above the gap frequency, Cooper pairs break into quasiparticles. Hence, we attribute the sharp rise in attenuation to the increase in random collision of the quasiparticles with the lattice structure.

  4. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (Fgf21) Gene Expression Is Elevated in the Liver of Mice Fed a High-Carbohydrate Liquid Diet and Attenuated by a Lipid Emulsion but Is Not Upregulated in the Liver of Mice Fed a High-Fat Obesogenic Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lei; Huang, Kuan-Hsun; Ito, Kyoko; Sae-Tan, Sudathip; Lambert, Joshua D; Ross, A Catharine

    2016-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a regulator of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; however, the regulation of Fgf21 gene expression by diet remains incompletely understood. We investigated the effect of a high-carbohydrate (HC) liquid diet, with and without supplementation with a lipid emulsion (LE), and of a high-fat diet (HFD) compared with a low-fat diet (LFD) on the regulation of Fgf21 gene expression in the liver of intact mice. C57BL/6 male mice were fed standard feed pellets (SFPs), a purified HC liquid diet (adequate in calories and protein), or an HC liquid diet containing an LE at either 4% or 13.5% of energy for 5 wk (Expt. 1) or 1 wk (Expt. 2). In Expt. 3, mice were fed a purified LFD (∼10% fat) or HFD (∼60% fat) or were fed an HFD and given access to a running wheel for voluntary exercise for 16 wk. Fgf21 mRNA in liver and FGF21 protein in plasma were increased by 3.5- to 7-fold in HC mice compared with SFP mice (P diet but not by 16 wk of feeding an obesogenic HFD, whereas the addition of fat as an LE to the HC formula significantly reduced Fgf21 gene expression and the plasma FGF21 protein concentration. Our results support a strong and reversible response of hepatic Fgf21 expression to shifts in dietary glucose intake. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Efficacy of ultrasonography-guided renal biopsy for the evaluation of renal dysfunction following renal transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jae; Choi, Chul Soon; Min, Seon Jeong; Lee, Gyung Kyu; Lee, Eil Seong; Kang, Ik Won; Bae, Sang Hoon [Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    To evaluate the usefulness and complications of renal biopsy under ultrasonography-guidance in renal dysfunction after renal transplantation. Ultrasonography-guided renal biopsy was done in 47 patients with the transplanted kidney. The subjects consisted of 30 males and 17 females, age ranged from 16 to 66 years (average age=38 years). Biopsies were done once in 27 patients, twice in 17 patients, three times in 3 patients, a total of 70 biopsies. The success rate of renal biopsy for the accurate pathologic diagnosis and the incidence and types of complications following biopsy were evaluated. The success rate of renal biopsy for the accurate pathologic diagnosis was 96%(67/70). Pathologic diagnosis included 27 cases of acute rejection (39%), 8 cases of acute tubular necrosis (11%), 4 cases of acute rejection and acute tubular necrosis (6%), 4 cases of cyclosporin toxicity (6%), 4 cases of primary disease recurrence (6%), 4 cases of infection (6%) and others. Complications after renal biopsy included 15 cases of microscopic hematuria (21%), 1 case of gross hematuria with spontaneous cessation and 1 case of life threatening hemorrhage. Ultrasonography-guided renal biopsy is a safe and effective diagnostic method for the evaluation of renal dysfunction following renal transplantation.

  6. Radionuclide evaluation of renal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueschen, A.J.; Witten, D.M.

    1979-06-01

    The renal scintillation camera study and the excretory urogram should be considered to be complementary studies. The renal scintillation camera study provides an accurate evaluation of changes in total, differential, and segmental renal function but affords only a gross assessment of anatomic changes. The excretory urogram provides superior information about renal anatomic changes but only inferior information about functional changes of the kidney. The advantages of a renal scintillation camera study with regard to the patient are that it is done in a state of normal hydration, it requires no bowel preparation, it is not associated with allergic reactions, it provides a low radiation exposure, and it is a noninvasive procedure for differential renal function which requires no ureteral catheters.

  7. Dietary avocado oil supplementation attenuates the alterations induced by type I diabetes and oxidative stress in electron transfer at the complex II-complex III segment of the electron transport chain in rat kidney mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Sámano-García, Carlos Alberto; Calderón-Cortés, Elizabeth; Pérez-Hernández, Ismael H; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Orozco, Alain R; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2013-06-01

    Impaired complex III activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in mitochondria have been identified as key events leading to renal damage during diabetes. Due to its high content of oleic acid and antioxidants, we aimed to test whether avocado oil may attenuate the alterations in electron transfer at complex III induced by diabetes by a mechanism related with increased resistance to lipid peroxidation. 90 days of avocado oil administration prevented the impairment in succinate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity caused by streptozotocin-induced diabetes in kidney mitochondria. This was associated with a protection against decreased electron transfer through high potential chain in complex III related to cytochromes c + c1 loss. During Fe(2+)-induced oxidative stress, avocado oil improved the activities of complexes II and III and enhanced the protection conferred by a lipophilic antioxidant against damage by Fe(2+). Avocado oil also decreased ROS generation in Fe(2+)-damaged mitochondria. Alterations in the ratio of C20:4/C18:2 fatty acids were observed in mitochondria from diabetic animals that not were corrected by avocado oil treatment, which yielded lower peroxidizability indexes only in diabetic mitochondria although avocado oil caused an augment in the total content of monounsaturated fatty acids. Moreover, a protective effect of avocado oil against lipid peroxidation was observed consistently only in control mitochondria. Since the beneficial effects of avocado oil in diabetic mitochondria were not related to increased resistance to lipid peroxidation, these effects were discussed in terms of the antioxidant activity of both C18:1 and the carotenoids reported to be contained in avocado oil.

  8. Thyroid and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, E; Chiovato, L; Pinchera, A

    2000-06-01

    Thyroid hormones influence all major metabolic pathways. Their most obvious and well-known action is an increase in basal energy expenditure obtained acting on protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. With specific regard to lipid metabolism, thyroid hormones affect synthesis, mobilization and degradation of lipids, although degradation is influenced more than synthesis. The main and best-known effects on lipid metabolism include: (a) enhanced utilization of lipid substrates; (b) increase in the synthesis and mobilization of triglycerides stored in adipose tissue; (c) increase in the concentration of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA); and (d) increase of lipoprotein-lipase activity. While severe hypothyroidism is usually associated with an increased serum concentration of total cholesterol and atherogenic lipoproteins, the occurrence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in hypothyroid patients is not frequent. However, hypothyroid patients appear to have an increased incidence of residual myocardial ischemia following AMI. Even in subclinical hypothyroidism, which is characterized by raised serum TSH levels with normal serum thyroid hormone concentrations, mild hyperlipidemia is present and may contribute to an increased risk of atherogenesis. Prudent substitution therapy with L-thyroxine is indicated in patients with both overt and subclinical hypothyroidism, with or without angina, to counteract the cardiovascular risk resulting from hyper-dyslipidemia.

  9. L-Carnitine Protection Against Cisplatin Nephrotoxicity In Rats: Comparison with Amifostin Using Quantitative Renal Tc 99m DMSA Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Yürekli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aimed to investigate the cytoprotective effect of L-carnitine against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and to compare its efficacy with that of amifostin by quantitative renal Tc 99m DMSA uptake. Material and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups of six animals each. 1 Control (saline; 5 ml/kg intraperitoneally; 2 L-carnitine (CAR; 300 mg/kg intraperitoneally; 3 Amifostine (AMI; 200 mg /kg intraperitoneally; 4 Cisplatin (CIS;7 mg/kg intraperitoneally; 5 Cisplatin plus L-carnitine (CIS + CAR; 6 Cisplatin plus amifostine (CIS + AMI. L-carnitine and amifostine were injected 30 minutes before cisplatin in Group 5 and 6. Tc 99m DMSA, 7.4 MBq/0.2 ml, was injected through the tail vein 72 hours after the drug administration. Rats were killed and kidneys removed by dissection 2 hours after the injection of the radiopharmaceutical. The percentage of the injected dose per gram of kidney tissue (%ID/g was calculated. Renal function was monitored by measuring BUN and plasma levels of creatinine. Lipid peroxidation and glutathione content were determined by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA and reduced glutathione (GSH in kidney tissue homogenates. Results: Tc 99m DMSA uptake per gram tissue of the kidney as %ID/g was 29.54±4.72, 29.86 ± 7.47 and 26.37 ± 4.54 in the control, CAR and AMI groups respectively. %ID/g was the lowest of all the groups, 11.60±3.59 (p<0.01, in the cisplatin group. Carnitine or amifostine administration 30 minutes before cisplatin injection resulted a significant increase in %ID/g, 21.28±7.73 and 18.97±3.24 respectively, compared to those of cisplatin-treated rats (p<0.002. A marked increase in plasma BUN and creatinine indicating nephrotoxicity and acute renal failure was observed in the cisplatin-treated group. MDA and GSH levels were concordant with cisplatin-induced oxidative stress in the kidney tissue. Conclusion: The results showed that L-carnitine significantly

  10. A case of renal oncocytoma

    OpenAIRE

    筧, 善行; 新井, 永植; 片村, 永樹

    1984-01-01

    We report a case of renal oncocytoma and review 158 cases in the literature. The patient was a 75-year-old woman whose chief complaint was epigastric discomfort without any urological symptoms. The right renal tumor was incidentally discovered by ultrasonography. Its angiographic patterns such as spoke-wheel appearance and homogeneous nephrogram were "characteristic" of renal oncocytoma. We diagnosed it as oncocytoma by microscopical and ultrastructural observation.

  11. Multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez, G.; Glass, T.A.; D' Souza, V.J.; Formanek, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Renal oncocytoma, although rare, is being diagnosed more frequently, and criteria to differentiate it from other tumors have been described. Multiple oncocytomas have been reported, but an association between multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma in the same kidney has not been described. The authors report a case with two oncocytomas and a renal carcinoma in the right kidney as well as a right adrenal adenoma.

  12. Renal dysfunction prevalence and clinical impact in heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palazzuoli A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Alberto Palazzuoli, Susanna Benincasa, Stefanie Grothgar, Pasquale Di Sipio, Giovanni Paganini, Marco Pellegrini, Ranuccio NutiDepartment of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, Cardiology Section, Le Scotte Hospital, University of Siena, ItalyAbstract: Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with a significant increase in death and cardiovascular mortality. However the exact mechanism by which CKD impairs the cardiovascular outcome is not well established. Some reasons may lie in the association of CKD with several other cardiovascular and noncardiovascular disorders including accelerated systemic atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, increased levels of inflammatory factors, anemic status, bone mineral dysfunction, electrolyte imbalance, and renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS activation. Therefore several risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, lipid disorders, and older age are common in both conditions. In patients affected with heart failure (HF a key role is represented by the neurohormonal activation. This condition causes fluid and sodium retention, peripheral vasoconstriction, as well as increased congestion and cardiac workload. Moreover, HF during the decompensated phases is often associated with a worsening renal function that leads to further RAAS activation, microvascular damage, and intrarenal flow redistribution. In order to clarify the interactions between these factors, several questions need to be answered: the universal definition of “worsening renal function,” the identification of the best laboratory parameters to investigate renal function in terms of sensitivity and specificity, and a better definition of the comorbidities’ role in the determination of the outcome, especially in patients with chronic HF. A clarification of these key points could lead to the individualization of new specific therapeutic targets and to a reduction in mortality and hospitalization in patients with HF and

  13. Anatomy of renal arterial supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamanarong, K; Prachaney, P; Utraravichien, A; Tong-Un, T; Sripaoraya, K

    2004-05-01

    A thorough knowledge of the variations of the renal artery has grown in importance with the increasing numbers of renal transplants, vascular reconstructions, and various surgical and radiologic techniques. The literature indicates that multiple renal arteries are found in 9- 76% of cadavers. The purpose of this study is to establish the incidence and characteristics of variations of renal arteries in Thais. A total of 267 Thai cadavers were dissected in the anatomy laboratory. The anatomical findings included: a single hilar artery in 82% of cases; double renal arteries in 17% of cases (one hilar artery with an upper polar artery occurred in 7%; two hilar arteries in 7%, and one hilar artery combined with one lower polar artery in 3%); and triple renal arteries occurred in 1% (two hilar arteries with one upper polar artery in 0.4% and two hilar arteries with one lower polar artery in 0.6%). In preparation for interventions, such as living renal donation, vascular reconstruction, renovascular hypertension, or radical nephrectomy, the results indicate that preoperative renal imaging is necessary and that operative techniques with attention to multiple renal arteries should be considered. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Renal myxoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique C Souza

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Myxomas are rare tumors that can appear in many anatomical locations. There are only 14 cases of renal involvement documented in the literature. This article reports a case of renal myxoma in an elderly woman with recurrent cystitis. After five years of follow-up, the computed tomography (CT revealed a large solid tumor mass in the left kidney. Tumor resection was performed preserving the affected kidney with histopathological diagnosis of renal myxoma. The objective of this study is to report a rare case of renal myxoma, emphasizing the importance of the differential diagnosis from other benign and malignant mesenchymal tumors.

  15. Computed tomography of renal oncocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, E. (Univ. of Kansas, Kansas City); Huntrakoon, M.

    1983-10-01

    Renal oncocytoma is a relatively rare tumor that has an excellent prognosis and usually may be treated adequately by local resection. Preoperative differentiation from renal cell carcinoma, which requires radical nephrectomy, is thus of importance. The computed tomographic (CT) and pathologic features of three incidentally-detected renal oncocytomas were compared with those of six renal cell carcinomas of comparable size. Renal cell carcinoma appears on CT as a solid mass that generally has an indistinct interface with normal renal parenchyma, a lobulated contour, and a nonhomogeneous pattern of contrast enhancement. These features correlate with the pathologic findings of an irregular tumor margin and the frequent presence of tumor hemorrhage and necrosis. Oncocytoma, on the other hand, generally has a distinct margin, a smooth contour, and a homogeneous appearance on contrast-enhanced CT scans. These findings correlate with a smooth tumor margin and absence of tumor hemorrhage and necrosis on pathologic examination. These features are not pathognomonic of oncocytoma, as angiographic evidence suggests that renal cell carcinoma may show both distinct margination and a homogeneous blush in 6% of cases. However, their demonstration by CT should alert radiologists and surgeons to the possibility that a renal mass may be an oncocytoma. Such a presumptive diagnosis then can lead to a surgical approach that allows for renal-conserving surgery.

  16. Renal replacement therapy in ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Deepa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosing and managing critically ill patients with renal dysfunction is a part of the daily routine of an intensivist. Acute kidney insufficiency substantially contributes to the morbidity and mortality of critically ill patients. Renal replacement therapy (RRT not only does play a significant role in the treatment of patients with renal failure, acute as well as chronic, but also has spread its domains to the treatment of many other disease conditions such as myaesthenia gravis, septic shock and acute on chronic liver failure. This article briefly outlines the role of renal replacement therapy in ICU.

  17. Image-Guided Renal Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Gregory T; Sella, David M; Atwell, Thomas D

    2015-09-01

    The role of interventional radiology in the management of renal malignancy has expanded in the past 2 decades, largely because of the efficacy of image-guided ablation in treating renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Clinical guidelines now incorporate ablation into standardized RCC management algorithms. Importantly, both radiofrequency ablation and cryoablation have shown long-term durability in the definitive treatment of RCC, and early outcomes following microwave ablation are equally promising. While selective renal artery embolization has a role in the palliation of select patients with RCC, it can also be used to minimize complications in the ablation of larger renal masses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure following a switchover of therapy between two fibric acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaliah, M D; Sanjay, L D

    2001-08-01

    Drug induced myopathy has been reported with the use of fibric acid derivatives, hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors and nicotinic acid. Over the last three decades, hypolipemiants like fibric acid derivatives and statins have been increasingly recognised as causes of rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure especially during combination therapy and in the presence of underlying renal impairment. We report two cases of bezafibrate-induced rhabdomyolysis in patients with underlying coronary artery disease and pre-existing renal impairment. Both patients developed rhabdomyolysis leading to acute renal failure soon after their hyperlipidaemia treatment was changed from gemfibrozil to bezafibrate. There were no intercurrent illnesses or co-administration of other lipid lowering drugs in both patients. Even though both drugs belong to the same fibric acid derivatives group, these patients developed the complication only after a switchover of therapy.

  19. Lipid Ion Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Heimburg, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The interpretation electrical phenomena in biomembranes is usually based on the assumption that the experimentally found discrete ion conduction events are due to a particular class of proteins called ion channels while the lipid membrane is considered being an inert electrical insulator. The particular protein structure is thought to be related to ion specificity, specific recognition of drugs by receptors and to macroscopic phenomena as nerve pulse propagation. However, lipid membranes in their chain melting regime are known to be highly permeable to ions, water and small molecules, and are therefore not always inert. In voltage-clamp experiments one finds quantized conduction events through protein-free membranes in their melting regime similar to or even undistinguishable from those attributed to proteins. This constitutes a conceptual problem for the interpretation of electrophysiological data obtained from biological membrane preparations. Here, we review the experimental evidence for lipid ion channels...

  20. Heart, lipids and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wolf

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in general population. Besides well-known risk factors such as hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, growing evidence suggests that hormonal changes in various endocrine diseases also impact the cardiac morphology and function. Recent studies highlight the importance of ectopic intracellular myocardial and pericardial lipid deposition, since even slight changes of these fat depots are associated with alterations in cardiac performance. In this review, we overview the effects of hormones, including insulin, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and cortisol, on heart function, focusing on their impact on myocardial lipid metabolism, cardiac substrate utilization and ectopic lipid deposition, in order to highlight the important role of even subtle hormonal changes for heart function in various endocrine and metabolic diseases.

  1. Risk of acute renal failure in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girman, C J; Kou, T D; Brodovicz, K; Alexander, C M; O'Neill, E A; Engel, S; Williams-Herman, D E; Katz, L

    2012-05-01

    Progressive decline in renal function has been well described in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, but few studies have assessed the risk of acute renal failure in a large population of patients with Type 2 diabetes. This study quantified the risk of acute renal failure associated with Type 2 diabetes in the General Practice Research Database from the UK. Patients with Type 2 diabetes (n = 119,966) and patients without diabetes (n = 1,794,516) were identified in the General Practice Research Database. Patients with end-stage renal disease were excluded. Crude incidence and multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios of acute renal failure were estimated for patients with diabetes relative to those without diabetes. Cox regression models were adjusted for a variety of comorbidities. Increase of acute renal failure risk resulting from additive effects of specific co-morbidities with Type 2 diabetes was also assessed. Between 2003 and 2007, acute renal failure incidence was 198 per 100,000 person-years in patients with Type 2 diabetes compared with 27 per 100,000 patients-years among patients without diabetes (crude hazard ratio 8.0, 95% CI 7.4-8.7). Risk of acute renal failure for patients with Type 2 diabetes remained significant, but was attenuated in multivariate analyses adjusting for various comorbidities (adjusted hazard ratio 2.5, 95% CI 2.2-2.7). Age and specific comorbidities (chronic kidney disease, hypertension and congestive heart failure) were also associated with increased risk of acute renal failure in Type 2 diabetes. Patients with Type 2 diabetes have increased risk for acute renal failure compared with patients without diabetes, even after adjustment for known risk factors, particularly in the elderly and those with other comorbidities such as chronic kidney disease, congestive heart failure and hypertension. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  2. Effects of renal denervation on the sodium excretory actions of leptin in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, D; Reams, G; Freeman, R H

    2000-09-01

    Previous studies from this laboratory have reported a marked attenuation of the renal responses to pharmacologic doses of synthetic murine leptin infused in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model compared with normotensive Sprague-Dawley and lean Zucker rat models. In the present study, the hemodynamic and renal excretory effects of an intravenous bolus administration of pharmacologic doses of synthetic murine leptin were examined in groups of anesthetized SHR with unilateral nephrectomy and renal denervation or sham-denervation of the remaining kidney. In the SHR with acute renal denervation (N = 8), an intravenous bolus of 1600 microg/kg of leptin produced a significant twofold to fourfold elevation in sodium excretion but did not increase natriuresis in the sham-denervated group (N = 6). Chronic renal denervation of one-week duration (N = 8) was associated with qualitatively and quantitatively similar increases of sodium excretion in response to leptin administration. Mean arterial pressure remained unchanged in all groups after the administration of leptin. Collectively, these results are interpreted to suggest that the blunted natriuretic and diuretic responses to leptin observed in the SHR with intact renal nerves may be partially explained by the antinatriuretic effect of an enhanced baseline efferent renal sympathetic activity and/or leptin's stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system.

  3. CT Perfusion in the Characterisation of Renal Lesions: An Added Value to Multiphasic CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Giuseppe Mazzei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To prospectively evaluate if computed tomography perfusion (CTp could be a useful tool in addition to multiphasic CT in renal lesion characterisation. Materials and Methods. Fifty-eight patients that were scheduled for surgical resection of a renal mass with a suspicion of renal cell carcinoma (RCC were enrolled. Forty-one out of 58 patients underwent total or partial nephrectomy after CTp examination, and a pathological analysis was obtained for a total of 49 renal lesions. Perfusion parameters and attenuation values at multiphasic CT for both lesion and normal cortex were analysed. All the results were compared with the histological data obtained following surgery. Results. PS and MTT values were significantly lower in malignant lesions than in the normal cortex (P<0.001 and P=0.011, resp.; PS, MTT, and BF values were also statistically different between oncocytomas and malignant lesions. According to ROC analysis, the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity to predict RCC were 95.92%, 100%, and 66.7%, respectively, for CTp whereas they were 89.80%, 93.35%, and 50%, respectively, for multiphasic CT. Conclusion. A significant difference between renal cortex and tumour CTp parameter values may suggest a malignant renal lesion. CTp could represent an added value to multiphasic CT in differentiating renal cells carcinoma from oncocytoma.

  4. Periostin and Discoidin Domain Receptor 1: New Biomarkers or Targets for Therapy of Renal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki Prakoura

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD can be a life-threatening condition, which eventually requires renal replacement therapy through dialysis or transplantation. A lot of effort and resources have been invested the last years in the identification of novel markers of progression and targets for therapy, in order to achieve a more efficient prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment of renal diseases. Using experimental models of renal disease, we identified and studied two promising candidates: periostin, a matricellular protein with high expression in bone and dental tissues, and discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1, a transmembrane collagen receptor of the tyrosine kinase family. Both proteins are inactive in physiological conditions, while they are highly upregulated during development of renal disease and are primarily expressed at the sites of injury. Further studies demonstrated that both periostin and DDR1 are involved in the regulation of inflammation and fibrosis, two major processes implicated in the development of renal disease. Targeting of either protein by genetic deletion or pharmacogenetic inhibition via antisense oligonucleotides highly attenuates renal damage and preserves renal structure and function in several animal models. The scope of this review is to summarize the existing evidence supporting the role of periostin and DDR1 as novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets in CKD.

  5. Lipid intolerance in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsen, M; Eliasson, B; Joheim, E; Lenner, R A; Taskinen, M R; Smith, U

    1995-05-01

    Smokers have recently been shown to be insulin resistant and to exhibit several characteristics of the insulin resistance syndrome (IRS). In this study, we assessed fasting and postprandial lipid levels in healthy, normolipidaemic, chronic smokers and a matched group of non-smoking individuals. A standardized mixed meal (containing 3.78 MJ and 51 g of fat) was given in the morning after an overnight fast. The smokers were either abstinent from tobacco for 48 h or were allowed to smoke freely, including being allowed to smoke six cigarettes during the study. Twenty-two middle-aged, healthy male subjects, nine habitual smokers and 13 non-smoking control subjects, were recruited to the study. The smokers had all been smoking at least 10 cigarettes per day for at least 10 years. The smokers exhibited a lipid intolerance in that their postprandial increase in triglyceride levels was more than 50% higher than in the non-smokers' group. This lipid intolerance could not be discerned in the postabsorptive state because the fasting triglyceride levels were the same in both groups, while the smokers had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The peak postprandial triglyceride level correlated closely and negatively with fasting HDL cholesterol, indicating an impaired lipolytic removal capacity in smokers. Healthy, normotriglyceridaemic smokers exhibit an abnormal postprandial lipid metabolism consistent with lipid intolerance. It is suggested that postprandial hyperlipidaemia is a characteristic trait of the insulin resistance syndrome and that the defect in lipid removal is related to the low HDL cholesterol in this syndrome. The insulin resistance syndrome is likely to be an important reason for the increased propensity for cardiovascular disease in smokers.

  6. Hyperlipidemia induces resistance to PTH bone anabolism in mice via oxidized lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Andrew P; Lu, Jinxiu; Atti, Elisa; Tetradis, Sotirios; Ascenzi, Maria-Grazia; Adams, Douglas J; Demer, Linda L; Tintut, Yin

    2011-06-01

    In hyperlipidemia, oxidized lipids accumulate in vascular tissues and trigger atherosclerosis. Such lipids also deposit in bone tissues, where they may promote osteoporosis. We found previously that oxidized lipids attenuate osteogenesis and that parathyroid hormone (PTH) bone anabolism is blunted in hyperlipidemic mice, suggesting that osteoporotic patients with hyperlipidemia may develop resistance to PTH therapy. To determine if oxidized lipids account for this PTH resistance, we blocked lipid oxidation products in hyperlipidemic mice with an ApoA-I mimetic peptide, D-4F, and the bone anabolic response to PTH treatment was assessed. Skeletally immature Ldlr(-/-) mice were placed on a high-fat diet and treated with D-4F peptide and/or with intermittent PTH(1-34) injections. As expected, D-4F attenuated serum lipid oxidation products and tissue lipid deposition induced by the diet. Importantly, D-4F treatment attenuated the adverse effects of dietary hyperlipidemia on PTH anabolism by restoring micro-computed tomographic parameters of bone quality-cortical mineral content, area, and thickness. D-4F significantly reduced serum markers of bone resorption but not bone formation. PTH and D-4F, together but not separately, also promoted bone anabolism in an alternative model of hyperlipidemia, Apoe(-/-) mice. In normolipemic mice, D-4F cotreatment did not further enhance the anabolic effects of PTH, indicating that the mechanism is through its effects on lipids. These findings suggest that oxidized lipids mediate hyperlipidemia-induced PTH resistance in bone through modulation of bone resorption. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  7. Bioorthogonal chemical reporters for analyzing protein lipidation and lipid trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Howard C; Wilson, John P; Charron, Guillaume

    2011-09-20

    Protein lipidation and lipid trafficking control many key biological functions in all kingdoms of life. The discovery of diverse lipid species and their covalent attachment to many proteins has revealed a complex and regulated network of membranes and lipidated proteins that are central to fundamental aspects of physiology and human disease. Given the complexity of lipid trafficking and the protein targeting mechanisms involved with membrane lipids, precise and sensitive methods are needed to monitor and identify these hydrophobic molecules in bacteria, yeast, and higher eukaryotes. Although many analytical methods have been developed for characterizing membrane lipids and covalently modified proteins, traditional reagents and approaches have limited sensitivity, do not faithfully report on the lipids of interest, or are not readily accessible. The invention of bioorthogonal ligation reactions, such as the Staudinger ligation and azide-alkyne cycloadditions, has provided new tools to address these limitations, and their use has begun to yield fresh insight into the biology of protein lipidation and lipid trafficking. In this Account, we discuss how these new bioorthogonal ligation reactions and lipid chemical reporters afford new opportunities for exploring the biology of lipid-modified proteins and lipid trafficking. Lipid chemical reporters from our laboratory and several other research groups have enabled improved detection and large-scale proteomic analysis of fatty-acylated and prenylated proteins. For example, fatty acid and isoprenoid chemical reporters in conjunction with bioorthogonal ligation methods have circumvented the limited sensitivity and hazards of radioactive analogues, allowing rapid and robust fluorescent detection of lipidated proteins in all organisms tested. These chemical tools have revealed alterations in protein lipidation in different cellular states and are beginning to provide unique insights in mechanisms of regulation. Notably, the

  8. Renal cirsoid arteriovenous malformation masquerading as neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverthorn, K; George, D

    1988-12-01

    A woman with renal colic and microscopic hematuria had filling defects in the left renal collecting system detected on excretory urography. A nephrectomy, performed because of suspected malignancy, might have been averted by renal angiography.

  9. Sirtuins and renal diseases: relationship with aging and diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, Munehiro; Kume, Shinji; Takeda-Watanabe, Ai; Kanasaki, Keizo; Koya, Daisuke

    2013-02-01

    Sirtuins are members of the Sir2 (silent information regulator 2) family, a group of class III deacetylases. Mammals have seven different sirtuins, SIRT1-SIRT7. Among them, SIRT1, SIRT3 and SIRT6 are induced by calorie restriction conditions and are considered anti-aging molecules. SIRT1 has been the most extensively studied. SIRT1 deacetylates target proteins using the coenzyme NAD+ and is therefore linked to cellular energy metabolism and the redox state through multiple signalling and survival pathways. SIRT1 deficiency under various stress conditions, such as metabolic or oxidative stress or hypoxia, is implicated in the pathophysiologies of age-related diseases including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders and renal diseases. In the kidneys, SIRT1 may inhibit renal cell apoptosis, inflammation and fibrosis, and may regulate lipid metabolism, autophagy, blood pressure and sodium balance. Therefore the activation of SIRT1 in the kidney may be a new therapeutic target to increase resistance to many causal factors in the development of renal diseases, including diabetic nephropathy. In addition, SIRT3 and SIRT6 are implicated in age-related disorders or longevity. In the present review, we discuss the protective functions of sirtuins and the association of sirtuins with the pathophysiology of renal diseases, including diabetic nephropathy.

  10. Renal vein oxygen saturation in renal artery stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K; Rehling, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1992-01-01

    Renal vein oxygen-saturation was measured in 56 patients with arterial hypertension and unilateral stenosis or occlusion of the renal artery. Oxygen-saturation in blood from the ischaemic kidney (84.4%, range 73-93%) was significantly higher than that from the 'normal' contralateral kidney (81...

  11. The evaluation of renal parenchymal scarring using static renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To analyze whether operative techniques and other variables related to patient and renal stone characteristics affect potential renal parenchymal damage. Materials and Methods: The study population comprised 64 patients who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy operations (PCNL). Data of the operated ...

  12. Renal hemodynamic effect of tacrolimus in renal transplanted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dello Strologo, L; Pontesilli, C; Montini, G; Ginevri, F; Ardissino, G; Campagnano, P; Pastore, A; Federici, G; Rizzoni, G

    2001-10-01

    Like cyclosporine (CsA), tacrolimus acts through the inhibition of renal phosphatase calcineurin. CsA induces reversible vasoconstriction, causing a transient reduction of renal plasma flow in patients with renal transplantation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of tacrolimus on renal plasma flow in renal transplanted children. Eight children were studied with a median age of 10.6 years, a mean glomerular filtration rate (inulin clearance) of 55 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (range 29-95), and a mean follow-up after transplantation of 5.6 months. Effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) was studied in each patient for 12 h after tacrolimus administration. Clearances were obtained every 2 h for 12 h after drug administration. Tacrolimus pharmacokinetics was also studied. Average ERPF at the start of the test was 289 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (range 177-404, SD +/- 106). Variation in each of the 2-h periods was not significant, although a mild reduction of plasma flow was observed in three of the eight children. No correlation was found between tacrolimus AUC, peak, or trough levels and renal blood flow variations. Despite the relatively small number of patients studied, these data suggest that, in vivo, a therapeutic oral dose of tacrolimus is not necessarily followed by a significant reduction of ERPF in renal transplanted children.

  13. Renal epithelioid angiomyolipoma presenting clinically as renal cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We describe a 22-year old female who presented with a 5-year history of a palpable, painless mass in the right flank. Computerized tomography demonstrated a solid renal mass measuring 18 cm × 13 cm with peripheral calcification, areas of vascularity and necrosis. The appearance suggested renal cell carcinoma or ...

  14. Attenuation in silica-based optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandel, Marie Emilie

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis on attenuation in silica based optical fibers results within three main topics are reported. Spectral attenuation measurements on transmission fibers are performed in the wide wavelength range 290 nm – 1700 nm. The measured spectral attenuation is analyzed with special emphasis...... on absorption peaks in order to investigate the cause of an unusual high attenuation in a series of transmission fibers. Strong indications point to Ni2+ in octahedral coordination as being the cause of the high attenuation. The attenuation of fibers having a high core refractive index is analyzed and the cause...... of the high attenuation measured in such fibers is described as being due to scattering of light on fluctuations of the core diameter. A novel semi-empirical model for predicting the attenuation of high index fibers is presented. The model is shown to be able to predict the attenuation of high index fibers...

  15. Hypoalbuminemia and oxidative stress in patients on renal hemodialysis program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Laís Lima; de Carvalho e Martins, Maria do Carmo; Garcez, Anderson Mendes; Pacheco, James Frederico Rocha; Cunha, Francisco Valmor Macedo; Moita Neto, José Machado; de Freitas, Manoela Carine Lima; de Melo Cunha, Luan Arnon

    2014-10-01

    Albumin is considered an important extracellular antioxidant molecule. hypoalbuminemia is a strong and independent predictor of mortality in patients on hemodialysis. The present study evaluated the relation between hypoalbuminemia and oxidative stress by comparing superoxide dismutase activity, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant micronutrient consumption in chronic renal failure patients. A case-control study was carried out with 64 patients of both sexes aged 18 to 59 years. The patients with hypoalbuminemia (ALB profile and micronutrient antioxidants intake were performed. For comparisons between groups,the Student t test was used. Possible associations between variables were tested using the chi-square test and Pearson correlation test. Consumption of copper was significantly lower(p patients. Additionally, patients with chronic renal disease undergoing hemodialysis evaluated in this study had reduced consumption of cooper. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. How proteins move lipids and lipids move proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprong, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/222364815; van der Sluijs, P.; van Meer, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068570368

    2001-01-01

    Cells determine the bilayer characteristics of different membranes by tightly controlling their lipid composition. Local changes in the physical properties of bilayers, in turn, allow membrane deformation, and facilitate vesicle budding and fusion. Moreover, specific lipids at specific locations

  17. Renal posttransplant's vascular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bašić Dragoslav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Despite high graft and recipient survival figures worldwide today, a variety of technical complications can threaten the transplant in the postoperative period. Vascular complications are commonly related to technical problems in establishing vascular continuity or to damage that occurs during donor nephrectomy or preservation [13]. AIM The aim of the presenting study is to evaluate counts and rates of vascular complications after renal transplantation and to compare the outcome by donor type. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 463 kidneys (319 from living related donor LD and 144 from cadaveric donor - CD were transplanted during the period between June 1975 and December 1998 at the Urology & Nephrology Institute of Clinical Centre of Serbia in Belgrade. Average recipients' age was 33.7 years (15-54 in LD group and 39.8 (19-62 in CD group. Retrospectively, we analyzed medical records of all recipients. Statistical analysis is estimated using Hi-squared test and Fischer's test of exact probability. RESULTS Major vascular complications including vascular anastomosis thrombosis, internal iliac artery stenosis, internal iliac artery rupture obliterant vasculitis and external iliac vein rupture were analyzed. In 25 recipients (5.4% some of major vascular complications were detected. Among these cases, 22 of them were from CD group vs. three from LD group. Relative rate of these complications was higher in CD group vs. LD group (p<0.0001. Among these complications dominant one was vascular anastomosis thrombosis which occurred in 18 recipients (17 from CD vs. one from LD. Of these recipients 16 from CD lost the graft, while the rest of two (one from each group had lethal outcome. DISCUSSION Thrombosis of renal allograft vascular anastomosis site is the most severe complication following renal transplantation. In the literature, renal allograft thrombosis is reported with different incidence rates, from 0.5-4% [14, 15, 16]. Data from the

  18. Primary cilia regulate the osmotic stress response of renal epithelial cells through TRPM3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siroky, Brian J; Kleene, Nancy K; Kleene, Steven J; Varnell, Charles D; Comer, Raven G; Liu, Jialiu; Lu, Lu; Pachciarz, Nolan W; Bissler, John J; Dixon, Bradley P

    2017-04-01

    Primary cilia sense environmental conditions, including osmolality, but whether cilia participate in the osmotic response in renal epithelial cells is not known. The transient receptor potential (TRP) channels TRPV4 and TRPM3 are osmoresponsive. TRPV4 localizes to cilia in certain cell types, while renal subcellular localization of TRPM3 is not known. We hypothesized that primary cilia are required for maximal activation of the osmotic response of renal epithelial cells and that ciliary TRPM3 and TRPV4 mediate that response. Ciliated [murine epithelial cells from the renal inner medullary collecting duct (mIMCD-3) and 176-5] and nonciliated (176-5Δ) renal cells expressed Trpv4 and Trpm3 Ciliary expression of TRPM3 was observed in mIMCD-3 and 176-5 cells and in wild-type mouse kidney tissue. TRPV4 was identified in cilia and apical membrane of mIMCD-3 cells by electrophysiology and in the cell body by immunofluorescence. Hyperosmolal stress at 500 mOsm/kg (via NaCl addition) induced the osmotic response genes betaine/GABA transporter (Bgt1) and aldose reductase (Akr1b3) in all ciliated cell lines. This induction was attenuated in nonciliated cells. A TRPV4 agonist abrogated Bgt1 and Akr1b3 induction in ciliated and nonciliated cells. A TRPM3 agonist attenuated Bgt1 and Akr1b3 induction in ciliated cells only. TRPM3 knockout attenuated Akr1b3 induction. Viability under osmotic stress was greater in ciliated than nonciliated cells. Akr1b3 induction was also less in nonciliated than ciliated cells when mannitol was used to induce hyperosmolal stress. These findings suggest that primary cilia are required for the maximal osmotic response in renal epithelial cells and that TRPM3 is involved in this mechanism. TRPV4 appears to modulate the osmotic response independent of cilia. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease. Copyright © 2011 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. DAÑO OXIDATIVO A LÍPIDOS Y PROTEÍNAS EN LA INSUFICIENCIA RENAL CRÓNICA EXPERIMENTAL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriela Betancourt Valladares

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental trial in 40 Wistar rats was done. The renal failure was induced by surgical ablation of 5/6 of the renal mass to 30 rats; 3 groups were formed and followed over a period of 2, 4, and 6 weeks. The remaining group of rats was used as control.Functional remainder state was evaluated by measurement of the Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR and effective Renal Plasmatic Flow (RPF, Filtration Fraction (FF was also calculated. Lipid and protein oxidative damage were evaluated on the renal tissue. As markers of oxidative stress the levels of Malonildialdehyde (MDA and Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP were determined. Progressive decreasing of GFR, RPF and FF were noted. MDA levels rose through the time, AOPP concentrations was also higher over the nephrectomized rats. The relationship between progression of experimental chronic renal failure and oxidative stress was showed.

  1. Invariant natural killer T cells are depleted in renal impairment and recover after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peukert, Konrad; Wingender, Gerhard; Patecki, Margret; Wagner, Stephan; Schmitt, Roland; Ge, Shuwang; Schwarz, Anke; Kronenberg, Mitchell; Haller, Hermann; von Vietinghoff, Sibylle

    2014-05-01

    Altered immune function in patients with renal failure results in both susceptibility to infection and increased inflammatory response. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a conserved, immunoregulatory T lymphocyte subset that responds to lipid antigens with near-immediate cytokine production and cytotoxicity. iNKT cells are required for the antibacterial host response. Whether renal failure and renal replacement therapy alter iNKT cell abundance or phenotype has not been investigated. iNKT cells were studied by flow cytometry in the peripheral blood of patients with acute renal failure, chronic haemo- and peritoneal dialysis (PD), chronic kidney disease and after renal transplantation. A very marked reduction in iNKT lymphocytes was found in acute renal failure before the first haemodialysis (HD) session. iNKT cells were depleted in end-stage renal disease patients receiving either HD or PD. iNKT cell depletion was accentuated after an HD session. Lesser degrees were observed in patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease. CD56 and CD161 NK cell marker expression was decreased in renal impairment. CD56(+) and CD161(+) iNKT cells produced more interferon-γ than negative cells of the same donor. Within the first year after kidney transplantation, the decrease in iNKT cells and their NK cell markers was reverted. We describe for the first time that iNKT lymphocytes are reduced in end-stage renal disease and further depleted by HD. iNKT cells are important for early host response including activation of other immune cells and their depletion may contribute to immune dysfunction in renal disease.

  2. Retro-Aortic Inverted Left Renal Vein: A Rare Anomaly Found in a Renal Donor

    OpenAIRE

    Sabouri, Sofia; Hosseini, Ashrafsadat; Shivaei, Seyedeh Shirin

    2015-01-01

    Awareness of the renal vascular anatomy including variants of the renal vein is important for abdominal and renal surgeries, such as renal transplantation. The complex embryological development of the renal vein results in the following variations: additional renal veins on the left side, circum-aortic renal collar and retro-aortic renal veins. In this report, we present a case of a 35-year-old renal donor who had a rare renal vein anomaly that had been shown by computed tomography (CT) angio...

  3. Fast renal decline to end-stage renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krolewski, Andrzej S.; Skupien, Jan; Rossing, Peter

    2017-01-01

    A new model of diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes emerged from our studies of Joslin Clinic patients. The dominant feature is progressive renal decline, not albuminuria. This decline is a unidirectional process commencing while patients have normal renal function and, in the majority......, progressing steadily (linearly) to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). While an individual's rate of renal decline is constant, the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) slope varies widely among individuals from –72 to –3.0 ml/min/year. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines define rapid......, that very fast and fast decline from normal eGFR to ESRD within 2 to 10 years constitutes 50% of the Joslin cohort. In this review we present data about frequency of fast decliners in both diabetes types, survey some mechanisms underlying fast renal decline, discuss methods of identifying patients at risk...

  4. Renal cystic diseases and renal neoplasms: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsib, Stephen M

    2009-12-01

    The past two decades have witnessed recognition of several new types of renal cell carcinoma, each with distinct cytogenetic abnormalities. Included are several genetic and acquired cystic kidney diseases associated with development of renal cell carcinoma, the topic of this review. The risk in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is not accurately known but may be slightly increased. The risk for patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease is substantial, and death from renal cancer is common. For patients with tuberous sclerosis complex, the challenge is recognition of the occasional malignancy arising in a field of many benign tumors. Patients with end-stage kidney disease and acquired cystic kidney disease may develop a variety of renal cell carcinoma types. Progress in understanding the molecular basis of renal cyst formation and neoplastic disease has fostered development of targeted therapies that now hold promise for a group of neoplasms whose cure was traditionally dependent on surgical approaches.

  5. Cisto multilocular renal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ennio Gabriel

    Full Text Available O cisto multilocular renal é uma tumoração rara, de etiopatogenia discutida, que apresenta um aspecto macroscópico característico (parecendo favos de mel mas histologia variável, o que ocasionou uma vasta sinonímia para esta afecção. Com os modernos métodos de diagnóstico por imagem, estes tumores podem ser suspeitados no pré-operatório, mas antes eram rotulados como provável nefroblastoma (Tumor de Wilms. Os autores descrevem as características de cinco casos observados nos Serviços de Cirurgia Pediátrica dos Hospitais Getúlio Vargas e da Lagoa, do Rio de Janeiro, e no Hospital Universitário de João Pessoa (Paraíba. Em todos, o sintoma predominante era uma massa abdominal, mas em um havia também hipertensão arterial. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a nefrectomia e tiveram boa evolução pós-operatória. Apesar de pouco freqüente, o cisto multilocular renal deve ser lembrado no diagnóstico de qualquer massa renal em crianças, especialmente naquelas com menos de dois anos de idade, devido ao prognóstico favorável em comparação com o do tumor de Wilms. No adulto, o diagnóstico diferencial é feito principalmente com o adenocarcinoma cístico.

  6. Citrato y litiasis renal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa E. Del Valle

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El citrato es un potente inhibidor de la cristalización de sales de calcio. La hipocitraturia es una alteración bioquímica frecuente en la formación de cálculos de calcio en adultos y especialmente en niños. El pH ácido (sistémico, tubular e intracelular es el principal determinante de la excreción de citrato en la orina. Si bien la mayoría de los pacientes con litiasis renal presentan hipocitraturia idiopática, hay un número de causas para esta anormalidad que incluyen acidosis tubular renal distal, hipokalemia, dietas ricas en proteínas de origen animal y/o dietas bajas en álcalis y ciertas drogas, como la acetazolamida, topiramato, IECA y tiazidas. Las modificaciones dietéticas que benefician a estos pacientes incluyen: alta ingesta de líquidos y frutas, especialmente cítricos, restricción de sodio y proteínas, con consumo normal de calcio. El tratamiento con citrato de potasio es efectivo en pacientes con hipocitraturia primaria o secundaria y en aquellos desordenes en la acidificación, que provocan un pH urinario persistentemente ácido. Los efectos adversos son bajos y están referidos al tracto gastrointestinal. Si bien hay diferentes preparaciones de citrato (citrato de potasio, citrato de sodio, citrato de potasio-magnesio en nuestro país solo está disponible el citrato de potasio en polvo que es muy útil para corregir la hipocitraturia y el pH urinario bajo, y reducir marcadamente la recurrencia de la litiasis renal.

  7. Lipids in Cryptomonas CR-1. I. Occurrence of Betaine Lipids

    OpenAIRE

    Naoki, Sato; Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo

    1991-01-01

    Polar lipids of the cryptophyte Cryptomonas CR-1 were analyzed in detail. In addition to glycolipids and phospholipids, three Dragendorff-positive lipids were found. Two of these lipids were identified as diacylglyceryltrimethylhomoserine (DGTS) and diacylglycerylhydroxymethyltrimethyl-β-alanine (DGTA), a recently discovered isomer of DGTS, while the least abundant lipid remains to be identified. The presence of both DGTS and DGTA, which have been widely found in green algae and brown algae, ...

  8. Seismic attenuation imaging with causality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, B.; Mulder, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    Seismic data enable imaging of the Earth, not only of velocity and density but also of attenuation contrasts. Unfortunately, the Born approximation of the constant-density visco-acoustic wave equation, which can serve as a forward modelling operator related to seismic migration, exhibits an

  9. Josephson tunnel junction microwave attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshelets, V. P.; Shitov, S. V.; Shchukin, A. V.

    1993-01-01

    A new element for superconducting electronic circuitry-a variable attenuator-has been proposed, designed, and successfully tested. The principle of operation is based on the change in the microwave impedance of a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Josephson tunnel junction when dc bias...

  10. Compact plasmonic variable optical attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan; Rosenzveig, Tiberiu; Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate plasmonic nanowire-based thermo-optic variable optical attenuators operating in the 1525-1625 nm wavelength range. The devices have a footprint as low as 1 mm, extinction ratio exceeding 40 dB, driving voltage below 3 V, and full modulation bandwidth of 1 kHz. The polarization...

  11. Flagella overexpression attenuates Salmonella pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinghong Yang

    Full Text Available Flagella are cell surface appendages involved in a number of bacterial behaviors, such as motility, biofilm formation, and chemotaxis. Despite these important functions, flagella can pose a liability to a bacterium when serving as potent immunogens resulting in the stimulation of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Previous work showing appendage overexpression, referred to as attenuating gene expression (AGE, was found to enfeeble wild-type Salmonella. Thus, this approach was adapted to discern whether flagella overexpression could induce similar attenuation. To test its feasibility, flagellar filament subunit FliC and flagellar regulon master regulator FlhDC were overexpressed in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium wild-type strain H71. The results show that the expression of either FliC or FlhDC alone, and co-expression of the two, significantly attenuates Salmonella. The flagellated bacilli were unable to replicate within macrophages and thus were not lethal to mice. In-depth investigation suggests that flagellum-mediated AGE was due to the disruptive effects of flagella on the bacterial membrane, resulting in heightened susceptibilities to hydrogen peroxide and bile. Furthermore, flagellum-attenuated Salmonella elicited elevated immune responses to Salmonella presumably via FliC's adjuvant effect and conferred robust protection against wild-type Salmonella challenge.

  12. Flagella Overexpression Attenuates Salmonella Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinghong; Thornburg, Theresa; Suo, Zhiyong; Jun, SangMu; Robison, Amanda; Li, Jinquan; Lim, Timothy; Cao, Ling; Hoyt, Teri; Avci, Recep; Pascual, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Flagella are cell surface appendages involved in a number of bacterial behaviors, such as motility, biofilm formation, and chemotaxis. Despite these important functions, flagella can pose a liability to a bacterium when serving as potent immunogens resulting in the stimulation of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Previous work showing appendage overexpression, referred to as attenuating gene expression (AGE), was found to enfeeble wild-type Salmonella. Thus, this approach was adapted to discern whether flagella overexpression could induce similar attenuation. To test its feasibility, flagellar filament subunit FliC and flagellar regulon master regulator FlhDC were overexpressed in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium wild-type strain H71. The results show that the expression of either FliC or FlhDC alone, and co-expression of the two, significantly attenuates Salmonella. The flagellated bacilli were unable to replicate within macrophages and thus were not lethal to mice. In-depth investigation suggests that flagellum-mediated AGE was due to the disruptive effects of flagella on the bacterial membrane, resulting in heightened susceptibilities to hydrogen peroxide and bile. Furthermore, flagellum-attenuated Salmonella elicited elevated immune responses to Salmonella presumably via FliC’s adjuvant effect and conferred robust protection against wild-type Salmonella challenge. PMID:23056473

  13. Lipids in cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipids are present in cheese at levels above 20 percent and are analyzed by several techniques. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy are used to examine the microstructure, gas chromatography is employed to look at fatty acid composition, and differential scanning cal...

  14. Salivary lipids: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matczuk, Jan; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Kurek, Krzysztof

    2017-09-01

    Saliva is produced by both large and small salivary glands and may be considered one of the most important factors influencing the behavior of oral cavity homeostasis. Secretion of saliva plays an important role in numerous significant biological processes. Saliva facilitates chewing and bolus formation as well as performs protective functions and determines the buffering and antibacterial prosperities of the oral environment. Salivary lipids appear to be a very important component of saliva, as their qualitative and quantitative composition can be changed in various pathological states and human diseases. It has been shown that disturbances in salivary lipid homeostasis are involved in periodontal diseases as well as various systemic disorders (e.g. cystic fibrosis, diabetes and Sjögren's syndrome). However, little is known about the role and composition of salivary lipids and their interaction with other important ingredients of human saliva, including proteins, glycoproteins and salivary mucins. The purpose of this review paper is to present the latest knowledge on salivary lipids in healthy conditions and in oral and systemic diseases.

  15. Cell-based lipid flippase assay employing fluorescent lipid derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Stumph; Costa, Sara; Günther-Pomorski, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    , studies of individual P4-ATPase family members from fungi, plants, and animals show that P4-ATPases differ in their substrate specificities and mediate transport of a broader range of lipid substrates. Here, we describe an assay based on fluorescent lipid derivatives to monitor and characterize lipid...

  16. Renal infarct following varicella infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Arora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal infarction usually occurs against a background of heart disease or a thromboembolic tendency and rarely is associated with infections. Here we present a case of a young boy who reported with painless gross hematuria following primary Varicella infection and was found to have an isolated renal infarct.

  17. Leiomyosarcoma of the renal vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemos Gustavo C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcoma of the renal vein is a rare tumor of complex diagnosis. We presented a case of renal vein leiomyosarcoma detected in a routine study. The primary treatment was complete surgical removal of the mass. In cases where surgical removal is not possible the prognosis is poor, with high rates of local recurrence and distant spread.

  18. Stages of Renal Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through the urethra and leaves the body. Enlarge Anatomy of the male urinary system (left panel) and female urinary system (right panel) showing the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Urine is made in the renal tubules and collects in the renal pelvis of ...

  19. Renal replacement therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pippias, Maria; Stel, Vianda S; Abad Diez, José Maria

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article summarizes the 2012 European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry Annual Report (available at www.era-edta-reg.org) with a specific focus on older patients (defined as ≥65 years). METHODS: Data provided by 45 national or regional renal r...

  20. [Estimating renal function with formulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, J.C.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Bakker, S.J.; Gansevoort, R.T.

    2007-01-01

    A glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and renal insufficiency. The formula of the 'Modification of diet in renal disease' (MDRD) study is derived from plasma-creatinine concentrations and estimates GFR based on age, sex

  1. Polyhydramnios and acute renal failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D. V.; Kelly, Moira B.; Pryor, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    Acute renal failure secondary to ureteric obstruction is described in a primigravida with twin gestation and polyhydramnios. Relief of the obstruction occurred on drainage of the liquor and return to normal renal function following delivery. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:7022419

  2. Ultrasonography in chronic renal failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buturovic-Ponikvar, Jadranka E-mail: jadranka.buturovic@mf.uni-lj.si; Visnar-Perovic, Alenka

    2003-05-01

    Many chronic renal diseases lead to the final common state of decrease in renal size, parenchymal atrophy, sclerosis and fibrosis. The ultrasound image show a smaller kidney, thinning of the parenchyma and its hyperechogenicity (reflecting sclerosis and fibrosis). The frequency of renal cysts increases with the progression of the disease. Ultrasound generally does not allow for the exact diagnosis of an underlying chronic disease (renal biopsy is usually required), but it can help to determine an irreversible disease, assess prognosis and avoid unnecessary diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. The main exception in which the ultrasound image does not show a smaller kidney with parenchymal atrophy is diabetic nephropathy, the leading cause of chronic and end-stage renal failure in developed countries in recent years. In this case, both renal size and parenchymal thickness are preserved until end-stage renal failure. Doppler study of intrarenal vessels can provide additional information about microvascular and parenchymal lesions, which is helpful in deciding for or against therapeutic intervention and timely planning for optimal renal replacement therapy option.

  3. [Porphyrins in renal calculi (review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traba Villameytide, Ma L

    2005-02-01

    We performed a review of the porphyrines content in a type of black, charcoal-like, renal calculi exhibiting infrared spectra (IRS) similar to those characteristic of "organic material" which has not yet been fully elucidate. Several other types of renal calculi, mainly those of small size, spontaneous passage renal stone, may also have diffuse or isolated dark charcoal components showing "organic material" IRS. After observing that haemoglobin has an "organic material" IRS, we studied, by a sensitive thin layer chromatography method, the presence of porphyrines in several types of dark or charcoal renal stones, since porphyrines are the physiological precursors of haemo group biosynthesis. We found two types of porphyrine content: coproporphyrin, in patients suffering from hepatopathy, and uroporphyrin and heptacarboxil-porphyrin in patients with some types of porphyria or with chronic renal failure.

  4. Fetal programming of renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dötsch, Jörg; Plank, Christian; Amann, Kerstin

    2012-04-01

    Results from large epidemiological studies suggest a clear relation between low birth weight and adverse renal outcome evident as early as during childhood. Such adverse outcomes may include glomerular disease, hypertension, and renal failure and contribute to a phenomenon called fetal programming. Other factors potentially leading to an adverse renal outcome following fetal programming are maternal diabetes mellitus, smoking, salt overload, and use of glucocorticoids during pregnancy. However, clinical data on the latter are scarce. Here, we discuss potential underlying mechanisms of fetal programming, including reduced nephron number via diminished nephrogenesis and other renal (e.g., via the intrarenal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system) and non-renal (e.g., changes in endothelial function) alterations. It appears likely that the outcomes of fetal programming may be influenced or modified postnatally, for example, by the amount of nutrients given at critical times.

  5. Geriatric renal palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swidler, Mark A

    2012-12-01

    Elderly patients with advanced chronic kidney disease or who are on dialysis should be able to live as fully and comfortably as possible. Geriatric patients are most interested in outcomes that will optimize mental and physical function and limit suffering and pain. Nephrologists must help them answer the question: "How will my kidney problem affect the way I live now and in the future?" This means management must move beyond glomerular filtration rate-related targets and incorporate geriatric principles that focus on assessment of function, comorbidities, geriatric syndromes, and quality of life issues. Therapeutic decisions should be individualized and directed by patient goals of care, which must be explored and documented. Accomplishing this requires inclusion of the patient's family-support system in the shared decision-making process. There is no substitute for spending time listening to and understanding the patient and family agenda, providing timely medical and prognostic updates; discussing realistic scenarios to balance expectations; and planting the seeds of change as the quantity and quality of medical events, geriatric syndromes, and comorbidities accumulate. Synergy of the interdisciplinary renal team with geriatric and palliative medicine specialists provides the expertise to achieve these goals. This falls into the domain of geriatric renal palliative or supportive care (1) and is the subject of this practical review.

  6. Characterization of Solid Renal Masses using 64-Slice Multidetector CT Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh S. El-Esawy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to assess the role of a 64-slice multidetector CT (MDCT scanner in the characterization of different solid renal masses, using a simplified approach to correct the postenhancement attenuation values. The study included 96 consecutive adults (58 men, 38 women with renal masses; 93 with unilateral and three with bilateral masses. All of our patients underwent multiphasic CT study including pre- and postcontrast corticomedullary (CM and nephrographic phases. We analyzed the images and corrected the postcontrast attenuation values at the CM phase. The postbiopsy or -surgical data were used as reference standard. There were 53 masses at the right kidney, 40 at the left kidney, and three bilateral. The final diagnosis of the 96 solid parenchymal masses were 28 clear-type renal cell carcinoma (RCC, 22 papillary-type RCC, 21 chromophobe-type RCC, six XP 11.2 chromosomal translocation–type RCC, 15 angiomyolipoma (AML, and seven oncocytoma. All the AML had fat, with attenuation values less than -40 HU at the nonenhanced scan. There is no difference in the precontrast attenuation values for the different types other than AML. At the postcontrast CM phase after the correction of the attenuation values, the clear cell type could be separated easily, with attenuation values >20 with specificity, sensitivity, and overall accuracy of 92, 84, and 93%, respectively. The 64-slice MDCT scanner with application of enhancement values correction allows diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma. Also, AML could be identified easily with fat inside at the precontrast scan.

  7. Antioxidant treatment attenuates lactate production in diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer; Nielsen, Per Mose; Stokholm Nørlinger, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    -of-the-art hyperpolarized magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Ten-week-old female Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: healthy controls, untreated diabetic (streptozotocin treatment to induce insulinopenic diabetes), and diabetic, receiving chronic antioxidant treatment with TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2......-IDEAL spiral sequence. Untreated diabetic rats showed increased renal lactate production compared with that shown by the controls. However, chronic TEMPOL treatment significantly attenuated diabetes-induced lactate production. No significant effects of diabetes or TEMPOL were observed on [13C]alanine levels......The early progression of diabetic nephropathy is notoriously difficult to detect and quantify before the occurrence of substantial histological damage. Recently, hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate has demonstrated increased lactate production in the kidney early after the onset of diabetes, implying...

  8. Determination of the chemical composition of human renal stones with MDCT: influence of the surrounding media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosjean, Romain; Sauer, Benoît; Guerra, Rui; Kermarrec, Isabelle; Ponvianne, Yannick; Winninger, Daniel; Daudon, Michel; Blum, Alain; Felblinger, Jacques; Hubert, Jacques

    2007-03-01

    The selection of the optimal treatment method for urinary stones diseases depends on the chemical composition of the stone and its corresponding fragility. MDCT has become the most used modality to determine rapidly and accurately the presence of stones when evaluating urinary lithiasis treatment. That is why several studies have tempted to determine the chemical composition of the stones based on the stone X-ray attenuation in-vitro and invivo. However, in-vitro studies did not reproduce the normal abdominal wall and fat, making uncertain the standardization of the obtained values. The aim of this study is to obtain X-ray attenuation values (in Hounsfield Units) of the six more frequent types of human renal stones (n=217) and to analyze the influence of the surrounding media on these values. The stones were first placed in a jelly, which X-ray attenuation is similar to that of the human kidney (30 HU at 120 kV). They were then stuck on a grid, scanned in a water tank and finally scanned in the air. Significant differences in CT-attenuation values were obtained with the three different surrounding media (jelly, water, air). Furthermore there was an influence of the surrounding media and consequently discrepancies in determination of the chemical composition of the renal stones. Consequently, CT-attenuation values found in in-vitro studies cannot really be considered as a reference for the determination of the chemical composition except if the used phantom is an anthropomorphic one.

  9. Optimal composition of intravenous lipids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal composition of intravenous lipids. The composition of an intravenous (IV) lipid emulsion is of great importance in parenteral nutrition (PN) therapy, as most of its effects depend on the kind of fatty acids included and their respective ratio to each other. Today´s lipid emulsions may include four classes of different fatty ...

  10. Overexpression of Heme Oxygenase-1 Prevents Renal Interstitial Inflammation and Fibrosis Induced by Unilateral Ureter Obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    Full Text Available Renal fibrosis plays an important role in the onset and progression of chronic kidney diseases. Many studies have demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is involved in diverse biological processes as a cytoprotective molecule, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory effects. However, the mechanisms of HO-1 prevention in renal interstitial fibrosis remain unknown. In this study, HO-1 transgenic (TG mice were employed to investigate the effect of HO-1 on renal fibrosis using a unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO model and to explore the potential mechanisms. We found that HO-1 was adaptively upregulated in kidneys of both TG and wild type (WT mice after UUO. The levels of HO-1 mRNA and protein were increased in TG mice compared with WT mice under normal conditions. HO-1 expression was further enhanced after UUO and remained high during the entire experimental process. Renal interstitial fibrosis in the TG group was significantly attenuated compared with that in the WT group after UUO. Moreover, overexpression of HO-1 inhibited the loss of peritubular capillaries. In addition, UUO-induced activation and proliferation of myofibroblasts were suppressed by HO-1 overexpression. Furthermore, HO-1 restrained tubulointerstitial infiltration of macrophages and regulated the secretion of inflammatory cytokines in UUO mice. We also found that high expression of HO-1 inhibited reactivation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which could play a crucial role in attenuating renal fibrosis. In conclusion, these data suggest that HO-1 prevents renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis possibly by regulating the inflammatory response and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. This study provides evidence that augmentation of HO-1 levels may be a therapeutic strategy against renal interstitial fibrosis.

  11. Reversal of renal dysfunction by targeted administration of VEGF into the stenotic kidney: a novel potential therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chade, Alejandro R; Kelsen, Silvia

    2012-05-15

    Renal microvascular (MV) damage and loss contribute to the progression of renal injury in renovascular disease (RVD). Whether a targeted intervention in renal microcirculation could reverse renal damage is unknown. We hypothesized that intrarenal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy will reverse renal dysfunction and decrease renal injury in experimental RVD. Unilateral renal artery stenosis (RAS) was induced in 14 pigs, as a surrogate of chronic RVD. Six weeks later, renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were quantified in vivo in the stenotic kidney using multidetector computed tomography (CT). Then, intrarenal rhVEGF-165 or vehicle was randomly administered into the stenotic kidneys (n = 7/group), they were observed for 4 additional wk, in vivo studies were repeated, and then renal MV density was quantified by 3D micro-CT, and expression of angiogenic factors and fibrosis was determined. RBF and GFR, MV density, and renal expression of VEGF and downstream mediators such as p-ERK 1/2, Akt, and eNOS were significantly reduced after 6 and at 10 wk of untreated RAS compared with normal controls. Remarkably, administration of VEGF at 6 wk normalized RBF (from 393.6 ± 50.3 to 607.0 ± 45.33 ml/min, P < 0.05 vs. RAS) and GFR (from 43.4 ± 3.4 to 66.6 ± 10.3 ml/min, P < 0.05 vs. RAS) at 10 wk, accompanied by increased angiogenic signaling, augmented renal MV density, and attenuated renal scarring. This study shows promising therapeutic effects of a targeted renal intervention, using an established clinically relevant large-animal model of chronic RAS. It also implies that disruption of renal MV integrity and function plays a pivotal role in the progression of renal injury in the stenotic kidney. Furthermore, it shows a high level of plasticity of renal microvessels to a single-dose VEGF-targeted intervention after established renal injury, supporting promising renoprotective effects of a novel potential therapeutic intervention to

  12. Lung attenuation measurements in healthy young adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.J.M.; Golding, R.P.; Schramel, F.M.N.H.; Devillé, W.L.; Manoliu, R.A.; Postmus, P.E.

    2003-01-01

    Background: High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) attenuation measurements may be more sensitive in finding early emphysematous changes in relatively young subjects than lung function measurements. Objectives: To define lung attenuation parameters in smokers and never-smokers. Methods: A

  13. Lipid domains in bicelles containing unsaturated lipids and cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyo Soon; Dominick, Johnna L; Spence, Megan M

    2010-07-22

    We have created a stable bicelle system capable of forming micrometer-scale lipid domains that orient in a magnetic field, suitable for structural biology determination in solid-state NMR. The bicelles consisted of a mixture of cholesterol, saturated lipid (DMPC), and unsaturated lipid (POPC), a mixture commonly used to create domains in model membranes, along with a short chain lipid (DHPC) that allows formation of the bicelle phase. While maintaining a constant molar ratio of long to short chain lipids, q = ([POPC]+[DMPC])/[DHPC] = 3, we varied the concentrations of the unsaturated lipid, POPC, and cholesterol to observe the effects of the components on bicelle stability. Using (31)P solid-state NMR, we observed that unsaturated lipids (POPC) greatly destabilized the alignment of the membranes in the magnetic field, while cholesterol stabilized their alignment. By combining cholesterol and unsaturated lipids in the bicelles, we created membranes aligning uniformly in the magnetic field, despite very high concentrations of unsaturated lipids. These bicelles, with high concentrations of both cholesterol and unsaturated lipid, showed similar phase behavior to bicelles commonly used in structural biology, but aligned over a wider temperature range (291-314 K). Domains were observed by measuring time-dependent diffusion constants reflecting restricted diffusion of the lipids within micrometer-scale regions of the bicelles. Micron-scale domains have never been observed in POPC/DMPC/cholesterol vesicles, implying that bilayers in bicelles show different phase behavior than their counterparts in vesicles, and that bilayers in bicelles favor domain formation.

  14. Hormones regulating lipid metabolism and plasma lipids in childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Campos, M; Cañete, R; Gil, A

    2004-11-01

    To review the mechanisms by which leptin, insulin and adiponectin influence lipid metabolism and plasma lipids in obesity, as well as to describe the associations between these hormones in prepubertal children. Revision of relevant papers published in the last 5 y related to the interactions of leptin, insulin and adiponectin, with special emphasis on those reporting potential mechanisms by which these hormones regulate lipid metabolism and plasma lipids. We also provide original results concerning the relationships found between plasma lipids and leptin, and insulin and adiponectin in prepubertal obese children. Recent data in the literature shed new light to explain the effects of both leptin and adiponectin in the regulation of lipid metabolism in peripheral tissues. Activation of the AMP-dependent kinase pathway and subsequent increased fatty acid oxidation seems to be the main mechanism of action of these hormones in the regulation of lipid metabolism. In addition, we have found that insulin plasma levels are positively associated to leptin but negatively correlated with adiponectin in obese children. Adiponectin is negatively associated to plasma lipid markers of metabolic syndrome but positively related to HDL-cholesterol, whereas insulin and leptin show opposite patterns. These results support the effect of adiponectin in increasing insulin sensitivity and decreasing plasma triglycerides. Leptin, insulin and adiponectin are associated hormones that regulate lipid metabolism in childhood. Adiponectin appears to be the missing link to explain the alterations in lipid metabolism and plasma lipids seen in obesity.

  15. Inner Core Anisotropy in Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, W.; Wen, L.

    2004-12-01

    It is now well established that the compressional velocity in the Earth's inner core varies in both direction and geographic location. The compressional waves travel faster along the polar directions than along the equatorial directions. Such polar-equatorial difference is interpreted as a result of inner core anisotropy in velocity (with a magnitude of about 3%) and such anisotropy appears to be stronger in the ``western hemisphere" (180oW -40oE) than in the ``eastern hemisphere" (40oE-180oE). Along the equatorial paths, the compressional velocity also exhibits a hemispheric pattern with the eastern hemisphere being about 1% higher than the western hemisphere. Possible explanations for the causes of the velocity in anisotropy and the hemispheric difference in velocity along the equatorial paths include different geometric inclusions of melt or different alignments of iron crystals which are known to be anisotropic in velocities. Here, we report an observation of ubiquitous correlation between small (large) amplitude and fast (slow) travel time of the PKIKP waves sampling the top 300 km of the inner core. We study this correlation by jointly analyzing the differential travel times and amplitude ratios of the PKiKP-PKIKP and the PKPbc-PKIKP phases recorded by the Global Seismographic Network (1990-2001), various regional seismic networks (BANJO, BLSP, FREESIA, GEOFON, GEOSCOPE, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz, MEDNET, and OHP), and several PASSCAL Networks deployed in Alaska and Antarctica (XE: 1999-2001, XF: 1995-1996, and YI: 1998-1999). Our dataset consists of 310 PKiKP-PKIKP and 240 PKPbc-PKIKP phases, selected from a total of more than 16,000 observations. PKIKP waves exhibit relatively smaller amplitudes for those sampling the eastern hemisphere along the equatorial paths and even smaller amplitudes for those sampling the polar paths in the western hemisphere. One simple explanation for the velocity-attenuation relation is that the inner core is anisotropic in attenuation

  16. Hypertension, serum lipids and cancer risk: A review of epidemiological evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ričardas Radišauskas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the association between blood pressure, serum lipids and cancer risk has been investigated, the results are controversial. The aim of this literature review was to examine the epidemiological evidence and provide overview of the association between blood pressure, serum lipids and cancer risk. The arterial hypertension is closely linked with renal cell cancer development. Risk of renal cell cancer was 2–4 times higher for persons with arterial hypertension, independently of sex. In some studies arterial hypertension as one of the components of the metabolic syndrome, was associated with a higher risk of colorectal, prostate cancer and malignant melanoma. Studies suggest that a higher total serum cholesterol level is linked with higher risk of colorectum, colon, prostate and testicular cancer and lower risk of stomach, liver and hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues cancer. There was positive association between serum triglycerides and esophageal, colorectal, lung, renal, thyroid cancer. Given that hypertension is a common risk factor worldwide and its control remains inadequate, our analysis supports the relevance of public health programs aimed at reducing hypertension to reduce the incidence of a number of cancers including renal cell cancer. Effective cholesterol control may lower the risk of cancer, but further studies with longer follow-up and repeated measurements of cholesterol and other lipids are needed.

  17. Lipid Emulsions Enhance the Norepinephrine-Mediated Reversal of Local Anesthetic-Induced Vasodilation at Toxic Doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Hee; Sung, Hui-Jin; Ok, Seong-Ho; Yu, Jongsun; Choi, Mun-Jeoung; Lim, Jin Soo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Intravenous lipid emulsions have been used to treat the systemic toxicity of local anesthetics. The goal of this in vitro study was to examine the effects of lipid emulsions on the norepinephrine-mediated reversal of vasodilation induced by high doses of levobupivacaine, ropivacaine, and mepivacaine in isolated endothelium-denuded rat aorta, and to determine whether such effects are associated with the lipid solubility of local anesthetics. Materials and Methods The effects of lipid emulsions (0.30, 0.49, 1.40, and 2.61%) on norepinephrine concentration-responses in high-dose local anesthetic (6×10-4 M levobupivacaine, 2×10-3 M ropivacaine, and 7×10-3 M mepivacaine)-induced vasodilation of isolated aorta precontracted with 60 mM KCl were assessed. The effects of lipid emulsions on local anesthetic- and diltiazem-induced vasodilation in isolated aorta precontracted with phenylephrine were also assessed. Results Lipid emulsions (0.30%) enhanced norepinephrine-induced contraction in levobupivacaine-induced vasodilation, whereas 1.40 and 2.61% lipid emulsions enhanced norepinephrine-induced contraction in both ropivacaine- and mepivacaine-induced vasodilation, respectively. Lipid emulsions (0.20, 0.49 and 1.40%) inhibited vasodilation induced by levobupivacaine and ropivacaine, whereas 1.40 and 2.61% lipid emulsions slightly attenuated mepivacaine (3×10-3 M)-induced vasodilation. In addition, lipid emulsions attenuated diltiazem-induced vasodilation. Lipid emulsions enhanced norepinephrine-induced contraction in endothelium-denuded aorta without pretreatment with local anesthetics. Conclusion Taken together, these results suggest that lipid emulsions enhance the norepinephrine-mediated reversal of local anesthetic-induced vasodilation at toxic anesthetic doses and inhibit local anesthetic-induced vasodilation in a manner correlated with the lipid solubility of a particular local anesthetic. PMID:24142661

  18. RENAL ONCOCYTOMA ASSOCIATED WITH RENAL CELL CARCINOMA : A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    荒井, 陽一; 田中, 陽一; 谷口, 隆信; 岡田, 裕作; 岡田, 謙一郎; 川村, 寿一

    1983-01-01

    We herein report a case of renal oncocytoma associated with renal cell carcmoma in the same kidney. A 78-year-old man was admitted for further examination of the right abdominal mass. Angiogram revealed two hypervascular renal tumors, one of which showed a "spoke-wheel" appearancc. Right nephrectomy was performed and two neoplasms were found, one in the upper pole which was diagnosed as clear cell carcinoma, and another in the mid-portion which was considered to fit the histologic criteria fo...

  19. The level of ethylene biomarker in the renal failure of elderly patients analyzed by photoacoustic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, C.; Patachia, M.; Banita, S.; Matei, C.; Bratu, A. M.; Dumitras, D. C.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years there has been a large increase in the areas related to developments in the prevention of diseases, especially in explaining the role of oxidative stress. Lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress contributes to morbidity in hemodialysis (HD) patients. It is therefore relevant to analyze the impact of oxidative stress and its related species (ethylene) immediately after dialysis treatment in order to prevent trauma in the renal failure of elderly patients. In this paper we describe recent progress in laser photoacoustic spectroscopy detection of ethylene in renal failure patients. We have found that HD treatment increases ethylene concentration in the exhaled breath of elderly patients and may intensify oxidative stress.

  20. New radiologic classification of renal angiomyolipomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sohee; Park, Byung Kwan, E-mail: rapark@skku.edu; Park, Jung Jae

    2016-10-15

    Purpose: To introduce a new radiologic classification of renal angiomyolipoma (AML). Materials and methods: Between 1995 and 2014, CT or MR images in 98 patients with histologically proven 98 AMLs were reviewed independently by a radiologist and a resident. The lesions were classified as (a) 53 fat-rich AML (≤−10HU), (b) 22 fat-poor AML (>−10HU) with tumor-to-spleen ratio (TSR) <0.71 or signal intensity index (SII) >16.5%, and (c) 23 fat-invisible AML (>−10HU) with TSR ≥0.71 and SII ≤16.5%. Inter-reader agreement was assessed with a weighted kappa value. Fat-poor and fat-invisible AMLs were compared in terms of attenuation value, TSR, and SII using unpaired t-test. Results: The weighted kappa value was 0.956 (95% confidence interval, 92.0–99.1%). When a region of interest (ROI) was placed within the most hypodense area on unenhanced CT or within the most signal-dropped area on chemical shift image, the mean attenuation values, TSRs, and SIIs of fat-poor versus fat-invisible AMLs were 19.5 ± 8.1 HU versus 38.1 ± 9.9 HU, 0.59 ± 0.19 versus 0.96 ± 0.01, and 43.7 ± 16.9% versus −5.4 ± 21.1%, respectively (p < 0.0001). When a ROI was placed within the other area on CT or chemical shift images, 90.1% (48/53) of fat-rich AMLs were mis-classified as fat-poor or fat-invisible AML and 50% (11/22) of fat-poor AMLs as fat-invisible AML. Conclusion: The new radiologic classification of renal AML is feasible for clinical practice. ROI location is important in differentiating the types of AMLs.