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Sample records for attenuates postprandial gastrointestinal

  1. Psyllium fiber-enriched meal strongly attenuates postprandial gastrointestinal peptide release in healthy young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karhunen, Leila J.; Juvonen, Kristiina R.; Flander, Sanna M.

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fiber (DF) and protein are essential constituents of a healthy diet and are well known for their high satiety impact. However, little is known about their influence on postprandial gastrointestinal (GI) peptide release. Our aim in this single-blind, randomized, cross-over study was to inv...

  2. A psyllium fiber-enriched meal strongly attenuates postprandial gastrointestinal peptide release in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhunen, Leila J; Juvonen, Kristiina R; Flander, Sanna M; Liukkonen, Kirsi-Helena; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Siloaho, Maritta; Laaksonen, David E; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Uusitupa, Matti I; Poutanen, Kaisa S

    2010-04-01

    Dietary fiber (DF) and protein are essential constituents of a healthy diet and are well known for their high satiety impact. However, little is known about their influence on postprandial gastrointestinal (GI) peptide release. Our aim in this single-blind, randomized, cross-over study was to investigate the effects of DF and/or protein enrichments on satiety-related metabolic and hormonal responses. Sixteen healthy, nonobese volunteers participated in the study and ingested 1 of 5 isoenergetic test meals in a randomized order on separate days. The test meals were as follows: 1) low in protein (2.8 g) and fiber (7.6 g); 2) low in protein (2.6 g) and high in soluble fiber (psyllium, 23.0 g); 3) high in protein (soy, 19.7 g) and low in fiber (6.2 g); 4) high in protein (18.4 g) and fiber (23.0 g); and 5) white wheat bread. Serum insulin and plasma glucose, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY (PYY) concentrations were determined for 2 h following the meals. In addition, hunger and satiety ratings were collected. Postprandial glucose, insulin, ghrelin, GLP-1, and PYY responses all differed among the meals (P psyllium fiber strongly modified postprandial signals arising from the GI tract.

  3. Hyperglycaemia attenuates the gastrokinetic effect of erythromycin and affects the perception of postprandial hunger in normal subjects

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    Jones, K.L.; Berry, M.; Kong, M.F.; Kwiatek, M.; Samsom, M.; Horowitz, M. [University of South Australia, SA (Australia). School of Medicine Radiation]|[Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA (Australia). Department of Medicine

    1998-06-01

    Full text: Recent studies have demonstrated that acute changes in the blood glucose concentration may affect gastrointestinal motor function and the perception of sensations arising from the gastrointestinal tract. Erythromycin has been shown to accelerate gastric emptying in both normal subjects and patients with diabetes mellitus. The major aims of this study were to determine in normal subjects whether the effects of erythromycin on gastric emptying, and perceptions of hunger and fullness are modified by the blood glucose concentration. 10 normal subjects (aged 20-39 yr) underwent concurrent measurement of gastric emptying, blood glucose, hunger and fullness on four separate occasions: twice during euglycaemia ({approx}4 mmol/L) and twice during hyperglycaemia ({approx}15 mmol/L). Either erythromycin (3 mg/kg) or saline (0.9%) was administered intravenously immediately before ingestion of a radioisotopically labelled solid meal. Gastric emptying was slower (P<0.0001) during hyperglycaemia when compared to euglycaemia after both erythromycin and saline administration. Erythromycin accelerated the post-lag emptying rate during euglycaemia (P<0.05), but not hyperglycaemia. Hunger decreased (P<0.001) and fullness increased (P<0.001) after the meal Postprandial hunger was less (P<0.05) and fullness greater (P<0.05) during hyperglycaemia after saline infusion, but not after erythromycin. Hunger was greater after erythromycin when compared to saline during both hyperglycaemia and euglycaemia (P<0.05). In conclusion, at a blood glucose concentration of {approx}15 mmol/L when compared to euglycaemia: (i) after administration of erythromycin (3 mg/kg IV) gastric emptying of a solid meal is much slower, (ii) the effect of erythromycin on gastric emptying of a solid meal is attenuated and (iii) the perception of postprandial hunger is reduced and that of fullness increased

  4. Endurance Exercise Attenuates Postprandial Whole-Body Leucine Balance in Trained Men.

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    Mazzulla, Michael; Parel, Justin T; Beals, Joseph W; VAN Vliet, Stephan; Abou Sawan, Sidney; West, Daniel W D; Paluska, Scott A; Ulanov, Alexander V; Moore, Daniel R; Burd, Nicholas A

    2017-12-01

    Endurance exercise increases indices of small intestinal damage and leucine oxidation, which may attenuate dietary amino acid appearance and postprandial leucine balance during postexercise recovery. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an acute bout of endurance exercise on postprandial leucine kinetics and net leucine balance. In a crossover design, seven trained young men (age = 25.6 ± 2.3 yr; V˙O2peak = 61.4 ± 2.9 mL·kg·min; mean ± SEM) received a primed constant infusion of L-[1-C]leucine before and after ingesting a mixed macronutrient meal containing 18 g whole egg protein intrinsically labeled with L-[5,5,5-H3]leucine, 17 g fat, and 60 g carbohydrate at rest and after 60 min of treadmill running at 70% V˙O2peak. Plasma intestinal fatty acid binding protein concentrations and leucine oxidation both increased (P 0.05) in dietary leucine appearance rates or in the amount of dietary protein-derived leucine that appeared into circulation over the 5-h postprandial period at rest and after exercise (62% ± 2% and 63% ± 2%, respectively). Leucine balance over the 5-h postprandial period was positive (P balance in trained young men.

  5. A Novel Selective PPARα Modulator (SPPARMα), K-877 (Pemafibrate), Attenuates Postprandial Hypertriglyceridemia in Mice.

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    Sairyo, Masami; Kobayashi, Takuya; Masuda, Daisaku; Kanno, Koutaro; Zhu, Yinghong; Okada, Takeshi; Koseki, Masahiro; Ohama, Tohru; Nishida, Makoto; Sakata, Yasushi; Yamashita, Shizuya

    2018-02-01

    Fasting and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia (PHTG) are caused by the accumulation of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins and their remnants, which have atherogenic effects. Fibrates can improve fasting and PHTG; however, reduction of remnants is clinically needed to improve health outcomes. In the current study, we investigated the effects of a novel selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α modulator (SPPARMα), K-877 (Pemafibrate), on PHTG and remnant metabolism. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) only, or an HFD containing 0.0005% K-877 or 0.05% fenofibrate, from 8 to 12 weeks of age. After 4 weeks of feeding, we measured plasma levels of TG, free fatty acids (FFA), total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, and apolipoprotein (apo) B-48/B-100 during fasting and after oral fat loading (OFL). Plasma lipoprotein profiles after OFL, which were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and fasting lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity were compared among the groups. Both K-877 and fenofibrate suppressed body weight gain and fasting and postprandial TG levels and enhanced LPL activity in mice fed an HFD. As determined by HPLC, K-877 and fenofibrate significantly decreased the abundance of TG-rich lipoproteins, including remnants, in postprandial plasma. Both K-877 and fenofibrate decreased intestinal mRNA expression of ApoB and Npc1l1; however, hepatic expression of Srebp1c and Mttp was increased by fenofibrate but not by K-877.Hepatic mRNA expression of apoC-3 was decreased by K-877 but not by fenofibrate. K-877 may attenuate PHTG by suppressing the postprandial increase of chylomicrons and the accumulation of chylomicron remnants more effectively than fenofibrate.

  6. High-intensity exercise attenuates postprandial lipaemia and markers of oxidative stress.

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    Gabriel, Brendan; Ratkevicius, Aivaras; Gray, Patrick; Frenneaux, Michael P; Gray, Stuart R

    2012-09-01

    Regular exercise can reduce the risk of CVD (cardiovascular disease). Although moderate-intensity exercise can attenuate postprandial TAG (triacylglycerol), high-intensity intermittent exercise might be a more effective method to improve health. We compared the effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise and 30 min of brisk walking on postprandial TAG, soluble adhesion molecules and markers of oxidative stress. Nine men each completed three 2-day trials. On day 1, subjects rested (control), walked briskly for 30 min (walking) or performed 5×30 s maximal sprints (high-intensity). On day 2, subjects consumed a high-fat meal for breakfast and 3 h later for lunch. Blood samples were taken at various times and analysed for TAG, glucose, insulin, ICAM-1 (intracellular adhesion molecule-1), VCAM-1 (vascular adhesion molecule-1), TBARS (thiobarbituric acid- reactive substances), protein carbonyls and β-hydroxybutyrate. On day 2 of the high-intensity trial, there was a lower (Pwalking trial (8.98±2.84 mmol/l per 7 h). A trend (P=0.056) for a reduced total TAG AUC was also seen during the high-intensity trial (14.13±2.83 mmol/l per 7 h) compared with control (17.18±3.92 mmol/l per 7 h), walking showed no difference (16.33±3.51 mmol/l per 7 h). On day 2 of the high-intensity trial plasma TBARS and protein carbonyls were also reduced (Pwalking trials. In conclusion, high-intensity intermittent exercise attenuates postprandial TAG and markers of oxidative stress after the consumption of a high-fat meal.

  7. Suppression of Oral Sweet Taste Sensation with Gymnema sylvestre Affects Postprandial Gastrointestinal Blood Flow and Gastric Emptying in Humans.

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    Kashima, Hideaki; Eguchi, Kohei; Miyamoto, Kanae; Fujimoto, Masaki; Endo, Masako Yamaoka; Aso-Someya, Nami; Kobayashi, Toshio; Hayashi, Naoyuki; Fukuba, Yoshiyuki

    2017-05-01

    An oral sweet taste sensation (OSTS) exaggerates digestive activation transiently, but whether it has a role after swallowing a meal is not known. Gymnema sylvestre (GS) can inhibit the OSTS in humans. We explored the effect of the OSTS of glucose intake on gastrointestinal blood flow, gastric emptying, blood-glucose, and plasma-insulin responses during the postprandial phase. Eight participants ingested 200 g (50 g × 4 times) of 15% glucose solution containing 100 mg of 13C-sodium acetate after rinsing with 25 mL of 2.5% roasted green tea (control) or 2.5% GS solution. During each protocol, gastrointestinal blood flow and gastric emptying were measured by ultrasonography and 13C-sodium acetate breath test, respectively. Decreased subjective sweet taste intensity was observed in all participants in the GS group. The time to attain a peak value of blood flow in the celiac artery and gastric emptying were delayed in the GS group compared with the control group. At the initial phase after glucose intake, blood-glucose and plasma-insulin responses were lower in the GS group than those for the control group. These results suggest that the OSTS itself has a substantial role in controlling postprandial gastrointestinal activities, which may affect subsequent glycemic metabolism. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Effect of Incorporating Stevia and Moringa in Cookies on Postprandial Glycemia, Appetite, Palatability, and Gastrointestinal Well-Being.

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    Ahmad, Jamil; Khan, Imran; Johnson, Stuart K; Alam, Iftikhar; Din, Zia Ud

    2018-02-01

    Medicinal plants including stevia and moringa constitute an important source of health-beneficial bioactive components, and hence their intake may beneficially modulate biomarkers of chronic diseases. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of incorporating stevia and moringa leaf powder in cookies on postprandial glycemia, appetite, palatability, and gastrointestinal well-being in humans. In a randomized crossover design, 20 healthy subjects consumed 3 isocaloric test foods (each providing 50 g available carbohydrates) of control cookies (CC) made from 100% wheat flour, cookies containing stevia leaf powder (SC, 3% w/w), and cookies containing moringa leaf powder (MC, 5% w/w) as breakfast. Blood glucose and subjective appetite were measured at fasting and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the consumption of the cookies. Palatability and gastrointestinal well-being were measured using standard questionnaires. Compared to CC, MC resulted in a significant decrease in postprandial blood glucose concentration at 30 and 45 min (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively) and showed a tendency (p = 0.077) for lower blood glucose incremental area under the curve (iAUC). Subjects were significantly less hungry after SC and MC intake (p = 0.035 and p = 0.041, respectively) compared to CC. All the cookies were liked by the subjects without any reported gastrointestinal discomfort. The results showed that compared to CC, MC improved postprandial glycemia and reduced hunger, while SC reduced hunger only. Future studies are now warranted to explore the mechanisms responsible for these observed effects.

  9. The effect of aerobic exercise intensity on attenuation of postprandial lipemia is dependent on apolipoprotein E genotype.

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    Ferreira, Aparecido Pimentel; Ferreira, Cristiane Batisti; Brito, Ciro José; Souza, Vinícius Carolino; Córdova, Cláudio; Nóbrega, Otávio Toledo; França, Nancí Maria

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the effect of aerobic exercise intensity on postprandial lipemia according to allelic variants of the apolipoprotein E gene. Three groups of 10 healthy men each were formed based genotyping of the APOE gene, rested or performed 500 Kcal tests in a random sequence separated by a minimum 48 h interval, as follows: (a) no exercise (control), (b) intense intermittent exercise, (c) moderate continuous exercise. Each test series was completed 30-min before ingestion of a high-fat meal (1 g fat/kg). Venous blood was collected before and at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after the high-fat meal. Postprandial lipemia was assessed using the area under the curve approach as well as the kinetic profile of mean lipid variables. Statistical significance was adopted at P ≤ 0.05 level. The main results show that, in the moderate continuous exercise, total postprandial cholesterolemia was higher in ɛ4 than in ɛ2 carriers, whereas under intense intermittent exercise, total and LDL cholesterolemia were higher in ɛ4 than in ɛ2 and ɛ3 carriers. There was no difference in the lipemic profile of the subjects across APOE genotypes at baseline. Moderate and intense exercise were effective in attenuating PPL in both ɛ2 and ɛ3 subjects, with ɛ2 subjects being more susceptible to the lipid lowering effect of moderate training than ɛ3 subjects. Carriers of the ɛ4 allele, however, showed no attenuation of postprandial lipemia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Recreational football practice attenuates postprandial lipaemia in normal and overweight individuals

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    Paul, Darren J; Bangsbo, Jens; Nassis, George P

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of playing football on postprandial lipaemia in normal and overweight individuals. METHODS: Fifteen (7 normal weight, age = 32.3 ± 6.0 years, BMI = 22.8 ± 3.4 kg/m2 and 8 overweight, age = 33.3 ± 5.5 years, BMI = 29.2 ± 3.2 kg/m2......, mean ± SD) recreational football players were recruited. On the evening of day 1, participants played a 60-min 9-a-side football match (FOOT) or rested (control; CON) in a randomised counterbalanced cross-over design. Activity profile, heart rate and rate of perceived exertion were recorded. The next......-hour Insulin Sensitivity Index was lower (ES = - 0.95) for FOOT compared to CON trial in the overweight group only. CONCLUSION: Playing a 60-min football match can attenuate the triglyceride response to a high-fat meal in normal and overweight individuals....

  11. Supplemental fructose attenuates postprandial glycemia in Zucker fatty fa/fa rats.

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    Wolf, Bryan W; Humphrey, Phillip M; Hadley, Craig W; Maharry, Kati S; Garleb, Keith A; Firkins, Jeffrey L

    2002-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of supplemental fructose on postprandial glycemia. After overnight food deprivation, Zucker fatty fa/fa rats were given a meal glucose tolerance test. Plasma glucose response was determined for 180 min postprandially. At a dose of 0.16 g/kg body, fructose reduced (P glucose challenge and by 32% when supplemented to a maltodextrin (a rapidly digested starch) challenge. Similarly, sucrose reduced (P = 0.0575) the incremental AUC for plasma glucose when rats were challenged with maltodextrin. Second-meal glycemic response was not affected by fructose supplementation to the first meal, and fructose supplementation to the second meal reduced (P postprandial glycemia when fructose had been supplemented to the first meal. In a dose-response study (0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 g/kg body), supplemental fructose reduced (P glucose (linear and quadratic effects). In the final experiment, a low dose of fructose (0.075 g/kg body) reduced (P postprandial blood glucose response.

  12. Acarbose, the α-glucosidase inhibitor, attenuates the blood pressure and splanchnic blood flow responses to meal in elderly patients with postprandial hypotension concomitant with abnormal glucose metabolism.

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    Qiao, Wei; Li, Jing; Li, Ying; Qian, Duan; Chen, Lei; Wei, Xiansen; Jin, Jiangli; Wang, Yong

    2016-02-01

    Postprandial hypotension (PPH) is a unique clinical phenomenon in the elderly, but its underlying pathogenesis has not been completely elucidated, and drug treatment is still in clinical exploratory stage. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the fall in postprandial blood pressure and splanchnic blood flow, and to provide a theoretical basis for the treatment of PPH by taking acarbose. The study included 20 elderly inpatients diagnosed with PPH concomitant with abnormal glucose metabolism at stable condition. They were treated with 50 mg acarbose with their meal to observe the changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and blood glucose level, and to monitor the hemodynamics of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) before and after treatment. Without acarbose treatment, patients after a meal had significantly decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, faster postprandial heart rate, higher postprandial glucose level at each period, and increased postprandial SMA blood flow compared with that at fasting state (Ppostprandial systolic blood pressures from 35.50±12.66 to 22.25±6.90 mmHg (P=0.000), the increase of heart rate from 9.67±5.94 to 5.33±3.20 beats/min (P=0.016), the increase of postprandial blood glucose from 3.55±1.69 to 2.28±1.61 mmol/l (P=0.000), the increase of postprandial SMA blood flow from 496.80±147.15 to 374.55±97.89 ml/min (P=0.031), and the incidence of PPH, syncope, falls, dizziness, weakness, and angina pectoris (Ppostprandial systolic blood pressure was positively associated with the maximal increase in postprandial SMA blood flow (r=0.351, P=0.026). Acarbose treatment showed no significant side effects. The increase in postprandial splanchnic perfusion is one of the reasons for PPH formation. Acarbose may exert its role in PPH treatment by reducing postprandial gastrointestinal blood perfusion. Giving 50 mg acarbose with a meal to treat PPH concomitant with abnormal glucose metabolism is effective

  13. Rikkunshi-to attenuates adverse gastrointestinal symptoms induced by fluvoxamine

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    Kodama Naoki

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upper gastrointestinal (GI symptoms such as nausea and vomiting are common adverse events associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, and may result in discontinuation of drug therapy in patients with depressive disorder. Rikkunshi-to (formulation TJ-43, a traditional herbal medicine, has been reported to improve upper GI symptoms and comorbid depressive symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia. The aim of the present study was to determine if TJ-43 reduces GI symptoms and potentiates an antidepressant effect in a randomized controlled study of depressed patients treated with fluvoxamine (FLV. Methods Fifty patients with depressive disorder (19–78 years, mean age 40.2 years were treated with FLV (n = 25 or FLV in combination with TJ-43 (FLV+TJ-43 (n = 25 for eight weeks. The following parameters of the two groups were compared: The number of patients who complained of adverse events and their symptoms; GI symptoms quality of life (QOL score, assessed by the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS, Japanese edition, before and two weeks after beginning treatment; and depressive symptoms assessed by the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS, before and 2, 4, and 8 weeks after beginning treatment. Results The number of patients who complained of adverse events in the FLV+TJ-43 group (n = 6 was significantly lower than the number complaining in the FLV group (n = 13 (P P Conclusion This study suggests that Rikkunshi-to reduces FLV-induced adverse events, especially nausea, and improves QOL related to GI symptoms without affecting the antidepressant effect of FLV.

  14. A High Antioxidant Spice Blend Attenuates Postprandial Insulin and Triglyceride Responses and Increases Some Plasma Measures of Antioxidant Activity in Healthy, Overweight Men123

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    Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Teeter, Danette L.; Chen, C-Y. Oliver; Vanden Heuvel, John P.; West, Sheila G.

    2011-01-01

    There is much interest in the potential of dietary antioxidants to attenuate in vivo oxidative stress, but little characterization of the time course of plasma effects exists. Culinary spices have demonstrated potent in vitro antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to examine whether adding 14 g of a high antioxidant spice blend to a 5060-kJ (1200 kcal) meal exerted significant postprandial effects on markers of plasma antioxidant status and metabolism. Healthy overweight men (n = 6) consumed a control and spiced meal in a randomized crossover design with 1 wk between testing sessions. Blood was sampled prior to the meal and at 30-min intervals for 3.5 h (total of 8 samples). Mixed linear models demonstrated a treatment × time interaction (P < 0.05) for insulin and TG, corresponding with 21 and 31% reductions in postprandial levels with the spiced meal, respectively. Adding spices to the meal significantly increased the ferric reducing antioxidant power, such that postprandial increases following the spiced meal were 2-fold greater than after the control meal (P = 0.009). The hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of plasma also was increased by spices (P = 0.02). There were no treatment differences in glucose, total thiols, lipophilic ORAC, or total ORAC. The incorporation of spices into the diet may help normalize postprandial insulin and TG and enhance antioxidant defenses. PMID:21697300

  15. Vinegar consumption can attenuate postprandial glucose and insulin responses; a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials.

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    Shishehbor, Farideh; Mansoori, Anahita; Shirani, Fatemeh

    2017-05-01

    Postprandial hyperglycemia plays a decisive role in the development of chronic metabolic disorders. The effect of vinegar intake with a meal on postprandial glucose has been studied in several trials with conflicting results. The purpose of the current study was to systematically review control trials that report on the effect of vinegar intake on postprandial glucose response. Postprandial insulin response was considered as secondary outcome. The pooled analysis of studies revealed a significant mean glucose and insulin area under the curve (AUC) reduction in participants who consumed vinegar compared with the control group (standard mean difference=-0.60, 95%CI -1.08 to -0.11, p=0.01 and -1.30, 95%CI -1.98 to -0.62, pinsulin levels, indicating it could be considered as an adjunctive tool for improving glycemic control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Orlistat inhibition of intestinal lipase acutely increases appetite and attenuates postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36)-amide-1, cholecystokinin, and peptide YY concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellrichmann, Mark; Kapelle, Mario; Ritter, Peter R

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Intestinal lipase inhibition using tetrahydrolipstatin (Orlistat) has been widely used in the pharmacotherapy of morbid obesity. However, the effects of Orlistat on the secretion of appetite regulating gastrointestinal hormones and appetite sensations are still debated. We addressed...... whether Orlistat alters the secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36)-amide (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY), and ghrelin as well as postprandial appetite sensations. METHODS: Twenty-five healthy human volunteers were examined with a solid-liquid test meal after the oral administration...... of Orlistat or placebo. Gastric emptying, gallbladder volume and the plasma levels of CCK, PYY, GLP-1, and ghrelin were determined and appetite sensations were measured using visual analogue scales. RESULTS: Gastric emptying was accelerated by Orlistat administration (P

  17. Slowly digestible carbohydrate sources can be used to attenuate the postprandial glycemic response to the ingestion of diabetes-specific enteral formulas.

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    Vanschoonbeek, K; Lansink, M; van Laere, K M J; Senden, J M G; Verdijk, L B; van Loon, L J C

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the glycemic and insulinemic responses following the ingestion of recently developed diabetes-specific enteral formulas versus a standard and a high-fat formula. Fifteen type 2 diabetes patients were selected to participate in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Two enteral formulas (47 energy percent [En%] carbohydrate, 34En% fat, and 4 g fiber/200 mL) were defined with either isomaltulose (formula 1) or sucromalt (formula 2) as the main carbohydrate source. For comparison, an isoenergetic diabetes-specific, high-fat (33En% carbohydrate, 50En% fat, 2.9 g fiber/200 mL) and a standard formula (55En% carbohydrate, 30En% fat, 2.8 g fiber/200 mL) were tested. Ingestion of formulas 1 and 2 and the high-fat formula resulted in an attenuated blood glucose response when compared with the standard formula (P < .05). In accordance, peak plasma glucose concentrations were significantly lower when compared with the standard formula (189 +/- 3.6 mg/dL [10.5 +/- 0.2 mmol/L], 196.2 +/- 3.6 mg/dL [10.9 +/- 0.2 mmol/L], 187.2 +/- 3.6 mg/dL [10.4 +/- 0.2 mmol/L], and 237.6 +/- 3.6 mg/dL [13.2 +/- 0.2 mmol/L], respectively). Plasma insulin responses were lower after consumption of the newly developed and high-fat formulas. Ingestion of the high-fat formula resulted in a greater postprandial triglyceride response (P < .05). Diabetes-specific enteral formulas rich in slowly digestible carbohydrate sources can be equally effective in attenuating the postprandial blood glucose response as low-carbohydrate, high-fat enteral formulas without elevating the plasma triglyceride response.

  18. Postprandial hyperglycemia.

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    Richards, Robert J

    2003-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to fasting glucose levels in both the diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus. This test is well ingrained in clinical practice and well accepted by our patients. However, does a fasting glucose level give the clinician a complete picture? Is postprandial hyperglycemia associated with adverse events? This article will explore postprandial glucose levels and compare them to fasting glucose levels. The importance of postprandial and post-challenge (2 hours after a standard oral glucose tolerance test) glucose levels will be discussed. Drugs which address postprandial hyperglycemia will be reviewed briefly.

  19. Postprandial hypoglycemic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т.V. Chaychenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Postprandial hypoglycemic syndrome, or reactive hypoglycemia, — vegetative symptoms, such as weakness, fatigue, hunger, nausea, palpitations, anxiety, tremor, sweating occurring one to two hours after ingestion. The syndrome is poorly described in literature and most of the information is disparate. Laboratory criteria for the diagnosis of postprandial reactive hypoglycemia are quite controversial, but most authors tend to consider that it is a blood glucose level, which is below 3.9 mmol/l for two hours after meal. Hypoglycemia is an unbalance between glucose influx to the circulation (from endogenous glucose production or exogenous glucose delivery and glucose efflux. The balance between glucose intake and consumption is controlled by a complex balance of glycoregulatory hormones. Insulin, glucagon and adrenaline are effective for several minutes, but cortisol and growth hormone — for seve-ral hours. This explains the presence of immediate and delayed various effects: adrenergic, neuroglycopenic ones and gastroin-testinal discomfort. Postprandial syndrome mechanisms are similar to post-gastric bypass patients with morbid obesity. The most likely cause of reactive hypoglycemia is post-prandial hypersecretion of insulin under the influence of glucose and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, which is a component of the enteroendocrine system and acts at the cephalic phase of satiety. Both post-gastric bypass and relatively healthy individuals have symptoms after the meal rich of simple carbohydrates. Symptoms could be effectively reduced by low glycemic index diet rich of dietary fibers. When the effect is insufficient, it is recommended to use acarbose as an α-glucosidase inhibitor, which is the main stimulation of GLP-1 secretion. Thus, obesity epidemics based on the inadequate nutritional habits in the children makes the postprandial syndrome feasible, and it requires further studies. At the same time, healthy diet can significantly improve

  20. Differential acute postprandial effects of processed meat and isocaloric vegan meals on the gastrointestinal hormone response in subjects suffering from type 2 diabetes and healthy controls: a randomized crossover study.

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    Belinova, Lenka; Kahleova, Hana; Malinska, Hana; Topolcan, Ondrej; Vrzalova, Jindra; Oliyarnyk, Olena; Kazdova, Ludmila; Hill, Martin; Pelikanova, Terezie

    2014-01-01

    The intake of meat, particularly processed meat, is a dietary risk factor for diabetes. Meat intake impairs insulin sensitivity and leads to increased oxidative stress. However, its effect on postprandial gastrointestinal hormone (GIH) secretion is unclear. We aimed to investigate the acute effects of two standardized isocaloric meals: a processed hamburger meat meal rich in protein and saturated fat (M-meal) and a vegan meal rich in carbohydrates (V-meal). We hypothesized that the meat meal would lead to abnormal postprandial increases in plasma lipids and oxidative stress markers and impaired GIH responses. In a randomized crossover study, 50 patients suffering from type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 50 healthy subjects underwent two 3-h meal tolerance tests. For statistical analyses, repeated-measures ANOVA was performed. The M-meal resulted in a higher postprandial increase in lipids in both groups (p<0.001) and persistent postprandial hyperinsulinemia in patients with diabetes (p<0.001). The plasma glucose levels were significantly higher after the V-meal only at the peak level. The plasma concentrations of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) were higher (p<0.05, p<0.001, p<0.001, respectively) and the ghrelin concentration was lower (p<0.001) after the M-meal in healthy subjects. In contrast, the concentrations of GIP, PYY and PP were significantly lower after the M-meal in T2D patients (p<0.001). Compared with the V-meal, the M-meal was associated with a larger increase in lipoperoxidation in T2D patients (p<0.05). Our results suggest that the diet composition and the energy content, rather than the carbohydrate count, should be important considerations for dietary management and demonstrate that processed meat consumption is accompanied by impaired GIH responses and increased oxidative stress marker levels in diabetic patients. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01572402.

  1. Exercise after You Eat: Hitting the Postprandial Glucose Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L. Erickson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We discuss a novel hypothesis: the effect size of postmeal exercise for attenuating postprandial glucose will be a function of the exercise bout vs. the size of the postprandial glucose response, specifically peak and duration of the postprandial glucose excursion.

  2. Postprandial glucose metabolism and SCFA after consuming wholegrain rye bread and wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran in individuals with mild gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappi, Jenni; Mykkänen, Hannu; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik; Kirjavainen, Pirkka; Katina, Kati; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Poutanen, Kaisa; Kolehmainen, Marjukka

    2014-11-04

    Rye bread benefits glucose metabolism. It is unknown whether the same effect is achieved by rye bran-enriched wheat bread. We tested whether white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) and sourdough wholegrain rye bread (WGR) have similar effects on glucose metabolism and plasma level of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Twenty-one (12 women) of 23 recruited subjects completed an intervention with a four-week run-in and two four-week test periods in cross-over design. White wheat bread (WW; 3% fibre) was consumed during the run-in, and WGR and BRB + WW (10% fibre) during the test periods. A meal test providing 51/33/11 E % from carbohydrates/fat/protein was conducted at the end of each period. Fasting and postprandial plasma samples were analysed for glucose, insulin, and SCFA. Glucose and insulin responses and plasma concentrations of SCFAs to the meal test were similar between the WGR and BRB + WW periods. When compared to the WW period, postprandial insulin concentration at 120 min was lower (p = 0.023) and the first-phase insulin secretion improved (p = 0.033) only after the WGR period, whereas postprandial concentrations of butyrate (p bread periods. Beneficial effects of WGR over white wheat bread on glucose and SCFA production were confirmed. The enrichment of the white wheat bread with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) yielded similar but not as pronounced effects than WGR when compared to WW alone. Postprandially measured glucose metabolism and concentrations of SCFAs provided additional information along with fasting measurements.

  3. Differential acute postprandial effects of processed meat and isocaloric vegan meals on the gastrointestinal hormone response in subjects suffering from type 2 diabetes and healthy controls: a randomized crossover study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Belinova

    Full Text Available The intake of meat, particularly processed meat, is a dietary risk factor for diabetes. Meat intake impairs insulin sensitivity and leads to increased oxidative stress. However, its effect on postprandial gastrointestinal hormone (GIH secretion is unclear. We aimed to investigate the acute effects of two standardized isocaloric meals: a processed hamburger meat meal rich in protein and saturated fat (M-meal and a vegan meal rich in carbohydrates (V-meal. We hypothesized that the meat meal would lead to abnormal postprandial increases in plasma lipids and oxidative stress markers and impaired GIH responses.In a randomized crossover study, 50 patients suffering from type 2 diabetes (T2D and 50 healthy subjects underwent two 3-h meal tolerance tests. For statistical analyses, repeated-measures ANOVA was performed.The M-meal resulted in a higher postprandial increase in lipids in both groups (p<0.001 and persistent postprandial hyperinsulinemia in patients with diabetes (p<0.001. The plasma glucose levels were significantly higher after the V-meal only at the peak level. The plasma concentrations of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP, peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY and pancreatic polypeptide (PP were higher (p<0.05, p<0.001, p<0.001, respectively and the ghrelin concentration was lower (p<0.001 after the M-meal in healthy subjects. In contrast, the concentrations of GIP, PYY and PP were significantly lower after the M-meal in T2D patients (p<0.001. Compared with the V-meal, the M-meal was associated with a larger increase in lipoperoxidation in T2D patients (p<0.05.Our results suggest that the diet composition and the energy content, rather than the carbohydrate count, should be important considerations for dietary management and demonstrate that processed meat consumption is accompanied by impaired GIH responses and increased oxidative stress marker levels in diabetic patients.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01572402.

  4. Postprandial glucose metabolism and SCFA after consuming wholegrain rye bread and wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran in individuals with mild gastrointestinal symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappi, J; Mykkänen, H; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2014-01-01

    .05) and propionate (p = 0.009) at 30 min increased during both rye bread periods.ConclusionsBeneficial effects of WGR over white wheat bread on glucose and SCFA production were confirmed. The enrichment of the white wheat bread with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) yielded similar but not as pronounced effects than......BackgroundRye bread benefits glucose metabolism. It is unknown whether the same effect is achieved by rye bran-enriched wheat bread. We tested whether white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) and sourdough wholegrain rye bread (WGR) have similar effects on glucose metabolism...... were similar between the WGR and BRB + WW periods. When compared to the WW period, postprandial insulin concentration at 120 min was lower (p = 0.023) and the first-phase insulin secretion improved (p = 0.033) only after the WGR period, whereas postprandial concentrations of butyrate (p 

  5. Polyphenol- and fibre-rich dried fruits with green tea attenuate starch-derived postprandial blood glucose and insulin: a randomised, controlled, single-blind, cross-over intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyambe-Silavwe, H; Williamson, G

    2016-08-01

    Polyphenol- and fibre-rich foods (PFRF) have the potential to affect postprandial glycaemic responses by reducing glucose absorption, and thus decreasing the glycaemic response of foods when consumed together. A randomised, single-blind, cross-over study was conducted on sixteen healthy volunteers to test whether PFRF could attenuate postprandial blood glucose in healthy volunteers when added to a source of carbohydrate (starch in bread). This is the first study to examine the effects of a meal comprised of components to inhibit each stage of the biochemical pathway, leading up to the appearance of glucose in the blood. The volunteers were fasted and attended four visits: two control visits (bread, water, balancing sugars) and two test visits (single and double dose of PFRF) where they consumed bread, water and PFRF. Blood samples were collected at 0 (fasted), 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after consumption. The PFRF components were tested for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potential in vitro. Plasma glucose was lower after consumption of both doses compared with controls: lower dose, change in mean incremental areas under the glucose curves (IAUC)=-27·4 (sd 7·5) %, Ppostprandial blood glucose and insulin response in humans, due in part to inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase, as well as glucose transport.

  6. Live Probiotic Cultures and the Gastrointestinal Tract: Symbiotic Preservation of Tolerance Whilst Attenuating Pathogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eVitetta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria comprise the earliest form of independent life on this planet. Bacterial development has included co–operative symbiosis with plants (e.g., Leguminosae family and nitrogen fixing bacteria in soil and animals (e.g., the gut microbiome. A fusion event of two prokaryotes evolutionarily gave rise to the eukaryote cell in which mitochondria may be envisaged as a genetically functional mosaic, a relic from one of the prokaryote cells. The discovery of bacterial inhibitors such chloramphenicol and others has been exploited to highlight mitochondria as arising from a bacterial progenitor. As such the evolution of human life has been complexly connected to bacterial activity. This is embodied, by the appearance of mitochondria in eukaryotes (alphaproteobacteria contribution, a significant endosymbiotic evolutionary event. During the twentieth century there was an increasing dependency on anti–microbials as mainline therapy against bacterial infections. It is only comparatively recently that the essential roles played by the gastrointestinal tract (GIT microbiome in animal health and development has been recognized as opposed to the GIT microbiome being a toxic collection of micro–organisms. It is now well documented that t

  7. Postprandial Energy Metabolism in the Regulation of Body Weight: Is there a Mechanistic Role for Dietary Calcium?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario J. Soares

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been much interest in the mechanisms by which calcium may attenuate weight gain or accelerate body fat loss. This review focuses on postprandial energy metabolism and indicates that dietary calcium increases whole body fat oxidation after single and multiple meals. There is, as yet, no conclusive evidence for a greater diet induced thermogenesis, an increased lipolysis or suppression of key lipogenic enzyme systems. There is however convincing evidence that higher calcium intakes promote a modest energy loss through increased fecal fat excretion. Overall, there is a role for dietary calcium in human energy metabolism. Future studies need to define threshold intakes for metabolic and gastrointestinal outcomes.

  8. Exercise and Dietary-Mediated Reductions in Postprandial Lipemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisance, Eric P.; Fisher, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Postprandial hyperlipemia produces long-term derangements in lipid/lipoprotein metabolism, vascular endothelial dysfunction, hypercoagulability, and sympathetic hyperactivity which are strongly linked to atherogenesis. The purpose of this review is to (1) provide a qualitative analysis of the available literature examining the dysregulation of postprandial lipid metabolism in the presence of obesity, (2) inspect the role of adiposity distribution and sex on postprandial lipid metabolism, and (3) examine the role of energy deficit (exercise- and/or energy restriction-mediated), isoenergetic low-carbohydrate diets, and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid supplementation on postprandial lipid metabolism. We conclude from the literature that central adiposity primarily accounts for sex-related differences in postprandial lipemia and that aerobic exercise attenuates this response in obese or lean men and women to a similar extent through potentially unique mechanisms. In contrast, energy restriction produces only mild reductions in postprandial lipemia suggesting that exercise may be superior to energy restriction alone as a strategy for lowering postprandial lipemia. However, isoenergetic very low-carbohydrate diets and n-3 fatty acid supplementation reduce postprandial lipemia indicating that macronutrient manipulations reduce postprandial lipemia in the absence of energy restriction. Therefore, interactions between exercise/energy restriction and alterations in macronutrient content remain top priorities for the field to identify optimal behavioral treatments to reduce postprandial lipemia. PMID:25061524

  9. Exercise and Dietary-Mediated Reductions in Postprandial Lipemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P. Plaisance

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Postprandial hyperlipemia produces long-term derangements in lipid/lipoprotein metabolism, vascular endothelial dysfunction, hypercoagulability, and sympathetic hyperactivity which are strongly linked to atherogenesis. The purpose of this review is to (1 provide a qualitative analysis of the available literature examining the dysregulation of postprandial lipid metabolism in the presence of obesity, (2 inspect the role of adiposity distribution and sex on postprandial lipid metabolism, and (3 examine the role of energy deficit (exercise- and/or energy restriction-mediated, isoenergetic low-carbohydrate diets, and omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid supplementation on postprandial lipid metabolism. We conclude from the literature that central adiposity primarily accounts for sex-related differences in postprandial lipemia and that aerobic exercise attenuates this response in obese or lean men and women to a similar extent through potentially unique mechanisms. In contrast, energy restriction produces only mild reductions in postprandial lipemia suggesting that exercise may be superior to energy restriction alone as a strategy for lowering postprandial lipemia. However, isoenergetic very low-carbohydrate diets and n-3 fatty acid supplementation reduce postprandial lipemia indicating that macronutrient manipulations reduce postprandial lipemia in the absence of energy restriction. Therefore, interactions between exercise/energy restriction and alterations in macronutrient content remain top priorities for the field to identify optimal behavioral treatments to reduce postprandial lipemia.

  10. Melatonin attenuates (60) Co γ-ray-induced hematopoietic, immunological and gastrointestinal injuries in C57BL/6 male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahanshah; Adhikari, Jawahar Singh; Rizvi, Moshahid Alam; Chaudhury, Nabo Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Protection of hematopoietic, immunological, and gastrointestinal injuries from deleterious effects of ionizing radiation is prime rational for developing radioprotector. The objective of this study, therefore, was to evaluate the radioprotective potential of melatonin against damaging effects of radiation-induced hematopoietic, immunological, and gastrointestinal injuries in mice. C57BL/6 male mice were intraperitoneally administered with melatonin (50-150 mg/kg) 30 min prior to whole-body radiation exposure of 5 and 7.5 Gy using (60) Co-teletherapy unit. Thirty-day survival against 7.5 Gy was monitored. Melatonin (100 mg/kg) pretreatment showed 100% survival against 7.5 Gy radiation dose. Melatonin pretreatment expanded femoral HPSCs, and inhibited spleenocyte DNA strands breaks and apoptosis in irradiated mice. At this time, it also protected radiation-induced loss of T cell sub-populations in spleen. In addition, melatonin pretreatment enhanced crypts regeneration and increased villi number and length in irradiated mice. Translocation of gut bacteria to spleen, liver and kidney were controlled in irradiated mice pretreated with melatonin. Radiation-induced gastrointestinal DNA strand breaks, lipid peroxidation, and expression of proapoptotic-p53, Bax, and antiapoptotic-Bcl-xL proteins were reversed in melatonin pretreated mice. This increase of Bcl-xL was associated with the decrease of Bax/Bcl-xL ratio. ABTS and DPPH radical assays revealed that melatonin treatment alleviated total antioxidant capacity in hematopoietic and gastrointestinal tissues. Present study demonstrated that melatonin pretreatment was able to prevent hematopoietic, immunological, and gastrointestinal radiation-induced injury, therefore, overcoming lethality in mice. These results suggest potential of melatonin in developing radioprotector for protection of bone marrow, spleen, and gastrointestine in planned radiation exposure scenarios including radiotherapy. © 2016 Wiley

  11. Effect of exercise timing on elevated postprandial glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamoto, Yoichi; Goya, Ryoma; Yamada, Yosuke; Yoshimura, Eichi; Nishimura, Sena; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2017-08-01

    There is no consensus regarding optimal exercise timing for reducing postprandial glucose (PPG). The purpose of the present study was to determine the most effective exercise timing. Eleven participants completed four different exercise patterns 1 ) no exercise; 2 ) preprandial exercise (jogging); 3 ) postprandial exercise; and 4 ) brief periodic exercise intervention (three sets of 1-min jogging + 30 s of rest, every 30 min, 20 times total) in a random order separated by a minimum of 5 days. Preprandial and postprandial exercise consisted of 20 sets of intermittent exercise (1 min of jogging + 30 s rest per set) repeated 3 times per day. Total daily exercise volume was identical for all three exercise patterns. Exercise intensities were 62.4 ± 12.9% V̇o 2peak Blood glucose concentrations were measured continuously throughout each trial for 24 h. After breakfast, peak blood glucose concentrations were lower with brief periodic exercise (99 ± 6 mg/dl) than those with preprandial and postprandial exercise (109 ± 10 and 115 ± 14 mg/dl, respectively, P glucose concentrations were lower with brief periodic exercise than those with postprandial exercise (97 ± 5 and 108 ± 8 mg/dl, P glucose concentrations did not significantly differ among exercise patterns. Areas under the curve over 24 h and 2 h postprandially did not differ among exercise patterns. These findings suggest that brief periodic exercise may be more effective than preprandial and postprandial exercise at attenuating PPG in young active individuals. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This was the first study to investigate the effect of different exercise timing (brief periodic vs. preprandial vs. postprandial exercise) on postprandial glucose (PPG) attenuation in active healthy men. We demonstrated that brief periodic exercise attenuated peak PPG levels more than preprandial and postprandial exercise, particularly in the morning. Additionally, PPG rebounded soon after discontinuing postprandial

  12. Gut transit is associated with gastrointestinal symptoms and gut hormone profile in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalaitzakis, Evangelos; Sadik, Riadh; Holst, Jens Juul

    2008-01-01

    , gastrointestinal symptoms were evaluated by using a validated questionnaire and a caloric satiation test. Postprandial glucose, insulin, leptin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1, and PYY responses were also studied. Eighty-three healthy subjects served as controls for the transit studies and 10 for the hormone......). The patients with cirrhosis had increased postprandial glucose, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide 1 responses and reduced postprandial ghrelin. Delayed gastric emptying was related to increased postprandial glucose and reduced postprandial ghrelin. Prolonged small bowel transit was related to increased...... postprandial glucose and insulin and reduced postprandial ghrelin. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of patients with cirrhosis exhibit delayed gastric emptying or small bowel transit, which is related to gastrointestinal symptoms. Postprandial hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypoghrelinemia might be linked...

  13. Postprandial Oxidative Stress in Exercise Trained and Sedentary Cigarette Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smokers experience an exaggerated triglyceride (TAG and oxidative stress response to high fat feeding. Exercise training may serve to attenuate the rise in these variables, by improving TAG clearance and antioxidant defense. We compared blood TAG, antioxidant capacity, and oxidative stress biomarkers in exercise trained (>2 hrs per wk and untrained smokers matched for age, in response to a high fat test meal. We report here that low volume exercise training can attenuate postprandial lipid peroxidation, but has little impact on blood TAG and other markers of oxidative stress. Higher volumes of exercise may be needed to allow for clinically meaningful adaptations in postprandial lipemia and oxidative stress.

  14. Differential impact of the cheese matrix on the postprandial lipid response: a randomized, crossover, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin-Chartier, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, André J; Maltais-Giguère, Julie; Charest, Amélie; Guinot, Léa; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Labrie, Steve; Britten, Michel; Lamarche, Benoît; Turgeon, Sylvie L; Couture, Patrick

    2017-12-01

    Background: In a simulated gastrointestinal environment, the cheese matrix modulates dairy fat digestion. However, to our knowledge, the impact of the cheese matrix on postprandial lipemia in humans has not yet been evaluated.Objective: In healthy subjects, we compared the impact of dairy fat provided from firm cheese, soft cream cheese, and butter on the postprandial response at 4 h and on the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of plasma triglycerides.Design: Forty-three healthy subjects were recruited to this randomized, crossover, controlled trial. In random order at intervals of 14 d and after a 12-h fast, subjects ingested 33 g fat from a firm cheese (young cheddar), a soft cream cheese (cream cheese), or butter (control) incorporated into standardized meals that were matched for macronutrient content. Plasma concentrations of triglycerides were measured immediately before the meal and 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after the meal.Results: Cheddar cheese, cream cheese, and butter induced similar increases in triglyceride concentrations at 4 h (change from baseline: +59%, +59%, and +62%, respectively; P = 0.9). No difference in the triglyceride iAUC0-8 h (P-meal = 0.9) was observed between the 3 meals. However, at 2 h, the triglyceride response caused by the cream cheese (change from baseline: +44%) was significantly greater than that induced by butter (change from baseline: +24%; P = 0.002) and cheddar cheese (change from baseline: +16%; P = 0.0004). At 6 h, the triglyceride response induced by cream cheese was significantly attenuated compared with that induced by cheddar cheese (change from baseline: +14% compared with +42%; P = 0.0004).Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the cheese matrix modulates the impact of dairy fat on postprandial lipemia in healthy subjects. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02623790. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Accumulating exercise and postprandial health in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Bert; Williams, Craig A; Jackman, Sarah R; Woodward, Adam; Armstrong, Neil; Barker, Alan R

    2015-09-01

    To examine the influence of exercise intensity on postprandial health outcomes in adolescents when exercise is accumulated throughout the day. 19 adolescents (9 male, 13.7±0.4 years old) completed three 1-day trials in a randomised order: (1) rest (CON); or four bouts of (2) 2×1 min cycling at 90% peak power with 75 s recovery (high-intensity interval exercise; HIIE); or (3) cycling at 90% of the gas exchange threshold (moderate-intensity exercise; MIE), which was work-matched to HIIE. Each bout was separated by 2 hours. Participants consumed a high fat milkshake for breakfast and lunch. Postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG), glucose, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and fat oxidation were assessed throughout the day. There was no effect of trial on total area under the curve (TAUC) for TAG (P=0.87). TAUC-glucose was lower in HIIE compared to CON (P=0.03, ES=0.42) and MIE (P=0.04, ES=0.41), with no difference between MIE and CON (P=0.89, ES=0.04). Postprandial SBP was lower in HIIE compared to CON (P=0.04, ES=0.50) and MIE (P=0.04, ES=0.40), but not different between MIE and CON (P=0.52, ES=0.11). Resting fat oxidation was increased in HIIE compared to CON (P=0.01, ES=0.74) and MIE (P=0.05, ES=0.51), with no difference between MIE and CON (P=0.37, ES=0.24). Neither exercise trial attenuated postprandial lipaemia. However, accumulating brief bouts of HIIE, but not MIE, reduced postprandial plasma glucose and SBP, and increased resting fat oxidation in adolescent boys and girls. The intensity of accumulated exercise may therefore have important implications for health outcomes in youth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Definition of postprandial lipaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    At the present time, there is no widely agreed definition of postprandial lipaemia (PPL). This lack of a shared definition limits the identification and treatment of patients with exaggerated PPL as well as the evaluation of potential therapeutic agents. PPL is a complex syndrome characterized by...

  17. IL-13 attenuates gastrointestinal candidiasis in normal and immunodeficient RAG-2(-/-) mice via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coste, Agnès; Lagane, Céline; Filipe, Cédric; Authier, Hélène; Galès, Amandine; Bernad, José; Douin-Echinard, Victorine; Lepert, Jean-Claude; Balard, Patricia; Linas, Marie-Denise; Arnal, Jean-François; Auwerx, Johan; Pipy, Bernard

    2008-04-01

    We recently demonstrated that in vitro peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) activation of mouse peritoneal macrophages by IL-13 or PPARgamma ligands promotes uptake and killing of Candida albicans through mannose receptor overexpression. In this study, we demonstrate that i.p. treatment of immunocompetent and immunodeficient (RAG-2(-/-)) mice with natural and synthetic PPARgamma-specific ligands or with IL-13 decreases C. albicans colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract 8 days following oral infection with the yeast. We also showed that Candida GI infection triggers macrophage recruitment in cecum mucosa. These mucosal macrophages, as well as peritoneal macrophages, overexpress the mannose receptor after IL-13 and rosiglitazone treatments. The treatments promote macrophage activation against C. albicans as suggested by the increased ability of peritoneal macrophages to phagocyte C. albicans and to produce reactive oxygen intermediates after yeast challenge. These effects on C. albicans GI infection and on macrophage activation are suppressed by treatment of mice with GW9662, a selective PPARgamma antagonist, and are reduced in PPARgamma(+/-) mice. Overall, these data demonstrate that IL-13 or PPARgamma ligands attenuate C. albicans infection of the GI tract through PPARgamma activation and hence suggest that PPARgamma ligands may be of therapeutic value in esophageal and GI candidiasis in immunocompromised patients.

  18. Suppressive effect of resistant maltodextrin on postprandial blood triacylglycerol elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Yuka; Oga, Hiroshi; Tagami, Hiroyuki; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Gordon, Dennis T

    2007-04-01

    As the physiological functions of soluble dietary fibre, the favourable efficacy, such as attenuating the absorption of saccharides or lipids, is expected. Resistant maltodextrin, a soluble dietary fibre, was investigated and found that it delays the glucose absorption and attenuates the postprandial rise in the blood glucose levels, however, the efficacy of resistant maltodextrin on lipid metabolism is not yet reported. We conducted an animal experiment and a human experiment to investigate the effect of resistant maltodextrin on postprandial blood triacylglycerol elevation. 1. Rats were fed corn oil with or without resistant maltodextrin and the postprandial changes in triacylglycerol were examined. 2. We then conducted a dietary loading experiment on 13 healthy adult male and female subjects using a meal containing approximately 50 g fat. A beverage not containing resistant maltodextrin was used as a placebo; subjects consumed the loading meal and a beverage containing either 5 g or 10 g resistant maltodextrin; blood was periodically collected to see the changes in serum constituents. 1. The corn oil administration experiment using rats showed that resistant maltodextrin dose-dependently suppressed elevation of blood triacylglycerol levels after corn oil administration. 2. The dietary loading experiment on 13 healthy subjects with 5 or 10 g of resistant maltodextrin showed that; in each administration group, resistant maltodextrin significantly suppressed postprandial elevation of blood triacylglycerol, RLP-cholesterol and insulin. These results indicate that resistant maltodextrin ingested with fatty meals suppresses the postprandial elevation of blood triacylglycerol levels.

  19. Gastrointestinal peptides, gastrointestinal motility, and anorexia of aging in frail elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Prat, M; Mans, E; Palomera, E; Clavé, P

    2013-04-01

    The mechanisms involved in anorexia in frail elderly people remain unclear. The objective of this study was to establish whether fasting and postprandial levels of gastrointestinal peptides, gastrointestinal motility, and hunger are modified by age and frailty. Three groups of subjects were studied: (a) frail elderly (>70 years) persons, (b) non-frail elderly (>70 years) persons, and (c) healthy adults (aged 25-65 years). After an overnight fast, participants ingested a 400 Kcal liquid meal and appetite, hormonal, and gastrointestinal responses were monitored during early (0-60 min) and late (60-240 min) postprandial periods. Frail persons showed poor nutritional status, sarcopenia, and almost absence of hunger during fasting and postprandial periods. Older persons presented higher levels of glucose and insulin during fasting, enhanced postprandial CCK release in early postprandial period and postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, but similar ghrelin levels than younger adults. Ultrasound scan showed that the fasting antral area was higher and antral compliance lower in old persons. The paracetamol absorption test showed enhanced postprandial gastric emptying in the frail. Non-gallbladder contractors showed no CCK peak in younger and non-frail groups, but the same high CCK peak as contractors in the frail. Frailty was associated with anorexia, risk of malnutrition, and sarcopenia. Frail persons showed impaired gastric motility (larger antral area at rest, impaired antral compliance, and enhanced postprandial emptying), impaired gallbladder motility, and fasting and/or postprandial alterations in CCK, glucose, and insulin release. Further studies are needed to determine if these factors may contribute to anorexia of aging in frail persons. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Definition of postprandial lipaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    At the present time, there is no widely agreed definition of postprandial lipaemia (PPL). This lack of a shared definition limits the identification and treatment of patients with exaggerated PPL as well as the evaluation of potential therapeutic agents. PPL is a complex syndrome characterized...... by non-fasting hypertriglyceridaemia that is associated with an increased risk of vascular events. This review considers the definition of PPL and the methodology for assessing this process....

  1. Validation of the Leuven Postprandial Distress Scale, a questionnaire for symptom assessment in the functional dyspepsia/postprandial distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, F; Vandenberghe, A; Holvoet, L; Vanuytsel, T; Van Oudenhove, L; Jones, M; Tack, J

    2016-11-01

    A validated patient-reported outcome instrument is lacking for the functional dyspepsia/postprandial distress syndrome. To validate the Leuven Postprandial Distress Scale (LPDS). The LPDS diary, comprising eight symptoms with verbal descriptors rated for severity (0-4), was derived from focus groups and cognitive debriefing. It was used in a 2-week run-in, 8-week double-blind placebo-controlled trial of itopride 100 mg t.d.s. Results in 60 patients, with concealed treatment allocation, were used to analyse LPDS content validity, consistency, reliability and responsiveness. Patients also filled out Patient Assessment of Gastrointestinal Symptoms (PAGI-SYM), Nepean Dyspepsia Index, overall treatment evaluation and overall symptom severity questionnaires. Construct validity was evaluated by known-group analyses and by correlating LPDS with these additional questionnaires. Minimum Clinically Important Difference was determined from threshold changes in anchor questionnaires. Symptom patterns and factor analysis identified three cardinal symptoms of postprandial distress syndrome (early satiation, postprandial fullness, upper abdominal bloating), whose mean intensities generate weekly LPDS scores. Known-groups analysis showed large-effect-size differences in LPDS scores (Cohen's d = 2.16). Strong correlations (r > 0.57) between LPDS scores and relevant anchors at baseline indicate good convergent validity. Internal consistency of LPDS was good (α > 0.85) with high inter-item correlations (0.67-0.76), and test-retest reliability (r = 0.85). Changes in LPDS scores were highly convergent with changes in overall treatment evaluation, overall symptom severity and PAGI-SYM (r > 0.52). minimum clinically important difference analysis generated thresholds of 0.4-0.6. The Leuven Postprandial Distress Scale, which is supported by the European Medicines Agency, is a sensitive and reliable patient-reported outcome instrument to assess symptoms in the functional dyspepsia/postprandial

  2. Effects of acute and chronic attenuation of postprandial hyperglycemia on postglucose-load endothelial function in insulin resistant individuals: is stimulation of first phase insulin secretion beneficial for the endothelial function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Major-Pedersen, A; Ihlemann, N; Hermann, T S

    2008-01-01

    -resistant subjects with the Flow-Mediated-Dilation (FMD) technique. We randomized subjects to intervention/control group, and examined the acute and chronic effect of nateglinide, an oral antidiabetic drug of rapid action. In the intervention group, postoral glucose-load (post-OGL) FMD delta values deteriorated when......-day "Closing day", p=0.001]. Post-OGL changes in the control group were nonsignificant both at Baseline and on Closing day. After a single dose of nateglinide "Acute day", post-OGL FMD deterioration was abolished. There was an increment in post-OGL FMD delta values most significant at 2 h post-OGL (p=0....... We found no relationship between postprandial hyperglycemia and post-OGL FMD....

  3. The ageing gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Rayner, Christopher K; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the impact of ageing on the gastrointestinal tract, including effects on the absorption of nutrients and drugs and the gastrointestinal tract defence system against ingested pathogens. Recent publications support earlier observations of an age-related selective decline in gut function including changes in taste, oesophageal sphincter motility, gastric emptying, and neurons of the myenteric plexus related to gut transit which may impact the nutritional status. Ageing is also associated with structural and functional mucosal defence defects, diminished abilities to generate protective immunity, and increased incidence of inflammation and oxidative stress. A number of gastrointestinal disorders occur more frequently in the elderly population. Alterations in gut function with ageing have particular implications for oesophageal, gastric, and colonic motility. Older individuals are particularly susceptible to malnutrition, postprandial hypotension, dysphagia, constipation, and faecal incontinence. Decrease in the number of nerve cells of the myenteric plexus that impact digestive absorption and the surface area of the small intestine because of degeneration of villi may lead to blunted absorption of nutrients. Impairment of the intestinal immune system as a result of ageing, including the mucosal layer of the gastrointestinal tract, appears to be a significant contributor to the age-related increase in the incidence and severity of infections.

  4. Exercise intensity and postprandial health outcomes in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Bert; Williams, Craig A; Isic, Carly; Jackman, Sarah R; Tolfrey, Keith; Barrett, Laura A; Barker, Alan R

    2015-05-01

    The effect of exercise intensity and sex on postprandial risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adolescents is unknown. We examined the effect of a single bout of work-matched high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) and moderate-intensity exercise (MIE) on postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in adolescents. Twenty adolescents (10 male, 14.3 ± 0.3 years) completed three 1-day trials: (1) rest (CON); (2) 8 × 1 min cycling at 90 % peak power with 75 s recovery (HIIE); (3) cycling at 90 % of the gas exchange threshold (MIE), 1 h before consuming a high-fat milkshake (1.50 g fat and 80 kJ kg(-1)). Postprandial TAG, SBP and fat oxidation were assessed over 4 h Compared to CON, the incremental area under the curve for TAG (IAUC-TAG) was not significantly lowered in HIIE [P = 0.22, effect size (ES) = 0.24] or MIE (P = 0.65, ES = 0.04) for boys. For girls, HIIE and MIE lowered IAUC-TAG by 34 % (P = 0.02, ES = 0.58) and 38 % (P = 0.09, ES = 0.73), respectively, with no difference between HIIE and MIE (P = 0.74, ES = 0.14). Changes in TAG were not related to energy expenditure during exercise or postprandial fat oxidation. Postprandial SBP (total-AUC pooled for both sexes) was lower in HIIE compared to CON (P = 0.01, ES = 0.68) and MIE (P = 0.02, ES = 0.60), with no difference between MIE and CON (P = 0.45, ES = 0.14). A single bout of HIIE and MIE, performed 1 h before an HFM, can meaningfully attenuate IAUC-TAG in girls but not boys. Additionally, HIIE, but not MIE, may lower postprandial SBP in normotensive adolescents.

  5. Methods to study postprandial lipemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Teik Chye; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    Postprandial lipemia (PPL) refers to a dynamic sequence of plasma lipid/lipoprotein changes induced by ingestion of food. PPL results from absorption of digested dietary lipids which form chylomicrons (CM) and increased hepatic production of VLDL, stimulated by increased delivery of fats to the l......Postprandial lipemia (PPL) refers to a dynamic sequence of plasma lipid/lipoprotein changes induced by ingestion of food. PPL results from absorption of digested dietary lipids which form chylomicrons (CM) and increased hepatic production of VLDL, stimulated by increased delivery of fats...... of postprandial lipoproteins, testing conditions and protocols and interpretation of postprandial data. The influence of the meal itself will not be discussed as it is the subject of another paper in this series....

  6. Postprandial hyperglycemia. II. Pharmacological approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Scheen, André; Letiexhe, Michel; Geronooz, I.; Paquot, Nicolas; Jandrain, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    Besides dietary approaches, various pharmacological means have been recently developed in order to better control postprandial hyperglycaemia. This objective may be obtained: 1) by slowing down the intestinal absorption of carbohydrates; 2) by insuring a better insulin priming soon after the meal; and 3) by inhibiting post-prandial glucagon secretion or action. Some hormones (amylin, glucagon-like peptide-1) can slow gastric emptying while alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (acarbose, miglitol) ret...

  7. Postprandial hemodynamics in the conscious rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzueto Hernandez, L.; Kvietys, P.R.; Granger, D.N.

    1986-07-01

    The postprandial intestinal hyperemia was studied in conscious and anesthetized rats using the radioactive microsphere technique. Carbohydrate, protein, lipid, and mixed meals, and the vehicle (Tyrode's solution), were placed in the stomach via a gastrostomy tube. In conscious rats, blood flow increased by 40-80% in the duodenum and jejunum 1 h after either a carbohydrate, lipid, protein, or mixed meal. Tyrode's solution produced a comparable hyperemia. Blood flow in the distal bowel segments (ileum, cecum, and colon) was significantly increased only by Tyrode's solution and the carbohydrate meal. The proximal intestinal hyperemia produced by the mixed meal in conscious animals was significantly attenuated by vagotomy yet unaltered by atropine pretreatment. In contrast to the results obtained from conscious rats, the mixed meal did not significantly alter intestinal blood flow in anesthetized animals. The results of this study indicate that the postprandial intestinal hyperemia is much greater in conscious than anesthetized animals. This difference may result from the higher resting blood flows in the latter group. The hyperemic response in conscious animals may be mediated by the vagus nerve.

  8. Effect and potential mechanism of action of sea cucumber saponins on postprandial blood glucose in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xueyuan; Wen, Min; Han, Xiuqing; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Xue, Yong; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2016-06-01

    Postprandial blood glucose control is the major goal in the treatment of diabetes. Here, we investigated the effect of sea cucumber saponins (SCSs) on postprandial blood glucose levels. SCS inhibited yeast as well as rat intestinal α-glucosidase activity in a dose-dependent manner and showed better inhibition of yeast α-glucosidases compared to the positive control. Further studies were performed using ICR mice treated with SCS and starch or SCS alone by oral gavage. Unexpectedly, SCS increased postprandial blood glucose levels a short time (1 h) after oral gavage. The serum corticosterone (CORT) level showed a consistent correlation with glucose levels. In vitro experiments confirmed that SCS treatment increased the secretion of CORT in the Y1 adrenal cell line. Overall, these studies demonstrated that SCS gavage could inhibit α-glucosidase activity but cannot attenuate postprandial blood glucose level within short time periods. The underlying mechanisms are probably related to increased serum CORT levels.

  9. Effects of oral erythromycin on fasting and postprandial antroduodenal motility in patients with type I diabetes, measured with an ambulatory manometric technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samsom, M.; Jebbink, R. J.; Akkermans, L. M.; Bravenboer, B.; vanBerge-Henegouwen, G. P.; Smout, A. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this double-blind crossover study was to evaluate the effects of oral erythromycin (250 mg t.i.d.) on fasting and postprandial gastrointestinal motility and gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with type I diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Antroduodenal motility was

  10. Methods to study postprandial lipemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Teik Chye; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    Postprandial lipemia (PPL) refers to a dynamic sequence of plasma lipid/lipoprotein changes induced by ingestion of food. PPL results from absorption of digested dietary lipids which form chylomicrons (CM) and increased hepatic production of VLDL, stimulated by increased delivery of fats to the l......Postprandial lipemia (PPL) refers to a dynamic sequence of plasma lipid/lipoprotein changes induced by ingestion of food. PPL results from absorption of digested dietary lipids which form chylomicrons (CM) and increased hepatic production of VLDL, stimulated by increased delivery of fats...

  11. Postprandial triglycerides and adipose tissue storage of dietary fatty acids: impact of menopause and estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessesen, Daniel H; Cox-York, Kimberly A; Hernandez, Teri Lynn; Erickson, Christopher B; Wang, Hong; Jackman, Matt R; Van Pelt, Rachael E

    2015-01-01

    Postprandial lipemia worsens after menopause, but the mechanism remains unknown. The hypothesized menopause-related postprandial lipemia would be (1) associated with reduced storage of dietary fatty acids (FA) as triglyceride (TG) in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and (2) improved by short-term estradiol (E2 ). Twenty-three pre- (mean ± SD: 42 ± 4 years) and 22 postmenopausal (55 ± 4 years) women with similar total adiposity were studied. A subset of postmenopausal women (n = 12) were studied following 2 weeks of E2 (0.15 mg) and matching placebo in a random, cross-over design. A liquid meal containing (14) C-oleic acid traced appearance of dietary FA in: serum (postprandial TG), breath (oxidation), and abdominal and femoral SAT (TG storage). Compared to premenopausal women, healthy, lean, postmenopausal women had increased postprandial glucose and insulin and trend for higher TG but had similar dietary FA oxidation and storage. Adipocytes were larger in post- compared to premenopausal women, particularly in femoral SAT. Short-term E2 reduced postprandial TG and insulin but had no effect on oxidation or storage of dietary FA. E2 increased the proportion of small adipocytes in femoral (but not abdominal) SAT. Short-term E2 attenuated menopause-related increases in postprandial TG and increased femoral adipocyte hyperplasia but not through increased net storage of dietary FA. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  12. Increased Postprandial Response of Glucagon-Like Peptide-2 in Patients with Chronic Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornum, Mads; Pedersen, Jan F; Larsen, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a nutrient-released gastrointestinal (GI) hormone that acts as an intestinal growth factor, and exogenous GLP-2 has been shown to increase superior mesenteric artery (SMA) blood flow. We aimed to investigate how assimilation of nutrients affects...... postprandial GLP-2 responses and to correlate these with postprandial SMA blood flow. Methods: Responses of the GI hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and GLP-2 were measured following an 80-min liquid meal test in 8 patients (6 males) with chronic pancreatitis (CP) and pancreatic...... exocrine insufficiency (PEI) and 8 healthy control subjects (5 males). Postprandial GI hormone responses were correlated with change in SMA flow as assessed by the resistance index. Results: Patients with CP and PEI exhibited the greatest postprandial GLP-2 responses (1,870 +/- 249 vs. 1,199 +/- 108 pM.80...

  13. Role of gastrointestinal hormones in postprandial reduction of bone resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Dennis B; Alexandersen, Peter; Bjarnason, Nina H

    2003-01-01

    Collagen type I fragments, reflecting bone resorption, and release of gut hormones were investigated after a meal. Investigations led to a dose escalation study with glucagon like peptide-2 (GLP-2) in postmenopausal women. We found a dose-dependent effect of GLP-2 on the reduction of bone...

  14. Effects of ageing on gastrointestinal motor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Graff, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Existing data on the effect of ageing on gastrointestinal motility are few. In this study, we assessed the propulsive effect of all main segments of the gastrointestinal tract in a group of healthy older people. METHODS: 16 healthy volunteers (eight women, eight men) of mean age 81...... years (range 74-85 years) participated in the study. Gastric emptying and small intestinal and colonic transit rates were determined by gamma camera technique. The technique was also used to measure the postprandial frequency of antral contractions. Furthermore, we assessed the effects of gender, body...

  15. Postprandial Hyperlipidemia and Remnant Lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Daisaku; Yamashita, Shizuya

    2017-02-01

    Fasting hypertriglyceridemia is positively associated with the morbidity of coronary heart disease (CHD), and postprandial (non-fasting) hypertriglyceridemia is also correlated with the risk status for CHD, which is related to the increase in chylomicron (CM) remnant lipoproteins produced from the intestine. CM remnant particles, as well as oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) or very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) remnants, are highly atherogenic and act by enhancing systemic inflammation, platelet activation, coagulation, thrombus formation, and macrophage foam cell formation. The cholesterol levels of remnant lipoproteins significantly correlate with small, dense LDL; impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and CHD prevalence. We have developed an assay of apolipoprotein (apo)B-48 levels to evaluate the accumulation of CM remnants. Fasting apoB-48 levels correlate with the morbidity of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, obesity, type III hyperlipoproteinemia, the metabolic syndrome, hypothyroidism, chronic kidney disease, and IGT. Fasting apoB-48 levels also correlate with carotid intima-media thickening and CHD prevalence, and a high apoB-48 level is a significant predictor of CHD risk, independent of the fasting TG level. Diet interventions, such as dietary fibers, polyphenols, medium-chain fatty acids, diacylglycerol, and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), ameliorate postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, moreover, drugs for dyslipidemia (n-3 PUFA, statins, fibrates or ezetimibe) and diabetes concerning incretins (dipeptidyl-peptidase IV inhibitor or glucagon like peptide-1 analogue) may improve postprandial hypertriglyceridemia. Since the accumulation of CM remnants correlates to impaired lipid and glucose metabolism and atherosclerotic cardiovascular events, further studies are required to investigate the characteristics, physiological activities, and functions of CM remnants for the development of new interventions to reduce atherogenicity.

  16. Flaxseed dietary fibers suppress postprandial lipemia and appetite sensation in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M.; Savorani, F.; Christensen, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aim: Dietary fibers (DF) are linked to a reduced risk of life-style diseases, which relate to their physiological effects in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim was to examine whether flaxseed DF-enriched meals suppress postprandial lipemia and reduce appetite. Methods and results....... There was a significant time meal effect on triacylglycerols (TG) (p Z 0.02) and an 18% smaller area under the curve (AUC) for TG after meal HM compared to meal C was observed (p

  17. Gastric antrectomy with selective gastric vagotomy does not influence gallbladder motility during interdigestive and postprandial periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Oster-Jørgensen, E; Pedersen, S A

    1996-01-01

    Fasting gastrointestinal motility and gallbladder motility during the interdigestive state and in the postprandial period was studied in eight patients who were operated for ulcer disease with an antrectomy and selective gastric vagotomy. Nocturnal motility recording revealed all three phases.......77%/min (0.33-0.86%/min). The values in the control group were 0 min (-9 to 13.5 min) and 0.76%/min (0.54-2.25%/min), respectively. These differences between the patients and controls were not significant. In conclusion, antrectomy and selective gastric vagotomy do not influence fasting gastrointestinal...

  18. Gastrointestinal tattoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, T E; Goodell, W M; Pulitzer, D R

    1994-06-01

    Tattooing of the gastrointestinal tract is used to facilitate the relocation of biopsy sites or other sites of interest at the time of subsequent biopsy or surgery. Submucosal injection of sterile india ink produces a zone of blue-black coloration that is grossly visible from both the mucosal and serosal surfaces. The pathology of gastrointestinal tattoos has only been briefly mentioned previously in the medical literature. We report two cases of gastrointestinal tattooing: one that was done to mark the margin of resection in a patient with gastric lymphoma, and the second that occurred unintentionally following the administration of activated charcoal for drug overdosage in a patient with undiagnosed active inflammatory bowel disease. Unintentional tattooing of the gastrointestinal tract has, therefore, not been reported.

  19. Gastrointestinal emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, L R; Brockman, D J; Brown, D C

    2000-05-01

    The animal with a surgical gastrointestinal emergency usually requires a rapid, thorough physical examination with concurrent resuscitation. As the diagnosis is being made, the animal must be made as stable as possible before undergoing general anesthesia. During surgery, there must be a critical evaluation of gastrointestinal viability and the use of precise technical skills to achieve the best outcome. Adept postoperative management, including careful monitoring and an index of suspicion for potential complications, is vital.

  20. Postprandial Hypoglycemia: An Unusual Presentation for Insulinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Ekşi Haydardedeoğlu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Insulinoma is the most common type of islet cell tumor of the pancreas and its incidence is estimated at four per one million persons per year. Although fasting hypoglycemia is the typical presentation, cases with postprandial hypoglycemia have rarely been reported. A 48-year-old woman was admitted to our department for evaluation of hypoglycemia. Laboratory data suggested a state of postprandial endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a mass lesion measuring 20 mm at the distal pancreas. A decision was made to perform an arterial calcium-stimulated venous sampling for excluding nesidioblastosis coexisting with a pancreatic incidental mass. After that the patient was referred to surgery. Pathological examination revealed a low-grade well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor with regional lymph node metastasis. Herein, we report a case of malignant insulinoma presenting with postprandial hypoglycemia and discuss the differential diagnosis and possible mechanisms of postprandial hypoglycemia in insulinoma cases.

  1. Gastrointestinal System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jepson, Mark A.; Bouwmeester, Hans

    2017-01-01

    The epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) acts as a barrier to uptake of potentially dangerous material while allowing absorption of processed food. The gut may be exposed to a diverse range of engineered nanomaterials due to their deliberate addition to food and consumer products

  2. Stress-induced changes in gastric emptying, postprandial motility, and plasma gut hormone levels in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gué, M; Peeters, T; Depoortere, I; Vantrappen, G; Buéno, L

    1989-11-01

    The influence of acoustic stress on postprandial gastrointestinal motility, gastric emptying, and plasma gastrin, pancreatic polypeptide, motilin, and somatostatin was evaluated in conscious dogs. Six dogs were equipped with strain-gauge transducers and were exposed from 1-3 h after the meal to prerecorded music (80-90 dB broad frequency noise), which produced a significant (p less than or equal to 0.05) lengthening of the gastric (31.2%) and jejunal (37.0%) postprandial pattern. In 4 other dogs with gastric cannula, a 2-h session of acoustic stress beginning just after eating a radiolabeled standard meal induced a slowing of gastric emptying of both liquid (45.7%) and solid (47.1%) phases of the test meal when measured 0.5 h after feeding. In contrast, when measured 2 h after feeding, similar values of gastric emptying of liquids and solids were observed in stressed and control animals. Compared with controls, the postprandial increases of plasma gastrin and pancreatic polypeptide levels were significantly enhanced in stressed animals and occurred early (15 min after the meal). Although postprandial decrease in plasma motilin was unchanged by acoustic stress, the rise in plasma somatostatin level was significantly (p less than or equal to 0.05) prolonged in stressed dogs. These results indicate that acoustic stress affects gastric and intestinal postprandial motility in dogs, delaying the recovery of the migrating motor complex pattern, inducing a transient slowing of gastric emptying, and enhancing the feeding-induced release of gastrin, pancreatic polypeptide, and somatostatin. Such hormonal changes might be due to a direct effect of stress rather than being the consequence of acoustic stress-induced slowing of gastric emptying.

  3. Acute and chronic effects of sprint interval exercise on postprandial lipemia in women at-risk for the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Eric C; Gist, Nicholas H; Acitelli, Rachelle M; McConnell, Whitni J; Beck, Catherine D; Hausman, Dorothy B; Murrow, Jonathan R; Cureton, Kirk J; Evans, Ellen M

    2015-04-01

    Individuals diagnosed with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) exhibit elevated postprandial lipemia (PPL). The aims of this investigation were to determine 1) if an acute bout of sprint interval training (SIT) attenuates PPL; and 2) if the attenuation of PPL following 6 wk of SIT is magnified compared with a single session of SIT prior to training in women at-risk for MetS (n = 45; 30-65 yr). Women were randomized to SIT (n = 22) or a nonexercise control (n = 23; CON) for 6 wk. Postprandial responses to a high-fat meal challenge (HFMC) were assessed in the CON group before (B-HFMC) and after (Post-HFMC) without prior exercise and in the SIT group at baseline (B-HFMC) without prior exercise, after an acute bout of SIT (four 30-s all-out sprints with 4-min recovery) prior to (Pre-HFMC), and after the 6-wk intervention (Post-HFMC). Responses to the HFMC were assessed by collecting venous blood samples in the fasted state and at 0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min postprandial. Compared with baseline, an acute bout of SIT before (Pre-HFMC) and after the 6-wk intervention (Post-HFMC) significantly attenuated fasted TG (P < 0.05; 16.6% and 12.3%, respectively) and postprandial area under the curve (13.1% and 9.7%, respectively; tAUC) TG responses. There was no difference in fasted or tAUC TG responses between Pre-HFMC and Post-HFMC. SIT is an effective mode of exercise to reduce fasted and postprandial TG concentrations in women at-risk for MetS. Six weeks of SIT does not magnify the attenuation of PPL in response to a single session of SIT. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms in autoimmune gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabotti, Marilia; Lahner, Edith; Esposito, Gianluca; Sacchi, Maria Carlotta; Severi, Carola; Annibale, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Autoimmune gastritis is often suspected for its hematologic findings, and rarely the diagnosis is made for the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Aims of this cross-sectional study were to assess in a large cohort of patients affected by autoimmune gastritis the occurrence and the pattern of gastrointestinal symptoms and to evaluate whether symptomatic patients are characterized by specific clinical features. Gastrointestinal symptoms of 379 consecutive autoimmune gastritis patients were systematically assessed and classified following Rome III Criteria. Association between symptoms and anemia pattern, positivity to gastric autoantibodies, Helicobacter pylori infection, and concomitant autoimmune disease were evaluated. In total, 70.2% of patients were female, median age 55 years (range 17–83). Pernicious anemia (53.6%), iron deficiency anemia (34.8%), gastric autoantibodies (68.8%), and autoimmune disorders (41.7%) were present. However, 56.7% of patients complained of gastrointestinal symptoms, 69.8% of them had exclusively upper symptoms, 15.8% only lower and 14.4% concomitant upper and lower symptoms. Dyspepsia, subtype postprandial distress syndrome was the most represented, being present in 60.2% of symptomatic patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that age gastritis is associated in almost 60% of cases with gastrointestinal symptoms, in particular dyspepsia. Dyspepsia is strictly related to younger age, no smoking, and absence of anemia. PMID:28072728

  5. Postprandial fullness correlates with rapid inflow of gastric content into duodenum but not with chronic gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamichi Nobutake

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is evaluating the correlation of postprandial fullness with chronic gastritis or rapid inflow of gastric content into duodenum, based on double-contrast barium X-ray imaging. Methods 253 healthy subjects who underwent upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray examination were analyzed. Chronic gastritis was judged from mucosal atrophy and hypertrophic thickened folds on barium X-ray images. For the gastric excretion, the tips of barium flow on the single-contrast frontal barium X-ray images of the stomach were classified into four categories; V type (all the barium remained in the stomach, V-H type (some barium had flowed into the duodenum but the tip of barium remained in the proximal half of the duodenal bulb, H-V type (some barium had flowed into the duodenum and the tip of barium was in the distal half of duodenal the bulb, but no barium was observed in the descending part of the duodenum, and H type (some barium had flowed into the descending part of the duodenum. The chi-square test and Cochran-Mantel-Haenzel test were used for evaluation. Results Chronic gastritis was observed in 72 subjects, among which 21 subjects (29.2% presented with postprandial fullness. For the remaining 181 subjects without chronic gastritis, 53 subjects (29.3% complained of postprandial fullness. There is no significant correlation between chronic gastritis and postprandial fullness (p = 0.973. For the rapid flow of gastric content into duodenum, all the 253 subjects comprised 136 subjects with V type (in the stomach, 40 subjects with V-H type (in the proximal half of the duodenal bulb, 21 subjects with H-V type (in the distal half of the duodenal bulb, and 56 subjects with H type (in the descending part of the duodenum. Postprandial fullness was present in 30 subjects with V type (22.1%, 9 subjects with V-H type (22.5%, 8 subjects with H-V type (38.1%, and 27 subjects with H type (48.2%. There is a distinct correlation between

  6. Postprandial fullness correlates with rapid inflow of gastric content into duodenum but not with chronic gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is evaluating the correlation of postprandial fullness with chronic gastritis or rapid inflow of gastric content into duodenum, based on double-contrast barium X-ray imaging. Methods 253 healthy subjects who underwent upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray examination were analyzed. Chronic gastritis was judged from mucosal atrophy and hypertrophic thickened folds on barium X-ray images. For the gastric excretion, the tips of barium flow on the single-contrast frontal barium X-ray images of the stomach were classified into four categories; V type (all the barium remained in the stomach), V-H type (some barium had flowed into the duodenum but the tip of barium remained in the proximal half of the duodenal bulb), H-V type (some barium had flowed into the duodenum and the tip of barium was in the distal half of duodenal the bulb, but no barium was observed in the descending part of the duodenum), and H type (some barium had flowed into the descending part of the duodenum). The chi-square test and Cochran-Mantel-Haenzel test were used for evaluation. Results Chronic gastritis was observed in 72 subjects, among which 21 subjects (29.2%) presented with postprandial fullness. For the remaining 181 subjects without chronic gastritis, 53 subjects (29.3%) complained of postprandial fullness. There is no significant correlation between chronic gastritis and postprandial fullness (p = 0.973). For the rapid flow of gastric content into duodenum, all the 253 subjects comprised 136 subjects with V type (in the stomach), 40 subjects with V-H type (in the proximal half of the duodenal bulb), 21 subjects with H-V type (in the distal half of the duodenal bulb), and 56 subjects with H type (in the descending part of the duodenum). Postprandial fullness was present in 30 subjects with V type (22.1%), 9 subjects with V-H type (22.5%), 8 subjects with H-V type (38.1%), and 27 subjects with H type (48.2%). There is a distinct correlation between postprandial

  7. Type-4 Resistant Starch in Substitution for Available Carbohydrate Reduces Postprandial Glycemic Response and Hunger in Acute, Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L. Stewart

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistant starch (RS is a type of dietary fiber that has been acknowledged for multiple physiological benefits. Resistant starch type 4 (RS4 is a subcategory of RS that has been more intensively studied as new types of RS4 emerge in the food supply. The primary aim of this randomized, double-blind, controlled study was to characterize the postprandial glucose response in healthy adults after consuming a high fiber scone containing a novel RS4 or a low fiber control scone without RS4. Secondary aims included assessment of postprandial insulin response, postprandial satiety, and gastrointestinal tolerance. The fiber scone significantly reduced postprandial glucose and insulin incremental areas under the curves (43–45% reduction, 35–40% reduction, respectively and postprandial glucose and insulin maximum concentrations (8–10% and 22% reduction, respectively. The fiber scone significantly reduced hunger and desire to eat during the 180 min following consumption and yielded no gastrointestinal side effects compared with the control scone. The results from this study demonstrate that a ready-to-eat baked-good, such as a scone, can be formulated with RS4 replacing refined wheat flour to yield statistically significant and clinically meaningful reductions in blood glucose and insulin excursions. This is the first study to report increased satiety after short-term RS4 intake, which warrants further investigation in long-term feeding studies.

  8. Relevance of postprandial lipemia in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Delgado-Casado, Nieves; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

    2013-11-01

    Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a complex disorder defined by the aggregation of interconnected cardiometabolic risk factors which increase the risk of diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular disease (CVD). MetS is currently a matter of concern and it will continue to be in the future, since there is likely to be a dramatic increase in its prevalence, and subjects with MetS will have an increased risk of mortality, mainly through CVD. Moreover, the implications on the global health burden and the worldwide epidemic of this complex disorder will impact greatly on socioeconomic cost. MetS is therefore a matter of serious concern and we need to understand its etiology in order to improve strategies of treatment and prevention. In this regard, postprandial lipemia has increased in importance over the last few years as it has been demonstrated to influence the development of atherosclerosis. In addition, in modern times, fasting is not the typical physiological state of humans; in fact, they spend most of the time in the postprandial state. However, although it is obvious that postprandial lipemia is present in conditions of obesity, little is known about the relevance of postprandial lipemia in MetS. In the current review, we will explore some aspects of postprandial lipemia which could be of interest for understanding the pathogenesis of this complex disorder and which may help us advance towards more personalized nutrition.

  9. The effect of exercise intensity and excess postexercise oxygen consumption on postprandial blood lipids in physically inactive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Laurel A; Papadakis, Zacharias; Rogers, Katie M; Moncada-Jiménez, José; Taylor, J Kyle; Grandjean, Peter W

    2017-09-01

    Reductions in postprandial lipemia have been observed following aerobic exercise of sufficient energy expenditure. Increased excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) has been documented when comparing high- versus low-intensity exercise. The contribution of EPOC energy expenditure to alterations in postprandial lipemia has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of low- and high-intensity exercise on postprandial lipemia in healthy, sedentary, overweight and obese men (age, 43 ± 10 years; peak oxygen consumption, 31.1 ± 7.5 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ; body mass index, 31.8 ± 4.5 kg/m 2 ) and to determine the contribution of EPOC to reductions in postprandial lipemia. Participants completed 4 conditions: nonexercise control, low-intensity exercise at 40%-50% oxygen uptake reserve (LI), high-intensity exercise at 70%-80% oxygen uptake reserve (HI), and HI plus EPOC re-feeding (HI+EERM), where the difference in EPOC energy expenditure between LI and HI was re-fed in the form of a sports nutrition bar (Premier Nutrition Corp., Emeryville, Calif., USA). Two hours following exercise participants ingested a high-fat (1010 kcals, 99 g sat fat) test meal. Blood samples were obtained before exercise, before the test meal, and at 2, 4, and 6 h postprandially. Triglyceride incremental area under the curve was significantly reduced following LI, HI, and HI+EERM when compared with nonexercise control (p 0.05). In conclusions, prior LI and HI exercise equally attenuated postprandial triglyceride responses to the test meal. The extra energy expended during EPOC does not contribute significantly to exercise energy expenditure or to reductions in postprandial lipemia in overweight men.

  10. Validation of the Leuven Postprandial Distress Scale, a questionnaire for symptom assessment in the functional dyspepsia/postprandial distress syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carbone, F; Vandenberghe, A; Holvoet, L; Vanuytsel, T; Van Oudenhove, L; Jones, M; Tack, J

    2016-01-01

    ... pain syndrome which is characterised by meal‐unrelated symptoms such as epigastric burning and epigastric pain. A larger proportion is classified as suffering from postprandial distress syndrome, characterised by meal‐related symptoms such as early satiation and postprandial fullness. However, in clinical practice, overlap between postprandi...

  11. Monosodium glutamate stimulates secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 and reduces postprandial glucose after a lipid-containing meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, H; Kusano, M; Zai, H; Kawada, A; Kuribayashi, S; Shimoyama, Y; Nagoshi, A; Maeda, M; Kawamura, O; Mori, M

    2012-11-01

    Monosodium l-glutamate (MSG) is known to influence the endocrine system and gastrointestinal (GI) motility. The mechanism of postprandial glycemic control by food in the GI tract is mostly unknown and of great interest. To investigate the effect of MSG on glucose homeostasis, incretin secretion and gastric emptying in humans after a lipid-containing meal. Thirteen healthy male volunteers (mean age, 25.5 years) and with no Helicobcter pylori infection were enrolled. A 400 mL (520 kcal) liquid meal with MSG (2 g, 0.5% wt:vol) or NaCl (control) was ingested in a single-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study. Blood glucose, serum insulin, plasma glucagon, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide were measured. Gastric emptying was monitored by a 13C acetate breath test. Postprandial symptoms were assessed on a visual analogue scale. The 30-min postprandial glucose concentration was significantly reduced by adding MSG to the test meal. The area under the glucose concentration vs. time curve (0-60 min) was also significantly reduced by adding MSG (40.6 ± 3.51 mg·1 hr/dL with MSG vs. 49.2 ± 3.86 mg·1 hr/dL with NaCl, P = 0.047), whereas, the 30-min postprandial plasma GLP-1 level was significantly increased (58.1 ± 15.8 pmol/L with MSG vs. 13.4 ± 15.8 pmol/L with NaCl, P = 0.035). MSG did not affect the half gastric emptying time or postprandial symptoms. Monosodium l-glutamate improved early postprandial glycaemia after a lipid-containing liquid meal. This effect was not associated with a change in gastric emptying, but was possibly related to stimulation of glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion.

  12. Depression and Somatization Are Associated With Increased Postprandial Symptoms in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Törnblom, Hans; Störsrud, Stine; Tack, Jan; Simrén, Magnus

    2016-04-01

    Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have increased postprandial symptom responses and more psychosocial morbidities than healthy individuals. However, the relationship between psychosocial status and postprandial symptom responses in patients with IBS is unclear. We investigated this relationship in a prospective study of patients with IBS. A total of 193 IBS patients, diagnosed according to Rome II (n = 126) or Rome III (n = 67) criteria, consumed a standard breakfast (540 kcal: 36% fat, 15% proteins, 49% carbohydrates, and 8.9 g fiber). They completed visual analogue scales assessing the severity of 5 gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, gas, and fullness) before breakfast and every 30 minutes, up to 240 minutes after eating. All patients completed validated self-report questionnaires for their current levels of anxiety and depression; patients diagnosed based on Rome II criteria also completed a somatization questionnaire. The relationship between these variables and the course of gastrointestinal symptom scores over time was analyzed using linear mixed models, controlling for comorbid functional dyspepsia. We observed a main effect of anxiety levels on fullness and bloating (P Somatization levels had a main effect on all 5 symptoms (P somatization-by-time interaction effects for bloating (P = .005), and nausea (P = .02), and a nonsignificant trend was found for pain (P = .054), reflecting a steeper early postprandial increase in symptoms among subjects with higher levels of somatization. Based on a prospective study of patients with IBS, psychosocial morbidities are associated with increased levels of gastrointestinal symptoms in general. Depression and somatization levels are associated specifically with increased postprandial symptoms. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gastrointestinal malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Ester; Loane, Maria; Dolk, Helen

    2007-01-01

    malformations, although not statistically significant for gastroschisis. There was little difference in median birthweight by GA for the pre- and postnatally diagnosed infants. The difference in GA at birth between prenatally and postnatally diagnosed infants with GIMs is enough to increase the risk......The aim of the study was to analyse the degree to which gestational age (GA) has been shortened due to prenatal diagnosis of gastrointestinal malformations (GIM). The data source for the study was 14 population-based registries of congenital malformations (EUROCAT). All liveborn infants with GIMs...... and without chromosomal anomalies, born 1997-2002, were included. The 14 registries identified 1047 liveborn infants with one or more GIMs (oesophageal atresia, duodenal atresia, omphalocele, gastroschisis and diaphragmatic hernia). Median GA at birth was lower in prenatally diagnosed cases for all five...

  14. Effect of Cinnamon Tea on Postprandial Glucose Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Maria Alexandra; Silva, Maria Leonor; Santos, Elisabeth; Moncada, Margarida Maria; Brito, José; Proença, Luis; Singh, Jaipaul; de Mesquita, Maria Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Glycaemic control, in particular at postprandial period, has a key role in prevention of different diseases, including diabetes and cardiovascular events. Previous studies suggest that postprandial high blood glucose levels (BGL) can lead to an oxidative stress status, which is associated with metabolic alterations. Cinnamon powder has demonstrated a beneficial effect on postprandial glucose homeostasis in animals and human models. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of cinnamon tea (C. burmannii) on postprandial capillary blood glucose level on nondiabetic adults. Participants were given oral glucose tolerance test either with or without cinnamon tea in a randomized clinical trial. The data revealed that cinnamon tea administration slightly decreased postprandial BGL. Cinnamon tea ingestion also results in a significantly lower postprandial maximum glucose concentration and variation of maximum glucose concentration (p glucose metabolism in nondiabetic adults during postprandial period.

  15. Hypoglycemic indices of Vernonia amygdalina on postprandial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... leaves of these vegetables may possess insulin-like effect. Key words: Diabetes dietary management, Vernonia amygdalina, carbohydrate metabolism, postprandial blood glucose. INTRODUCTION. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder found in all nations of the world. It is one of the most prevalent.

  16. Smoking, inflammatory patterns, and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Smoking is associated with increased postprandial hypertriglyceridemia (PPT). Inflammation and insulin resistance are potential "drivers" for this phenomenon. We tested whether inflammatory patterns and/or insulin resistance explain the effect of smoking on PPT. Methods: Men and women i...

  17. Postprandial Hyperinsulinemic Hypoglycemia in Bariatric Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heide, L. J.M.; Emous, M.; van Beek, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Postprandial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (PHH) is a complication of bariatric surgery, especially Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The true incidence is not known as the definition of PHH is not clear. Continuous glucose monitoring shows a prevalence of hypoglycemia in 75% of patients, with only 1 in 5

  18. Fasting remnant lipoproteins can predict postprandial hyperlipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagata Tomoki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertriglyceridemia and postprandial hyperlipidemia is thought to play an important role in atherosclerosis, but to select patients at high-risk for cardiovascular diseases is difficult with triglycerides (TG alone in these patients. Methods To predict postprandial hyperlipidemia without inconvenient test meal loading, we examined lipid concentrations before and after test meal loading and fasting adiponectin, and investigated which of these other than TG were significant during the fasting period in 45 healthy individuals (men: women, 26:19. Results TG, remnant-like particle-cholesterol and -triglyceride (RemL-C, RLP-C, and RLP-TG, and TG/apolipoprotein(apoB were significantly elevated after loading and fasting values significantly and positively correlated with incremental area under the curve (iAUC (r=0.80, r=0.79, r=0.63, r=0.58, r=0.54; p Conclusion Fasting triglyceride-rich lipoprotein-related values, especially RemL-C, RLP-C, RLP-TG, and TG/apoB are useful predictors of postprandial hyperlipidemia in young healthy individuals. Although fasting adiponectin concentration correlated with the iAUCs for TG, RemL-C, RLP-C, RLP-TG, and TG/apoB, it was not a significant predictor of postprandial hyperlipidemia in multivariable linear regression analysis.

  19. The Effect of PCSK9 Loss-of-Function Variants on the Postprandial Lipid and ApoB-Lipoprotein Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Teik Chye; Krysa, Jacqueline A; Chaker, Seham; Abujrad, Hussein; Mayne, Janice; Henry, Kathy; Cousins, Marion; Raymond, Angela; Favreau, Colette; Taljaard, Monica; Chrétien, Michel; Mbikay, Majambu; Proctor, Spencer D; Vine, Donna F

    2017-09-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9) mediates degradation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), thereby increasing plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Variations in the PCSK9 gene associated with loss of function (LOF) of PCSK9 result in greater expression of hepatic LDLR, lower concentrations of LDL-C, and protection from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Apolipoprotein-B (apoB) remnants also contribute to CVD risk and are similarly cleared by the LDLR. We hypothesized that PCSK9-LOF carriers would have lower fasting and postprandial remnant lipoproteins on top of lower LDL-C. To compare fasting and postprandial concentrations of triglycerides (TGs), total apoB, and apoB48 as indicators of remnant lipoprotein metabolism in PCSK9-LOF carriers with those with no PCSK9 variants. Case-control, metabolic study. Clinical Research Center of The Ottawa Hospital. Persons with one or more copies of the L10ins/A53V and/or I474V and/or R46L PCSK9 variant and persons with no PCSK9 variants. Oral fat tolerance test. Fasting and postprandial plasma TG, apoB48, total apoB, total cholesterol, and PCSK9 were measured at 0, 2, 4, and 6 hours after an oral fat load. Participants with PCSK9-LOF variants (n = 22) had reduced fasting LDL-C (-14%) as well as lower fasting TG (-21%) compared with noncarrier controls (n = 23). LOF variants also had reduced postprandial total apoB (-17%), apoB48 (-23%), and TG (-18%). Postprandial PCSK9 declined in both groups (-24% vs -16%, respectively). Participants carrying PCSK9-LOF variants had attenuated levels of fasting and postprandial TG, apoB48, and total apoB. This may confer protection from CVD and further validate the use of PCSK9 inhibitors to lower CVD risk.

  20. Alogliptin ameliorates postprandial lipemia and postprandial endothelial dysfunction in non- diabetic subjects: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noda Yoko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postprandial hyperlipidemia impairs endothelial function and participates in the development of atherosclerosis. We investigated the postprandial effects of a dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor, alogliptin, on endothelial dysfunction and the lipid profile. Methods A randomized cross-over trial design in 10 healthy volunteers (8 males and 2 females, 35 ± 10 years was performed. The postprandial effects before and after a 1-week treatment of 25 mg/day alogliptin on endothelial function were assessed with brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD and changing levels of lipids, apolipoprotein B48 (apoB-48, glucose, glucagon, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 during fasting and at 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after a standard meal loading test. Results Alogliptin treatment significantly suppressed the postprandial elevation in serum triglyceride (incremental area under the curve [AUC]; 279 ± 31 vs. 182 ± 32 mg h/dl, p = 0.01, apoB-48 (incremental AUC; 15.4 ± 1.7 vs. 11.7 ± 1.1 μg h/ml, p = 0.04, and remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C (incremental AUC: 29.3 ± 3.2 vs. 17.6 ± 3.3 mg h/dl, p = 0.01. GLP-1 secretion was significantly increased after alogliptin treatment. Postprandial endothelial dysfunction (maximum decrease in%FMD, from −4.2 ± 0.5% to −2.6 ± 0.4%, p = 0.03 was significantly associated with the maximum change in apoB-48 (r = −0.46, p = 0.03 and RLP-C (r = −0.45, p = 0.04. Conclusion Alogliptin significantly improved postprandial endothelial dysfunction and postprandial lipemia, suggesting that alogliptin may be a promising anti-atherogenic agent.

  1. Alogliptin ameliorates postprandial lipemia and postprandial endothelial dysfunction in non-diabetic subjects: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Yoko; Miyoshi, Toru; Oe, Hiroki; Ohno, Yuko; Nakamura, Kazufumi; Toh, Norihisa; Kohno, Kunihisa; Morita, Hiroshi; Kusano, Kengo; Ito, Hiroshi

    2013-01-09

    Postprandial hyperlipidemia impairs endothelial function and participates in the development of atherosclerosis. We investigated the postprandial effects of a dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor, alogliptin, on endothelial dysfunction and the lipid profile. A randomized cross-over trial design in 10 healthy volunteers (8 males and 2 females, 35 ± 10 years) was performed. The postprandial effects before and after a 1-week treatment of 25 mg/day alogliptin on endothelial function were assessed with brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and changing levels of lipids, apolipoprotein B48 (apoB-48), glucose, glucagon, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) during fasting and at 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after a standard meal loading test. Alogliptin treatment significantly suppressed the postprandial elevation in serum triglyceride (incremental area under the curve [AUC]; 279 ± 31 vs. 182 ± 32 mg h/dl, p = 0.01), apoB-48 (incremental AUC; 15.4 ± 1.7 vs. 11.7 ± 1.1 μg h/ml, p = 0.04), and remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C) (incremental AUC: 29.3 ± 3.2 vs. 17.6 ± 3.3 mg h/dl, p = 0.01). GLP-1 secretion was significantly increased after alogliptin treatment. Postprandial endothelial dysfunction (maximum decrease in%FMD, from -4.2 ± 0.5% to -2.6 ± 0.4%, p = 0.03) was significantly associated with the maximum change in apoB-48 (r = -0.46, p = 0.03) and RLP-C (r = -0.45, p = 0.04). Alogliptin significantly improved postprandial endothelial dysfunction and postprandial lipemia, suggesting that alogliptin may be a promising anti-atherogenic agent.

  2. Novel aspects of postprandial lipemia in relation to atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, A; Elte, J W F; van Zaanen, H C T; Rietveld, A P; Castro Cabezas, M

    2008-09-01

    Postprandial hyperlipidemia is considered to be a substantial risk factor for atherosclerosis. Interestingly, this concept has never been supported by randomized clinical trials. The difficulty lies in the fact that most interventions aimed to reduce postprandial lipemia, will also affect LDL-C levels. The atherogenic mechanisms of postprandial lipids and lipoproteins can be divided into direct lipoprotein-mediated and indirect effects; the latter, in part, by inducing an inflammatory state. Elevations in postprandial triglycerides (TG) have been related to the increased expression of postprandial leukocyte activation markers, up-regulation of pro-inflammatory genes in endothelial cells and involvement of the complement system. This set of events is part of the postprandial inflammatory response, which is one of the recently identified potential pro-atherogenic mechanisms of postprandial lipemia. Especially, complement component 3 levels show a close correlation with postprandial lipemia and are also important determinants of the metabolic syndrome. In clinical practice, fasting TG are frequently used as reflections of postprandial lipemia due to the close correlation between the two. The use of serial capillary measurements in an out-of-hospital situation is an alternative for oral fat loading tests. Daylong TG profiles reflect postprandial lipemia and are increased in conditions like the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Studies are needed to elucidate the role of postprandial inflammation in atherogenesis and to find new methods in order to reduce selectively the postprandial inflammatory response. Future studies are needed to find new methods in order to reduce selectively the postprandial inflammatory response.

  3. Postprandial lipemia in pre- and postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Gaffar S.; Rahman, Sajida; Rahman, Jalelur

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective: The increased risk for coronary artery disease observed in postmenopausal (PoW) women is partly explained by a more atherogenic lipoprotein profile. Moreover, natural menopause has been associated with an altered postprandial lipid profile. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that young premenopausal (PrW) and PoW may be independently associated with postprandial lipemia and indirectly associated with atherosclerosis. Patients and Methods: A total of 46 healthy PrW and 44 healthy PoW participated in a 5-h intervention study. Blood samples were taken at the baseline and at 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after eating. Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, fasting, and postprandial triglycerides (PPTG) were determined sequentially in blood samples. Results: PPTG presented significant higher values in PoW compared to PrW (P < 0.05), but other lipids did not significantly differ between groups. PPTG concentrations in PoW were significantly higher than in PrW (P < 0.05). There was a significant time influence (P < 0.05) in TG in PrW and PoW, while time to peak and peak concentration were significantly higher in PoW than PrW. Other lipids were also decreased more in PrW than PoW, but not significantly so. Cholesterol concentrations showed a significant reduction after 2 h, to reach values similar to the baseline after 4 h in PrW but not in PoW. HDL-cholesterol concentration was decreased more in PoW compared to PrW but it was not significant. Conclusions: Lipid postprandial response indicates a higher cardiovascular risk pattern in PoW compared to PrW. PMID:22690054

  4. Exercise and Dietary-Mediated Reductions in Postprandial Lipemia

    OpenAIRE

    Plaisance, Eric P.; Gordon Fisher

    2014-01-01

    Postprandial hyperlipemia produces long-term derangements in lipid/lipoprotein metabolism, vascular endothelial dysfunction, hypercoagulability, and sympathetic hyperactivity which are strongly linked to atherogenesis. The purpose of this review is to (1) provide a qualitative analysis of the available literature examining the dysregulation of postprandial lipid metabolism in the presence of obesity, (2) inspect the role of adiposity distribution and sex on postprandial lipid metabolism, and ...

  5. Effect of Cinnamon Tea on Postprandial Glucose Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo, Maria Alexandra; Silva, Maria Leonor; Santos, Elisabeth; Moncada, Margarida Maria; Brito, Jos?; Proen?a, Luis; Singh, Jaipaul; de Mesquita, Maria Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Glycaemic control, in particular at postprandial period, has a key role in prevention of different diseases, including diabetes and cardiovascular events. Previous studies suggest that postprandial high blood glucose levels (BGL) can lead to an oxidative stress status, which is associated with metabolic alterations. Cinnamon powder has demonstrated a beneficial effect on postprandial glucose homeostasis in animals and human models. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of cin...

  6. Effect of cinnamon on gastric emptying, arterial stiffness, postprandial lipemia, glycemia, and appetite responses to high-fat breakfast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinick Tom R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cinnamon has been shown to delay gastric emptying of a high-carbohydrate meal and reduce postprandial glycemia in healthy adults. However, it is dietary fat which is implicated in the etiology and is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the effect of 3 g cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum on GE, postprandial lipemic and glycemic responses, oxidative stress, arterial stiffness, as well as appetite sensations and subsequent food intake following a high-fat meal. Methods A single-blind randomized crossover study assessed nine healthy, young subjects. GE rate of a high-fat meal supplemented with 3 g cinnamon or placebo was determined using the 13C octanoic acid breath test. Breath, blood samples and subjective appetite ratings were collected in the fasted and during the 360 min postprandial period, followed by an ad libitum buffet meal. Gastric emptying and 1-day fatty acid intake relationships were also examined. Results Cinnamon did not change gastric emptying parameters, postprandial triacylglycerol or glucose concentrations, oxidative stress, arterial function or appetite (p half and 1-day palmitoleic acid (r = -0.78, eiconsenoic acid (r = -0.84 and total omega-3 intake (r = -0.72. The ingestion of 3 g cinnamon had no effect on GE, arterial stiffness and oxidative stress following a HF meal. Conclusions 3 g cinnamon did not alter the postprandial response to a high-fat test meal. We find no evidence to support the use of 3 g cinnamon supplementation for the prevention or treatment of metabolic disease. Dietary fatty acid intake requires consideration in future gastrointestinal studies. Trial registration Trial registration number: at http://www.clinicaltrial.gov: NCT01350284

  7. Effect of cinnamon on gastric emptying, arterial stiffness, postprandial lipemia, glycemia, and appetite responses to high-fat breakfast

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Markey, Oonagh

    2011-09-07

    Abstract Background Cinnamon has been shown to delay gastric emptying of a high-carbohydrate meal and reduce postprandial glycemia in healthy adults. However, it is dietary fat which is implicated in the etiology and is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the effect of 3 g cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) on GE, postprandial lipemic and glycemic responses, oxidative stress, arterial stiffness, as well as appetite sensations and subsequent food intake following a high-fat meal. Methods A single-blind randomized crossover study assessed nine healthy, young subjects. GE rate of a high-fat meal supplemented with 3 g cinnamon or placebo was determined using the 13C octanoic acid breath test. Breath, blood samples and subjective appetite ratings were collected in the fasted and during the 360 min postprandial period, followed by an ad libitum buffet meal. Gastric emptying and 1-day fatty acid intake relationships were also examined. Results Cinnamon did not change gastric emptying parameters, postprandial triacylglycerol or glucose concentrations, oxidative stress, arterial function or appetite (p < 0.05). Strong relationships were evident (p < 0.05) between GE Thalf and 1-day palmitoleic acid (r = -0.78), eiconsenoic acid (r = -0.84) and total omega-3 intake (r = -0.72). The ingestion of 3 g cinnamon had no effect on GE, arterial stiffness and oxidative stress following a HF meal. Conclusions 3 g cinnamon did not alter the postprandial response to a high-fat test meal. We find no evidence to support the use of 3 g cinnamon supplementation for the prevention or treatment of metabolic disease. Dietary fatty acid intake requires consideration in future gastrointestinal studies. Trial registration Trial registration number: at http:\\/\\/www.clinicaltrial.gov: NCT01350284

  8. Effect of exercise intensity on postprandial lipemia, markers of oxidative stress, and endothelial function after a high-fat meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Krüger, Renata; Costa Teixeira, Bruno; Boufleur Farinha, Juliano; Cauduro Oliveira Macedo, Rodrigo; Pinto Boeno, Francesco; Rech, Anderson; Lopez, Pedro; Silveira Pinto, Ronei; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 2 different exercise intensities on postprandial lipemia, oxidative stress markers, and endothelial function after a high-fat meal (HFM). Eleven young men completed 2-day trials in 3 conditions: rest, moderate-intensity exercise (MI-Exercise) and heavy-intensity exercise (HI-Exercise). Subjects performed an exercise bout or no exercise (Rest) on the evening of day 1. On the morning of day 2, an HFM was provided. Blood was sampled at fasting (0 h) and every hour from 1 to 5 h during the postprandial period for triacylglycerol (TAG), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), and nitrite/nitrate (NOx) concentrations. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) was also analyzed. TAG concentrations were reduced in exercise conditions compared with Rest during the postprandial period (P lipemia after an HFM. However, HI-Exercise showed to be more effective in reducing iAUC TAG, which might suggest higher protection against postprandial TAG enhancement. Conversely, MI-Exercise can be beneficial to attenuate the susceptibility of oxidative damage induced by an HFM and to increase endothelial function in the fasted state compared with Rest.

  9. Gynura procumbens Extract Alleviates Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Diabetic Mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sung-In Choi; Mi Hwa Park; Ji-Sook Han

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effect of Gynura procumbens extract against carbohydrate digesting enzymes and its ability to ameliorate postprandial hyperglycemia in streptozotocin (STZ...

  10. Postprandial hyperglykaemi. Postprandiale blodglukosesvingninger og kardiovaskulaer sygdom samt sendiabetiske komplikationer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsbad, Sten; Brock, Birgitte; Schmitz, Ole

    2003-01-01

    demonstrated that acute changes in blood glucose may induce changes predisposing for development of microangiopathy in the retina, the kidneys and the nerves. Studies have also shown that postprandial hyperglycaemia may be a risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. No randomised controlled trials......Epidemiological studies have suggested that postprandial hyperglycaemia may be a unique risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease, although the predictive value has been minor or disappeared after compensation for other cardiovascular risk factors. Pathophysiological studies have...... have focused on specific treatment of postprandial hyperglycaemia. Therefore, the importance of postprandial hyperglycaemia for development of diabetic complications and atherosclerosis is unclear....

  11. The effect of high intensity interval exercise on postprandial triacylglycerol and leukocyte activation--monitored for 48 h post exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Morris Gabriel

    Full Text Available Postprandial phenomenon are thought to contribute to atherogenesis alongside activation of the immune system. A single bout of high intensity interval exercise attenuates postprandial triacylglycerol (TG, although the longevity and mechanisms underlying this observation are unknown. The aims of this study were to determine whether this attenuation in postprandial TG remained 2 days after high intensity interval exercise, to monitor markers of leukocyte activation and investigate the underlying mechanisms. Eight young men each completed two three day trials. On day 1: subjects rested (Control or performed 5 x 30 s maximal sprints (high intensity interval exercise. On day 2 and 3 subjects consumed high fat meals for breakfast and 3 h later for lunch. Blood samples were taken at various times and analysed for TG, glucose and TG-rich lipoprotein (TRL-bound LPL-dependent TRL-TG hydrolysis (LTTH. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate granulocyte, monocyte and lymphocyte CD11b and CD36 expression. On day 2 after high intensity interval exercise TG area under the curve was lower (P<0.05 (7.46 ± 1.53 mmol/l/7h compared to the control trial (9.47 ± 3 .04 mmol/l/7h with no differences during day 3 of the trial. LTTH activity was higher (P<0.05 after high intensity interval exercise, at 2 hours of day 2, compared to control. Granulocyte, monocyte and lymphocyte CD11b expression increased with time over day 2 and 3 of the study (P<0.0001. Lymphocyte and monocyte CD36 expression decreased with time over day 2 and 3 (P<0.05. There were no differences between trials in CD11b and CD36 expression on any leukocytes. A single session of high intensity interval exercise attenuated postprandial TG on day 2 of the study, with this effect abolished by day 3.The reduction in postprandial TG was associated with an increase in LTTH. High intensity interval exercise had no effect on postprandial responses of CD11b or CD36.

  12. The clinical significance of gastrointestinal changes with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutto, Asif; Morley, John E

    2008-09-01

    With the graying of the world's population, there is an increased interest in the physiological effects of aging. This review examines the physiological changes of the gut with aging and their clinical significance. Changes with aging in the gastrointestinal tract are variable, but in some cases they are responsible for a variety of symptoms. Thus, alterations in taste and smell, gastric motility, intestinal overgrowth and changes in gastrointestinal hormone release are the basis of the physiological anorexia of aging. Alterations in swallowing lead to silent aspiration. Changes in gastric emptying play a role in postprandial hypotension. Changes in gastrointestinal function can lead to constipation and fecal incontinence. Weakening of the colonic muscular wall produces diverticula. Achlorhydria is associated with malabsorption of some forms of iron and calcium. Vitamin D malabsorption aggravates the hypovitaminosis D that is so common in older persons. Changes in probiotics can lead to diarrhea and altered immune system. In the liver, aging is associated with delayed drug metabolism. Changes in the physiology of the gut play a role in the anorexia of aging, aspiration pneumonia, postprandial hypotension, constipation and fecal incontinence.

  13. [Effect of postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia on vascular responsiveness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamami, Yoshito; Takatori, Shingo; Iwatani, Yukiko; Yamawaki, Kousuke; Miyashita, Satoko; Yabumae, Nana; Takayama, Fusako; Mio, Mitsunobu; Kawasaki, Hiromu

    2008-03-01

    Recent clinical studies demonstrated that transient postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia may contribute to the development of hypertension. Therefore, we investigated influence of acute hyperglycemia and/or hyperinsulinemia induced by glucose or insulin infusion on neuronal and humoral control of vascular tone in rats. Euglycemic male Wistar rats were pithed under anesthesia and arterial blood pressure was measured. Changes in vascular responses to spinal cord stimulation (SCS) and intravenous bolus injections of noradrenaline, angiotensin II, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were studied by infusing various concentration of glucose or insulin. Continuous glucose infusion, which increased both blood glucose and serum insulin levels, significantly augmented adrenergic nerve-mediated pressor responses to SCS without affecting injection of pressor responses to noradrenaline or angiotensin II. In pithed rats with artificially increased blood pressure and blockade of autonomic outflow, glucose infusion attenuated CGRPergic nerve-depressor responses to SCS without affecting depressor responses to injection of CGRP, acetylcholine or SNP. In pithed rats treated with octreotide, which increased blood glucose without increasing serum insulin levels, glucose infusion caused only significant augmentation of adrenergic nerve-mediated pressor responses. Combined infusion of insulin and glucose, which resulted in increased serum insulin levels with euglycemic, significantly augmented adrenergic nerve-mediated pressor responses and attenuated CGRPergic nerve-mediated depressor responses. The present results suggest that acute hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia increases adrenergic nerve-mediated vasoconstriction, which is partly associated with the blunted CGRPergic nerve function, and that plasma insulin concentration associated with hyperglycemia may be responsible for alteration of neuronal vascular regulation.

  14. Gastrointestinal events with clopidogrel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grove, Erik Lerkevang; Würtz, Morten; Schwarz, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Clopidogrel prevents cardiovascular events, but has been linked with adverse gastrointestinal (GI) complications, particularly bleeding events.......Clopidogrel prevents cardiovascular events, but has been linked with adverse gastrointestinal (GI) complications, particularly bleeding events....

  15. Association between postprandial symptoms and gastric emptying after sleeve gastrectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgerhart, J.S.; Rutte, P.W. van; Edelbroek, M.A.; Wyndaele, D.N.; Smulders, J.F.; Meeberg, P.C. van de; Siersema, P.D.; Smout, A.J.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is an effective bariatric procedure. However, postprandial symptoms can compromise its beneficial effect. It is not known if a changed gastric emptying and these symptoms are related. This study aimed to assess the association between postprandial

  16. Comparison of different methods to investigate postprandial lipaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, A. J. H. H. M.; Alipour, A.; Sijmonsma, T. P.; Verseyden, C.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; Plokker, H. W. M.; Castro Cabezas, M.

    2009-01-01

    Postprandial hyperlipidaemia has been associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated which of the generally used methods to test postprandial lipaemia differentiated best between patients with premature CAD (50 +/- 4 years, n=20) and healthy controls. Furthermore, the effects of

  17. Association between postprandial symptoms and gastric emptying after sleeve gastrectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgerhart, Jan S.; van Rutte, Pim W. J.; Edelbroek, Michela A. L.; Wyndaele, Dirk N. J.; Smulders, Johannes F.; van de Meeberg, Paul C.; Siersema, Peter D.; Smout, André J. P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is an effective bariatric procedure. However, postprandial symptoms can compromise its beneficial effect. It is not known if a changed gastric emptying and these symptoms are related. This study aimed to assess the association between postprandial symptoms and

  18. Postprandial hyperlipidemia, endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk: focus on incretins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koska Juraj

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in type 2 diabetes (T2DM is only partially reduced by intensive glycemic control. Diabetic dyslipidemia is suggested to be an additional important contributor to CVD risk in T2DM. Multiple lipid lowering medications effectively reduce fasting LDL cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations and several of them routinely reduce CVD risk. However, in contemporary Western societies the vasculature is commonly exposed to prolonged postprandial hyperlipidemia. Metabolism of these postprandial carbohydrates and lipids yields multiple proatherogenic products. Even a transient increase in these factors may worsen vascular function and induces impaired endothelial dependent vasodilatation, a predictor of atherosclerosis and future cardiovascular events. There is a recent increased appreciation for the role of gut-derived incretin hormones in controlling the postprandial metabolic milieu. Incretin-based medications have been developed and are now used to control postprandial hyperglycemia in T2DM. Recent data indicate that these medications may also have profound effects on postprandial lipid metabolism and may favorably influence several cardiovascular functions. This review discusses (1 the postprandial state with special emphasis on postprandial lipid metabolism and its role in endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk, (2 the ability of incretins to modulate postprandial hyperlipidemia and (3 the potential of incretin-based therapeutic strategies to improve vascular function and reduce CVD risk.

  19. Postprandial gut hormone responses and glucose metabolism in cholecystectomized patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, David P; Hare, Kristine J; Martens, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    Preclinical studies suggest that gallbladder emptying, via bile acid-induced activation of the G protein-coupled receptor TGR5 in intestinal L cells, may play a significant role in the secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and, hence, postprandial glucose homeostasis. We......-rich liquid meal (2,200 kJ). Basal and postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), cholecystokinin (CCK), and gastrin were measured. Furthermore, gastric emptying and duodenal and serum...... bile acids were measured. We found similar basal glucose concentrations in the two groups, whereas cholecystectomized subjects had elevated postprandial glucose excursions. Cholecystectomized subjects had reduced postprandial concentrations of duodenal bile acids, but preserved postprandial plasma GLP...

  20. Femoral lipectomy increases postprandial lipemia in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Teri L; Bessesen, Daniel H; Cox-York, Kimberly A; Erickson, Christopher B; Law, Christopher K; Anderson, Molly K; Wang, Hong; Jackman, Matthew R; Van Pelt, Rachael E

    2015-07-01

    Femoral subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) appears to be cardioprotective compared with abdominal SAT, possibly through better triglyceride (TG) sequestration. We hypothesized that removal of femoral SAT would increase postprandial TG through a reduction in dietary fatty acid (FA) storage. Normal-weight (means ± SD; BMI 23.9 ± 2.6 kg/m(2)) women (n = 29; age 45 ± 6 yr) were randomized to femoral lipectomy (LIPO) or control (CON) and followed for 1 yr. Regional adiposity was measured by DEXA and CT. A liquid meal labeled with [(14)C]oleic acid was used to trace the appearance of dietary FA in plasma (6-h postprandial TG), breath (24-h oxidation), and SAT (24-h [(14)C]TG storage). Fasting LPL activity was measured in abdominal and femoral SAT. DEXA leg fat mass was reduced after LIPO vs. CON (Δ-1.4 ± 0.7 vs. 0.1 ± 0.5 kg, P < 0.001) and remained reduced at 1 yr (-1.1 ± 1.4 vs. -0.2 ± 0.5 kg, P < 0.05), as did CT thigh subcutaneous fat area (-39.6 ± 36.6 vs. 4.7 ± 14.6 cm(2), P < 0.05); DEXA trunk fat mass and CT visceral fat area were unchanged. Postprandial TG increased (5.9 ± 7.7 vs. -0.6 ± 5.3 × 10(3) mg/dl, P < 0.05) and femoral SAT LPL activity decreased (-21.9 ± 22.3 vs. 10.5 ± 26.5 nmol·min(-1)·g(-1), P < 0.05) 1 yr following LIPO vs. CON. There were no group differences in (14)C-labeled TG appearing in abdominal and femoral SAT or elsewhere. In conclusion, femoral fat remained reduced 1 yr following lipectomy and was accompanied by increased postprandial TG and reduced femoral SAT LPL activity. There were no changes in storage of meal-derived FA or visceral fat. Our data support a protective role for femoral adiposity on circulating TG independent of dietary FA storage and visceral adiposity. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Black Beans, Fiber, and Antioxidant Capacity Pilot Study: Examination of Whole Foods vs. Functional Components on Postprandial Metabolic, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Reverri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris contain bioactive components with functional properties that may modify cardiovascular risk. The aims of this pilot study were to evaluate the ability of black beans to attenuate postprandial metabolic, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses and determine relative contribution of dietary fiber and antioxidant capacity of beans to the overall effect. In this randomized, controlled, crossover trial, 12 adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS consumed one of three meals (black bean (BB, fiber matched (FM, and antioxidant capacity matched (AM on three occasions that included blood collection before (fasting and five hours postprandially. Insulin was lower after the BB meal, compared to the FM or AM meals (p < 0.0001. A significant meal × time interaction was observed for plasma antioxidant capacity (p = 0.002 revealing differences over time: AM > BB > FM. Oxidized LDL (oxLDL was not different by meal, although a trend for declining oxLDL was observed after the BB and AM meals at five hours compared to the FM meal. Triglycerides and interleukin-6 (IL-6 increased in response to meals (p < 0.0001. Inclusion of black beans with a typical Western-style meal attenuates postprandial insulin and moderately enhances postprandial antioxidant endpoints in adults with MetS, which could only be partly explained by fiber content and properties of antioxidant capacity.

  2. Postprandial ghrelin suppression is exaggerated following major surgery; implications for nutritional recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloom Stephen R

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Meeting patients' nutritional requirements and preventing malnutrition is a challenge following major surgical procedures. The role of ghrelin in nutritional recovery after non-gastrointestinal major surgery is unknown. We used coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG as an example of anticipated good recovery post major surgery. Seventeen patients undergoing CABG (mean ± SEM: 70.1 ± 2.2 yrs, BMI 29.1 ± 1.4 kg/m2, 15 male underwent fasting and postprandial (45 mins after standard test breakfast blood sampling pre-operatively (day 0, post-operatively (day 6 and at follow-up (day 40. Changes in food intake, biochemical and anthropometric markers of nutritional status were recorded. A comparison was made to 17 matched healthy controls (70.6 ± 2.3 yrs, BMI 28.4 ± 1.3 kg/m2. We observed significantly increased post-operative and follow-up fasting ghrelin concentrations compared with pre-operatively (pre-op. 402 ± 42 pmol/L vs post-op. 642 ± 97 pmol/L vs follow-up 603 ± 94 pmol/L (ANOVA p p Our data support the hypothesis that prolonged changes in fasting and postprandial plasma ghrelin concentrations are associated with impaired nutritional recovery after CABG. These findings reinforce the need to investigate ghrelin in other patients groups undergoing major surgery.

  3. Postprandial thermogenesis in Bothrops moojeni (Serpentes: Viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR Stuginski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Snakes that can ingest prey that are proportionally large have high metabolic rates during digestion. This great increase in metabolic rate (specific dynamic action - SDA may create a significant augment in the animal's body temperature. The present study investigated postprandial thermogenesis in Bothrops moojeni. Briefly, two groups of snakes were fed meals equivalent to 17 ± 3% and 32 ± 5% of their body weight and were observed for 72 hours, in which thermal images of each snake were taken with an infrared camera in a thermostable environment with a constant air temperature of 30°C. The results showed a significant increase in snake surface temperature, with a thermal peak between 33 and 36 hours after feeding. The meal size had a great impact on the intensity and duration of the thermogenic response. Such increase in temperature appears to be connected with the huge increase in metabolic rates during digestion of relatively large prey by snakes that feed infrequently. The ecologic implication of the thermogenic response is still not well understood; however, it is possible that its presence could affect behaviors associated with the snake digestion, such as postprandial thermophily.

  4. Diabetes Mellitus: Management of Gastrointestinal Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careyva, Beth; Stello, Brian

    2016-12-15

    Gastrointestinal disorders are common complications of diabetes mellitus and include gastroparesis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and chronic diarrhea. Symptoms of gastroparesis include early satiety, postprandial fullness, nausea, vomiting of undigested food, bloating, and abdominal pain. Gastroparesis is diagnosed based on clinical symptoms and a delay in gastric emptying in the absence of mechanical obstruction. Gastric emptying scintigraphy is the preferred diagnostic test. Treatment involves glucose control, dietary changes, and prokinetic medications when needed. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its more severe variant, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, are becoming increasingly prevalent in persons with diabetes. Screening for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is not recommended, and most cases are diagnosed when steatosis is found incidentally on imaging or from liver function testing followed by diagnostic ultrasonography. Liver biopsy is the preferred diagnostic test for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Clinical scoring systems are being developed that, when used in conjunction with less invasive imaging, can more accurately predict which patients have severe fibrosis requiring biopsy. Treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease involves weight loss and improved glycemic control; no medications have been approved for treatment of this condition. Diabetes is also a risk factor for gastroesophageal reflux disease. Patients may be asymptomatic or present with atypical symptoms, including globus sensation and dysphagia. Diabetes also may exacerbate hepatitis C and pancreatitis, resulting in more severe complications. Glycemic control improves or reverses most gastrointestinal complications of diabetes.

  5. Postprandial Glucose as a Risk Factor for Elevated Intraocular Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Jung; Fang, Wen-Hui; Kao, Tung-Wei; Chen, Ying-Jen; Liaw, Fang-Yih; Chang, Yaw-Wen; Wang, Gia-Chi; Peng, Tao-Chun; Chen, Wei-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between postprandial glucose and intraocular pressure in a relatively healthy population. We examined 1,439 adults getting a health check-up in a health promotion center at Tri-Service General Hospital (TSGH) in Taiwan between 2012 and 2013. All participants underwent examinations to measure metabolic variables and intraocular pressure. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between postprandial glucose and intraocular pressure. The levels of postprandial glucose were divided into quartiles with subjects in the lowest quartile being regarded as the reference group to perform quartile-based analysis. Covariate adjustment was designed for three models for further analysis. Subjects with higher quartiles of postprandial glucose level had a higher systolic blood pressure, a greater waist circumference and an elevated fasting glucose level (all p postprandial glucose and intraocular pressure. The trends of intraocular pressure across increasing quartiles of postprandial glucose were statistically significant (all p for trend postprandial glucose positively correlated with elevated intraocular pressure.

  6. Cranberries improve postprandial glucose excursions in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Jace; Betts, Nancy M; Foster, Megan; Scofield, R Hal; Basu, Arpita

    2017-09-20

    Recent research supports a favorable role of cranberries on cardiometabolic health. Postprandial metabolism, especially hyperglycemia, has been shown to be an independent cardiovascular risk and few clinical studies have reported the role of berries in improving postprandial dysmetabolism. We investigated the postprandial effects of dried cranberries following a high-fat breakfast challenge in obese participants with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), in a randomized crossover trial. Blood draw and vascular measurements were conducted at fasting, 1, 2 and 4 hours (h), following the consumption of a fast-food style high-fat breakfast (70 g fat, 974 kcal) with or without cranberries (40 g). Analyses of our data (n = 25; BMI (kg m -2 ) (mean ± s.d.) = 39.5 ± 6.5; age (years) = 56 ± 6) revealed that postprandial increases in glucose were significantly lower in the cranberry vs. control at 2 & 4 h (p blood pressure between the cranberry and control groups. Among the biomarkers of inflammation and oxidation, postprandial serum interleukin-18 and malondialdehyde were significantly lower at 4 h, and serum total nitrite was higher at 2 h in the cranberry vs. control group (all p postprandial glucose and selected biomarkers of inflammation and oxidation in participants with T2DM. These findings provide evidence that adding whole cranberries to a high-fat meal may improve postprandial blood glucose management and warrant further investigation.

  7. Effect of Cinnamon Tea on Postprandial Glucose Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alexandra Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycaemic control, in particular at postprandial period, has a key role in prevention of different diseases, including diabetes and cardiovascular events. Previous studies suggest that postprandial high blood glucose levels (BGL can lead to an oxidative stress status, which is associated with metabolic alterations. Cinnamon powder has demonstrated a beneficial effect on postprandial glucose homeostasis in animals and human models. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of cinnamon tea (C. burmannii on postprandial capillary blood glucose level on nondiabetic adults. Participants were given oral glucose tolerance test either with or without cinnamon tea in a randomized clinical trial. The data revealed that cinnamon tea administration slightly decreased postprandial BGL. Cinnamon tea ingestion also results in a significantly lower postprandial maximum glucose concentration and variation of maximum glucose concentration (p < 0.05. Chemical analysis showed that cinnamon tea has a high antioxidant capacity, which may be due to its polyphenol content. The present study provides evidence that cinnamon tea, obtained from C. burmannii, could be beneficial for controlling glucose metabolism in nondiabetic adults during postprandial period.

  8. Postprandial platelet aggregation: effects of different meals and glycemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, K D K; Thomas, G A; Adams, M J; Ball, M J

    2012-06-01

    Hyperglycaemia is associated with increased platelet aggregation that increases the risk of thrombosis in people with type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Low glycemic index (GI) meals high in carbohydrate or moderately high in protein have been shown to acutely reduce postprandial excursions of plasma glucose and insulin compared with high carbohydrate high GI meals. However, it is not known whether these differences in glucose and insulin profile also impact on postprandial platelet aggregation. This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of three iso-energetic meals, on measures of postprandial platelet aggregation, in healthy individuals. A randomised cross-over study compared the acute effects of a high GI high carbohydrate (HGI-HC), a low GI high carbohydrate (LGI-HC) and a low GI moderately high in protein and fat (LGI-MPF) meal on postprandial platelet aggregation, glucose, insulin and triglyceride concentrations. Comparisons were made at fasting, 60 and 120 min postprandially. A total of 32 volunteers (mean ± s.d.; age 59.9 ± 11.7 years, BMI 27.1 ± 3.7 kg/m(2)) participated in the study. Results showed significant reductions in maximum platelet aggregation postprandially with nonsignificant differences (all P > 0.29) between the three meals. Glucose and insulin were significantly (both P 0.25) between the three test meals. In healthy individuals platelet aggregation is reduced postprandially but this decrease is similar between meals of different GI that induce different glucose and insulin responses.

  9. Postprandial hypertension, an overlooked risk marker for arteriosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uetani, Eri; Tabara, Yasuharu; Igase, Michiya; Guo, Haiyan; Kido, Tomoko; Ochi, Namiko; Takita, Rie; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Miki, Tetsuro

    2012-10-01

    Increased blood pressure (BP) variability is suggested to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Although a postprandial decline in BP is a frequently observed phenomenon in the elderly, little attention has been paid to the clinical and diagnostic significance of postprandial BP change. Here, we aimed to clarify the possible association between postprandial BP dysregulation and arteriosclerosis. The study subjects were 1339 apparently healthy middle-aged to elderly persons (66 ± 9 years old). Postprandial changes in BP were calculated by two readings on the same day, one just before lunch with a standardized Japanese meal and the second 30 min after lunch. Arteriosclerosis was assessed by carotid intima-media thickness and brachial-to-ankle pulse wave velocity. Mean preprandial and postprandial systolic BP was 127 ± 18 and 123 ± 18 mmHg respectively. One hundred and twelve subjects (8.4%) showed a greater than 20-mmHg postprandial decline in systolic BP, while 129 (9.6%) showed a greater than 10-mmHg increase. Arteriosclerosis was significantly higher in both postprandial hypotensive and hypertensive subjects. The postprandial changes in systolic BP were strongly associated with preprandial systolic BP (r = 0.335, p arteriosclerosis was therefore lost after adjustment for basal systolic BP. Multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for possible covariates, including basal BP, identified a postprandial increase in BP as an independent determinant of insulin resistance as assessed by HOMA-IR (β = 0.093, p arteriosclerosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Syzygium aromaticum-derived triterpenes on postprandial blood glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats following carbohydrate challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khathi, Andile; Serumula, Metse R; Myburg, Rene B; Van Heerden, Fanie R; Musabayane, Cephas T

    2013-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that the hypoglycaemic effects of the triterpenes involve inhibition of glucose transport in the small intestine. Therefore, the effects of Syzygium spp-derived triterpenes oleanolic acid (OA) and maslinic acid (MA) were evaluated on carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes in STZ-induced diabetic rats and consequences on postprandial hyperglycaemia after carbohydrate loading. We determined using Western blot analysis the expressions of α-amylase and α-glucosidase and glucose transporters SGLT1 and GLUT2 in the small intestine intestines isolated from diabetic rats treated with OA/MA for 5 weeks. In vitro assays were used to assess the inhibitory activities of OA and MA against α-amylase, α-glucosidase and sucrase. OA and MA ameliorated postprandial hyperglycemia in carbohydrate loaded diabetic rats as indicated by the significantly small glucose area under the curve (AUC) in treated diabetic animals compared with that in untreated diabetic rats. Western blotting showed that OA and MA treatment not only down-regulated the increase of SGLT1 and GLUT2 expressions in the small intestine of STZ-induced diabetic rats, but also inhibited small intestine α-amylase, sucrase and α-glucosidase activity. IC50 values of OA against α-amylase (3.60 ± 0.18 mmol/L), α-glucosidase (12.40 ± 0.11 mmol/L) and sucrase (11.50 ± 0.13 mmol/L) did not significantly differ from those of OA and acarbose. The results of suggest that OA and MA may be used as potential supplements for treating postprandial hyperglycemia. The present observations indicate that besides improving glucose homeostasis in diabetes, OA and MA suppress postprandial hyperglycaemia mediated in part via inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolysis and reduction of glucose transporters in the gastrointestinal tract. Inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase can significantly decrease the postprandial hyperglycaemia after a mixed carbohydrate diet and therefore can be an important strategy in the

  11. Effects of Syzygium aromaticum-derived triterpenes on postprandial blood glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats following carbohydrate challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andile Khathi

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Recent reports suggest that the hypoglycaemic effects of the triterpenes involve inhibition of glucose transport in the small intestine. Therefore, the effects of Syzygium spp-derived triterpenes oleanolic acid (OA and maslinic acid (MA were evaluated on carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes in STZ-induced diabetic rats and consequences on postprandial hyperglycaemia after carbohydrate loading. METHODS: We determined using Western blot analysis the expressions of α-amylase and α-glucosidase and glucose transporters SGLT1 and GLUT2 in the small intestine intestines isolated from diabetic rats treated with OA/MA for 5 weeks. In vitro assays were used to assess the inhibitory activities of OA and MA against α-amylase, α-glucosidase and sucrase. RESULTS: OA and MA ameliorated postprandial hyperglycemia in carbohydrate loaded diabetic rats as indicated by the significantly small glucose area under the curve (AUC in treated diabetic animals compared with that in untreated diabetic rats. Western blotting showed that OA and MA treatment not only down-regulated the increase of SGLT1 and GLUT2 expressions in the small intestine of STZ-induced diabetic rats, but also inhibited small intestine α-amylase, sucrase and α-glucosidase activity. IC50 values of OA against α-amylase (3.60 ± 0.18 mmol/L, α-glucosidase (12.40 ± 0.11 mmol/L and sucrase (11.50 ± 0.13 mmol/L did not significantly differ from those of OA and acarbose. CONCLUSIONS: The results of suggest that OA and MA may be used as potential supplements for treating postprandial hyperglycemia. NOVELTY OF THE WORK: The present observations indicate that besides improving glucose homeostasis in diabetes, OA and MA suppress postprandial hyperglycaemia mediated in part via inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolysis and reduction of glucose transporters in the gastrointestinal tract. Inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase can significantly decrease the postprandial hyperglycaemia after a mixed

  12. Prolonged sitting negatively affects the postprandial plasma triglyceride-lowering effect of acute exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Young; Park, Sanghee; Chou, Ting-Heng; Trombold, Justin R; Coyle, Edward F

    2016-11-01

    The interaction of prolonged sitting with physical exercise for maintaining health is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that prolonged siting would have a deleterious effect on postprandial plasma lipemia (PPL, postprandial plasma triglycerides) and reduce the ability of an acute exercise bout to attenuate PPL. Seven healthy young men performed three, 5-day interventions [days 1-5 (D1-D5)] in a randomized crossover design with >1 wk between interventions: 1) sitting > 14 h/day with hypercaloric energy balance (SH), 2) sitting >14 h/day with net energy balance (SB), and 3) active walking/standing with net energy balance (WB) and sitting 8.4 h/day. The first high-fat tolerance test (HFTT1) was performed on D3 following 2 days of respective interventions. On the evening of D4 subjects ran on a treadmill for 1 h at ~67% V̇o2max, followed by the second HFTT (HFTT2) on D5. Two days of prolonged sitting increased TG AUCI (i.e., incremental area under the curve for TG), irrespective of energy balance, compared with WB (27% in SH, P = 0.003 and 26% in SB, P = 0.046). Surprisingly, after 4 days of prolonged sitting (i.e.; SH and SB), the acute exercise on D4 failed to attenuate TG AUCI or increase relative fat oxidation in HFTT2, compared with HFTT1, regardless of energy balance. In conclusion, prolonged sitting over 2-4 days was sufficient to amplify PPL, which was not attenuated by acute exercise, regardless of energy balance. This underscores the importance of limiting sitting time even in people who have exercised. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Impact of postprandial glycaemia on health and prevention of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaak, E E; Antoine, J-M; Benton, D

    2012-01-01

    in relation to body weight control, the development of oxidative stress, T2DM, and CVD and in maintaining optimal exercise and cognitive performance. There is mechanistic evidence linking postprandial glycaemia or glycaemic variability to the development of these conditions or in the impairment in cognitive......Postprandial glucose, together with related hyperinsulinemia and lipidaemia, has been implicated in the development of chronic metabolic diseases like obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review, available evidence is discussed on postprandial glucose...

  14. AT1 Receptor Gene Polymorphisms in relation to Postprandial Lipemia

    OpenAIRE

    Klop, B.; van den Berg, T. M.; Rietveld, A.P.; Chaves, J.; Real, J. T.; Ascaso, J. F.; Carmena, R.; Elte, J W F; Manuel Castro Cabezas

    2012-01-01

    Background. Recent data suggest that the renin-angiotensin system may be involved in triglyceride (TG) metabolism. We explored the effect of the common A1166C and C573T polymorphisms of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) gene on postprandial lipemia. Methods. Eighty-two subjects measured daytime capillary TG, and postprandial lipemia was estimated as incremental area under the TG curve. The C573T and A1166C polymorphisms of the AT1R gene were determined. Results. Postprandial lipemia w...

  15. Gastrointestinal Polyps in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Li-Chun; Lee, Hung-Chang; Yeung, Chun-Yan; Chan, Wai-Tao; Jiang, Chuen-Bin

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal polyps are common in children. The purpose of this study was to review the clinical manifestations, diagnostic procedures, endoscopic findings, management, pathology, and recurrence of gastrointestinal polyps in children at Mackay Memorial Hospital. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 50 children with a diagnosis of gastrointestinal polyps managed at Mackay Memorial Hospital between January 1984 and April 2007. Demographic data; clinical features; polyp size...

  16. Osteoporosis and Gastrointestinal Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, Seymour; Weinerman, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Gastrointestinal disease is often overlooked or simply forgotten as a cause of osteoporosis. Yet, the consequences of osteoporotic fractures can be devastating. Although the bulk of the published experience regarding osteoporosis is derived from the postmenopausal population, this review will focus on gastrointestinal disorders implicated in osteoporosis, with an emphasis on inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease. The unique aspects of gastrointestinal diseases associated with osteopor...

  17. Hyperosmolarity in the small intestine contributes to postprandial ghrelin suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overduin, Joost; Tylee, Tracy S; Frayo, R Scott; Cummings, David E

    2014-06-15

    Plasma levels of the orexigenic hormone ghrelin are suppressed by meals with an efficacy dependent on their macronutrient composition. We hypothesized that heterogeneity in osmolarity among macronutrient classes contributes to these differences. In three studies, the impact of small intestinal hyperosmolarity was examined in Sprague-Dawley rats. In study 1, isotonic, 2.5×, and 5× hypertonic solutions of several agents with diverse absorption and metabolism properties were infused duodenally at a physiological rate (3 ml/10 min). Jugular vein blood was sampled before and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, and 300 min after infusion. Plasma ghrelin was suppressed dose dependently and most strongly by glucose. Hyperosmolar infusions of lactulose, which transits the small intestine unabsorbed, and 3-O-methylglucose (3-O-MG), which is absorbed like glucose but remains unmetabolized, also suppressed ghrelin. Glucose, but not lactulose or 3-O-MG, infusions increased plasma insulin. In study 2, intestinal infusions of hyperosmolar NaCl suppressed ghrelin, a response that was not attenuated by coinfusion with the neural blocker lidocaine. In study 3, we reconfirmed that the low-osmolar lipid emulsion Intralipid suppresses ghrelin more weakly than isocaloric (but hypertonic) glucose. Importantly, raising Intralipid's osmolarity to that of the glucose solution by nonabsorbable lactulose supplementation enhanced ghrelin suppression to that seen after glucose. Hyperosmolar ghrelin occurred particularly during the initial 3 postinfusion hours. We conclude that small intestinal hyperosmolarity 1) is sufficient to suppress ghrelin, 2) may combine with other postprandial mechanisms to suppress ghrelin, 3) might contribute to altered ghrelin regulation after gastric bypass surgery, and 4) may inform dietary modifications for metabolic health.

  18. Enzymatically Modified Starch Ameliorates Postprandial Serum Triglycerides and Lipid Metabolome in Growing Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Eberspächer, Eva; Grüll, Dietmar; Kowalczyk, Lidia; Molnar, Timea; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2015-01-01

    Developing host digestion-resistant starches to promote human health is of great research interest. Chemically modified starches (CMS) are widely used in processed foods and although the modification of the starch molecule allows specific reduction in digestibility, the metabolic effects of CMS have been less well described. This short-term study evaluated the impact of enzymatically modified starch (EMS) on fasting and postprandial profiles of blood glucose, insulin and lipids, and serum metabolome in growing pigs. Eight jugular-vein catheterized pigs (initial body weight, 37.4 kg; 4 months of age) were fed 2 diets containing 72% purified starch (EMS or waxy corn starch (control)) in a cross-over design for 7 days. On day 8, an 8-hour meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed with serial blood samplings. Besides biochemical analysis, serum was analysed for 201 metabolites through targeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approaches. Pigs fed the EMS diet showed increased (P<0.05) immediate serum insulin and plasma glucose response compared to pigs fed the control diet; however, area-under-the-curves for insulin and glucose were not different among diets. Results from MTT indicated reduced postprandial serum triglycerides with EMS versus control diet (P<0.05). Likewise, serum metabolome profiling identified characteristic changes in glycerophospholipid, lysophospholipids, sphingomyelins and amino acid metabolome profiles with EMS diet compared to control diet. Results showed rapid adaptations of blood metabolites to dietary starch shifts within 7 days. In conclusion, EMS ingestion showed potential to attenuate postprandial raise in serum lipids and suggested constant alteration in the synthesis or breakdown of sphingolipids and phospholipids which might be a health benefit of EMS consumption. Because serum insulin was not lowered, more research is warranted to reveal possible underlying mechanisms behind the observed changes in the profile of serum lipid

  19. The Effect of Chewing a Sugar-Free Gum After Oatmeal on the Postprandial Glycaemia – A Cross-Over Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuletic Lea

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Gum chewing after a meal stimulates salivation and may affect the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and the release of hormones through neural mechanisms. This study was conducted to assess if chewing a sugar-free gum for 20 min following a meal, as recommended for dental caries prevention, influences the postprandial blood glucose levels in a period of one hour. Materials and Methods: For each of 18 participants blood glucose profile was made by measuring capillary glucose concentration in 10-min intervals within one hour following: a chewing a sugar-free gum, b the consumption of an oatmeal, c chewing a sugar-free gum after the consumption of an oatmeal. Results: No statistically significant differences were found in the glycaemic response following complex carbohydrate ingestion when a gum was chewed after a meal. Conclusions: The possible influence of gum chewing on the postprandial gastrointestinal and metabolic ongoings was not reflected in the postprandial glycaemic response under the conditions of this study. A more comprehensive study which would include more variables related to vagal efferent activity, digestion and metabolism would be needed to assess if chewing sugar-free gums to exploit their caries-protective potential can influence metabolic adaptability to nutritional challenges.

  20. Effects of gastric emptying on the postprandial ghrelin response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.A.M.; Lluch, A.; Vinoy, S.; Stafleu, A.; Berg, R. van den; Holst, J.J.; Kok, F.J.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2006-01-01

    Distension and chemosensitization of the stomach are insufficient to induce a ghrelin response, suggesting that postgastric feedback is required. This postgastric feedback may be regulated through insulin. We investigated the relation between gastric emptying rate and the postprandial ghrelin

  1. Postprandial gallbladder emptying in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, David P; Rehfeld, Jens F; Holst, Jens Juul

    2014-01-01

    fat, 93 g carbohydrate and 11 g protein; and iii) 40 g fat, 32 g carbohydrate and 3 g protein. Basal and postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, GLP1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), cholecystokinin and gastrin were measured. Furthermore......OBJECTIVE: Recent preclinical work has suggested that postprandial flow of bile acids into the small intestine potentiates nutrient-induced glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1(GCG)) secretion via bile acid-induced activation of the G protein-coupled receptor TGR5 in intestinal L cells. The notion of bile......-induced GLP1 secretion combined with the findings of reduced postprandial gallbladder emptying in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) led us to speculate whether reduced postprandial GLP1 responses in some patients with T2DM arise as a consequence of diabetic gallbladder dysmotility. DESIGN AND METHODS...

  2. Extended-Release Niacin Acutely Suppresses Postprandial Triglyceridemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, M. Haris U.; Qamar, Arman; Gadi, Ramprasad; Lilly, Scott; Goel, Harsh; Hampson, Jaison; Mucksavage, Megan L.; Nathanson, Grace A.; Rader, Daniel J.; Dunbar, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Postprandial triglyceridemia predicts cardiovascular events. Niacin might lower postprandial triglycerides (TG) by restricting free fatty acid (FFA). Immediate-release niacin reduced postprandial TGs, but extended-release niacin failed to do so when dosed the night before a fat challenge. Aims 1) Determine whether extended-release niacin dosed before a fat challenge suppresses postprandial TG. 2) Determine whether postprandial TG is related to FFA restriction. Methods Double-blinded, placebo-controlled, random-order crossover experiment, where healthy volunteers took 2 g extended-release niacin or placebo 1 hour before heavy cream. We sampled blood over 12 hours, and report TG and FFA as means±SD for incremental area under the curve (iAUC) and nadir. Results Combining 43 fat challenges from 22 subjects, postprandial TG iAUC was +312±200 on placebo vs +199±200 mg/dL*h on extended-release niacin (33% drop, p= 0.02). The incremental nadir for FFA was −0.07±0.15 on placebo vs −0.27±0.13 mmol/L on extended-release niacin (pniacin (20% drop, p=0.0015). The TG iAUC was strongly related to the post-dose drop in FFA (r=+0.58, p=0.0007). Conclusions Given right before a fat meal, even a single dose of extended-release niacin suppresses postprandial triglyceridemia. This establishes that postprandial TG suppression is an acute pharmacodynamic effect of extended-release niacin, probably the result of marked FFA restriction. Further study is warranted to determine whether mealtime dosing would augment the clinical efficacy of extended-release niacin therapy. PMID:22840917

  3. Variations in Postprandial Blood Glucose Responses and Satiety after Intake of Three Types of Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne S. H. Lunde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The magnitude and duration of postprandial blood glucose (PPG elevations are important risk factors of diabetes and coronary heart diseases. Aim. To study PPG after ingestion of breads with and without pea fibre and rapeseed oil. Methods. After fasting overnight, 10 Pakistani immigrant women participated in three experiments having a crossover design and involving ingestion of various types of bread: regular coarse bread or fibre enriched-bread with two levels of rapeseed oil, all providing 25 g available carbohydrates (CHO. Blood glucose and satiety were determined before the meal and every 15 min over the next 2 hours. Results. Intake of an amount of pea fibre-enriched bread containing 25 g CHO attenuated, the postprandial peak glucose value, the incremental area under the glucose versus time curve during 15 to 75 min, and the glycemic profile, and increased duration of satiety (<.05, as compared with intake of regular bread with 25 g carbohydrate. Conclusion. Pea fibre-enriched breads can reduce PPG and prolong satiety.

  4. Postprandial lipemia enhances the capacity of large HDL2 particles to mediate free cholesterol efflux via SR-BI and ABCG1 pathways in type IIB hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia, Zélie; Duchene, Emilie; Fournier, Natalie; Bellanger, Natacha; Chapman, M John; Le Goff, Wilfried; Guerin, Maryse

    2010-11-01

    Lipid and cholesterol metabolism in the postprandial phase is associated with both quantitative and qualitative remodeling of HDL particle subspecies that may influence their anti-atherogenic functions in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. We evaluated the capacity of whole plasma or isolated HDL particles to mediate cellular free cholesterol (FC) efflux, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)-mediated cholesteryl ester (CE) transfer, and selective hepatic CE uptake during the postprandial phase in subjects displaying type IIB hyperlipidemia (n = 16). Postprandial, large HDL2 displayed an enhanced capacity to mediate FC efflux via both scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI)-dependent (+12%; P lipemia was associated with elevated endogenous CE transfer rates from HDL2 to apoB lipoproteins and with attenuated capacity (-17%; P lipemia enhanced SR-BI and ABCG1-dependent efflux to large HDL2 particles. However, postprandial lipemia is equally associated with deleterious features by enhancing formation of CE-enriched, triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles through the action of CETP and by reducing the direct return of HDL-CE to the liver.

  5. Duodenal Lipomatosis: A Case with Postprandial Dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Sepehri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lipomas are benign mesenchymal tumors and constitute 5-6% of gastrointestinal tumors. They are generally asymptomatic and the occurrence of symptoms is related to the location and size of tumor. We present a 28 year old man with refractory dyspepsia for 18 months. In upper GI endoscopy multiple smooth submucosal masses with positive pillow sign were detected in second part of duodenum. Diagnosis was confirmed with CT-Scan.

  6. Effect of intragastric FODMAP infusion on upper gastrointestinal motility, gastrointestinal, and psychological symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome vs healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuy, I; Van Oudenhove, L; Tack, J; Biesiekierski, J R

    2017-08-01

    The low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyol (FODMAP) diet is a treatment strategy to reduce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Acute effects of FODMAPs on upper gastrointestinal motility are incompletely understood. Our objectives were to assess the acute effects of intragastric FODMAP infusions on upper gastrointestinal motility and gastrointestinal and psychological symptoms in healthy controls (HC) and IBS patients. A high-resolution solid-state manometry probe and an infusion tube were positioned into the stomach. Fructans, fructose, FODMAP mix, or glucose was intragastrically administered to HC, and fructans or glucose was administered to IBS patients until full satiation (score 0-5), in a randomized crossover fashion. Manometric measurements continued for 3 hours. Gastrointestinal and psychological symptoms were assessed by questionnaires at predefined time points. The study was registered on www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02980406). Twenty HC and 20 IBS patients were included. Fructans induced higher postprandial gastric pressures compared with glucose over both groups (P<.001). Bloating, belching, and pain increased more in IBS over both carbohydrates (P<.041). In addition, IBS patients reported more flatulence and cramps compared with HC following fructans (P<.001). Glucose induced more fatigue and dominance compared with fructans (P=.028, P=.001). Irritable bowel syndrome patients reported a higher increase in anger (P=.030) and a stronger decrease in positive affect (P=.021). The upper gastrointestinal motility response varies between carbohydrates. Irritable bowel syndrome patients are more sensitive to fructan infusion, reflected in their higher gastrointestinal symptom scores. Acute carbohydrate infusion can have differential psychological effects in IBS and HC. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Osteoporosis and gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Seymour; Weinerman, Stuart

    2010-08-01

    Gastrointestinal disease is often overlooked or simply forgotten as a cause of osteoporosis. Yet, the consequences of osteoporotic fractures can be devastating. Although the bulk of the published experience regarding osteoporosis is derived from the postmenopausal population, this review will focus on gastrointestinal disorders implicated in osteoporosis, with an emphasis on inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease. The unique aspects of gastrointestinal diseases associated with osteoporosis include early onset of disease (and, therefore, prolonged exposure to risk factors for developing osteoporosis, particularly with inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease), malabsorption, and maldigestion of nutrients necessary for bone health and maintenance (eg, calcium, vitamin D), as well as the impact of glucocorticoids. These factors, when added to smoking, a sedentary lifestyle, hypogonadism, and a family history of osteoporosis, accumulate into an imposing package of predictors for osteoporotic fracture. This paper will review the identification and treatment strategies for patients with gastrointestinal disorders and osteoporosis.

  8. AT1 Receptor Gene Polymorphisms in relation to Postprandial Lipemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Klop

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent data suggest that the renin-angiotensin system may be involved in triglyceride (TG metabolism. We explored the effect of the common A1166C and C573T polymorphisms of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R gene on postprandial lipemia. Methods. Eighty-two subjects measured daytime capillary TG, and postprandial lipemia was estimated as incremental area under the TG curve. The C573T and A1166C polymorphisms of the AT1R gene were determined. Results. Postprandial lipemia was significantly higher in homozygous carriers of the 1166-C allele (9.39±8.36 mM*h/L compared to homozygous carriers of the 1166-A allele (2.02±6.20 mM*h/L (P<0.05. Postprandial lipemia was similar for the different C573T polymorphisms. Conclusion. The 1166-C allele of the AT1R gene seems to be associated with increased postprandial lipemia. These data confirm the earlier described relationships between the renin-angiotensin axis and triglyceride metabolism.

  9. Postprandial ghrelin is elevated in black compared with white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownley, Kimberly A; Light, Kathleen C; Grewen, Karen M; Bragdon, Edith E; Hinderliter, Alan L; West, Sheila G

    2004-09-01

    Ghrelin, a gut-brain peptide that signals hunger, is normally suppressed after meals. Subnormal suppression of postprandial ghrelin, previously noted in obese, insulin-resistant individuals, may contribute to increased food intake. Given the ethnic disparities in obesity and obesity-related cardiovascular morbidity in the United States, the present study compared a single postprandial ghrelin measure in 43 women (22 white, 21 black). Each completed a rigorously controlled 4-d dietary intervention designed to maintain weight and constant daily sodium and potassium intake (220 mEq Na, 40 mEq K). Two hours after consuming a test meal of identical content, blood samples were drawn to assess postprandial ghrelin, leptin, and norepinephrine; resting cardiovascular function was measured; and a 24-h urinary cortisol sample was obtained. Independent of body mass index, postprandial ghrelin was significantly higher in black vs. white women, and higher ghrelin was associated with higher cortisol in blacks, who failed to show the expected inverse relation between ghrelin and central obesity seen in whites. Higher ghrelin was correlated with higher blood pressure but lower norepinephrine in obese women. These findings suggest subnormal postprandial ghrelin suppression (or faster ghrelin rebound) in black women, especially the obese, that might play a role in their increased prevalence of obesity and cardiovascular disorders.

  10. Effect of a selective chloride channel activator, lubiprostone, on gastrointestinal transit, gastric sensory, and motor functions in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael; Bharucha, Adil E; Ueno, Ryuji; Burton, Duane; Thomforde, George M; Baxter, Kari; McKinzie, Sanna; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2006-05-01

    Chloride channels modulate gastrointestinal neuromuscular functions in vitro. Lubiprostone, a selective type 2 chloride channel (ClC-2) activator, induces intestinal secretion and has been shown to relieve constipation in clinical trials; however, the effects of lubiprostone on gastric function and whole gut transit in humans are unclear. Our aim was to compare the effects of the selective ClC-2 activator lubiprostone on maximum tolerated volume (MTV) of a meal, postprandial symptoms, gastric volumes, and gastrointestinal and colonic transit in humans. We performed a randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the effects of lubiprostone (24 microg bid) in 30 healthy volunteers. Validated methods were used: scintigraphic gastrointestinal and colonic transit, SPECT to measure gastric volumes, and the nutrient drink ("satiation") test to measure MTV and postprandial symptoms. Lubiprostone accelerated small bowel and colonic transit, increased fasting gastric volume, and retarded gastric emptying. MTV values were reduced compared with placebo; however, the MTV was within the normal range for healthy adults in 13 of 14 participants, and there was no significant change compared with baseline measurements. Lubiprostone had no significant effect on postprandial gastric volume or aggregate symptoms but did decrease fullness 30 min after the fully satiating meal. Thus the ClC-2 activator lubiprostone accelerates small intestinal and colonic transit, which confers potential in the treatment of constipation.

  11. Increased plasma availability of L-arginine in the postprandial period decreases the postprandial lipemia in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, Guilherme M; Meyer, Christian; Mandarino, Lawrence J; Katsanos, Christos S

    2013-01-01

    Older adults have exaggerated postprandial lipemia, which increases their risk for cardiovascular disease. We sought to determine the effects of increased plasma L-arginine (L-ARG) availability on the oxidation of ingested fat (enriched with [1,1,1-(13)C]-triolein) and plasma triacylglycerol (TG) concentrations during the postprandial period in older subjects. On one day, eight healthy subjects (67.8 ± 1.3 y old) received an intravenous infusion of L-ARG during the first hour of the postprandial period (L-ARG trial), while on a separate day, and in a randomized order, they received saline (control trial). The 8-h area under the plasma concentration-time curve describing the postprandial plasma TG concentrations was considerably lower in the L-ARG trial than in the control trial (-4 ± 21 versus 104 ± 21 mg ∙ dL(-1) ∙ h(-1), P lipemia in older adults, in association with a decrease in the postprandial contribution of ingested lipids into TGs of the plasma small TG-rich lipoproteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The role of macronutrients in gastrointestinal blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo

    2005-09-01

    The presence of luminal nutrients after a meal increases gastrointestinal blood flow in a phenomenon called postprandial hyperemia. In many conditions related to splanchnic hypoperfusion, enteral nutrition may play a role in counterbalancing the installed splanchnic low-flow state by producing intestinal hyperemia. However, when the gut is hypoperfused there is a chance of enteral nutrition producing a mismatch of the oxygen demand: supply ratio with subsequence gut ischemia. This article aims to review the effects of macronutrients on gastrointestinal blood flow in both health and critical conditions, especially those related to hepatosplanchnic hypoperfusion. Splanchnic blood flow is related not only to the route (intravenous or enteral) and timing of nutritional support (during the course of the insult) but also to the composition of the formula. Critically ill patients with gut hypoperfusion may tolerate enteral nutrition, but this effect may be restricted to the early post-injury phase. During ischaemia reperfusion injury, immune nutrients may promote different outcomes: glutamine may protect whereas arginine may deteriorate the mucosal barrier and enhance permeability. Understanding the relationship between macronutrients and gastrointestinal blood flow is a major challenge. Ongoing research in nutritional support in hypoperfused, catecholamine-dependent patients will open the door to optimize the recovery of patients in critical care.

  13. Gastrointestinal polyps in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Chun; Lee, Hung-Chang; Yeung, Chun-Yan; Chan, Wai-Tao; Jiang, Chuen-Bin

    2009-10-01

    Gastrointestinal polyps are common in children. The purpose of this study was to review the clinical manifestations, diagnostic procedures, endoscopic findings, management, pathology, and recurrence of gastrointestinal polyps in children at Mackay Memorial Hospital. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 50 children with a diagnosis of gastrointestinal polyps managed at Mackay Memorial Hospital between January 1984 and April 2007. Demographic data; clinical features; polyp size, number and location; endoscopic findings; management; pathology; and information on recurrences were extracted from the clinical records. The distribution of polyps in the 50 patients included gastric (4 patients), duodenal (2), ileocecal (4) and colorectal polyps (40). All patients with gastric polyps presented with vomiting, and three of the four patients with ileocecal polyps presented with intussusception. The mean age of the 40 patients with colorectal polyps was 6.8 years. The majority of those polyps were in the rectosigmoid colon; 36 patients presented with hematochezia. Solitary polyps were identified in 33 patients and multiple polyps were identified in seven patients. Most of the colorectal polyps were less than 2cm in diameter. Histologically, the most frequent type was juvenile polyp. Gastrointestinal polyps in children are usually benign. Pediatricians treating a child with a gastrointestinal polyp should pay attention to the immediate complications of the polyps, such as intussusception or bleeding, the extraintestinal manifestations and long-term risk for malignancy.

  14. Comparison of the effects of slowly and rapidly absorbed carbohydrates on postprandial glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Meidjie; Linn, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Isomaltulose attenuates postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations compared with sucrose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the mechanism by which isomaltulose limits postprandial hyperglycemia has not been clarified. The objective was therefore to assess the effects of bolus administration of isomaltulose on glucose metabolism compared with sucrose in T2DM. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, 11 participants with T2DM initially underwent a 3-h euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (0.8 mU · kg(-1) · min(-1)) clamp that was subsequently combined with 1 g/kg body wt of an oral (13)C-enriched isomaltulose or sucrose load. Hormonal responses and glucose kinetics were analyzed during a 4-h postprandial period. Compared with sucrose, absorption of isomaltulose was prolonged by ∼50 min (P = 0.004). Mean plasma concentrations of insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide were ∼10-23% lower (P insulin-to-glucagon ratio (P Insulin action was enhanced after isomaltulose compared with sucrose (P = 0.013). Ingestion of slowly absorbed isomaltulose attenuates postprandial hyperglycemia by reducing oral glucose appearance, inhibiting endogenous glucose production (EGP), and increasing SGU compared with ingestion of rapidly absorbed sucrose in patients with T2DM. In addition, GLP-1 secretion contributes to a beneficial shift in the insulin-to-glucagon ratio, suppression of EGP, and enhancement of SGU after isomaltulose consumption. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01070238. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Obesity and gastrointestinal neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Binkowska-Borgosz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Being overweight or obese is a significant public health problem in the 21st century due to its scale, common existence and its cause-effect association with multiple diseases. Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in humans is regarded as a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular and skeletal diseases. However, data from recent years have revealed that obesity is also strongly associated with increased risk of the majority of cancers in humans, including those originating from the gastrointestinal tract. During the last few year this association has been thoroughly proven and supported by several epidemiological analyses. The authors present i the current state of knowledge regarding key (pathomechanisms that link metabolism of human adipose tissue to development/progression of neoplasms (especially in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as ii the results of selected clinical studies in which the influence of obesity on risk of gastrointestinal cancer development has been addressed.

  16. Postprandial regulation of hepatic microRNAs predicted to target the insulin pathway in rainbow trout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A Mennigen

    Full Text Available Rainbow trout are carnivorous fish and poor metabolizers of carbohydrates, which established this species as a model organism to study the comparative physiology of insulin. Following the recent characterisation of key roles of several miRNAs in the insulin action on hepatic intermediary metabolism in mammalian models, we investigated the hypothesis that hepatic miRNA expression is postprandially regulated in the rainbow trout and temporally coordinated in the context of insulin-mediated regulation of metabolic gene expression in the liver. To address this hypothesis, we used a time-course experiment in which rainbow trout were fed a commercial diet after short-term fasting. We investigated hepatic miRNA expression, activation of the insulin pathway, and insulin regulated metabolic target genes at several time points. Several miRNAs which negatively regulate hepatic insulin signaling in mammalian model organisms were transiently increased 4 h after the meal, consistent with a potential role in acute postprandial negative feed-back regulation of the insulin pathway and attenuation of gluconeogenic gene expression. We equally observed a transient increase in omy- miRNA-33 and omy-miRNA-122b 4 h after feeding, whose homologues have potent lipogenic roles in the liver of mammalian model systems. A concurrent increase in the activity of the hepatic insulin signaling pathway and the expression of lipogenic genes (srebp1c, fas, acly was equally observed, while lipolytic gene expression (cpt1a and cpt1b decreased significantly 4 h after the meal. This suggests lipogenic roles of omy-miRNA-33 and omy-miRNA-122b may be conserved between rainbow trout and mammals and that these miRNAs may furthermore contribute to acute postprandial regulation of de novo hepatic lipid synthesis in rainbow trout. These findings provide a framework for future research of miRNA regulation of hepatic metabolism in trout and will help to further elucidate the metabolic

  17. Atrial natriuretic peptide induces postprandial lipid oxidation in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birkenfeld, A.L.; Budziarek, P.; Boschmann, M.; Moro, C.; Adams, F.; Franke, G.; Berlan, M.; Marques, M.A.; Sweep, F.C.; Luft, F.C.; Lafontan, M.; Jordan, J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) regulates arterial blood pressure. In addition, ANP has recently been shown to promote human adipose tissue lipolysis through cGMP-mediated hormone-sensitive lipase activation. We hypothesized that ANP increases postprandial free fatty acid (FFA)

  18. High-Intensity Interval Training for Improving Postprandial Hyperglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Jonathan P.; Francois, Monique E.

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has garnered attention in recent years as a time-efficient exercise option for improving cardiovascular and metabolic health. New research demonstrates that HIIT may be particularly effective for improving postprandial hyperglycemia in individuals with, or at risk for, type 2 diabetes (T2D). These findings…

  19. Postprandial fate of amino acids: adaptation to molecular forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolles, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    During the postprandial phase dietary proteins are digested to peptides and amino acids and absorbed. Once absorbed the peptides are further hydrolyzed to amino acids and transported to the tissues. These amino acids are largely incorporated into body proteins. Not all amino acids are, however,

  20. Effects of postprandial lipemia on plasma cholesterol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, G R; Fielding, C J

    1985-01-01

    Cholesterol net transport, esterification, and cholesteryl ester transfer have been determined in plasma during fasting, and postprandially, after a high fat-cholesterol meal. Significant rises in plasma triglyceride, phospholipid, and free cholesterol were associated with increases in cholesterol net transport, esterification, and transfer (all P less than 0.005), which were well correlated in individual subjects (r greater than 0.60). Essentially, the whole of free cholesterol required for such increased esterification was derived from cell membranes, when cultured fibroblasts were present, despite the increased level of free cholesterol in postprandial plasma; most of the additional cholesteryl ester generated was transferred to the low and very low density lipoproteins (LDL and VLDL) of plasma. Postprandial LDL (the major carrier of free and ester cholesterol and phospholipids among the acceptor lipoproteins) contained significantly decreased ratios of free cholesterol to phospholipid (P less than 0.001), which may modulate the increased transfer of cholesteryl ester to VLDL and LDL. These data suggest that the presence of postprandial acceptor lipoproteins in plasma may play an important role in stimulating the "reverse" transport of cholesterol from peripheral cells for hepatic degradation, which is effective even after the ingestion of dietary cholesterol. PMID:3856571

  1. Menopause is associated with reduced protection from postprandial lipemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, André P.; de Ruijter-Heijstek, Florianne C.; Erkelens, D. Willem; de Bruin, Tjerk W.A.

    1999-01-01

    Deficiency of endogenous estrogens has been associated with a higher incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in women. We investigated whether natural menopause is associated with reduced protection from postprandial lipemia, which represents a risk indicator of CHD. Twenty-three postmenopausal

  2. Low fasting low high-density lipoprotein and postprandial lipemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorodila Konstandina

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and disturbed postprandial lipemia are associated with coronary heart disease. In the present study, we evaluated the variation of triglyceride (TG postprandially in respect to serum HDL cholesterol levels. Results Fifty two Greek men were divided into 2 main groups: a the low HDL group (HDL p = 0.002. The low HDL group had significantly higher TG at 4, 6 and 8 h postprandially compared to the controls (p = 0.006, p = 0.002, and p p = 0.017 compared to the matched-control group. ROC analysis showed that fasting TG ≥ 121 mg/dl have 100% sensitivity and 81% specificity for an abnormal TG response (auc = 0.962, p Conclusions The delayed TG clearance postprandially seems to result in low HDL cholesterol even in subjects with low fasting TG. The fasting TG > 121 mg/dl are predictable for abnormal response to fatty meal.

  3. Influence of genetic factors in the modulation of postprandial lipemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postprandial lipemia is traditionally defined by the extent and duration of the increase in plasma triglycerides in response to a fat-enriched meal. The relationship between alimentary lipemia and coronary disease is of great interest in view of the epidemiological and experimental evidence that und...

  4. An epigenomic signature of postprandial hyperglycemia in peripheral blood leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sung-Mi; Cho, Yoon-Kyung; Hong, Eun-Jung; Han, Bok-Ghee; Jeon, Jae-Pil

    2016-03-01

    Postprandial hyperglycemia is known to be one of the earliest signs of abnormal glucose homeostasis associated with type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to assess clinical significance of a 1-h postprandial glucose level for the development of diabetes, and identify epigenetic biomarkers of postprandial hyperglycemia. We analyzed clinical data from the oral glucose tolerance tests for healthy subjects (n=4502). The ratio (Glu60/Glu0) of 1-h glucose levels to fasting glucose levels was significantly associated with an insulin sensitive index (QUICKI, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index) (β=0.055, P=1.25E-04) as well as a risk of future pre-diabetic and diabetic conversion. Next, DNA methylation profile analyses of 24 matched pairs of the high and low Glu60/Glu0 ratio subjects showed that specific DNA methylation levels in the promoter region of an olfactory receptor gene (olfactory receptor gene family10 member A4, OR10A4) were associated with the Glu60/Glu0 ratios (β=0.337, P=0.03). Moreover, acute oral glucose challenges decreased the DNA methylation levels of OR10A4 but not the global DNA methylation in peripheral leukocytes of healthy subjects (n=7), indicating that OR10A4 is a specific epigenomic target of postprandial hyperglycemia. This work suggests possible relevance of olfactory receptor genes to an earlier molecular biomarker of peripheral hyperglycemia and diabetic conversion.

  5. Determinants of postprandial plasma bile acid kinetics in human volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiamoncini, J.; Yiorkas, A.M.; Gedrich, K.; Rundle, M.; Alsters, S.I.; Roeselers, G.; Broek, T.J. van den; Clavel, T.; Lagkouvardos, I.; Wopereis, S.; Frost, G.; Ommen, B. van; Blakemore, A.I.; Daniel, H.

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids (BA) are signaling molecules with a wide range of biological effects, also identified among the most responsive plasma metabolites in the postprandial state. We here describe this response to different dietary challenges and report on key determinants linked to its interindividual

  6. Exponential increase in postprandial blood-glucose exposure with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Postprandial glucose excursions contribute significantly to average blood glucose, glycaemic variability and cardiovascular risk. Carbohydrate counting is a method of insulin dosing that balances carbohydrate load to insulin dose using a fixed ratio. Many patients and current insulin pumps calculate insulin ...

  7. An evaluation of postprandial glucose excursions in type 2 diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evaluation of postprandial glucose excursions in type 2 diabetic mellitus subjects on Monotard® HM (ge) versus Humulin N® or Humulin L® insulin, each in combination with metformin. ... The subjects had a mean duration of diabetes of 11.4 ± 6.6 years, with 71% (n = 22) having a positive family history. The study cohort ...

  8. Ageing and Gastrointestinal Sensory Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Christopher; Grundy, David

    Over the past few decades a combination of electrophysiological, morphological and molecular approaches has enabled the different populations of vagal and spinal afferents that innervate the bowel to be characterized. The sensitivity of these afferents is determined by their location in the gut wall, their relationship with other cells and structures and the receptors and ion channels that they express on their nerve terminals. An important feature of this innervation is that it is upregulated during injury, inflammation and ischaemia through changes in receptors and ion channels that determine excitability and sensitivity. In recent studies we have sought to identify how sensory mechanisms are influenced as part of the normal ageing process. Attenuated signaling was evident in different gastrointestinal afferent subpopulations conveying low and high threshold mechanosensory information and there was impairment in the ability of sensory neurons to sensitize in response to chemical mediators such as 5-HT. These sensory deficits may contribute to altered bowel habits with age and the prevalence of incontinence in the elderly.

  9. Morphological classifications of gastrointestinal lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugels, Jasper L. A.; Hazewinkel, Yark; Dekker, Evelien

    2017-01-01

    In the era of spreading adoption of gastrointestinal endoscopy screening worldwide, endoscopists encounter an increasing number of complex lesions in the gastrointestinal tract. For decision-making on optimal treatment, precise lesion characterization is crucial. Especially the assessment of

  10. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of 3,3′-Diindolylmethane in Gastrointestinal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Mi Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies in humans have shown that 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM, which is found in cruciferous vegetables, such as cabbage and broccoli, is effective in the attenuation of gastrointestinal cancers. This review presents the latest findings on the use, targets, and modes of action of DIM for the treatment of human gastrointestinal cancers. DIM acts upon several cellular and molecular processes in gastrointestinal cancer cells, including apoptosis, autophagy, invasion, cell cycle regulation, metastasis, angiogenesis, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress. In addition, DIM increases the efficacy of other drugs or therapeutic chemicals when used in combinatorial treatment for gastrointestinal cancer. The studies to date offer strong evidence to support the use of DIM as an anticancer and therapeutic agent for gastrointestinal cancer. Therefore, this review provides a comprehensive understanding of the preventive and therapeutic properties of DIM in addition to its different perspective on the safety of DIM in clinical applications for the treatment of gastrointestinal cancers.

  11. Postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins regulate perilipin-2 and perilipin-3 lipid-droplet-associated proteins in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Lourdes M; López, Sergio; Ortega-Gómez, Almudena; Bermúdez, Beatriz; Buers, Insa; Robenek, Horst; Muriana, Francisco J G; Abia, Rocío

    2015-04-01

    Lipid accumulation in macrophages contributes to atherosclerosis. Within macrophages, lipids are stored in lipid droplets (LDs); perilipin-2 and perilipin-3 are the main LD-associated proteins. Postprandial triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins induce LD accumulation in macrophages. The role of postprandial lipoproteins in perilipin-2 and perilipin-3 regulation was studied. TG-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) induced the levels of intracellular TGs, LDs and perilipin-2 protein expression in THP-1 macrophages and in Apoe(-/-) mice bone-marrow-derived macrophages with low and high basal levels of TGs. Perilipin-3 was only synthesized in mice macrophages with low basal levels of TGs. The regulation was dependent on the fatty acid composition of the lipoproteins; monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) more strongly attenuated these effects compared with saturated fatty acids. In THP-1 macrophages, immunofluorescence microscopy and freeze-fracture immunogold labeling indicated that the lipoproteins translocated perilipin-3 from the cytoplasm to the LD surface; only the lipoproteins that were rich in PUFAs suppressed this effect. Chemical inhibition showed that lipoproteins induced perilipin-2 protein expression through the peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptor (PPAR) PPARα and PPARγ pathways. Overall, our data indicate that postprandial TRLs may be involved in atherosclerotic plaque formation through the regulation of perilipin-2 and perilipin-3 proteins in macrophages. Because the fatty acid composition of the lipoproteins is dependent on the type of fat consumed, the ingestion of olive oil, which is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, and fish oil, which is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, can be considered a good nutritional strategy to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis by LD-associated proteins decrease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The normal increase in insulin after a meal may be required to prevent postprandial renal sodium and volume losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsik, Debra L; Blazer-Yost, Bonnie L; Staruschenko, Alexander; Brands, Michael W

    2017-06-01

    Despite the effects of insulinopenia in type 1 diabetes and evidence that insulin stimulates multiple renal sodium transporters, it is not known whether normal variation in plasma insulin regulates sodium homeostasis physiologically. This study tested whether the normal postprandial increase in plasma insulin significantly attenuates renal sodium and volume losses. Rats were instrumented with chronic artery and vein catheters, housed in metabolic cages, and connected to hydraulic swivels. Measurements of urine volume and sodium excretion (UNaV) over 24 h and the 4-h postprandial period were made in control (C) rats and insulin-clamped (IC) rats in which the postprandial increase in insulin was prevented. Twenty-four-hour urine volume (36 ± 3 vs. 15 ± 2 ml/day) and UNaV (3.0 ± 0.2 vs. 2.5 ± 0.2 mmol/day) were greater in the IC compared with C rats, respectively. Four hours after rats were given a gel meal, blood glucose and urine volume were greater in IC rats, but UNaV decreased. To simulate a meal while controlling blood glucose, C and IC rats received a glucose bolus that yielded peak increases in blood glucose that were not different between groups. Urine volume (9.7 ± 0.7 vs. 6.0 ± 0.8 ml/4 h) and UNaV (0.50 ± 0.08 vs. 0.20 ± 0.06 mmol/4 h) were greater in the IC vs. C rats, respectively, over the 4-h test. These data demonstrate that the normal increase in circulating insulin in response to hyperglycemia may be required to prevent excessive renal sodium and volume losses and suggest that insulin may be a physiological regulator of sodium balance. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Administration of exogenous acylated ghrelin or rikkunshito, an endogenous ghrelin enhancer, improves the decrease in postprandial gastric motility in an acute restraint stress mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, M; Saegusa, Y; Sadakane, C; Yamada, C; Nakagawa, K; Okubo, N; Ohnishi, S; Hattori, T; Sakamoto, N; Takeda, H

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical or psychological stress causes functional disorders in the upper gastrointestinal tract. This study aims to elucidate the ameliorating effect of exogenous acylated ghrelin or rikkunshito, a Kampo medicine which acts as a ghrelin enhancer, on gastric dysfunction during acute restraint stress in mice. Methods Fasted and postprandial motor function of the gastric antrum was wirelessly measured using a strain gauge force transducer and solid gastric emptying was detected in mice exposed to restraint stress. Plasma corticosterone and ghrelin levels were also measured. To clarify the role of ghrelin on gastrointestinal dysfunction in mice exposed to stress, exogenous acylated ghrelin or rikkunshito was administered, then the mice were subjected to restraint stress. Key Results Mice exposed to restraint stress for 60 min exhibited delayed gastric emptying and increased plasma corticosterone levels. Gastric motility was decreased in mice exposed to restraint stress in both fasting and postprandial states. Restraint stress did not cause any change in plasma acylated ghrelin levels, but it significantly increased the plasma des-acyl ghrelin levels. Administration of acylated ghrelin or rikkunshito improved the restraint stress-induced delayed gastric emptying and decreased antral motility. Ameliorating effects of rikkunshito on stress-induced gastric dysfunction were abolished by simultaneous administration of a ghrelin receptor antagonist. Conclusions & Inferences Plasma acylated/des-acyl ghrelin imbalance was observed in acute restraint stress. Supplementation of exogenous acylated ghrelin or enhancement of endogenous ghrelin signaling may be useful in the treatment of decreased gastric function caused by stress. PMID:24684160

  14. The effect of α- or β-casein addition to waxy maize starch on postprandial levels of glucose, insulin, and incretin hormones in pigs as a model for humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony P. Kett

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Starch is a main source of glucose and energy in the human diet. The extent to which it is digested in the gastrointestinal tract plays a major role in variations in postprandial blood glucose levels. Interactions with other biopolymers, such as dairy proteins, during processing can influence both the duration and extent of this postprandial surge.Objective:To evaluate the effect of the addition of bovine α- or β-casein to waxy maize starch on changes in postprandial blood glucose, insulin, and incretin hormones [glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1] in 30 kg pigs used as an animal model for humans.Design:Gelatinised starch, Results:starch gelatinised with α-casein, and starch gelatinised with β-casein were orally administered to trained pigs (n = 8 at a level of 60 g of available carbohydrate. Pre- and postprandial glucose measurements were taken every 15 min for the first hour and every 30 min thereafter up to 180 min. Insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 levels were measured in plasma samples up to 90 min postprandial.Starch gelatinised with α-casein had a significantly (p < 0.05 lower peak viscosity on pasting and resulted in significantly lower glucose release at 15, 30, and 90 min postprandial compared to starch gelatinised with β-casein. During the first 45-min postprandial, the area under the glucose curve (AUC for starch gelatinised with α-casein was significantly (p < 0.05 lower than that for starch gelatinised with β-casein. There was also a significant (p < 0.05 difference at T30 in GIP levels in response to the control compared to starch gelatinised with α- or β-casein. Significant (p < 0.05 increases in several free amino acid concentrations were observed on ingestion of either α- or β-casein gelatinised with starch at 30 and 90 min postprandial compared to starch alone. In addition, plasma levels of six individual amino acids were increased on ingestion of starch

  15. Metabolomics reveals differences in postprandial responses to breads and fasting metabolic characteristics associated with postprandial insulin demand in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzami, Ali A; Shrestha, Aahana; Morrison, David A; Poutanen, Kaisa; Mykkänen, Hannu

    2014-06-01

    Changes in serum metabolic profile after the intake of different food products (e.g., bread) can provide insight into their interaction with human metabolism. Postprandial metabolic responses were compared after the intake of refined wheat (RWB), whole-meal rye (WRB), and refined rye (RRB) breads. In addition, associations between the metabolic profile in fasting serum and the postprandial concentration of insulin in response to different breads were investigated. Nineteen postmenopausal women with normal fasting glucose and normal glucose tolerance participated in a randomized, controlled, crossover meal study. The test breads, RWB (control), RRB, and WRB, providing 50 g of available carbohydrate, were each served as a single meal. The postprandial metabolic profile was measured using nuclear magnetic resonance and targeted LC-mass spectrometry and was compared between different breads using ANOVA and multivariate models. Eight amino acids had a significant treatment effect (P effect (P fasting metabolic profile and the postprandial concentration of insulin. Women with higher fasting concentrations of leucine and isoleucine and lower fasting concentrations of sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines had higher insulin responses despite similar glucose concentration after all kinds of bread (cross-validated ANOVA, P = 0.048). High blood concentration of branched-chain amino acids, i.e., leucine and isoleucine, has been associated with the increased risk of diabetes, which suggests that additional consideration should be given to bread proteins in understanding the beneficial health effects of different kinds of breads. The present study suggests that the fasting metabolic profile can be used to characterize the postprandial insulin demand in individuals with normal glucose metabolism that can be used for establishing strategies for the stratification of individuals in personalized nutrition. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Flaxseed dietary fibers suppress postprandial lipemia and appetite sensation in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, M; Savorani, F; Christensen, S; Engelsen, S B; Bügel, S; Toubro, S; Tetens, I; Astrup, A

    2013-02-01

    Dietary fibers (DF) are linked to a reduced risk of life-style diseases, which relate to their physiological effects in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim was to examine whether flaxseed DF-enriched meals suppress postprandial lipemia and reduce appetite. Four different iso-caloric meals were tested in 18 young men in a double-blind randomized crossover design. Test meals were served after an overnight fast. DF content and source were: control (C): 1.4 g/MJ; whole flaxseed (WF): 2.4 g/MJ from whole flaxseeds; low-mucilage dose (LM): 2.4 g/MJ from flaxseed DF; high-mucilage dose (HM): 3.4 g/MJ from flaxseed DF. During the 7 h test day, subjective appetite sensation was assessed using visual analogue scales and appetite-regulating hormones, and lipemia and glycemia were measured, after which ad libitum energy intake was recorded. There was a significant time × meal effect on triacylglycerols (TG) (p = 0.02) and an 18% smaller area under the curve (AUC) for TG after meal HM compared to meal C was observed (p lipemia and appetite although subsequent energy intake was not affected. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of cross-linked arabinoxylans on the postprandial blood glucose response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Barbara; Gallaher, Daniel D; Bunzel, Mirko

    2012-04-18

    Viscous dietary fibers are well established to reduce the blood glucose response to a meal. In this study, arabinoxylans, the most abundant dietary fiber in most cereals, were extracted under alkaline conditions and cross-linked by using laccase. Cross-linking of the arabinoxylans led to gel formation and increased in vitro viscosity almost 100-fold after drying and rehydration. To determine the ability of these cross-linked arabinoxylans to blunt the postprandial blood glucose curve of a meal, arabinoxylans, either native or cross-linked, and either prehydrated or not, were fed to rats as part of a meal, and blood glucose was monitored at intervals after the meal. Cellulose, a nonviscous fiber, served as a control. Cross-linked, but not native, arabinoxylans significantly reduced the area under the blood glucose time curve 5-9% relative to cellulose, indicating that they remained viscous within the gastrointestinal tract, and thus likely provide the health benefits found with other viscous fibers.

  18. Acute metabolic response to fasted and postprandial exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima FD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Filipe Dinato de Lima,1,2 Ana Luiza Matias Correia,1 Denilson da Silva Teixeira,2 Domingos Vasco da Silva Neto,2 Ítalo Sávio Gonçalves Fernandes,2 Mário Boratto Xavier Viana,2 Mateus Petitto,2 Rodney Antônio da Silva Sampaio,2 Sandro Nobre Chaves,2 Simone Teixeira Alves,2 Renata Aparecida Elias Dantas,2 Márcio Rabelo Mota2 1University of Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil; 2Universitary Center of Brasília (UniCEUB, Brasília, DF, BrazilAbstract: The aim of this study was to analyze the acute metabolic response to exercise in fasting and postprandial. For this, ten individuals were submitted to an incremental treadmill test, with an initial speed of 5 and 1 km/h increments every minute, with no inclination, and a body composition assessment. After this 1st day, all volunteers were submitted to two experimental procedures (fasting and postprandial, with an aerobic exercise performed for 36 minutes at 65% of maximal oxygen consumption. At postprandial procedure, all subjects ingested a breakfast containing 59.3 g of carbohydrate (76.73%, 9.97 g of protein (12.90%, 8.01 g of lipids (10.37%, with a total energy intake of 349.17 kcal. An analysis of plasma concentration of triglycerides, lactate, and glucose was performed in two stages: before and after exercise. The Shapiro–Wilk test was used to verify the normality of the data. For analysis of glucose concentration, plasma lactate, and triglycerides, we used a repeated measures analysis of variance factorial 2×2, with Bonferroni multiple comparison test. The significance level of P<0.05 was adopted. The results indicated a maintenance level of glucose at fasting and a decrease in glucose concentration at postprandial exercise. Both conditions increase plasma lactate. Triglycerides also increased in the two experimental conditions; however, after exercise fasting, the increase was significantly higher than in the postprandial exercise. These data suggest that both exercises could increase

  19. Gastrointestinal Complications of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael; Malhi, Harmeet; Acosta, Andres

    2017-01-01

    Obesity usually is associated with morbidity related to diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are many gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases for which obesity is the direct cause (eg, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease) or is a significant risk factor, such as reflux esophagitis and gallstones. When obesity is a risk factor, it may interact with other mechanisms and result in earlier presentation or complicated diseases. There are increased odds ratios or relative risks of several gastrointestinal complications of obesity: gastroesophageal reflux disease, erosive esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, erosive gastritis, gastric cancer, diarrhea, colonic diverticular disease, polyps, cancer, liver disease including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, gallstones, acute pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer. Gastroenterologists are uniquely poised to participate in the multidisciplinary management of obesity as physicians caring for people with obesity-related diseases, in addition to their expertise in nutrition and endoscopic interventions. PMID:28192107

  20. GASTROINTESTINAL STROMAL TUMOR (GIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eTornillo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. The discovery that these tumors, formerly thought of smooth muscle origin, are indeed better characterized by specific activating mutation in genes coding for the receptor tyrosine kinases CKIT and PDGFRA and that these mutations are strongly predictive for the response to targeted therapy with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors has made GISTs the typical example of the integration of basic molecular knowledge in the daily clinical activity. The information on the mutational status of these tumors is essential to predict (and subsequently to plan the therapy. As resistant cases are frequently wild-type, other possible oncogenic events, defining other entities, have been discovered (e.g. succinil dehydrogenase mutation/dysregulation, insuline growth factor expression, mutations in the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway. The classification of disease must nowadays rely on the integration of the clinico-morphological characteristics with the molecular data.

  1. [Microbiota and gastrointestinal diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco Allué, I

    2015-12-01

    The bacterial colonisation is established immediately after birth, through direct contact with maternal microbiota, and may be influenced during lactation. There is emerging evidence indicating that quantitative and qualitative changes on gut microbiota contribute to alterations in the mucosal activation of the immune system, leading to intra- or extra-intestinal diseases. A balance between pathogenic and beneficial microbiota throughout childhood and adolescence is important to gastrointestinal health, including protection against pathogens, inhibition of pathogens, nutrient processing (synthesis of vitamin K), stimulation of angiogenesis, and regulation of host fat storage. Probiotics can promote an intentional modulation of intestinal microbiota favouring the health of the host. A review is presented on the modulation of intestinal microbiota on prevention, and adjuvant treatment of some paediatric gastrointestinal diseases. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Gastrointestinal Complications of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael; Malhi, Harmeet; Acosta, Andres

    2017-05-01

    Obesity usually is associated with morbidity related to diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are many gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases for which obesity is the direct cause (eg, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease) or is a significant risk factor, such as reflux esophagitis and gallstones. When obesity is a risk factor, it may interact with other mechanisms and result in earlier presentation or complicated diseases. There are increased odds ratios or relative risks of several gastrointestinal complications of obesity: gastroesophageal reflux disease, erosive esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, erosive gastritis, gastric cancer, diarrhea, colonic diverticular disease, polyps, cancer, liver disease including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, gallstones, acute pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer. Gastroenterologists are uniquely poised to participate in the multidisciplinary management of obesity as physicians caring for people with obesity-related diseases, in addition to their expertise in nutrition and endoscopic interventions. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiology illustrated. Gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ihn (ed.) [Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2015-02-01

    Radiology Illustrated: Gastrointestinal Tract is the second of two volumes designed to provide clear and practical guidance on the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. The book presents approximately 300 cases with 1500 carefully selected and categorized illustrations of gastrointestinal tract diseases, along with key text messages and tables that will help the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis., Essential points are summarized at the end of each text message to facilitate rapid review and learning. Additionally, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by case studies of both common and uncommon pathologies that illustrate the roles of the different imaging modalities, including ultrasound, radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  4. Impact of dietary fibre-enriched ready-to-eat extruded snacks on the postprandial glycaemic response of non-diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Margaret A; Derbyshire, Emma J; Brennan, Charles S; Tiwari, Brijesh K

    2012-05-01

    Food intervention is a financially sensible way for prevention and treatment of diabetes. Extruded snack foods are considered high glycaemic products. Our previous research illustrated that postprandial glycaemic responses to snacks are manipulated by altering dietary fibre and starch contents. The current research assessed the effect of psyllium and oat bran on postprandial glycaemia and in vitro digestibility. Addition of psyllium fibre to extruded snack products significantly reduced both the in vitro and in vivo glycaemic responses of products compared to a control snack product recipe. Oat bran inclusion reduced in vitro starch digestibility but not in vivo glycaemic response. The inclusion of oat bran into the snack products appeared to extend the glycaemic response of individuals compared to the control snack, suggesting a possibility of prolonging glucose release and potentially affecting satiety responses. The positive effect in attenuating glucose response means that psyllium fibre could be a target for inclusion by the snack food industry to effectively manipulate postprandial glucose response of individuals. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Upper Gastrointestinal Stent

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang Gyun; Yang, Chang-Hun

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) stent has been developed for palliation of obstructive symptoms in various diseases causing obstruction of GI tract. Self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) has replaced old type of plastic stent, and endoscopic insertion of stent has replaced fluoroscopy-guided insertion. Nowadays, newly-designed SEMSs have been developed for prevention of complications such as stent migration and re-obstruction, and indications of stent recently have been widened into benign conditions as we...

  6. Gastrointestinal food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Ralf G

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal food allergies present during early childhood with a diverse range of symptoms. Cow's milk, soy and wheat are the three most common gastrointestinal food allergens. Several clinical syndromes have been described, including food protein-induced enteropathy, proctocolitis and enterocolitis. In contrast with immediate, IgE-mediated food allergies, the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms is delayed for at least 1-2 hours after ingestion in non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders. The pathophysiology of these non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders is poorly understood, and useful in vitro markers are lacking. The results of the skin prick test or measurement of the food-specific serum IgE level is generally negative, although low-positive results may occur. Diagnosis therefore relies on the recognition of a particular clinical phenotype as well as the demonstration of clear clinical improvement after food allergen elimination and the re-emergence of symptoms upon challenge. There is a significant clinical overlap between non-IgE-mediated food allergy and several common paediatric gastroenterological conditions, which may lead to diagnostic confusion. The treatment of gastrointestinal food allergies requires the strict elimination of offending food allergens until tolerance has developed. In breast-fed infants, a maternal elimination diet is often sufficient to control symptoms. In formula-fed infants, treatment usually involves the use an extensively hydrolysed or amino acid-based formula. Apart from the use of hypoallergenic formulae, the solid diets of these children also need to be kept free of specific food allergens, as clinically indicated. The nutritional progress of infants and young children should be carefully monitored, and they should undergo ongoing, regular food protein elimination reassessments by cautious food challenges to monitor for possible tolerance development. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Lower gastrointestinal endoscopies results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Bozdağ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Endoscopic examinations have great potential in early diagnosis of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas with reducing to colorectal cancer incidence and mortality. We aimed to evaluate for diagnostic purposeful lower gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures in the second step state hospital retrospectively Methods: Between June 2010 and June 2013, we evaluated 278 patients with rectal bleeding, constipation and abdominal pain detected by lower gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures retrospectively. Results: The mean age of the patients was 54.8 ± 16.8 (15-90 year, respectively. 172 (61.9% of the patients were male and 106 (38.1% of the patients were female. 116 (41.7% of the patients was performed rectosigmoidoscopy and 162 (58.3% of the patients was performed colonoscopy. 51(18.3% of our patients were normal. 10 (3.6% of patients had colorectal cancer, 11(3.9% of patients had inflammatory bowel disease, 8 (2.9% of patients had parasitosis, 31(11.1% of patients had colorectal polyps, 12 (4.3% , in patients had diverticular disease, 2 (0.7% patients had rectal ulcer, 25 (9% patients had anal fissure and 159 (57.2% of the patients had hemorrhoidal disease. Conclusion: Lower gastrointestinal endoscopy is a method been the gold standard with a low complication rate and that can be easily applied in the evaluation to pathology of colorectal and anal canal. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (4: 580-582

  8. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms in autoimmune gastritis: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabotti, Marilia; Lahner, Edith; Esposito, Gianluca; Sacchi, Maria Carlotta; Severi, Carola; Annibale, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune gastritis is often suspected for its hematologic findings, and rarely the diagnosis is made for the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Aims of this cross-sectional study were to assess in a large cohort of patients affected by autoimmune gastritis the occurrence and the pattern of gastrointestinal symptoms and to evaluate whether symptomatic patients are characterized by specific clinical features.Gastrointestinal symptoms of 379 consecutive autoimmune gastritis patients were systematically assessed and classified following Rome III Criteria. Association between symptoms and anemia pattern, positivity to gastric autoantibodies, Helicobacter pylori infection, and concomitant autoimmune disease were evaluated.In total, 70.2% of patients were female, median age 55 years (range 17-83). Pernicious anemia (53.6%), iron deficiency anemia (34.8%), gastric autoantibodies (68.8%), and autoimmune disorders (41.7%) were present. However, 56.7% of patients complained of gastrointestinal symptoms, 69.8% of them had exclusively upper symptoms, 15.8% only lower and 14.4% concomitant upper and lower symptoms. Dyspepsia, subtype postprandial distress syndrome was the most represented, being present in 60.2% of symptomatic patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that age gastritis is associated in almost 60% of cases with gastrointestinal symptoms, in particular dyspepsia. Dyspepsia is strictly related to younger age, no smoking, and absence of anemia.

  9. Impact of postprandial glucose control on diabetes-related complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsbad, Sten

    2016-01-01

    Conflicting findings in the literature and lack of long-term definitive outcome studies have led to difficulty in drawing conclusions about the role of postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetes and its complications. Recent scientific publications support the role of postprandial glucose (PPG......) as a key contributor to overall glucose control and a predictor of microvascular and macrovascular events. However, the need remains for definitive evidence to support the precise relationship between PPG excursions and the development and progression of cardiovascular complications of diabetes. Drawing...... complications is unclarified and is one of the remaining unanswered questions in diabetes. Nevertheless, current evidence supports PPG control as an important strategy to consider in the comprehensive management plan of individuals with diabetes....

  10. Type 2 diabetes: postprandial hyperglycemia and increased cardiovascular risk

    OpenAIRE

    Ajikumar V Aryangat; John E Gerich

    2010-01-01

    Ajikumar V Aryangat, John E GerichUniversity of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USAAbstract: Hyperglycemia is a major risk factor for both the microvascular and macrovascular complications in  patients with type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes the cardiovascular results of large outcomes trials in diabetes and presents new evidence on the role of hyperglycemia, with particular emphasis on postprandial hyperglycemia, in adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabet...

  11. Starch and fibre intake and glucose postprandial response of dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Monti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Fibre has been studied to reduce the postprandial glucose response of dogs, but the results are inconsistent. Starch intake, however, was not properly considered in the published studies. The effects of starch and fibre intake on the postprandial glucose response were studied in non-obese adult dogs. Cellulose (CEL, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, pea fibre (PE and sugarcane fibre (SCF were combined to form six diets with starch contents ranging from 33% to 42%: SCF+CEL and PE+CEL diets, both with high insoluble fibre (IF=22% and low soluble fibre (SF=2.5% content; SCF+CMC and PE+CMC diets with high SF (SF=4.5%; IF=19% content; and CMC and CEL diets with low dietary fibre (14% content. The diets were fed in two amounts, providing an intake of 9.5g or 12.5g of starch (kg0.75-1 day-1, totaling 12 treatments. Each diet was fed to six dogs conditioned to consume all of the daily food in 10min. Their plasma glucose levels were measured before and during 480min after food intake. Results of fibre and starch intake and their interactions were compared by repeated measures ANOVA and the Tukey test (P0.05. High-dose starch intake, however, induced a higher glycaemia at 180 and 240min after the meal and a greater maximal glycaemia and greater area under the glucose curve (P<0.05. A range in insoluble and soluble fibre intake does not change postprandial glucose response, and the amount of starch intake is a main factor for the postprandial glucose response of healthy non-obese dogs.

  12. Patterns of postprandial hyperglycemia after basal insulin therapy: individual and regional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaefer, Charles; Reid, Timothy; DiGenio, Andres; Vlajnic, Aleksandra; Zhou, Rong; Ameer, Barbara; Riddle, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    Treatment of postprandial hyperglycemia could be needed when basal insulin added to oral therapy does not maintain glycated haemoglobin (HbA1C ) targets in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Knowing individual and regional patterns of postprandial hyperglycemia in this setting might improve therapeutic decisions. Patient-level self-monitored blood glucose data were pooled from six studies of insulin glargine for patients with HbA1C  ≥ 7.0% after 24 weeks. Percentages of participants with highest daily postprandial blood glucose and greatest postprandial increments after each of the three daily meals were calculated and compared between four geographical regions; USA, Canada, Germany, and other European countries. For 494 participants (mean age 60.1 years, diabetes duration 9.6 years, and BMI 29.8 kg/m(2) ), mean endpoint HbA1C was 7.8%. On insulin glargine treatment, highest postprandial blood glucose most often occurred post-dinner (44% of participants) and greatest postprandial increments post-breakfast (46% of participants) in all regions. Participants with greatest postprandial increments post-breakfast were older and experienced less HbA1C improvement with insulin glargine than those with greatest postprandial increments after other meals. Post-breakfast and post-dinner postprandial blood glucose was higher in the USA and Canada versus Germany, and in the USA versus Other European countries (all p < 0.05). Postprandial increments after dinner were greater in the USA versus all other regions. Generally, highest postprandial blood glucose follows dinner and greatest postprandial increments follow breakfast. Variations in patient characteristics and eating patterns might underlie differences both within and between regions. Awareness of regional differences and evaluation of an individual's typical eating pattern might facilitate appropriate prandial therapy. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Effect of Spirulina maxima on Postprandial Lipemia in Young Runners: A Preliminary Report

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-Durán, Patricia Victoria; Ferreira-Hermosillo, Aldo; Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernández-Torres, Rosa Patricia; Juárez-Oropeza, Marco Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Trained people exhibit low plasma concentrations of triacylglcyerols in both fasting and postprandial states. Exercise practice is commonly believed to improve postprandial lipemia. In addition, elevated postprandial lipemia is an indicator of poor lipid clearance, and it has been associated with atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, and obesity. Spirulina maxima is an edible microorganism with a high nutritional value. When it is consumed, beneficial properties to health have been demonstrate...

  14. NOS3 Glu298Asp polymorphism interacts with virgin olive oil phenols to determine the postprandial endothelial function in patients with the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Morales, Ana I; Ruano, Juan; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Fernandez, Juan M; Camargo, Antonio; López-Segura, Fernando; Villarraso, Javier Caballero; Fuentes-Jiménez, Francisco; López-Miranda, Jose; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco

    2011-10-01

    Glu298Asp polymorphism of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene (NOS3) has been characterized as a risk factor of hypertension and coronary artery disease. Previous studies suggest that the higher risk observed in T allele carriers is due to endothelial dysfunction associated with a lower eNOS activity and that acute consumption of phenol-rich olive oil ameliorates postprandial endothelial dysfunction by reducing oxidative stress and increasing nitric oxide bioavailability. Nevertheless, how these facts may interact in a population with altered endothelial function such as metabolic syndrome patients remains unknown. The objective of the study was to evaluate whether the presence of NOS3 Glu298Asp polymorphism interacts with the phenol content of virgin olive oil (VOO) to influence postprandial endothelial function. Fifty-seven subjects with metabolic syndrome received three breakfasts based on VOO with different phenolic content. Baseline, incremental area under the curve, peak, and maximum parameters of postocclusive skin reactive hyperemia (PORH) were evaluated by laser Doppler, and the nitrate/nitrite [NO((x))] and eNOS concentrations were obtained during fasting and postprandially. A gene-diet interaction was found on maximum PORH and NO((x)) (P = 0.039 and P = 0.043, respectively). TT subjects showed lower values of eNOS, NO((x)), and maximum PORH as compared with GG and GT subjects, especially in the postprandial measurements (all P < 0.05). However, most of these differences were attenuated when high-phenol VOO was consumed. In a population with a compromised endothelial function, concentrations of phenols in dietary VOO interact with NOS3 Glu298Asp to ameliorate the endothelial dysfunction associated to the TT genotype.

  15. Postprandial lipemia in diabetic men during hypolipemic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Kreczyńska, Bogusława; Poreba, Rafał

    2009-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying postprandial lipemia in various pathological states remain to be elucidated. The aim of the study was to evaluate lipid homeostasis in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) after a standard meal. Moreover, the effect of short-term hypolipemic therapy on postprandial lipemia was assessed. Twenty-six men with DM aged 53 +/-6.7 years, 27 patients with hyperlipemia and no DM (asymptomatic hyperlipemia - AH) and 60 normolipemic subjects aged 46 +/-11 years were included in the study. Treatment with simvastatin (20 mg/d) or fenofibrate (267 mg/d) was initiated in all DM patients due to fasting hyperlipemia, and in the AH group. Blood samples were drawn in the fasting state and 3 h after a meal at three time points, i.e. at baseline, after 6 and 12 weeks of treatment. Triglycerides (TG), glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), HDL2-C, and HDL3-C were assayed by routine laboratory tests; apolipoproteins A and B by immunoturbidimetry, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) by immunonephelometry. In men with DM, changes in triglycerides induced by a meal (140 +/-68.0 mg/dl) were higher compared to normolipemic men (62.1 +/-52.5 mg/dl, p lipemia (p lipemia and abnormal lipid homeostasis. Lipid intolerance detected in a postprandial lipemia test may be an indication for hypolipemic therapy.

  16. Does fasting or postprandial state affect thyroid function testing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Nair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels vary with the time of the day and probably in relation to food. In this study, we addressed the question of whether a fasting or non-fasting sample would make a clinically significant difference in the interpretation of thyroid function tests. Materials and Methods: Fifty seven adult ambulatory patients were selected from our laboratory database and were divided into Group A [Normal free thyroxine (T4 and TSH], Group B (subclinical hypothyroid with increased TSH and normal free T4 and Group C (overt hypothyroid with low free T4 and high TSH. Thyroid functions (free T4 and TSH were done in fasting state and 2 hours postprandially. Results: TSH was suppressed in all subjects after food irrespective of the fasting levels. Free T4 values did not change significantly. This resulted in reclassification of 15 out of 20 (75% subjects as subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH based on fasting values whose TSH values were otherwise within range in the postprandial sample. This may have an impact on the diagnosis and management of hypothyroidism especially where even marginal changes in TSH may be clinically relevant as in SCH and in pregnancy. Conclusion: TSH levels showed a statistically significant decline postprandially in comparison to fasting values. This may have clinical implications in the diagnosis and management of hypothyroidism, especially SCH.

  17. Safety and efficacy of the nonsystemic chewable complex carbohydrate dietary supplement PAZ320 on postprandial glycemia when added to oral agents or insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, Laura E; Kasid, Natasha; Homa, Karen; Chaidarun, Sushela

    2013-01-01

    Our primary objective was to evaluate the effect of the dietary supplement PAZ320 on postprandial glucose excursion. PAZ320 is derived from glucomannan and acts by blocking carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes and by binding to ingested polysaccharides. Endpoints included area under the curve during postprandial glucose excursion (gAUC) and adverse reactions. In an open-label, sequential dose-escalation, prospective study, we examined the efficacy and safety of PAZ320 in 24 subjects with type 2 diabetes treated with oral agents and/or insulin. Subjects consumed 75 g jasmine rice alone or with low-dose (8 g) or high-dose (16 g) PAZ320. A real-time blinded continuous glucose monitor (CGM) was used to assess 3-hour postprandial glycemia. We found that 45% of subjects responded to high-dose PAZ320 as evidenced by a decrease in gAUC of 40% compared to baseline in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of PAZ320 does not correlate with duration of diabetes and seems to work regardless of concurrent diabetes medications. The responders had higher postmeal glucose elevation at baseline, while the nonresponders showed no effect or paradoxic glucose response to PAZ320. There was no severe hypoglycemia, and the gastrointestinal side effects were mild. PAZ320 may be useful as an adjunct to decrease postprandial glycemia in type 2 diabetes, although patients should verify its effect on postprandial glucose due to a possible paradoxic response. Its safety profile is reassuring. Further study is required to determine its long-term effects on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and to further define which subpopulation may respond to PAZ320.

  18. Postprandial lipemia enhances the capacity of large HDL2 particles to mediate free cholesterol efflux via SR-BI and ABCG1 pathways in type IIB hyperlipidemia[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia, Zélie; Duchene, Emilie; Fournier, Natalie; Bellanger, Natacha; Chapman, M. John; Le Goff, Wilfried; Guerin, Maryse

    2010-01-01

    Lipid and cholesterol metabolism in the postprandial phase is associated with both quantitative and qualitative remodeling of HDL particle subspecies that may influence their anti-atherogenic functions in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. We evaluated the capacity of whole plasma or isolated HDL particles to mediate cellular free cholesterol (FC) efflux, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)-mediated cholesteryl ester (CE) transfer, and selective hepatic CE uptake during the postprandial phase in subjects displaying type IIB hyperlipidemia (n = 16). Postprandial, large HDL2 displayed an enhanced capacity to mediate FC efflux via both scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI)-dependent (+12%; P lipemia was associated with elevated endogenous CE transfer rates from HDL2 to apoB lipoproteins and with attenuated capacity (−17%; P lipemia enhanced SR-BI and ABCG1-dependent efflux to large HDL2 particles. However, postprandial lipemia is equally associated with deleterious features by enhancing formation of CE-enriched, triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles through the action of CETP and by reducing the direct return of HDL-CE to the liver. PMID:20713650

  19. The effect of continuous jejunal interposition on gastrointestinal hormones after distal gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Ye Lv

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to determine the effect of continuous jejunal interposition on gastrointestinal hormones after distal gastrectomy, and lay a foundation for surgical management.Distal subtotal gastrectomy experimental model were established on 24 adult Beagle dogs. Digestive tract reconstruction of the dogs was randomly divided into continuous jejunal interposition group, Billroth II anastomosis group and isolated jejunum interposition group. The content of serum gastrin, plasma motilin and cholecystokinin after different digestive tract reconstructions was detected and compared by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assayIn the dogs which received continuous jejunal interposition, postoperative serum gastrin level was significantly lower than before surgery either in fasting or postprandial state (all p<0.05. The serum gastrin level of continuous jejunal interposition group was significantly higher than the other groups in postprandial state (all p<0.05, and was significantly higher than Billroth II -type anastomosis group in fasting state (p<0.05. Furthermore, the postoperative plasma motilin and cholecystokinin levels were significantly higher than before surgery either in fasting or postprandial in dogs received continuous jejunal interposition (all p<0.05. The postoperative plasma motilin level of continuous jejunal interposition group was significantly higher than the other groups in postprandial state (all p<0.05, and was significantly higher than Billroth II -type anastomosis group in fasting state (p<0.05. However, the postoperative cholecystokinin level of continuous jejunal interposition group was significantly lower than the other groups (allp p<0.05.Continuous jejunal interposition after distal gastrectomy could maintain the postoperative plasma motilin and serum gastrin in a relatively high level, while cholecystokinin in a low level.

  20. in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Uzman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : There is increasing interest in sedation for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE. Prospective randomized studies comparing sedation properties and complications of propofol and midazolam/meperidine in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE are few. Aim: To compare propofol and midazolam/meperidine sedation for UGE in terms of cardiopulmonary side effects, patient and endoscopist satisfaction and procedure-related times. Material and methods: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study of propofol versus midazolam and meperidine in 100 patients scheduled for diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The patients were divided into propofol and midazolam/meperidine groups. Randomization was generated by a computer. Cardiopulmonary side effects (hypotension, bradycardia, hypoxemia, procedure-related times (endoscopy time, awake time, time to hospital discharge, and patient and endoscopist satisfaction were compared between groups. Results: There was no significant difference between the groups with respect to the cost, endoscopy time, or demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients. Awake time and time to hospital discharge were significantly shorter in the propofol group (6.58 ±4.72 vs. 9.32 ±4.26 min, p = 0.030 and 27.60 ±7.88 vs. 32.00 ±10.54 min, p = 0.019. Hypotension incidence was significantly higher in the propofol group (12% vs. 0%, p = 0.027. The patient and endoscopist satisfaction was better with propofol. Conclusions : Propofol may be preferred to midazolam/meperidine sedation, with a shorter awake and hospital discharge time and better patient and endoscopist satisfaction. However, hypotension risk should be considered with propofol, and careful evaluation is needed, particularly in cardiopulmonary disorders.

  1. The gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Else M.; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2009-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has always been and remains a major source of interest in terms of both its function, and its malfunction. Our current knowledge of age-related changes in this system, as well as drug-food interactions, however, remains relatively limited. Paradoxically, the GIT...... is not one of the core battery of tests that pharmaceutical companies are obliged to investigate as part of drug development. This review aims to cover the basics of GIT function before highlighting aspects of relevance for safety pharmacology in terms of age, cancerogenesis, and noth drug and diet...

  2. Bitter tastants alter gastric-phase postprandial haemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Michael K; Whitehouse, Julie M; Whitton, Peter A; Towell, Anthony

    2014-07-03

    Since Greco-Roman times bitter tastants have been used in Europe to treat digestive disorders, yet no pharmacological mechanism has been identified which can account for this practice. This study investigates whether the bitter tastants, gentian root (Gentian lutea L.) and wormwood herb (Artemisia absinthium L.), stimulate cephalic and/or gut receptors to alter postprandial haemodynamics during the gastric-phase of digestion. Normal participants ingested (1) 100 mL water plus capsules containing either cellulose (placebo-control) or 1000 mg of each tastant (n=14); or (2) 100mL of water flavoured with 500 or 1500 mg of each tastant (a) gentian (n=12) and (b) wormwood (n=12). A single beat-to-beat cardiovascular recording was obtained for the entire session. Pre/post-ingestion contrasts with the control were analysed for (1) the encapsulated tastants, in the "10 to 15" minute post-ingestion period, and (2) the flavoured water in the "5 to 10" minute post-ingestion period. Water, the placebo-control, increased cardiac contraction force and blood pressure notwithstanding heart rate decreases. Encapsulated tastants did not further alter postprandial haemodynamics. In contrast gentian (500 and 1500 mg) and wormwood (1500 mg) flavoured water elicited increased peripheral vascular resistance and decreased cardiac output, primarily by reducing stroke volume rather than heart rate. Drinking 100mL water elicits a pressor effect during the gastric-phase of digestion due to increased cardiac contraction force. The addition of bitter tastants to water elicits an additional and parallel pressor effect due to increased peripheral vascular resistance; yet the extent of the post-prandial blood pressure increases are unchanged, presumably due to baroreflex buffering. The vascular response elicited by bitter tastants can be categorised as a sympathetically-mediated cephalic-phase response. A possible mechanism by which bitter tastants could positively influence digestion is altering

  3. Assessment of vagotomy status with postprandial urinary alkaline tide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longkumer, Tialiba; Parthasarathy, G; Kate, Vikram; Ananthakrishnan, N; Koner, B C

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess whether the postprandial urinary alkaline tide, as a marker for the completeness of vagotomy, is dependent on the nature of the test meal, whether it is affected by proton pump inhibitor therapy, and whether it is reliable. The postprandial urinary alkaline tide (PUAT) pattern was prospectively assessed in three different study groups and one control group of healthy volunteers. The three study groups were as follows; A (n = 20) i.e. the Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI) Group; B (n = 25) i.e. the Truncal Vagotomy (TV) Group; and C (n = 5) i.e. the Recurrent Ulcer (RU) Group. Urinary pH was measured by a pocket digital pH meter. Postprandial urinary alkaline tide in the control group was significantly higher compared to the fasting levels. Liquid diet did not elicit a significant urinary alkaline tide response. There was a statistically significant fall in both fasting urinary pH (5.34 +/- 0.70 vs. 4.80 +/- 0.61, p = 0.031) and the postprandial alkaline tide (6.99 +/- 0.79 vs. 4.94 +/- 0.63, p = 0.0001) after taking proton pump inhibitors. In the truncal vagotomy and gastrojejunostomy group it was found that there was a significant fall in both the mean fasting (5.28 +/- 0.58, vs. 4.92 +/- 0.66, p = 0.032) and the postprandial urinary pH (6.29 +/- 0.92 vs. 5.09 +/- 0.73, p = 0.0001) following surgery. This study establishes that simple measurement of the urinary pH before and after a standard test meal can be used as an accurate routine test for the completion of vagotomy. It also showed that proton pump inhibitors abolish the alkaline tide and therefore must be discontinued before measuring the alkaline tide. Liquid test meal was not effective in eliciting an alkaline tide as compared to a solid meal.

  4. Gastrointestinal care for older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremayne, Penny; Harrison, Penny

    2016-07-06

    This article discusses gastrointestinal (GI) healthcare in older people. It outlines the physiological changes that occur in the GI tract as a result of ageing, and discusses common GI disorders in older people. These GI disorders include dysphagia, gastrointestinal reflux disease, colorectal cancer, diverticular disease, constipation and anaemia. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the factors that may influence gastrointestinal health in older people, including nutrition, hydration and alcohol use, which are important considerations when delivering person-centred care.

  5. Relationship of body weight with gastrointestinal motor and sensory function: studies in anorexia nervosa and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemel, Sena; Menne, Dieter; Milos, Gabriella; Goetze, Oliver; Fried, Michael; Schwizer, Werner; Fox, Mark; Steingoetter, Andreas

    2017-01-05

    Whether gastrointestinal motor and sensory function is primary cause or secondary effect of abnormal body weight is uncertain. Moreover, studies relating continuous postprandial sensations of satiation to measurable pathology are scarce. This work assessed postprandial gastrointestinal function and concurrent sensations of satiation across a wide range of body weight and after weight change. Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and obesity (OB) were investigated in reference to normal weight controls (HC). AN were additionally investigated longitudinally. Gastric emptying, antral contractions and oro-cecal transit after ingestion of a solid meal were investigated by MRI and 13C-lactose-ureide breath test. The dependency of self-reported sensations of satiation on the varying degree of stomach filling during gastric emptying was compared between groups. 24 AN (BMI 14.4 (11.9-16.0) kg/m2), 16 OB (34.9 (29.6-41.5) kg/m2) and 20 HC (21.9 (18.9-24.9) kg/m2) were studied. Gastric half-emptying time (t50) was slower in AN than HC (p = 0.016) and OB (p = 0.007), and a negative association between t50 and BMI was observed between BMI 12 and 25 kg/m2 (p = 0.007). Antral contractions and oro-cecal transit were not different. For any given gastric content volume, self-reported postprandial fullness was greater in AN than in HC or OB (p body weight and gastric emptying as well as self-reported feelings of satiation is present. AN have slower gastric emptying and heightened visceral perception compared to HC and OB. Longitudinal follow-up after weight rehabilitation in AN suggests these abnormalities are not a primary feature, but secondary to other factors that determine abnormal body weight. Registered July 20, 2009 at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT00946816 ).

  6. Gastrointestinal Manifestations of Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis has historically been considered a pulmonary disease, but with the increasing life expectancy of these patients, gastrointestinal manifestations are becoming more important. Furthermore, nutritional status is closely linked to pulmonary function and, thus, overall mortality. This article discusses gastrointestinal manifestations (which involve nutritional, pancreatic, hepatobiliary, and, in particular, gastrointestinal tract issues) of cystic fibrosis as well as management of the disease. In addition, the article discusses studies that have been critical to our understanding of gastrointestinal manifestations of cystic fibrosis. PMID:27330503

  7. Chlorogenic acid differentially affects postprandial glucose and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Jasmine M; Eller, Lindsay K; Reimer, Raylene A; Hittel, Dustin S; Shearer, Jane

    2011-10-01

    Regular coffee consumption significantly lowers the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Coffee contains thousands of compounds; however, the specific component(s) responsible for this reduced risk is unknown. Chlorogenic acids (CGA) found in brewed coffee inhibit intestinal glucose uptake in vitro. The objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which CGA acts to mediate blood glucose response in vivo. Conscious, unrestrained, male Sprague-Dawley rats were chronically catheterized and gavage-fed a standardized meal (59% carbohydrate, 25% fat, 12% protein), administered with or without CGA (120 mg·kg(-1)), in a randomized crossover design separated by a 3-day washout period. Acetaminophen was co-administered to assess the effects of CGA on gastric emptying. The incretins glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) were measured. GLP-1 response in the presence of glucose and CGA was further examined, using the human colon cell line NCI-H716. Total area under the curve (AUC) for blood glucose was significantly attenuated in rats fed CGA (p rats fed CGA, with a lower peak concentration and AUC up to 180 min postprandially (p blood glucose response, with alterations seen in GIP concentrations. Given the widespread consumption and availability of coffee, CGA may be a viable prevention tool for T2D.

  8. High-intensity interval exercise attenuates but does not eliminate endothelial dysfunction after a fast food meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Wesley J; Sawyer, Brandon J; Jarrett, Catherine L; Bhammar, Dharini M; Ryder, Justin R; Angadi, Siddhartha S; Gaesser, Glenn A

    2018-02-01

    We investigated whether two different bouts of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) could attenuate postprandial endothelial dysfunction. Thirteen young (27 ± 1 yr), nonexercise-trained men underwent three randomized conditions: 1) four 4-min intervals at 85-95% of maximum heart rate separated by 3 min of active recovery (HIIE 4 × 4), 2) 16 1-min intervals at 85-95% of maximum heart rate separated by 1 min of active recovery (HIIE 16 × 1), and 3) sedentary control. HIIE was performed in the afternoon, ~18 h before the morning fast food meal (1,250 kcal, 63g of fat). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was performed before HIIE ( baseline 1), during fasting before meal ingestion ( baseline 2), and 30 min, 2 h, and 4 h postprandial. Capillary glucose and triglycerides were assessed at fasting, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, and 4 h (triglycerides only). Both HIIE protocols increased fasting FMD compared with control (HIIE 4 × 4: 6.1 ± 0.4%, HIIE 16 × 1: 6.3 ± 0.5%, and control: 5.1 ± 0.4%, P fast food meal can attenuate but not entirely eliminate postprandial decreases in FMD. This effect is not dependent on reductions in postprandial lipemia or glycemia. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Two similar high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) protocols performed ∼18 h before ingestion of a high-energy fast food meal attenuated but did not entirely eliminate postprandial endothelial dysfunction in young men largely by improving fasting endothelial function. Both HIIE protocols produced essentially identical results, suggesting high reproducibility of HIIE effects.

  9. Osteoporosis in Gastrointestinal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krela-Kaźmierczak, Iwona; Szymczak, Aleksandra; Łykowska-Szuber, Liliana; Eder, Piotr; Linke, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Secondary osteoporosis occurs as an isolated pathology or co-exists with types I and II osteoporosis. The gastroenterologist may come across osteoporosis or osteopenia in a patient with a gastrointestinal disease. This is often a young patient in whom investigations should be carried out and appropriate treatment initiated, aimed at preventing bone fractures and the formation of the best peak bone mass. Osteoporosis occurs in patients with the following conditions: Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, celiac disease, post gastrectomy patients, patients with short bowel syndrome, chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis, treated with steroids (steroid-induced osteoporosis) and patients using proton pump inhibitors chronically (state of achlorhydria). It is therefore necessary to approve a list of risk factors of secondary osteoporosis, the presence of which would be an indication for screening for osteoporosis, including a DXA study and the development of a separate algorithm for the therapeutic management of secondary osteoporosis accompanying gastrointestinal diseases, especially in premenopausal young women and young men, because there are currently no registered drugs with proven antifracture activity for this group of patients.

  10. Update on Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors for Radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Baheti, Akshay D; Tirumani, Harika; O'Neill, Ailbhe; Jagannathan, Jyothi P

    2017-01-01

    The management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) has evolved significantly in the last two decades due to better understanding of their biologic behavior as well as development of molecular targeted therapies. GISTs with exon 11 mutation respond to imatinib whereas GISTs with exon 9 or succinate dehydrogenase subunit mutations do not. Risk stratification models have enabled stratifying GISTs according to risk of recurrence and choosing patients who may benefit from adjuvant therapy. Assessing response to targeted therapies in GIST using conventional response criteria has several potential pitfalls leading to search for alternate response criteria based on changes in tumor attenuation, volume, metabolic and functional parameters. Surveillance of patients with GIST in the adjuvant setting is important for timely detection of recurrences.

  11. Update on gastrointestinal stromal tumors for radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirumani, Sree Harsha; O' Neill, Alibhe; Jagannathan, Jyothi P. [Dept. of Imaging, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston (United States); Baheti, Akahay D. [Dept. of Radiology, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai (India); Tirumani, Harika [Dept. of Radiology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock (United States)

    2017-01-15

    The management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) has evolved significantly in the last two decades due to better understanding of their biologic behavior as well as development of molecular targeted therapies. GISTs with exon 11 mutation respond to imatinib whereas GISTs with exon 9 or succinate dehydrogenase subunit mutations do not. Risk stratification models have enabled stratifying GISTs according to risk of recurrence and choosing patients who may benefit from adjuvant therapy. Assessing response to targeted therapies in GIST using conventional response criteria has several potential pitfalls leading to search for alternate response criteria based on changes in tumor attenuation, volume, metabolic and functional parameters. Surveillance of patients with GIST in the adjuvant setting is important for timely detection of recurrences.

  12. Association between left-handedness and gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Kubo, Makiko; Kohata, Yukie; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Kenji; Watanabe, Toshio; Tominaga, Kazunari; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have shown associations between left-handedness and several chronic diseases such as bronchial asthma and inflammatory bowel disease. Perceptual responses within the brain-gut axis play a crucial role in the development of the cardinal symptoms of functional gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, including dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The aim of this study was to determine the association between left-handedness and GI symptoms or diseases. 2,447 Japanese who underwent a routine health check-up were asked to complete a self-report questionnaire regarding age, gender, writing handedness and GI symptoms experienced over the past 3 months, including heartburn, acid regurgitation, epigastric pain, postprandial fullness, abdominal pain/discomfort, nausea and/or chest pain. Symptoms were positive when their frequency was 2 to 3 days per month or more. Diagnosis of dyspepsia and IBS was performed according to the Rome III Integrative Questionnaire. Left-handedness was observed in 177 (7.2%) subjects. Early satiation, abdominal pain/fullness and postprandial fullness were less commonly observed in left-handed individuals. After adjustment for age and sex, left-handedness was found to be significantly associated with decreased OR for early satiation (OR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.23-0.78). There were no significant associations between left-handedness and GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease), dyspepsia or IBS. This study demonstrated a significant negative association between left-handedness and early satiation. The findings suggest that cerebral lateralization may affect the development of GI symptoms. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Effect of low glycemic index food and postprandial exercise on blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity

    OpenAIRE

    糟谷, 憲明; 太田, 昌一郎; 髙波, 嘉一; Kawai, Yukari; 井上, 裕; 村田, 勇; 金本, 郁男

    2015-01-01

    Low glycemic index (GI) food and postprandial exercise are non-drug therapies for improving postprandial hyperglycemia. The present randomized, crossover study investigated the effect of low GI food combined with postprandial exercise on postprandial blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity. A total of 13 healthy subjects were each used in four experiments: i) rice only (control), ii) salad prior to rice (LGI), iii) exercise following rice (EX) and iv) salad prior to ric...

  14. Effects of Hypoxic Exposure during Feeding on SDA and Postprandial Cardiovascular Physiology in the Atlantic Cod, Gadus morhua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Jane W.; Axelsson, Michael; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Seth, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Some Atlantic cod in the Bornholm Basin undertake vertical foraging migrations into severely hypoxic bottom water. Hypoxic conditions can reduce the postprandial increase in gastrointestinal blood flow (GBF). This could subsequently postpone or reduce the postprandial increase in oxygen consumption (MO2), i.e. the SDA, leading to a disturbed digestion. Additionally, a restricted oxygen uptake could result in an oxygen debt that needs to be compensated for upon return to normoxic waters and this may also affect the ability to process the food. Long-term cardio-respiratory measurements were made on fed G. morhua in order to understand how the cardio-respiratory system of feeding fish respond to a period of hypoxia and a subsequent return to normoxia. These were exposed to 35% water oxygen saturation for 90 minutes, equivalent to the time and oxygen level cod voluntarily endure when searching for food in the Bornholm Basin. We found that i) gastric and intestinal blood flows, cardiac output and MO2 increased after feeding, ii) gastric and intestinal blood flows were spared in hypoxia, and iii) there were no indications of an oxygen debt at the end of the hypoxic period. The magnitude and time course of the measured variables are similar to values obtained from fish not exposed to the hypoxic period. In conclusion, when cod in the field search for and ingest prey under moderate hypoxic conditions they appear to stay within safe limits of oxygen availability as we saw no indications of an oxygen debt, or negative influence on digestive capacity, when simulating field observations. PMID:23049987

  15. Effects of hypoxic exposure during feeding on SDA and postprandial cardiovascular physiology in the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane W Behrens

    Full Text Available Some Atlantic cod in the Bornholm Basin undertake vertical foraging migrations into severely hypoxic bottom water. Hypoxic conditions can reduce the postprandial increase in gastrointestinal blood flow (GBF. This could subsequently postpone or reduce the postprandial increase in oxygen consumption (MO(2, i.e. the SDA, leading to a disturbed digestion. Additionally, a restricted oxygen uptake could result in an oxygen debt that needs to be compensated for upon return to normoxic waters and this may also affect the ability to process the food. Long-term cardio-respiratory measurements were made on fed G. morhua in order to understand how the cardio-respiratory system of feeding fish respond to a period of hypoxia and a subsequent return to normoxia. These were exposed to 35% water oxygen saturation for 90 minutes, equivalent to the time and oxygen level cod voluntarily endure when searching for food in the Bornholm Basin. We found that i gastric and intestinal blood flows, cardiac output and MO(2 increased after feeding, ii gastric and intestinal blood flows were spared in hypoxia, and iii there were no indications of an oxygen debt at the end of the hypoxic period. The magnitude and time course of the measured variables are similar to values obtained from fish not exposed to the hypoxic period. In conclusion, when cod in the field search for and ingest prey under moderate hypoxic conditions they appear to stay within safe limits of oxygen availability as we saw no indications of an oxygen debt, or negative influence on digestive capacity, when simulating field observations.

  16. Idiopathic accelerated gastric emptying presenting in adults with post-prandial diarrhea and reactive hypoglycemia: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Middleton Stephen J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We have previously reported the association of gastrointestinal and hypoglycemic symptoms, with idiopathic accelerated gastric emptying. We now report the first series of six similar cases. Case presentations Patient 1: A 24-year-old Caucasian man presented to our facility with a six-month history of post-prandial nausea, flatulence, bloating, abdominal discomfort and associated diarrhea. He had associated episodes of fatigue, sweating, anxiety, confusion and craving for sweet foods. Patient 2: A 52-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our facility with a 15-year history of post-prandial bloating, abdominal pain and diarrhea, often associated with nausea, severe sweating, and fatigue. Patient 3: An 18-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our facility with a nine-year history of post-prandial diarrhea, abdominal bloating and pain. There was associated nausea, tremor, lethargy, and craving for sweet foods. Patient 4: A 77-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our facility with a four-month history of epigastric distension, pain after eating and a change in bowel habit. She experienced intermittent severe diarrhea and marked fatigue, nausea and sweating. Patient 5: A 23-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our facility with a two-year history of early satiety, and diarrhea after eating. She also complained of feeling faint and weak between meals, when she became cold and clammy, and on several occasions lost consciousness during these episodes. Patient 6: A 64-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our facility with a 10-year history of nausea, early satiety and profound bloating followed by diarrhea. All symptoms predominantly occurred in the first three hours after eating, when she felt faint, lethargic, and had a craving for sweet foods. In all cases, symptoms were alleviated or resolved by taking sweet food or drink and response to treatment was 90% or greater in all cases. Conclusions This series extends our description

  17. Impact of acute exercise on postprandial metabolic profile in physically fit adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Queiroga

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to rapidly remove triglycerides from plasma may contribute to reduce the rate of coronary disease. Physical activity is positively associated with a decrease in postprandial triglyceride levels, thus contributing effectively to the prevention and reduction of vascular disorders. The objective of this study was to analyze the course of postprandial triglycerides, as well as postprandial blood glucose, total cholesterol, total protein and hematocrit, after acute exercise in physically fit adults. Ten physically fit university students of both genders, with a mean age of 23.2 ± 1.9 years, were submitted to the collection of postprandial blood samples in two situations: control and exercise. In the control group, subjects remained at rest in the morning before the collection of postprandial blood. In the exercise group, the subjects performed a 20-meter shuttle run test, with gradual increases in intensity until exhaustion, in the morning before the collection of postprandial blood. A significant decrease of postprandial triglycerides was observed in the exercise group (p < 0.05, whereas blood glucose, total cholesterol, total protein and hematocrit remained unchanged in this condition. We conclude that in physically fit adults acute physical exercise with a gradual increase in intensity until exhaustion was able to reduce postprandial triglyceride levels and may contribute to the prevention of atherosclerosis and the consequent development of associated cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Impact of acute exercise on postprandial metabolic profile in physically fit adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisa Belli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n3p314   The ability to rapidly remove triglycerides from plasma may contribute to reduce the rate of coronary disease. Physical activity is positively associated with a decrease in postprandial triglyceride levels, thus contributing effectively to the prevention and reduction of vascular disorders. The objective of this study was to analyze the course of postprandial triglycerides, as well as postprandial blood glucose, total cholesterol, total protein and hematocrit, after acute exercise in physically fit adults. Ten physically fit university students of both genders, with a mean age of 23.2 ± 1.9 years, were submitted to the collection of postprandial blood samples in two situations: control and exercise. In the control group, subjects remained at rest in the morning before the collection of postprandial blood. In the exercise group, the subjects performed a 20-meter shuttle run test, with gradual increases in intensity until exhaustion, in the morning before the collection of postprandial blood. A significant decrease of postprandial triglycerides was observed in the exercise group (p < 0.05, whereas blood glucose, total cholesterol, total protein and hematocrit remained unchanged in this condition. We conclude that in physically fit adults acute physical exercise with a gradual increase in intensity until exhaustion was able to reduce postprandial triglyceride levels and may contribute to the prevention of atherosclerosis and the consequent development of associated cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Postprandial lipid responses to standard carbohydrate challenges used to determine glycemic index values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior studies assessing metabolic effects of different types of carbohydrate have focused on their glycemic response. Not considered has been the response of postprandial cardiometabolic risk indicators. This study assessed the postprandial lipid responses to two forms of carbohydrates used as ref...

  20. Differential effects of rosiglitazone and metformin on postprandial lipemia in patients with HIV-lipodystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, J.P.; Hoepelman, A.I.; de Koning, E.; Dallinga-Thie, G.; Rabelink, T.J.; Cabezas, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of rosiglitazone (8 mg/d, n=19) and metformin (2 g/d, n=18) on postprandial lipemia in patients with HIV-lipodystrophy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Lipodystrophy in HIV is associated with insulin resistance and disturbed postprandial triglyceride and free fatty acid (FFA)

  1. Differential Effects of Rosiglitazone and Metformin on Postprandial Lipemia in Patients With HIV-Lipodystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, Jeroen P. H.; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.; de Koning, Eelco J. P.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje; Rabelink, Ton J.; Cabezas, Manuel Castro

    Objective-To compare the effects of rosiglitazone (8 mg/d, n = 19) and metformin (2 g/d, n = 18) on postprandial lipemia in patients with HIV-lipodystrophy. Methods and Results-Lipodystrophy in HIV is associated with insulin resistance and disturbed postprandial triglyceride and free fatty acid

  2. Differential effects of proteins and carbohydrates on postprandial blood pressure-related responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen-Beekman, Karianna F. M.; Dopheide, Janneke; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Brink, Elizabeth J.; de Leeuw, Peter W.; Serroyen, Jan; van Baak, Marleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Diet composition may affect blood pressure (BP), but the mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the present study was to compare postprandial BP-related responses to the ingestion of pea protein, milk protein and egg-white protein. In addition, postprandial BP-related responses to the ingestion of

  3. Sleeve gastrectomy effects on hunger, satiation, and gastrointestinal hormone and motility responses after a liquid meal test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, Esther; Serra-Prat, Mateu; Palomera, Elisabet; Suñol, Xavier; Clavé, Pere

    2015-09-01

    The relation between hunger, satiation, and integrated gastrointestinal motility and hormonal responses in morbidly obese patients after sleeve gastrectomy has not been determined. The objective was to assess the effects of sleeve gastrectomy on hunger, satiation, gastric and gallbladder motility, and gastrointestinal hormone response after a liquid meal test. Three groups were studied: morbidly obese patients (n = 16), morbidly obese patients who had had sleeve gastrectomy (n = 8), and nonobese patients (n = 16). The participants fasted for 10 h and then consumed a 200-mL liquid meal (400 kcal + 1.5 g paracetamol). Fasting and postprandial hunger, satiation, hormone concentrations, and gastric and gallbladder emptying were measured several times over 4 h. No differences were observed in hunger and satiation curves between morbidly obese and nonobese groups; however, sleeve gastrectomy patients were less hungry and more satiated than the other groups. Antrum area during fasting in morbidly obese patients was statistically significant larger than in the nonobese and sleeve gastrectomy groups. Gastric emptying was accelerated in the sleeve gastrectomy group compared with the other 2 groups (which had very similar results). Gallbladder emptying was similar in the 3 groups. Sleeve gastrectomy patients showed the lowest ghrelin concentrations and higher early postprandial cholecystokinin and glucagon-like peptide 1 peaks than did the other participants. This group also showed an improved insulin resistance pattern compared with morbidly obese patients. Sleeve gastrectomy seems to be associated with profound changes in gastrointestinal physiology that contribute to reducing hunger and increasing sensations of satiation. These changes include accelerated gastric emptying, enhanced postprandial cholecystokinin and glucagon-like peptide 1 concentrations, and reduced ghrelin release, which together may help patients lose weight and improve their glucose metabolism after

  4. Dysbiosis in gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Christopher; Lin, Henry

    2016-02-01

    The recent development of advanced sequencing techniques has revealed the complexity and diverse functions of the gut microbiota. Furthermore, alterations in the composition or balance of the intestinal microbiota, or dysbiosis, are associated with many gastrointestinal diseases. The looming question is whether dysbiosis is a cause or effect of these diseases. In this review, we will evaluate the contribution of intestinal microbiota in obesity, fatty liver, inflammatory bowel disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. Promising results from microbiota or metabolite transfer experiments in animals suggest the microbiota may be sufficient to reproduce disease features in the appropriate host in certain disorders. Less compelling causal associations may reflect complex, multi-factorial disease pathogenesis, in which dysbiosis is a necessary condition. Understanding the contributions of the microbiota in GI diseases should offer novel insight into disease pathophysiology and deliver new treatment strategies such as therapeutic manipulation of the microbiota. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Obesity and Gastrointestinal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Fujimoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity in the Japanese population has been increasing dramatically in step with the Westernization of lifestyles and food ways. Our study demonstrated significant associations between obesity and a number of gastrointestinal disorders in a large sample population in Japan. We demonstrated that reflux esophagitis and hiatal hernia were strongly related to obesity (BMI > 25 in the Japanese. In particular, obesity with young male was a high risk for these diseases. On the other hand, it has been reported that obesity is also associated with Barrett’s esophagus and colorectal adenoma; however, obesity was not a risk factor for these diseases in our study. The difference of ethnicity of our subjects may partly explain why we found no data to implicate obesity as a risk factor for Barrett’s esophagus. Arterial sclerosis associated with advanced age and hyperglycemia was accompanied by an increased risk of colorectal adenoma.

  6. Estrogen and gastrointestinal malignancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, A M

    2012-02-01

    The concept that E2 exerts an effect on the gastrointestinal tract is not new and its actions on intestinal mucosa have been investigated for at least three decades. An attempt to consolidate results of these investigations generates more questions than answers, thus suggesting that many unexplored avenues remain and that the full capabilities of this steroid hormone are far from understood. Evidence of its role in esophageal, gastric and gallbladder cancers is confusing and often equivocal. The most compelling evidence regards the protective role conferred by estrogen (or perhaps ERbeta) against the development and proliferation of colon cancer. Not only has the effect been described but also many mechanisms of action have been explored. It is likely that, along with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, hormonal manipulation will play an integral role in colon cancer management in the very near future.

  7. Rosacea and gastrointestinal disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, A; Weinstock, L B; Thyssen, E P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rosacea is a common inflammatory facial skin condition. Recent genetic and epidemiological studies have suggested pathogenic links between rosacea and gastrointestinal disorders, but data are limited. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate the association between rosacea...... and coeliac disease (CeD), Crohn disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), Helicobacter pylori infection (HPI), small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), respectively. METHODS: We performed a nationwide cohort study. A total of 49 475 patients with rosacea and 4 312 213...... with rosacea. RESULTS: The prevalence of CeD, CD, UC, HPI, SIBO and IBS, respectively, was higher among patients with rosacea when compared with the control subjects. Adjusted HRs revealed significant associations between rosacea and CeD (HR 1·46, 1·11-1·93), CD (HR 1·45, 1·19-1·77), UC (HR 1·19, 1...

  8. Evidence for an exaggerated postprandial lipemia in chronic paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Mark S; DeGroot, Joris; Martinez-Arizala, Alberto; Mendez, Armando J

    2005-01-01

    Excessive delay in triglyceride (TG) metabolism after ingestion of dietary fat represents a significant cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The objective of this study was to compare the postprandial lipemic responses of individuals with paraplegia with those of healthy nondisabled individuals. The ability of 3 recreationally active individuals with paraplegia having normal fasting TG (mean = 103 mg/dL) to metabolize TG after ingestion of a high-fat test meal was compared with a previously published cohort of 21 recreationally active individuals without paraplegia (TG mean = 86 mg/dL) who underwent identical testing. The subjects with paraplegia had venous blood taken under fasting conditions, and then ingested a milkshake containing premium ice cream blended with heavy whipping cream (approximately 92% of calories from fat). Additional blood samples were obtained at 2, 4, and 6 hours after ingestion. The area under the curve (AUC) for TG clearance for both subject groups was measured with an area planimeter. TG uptake for both groups was almost identical for the first 2 hours after ingestion. At 4 and 6 hours after ingestion, the TG levels were 50 and 35 mg/dL higher, respectively, in subjects with paraplegia than in nondisabled subjects. When corrected for small baseline differences in TG concentrations (16 mg/dL), the AUC was 46.5% greater for the group with paraplegia than in the nondisabled group. A near mirror association across time was observed between postprandial serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and TG levels in subjects with paraplegia. This case series finds an exaggerated postprandial lipemia (PPL) in persons with paraplegia with normal fasting TGs. This finding is the first evidence, in a small population, of an unreported potential CVD risk in persons with paraplegia.

  9. Differences and similarities of postprandial lipemia in rodents and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The rat has been a mainstay of physiological and metabolic research, and more recently mice. This study aimed at characterizing the postprandial triglyceride profile of two members of the Muridae family: the Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) and C57BL/6 mice (Mus musculus) plus comparing them to the profile obtained in humans. Methods Thirty-one male and twelve female Wistar rats, ten C57BL/6 male and nine female mice received a liquid meal containing fat (17%), protein (4%) and carbohydrates (4%), providing 2 g fat/Kg. Thirty-one men and twenty-nine women received a standardized liquid meal containing fat (25%), dextromaltose (55%), protein (14%), and vitamins and minerals (6%), and providing 40 g of fat per square meter of body surface. Serial blood samples were collected at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h after the ingestion in rats, at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h in mice and in humans at 2, 4, 6 and 8 h. Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests were used. Results/Discussion The triglyceride responses were evaluated after the oral fat loads. Fasting and postprandial triglyceridemia were determined sequentially in blood sample. AUC, AUIC, AR, RR and late peaks were determined. Conclusions Rats are prone to respond in a pro-atherogenic manner. The responses in mice were closer to the ones in healthy men. This study presents striking differences in postprandial triglycerides patterns between rats and mice not correlated to baseline triglycerides, the animal baseline body weight or fat load in all animal groups. PMID:21605416

  10. Differences and similarities of postprandial lipemia in rodents and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Silva Lívia R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rat has been a mainstay of physiological and metabolic research, and more recently mice. This study aimed at characterizing the postprandial triglyceride profile of two members of the Muridae family: the Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus and C57BL/6 mice (Mus musculus plus comparing them to the profile obtained in humans. Methods Thirty-one male and twelve female Wistar rats, ten C57BL/6 male and nine female mice received a liquid meal containing fat (17%, protein (4% and carbohydrates (4%, providing 2 g fat/Kg. Thirty-one men and twenty-nine women received a standardized liquid meal containing fat (25%, dextromaltose (55%, protein (14%, and vitamins and minerals (6%, and providing 40 g of fat per square meter of body surface. Serial blood samples were collected at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h after the ingestion in rats, at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h in mice and in humans at 2, 4, 6 and 8 h. Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests were used. Results/Discussion The triglyceride responses were evaluated after the oral fat loads. Fasting and postprandial triglyceridemia were determined sequentially in blood sample. AUC, AUIC, AR, RR and late peaks were determined. Conclusions Rats are prone to respond in a pro-atherogenic manner. The responses in mice were closer to the ones in healthy men. This study presents striking differences in postprandial triglycerides patterns between rats and mice not correlated to baseline triglycerides, the animal baseline body weight or fat load in all animal groups.

  11. Timing of caffeine ingestion alters postprandial metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrar, Sara Farhat; Obeid, Omar Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The association between caffeine intake and the risk for chronic diseases, namely type 2 diabetes, has not been consistent, and may be influenced by the timing of caffeine ingestion. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effect of caffeine administered in different scenarios of meal ingestion on postprandial glycemic and lipidemic status, concomitant with changes in body glycogen stores. Forty overnight-fasted rats were randomly divided into five groups (meal-ingested, caffeine-administered, post-caffeine meal-ingested, co-caffeine meal-ingested, post-meal caffeine-administered), and tube-fed the appropriate intervention, then sacrificed 2 h later. Livers and gastrocnemius muscles were analyzed for glycogen content; blood samples were analyzed for glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and non-esterified fatty acid concentrations. Postprandial plasma glucose concentrations were similar between groups, while significantly higher levels of insulin were witnessed following caffeine administration, irrespective of the timing of meal ingestion. Triglyceride concentrations were significantly lower in the caffeine-administered groups. Regarding glycogen status, although caffeine administration before meal ingestion reduced hepatic glycogen content, co- and post-meal caffeine administration failed to produce such an effect. Muscle glycogen content was not significantly affected by caffeine administration. Caffeine administration seems to decrease insulin sensitivity as indicated by the sustenance of glucose status despite the presence of high insulin levels. The lower triglyceride levels in the presence of caffeine support the theory of retarded postprandial triglyceride absorption. Caffeine seems to play a biphasic role in glucose metabolism, as indicated by its ability to variably influence hepatic glycogen status. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evidence for an Exaggerated Postprandial Lipemia in Chronic Paraplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Mark S; deGroot, Joris; Martinez-Arizala, Alberto; Mendez, Armando J

    2005-01-01

    Background/Objective: Excessive delay in triglyceride (TG) metabolism after ingestion of dietary fat represents a significant cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The objective of this study was to compare the postprandial lipemic responses of individuals with paraplegia with those of healthy nondisabled individuals. Methods: The ability of 3 recreationally active individuals with paraplegia having normal fasting TG (mean = 103 mg/dL) to metabolize TG after ingestion of a high-fat test meal was compared with a previously published cohort of 21 recreationally active individuals without paraplegia (TG mean = 86 mg/dL) who underwent identical testing. The subjects with paraplegia had venous blood taken under fasting conditions, and then ingested a milkshake containing premium ice cream blended with heavy whipping cream (~92% of calories from fat). Additional blood samples were obtained at 2, 4, and 6 hours after ingestion. The area under the curve (AUC) for TG clearance for both subject groups was measured with an area planimeter. Results: TG uptake for both groups was almost identical for the first 2 hours after ingestion. At 4 and 6 hours after ingestion, the TG levels were 50 and 35 mg/dL higher, respectively, in subjects with paraplegia than in nondisabled subjects. When corrected for small baseline differences in TG concentrations (16 mg/dL), the AUC was 46.5% greater for the group with paraplegia than in the nondisabled group. A near mirror association across time was observed between postprandial serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and TG levels in subjects with paraplegia. Conclusion: This case series finds an exaggerated postprandial lipemia (PPL) in persons with paraplegia with normal fasting TGs. This finding is the first evidence, in a small population, of an unreported potential CVD risk in persons with paraplegia. PMID:16396382

  13. Understanding Postprandial Inflammation and Its Relationship to Lifestyle Behaviour and Metabolic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudewijn Klop

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Postprandial hyperlipidemia with accumulation of remnant lipoproteins is a common metabolic disturbance associated with atherosclerosis and vascular dysfunction, particularly during chronic disease states such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome and, diabetes. Remnant lipoproteins become attached to the vascular wall, where they can penetrate intact endothelium causing foam cell formation. Postprandial remnant lipoproteins can activate circulating leukocytes, upregulate the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules, facilitate adhesion and migration of inflammatory cells into the subendothelial space, and activate the complement system. Since humans are postprandial most of the day, the continuous generation of remnants after each meal may be one of the triggers for the development of atherosclerosis. Modulation of postprandial lipemia by lifestyle changes and pharmacological interventions could result in a further decrease of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. This paper will provide an update on current concepts concerning the relationship between postprandial lipemia, inflammation, vascular function, and therapeutic options.

  14. Postprandial thermogenesis and substrate oxidation are unaffected by sleep restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechter, Ari; Rising, Russell; Wolfe, Scott; Albu, Jeanine B.; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives The extent to which alterations in energy expenditure (EE) in response to sleep restriction contribute to the short sleep-obesity relationship is not clearly defined. Short sleep may induce changes in resting metabolic rate (RMR), thermic effect of food (TEF), and postprandial substrate oxidation. Subjects/Methods Ten females (age and BMI: 22-43 y and 23.4-28 kg/m2) completed a randomized, crossover study assessing the effects of short (4 h/night) and habitual (8 h/night) sleep duration on fasting and postprandial RMR and respiratory quotient (RQ). Measurements were taken after 3 nights using whole-room indirect calorimetry. The TEF was assessed over a 6-h period following consumption of a high-fat liquid meal. Results Short vs. habitual sleep did not affect RMR (1.01 ± 0.05 and 0.97 ± 0.04 kcal/min; p=0.23). Fasting RQ was significantly lower after short vs. habitual sleep (0.84 ± 0.01 and 0.88 ± 0.01; p=0.028). Postprandial EE (short: 1.13 ± 0.04 and habitual: 1.10 ± 0.04, p=0.09) and RQ (short: 0.88 ± 0.01 and habitual: 0.88 ± 0.01, p=0.50) after the high-fat meal were not different between conditions. TEF was similar between conditions (0.24 ± 0.02 kcal/min in both; p=0.98), as was the ~6-h incremental area under the curve (1.16 ± 0.10 and 1.17 ± 0.09 kcal/min x 356 min after short and habitual sleep, respectively; p=0.92). Conclusions Current findings observed in non-obese healthy premenopausal women do not support the hypothesis that alterations in TEF and postprandial substrate oxidation are major contributors to the higher rate of obesity observed in short sleepers. In exploring a role of sleep duration on EE, research should focus on potential alterations in physical activity to explain the increased obesity risk in short sleepers. PMID:24352294

  15. Unusual Giant Adrenal Myelolipoma with Chronic Mild Postprandial Pain

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    Haluk Soylemez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal myelolipomas are rare, small, benign, non-functioning tumors, which must be histopathologically differentiated from other tumors such as lipomas or liposarcomas. They are usually identified incidentally during autopsy, imaging or laparotomy. Occasionally, they may present acutely due to complications such as abdominal pain from retroperitoneal bleeding or systemic symptoms of infection. In differantial diagnosis, Magnetic Resonance Imaging may be useful to show characterize of tissue and relationship with other organs. We report a 66-year-old man with a giant adrenal myelolipoma clinically presenting with chronic mild postprandial pain with a brief review of the literature.

  16. Pressure surge attenuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Alan M.; Snyder, Kurt I.

    1985-01-01

    A pressure surge attenuation system for pipes having a fluted region opposite crushable metal foam. As adapted for nuclear reactor vessels and heads, crushable metal foam is disposed to attenuate pressure surges.

  17. Independent and Combined Effects of Lactitol, Polydextrose, and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron on Postprandial Metabolism and Body Weight in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olli, Kaisa; Saarinen, Markku T; Forssten, Sofia D; Madetoja, Mari; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Tiihonen, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is related to the consumption of energy-dense foods in addition to changes in the microbiome where a higher abundance of gut Bacteroidetes can be found in lean subjects or after weight loss. Lactitol, a sweet-tasting sugar alcohol, is a common sugar-replacement in foods. Polydextrose (PDX), a highly branched glucose polymer, is known to reduce energy intake. Here, we test if the combined effects of lactitol or PDX in combination with Bacteroides species will have a beneficial metabolic response in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. A total of 175 male Wistar rats were fed either a LF or HF diet. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (10(10) bacteria/animal/day) was orally administered with or without lactitol (1.6-2 g/animal/day) or PDX (2 g/animal/day) for 8 days. Postprandial blood samples, cecal digesta, and feces were collected on the last day. Measurements included: body weight, feed consumption, cecal short-chain fatty acids, fecal dry matter and heat value, blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and satiety hormone concentrations. Lactitol and PDX decreased the mean body weight when administered with B. thetaiotaomicron or when lactitol was administered alone. Levels of postprandial plasma triglycerides declined with lactitol and PDX when administered with B. thetaiotaomicron. For intestinal hormone release, lactitol - alone or with B. thetaiotaomicron - increased the release of gastrointestinal peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) as well as the area under the curve (AUC) measured for PYY (0-8 h). In addition, levels of insulin AUC (0-8 h) decreased in the lactitol and PDX-supplemented groups. Lactitol and PDX may both provide additional means to regulate postprandial metabolism and weight management, whereas the addition of B. thetaiotaomicron in the tested doses had only minor effects on the measured parameters.

  18. Effects of the amount of rice in meals on postprandial blood pressure in older people with postprandial hypotension: a within-subjects design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jung Tae; Lee, Eunjoo

    2015-08-01

    To determine the effect of the amount of rice carbohydrates consumed during mealtime on the extent of decrease in postprandial blood pressure in older people with postprandial hypotension. The incidence of postprandial hypotension is as high as 74% in older people with hypertension. A within-subjects repeated measures design was used. Thirty-nine older people in nursing homes received a full serving and a half-serving of rice on two separate days, in random order blood pressure and heart rate were measured before each meal and every 15 minutes for a total of 120 minutes after each meal. Data were analysed using repeated measures analysis of variance and the paired t-test with a Bonferroni adjustment using IBM spss version 19.0. The control and intervention conditions yielded significantly different patterns in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Postprandial hypotension was less frequent under the intervention condition; however, decrease in rice intake did not significantly affect heart rate. Reducing the amount of rice intake per meal prevents postprandial blood pressure decreases in the older people. Small and frequent meals with decreased carbohydrate content are recommended to prevent postprandial hypotension and its complications in the older people. Patients, dieticians and caregivers of older patients should be aware of the importance of diet, especially of decreasing the amount of carbohydrate in a meal. Smaller and more frequent meals are recommended for older people to slow gastric emptying. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Hass avocado modulates postprandial vascular reactivity and postprandial inflammatory responses to a hamburger meal in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoping; Wong, Angela; Henning, Susanne M; Zhang, Yanjun; Jones, Alexis; Zerlin, Alona; Thames, Gail; Bowerman, Susan; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Heber, David

    2013-02-26

    Hass avocados are rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid) and antioxidants (carotenoids, tocopherols, polyphenols) and are often eaten as a slice in a sandwich containing hamburger or other meats. Hamburger meat forms lipid peroxides during cooking. After ingestion, the stomach functions as a bioreactor generating additional lipid peroxides and this process can be inhibited when antioxidants are ingested together with the meat. The present pilot study was conducted to investigate the postprandial effect of the addition of 68 g of avocado to a hamburger on vasodilation and inflammation. Eleven healthy subjects on two separate occasions consumed either a 250 g hamburger patty alone (ca. 436 cal and 25 g fat) or together with 68 grams of avocado flesh (an additional 114 cal and 11 g of fat for a total of 550 cal and 36 g fat), a common culinary combination, to assess effects on vascular health. Using the standard peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) method to calculate the PAT index, we observed significant vasoconstriction 2 hours following hamburger ingestion (2.19 ± 0.36 vs. 1.56 ± 0.21, p = 0.0007), which did not occur when the avocado flesh was ingested together with the burger (2.17 ± 0.57 vs. 2.08 ± 0.51, NS p = 0.68). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from postprandial blood samples and the Ikappa-B alpha (IκBα) protein concentration was determined to assess effects on inflammation. At 3 hours, there was a significant preservation of IκBα (131% vs. 58%, p = 0.03) when avocado was consumed with the meat compared to meat alone, consistent with reduced activation of the NF-kappa B (NFκB) inflammatory pathway. IL-6 increased significantly at 4 hours in postprandial serum after consumption of the hamburger, but no change was observed when avocado was added. Postprandial serum triglyceride concentration increased, but did not further increase when avocado was ingested with the burger compared to burger alone despite the added fat and

  20. The Phytocomplex from Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum Controls Postprandial Plasma Glucose Levels: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study in a Mouse Model of NASH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbia, Daniela; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Di Gangi, Iole Maria; Bogialli, Sara; Caputi, Valentina; Albertoni, Laura; Marsilio, Ilaria; Paccagnella, Nicola; Carrara, Maria; Giron, Maria Cecilia; De Martin, Sara

    2017-02-15

    Edible seaweeds have been consumed by Asian coastal communities since ancient times. Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum extracts have been traditionally used for the treatment of obesity and several gastrointestinal diseases. We evaluated the ability of extracts obtained from these algae to inhibit the digestive enzymes α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro, and control postprandial plasma glucose levels in a mouse model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); a liver disease often preceding the development of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). This model was obtained by the administration of a high-fat diet. Our results demonstrate that these algae only delayed and reduced the peak of blood glucose (p < 0.05) in mice fed with normal diet, without changing the area under the blood glucose curve (AUC). In the model of NASH, the phytocomplex was able to reduce both the postprandial glycaemic peak, and the AUC. The administration of the extract in a diet particularly rich in fat is associated with a delay in carbohydrate digestion, but also with a decrease in its assimilation. In conclusion, our results indicate that this algal extract may be useful in the control of carbohydrate digestion and absorption. This effect may be therapeutically exploited to prevent the transition of NASH to T2DM.

  1. The Phytocomplex from Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum Controls Postprandial Plasma Glucose Levels: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study in a Mouse Model of NASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gabbia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Edible seaweeds have been consumed by Asian coastal communities since ancient times. Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum extracts have been traditionally used for the treatment of obesity and several gastrointestinal diseases. We evaluated the ability of extracts obtained from these algae to inhibit the digestive enzymes α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro, and control postprandial plasma glucose levels in a mouse model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH; a liver disease often preceding the development of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM. This model was obtained by the administration of a high-fat diet. Our results demonstrate that these algae only delayed and reduced the peak of blood glucose (p < 0.05 in mice fed with normal diet, without changing the area under the blood glucose curve (AUC. In the model of NASH, the phytocomplex was able to reduce both the postprandial glycaemic peak, and the AUC. The administration of the extract in a diet particularly rich in fat is associated with a delay in carbohydrate digestion, but also with a decrease in its assimilation. In conclusion, our results indicate that this algal extract may be useful in the control of carbohydrate digestion and absorption. This effect may be therapeutically exploited to prevent the transition of NASH to T2DM.

  2. Chlamydia Spreading from the Genital Tract to the Gastrointestinal Tract - A Two-Hit Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Guangming

    2017-12-27

    Chlamydia trachomatis, a leading bacterial cause of sexually transmitted infection-induced infertility, is frequently detected in the gastrointestinal tract. Chlamydia muridarum, a model pathogen for investigating C. trachomatis pathogenesis, readily spreads from the mouse genital tract to the gastrointestinal tract, establishing long-lasting colonization. C. muridarum mutants, despite their ability to activate acute oviduct inflammation, are attenuated in inducing tubal fibrosis and are no longer able to colonize the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting that the spread of C. muridarum to the gastrointestinal tract may contribute to its pathogenicity in the upper genital tract. However, gastrointestinal C. muridarum cannot directly autoinoculate the genital tract. Both antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and profibrotic cytokines, such as TNFα and IL-13, are essential for C. muridarum to induce tubal fibrosis; this may be induced by the gastrointestinal C. muridarum, as a second hit, to transmucosally convert tubal repairing - initiated by C. muridarum infection of tubal epithelial cells (serving as the first hit) - into pathogenic fibrosis. Testing the two-hit mouse model should both add new knowledge to the growing list of mechanisms by which gastrointestinal microbes contribute to pathologies in extragastrointestinal tissues and provide information for investigating the potential role of gastrointestinal C. trachomatis in human chlamydial pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. GASTROINTESTINAL MANIFESTATIONS OF MITOCHONDRIAL DYSFUNCTION

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    A. A. Ziganshina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to highlight the current concepts of gastrointestinal manifestations of mitochondrial dysfunction. The data available in Russian and foreign literature on the gastrointestinal manifestations of mitochondrial dysfunction were analyzed. Functional digestive diseases are common in pediatric practice; however, their etiopathogenesis has not been adequately explored today. According to the literature, impaired cellular energy metabolism may underlie gastrointestinal motility disorders in cyclic vomiting syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux, gastric stasis, chronic diarrhea, constipation, intestinal pseudoobstruction, malabsorption syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, as well as diseases of the liver and pancreas.

  4. Cocoa powder increases postprandial insulinemia in lean young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand-Miller, Jennie; Holt, Susanna H A; de Jong, Vanessa; Petocz, Peter

    2003-10-01

    We hypothesized that chocolate products elicit higher insulin responses than matched products with alternate flavoring. To test this, we used a within-subject, repeated-measures comparison of six pairs of foods, one flavored with chocolate (cocoa powder) and the other not. Healthy subjects (n = 10, 4 men, 6 women) tested each pair of foods. Postprandial glucose and insulin levels were determined at intervals over 2 h using standardized glycemic index (GI) methodology. The product categories were chocolate bars, cakes, breakfast cereals, ice creams, flavored milks and puddings. Although the GI did not differ within each pair, the insulin index (II) of the chocolate product was always higher, by a mean of 28%, than the alternate flavored product (P milk category in which the chocolate version elicited 45% greater insulinemia than the strawberry flavored milk (P = 0.021). Macronutrient composition (fat, protein, sugar, fiber or energy density) accounted for nearly all of the variation in GI among the foods, but did not explain differences in insulinemia. The presence of cocoa powder in foods leads to greater postprandial insulin secretion than alternate flavorings. Specific insulinogenic amino acids or greater cephalic phase insulin release may explain the findings.

  5. Loneliness predicts postprandial ghrelin and hunger in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremka, Lisa M; Fagundes, Christopher P; Peng, Juan; Belury, Martha A; Andridge, Rebecca R; Malarkey, William B; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2015-04-01

    Loneliness is strongly linked to poor health. Recent research suggests that appetite dysregulation provides one potential pathway through which loneliness and other forms of social disconnection influence health. Obesity may alter the link between loneliness and appetite-relevant hormones, one unexplored possibility. We examined the relationships between loneliness and both postmeal ghrelin and hunger, and tested whether these links differed for people with a higher versus lower body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)). During this double-blind randomized crossover study, women (N=42) ate a high saturated fat meal at the beginning of one full-day visit and a high oleic sunflower oil meal at the beginning of the other. Loneliness was assessed once with a commonly used loneliness questionnaire. Ghrelin was sampled before the meal and postmeal at 2 and 7h. Self-reported hunger was measured before the meal, immediately postmeal, and then 2, 4, and 7h later. Lonelier women had larger postprandial ghrelin and hunger increases compared with less lonely women, but only among participants with a lower BMI. Loneliness and postprandial ghrelin and hunger were unrelated among participants with a higher BMI. These effects were consistent across both meals. These data suggest that ghrelin, an important appetite-regulation hormone, and hunger may link loneliness to weight gain and its corresponding negative health effects among non-obese people. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Intestinal Cgi-58 deficiency reduces postprandial lipid absorption.

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    Ping Xie

    Full Text Available Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58, a lipid droplet (LD-associated protein, promotes intracellular triglyceride (TG hydrolysis in vitro. Mutations in human CGI-58 cause TG accumulation in numerous tissues including intestine. Enterocytes are thought not to store TG-rich LDs, but a fatty meal does induce temporary cytosolic accumulation of LDs. Accumulated LDs are eventually cleared out, implying existence of TG hydrolytic machinery in enterocytes. However, identities of proteins responsible for LD-TG hydrolysis remain unknown. Here we report that intestine-specific inactivation of CGI-58 in mice significantly reduces postprandial plasma TG concentrations and intestinal TG hydrolase activity, which is associated with a 4-fold increase in intestinal TG content and large cytosolic LD accumulation in absorptive enterocytes during the fasting state. Intestine-specific CGI-58 knockout mice also display mild yet significant decreases in intestinal fatty acid absorption and oxidation. Surprisingly, inactivation of CGI-58 in intestine significantly raises plasma and intestinal cholesterol, and reduces hepatic cholesterol, without altering intestinal cholesterol absorption and fecal neutral sterol excretion. In conclusion, intestinal CGI-58 is required for efficient postprandial lipoprotein-TG secretion and for maintaining hepatic and plasma lipid homeostasis. Our animal model will serve as a valuable tool to further define how intestinal fat metabolism influences the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  7. A rat model for determining the postprandial response to foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belobrajdic, Damien P; Wei, Jiangqin; Bird, Anthony R

    2017-03-01

    The use of small animal models for studying postprandial changes in circulating nutrients, hormones and metabolic biomarkers is hampered by the limited quantity of blood that can be withdrawn for analysis. Here, we describe the development of an unrestrained, meal-fed rat model, having a permanent or temporary vascular cannula that permits repeated blood sampling. The applicability and performance of the model were evaluated in a series of experiments on acute glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to carbohydrate-based test meals. A test food containing 0.4 g carbohydrate raised blood glucose by 1.5 mmol L -1 . Postprandial blood glucose levels peaked at 15 min and returned to baseline at 180 min, whereas they remained elevated for longer when the test meal contained 1.25 g carbohydrate. The glycaemic response tended (P = 0.063) to be higher when the meal tolerance test was conducted at the start rather than the end of the dark period, but the insulinaemic response was unaffected. The magnitude of the glycaemic response was less for blood collected from the caudal vein compared to that from the jugular vein. Both cannulation strategies were equally effective in enabling return of red blood cells, thus preserving blood volume. This improved small animal model affords new opportunities to screen foods for nutrient bioavailability and explore metabolic mechanisms mediating responses to food consumption. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Splenosis with lower gastrointestinal bleeding mimicking colonical gastrointestinal stromal tumour

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Shuo-meng; Xu, Rui; Tang, Xiao-li; Ding, Zhi; Li, Ji-man; Zhou, Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Background Splenosis refers to the heterotopic transplantation of splenic tissue following splenic trauma or splenectomy. Splenosis is typically asymptomatic and is often identified incidentally. Case presentation We report a case of splenosis with colon and stomach invasion presenting as lower gastrointestinal bleeding and mimicking colonic gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST). The importance of suspicion for splenosis in patients with a history of splenic injury should be highlighted. Com...

  9. The effect of meal frequency in a reduced-energy regimen on the gastrointestinal and appetite hormones in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomised crossover study.

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    Lenka Belinova

    Full Text Available Appetite and gastrointestinal hormones (GIHs participate in energy homeostasis, feeding behavior and regulation of body weight. We demonstrated previously the superior effect of a hypocaloric diet regimen with lower meal frequency (B2 on body weight, hepatic fat content, insulin sensitivity and feelings of hunger compared to the same diet divided into six smaller meals a day (A6. Studies with isoenergetic diet regimens indicate that lower meal frequency should also have an effect on fasting and postprandial responses of GIHs. The aim of this secondary analysis was to explore the effect of two hypocaloric diet regimens on fasting levels of appetite and GIHs and on their postprandial responses after a standard meal. It was hypothesized that lower meal frequency in a reduced-energy regimen leading to greater body weight reduction and reduced hunger would be associated with decreased plasma concentrations of GIHs: gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP, glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1, peptide YY(PYY, pancreatic polypeptide (PP and leptin and increased plasma concentration of ghrelin. The postprandial response of satiety hormones (GLP-1, PYY and PP and postprandial suppression of ghrelin will be improved.In a randomized crossover study, 54 patients suffering from type 2 diabetes (T2D underwent both regimens. The concentrations of GLP-1, GIP, PP, PYY, amylin, leptin and ghrelin were determined using multiplex immunoanalyses.Fasting leptin and GIP decreased in response to both regimens with no difference between the treatments (p = 0.37 and p = 0.83, respectively. Fasting ghrelin decreased in A6 and increased in B2 (with difference between regimens p = 0.023. Fasting PP increased in B2with no significant difference between regimens (p = 0.17. Neither GLP-1 nor PYY did change in either regimen. The decrease in body weight correlated negatively with changes in fasting ghrelin (r = -0.4, p<0.043 and the postprandial reduction of ghrelin correlated positively with

  10. Immunotherapy for gastrointestinal malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Paul G; Vohra, Nasreen A; Ghansah, Tomar; Sarnaik, Amod A; Pilon-Thomas, Shari A

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are the most common human tumors encountered worldwide. The majority of GI cancers are unresectable at the time of diagnosis, and in the subset of patients undergoing resection, few are cured. There is only a modest improvement in survival with the addition of modalities such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Due to an increasing global cancer burden, it is imperative to integrate alternative strategies to improve outcomes. It is well known that cancers possess diverse strategies to evade immune detection and destruction. This has led to the incorporation of various immunotherapeutic strategies, which enable reprogramming of the immune system to allow effective recognition and killing of GI tumors. A review was conducted of the results of published clinical trials employing immunotherapy for esophageal, gastroesophageal, gastric, hepatocellular, pancreatic, and colorectal cancers. Monoclonal antibody therapy has come to the forefront in the past decade for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Immunotherapeutic successes in solid cancers such as melanoma and prostate cancer have led to the active investigation of immunotherapy for GI malignancies, with some promising results. To date, monoclonal antibody therapy is the only immunotherapy approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for GI cancers. Initial trials validating new immunotherapeutic approaches, including vaccination-based and adoptive cell therapy strategies, for GI malignancies have demonstrated safety and the induction of antitumor immune responses. Therefore, immunotherapy is at the forefront of neoadjuvant as well as adjuvant therapies for the treatment and eradication of GI malignancies.

  11. Luminally expressed gastrointestinal biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Gerard; Yung, Diana E; Cox, Ben F; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios; Desmulliez, Marc P Y; Cochran, Sandy

    2017-12-01

    A biomarker is a measurable indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes or pharmacological responses. The identification of a useful biomarker is challenging, with several hurdles to overcome before clinical adoption. This review gives a general overview of a range of biomarkers associated with inflammatory bowel disease or colorectal cancer along the gastrointestinal tract. Areas covered: These markers include those that are already clinically accepted, such as inflammatory markers such as faecal calprotectin, S100A12 (Calgranulin C), Fatty Acid Binding Proteins (FABP), malignancy markers such as Faecal Occult Blood, Mucins, Stool DNA, Faecal microRNA (miRNA), other markers such as Faecal Elastase, Faecal alpha-1-antitrypsin, Alpha2-macroglobulin and possible future markers such as microbiota, volatile organic compounds and pH. Expert commentary: There are currently a few biomarkers that have been sufficiently validated for routine clinical use at present such as FC. However, many of these biomarkers continue to be limited in sensitivity and specificity for various GI diseases. Emerging biomarkers have the potential to improve diagnosis and monitoring but further study is required to determine efficacy and validate clinical utility.

  12. Gastrointestinal manifestations of leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Ellen C; Hagspiel, Klaus D

    2012-03-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations of leukemia occur in up to 25% of patients at autopsy, generally during relapse. Its presence varies with the type of leukemia and has been decreasing over time due to improved chemotherapy. Gross leukemic lesions are most common in the stomach, ileum, and proximal colon. Leukemia in the esophagus and stomach includes hemorrhagic lesions from petechiae to ulcers, leukemic infiltrates, pseudomembranous esophagitis, and fungal esophagitis. Lesions in the small and large bowel are usually hemorrhagic or infiltrative. Infiltration of lymphoreticular organs, mainly spleen, liver, and lymph nodes, is more prominent in chronic than acute leukemia. Neutropenic enterocolitis, a necrotizing process involving the cecum, ascending colon, and terminal ileum, is increasing in incidence due to greater intensity of chemotherapy. Distension of bowel leads to mucosal breaches, permitting entry of organisms that grow profusely in the absence of neutrophils. Ischemic necrosis follows, leading to perforation and/or peritonitis. Patients present with fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension and tenderness. Ultrasound and computed tomography scans show thickening of the bowel wall. Treatment is supportive with surgery for necrosis and perforation. The main GI causes of death in leukemia are hemorrhage, infection, and necrotizing enterocolitis. © 2011 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Bean and rice meals reduce postprandial glycemic response in adults with type 2 diabetes: a cross-over study

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    Thompson Sharon V

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Around the world, beans and rice are commonly consumed together as a meal. With type 2 diabetes increasing, the effect of this traditional diet pattern on glycemic response has not been studied fully. Methods We evaluated the glycemic response of bean and rice traditional meals compared to rice alone in adults with type 2 diabetes. Seventeen men and women with type 2 diabetes controlled by metformin (n = 14 or diet/exercise (n = 3 aged 35–70 years participated in the randomized 4 × 4 crossover trial. The white long grain rice control, pinto beans/rice, black beans/rice, red kidney beans/rice test meals, matched for 50 grams of available carbohydrate, were consumed at breakfast after a 12 hour fast. Capillary blood glucose concentrations at baseline and at 30 minute intervals up to 180 minutes postprandial were collected. MANOVA for repeated measures established glucose differences between treatments. Paired t tests identified differences between bean types and the rice control following a significant MANOVA. Results Postprandial net glucose values were significantly lower for the three bean/rice treatments in contrast to the rice control at 90, 120 and 150 minutes. Incremental area under the curve values were significantly lower for the pinto and black bean/rice meals compared to rice alone, but not for kidney beans. Conclusions Pinto, dark red kidney and black beans with rice attenuate the glycemic response compared to rice alone. Promotion of traditional foods may provide non-pharmaceutical management of type 2 diabetes and improve dietary adherence with cultural groups. Trial registration Clinical Trials number NCT01241253

  14. Effect of prior meal macronutrient composition on postprandial glycemic responses and glycemic index and glycemic load value determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Huicui; Matthan, Nirupa R; Ausman, Lynne M; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2017-11-01

    Background: The potential impact of prior meal composition on the postprandial glycemic response and glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) value determinations remains unclear.Objective: We determined the effect of meals that varied in macronutrient composition on the glycemic response and determination of GI and GL values of a subsequent standard test food.Design: Twenty healthy participants underwent 6 test sessions within 12 wk. The subjects received each of 3 isocaloric breakfast meals (i.e., high carbohydrate, high fat, or high protein) on separate days in a random order, which was followed by a standard set of challenges (i.e., white bread and a glucose drink) that were tested on separate days in a random order 4 h thereafter. Each challenge provided 50 g available carbohydrate. Arterialized venous blood was sampled throughout the 2-h postchallenge period. GI, GL, and insulin index (II) values were calculated with the use of the incremental area under the curve (AUCi) method, and serum lipids were determined with the use of standard assays.Results: The consumption of the high-protein breakfast before the white-bread challenge attenuated the rise in the postprandial serum glucose response (P glycemic response and the determination of GI and GL values for white bread. Future studies are needed to determine whether the background food macronutrient composition influences mean dietary GI and GL values that are calculated for eating patterns, which may alter the interpretation of the associations between these values and chronic disease risk. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01023646. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Postprandial lipemia is not increased in patients with previous unprovoked venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hald, Erin M; Brækkan, Sigrid K; Vik, Anders; Brodin, Ellen E; Hansen, John-Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    Patients with arterial cardiovascular disease have increased postprandial lipemia, and plasma levels of postprandial remnants are related to the progression of atherosclerosis. Studies have shown that patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism have increased risk of arterial cardiovascular disease. To investigate whether patients with a history of unprovoked venous thromboembolism have increased postprandial lipemia. A population-based case-control study was performed in 20 patients with a history of unprovoked venous thromboembolism and 20 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Participants were subjected to a standard fat tolerance test (1 g/kilo body weight) with subsequent blood sampling every second hour for 8 hours. Lipids were measured by traditional methods and lipoprotein subclasses by proton nuclear magnetic resonance. Fasting lipids and lipoprotein subclasses did not differ between groups. The postprandial lipemia, assessed by the incremental area under the triglyceride curve, was not different in venous thromboembolism patients and healthy controls (5.0 ± 3.6 mmol/L∗h vs 5.3 ± 4.4 mmol/L∗h, P = .81). Similarly, the distribution and size of the lipoprotein subclasses obtained 4 hours postprandially did not differ between groups. Patients with a history of unprovoked venous thromboembolism had similar lipoprotein subclasses size, distribution, and postprandial lipemia as healthy controls. Our findings indicate that postprandial lipemia is not a link between unprovoked venous thromboembolism and arterial cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2013 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of various carbohydrate sources on postprandial glucose, insulin and NEFA concentrations in obese cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, A; Ueda, K; Lee, P; Oda, H; Ishioka, K; Sako, T

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate is an important source of energy, which can significantly affect postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels in cats. In healthy animals, this is not a big concern; however, in obese and diabetic animals, this is an important detail. In the present study, the impact of four different carbohydrate sources (glucose, maltose, corn starch, and trehalose) on short-term post-prandial serum glucose, insulin, and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations was investigated with four obese cats. Each of the carbohydrate sources was added to a commercial wet food diet for feeding the animals. A significant difference was observed in postprandial glucose, insulin, and NEFA area under the curve (AUC) values between each carbohydrate source in obese cats. Furthermore, glucose and maltose induced the highest postprandial glucose and insulin AUC values, whereas trehalose induced the lowest postprandial glucose and insulin AUC value amongst all carbohydrate sources, respectively, in obese cats. However, trehalose has a higher risk of inducing side effects, such as diarrhea, as compared to other carbohydrate sources. As such, different carbohydrate sources appear to have a very significant impact on post-prandial glycemia and subsequent insulin requirement levels in obese cats. These results might be useful when selecting a prescription diet for obese or diabetic cats. In addition, maltose appears to be capable of inducing experimentally evoked postprandial hyperglycemia in obese cats, which may serve as a good tool for use to check the impact and effectiveness of newly developed oral hypoglycemic drugs or supplements for cats in future experiments.

  17. FASTING VERSUS POSTPRANDIAL HYPERGLYCEMIA AS A TREATMENT TARGET TO LOWER ELEVATED HEMOGLOBIN A1C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaefer, Charles; Reid, Timothy; Vlajnic, Aleksandra; Zhou, Rong; DiGenio, Andres

    2015-12-01

    Postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) may need addressing when glycemic control cannot be maintained in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We investigated whether glycated hemoglobin A1c (A1c) levels ≥7.0% can indicate postprandial defects warranting prandial therapy after optimized basal insulin therapy. From 6 clinical trials of insulin glargine treatment, data were pooled from 496 patients with A1c ≥7.0% after 24 weeks. Patient characteristics and clinical outcomes were summarized according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) target achievement (postprandial blood glucose (PPBG) levels, and PPBG increments (ΔPPBG). Basal and postprandial contributions to hyperglycemia were determined. After 24 weeks of insulin glargine titration, A1c change from baseline was greater in patients with FPG blood glucose postprandial contributions to hyperglycemia increased (>60% regardless of PPBG). Patients with high FPG had lower, but substantial, relative postprandial contributions versus patients achieving FPG target. A similar pattern was observed according to whether patients had a ΔPPBG ≥50 mg/dL after any meal. After optimized basal insulin therapy, elevated A1c is the most effective indicator of residual PPHG, regardless of existent FPG or PPBG. When confronted with an uncontrolled A1c after reasonable titration of basal insulin, clinicians should be aware of probable postprandial contributions to hyperglycemia and consider prandial therapy.

  18. Gastrointestinal perfusion in septic shock.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haren, E.M. van; Sleight, J.W.; Pickkers, P.; Hoeven, J.G. van der

    2007-01-01

    Septic shock is characterised by vasodilation, myocardial depression and impaired microcirculatory blood flow, resulting in redistribution of regional blood flow. Animal and human studies have shown that gastrointestinal mucosal blood flow is impaired in septic shock. This is consistent with

  19. Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambartsumyan, Lusine

    2014-01-01

    The most common and challenging gastrointestinal motility disorders in children include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), esophageal achalasia, gastroparesis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and constipation. GERD is the most common gastrointestinal motility disorder affecting children and is diagnosed clinically and treated primarily with acid secretion blockade. Esophageal achalasia, a less common disorder in the pediatric patient population, is characterized by dysphagia and treated with pneumatic balloon dilation and/or esophagomyotomy. Gastroparesis and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction are poorly characterized in children and are associated with significant morbidity. Constipation is among the most common complaints in children and is associated with significant morbidity as well as poor quality of life. Data on epidemiology and outcomes, clinical trials, and evaluation of new diagnostic techniques are needed to better diagnose and treat gastrointestinal motility disorders in children. We present a review of the conditions and challenges related to these common gastrointestinal motility disorders in children. PMID:24799835

  20. Thirty days of resveratrol supplementation does not affect postprandial incretin hormone responses, but suppresses postprandial glucagon in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, F K; Konings, E; Timmers, S

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound produced by various plants (e.g. red grapes) and found in red wine, has glucose-lowering effects in humans and rodent models of obesity and/or diabetes. The mechanisms behind these effects have been suggested to include resveratrol-induced secret......AIMS: Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound produced by various plants (e.g. red grapes) and found in red wine, has glucose-lowering effects in humans and rodent models of obesity and/or diabetes. The mechanisms behind these effects have been suggested to include resveratrol....../day) or placebo for 30 days in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design with a 4-week washout period. At the end of each intervention period a standardized meal test (without co-administration of resveratrol) was performed. RESULTS: Resveratrol supplementation had no impact on fasting plasma concentrations...... supplementation does not affect fasting or postprandial incretin hormone plasma levels in obese humans, but suppresses postprandial glucagon responses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  1. Coffee polyphenol consumption improves postprandial hyperglycemia associated with impaired vascular endothelial function in healthy male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokura, Hiroko; Watanabe, Isamu; Umeda, Mika; Hase, Tadashi; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that habitual coffee consumption lowers the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Postprandial hyperglycemia is a direct and independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We previously demonstrated that coffee polyphenol ingestion increased secretion of Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), which has been shown to exhibit anti-diabetic and cardiovascular effects. We hypothesized coffee polyphenol consumption may improve postprandial hyperglycemia and vascular endothelial function by increasing GLP-1 release and/or reducing oxidative stress. To examine this hypothesis, we conducted a randomized, acute, crossover, intervention study in healthy male adults, measuring blood parameters and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) after ingestion of a meal with or without coffee polyphenol extract (CPE). Nineteen subjects consumed a test meal with either a placebo- or CPE-containing beverage. Blood biomarkers and FMD were measured at fasting and up to 180 minutes postprandially. The CPE beverage led to a significantly lower peak postprandial increase in blood glucose and diacron-reactive oxygen metabolite, and significantly higher postprandial FMD than the placebo beverage. Postprandial blood GLP-1 increase tended to be higher after ingestion of the CPE beverage, compared with placebo. Subclass analysis revealed that the CPE beverage significantly improved postprandial blood GLP-1 response and reduced blood glucose increase in the subjects with a lower insulinogenic index. Correlation analysis showed postprandial FMD was negatively associated with blood glucose increase after ingestion of the CPE beverage. In conclusion, these results suggest that coffee polyphenol consumption improves postprandial hyperglycemia and vascular endothelial function, which is associated with increased GLP-1 secretion and decreased oxidative stress in healthy humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Simonetti, Rosa G

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory.......Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory....

  3. Foreign bodies in gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Kefeli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ingested foreign bodies in gastrointestinal tract are a common event which can cause serious morbidity and mortality in the children and adult population. For this reason, early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for preventing these life threatening complications. In this study, we aimed to analyze the characteristics of the patients with upper gastrointestinal foreign bodies that were treated in our department. Methods: Patients diagnosed with upper gastrointestinal foreign bodies who were admitted to our hospital between February 2010 and August2013 were evaluated retrospectively. The data regarding their age, gender, clinical profile, type and localization of the esophageal foreign body, performed endoscopic procedure and initial symptoms of the patients were noted and analyzed statistically. Results: Thirty-eight patients with a diagnosis of gastrointestinal foreign body were included in this study. Of these patients, 21 were male and 17 were female. The youngest patient was 17 years old and the oldest patient was 79 years old. Most of the foreign bodies (%55.3 detected in the stomach. Food waste and metallic objects in 21 and 16 patients respectively. The most common complaint was dysphagia (%50. After endoscopic intervention three of the patients were directed to surgery. Conclusion: Early recognition and treatment of gastrointestinal foreign bodies is important as their complications are life threatening. The best method of removal of foreign bodies is controversial. Early management with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the most efficient and safe treatment method in current conditions.

  4. Dairy proteins, dairy lipids, and postprandial lipemia in persons with abdominal obesity (DairyHealth)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohl, Mette; Bjørnshave, Ann; Rasmussen, Kia V

    2015-01-01

    acids (MC-SFAs) improved postprandial lipid metabolism in humans with abdominal obesity. DESIGN: We conducted a 12-wk, randomized, double-blinded, diet intervention study. Sixty-three adults were randomly allocated to one of 4 diets in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Participants consumed 60 g milk protein...... between milk protein and milk fat on postprandial lipemia. CONCLUSION: We found that a whey protein supplement decreased the postprandial chylomicron response compared with casein in persons with abdominal obesity, thereby indicating a beneficial impact on CVD risk. This trial was registered...

  5. [Functional gastrointestinal disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Gabriele

    2006-08-01

    The functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) are the most frequent clinical conditions seen in practice. The FGID are associated with significant work absenteeism, impaired quality of life and increased medical costs. Most patients also suffer from psychosocial problems. Therefore it is important to define the patient's complaints in terms of a biopsychosocial disorder rather than just a medical illness. Physicians must acknowledge the relevance of the psychosocial aspects to prepare the patient for a referral to a specialist (in psychosomatic medicine or a psychotherapist) and to get the patient interested in the psychological factors involved as well as further explore their cause. Most of the research on psychotherapy in FGID to date has focused on the irritable bowel syndrome, and different methods of treatments have been studied (e. g., cognitive-behavioral therapy, dynamic psychotherapy, hypnotherapy, and relaxation). Randomised controlled studies have shown that psychotherapy is superior to conventional medical therapy. Hypnotherapy seems to be very successful. Predictors of a positive response to psychological treatment generally are: (1) awareness that stress exacerbates their bowel symptoms, (2) mild anxiety or depression, (3) the predominant bowel symptom is abdominal pain or diarrhea and not constipation, (4) the abdominal pain waxes and wanes in response to eating, defecation, or stress rather than being constant pain, and (5) the symptoms are of relatively short duration. Psychotherapy is initially relatively expensive because it requires multiple, long sessions. However, its benefits persist or even increase over time, and in the long run, there may be a reduction in clinic visits and health care costs which offsets the initial cost of psychological treatment.

  6. Probiotics and gastrointestinal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbach, S L

    2000-01-01

    Evidence for positive health benefits of Lactobacilli applies to only a few strains used for commercial applications. It is generally agreed that a probiotic must be capable of colonizing the intestinal tract to influence human health; this requirement disqualifies many of the strains currently used in fermented dairy products. Lactobacillus GG, a variant of L. casei sps rhamnosus, has been studied extensively in adults and children. When consumed as a dairy product or as a lyophilized powder, LGG colonizes the gastrointestinal tract for 1-3 days in most individuals and up to 7 days in about 30% of subjects. Traveler's diarrhea, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, and relapsing Clostridium difficile colitis are improved with LGG. In infantile diarrhea, the severity and duration of the attack is reduced. LGG-fermented milk lessens the intestinal permeability defects caused by exposure to cows milk or rotavirus infection. LGG has proven beneficial effects on intestinal immunity. It increases the numbers of IgA and other immunoglobulin-secreting cells in the intestinal mucosa. LGG stimulates local release of interferon. It facilitates antigen transport to underlying lymphoid cells, which serves to increase antigen uptake in Peyer's patches. LGG also acts as an immunoadjuvant for oral vaccines. In an animal model of colon cancer, LGG reduced the incidence of chemically induced tumors in the large bowel of rodents. Extensive safety testing has shown no pathogenic potential in humans or animals. Probiotic cultures of Lactobacilli have the potential to bring substantial health benefits to the consumer. The purported benefits for any probiotic must pass the highest standards of scientific scrutiny before the claims can be accepted.

  7. Gastrointestinal Physiology and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Johnson, Anthony C; Grundy, David

    2017-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) system is responsible for the digestion and absorption of ingested food and liquids. Due to the complexity of the GI tract and the substantial volume of material that could be covered under the scope of GI physiology, this chapter briefly reviews the overall function of the GI tract, and discusses the major factors affecting GI physiology and function, including the intestinal microbiota, chronic stress, inflammation, and aging with a focus on the neural regulation of the GI tract and an emphasis on basic brain-gut interactions that serve to modulate the GI tract. GI diseases refer to diseases of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, and rectum. The major symptoms of common GI disorders include recurrent abdominal pain and bloating, heartburn, indigestion/dyspepsia, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, and constipation. GI disorders rank among the most prevalent disorders, with the most common including esophageal and swallowing disorders, gastric and peptic ulcer disease, gastroparesis or delayed gastric emptying, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Many GI disorders are difficult to diagnose and their symptoms are not effectively managed. Thus, basic research is required to drive the development of novel therapeutics which are urgently needed. One approach is to enhance our understanding of gut physiology and pathophysiology especially as it relates to gut-brain communications since they have clinical relevance to a number of GI complaints and represent a therapeutic target for the treatment of conditions including inflammatory diseases of the GI tract such as IBD and functional gut disorders such as IBS.

  8. Effects of moderate- and intermittent low-intensity exercise on postprandial lipemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Young; Park, Sanghee; Trombold, Justin R; Coyle, Edward F

    2014-10-01

    The elevation of postprandial plasma triglycerides (PPTG) in the blood is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. Although acute exercise typically attenuates PPTG, the effect of exercise intensity on PPTG is less well established, particularly in well-controlled conditions for physical activities and diet. We sought to determine the efficacy of exercise at 65% V˙O2max with an extended sitting time and isoenergetic intermittent walking exercise at a self-selected walking speed (approximately 25% V˙O2max) on PPTG compared with that of a sitting control condition. In a randomized crossover design, nine healthy young men completed three trials with a >1-wk interval between trials. After 2 d of activity and diet normalization, participants performed prolonged sitting nonexercise control (CON), prolonged sitting with subsequent 1-h running at 65% V˙O2max (MOD), or isoenergetic intermittent walking at approximately 25% V˙O2max (LOW) on day 3. This was followed on day 4 by a 6-h high-fat tolerance test. MOD and LOW reduced incremental triglyceride (TG) area under the curve (TG AUCI) compared with that in CON by 33.6% (P < 0.005) and 19.8% (P < 0.05), respectively. MOD also reduced TG AUCI compared with that in LOW by 17.2% (P < 0.03). The reduced TG AUCI in MOD was accompanied by reduced plasma glucose response and enhanced fat oxidation compared with those in LOW and CON (for all, P < 0.05), respectively. Both MOD and LOW were effective in reducing PPTG compared with CON. However, MOD was more effective in reducing PPTG compared with LOW.

  9. Short-term high-fat diet alters postprandial glucose metabolism and circulating vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numao, Shigeharu; Kawano, Hiroshi; Endo, Naoya; Yamada, Yuka; Takahashi, Masaki; Konishi, Masayuki; Sakamoto, Shizuo

    2016-08-01

    Short-term intake of a high-fat diet aggravates postprandial glucose metabolism; however, the dose-response relationship has not been investigated. We hypothesized that short-term intake of a eucaloric low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (LCHF) would aggravate postprandial glucose metabolism and circulating adhesion molecules in healthy males. Seven healthy young males (mean ± SE; age: 26 ± 1 years) consumed either a eucaloric control diet (C, approximately 25% fats), a eucaloric intermediate-carbohydrate/intermediate-fat diet (ICIF, approximately 50% fats), or an LCHF (approximately 70% fats) for 3 days. An oral meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed after the 3-day dietary intervention. The concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were determined at rest and during MTT. The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of plasma glucose concentration during MTT was significantly higher in LCHF than in C (P = 0.009). The first-phase insulin secretion indexes were significantly lower in LCHF than in C (P = 0.04). Moreover, the iAUC of GLP-1 and VCAM-1 concentrations was significantly higher in LCHF than in C (P = 0.014 and P = 0.04, respectively). The metabolites from ICIF and C were not significantly different. In conclusion, short-term intake of eucaloric diet containing a high percentage of fats in healthy males excessively increased postprandial glucose and VCAM-1 concentrations and attenuated first-phase insulin release.

  10. Gastrointestinal traits: individualizing therapy for obesity with drugs and devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael; Acosta, Andres

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this article were to review the discrepancy between numbers of people requiring weight loss treatment and results and to assess the potential effects of pharmacologic treatments (recently approved for obesity) and endoscopically deployed devices on quantitative GI traits in development for obesity treatment. We conducted a review of relevant literature to achieve our objectives. The 2013 guidelines increased the number of adults recommended for weight loss treatment by 20.9% (116.0 million to 140.2 million). There is an imbalance between efficacy and costs of commercial weight loss programs and drug therapy (average weight loss about 5 kg). The number of bariatric procedures performed in the United States has doubled in the past decade. The efficacy of bariatric surgery is attributed to reduction in the volume of the stomach, nutrient malabsorption with some types of surgery, increased postprandial incretin responses, and activation of farnesoid X receptor mechanisms. These GI and behavioral traits identify sub-phenotypes of obesity, based on recent research. The mechanisms or traits targeted by drug and device treatments include centrally mediated alterations of appetite or satiation, diversion of nutrients, and alteration of stomach capacity, gastric emptying, or incretin hormones. Future treatment may be individualized based on quantitative GI and behavioral traits measured in obese patients. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effects of functional fiber on postprandial glycemia, energy intake, satiety, palatability and gastrointestinal wellbeing: a randomized crossover trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, J.Y.F.; Smeele, R.J.M.; Harington, K.D.; Loon, van F.M.; Wanders, A.J.; Venn, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fiber intakes in developed countries are generally below those recommended by relevant authorities. Given that many people consume fiber-depleted refined-grain products, adding functional fiber will help to increase fiber intakes. The objective of the study was to determine metabolic and

  12. The Frequency and Severity of Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Patients with Early Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Young Sung

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective Although gastrointestinal dysfunctions occur in the majority of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD, they are often unrecognized because many patients remain relatively asymptomatic in the early stage. We investigated the frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with PD using newly developed gastrointestinal symptom questionnaires. Methods Early PD patients with a symptom duration not exceeding 3 years were included in this study. All PD patients were evaluated using a questionnaire, which consisted of three relevant domains: oropharyngoesophageal (10 items; gastric (3 items; and intestinal-anorectal (7 items. The frequency of symptoms was calculated as a proportion with an item score ≥ 2. Results Of the 54 patients enrolled, 48 patients (88.9% responded that bowel symptoms developed before the onset of Parkinsonian motor symptoms, and four patients reported that the onset of two types of symptoms (i.e., bowel and neurological occurred approximately simultaneously, with only months between them. The frequencies of gastrointestinal symptoms are as follows: speech disturbance (40.7%, drooling (24.1%, sense of getting stuck (31.5%, choking (27.8%, globus pharyngis (16.7%, repetitive deglutition (29.6%, pain during swallowing (5.6%, food regurgitation (3.7%, acid reflux (7.4%, nausea/vomiting (11.1%, early satiety (16.7%, postprandial fullness (14.8%, epigastric soreness (9.3%, abdominal pain (3.7%, constipation (46.3%, excessive strain during defecation (33.3%, fecal incontinence (7.4%, tenesmus (20.4%, loose stool or diarrhea (3.7%, and difficulty in relaxing anal sphincter (11.1%. Two patients were scored at zero. Conclusions Our findings confirm that gastrointestinal dysfunction occurs in early PD in relatively high frequency.

  13. Improved postprandial glycaemic control with insulin Aspart in type 2 diabetic patients treated with insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Thorsby, P; Kjems, L

    2000-01-01

    The effect on postprandial blood glucose control of an immediately pre-meal injection of the rapid acting insulin analogue Aspart (IAsp) was compared with that of human insulin Actrapid injected immediately or 30 minutes before a test meal in insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients with residual.......0 nmol/l (range, 0.3-2.5) and diabetes duration 12.5 years (range, 3.0-26.0). Twenty-two patients completed the study. A significantly improved postprandial glucose control was demonstrated with IAsp as compared to Act0, based on a significantly smaller postprandial blood glucose excursion (IAsp, 899......-meal administration of the rapid-acting insulin analogue Aspart in patients with type 2 diabetes resulted in an improved postprandial glucose control compared to Actrapid injected immediately before the meal, but showed similar control compared to Actrapid injected 30 minutes before the meal. These results indicate...

  14. Moderate doses of alcoholic beverages with dinner and postprandial high density lipoprotein composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.J.; Veenstra, J.; Tol, A. van; Groener, J.E.M.; Schaafsma, G.

    1998-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. In this study, postprandial changes in plasma lipids, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) composition and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity levels

  15. Postprandial increase of plasma apoAV concentrations in Type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruneta-Deloche, Valérie; Ponsin, Gabriel; Groisne, Laure; Fruchart-Najib, Jamila; Lagarde, Michel; Moulin, Philippe

    2005-08-01

    Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia is considered as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in Type 2 diabetes. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Since the recently discovered apolipoprotein (apo) AV was identified as a modulator of triglyceride (TG) metabolism, the aim of the study was to determine the postprandial apoAV profile of Type 2 diabetic patients. We compared data from 11 patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus to that of 12 non-diabetic normolipidemic subjects following the ingestion of a lipid-rich cream. Postprandial apoAV was elevated in diabetic patients but no correlation was observed either with plasma TG concentration or with the intensity of lipoprotein lipase-dependent lipolysis. These data obtained in human subjects suggest that plasma apoAV concentration does not play an acute or a direct role in the regulation of plasma TG in the postprandial state.

  16. Postprandial blood glucose control in type 1 diabetes for carbohydrates with varying glycemic index foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shogo; Noguchi, Claudia Cecilia Yamamoto; Furutani, Eiko

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of type 1 diabetes consists of maintaining postprandial normoglycemia using the correct prandial insulin dose according to food intake. Nonetheless, it is hardly achieved in practice, which results in several diabetes-related complications. In this study we present a feedforward plus feedback blood glucose control system that considers the glycemic index of foods. It consists of a preprandial insulin bolus whose optimal bolus dose and timing are stated as a minimization problem, which is followed by a postprandial closed-loop control based on model predictive control. Simulation results show that, for a representative carbohydrate intake of 50 g, the present control system is able to maintain postprandial glycemia below 140 mg/dL while preventing postprandial hypoglycemia as well.

  17. Postprandial Plasma Concentrations of Individual Bile Acids and FGF-19 in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, David P; van Nierop, F Samuel; Kulik, Willem

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Bile acids regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism by interaction with membrane or intracellular proteins including the nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Postprandial activation of ileal FXR leads to secretion of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19), a gut hormone that may be implic......CONTEXT: Bile acids regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism by interaction with membrane or intracellular proteins including the nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Postprandial activation of ileal FXR leads to secretion of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19), a gut hormone that may...... be implicated in postprandial glucose metabolism. OBJECTIVE: To describe postprandial plasma concentrations of 12 individual bile acids and FGF-19 in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and healthy controls. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive study, performed at the Center for Diabetes Research, Gentofte Hospital...

  18. Splenosis with lower gastrointestinal bleeding mimicking colonical gastrointestinal stromal tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shuo-Meng; Xu, Rui; Tang, Xiao-Li; Ding, Zhi; Li, Ji-Man; Zhou, Xiang

    2017-04-11

    Splenosis refers to the heterotopic transplantation of splenic tissue following splenic trauma or splenectomy. Splenosis is typically asymptomatic and is often identified incidentally. We report a case of splenosis with colon and stomach invasion presenting as lower gastrointestinal bleeding and mimicking colonic gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST). The importance of suspicion for splenosis in patients with a history of splenic injury should be highlighted. Computed tomography (CT)-guided biopsy, nuclear scintigraphy and ferumoxide-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can support an accurate diagnosis. An accurate diagnosis of splenosis is important to avoid unnecessary operations, especially in patients with previous histories of splenic trauma or splenectomy.

  19. Impact of fasting and postprandial glycemia on overall glycemic control in type 2 diabetes Importance of postprandial glycemia to achieve target HbA1c levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woerle, Hans J; Neumann, Christoph; Zschau, Silvia; Tenner, Stephanie; Irsigler, Andrea; Schirra, Joerg; Gerich, John E; Göke, Burkhard

    2007-08-01

    HbA1c values reflect overall glycemic exposure over the past 2-3 months and are determined by both fasting (FPG) and postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) levels. Cross-sectional studies suggest that attainment of HbA1c goals requires specific targeting of postprandial hyperglycemia. We undertook a prospective intervention trial to assess the relative contribution of controlling FPG and PPG for achieving recommended HbA1c goals. One hundred and sixty-four patients (90 male and 74 female) with unsatisfactory glycemic control (HbA1c >/=7.5%) were enrolled in an individualized forced titration intensified treatment program. After 3 months HbA1c levels decreased from 8.7+/-0.1 to 6.5+/-0.1% (pfasting hyperglycemia is necessary but usually insufficient for achieving HbA1c goals <7%. Control of postprandial hyperglycemia is essential for achieving recommended HbA1c goals.

  20. A low glycemic index diet does not affect postprandial energy metabolism but decreases postprandial insulinemia and increases fullness ratings in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog-Mikkelsen, Inger; Sloth, Birgitte; Dimitrov, Dimiter

    2011-01-01

    investigated the effects of 2 high-carbohydrate (55%) diets with low GI (LGI; 79) or high GI (HGI; 103) on postprandial blood profile, subjective appetite sensations, energy expenditure (EE), substrate oxidation rates, and ad libitum energy intake (EI) from a corresponding test meal (LGI or HGI) after...... composition, fiber content, and energy density. The LGI meal resulted in lower plasma glucose, serum insulin, and plasma glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and higher plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentrations than the HGI meal (P ≤ 0.05). Ratings of fullness were slightly higher...... and the desire to eat something fatty was lower after the test meal in the LGI group (P Postprandial plasma GLP-2, plasma glucagon, serum leptin, plasma ghrelin, EE, substrate oxidation rates, and ad libitum EI at lunch did not differ between groups. In conclusion, postprandial glycemia, insulinemia...

  1. Effect of Spirulina maxima on Postprandial Lipemia in Young Runners: A Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Durán, Patricia Victoria; Ferreira-Hermosillo, Aldo; Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernández-Torres, Rosa Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Trained people exhibit low plasma concentrations of triacylglcyerols in both fasting and postprandial states. Exercise practice is commonly believed to improve postprandial lipemia. In addition, elevated postprandial lipemia is an indicator of poor lipid clearance, and it has been associated with atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, and obesity. Spirulina maxima is an edible microorganism with a high nutritional value. When it is consumed, beneficial properties to health have been demonstrated, such as hypolipemic and antihypertensive properties in human beings. This work evaluates the effects of orally administrated S. maxima on postprandial lipemia in a young Mexican sporting population after 15 days of consumption, as a possible alternative treatment to improve their lipid clearance. Forty-one runners (10–26 years old; 21 men and 20 women) volunteered to participate in the study. All of them were physically active for at least 1 year before the study and were not undergoing training during the study. The subjects consumed 5 g of Spirulina during 15 days. Before and after the treatment with Spirulina, they consumed (12 h fasting) a standardized meal with high fat content (53.2% total calories). Postprandial lipemia was measured at 1.5, 3, and 4.5 h after the fatty meal. Fasting plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations were lower after Spirulina treatment than before treatment. In addition, the postprandial area under the curve of TAG concentrations was lower after the treatment with Spirulina. Sixty-two percent of the youngest runners (10–16 years) studied exhibited the best response to the treatment. Orally administered S. maxima decreased postprandial lipemia in sporting teenagers. The youngest people were the most responsive to the beneficial effects of Spirulina on postprandial lipemia. PMID:22738038

  2. Postprandial lipid responses to standard carbohydrates used to determine glycaemic index values

    OpenAIRE

    Vega-López, Sonia; Ausman, Lynne M; Matthan, Nirupa R.; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies assessing the metabolic effects of different types of carbohydrates have focused on their glycaemic response. However, the response of postprandial cardiometabolic risk indicators has not been considered in these studies. The present study assessed postprandial lipid responses to two forms of carbohydrates used as reference foods for glycaemic index determinations, white bread (50 g available carbohydrate) and glucose (50 g), under controlled conditions and with intra-individual...

  3. The structure of wheat bread influences the postprandial metabolic response in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W J; Sozer, Nesli

    2015-01-01

    Postprandial high glucose and insulin responses after starchy food consumption, associated with an increased risk of developing several metabolic diseases, could possibly be improved by altering food structure. We investigated the influence of a compact food structure; different wheat products...... or insulin-independent glucose disposal. These results demonstrate that the structure of wheat bread can influence the postprandial metabolic response, with a more compact structure being more beneficial for health. Bread-making technology should be further explored to create healthier products....

  4. The influence of walking performed immediately before meals with moderate fat content on postprandial lipemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombani Paolo C

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postprandial lipemia is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. Single bouts of moderate exercise may lower this risk, but the minimum duration of moderate intensity exercise that still lowers postprandial lipemia is not known. We, therefore, performed a dose-response study with a normal, daily life setting, to identify the minimum duration of moderate intensity walking that lowers postprandial lipemia in sedentary, healthy young men. Methods Sixteen men performed three activity trials (30, 60, or 90 min of treadmill walking at 50% of their individual VO2max and a control trial with no physical activity in a repeated measures crossover design. The subjects walked immediately before ingestion of the first of two mixed meals, which were served 3 h apart. The meals had a moderate fat content (0.5 g per kg body mass and 33% of total energy per meal and a macronutrient composition corresponding to current recommendations. Each meal provided one third of the subject's estimated daily energy requirement. Venous blood samples were taken in the fasted state, and then hourly for 6 h after the first meal to assess the postprandial phase. Postprandial lipemia (the incremental area under the curve (dAUC of triacylglycerol was compared with a mixed model analysis and Tukey's adjustment. Results Postprandial lipemia (dAUC of triacylglycerol was, compared to the control trial, +2% (P = 1.00, -14% (P = 0.24, and -15% (P = 0.23 in the 30, 60, and 90 min walking trials, respectively. Conclusion Moderate intensity walking of 60 and 90 min duration slightly, but insignificantly, reduced postprandial lipemia after two mixed meals with moderate fat content in sedentary, healthy young men, compared to inactivity. Therefore, it should be reconsidered if the acute exercise-induced reduction in postprandial lipemia usually observed in studies using high fat meals is of importance in a real, daily life setting.

  5. Postprandial Levels of Branch Chained and Aromatic Amino Acids Associate with Fasting Glycaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Filip Ottosson; Ulrika Ericson; Peter Almgren; Jeanette Nilsson; Martin Magnusson; Céline Fernandez; Olle Melander

    2016-01-01

    High fasting plasma concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine have been associated with increased risk of hyperglycaemia and incidence of type 2 diabetes. Whether these associations are diet or metabolism driven is unknown. We examined how the dietary protein source affects the postprandial circulating profile of these three diabetes associated amino acids (DMAAs) and tested whether the postprandial DMAA profiles are associated with fasting glycaemia. We used a crossover desig...

  6. Estriol blunts postprandial blood glucose rise in male rats through regulating intestinal glucose transporters

    OpenAIRE

    Yamabe, Noriko; Kang, Ki Sung; Lee, Woojung; Kim, Su-Nam; Zhu, Bao Ting

    2014-01-01

    Despite increased total food intake in healthy, late-stage pregnant women, their peak postprandial blood sugar levels are normally much lower than the levels seen in healthy nonpregnant women. In this study, we sought to determine whether estriol (E3), an endogenous estrogen predominantly produced during human pregnancy, contributes to the regulation of the postprandial blood glucose level in healthy normal rats. In vivo studies using rats showed that E3 blunted the speed and magnitude of the...

  7. SILIBININ DIHEMISUCCINATE DAMPENS POSTPRANDIAL HYPERGLYCEMIA IN NORMAL RATS CHALLENGED WITH CARBOHYDRATES LOAD: COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH ACARBOSE

    OpenAIRE

    Bushra Hassan Marouf

    2012-01-01

    Postprandial hyperglycemia is a major risk factor for diabetic complications leading to disabilities and mortality in diabetics. Silibinin (SDH), a flavonoid, has been tried in traditional medicine for treating many disorders including diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the potential of SDH to damp postprandial blood glucose level after maltose and glucose loading in normal rats. Normal, non-diabetic male Albino Wistar rats were treated with 100mg/kg SDH orally to evaluate t...

  8. Postprandial hypoglycemic effect of mulberry leaf in Goto-Kakizaki rats and counterpart control Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Ji Min; Bong, Ha Yoon; Jeong, Hye In; Kim, Yeon Kyoung; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kwon, Oran

    2009-01-01

    Postprandial hypoglycemic effect of mulberry leaf (Morus alba L.) was compared in two animal models: Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a spontaneous non-obese animal model for type II diabetes, and their counterpart control Wistar rats. First, the effect of a single oral administration of mulberry leaf aqueous extract (MLE) on postprandial glucose responses was determined using maltose or glucose as substrate. With maltose-loading, MLE reduced peak responses of blood glucose significantly in both GK a...

  9. Effect of Spirulina maxima on postprandial lipemia in young runners: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Durán, Patricia Victoria; Ferreira-Hermosillo, Aldo; Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernández-Torres, Rosa Patricia; Juárez-Oropeza, Marco Antonio

    2012-08-01

    Trained people exhibit low plasma concentrations of triacylglcyerols in both fasting and postprandial states. Exercise practice is commonly believed to improve postprandial lipemia. In addition, elevated postprandial lipemia is an indicator of poor lipid clearance, and it has been associated with atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, and obesity. Spirulina maxima is an edible microorganism with a high nutritional value. When it is consumed, beneficial properties to health have been demonstrated, such as hypolipemic and antihypertensive properties in human beings. This work evaluates the effects of orally administrated S. maxima on postprandial lipemia in a young Mexican sporting population after 15 days of consumption, as a possible alternative treatment to improve their lipid clearance. Forty-one runners (10-26 years old; 21 men and 20 women) volunteered to participate in the study. All of them were physically active for at least 1 year before the study and were not undergoing training during the study. The subjects consumed 5 g of Spirulina during 15 days. Before and after the treatment with Spirulina, they consumed (12 h fasting) a standardized meal with high fat content (53.2% total calories). Postprandial lipemia was measured at 1.5, 3, and 4.5 h after the fatty meal. Fasting plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations were lower after Spirulina treatment than before treatment. In addition, the postprandial area under the curve of TAG concentrations was lower after the treatment with Spirulina. Sixty-two percent of the youngest runners (10-16 years) studied exhibited the best response to the treatment. Orally administered S. maxima decreased postprandial lipemia in sporting teenagers. The youngest people were the most responsive to the beneficial effects of Spirulina on postprandial lipemia.

  10. Eating rate during a fixed-portion meal does not affect postprandial appetite and gut peptides or energy intake during a subsequent meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J Philip; Young, Andrew J; Montain, Scott J

    2011-03-28

    Eating rate has recently been shown to influence energy intake and appetite during an ad libitum meal, and alter postprandial secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide-YY (PYY) following a fixed-portion meal. Whether these effects influence satiety, as measured by energy intake at the subsequent meal, is unclear. We manipulated eating rate during a fixed-portion meal in order to examine how eating behavior and associated periprandial and postprandial responses of putative endocrine mediators of appetite would affect energy intake at the following meal in fifteen non-obese (BMIenergy intake at the next meal was then measured. Eating slowly delayed time to peak fullness (P ≤ 0.05), but did not alter peak fullness. Peak PP concentrations were attenuated during FM compared to MM and SM (P ≤ 0.05) and were reached earlier during MM compared to SM (P ≤ 0.05). A meal-by-time interaction (P ≤ 0.05), but no differences in AUC, peak, or time to peak were observed for CCK. No additional between meal differences in AUC, peak or time to peak for any endocrine mediator of appetite was observed. Ad libitum energy intake was not different between trials. In conclusion, the rate at which a fixed-portion meal is consumed does not appear to alter satiety despite a small effect on PP and CCK responses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of Diabetes-Specific Nutritional Formulas versus Oatmeal on Postprandial Glucose, Insulin, GLP-1 and Postprandial Lipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottalib, Adham; Mohd-Yusof, Barakatun-Nisak; Shehabeldin, Mohamed; Pober, David M; Mitri, Joanna; Hamdy, Osama

    2016-07-22

    Diabetes-specific nutritional formulas (DSNFs) are frequently used as part of medical nutrition therapy for patients with diabetes. This study aims to evaluate postprandial (PP) effects of 2 DSNFs; Glucerna (GL) and Ultra Glucose Control (UGC) versus oatmeal (OM) on glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides (TG). After an overnight fast, 22 overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes were given 200 kcal of each of the three meals on three separate days in random order. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 min. Glucose area under the curve (AUC0-240) after GL and UGC was lower than OM (p oatmeal of similar caloric level. This is achieved by either direct stimulation of insulin secretion or indirectly by stimulating GLP-1 secretion. The difference between their effects is probably related to their unique blends of amino acids, carbohydrates and fat.

  12. Prokinetic effects of large-dose lubiprostone on gastrointestinal transit in dogs and its mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jun; Yin, Jieyun; Xu, Xiaohong; Chen, Jiande

    2015-01-01

    To systemically explore effects of large dose of lubiprostone on gastrointestinal (GI) transit and contractions and its safety in dogs. 12 healthy dogs were studied. 6 dogs were operated to receive duodenal cannula and colon cannula and the other 6 dogs received gastric cannula. Lubiprostone was orally administrated at a dose of 24 µg or 48 µg 1 hr prior to the experiments. Gastric emptying (GE) of solids and small bowel transit were evaluated by collecting the effluents from the duodenal cannula and from the colon cannula. Gastric accommodation was measured by barostat. Gastric and intestinal contractions were by manometry. Colon transit was by X-ray pictures. 1) Lubiprostone 48 µg not 24 µg accelerated GE. Atropine could block the effect; 2) Average motility index (MI) of gastric antrum in lubiprostone 48 µg session was significantly higher in both fasting state (P = 0.01) and fed state (P = 0.03). Gastric accommodation was not significantly different; 3) Lubiprostone 48 µg accelerated small bowel and colon transit. Atropine could block the effect on small bowel transit; 4) Lubiprostone 48 µg increased postprandial small bowel MI (P = 0.0008) and colon MI (P = 0.002). 5) No other adverse effects except for diarrhea were observed. Acute administration of lubiprostone at a dose of 48 µg accelerates GI motility and enhances GI contractions in the postprandial state. The findings suggest that lubiprostone may have an indirect prokinetic effects on the GI tract and vagal activity may be involved. Lubiprostone may be safely used.

  13. Prevalence of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders according to Rome III Criteria in Italian Morbidly Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Santonicola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between GI symptoms and obesity has yet to be completely clarified. Aim. To determine in a morbidly obese southern Italy adult population the prevalence of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders (FGID and its association with the presence of a Binge Eating (BE behavior pattern. Methods. Consecutive obese patients eligible for bariatric surgery and 100 Healthy Controls (HC were recruited. All participants were questioned and scored for the presence of FGID according to Rome III criteria and for the presence or the frequency-intensity of a number of upper and lower GI symptoms. BE behavior pattern was assessed. Results. One-hundred obese patients met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of FGID was similar between obese patients and HC. There was a significant association between obese patients with BE behavior and postprandial distress syndrome (P=0.04. Moreover, a significantly higher frequency-intensity score for epigastric fullness (1.23±0.45 versus 0.35±0.13, P=0.01 was found in obese patients with BE behavior compared to obese patients without. Conclusions. Obese patients with a BE behavior pattern showed a significantly higher prevalence of postprandial distress syndrome. A greater knowledge of the GI symptoms associated with obesity along with the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying will be important in the clinical management of these patients.

  14. Reduction of blood oxygen levels enhances postprandial cardiac hypertrophy in Burmese python (Python bivittatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slay, Christopher E; Enok, Sanne; Hicks, James W; Wang, Tobias

    2014-05-15

    Physiological cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by reversible enlargement of cardiomyocytes and changes in chamber architecture, which increase stroke volume and via augmented convective oxygen transport. Cardiac hypertrophy is known to occur in response to repeated elevations of O2 demand and/or reduced O2 supply in several species of vertebrate ectotherms, including postprandial Burmese pythons (Python bivittatus). Recent data suggest postprandial cardiac hypertrophy in P. bivittatus is a facultative rather than obligatory response to digestion, though the triggers of this response are unknown. Here, we hypothesized that an O2 supply-demand mismatch stimulates postprandial cardiac enlargement in Burmese pythons. To test this hypothesis, we rendered animals anemic prior to feeding, essentially halving blood oxygen content during the postprandial period. Fed anemic animals had heart rates 126% higher than those of fasted controls, which, coupled with a 71% increase in mean arterial pressure, suggests fed anemic animals were experiencing significantly elevated cardiac work. We found significant cardiac hypertrophy in fed anemic animals, which exhibited ventricles 39% larger than those of fasted controls and 28% larger than in fed controls. These findings support our hypothesis that those animals with a greater magnitude of O2 supply-demand mismatch exhibit the largest hearts. The 'low O2 signal' stimulating postprandial cardiac hypertrophy is likely mediated by elevated ventricular wall stress associated with postprandial hemodynamics. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. MTP gene polymorphisms and postprandial lipemia in familial combined hyperlipidemia: effects of treatment with atorvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klop, Boudewijn; Verseyden, Caroline; Ribalta, Josep; Salazar, Juliana; Masana, Luis; Cabezas, Manuel Castro

    2014-01-01

    The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is involved in hepatic and intestinal apoB secretion. We studied the effect of the functional MTP-493G/T polymorphism on fasting and postprandial lipoproteins in patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) before and after treatment with atorvastatin. Eight FCH heterozygote carriers of the rare -493T allele were compared to 9 matched FCH homozygotes for the wild-type allele in a pilot study. Oral fat loading tests were carried out to measure triglycerides (TG) and apo B48 and B100 in the different fractions of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) before and after treatment with atorvastatin. Before treatment, TG were similar between the -493T allele carriers and non-carriers. In the T-allele carriers, a trend was observed for increased postprandial apo B48 and B100 concentrations in Sf >400 and Sf 60-400 compared to non-carriers. After treatment, fasting and postprandial TG were significantly lowered in carriers of the T allele, but atorvastatin had no effect on postprandial TG in non-carriers. Atorvastatin resulted in similar reductions of apo B48 and B100 in TRLs in both groups. The MTP-493G/T polymorphism modulates postprandial apo B48 and apo B100 of TRLs in FCH. Atorvastatin decreases postprandial TG in T-allele carriers with FCH. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute differential effects of dietary protein quality on postprandial lipemia in obese non-diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Mortensen, Lene S; Astrup, Arne; de Vrese, Michael; Holst, Jens J; Thomsen, Claus; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2013-01-01

    Non-fasting triglyceridemia is much closer associated to cardiovascular risk compared to fasting triglyceridemia. We hypothesized that there would be acute differential effects of four common dietary proteins (cod protein, whey isolate, gluten, and casein) on postprandial lipemia in obese non-diabetic subjects. To test the hypothesis we conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study with crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins i.e. cod protein, whey protein, gluten or casein. Eleven obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, body mass index: 30.3-42.0 kg/m(2)) participated and blood samples were drawn in the 8-h postprandial period. Supplementation of a fat rich mixed meal with whey protein caused lower postprandial lipemia (P = .048) compared to supplementation with cod protein and gluten. This was primarily due to lower triglyceride concentration in the chylomicron rich fraction (P = .0293). Thus, we have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial metabolism of four dietary proteins supplemented to a fat rich mixed meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Supplementation with whey protein caused lower postprandial lipemia compared to supplementation with cod and gluten. As postprandial lipemia is closely correlated to cardiovascular disease, long-term dietary supplementation with whey protein may prove beneficial in preventing cardiovascular disease in obese non-diabetic subjects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical considerations and mechanistic determinants of postprandial lipemia in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanos, Christos S

    2014-05-01

    The typical diet of individuals in Western societies results in metabolic responses associated with fed-state fat metabolism for most of the daily life of the individual. This fat metabolism is characterized specifically by an increase in the concentration of plasma lipids, primarily triglycerides. Increased postprandial lipemia, which is typically observed in older individuals (i.e., >65 y old), has now emerged as an important correlate of cardiovascular disease risk. An understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the increased postprandial lipemia in older individuals becomes, therefore, of particular clinical importance in any effort to explain and address the well-documented increase in cardiovascular disease risk as individuals age. Current evidence points to an increase in the accumulation of ingested lipid in lipoprotein particles of hepatic origin, together with an overall accumulation of lipid in these lipoproteins during the postprandial period, as primary contributors to the postprandial lipemia in older persons. When this evidence is considered together with the evidence suggesting large atherogenic potential of lipoproteins of hepatic origin, this can, at least in part, explain the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in older individuals. Understanding changes in the metabolism of ingested fat in the immediate postprandial period with advancing age, and how lifestyle interventions such as diet and physical exercise can ameliorate the increase in postprandial lipemia in older individuals, is important in order to address the increased cardiovascular disease risk in this particularly affected and growing segment of the population. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Validity of abbreviated oral fat tolerance tests for assessing postprandial lipemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraki, Maria; Aggelopoulou, Niki; Christodoulou, Nektarios; Katsarou, Christina; Anapliotis, Panagiotis; Kavouras, Stavros A; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Sidossis, Labros S

    2011-12-01

    Postprandial lipemia is assessed using the oral fat tolerance test (OFTT), a six-hour procedure requiring hourly blood sampling. In order to simplify the test, we investigated whether a) a single postprandial triacylglycerol concentration, b) an OFTT lasting less than six hours or c) an OFTT requiring fewer blood samples, may accurately assess postprandial lipemia under various conditions. Seventy-two subjects underwent a conventional OFTT. Predictability of single-point concentrations and time-shortened tests was assessed using linear regression and re-sampling analysis. Validity of reduced-sampling tests was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman analysis. a) A single-point triacylglycerol concentration (3 or 4h postprandially) did not present significant correlation with postprandial lipemia in the hypetriacylglycerolemic, exercise and energy restriction groups (P>0.05), b) Time-shortened OFTT (4h) was able to predict postprandial lipemia in every group studied (R(2)=0.707-0.970, Plipemia in every group as well as in the overall sample (r=0.874-0.997, P<0.05). A more convenient, reduced-sampling OFTT may be used alternatively to the conventional OFTT, whereas a time-shortened OFTT may be appropriate only for healthy people. 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical Considerations and Mechanistic Determinants of Postprandial Lipemia in Older Adults12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanos, Christos S.

    2014-01-01

    The typical diet of individuals in Western societies results in metabolic responses associated with fed-state fat metabolism for most of the daily life of the individual. This fat metabolism is characterized specifically by an increase in the concentration of plasma lipids, primarily triglycerides. Increased postprandial lipemia, which is typically observed in older individuals (i.e., >65 y old), has now emerged as an important correlate of cardiovascular disease risk. An understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the increased postprandial lipemia in older individuals becomes, therefore, of particular clinical importance in any effort to explain and address the well-documented increase in cardiovascular disease risk as individuals age. Current evidence points to an increase in the accumulation of ingested lipid in lipoprotein particles of hepatic origin, together with an overall accumulation of lipid in these lipoproteins during the postprandial period, as primary contributors to the postprandial lipemia in older persons. When this evidence is considered together with the evidence suggesting large atherogenic potential of lipoproteins of hepatic origin, this can, at least in part, explain the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in older individuals. Understanding changes in the metabolism of ingested fat in the immediate postprandial period with advancing age, and how lifestyle interventions such as diet and physical exercise can ameliorate the increase in postprandial lipemia in older individuals, is important in order to address the increased cardiovascular disease risk in this particularly affected and growing segment of the population. PMID:24829469

  20. Postprandial Levels of Branch Chained and Aromatic Amino Acids Associate with Fasting Glycaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottosson, Filip; Ericson, Ulrika; Almgren, Peter; Nilsson, Jeanette; Magnusson, Martin; Fernandez, Céline; Melander, Olle

    2016-01-01

    High fasting plasma concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine have been associated with increased risk of hyperglycaemia and incidence of type 2 diabetes. Whether these associations are diet or metabolism driven is unknown. We examined how the dietary protein source affects the postprandial circulating profile of these three diabetes associated amino acids (DMAAs) and tested whether the postprandial DMAA profiles are associated with fasting glycaemia. We used a crossover design with twenty-one healthy individuals and four different isocaloric test meals, containing proteins from different dietary sources (dairy, fish, meat, and plants). Analysis of the postprandial DMAAs concentrations was performed using targeted mass spectrometry. A DMAA score was defined as the sum of all the three amino acid concentrations. The postprandial area under the curve (AUC) of all the three amino acids and the DMAA score was significantly greater after intake of the meal with dairy protein compared to intake of the three other meals. The postprandial AUC for the DMAA score and all the three amino acids strongly associated with fasting glucose level and insulin resistance. This indicates the importance of the postprandial kinetics and metabolism of DMAAs in understanding the overall association between DMAAs and glycaemia.

  1. Postprandial Levels of Branch Chained and Aromatic Amino Acids Associate with Fasting Glycaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Ottosson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High fasting plasma concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine have been associated with increased risk of hyperglycaemia and incidence of type 2 diabetes. Whether these associations are diet or metabolism driven is unknown. We examined how the dietary protein source affects the postprandial circulating profile of these three diabetes associated amino acids (DMAAs and tested whether the postprandial DMAA profiles are associated with fasting glycaemia. We used a crossover design with twenty-one healthy individuals and four different isocaloric test meals, containing proteins from different dietary sources (dairy, fish, meat, and plants. Analysis of the postprandial DMAAs concentrations was performed using targeted mass spectrometry. A DMAA score was defined as the sum of all the three amino acid concentrations. The postprandial area under the curve (AUC of all the three amino acids and the DMAA score was significantly greater after intake of the meal with dairy protein compared to intake of the three other meals. The postprandial AUC for the DMAA score and all the three amino acids strongly associated with fasting glucose level and insulin resistance. This indicates the importance of the postprandial kinetics and metabolism of DMAAs in understanding the overall association between DMAAs and glycaemia.

  2. Postprandial and Orthostatic Hypotension Treated by Sitagliptin in a Patient with Dementia with Lewy Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Joji; Harada, Kazumasa

    2016-11-25

    BACKGROUND Postprandial hypotension, induced by an absorption of glucose from intestine, could be treated by acarbose; however, it was unclear whether dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor reduced postprandial hypotension. CASE REPORT A 78-year-old woman who had experienced episodes of dizziness and hypotension after eating was admitted to our hospital. During 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, there were repeated episodes of marked postprandial hypotension; i.e., a significant systolic blood pressure reduction within two hours after eating (from -58 to -64 mm Hg after meals). The patient was diagnosed with dementia with Lewy bodies. The patient exhibited postprandial hyperglycemia and hypotension after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. After the administration of 25 mg sitagliptin, the patient's postprandial and orthostatic hypotension was reduced remarkably. Moreover, her Mini-Mental State Examination score subsequently increased (from 22 to 25 points). CONCLUSIONS The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin can delay postprandial increases in glucose levels and hypotensive episodes, as well as sympathetic nervous system abnormalities and orthostatic hypotension.

  3. Intermittent Standing but not a Moderate Exercise Bout Reduces Postprandial Glycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benatti, Fabiana B; Larsen, Sidsel A; Kofoed, Katja

    2017-01-01

    . RESULTS: Cumulative postprandial glucose response (incremental area under the curve) was lower in STAND versus SIT (↓27%, P = 0.04, effect size [ES] = -0.7) because of decreases in postprandial glucose after breakfast on day 1 (STAND vs SIT: ↓40%, P = 0.01, ES = -0.7) and day 2 (STAND vs SIT: ↓33%, P = 0......PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine whether minimum recommended moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; 30-min bout of continuous moderate-intensity walking) is sufficient to counteract the detrimental effects of prolonged sitting on postprandial metabolism and if there are any effects.......06, ES = -0.6). STAND did not affect postprandial insulin responses. Cumulative postprandial insulin response was lower in MVPA versus SIT (↓18%, P = 0.03, ES = -0.3) and MVPA + STAND versus SIT (↓26%, P = 0.02, ES = -0.4) because of expected exercise-induced decreases in postprandial insulin after...

  4. Postprandial lipemia: factoring in lipemic response for ranking foods for their healthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Cintia Botelho; Moughan, Paul J; Wood, Lisa G; Singh, Harjinder; Garg, Manohar L

    2017-09-18

    One of the limitations for ranking foods and meals for healthiness on the basis of the glycaemic index (GI) is that the GI is subject to manipulation by addition of fat. Postprandial lipemia, defined as a rise in circulating triglyceride containing lipoproteins following consumption of a meal, has been recognised as a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Many non-modifiable factors (pathological conditions, genetic background, age, sex and menopausal status) and life-style factors (physical activity, smoking, alcohol and medication use, dietary choices) may modulate postprandial lipemia. The structure and the composition of a food or a meal consumed also plays an important role in the rate of postprandial appearance and clearance of triglycerides in the blood. However, a major difficulty in grading foods, meals and diets according to their potential to elevate postprandial triglyceride levels has been the lack of a standardised marker that takes into consideration both the general characteristics of the food and the food's fat composition and quantity. The release rate of lipids from the food matrix during digestion also has an important role in determining the postprandial lipemic effects of a food product. This article reviews the factors that have been shown to influence postprandial lipemia with a view to develop a novel index for ranking foods according to their healthiness. This index should take into consideration not only the glycaemic but also lipemic responses.

  5. Rye Arabinoxylans: Molecular Structure, Physicochemical Properties and Physiological Effects in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2010-01-01

    Arabinoxylans (AX) are the main dietary fiber (DF) polysaccharides in rye where they represent ≈55% of the total polysaccharides. Rye AX consist of a backbone of (1→4)-β-d-xylopyranosyl residues (X) mainly substituted with α-l-arabinofuranosyl residues (A) to varying degrees at the O-2 position......,000 with an average of ≈200,000. AX influence physiology in different segments of the gastrointestinal tract. The complex molecular structure of rye AX makes them resistant against microbial modification in the small intestine; consequently, rye AX have a much higher influence on the viscosity in the small intestinal...... digesta than does β-glucan from oats and barley. In spite of that, it has not been possible in studies with AX-rich foods such as bread to demonstrate a significant effect on the postprandial glucose response, however, a significantly reduced insulin response has been seen. Nevertheless, addition of 6 g...

  6. Metoclopramida, factor de riesgo para hiperglucemia postprandial en diabetes tipo 2 Metoclopramide as a risk factor for postprandial hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    H. Gutiérrez-Hermosillo; E. Díaz de León-González; D. Beltrán Santiago; J. Armando Cedillo-Rodríguez; V. Gutiérrez Hermosillo; H. E. Taméz-Pérez

    2012-01-01

    La diabetes mellitus (DM) es una patología que ha crecido ampliamente a nivel mundial en las ultimas décadas. La hiperglucemia postprandial (HP) ha tomado importancia en los últimos años, ya que se ha visto se relaciona de manera directa con un aumento en el riesgo de eventos cardiovasculares. A la fecha, no se ha determinado la asociación entre el empleo de metoclopramida y los niveles de glucemia postprandial. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio de tipo cohorte, con objeto de determin...

  7. Extra - Intestinal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor of Omentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Basnet

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are rare tumors, constituting less than 3% of all gastrointestinal malignant neoplasms but are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. Approximately 10% of gastrointestinal stromal tumors are extraintestinal and mostly arise from the mesentery or omentum. Here we report a rare case of an extraintestinal gastrointestinal stromal tumor of mesentery. Morphological and immunohistochemical features led to a diagnosis of extra-gastrointestinal stromal tumor.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v4i8.11610 Journal of Pathology of Nepal; Vol.4,No. 8 (2014 682-684

  8. Color television in gastrointestinal endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R S

    1981-10-01

    Endoscopic color television is a practical method of recording gastrointestinal pathology and procedures. Nevertheless, a careful MEDLARS review of the medical literature failed to reveal a mention of this method during the past ten years. The endoscopic procedure can be recorded to illustrate many features not possible with still pictures. While particularly useful in teaching endoscopy, it is also useful for demonstrating pathologic findings to interested physicians, patients, and relatives. Television recording requires meticulous attention to details of lighting, focus, and cleansing of areas to be photographed and of the instrument objective, but results may well be superior to other means of photography in gastrointestinal endoscopy.

  9. Effects of thirty and sixty minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on postprandial lipemia and inflammation in overweight men: a randomized cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Sam R; Kurti, Stephanie P; Snyder, Brian S; Sitaraman, Karthikeyan; Haub, Mark D; Rosenkranz, Sara K

    2016-01-01

    The transient rise in blood lipids following a high-fat meal (HFM), known as postprandial lipemia, is linked to systemic inflammation and cardiovascular disease, but can be blunted by exercise. However, minimal research has investigated the effects of realistic exercise bouts on postprandial lipemia and inflammation in at-risk individuals. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise lasting 30 or 60 min performed the evening before a HFM, on postprandial lipemia and inflammation in overweight, insufficiently active men. In this randomized-crossover study, twelve participants remained sedentary (CON), or performed a brisk walk on a treadmill at 60 % VO2peak for either 30 min (EX-30) or 60 min (EX-60), after which they consumed a small snack (270 kcal) to partially replace exercise energy expenditure. Following a 12-h overnight fast, participants consumed a standard HFM (1 g fat/kg; 1 g CHO/kg; 1117.8 ± 117.0 kcal). Blood draws were performed at baseline (pre-HFM) and 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h post-HFM to assess glucose, insulin, lipids, and systemic inflammation. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in fasting triglycerides between EX-60 (118.7 ± 68.3 mg/dL), CON (134.8 ± 66.2 mg/dL) or EX-30 (135.5 ± 85.4 mg/dL). There were no differences in peak, time-to-peak, total or incremental area-under-the-curve between trials for triglyceride response (p > 0.05). There was no significant main effect of time (p > 0.05) in IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 or TNF-α from baseline to 8 h post-HFM in any trial. In summary, we found that in overweight, insufficiently active men, neither 30 nor 60 min of moderate-intensity exercise performed 12 h prior to a HFM attenuated postprandial lipemia or inflammation, which could potentially be explained by the partial caloric replacement of exercise energy expenditure.

  10. Differential effects of proteins and carbohydrates on postprandial blood pressure-related responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen-Beekman, Karianna F M; Dopheide, Janneke; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Bakker, Stephan J L; Brink, Elizabeth J; de Leeuw, Peter W; Serroyen, Jan; van Baak, Marleen A

    2014-08-28

    Diet composition may affect blood pressure (BP), but the mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the present study was to compare postprandial BP-related responses to the ingestion of pea protein, milk protein and egg-white protein. In addition, postprandial BP-related responses to the ingestion of maltodextrin were compared with those to the ingestion of sucrose and a protein mix. We hypothesised that lower postprandial total peripheral resistance (TPR) and BP levels would be accompanied by higher plasma concentrations of nitric oxide, insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucagon. On separate occasions, six meals were tested in a randomised order in forty-eight overweight or obese adults with untreated elevated BP. Postprandial responses of TPR, BP and plasma concentrations of insulin, glucagon, GLP-1 and nitrite, nitroso compounds (RXNO) and S-nitrosothiols (NO(x)) were measured for 4 h. No differences were observed in TPR responses. Postprandial BP levels were higher after the ingestion of the egg-white-protein meal than after that of meals containing the other two proteins (P≤ 0·01). The ingestion of the pea-protein meal induced the highest NO(x) response (P≤ 0·006). Insulin and glucagon concentrations were lowest after the ingestion of the egg-white-protein meal (P≤ 0·009). Postprandial BP levels were lower after the ingestion of the maltodextrin meal than after that of the protein mix and sucrose meals (P≤ 0·004), while postprandial insulin concentrations were higher after the ingestion of the maltodextrin meal than after that of the sucrose and protein mix meals after 1-2 h (P≤ 0·0001). Postprandial NO(x), GLP-1 and glucagon concentrations were lower after the ingestion of the maltodextrin meal than after that of the protein mix meal (P≤ 0·008). In conclusion, different protein and carbohydrate sources induce different postprandial BP-related responses, which may be important for BP management. Lower postprandial BP levels are not

  11. Whey protein stimulates postprandial muscle protein accretion more effectively than do casein and casein hydrolysate in older men

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pennings, B; Boirie, Y; Senden, J.M.G; Gijsen, A.P; Kuipers, H; van Loon, L.J.C

    2011-01-01

    .... The objective was to compare protein digestion and absorption kinetics and subsequent postprandial muscle protein accretion after ingestion of whey, casein, and casein hydrolysate in healthy older adults...

  12. Approach to upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ese clinical factors, age over 60, and shock on admission are highly predictive.[7] Concurrent medical therapy is particularly important as NSAIDs and anticoagulants, which are commonly prescribed in the elderly, have a direct deleterious effect on coagulation. e. Table 1. Causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding-related ...

  13. GASTROINTESTINAL INJURIES FROM BLUNT ABDOMINAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-04-04

    Apr 4, 2004 ... ileus, urinary tract infection and chest infection, respectively postoperatively. Mortality was 28%, all of who had associated intraabdominal or extraabdominal injuries. Conclusion: Gastrointestinal injury from blunt abdominal trauma in children, though uncommon, carries a high mortality, usually from ...

  14. [Motility and functional gastrointestinal disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Rey, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín

    2014-09-01

    This article discusses the studies on functional and motor gastrointestinal disorders presented at the 2014 Digestive Diseases Week conference that are of greatest interest to us. New data have been provided on the clinical importance of functional gastrointestinal disorders, with recent prevalence data for irritable bowel syndrome and fecal incontinence. We know more about the pathophysiological mechanisms of the various functional disorders, especially irritable bowel syndrome, which has had the largest number of studies. Thus, we have gained new data on microinflammation, genetics, microbiota, psychological aspects, etc. Symptoms such as abdominal distension have gained interest in the scientific community, both in terms of patients with irritable bowel syndrome and those with constipation. From the diagnostic point of view, the search continues for a biomarker for functional gastrointestinal disorders, especially for irritable bowel syndrome. In the therapeutic area, the importance of diet for these patients (FODMAP, fructans, etc.) is once again confirmed, and data is provided that backs the efficacy of already marketed drugs such as linaclotide, which rule out the use of other drugs such as mesalazine for patients with irritable bowel syndrome. This year, new forms of drug administration have been presented, including metoclopramide nasal sprays and granisetron transdermal patches for patients with gastroparesis. Lastly, a curiosity that caught our attention was the use of a vibrating capsule to stimulate gastrointestinal transit in patients with constipation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. GASTROINTESTINAL FOOD ALLERGY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana G. Makarova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the prevalence  of food allergies. Pathological conditions associated  with a food intolerance are becoming an increasingly urgent problem of pediatrics. According to different researchers, allergic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract occurs in 25–50% of patients with such common pathology as an allergy to cow's milk proteins. The severity of diseases  associated  with food allergies and their prognosis  depend largely on early diagnosis and adequate treatment. Difficulties and errors  in the diagnosis  of gastrointestinal  food allergies  are associated  with both subjective  and objective  reasons,  primarily due to the fact that gastrointestinal  reactions to food are often delayed and non-IgE-mediated. The article describes clinical forms of gastrointestinal food allergy according to the existing classification. Diagnostic algorithms and modern approaches  to differential diagnosis of disease based on evidence-based  medicine and corresponding to international consensus papers are given.

  16. Diagnosis of Chronic Gastrointestinal Ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van Noord (Désirée)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThree aortic branches provide the arterial blood supply to the gastrointestinal tract: the celiac artery (CA), superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and inferior mesenteric artery (IMA). The CA supplies stomach, liver, part of the pancreas and proximal part of the duodenum. The SMA supplies

  17. Scintigraphic assessment of gastrointestinal motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2014-01-01

    . Dysmotility in the different major segments of the gastrointestinal tract may give rise to similar symptoms; hence, localizing transit abnormalities to a specific segment is a valuable element of diagnostic evaluation. Scintigraphy is an effective noninvasive tool to assess gastric emptying as well as small...

  18. GASTROINTESTINAL INJURIES FROM BLUNT ABDOMINAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-04-04

    Apr 4, 2004 ... E. A. Ameh, MBBS, FWACS, Senior Lecturer and Consultant Paediatric Surgeon and P. T. Nmadu, MBBS, FMCS (Nig), FWACS, Professor of Paediatric .... injuries were treated accordingly. Table 1. Age and Sex of 21 children with gastrointestinal injuries from blunt abdominal trauma. Age (years). Sex.

  19. GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF CLARIAS GARIEPINUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    one hundred and ninety nine (199) were infested fish samples from gills and gastrointestinal tract .... in female sex organ. Examination and Identification of Piscine. Parasites. Specimens were categorized as Juveniles, sub adults and adults according to Ugwuzor .... size of the fish is important in determining the parasite.

  20. The Gastrointestinal Aspects of Halitosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivan Kinberg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Halitosis is a common human condition for which the exact pathophysiological mechanism is unclear. It has been attributed mainly to oral pathologies. Halitosis resulting from gastrointestinal disorders is considered to be extremely rare. However, halitosis has often been reported among the symptoms related to Helicobacter pylori infection and gastroesophageal reflux disease.

  1. Nutritional management of gastrointestinal malignancies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritional management of a patient with gastrointestinal cancer fi rst begins with an appropriate nutritional assessment, seeing that several factors could affect the patient's nutritional status. The most signifi cant dietary advice for cancer patients in general, is to consume a signifi cant amount of energy daily to maintain ...

  2. Effects of ageing on gastrointestinal motor function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Madsen, Jan L; Graff, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Existing data on the effect of ageing on gastrointestinal motility are few. In this study, we assessed the propulsive effect of all main segments of the gastrointestinal tract in a group of healthy older people...

  3. Landing gear noise attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  4. The impact of EndoBarrier gastrointestinal liner in obese patients with normal glucose tolerance and in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Ulrich; Federspiel, Cecilie A; Vilmann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    metabolism, gut hormone secretion, gallbladder emptying, appetite and food intake in patients undergoing DJBS treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten normal glucose tolerant (NGT) obese subjects and nine age, body weight and body mass index-matched metformin-treated T2D patients underwent a liquid mixed meal......AIMS: The duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve ((DJBS) or EndoBarrier Gastrointestinal Liner) induces weight loss in obese subjects and may improve glucose homeostasis in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). To explore the underlying mechanisms, we evaluated postprandial physiology including glucose...

  5. Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia predicts improvement in insulin resistance in obese patients after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinahones, Francisco J; Queipo-Ortuño, Maria Isabel; Clemente-Postigo, Mercedes; Fernnadez-Garcia, Diego; Mingrone, Geltrude; Cardona, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Morbidly obese patients have associated diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and cardiovascular disease. Bariatric surgery improves these obesity-related co-morbidities, including insulin resistance. Evidence has shown that patients with morbid obesity have postprandial hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) and that this type of HTG is related to the degree of insulin resistance. Also, bariatric surgery produces a dramatic reduction in triglyceride levels. However, it is unknown whether patients with postprandial HTG have a different clinical evolution after bariatric surgery. The setting of our study was a university hospital. We studied 57 morbidly obese patients who had mild or severe postprandial HTG after fat overload (90 mg/dL increase in triglycerides, respectively). All the patients underwent bariatric surgery. After surgery, the anthropometric and biochemical variables and the Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance were measured for 1 year at 0, 15, 30, 45, 90, 180, and 365 days after surgery. The patients with more severe postprandial HTG had a greater percentage of change in the Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance at 30, 90, and 180 days after surgery than the patients with less severe postprandial HTG. Multiple regression analysis showed that the postprandial triglyceride levels predict the variation in the Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance index, more so than did traditional variables, such as anthropometric, inflammatory, or hormonal data. The postprandial HTG level might be the best predictor of improved insulin resistance in morbidly obese patients after bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of postprandial lipemia on plasma concentrations of A-FABP, RBP-4 and visfatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardi, C; Tatarczyk, T; Tschoner, A; Kranebitter, M; Niederwanger, A; Ebenbichler, C F; Patsch, J R; Pedrini, M T

    2010-11-01

    Several studies indicate that changes in the plasma concentrations of adipocyte-fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP), retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4) and visfatin are associated with chronic states of insulin resistance. Recent studies have shown that postprandial lipemia induces an acute state of insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of postprandial lipemia on the plasma concentrations of A-FABP, RBP-4 and visfatin. In a within-subject crossover study, we administered a standardized high-fat meal to 24 healthy subjects (12 males and 12 females). Plasma concentrations of adipocytokines were measured in the morning after an overnight fast and during postprandial lipemia, i.e. 2, 4 and 6 hours after meal ingestion (postprandial experiment). To exclude potential confounding factors affecting the adipocytokine plasma concentrations, a control experiment without meal ingestion was performed over the same time period (postabsorptive control experiment). Comparing plasma concentrations of A-FABP, RBP-4 and visfatin between the postprandial and the postabsorptive control experiments, we found no significant differences. Within either of the two experiments, a decrease of A-FABP was noted reaching, however, statistical significance only in the postprandial experiment, i.e. 2 and 4 hours after meal ingestion. Postprandial lipemia has no significant effect on the plasma concentrations of visfatin, A-FABP or RBP-4 in relation to their postabsorptive plasma profiles. We conclude that prolonged states of insulin resistance are required to affect plasma concentrations of these adipocytokines. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The influence of intense intermittent versus moderate continuous exercise on postprandial lipemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Aparecido Pimentel; Ferreira, Cristiane Batisti; Souza, Vinícius Carolino de; Córdova, Cláudio Olavo de Almeida; Silva, Glauber Castelo Branco; Nóbrega, Otávio de Toledo; França, Nancí Maria de

    2011-01-01

    Postprandial lipemia is characterized by an increased concentration of circulating lipids after fat intake and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Exercise is known to reduce postprandial lipemia and its negative clinical outcomes. This study investigated the effect of intense intermittent versus moderate continuous exercise using the same energy expenditure in postprandial lipemia. Twenty healthy men (aged 21.5 ± 3.5 years) performed a random sequence of either rest or 500 Kcal tests separated by a minimum 48 h interval as follows: (a) no exercise (control), (b) intense intermittent exercise, or (c) moderate continuous exercise. Each test series was completed 30 min before ingestion of a high-fat meal (1 g fat/kg). Venous blood was collected before and at 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours after the high-fat meal. Postprandial lipemia was assessed using the area under the curve approach as well as a kinetic profile of mean lipid variables. Statistical significance was tested at the p<0.05 level. With both statistical approaches, intense intermittent and moderate continuous exercises were both effective in reducing postprandial triglycerides; however, only intense intermittent exercise reduced the levels of postprandial very low density lipoprotein. Intense intermittent and continuous exercise produced lower levels of insulinemia using the area under the curve analysis only. Intense intermittent or continuous exercise with an energy expenditure of 500 kcal completed 30 min before ingestion of high-fat meal reduced postprandial lipid levels to different levels in physically active men. Understanding these relevant differences will enable clinicians to provide the best exercise prescription for patients.

  8. The influence of intense intermittent versus moderate continuous exercise on postprandial lipemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecido Pimentel Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Postprandial lipemia is characterized by an increased concentration of circulating lipids after fat intake and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Exercise is known to reduce postprandial lipemia and its negative clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect of intense intermittent versus moderate continuous exercise using the same energy expenditure in postprandial lipemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty healthy men (aged 21.5 + 3.5 years performed a random sequence of either rest or 500 Kcal tests separated by a minimum 48 h interval as follows: (a no exercise (control, (b intense intermittent exercise, or (c moderate continuous exercise. Each test series was completed 30 min before ingestion of a high-fat meal (1 g fat/kg. Venous blood was collected before and at 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours after the high-fat meal. Postprandial lipemia was assessed using the area under the curve approach as well as a kinetic profile of mean lipid variables. Statistical significance was tested at the p<0.05 level. RESULTS: With both statistical approaches, intense intermittent and moderate continuous exercises were both effective in reducing postprandial triglycerides; however, only intense intermittent exercise reduced the levels of postprandial very low density lipoprotein. Intense intermittent and continuous exercise produced lower levels of insulinemia using the area under the curve analysis only. CONCLUSION: Intense intermittent or continuous exercise with an energy expenditure of 500 kcal completed 30 min before ingestion of high-fat meal reduced postprandial lipid levels to different levels in physically active men. Understanding these relevant differences will enable clinicians to provide the best exercise prescription for patients.

  9. Theobromine does not affect postprandial lipid metabolism and duodenal gene expression, but has unfavorable effects on postprandial glucose and insulin responses in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders, Lotte; Mensink, Ronald P.; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Ridder, de Rogier J.J.; Plat, Jogchum

    2017-01-01

    Background & aims: Chocolate consumption is associated with a decreased risk for CVD. Theobromine, a compound in cocoa, may explain these effects as it favorably affected fasting serum lipids. However, long-term effects of theobromine on postprandial metabolism as well as underlying

  10. Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gastrointestinal symptoms are reportedly more common in patients with diabetes mellitus, and are attributed to autonomic dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract. These symptoms are also frequent in individuals without diabetes mellitus. Objectives: To determine whether gastrointestinal symptoms are more ...

  11. Diagnostic indications for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Aim: Upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy now assumes a prominent role in the diagnosis and therapy of upper GI diseases. Some indications for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy include dyspepsia, dysphagia, peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. This study aimed to review the ...

  12. Effects of culinary spices and psychological stress on postprandial lipemia and lipase activity: results of a randomized crossover study and in vitro experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, Cindy E; West, Sheila G; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Lambert, Joshua D; Gaugler, Trent L; Teeter, Danette L; Sauder, Katherine A; Gu, Yeyi; Glisan, Shannon L; Skulas-Ray, Ann C

    2015-01-16

    Data suggest that culinary spices are a potent, low-calorie modality for improving physiological responses to high fat meals. In a pilot study (N = 6 healthy adults), we showed that a meal containing a high antioxidant spice blend attenuated postprandial lipemia by 30% compared to a low spice meal. Our goal was to confirm this effect in a larger sample and to consider the influence of acute psychological stress on fat metabolism. Further, we used in vitro methods to evaluate the inhibitory effect of spices on digestive enzymes. In a 2 x 2, randomized, 4-period crossover design, we compared the effects of 14.5 g spices (black pepper, cinnamon, cloves, garlic, ginger, oregano, paprika, rosemary, and turmeric) vs. placebo incorporated into a high fat meal (1000 kcal, 45 g fat), followed by psychological stress (Trier Social Stress Test) vs. rest on postprandial metabolism in 20 healthy but overweight adults. Blood was sampled at baseline and at 105, 140, 180, and 210 minutes for analysis of triglycerides, glucose, and insulin. Additional in vitro analyses examined the effect of the spice blend and constituent spices on the activity of pancreatic lipase (PL) and secreted phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂). Mixed models were used to model the effects of spices and stress (SAS v9.3). Serum triglycerides, glucose and insulin were elevated following the meal (p < 0.01). Spices reduced post-meal triglycerides by 31% when the meal was followed by the rest condition (p = 0.048), but this effect was not present during stress. There was no effect of the spice blend on glucose or insulin; however, acute stress significantly increased both of these measures (p < 0.01; mean increase of 47% and 19%, respectively). The spice blend and several of the individual spices dose-dependently inhibited PL and PLA2 activity in vitro. Inclusion of spices may attenuate postprandial lipemia via inhibition of PL and PLA₂. However, the impact of psychological stress negates any

  13. Postprandial Triglyceride Is Associated with Fasting Triglyceride and HOMA-IR in Korean Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Hee Lee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRecent studies indicate postprandial triglyceride (TG had a better association with cardiovascular events and metabolic syndrome than fasting TG. The authors of the present study investigated the metabolic and clinical relevance of postprandial TG.MethodsIn a cross-sectional retrospective study, the authors of the present study compared fasting and postprandial TG and analyzed the relationship between postprandial TG and various demographic and metabolic parameters in 639 Korean subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D, group I, n=539 and impaired fasting glucose (IFG, group II, n=100 after ingestion of a standardized liquid meal (total 500 kcal, 17.5 g fat, 68.5 g carbohydrate, and 17.5 g protein.ResultsFasting and postprandial TG were significantly correlated (r=0.973, r=0.937, P<0.001 in group I and II, respectively. Of the variables, total cholesterol, waist circumference and body mass index were significantly correlated with fasting and postprandial TG in both groups. Only postprandial TG showed a significant correlation with glucose metabolic parameters (e.g., postprandial glucose, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], and fasting C-peptide in subjects with T2D. Multiple regression analysis showed fasting TG and HOMA-IR could be predictable variables for postprandial TG in subjects with T2D.ConclusionPostprandial TG was very strongly correlated with fasting TG. The authors of the present study suggest insulin resistance may be more associated with postprandial TG than fasting TG in Korean T2D patients on a low-fat diet.

  14. Impact of flavonoid-rich black tea and beetroot juice on postprandial peripheral vascular resistance and glucose homeostasis in obese, insulin-resistant men: a randomized controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fuchs, D; Nyakayiru, J.D.O.A; ijer, R; Mulder, T.P; Hopman, M.T.E; Eijsvogels, T.M.H; Thijssen, D.H.J

    2016-01-01

    .... To investigate whether a single dose of nitrate-rich beetroot juice or flavonoid-rich black tea lowers postprandial muscle vascular resistance in obese volunteers and alters postprandial glucose...

  15. Cinnamon extract inhibits α-glucosidase activity and dampens postprandial glucose excursion in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirumurugan Kavitha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background α-glucosidase inhibitors regulate postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG by impeding the rate of carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine and thereby hampering the diet associated acute glucose excursion. PPHG is a major risk factor for diabetic vascular complications leading to disabilities and mortality in diabetics. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, a spice, has been used in traditional medicine for treating diabetes. In this study we have evaluated the α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of cinnamon extract to control postprandial blood glucose level in maltose, sucrose loaded STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods The methanol extract of cinnamon bark was prepared by Soxhlet extraction. Phytochemical analysis was performed to find the major class of compounds present in the extract. The inhibitory effect of cinnamon extract on yeast α-glucosidase and rat-intestinal α-glucosidase was determined in vitro and the kinetics of enzyme inhibition was studied. Dialysis experiment was performed to find the nature of the inhibition. Normal male Albino wistar rats and STZ induced diabetic rats were treated with cinnamon extract to find the effect of cinnamon on postprandial hyperglycemia after carbohydrate loading. Results Phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract displayed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, coumarins and anthraquinones. In vitro studies had indicated dose-dependent inhibitory activity of cinnamon extract against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC 50 value of 5.83 μg/ml and mammalian α-glucosidase with IC 50 value of 670 μg/ml. Enzyme kinetics data fit to LB plot pointed out competitive mode of inhibition and the membrane dialysis experiment revealed reversible nature of inhibition. In vivo animal experiments are indicative of ameliorated postprandial hyperglycemia as the oral intake of the cinnamon extract (300 mg/kg body wt. significantly dampened the postprandial hyperglycemia by 78.2% and 52

  16. Cinnamon extract inhibits α-glucosidase activity and dampens postprandial glucose excursion in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Sham Shihabudeen, H; Hansi Priscilla, D; Thirumurugan, Kavitha

    2011-06-29

    α-glucosidase inhibitors regulate postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) by impeding the rate of carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine and thereby hampering the diet associated acute glucose excursion. PPHG is a major risk factor for diabetic vascular complications leading to disabilities and mortality in diabetics. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, a spice, has been used in traditional medicine for treating diabetes. In this study we have evaluated the α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of cinnamon extract to control postprandial blood glucose level in maltose, sucrose loaded STZ induced diabetic rats. The methanol extract of cinnamon bark was prepared by Soxhlet extraction. Phytochemical analysis was performed to find the major class of compounds present in the extract. The inhibitory effect of cinnamon extract on yeast α-glucosidase and rat-intestinal α-glucosidase was determined in vitro and the kinetics of enzyme inhibition was studied. Dialysis experiment was performed to find the nature of the inhibition. Normal male Albino wistar rats and STZ induced diabetic rats were treated with cinnamon extract to find the effect of cinnamon on postprandial hyperglycemia after carbohydrate loading. Phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract displayed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, coumarins and anthraquinones. In vitro studies had indicated dose-dependent inhibitory activity of cinnamon extract against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC 50 value of 5.83 μg/ml and mammalian α-glucosidase with IC 50 value of 670 μg/ml. Enzyme kinetics data fit to LB plot pointed out competitive mode of inhibition and the membrane dialysis experiment revealed reversible nature of inhibition. In vivo animal experiments are indicative of ameliorated postprandial hyperglycemia as the oral intake of the cinnamon extract (300 mg/kg body wt.) significantly dampened the postprandial hyperglycemia by 78.2% and 52.0% in maltose and sucrose loaded STZ induced diabetic

  17. Effects of Exercise in the Fasted and Postprandial State on Interstitial Glucose in Hyperglycemic Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Håvard; Rønnestad, Bent R.; Hammarström, Daniel; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Høstmark, Arne T.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test if one bout of moderate exercise performed in either the fasted or the postprandial state affects glucose values measured over 22 hours. Twelve participants diagnosed with hyperglycemia not using antidiabetic medications underwent 3 test days in a randomized cross-over design encompassing one test day without exercise, one test day with 60 min of treadmill walking prior to breakfast, and one test day with an identical bout of exercise 30 min after the start of breakfast. Continuous glucose monitoring was performed until the next morning (>22 hours). There was no significant effect of type of test day on the area under the glucose curve for the entire 22 hours period (p = 0.111). None of the exercise interventions had a significant effect on the area under the glucose curve after breakfast, lunch or dinner. However, the postprandial exercise bout tended to decrease the area under the glucose curve after the evening meal compared to the fasted exercise bout (24.2 ± 6.2 vs. 27.6 ± 6.0 mmol·hour·L-1, p = 0.031). Furthermore, the postprandial exercise decreased the mean of the 10 highest glucose values measured in each individual (8.6 ± 1.9 mmol·L-1) over 22 hours compared to both the control day (9.3 ± 2.1 mmol.L-1) and the day with fasted exercise (9.6 ± 1.7 mmol·L-1, p = 0.012 and 0.009 respectively). Postprandial exercise also decreased the glycemic variability compared to the control day (1.22 ± 0.49 vs. 1.58 ± 0.52 mmol·L-1, p = 0.015). We conclude that performing moderate exercise in the postprandial state after breakfast, but not in the fasted state, decreases glucose excursions during the subsequent 22 hours period in hyperglycemic individuals not using antidiabetic medications. Key points Persons with postprandial hyperglycemia are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Performing moderate exercise in the postprandial state but not post-absorptive state decreases peak postprandial glucose values

  18. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palankezhe Sashidharan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the identification of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, its molecular and immunohiostochemical basis, and its management have been a watershed in the treatment of gastrointestinal tumors. This paradigm shift occurred over the last two decades and gastrointestinal stromal tumors have now come to be understood as rare gastrointestinal tract tumors with predictable behavior and outcome, replacing the older terminologies like leiomyoma, schwannoma or leiomyosarcoma. This report presents a case of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor operated recently in a 47-year-old female patient and the outcome, as well as literature review of the pathological identification, sites of origin, and factors predicting its behavior, prognosis and treatment.

  19. The acute effects of psyllium on postprandial lipaemia and thermogenesis in overweight and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khossousi, A; Binns, C W; Dhaliwal, S S; Pal, S

    2008-05-01

    Overweight and obesity is one of the risk factors for developing CVD. At present, very little is known about the acute effects of dietary fibre on lipids, glucose and insulin, resting energy expenditure and diet-induced thermogenesis in overweight and obese individuals. This study examined the postprandial metabolic effects of dietary fibre in overweight and obese men. Ten overweight and obese men consumed a mixed meal accompanied by either a high-fibre or low-fibre supplement on two separate visits, in a random order, 1 week apart. Two isoenergetic breakfast meals with similar composition were consumed by ten overweight/obese men. The meals contained either a low (3 g) or high (15 g) amount of fibre, low-fibre meal (LFM) and high-fibre meal (HFM) respectively. Analysis was carried out using paired t test and ANOVA. Serum TAG incremental area under the curve during 6 h of the postprandial period was significantly lower after the consumption of HFM compared with LFM. At the first hour of the postprandial period, plasma apo B48 concentration after consumption of HFM was significantly lower compared with LFM. The resting energy expenditure and diet-induced thermogenesis after both meals was similar during 6 h of the postprandial period. Collectively, these findings suggest that a single acute dose of dietary fibre in the form of psyllium supplement can decrease arterial exposure to TAG and modify chylomicron responses in the postprandial period.

  20. Bread making technology influences postprandial glucose response: a review of the clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamataki, Nikoleta S; Yanni, Amalia E; Karathanos, Vaios T

    2017-04-01

    Lowering postprandial glucose and insulin responses may have significant beneficial implications for prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders. Bread is a staple food consumed worldwide in a daily basis, and the use of different baking technologies may modify the glucose and insulin response. The aim of this review was to critically record the human studies examining the application of different bread making processes on postprandial glucose and insulin response to bread. Literature is rich of results which show that the use of sourdough fermentation instead of leavening with Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to modulate glucose response to bread, whereas evidence regarding its efficacy on lowering postprandial insulin response is less clear. The presence of organic acids is possibly involved, but the exact mechanism of action is still to be confirmed. The reviewed data also revealed that the alteration of other processing conditions (method of cooking, proofing period, partial baking freezing technology) can effectively decrease postprandial glucose response to bread, by influencing physical structure and retrogradation of starch. The development of healthier bread products that benefit postprandial metabolic responses is crucial and suggested baking conditions can be used by the bread industry for the promotion of public health.

  1. Clinical relevance of non-fasting and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and remnant cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Freiberg, Jacob J

    2011-01-01

    /postprandial total cholesterol minus low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol minus high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Elevated levels of non-fasting/postprandial triglycerides directly correlate with elevated remnant cholesterol. In the general population, 38% of men have non-fasting......Non-fasting triglycerides are measured at any time within up to 8 h (14 h) after any normal meal, while postprandial triglycerides are measured at a fixed time point within up to 8 h (14 h) of a standardised fat tolerance test. The simplest possible way of evaluating remnant cholesterol is non-fasting....../postprandial triglycerides > 2mmol/L (>176 mg/dL) while 45% of men have non-fasting/postprandial triglyceride levels of 1-2 mmol/L (89-176 mg/dL); corresponding fractions in women are 20% and 47%. Also, 31% of men have remnant cholesterol levels > 1mmol/L (>39 mg/dL) while 46% of men have remnant cholesterol levels of 0...

  2. Clinical relevance of non-fasting and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and remnant cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Freiberg, Jacob J

    2011-01-01

    Non-fasting triglycerides are measured at any time within up to 8 h (14 h) after any normal meal, while postprandial triglycerides are measured at a fixed time point within up to 8 h (14 h) of a standardised fat tolerance test. The simplest possible way of evaluating remnant cholesterol is non......-fasting/postprandial total cholesterol minus low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol minus high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Elevated levels of non-fasting/postprandial triglycerides directly correlate with elevated remnant cholesterol. In the general population, 38% of men have non......-fasting/postprandial triglycerides > 2mmol/L (>176 mg/dL) while 45% of men have non-fasting/postprandial triglyceride levels of 1-2 mmol/L (89-176 mg/dL); corresponding fractions in women are 20% and 47%. Also, 31% of men have remnant cholesterol levels > 1mmol/L (>39 mg/dL) while 46% of men have remnant cholesterol levels of 0...

  3. Greater impairment of postprandial triacylglycerol than glucose response in metabolic syndrome subjects with fasting hyperglycaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kim G; Walden, Charlotte M; Murray, Peter; Smith, Adrian M; Minihane, Anne M; Lovegrove, Julie A; Williams, Christine M

    2013-08-01

    Studies have started to question whether a specific component or combinations of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components may be more important in relation to cardiovascular disease risk. Our aim was to examine the impact of the presence of raised fasting glucose as a MetS component on postprandial lipaemia. Men classified with the MetS underwent a sequential test meal investigation, in which blood samples were taken at regular intervals after a test breakfast (t=0 min) and lunch (t=330 min). Lipids, glucose and insulin were measured in the fasting and postprandial samples. MetS subjects with 3 or 4 components were subdivided into those without (n=34) and with (n=23) fasting hyperglycaemia (≥5.6 mmol/l), irrespective of the combination of components. Fasting lipids and insulin were similar in the two groups, with glucose significantly higher in the men with glucose as a MetS component (Ppostprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) response in men with fasting hyperglycaemia. Greater glucose AUC (Pglucose to be an important predictor of the postprandial TAG and glucose response. Our data analysis has revealed a greater impairment of postprandial TAG than glucose response in MetS subjects with raised fasting glucose. The worsening of postprandial lipaemic control may contribute to the greater CVD risk reported in individuals with MetS component combinations which include hyperglycaemia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects on cognitive performance of modulating the postprandial blood glucose profile at breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, A; Radeborg, K; Björck, I

    2012-09-01

    Considering the importance of glucose as a brain substrate, the postprandial rate of glucose delivery to the blood could be expected to affect cognitive functions. The purpose was to evaluate to what extent the rate of glucose absorption affected measures of cognitive performance in the postprandial period. In addition, cognitive performance was evaluated in relation to individual glucoregulation. A white wheat bread (WWB) enriched with guar gum (G-WWB) with the capacity to produce a low but sustained blood glucose net increment was developed. The G-WWB was evaluated in the postprandial period after breakfast with respect to effects on cognitive function (working memory and selective attention (SA)) in 40 healthy adults (49-71 years, body mass index 20-29 kg/m(2)), using a high glycaemic index WWB for comparison in a randomised crossover design. The G-WWB improved outcome in the cognitive tests (SA test) in the later postprandial period (75-225 min) in comparison with the WWB (Ppostprandial period. The positive effect is suggested to emanate from improved insulin sensitivity, possibly in a combination with an enhanced neural energy supply. The results highlight the importance of carbohydrate foods that induces a low but sustained blood glucose profile in enhancing postprandial cognitive functions.

  5. Postprandial hypoglycemic effect of mulberry leaf in Goto-Kakizaki rats and counterpart control Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Min; Bong, Ha Yoon; Jeong, Hye In; Kim, Yeon Kyoung; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kwon, Oran

    2009-01-01

    Postprandial hypoglycemic effect of mulberry leaf (Morus alba L.) was compared in two animal models: Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a spontaneous non-obese animal model for type II diabetes, and their counterpart control Wistar rats. First, the effect of a single oral administration of mulberry leaf aqueous extract (MLE) on postprandial glucose responses was determined using maltose or glucose as substrate. With maltose-loading, MLE reduced peak responses of blood glucose significantly in both GK and Wistar rats (P glucose-loading, MLE also significantly reduced blood glucose concentrations, measured at 30 min, in both animal models (P glucose transport by MLE. Next, dried mulberry leaf powder (MLP) was administered for 8 weeks by inclusion in the diet. By MLP administration, fasting blood glucose was significantly reduced at weeks 4 and 5 (P rats. Insulin, HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein, and triglycerides tended to be decreased by MLP treatment in GK rats. All other biochemical parameters were not changed by MLP administration in GK rats. Collectively, these findings support that MLE has significant postprandial hypoglycemic effect in both non-obese diabetic and healthy animals, which may be beneficial as food supplement to manage postprandial blood glucose. Inhibitions of glucose transport as well as alpha-glucosidase in the small intestine were suggested as possible mechanisms related with the postprandial hypoglycemic effect of MLE.

  6. Studying the Relation of Postprandial Triglyceride with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manochehri, Mohammad; Moghadam, Adel Johari

    2016-07-27

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common cause of mortality worldwide and determination of contributing factors is essential. This study was conducted to study the relation of postprandial triglyceride as a risk of coronary artery disease in patients with proven CAD by angiography, referred to 502 Hospital of Army in 2015. This observational study conducted as a case-control and contained 80 male participants referred to 502 Hospital of Army. Half of these participants had proven CAD by angiography test and the other ones were healthy as a control group. Fasting serum triglyceride was evaluated in all participants and postprandial TG was checked 4 hours after a standard meal. Obtained data were analyzed by SPSS ver. 13. The results indicated that fasting TG and postprandial TG level were significantly higher in CAD patients (P-value=0.001). It was also shown evaluation of postprandial TG is more sensitive test than fasting TG in case of CAD patients. Our obtained results shown, evaluation of high level of postprandial TG is more reliable than fasting TG for patients whom suffer from CAD.

  7. Impact of Diabetes-Specific Nutritional Formulas versus Oatmeal on Postprandial Glucose, Insulin, GLP-1 and Postprandial Lipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adham Mottalib

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes-specific nutritional formulas (DSNFs are frequently used as part of medical nutrition therapy for patients with diabetes. This study aims to evaluate postprandial (PP effects of 2 DSNFs; Glucerna (GL and Ultra Glucose Control (UGC versus oatmeal (OM on glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, free fatty acids (FFA and triglycerides (TG. After an overnight fast, 22 overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes were given 200 kcal of each of the three meals on three separate days in random order. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 min. Glucose area under the curve (AUC0–240 after GL and UGC was lower than OM (p < 0.001 for both. Insulin positive AUC0–120 after UGC was higher than after OM (p = 0.02. GLP-1 AUC0–120 and AUC0–240 after GL and UGC was higher than after OM (p < 0.001 for both. FFA and TG levels were not different between meals. Intake of DSNFs improves PP glucose for 4 h in comparison to oatmeal of similar caloric level. This is achieved by either direct stimulation of insulin secretion or indirectly by stimulating GLP-1 secretion. The difference between their effects is probably related to their unique blends of amino acids, carbohydrates and fat.

  8. Gastrointestinal hormones and their targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes...... it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization......, or differentiated maturation of the prohormone. By a combination of these mechanisms, more than 100 different hormonally active peptides are released from the gut. Gut hormone genes are also widely expressed in cells outside the gut, some only in extraintestinal endocrine cells and neurons but others also in other...

  9. Digestive tolerance and postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses after consumption of dairy desserts containing maltitol and fructo-oligosaccharides in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respondek, F; Hilpipre, C; Chauveau, P; Cazaubiel, M; Gendre, D; Maudet, C; Wagner, A

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the short-term digestive tolerance and glycaemic response of several associations of maltitol and short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) used to replace sugars (for example, dextrose) in foods. Thirty-six healthy subjects aged 18-60 years were recruited for the study and 32 completed it. The subjects consumed six different mixtures of dextrose, maltitol and scFOS added in a chocolate dairy dessert at a dosage of 35 g. The test days were separated by 2-week washout periods. The subjects reported the intensity of four individual gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, number of bowel movements and stool frequency for the 48 h following consumption of the dessert. A subgroup of 18 subjects also provided blood samples 2 h after intake to evaluate the postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses. The composite score calculated from the intensity of flatulence, borborygmi, bloating and discomfort was significantly higher (Pdesserts containing maltitol and/or scFOS than for the control dessert containing dextrose, but remains at the level of mild effects. The number of bowel movements was also slightly increased (P=0.0006) and the stools were softer (P=0.0045) for the first 24 h but not after (P=0.1373 and 0.5420, respectively). Blood glycaemic and insulinaemic responses were lower for all the sugar-free recipes containing maltitol and scFOS in comparison to the control one (P<0.0001). This study has shown that maltitol and scFOS can be used jointly when formulating sugar-free foods with the benefit to lower postprandial glycaemic response with only a small and transient increase in non-serious GI symptoms.

  10. Basic mechanisms of the aging gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, N

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this short review is to summarize recent data on gastrointestinal changes with aging, focusing on gastrointestinal motility disorders, and mucosal variations. First of all, this review focused on gastrointestinal motility disorders with aging, even though an increased prevalence of several gastrointestinal motor disorders (i.e., dysphagia, dyspepsia, anorexia, and constipation) occurs in older people, aging per se appears to have a minor direct effect on most gastrointestinal functions. Secondly, this review focused on histological changes with aging, i.e., regulation of gastrointestinal mucosal growth, gastrointestinal carcinogenesis, and gastric mucosal changes, especially changes in gastric acid secretion, bacterial overgrowth and its consequences on elderly patients. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Therapeutic Vaccines for Gastrointestinal Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Rahma, Osama E; Khleif, Samir N.

    2011-01-01

    Despite progress in the management of gastrointestinal malignancies, these diseases remain devastating maladies. Conventional treatment with chemotherapy and radiation is still only partially effective and highly toxic. In the era of increasing knowledge of the molecular biology of tumors and the interaction between the tumor and immune system, the development of targeted agents, including cancer vaccines, has emerged as a promising modality. In this paper, we discuss the principals of vaccin...

  12. Gastrointestinal complications in renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Jeet Singh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gastrointestinal complications are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality among renal allograft recipients. We retrospectively analyzed incidence of these complications and their impact on the patient outcome. Materials & Methods: Between 1998 to Aug 2002, 558 live related renal transplants were performed at our center. The immunosuppression used consisted mainly of cyclosporine, azathioprine and prednisolone, though varied in some patients. These patients were followed for any occurrence of significant gastrointestinal problems. Results: Out of the of 538 renal transplant recipients studied, gastro esophageal ulcerations were seen in 3% patients. Acute pancreatitis was observed in twelve (2.2% patients and four patients had acute intestinal obstruction secondary to fecal impaction. Infectious complications included acute diarrheas in 18% of patients. Three patients developed abdominal tuberculosis. Acute rejection episodes were encountered in 26% of the patients. During these episodes, 58% of patients experienced prolonged ileus. Most of these complications (66% occurred within first one-year post transplant. Three patients presenting with acute intestinal obstruction required laparotomy (two- bands, one-intussusception. There were four mortalities -two patients had severe pancreatitis, one patient had massive upper GI bleed and one succumbed due to perforation peritonitis. Conclusions: Gastrointestinal complications account for significant morbidity and mortality in renal transplant recipients. Paralytic ileus secondary to acute vascular rejection is quite common and resolves spontaneously with recovery of renal function.

  13. Acute differential effects of milk-derived dietary proteins on postprandial lipaemia in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Hartvigsen, Merete; Mortensen, L.S.

    2012-01-01

    Postprandial lipaemia is an established risk factor for atherosclerosis. To investigate the acute effect of four milk-derived dietary proteins (alpha-lactalbumin, whey isolate, caseinoglycomacropeptide and whey hydrolysate) on postprandial lipaemia, we have conducted a randomized, acute, single-b...

  14. The effect of IL6-174C/G polymorphisms on postprandial triglycerides metabolism in the GOLDN study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronically elevated IL-6 affects lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Individuals genetically predisposed to higher IL-6 secretion may be at risk of dyslipidemia, especially during the postprandial phase. We investigated the effect of genetic variants at the IL6 locus on postprandial lipemia in US Whi...

  15. Differential postprandial lipoprotein responses in type 2 diabetic men with and without clinical evidence of a former myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Marius; Thomsen, Claus; Gotzsche, Ole

    2005-01-01

    Postprandial lipemia plays an important role in the development of coronary heart disease through an elevation of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. In type 2 diabetic male subjects, our aim was to compare postprandial lipemia in a high-risk population with former myocardial infarction (MI...

  16. Assessment of postprandial triglycerides in clinical practice: validation in a general population and coronary heart disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that for clinical purposes, subjects with fasting triglycerides (TGs) between 89-180 mg/dl (1-2 mmol/l) would benefit from postprandial TGs testing. OBJECTIVE: To determine the postprandial TG response in 2 independent studies and validate who should benef...

  17. Impaired first-phase insulin response predicts postprandial blood glucose increment in patients with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, C; Rosenfalck, A M; Dejgaard, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between postprandial blood glucose and first-phase insulin response and, furthermore, to assess whether the intravenous glucagon stimulation test can be used as a predictor for increased postprandial glucose in patients with recently diagnosed...

  18. Assessment and clinical relevance of non-fasting and postprandial triglycerides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Kovar, Jan

    2011-01-01

    An Expert Panel group of scientists and clinicians met to consider several aspects related to non-fasting and postprandial triglycerides (TGs) and their role as risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this context, we review recent epidemiological studies relevant to elevated non......-fasting TGs as a risk factor for CVD and provide a suggested classification of non-fasting TG concentration. Secondly, we sought to describe methodologies to evaluate postprandial TG using a fat tolerance test (FTT) in the clinic. Thirdly, we discuss the role of non-fasting lipids in the treatment...... of postprandial hyperlipemia. Finally, we provide a series of clinical recommendations relating to non-fasting TGs based on the consensus of the Expert Panel: 1). Elevated non-fasting TGs are a risk factor for CVD. 2). The desirable non-fasting TG concentration is...

  19. The Effect of Agave tequilana Weber Inulin on Postprandial Ghrelin Concentration in Obese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Haro, Betsabe; Robles-Cervantes, Jose A; Gonzalez-Ortiz, Manuel; Martinez-Abundis, Esperanza; Espinel-Bermudez, Claudia; Gallegos-Arreola, Martha P; Morgado-Castillo, Karina C

    2017-02-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of Agave tequilana Weber inulin on postprandial ghrelin levels in obese patients. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over design was performed. A total of 14 patients were allocated into two groups: one group received a drink that contained 500 mL lemon water, 24 g of A. tequilana Weber inulin, and 75 g glucose and the other group received a placebo drink with 500 mL lemon drink and 75 g of glucose. After a 7-day washout period, the groups were crossed. The primary outcome measure was postprandial ghrelin levels between minute 240 and minute 270. A. tequilana Weber inulin did not change postprandial ghrelin concentration in obese patients.

  20. Synergistic effect of green tea, cinnamon and ginger combination on enhancing postprandial blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzeh, Firas Sultan

    2013-01-15

    This study was maintained to determine the immediate effect of green tea, cinnamon, ginger and combination of them on postprandial glucose levels. The Glycemic Index (GI) for previous treatments was measured as an indicator for postprandial glucose pattern. Twenty-two healthy volunteers from both genders were enrolled in this study. Mean age was 21.3 years and mean BMI was 24.6 kg m(-2). For each herb and combination treatment, a concentration of 2.5% aqueous tea extract was prepared. The GI of green tea, cinnamon and ginger were 79, 63 and 72 respectively. Herbs combination exerted GI of 60, which was the lowest. Combination of these herbs showed the best lowering effect on postprandial glucose levels as compared with each herb alone. A potential synergism from the active ingredients of blended herbs was determined.

  1. Acute differential effects of dietary protein quality on postprandial lipemia in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Mortensen, Lene Sundahl; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Non-fasting triglyceridemia is much closer associated to cardiovascular risk compared to fasting triglyceridemia. We hypothesized that there would be acute differential effects of four common dietary proteins (cod protein, whey isolate, gluten, and casein) on postprandial lipemia in obese non......-diabetic subjects. To test the hypothesis we conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study with crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins i.e. cod protein, whey protein, gluten or casein. Eleven obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, body mass index: 30.......3-42.0 kg/m(2)) participated and blood samples were drawn in the 8-h postprandial period. Supplementation of a fat rich mixed meal with whey protein caused lower postprandial lipemia (P = .048) compared to supplementation with cod protein and gluten. This was primarily due to lower triglyceride...

  2. Low postprandial circulating inactive ghrelin: role of early satiety in undernourished children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Khadijehsadat; Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Farjadian, Shirin; Falahzadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-11-01

    To determine difference in the levels of circulating inactive ghrelin between undernourished and healthy children. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in undernourished children from southwestern Iran, from July 2011 through July 2012. Postprandial inactive ghrelin levels were measured in 40 undernourished children and sex- and age-matched healthy controls by enzyme immunoassay. The levels of postprandial inactive ghrelin were considerably lower in undernourished compared to the healthy children (6.4 vs. 12.9, P < 0.001). Among the undernourished children, the level of inactive ghrelin was significantly lower in girls than in boys (5.8 vs. 7.1, P = 0.032). Thus, the levels of inactive ghrelin was found to be low in undernourished children compared to healthy children. Early loss of appetite might be a result of low circulating inactive ghrelin levels in the postprandial state in undernourished children.

  3. A whey protein supplement decreases post-prandial glycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Alexandra L

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incidence of diabetes, obesity and insulin resistance are associated with high glycemic load diets. Identifying food components that decrease post-prandial glycemia may be beneficial for developing low glycemic foods and supplements. This study explores the glycemic impact of adding escalating doses of a glycemic index lowering peptide fraction (GILP from whey to a glucose drink. Methods Ten healthy subjects (3M, 7F, 44.4 ± 9.3 years, BMI 33.6 ± 4.8 kg/m2 participated in an acute randomised controlled study. Zero, 5, 10 and 20 g of protein from GILP were added to a 50 g glucose drink. The control (0 g of GILP meal was repeated 2 times. Capillary blood samples were taken fasting (0 min and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after the start of the meal and analyzed for blood glucose concentration. Results Increasing doses of GILP decreased the incremental areas under the curve in a dose dependant manner (Pearson's r = 0.48, p = 0.002. The incremental areas (iAUC under the glucose curve for the 0, 5, 10, and 20 g of protein from GILP were 231 ± 23, 212 ± 23, 196 ± 23, and 138 ± 13 mmol.min/L respectively. The iAUC of the 20 g GILP was significantly different from control, 5 g GILP and 10 g GILP (p Conclusion Addition of GILP to a oral glucose bolus reduces blood glucose iAUC in a dose dependent manner and averages 4.6 ± 1.4 mmol.min/L per gram of GILP. These data are consistent with previous research on the effect of protein on the glycemic response of a meal.

  4. Effects of mealtime insulin aspart and bedtime NPH insulin on postprandial coagulation and fibrinolysis in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Henriksen, Je; Akram, S

    2012-01-01

    ), 9:30, 11:30, 13:30, and 15:30 and analysed for glucose, activated factor VII (FVIIa), D-dimer, prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), tissue plasminogen activator antigen (t-PA), and plasminogen activator inhibitor activity (PAI). Results: The postprandial glucose response differed significantly between......: The rapid-acting insulin analogue aspart and the intermediate-acting insulin NPH had similar postprandial effects on markers of coagulation activation and fibrinolysis despite different effects on postprandial glucose response.......Aims: Acute hyperglycaemia induces coagulation activation in diabetes patients. We hypothesized that rapid-acting insulin has a beneficial postprandial effect on coagulation and fibrinolysis compared with intermediate-acting insulin due to its ability to lower postprandial hyperglycaemia. Materials...

  5. Theobromine does not affect postprandial lipid metabolism and duodenal gene expression, but has unfavorable effects on postprandial glucose and insulin responses in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, Lotte; Mensink, Ronald P; Boekschoten, Mark V; de Ridder, Rogier J J; Plat, Jogchum

    2017-06-10

    Chocolate consumption is associated with a decreased risk for CVD. Theobromine, a compound in cocoa, may explain these effects as it favorably affected fasting serum lipids. However, long-term effects of theobromine on postprandial metabolism as well as underlying mechanisms have never been studied. The objective was to evaluate the effects of 4-week theobromine consumption (500 mg/day) on fasting and postprandial lipid, lipoprotein and glucose metabolism, and duodenal gene expression. In a randomized, double-blind crossover study, 44 healthy men and women, with low baseline HDL-C concentrations consumed 500 mg theobromine or placebo daily. After 4-weeks, fasting blood was sampled and subjects participated in a 4-h postprandial test. Blood was sampled frequently for analysis of lipid and glucose metabolism. In a subgroup of 10 men, 5 h after meal consumption duodenal biopsies were taken for microarray analysis. 4-weeks theobromine consumption lowered fasting LDL-C (-0.21 mmol/L; P = 0.006), and apoB100 (-0.04 g/L; P = 0.022), tended to increase HDL-C (0.03 mmol/L; P = 0.088) and increased hsCRP (1.2 mg/L; P = 0.017) concentrations. Fasting apoA-I, TAG, FFA, glucose and insulin concentrations were unchanged. In the postprandial phase, theobromine consumption increased glucose (P = 0.026), insulin (P = 0.011) and FFA (P = 0.003) concentrations, while lipids and (apo)lipoproteins were unchanged. In duodenal biopsies, microarray analysis showed no consistent changes in expression of genes, pathways or gene sets related to lipid, cholesterol or glucose metabolism. It is not likely that the potential beneficial effects of cocoa on CVD can be ascribed to theobromine. Although theobromine lowers serum LDL-C concentrations, it did not change fasting HDL-C, apoA-I, or postprandial lipid concentrations and duodenal gene expression, and unfavorably affected postprandial glucose and insulin responses. This trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov under

  6. Effects of acute sprint interval cycling and energy replacement on postprandial lipemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Eric C; Levine, Ari S; Chapman, Donald P; Hausman, Dorothy B; Cureton, Kirk J

    2011-12-01

    High postprandial blood triglyceride (TG) levels increase cardiovascular disease risk. Exercise interventions may be effective in reducing postprandial blood TG. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of sprint interval cycling (SIC), with and without replacement of the energy deficit, on postprandial lipemia. In a repeated-measures crossover design, six men and six women participated in three trials, each taking place over 2 days. On the evening of the first day of each trial, the participants either did SIC without replacing the energy deficit (Ex-Def), did SIC and replaced the energy deficit (Ex-Bal), or did not exercise (control). SIC was performed on a cycle ergometer and involved four 30-s all-out sprints with 4-min active recovery. In the morning of day 2, responses to a high-fat meal were measured. Venous blood samples were collected in the fasted state and at 0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min postprandial. There was a trend toward a reduction with treatment in fasting TG (P = 0.068), but no significant treatment effect for fasting insulin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, or betahydroxybutryrate (P > 0.05). The postprandial area under the curve (mmol·l(-1)·3 h(-1)) TG response was significantly lower in Ex-Def (21%, P = 0.006) and Ex-Bal (10%, P = 0.044) than in control, and significantly lower in Ex-Def (12%, P = 0.032) than in Ex-Bal. There was no treatment effect (P > 0.05) observed for area under the curve responses of insulin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, or betahydroxybutryrate. SIC reduces postprandial lipemia, but the energy deficit alone does not fully explain the decrease observed.

  7. Apolipoprotein E polymorphism influences postprandial retinyl palmitate but not triglyceride concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerwinkle, E. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX (United States)); Brown, S.; Patsch, W. (Methodist Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)); Sharrett, A.R. (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)); Heiss, G. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States))

    1994-02-01

    To quantify the effect of the apolipoprotein (apo) E polymorphism on the magnitude of postprandial lipemia, the authors have defined its role in determining the response to a single high-fat meal in a large sample of (N = 474) individuals taking part in the biethnic Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. The profile of postprandial response in plasma was monitored over 8 h by triglyceride, triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TGRL)-triglyceride, apo B-48/apo B-100 ratio, and retinyl palmitate concentrations, and the apo E polymorphism was determined by DNA amplification and digestion. The frequency of the apo E alleles and their effects on fasting lipid levels in this sample with vitamin A was significantly different among apo E genotypes, with delayed clearance in individuals with an [var epsilon]2 allele, compared with [var epsilon]3/3 and [var epsilon]3/4 individuals. In the sample of 397 Caucasians, average retinyl palmitate response was 1,489 [mu]g/dl in [var epsilon]2/3 individuals, compared with 1,037 [mu]g/dl in [var epsilon]3/3 individuals and 1,108 [mu]g/dl in [var epsilon]3/4 individuals. The apo E polymorphism accounted for 7.1% of the interindividual variation in postprandial retinyl palmitate response, a contribution proportionally greater than its well-known effect on fasting LDL-cholesterol. However, despite this effect on postprandial retinyl palmitate, the profile of postprandial triglyceride response was not significantly different among apo E genotypes. The profile of postprandial response was consistent between the sample of Caucasians and a smaller sample of black subjects. While these data indicate that the removal of remnant particles from circulation is delayed in subjects with the [var epsilon]2/3 genotype, there is no reported evidence that the [var epsilon]2 allele predisposes to coronary artery disease (CAD). 82 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Fasting and postprandial levels of a novel anorexigenic peptide nesfatin in childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anık, Ahmet; Çatlı, Gönül; Abacı, Ayhan; Küme, Tuncay; Bober, Ece

    2014-07-01

    Nesfatin-1, a recently discovered anorexigenic peptide, is expressed in several tissues, including pancreatic islet cells and central nervous system. However, its pathophysiological role in the development of obesity and insulin resistance remains unknown. To investigate the possible involvement of nesfatin-1 in the pathogenesis of childhood obesity, we examined the relationship between fasting and postprandial nesfatin-1 concentrations and metabolic/antropometric parameters in obese children. The study included obese children with a body mass index >95th percentile. Fasting serum glucose, insulin, lipid profile, fasting and postprandial (120th min) nesfatin-1 levels were measured to evaluate the metabolic parameters. Different cutoff values for prepubertal and pubertal stages were used to determine the status of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (prepubertal >2.5, pubertal >4). The percentage of body fat was measured using bioelectric impedance analysis. Seventy-one obese children were included in this study. There was no statistically significant difference between fasting and postprandial nesfatin-1 levels in obese subjects (0.70 ± 0.15 and 0.69 ± 0.14 ng/mL, p>0.05, respectively). Insulin resistance was observed in 58% (41/71) of the cases. There was no significant difference in either fasting or postprandial serum nesfatin-1 levels between the insulin-resistant and non-resistant groups (p>0.05). There was no correlation between fasting and postprandial serum nesfatin-1 levels and anthropometric and metabolic parameters in insulin-resistant and non-resistant groups. In this study, there was no significant increase in the postprandial level of nesfatin-1. This observation suggested that oral glucose load in obese children may not be sufficient for nesfatin-1 response and that nesfatin-1 may not have an effect as a short-term regulator of food intake.

  9. Postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Role of hepatic and extrahepatic tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firth, R.G.; Bell, P.M.; Marsh, H.M.; Hansen, I.; Rizza, R.A.

    1986-05-01

    Patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) have both preprandial and postprandial hyperglycemia. To determine the mechanism responsible for the postprandial hyperglycemia, insulin secretion, insulin action, and the pattern of carbohydrate metabolism after glucose ingestion were assessed in patients with NIDDM and in matched nondiabetic subjects using the dual isotope and forearm catheterization techniques. Prior to meal ingestion, hepatic glucose release was increased (P less than 0.001) in the diabetic patients measured using (2-/sup 3/H) or (3-/sup 3/H) glucose. After meal ingestion, patients with NIDDM had excessive rates of systemic glucose entry (1,316 +/- 56 vs. 1,018 +/- 65 mg/kg X 7 h, P less than 0.01), primarily owing to a failure to suppress adequately endogenous glucose release (680 +/- 50 vs. 470 +/- 32 mg/kg X 7 h, P less than 0.01) from its high preprandial level. Despite impaired suppression of endogenous glucose production during a hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp (P less than 0.001) and decreased postprandial C-peptide response (P less than 0.05) in NIDDM, percent suppression of hepatic glucose release after oral glucose was comparable in the diabetic and nondiabetic subjects (45 +/- 3 vs. 39 +/- 2%). Although new glucose formation from meal-derived three-carbon precursors (53 +/- 3 vs. 40 +/- 7 mg/kg X 7 h, P less than 0.05) was greater in the diabetic patients, it accounted for only a minor part of this excessive postprandial hepatic glucose release. Postprandial hyperglycemia was exacerbated by the lack of an appropriate increase in glucose uptake whether measured isotopically or by forearm glucose uptake. Thus excessive hepatic glucose release and impaired glucose uptake are involved in the pathogenesis of postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with NIDDM.

  10. Radiofrequency attenuator and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Benjamin P [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM; Burrell, Anthony K [Los Alamos, NM; Agrawal, Anoop [Tucson, AZ; Hall, Simon B [Palmerston North, NZ

    2009-01-20

    Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

  11. Influence of meal composition on postprandial peripheral plasma concentrations of vasoactive peptides in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Høst, U; Kelbaek, H

    1996-01-01

    In a randomized cross-over study healthy non-obese male human subjects received standardized isocaloric, isovolumetric meals consisting of either carbohydrate, protein or fat and a non-caloric control meal consisting of an equal volume of water. Peripheral venous plasma concentrations of calcitonin...... that the postprandial peripheral plasma concentrations of CGRP, VIP and PYY are dependent on the caloric meal composition. The VIP, but not the CGRP and PYY concentrations seem to be influenced by gastric distension. The physiological significance of the postprandial alterations in peripheral concentrations...

  12. ACUTE CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSE TO PRE-PRANDIAL AND POSTPRANDIAL EXERCISE IN ACTIVE MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Rabelo Mota

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Pre-prandial exercise promotes greater mobilization of fat metabolism due to the increased release of catecholamines, cortisol, and glucagon. However, this response affects how the cardiovascular system responds to exercise. Objective: To evaluate the response of systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure, heart rate (HR and rate-pressure product (RPP to pre- and postprandial exercise. Methods: Ten physically active male subjects (25.50 ± 2.22 years underwent two treadmill protocols (pre- and postprandial performed for 36 minutes at 65% of VO2max on different days. On both days, subjects attended the laboratory on a 10-hour fasting state. For the postprandial session, volunteers ingested a pre-exercise meal of 349.17 kcal containing 59.3 g of carbohydrates (76.73%, 9.97 g of protein (12.90%, and 8.01 g of lipids (10.37%. Blood pressure, HR and RPP were measured before and after exercise. The 2x2 factorial Anova with the multiple comparisons test of Bonferroni was applied to analyze cardiovascular variables in both moments (pre- vs. postprandial. The significance level was set at p<0.05. Results: Systolic (121.70 ± 7.80 vs. 139.78 ± 12.91 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (66.40 ± 9.81 vs. 80.22 ± 8.68 mmHg increased significantly after exercise only in the postprandial session (p<0.05. HR increased significantly (p<0.05 after both protocols (64.20 ± 15.87 vs. 141.20 ± 10.33 bpm pre-prandial and 63.60 ± 8.82 vs. 139.20 ± 10.82 bpm postprandial. RPP had a similar result (8052.10 ± 1790.68 vs. 18382.60 ± 2341.66 mmHg.bpm in the pre-prandial session and 7772.60 ± 1413.76 vs. 19564.60 ± 3128.99 mmHg.bpm in the postprandial session. Conclusion: These data suggest that fasted exercise does not significantly alter the blood pressure. Furthermore, the meal provided before the postprandial exercise may promote a greater blood pressure responsiveness during exercise.

  13. Effect of prior exercise on postprandial lipemia: an updated quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Eric C; Gist, Nicholas H; Cureton, Kirk J

    2014-01-01

    Reducing postprandial triglycerides (TG) can lower the risk for cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analytic review of the literature to estimate the effect of prior exercise on postprandial lipemia. A total of 121 effects were found from 76 studies for the total TG response and 70 effects from 44 studies for the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) TG response. The weighted mean effect was moderate for the total TG response, Cohen's d = -0.60 (P lipemia, with the magnitude of effect influenced by sex, type of exercise, and energy deficit following exercise.

  14. Differential effects of rosiglitazone and metformin on postprandial lipemia in patients with HIV-lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Jeroen P H; Hoepelman, Andy I M; de Koning, Eelco J P; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje; Rabelink, Ton J; Cabezas, Manuel Castro

    2011-01-01

    To compare the effects of rosiglitazone (8 mg/d, n=19) and metformin (2 g/d, n=18) on postprandial lipemia in patients with HIV-lipodystrophy. Lipodystrophy in HIV is associated with insulin resistance and disturbed postprandial triglyceride and free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism. We conducted an open randomized 6-month study with standardized 10-h oral fat-loading tests at baseline and after treatment. Rosiglitazone (-34%) and metformin (-37%) reduced homeostasis model assessment similarly (Plipemia and could be used to treat insulin resistance in this population.

  15. Positional distribution of decanoic acid: Effect on chylomicron and VLDL TAG structures and postprandial lipemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yli-Jokipii, K.M.; Schwab, U.S.; Tarvonen, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    of postprandial lipemia, after two oral fat loads containing decanoic acid (10:0) predominantly at the sn-1 (3),2 (MML) or at the sn-1,3 positions (MLM) of TAG in a randomized, double-blind,,crossover clinical trial with 10 healthy, normal-weight volunteers. An MS-MS method was used to analyze TAG regioisomers...... or in FFA concentrations. Thus, the positional distribution of MCFA in TAG affects their metabolic fate, but the magnitude of postprandial lipemia does not seem to be dependent on the positional distribution of MCFA in the ingested fat....

  16. Acute effects of postprandial aerobic exercise on glucose and lipoprotein metabolism in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Sayuki; Hayashi, Sanae; Yoshida, Akihiro; Naito, Michitaka

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the acute effects of postprandial exercise on glucose and lipoprotein metabolism after the intake of glucose with or without fat cream in healthy but sedentary young women. Healthy young Japanese women with a sedentary lifestyle, normal weight (18.5≤BMIglucose only or glucose supplemented with 1 g/kg oral fat tolerance test (OFTT) cream 4 (0.35 g/kg as fat) with or without postprandial walking exercise on a motorized treadmill (ca. 50%V(·)o(2)max for 30 min) 20 min after intake of the beverage. Each subject performed 4 trials in a randomized, cross-over design. Venous blood was drawn before (0 h), and 20 min, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h after ingestion. Postprandial exercise alleviated the sharp rise of serum glucose and insulin, and transiently mitigated the decrease of free fatty acids (FFA) after ingestion of the glucose-only beverage. Although no fat was contained in the glucose beverage, transient apoB48 secretion was observed without the rise of serum triglyceride (TG) and remnant-like particle (RLP)-TG, suggesting that apoB48-containing lipoprotein particles with little TG were released by the exercise. Serum apoB48 concentrations at 6 h had decreased to levels lower than the baseline (0 h, after 12-h overnight fast) with or without exercise, suggesting that the 12-h overnight fast may not have been a 'true' fast. Similarly, postprandial exercise suppressed the sharp rise of serum glucose and insulin, and transiently mitigated the decrease of FFA after the ingestion of glucose with OFTT cream. Postprandial exercise stimulated the transient secretion of apoB48-containing TG-rich lipoproteins (TRL) with a rapid rise of serum apoB48, TG, and RLP-TG; however, the subsequent course of lipemia was not significantly changed. Serum apoB48 and RLP-TG values did not return to the baseline even after 6 h, suggesting that postprandial lipoprotein metabolism was not finished at the end of the experiment. Postprandial aerobic exercise alleviated the glycemic peak

  17. Interpretability of the PedsQL gastrointestinal symptoms scales and gastrointestinal worry scales in pediatric patients with functional and organic gastrointestinal diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study investigates the clinical interpretability of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventor (PedsQL) Gastrointestinal Symptoms Scales and Worry Scales in pediatric patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders or organic gastrointestinal diseases in comparison with healthy controls....

  18. The gastrointestinal aspects of halitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinberg, Sivan; Stein, Miki; Zion, Nataly; Shaoul, Ron

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Halitosis is a common human condition for which the exact pathophysiological mechanism is unclear. It has been attributed mainly to oral pathologies. Halitosis resulting from gastrointestinal disorders is considered to be extremely rare. However, halitosis has often been reported among the symptoms related to Helicobacter pylori infection and gastroesophageal reflux disease. OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively review the experience with children and young adults presenting with halitosis to a pediatric gastroenterology clinic. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with halitosis as a primary or secondary symptom was conducted. All endoscopies were performed by the same endoscopist. RESULTS: A total of 94 patients had halitosis, and of the 56 patients (59.6%) who were recently examined by a dental surgeon, pathology (eg, cavities) was found in only one (1.8%). Pathology was found in only six of 27 patients (28.7%) who were assessed by an otolaryngology surgeon. Gastrointestinal pathology was found to be very common, with halitosis present in 54 of the 94 (57.4%) patients. The pathology was noted regardless of dental or otolaryngological findings. Most pathologies, both macroscopically and microscopically, were noted in the stomach (60% non-H pylori related), followed by the duodenum and the esophagus. Fifty-two of 90 patients (57.8%) were offered a treatment based on their endoscopic findings. Of the 74 patients for whom halitosis improvement data were available, some improvement was noted in 24 patients (32.4%) and complete improvement was noted in 41 patients (55.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Gastrointestinal pathology was very common in patients with halitosis regardless of dental or otolaryngological findings, and most patients improved with treatment. PMID:21152460

  19. Gastrointestinal helminths in migratory Camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S G Rewatkar

    Full Text Available Survey of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in camel migrated from U.P., M.P., and Rajasthan at Nagpur region was carried out in early summer, 2008. Total 28 samples (12 males and 16 females were collected from different places of Nagpur region. They revealed parasites as Trichuris sp.(50%, Strongyloides sp.(32.14%, Trichostrongylus sp.(10.71%, Nematodirus sp.(10.71%, Haemonchus sp.(14.28%, Eurytrema sp.(21.42% ,Eimeria sp.(25%, Entamoeba sp.(17.85% and Balantidium sp.(7.14%.All were found positive for mixed helminthic infection. [Vet World 2009; 2(7.000: 258-258

  20. Gastrointestinal Disturbances in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Natalie R; Blakely, Kala K

    2017-09-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) age-related changes create alterations in the body's ability to digest, absorb, and excrete nutrients, medications, and alcohol and disrupts GI immunity responses. All older adults exhibit some degree of swallowing difficulty, also known as senescent swallowing. The effects of chronic disease and sustained use of alcohol, tobacco, and medications often exacerbate age-related GI dysfunction. Older adults often have nonspecific complaints, warranting a thorough health history and physical examination, including prescription and over-the-counter medications. Colorectal cancer screening tests should be discussed with all older adults because of the high incidence of colorectal cancer in this patient population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Natural attenuation of herbicides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuxen, Nina; Højberg, Anker Lajer; Broholm, Mette Martina

    2002-01-01

    A field injection experiment in a sandy, aerobic aquifer showed that two phenoxy acids MCPP (mecoprop) and dichlorprop were degraded within I in downgradient of the injection wells after an apparent lag period. The plume development and microbial measurements indicated that microbial growth....... The observations may be important for application of natural attenuation as a remedy in field scale systems....

  2. Upper Gastrointestinal Complications and Cardiovascular/ Gastrointestinal Risk Calculator in Patients with Myocardial Infarction Treated with Aspirin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lei Wen

    2017-01-01

    .... How to weigh the benefits and hazards? The current study aimed to assess the feasibility of a cardiovascular/gastrointestinal risk calculator, AsaRiskCalculator, in predicting gastrointestinal events in Chinese patients with myocardial infarction (MI...

  3. Food effect: The combined effect of media pH and viscosity on the gastrointestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Asma; Zaid, Abdel Naser; Jaradat, Nidal; Odeh, Yousef

    2017-04-01

    The clinical implications of food-drug interactions may have to be taken seriously into account with oral drugs administration in order to minimize variations in drug bioavailability. Food intake may alter physiological changes in the pH and viscosity of the gastrointestinal lumen, which could affect the oral absorption of drugs. The aim of the present study was to have an insight on the effect of media parameters: viscosity and pHon the oral absorption of ciprofloxacin HCl from solid formulations using a model food: Corchorus olitorius (Jute) Soup. In vitro disintegration and dissolution rates of ciprofloxacin tablet were evaluated using compendia buffer media in the presence/absence of C. olitorius leaves. These in vitro data were then input to GastroPlus™ to predict ciprofloxacin absorption profiles under fasted and fed states. The present study demonstrated the significance of luminal pH and viscosity on the dissolution and disintegration of solid formulations following postprandial ingestion of the viscous soup. The tablets showed prolonged disintegration times and reduced dissolution rates in this soup, which could be attributed to the postprandial elevation in media viscosity and reduced solubility at elevated gastricpH. The predicted model under fed state showed no impact on AUC but prolonged Tmax and a decrease in Cmax. Concomitant intake of C. olitorius soup with ciprofloxacin might have negative effect on the rate of drug release from conventional immediate release tablets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Does Hypothyroidism Affect Gastrointestinal Motility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yaylali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gastrointestinal motility and serum thyroid hormone levels are closely related. Our aim was to analyze whether there is a disorder in esophagogastric motor functions as a result of hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods. The study group included 30 females (mean age ± SE 45.17 ± 2.07 years with primary hypothyroidism and 10 healthy females (mean age ± SE 39.40 ± 3.95 years. All cases underwent esophagogastric endoscopy and scintigraphy. For esophageal scintigraphy, dynamic imaging of esophagus motility protocol, and for gastric emptying scintigraphy, anterior static gastric images were acquired. Results. The mean esophageal transit time (52.56 ± 4.07 sec for patients; 24.30 ± 5.88 sec for controls; P=.02 and gastric emptying time (49.06 ± 4.29 min for the hypothyroid group; 30.4 ± 4.74 min for the control group; P=.01 were markedly increased in cases of hypothyroidism. Conclusion. Hypothyroidism prominently reduces esophageal and gastric motor activity and can cause gastrointestinal dysfunction.

  5. Feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, L E; Hardam, E E; Hertzke, D M; Flatland, B; Rohrbach, B W; Moore, R R

    2009-01-01

    A retrospective study of cases of a unique intramural inflammatory mass within the feline gastrointestinal tract was performed in order to describe and characterize the lesion. Twenty-five cases were identified from archival surgical and postmortem tissues. The lesion most often occurred as an ulcerated intramural mass at the pyloric sphincter (n = 12) or the ileocecocolic junction or colon (n = 9); the remaining cases were in the small intestine. Seven cases also had lymph node involvement. The lesions were characterized by eosinophilic inflammation, large reactive fibroblasts, and trabeculae of dense collagen. Intralesional bacteria were identified in 56% of the cases overall and all of the ileocecocolic junction and colon lesions. Fifty-eight percent of cats tested had peripheral eosinophilia. Cats treated with prednisone had a significantly longer survival time than those receiving other treatments. We propose that this is a unique fibroblastic response of the feline gastrointestinal tract to eosinophilic inflammation that in some cases is associated with bacteria. The lesion is often grossly and sometimes histologically mistaken for neoplasia.

  6. Functional and motor gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Rey, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín

    2016-09-01

    This article discusses the most interesting presentations at Digestive Disease Week, held in San Diego, in the field of functional and motor gastrointestinal disorders. One of the most important contributions was undoubtedly the presentation of the new Rome IV diagnostic criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders. We therefore devote some space in this article to explaining these new criteria in the most common functional disorders. In fact, there has already been discussion of data comparing Rome IV and Rome III criteria in the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome, confirming that the new criteria are somewhat more restrictive. From the physiopathological point of view, several studies have shown that the aggregation of physiopathological alterations increases symptom severity in distinct functional disorders. From the therapeutic point of view, more data were presented on the efficacy of acotiamide and its mechanisms of action in functional dyspepsia, the safety and efficacy of domperidone in patients with gastroparesis, and the efficacy of linaclotide both in irritable bowel syndrome and constipation. In irritable bowel syndrome, more data have come to light on the favourable results of a low FODMAP diet, with emphasis on its role in modifying the microbiota. Finally, long-term efficacy data were presented on the distinct treatment options in achalasia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Ghrelin and gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chang-Zhen; Liu, Dong; Kang, Wei-Ming; Yu, Jian-Chun; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Ye, Xin; Li, Kang

    2017-03-14

    Ghrelin, as a kind of multifunctional protein polypeptide, is mainly produced in the fundus of the stomach and can promote occurrence and development of many tumors, including gastrointestinal tumors, which has been proved by the relevant researches. Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs, about 80%), as the most common mesenchymal tumor, also develop in the fundus. Scientific research has confirmed that ghrelin, its receptors and mRNA respectively can be found in GISTs, which demonstrated the existence of a ghrelin autocrine/paracrine loop in GIST tissues. However, no reports to date have specified the mechanism whether ghrelin can promote the occurrence and development of GISTs. Studies of pulmonary artery endothelial cells in a low-oxygen environment and cardiac muscle cells in an ischemic environment have shown that ghrelin can activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) signaling pathway. Moreover, some studies of GISTs have confirmed that activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway can indeed promote the growth and progression of GISTs. Whether ghrelin is involved in the development or progression of GISTs through certain pathways remains unknown. Can we find a new target for the treatment of GISTs? This review explores and summaries the relationship among ghrelin, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and the development of GISTs.

  8. A green tea-containing starch confection increases plasma catechins without protecting against postprandial impairments in vascular function in normoglycemic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapper, Teryn N; Mah, Eunice; Ahn-Jarvis, Jennifer; McDonald, Joshua D; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Reverri, Elizabeth J; Vodovotz, Yael; Bruno, Richard S

    2016-09-14

    Postprandial hyperglycemia (PPH) increases cardiovascular disease risk regardless of glucose intolerance by transiently impairing vascular endothelial function (VEF) by limiting nitric oxide bioavailability in an oxidative stress-dependent manner. Preclinical studies show that green tea catechins attenuate PPH by inhibiting starch digestion. We hypothesized that a starch-based confection containing catechin-rich green tea extract (GTE) would limit PPH-mediated impairments in VEF in normoglycemic adults. We formulated a unique GTE confection and then conducted a double-blind, randomized, controlled, crossover study in healthy men (n = 15; 25.3 ± 1.0 years; 22.4 ± 1.8 kg m(-2)) in which they ingested starch confections (50 g carbohydrate) formulated with or without GTE (1 g) prior to evaluating sensory characteristics of confections and plasma glucose, biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide homeostasis, and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) at 30 min intervals for 3 h. Sensory evaluation of confections indicated acceptable consumer appeal and an inability to distinguish between confections regardless of GTE. Plasma catechins concentrations increased following ingestion of the GTE confection. However, plasma glucose peaked at 60 min (P confection ingestion and was unaffected throughout the postprandial period by the GTE confection (P > 0.05). FMD was significantly decreased only at 60 min regardless of confections containing GTE. Also at 60 min, both confections similarly increased plasma malondialdehyde while decreasing arginine and increasing asymmetric dimethylarginine/arginine. The successfully formulated GTE-containing confection effectively delivered catechins, but without mitigating PPH-mediated impairments in VEF in association with oxidative stress that likely limits nitric oxide bioavailability.

  9. Model-Based Quantification of the Systemic Interplay between Glucose and Fatty Acids in the Postprandial State.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fianne L P Sips

    Full Text Available In metabolic diseases such as Type 2 Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, the systemic regulation of postprandial metabolite concentrations is disturbed. To understand this dysregulation, a quantitative and temporal understanding of systemic postprandial metabolite handling is needed. Of particular interest is the intertwined regulation of glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, due to the association between disturbed NEFA metabolism and insulin resistance. However, postprandial glucose metabolism is characterized by a dynamic interplay of simultaneously responding regulatory mechanisms, which have proven difficult to measure directly. Therefore, we propose a mathematical modelling approach to untangle the systemic interplay between glucose and NEFA in the postprandial period. The developed model integrates data of both the perturbation of glucose metabolism by NEFA as measured under clamp conditions, and postprandial time-series of glucose, insulin, and NEFA. The model can describe independent data not used for fitting, and perturbations of NEFA metabolism result in an increased insulin, but not glucose, response, demonstrating that glucose homeostasis is maintained. Finally, the model is used to show that NEFA may mediate up to 30-45% of the postprandial increase in insulin-dependent glucose uptake at two hours after a glucose meal. In conclusion, the presented model can quantify the systemic interactions of glucose and NEFA in the postprandial state, and may therefore provide a new method to evaluate the disturbance of this interplay in metabolic disease.

  10. Postprandial lipemia in men with metabolic syndrome, hypertensives and healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraklianou Stella A

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome (MetS, as well as postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, is associated with coronary heart disease. This study aimed to evaluate the postprandial lipemia after oral fat tolerance test (OFTT in subjects with MetS and compare them to hypertensive (HTN and healthy subjects. Results OFTT was given to 33 men with MetS (defined by the Adult Treatment Panel III, 17 HTN and 14 healthy men. The MetS group was further divided according to fasting triglycerides (TG into TG ≥ 150 [MetS+TG, (n = 22] or The postprandial response was significantly higher in MetS compared to HTN and healthy men [AUC (SD in mg/dl/h; 2534 ± 1016 vs. 1620 ± 494 and 1019 ± 280, respectively, p ≤ 0.001]. The TG levels were increased significantly in MetS+TG compared to MetS-TG subjects at 4 (p = 0.022, 6 (p Conclusion Fasting TG concentration is the main determinant of postprandial lipemia. However, an exaggeration of TG postprandialy was found in normotriglyceridemic MetS and HTN compared to healthy subjects. This suggests that intervention to lower fasting TG levels should be recommended in MetS subjects.

  11. Ceylon cinnamon does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickenberg, Jennie; Lindstedt, Sandra; Berntorp, Kerstin; Nilsson, Jan; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies on healthy subjects have shown that the intake of 6 g Cinnamomum cassia reduces postprandial glucose and that the intake of 3 g C. cassia reduces insulin response, without affecting postprandial glucose concentrations. Coumarin, which may damage the liver, is present in C. cassia, but not in Cinnamomum zeylanicum. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of C. zeylanicum on postprandial concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glycaemic index (GI) and insulinaemic index (GII) in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A total of ten subjects with IGT were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered together with placebo or C. zeylanicum capsules. Finger-prick capillary blood samples were taken for glucose measurements and venous blood for insulin measurements, before and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after the start of the OGTT. The ingestion of 6 g C. zeylanicum had no significant effect on glucose level, insulin response, GI or GII. Ingestion of C. zeylanicum does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin levels in human subjects. The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment in Europe has suggested the replacement of C. cassia by C. zeylanicum or the use of aqueous extracts of C. cassia to lower coumarin exposure. However, the positive effects seen with C. cassia in subjects with poor glycaemic control would then be lost.

  12. PUFAs acutely affect triacylglycerol-derived skeletal muscle fatty acid uptake and increase postprandial insulin sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jans, A.; Konings, E.; Goossens, G.H.; Bouwman, F.G.; Moors, C.C.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Afman, L.A.; Muller, M.R.; Mariman, E.C.; Blaak, E.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dietary fat quality may influence skeletal muscle lipid processing and fat accumulation, thereby modulating insulin sensitivity. Objective: The objective was to examine the acute effects of meals with various fatty acid (FA) compositions on skeletal muscle FA processing and postprandial

  13. Reduced postprandial GLP-1 responses in women with gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, L; Vilsbøll, T; Nielsen, T

    2013-01-01

    AIM: We investigated postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) responses in pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and again following delivery when normal glucose tolerance (NGT) was re-established. METHODS: Eleven women with GDM [plasma glucose (PG) concentration...

  14. Effects of two different types of fast food on postprandial metabolism in normal and overweight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramel, A; Gudmundsdottir, F D; Thorsdottir, I

    2012-11-01

    The aim was to investigate the effects of a conventional and an unconventional fast-food meal on postprandial metabolism in normal and in overweight subjects. Twenty-five healthy normal (n = 12) and overweight (n = 13) volunteers (21-39 years) participated in this randomized, dietary cross-over study and received two test meals (matched in energy and energy giving nutrients) after an overnight fast with 1 week between test days. The conventional fast-food meal was a hamburger meal (hamburger, bacon, cola drink, calculated glycemic load = 48.7), the unconventional fast food was a salmonburger meal (fiber-rich sourdough rye bread, salad with vinegar, orange juice, glycemic load = 46.0). Blood samples were taken before and after the meal and analyzed for glucose (before 20, 40, 60 and 80 min) and insulin (before 1, 2 and 3 h). Postprandial increases in glucose and insulin were 44% lower after the unconventional meal (Pfast food can have less effect on blood insulin and glucose postprandially compared with conventional fast food matched in energy and energy giving nutrients. The difference between meals in insulin response is associated with higher BMI. Thus, improvement in food quality might help to control postprandial increases in blood glucose and blood insulin.

  15. Effects of dietary fat quality and quantity on postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L F; Bladbjerg, E-M; Jespersen, J

    1997-01-01

    , monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fats differed regarding postprandial activation of FVII. Eighteen healthy young men participated in the study. On 6 separate days each participant consumed two meals (times, 0 and 1 3/4 hours) enriched with 70 g (15 and 55 g) of either rapeseed oil, olive oil, sunflower oil...

  16. Assessment and clinical relevance of non-fasting and postprandial triglycerides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Kovar, Jan

    2011-01-01

    An Expert Panel group of scientists and clinicians met to consider several aspects related to non-fasting and postprandial triglycerides (TGs) and their role as risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this context, we review recent epidemiological studies relevant to elevated non...

  17. Minor Contribution of Endogenous GLP-1 and GLP-2 to Postprandial Lipemia in Obese Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matikainen, Niina; Björnson, Elias; Söderlund, Sanni

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Glucose and lipids stimulate the gut-hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, GLP-2 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) but the effect of these on human postprandial lipid metabolism is not fully clarified. OBJECTIVE: To explore the responses of GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP aft...

  18. Postprandial lipemia and cardiovascular disease risk: Interrelationships between dietary, physiological and genetic determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kim G; Poppitt, Sally D; Minihane, Anne M

    2012-01-01

    Although the independence of the association and causality has not been fully established, non-fasting (postprandial) triglyceride (TG) concentrations have emerged as a clinically significant cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. In the current review, findings from three insightful prospective studies in the area, namely the Women's Health Study, the Copenhagen City Heart Study and the Norwegian Counties Study, are discussed. An overview is provided as to the likely etiological basis for the association between postprandial TG and CVD, with a focus on both lipid and non-lipid (inflammation, hemostasis and vascular function) risk factors. The impact of various lifestyle and physiological determinants are considered, in particular genetic variation and meal fat composition. Furthermore, although data is limited some information is provided as to the relative and interactive impact of a number of modulators of lipemia. It is evident that relative to age, gender and body mass index (known modulators of postprandial lipemia), the contribution of identified gene variants to the heterogeneity observed in the postprandial response is likely to be relatively small. Finally, we highlight the need for the development of a standardised 'fat tolerance test' for use in clinical trials, to allow the integration and comparison of data from individual studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. ω-3 Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters Diminish Postprandial Lipemia in Familial Hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Dick C; Pang, Jing; Barrett, P Hugh R; Sullivan, David R; Burnett, John R; van Bockxmeer, Frank M; Watts, Gerald F

    2016-10-01

    Impaired postprandial chylomicron metabolism induces hypertriglyceridemia and may increase the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Omega-3 fatty acid ethyl ester (ω-3 FAEE) supplementation decreases plasma triglycerides. However, its effect on postprandial chylomicron metabolism in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) has not yet been investigated. We aimed to examine the effect of ω-3 FAEE supplementation on postprandial responses in plasma triglycerides, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) apolipoprotein B (apoB)-100, and apoB-48 in FH patients receiving standard cholesterol-lowering treatment. We carried out an 8-week open-label, randomized, crossover intervention trial to test the effect of oral supplementation with 4 g/d ω-3 FAEE (46% eicosapentaenoic acid and 38% docosahexaenoic acid) on postprandial triglyceride, VLDL-apoB-100, and apoB-48 responses in FH patients after ingestion of an oral fat load. Plasma total and incremental triglyceride, VLDL-apoB-100, and apoB-48 0- to 10-hour area under the curve (AUC). ω-3 FAEE supplementation significantly (P lipemia in FH patients receiving standard care; this may have implications for further reducing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in this high-risk patient group.

  20. Dairy proteins, dairy lipids, and postprandial lipemia in persons with abdominal obesity (DairyHealth)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohl, Mette; Bjørnshave, Ann; Rasmussen, Kia V.; Schioldan, Anne Grethe; Amer, Bashar; Larsen, Mette K.; Dalsgaard, Trine K.; Holst, Jens J.; Herrmann, Annkatrin; O'Neill, Sadhbh; O'Driscoll, Lorraine; Afman, Lydia; Jensen, Erik; Christensen, Merete M.; Gregersen, Søren; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abdominal obesity and exaggerated postprandial lipemia are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality, and both are affected by dietary behavior. Objective: We investigated whether dietary supplementation with whey protein and medium-chain saturated fatty

  1. Influence of aging and menopause on postprandial lipoprotein responses in healthy adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeno, Yuka; Fukuchi, Yoshiko; Matsutani, Yasuko; Naito, Michitaka

    2007-06-01

    To analyze the influence of menopause and age on postprandial lipoprotein responses in healthy adult women. Twenty-seven healthy young and middle-aged pre- and postmenopausal female volunteers aged 21-53 y were enrolled. They ingested OFTT cream(Jomo, Takasaki, Japan). Fasting and postprandial blood samples were obtained for up to 6 h, and serum concentrations of lipoproteins were analyzed. In the postprandial phase, serum triglycerides(TG), remnant-like particle(RLP)-TG(RLP-TG), RLP-cholesterol(RLP-C), and TG-rich lipoprotein-TG(TRL-TG)concentrations in all groups peaked after 2 h. After 4 h, the TG, RLP-C, RLP-TG and TRL-TG concentrations in the young women returned to the fasting concentrations. However, at 6 h, these parameters in the pre- and postmenopausal women had barely returned to the fasting concentrations. The present results suggest that:(1)the magnitude of postprandial TG concentrations is dependent on age, but not on menopause;(2)clearance of remnant lipoproteins is delayed with age in pre- and postmenopausal women compared to young women, and(3)menopause is associated with an increase of RLP-C, but may not influence LDL particle size.

  2. Diagnosis of bile acid diarrhoea by fasting and postprandial measurements of fibroblast growth factor 19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Christian; Syversen, Charlotte; Bouchelouche, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A deficiency in the ileal hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) has been described in patients with bile acid diarrhoea (BAD), but fasting FGF19 levels have insufficient diagnostic power. We assess whether single postprandial sampling of FGF19 has greater discriminative value th...

  3. Sustained postprandial decrease in plasma levels of LDL cholesterol in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, S.S.; Petersen, Martin; Frandsen, M.

    2008-01-01

    ). We aimed to study the postprandial levels of LDL-C in T2DM patients. Material and methods. After an overnight fast, 74 T2DM patients, mean age approximately 60 years, were served a standard fat-rich meal of 3,515 kJ containing 54 % fat, 13 % protein and 33 % carbohydrates. Only drinking water...

  4. Aronia juice suppresses the elevation of postprandial blood glucose levels in adult healthy Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Yamane

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aronia has various functions toward human health, including the beneficial effect on hypertension, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Recently, we identified cyanidin-3,5-O-diglucoside as DPP IV inhibitor from Aronia juice. We also found its beneficial effect on hyperglycemia in KKAy mice fed aronia juice. In this study, to examine the effect of aronia juice on postprandial blood glucose levels in Japanese, we performed an oral meal tolerance test (OMTT. We found that postprandial blood glucose levels were reduced in aronia juice-administered adult healthy Japanese. We also found that there was no difference of reduction levels of postprandial blood glucose between male and female. We also found that activities of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV, α-glucosidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE were reduced by aronia juice. These results suggest that aronia juice suppresses the elevation of postprandial blood glucose levels through inhibition of these enzyme activities and may be useful for prevention of metabolic diseases in adult healthy Japanese.

  5. Long-term effects of daily postprandial physical activity on blood glucose: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Håvard; Grindaker, Eirik; Rønnestad, Bent Ronny; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Høstmark, Arne Torbjørn

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that a bout of moderate or light postprandial physical activity effectively blunts the postprandial increase in blood glucose. The objective of this study was to test whether regular light postprandial physical activity can improve glycemia in persons with hyperglycemia or with a high risk of hyperglycemia. We randomized 56 participants to an intervention or a control group. They were diagnosed as hyperglycemic, not using antidiabetics, or were categorized as high-risk individuals for type 2 diabetes. The intervention group was instructed to undertake a minimum 30 min of daily light physical activity, starting a maximum of 30 min after a meal in addition to their usual physical activity for 12 weeks. The control group maintained their usual lifestyle. Blood samples were taken pre- and post-test. Forty participants completed the study and are included in the results. The self-reported increase in daily physical activity from before to within the study period was higher in the intervention group compared with control (41 ± 25 vs. 2 ± 16 min, p postprandial physical activity improves blood glucose in the long term in persons with hyperglycemia or with high risk of hyperglycemia.

  6. Energy replacement using glucose does not increase postprandial lipemia after moderate intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chih-Hui; Burns, Stephen Francis; Yang, Tsung-Jen; Chang, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Yi-Liang; Chang, Cheng-Kang; Wu, Ching-Lin

    2014-11-25

    Aerobic exercise can decrease postprandial triglyceride (TG) concentrations but the relationship between exercise-induced energy deficits and postprandial lipemia is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of a single bout of aerobic exercise, with and without energy replacement, on postprandial lipemia and on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) mRNA expression of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR). Nine healthy male humans completed three two-day trials in a random order. On day 1, volunteers rested (CON), completed 60 minutes of treadmill walking at 50% of VO2peak (EX) or completed the same bout of walking but with the energy replaced afterwards with a glucose solution (EXG). On day 2, volunteers rested and consumed a high fat test meal in the morning. Total and incremental TG AUC were significantly lower on the EXG (P  0.05). In conclusion, energy replacement by glucose did not affect the decrease in postprandial TG concentrations observed after moderate intensity exercise and exercise does not affect changes in PBMC HMGCR, VLDL and LDL receptor mRNA expression.

  7. Evaluating Crossbred Red Rice Variants for Postprandial Glucometabolic Responses: A Comparison with Commercial Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee-Hee Se

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of white rice predisposes some Asian populations to increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We compared the postprandial glucometabolic responses to three newly-developed crossbred red rice variants (UKMRC9, UKMRC10, UKMRC11 against three selected commercial rice types (Thai red, Basmati white, Jasmine white using 50-g carbohydrate equivalents provided to 12 normoglycaemic adults in a crossover design. Venous blood was drawn fasted and postprandially for three hours. Glycaemic (GI and insulin (II indices, incremental areas-under-the-curves for glucose and insulin (IAUCins, indices of insulin sensitivity and secretion, lactate and peptide hormones (motilin, neuropeptide-Y, orexin-A were analyzed. The lowest to highest trends for GI and II were similar i.e., UKMRC9 < Basmati < Thai red < UKMRC10 < UKMRC11 < Jasmine. Postprandial insulinaemia and IAUCins of only UKMRC9 were significantly the lowest compared to Jasmine. Crude protein and fiber content correlated negatively with the GI values of the test rice. Although peptide hormones were not associated with GI and II characteristics of test rice, early and late phases of prandial neuropeptide-Y changes were negatively correlated with postprandial insulinaemia. This study indicated that only UKMRC9 among the new rice crossbreeds could serve as an alternative cereal option to improve diet quality of Asians with its lowest glycaemic and insulinaemic burden.

  8. Influence of antioxidant rich fresh vegetable juices on starch induced postprandial hyperglycemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashok K; Reddy, K Srikanth; Radhakrishnan, Janani; Kumar, D Anand; Zehra, Amtul; Agawane, Sachin B; Madhusudana, K

    2011-09-01

    This research analyzed the major chemical components and multiple antioxidant activities present in the fresh juice of eight vegetables, and studied their influence on starch induced postprandial glycemia in rats. A SDS-PAGE based protein fingerprint of each vegetable juice was also prepared. The yields of juice, chemical components like total proteins, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins and free radicals like the ABTS˙(+) cation, DPPH, H(2)O(2), scavenging activities and reducing properties for NBT and FeCl(3) showed wide variations. Vegetable juice from brinjal ranked first in displaying total antioxidant capacity. Pretreatment of rats with vegetable juices moderated starch induced postprandial glycemia. The fresh juice from the vegetables ridge gourd, bottle gourd, ash gourd and chayote significantly mitigated postprandial hyperglycemic excursion. Total polyphenol concentrations present in vegetable juices positively influenced ABTS˙(+) scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity. However, NBT reducing activity of juices was positively affected by total protein concentration. Contrarily, however, high polyphenol content in vegetable juice was observed to adversely affect the postprandial antihyperglycemic activity of vegetable juices. This is the first report exploring antihyperglycemic activity in these vegetable juices and highlights the possible adverse influence of high polyphenol content on the antihyperglycemic activity of the vegetable juices. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  9. Postprandial triglyceride response in young adult men and familial risk for coronary atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uiterwaal, C.S.P.M.; Grobbee, D.E.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Stiphout, W.A.H.J. van; Krauss, X.H.; Havekes, L.M.; Bruijn, A.M. de; Tol, A. van; Hofman, A.

    1994-01-01

    Setting: Coronary angiography departments of four central general hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients: 80 sons (mean age, 24.8 years) of men with severe coronary artery disease and 55 sons (mean age, 23.2 years) of controls. Measurements: Postprandial levels of serum triglycerides, retinyl

  10. Effects of diet composition on postprandial energy availability during weight loss maintenance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn O Walsh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The major circulating metabolic fuels regulate hunger, and each is affected by dietary composition. An integrated measure of postprandial energy availability from circulating metabolic fuels may help inform dietary recommendations for weight maintenance after weight loss. AIM: We examined the effect of low-fat (LF, 60% of energy from carbohydrate, 20% fat, 20% protein, low-glycemic index (LGI, 40%-40%-20%, and very low-carbohydrate (VLC, 10%-60%-30% diets on total postprandial metabolic fuel energy availability (EA during weight loss maintenance. METHODS: Eight obese young adults were fed a standard hypocaloric diet to produce 10-15% weight loss. They were then provided isocaloric LF, LGI, and VLC diets in a randomized crossover design, each for a 4-week period of weight loss maintenance. At the end of each dietary period, a test meal representing the respective diet was provided, and blood samples were obtained every 30 minutes for 5 hours. The primary outcome was EA, defined as the combined energy density (circulating level × relative energy content of glucose, free fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyrate. Secondary outcomes were individual metabolic fuels, metabolic rate, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, epinephrine, and hunger ratings. Respiratory quotient was a process measure. Data were analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance, with outcomes compared in the early (30 to 150 min and late (180 to 300 min postprandial periods. RESULTS: EA did not differ between the test meals during the early postprandial period (p = 0.99. However, EA in the late postprandial period was significantly lower after the LF test meal than the LGI (p<0.0001 and VLC (p<0.0001 test meals. Metabolic rate also differed in the late postprandial period (p = 0.0074, with higher values on the VLC than LF (p = 0.0064 and LGI (p = 0.0066 diets. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that an LF diet may adversely affect postprandial EA and risk for weight regain

  11. Omega-3 fatty acids improve postprandial lipemia and associated endothelial dysfunction in healthy individuals - a randomized cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Toru; Noda, Yoko; Ohno, Yuko; Sugiyama, Hiroki; Oe, Hiroki; Nakamura, Kazufumi; Kohno, Kunihisa; Ito, Hiroshi

    2014-10-01

    Postprandial elevation of triglycerides impairs endothelial function and contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. We investigated the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on postprandial endothelial function and lipid profiles. Healthy volunteers [10] were given supplementation at 4g/day omega-3 fatty acids (or were not treated) for 4 weeks in a randomised crossover study. Postprandial levels of various lipids were monitored and endothelial function assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation during fasting and after a standard cookie test. Omega-3 fatty acids reduced postprandial endothelial dysfunction compared with the control diet (flow-mediated dilation at 4h=-0.5±1.2 vs. -2.0±1.6%, P=0.03). Postprandial levels of triglycerides, apolipoprotein B-48, and remnant lipoprotein-cholesterol increased in untreated subjects, peaked at 2-4h, and returned to baseline at 8h, whereas low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels did not change. Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids significantly suppressed postprandial elevation of triglycerides (incremental area under the curve=220±209 vs. 374±216mg/h/dL, P=0.04) and remnant lipoprotein-cholesterol (incremental area under the curve=21.7±13.8 vs. 13.3±12.9mg/h/dL, P=0.04). Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids significantly suppressed the increase in triglyceride content in chylomicrons as well as in very-low-density lipoproteins from baseline to 4h after the cookie test. Omega-3 fatty acids significantly decreased postprandial triglyceride elevation and postprandial endothelial dysfunction, suggesting that omega-3 fatty acids may have vascular protective effects in postprandial state. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Postprandial endothelial dysfunction in subjects with new-onset type 2 diabetes: an acarbose and nateglinide comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kato Toru

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postprandial hyperglycemia is believed to affect vascular endothelial function. The aim of our study was to compare the effects of acarbose and nateglinide on postprandial endothelial dysfunction. Methods We recruited a total of 30 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (19 men and 11 women, age 67.8 ± 7.3 years. Patients were randomly assigned to 3 groups receiving either 300 mg/day acarbose, 270 mg/day nateglinide, or no medication. A cookie test (consisting of 75 g carbohydrate, 25 g butter fat, and 7 g protein for a total of 553 kcal was performed as dietary tolerance testing. During the cookie test, glucose and insulin levels were determined at 0, 30, 60, and 120 min after load. In addition, endothelial function was assessed by % flow-mediated dilation (FMD of the brachial artery at 0 and 120 min after cookie load. Results Postprandial glucose and insulin levels were similar in the 3 groups. Postprandial endothelial dysfunction was similar in the 3 groups before treatment. After 12 weeks of intervention, postprandial FMD was significantly improved in the acarbose group compared with the control group (6.8 ± 1.3% vs 5.2 ± 1.1%, p = 0.0022. Area under the curve (AUC for insulin response was significantly increased in the nateglinide and control groups; however, no significant change was observed in the acarbose group. Conclusions Our results suggest that acarbose improves postprandial endothelial function by improvement of postprandial hyperglycemia, independent of postprandial hyperinsulinemia. Acarbose may thus have more beneficial effects on postprandial endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes than nateglinide.

  13. Reduction in bone resorption by exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 administration requires an intact gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottschalck, Ida B; Jeppesen, Palle B; Holst, Jens Juul

    2008-01-01

    -intake. Subcutaneous GLP-2 treatment has been shown to reduce bone resorption in postmenopausal women. The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of exogenous GLP-2 to reduce bone resorption in patients with jejunostomy or ileostomy and to elucidate whether an intact gastrointestinal tract...... and the ability to secrete GLP-2 are required for meal-induced inhibition of bone resorption. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen control subjects, 13 colectomized patients with an ileostomy and 12 colectomized patients with a jejunostomy (remnant small bowel 89 +/- 53 cm) were given: a) a subcutaneous injection......) compared with baseline values. Patients with an ileostomy had a preserved endogenous postprandial GLP-2 secretion, which was absent in patients with a jejunostomy. Consumption of a meal reduced s-CTX in all groups but significantly less so in the jejunostomy group. CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in bone...

  14. Two forensic autopsy cases of death due to upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage: a comparison of postmortem computed tomography and autopsy findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideto; Hasegawa, Iwao; Hoshino, Norio; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2015-05-01

    In this report, we describe two autopsy cases of death due to upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (Case 1: gastric ulcer, Case 2: aortoduodenal fistula). Postmortem computed tomography (CT) images from both cases revealed pooling of gastric fluid, which contained high attenuation areas, although these images also mirrored the different sources of the gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Fluid collection was observed in the small intestine for both cases, although the high attenuation areas were only remarkable in Case 2. The autopsy in Case 1 revealed a peptic ulcer, with small vessels exposed on the surface of the ulcer. Melena was also observed throughout the intestine, although clotting was only observed inside the stomach. The autopsy in Case 2 revealed diffuse massive clotting from the stomach to the upper portion of the ileum, which was due to a primary aortoduodenal fistula. Given our autopsy findings, the extent of the high attenuation areas in the digestive tract during postmortem CT scanning may be correlated with the speed of the gastrointestinal hemorrhage before death. Carefully evaluating the radiodensity of the gastrointestinal contents during postmortem CT scanning may indicate the primary site of the hemorrhage before the autopsy, thereby facilitating the accurate identification of the cause of death during forensic autopsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Postprandial oxytocin secretion is associated with severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Elizabeth A; Holsen, Laura M; Santin, McKale; DeSanti, Rebecca; Meenaghan, Erinne; Eddy, Kamryn T; Herzog, David B; Goldstein, Jill M; Klibanski, Anne

    2013-05-01

    Anorexia nervosa, a psychiatric disorder characterized by self-induced starvation, is associated with endocrine dysfunction and comorbid anxiety and depression. Animal data suggest that oxytocin may have anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. We have reported increased postprandial oxytocin levels in women with active anorexia nervosa and decreased levels in weight-recovered women with anorexia nervosa compared to healthy controls. A meal may represent a significant source of stress in patients with disordered eating. We therefore investigated the association between postprandial oxytocin secretion and symptoms of anxiety and depression in anorexia nervosa. We performed a cross-sectional study of 35 women (13 women with active anorexia nervosa, 9 with weight-recovered anorexia nervosa, and 13 healthy controls). Anorexia nervosa was diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Serum oxytocin and cortisol and plasma leptin levels were measured fasting and 30, 60, and 120 minutes after a standardized mixed meal. The area under the curve (AUC) and, for oxytocin, postprandial nadir and peak levels were determined. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II). The study was conducted from January 2009 to March 2011. In women with anorexia nervosa, oxytocin AUC and postprandial nadir and peak levels were positively associated with STAI trait and STAI premeal and postmeal state scores. Oxytocin AUC and nadir levels were positively associated with BDI-II scores. After controlling for cortisol AUC, all of the relationships remained significant. After controlling for leptin AUC, most of the relationships remained significant. Oxytocin secretion explained up to 51% of the variance in STAI trait and 24% of the variance in BDI-II scores. Abnormal postprandial oxytocin secretion in women with anorexia nervosa is associated with increased symptoms of anxiety and depression. This

  16. Elevated fasting and postprandial C-terminal telopeptide after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoodi, Negar; Alaghband-Zadeh, Jamshid; Cross, Gemma F; Werling, Malin; Fändriks, Lars; Docherty, Neil G; Olbers, Torsten; Dew, Tracy; Sherwood, Roy A; Vincent, Royce P; le Roux, Carel W

    2017-07-01

    Background Roux-en-Y gastric bypass increases circulating bile acid concentrations, known mediators of postprandial suppression of markers of bone resorption. Long-term data, however, indicate that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass confers an increased risk of bone loss on recipients. Methods Thirty-six obese individuals, median age 44 (26-64) with median body mass index at baseline of 42.5 (40.4-46) were studied before and 15 months after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. After an overnight fast, patients received a 400 kcal mixed meal. Blood samples were collected premeal then at 30-min periods for 120 min. Pre and postmeal samples were analysed for total bile acids, parathyroid hormone and C-terminal telopeptide. Results Body weight loss post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass was associated with a median 4.9-fold increase in peak postprandial total bile acid concentration, and a median 2.4-fold increase in cumulative food evoked bile acid response. Median fasting parathyroid hormone, postprandial reduction in parathyroid hormone and total parathyroid hormone release over 120 min remained unchanged after surgery. After surgery, median fasting C-terminal telopeptide increased 2.3-fold, peak postprandial concentrations increased 3.8-fold and total release was increased 1.9-fold. Conclusions Fasting and postprandial total bile acids and C-terminal telopeptide are increased above reference range after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. These changes occur in spite of improved vitamin D status with supplementation. These results suggest that post-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass increases in total bile acids do not effectively oppose an ongoing resorptive signal operative along the gut-bone axis. Serial measurement of C-terminal telopeptide may be of value as a risk marker for long-term skeletal pathology in patients post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

  17. Effect of short term aerobic exercise on fasting and postprandial lipoprotein subfractions in healthy sedentary men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaka, Peter; Kruzliak, Peter; Balaz, David; Komornikova, Andrea; Celovska, Denisa; Cammarota, Giovanni; Kusendova, Katarina; Bendzala, Matej; Rodrigo, Luis; Dukat, Andrej; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Dvorakova, Magdalena Chottova; Gaspar, Ludovit

    2015-11-25

    Our goal was to investigate the effect of short term exercise on fasting and postprandial lipoprotein profile. Healthy sedentary men exercised 20 min for four days. The intensity of exercise was modulated to maintain 75-80 % of a calculated HRmax. Before and after the exercise program, fasting and postprandial (4 h after standard meal) concentrations of lipoprotein subfractions were measured by an electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel and total concentrations of TAG, LDL and HDL by enzymatic colorimetric method. After 2 days of rest, fasting and postprandial concentrations of lipoprotein fractions and subfractions were measured to determine a persistency of a changes in the lipoprotein profile. 4 days of physical exercise led to statistically significant decrease of concentration of triacylglycerol in fasting (76.29 ± 20.07, 53.92 ± 10.90, p fasting (21.88 ± 3.87, 18.00 ± 3.93, p fasting (162.26 ± 23.38, 148.91 ± 17.72, p fasting (9.89 ± 3.27, 6.22 ± 2.55, p fasting (6.11 ± 2.89, 4.22, p fasting and postprandial lipoprotein profile disappeared after 2 days of rest. Just 4 daily settings of 20 min of physical exercise can lead to significant positive changes of fasting and postprandial lipoprotein profile.

  18. Postprandial hyperglycemia and endothelial function in type 2 diabetes: focus on mitiglinide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitasato Lisa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The risk of cardiovascular complication in a diabetes patient is similar to that in a nondiabetic patient with a history of myocardial infarction. Although intensive control of glycemia achieved by conventional antidiabetic agents decreases microvascular complications such as retinopathy and nephropathy, no marked effect has been reported on macrovascular complications or all-cause mortality. Evidence from VADT, ACCORD, and ADVANCE would suggest that glycemic control has little effect on macrovascular outcomes. Moreover, in the case of ACCORD, intensive glycemic control may be associated with an increased risk of mortality. There is sufficient evidence that suggests that postprandial hyperglycemia may be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in diabetes patients. However, there are no prospective clinical trials supporting the recommendation that lowering postprandial blood glucose leads to lower risk of cardiovascular outcomes. Mitiglinide is a short-acting insulinotropic agent used in type 2 diabetes treatment. It has a rapid stimulatory effect on insulin secretion and reduces postprandial plasma glucose level in patients with type 2 diabetes. Because of its short action time, it is unlikely to exert adverse effects related to hypoglycemia early in the morning and between meals. Mitiglinide reduces excess oxidative stress and inflammation, plays a cardioprotective role, and improves postprandial metabolic disorders. Moreover, mitiglinide add-on therapy with pioglitazone favorably affects the vascular endothelial function in type 2 diabetes patients. These data suggest that mitiglinide plays a potentially beneficial role in the improvement of postprandial hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes patients and can be used to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Although the results of long-term, randomized, placebo-controlled trials for determining the cardiovascular effects of mitiglinide on clinical outcomes are awaited, this

  19. Post-prandial alterations in LDL size and subclasses in patients with growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Manfredi; Trepp, Roman; Berneis, Kaspar; Christ, Emanuel R

    2008-06-01

    Several studies have suggested that lipoproteins generated during the post-prandial phase are highly atherogenic, with modifications in low-density lipoproteins (LDL) size and density. In the present study we assessed post-prandial variations in LDL size and subclasses in patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). We studied in 12 hypopituitary patients with GHD and 10 healthy control subjects matched for gender, age and body mass index (BMI) post-prandial variations after a standardized meal consisting of 35% fat, 45% carbohydrate and 20% of protein (Clinutren Mix, Nestlé) and containing calories corresponding to 1/3 of estimated basal metabolic rate. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 2 and 4h to measure plasma lipids and LDL size and subclasses by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. At baseline patients had similar plasma lipids than controls, with the exception of higher triglycerides (1.2+/-0.8 vs. 0.7+/-0.4mmol/L, p=.0024). Baseline LDL size was similar between the two groups and LDL subclass analysis revealed a small increase in LDL-IIIA (p=.0046). During post-prandial phase no significant differences were found in LDL size and subclasses in patients vs. controls with the sole exception of increased levels of LDL-IVB after 2h (p=.0295) and LDL-IIIB after 4h (p=.0478). It is, therefore, unlikely that a post-prandial variation in levels of small, dense LDL may significantly contribute to the atherogenic potential in hypopituitary patients with GHD.

  20. Fluid dynamic bowtie attenuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczykutowicz, Timothy P.; Hermus, James

    2015-03-01

    Fluence field modulated CT allows for improvements in image quality and dose reduction. To date, only 1-D modulators have been proposed, the extension to 2-D modulation is difficult with solid-metal attenuation-based modulators. This work proposes to use liquids and gas to attenuate the x-ray beam which can be arrayed allowing for 2-D fluence modulation. The thickness of liquid and the pressure for a given path length of gas were determined that provided the same attenuation as 30 cm of soft tissue at 80, 100, 120, and 140 kV. Gaseous Xenon and liquid Iodine, Zinc Chloride, and Cerium Chloride were studied. Additionally, we performed some proof-of-concept experiments in which (1) a single cell of liquid was connected to a reservoir which allowed the liquid thickness to be modulated and (2) a 96 cell array was constructed in which the liquid thickness in each cell was adjusted manually. Liquid thickness varied as a function of kV and chemical composition, with Zinc Chloride allowing for the smallest thickness; 1.8, 2.25, 3, and 3.6 cm compensated for 30 cm of soft tissue at 80, 100, 120, and 140 kV respectively. The 96 cell Iodine attenuator allowed for a reduction in both dynamic range to the detector and scatter to primary ratio. Successful modulation of a single cell was performed at 0, 90, and 130 degrees using a simple piston/actuator. The thickness of liquids and the Xenon gas pressure seem logistically implementable within the constraints of CBCT and diagnostic CT systems.

  1. Gastrointestinal symptoms and ethanol metabolism in alcoholics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laheij, R.J.F.; Verlaan, M.; Oijen, M.G.H. van; Doelder, M.S. de; Jong, C.A.J. de; Jansen, J.B.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Excessive alcohol intake frequently results in gastrointestinal discomfort. It is an empirical fact that the severity of gastrointestinal discomfort induced by alcohol abuse is subject to interindividual variation. The aim of this study was to determine whether genetic polymorphism in alcohol

  2. Gastrointestinal symptoms and ethanol metabolism in alcoholics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laheij, R. J. E.; Verlaan, M.; van Oijen, M. G. H.; de Doelder, M. S.; Dejong, C. A. J.; Jansen, J. B. M. J.

    2004-01-01

    Excessive alcohol intake frequently results in gastrointestinal discomfort. It is an empirical fact that the severity of gastrointestinal discomfort induced by alcohol abuse is subject to interindividual variation. The aim of this study was to determine whether genetic polymorphism in alcohol

  3. Effects of ageing on gastrointestinal motor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Graff, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Existing data on the effect of ageing on gastrointestinal motility are few. In this study, we assessed the propulsive effect of all main segments of the gastrointestinal tract in a group of healthy older people. METHODS: 16 healthy volunteers (eight women, eight men) of mean age 81 ye...

  4. The Nervous System and Gastrointestinal Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf, Muhammad A.; Sood, Manu R.

    2008-01-01

    The enteric nervous system is an integrative brain with collection of neurons in the gastrointestinal tract which is capable of functioning independently of the central nervous system (CNS). The enteric nervous system modulates motility, secretions, microcirculation, immune and inflammatory responses of the gastrointestinal tract. Dysphagia,…

  5. Stress, Anxiety and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress has major role in functional gastrointestinal system disorders. The most typical example of this situation is Irritable bowel syndrome. Gastrointestinal system’s response to acute or short-term of stress is delay of gastric emptying and stimulation of colonic transition. While CRF2 receptors are mediate the upper section inhibition, CRF1 is responsible for the lower part colonic and anxiogenic response. Visceral hypersensitivity is managed by the emotional motor system, the amygdala plays a significant role and mucosal mast cells arise. But in people with symptoms of functional gastrointestinal, how is differ motility response in healthy individuals, this situation is due to lack of autonomous nervous system or an increased sensitivity of stress is not adequately understood. The brain-gastrointestinal axis frequency and severity of symptoms associated with negative emotions. American Gastroenterology Association is closely associated with the quality of life and is very difficult to treat the symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders, re-interpreted under the heading of 'Gastrointestinal Distress'. This review is defined as gastrointestinal distresses, physical, emotional, and behavioral components as a disorder in which, almost like an anxiety disorder are discussed. Physical component is pain, gas, and defecation problems, cognitive component is external foci control, catastrophization and anticipatory anxiety, the emotional component is somatic anxiety, hypervigilance, and avoidance of gastrointestinal stimuli as defined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(2.000: 122-133

  6. Upper gastrointestinal fiberoptic endoscopy in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prolla, J C; Diehl, A S; Bemvenuti, G A; Loguercio, S V; Magalhães, D S; Silveira, T R

    1983-11-01

    Upper gastrointestinal fiberendoscopy in pediatric patients is done safely and under local anesthesia in most instances. This study of 47 children confirmed the value of fiberendoscopy in establishing the etiology of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and the presence of esophageal varices. It also contributed significantly to the management of patients with disphagia, pyrosis, epigastric pain, and ingestion of foreign bodies. No significant morbidity was caused.

  7. Postprandial Inflammatory Responses and Free Fatty Acids in Plasma of Adults Who Consumed a Moderately High-Fat Breakfast with and without Blueberry Powder in a Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono-Moore, Kikumi D; Snodgrass, Ryan G; Huang, Shurong; Singh, Shamsher; Freytag, Tammy L; Burnett, Dustin J; Bonnel, Ellen L; Woodhouse, Leslie R; Zunino, Susan J; Peerson, Janet M; Lee, Joo Young; Rutledge, John C; Hwang, Daniel H

    2016-01-01

    Background: Saturated fatty acids (FAs) released from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRLs) activate Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) and induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in monocytes. Certain plant polyphenols inhibit TLR-mediated signaling pathways. Objective: We determined whether plasma free FAs (FFAs) after a moderately high-fat (MHF, 40% kcal from fat) breakfast modulate the inflammatory status of postprandial blood, and whether blueberry intake suppresses FFA-induced inflammatory responses in healthy humans. Methods: Twenty-three volunteers with a mean ± SEM age and body mass index (in kg/m2) of 30 ± 3 y and 21.9 ± 0.4, respectively, consumed an MHF breakfast with either a placebo powder or 2 or 4 servings of blueberry powder in a randomized crossover design. The placebo powder was provided on the first test day and the blueberry powder doses were randomized with a 2-wk washout period. Plasma concentrations of lipids, glucose, and cytokines were determined. To determine whether FFAs derived from TGRL stimulate monocyte activation, and whether this is inhibited by blueberry intake, whole blood was treated with lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Results: The median concentrations of FFAs and cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8] in postprandial plasma (3.5 h) decreased compared with fasting plasma regardless of the blueberry intake (P blood compared with untreated blood samples from participants who consumed the placebo powder. Blueberry intake suppressed IL-1β and IL-6 production in LPL-treated postprandial blood compared with the placebo control when fasting changes were used as a covariate. Conclusions: The plasma FFA concentration may be an important determinant affecting inflammatory cytokine production in blood. Supplementation with blueberry powder did not affect plasma FFA and cytokine concentrations; however, it attenuated the cytokine production induced by ex vivo treatment of whole blood with LPL. This trial was

  8. Doxycycline-induced gastrointestinal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, Kajsa; Samowitz, Wade; Boynton, Kathleen; Kelly, Erinn Downs

    2017-08-01

    Doxycycline-induced gastric injury is a rarely recognized adverse effect of a common medication. Only 2 cases have previously described the distinctive capillary degeneration identified in gastric mucosa. We expanded on this by describing additional involved sites, endoscopic findings, and patient characteristics. Gastrointestinal biopsy materials for cases indexed with the word doxycycline were retrieved and the histology reviewed. The medical record was used to obtain clinical details. Three cases with biopsy materials were identified from the search, and doxycycline ingestion was confirmed. All patients' gastric biopsies had small vessel injury with fibrinoid material around the vessel, and 1 patient had similar changes in the duodenum. Endoscopic findings included fundic and pyloric erosions and ulcers. One patient had a normal endoscopy on follow-up after drug cessation. Confirmation and increased understanding of this drug-specific injury pattern are important for patient management, as cessation appears to result in symptom improvement and healing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Aging and gastrointestinal smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, Khalil N; Patil, Suresh B

    2004-12-01

    The present review is an attempt to put into perspective the available information on the putative changes in cellular mechanisms of the contractile properties of the aging gastrointestinal (GI) smooth muscle. Information on smooth muscle of the GI tract is scanty. Smooth muscle cells from old rats (32 months old) exhibit limited cell length distribution and diminished contractility. The observed reduced contractile response may be due to the effect of aging on signal transduction pathways, especially an inhibition of the tyrosine kinase-Src kinase pathway, a reduced activation of the PKCalpha pathway, a reduced association of contractile proteins (HSP27-tropomyosin, HSP27-actin, and actin-myosin). Levels of HSP27-phosphorylation are also reduced compared to adult rats. Regulation of GI motility is a complex mechanism of signal transduction and interaction of signaling and contractile proteins. It is suggested that further studies to elucidate the role of HSP27 in aging smooth muscle of the GI tract are needed.

  10. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G.; Nikolova, D.; Simonetti, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of antioxidant supplements in preventing gastrointestinal...... Database from inception to October 2007. We scanned reference lists and contacted pharmaceutical companies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials comparing antioxidant supplements to placebo/no intervention examining occurrence of gastrointestinal cancers. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors (GB...... high. Heterogeneity was low to moderate. Antioxidant supplements were without significant effects on gastrointestinal cancers (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.06). However, there was significant heterogeneity (I(2) = 54.0%, P = 0.003). The heterogeneity may have been explained by bias risk (low-bias risk...

  11. Surgical treatment of gastrointestinal hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Min-Hsuan; Chen, Chiung-Nien

    2016-04-01

    A 48-year-old man with a history of gastrointestinal bleeding from Osler-Weber-Rendu disease presented with recurrent hematemesis and tarry stool. He received repeated endoscopic therapy, but profound component therapy was still needed. Because repeated gastrointestinal bleeding was caused by same bleeder, tattoo-assisted laparoscopic gastric wedge resection was carried out. The pathology showed vascular abnormalities that involved gastric mucosal and submucosal layers. After surgery, the blood transfusion for the patient is not seen. Osler-Weber-Rendu is a hereditary disease characterized by vascular abnormalities of the nose, skin, lung, brain, and gastrointestinal tract. Management of gastrointestinal bleeding requires medical treatment first, and there are rare reports of surgical treatment. Our pathology findings showed a transmucosal vessel lesion, which had poor response to endoscopic treatment. Surgical intervention may be considered in the patient with gastrointestinal bleeding refractory to endoscopic therapy.

  12. In vivo and vitro characterization of the effects of kisspeptin-13, endogenous ligands for GPR54, on mouse gastrointestinal motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jinhong; Jin, Weidong; Peng, Yali; He, Zhen; Wei, Lijuan; Li, Shu; Wang, Xiaoli; Chang, Min; Wang, Rui

    2017-01-05

    Kisspeptin (KP), the endogenous ligand of GPR54, is a mammalian amidated neurohormone, which belongs to the RF-amide peptide family. However, in contrast with the related members of the RF-amide family, little information is available regarding its role in the gastrointestinal motility. With regard to the recent data suggesting KP play an important role in food intake, and while gastrointestinal motility are closely related to it. Thus, in the present work, effects of central administration of KP-13, one of the endogenous active isoforms, on gastrointestinal motility were investigated. The results indicated that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infused of KP-13 significantly facilitated gastrointestinal transit, bead expulsion and fecal pellet output, respectively, while has no effect on gastric emptying. The effects were significantly reversed by GPR54 antagonist 234, but not GnRH receptor antagonist Cetrorelix. However, i.p. injected of KP-13 or compound 5 (10mg/kg), a high metabolic stability kisspeptin analog, did not affect gastrointestinal transit, suggesting that KP-13 or compound 5 facilitated gastrointestinal transit through the activation of central GPR54. Then the gastrointestinal motility-enhancing effects were also presented after infusion of KP-13 into the hypothalamus. In vitro, KP-13 (10-6M) also modulated colonic contraction, but not in the stomach and small intestine. Similarly, KP-13 (10-6M)-induced contractions of circular and longitudinal colonic muscle were significantly attenuated by antagonist 234 (10-6M). In conclusion, all the results indicated that KP-13 promoted gastrointestinal motility through the activation of GPR54, which implicate that KP/GPR54 system might be a new target to treat gastrointestinal function disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Postprandial cardiogenic syncope caused by gastric polyp-induced pyloric obstruction in an elderly woman with a giant hiatal hernia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Hideyuki; Miyazaki, Tatsuya; Sohda, Makoto; Sakai, Makoto; Honjyo, Hiroaki; Kumakura, Yuuji; Yoshida, Tomonori; Yokobori, Takehiko; Kurosawa, Koji; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2017-12-13

    Hiatal hernias are common. In some reports, hiatal hernias have been implicated in causing dyspnea, syncope, and heart failure. An 82-year-old woman with a hiatal hernia was admitted to our hospital because she had experienced postprandial syncope during the last few years. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a large hiatal hernia and a pedunculated polyp of the stomach antrum that fit into the pylorus. An upper gastrointestinal contrast study showed that the entire stomach had relocated to the thoracic cavity and that the body of the stomach was located above the fundus, resulting in a so-called upside-down stomach. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed that a large portion of the stomach, transverse colon, and part of the pancreas were present in the mediastinum. We then performed transthoracic echocardiography followed by a water pouring test using a nasogastric tube. After instillation of 2000 ml of saline, the left atrium was markedly compressed and the area of the mitral annulus was reduced. We determined that stomach dilation by the hiatal hernia and gastric polyp had caused the syncope. The patient underwent laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair and endoscopic gastric polypectomy, and she experienced no syncopal episodes for 5 months postoperatively. Clinicians should recognize that a large hiatal hernia may be a risk factor for syncope.

  14. Attenuation of meal-induced inflammatory and thrombotic responses in overweight men and women after 6-week daily strawberry (Fragaria) intake. A randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Collin L; Edirisinghe, Indika; Kappagoda, Tissa; Burton-Freeman, Britt

    2011-01-01

    A pro-thrombotic, pro-inflammatory diet can play a causative role in atherosclerotic-cardiovascular diseases. Dietary intervention studies provide insight into their pathophysiological manifestations and opportunities for prevention and management. We previously showed in an acute-meal setting that a beverage containing polyphenolic- and antioxidant-rich strawberry (Fragaria) vs placebo attenuated postprandial (fed-state) increases in biomarkers of oxidative and inflammatory stress, and insulin concentrations, induced by a high carbohydrate/fat (HCF) meal. In the present study, we aimed to extend our findings and investigate hypotheses related to the effects of chronic/6-week (wk) strawberry consumption on HCF meal-induced increases in glucose, insulin, and indicators of inflammation and hemostasis. In a crossover design, 14 women and 10 men (mean age, BMI: 50.9±15 years, 29.2±2.3 kg/m(2), respectively), were randomized to a 6-wk strawberry or placebo beverage followed by an HCF meal with assessments for 6-hours (h) postprandially. HCF meal responses after 6-wk strawberry beverage showed significantly attenuated postprandial PAI-1 concentrations compared to the placebo (p =0.002); the difference was most notable at 6 h. The IL-1 β response was attenuated with strawberry compared to the placebo (p =0.05). IL-6 attenuation was apparent but non-significant; IL-6 rose significantly from baseline to 6 h after the HCF meal following a placebo (p ≤0.01), although it remained relatively flat following the strawberry beverage from fasting to 6 h. No significant treatment-related differences were apparent for platelet aggregation, hsCRP, TNF-α, insulin, or glucose. These data are the first to suggest that regular consumption of strawberry, a polyphenolic- and antioxidant-rich fruit, may provide protection from HCF meal-induced increases in fibrinolytic and inflammatory factors in at-risk men and women.

  15. Reporting systems in gastrointestinal endoscopy: Requirements and standards facilitating quality improvement: European society of gastrointestinal endoscopy position statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bretthauer (Michael); L. Aabakken (Lars); E. Dekker (Evelien); M.F. Kaminski (Michal); Rösch, T. (Thomas); R. Hultcrantz (Rolf); S. Suchanek (Stephan); R. Jover (Rodrigo); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); R. Bisschops (Raf); C. Spada (Cristiano); R.M. Valori (Roland ); D. Domagk (Dirk); C. Rees (Colin); Rutter, M.D. (Matthew D.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTo develop standards for high quality of gastrointestinal endoscopy, the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) has established the ESGE Quality Improvement Committee. A prerequisite for quality assurance and improvement for all gastrointestinal endoscopy procedures is

  16. Reporting systems in gastrointestinal endoscopy: Requirements and standards facilitating quality improvement: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy position statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bretthauer, Michael; Aabakken, Lars; Dekker, Evelien; Kaminski, Michal F.; Rösch, Thomas; Hultcrantz, Rolf; Suchanek, Stepan; Jover, Rodrigo; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Bisschops, Raf; Spada, Cristiano; Valori, Roland; Domagk, Dirk; Rees, Colin; Rutter, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    To develop standards for high quality of gastrointestinal endoscopy, the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) has established the ESGE Quality Improvement Committee. A prerequisite for quality assurance and improvement for all gastrointestinal endoscopy procedures is

  17. Gastrointestinal symptoms predictors of health-related quality of life in pediatric patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate the patient-reported multidimensional gastrointestinal symptoms predictors of generic health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in pediatric patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) Gastrointestinal Symptoms Scales and ...

  18. Postprandial antioxidant gene expression is modified by Mediterranean diet supplemented with coenzyme Q10 in elderly men and women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yubero-Serrano, Elena M; Gonzalez-Guardia, Lorena; Rangel-Zuñiga, Oriol; Delgado-Casado, Nieves; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Caballero, Javier; Marin, Carmen; Gutierrez-Mariscal, Francisco M; Tinahones, Francisco J; Villalba, Jose M; Tunez, Isaac; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

    2013-01-01

    .... We have investigated whether the quality of dietary fat alters postprandial gene expression and protein levels involved in oxidative stress and whether the supplementation with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ...

  19. Effects of different fractions of whey protein on postprandial lipid and hormone responses in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, L.S.; Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Hartvigsen, Merete

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives:Exacerbated postprandial lipid responses are associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. Dietary proteins influence postprandial lipemia differently, and whey protein has a preferential lipid-lowering effect. We compared the effects of different whey protein fractions...... in the incremental area under the curve over the 480-min period.Conclusions:A supplement of four different whey protein fractions to a fat-rich meal had similar effects on postprandial triglyceride responses in type 2 diabetic subjects. Whey isolate and whey hydrolysate caused a higher insulin response...... on postprandial lipid and hormone responses added to a high-fat meal in type 2 diabetic subjects.Subjects/Methods:A total of 12 type 2 diabetic subjects ingested four isocaloric test meals in randomized order. The test meals contained 100¿g of butter and 45¿g of carbohydrate in combination with 45¿g of whey...

  20. The link between high-fat meals and postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII possibly involves kallikrein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L F; Marckmann, P; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie

    2000-01-01

    Contrary to low-fat meals, high-fat meals are known to cause postprandial factor VII (FVII) activation, but the mechanism is unknown. To study the postprandial FVII activation in detail, 18 young men consumed in randomized order high-fat or low-fat test meals. Fasting and non-fasting blood samples...... were collected. The high-fat test was associated with an increase in plasma triglyceride and kallikrein concentrations and postprandial FVII activation (p... that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins may activate prokallikrein. Neither plasma triglycerides nor kallikrein and activated FVII were statistically associated. This may suggest that additional factors are involved in the postprandial FVII activation. No clear evidence for a role of tissue factor expression...

  1. Insoluble Fiber in Young Barley Leaf Suppresses the Increment of Postprandial Blood Glucose Level by Increasing the Digesta Viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Takano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. is a well-known cereal plant. Young barley leaf is consumed as a popular green-colored drink, which is named “Aojiru” in Japan. We examined the effects of barley leaf powder (BLP and insoluble fibers derived from BLP on postprandial blood glucose in rats and healthy Japanese volunteers. BLP and insoluble fibers derived from BLP suppressed the increment of postprandial blood glucose levels in rats (, and increased the viscosity of their digesta. The insoluble fibers present in BLP might play a role in controlling blood glucose level by increasing digesta viscosity. In human, BLP suppressed the increment of postprandial blood glucose level only in those which exhibited higher blood glucose levels after meals (. BLP might suppress the increment of postprandial blood glucose level by increasing digesta viscosity in both of rats and humans who require blood glucose monitoring.

  2. Effect of dietary advanced glycation end products on postprandial appetite, inflammation, and endothelial activation in healthy overweight individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Malene Wibe; Bak, Monika Judyta; Andersen, Jeanette Marker

    2014-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formed in food during high-heat cooking may induce overeating and inflammation. We investigated whether AGE contents in a single meal affect postprandial appetite and markers of inflammation, endothelial activation, and oxidative stress....

  3. Effects of Diet Composition on Postprandial Energy Availability during Weight Loss Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Carolyn O.; Ebbeling, Cara B.; Swain, Janis F.; Markowitz, Robert L.; Feldman, Henry A.; Ludwig, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Background The major circulating metabolic fuels regulate hunger, and each is affected by dietary composition. An integrated measure of postprandial energy availability from circulating metabolic fuels may help inform dietary recommendations for weight maintenance after weight loss. Aim We examined the effect of low-fat (LF, 60% of energy from carbohydrate, 20% fat, 20% protein), low-glycemic index (LGI, 40%–40%-20%), and very low-carbohydrate (VLC, 10%–60%-30%) diets on total postprandial metabolic fuel energy availability (EA) during weight loss maintenance. Methods Eight obese young adults were fed a standard hypocaloric diet to produce 10–15% weight loss. They were then provided isocaloric LF, LGI, and VLC diets in a randomized crossover design, each for a 4-week period of weight loss maintenance. At the end of each dietary period, a test meal representing the respective diet was provided, and blood samples were obtained every 30 minutes for 5 hours. The primary outcome was EA, defined as the combined energy density (circulating level×relative energy content) of glucose, free fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyrate. Secondary outcomes were individual metabolic fuels, metabolic rate, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, epinephrine, and hunger ratings. Respiratory quotient was a process measure. Data were analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance, with outcomes compared in the early (30 to 150 min) and late (180 to 300 min) postprandial periods. Results EA did not differ between the test meals during the early postprandial period (p = 0.99). However, EA in the late postprandial period was significantly lower after the LF test meal than the LGI (ppostprandial period (p = 0.0074), with higher values on the VLC than LF (p = 0.0064) and LGI (p = 0.0066) diets. Conclusion These findings suggest that an LF diet may adversely affect postprandial EA and risk for weight regain during weight loss maintenance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  4. Agreement between fasting and postprandial LDL cholesterol measured with 3 methods in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Søren S.; Petersen, Martin; Frandsen, Merete

    2011-01-01

    LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) is a modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factor. We used 3 LDL-C methods to study the agreement between fasting and postprandial LDL-C in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients.......LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) is a modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factor. We used 3 LDL-C methods to study the agreement between fasting and postprandial LDL-C in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients....

  5. Extra virgin olive oil use is associated with improved post-prandial blood glucose and LDL cholesterol in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Violi, F.; Loffredo, L; Pignatelli, P; Angelico, F; Bartimoccia, S.; C. Nocella; Cangemi, R; Petruccioli, A; Monticolo, R; Pastori, D; Carnevale, R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is a key component of the Mediterranean diet and seems to account for the protective effect against cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanism is still elusive. Design: We tested the effect of EVOO, added to Mediterranean-type meal, on post-prandial glycemic and lipid profile. Subjects: Post-prandial glycemic and lipid profile were investigated in 25 healthy subjects who were randomly allocated in a cross-over design to a Mediterranean-...

  6. Effect of Miglitol, an α-Glucosidase Inhibitor, on Postprandial Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    KANEKO Yukiyo; KUBOKI Koji; HIROI Naoki; WATANABE Takehiko; NISHIMURA Chiaki; YOSHINO Gen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The effects of miglitol on postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism were investigated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with diet alone. Subjects and Methods: A meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed in 26 diabetic patients before and 2 weeks after 150 mg/day miglitol treatment, with the second MTT performed in patients after they had taken a dose of 50 mg miglitol. Results: Miglitol treatment decreased postprandial blood glucose and serum insulin levels 30...

  7. Effect of single oral dose of proanthocyanidin on postprandial hyperglycemia in healthy rats: A comparative study with sitagliptin

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaiman, Amal Ajaweed

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many of flavonoid rich natural products found to have a significant influence on postprandial hyperglycemia, a major risk factor for diabetic complications. Enhancement of insulinotropic gut hormones by inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) are among the newest strategies for treatments of Type 2 diabetes which thought to be the underlying action through which flavonoid can reduce postprandial hyperglycemia. Aim: This study aim was designed to investigate the potential ro...

  8. Ageing and gastrointestinal sensory function: altered colonic mechanosensory and chemosensory function in the aged mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Christopher; Nocchi, Linda; Yu, Yang; Donovan, Jemma; Grundy, David

    2016-08-15

    Remarkably little is known about how age affects the sensory signalling pathways in the gastrointestinal tract despite age-related gastrointestinal dysfunction being a prime cause of morbidity amongst the elderly population High-threshold gastrointestinal sensory nerves play a key role in signalling distressing information from the gut to the brain. We found that ageing is associated with attenuated high-threshold afferent mechanosensitivity in the murine colon, and associated loss of TRPV1 channel function. These units have the capacity to sensitise in response to injurious events, and their loss in ageing may predispose the elderly to lower awareness of GI injury or disease. Ageing has a profound effect upon gastrointestinal function through mechanisms that are poorly understood. Here we investigated the effect of age upon gastrointestinal sensory signalling pathways in order to address the mechanisms underlying these changes. In vitro mouse colonic and jejunal preparations with attached splanchnic and mesenteric nerves were used to study mechanosensory and chemosensory afferent function in 3-, 12- and 24-month-old C57BL/6 animals. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to investigate mRNA expression in colonic tissue and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells isolated from 3- and 24-month animals, and immunohistochemistry was used to quantify the number of 5-HT-expressing enterochromaffin (EC) cells. Colonic and jejunal afferent mechanosensory function was attenuated with age and these effects appeared earlier in the colon compared to the jejunum. Colonic age-related loss of mechanosensory function was more pronounced in high-threshold afferents compared to low-threshold afferents. Chemosensory function was attenuated in the 24-month colon, affecting TRPV1 and serotonergic signalling pathways. High-threshold mechanosensory afferent fibres and small-diameter DRG neurons possessed lower functional TRPV1 receptor responses, which occurred without a change in TRPV1 mRNA expression

  9. Effect of vanilloid drugs on gastrointestinal transit in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Angelo A; Capasso, Raffaele; Pinto, Luisa; Carlo, Giulia Di; Mascolo, Nicola; Capasso, Francesco

    2001-01-01

    We have studied the effect of capsaicin, piperine and anandamide, drugs which activate vanilloid receptors and capsazepine, a vanilloid receptor antagonist, on upper gastrointestinal motility in mice. Piperine (0.5 – 20 mg kg−1 i.p.) and anandamide (0.5 – 20 mg kg−1 i.p.), dose-dependently delayed gastrointestinal motility, while capsaicin (up to 3 mg kg−1 i.p.) was without effect. Capsazepine (15 mg kg−1 i.p.) neither per se affected gastrointestinal motility nor did it counteract the inhibitory effect of both piperine (10 mg kg−1) and anandamide (10 mg kg−1). A per se non effective dose of SR141716A (0.3 mg kg−1 i.p.), a cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, counteracted the inhibitory effect of anandamide (10 mg kg−1) but not of piperine (10 mg kg−1). By contrast, the inhibitory effect of piperine (10 mg kg−1) but not of anandamide (10 mg kg−1) was strongly attenuated in capsaicin (75 mg kg−1 in total, s.c.)-treated mice. Pretreatment of mice with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (25 mg kg−1 i.p.), yohimbine (1 mg kg−1, i.p.), naloxone (2 mg kg−1 i.p.), or hexamethonium (1 mg kg−1 i.p.) did not modify the inhibitory effect of both piperine (10 mg kg−1) and anandamide (10 mg kg−1). The present study indicates that the vanilloid ligands anandamide and piperine, but not capsaicin, can reduce upper gastrointestinal motility. The effect of piperine involves capsaicin-sensitive neurones, but not vanilloid receptors, while the effect of anandamide involves cannabinoid CB1, but not vanilloid receptors. PMID:11264233

  10. A Combination of Pre- and Post-Exposure Ascorbic Acid Rescues Mice from Radiation-Induced Lethal Gastrointestinal Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yasutoshi; Kinoshita, Manabu; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Sato, Tomohito; Obara, Takeyuki; Saitoh, Daizoh; Seki, Shuhji; Takahashi, Yukihiro

    2013-01-01

    The development of an effective therapy for radiation-induced gastrointestinal damage is important, because it is currently a major complication of treatment and there are few effective therapies available. Although we have recently demonstrated that pretreatment with ascorbic acid attenuates lethal gastrointestinal damage in irradiated mice, more than half of mice eventually died, thus indicating that better approach was needed. We then investigated a more effective therapy for radiation-induced gastrointestinal damage. Mice receiving abdominal radiation at 13 Gy were orally administered ascorbic acid (250 mg/kg/day) for three days before radiation (pretreatment), one shot of engulfment (250 mg/kg) at 8 h before radiation, or were administered the agent for seven days after radiation (post-treatment). None of the control mice survived the abdominal radiation at 13 Gy due to severe gastrointestinal damage (without bone marrow damage). Neither pretreatment with ascorbic acid (20% survival), engulfment (20%), nor post-treatment (0%) was effective in irradiated mice. However, combination therapy using ascorbic acid, including pretreatment, engulfment and post-treatment, rescued all of the mice from lethal abdominal radiation, and was accompanied by remarkable improvements in the gastrointestinal damage (100% survival). Omitting post-treatment from the combination therapy with ascorbic acid markedly reduced the mouse survival (20% survival), suggesting the importance of post-treatment with ascorbic acid. Combination therapy with ascorbic acid may be a potent therapeutic tool for radiation-induced gastrointestinal damage. PMID:24084715

  11. New technologies in using recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccine vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtiss, Roy; Xin, Wei; Li, Yuhua; Kong, Wei; Wanda, Soo-Young; Gunn, Bronwyn; Wang, Shifeng

    2010-01-01

    Recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccines (RASVs) have been constructed to deliver antigens from other pathogens to induce immunity to those pathogens in vaccinated hosts. The attenuation means should ensure that the vaccine survives following vaccination to colonize lymphoid tissues without causing disease symptoms. This necessitates that attenuation and synthesis of recombinant gene encoded protective antigens do not diminish the ability of orally administered vaccines to survive stresses encountered in the gastrointestinal tract. We have eliminated these problems by using RASVs with regulated delayed expression of attenuation and regulated delayed synthesis of recombinant antigens. These changes result in RASVs that colonize effector lymphoid tissues efficiently to serve as "factories" to synthesize protective antigens that induce higher protective immune responses than achieved when using previously constructed RASVs. We have devised a biological containment system with regulated delayed lysis to preclude RASV persistence in vivo and survival if excreted. Attributes were added to reduce the mild diarrhea sometimes experienced with oral live RASVs and to ensure complete safety in newborns. These collective technologies have been used to develop a novel, low-cost, RASV-synthesizing, multiple-protective Streptococcus pneumoniae antigens that will be safe for newborns/infants and will induce protective immunity to diverse S. pneumoniae serotypes after oral immunization.

  12. Gastrointestinal Conditions in the Female Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diduch, Barry Kent

    2017-10-01

    Exercise can have significant effects on gastrointestinal diseases. Regular, moderate exercise can impart beneficial effects for the intestinal microbiome, irritable bowel syndrome symptoms, and inflammatory bowel disease. High-intensity training or prolonged endurance training, on the other hand, can have negative effects on these same entities. Female athletes report a higher prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome and celiac disease, and furthermore, have gastrointestinal symptoms modulated by the menstrual cycle. Management of gastrointestinal problems in the athletic population is widespread and includes training adjustments, dietary measures, and medicine management of symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Model of NEFA Dynamics with Focus on the Postprandial State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelic, K.; Hallgreen, Christine E.; Colding-Jorgensen, M.

    2009-01-01

    . The result is a drop in plasma NEFA after a carbohydrate containing meal. When insulin returns to postabsorptive levels, a rebound in plasma NEFA often occurs. This rebound is due to a restoration of lipolysis, a decrease in NEFA reesterification by adipose tissue and an increased LPL-as insulin activates...... dynamics. Insulin is the major regulator of NEFA metabolism in the postprandial state. Plasma NEFA levels are thus highly dependent on the insulin concentration, the insulin sensitivity of adipose tissue, and the maximal lipolytic rate. In the postabsorptive state, e.g., at low insulin, adipose tissue...... lipolysis results in a net export of NEFA from adipose tissue to other tissues. Postprandially, the rise in insulin results in: Decreased lipolysis; a higher rate of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity; and decreased NEFA uptake and reesterification by adipose tissue stimulation of reesterification...

  14. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT1 inhibition perturbs postprandial gut hormone release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua V Lin

    Full Text Available Diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT1 is a potential therapeutic target for treatment of obesity and related metabolic diseases. However, the degree of DGAT1 inhibition required for metabolic benefits is unclear. Here we show that partial DGAT1 deficiency in mice suppressed postprandial triglyceridemia, led to elevations in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and peptide YY (PYY only following meals with very high lipid content, and did not protect from diet-induced obesity. Maximal DGAT1 inhibition led to enhanced GLP-1 and PYY secretion following meals with physiologically relevant lipid content. Finally, combination of DGAT1 inhibition with dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibition led to further enhancements in active GLP-1 in mice and dogs. The current study suggests that targeting DGAT1 to enhance postprandial gut hormone secretion requires maximal inhibition, and suggests combination with DPP-4i as a potential strategy to develop DGAT1 inhibitors for treatment of metabolic diseases.

  15. Probiotics: defenders of gastrointestinal habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desh D. Singh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal microbiota play an important role in maintaining normal gastrointestinal (GI function and ensuring that changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota can promote GI function. The digestive tract is full of bacteria and many of these, including probiotics, are necessary for optimal digestive function. During bacterial gastroenteritis, harmful bacteria invade the digestive tract causing unpleasant symptoms and upsetting the balance between good and bad bacteria. Supplemental probiotics can help restore this balance. Studies have demonstrated that probiotics can often help reduce the severity of symptoms such as diarrhea and may help accelerate recovery. Probiotics are therapeutic preparations of live microorganisms administered in sufficient dosage to be beneficial to health. The therapeutic effects of these microorganisms appear to be strain specific. Primal Defense®, a unique, probiotic, bacterial compound, contains probiotics that support gut flora balance, promote consistent bowel function, control stomach acid levels to quickly eliminate burning sensation in the stomach and maintain immune system response. The probiotics in Primal Defense® maximize the benefits of a healthy diet by supporting normal absorption and assimilation of nutrients in the gut. Nearly 75% of our immune defenses are located in the digestive tract, so maintaining a favorable bacterial balance in the intestines (ideally 80% good or neutral bacteria to 20% bad or harmful bacteria is crucial to achieving and maintaining optimum health.

  16. Nutritional management of gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Deb

    2003-11-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is primarily responsible for acquiring and digesting food, absorbing nutrients and water, and expelling wastes from the body as feces. A proper diet and normally functioning GI tract are integral for the delivery of nutrients, prevention of nutrient deficiencies and malnutrition, repair of damaged intestinal epithelium, restoration of normal luminal bacterial populations, promotion of normal GI motility, and maintenance of normal immune functions (eg, both tolerance and protection from pathogens). The amount of food, its form, the frequency of feeding, and the composition of diet each have important effects on GI function and may be used to help ameliorate signs of GI disease. Although both nutrients and nonnutritional components of a diet are important to GI health, they also may cause or influence the development of GI pathology (eg, antibiotic responsive diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease, dietary intolerance, or sensitivity and/or allergy). The appropriate diet may have a profound effect on intestinal recovery and successful management of chronic or severe GI disease.

  17. [Functional and motor gastrointestinal disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Rey, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín

    2015-09-01

    This article discusses the most interesting studies on functional and motor gastrointestinal disorders presented at Digestive Diseases Week (DDW), 2015. Researchers are still seeking biomarkers for irritable bowel syndrome and have presented new data. One study confirmed that the use of low-dose antidepressants has an antinociceptive effect without altering the psychological features of patients with functional dyspepsia. A contribution that could have immediate application is the use of transcutaneous electroacupuncture, which has demonstrated effectiveness in controlling nausea in patients with gastroparesis. New data have come to light on the importance of diet in irritable bowel syndrome, although the effectiveness of a low-FODMAP diet seems to be losing momentum with time. Multiple data were presented on the long-term efficacy of rifaximin therapy in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and diarrhoea. In addition, among other contributions, and more as a curiosity, a study evaluated the effect of histamine in the diet of patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Laparoscopic approach in gastrointestinal emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez Rodriguez, Rosa M; Segura-Sampedro, Juan José; Flores-Cortés, Mercedes; López-Bernal, Francisco; Martín, Cristobalina; Diaz, Verónica Pino; Ciuro, Felipe Pareja; Ruiz, Javier Padillo

    2016-03-07

    This review focuses on the laparoscopic approach to gastrointestinal emergencies and its more recent indications. Laparoscopic surgery has a specific place in elective procedures, but that does not apply in emergency situations. In specific emergencies, there is a huge range of indications and different techniques to apply, and not all of them are equally settle. We consider that the most controversial points in minimally invasive procedures are indications in emergency situations due to technical difficulties. Some pathologies, such as oesophageal emergencies, obstruction due to colon cancer, abdominal hernias or incarcerated postsurgical hernias, are nearly always resolved by conventional surgery, that is, an open approach due to limited intraabdominal cavity space or due to the vulnerability of the bowel. These technical problems have been solved in many diseases, such as for perforated peptic ulcer or acute appendectomy for which a laparoscopic approach has become a well-known and globally supported procedure. On the other hand, endoscopic procedures have acquired further indications, relegating surgical solutions to a second place; this happens in cholangitis or pancreatic abscess drainage. This endoluminal approach avoids the need for laparoscopic development in these diseases. Nevertheless, new instruments and new technologies could extend the laparoscopic approach to a broader array of potentials procedures. There remains, however, a long way to go.

  19. Biosecurity for neonatal gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, George M; Gay, John M; Evermann, James F

    2002-03-01

    Infectious diarrhea is an important cause of neonatal calf morbidity and mortality that results in significant economic losses in the beef and dairy industries. Although numerous risk factors related to the occurrence of neonatal diarrhea have been identified, they can all be categorized into those that are related to the calf, the pathogens involved, or the environment of the calf. The immune status of calves, specifically the level of passively acquired immunity through colostrum, is the major risk factor related to the calf and the occurrence of diarrhea. Although numerous pathogens have been implicated in the occurrence of neonatal diarrhea, only a relatively limited number are commonly involved. Most should be viewed as secondary opportunists rather than primary pathogens, because none are extraordinarily virulent, and with the exception of Salmonella spp., most are present within the gastrointestinal tract of many healthy, mature cattle. Important risk factors related to pathogens involved in neonatal calf diarrhea involve the size of the inoculum and the occurrence of multiple infections. Finally, when considering the environment and housing conditions in which beef and dairy calves may reside, it is clear that tremendous variations exist. Despite these variations, the risk factors associated with the environment of the calf are also those that are the most amenable to the implementation of general environmental control and monitoring strategies as well as specific biosecurity measures.

  20. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Gastrointestinal Bleeding Secondary to Gastrointestinal Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Lin [Henan Cancer Hospital, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Department of Radiology (China); Shin, Ji Hoon, E-mail: jhshin@amc.seoul.kr; Han, Kichang; Tsauo, Jiaywei; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Ko, Gi-Young [University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jong-Soo [Kyunghee University, College of Medicine, Kangdong Kyunghee University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Kyu-Bo [University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the effectiveness of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding caused by GI lymphoma.Materials and MethodsThe medical records of 11 patients who underwent TAE for GI bleeding caused by GI lymphoma between 2001 and 2015 were reviewed retrospectively.ResultsA total of 20 TAE procedures were performed. On angiography, contrast extravasation, and both contrast extravasation and tumor staining were seen in 95 % (19/20) and 5 % (1/20) of the procedures, respectively. The most frequently embolized arteries were jejunal (n = 13) and ileal (n = 5) branches. Technical and clinical success rates were 100 % (20/20) and 27 % (3/11), respectively. The causes of clinical failure in eight patients were rebleeding at new sites. In four patients who underwent repeat angiography, the bleeding focus was new each time. Three patients underwent small bowel resection due to rebleeding after one (n = 2) or four (n = 1) times of TAEs. Another two patients underwent small bowel resection due to small bowel ischemia/perforation after three or four times of TAEs. The 30-day mortality rate was 18 % due to hypovolemic shock (n = 1) and multiorgan failure (n = 1).ConclusionAngiogram with TAE shows limited therapeutic efficacy to manage GI lymphoma-related bleeding due to high rebleeding at new sites. Although TAE can be an initial hemostatic measure, surgery should be considered for rebleeding due to possible bowel ischemic complication after repeated TAE procedures.

  1. The structure of wheat bread influences the postprandial metabolic response in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W J; Sozer, Nesli; Koehorst, Martijn; Holst, Jens J; Deacon, Carolyn F; Rehfeld, Jens F; Poutanen, Kaisa; Vonk, Roel J; Oudhuis, Lizette; Priebe, Marion G

    2015-10-01

    Postprandial high glucose and insulin responses after starchy food consumption, associated with an increased risk of developing several metabolic diseases, could possibly be improved by altering food structure. We investigated the influence of a compact food structure; different wheat products with a similar composition were created using different processing conditions. The postprandial glucose kinetics and metabolic response to bread with a compact structure (flat bread, FB) was compared to bread with a porous structure (control bread, CB) in a randomized, crossover study with ten healthy male volunteers. Pasta (PA), with a very compact structure, was used as the control. The rate of appearance of exogenous glucose (RaE), endogenous glucose production, and glucose clearance rate (GCR) was calculated using stable isotopes. Furthermore, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, several intestinal hormones and bile acids were analyzed. The structure of FB was considerably more compact compared to CB, as confirmed by microscopy, XRT analysis (porosity) and density measurements. Consumption of FB resulted in lower peak glucose, insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (ns) responses and a slower initial RaE compared to CB. These variables were similar to the PA response, except for RaE which remained slower over a longer period after PA consumption. Interestingly, the GCR after FB was higher than expected based on the insulin response, indicating increased insulin sensitivity or insulin-independent glucose disposal. These results demonstrate that the structure of wheat bread can influence the postprandial metabolic response, with a more compact structure being more beneficial for health. Bread-making technology should be further explored to create healthier products.

  2. Effect of macronutrients, age, and obesity on 6- and 24-h postprandial glucose metabolism in cats

    OpenAIRE

    Hoenig, Margarethe; Jordan, Erin T.; Glushka, John; Kley, Saskia; Patil, Avinash; Waldron, Mark; Prestegard, James H.; Ferguson, Duncan C.; Wu, Shaoxiong; Olson, Darin E

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and age are risk factors for feline diabetes. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that age, long-term obesity, and dietary composition would lead to peripheral and hepatorenal insulin resistance, indicated by higher endogenous glucose production (EGP) in the fasted and postprandial state, higher blood glucose and insulin, and higher leptin, free thyroxine, and lower adiponectin concentrations. Using triple tracer—2H2O, [U-13C3] propionate, and [3,4-13C2] glucose infusion, and indi...

  3. Postprandial lipid responses to standard carbohydrates used to determine glycaemic index values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-López, Sonia; Ausman, Lynne M; Matthan, Nirupa R; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2013-11-01

    Prior studies assessing the metabolic effects of different types of carbohydrates have focused on their glycaemic response. However, the response of postprandial cardiometabolic risk indicators has not been considered in these studies. The present study assessed postprandial lipid responses to two forms of carbohydrates used as reference foods for glycaemic index determinations, white bread (50 g available carbohydrate) and glucose (50 g), under controlled conditions and with intra-individual replicate determinations. A total of twenty adults (20–70 years) underwent two cycles of challenges with each pair of reference foods (four challenges/person), administered in a random order on separate days under standard conditions. Serum lipids (total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, TAG and NEFA), glucose and insulin were monitored for 5 h post-ingestion. Oral glucose resulted in greater glycaemic and insulinaemic responses than white bread for the first 90 min and a greater subsequent decline after 120 min (P =0·0001). The initial decline in serum NEFA concentrations was greater after the oral glucose than after the white bread challenge, as was the rebound after 150 min (P = 0·001). Nevertheless, the type of carbohydrate had no significant effect on postprandial total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Following an initial modest rise in TAG concentrations in response to both challenges, the values dropped below the fasting values for oral glucose but not for the white bread challenge. These data suggest that the type of carbohydrate used to determine the glycaemic index, bread or glucose, has little or modest effects on postprandial plasma cholesterol concentrations. Differences in TAG and NEFA concentrations over the 5 h time period were modest, and their clinical relevance is unclear.

  4. Postprandial Metabolic Responses to Dietary Glycemic Index in Hypercholesterolemic Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bukkapatnam, Radhika N.; Berglund, Lars; Anuurad, Erdembileg; Devaraj, Sridevi; Hyson, Dianne; Rafii, Flora; Malmstein, Catharine; Villablanca, Amparo C.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in postmenopausal women. While diet and lifestyle remain the cornerstones of prevention, a low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet is associated with hyperglycemia and hyperlipemia—atherosclerotic risk factors affected by postprandial conditions. The objective of this study was to examine the acute response of lipids and insulin to a low-fat/high-carbohydrate meal with either a high-glycemic or a low-glycemic index in healthy postmenopausal women. F...

  5. Effect of different protein types on second meal postprandial glycaemia in normal weight and normoglycemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Ton, Winder Tadeu; das Graças de Almeida, Crislaine; de Morais Cardoso, Leandro; Marvila Girondoli, Yassana; Feliciano Pereira, Patrícia; Viana Gomes Schitini, Josiane Keila; Galvão Cândido, Flávia; Marques Arbex, Priscila; de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas, Rita

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a global epidemic affecting 346 million people in the world. The glycemic control is the key for diabetes prevention and management. Some proteins can stimulate insulin release and modulate glycemic response. To assess the effect of the consumption of different types of protein (whey protein, soy protein and egg white) on a second meal postprandial glycaemia in normal weight and normoglycemic subjects. Randomized crossover clinical trial. After an overnight fast of 12-hours, ten subjects attended the laboratory to drink one of the protein shakes (whey, soy or egg white) or the control drink. Thirty minutes later, the subjects consumed a glucose solution (25 g glucose). Glycemic response was monitored at times 0 (before glucose solution) and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min (after glucose solution consumption). Incremental area under the glycemic curve (iAUC) was calculated by the trapezoidal method. Furthermore, glycemic response was assessed by a new method using iG equation. Compared with control, whey and soy protein drinks reduced postprandial iAUC in 56.5% (p = 0.004) and 44.4% (p = 0.029), respectively. Whey protein was the only protein capable of avoiding great fluctuations and a peak in postprandial glycemia. The assessment of glycemic response by iG equation showed positive correlation with iAUC (Pearson 0.985, p protein 30 minutes before a glucose load resulted in lower iAUC compared with control drink. Whey protein maintained postprandial glycemia more stable. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute effects of casein on postprandial lipemia and incretin responses in type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brader, L; Holm, L; Mortensen, L; Thomsen, C; Astrup, A; Holst, J J; de Vrese, M; Schrezenmeir, J; Hermansen, K

    2010-02-01

    Exaggerated and prolonged postprandial lipemia is potentially atherogenic and associated with type 2 diabetes. Limited data exist regarding the influence of dietary protein on postprandial lipemia in type 2 diabetes. We investigated, over 8-h, the acute effects of casein alone or in combination with carbohydrate on postprandial lipid and incretin responses to a fat-rich meal in type 2 diabetes. Eleven type 2 diabetic subjects ingested four test meals in random order: an energy-free soup plus 80 g of fat (control-meal); control-meal plus 45 g carbohydrates (CHO-meal); control-meal plus 45 g of casein (PRO-meal); and PRO-meal plus 45 g carbohydrates (CHO+PRO-meal). Triglyceride and retinyl palmitate responses were measured in plasma and in a chylomicron-rich and chylomicron-poor fraction. We found no significant differences in triglyceride responses to PRO- and CHO+PRO-meal compared to the control-meal. However, the addition of casein to the CHO-meal reduced the raised triglyceride response in the chylomicron-rich fraction. Retinyl palmitate responses did not differ significantly between meals in the chylomicron-rich fraction, whereas the PRO-meal increased retinyl palmitate in the chylomicron-poor fraction. PRO- and PRO+CHO-meal increased insulin and glucagon compared to the control-meal. PRO+CHO-meal increased the glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide response while no change in glucagon-like peptide-1 responses was detected. The data presented suggest that casein per se did not modulate the postprandial triglyceride response in type 2 diabetes. When added to carbohydrate, casein suppressed the triglyceride response in the chylomicron-rich fraction, increased insulin and glucagon but did not affect the incretin responses. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of inhibitors of postprandial hyperglycemia from the leaves of Nerium indicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Akiko; Yamashita, Hiromi; Hiemori, Miki; Inagaki, Eiko; Kimoto, Masumi; Okamoto, Masahiko; Tsuji, Hideaki; Memon, Allah Nawaz; Mohammadio, Alli; Natori, Yasuo

    2007-04-01

    Nerium indicum is an India-Pakistan-originated shrub belonging to the oleander family. The ingestion of leaves of N. indicum before a meal is known to effect the lowering of postprandial glucose levels in Type II diabetic patients and this plant is now used as a folk remedy for Type II diabetes in some regions of Pakistan. In the present study, the hot-water extract of N. indicum leaves was found to reduce the postprandial rise in the blood glucose when maltose or sucrose was loaded in rats. It was also found that the extract strongly inhibited alpha-glucosidase, suggesting that the suppression of the postprandial rise in the blood glucose is due to the occurrence of some inhibitors of alpha-glucosidase in the leaves. We, therefore, tried to isolate the active principles from the leaf extract, using alpha-glucosidase-inhibitory activity as the index. Employing Sephadex G-15, silica gel and reversed-phase HPLC, we isolated two active compounds. The UV, mass and NMR spectrometric analyses established that the chemical structures of these compounds are 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid (chlorogenic acid) and its structural isomer, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid. Both compounds were shown to inhibit alpha-glucosidases in a non-competitive manner. The authentic chlorogenic acid was found to suppress the postprandial rise in the blood glucose in rats and also inhibited the absorption of the glucose moiety from maltose and glucose in the everted gut sac system prepared from rat intestine. These results demonstrate that chlorogenic acid is one of the major anti-hyperglycemic principles present in the leaves of N. indicum. Furthermore, among polyphenol compounds tested, quercetin and catechins were shown to have strong inhibitory activity against alpha-glucosidase.

  8. Postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses to pre-germinated brown rice in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yukihiko; Mizukuchi, Aya; Kise, Mitsuo; Aoto, Hiromichi; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Yoshihara, Rie; Yokoyama, Jyunichi

    2005-08-01

    Effects of pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) on postprandial blood glucose and insulin concentrations were compared with brown rice (BR) and white rice (WR) in two studies. In the first study, we investigated the time course of postprandial blood glucose and insulin concentrations after ingesting 25% (W/V) glucose solution, PGBR, BR or WR in 19 healthy young subjects. In the second study, dose-dependent effect of PGBR on the time course of postprandial blood glucose concentrations was compared among 4 different mixtures of PGBR and WR in 13 healthy young subjects. They were solely PGBR, 2/3 PGBR (PGBR: WR = 2 : 1), 1/3 PGBR (PGBR : WR = 1 : 2) and solely WR. Each sample was studied on a different day. The samples were selected randomly by the subjects. All the rice samples contained 50 g of available carbohydrates. The previous day the subjects ate the assigned dinner by 9:00 pm and then were allowed only water until the examination. The next morning, they ingested each test rice sample with 150 ml of water in 5-10 min. Blood was collected into capillary tubes from finger at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after the ingestion. The incremental areas under the curve (IAUC) of blood glucose concentrations (IAUC-Glc) for 120 min after the administration of PGBR and BR were lower than those after WR. In contrast the IAUC-Glc of BR and PGBR were not different (Study 1). The higher the ratio of PGBR/WR, the lower the glycemic index became (Study 2). These results suggest that intake of PGBR instead of WR is effective for the control of postprandial blood glucose concentration without increasing the insulin secretion.

  9. Berries and anthocyanins: promising functional food ingredients with postprandial glycaemia-lowering effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Acosta, Monica L; Lenihan-Geels, Georgia N; Corpe, Christopher P; Hall, Wendy L

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is predicted to reach unprecedented levels in the next few decades. In addition to excess body weight, there may be other overlapping dietary drivers of impaired glucose homeostasis that are associated with an obesogenic diet, such as regular exposure to postprandial spikes in blood glucose arising from diets dominated by highly refined starches and added sugars. Strategies to reduce postprandial hyperglycaemia by optimising the functionality of foods would strengthen efforts to reduce the risk of T2D. Berry bioactives, including anthocyanins, are recognised for their inhibitory effects on carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption. Regular consumption of berries has been associated with a reduction in the risk of T2D. This review aims to examine the evidence from in vitro, animal and human studies, showing that berries and berry anthocyanins may act in the gut to modulate postprandial glycaemia. Specifically, berry extracts and anthocyanins inhibit the activities of pancreatic α-amylase and α-glucosidase in the gut lumen, and interact with intestinal sugar transporters, sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 and GLUT2, to reduce the rate of glucose uptake into the circulation. Growing evidence from randomised controlled trials suggests that berry extracts, purées and nectars acutely inhibit postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia following oral carbohydrate loads. Evidence to date presents a sound basis for exploring the potential for using berries/berry extracts as an additional stratagem to weight loss, adherence to dietary guidelines and increasing physical exercise, for the prevention of T2D.

  10. Postprandial morphological response of the intestinal epithelium of the Burmese python (Python molurus).

    OpenAIRE

    Lignot, J.H.; Helmstetter, C.; Secor, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    The postprandial morphological changes of the intestinal epithelium of Burmese pythons were examined using fasting pythons and at eight time points after feeding. In fasting pythons, tightly packed enterocytes possess very short microvilli and are arranged in a pseudostratified fashion. Enterocyte width increases by 23% within 24 h postfeeding, inducing significant increases in villus length and intestinal mass. By 6 days postfeeding, enterocyte volume had peaked, following as much as an 80% ...

  11. Gastrointestinal Bleeding: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Vomiting blood (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Gastrointestinal Bleeding updates ... Vomiting blood Show More Show Less Related Health Topics Hemorrhoids Peptic Ulcer National Institutes of Health The ...

  12. Candida albicans commensalism in the gastrointestinal tract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neville, B. Anne; d'Enfert, Christophe; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; Munro, Carol

    2015-01-01

    ... and the approaches used to study it, models of gastrointestinal colonization by C. albicans, the C. albicans genes and phenotypes that are necessary for commensalism and the host factors that influence C...

  13. Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Minimizing Bile Duct Injuries: Adopting a Universal Culture of Safety in Cholecystectomy https://www.youtube.com/ ... Surgeons: The New SAGES Course Endorsement System The Society of American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) recognizes that ...

  14. The microbiome of the chicken gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoman, Carl J; Chia, Nicholas; Jeraldo, Patricio; Sipos, Maksim; Goldenfeld, Nigel D; White, Bryan A

    2012-06-01

    The modern molecular biology movement was developed in the 1960s with the conglomeration of biology, chemistry, and physics. Today, molecular biology is an integral part of studies aimed at understanding the evolution and ecology of gastrointestinal microbial communities. Molecular techniques have led to significant gains in our understanding of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome. New advances, primarily in DNA sequencing technologies, have equipped researchers with the ability to explore these communities at an unprecedented level. A reinvigorated movement in systems biology offers a renewed promise in obtaining a more complete understanding of chicken gastrointestinal microbiome dynamics and their contributions to increasing productivity, food value, security, and safety as well as reducing the public health impact of raising production animals. Here, we contextualize the contributions molecular biology has already made to our understanding of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome and propose targeted research directions that could further exploit molecular technologies to improve the economy of the poultry industry.

  15. Gastrointestinal Epithelial Organoid Cultures from Postsurgical Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Soojung; Yoo, Jongman

    2017-08-17

    An organoid is a cellular structure three-dimensionally (3D) cultured from self-organizing stem cells in vitro, which has a cell population, architectures, and organ specific functions like the originating organs. Recent advances in the 3D culture of isolated intestinal crypts or gastric glands have enabled the generation of human gastrointestinal epithelial organoids. Gastrointestinal organoids recapitulate the human in vivo physiology because of all the intestinal epithelial cell types that differentiated and proliferated from tissue resident stem cells. Thus far, gastrointestinal organoids have been extensively used for generating gastrointestinal disease models. This protocol describes the method of isolating a gland or crypt using stomach or colon tissue after surgery and establishing them into gastroids or colonoids.

  16. Prolonged parenteral nutrition after neonatal gastrointestinal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estmann, Anne; Qvist, Niels; Husby, Steffen

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Long-term treatment with parenteral nutrition (PN) may be essential for survival in infants after neonatal gastrointestinal surgery. It seemed well indicated in a population-based study to estimate the need for long-term PN and to characterize the infants that received TPN with regard...... to diagnosis and clinical course. METHODOLOGY: This study reviews the clinical course of infants with gastrointestinal disease (gastroschisis, intestinal atresia, omphalocele, volvulus, Hirschsprung's disease and necrotizing enterocolitis) with a prolonged need for parenteral nutrition in the Western part...... of Denmark over a period of 11 1/2 years. RESULTS: A total of 21 patients with need for PN for 55 days or more due to gastrointestinal disease were registered with a cumulative hospital stay of 4462 days. The study showed a low incidence of long-term PN due to gastro-intestinal surgical illness...

  17. [Age-related functional gastrointestinal disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieling, T

    2011-01-01

    The demographic development will lead to a disproportionate increase of older people and to a significant increase of functional gastrointestinal disorders including dysphagia due to motility and reflux-related disorders, nausea and vomiting by gastrointestinal dysfunction and abdominal and pelvic pain caused by chronic obstipation, stool impaction and incontinence. This implies significant consequences with regard to the development of weight loss, anorexia, social disadvantages and increased mortality with serious socio-economic burden. Ageing processes are determined by differentiated neurogeneration of the myenteric plexus (cholinergic degeneration) through reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and alteration of protective and regenerative processes. Age-related gastrointestinal dysfunctions may be caused by the ageing gastrointestinal tract itself or by other age-related diseases such as tumour, neurological or inflammatory diseases, anatomic changes, therapeutic medication, polymorbidity or malnutrition. Because of the significant therapeutic options, differential diagnostic work-up is mandatory also in elderly patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Relationship between postprandial endotoxemia in nonobese postmenopausal women and diabetic nonobese postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Gaffar Sarwar; Zaman, Fawzia

    2015-01-01

    Background: We hypothesised that nonobese postmenopausal women (NoPoW) and diabetic NoPoW (DNoPoW) may be independently associated with postprandial endotoxemia. Materials and Methods: NoPoW and DNoPoW were evaluated for weight, eating habits, physical activity, body circumferences, fasting plasma glucose level, postprandial plasma glucose level, and insulin level. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels and circulating LPS-binding protein (LBP) were determined in serum at fasting, 1 h, 2 h, 3 h, and 4 h after meal intake and their levels were co-related in 80 NoPoW and 80 DNoPoW. Results: Both DNoPoW group and NoPoW group showed a significant increase (P < 0.05) in LPS levels and circulating LBP in plasma after the meal intake, interestingly the increase was higher in the DNoPoW group. Conclusions: Elevated LPS and circulating LBP were associated significantly with DNoPoW group and NoPoW, especially after a meal intake. These findings suggested a role of LPS and LBP in postprandial systemic inflammation in DNoPoW group. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:25810642

  19. The Influence of Pre-Exercise Glucose versus Fructose Ingestion on Subsequent Postprandial Lipemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Jen Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of low glycemic index (LGI carbohydrate (CHO before exercise induced less insulin response and higher fat oxidation than that of high GI (HGI CHO during subsequent exercise. However, the effect on the subsequent postprandial lipid profile is still unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate ingestion of CHO drinks with different GI using fructose and glucose before endurance exercise on the subsequent postprandial lipid profile. Eight healthy active males completed two experimental trials in randomized double-blind cross-over design. All participants ingested 500 mL CHO (75 g solution either fructose (F or glucose (G before running on the treadmill at 60% VO2max for 1 h. Participants were asked to take an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT immediately after the exercise. Blood samples were obtained for plasma and serum analysis. The F trial was significantly lower than the G trial in TG total area under the curve (AUC; 9.97 ± 3.64 vs. 10.91 ± 3.56 mmol × 6 h/L; p = 0.033 and incremental AUC (6.57 ± 2.46 vs. 7.14 ± 2.64 mmol/L × 6 h, p = 0.004. The current data suggested that a pre-exercise fructose drink showed a lower postprandial lipemia than a glucose drink after the subsequent high-fat meal.

  20. The possible role of postprandial hyperglycaemia in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceriello, A

    2003-03-01

    It is both common and wise practice to adjust the treatment of diabetic patients to obtain plasma glucose concentrations as close as possible to the "normal range", correcting both postprandial hyperglycaemic spikes and the less increased, but persistently high, plasma glucose concentration between meals. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trials (DCCT) and the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) have provided evidence that intensive treatment can prevent complications associated with diabetes mellitus. In both studies, effectiveness of hyperglycaemic treatment was assessed by means of the glycated haemoglobin level. This is an integrated measure of both postprandial and fasting hyperglycaemia. The absolute and relative importance of the two conditions, however, could differ depending upon the organ or system suffering from diabetic complications and other more or less known individual factors. This paper aims to emphasize the effects of acute hyperglycaemia, in particular, postprandial hyperglycaemia, on the development of diabetic complications. The role of oxidative stress as a mediator of acute hyperglycaemia is further discussed. More investigation in this area is required so that treatment can be eventually individualised. Perhaps, in some patients, efforts could be concentrated on the control of hyperglycaemic spikes and/or specific organ or system susceptibility to either acute or chronic hyperglycaemia.

  1. Aqueous Extract of Nypa fruticans Wurmb. Vinegar Alleviates Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Normoglycemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Adlin Yusoff

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nypa fruticans Wurmb. vinegar, commonly known as nipa palm vinegar (NPV has been used as a folklore medicine among the Malay community to treat diabetes. Early work has shown that aqueous extract (AE of NPV exerts a potent antihyperglycemic effect. Thus, this study is conducted to evaluate the effect of AE on postprandial hyperglycemia in an attempt to understand its mechanism of antidiabetic action. AE were tested via in vitro intestinal glucose absorption, in vivo carbohydrate tolerance tests and spectrophotometric enzyme inhibition assays. One mg/mL of AE showed a comparable outcome to the use of phloridzin (1 mM in vitro as it delayed glucose absorption through isolated rat jejunum more effectively than acarbose (1 mg/mL. Further in vivo confirmatory tests showed AE (500 mg/kg to cause a significant suppression in postprandial hyperglycemia 30 min following respective glucose (2 g/kg, sucrose (4 g/kg and starch (3 g/kg loadings in normal rats, compared to the control group. Conversely, in spectrophotometric enzymatic assays, AE showed rather a weak inhibitory activity against both α-glucosidase and α-amylase when compared with acarbose. The findings suggested that NPV exerts its anti-diabetic effect by delaying carbohydrate absorption from the small intestine through selective inhibition of intestinal glucose transporters, therefore suppressing postprandial hyperglycemia.

  2. Obesity and Insulin Resistance Are the Main Determinants of Postprandial Lipoprotein Dysmetabolism in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy Kyaw Tun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Postprandial dyslipidaemia may be a plausible mechanism by which polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS increases cardiovascular risk. We sought to investigate whether the postprandial glucose and insulin and lipid and lipoprotein responses, including that of apolipoprotein B-48 (apoB-48 containing chylomicrons, to a mixed meal are different in obese PCOS women when compared to obese control subjects and whether differences, if any, are related to obesity, insulin resistance (IR, hyperandrogenaemia, or PCOS status. 26 women with PCOS (age 30.4±1.2 years (mean ± SEM, body mass index (BMI 36.8±1.5 kg/m2 and 26 non-PCOS subjects (age 34.1±0.9 years, BMI 31.5±1.0 kg/m2 were studied before and up to 8 hours following a standard mixed meal. AUC-triglyceride (AUC-TG was higher and AUC-high-density lipoprotein (AUC-HDL lower in PCOS women. These differences were not apparent when BMI was accounted for. Insulin sensitivity (SI, AUC-apoB-48, and AUC-apolipoprotein B (AUC-apoB were found to be independent predictors of AUC-TG, accounting for 55% of the variance. Only AUC-insulin remained significantly elevated following adjustment for BMI. Obesity related IR explains postprandial hypertriglyceridaemia and hyperinsulinaemic responses. Management of obesity in premenopausal women with PCOS is likely to reduce their cardiovascular risk burden.

  3. The influence of weight excess on the postprandial lipemia in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahade, Viviane; França, Silvana; Adan, Luis F

    2013-02-13

    Postprandial lipemia (PL) in adults has been extensively studied, but little explored in youth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of weight excess on postprandial lipemia in adolescents. Eighty-three adolescents were classified into Groups 1 (n= 49, overweight) and 2 (n=34, eutrophic). Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), HDL and LDL cholesterol were measured before, 2 and 4 hours after a standardized 25 g lipid and 25 g of carbohydrate test meal; glycemia and insulin measured only at baseline. Anthropometric evaluation was performed. Basal TG were higher in Group 1 (p= 0.022). The total increase (Δ-TG), corresponding to the difference between the maximum and the basal TG level was similar in both groups (29.8 ± 21.5 mg/dl vs. 28.2 ± 24.5 mg/dl, p= 0.762). TC, HDL and LDL did not change significantly throughout the test. By analyzing all the adolescents together, the waist circumference was positively correlated with TG at fasting (r = 0.223; p= 0.044) and at 4 hours (r = 0.261; p= 0.019). Only overweight adolescents with hypertriglyceridemia, who also had higher HOMA-IR, presented significant elevation of TG levels 2 and 4 hours after the overload. The behavior of lipoproteins in the post-prandial state is similar in eutrophic and overweight adolescents. Thus, apparently the weight excess does not induce post prandial lipemic alterations.

  4. Early improvement of postprandial lipemia after bariatric surgery in obese type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffo, E; Nosso, G; Lupoli, R; Cotugno, M; Saldalamacchia, G; Vitolo, G; Angrisani, L; Cutolo, P P; Rivellese, A A; Capaldo, B

    2014-05-01

    Bariatric surgery (BS) is able to positively influence fasting lipid profile in obese type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM), but no data is available on the impact of BS on postprandial lipid metabolism neither on its relation with incretin hormones. We evaluated the short-term (2 weeks) effects of BS on fasting and postprandial lipid metabolism in obese T2DM patients and the contribution of changes in active GLP-1. We studied 25 obese T2DM patients (age = 46 ± 8 years, BMI = 44 ± 7 kg/m2), of which 15 underwent sleeve gastrectomy and 10 underwent gastric bypass. Lipid and incretin hormone concentrations were evaluated for 3 h after ingestion of a liquid meal before and 2 weeks after BS. After BS, there was a significant reduction in body weight (p lipemia. The fall in fasting triglycerides is associated with an improvement of insulin resistance, while the reduction of postprandial lipemia is likely related to reduced intestinal lipid absorption consequent to bariatric surgery.

  5. Evaluation of Postprandial Total Antioxidant Activity in Normal and Overweight Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Arslan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Postprandial changes acutely alter some mechanisms in body. There are many studies showing blood oxidative status changes after food intake, and supplementation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a standardized meal on serum total antioxidant activity (TAA in normal weight and overweight individuals. Material and Method: Fourteen normal weight and twelve overweight individuals were given a standardized meal in the morning after an overnight fast. Serum TAA, glucose, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations were measured at baseline, 3rd hour, and 6th hour after the meal in both groups.Results: In both normal and overweight groups, the difference between baseline and 3rd hour was significant for TAA. The TAA of the overweight group was also significantly lower than the TAA of the normal weight group at 3rd hour. However, there was no significant correlation between lipid parameters and TAA levels. Discussion: The present study shows that postprandial oxidative damage occurs more prominently in overweight individuals than in normal weight individuals. Postprandial changes acutely induce oxidative stress and impair the natural antioxidant defense mechanism. It should be noted that consuming foods with antioxidants in order to avoid various diseases and complications is useful, particularly in obese subjects.

  6. Postprandial lipemia and cardiovascular diseases: the beneficial role of strength exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Silva Correa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD has been linked with changes to the lipid profile that can be observed during the postprandial period, a phenomenon known as postprandial lipemia (PL. Physical exercise is currently the number one non-pharmacological intervention employed for prevention and reduction of risk factors for the development of CVD. This in turn has created a growing interest in the effects of physical exercise on regulation and equilibrium of lipid metabolism. In this review we compare the results of studies that have investigated the beneficial effects of strength training on PL. We analyzed articles identified in the PubMed, Scopus and EBSCO databases published from 1975 to 2013 in international journals. Studies were selected for review if they covered at least two of four keywords. The results of these studies lead to the conclusion that strength training is effective for reduction of postprandial lipemia because it increases baseline energy expenditure. This type of training can be prescribed as an important element in strategies to treat chronic diseases, such as atherosclerosis.

  7. Estriol blunts postprandial blood glucose rise in male rats through regulating intestinal glucose transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamabe, Noriko; Kang, Ki Sung; Lee, Woojung; Kim, Su-Nam; Zhu, Bao Ting

    2015-03-01

    Despite increased total food intake in healthy, late-stage pregnant women, their peak postprandial blood sugar levels are normally much lower than the levels seen in healthy nonpregnant women. In this study, we sought to determine whether estriol (E3), an endogenous estrogen predominantly produced during human pregnancy, contributes to the regulation of the postprandial blood glucose level in healthy normal rats. In vivo studies using rats showed that E3 blunted the speed and magnitude of the blood glucose rise following oral glucose administration, but it did not appear to affect the total amount of glucose absorbed. E3 also did not affect insulin secretion, but it significantly reduced the rate of intestinal glucose transport compared with vehicle-treated animals. Consistent with this finding, expression of the sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 and 2 was significantly downregulated by E3 treatment in the brush-border membrane and basolateral membrane, respectively, of enterocytes. Most of the observed in vivo effects were noticeably stronger with E3 than with 17β-estradiol. Using differentiated human Caco-2 enterocyte monolayer culture as an in vitro model, we confirmed that E3 at physiologically relevant concentrations could directly inhibit glucose uptake via suppression of glucose transporter 2 expression, whereas 17β-estradiol did not have a similar effect. Collectively, these data showed that E3 can blunt the postprandial glycemic surge in rats through modulating the level of intestinal glucose transporters. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Hydrolyzed guar gum decreases postprandial blood glucose and glucose absorption in the rat small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toru; Yokawa, Takeo; Ishihara, Noriyuki; Okubo, Tsutomu; Chu, Djong-Chi; Nishigaki, Eri; Kawada, Yuka; Kato, Masako; Raj Juneja, Lekh

    2009-06-01

    We hypothesized that infusing partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) into the duodenum would reduce increases in postprandial plasma glucose by decreasing the rate of glucose diffusion from the small intestine luminal digesta of the rat. The postprandial plasma glucose and apparent glucose disappearance from the small intestine were measured after infusing artificial digesta containing 0 (control), 3.0, or 6.0 g/L PHGG into the duodenum via a cannula under anesthesia in experiments 1 and 2. The diffusion of glucose in the artificial digesta was estimated using dialysis tubing, filled with the same artificial digesta, soaked in a buffer in experiment 3. In experiment 1, the plasma glucose concentration was lower in the digesta containing 3.0 and 6.0 g/L PHGG than in the control digesta at 120 minutes (P glucose and insulin (experiment 1), apparent disappearance of glucose in the lumen of the small intestine (experiment 2), and net disappearance of glucose in the dialysis tube depended negatively on the viscosity of the artificial digesta (P postprandial blood glucose by lowering the rate of absorption from the small intestine in the rat by reducing the diffusion of glucose in the lumen.

  9. Jew's mellow leaves (Corchorus olitorius) suppress elevation of postprandial blood glucose levels in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innami, Satoshi; Ishida, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kahoru; Kondo, Mika; Tabata, Kimiko; Koguchi, Takashi; Shimizu, Jun; Furusho, Tadasu

    2005-01-01

    The study was performed to explore the suppressive effect of Jew's mellow leaves (JML) on postprandial blood glucose levels in rats and humans. A soluble dietary fiber (SDF) was extracted from the freeze-dried JML powder. An elevation of the postprandial blood glucose level in rats given 1% or 2% JML-SDF solution orally together with 20% glucose solution was significantly suppressed as compared with that observed in the control rats given only glucose solution. When seven healthy young male adults ingested 225 mL of JML mixed juice containing 15 g of freeze-dried powder with 75 g of glucose in the fasting state in the morning, the elevation of the postprandial blood glucose level was significantly suppressed as compared with the control subjects. The diffusion rate of glucose and the permeation rate of glucose in the cultured Caco-2 cells were both significantly reduced by the addition of appropriate amounts of JML-SDF when compared to the controls. These results indicate that the effective substance in JML for suppressing blood glucose elevation is a kind of mucilaginous SDF. The mechanism by which this suppression occurs may be largely attributable to the delayed absorption of glucose from the intestinal membrane in the upper digestive tract by viscous SDF.

  10. Histological and molecular classification of gastrointestinal polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haumaier, Franziska; Sterlacci, William; Vieth, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Endoscopic diagnosis and treatment for gastrointestinal polyps became widely available within the last decades. Exact terminology is important for further therapeutic steps, follow up or treatment. Gastroenterologists, Oncologists, Surgeons and Pathologists need to be aware of the most recent terminology to ensure proper risk assessment and subsequent treatment if necessary. This manuscript aims to list the variety of gastrointestinal polyps and the molecular background where appropriate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gastrointestinal hormone research - with a Scandinavian annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from neuroendocrine cells in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gut, which makes it the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasible to conceive the hormones un......, but also constitute regulatory systems operating in the whole organism. This overview of gut hormone biology is supplemented with an annotation on some Scandinavian contributions to gastrointestinal hormone research....

  12. [Endoscopy in upper gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón Sepúlveda, M

    1990-01-01

    There are several changes in the role that endoscopy plays in upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. We propose indications and make point about the factors than an endoscopist must have in mind referring to timing the endoscopy study. In the experience of our Hospital (Hospital Central Norte de Petroleos Mexicanos, Mexico City), during 20 years we found a diminution in the prevalence of duodenal ulceration and an increase in gastric ulceration, erosive gastritis an neoplasies as causes of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

  13. Gastrointestinal and Hepatic Involvement in Hypereosinophilic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Inayat, Faisal; Hurairah, Abu

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to study the gastrointestinal and hepatic involvement in hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES). Gastrointestinal or hepatic involvement is estimated to affect up to one-third of patients with HES, although most of the clinical evidence has been derived from case reports. In literature, HES presenting with hepatitis and jaundice with subsequent development of colitis is a rare clinicopathologic entity. Given the clinical implications, physicians should includ...

  14. Gastrointestinal and Hepatic Involvement in Hypereosinophilic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurairah, Abu

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to study the gastrointestinal and hepatic involvement in hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES). Gastrointestinal or hepatic involvement is estimated to affect up to one-third of patients with HES, although most of the clinical evidence has been derived from case reports. In literature, HES presenting with hepatitis and jaundice with subsequent development of colitis is a rare clinicopathologic entity. Given the clinical implications, physicians should include HES among differentials in these types of presentations. PMID:27733964

  15. Prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in Angelman syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Laura W; Grocott, Olivia R; Kunz, Portia A; Larson, Anna M; Zella, Garrett; Ganguli, Kriston; Thibert, Ronald L

    2017-10-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurogenetic disorder characterized by intellectual disability, expressive speech impairment, movement disorder, epilepsy, and a happy demeanor. Children with AS are frequently reported to be poor feeders during infancy and as having gastrointestinal issues such as constipation, reflux, and abnormal food related behaviors throughout their lifetime. To assess the prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders in individuals with AS, we retrospectively analyzed medical records of 120 individuals seen at the Angelman Syndrome Clinic at Massachusetts General Hospital and 43 individuals seen at the University of North Carolina Comprehensive Angelman Clinic. The majority of patients' medical records indicated at least one symptom of gastrointestinal dysfunction, with constipation and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) the most common. Other gastrointestinal issues reported were cyclic vomiting episodes, difficulty swallowing, excessive swallowing, and eosinophilic esophagitis. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms such as GERD, swallowing difficulties, cyclic vomiting, and eosinophilic esophagitis were more common in those with deletions and uniparental disomy, likely related to the involvement of multiple genes and subsequent hypotonia. The frequency of constipation is consistent among all genetic subtypes while early feeding issues appear to mainly affect those with deletions. Caregivers and healthcare providers should be aware of the high prevalence of these issues, as proper treatment may improve not only gastrointestinal dysfunction but also sleep and behavioral issues. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Molecular Testing for Gastrointestinal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Seung Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With recent advances in molecular diagnostic methods and targeted cancer therapies, several molecular tests have been recommended for gastric cancer (GC and colorectal cancer (CRC. Microsatellite instability analysis of gastrointestinal cancers is performed to screen for Lynch syndrome, predict favorable prognosis, and screen patients for immunotherapy. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor has been approved in metastatic CRCs with wildtype RAS (KRAS and NRAS exon 2–4. A BRAF mutation is required for predicting poor prognosis. Additionally, amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 and MET is also associated with resistance to EGFR inhibitor in metastatic CRC patients. The BRAF V600E mutation is found in sporadic microsatellite unstable CRCs, and thus is helpful for ruling out Lynch syndrome. In addition, the KRAS mutation is a prognostic biomarker and the PIK3CA mutation is a molecular biomarker predicting response to phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors and response to aspirin therapy in CRC patients. Additionally, HER2 testing should be performed in all recurrent or metastatic GCs. If the results of HER2 immunohistochemistry are equivocal, HER2 silver or fluorescence in situ hybridization testing are essential for confirmative determination of HER2 status. Epstein-Barr virus–positive GCs have distinct characteristics, including heavy lymphoid stroma, hypermethylation phenotype, and high expression of immune modulators. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies enable us to examine various genetic alterations using a single test. Pathologists play a crucial role in ensuring reliable molecular testing and they should also take an integral role between molecular laboratories and clinicians.

  17. Deep Learning in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vivek; Armstrong, David; Ganguli, Malika; Roopra, Sandeep; Kantipudi, Neha; Albashir, Siwar; Kamath, Markad V

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy is used to inspect the lumen or interior of the GI tract for several purposes, including, (1) making a clinical diagnosis, in real time, based on the visual appearances; (2) taking targeted tissue samples for subsequent histopathological examination; and (3) in some cases, performing therapeutic interventions targeted at specific lesions. GI endoscopy is therefore predicated on the assumption that the operator-the endoscopist-is able to identify and characterize abnormalities or lesions accurately and reproducibly. However, as in other areas of clinical medicine, such as histopathology and radiology, many studies have documented marked interobserver and intraobserver variability in lesion recognition. Thus, there is a clear need and opportunity for techniques or methodologies that will enhance the quality of lesion recognition and diagnosis and improve the outcomes of GI endoscopy. Deep learning models provide a basis to make better clinical decisions in medical image analysis. Biomedical image segmentation, classification, and registration can be improved with deep learning. Recent evidence suggests that the application of deep learning methods to medical image analysis can contribute significantly to computer-aided diagnosis. Deep learning models are usually considered to be more flexible and provide reliable solutions for image analysis problems compared to conventional computer vision models. The use of fast computers offers the possibility of real-time support that is important for endoscopic diagnosis, which has to be made in real time. Advanced graphics processing units and cloud computing have also favored the use of machine learning, and more particularly, deep learning for patient care. This paper reviews the rapidly evolving literature on the feasibility of applying deep learning algorithms to endoscopic imaging.

  18. Molecular Testing for Gastrointestinal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Seung; Kim, Woo Ho; Kwak, Yoonjin; Koh, Jiwon; Bae, Jeong Mo; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Chang, Mee Soo; Han, Hye Seung; Kim, Joon Mee; Kim, Hwal Woong; Chang, Hee Kyung; Choi, Young Hee; Park, Ji Y; Gu, Mi Jin; Lhee, Min Jin; Kim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Hee Sung; Cho, Mee-Yon

    2017-03-01

    With recent advances in molecular diagnostic methods and targeted cancer therapies, several molecular tests have been recommended for gastric cancer (GC) and colorectal cancer (CRC). Microsatellite instability analysis of gastrointestinal cancers is performed to screen for Lynch syndrome, predict favorable prognosis, and screen patients for immunotherapy. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor has been approved in metastatic CRCs with wildtype RAS (KRAS and NRAS exon 2-4). A BRAF mutation is required for predicting poor prognosis. Additionally, amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and MET is also associated with resistance to EGFR inhibitor in metastatic CRC patients. The BRAF V600E mutation is found in sporadic microsatellite unstable CRCs, and thus is helpful for ruling out Lynch syndrome. In addition, the KRAS mutation is a prognostic biomarker and the PIK3CA mutation is a molecular biomarker predicting response to phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors and response to aspirin therapy in CRC patients. Additionally, HER2 testing should be performed in all recurrent or metastatic GCs. If the results of HER2 immunohistochemistry are equivocal, HER2 silver or fluorescence in situ hybridization testing are essential for confirmative determination of HER2 status. Epstein-Barr virus-positive GCs have distinct characteristics, including heavy lymphoid stroma, hypermethylation phenotype, and high expression of immune modulators. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies enable us to examine various genetic alterations using a single test. Pathologists play a crucial role in ensuring reliable molecular testing and they should also take an integral role between molecular laboratories and clinicians.

  19. An enriched, cereal-based bread affects appetite ratings and glycemic, insulinemic, and gastrointestinal hormone responses in healthy adults in a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Anton, Carolina; Lopez-Millan, Belen; Rico, Maria C; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Estefania; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria D; Gil, Angel; Mesa, Maria D

    2015-02-01

    Bread can contribute to the regulation of appetite. The objective of this study was to investigate the appetite ratings and postprandial glucose, insulin, and gastrointestinal hormone responses related to hunger and satiety after the intake of a cereal-based bread. A randomized, controlled crossover trial was conducted in 30 healthy adults (17 men and 13 women) aged 19-32 y with body mass index of 19.2-28.5. Each volunteer consumed the cereal-based bread and the control bread 2 times, with a 1-wk wash-out period, over a total of 4 sessions. The cereal-based bread contained a variety of cereal flours (wheat, oat, and spelt) and consisted of 22% dried fruits (figs, apricots, raisins, and prunes). It was also enriched with both fiber (7% from wheat cross-linked maltodextrins and pea) and protein (10-11% from wheat gluten and hydrolyzed wheat proteins). The control bread consisted of white bread with margarine and jam to control for energy density, fat, and sugar content. We measured appetite ratings using standardized visual analogue scales and glucose, insulin, and gastrointestinal hormone responses over a postprandial time of 4 h after the ingestion of each bread. Linear mixed-effects models were used to compare the areas under the curve (AUCs) for different variables. Consuming the cereal-based bread decreased prospective consumption more than consumption of the control bread (-5.3 ± 0.6 m · min and -4.4 ± 0.6 m · min, respectively; P = 0.02) and increased satiety more (6.2 ± 0.7 m · min and 5.2 ± 0.6 m · min, respectively; P = 0.04), although subsequent ad libitum energy intake 4 h later did not differ. Postprandial blood glucose, insulin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide AUCs were lower after the ingestion of the cereal-based bread, whereas the pancreatic polypeptide AUC was higher than with the control bread (P bread contributed to appetite control by reducing hunger and enhancing satiety. In addition, consumption of

  20. Rome III functional dyspepsia subdivision in PDS and EPS: recognizing postprandial symptoms reduces overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, F; Holvoet, L; Tack, J

    2015-08-01

    The Rome III consensus proposed to subdivide functional dyspepsia (FD) into two groups: meal-related dyspepsia or postprandial distress syndrome (PDS), and meal-unrelated dyspepsia or epigastric pain syndrome (EPS). However, in clinical practice, overlap between both has been reported to be as high as 50%, thereby hampering clinical applicability. Although EPS is referred to as meal-unrelated dyspepsia, relationship of symptoms to meal ingestion in this category is not formally addressed in the Rome III criteria. The aim of our study was to investigate whether taking into account the relationship of epigastric pain and nausea to meal ingestion may help to improve separation between EPS and PDS. Consecutive ambulatory tertiary-care patients with epigastric symptoms filled out Rome III gastro-duodenal questionnaires with supplementary questions. Those fulfilling Rome III FD criteria and a negative endoscopy were identified and subdivided into 'pure' PDS patients (i.e., meeting criteria for PDS without EPS symptoms), 'pure' EPS (i.e., meeting criteria for EPS without PDS symptoms), and overlapping PDS-EPS (i.e., symptoms of both PDS and EPS). Out of 1029 patients coming to endoscopy, 199 patients (73% females, 45.9 ± 1.0 years, BMI: 23.7 ± 0.35) fulfilled Rome III FD diagnostic criteria, and could be subdivided into pure PDS (69% females, 49 ± 2 years, BMI: 24.2 ± 0.61), pure EPS (59% females, 47.4 ± 2 years, BMI: 23.2 ± 0.97) and overlapping PDS-EPS (64% females, age 43 ± 5 years, BMI: 26 ± 0.46). Compared with pure EPS patients, the overlap PDS-EPS patients were characterized by a higher occurrence of postprandial epigastric pain (70% vs 31%, p EPS patients reported a higher occurrence of postprandial nausea (23% vs 0%, p EPS, and 36% overlapping PDS-EPS patients. EPS and PDS symptoms frequently coexist in FD patients, with postprandial symptoms substantially contributing to the overlap. A more rigorous linking of postprandially occurring symptoms to PDS

  1. Acute Peanut Consumption Alters Postprandial Lipids and Vascular Responses in Healthy Overweight or Obese Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoran; Hill, Alison M; West, Sheila G; Gabauer, Rachel M; McCrea, Cindy E; Fleming, Jennifer A; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2017-05-01

    Background: Postprandial hyperlipidemia is associated with impaired endothelial function. Peanut consumption favorably affects the lipid and lipoprotein profile; however, the effects on endothelial function remain unclear.Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of acute peanut consumption as part of a high-fat meal on postprandial endothelial function.Methods: We conducted a randomized, controlled, crossover postprandial study to evaluate the effect of acute peanut consumption on postprandial lipids and endothelial function as assessed by flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery in 15 healthy overweight or obese men [mean age: 26.7 y; mean body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 31.4]. Participants consumed, in a randomized order, a peanut meal containing 3 ounces (85 g) ground peanuts (1198 kcal; 40.0% carbohydrate, 47.7% fat, 19.4% saturated fat, 13.2% protein) and a control meal matched for energy and macronutrient content. Meals were in the form of a shake, scheduled ≥1 wk apart. Lipids, lipoproteins, glucose, and insulin were measured at baseline (0 min) and at 30, 60, 120, and 240 min after shake consumption. FMD was measured at baseline and at 240 min.Results: Acute peanut consumption blunted the serum triglyceride (TG) response 120 and 240 min after consumption compared with the control meal (means ± SEMs-120 min: 188.9 ± 19.4 compared with 197.5 ± 20.7 mg/dL; 240 min: 189.9 ± 24.3 compared with 197.3 ± 18.4 mg/dL; P 150 mg/dL) and LDL (>100 mg/dL)-cholesterol concentrations showed a significant decrease in FMD after the control meal (-1.8%, P = 0.017; -2.0%, P = 0.038), whereas the peanut meal maintained endothelial function in all participants irrespective of total- and LDL-cholesterol concentrations.Conclusion: The inclusion of 85 g peanuts (3 ounces) as part of a high-fat meal improved the postprandial TG response and preserved endothelial function in healthy overweight or obese men. This trial was registered at

  2. Nifedipine Treatment for Hypertension is Associated with Enhanced Lipolytic Activity and Accelerated Clearance of Postprandial Lipemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosskopf, I; Shaish, A; Charach, G; Harats, D; Kamari, Y

    2016-04-01

    Hypertension, advanced age, postprandial hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance are major risk factors for atherosclerosis. The calcium channel blocker nifedipine is reported to ameliorate insulin resistance possibly by activating PPARγ. This is expected to become accentuated in elderly individuals due to age-related insulin resistance. Insulin resistance modulates lipoprotein metabolism. Therefore, we reasoned that nifedipne offers the potential for improving postprandial lipemia in association with increasing age. We studied the effect of nifedipine on fasting lipids, postprandial lipemia, insulin sensitivity, and plasma lipolytic activity in 24 and 15 hypertensive subjects aged 70-75 years and 40-45 years, respectively. As expected, nifedipine significantly lowered systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Nifedipine decreased fasting triglyceride level (23%) and increased HDL-C (15%) in the elderly group. At baseline, postprandial triglyceride levels were remarkably elevated in elderly compared to younger patients (1 288±798 vs. 501±260 mg·dl(-1)·h, p<0.05), as was retinyl palmitate (surrogate marker for intestinally-derived cholesterol) in the chylomicrons (45.0±26.5 vs. 23.4±10.6 mg·l(-1)·h, p<0.05) and chylomicron remnant (15.2±5.4 vs. 11.7±4.7 mg·l(-1)·h, p<0.05) fractions. Importantly, while the level of chylomicron remnants in the group of younger subjects remained unchanged after treatment, nifedipine was associated with a significantly decreased chylomicron remnants retinyl palmitate in the elderly group, which dropped to levels, observed in younger subjects. This was accompanied by enhanced insulin sensitivity and augmented plasma lipolytic activity. The present work suggests that nifedipine has favorable metabolic effects that are beyond the known enhancement of insulin sensitivity. The improvement in postprandial lipidemia by nifedipine may add to its anti-atherogenic effects in hypertensive patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG

  3. Effects of Exercise in the Fasted and Postprandial State on Interstitial Glucose in Hyperglycemic Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håvard Nygaard, Bent R. Rønnestad, Daniel Hammarström, Gerd Holmboe-Ottesen, Arne T. Høstmark

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to test if one bout of moderate exercise performed in either the fasted or the postprandial state affects glucose values measured over 22 hours. Twelve participants diagnosed with hyperglycemia not using antidiabetic medications underwent 3 test days in a randomized cross-over design encompassing one test day without exercise, one test day with 60 min of treadmill walking prior to breakfast, and one test day with an identical bout of exercise 30 min after the start of breakfast. Continuous glucose monitoring was performed until the next morning (>22 hours. There was no significant effect of type of test day on the area under the glucose curve for the entire 22 hours period (p = 0.111. None of the exercise interventions had a significant effect on the area under the glucose curve after breakfast, lunch or dinner. However, the postprandial exercise bout tended to decrease the area under the glucose curve after the evening meal compared to the fasted exercise bout (24.2 ± 6.2 vs. 27.6 ± 6.0 mmol·hour·L-1, p = 0.031. Furthermore, the postprandial exercise decreased the mean of the 10 highest glucose values measured in each individual (8.6 ± 1.9 mmol·L-1 over 22 hours compared to both the control day (9.3 ± 2.1 mmol.L-1 and the day with fasted exercise (9.6 ± 1.7 mmol·L-1, p = 0.012 and 0.009 respectively. Postprandial exercise also decreased the glycemic variability compared to the control day (1.22 ± 0.49 vs. 1.58 ± 0.52 mmol·L-1, p = 0.015. We conclude that performing moderate exercise in the postprandial state after breakfast, but not in the fasted state, decreases glucose excursions during the subsequent 22 hours period in hyperglycemic individuals not using antidiabetic medications.

  4. Hepatic insulin resistance both in prediabetic and diabetic patients determines postprandial lipoprotein metabolism: from the CORDIOPREV study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Acuña, A; Alcala-Diaz, J F; Delgado-Lista, J; Torres-Peña, J D; Lopez-Moreno, J; Camargo, A; Garcia-Rios, A; Marin, C; Gomez-Delgado, F; Caballero, J; Van-Ommen, B; Malagon, M M; Perez-Martinez, P; Lopez-Miranda, J

    2016-04-19

    Previous evidences have shown the presence of a prolonged and exaggerated postprandial response in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its relation with an increase of cardiovascular risk. However, the response in prediabetes population has not been established. The objective was to analyze the degree of postprandial lipemia response in the CORDIOPREV clinical trial (NCT00924937) according to the diabetic status. 1002 patients were submitted to an oral fat load test meal (OFTT) with 0.7 g fat/kg body weight [12 % saturated fatty acids (SFA), 10 % polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), 43 % monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), 10 % protein and 25 % carbohydrates]. Serial blood test analyzing lipid fractions were drawn at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h during postprandial state. Postprandial triglycerides (TG) concentration at any point >2.5 mmol/L (220 mg/dL) has been established as undesirable response. We explored the dynamic response in 57 non-diabetic, 364 prediabetic and 581 type 2 diabetic patients. Additionally, the postprandial response was evaluated according to basal insulin resistance subgroups in patients non-diabetic and diabetic without pharmacological treatment (N = 642). Prevalence of undesirable postprandial TG was 35 % in non-diabetic, 48 % in prediabetic and 59 % in diabetic subgroup, respectively (p insulin resistance (liver-IR) showed higher postprandial response of TG compared with those patients with muscle-IR or without any insulin-resistance respectively (p increases progressively according to non-diabetic, prediabetic and type 2 diabetic state and it is higher in patients with liver insulin-resistance. To identify this subgroup of patients is important to treat more intensively in order to avoid future cardiometabolic complications.

  5. Effect of a high bicarbonate mineral water on fasting and postprandial lipemia in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zair, Yassine; Kasbi-Chadli, Fatima; Housez, Beatrice; Pichelin, Mathieu; Cazaubiel, Murielle; Raoux, François; Ouguerram, Khadija

    2013-07-18

    During postprandial state, TG concentration is increasing and HDL cholesterol decreasing, leading to a transitory pro-atherosclerotic profile. Previous studies have reported that bicarbonate water improve postprandial lipemia. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of a strongly bicarbonated mineral water on lipoprotein levels during fasting and postprandial state. A controlled, randomised, double-blind cross-over design was conducted in 12 moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects after a daily ingestion of 1.25 L of mineral (SY) or low mineral water during eight weeks separated by a one week wash-out period. Blood samples were collected in first visit to the hospital (V1) before water consumption (referent or SY) and in a second visit (V2) after eight week water consumption period. The effect of the consumed water was studied in fasting and in postprandial state during ingestion of a meal and 0.5 L of water. Comparison of data between V1 and V2 after SY consumption showed a significant decrease in triglyceridemia (23%), VLDL TG (31%) and tendency to a decrease of VLDL cholesterol (p = 0.066) at fasting state. Whatever the consumed water during postprandial state, the measurement of total areas under curves did not show a significant difference. No difference was observed between SY and referent water consumption for measured parameters at fasting and postprandial state. When subjects consumed SY we showed a decrease of their basal TG and VLDLTG. The unexpected absence of effect of high mineralized water on postprandial lipemia, probably related to experimental conditions, is discussed in the discussion section.

  6. Frequency and risk factors of functional gastro-intestinal disorders in a rural Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Uday C; Singh, Rajan

    2017-02-01

    As best estimates on functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) prevalence are expected from community studies, which are scanty from Asia, we evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of FGIDs in a rural Indian community. House-to-house survey was undertaken by trained interviewers using translated-validated Rome III and hospital anxiety and depression questionnaires. Among 3426 subjects ≥ 18 years old from 3 villages in Uttar Pradesh, 84% participated, of whom 80% were finally analyzed. Of these 2774 subjects (age 38.4 ± 16.5 years, 1573 [56.7%] male), 2654 [95.7%] were vegetarian and 120 [4.3%] non-vegetarian. Socioeconomic classes were upper (16.7%), upper middle (15.1%), lower middle (22%), upper lower (22.2%), and lower (24%) using Prasad's Classification; 603 (21.7%) had FGIDs (413 [14.9%] dyspepsia, 75 [2.7%] irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 115 [4.1%] dyspepsia-IBS overlap), by Rome III criteria. In subjects with dyspepsia, 49/528 (9%) had epigastric pain, 141 (27%) postprandial distress syndromes (EPS, PDS) and 338 (64%) EPS-PDS overlap. IBS was more often diarrhea than constipation-predominant subtype. On univariate analysis, chewing tobacco, aerated drink, tea/coffee, disturbed sleep, vegetarianism, and anxiety parameters and presence of dyspepsia predicting occurrence of IBS were associated with FGIDs. On multivariate analysis, chewing tobacco, aerated soft drink, tea/coffee, vegetarianism, anxiety parameters, and presence of dyspepsia predicting IBS were significant. Functional gastrointestinal disorders, particularly dyspepsia-IBS overlap, are common in rural Indian population; the risk factors included chewing tobacco, aerated soft drink, tea/coffee, vegetarian diet, disturbed sleep, anxiety, and dyspepsia predicting occurrence of IBS. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Orlistat accelerates gastric emptying and attenuates GIP release in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enç, Feruze Yilmaz; Ones, Tunç; Akin, H Levent

    2008-01-01

    Orlistat, an inhibitor of digestive lipases, is widely used for the treatment of obesity. Previous reports on the effect of orally ingested orlistat together with a meal on gastric emptying and secretion of gut peptides that modulate postprandial responses are controversial. We investigated......, implying that inhibition of fat absorption modifies determinants of gastric emptying of a meal. Orlistat administered similar to its use in obesity treatment accelerates gastric emptying of a solid mixed meal with a moderate energy load and profoundly attenuates release of GIP without appreciably altering...... plasma responses of CCK, GLP-1, and PP. Since GIP is being implemented in the development of obesity, its role in weight control attained by orlistat awaits further investigation....

  8. Leiomyomas in the gastric cardia: CT findings and differentiation from gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hyun Kyung [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, 82, Gumi-ro 173 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Hoon, E-mail: yhkrad@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, 82, Gumi-ro 173 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoon Jin; Park, Ji Hoon; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Kyoung Ho [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, 82, Gumi-ro 173 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hye Seung [Department of Pathology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 82, Gumi-ro 173 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Gastric leiomyomas frequently involve the gastric cardia. • Gastric cardial leiomyomas and GISTs could be differentiated with CT. • Differentiation of cardial leiomyomas and GISTs can help choosing surgical procedure. - Abstract: Objective: To describe CT findings of leiomyomas and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) in the gastric cardia and to identify their differentiating features. Materials and methods: CT images of pathologically proven leiomyomas (n = 26) and GISTs (n = 19) in the gastric cardia were retrospectively reviewed for esophagogastric junction (EGJ) involvement, contour, surface, growth pattern, enhancement pattern and degree of the tumor, and the presences of intralesional low attenuation, calcification and surface dimples or ulcers. The long (LD) and short diameters (SD), LD/SD ratio, and attenuation value of each lesion were measured. Results: EGJ involvement, homogeneous enhancement, intermediate or low enhancement, absences of intralesional low attenuation and surface dimples or ulcers, LD/SD ratio >1.2, and attenuation value ≤71.2 HU were significant findings for differentiating leiomyomas from GISTs (P < 0.05 for each finding). An LD/SD ratio of >1.2 and attenuation value of ≤71.2 HU yielded sensitivities of 84.6% and 61.5%, and specificities of 52.6% and 84.2%, respectively, on the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. When at least five of these seven criteria were used in combination, the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing leiomyomas were 100% (26 of 26) and 89.5% (17 of 19), respectively. When any six of these criteria were used, a specificity of 100% was achieved. Conclusions: CT features including EGJ involvement, enhancement pattern and degree, presences of intralesional low attenuation and surface dimples or ulcers, LD/SD ratio, and attenuation value could help differentiating leiomyomas from GISTs in the gastric cardia, particularly in the manner of combination.

  9. Fulminant Hepatic Failure Caused by Diffuse Liver Metastases following Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Rauf Zeina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumors to the liver resulting in fulminant hepatic failure are a rare occurrence and have not been previously described in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST. A 70 year-old man was referred to hospital with postprandial discomfort. On examination a 19.5 cm large epithelioid GIST of the stomach was diagnosed. The mass exhibited unfavorable prognostic features: mitotic index 18/50 high-power fields, large primary tumor size and male sex. Complete tumor resection with negative margins was achieved and metastases were not detected. The patient presented six months later with jaundice, asterixis and elevated liver enzymes. Computerized tomography showed multiple liver hypodense lesions representing metastases. Treatment with imatinib mesylate was of no avail and the patient died 3 days later as the result of hepatic failure. Massive liver metastases can, even though rarely, be responsible for fulminant hepatic failure. Clinical and radiological follow-up are crucial in patients with GIST even after surgical resection.

  10. Bifidobacterium animalis strain DN-173 010 hydrolyses bile salts in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepercq, P; Relano, P; Cayuela, C; Juste, C

    2004-12-01

    Bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity is widespread among ingested bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. It is sometimes considered to be beneficial because of its putative lowering effect on cholesterol absorption and sometimes considered to be deleterious because it may compromise normal fat absorption and even promote the formation of secondary cytotoxic bile acids by the resident intestinal flora. However, the true hydrolysis of bile salts in vivo by ingested living bacteria remains unexplored. The aim of the study was to examine whether or not Bifidobacterium animalis DN-173 010 (used in fermented milks), which demonstrates a BSH activity in vitro, was also active in vivo during its transit in the intestine of pigs. Direct measurement of total and unconjugated bile acids reabsorbed into the portal vein was done, before and after the pigs had been treated for 2 weeks with two daily doses of approximately 3.5 x 10(11) colony-forming units of living (6 pigs) or inactivated B. animalis (6 pigs). None of the treatments modified the portal serum concentration of total bile acids over a 6-h postprandial period. Unconjugated bile acids represented up to 44% and 53% of total bile acids after 1 and 2 weeks of treatment with living bacteria, respectively, compared with only 25% (P animalis DN-173 010 exhibited a BSH activity in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs, most probably in the small bowel. There was no sign of increased formation of secondary bile acids beyond the hydrolysis reaction.

  11. Sonographic identification of drug containers in the gastrointestinal tract. Experimental study in the dog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alzen, G.; Banning, S.; Guenther, R.

    1987-05-01

    A 'body-pack' is a swallowed plastic or rubber container used by drug smugglers to carry drugs. We report our experience in diagnoses of such packs in vivo. We simulated the pack by stuffing a fingerstall of a latex handglove with a mixture of 10% barium powder and flour to render it radiopaque. Eight serial examinations were made. In each series, an adult Alsatian dog was fed upto 10 such 'body-packs'. The passage of these packs through the gastrointestinal tract was followed at 2, 24 and 48 hours postprandially. Immediately after each sonographic localisation of 'body-pack' was made, an X-ray examination of the abdomen in this region was also carried out. Ultrasound correctly determined the position of the 'body-pack' in 20 out of 24 examinations as compared to X-ray results. In 4 cases ultrasound could not confirm the location of the 'pack'.

  12. Predictors of gastrointestinal lesions on endoscopy in iron deficiency anemia without gastrointestinal symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasaya Rozina

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA due to occult gastrointestinal (GI blood loss usually remains unnoticed until patient become symptomatic. There is sparse data in IDA patients without gastrointestinal symptoms. This study was designed to find out the frequency and predictors of endoscopic lesions in IDA without gastrointestinal symptoms. Cross-sectional study performed on a convenience sample of consecutive subjects. Methods Ninety five consecutive patients with laboratory based diagnosis of IDA having no gastrointestinal symptoms were interviewed and their clinical and biochemical variables were recorded. All the study patients underwent esophago-gastroduodenoscopy (EGD and colonoscopy. Endoscopic findings were documented as presence/absence of bleeding related lesion and presence/absence of cause of IDA. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to identify variables significantly related to outcome variables. Results Possible cause of anaemia was found in 71% and bleeding related lesions were found in 53% of patients. Upper gastrointestinal tract lesions were found in 41% of patients with bleeding related lesions. On multivariable logistic regression; advancing age, low mean corpuscular volume (MCV ≤ 60 fl, and positive fecal occult blood test were predictive factors for bleeding related GI lesions and cause of IDA Conclusion Clinical and Biochemical markers can predict gastrointestinal lesions on endoscopy in IDA patients without gastrointestinal symptoms. High proportion of upper gastrointestinal involvement warrants EGD as initial endoscopic procedure however, this needs validation by further studies.

  13. Patient health communication mediating effects between gastrointestinal symptoms and gastrointestinal worry in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate the effects of patient health communication regarding their inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to their health care providers and significant others in their daily life as a mediator in the relationship between gastrointestinal symptoms and gastrointestinal worry in pediatric patients. ...

  14. Helicobacter pylori and Gastrointestinal Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venerito, Marino; Vasapolli, Riccardo; Rokkas, Theodoros; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is the principal trigger of gastric carcinogenesis and gastric cancer (GC) and remains the third leading cause of cancer-related death in both sexes worldwide. In a big Japanese study, the risk of developing GC in patients with peptic ulcer disease who received H. pylori eradication therapy and annual endoscopic surveillance for a mean of 9.9 years was significantly lower after successful eradication therapy compared to the group with persistent infection (0.21%/year and 0.45%/year, respectively, p = .049). According to a recent meta-analysis, H. pylori eradication is insufficient in GC risk reduction in subjects with advanced precancerous conditions (i.e., intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia). A microsimulation model suggested screening smokers over the age of 50 in the U.S. for serum pepsinogens. This would allow to detect advanced gastric atrophy with endoscopic follow-up of subjects testing positive as a cost-effective strategy to reduce GC mortality. In a Taiwanese study, the anti-H. pylori IgG-based test-and-treat program had lower incremental cost-effectiveness ratios than that with (13)C-urea breath test in both sexes to prevent GC whereas expected years of life lost for GC were higher and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of test-and-treat programs were more cost-effective in young adults (30-69 years old) than in elders (>70 years old). With respect to gastrointestinal malignancies other than GC, a meta-analysis confirmed the inverse association between H. pylori infection and esophageal adenocarcinoma. In a Finnish study, H. pylori seropositivity was associated with an increased risk of biliary tract cancers (multivariate adjusted OR 2.63; 95% CI: 1.08-6.37), another meta-analysis showed a slightly increased rate of pancreatic cancer in patients with CagA-negative strains (OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.02-1.65), whereas current data suggest that the association between H. pylori and colorectal neoplasms may be population

  15. Determinants of postprandial triglyceride and glucose responses after two consecutive fat-rich or carbohydrate-rich meals in normoglycemic women and in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Hoorn Prandial Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alssema, M.J.; Schindhelm, R.K.; Dekker, J.M.; Diamant, M.; Nijpels, G.; Teerlink, T.; Scheffer, P.G.; Kostense, P.J.; Heine, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Both postprandial hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia have been identified as risk markers for cardiovascular disease, but parameters associated with these postprandial responses are largely unknown. The objective was to assess whether usually measured clinical and biochemical parameters can

  16. Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding Due to a Small Intestinal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor in a Young Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mami Yamamoto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The source of most cases of gastrointestinal bleeding is the upper gastrointestinal tract. Since bleeding from the small intestine is very rare and difficult to diagnose, time is required to identify the source. Among small intestine bleeds, vascular abnormalities account for 70–80%, followed by small intestine tumors that account for 5–10%. The reported peak age of the onset of small intestinal tumors is about 50 years. Furthermore, rare small bowel tumors account for only 1–2% of all gastrointestinal tumors. We describe a 29-year-old man who presented with obscure anemia due to gastrointestinal bleeding and underwent laparotomy. Surgical findings revealed a well-circumscribed lesion measuring 45 × 40 mm in the jejunum that initially appeared similar to diverticulosis with an abscess. However, the postoperative pathological diagnosis was a gastrointestinal stromal tumor with extramural growth.

  17. Monitoring and treatment of acute gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenjani, Basri; Zeka, Sadik; Krasniqi, Salih; Bunjaku, Ilaz; Jakupi, Arianit; Elshani, Besni; Xhafa, Agim

    2012-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal bleeding-massive acute bleeding from gastrointestinal section is one of the most frequent forms of acute abdomen. The mortality degree in emergency surgery is about 10%. It's very difficult to identify the place of bleeding and etiology. The important purpose of this research is to present the cases of acute gastrointestinal bleeding from the patients which were monitored and treated at The University Clinical Center of Kosova-Emergency Center in Pristina. These inquests included 137 patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding who were treated in emergency center of The University Clinical Center in Pristina for the period from January 2005 until December 2006. From 137 patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding 41% or 29% was female and 96% or 70.1% male. Following the sex we gained a high significant difference of statistics (p < 0.01). The gastrointestinal bleeding was two times more frequent in male than in female. Also in the age-group we had a high significant difference of statistics (p < 0.01) 63.5% of patients were over 55 years old. The mean age of patients with an acute gastrointestinal bleeding was 58.4 years SD 15.8 age. The mean age for female patients was 56.4 age SD 18.5 age. The patients with arterial systolic pressure under 100 mmHg have been classified as patients with hypovolemic shock. They participate with 17.5% in all prevalence of acute gastrointestinal bleeding. From the number of prevalence 2 {1.5%} patients have been diagnosed with peptic ulcer, 1 {0.7%} as gastric perforation and 1 {0.7%} with intestine ischemia. Abdominal Surgery and Intensive Care 2 or 1.5% died, 1 at intensive care unit and 1 at nephrology. As we know the severe condition of the patients with gastrointestinal bleeding and etiology it is very difficult to establish, we need to improve for the better conditions in our emergency center for treatment and initiation base of clinic criteria.

  18. Risks of Misinterpretation in the Evaluation of the Effect of Fruit-Based Drinks in Postprandial Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Peluso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that some fruit-based drinks (FBD may delay the onset of postprandial stress, which is involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases. The majority of the studies, which have investigated the effects of FBD on postprandial stress, involved a placebo that was a drink with the same content in sugars or carbohydrates of the FBD, but without the bioactive antioxidant compounds. These studies were aimed more at evaluating the effect of the antioxidants rather than the effect of the FBD as a whole. Only 4 studies compared the effect of FBD with water as control and did not support the hypothesis that FBD could inhibit postprandial dysmetabolism, as well as the studies that compared the effect of orange juice and cola. Overall, the results suggest a complex relationship between postprandial dysmetabolism, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Furthermore, the inflammatory and oxidative stress markers need further analytical validation and normal ranges should be established in order to reach a firm conclusion. Finally, caution should be taken in the interpretation of the effect of FBD in postprandial studies and the reviewed results suggest that dietary recommendations should aim to limit rather than increase sugar-sweetened beverages consumption.

  19. Factors associated with postprandial lipemia and apolipoprotein A-V levels in individuals with familial combined hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeda-Valdes, Paloma; Cuevas-Ramos, Daniel; Mehta, Roopa; Muñoz-Hernandez, Liliana; Cruz-Bautista, Ivette; Perez-Mendez, Oscar; Tusie-Luna, Maria Teresa; Gomez-Perez, Francisco J; Pajukanta, Päivi; Matikainen, Niina; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A

    2014-11-25

    Alterations in postprandial metabolism have been described in familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH); however, their underlying mechanisms are not well characterized. We aimed to identify factors related to the magnitude of postprandial lipemia and apolipoprotein (apo) A-V levels in subjects with FCH. FCH cases (n = 99) were studied using a standardized meal test. Abdominal obesity was assessed using the waist to hip ratio (WHR). A linear regression model was performed to investigate the variables associated with the triglycerides incremental area under the curve (iAUC). Independent associations between metabolic variables and apo A-V iAUC were also investigated in a randomly selected subgroup (n = 44). The study sample was classified according to the presence of fasting hypertriglyceridemia (≥150 mg/dL) and abdominal obesity (WHR ≥0.92 in men and ≥0.85 in women) to explore differences in parameters. The fasting apo B-48 levels (r = 0.404), and the WHR (r = 0.359) were independent factors contributing to the triglycerides iAUC (r2 = 0.29, P lipemia. Abdominal obesity also contributes to the magnitude of the postprandial response.The triglycerides postprandial increment is the principal factor associated with the apo A-V postprandial response.

  20. Assessment of postprandial triglycerides in clinical practice: Validation in a general population and coronary heart disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Alcala-Diaz, Juan F; Kabagambe, Edmon K; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Tsai, Michael Y; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Kolovou, Genovefa; Straka, Robert J; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Hopkins, Paul N; Marin, Carmen; Borecki, Ingrid; Yubero-Serrano, Elena M; Hixson, James E; Camargo, Antonio; Province, Michael A; Lopez-Moreno, Javier; Rodriguez-Cantalejo, Fernando; Tinahones, Francisco J; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Arnett, Donna K; Ordovas, Jose M; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that for clinical purposes, subjects with fasting triglycerides (TGs) between 89-180 mg/dl (1-2 mmol/l) would benefit from postprandial TGs testing. To determine the postprandial TG response in 2 independent studies and validate who should benefit diagnostically from an oral-fat tolerance test (OFTT) in clinical practice. A population of 1002 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) from the CORDIOPREV clinical trial and 1115 white US subjects from the GOLDN study underwent OFTTs. Subjects were classified into 3 groups according to fasting cut points of TGs to predict the usefulness of OFTT: (1) TG  180 mg/dl (>2 mmol/l). Postprandial TG concentration at any point > 220 mg/dl (>2.5 mmol/l) has been pre-established as an undesirable postprandial response. Of the total, 49% patients with CHD and 42% from the general population showed an undesirable response after the OFTT. The prevalence of undesirable postprandial TG in the CORDIOPREV clinical trial was 12.8, 50.3, and 89.7%, in group 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P 2 mmol/l, >180 mg/dl). Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.