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Sample records for attenuates postprandial gastrointestinal

  1. Psyllium fiber-enriched meal strongly attenuates postprandial gastrointestinal peptide release in healthy young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karhunen, Leila J.; Juvonen, Kristiina R.; Flander, Sanna M.;

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fiber (DF) and protein are essential constituents of a healthy diet and are well known for their high satiety impact. However, little is known about their influence on postprandial gastrointestinal (GI) peptide release. Our aim in this single-blind, randomized, cross-over study was to inv...

  2. A psyllium fiber-enriched meal strongly attenuates postprandial gastrointestinal peptide release in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhunen, Leila J; Juvonen, Kristiina R; Flander, Sanna M; Liukkonen, Kirsi-Helena; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Siloaho, Maritta; Laaksonen, David E; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Uusitupa, Matti I; Poutanen, Kaisa S

    2010-04-01

    Dietary fiber (DF) and protein are essential constituents of a healthy diet and are well known for their high satiety impact. However, little is known about their influence on postprandial gastrointestinal (GI) peptide release. Our aim in this single-blind, randomized, cross-over study was to investigate the effects of DF and/or protein enrichments on satiety-related metabolic and hormonal responses. Sixteen healthy, nonobese volunteers participated in the study and ingested 1 of 5 isoenergetic test meals in a randomized order on separate days. The test meals were as follows: 1) low in protein (2.8 g) and fiber (7.6 g); 2) low in protein (2.6 g) and high in soluble fiber (psyllium, 23.0 g); 3) high in protein (soy, 19.7 g) and low in fiber (6.2 g); 4) high in protein (18.4 g) and fiber (23.0 g); and 5) white wheat bread. Serum insulin and plasma glucose, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY (PYY) concentrations were determined for 2 h following the meals. In addition, hunger and satiety ratings were collected. Postprandial glucose, insulin, ghrelin, GLP-1, and PYY responses all differed among the meals (P postprandial GLP-1 concentration was significantly suppressed after a fiber- and protein-rich meal, in contrast to the initial increases following the other meals. However, postprandial ratings of appetite were mostly similar after the test meals. In conclusion, solid meals enriched with psyllium fiber strongly modified postprandial signals arising from the GI tract. PMID:20147463

  3. Exercise and postprandial lipaemia: effects on peripheral vascular function, oxidative stress and gastrointestinal transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLaughlin Jim

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Postprandial lipaemia may lead to an increase in oxidative stress, inducing endothelial dysfunction. Exercise can slow gastric emptying rates, moderating postprandial lipaemia. The purpose of this study was to determine if moderate exercise, prior to fat ingestion, influences gastrointestinal transit, lipaemia, oxidative stress and arterial wall function. Eight apparently healthy males (age 23.6 ± 2.8 yrs; height 181.4 ± 8.1 cm; weight 83.4 ± 16.2 kg; all data mean ± SD participated in the randomised, crossover design, where (i subjects ingested a high-fat meal alone (control, and (ii ingested a high-fat meal, preceded by 1 h of moderate exercise. Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV was examined at baseline, post-exercise, and in the postprandial period. Gastric emptying was measured using the 13C-octanoic acid breath test. Measures of venous blood were obtained prior to and following exercise and at 2, 4 and 6 hours post-ingestion. PWV increased (6.5 ± 1.9 m/sec at 2 (8.9 ± 1.7 m/sec and 4 hrs (9.0 ± 1.6 m/sec post-ingestion in the control group (time × group interaction, P

  4. Hyperglycaemia attenuates the gastrokinetic effect of erythromycin and affects the perception of postprandial hunger in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K.L.; Berry, M.; Kong, M.F.; Kwiatek, M.; Samsom, M.; Horowitz, M. [University of South Australia, SA (Australia). School of Medicine Radiation]|[Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA (Australia). Department of Medicine

    1998-06-01

    Full text: Recent studies have demonstrated that acute changes in the blood glucose concentration may affect gastrointestinal motor function and the perception of sensations arising from the gastrointestinal tract. Erythromycin has been shown to accelerate gastric emptying in both normal subjects and patients with diabetes mellitus. The major aims of this study were to determine in normal subjects whether the effects of erythromycin on gastric emptying, and perceptions of hunger and fullness are modified by the blood glucose concentration. 10 normal subjects (aged 20-39 yr) underwent concurrent measurement of gastric emptying, blood glucose, hunger and fullness on four separate occasions: twice during euglycaemia ({approx}4 mmol/L) and twice during hyperglycaemia ({approx}15 mmol/L). Either erythromycin (3 mg/kg) or saline (0.9%) was administered intravenously immediately before ingestion of a radioisotopically labelled solid meal. Gastric emptying was slower (P<0.0001) during hyperglycaemia when compared to euglycaemia after both erythromycin and saline administration. Erythromycin accelerated the post-lag emptying rate during euglycaemia (P<0.05), but not hyperglycaemia. Hunger decreased (P<0.001) and fullness increased (P<0.001) after the meal Postprandial hunger was less (P<0.05) and fullness greater (P<0.05) during hyperglycaemia after saline infusion, but not after erythromycin. Hunger was greater after erythromycin when compared to saline during both hyperglycaemia and euglycaemia (P<0.05). In conclusion, at a blood glucose concentration of {approx}15 mmol/L when compared to euglycaemia: (i) after administration of erythromycin (3 mg/kg IV) gastric emptying of a solid meal is much slower, (ii) the effect of erythromycin on gastric emptying of a solid meal is attenuated and (iii) the perception of postprandial hunger is reduced and that of fullness increased

  5. Effects of acute and chronic attenuation of postprandial hyperglycemia on postglucose-load endothelial function in insulin resistant individuals: is stimulation of first phase insulin secretion beneficial for the endothelial function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Major-Pedersen, A; Ihlemann, N; Hermann, T S;

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine if attenuation of postprandial hyperglycemia, by acutely and chronically enhancing postprandial insulin secretion in insulin-resistant individuals, improves the endothelial dysfunction. We assessed postoral glucose-load endothelial function in 56 insulin....... We found no relationship between postprandial hyperglycemia and post-OGL FMD....

  6. Ghrelin attenuates gastrointestinal epithelial damage induced by doxorubicin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed A Fahim; Hazem Kataya; Rkia El-Kharrag; Dena AM Amer; Basel al-Ramadi; Sherif M Karam

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To examine the influence of ghrelin on the regenerative potential of gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium.METHODS: Damage to GI epithelium was induced in mice by two intravenous injections of doxorubicin (10 and 6 mg/kg). Some of the doxorubicin-treated mice received a continuous subcutaneous infusion of ghrelin (1.25 μg/h) for 10 d via implanted mini-osmotic pumps. To label dividing stem cells in the S-phase of the cell cycle, all mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) one hour before sacrifice. The stomach along with the duodenum were then removed and processed for histological examination and immunohistochemistry using anti-BrdU antibody. RESULTS: The results showed dramatic damage to the GI epithelium 3 d after administration of chemotherapy which began to recover by day 10. In ghrelin-treated mice, attenuation of GI mucosal damage was evident in the tissues examined post-chemotherapy. Immunohistochemical analysis showed an increase in the number of BrdU-labeled cells and an alteration in their distribution along the epithelial lining in response to damage by doxorubicin. In mice treated with both doxorubicin and ghrelin, the number of BrdU-labeled cells was reduced when compared with mice treated with doxorubicin alone. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that ghrelin enhances the regenerative potential of the GI epithelium in doxorubicin-treated mice, at least in part, by modulating cell proliferation.

  7. Delayed Postprandial Hypertriglyceridemia, Slow Gastrointestinal Transit and Possible Links Between Them in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢伟东; 刑东明; 苏慧; 程杰; 金文; 丁怡; 杜力军

    2004-01-01

    Both postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and diabetic gastroparesis are common dysfunctions affecting diabetes mellitus; however,whether diabetic gastroparesis has an influence on postprandial hypertriglyceridemia still remains undetermined.Delayed postprandial hypertriglyceridemia,diabetic gastroparesis,and the possible links between them were investigated using alloxan-induced diabetic mice.After the oral administration of olive oil,delayed and exaggerated postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and diabetic gastroparesis were markedly presented in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.Domperidone shortened the time of triglycerides (TG) peak levels in diabetic mice.After intraperitoneal and intraduodenal administration of olive oil,no delay of TG peak levels occurred in diabetic mice.Simultaneously,serum post-heparin lipoprotein lipase activities significantly decreased just at the time of prolonged and elevated TG peak levels resulting from diabetic gastroparesis,and further deteriorated postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in diabetic mice.The results indicate that diabetic gastroparesis can be one of the important reasons for delayed and exaggerated postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in diabetes mellitus.

  8. The effects of postprandial glucose and insulin levels on postprandial endothelial function in subjects with normal glucose tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki Kazunari; Watanabe Kentaro; Futami-Suda Shoko; Yano Hiroyuki; Motoyama Masayuki; Matsumura Noriaki; Igari Yoshimasa; Suzuki Tatsuya; Nakano Hiroshi; Oba Kenzo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous studies have demonstrated that postprandial hyperglycemia attenuates brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in prediabetic patients, in diabetic patients, and even in normal subjects. We have previously reported that postprandial hyperinsulinemia also attenuates FMD. In the present study we evaluated the relationship between different degrees of postprandial attenuation of FMD induced by postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia and differences in inge...

  9. Small gastrointestinal stromal tumours with focal areas of low attenuation on CT: pathological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To describe the pathology of focal areas of low attenuation in small gastrointestinal stromal tumours on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), and to investigate the association of these areas as predictors of malignant potential. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Contrast-enhanced helical CT images were obtained of 39 small (up to 5 cm) gastrointestinal stromal tumours. Focal areas of low attenuation were retrospectively evaluated and correlated with histopathological findings. The relation between the mitotic rate of and the presence of focal areas of low attenuation in the tumours was analyzed using Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: Of the 39 small gastrointestinal stromal tumours, 15 contained focal areas of low attenuation on CT. These were found to be due to solid tumour (n=5), haemorrhage (n=3), haemorrhage with necrosis (n=2), cystic degeneration (n=2), fluid in ulcer (n=2), and fibrous septum (n=1); they were not found to be associated with a high mitotic rate (p=0.45). CONCLUSION: Focal areas of low attenuation on CT in small gastrointestinal stromal tumours represent varying pathological conditions and do not predict malignant potential

  10. Rikkunshi-to attenuates adverse gastrointestinal symptoms induced by fluvoxamine

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    Kodama Naoki

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upper gastrointestinal (GI symptoms such as nausea and vomiting are common adverse events associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, and may result in discontinuation of drug therapy in patients with depressive disorder. Rikkunshi-to (formulation TJ-43, a traditional herbal medicine, has been reported to improve upper GI symptoms and comorbid depressive symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia. The aim of the present study was to determine if TJ-43 reduces GI symptoms and potentiates an antidepressant effect in a randomized controlled study of depressed patients treated with fluvoxamine (FLV. Methods Fifty patients with depressive disorder (19–78 years, mean age 40.2 years were treated with FLV (n = 25 or FLV in combination with TJ-43 (FLV+TJ-43 (n = 25 for eight weeks. The following parameters of the two groups were compared: The number of patients who complained of adverse events and their symptoms; GI symptoms quality of life (QOL score, assessed by the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS, Japanese edition, before and two weeks after beginning treatment; and depressive symptoms assessed by the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS, before and 2, 4, and 8 weeks after beginning treatment. Results The number of patients who complained of adverse events in the FLV+TJ-43 group (n = 6 was significantly lower than the number complaining in the FLV group (n = 13 (P P Conclusion This study suggests that Rikkunshi-to reduces FLV-induced adverse events, especially nausea, and improves QOL related to GI symptoms without affecting the antidepressant effect of FLV.

  11. Differential Acute Postprandial Effects of Processed Meat and Isocaloric Vegan Meals on the Gastrointestinal Hormone Response in Subjects Suffering from Type 2 Diabetes and Healthy Controls: A Randomized Crossover Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lenka Belinova; Hana Kahleova; Hana Malinska; Ondrej Topolcan; Jindra Vrzalova; Olena Oliyarnyk; Ludmila Kazdova; Martin Hill; Terezie Pelikanova

    2014-01-01

    Background The intake of meat, particularly processed meat, is a dietary risk factor for diabetes. Meat intake impairs insulin sensitivity and leads to increased oxidative stress. However, its effect on postprandial gastrointestinal hormone (GIH) secretion is unclear. We aimed to investigate the acute effects of two standardized isocaloric meals: a processed hamburger meat meal rich in protein and saturated fat (M-meal) and a vegan meal rich in carbohydrates (V-meal). We hypothesized that the...

  12. Differential acute postprandial effects of processed meat and isocaloric vegan meals on the gastrointestinal hormone response in subjects suffering from type 2 diabetes and healthy controls: a randomized crossover study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Belinova

    Full Text Available The intake of meat, particularly processed meat, is a dietary risk factor for diabetes. Meat intake impairs insulin sensitivity and leads to increased oxidative stress. However, its effect on postprandial gastrointestinal hormone (GIH secretion is unclear. We aimed to investigate the acute effects of two standardized isocaloric meals: a processed hamburger meat meal rich in protein and saturated fat (M-meal and a vegan meal rich in carbohydrates (V-meal. We hypothesized that the meat meal would lead to abnormal postprandial increases in plasma lipids and oxidative stress markers and impaired GIH responses.In a randomized crossover study, 50 patients suffering from type 2 diabetes (T2D and 50 healthy subjects underwent two 3-h meal tolerance tests. For statistical analyses, repeated-measures ANOVA was performed.The M-meal resulted in a higher postprandial increase in lipids in both groups (p<0.001 and persistent postprandial hyperinsulinemia in patients with diabetes (p<0.001. The plasma glucose levels were significantly higher after the V-meal only at the peak level. The plasma concentrations of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP, peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY and pancreatic polypeptide (PP were higher (p<0.05, p<0.001, p<0.001, respectively and the ghrelin concentration was lower (p<0.001 after the M-meal in healthy subjects. In contrast, the concentrations of GIP, PYY and PP were significantly lower after the M-meal in T2D patients (p<0.001. Compared with the V-meal, the M-meal was associated with a larger increase in lipoperoxidation in T2D patients (p<0.05.Our results suggest that the diet composition and the energy content, rather than the carbohydrate count, should be important considerations for dietary management and demonstrate that processed meat consumption is accompanied by impaired GIH responses and increased oxidative stress marker levels in diabetic patients.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01572402.

  13. Polyphenol- and fibre-rich dried fruits with green tea attenuate starch-derived postprandial blood glucose and insulin: a randomised, controlled, single-blind, cross-over intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyambe-Silavwe, H; Williamson, G

    2016-08-01

    Polyphenol- and fibre-rich foods (PFRF) have the potential to affect postprandial glycaemic responses by reducing glucose absorption, and thus decreasing the glycaemic response of foods when consumed together. A randomised, single-blind, cross-over study was conducted on sixteen healthy volunteers to test whether PFRF could attenuate postprandial blood glucose in healthy volunteers when added to a source of carbohydrate (starch in bread). This is the first study to examine the effects of a meal comprised of components to inhibit each stage of the biochemical pathway, leading up to the appearance of glucose in the blood. The volunteers were fasted and attended four visits: two control visits (bread, water, balancing sugars) and two test visits (single and double dose of PFRF) where they consumed bread, water and PFRF. Blood samples were collected at 0 (fasted), 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after consumption. The PFRF components were tested for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potential in vitro. Plasma glucose was lower after consumption of both doses compared with controls: lower dose, change in mean incremental areas under the glucose curves (IAUC)=-27·4 (sd 7·5) %, Pamylase (green tea, strawberry, blackberry and blackcurrant) and α-glucosidase (green tea) activities in vitro. The PFRF have a pronounced and significant lowering effect on postprandial blood glucose and insulin response in humans, due in part to inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase, as well as glucose transport. PMID:27278405

  14. Computed-tomography attenuation values of the peritoneum reflect the severity of peritonitis due to upper gastrointestinal perforations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate computed tomography (CT) attenuation values of the peritoneum and to relate these values to the severity of peritonitis in patients with upper gastrointestinal tract (UGI) perforations. A total of 27 consecutive patients with UGI perforations who underwent CT and emergency laparotomy in our hospital were enrolled in this study. The CT attenuation values of the peritoneum were measured at a workstation by 2 independent investigators, and these values were analyzed in relation to the severity of illness. There were significant negative correlations between the peritoneal CT attenuation values and the sequential organ failure assessment score, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score, and the Mannheim peritonitis index. There was a significant negative correlation between the peritoneal CT attenuation values and the length of stay in the intensive care unit. Furthermore, patients with dysfunctions in ≥3 organs had significantly lower peritoneal CT attenuation values than those with dysfunction in ≤2 organs. In conclusion, evaluation of peritoneal CT attenuation values in peritonitis patients is simple and can be employed for objective assessment of the severity of peritonitis. (author)

  15. Orlistat inhibition of intestinal lipase acutely increases appetite and attenuates postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36)-amide-1, cholecystokinin, and peptide YY concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellrichmann, Mark; Kapelle, Mario; Ritter, Peter R;

    2008-01-01

    .0001), whereas appetite and prospective food consumption increased (P alters gastric and gallbladder emptying and reduces...... of Orlistat or placebo. Gastric emptying, gallbladder volume and the plasma levels of CCK, PYY, GLP-1, and ghrelin were determined and appetite sensations were measured using visual analogue scales. RESULTS: Gastric emptying was accelerated by Orlistat administration (P emptying...... whether Orlistat alters the secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36)-amide (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY), and ghrelin as well as postprandial appetite sensations. METHODS: Twenty-five healthy human volunteers were examined with a solid-liquid test meal after the oral administration...

  16. Schistosoma mansoni proteins attenuate gastrointestinal motility disturbances during experimental colitis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nathalie; E; Ruyssers; Benedicte; Y; De; Winter; Joris; G; De; Man; Natacha; D; Ruyssers; Ann; J; Van; Gils; Alex; Loukas; Mark; S; Pearson; Joel; V; Weinstock; Paul; A; Pelckmans; Tom; G; Moreels

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the therapeutic effect of Schistosoma mansoni(S.mansoni) soluble worm proteins on gastrointestinal motility disturbances during experimental colitis in mice. METHODS:Colitis was induced by intrarectal injection of trinitrobenzene sulphate(TNBS) and 6 h later,mice were treated ip with S.mansoni proteins.Experiments were performed 5 d after TNBS injection.Inflammationwas quantified using validated inflammation parameters. Gastric emptying and geometric center were measured to assess in vivo...

  17. Postprandial Energy Metabolism in the Regulation of Body Weight: Is there a Mechanistic Role for Dietary Calcium?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario J. Soares

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been much interest in the mechanisms by which calcium may attenuate weight gain or accelerate body fat loss. This review focuses on postprandial energy metabolism and indicates that dietary calcium increases whole body fat oxidation after single and multiple meals. There is, as yet, no conclusive evidence for a greater diet induced thermogenesis, an increased lipolysis or suppression of key lipogenic enzyme systems. There is however convincing evidence that higher calcium intakes promote a modest energy loss through increased fecal fat excretion. Overall, there is a role for dietary calcium in human energy metabolism. Future studies need to define threshold intakes for metabolic and gastrointestinal outcomes.

  18. Live Probiotic Cultures and the Gastrointestinal Tract: Symbiotic Preservation of Tolerance Whilst Attenuating Pathogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eVitetta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria comprise the earliest form of independent life on this planet. Bacterial development has included co–operative symbiosis with plants (e.g., Leguminosae family and nitrogen fixing bacteria in soil and animals (e.g., the gut microbiome. A fusion event of two prokaryotes evolutionarily gave rise to the eukaryote cell in which mitochondria may be envisaged as a genetically functional mosaic, a relic from one of the prokaryote cells. The discovery of bacterial inhibitors such chloramphenicol and others has been exploited to highlight mitochondria as arising from a bacterial progenitor. As such the evolution of human life has been complexly connected to bacterial activity. This is embodied, by the appearance of mitochondria in eukaryotes (alphaproteobacteria contribution, a significant endosymbiotic evolutionary event. During the twentieth century there was an increasing dependency on anti–microbials as mainline therapy against bacterial infections. It is only comparatively recently that the essential roles played by the gastrointestinal tract (GIT microbiome in animal health and development has been recognized as opposed to the GIT microbiome being a toxic collection of micro–organisms. It is now well documented that t

  19. In vitro development of resistance to arsenite and chromium-VI in Lactobacilli strains as perspective attenuation of gastrointestinal disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upreti, Raj K; Sinha, Vartika; Mishra, Ritesh; Kannan, Ambrose

    2011-05-01

    Inadvertent intake of inorganic arsenic and chromium through drinking water and food causing their toxic insults is a major health problem. Intestinal bacteria including Lactobacilli play important regulatory roles on intestinal homeostasis, and their loss is known to cause gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Probiotic Lactobacilli resistance to arsenite and chromium-VI could be an importantfactorfor the perspective attenuation of Gl-disorders caused by these toxic metals/metalloid. In the present study resistance of arsenite (up to 32 ppm), Cr-VI (up to 64 ppm), and arsenite plus Cr-VI (32 ppm each) were developed under in vitro condition following chronological chronic exposures in Lactobacilli strains. Comparative study of biochemical parameters such as membrane transport enzymes and structural constituents; dehydrogenase and esterase activity tests, which are respective indicators for respiratory and energy producing processes, and the general heterotrophic activity of cells, of resistant strains showed similarities with their respective normal parent strains. The resistant strains were also found to be sensitive to antibiotics. Findings indicate that these resistant probiotic Lactobacilli would be useful in the prophylactic interventions of arsenic and chromium GI-toxicity.

  20. Insulinoma presenting as postprandial hypoglycaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Madathil, Asgar; Weaver, Jola

    2011-01-01

    Although insulinoma commonly presents as fasting hypoglycaemia it can rarely present as postprandial hypoglycaemia. We describe a case of insulinoma presenting as postprandial hypoglycaemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A 60-year-old man presented with a 6 year history of postprandial hypoglycaemic symptoms. A diagnosis of T2DM was made using a standard oral glucose tolerance test to which patient’s postprandial hypoglycaemia was attributed. He was given dietetic advice for postprandia...

  1. Definition of postprandial lipaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Nordestgaard, Børge G;

    2011-01-01

    At the present time, there is no widely agreed definition of postprandial lipaemia (PPL). This lack of a shared definition limits the identification and treatment of patients with exaggerated PPL as well as the evaluation of potential therapeutic agents. PPL is a complex syndrome characterized by...

  2. Definition of postprandial lipaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Nordestgaard, Børge G;

    2011-01-01

    At the present time, there is no widely agreed definition of postprandial lipaemia (PPL). This lack of a shared definition limits the identification and treatment of patients with exaggerated PPL as well as the evaluation of potential therapeutic agents. PPL is a complex syndrome characterized...... by non-fasting hypertriglyceridaemia that is associated with an increased risk of vascular events. This review considers the definition of PPL and the methodology for assessing this process....

  3. Gastrointestinal motility and functional gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Motoyasu; Hosaka, Hiroko; Kawada, Akiyo; Kuribayashi, Shiko; Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Zai, Hiroaki; Kawamura, Osamu; Yamada, Masanobu

    2014-01-01

    Digestive tract motility patterns are closely related to the pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal diseases (FGID), and these patterns differ markedly between the interdigestive period and the postprandial period. The characteristic motility pattern in the interdigestive period is so-called interdigestive migrating contraction (IMC). IMCs have a housekeeping role in the intestinal tract, and could also be related to FGID. IMCs arising from the stomach are called gastrointestinal IMCs (GI-IMC), while IMCs arising from the duodenum without associated gastric contractions are called intestinal IMCs (I-IMC). It is thought that I-IMCs are abnormal in FGID. Transport of food residue to the duodenum via gastric emptying is one of the most important postprandial functions of the stomach. In patients with functional dyspepsia (FD), abnormal gastric emptying is a possible mechanism of gastric dysfunction. Accordingly, delayed gastric emptying has attracted attention, with prokinetic agents and herbal medicines often being administered in Japan to accelerate gastric emptying in patients who have anorexia associated with dyspepsia. Recently, we found that addition of monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) to a high-calorie liquid diet rich in casein promoted gastric emptying in healthy men. Therefore, another potential method of improving delayed gastric emptying could be activation of chemosensors that stimulate the autonomic nervous system of the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting a role for MSG in the management of delayed gastric emptying in patients with FD.

  4. Flaxseed dietary fibers suppress postprandial lipemia and appetite sensation in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M.; Savorani, F.; Christensen, S.;

    2013-01-01

    Background and aim: Dietary fibers (DF) are linked to a reduced risk of life-style diseases, which relate to their physiological effects in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim was to examine whether flaxseed DF-enriched meals suppress postprandial lipemia and reduce appetite. Methods and results...

  5. Effect and potential mechanism of action of sea cucumber saponins on postprandial blood glucose in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xueyuan; Wen, Min; Han, Xiuqing; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Xue, Yong; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2016-06-01

    Postprandial blood glucose control is the major goal in the treatment of diabetes. Here, we investigated the effect of sea cucumber saponins (SCSs) on postprandial blood glucose levels. SCS inhibited yeast as well as rat intestinal α-glucosidase activity in a dose-dependent manner and showed better inhibition of yeast α-glucosidases compared to the positive control. Further studies were performed using ICR mice treated with SCS and starch or SCS alone by oral gavage. Unexpectedly, SCS increased postprandial blood glucose levels a short time (1 h) after oral gavage. The serum corticosterone (CORT) level showed a consistent correlation with glucose levels. In vitro experiments confirmed that SCS treatment increased the secretion of CORT in the Y1 adrenal cell line. Overall, these studies demonstrated that SCS gavage could inhibit α-glucosidase activity but cannot attenuate postprandial blood glucose level within short time periods. The underlying mechanisms are probably related to increased serum CORT levels. PMID:26932154

  6. Methods to study postprandial lipemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Teik Chye; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    Postprandial lipemia (PPL) refers to a dynamic sequence of plasma lipid/lipoprotein changes induced by ingestion of food. PPL results from absorption of digested dietary lipids which form chylomicrons (CM) and increased hepatic production of VLDL, stimulated by increased delivery of fats to the l...

  7. Methods to study postprandial lipemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Teik Chye; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    Postprandial lipemia (PPL) refers to a dynamic sequence of plasma lipid/lipoprotein changes induced by ingestion of food. PPL results from absorption of digested dietary lipids which form chylomicrons (CM) and increased hepatic production of VLDL, stimulated by increased delivery of fats to the...

  8. Role of gastrointestinal hormones in postprandial reduction of bone resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Dennis B; Alexandersen, Peter; Bjarnason, Nina H;

    2003-01-01

    Collagen type I fragments, reflecting bone resorption, and release of gut hormones were investigated after a meal. Investigations led to a dose escalation study with glucagon like peptide-2 (GLP-2) in postmenopausal women. We found a dose-dependent effect of GLP-2 on the reduction of bone...

  9. Gut transit is associated with gastrointestinal symptoms and gut hormone profile in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalaitzakis, Evangelos; Sadik, Riadh; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2008-01-01

    the relation of gut transit with gastrointestinal symptoms and postprandial glucose and hormone profiles. METHODS: Half gastric emptying, small bowel residence, and colonic filling times were measured with a validated radiologic procedure in 42 consecutive patients with cirrhosis. In a subgroup of 25 patients...... analyses. RESULTS: Of patients with cirrhosis, 24% had delayed gastric emptying and 38% had prolonged small bowel transit (P gastric emptying was related to postprandial fullness and prolonged small bowel transit to diarrhea and abdominal pain (P ...). The patients with cirrhosis had increased postprandial glucose, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide 1 responses and reduced postprandial ghrelin. Delayed gastric emptying was related to increased postprandial glucose and reduced postprandial ghrelin. Prolonged small bowel transit was related to increased...

  10. Gastrointestinal peptide levels in obese and anorexic females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of gastrointestinal peptides in eating disorders has yet to be determined. Methods: In this study we examined plasma levels of gastrin (G), cholecystokinin (CCK), and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) in adolescent anorexic, and obese female subjects hospitalized for feeding behavior disorders. Six anorexic, six obese and six control young females (ages 13-26) were studied after an overnight fast and after consuming a liquid test meal. The liquid test meal (Ensure, Ross Laboratories; Columbus OH) consisted of 14% calories as protein, 31.5% calories as fat and 54.5% calories as carbohydrate in a 240ml volume. Plasma levels of gastrointestinal peptides, G, CCK and PP were determined by specific radioimmunoassay. The data were analyzed by one way analysis of variance and the Student's t-test. Results: show that fasting levels of G were greater in control and obese groups than the anorexic subjects. Postprandial G levels for controls were higher than the anorexic, and obese groups respectively. When fasting and postprandial G levels were compared among the same groups only the controls increased after eating. Fasting CCK levels were lower in control and anorexic groups than the obese group. Postprandial CCK levels were higher among control patients compared to anorexic and obese subjects. When fasting and postprandial CCK levels were compared among groups, only control levels increased after eating. Fasting and postprandial PP levels were not different between groups. Postprandial PP levels increased over fasting PP levels only in controls

  11. Gastrointestinal peptide levels in obese and anorexic females

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasley, J.N.; Rice, R.L.; McCullough, S.S.; McKay, D.W.; Rayford, P.L. (Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The role of gastrointestinal peptides in eating disorders has yet to be determined. Methods: In this study we examined plasma levels of gastrin (G), cholecystokinin (CCK), and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) in adolescent anorexic, and obese female subjects hospitalized for feeding behavior disorders. Six anorexic, six obese and six control young females (ages 13-26) were studied after an overnight fast and after consuming a liquid test meal. The liquid test meal (Ensure, Ross Laboratories; Columbus OH) consisted of 14% calories as protein, 31.5% calories as fat and 54.5% calories as carbohydrate in a 240ml volume. Plasma levels of gastrointestinal peptides, G, CCK and PP were determined by specific radioimmunoassay. The data were analyzed by one way analysis of variance and the Student's t-test. Results: show that fasting levels of G were greater in control and obese groups than the anorexic subjects. Postprandial G levels for controls were higher than the anorexic, and obese groups respectively. When fasting and postprandial G levels were compared among the same groups only the controls increased after eating. Fasting CCK levels were lower in control and anorexic groups than the obese group. Postprandial CCK levels were higher among control patients compared to anorexic and obese subjects. When fasting and postprandial CCK levels were compared among groups, only control levels increased after eating. Fasting and postprandial PP levels were not different between groups. Postprandial PP levels increased over fasting PP levels only in controls.

  12. Gastric antrectomy with selective gastric vagotomy does not influence gallbladder motility during interdigestive and postprandial periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Oster-Jørgensen, E; Pedersen, S A;

    1996-01-01

    Fasting gastrointestinal motility and gallbladder motility during the interdigestive state and in the postprandial period was studied in eight patients who were operated for ulcer disease with an antrectomy and selective gastric vagotomy. Nocturnal motility recording revealed all three phases.......77%/min (0.33-0.86%/min). The values in the control group were 0 min (-9 to 13.5 min) and 0.76%/min (0.54-2.25%/min), respectively. These differences between the patients and controls were not significant. In conclusion, antrectomy and selective gastric vagotomy do not influence fasting gastrointestinal...

  13. Relationship between antral distension and postprandial symptoms in functional dyspepsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nadia Pallotta; Patrizio Pezzotti; Enrico Corazziari

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate in patients with functional dyspepsia(FD) after an every-day meal whether (1) gastrointestinal (GI) and extra-GI symptoms had any relation with the degree of antral volume, (2) the onset of postprandial symptoms was associated with, and may predict, delayed gastric emptying.METHODS: In 94 symptomatic FD patients, antral volume variations and gastric emptying were assessed with ultrasonography after a 1050 kcal meal. Symptoms were evaluated with a standardized questionnaire. The association of GI and extra-GI symptoms with antral volumes and gastric emptying were estimated with logistic regression analysis.RESULTS: Forty percent of patients did not report any symptoms after a meal. Compared to the healthy controls, the antrum was more distended in patients throughout the entire observation period and 37 (39.4%)patients had delayed gastric emptying. Only postprandial drowsiness was associated with antral volume variations (AOR = 1.42; P < 0.001) and with delayed gastric emptying (AOR = 3.59; P < 0.03).CONCLUSION: In FD patients, GI symptoms are neither associated with antral distension nor with gastric emptying. Drowsiness is associated with antral distension and delayed gastric emptying. The onset of drowsiness is preceded by an increment of antral distension and the duration of the symptom appears to be related to the persistence of antral distension.

  14. Postprandial Hypoglycemia: An Unusual Presentation for Insulinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Ekşi Haydardedeoğlu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Insulinoma is the most common type of islet cell tumor of the pancreas and its incidence is estimated at four per one million persons per year. Although fasting hypoglycemia is the typical presentation, cases with postprandial hypoglycemia have rarely been reported. A 48-year-old woman was admitted to our department for evaluation of hypoglycemia. Laboratory data suggested a state of postprandial endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a mass lesion measuring 20 mm at the distal pancreas. A decision was made to perform an arterial calcium-stimulated venous sampling for excluding nesidioblastosis coexisting with a pancreatic incidental mass. After that the patient was referred to surgery. Pathological examination revealed a low-grade well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor with regional lymph node metastasis. Herein, we report a case of malignant insulinoma presenting with postprandial hypoglycemia and discuss the differential diagnosis and possible mechanisms of postprandial hypoglycemia in insulinoma cases.

  15. Impact of cyclodextrins on postprandial glycemia: evaluation in experimental animal model using the real-time continuous glucose monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sybuia, Mauricio Fumio; Guilhermetti, Márcio; Mangolim, Camila Sampaio; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa; Matioli, Graciette

    2015-06-01

    The impact of cyclodextrins (CDs) on postprandial glycemic response employing the real-time continuous glucose monitoring system (RT-CGMS) was investigated. For this purpose, α-CD, β-CD, γ-CD, HP-β-CD, curdlan, and dextrin at doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg were orally administered in rats. The RT-CGMS was efficient to evaluate the impact of CDs on postprandial glycemia. The results showed that α-CD, β-CD, dextrin, and curdlan did not reduce the glycemic response after the administration of starch. In contrast, the HP-β-CD (100 mg/kg) attenuated the rise in glycemia. Moreover, the γ-CD blunts the postprandial glycemic excursion at doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg. Therefore, γ-CD could attenuate the rise in glycemia promoted by oral administration of starch. Considering that the treatment of postprandial hyperglycemia is necessary to prevent type 2 diabetes, this study opens the perspective of better control of postprandial glycemia by the addition of γ-CD in food.

  16. Postprandial fullness correlates with rapid inflow of gastric content into duodenum but not with chronic gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamichi Nobutake

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is evaluating the correlation of postprandial fullness with chronic gastritis or rapid inflow of gastric content into duodenum, based on double-contrast barium X-ray imaging. Methods 253 healthy subjects who underwent upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray examination were analyzed. Chronic gastritis was judged from mucosal atrophy and hypertrophic thickened folds on barium X-ray images. For the gastric excretion, the tips of barium flow on the single-contrast frontal barium X-ray images of the stomach were classified into four categories; V type (all the barium remained in the stomach, V-H type (some barium had flowed into the duodenum but the tip of barium remained in the proximal half of the duodenal bulb, H-V type (some barium had flowed into the duodenum and the tip of barium was in the distal half of duodenal the bulb, but no barium was observed in the descending part of the duodenum, and H type (some barium had flowed into the descending part of the duodenum. The chi-square test and Cochran-Mantel-Haenzel test were used for evaluation. Results Chronic gastritis was observed in 72 subjects, among which 21 subjects (29.2% presented with postprandial fullness. For the remaining 181 subjects without chronic gastritis, 53 subjects (29.3% complained of postprandial fullness. There is no significant correlation between chronic gastritis and postprandial fullness (p = 0.973. For the rapid flow of gastric content into duodenum, all the 253 subjects comprised 136 subjects with V type (in the stomach, 40 subjects with V-H type (in the proximal half of the duodenal bulb, 21 subjects with H-V type (in the distal half of the duodenal bulb, and 56 subjects with H type (in the descending part of the duodenum. Postprandial fullness was present in 30 subjects with V type (22.1%, 9 subjects with V-H type (22.5%, 8 subjects with H-V type (38.1%, and 27 subjects with H type (48.2%. There is a distinct correlation between

  17. Dietary oil composition differentially modulates intestinal endotoxin transport and postprandial endotoxemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Venkatesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal derived endotoxin and the subsequent endotoxemia can be considered major predisposing factors for diseases such as atherosclerosis, sepsis, obesity and diabetes. Dietary fat has been shown to increase postprandial endotoxemia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of different dietary oils on intestinal endotoxin transport and postprandial endotoxemia using swine as a model. We hypothesized that oils rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA would augment, while oils rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA would attenuate intestinal endotoxin transport and circulating concentrations. Methods Postprandial endotoxemia was measured in twenty four pigs following a porridge meal made with either water (Control, fish oil (FO, vegetable oil (VO or coconut oil (CO. Blood was collected at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 5 hours postprandial and measured for endotoxin. Furthermore, ex vivo ileum endotoxin transport was assessed using modified Ussing chambers and intestines were treated with either no oil or 12.5% (v/v VO, FO, cod liver oil (CLO, CO or olive oil (OO. Ex vivo mucosal to serosal endotoxin transport permeability (Papp was then measured by the addition of fluorescent labeled-lipopolysaccharide. Results Postprandial serum endotoxin concentrations were increased after a meal rich in saturated fatty acids and decreased with higher n-3 PUFA intake. Compared to the no oil control, fish oil and CLO which are rich in n-3 fatty acids reduced ex vivo endotoxin Papp by 50% (P  Conclusion Overall, these results indicate that saturated and n-3 PUFA differentially regulate intestinal epithelial endotoxin transport. This may be associated with fatty acid regulation of intestinal membrane lipid raft mediated permeability.

  18. The chronic effects of fish oil with exercise on postprandial lipaemia and chylomicron homeostasis in insulin resistant viscerally obese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slivkoff-Clark Karin M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral obesity and insulin resistance are associated with a postprandial accumulation of atherogenic chylomicron remnants that is difficult to modulate with lipid-lowering therapies. Dietary fish oil and exercise are cardioprotective interventions that can significantly modify the metabolism of TAG-rich lipoproteins. In this study, we investigated whether chronic exercise and fish oil act in combination to affect chylomicron metabolism in obese men with moderate insulin resistance. Methods The single blind study tested the effect of fish oil, exercise and the combined treatments on fasting and postprandial chylomicron metabolism. Twenty nine men with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to take fish oil or placebo for four weeks, before undertaking an additional 12 week walking program. At baseline and at the end of each treatment, subjects were tested for concentrations of fasting apo B48, plasma lipids and insulin. Postprandial apo B48 and TAG kinetics were also determined following ingestion of a fat enriched meal. Results Combining fish oil and exercise resulted in a significant reduction in the fasting apo B48 concentration, concomitant with attenuation of fasting TAG concentrations and the postprandial TAGIAUC response (p Conclusion Fish oil was shown to independently improve plasma TAG homeostasis but did not resolve hyper-chylomicronaemia. Instead, combining fish oil with chronic exercise reduced the plasma concentration of pro-atherogenic chylomicron remnants; in addition it reduced the fasting and postprandial TAG response in viscerally obese insulin resistant subjects.

  19. Smoking, inflammatory patterns, and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Smoking is associated with increased postprandial hypertriglyceridemia (PPT). Inflammation and insulin resistance are potential "drivers" for this phenomenon. We tested whether inflammatory patterns and/or insulin resistance explain the effect of smoking on PPT. Methods: Men and women i...

  20. [Gastrointestinal bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanas, Ángel

    2015-09-01

    In the Digestive Disease Week in 2015 there have been some new contributions in the field of gastrointestinal bleeding that deserve to be highlighted. Treatment of celecoxib with a proton pump inhibitor is safer than treatment with nonselective NSAID and a proton pump inhibitor in high risk gastrointestinal and cardiovascular patients who mostly also take acetylsalicylic acid. Several studies confirm the need to restart the antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy at an early stage after a gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The need for urgent endoscopy before 6-12 h after the onset of upper gastrointestinal bleeding episode may be beneficial in patients with hemodynamic instability and high risk for comorbidity. It is confirmed that in Western but not in Japanese populations, gastrointestinal bleeding episodes admitted to hospital during weekend days are associated with a worse prognosis associated with delays in the clinical management of the events. The strategy of a restrictive policy on blood transfusions during an upper GI bleeding event has been challenged. Several studies have shown the benefit of identifying the bleeding vessel in non varicose underlying gastric lesions by Doppler ultrasound which allows direct endoscopic therapy in the patient with upper GI bleeding. Finally, it has been reported that lower gastrointestinal bleeding diverticula band ligation or hemoclipping are both safe and have the same long-term outcomes. PMID:26520197

  1. Femoral lipectomy increases postprandial lipemia in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Teri L; Bessesen, Daniel H; Cox-York, Kimberly A; Erickson, Christopher B; Law, Christopher K; Anderson, Molly K; Wang, Hong; Jackman, Matthew R; Van Pelt, Rachael E

    2015-07-01

    Femoral subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) appears to be cardioprotective compared with abdominal SAT, possibly through better triglyceride (TG) sequestration. We hypothesized that removal of femoral SAT would increase postprandial TG through a reduction in dietary fatty acid (FA) storage. Normal-weight (means ± SD; BMI 23.9 ± 2.6 kg/m(2)) women (n = 29; age 45 ± 6 yr) were randomized to femoral lipectomy (LIPO) or control (CON) and followed for 1 yr. Regional adiposity was measured by DEXA and CT. A liquid meal labeled with [(14)C]oleic acid was used to trace the appearance of dietary FA in plasma (6-h postprandial TG), breath (24-h oxidation), and SAT (24-h [(14)C]TG storage). Fasting LPL activity was measured in abdominal and femoral SAT. DEXA leg fat mass was reduced after LIPO vs. CON (Δ-1.4 ± 0.7 vs. 0.1 ± 0.5 kg, P fat area (-39.6 ± 36.6 vs. 4.7 ± 14.6 cm(2), P fat mass and CT visceral fat area were unchanged. Postprandial TG increased (5.9 ± 7.7 vs. -0.6 ± 5.3 × 10(3) mg/dl, P fat remained reduced 1 yr following lipectomy and was accompanied by increased postprandial TG and reduced femoral SAT LPL activity. There were no changes in storage of meal-derived FA or visceral fat. Our data support a protective role for femoral adiposity on circulating TG independent of dietary FA storage and visceral adiposity. PMID:25968576

  2. Effect of Cinnamon Tea on Postprandial Glucose Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Alexandra Bernardo; Maria Leonor Silva; Elisabeth Santos; Margarida Maria Moncada; José Brito; Luis Proença; Jaipaul Singh; Maria Fernanda de Mesquita

    2015-01-01

    Glycaemic control, in particular at postprandial period, has a key role in prevention of different diseases, including diabetes and cardiovascular events. Previous studies suggest that postprandial high blood glucose levels (BGL) can lead to an oxidative stress status, which is associated with metabolic alterations. Cinnamon powder has demonstrated a beneficial effect on postprandial glucose homeostasis in animals and human models. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of cin...

  3. High Amylose White Rice Reduces Post-Prandial Glycemic Response but Not Appetite in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Zenel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the effects of three rice cultivars on postprandial glycemic control and appetite. A single-blind, randomized, crossover clinical trial was performed with 18 healthy subjects, nine males and nine females. Three treatments were administered at three separate study visits: commercially available conventional white rice (short grain, specialty high amylose white rice 1 (Dixiebelle, and specialty high amylose white rice 2 (Rondo. Postprandial capillary blood glucose, venous blood glucose and insulin measurements, and appetite visual analog scale (VAS surveys were done over the course of two hours. The capillary blood glucose concentrations were significantly lower for Rondo compared to short grain rice at 30 min, and for Dixiebelle and Rondo compared to short grain rice at 45, 60, and 120 min. Capillary blood glucose area under the curve (AUC was significantly lower for Dixiebelle and Rondo compared to short grain rice. Subjects were significantly more hungry at 30 min after Dixiebelle intake than Rondo intake, but there were no other significant effects in appetite ratings. The present study determined that intake of high amylose rice with resistant starch (RS can attenuate postprandial blood glucose and insulin response in comparison to short grain rice.

  4. Impact of postprandial glycaemia on health and prevention of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaak, E E; Antoine, J-M; Benton, D;

    2012-01-01

    Postprandial glucose, together with related hyperinsulinemia and lipidaemia, has been implicated in the development of chronic metabolic diseases like obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review, available evidence is discussed on postprandial glucose...... in relation to body weight control, the development of oxidative stress, T2DM, and CVD and in maintaining optimal exercise and cognitive performance. There is mechanistic evidence linking postprandial glycaemia or glycaemic variability to the development of these conditions or in the impairment in cognitive...... to health and disease. Also of importance is the evaluation of the potential role of the time course of postprandial glycaemia....

  5. Postprandial blood glucose response to grape seed extract in healthy participants: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwimol Sapwarobol

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The consumption of a high carbohydrate diet may be associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Previous studies in vitro have revealed that grape seed extract (GSE inhibited the intestinal α-glucosidases and α-pancreatic amylase that may delay carbohydrate digestion and absorption, resulting in the suppression of postprandial glycemia. The objective of the study was to assess whether consumption of GSE together with high carbohydrate meal affects postprandial glycemia in healthy participants. Materials and Methods: The study used acute, randomized, controlled crossover design in which eight healthy subjects (four female and four male, mean aged 21.25 ± 3.69 years; body mass index =20.28 ± 1.40 kg/m 2 received high carbohydrate (HC meal (73.6 % together with or without 100 and 300 mg GSE. Results: Results showed that postprandial plasma glucose concentrations at 15 min and 30 min after ingestion HC meal together with 100 mg GSE (5.33 ± 0.41 mmol/L and 5.62 ± 0.47 mmol/L, respectively and 300 mg GSE (5.27 ± 0.29 mmol/L; 5.75 ± 0.44 mmol/L, respectively were significantly lower than that of HC meal (P<0.05. There was statistically significant difference in the 2 h area under the glucose response curve between HC meal and HC meal plus GSE. Conclusions: GSE reduces postprandial plasma glucose in healthy participants. The delayed and attenuated hyperglycemia may have a useful strategy to prevent development of diabetes in the healthy population.

  6. Effect of cinnamon on gastric emptying, arterial stiffness, postprandial lipemia, glycemia, and appetite responses to high-fat breakfast

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Markey, Oonagh

    2011-09-07

    Abstract Background Cinnamon has been shown to delay gastric emptying of a high-carbohydrate meal and reduce postprandial glycemia in healthy adults. However, it is dietary fat which is implicated in the etiology and is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the effect of 3 g cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) on GE, postprandial lipemic and glycemic responses, oxidative stress, arterial stiffness, as well as appetite sensations and subsequent food intake following a high-fat meal. Methods A single-blind randomized crossover study assessed nine healthy, young subjects. GE rate of a high-fat meal supplemented with 3 g cinnamon or placebo was determined using the 13C octanoic acid breath test. Breath, blood samples and subjective appetite ratings were collected in the fasted and during the 360 min postprandial period, followed by an ad libitum buffet meal. Gastric emptying and 1-day fatty acid intake relationships were also examined. Results Cinnamon did not change gastric emptying parameters, postprandial triacylglycerol or glucose concentrations, oxidative stress, arterial function or appetite (p < 0.05). Strong relationships were evident (p < 0.05) between GE Thalf and 1-day palmitoleic acid (r = -0.78), eiconsenoic acid (r = -0.84) and total omega-3 intake (r = -0.72). The ingestion of 3 g cinnamon had no effect on GE, arterial stiffness and oxidative stress following a HF meal. Conclusions 3 g cinnamon did not alter the postprandial response to a high-fat test meal. We find no evidence to support the use of 3 g cinnamon supplementation for the prevention or treatment of metabolic disease. Dietary fatty acid intake requires consideration in future gastrointestinal studies. Trial registration Trial registration number: at http:\\/\\/www.clinicaltrial.gov: NCT01350284

  7. Effect of cinnamon on gastric emptying, arterial stiffness, postprandial lipemia, glycemia, and appetite responses to high-fat breakfast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinick Tom R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cinnamon has been shown to delay gastric emptying of a high-carbohydrate meal and reduce postprandial glycemia in healthy adults. However, it is dietary fat which is implicated in the etiology and is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the effect of 3 g cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum on GE, postprandial lipemic and glycemic responses, oxidative stress, arterial stiffness, as well as appetite sensations and subsequent food intake following a high-fat meal. Methods A single-blind randomized crossover study assessed nine healthy, young subjects. GE rate of a high-fat meal supplemented with 3 g cinnamon or placebo was determined using the 13C octanoic acid breath test. Breath, blood samples and subjective appetite ratings were collected in the fasted and during the 360 min postprandial period, followed by an ad libitum buffet meal. Gastric emptying and 1-day fatty acid intake relationships were also examined. Results Cinnamon did not change gastric emptying parameters, postprandial triacylglycerol or glucose concentrations, oxidative stress, arterial function or appetite (p half and 1-day palmitoleic acid (r = -0.78, eiconsenoic acid (r = -0.84 and total omega-3 intake (r = -0.72. The ingestion of 3 g cinnamon had no effect on GE, arterial stiffness and oxidative stress following a HF meal. Conclusions 3 g cinnamon did not alter the postprandial response to a high-fat test meal. We find no evidence to support the use of 3 g cinnamon supplementation for the prevention or treatment of metabolic disease. Dietary fatty acid intake requires consideration in future gastrointestinal studies. Trial registration Trial registration number: at http://www.clinicaltrial.gov: NCT01350284

  8. Administration of exogenous acylated ghrelin or rikkunshito, an endogenous ghrelin enhancer, improves the decrease in postprandial gastric motility in an acute restraint stress mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Nahata, M; Saegusa, Y.; C. Sadakane; Yamada, C; Nakagawa, K.; Okubo, N.; Ohnishi, S.; Hattori, T.; Sakamoto, N.; Takeda, H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical or psychological stress causes functional disorders in the upper gastrointestinal tract. This study aims to elucidate the ameliorating effect of exogenous acylated ghrelin or rikkunshito, a Kampo medicine which acts as a ghrelin enhancer, on gastric dysfunction during acute restraint stress in mice. Methods Fasted and postprandial motor function of the gastric antrum was wirelessly measured using a strain gauge force transducer and solid gastric emptying was detected in mi...

  9. Association between postprandial symptoms and gastric emptying after sleeve gastrectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgerhart, J.S.; Rutte, P.W. van; Edelbroek, M.A.; Wyndaele, D.N.; Smulders, J.F.; Meeberg, P.C. van de; Siersema, P.D.; Smout, A.J.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is an effective bariatric procedure. However, postprandial symptoms can compromise its beneficial effect. It is not known if a changed gastric emptying and these symptoms are related. This study aimed to assess the association between postprandial sy

  10. Relationship between gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal symptoms and delayed gastric emptying in functional dyspeptic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N Pallotta; P Pezzotti; E Calabrese; F Baccini; E Corazziari

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Delayed gastric emptying and an enlarged fasting gastric antrum are common findings in functional dyspepsia but their relationship with gastrointestinal (GI), and the frequently associated extra-GI symptoms remains unclear.This study evaluated the relationship between GI and extra-GI symptoms, fasting antral volume and delayed gastric emptying in functional dyspepsia.METHODS: In 108 functional dyspeptic patients antral volume and gastric emptying were assessed with ultrasonography (US). Symptoms were assessed with standardized questionnaire. The association of symptoms and fasting antral volume with delayed gastric emptying was estimated with logistic regression analysis.RESULTS: Delayed gastric emptying was detected in 39.8% of the patients. Postprandial drowsiness (AOR 11.25; 95%CI 2.75-45.93), nausea (AOR 3.51; 95%CI 1.19-10.32), fasting antral volume (AOR 1.93; 95%CI 1.22-3.05), were significantly associated with delayed gastric emptying. Symptoms, mainly the extra-GI ones as postprandial drowsiness and nausea, combined with fasting antral volume predicted the modality of gastric emptying with a sensitivity and specificity of 78%.CONCLUSION: In functional dyspeptic patients, (1) an analysis of fasting antral volume and of symptoms can offer valuable indication on the modality of gastric emptying,and (2) it seems appropriate to inquire on postprandial drowsiness that showed the best correlation with delayed gastric emptying.

  11. Postprandial thermogenesis in Bothrops moojeni (Serpentes: Viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR Stuginski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Snakes that can ingest prey that are proportionally large have high metabolic rates during digestion. This great increase in metabolic rate (specific dynamic action - SDA may create a significant augment in the animal's body temperature. The present study investigated postprandial thermogenesis in Bothrops moojeni. Briefly, two groups of snakes were fed meals equivalent to 17 ± 3% and 32 ± 5% of their body weight and were observed for 72 hours, in which thermal images of each snake were taken with an infrared camera in a thermostable environment with a constant air temperature of 30°C. The results showed a significant increase in snake surface temperature, with a thermal peak between 33 and 36 hours after feeding. The meal size had a great impact on the intensity and duration of the thermogenic response. Such increase in temperature appears to be connected with the huge increase in metabolic rates during digestion of relatively large prey by snakes that feed infrequently. The ecologic implication of the thermogenic response is still not well understood; however, it is possible that its presence could affect behaviors associated with the snake digestion, such as postprandial thermophily.

  12. Effect of Cinnamon Tea on Postprandial Glucose Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alexandra Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycaemic control, in particular at postprandial period, has a key role in prevention of different diseases, including diabetes and cardiovascular events. Previous studies suggest that postprandial high blood glucose levels (BGL can lead to an oxidative stress status, which is associated with metabolic alterations. Cinnamon powder has demonstrated a beneficial effect on postprandial glucose homeostasis in animals and human models. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of cinnamon tea (C. burmannii on postprandial capillary blood glucose level on nondiabetic adults. Participants were given oral glucose tolerance test either with or without cinnamon tea in a randomized clinical trial. The data revealed that cinnamon tea administration slightly decreased postprandial BGL. Cinnamon tea ingestion also results in a significantly lower postprandial maximum glucose concentration and variation of maximum glucose concentration (p < 0.05. Chemical analysis showed that cinnamon tea has a high antioxidant capacity, which may be due to its polyphenol content. The present study provides evidence that cinnamon tea, obtained from C. burmannii, could be beneficial for controlling glucose metabolism in nondiabetic adults during postprandial period.

  13. Postprandial ghrelin suppression is exaggerated following major surgery; implications for nutritional recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloom Stephen R

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Meeting patients' nutritional requirements and preventing malnutrition is a challenge following major surgical procedures. The role of ghrelin in nutritional recovery after non-gastrointestinal major surgery is unknown. We used coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG as an example of anticipated good recovery post major surgery. Seventeen patients undergoing CABG (mean ± SEM: 70.1 ± 2.2 yrs, BMI 29.1 ± 1.4 kg/m2, 15 male underwent fasting and postprandial (45 mins after standard test breakfast blood sampling pre-operatively (day 0, post-operatively (day 6 and at follow-up (day 40. Changes in food intake, biochemical and anthropometric markers of nutritional status were recorded. A comparison was made to 17 matched healthy controls (70.6 ± 2.3 yrs, BMI 28.4 ± 1.3 kg/m2. We observed significantly increased post-operative and follow-up fasting ghrelin concentrations compared with pre-operatively (pre-op. 402 ± 42 pmol/L vs post-op. 642 ± 97 pmol/L vs follow-up 603 ± 94 pmol/L (ANOVA p p Our data support the hypothesis that prolonged changes in fasting and postprandial plasma ghrelin concentrations are associated with impaired nutritional recovery after CABG. These findings reinforce the need to investigate ghrelin in other patients groups undergoing major surgery.

  14. The Effect of Ingested Macronutrients on Postprandial Ghrelin Response: A Critical Review of Existing Literature Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysi Koliaki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is a powerful orexigenic gut hormone with growth hormone releasing activity. It plays a pivotal role for long-term energy balance and short-term food intake. It is also recognized as a potent signal for meal initiation. Ghrelin levels rise sharply before feeding onset, and are strongly suppressed by food ingestion. Postprandial ghrelin response is totally macronutrient specific in normal weight subjects, but is rather independent of macronutrient composition in obese. In rodents and lean individuals, isoenergetic meals of different macronutrient content suppress ghrelin to a variable extent. Carbohydrate appears to be the most effective macronutrient for ghrelin suppression, because of its rapid absorption and insulin-secreting effect. Protein induces prolonged ghrelin suppression and is considered to be the most satiating macronutrient. Fat, on the other hand, exhibits rather weak and insufficient ghrelin-suppressing capacity. The principal mediators involved in meal-induced ghrelin regulation are glucose, insulin, gastrointestinal hormones released in the postabsorptive phase, vagal activity, gastric emptying rate, and postprandial alterations in intestinal osmolarity.

  15. The effect of ingested macronutrients on postprandial ghrelin response: a critical review of existing literature data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliaki, Chrysi; Kokkinos, Alexander; Tentolouris, Nicholas; Katsilambros, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Ghrelin is a powerful orexigenic gut hormone with growth hormone releasing activity. It plays a pivotal role for long-term energy balance and short-term food intake. It is also recognized as a potent signal for meal initiation. Ghrelin levels rise sharply before feeding onset, and are strongly suppressed by food ingestion. Postprandial ghrelin response is totally macronutrient specific in normal weight subjects, but is rather independent of macronutrient composition in obese. In rodents and lean individuals, isoenergetic meals of different macronutrient content suppress ghrelin to a variable extent. Carbohydrate appears to be the most effective macronutrient for ghrelin suppression, because of its rapid absorption and insulin-secreting effect. Protein induces prolonged ghrelin suppression and is considered to be the most satiating macronutrient. Fat, on the other hand, exhibits rather weak and insufficient ghrelin-suppressing capacity. The principal mediators involved in meal-induced ghrelin regulation are glucose, insulin, gastrointestinal hormones released in the postabsorptive phase, vagal activity, gastric emptying rate, and postprandial alterations in intestinal osmolarity. PMID:20798765

  16. Black Beans, Fiber, and Antioxidant Capacity Pilot Study: Examination of Whole Foods vs. Functional Components on Postprandial Metabolic, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Reverri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris contain bioactive components with functional properties that may modify cardiovascular risk. The aims of this pilot study were to evaluate the ability of black beans to attenuate postprandial metabolic, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses and determine relative contribution of dietary fiber and antioxidant capacity of beans to the overall effect. In this randomized, controlled, crossover trial, 12 adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS consumed one of three meals (black bean (BB, fiber matched (FM, and antioxidant capacity matched (AM on three occasions that included blood collection before (fasting and five hours postprandially. Insulin was lower after the BB meal, compared to the FM or AM meals (p < 0.0001. A significant meal × time interaction was observed for plasma antioxidant capacity (p = 0.002 revealing differences over time: AM > BB > FM. Oxidized LDL (oxLDL was not different by meal, although a trend for declining oxLDL was observed after the BB and AM meals at five hours compared to the FM meal. Triglycerides and interleukin-6 (IL-6 increased in response to meals (p < 0.0001. Inclusion of black beans with a typical Western-style meal attenuates postprandial insulin and moderately enhances postprandial antioxidant endpoints in adults with MetS, which could only be partly explained by fiber content and properties of antioxidant capacity.

  17. Impact of postprandial glucose control on diabetes-related complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsbad, Sten

    2016-01-01

    Conflicting findings in the literature and lack of long-term definitive outcome studies have led to difficulty in drawing conclusions about the role of postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetes and its complications. Recent scientific publications support the role of postprandial glucose (PPG) as a ...... complications is unclarified and is one of the remaining unanswered questions in diabetes. Nevertheless, current evidence supports PPG control as an important strategy to consider in the comprehensive management plan of individuals with diabetes.......Conflicting findings in the literature and lack of long-term definitive outcome studies have led to difficulty in drawing conclusions about the role of postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetes and its complications. Recent scientific publications support the role of postprandial glucose (PPG......) as a key contributor to overall glucose control and a predictor of microvascular and macrovascular events. However, the need remains for definitive evidence to support the precise relationship between PPG excursions and the development and progression of cardiovascular complications of diabetes. Drawing...

  18. Black Beans, Fiber, and Antioxidant Capacity Pilot Study: Examination of Whole Foods vs. Functional Components on Postprandial Metabolic, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Reverri, Elizabeth J.; Randolph, Jody M.; Steinberg, Francene M; C. Tissa Kappagoda; Indika Edirisinghe; Burton-Freeman, Britt M.

    2015-01-01

    Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) contain bioactive components with functional properties that may modify cardiovascular risk. The aims of this pilot study were to evaluate the ability of black beans to attenuate postprandial metabolic, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses and determine relative contribution of dietary fiber and antioxidant capacity of beans to the overall effect. In this randomized, controlled, crossover trial, 12 adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS) consumed one of three ...

  19. Efficacy and safety of acarbose in the treatment of elderly patients with postprandial hypotension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN Zai-jin; ZHOU Bai-yu

    2008-01-01

    Background Postprandial hypotension (PPH) occurs frequently in elderly people and may lead to syncope, falls, dizziness, weakness, angina pectoris, and stroke. Some studies suggest that the magnitude of the postprandial fall in blood pressure (BP) is influenced by the rate at which glucose enters the small intestine. We hypothesized that acarbose (a-glucosidase inhibitor), a hypoglycemic agent that decreases the rate of glucose absorption in the small intestine, would attenuate PPH in the elderly, and would be safe in the treatment.Methods Forty-three elderly in-patients with PPH were recruited. All of them were in relatively stable conditions. They had semi-liquid standard meals without and with acarbose for the two following days: screening day and intervention day. Blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were recorded at baseline and every 15 minutes for 120 minutes using a non-invasive ambulatory blood pressure monitoring system during the study, and ejection fraction (EF) and fractional shortening (FS) were measured by two dimensional echocardiography.Results Compared with the screening day, the falls in systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure (SBP, DBP, MAP) (all P<0.05) were significantly attenuated after taking acarbose during breakfast, so were MAP (P<0.05) during lunch, DBP (P<0.05) and MAP (P<0.05) during supper. The change of HR was not statistically significant after taking acarbose in three meals. EF and FS were positively correlated with the relief rate. The effective power was 63%, and the incidence of adverse drug reaction (ADR) was 9%. Conclusion Acarbose is effective and safe in the treatment of elderly patients with PPH.

  20. AT1 Receptor Gene Polymorphisms in relation to Postprandial Lipemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Klop

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent data suggest that the renin-angiotensin system may be involved in triglyceride (TG metabolism. We explored the effect of the common A1166C and C573T polymorphisms of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R gene on postprandial lipemia. Methods. Eighty-two subjects measured daytime capillary TG, and postprandial lipemia was estimated as incremental area under the TG curve. The C573T and A1166C polymorphisms of the AT1R gene were determined. Results. Postprandial lipemia was significantly higher in homozygous carriers of the 1166-C allele (9.39±8.36 mM*h/L compared to homozygous carriers of the 1166-A allele (2.02±6.20 mM*h/L (P<0.05. Postprandial lipemia was similar for the different C573T polymorphisms. Conclusion. The 1166-C allele of the AT1R gene seems to be associated with increased postprandial lipemia. These data confirm the earlier described relationships between the renin-angiotensin axis and triglyceride metabolism.

  1. Gastrointestinal events with clopidogrel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grove, Erik Lerkevang; Würtz, Morten; Schwarz, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    Clopidogrel prevents cardiovascular events, but has been linked with adverse gastrointestinal (GI) complications, particularly bleeding events.......Clopidogrel prevents cardiovascular events, but has been linked with adverse gastrointestinal (GI) complications, particularly bleeding events....

  2. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sonja; Skrovanek; Katherine; DiGuilio; Robert; Bailey; William; Huntington; Ryan; Urbas; Barani; Mayilvaganan; Giancarlo; Mercogliano; James; M; Mullin

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases.

  3. Relationships between gastric accommodation and gastrointestinal sensations in healthy volunteers. A study using the barostat technique and two- and three-dimensional ultrasonography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mundt, MW; Hausken, T; Smout, AJPM; Samsom, M

    2005-01-01

    The origin of postprandial gastrointestinal sensations and their relation to gastric accommodation remain unclear. Our aim was to investigate the relation between antral and fundal accommodation and sensations. (A) In eight healthy volunteers fundus accommodation was measured using a barostat after

  4. Early growth and postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; Kajantie, Eero; Valsta, Liisa M;

    2013-01-01

    Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that slow prenatal or postnatal growth is associated with an increased risk of CVD and other metabolic diseases. However, little is known whether early growth affects postprandial metabolism and, especially, the appetite regulatory hormone system. Therefore......, we investigated the impact of early growth on postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses to two high-protein and two high-fat content meals. Healthy, 65-75-year-old volunteers from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study were recruited; twelve with a slow increase in BMI during the first year of life......, early growth may have a role in programming appetite regulatory hormone secretion in later life. Slow early growth is also associated with higher postprandial insulin and TAG responses but not with incretin levels....

  5. Postprandial gut hormone responses and glucose metabolism in cholecystectomized patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, David P; Hare, Kristine J; Martens, Pernille;

    2013-01-01

    Preclinical studies suggest that gallbladder emptying, via bile acid-induced activation of the G protein-coupled receptor TGR5 in intestinal L cells, may play a significant role in the secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and, hence, postprandial glucose homeostasis. We...... examined the secretion of gut hormones in cholecystectomized subjects to test the hypothesis that gallbladder emptying potentiates postprandial release of GLP-1. Ten cholecystectomized subjects and 10 healthy, age-, gender-, and body mass index-matched control subjects received a standardized fat......-rich liquid meal (2,200 kJ). Basal and postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), cholecystokinin (CCK), and gastrin were measured. Furthermore, gastric emptying and duodenal and serum...

  6. Postprandial gallbladder emptying in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, David P; Rehfeld, Jens F; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2014-01-01

    -induced GLP1 secretion combined with the findings of reduced postprandial gallbladder emptying in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) led us to speculate whether reduced postprandial GLP1 responses in some patients with T2DM arise as a consequence of diabetic gallbladder dysmotility. DESIGN AND METHODS......, gallbladder emptying and gastric emptying were examined. RESULTS: Gallbladder emptying increased with increasing meal fat content, but no intergroup differences were demonstrated. GIP and GLP1 responses were comparable among the groups with GIP levels being higher following high-fat meals, whereas GLP1...

  7. Postprandial gastro-oesophageal reflux demonstrated by radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation to detect food-stimulated gastro-oesophageal (GE) reflux was carried out in 54 consecutive fasting patients, 35 of whom experienced reflux while 19 did not. All patients then received a standard meal (566 kcal), and the investigation was repeated 1 h afterward. Of the 35 with GE reflux in the fasting state, 33 also had GE reflux in the postprandial state, and 17 of the 19 patients with no GE reflux while fasting also had none in the postprandial state. It is concluded that the radiological method can identify most patients in whom food-stimulated GE reflux could be of clinical significance. (orig.)

  8. Gastrointestinal symptoms and disorders in patients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yasuhiro; Fukudo, Shin

    2015-10-01

    The two most clinically serious eating disorders are anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. A drive for thinness and fear of fatness lead patients with anorexia nervosa either to restrict their food intake or binge-eat then purge (through self-induced vomiting and/or laxative abuse) to reduce their body weight to much less than the normal range. A drive for thinness leads patients with bulimia nervosa to binge-eat then purge but fail to reduce their body weight. Patients with eating disorders present with various gastrointestinal disturbances such as postprandial fullness, abdominal distention, abdominal pain, gastric distension, and early satiety, with altered esophageal motility sometimes seen in patients with anorexia nervosa. Other common conditions noted in patients with eating disorders are postprandial distress syndrome, superior mesenteric artery syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, and functional constipation. Binge eating may cause acute gastric dilatation and gastric perforation, while self-induced vomiting can lead to dental caries, salivary gland enlargement, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and electrolyte imbalance. Laxative abuse can cause dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. Vomiting and/or laxative abuse can cause hypokalemia, which carries a risk of fatal arrhythmia. Careful assessment and intensive treatment of patients with eating disorders is needed because gastrointestinal symptoms/disorders can progress to a critical condition. PMID:26499370

  9. Postprandial triglyceride metabolism in elderly men with subnormal testosterone levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ingvild Agledahl; John-Bjarne Hansen; Johan Svartberg

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the level of postprandial triglycerides (TG)s in elderly men with subnormal testosterone level (≤ 11.0 nmol/L) compared to men with normal testosterone level (> 11.0 nmol/L). Methods: Thirthy-seven men with subnormal and 41 men with normal testosterone aged 60-80 years underwent an oral fat load and TG levels were measured fasting and 2, 4, 6 and 8 h afterwards. Results: Men with subnormal testosterone had significantly higher body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (P < 0.001) than men with normal testosterone. They had signifi- cantly higher area under curve (AUC, P = 0.037), incremental area under curve (AUCi, P = 0.035) and TG response (TGR, P = 0.014) for serum-TG and significantly higher AUC (P=0.023), AUCi (P=0.023) and TGR (P = 0.014) for chylomicron-TG compared to men with normal testosterone level. Adjusting for waist circumference erased the significant differences between the groups in postprandial triglyceridemia. Conclusion: Men with subnormal test- osterone have increased postprandial TG levels indicating an impaired metabolism of postprandial TG-rich lipoproteins (TRL), which may add to an unfavourable lipid profile and promote development of atherosclerosis. (Asian JAndrol 2008 Jul; 10: 542-549)

  10. Low fasting low high-density lipoprotein and postprandial lipemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorodila Konstandina

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and disturbed postprandial lipemia are associated with coronary heart disease. In the present study, we evaluated the variation of triglyceride (TG postprandially in respect to serum HDL cholesterol levels. Results Fifty two Greek men were divided into 2 main groups: a the low HDL group (HDL p = 0.002. The low HDL group had significantly higher TG at 4, 6 and 8 h postprandially compared to the controls (p = 0.006, p = 0.002, and p p = 0.017 compared to the matched-control group. ROC analysis showed that fasting TG ≥ 121 mg/dl have 100% sensitivity and 81% specificity for an abnormal TG response (auc = 0.962, p Conclusions The delayed TG clearance postprandially seems to result in low HDL cholesterol even in subjects with low fasting TG. The fasting TG > 121 mg/dl are predictable for abnormal response to fatty meal.

  11. Postprandial fate of amino acids: adaptation to molecular forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolles, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    During the postprandial phase dietary proteins are digested to peptides and amino acids and absorbed. Once absorbed the peptides are further hydrolyzed to amino acids and transported to the tissues. These amino acids are largely incorporated into body proteins. Not all amino acids are, however, inco

  12. High-Intensity Interval Training for Improving Postprandial Hyperglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Jonathan P.; Francois, Monique E.

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has garnered attention in recent years as a time-efficient exercise option for improving cardiovascular and metabolic health. New research demonstrates that HIIT may be particularly effective for improving postprandial hyperglycemia in individuals with, or at risk for, type 2 diabetes (T2D). These findings…

  13. Gastrointestinal hormone abnormalities and G and D cells in functional dyspepsiapatients with gastric dysmotility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Rong He; Yu-Gang Song; Fa-Chao Zhi

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between gastric dysmotility,gastrointestinal hormone abnormalities, and neuroendocrine cells in gastrointestinal mucosa in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD).METHODS: Gastric emptying was assessed with solid radiopaque markers in 54 FD patients, and the patients were divided into two groups according to the results, one with delayed gastric emptying and the other with normal gastric emptying. Seventeen healthy volunteers acted as normal controls. Fasting and postprandial plasma levels and gastroduodenal mucosal levels of gastrointestinal hormones gastrin, somatostatin (SS) and neurotensin (NT)were measured by radioimmunoassay in all the subjects.G cells (gastrin-producing cells) and D cells (SS-producing cells) in gastric antral mucosa were immunostained with rabbit anti-gastrin polyclonal antibody and rabbit anti-SS polyclonal antibody, respectively, and analyzed quantitatively by computerized image analysis.RESULTS: The postprandial plasma gastrin levels, the fasting and postprandial plasma levels and the gastric and duodenal mucosal levels of NT were significantly higher in the FD patients with delayed gastric emptying than in those with normal gastric emptying and normal controls. The number and gray value of G and D cells and the G cell/D cell number ratio did not differ significantly between normal controls and the FD patients with or without delayed gastric emptying.CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the abnormalities of gastrin and NT may play a role in the pathophysiology of gastric dysmotility in FD patients, and the abnormality of postprandial plasma gastrin levels in FD patients with delayed gastric emptying is not related to the changes both in the number and gray value of G cells and in the G cell/D cell number ratio in gastric antral mucosa.

  14. Gastrointestinal hormones regulating appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhri, Owais; Small, Caroline; Bloom, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The role of gastrointestinal hormones in the regulation of appetite is reviewed. The gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body. Gut hormones function to optimize the process of digestion and absorption of nutrients by the gut. In this capacity, their local effects on gastrointestinal motility and secretion have been well characterized. By altering the rate at which nutrients are delivered to compartments of the alimentary canal, the control of food intake arguably cons...

  15. Postprandial regulation of hepatic microRNAs predicted to target the insulin pathway in rainbow trout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A Mennigen

    Full Text Available Rainbow trout are carnivorous fish and poor metabolizers of carbohydrates, which established this species as a model organism to study the comparative physiology of insulin. Following the recent characterisation of key roles of several miRNAs in the insulin action on hepatic intermediary metabolism in mammalian models, we investigated the hypothesis that hepatic miRNA expression is postprandially regulated in the rainbow trout and temporally coordinated in the context of insulin-mediated regulation of metabolic gene expression in the liver. To address this hypothesis, we used a time-course experiment in which rainbow trout were fed a commercial diet after short-term fasting. We investigated hepatic miRNA expression, activation of the insulin pathway, and insulin regulated metabolic target genes at several time points. Several miRNAs which negatively regulate hepatic insulin signaling in mammalian model organisms were transiently increased 4 h after the meal, consistent with a potential role in acute postprandial negative feed-back regulation of the insulin pathway and attenuation of gluconeogenic gene expression. We equally observed a transient increase in omy- miRNA-33 and omy-miRNA-122b 4 h after feeding, whose homologues have potent lipogenic roles in the liver of mammalian model systems. A concurrent increase in the activity of the hepatic insulin signaling pathway and the expression of lipogenic genes (srebp1c, fas, acly was equally observed, while lipolytic gene expression (cpt1a and cpt1b decreased significantly 4 h after the meal. This suggests lipogenic roles of omy-miRNA-33 and omy-miRNA-122b may be conserved between rainbow trout and mammals and that these miRNAs may furthermore contribute to acute postprandial regulation of de novo hepatic lipid synthesis in rainbow trout. These findings provide a framework for future research of miRNA regulation of hepatic metabolism in trout and will help to further elucidate the metabolic

  16. Primary gastrointestinal lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prasanna Ghimire; Guang-Yao Wu; Ling Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract is the most common extranodal site involved by lymphoma with the majority being non-Hodgkin type. Although lymphoma can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract, the most frequent sites in order of its occurrence are the stomach followed by small intestine and ileocecal region. Gastrointestinal tract lymphoma is usually secondary to the widespread nodal diseases and primary gastrointestinal tract lymphoma is relatively rare. Gastrointestinal lymphomas are usually not clinically specific and indistinguishable from other benign and malignant conditions. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is the most common pathological type of gastrointestinal lymphoma in essentially all sites of the gastrointestinal tract, although recently the frequency of other forms has also increased in certain regions of the world. Although some radiological features such as bulky lymph nodes and maintenance of fat plane are more suggestive of lymphoma, they are not specific,thus mandating histopathological analysis for its definitive diagnosis. There has been a tremendous leap in the diagnosis, staging and management of gastrointestinal lymphoma in the last two decades attributed to a better insight into its etiology and molecular aspect as well as the knowledge about its critical signaling pathways.

  17. Effect of hypoxia on specific dynamic action and postprandial cardiovascular physiology in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, Erika J; Farrell, Anthony P

    2014-05-01

    Fish routinely encounter hypoxic environments, which may have detrimental effects on digestion and performance. The present study measured oxygen consumption (MO2), gastrointestinal blood flow (GBF), cardiac output (Vb) and heart rate (f(H)) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss at 10°C-11.5°C while exposed to a 1.5-h step-wise hypoxia treatment (80%, 60% and 40% saturation=16.7, 12.6 and 8.4 kPa, respectively), which began 4 h after being fed 1% of their body mass. GBF and f(H) significantly decreased by 41 and 25%-29%, respectively, at the most severe hypoxia step (40% saturation), while MO2 and Vb were maintained throughout the entire hypoxia exposure. Thus, GBF and f(H) were more sensitive to hypoxia than MO2 or Vb in digesting rainbow trout. Subsequent to the hypoxic exposure, the fish were returned to normoxia and monitored for a total of 50h after feeding. While the magnitude of SDA was unaffected, peak postprandial MO2 was reduced by 17%, and the duration of specific dynamic action (SDA) was prolonged by 6h in hypoxia-treated fish when compared to control fish. In conclusion, digestive performance was compromised both during and after the hypoxic exposure, which could lead to negative effects on growth.

  18. Postprandial changes in the exhalation of radon from the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exhalation of radon originally inhaled from the home environment and dissolved in body fluids and tissues has been studied serially for periods of several hours in six persons. The observation of a pronounced postprandial peak in the rate of exhalation of radon shows that the similar peak observed in the exhalation of radon produced from radium in vivo results from the flushing of a reservoir in soft tissue and not from a change in the fraction lost from bone

  19. Postprandial fate of amino acids: adaptation to molecular forms

    OpenAIRE

    Nolles, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    During the postprandial phase dietary proteins are digested to peptides and amino acids and absorbed. Once absorbed the peptides are further hydrolyzed to amino acids and transported to the tissues. These amino acids are largely incorporated into body proteins. Not all amino acids are, however, incorporated into body proteins part of these amino acids are oxidized, and can, thus, no longer be utilized to support protein metabolism in the body. The objective of this thesis was to increase the ...

  20. The effect of α- or β-casein addition to waxy maize starch on postprandial levels of glucose, insulin, and incretin hormones in pigs as a model for humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony P. Kett

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Starch is a main source of glucose and energy in the human diet. The extent to which it is digested in the gastrointestinal tract plays a major role in variations in postprandial blood glucose levels. Interactions with other biopolymers, such as dairy proteins, during processing can influence both the duration and extent of this postprandial surge.Objective:To evaluate the effect of the addition of bovine α- or β-casein to waxy maize starch on changes in postprandial blood glucose, insulin, and incretin hormones [glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1] in 30 kg pigs used as an animal model for humans.Design:Gelatinised starch, Results:starch gelatinised with α-casein, and starch gelatinised with β-casein were orally administered to trained pigs (n = 8 at a level of 60 g of available carbohydrate. Pre- and postprandial glucose measurements were taken every 15 min for the first hour and every 30 min thereafter up to 180 min. Insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 levels were measured in plasma samples up to 90 min postprandial.Starch gelatinised with α-casein had a significantly (p < 0.05 lower peak viscosity on pasting and resulted in significantly lower glucose release at 15, 30, and 90 min postprandial compared to starch gelatinised with β-casein. During the first 45-min postprandial, the area under the glucose curve (AUC for starch gelatinised with α-casein was significantly (p < 0.05 lower than that for starch gelatinised with β-casein. There was also a significant (p < 0.05 difference at T30 in GIP levels in response to the control compared to starch gelatinised with α- or β-casein. Significant (p < 0.05 increases in several free amino acid concentrations were observed on ingestion of either α- or β-casein gelatinised with starch at 30 and 90 min postprandial compared to starch alone. In addition, plasma levels of six individual amino acids were increased on ingestion of starch

  1. Gynura procumbens Extract Alleviates Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Diabetic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung-In; Park, Mi Hwa; Han, Ji-Sook

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effect of Gynura procumbens extract against carbohydrate digesting enzymes and its ability to ameliorate postprandial hyperglycemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. G. procumbens extract showed prominent α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory effects. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of G. procumbens extract against α-glucosidase and α-amylase was 0.092±0.018 and 0.084±0.027 mg/mL, respectively, suggesting that the α-amylase inhibition activity of the G. procumbens extract was more effective than that of the positive control, acarbose (IC50=0.164 mg/mL). The increase in postprandial blood glucose levels was more significantly alleviated in the G. procumbens extract group than in the control group of STZ-induced diabetic mice. Moreover, the area under the curve significantly decreased with G. procumbens extract administration in STZ-induced diabetic mice. These results suggest that G. procumbens extract may help alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia by inhibiting carbohydrate digesting enzymes. PMID:27752493

  2. Does fasting or postprandial state affect thyroid function testing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Nair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels vary with the time of the day and probably in relation to food. In this study, we addressed the question of whether a fasting or non-fasting sample would make a clinically significant difference in the interpretation of thyroid function tests. Materials and Methods: Fifty seven adult ambulatory patients were selected from our laboratory database and were divided into Group A [Normal free thyroxine (T4 and TSH], Group B (subclinical hypothyroid with increased TSH and normal free T4 and Group C (overt hypothyroid with low free T4 and high TSH. Thyroid functions (free T4 and TSH were done in fasting state and 2 hours postprandially. Results: TSH was suppressed in all subjects after food irrespective of the fasting levels. Free T4 values did not change significantly. This resulted in reclassification of 15 out of 20 (75% subjects as subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH based on fasting values whose TSH values were otherwise within range in the postprandial sample. This may have an impact on the diagnosis and management of hypothyroidism especially where even marginal changes in TSH may be clinically relevant as in SCH and in pregnancy. Conclusion: TSH levels showed a statistically significant decline postprandially in comparison to fasting values. This may have clinical implications in the diagnosis and management of hypothyroidism, especially SCH.

  3. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by reduced postprandial adiponectin response: a possible link with diabetic postprandial dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annuzzi, Giovanni; Bozzetto, Lutgarda; Patti, Lidia; Santangelo, Carmela; Giacco, Rosalba; Di Marino, Lucrezia; De Natale, Claudia; Masella, Roberta; Riccardi, Gabriele; Rivellese, Angela A

    2010-04-01

    We investigated postprandial plasma and adipose tissue (AT) adiponectin changes in relation to obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Fasting and 6 hours after a standard fat-rich meal blood samples (adiponectin, glucose, insulin, lipids) and needle biopsies of abdominal subcutaneous AT (adiponectin messenger RNA, lipoprotein lipase activity) were taken in 10 obese diabetic (OD), 11 obese nondiabetic (OND), and 11 normal-weight control (C) men. The OD and OND subjects had similar adiposity (body mass index, waist circumference) and insulin resistance (hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp). Fasting plasma adiponectin and AT gene expression were not significantly different between groups. After meal, plasma adiponectin decreased in OD but significantly increased in OND and C, the changes being significantly different between groups (analysis of variance, P = .01); adiponectin messenger RNA decreased in OD (-0.27 +/- 0.25 AU, P = .01) but was unchanged in OND (P = .59) and C (P = .45). After meal, plasma adiponectin correlated inversely with triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations in chylomicrons and large very low-density lipoprotein, and directly with AT lipoprotein lipase activity (P < .05 for all). Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with lower postprandial plasma levels and AT gene expression of adiponectin independently of degree of adiposity and whole-body insulin sensitivity. In patients with diabetes, this may exacerbate postprandial abnormalities of lipoprotein metabolism. PMID:19922965

  4. Increased Postprandial Response of Glucagon-Like Peptide-2 in Patients with Chronic Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornum, Mads; Pedersen, Jan F; Larsen, Steen;

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a nutrient-released gastrointestinal (GI) hormone that acts as an intestinal growth factor, and exogenous GLP-2 has been shown to increase superior mesenteric artery (SMA) blood flow. We aimed to investigate how assimilation of nutrients affects...... to delivery of a larger nutrient load to the distal part of the small intestine, where GLP-2 secreting L-cells are abundant - and that this hypersecretion of GLP-2 is associated with a higher SMA flow. and IAP.......Background/Aims: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a nutrient-released gastrointestinal (GI) hormone that acts as an intestinal growth factor, and exogenous GLP-2 has been shown to increase superior mesenteric artery (SMA) blood flow. We aimed to investigate how assimilation of nutrients affects...... min, p = 0.027). No difference was observed with regard to GIP. GLP-2, but not GIP, responses correlated significantly with postprandial SMA flow. Conclusion: These results suggest that delayed assimilation of nutrients in patients with CP and PEI increases the secretion of GLP-2 - possibly due...

  5. Endoscopic Gastrointestinal Laser Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Buchi, Kenneth N.

    1985-01-01

    The development of flexible fibers for the delivery of laser energy led to the first endoscopic laser applications in humans in the early 1970s. Since that time, much has been learned about applications throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The risks appear to be minimal. The coagulative effect of laser energy is used to treat gastrointestinal hemorrhage and small, benign mucosal lesions. The ablative effect of the Nd:YAG laser on tissue is used for palliative therapy for malignant gastroint...

  6. Matched regulation of gastrointestinal performance in the Burmese python, Python molurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Christian L; Secor, Stephen M

    2008-04-01

    In Burmese pythons fasting and feeding cause dramatic regulation of gastric acid production and intestinal nutrient uptake. Predictably, other components of their gastrointestinal tract are similarly regulated with each meal. We therefore assessed the matched regulation of gastrointestinal performance by comparing the postprandial activities and capacities of gastric (pepsin), pancreatic (amylase and trypsin) and intestinal (aminopeptidase-N and maltase) enzymes, and intestinal nutrient uptake. Tissue samples were collected from pythons fasted and at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 10 and 15 days following their consumption of rodent meals equaling 25% of snake body mass. With feeding, pythons experience no significant change in stomach mass, whereas both the pancreas and small intestine doubled in mass. Feeding also triggered a depletion of gastric mucosal pepsinogen, a respective 5.7- and 20-fold increase in the peak activities of pancreatic trypsin and amylase, and a respective 2.3- and 5.5-fold increase in the peak activities of intestinal maltase and aminopeptidase-N. Enzyme activities peaked between 2 and 4 days postfeeding and returned to fasting levels by day 10. Independent of digestive stage, python intestine exhibited a proximal to distal decline in enzyme activity. For both sugars and proteins, intestinal capacities for enzyme activity were significantly correlated with nutrient uptake capacities. The concomitant postprandial upregulation of tissue morphology, intestinal nutrient transport rates and enzyme activities illustrate, for the python, the matched regulation of their gastrointestinal performance with each meal.

  7. Chlorogenic acid differentially affects postprandial glucose and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Jasmine M; Eller, Lindsay K; Reimer, Raylene A; Hittel, Dustin S; Shearer, Jane

    2011-10-01

    Regular coffee consumption significantly lowers the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Coffee contains thousands of compounds; however, the specific component(s) responsible for this reduced risk is unknown. Chlorogenic acids (CGA) found in brewed coffee inhibit intestinal glucose uptake in vitro. The objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which CGA acts to mediate blood glucose response in vivo. Conscious, unrestrained, male Sprague-Dawley rats were chronically catheterized and gavage-fed a standardized meal (59% carbohydrate, 25% fat, 12% protein), administered with or without CGA (120 mg·kg(-1)), in a randomized crossover design separated by a 3-day washout period. Acetaminophen was co-administered to assess the effects of CGA on gastric emptying. The incretins glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) were measured. GLP-1 response in the presence of glucose and CGA was further examined, using the human colon cell line NCI-H716. Total area under the curve (AUC) for blood glucose was significantly attenuated in rats fed CGA (p gastric emptying was not altered. Plasma GIP response was blunted in rats fed CGA, with a lower peak concentration and AUC up to 180 min postprandially (p alterations seen in GIP concentrations. Given the widespread consumption and availability of coffee, CGA may be a viable prevention tool for T2D. PMID:21977912

  8. Postprandial transduodenal bolus transport is regulated by complex peristaltic sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan Nam Nguyen; Ron Winograd; Gerson Ricardo Souza Domingues; Frank Lammert

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the relationship between the patterns of postprandial peristalsis and transduodenal bolus transport in healthy subjects.METHODS: Synchronous recording of chyme transport and peristaltic activity was performed during the fasting state and after administration of a test meal using a special catheter device with cascade configuration of impedance electrodes and solid-state pressure transducers. The catheter was placed into the duodenum,where the first channel was located in the first part of the duodenum and the last channel at the duodenojejunal junction. After identification of previously defined chyme transport patterns the associated peristaltic patterns were analyzed.RESULTS: The interdigestive phase 3 complex was reliably recorded with both techniques. Of 497 analyzed impedance bolus transport events, 110 (22%) were short-spanned propulsive, 307 (62%) long-spanned propulsive, 70 (14%)complex propulsive, and 10 (2%) retrograde transport.Short-spanned chyme transports were predominantly associated with stationary or propagated contractions propagated over short distance. Long-spanned and complex chyme transports were predominantly associated with propulsive peristaltic patterns, which were frequently complex and comprised multiple contractions. Propagated double wave contraction, propagated contraction with a clustered contraction, and propagated cluster of contractions have been identified to be an integralted part of a peristaltic sequence in human duodenum.CONCLUSION: Combined impedancometry andmanometry improves the analysis of the peristaltic patterns that are associated with postprandial transduodenal chyme transport. Postprandial transduodenal bolus transport is regulated by propulsive peristaltic patterns, which are frequently complex but well organized. This finding should be taken into consideration in the analysis of intestinal motility studies.

  9. Impaired postprandial lipemic response in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saland, Jeffrey M; Satlin, Lisa M; Zalsos-Johnson, Jeanna; Cremers, Serge; Ginsberg, Henry N

    2016-07-01

    Dyslipidemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is usually characterized by hypertriglyceridemia. Here we studied postprandial lipemia in children and young adults to determine whether an increasing degree of CKD results in a proportional increase in triglyceride and chylomicron concentration. Secondary goals were to determine whether subnephrotic proteinuria, apolipoprotein (apo)C-III and insulin resistance modify the CKD effect. Eighteen fasting participants (mean age of 15 years, mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 50 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) underwent a postprandial challenge with a high fat milkshake. Triglycerides, apoB-48, insulin, and other markers were measured before and 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours afterward. Response was assessed by the incremental area under the curve of triglycerides and of apoB-48. The primary hypothesis was tested by correlation to estimated GFR. Significantly, for every 10 ml/min/1.73 m(2) lower estimated GFR, the incremental area under the curve of triglycerides was 17% greater while that of apoB-48 was 16% greater. Univariate analyses also showed that the incremental area under the curve of triglycerides and apoB-48 were significantly associated with subnephrotic proteinuria, apoC-III, and insulin resistance. In multivariate analysis, CKD and insulin resistance were independently associated with increased area under the curve and were each linked to increased levels of apoC-III. Thus, postprandial triglyceride and chylomicron plasma excursions are increased in direct proportion to the degree of CKD. Independent effects are associated with subclinical insulin resistance and increased apoC-III is linked to both CKD and insulin resistance. PMID:27162092

  10. Effects of different fractions of whey protein on postprandial lipid and hormone responses in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, L.S.; Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Hartvigsen, Merete;

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives:Exacerbated postprandial lipid responses are associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. Dietary proteins influence postprandial lipemia differently, and whey protein has a preferential lipid-lowering effect. We compared the effects of different whey protein fractions ...

  11. Postprandial gall-bladder emptying in patients with gall stones.

    OpenAIRE

    Maudgal, D P; Kupfer, R M; Zentler-Munro, P L; Northfield, T. C.

    1980-01-01

    Gall-bladder emptying in response to a standard meal was assessed in 34 patients with radiolucent gall stones and 34 matched controls. Percentage gall-bladder emptying, derived from volume measurements made on standardised oral cholecystography, was significantly higher at 15 minutes in the patients than the controls (mean +/- SE of mean 38.0 +/- 3.7% v 28.0 +/- 3.8%). This difference was maintained at 30 and 60 minutes. It is concluded that postprandial gall-bladder emptying is increased in ...

  12. Unusual Giant Adrenal Myelolipoma with Chronic Mild Postprandial Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk Soylemez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal myelolipomas are rare, small, benign, non-functioning tumors, which must be histopathologically differentiated from other tumors such as lipomas or liposarcomas. They are usually identified incidentally during autopsy, imaging or laparotomy. Occasionally, they may present acutely due to complications such as abdominal pain from retroperitoneal bleeding or systemic symptoms of infection. In differantial diagnosis, Magnetic Resonance Imaging may be useful to show characterize of tissue and relationship with other organs. We report a 66-year-old man with a giant adrenal myelolipoma clinically presenting with chronic mild postprandial pain with a brief review of the literature.

  13. Differential effects of proteins and carbohydrates on postprandial blood pressure-related responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen-Beekman, K.F.M.; Dopheide, J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Brink, E.J.; Leeuw, de P.W.; Serroyen, J.; Baak, van M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Diet composition may affect blood pressure (BP), but the mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the present study was to compare postprandial BP-related responses to the ingestion of pea protein, milk protein and egg-white protein. In addition, postprandial BP-related responses to the ingestion of malto

  14. Differential Effects of Rosiglitazone and Metformin on Postprandial Lipemia in Patients With HIV-Lipodystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, Jeroen P. H.; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.; de Koning, Eelco J. P.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje; Rabelink, Ton J.; Cabezas, Manuel Castro

    2011-01-01

    Objective-To compare the effects of rosiglitazone (8 mg/d, n = 19) and metformin (2 g/d, n = 18) on postprandial lipemia in patients with HIV-lipodystrophy. Methods and Results-Lipodystrophy in HIV is associated with insulin resistance and disturbed postprandial triglyceride and free fatty acid (FFA

  15. Differential effects of rosiglitazone and metformin on postprandial lipemia in patients with HIV-lipodystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, J.P.; Hoepelman, A.I.; de Koning, E.; Dallinga-Thie, G.; Rabelink, T.J.; Cabezas, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of rosiglitazone (8 mg/d, n=19) and metformin (2 g/d, n=18) on postprandial lipemia in patients with HIV-lipodystrophy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Lipodystrophy in HIV is associated with insulin resistance and disturbed postprandial triglyceride and free fatty acid (FFA)

  16. Sustained postprandial decrease in plasma levels of LDL cholesterol in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, S.S.; Petersen, Martin; Frandsen, M.;

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is an independent and modifiable risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Postprandial lipid metabolism has been linked to CVD, but little is known about the postprandial LDL-C profile in patients with type-2 diabetes (T2D...

  17. Effect of low glycemic index food and postprandial exercise on blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity

    OpenAIRE

    糟谷, 憲明; 太田, 昌一郎; 髙波, 嘉一; Kawai, Yukari; 井上, 裕; 村田, 勇; 金本, 郁男

    2015-01-01

    Low glycemic index (GI) food and postprandial exercise are non?drug therapies for improving postprandial hyperglycemia. The present randomized, crossover study investigated the effect of low GI food combined with postprandial exercise on postprandial blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity. A total of 13 healthy subjects were each used in four experiments: i) rice only (control), ii) salad prior to rice (LGI), iii) exercise following rice (EX) and iv) salad prior to ric...

  18. Effect of low glycemic index food and postprandial exercise on blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity

    OpenAIRE

    KASUYA, NORIAKI; Ohta, Shoichiro; TAKANAMI, YOSHIKAZU; Kawai, Yukari; Inoue, Yutaka; MURATA, ISAMU; Kanamoto, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    Low glycemic index (GI) food and postprandial exercise are non-drug therapies for improving postprandial hyperglycemia. The present randomized, crossover study investigated the effect of low GI food combined with postprandial exercise on postprandial blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity. A total of 13 healthy subjects were each used in four experiments: i) rice only (control), ii) salad prior to rice (LGI), iii) exercise following rice (EX) and iv) salad prior to ric...

  19. Effects of hypoxic exposure during feeding on SDA and postprandial cardiovascular physiology in the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Jane W; Axelsson, Michael; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Seth, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Some Atlantic cod in the Bornholm Basin undertake vertical foraging migrations into severely hypoxic bottom water. Hypoxic conditions can reduce the postprandial increase in gastrointestinal blood flow (GBF). This could subsequently postpone or reduce the postprandial increase in oxygen consumption (MO(2)), i.e. the SDA, leading to a disturbed digestion. Additionally, a restricted oxygen uptake could result in an oxygen debt that needs to be compensated for upon return to normoxic waters and this may also affect the ability to process the food. Long-term cardio-respiratory measurements were made on fed G. morhua in order to understand how the cardio-respiratory system of feeding fish respond to a period of hypoxia and a subsequent return to normoxia. These were exposed to 35% water oxygen saturation for 90 minutes, equivalent to the time and oxygen level cod voluntarily endure when searching for food in the Bornholm Basin. We found that i) gastric and intestinal blood flows, cardiac output and MO(2) increased after feeding, ii) gastric and intestinal blood flows were spared in hypoxia, and iii) there were no indications of an oxygen debt at the end of the hypoxic period. The magnitude and time course of the measured variables are similar to values obtained from fish not exposed to the hypoxic period. In conclusion, when cod in the field search for and ingest prey under moderate hypoxic conditions they appear to stay within safe limits of oxygen availability as we saw no indications of an oxygen debt, or negative influence on digestive capacity, when simulating field observations.

  20. Effects of hypoxic exposure during feeding on SDA and postprandial cardiovascular physiology in the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane W Behrens

    Full Text Available Some Atlantic cod in the Bornholm Basin undertake vertical foraging migrations into severely hypoxic bottom water. Hypoxic conditions can reduce the postprandial increase in gastrointestinal blood flow (GBF. This could subsequently postpone or reduce the postprandial increase in oxygen consumption (MO(2, i.e. the SDA, leading to a disturbed digestion. Additionally, a restricted oxygen uptake could result in an oxygen debt that needs to be compensated for upon return to normoxic waters and this may also affect the ability to process the food. Long-term cardio-respiratory measurements were made on fed G. morhua in order to understand how the cardio-respiratory system of feeding fish respond to a period of hypoxia and a subsequent return to normoxia. These were exposed to 35% water oxygen saturation for 90 minutes, equivalent to the time and oxygen level cod voluntarily endure when searching for food in the Bornholm Basin. We found that i gastric and intestinal blood flows, cardiac output and MO(2 increased after feeding, ii gastric and intestinal blood flows were spared in hypoxia, and iii there were no indications of an oxygen debt at the end of the hypoxic period. The magnitude and time course of the measured variables are similar to values obtained from fish not exposed to the hypoxic period. In conclusion, when cod in the field search for and ingest prey under moderate hypoxic conditions they appear to stay within safe limits of oxygen availability as we saw no indications of an oxygen debt, or negative influence on digestive capacity, when simulating field observations.

  1. Idiopathic accelerated gastric emptying presenting in adults with post-prandial diarrhea and reactive hypoglycemia: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Middleton Stephen J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We have previously reported the association of gastrointestinal and hypoglycemic symptoms, with idiopathic accelerated gastric emptying. We now report the first series of six similar cases. Case presentations Patient 1: A 24-year-old Caucasian man presented to our facility with a six-month history of post-prandial nausea, flatulence, bloating, abdominal discomfort and associated diarrhea. He had associated episodes of fatigue, sweating, anxiety, confusion and craving for sweet foods. Patient 2: A 52-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our facility with a 15-year history of post-prandial bloating, abdominal pain and diarrhea, often associated with nausea, severe sweating, and fatigue. Patient 3: An 18-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our facility with a nine-year history of post-prandial diarrhea, abdominal bloating and pain. There was associated nausea, tremor, lethargy, and craving for sweet foods. Patient 4: A 77-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our facility with a four-month history of epigastric distension, pain after eating and a change in bowel habit. She experienced intermittent severe diarrhea and marked fatigue, nausea and sweating. Patient 5: A 23-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our facility with a two-year history of early satiety, and diarrhea after eating. She also complained of feeling faint and weak between meals, when she became cold and clammy, and on several occasions lost consciousness during these episodes. Patient 6: A 64-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our facility with a 10-year history of nausea, early satiety and profound bloating followed by diarrhea. All symptoms predominantly occurred in the first three hours after eating, when she felt faint, lethargic, and had a craving for sweet foods. In all cases, symptoms were alleviated or resolved by taking sweet food or drink and response to treatment was 90% or greater in all cases. Conclusions This series extends our description

  2. Obesity and gastrointestinal neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Binkowska-Borgosz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Being overweight or obese is a significant public health problem in the 21st century due to its scale, common existence and its cause-effect association with multiple diseases. Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in humans is regarded as a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular and skeletal diseases. However, data from recent years have revealed that obesity is also strongly associated with increased risk of the majority of cancers in humans, including those originating from the gastrointestinal tract. During the last few year this association has been thoroughly proven and supported by several epidemiological analyses. The authors present i the current state of knowledge regarding key (pathomechanisms that link metabolism of human adipose tissue to development/progression of neoplasms (especially in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as ii the results of selected clinical studies in which the influence of obesity on risk of gastrointestinal cancer development has been addressed.

  3. Hass avocado modulates postprandial vascular reactivity and postprandial inflammatory responses to a hamburger meal in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoping; Wong, Angela; Henning, Susanne M; Zhang, Yanjun; Jones, Alexis; Zerlin, Alona; Thames, Gail; Bowerman, Susan; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Heber, David

    2013-02-26

    Hass avocados are rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid) and antioxidants (carotenoids, tocopherols, polyphenols) and are often eaten as a slice in a sandwich containing hamburger or other meats. Hamburger meat forms lipid peroxides during cooking. After ingestion, the stomach functions as a bioreactor generating additional lipid peroxides and this process can be inhibited when antioxidants are ingested together with the meat. The present pilot study was conducted to investigate the postprandial effect of the addition of 68 g of avocado to a hamburger on vasodilation and inflammation. Eleven healthy subjects on two separate occasions consumed either a 250 g hamburger patty alone (ca. 436 cal and 25 g fat) or together with 68 grams of avocado flesh (an additional 114 cal and 11 g of fat for a total of 550 cal and 36 g fat), a common culinary combination, to assess effects on vascular health. Using the standard peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) method to calculate the PAT index, we observed significant vasoconstriction 2 hours following hamburger ingestion (2.19 ± 0.36 vs. 1.56 ± 0.21, p = 0.0007), which did not occur when the avocado flesh was ingested together with the burger (2.17 ± 0.57 vs. 2.08 ± 0.51, NS p = 0.68). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from postprandial blood samples and the Ikappa-B alpha (IκBα) protein concentration was determined to assess effects on inflammation. At 3 hours, there was a significant preservation of IκBα (131% vs. 58%, p = 0.03) when avocado was consumed with the meat compared to meat alone, consistent with reduced activation of the NF-kappa B (NFκB) inflammatory pathway. IL-6 increased significantly at 4 hours in postprandial serum after consumption of the hamburger, but no change was observed when avocado was added. Postprandial serum triglyceride concentration increased, but did not further increase when avocado was ingested with the burger compared to burger alone despite the added fat and

  4. Loneliness predicts postprandial ghrelin and hunger in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremka, Lisa M; Fagundes, Christopher P; Peng, Juan; Belury, Martha A; Andridge, Rebecca R; Malarkey, William B; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2015-04-01

    Loneliness is strongly linked to poor health. Recent research suggests that appetite dysregulation provides one potential pathway through which loneliness and other forms of social disconnection influence health. Obesity may alter the link between loneliness and appetite-relevant hormones, one unexplored possibility. We examined the relationships between loneliness and both postmeal ghrelin and hunger, and tested whether these links differed for people with a higher versus lower body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)). During this double-blind randomized crossover study, women (N=42) ate a high saturated fat meal at the beginning of one full-day visit and a high oleic sunflower oil meal at the beginning of the other. Loneliness was assessed once with a commonly used loneliness questionnaire. Ghrelin was sampled before the meal and postmeal at 2 and 7h. Self-reported hunger was measured before the meal, immediately postmeal, and then 2, 4, and 7h later. Lonelier women had larger postprandial ghrelin and hunger increases compared with less lonely women, but only among participants with a lower BMI. Loneliness and postprandial ghrelin and hunger were unrelated among participants with a higher BMI. These effects were consistent across both meals. These data suggest that ghrelin, an important appetite-regulation hormone, and hunger may link loneliness to weight gain and its corresponding negative health effects among non-obese people.

  5. Intestinal Cgi-58 deficiency reduces postprandial lipid absorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xie

    Full Text Available Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58, a lipid droplet (LD-associated protein, promotes intracellular triglyceride (TG hydrolysis in vitro. Mutations in human CGI-58 cause TG accumulation in numerous tissues including intestine. Enterocytes are thought not to store TG-rich LDs, but a fatty meal does induce temporary cytosolic accumulation of LDs. Accumulated LDs are eventually cleared out, implying existence of TG hydrolytic machinery in enterocytes. However, identities of proteins responsible for LD-TG hydrolysis remain unknown. Here we report that intestine-specific inactivation of CGI-58 in mice significantly reduces postprandial plasma TG concentrations and intestinal TG hydrolase activity, which is associated with a 4-fold increase in intestinal TG content and large cytosolic LD accumulation in absorptive enterocytes during the fasting state. Intestine-specific CGI-58 knockout mice also display mild yet significant decreases in intestinal fatty acid absorption and oxidation. Surprisingly, inactivation of CGI-58 in intestine significantly raises plasma and intestinal cholesterol, and reduces hepatic cholesterol, without altering intestinal cholesterol absorption and fecal neutral sterol excretion. In conclusion, intestinal CGI-58 is required for efficient postprandial lipoprotein-TG secretion and for maintaining hepatic and plasma lipid homeostasis. Our animal model will serve as a valuable tool to further define how intestinal fat metabolism influences the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  6. Heritable Gastrointestinal Cancer Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Elena M

    2016-09-01

    Although almost all gastrointestinal cancers develop from sporadic genomic events, approximately 5% arise from germline mutations in genes associated with cancer predisposition. The number of these genes continues to increase. Tumor phenotypes and family history provide the framework for identifying at-risk individuals. The diagnosis of a hereditary cancer syndrome has implications for management of patients and their families. Systematic approaches that integrate family history and molecular characterization of tumors and polyps facilitate identification of individuals with this genetic predisposition. This article summarizes diagnosis and management of hereditary cancer syndromes associated with gastrointestinal cancers. PMID:27546846

  7. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of 3,3′-Diindolylmethane in Gastrointestinal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Mi Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies in humans have shown that 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM, which is found in cruciferous vegetables, such as cabbage and broccoli, is effective in the attenuation of gastrointestinal cancers. This review presents the latest findings on the use, targets, and modes of action of DIM for the treatment of human gastrointestinal cancers. DIM acts upon several cellular and molecular processes in gastrointestinal cancer cells, including apoptosis, autophagy, invasion, cell cycle regulation, metastasis, angiogenesis, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress. In addition, DIM increases the efficacy of other drugs or therapeutic chemicals when used in combinatorial treatment for gastrointestinal cancer. The studies to date offer strong evidence to support the use of DIM as an anticancer and therapeutic agent for gastrointestinal cancer. Therefore, this review provides a comprehensive understanding of the preventive and therapeutic properties of DIM in addition to its different perspective on the safety of DIM in clinical applications for the treatment of gastrointestinal cancers.

  8. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of 3,3'-Diindolylmethane in Gastrointestinal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Mi

    2016-01-01

    Studies in humans have shown that 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), which is found in cruciferous vegetables, such as cabbage and broccoli, is effective in the attenuation of gastrointestinal cancers. This review presents the latest findings on the use, targets, and modes of action of DIM for the treatment of human gastrointestinal cancers. DIM acts upon several cellular and molecular processes in gastrointestinal cancer cells, including apoptosis, autophagy, invasion, cell cycle regulation, metastasis, angiogenesis, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In addition, DIM increases the efficacy of other drugs or therapeutic chemicals when used in combinatorial treatment for gastrointestinal cancer. The studies to date offer strong evidence to support the use of DIM as an anticancer and therapeutic agent for gastrointestinal cancer. Therefore, this review provides a comprehensive understanding of the preventive and therapeutic properties of DIM in addition to its different perspective on the safety of DIM in clinical applications for the treatment of gastrointestinal cancers. PMID:27447608

  9. Glycemic Responses, Appetite Ratings and Gastrointestinal Hormone Responses of Most Common Breads Consumed in Spain. A Randomized Control Trial in Healthy Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Gonzalez-Anton; Rico, Maria C.; Estefania Sanchez-Rodriguez; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria D.; Angel Gil; Maria D. Mesa

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), insulinemic index (InI), appetite ratings and postprandial plasma concentrations of gastrointestinal hormones related to the control of food intake after the ingestion of the five most common breads consumed in Spain with different compositions and manufacturing processes. Twenty-two healthy adults participated in a randomized crossover study. The breads tested were Ordinary, Precooked-Frozen, Candeal-...

  10. Metoclopramida, factor de riesgo para hiperglucemia postprandial en diabetes tipo 2 Metoclopramide as a risk factor for postprandial hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gutiérrez-Hermosillo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La diabetes mellitus (DM es una patología que ha crecido ampliamente a nivel mundial en las ultimas décadas. La hiperglucemia postprandial (HP ha tomado importancia en los últimos años, ya que se ha visto se relaciona de manera directa con un aumento en el riesgo de eventos cardiovasculares. A la fecha, no se ha determinado la asociación entre el empleo de metoclopramida y los niveles de glucemia postprandial. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio de tipo cohorte, con objeto de determinar si la metoclopramida es factor de riesgo para hiperglucemia postprandial. Se incluyeron pacientes diabéticos tipo 2, se catalogó a los pacientes en expuestos, aquellos manejados con metoclopramida preprandial 10 mg intravenosa (IV y no expuestos, se determinó glucemia preprandial y 30, 60, 90 y 120 minutos postprandiales. Resultados: 80 pacientes por grupo se incluyeron siendo sus características basales similares. Las glucemia postprandial fue más elevada en aquellos tratados con metoclopramida que sin esta (p = Diabetes mellitus is a pathology that has widely spread througout the world in the past decades. Postprandial hyperglycemia plays an important role in the progress of the disease due to the fact that increases the risk for cardiovascular events. This study's aim was to determine if the use of intravenous metoclopramide in patients with Diabetes Mellitus increases the postprandial glycemia. Material and methods: A cohort of patients hospitalized with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients were classified as exposed (metoclopramide 10 mg IV and not exposed, and glycemia preprandial and postprandial at 30, 60 and 120 minutes was measured. Results: There were 80 patients in each group, and in both groups the general characteristics were homogeneous. The postprandial glycemia in the exposed group was higher at 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes, being only statistically significant at 120 minutes postprandial (p = < 0,001. Conclusions: In conclusion

  11. Thirty days of resveratrol supplementation does not affect postprandial incretin hormone responses, but suppresses postprandial glucagon in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, F K; Konings, E; Timmers, S;

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound produced by various plants (e.g. red grapes) and found in red wine, has glucose-lowering effects in humans and rodent models of obesity and/or diabetes. The mechanisms behind these effects have been suggested to include resveratrol......-induced secretion of the gut incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1. We investigated postprandial incretin hormone and glucagon responses in obese human subjects before and after 30 days of resveratrol supplementation. METHODS: Postprandial plasma responses of the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1...... and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon were evaluated in 10 obese men [subjects characteristics (mean ± standard error of the mean): age 52 ± 2 years; BMI 32 ± 1 kg/m(2) , fasting plasma glucose 5.5 ± 0.1 mmol/l] who had been given a dietary supplement of resveratrol (Resvida(®) 150 mg...

  12. [Gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moctezuma-Velázquez, Carlos; Aguirre-Valadez, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Diet is considered an important triggering factor for gastrointestinal symptoms whose physiopathology includes not only measurable, inflammatory reactions, but also functional disorders, where no organic effects may be measured or demonstrated. Moreover, the prevalence of the perceived intolerance to certain foods ranges from 20-25% (within the general population) to 50-70% in diseases like irritable bowel syndrome. This intolerance has been observed particularly after the consumption of milk and dairy products, which are frequently considered as causative of gastrointestinal symptoms, thus limiting their ingestion. However, this behavior reduces the dietary sources of calcium and consequently may lead to malnutrition and bone decalcification, amongst other complications. The true dairy intolerance (intestinal lactase deficiency) explains most of the symptoms ensuing their consumption, but the frequency of such alteration on the different gastrointestinal diseases has not been determined. This review focuses on the most frequent gastrointestinal diseases and the existing evidence regarding the alterations and symptoms related to the consumption of milk or dairy products. PMID:27603892

  13. Haemochromatosis and gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagergren, Katarina; Wahlin, Karl; Mattsson, Fredrik; Alderson, Derek; Lagergren, Jesper

    2016-10-15

    Iron overload in patients with haemochromatosis is a strong risk factor for liver cancer, but its influence on other gastrointestinal cancer risk is unclear. The aim was to assess the relative risk of luminal gastrointestinal cancer among patients diagnosed with haemochromatosis. This population-based, nationwide Swedish cohort study included patients with haemochromatosis in Sweden in 1965-2013. The incidence of gastrointestinal cancers was assessed through the Swedish Cancer Registry. The measure of relative risk was the standardised incidence ratio (SIR) with 95% confidence interval (CI), that is, the ratio of the observed number of gastrointestinal cancers in the haemochromatosis cohort divided by the expected number of such cancers, calculated from the entire corresponding background population of Sweden. Among 6,849 patients in the haemochromatosis cohort with up to 48 years of follow-up, the SIRs were 3-fold increased for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SIR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.3-6.6; n = 7) and 40% increased for colon adenocarcinoma (SIR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.9; n = 54). No associations were found between haemochromatosis and the risk of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus (SIR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.0-2.5; n = 1), stomach (SIR = 0.7, 95% CI 0.3-1.4; n = 8), small bowel (SIR = 1.2, 95% CI 0.0-6.7; n = 1) or rectum (SIR = 1.0, 95% CI 0.6-1.6; n = 21). These findings indicate that haemochromatosis increases the risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and colon adenocarcinoma, but might not influence the risk of other types of luminal gastrointestinal cancer. These findings should encourage further research examining the role of iron overload in cancer aetiology. PMID:27300578

  14. Normal fasting and postprandial diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m hepatobiliary stud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diisopropyl-IDA TC 99m imaging studies were performed in 11 normal subjects in both the fasting and postprandial states. In 5- to 60-minute analog images obtained in both fasting and postprandial studies, the cardiac blood pool was almost never seen, renal pelvic radioactivity was commonly seen, the extrahepatic biliary tract was always seen, and the left hepatic duct was always more prominent than the right hepatic duct. The billiary tract was visualized by ten minutes in nine of 11 fasting studies and 10 of 11 postprandial studies. The gallbladder was visualized in all eleven fasting studies, but in only four postprandial studies (p<0.05). The zero- to sixty-minute digital data indicated a greater hepatocyte clearance, an earlier time of peak parenchymal radioactivity, and a faster parenchymal washout in the postprandial studies compared with fasting studies (p<0.05). Approximately nine percent of the injected dose was recovered in the urine during the first three hours in fasting and postprandial studies. The normal diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m study in the fasting and postprandial states is defined; significant differences exist between the two states

  15. Coffee polyphenols modulate whole-body substrate oxidation and suppress postprandial hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and hyperlipidaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Takatoshi; Yokoi, Yuka; Misawa, Koichi; Ominami, Hideo; Suzuki, Yasuto; Shibuya, Yusuke; Hase, Tadashi

    2012-06-01

    Postprandial energy metabolism, including postprandial hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and hyperlipidaemia, is related to the risk for developing obesity and CVD. In the present study, we examined the effects of polyphenols purified from coffee (coffee polyphenols (CPP)) on postprandial carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and whole-body substrate oxidation in C57BL/6J mice. In mice that co-ingested CPP with a lipid-carbohydrate (sucrose or starch)-mixed emulsion, the respiratory quotient determined by indirect calorimetry was significantly lower than that in control mice, whereas there was no difference in VO2 (energy expenditure), indicating that CPP modulates postprandial energy partitioning. CPP also suppressed postprandial increases in plasma glucose, insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and TAG levels. Inhibition experiments on digestive enzymes revealed that CPP inhibits maltase and sucrase, and, to a lesser extent, pancreatic lipase in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the nine kinds of polyphenols (caffeoyl quinic acids (CQA), di-CQA, feruloyl quinic acids (FQA)) contained in CPP, di-CQA showed more potent inhibitory activity than CQA or FQA on these digestive enzymes, suggesting a predominant role of di-CQA in the regulation of postprandial energy metabolism. These results suggest that CPP modulates whole-body substrate oxidation by suppressing postprandial hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia, and these effects are mediated by inhibiting digestive enzymes.

  16. Delayed gastric emptying and reduced postprandial small bowel water content of equicaloric whole meal bread versus rice meals in healthy subjects: novel MRI insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciani, L; Pritchard, S E; Hellier-Woods, C; Costigan, C; Hoad, C L; Gowland, P A; Spiller, R C

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Postprandial bloating is a common symptom in patients with functional gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. Whole meal bread (WMB) often aggravates such symptoms though the mechanisms are unclear. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor the intragastric fate of a WMB meal (11% bran) compared with a rice pudding (RP) meal. Subjects/Methods: Twelve healthy volunteers completed this randomised crossover study. They fasted overnight and after an initial MRI scan consumed a glass of orange juice with a 2267 kJ WMB or an equicaloric RP meal. Subjects underwent serial MRI scans every 45 min up to 270 min to assess gastric volumes and small bowel water content, and completed a GI symptom questionnaire. Results: The MRI intragastric appearance of the two meals was markedly different. The WMB meal formed a homogeneous dark bolus with brighter liquid signal surrounding it. The RP meal separated into an upper liquid layer and a lower particulate layer allowing more rapid emptying of the liquid compared with solid phase (sieving). The WMB meal had longer gastric half-emptying times (132±8 min) compared with the RP meal (104±7 min), Pstomach, which inhibits gastric sieving and hence empties slower than the equicaloric rice meal. These properties may explain why wheat causes postprandial bloating and could be exploited to design foods that prolong satiation. PMID:23594839

  17. Coffee polyphenol consumption improves postprandial hyperglycemia associated with impaired vascular endothelial function in healthy male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokura, Hiroko; Watanabe, Isamu; Umeda, Mika; Hase, Tadashi; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that habitual coffee consumption lowers the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Postprandial hyperglycemia is a direct and independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We previously demonstrated that coffee polyphenol ingestion increased secretion of Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), which has been shown to exhibit anti-diabetic and cardiovascular effects. We hypothesized coffee polyphenol consumption may improve postprandial hyperglycemia and vascular endothelial function by increasing GLP-1 release and/or reducing oxidative stress. To examine this hypothesis, we conducted a randomized, acute, crossover, intervention study in healthy male adults, measuring blood parameters and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) after ingestion of a meal with or without coffee polyphenol extract (CPE). Nineteen subjects consumed a test meal with either a placebo- or CPE-containing beverage. Blood biomarkers and FMD were measured at fasting and up to 180 minutes postprandially. The CPE beverage led to a significantly lower peak postprandial increase in blood glucose and diacron-reactive oxygen metabolite, and significantly higher postprandial FMD than the placebo beverage. Postprandial blood GLP-1 increase tended to be higher after ingestion of the CPE beverage, compared with placebo. Subclass analysis revealed that the CPE beverage significantly improved postprandial blood GLP-1 response and reduced blood glucose increase in the subjects with a lower insulinogenic index. Correlation analysis showed postprandial FMD was negatively associated with blood glucose increase after ingestion of the CPE beverage. In conclusion, these results suggest that coffee polyphenol consumption improves postprandial hyperglycemia and vascular endothelial function, which is associated with increased GLP-1 secretion and decreased oxidative stress in healthy humans.

  18. Effect of sildenafil on gastric emptying and postprandial frequency of antral contractions in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J L; Søndergaard, S B; Fuglsang, S;

    2004-01-01

    gastric emptying and postprandial frequency of antral contractions. RESULTS: The area under the curve of gastric retention versus time of liquid or solid radiolabelled marker was not changed by sildenafil intake, nor was the postprandial frequency of antral contractions affected by sildenafil. CONCLUSION......: A single dose of 50 mg sildenafil does not change gastric emptying or postprandial frequency of antral contractions in healthy volunteers.......BACKGROUND: Sildenafil is known to block phosphodiesterase type 5, which degrades nitric oxide-stimulated cyclic guanosine monophosphate, thereby relaxing smooth muscle cells in various organs. The effect of sildenafil on gastric motor function after a meal was investigated in healthy humans...

  19. Effect of oral acetyl L-carnitine arginate on resting and postprandial blood biomarkers in pre-diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucker Patrick S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resting and postprandial oxidative stress is elevated in those with metabolic disorders such as diabetes. Antioxidant supplementation may attenuate the rise in oxidative stress following feeding. Therefore we sought to determine the effects of acetyl L-carnitine arginate (ALCA on resting and postprandial biomarkers of glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as oxidative stress. Methods Twenty-nine pre-diabetic men and women were randomly assigned to either 3 g·day-1 of ALCA (n = 14; 31 ± 3 yrs or placebo (n = 15; 35 ± 3 yrs in a double-blind design, to consume for eight weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken from subjects both pre and post intervention. After each fasting sample was obtained, subjects consumed a high fat, high carbohydrate meal and additional blood samples were taken at 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours post meal. Samples were analyzed for a variety of metabolic variables (e.g., glucose, HbA1c, lipid panel, C-reactive protein, nitrate/nitrite, and several markers of oxidative stress. Area under the curve (AUC was calculated for each variable measured post meal, both pre and post intervention. Results ALCA, but not placebo, resulted in an increase in nitrate/nitrite (25.4 ± 1.9 to 30.1 ± 2.8 μmol·L-1 from pre to post intervention, with post intervention values greater compared to placebo (p = 0.01. No other changes of statistical significance were noted (p > 0.05, although ALCA resulted in slight improvements in glucose (109 ± 5 to 103 ± 5 mg·dL-1, HbA1c (6.6 ± 1.1 to 6.2 ± 1.2%, and HOMA-IR (3.3 ± 1.3 to 2.9 ± 1.2. AUC postprandial data were not statistically different between ALCA and placebo for any variable (p > 0.05. However, nitrate/nitrite demonstrated a moderate effect size (r = 0.35 for increase from pre (139.50 ± 18.35 μmol·L-1·6 hr-1 to post (172.40 ± 21.75 μmol·L-1·6 hr-1 intervention with ALCA, and the magnitude of decrease following feeding was not as pronounced as with placebo

  20. Low-load resistance training during step-reduction attenuates declines in muscle mass and strength and enhances anabolic sensitivity in older men

    OpenAIRE

    Devries, Michaela C; Breen, Leigh; Von Allmen, Mark; MacDonald, Maureen J; Moore, Daniel R.; Offord, Elizabeth A; Horcajada, Marie-Noëlle; Breuillé, Denis; Phillips, Stuart M.

    2015-01-01

    Step-reduction (SR) in older adults results in muscle atrophy and an attenuated rise in postprandial muscle protein synthesis (MPS): anabolic resistance. Knowing that resistance exercise (RT) can enhance MPS, we examined whether RT could enhance MPS following 2 weeks of SR. In addition, as we postulated that SR may impair feeding-induced vasodilation limiting nutrient delivery to muscle, we also examined whether citrulline (CIT), as an arginine and nitric oxide precursor, could attenuate musc...

  1. Bean and rice meals reduce postprandial glycemic response in adults with type 2 diabetes: a cross-over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Sharon V

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Around the world, beans and rice are commonly consumed together as a meal. With type 2 diabetes increasing, the effect of this traditional diet pattern on glycemic response has not been studied fully. Methods We evaluated the glycemic response of bean and rice traditional meals compared to rice alone in adults with type 2 diabetes. Seventeen men and women with type 2 diabetes controlled by metformin (n = 14 or diet/exercise (n = 3 aged 35–70 years participated in the randomized 4 × 4 crossover trial. The white long grain rice control, pinto beans/rice, black beans/rice, red kidney beans/rice test meals, matched for 50 grams of available carbohydrate, were consumed at breakfast after a 12 hour fast. Capillary blood glucose concentrations at baseline and at 30 minute intervals up to 180 minutes postprandial were collected. MANOVA for repeated measures established glucose differences between treatments. Paired t tests identified differences between bean types and the rice control following a significant MANOVA. Results Postprandial net glucose values were significantly lower for the three bean/rice treatments in contrast to the rice control at 90, 120 and 150 minutes. Incremental area under the curve values were significantly lower for the pinto and black bean/rice meals compared to rice alone, but not for kidney beans. Conclusions Pinto, dark red kidney and black beans with rice attenuate the glycemic response compared to rice alone. Promotion of traditional foods may provide non-pharmaceutical management of type 2 diabetes and improve dietary adherence with cultural groups. Trial registration Clinical Trials number NCT01241253

  2. [Zinc and gastrointestinal disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashimura, Yasuki; Takagi, Tomohisa; Naito, Yuji

    2016-07-01

    Zinc, an essential trace element, affects immune responses, skin metabolism, hormone composition, and some sensory function, so that the deficiency presents various symptoms such as immunodeficiency and taste obstacle. Further, the zinc deficiency also considers as a risk of various diseases. Recent reports demonstrated that -20% of the Japanese population was marginally zinc deficiency, and over 25% of the global population is at high risk of zinc deficiency. In gastrointestinal disorders, zinc plays an important role in the healing of mucosal and epithelial damage. In fact, polaprezinc, a chelate compound of zinc and L-carnosine, has been used for the treatment of gastric ulcer and gastritis. We describe here the therapeutic effect of zinc on gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:27455800

  3. GASTROINTESTINAL STROMAL TUMOR (GIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eTornillo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. The discovery that these tumors, formerly thought of smooth muscle origin, are indeed better characterized by specific activating mutation in genes coding for the receptor tyrosine kinases CKIT and PDGFRA and that these mutations are strongly predictive for the response to targeted therapy with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors has made GISTs the typical example of the integration of basic molecular knowledge in the daily clinical activity. The information on the mutational status of these tumors is essential to predict (and subsequently to plan the therapy. As resistant cases are frequently wild-type, other possible oncogenic events, defining other entities, have been discovered (e.g. succinil dehydrogenase mutation/dysregulation, insuline growth factor expression, mutations in the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway. The classification of disease must nowadays rely on the integration of the clinico-morphological characteristics with the molecular data.

  4. Radiology illustrated. Gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ihn (ed.) [Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2015-02-01

    Radiology Illustrated: Gastrointestinal Tract is the second of two volumes designed to provide clear and practical guidance on the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. The book presents approximately 300 cases with 1500 carefully selected and categorized illustrations of gastrointestinal tract diseases, along with key text messages and tables that will help the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis., Essential points are summarized at the end of each text message to facilitate rapid review and learning. Additionally, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by case studies of both common and uncommon pathologies that illustrate the roles of the different imaging modalities, including ultrasound, radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  5. Primary gastrointestinal lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Aledavood; Mohammad Reza Ghavam Nasiri; Bahram Memar; Soodabeh Shahidsales; Hamid Reza Raziee; Kamran Ghafarzadegan; Samira Mohtashami

    2012-01-01

    Background: Extranodal lymphoma may arise anywhere outside lymph nodes mostly in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract as non-Hodgkin′s disease. We reviewed the clinicopathological features and treatment results of patients with primary GI lymphoma. Materials and Methods : A total number of 30 cases with primary GI lymphoma were included in this study. Patients referred to the Radiation Oncology Department of Omid Hospital (Mashhad, Iran) during a 5-year period (2006-11). Clinical, paraclinical, an...

  6. Gastrointestinal food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Ralf G

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal food allergies present during early childhood with a diverse range of symptoms. Cow's milk, soy and wheat are the three most common gastrointestinal food allergens. Several clinical syndromes have been described, including food protein-induced enteropathy, proctocolitis and enterocolitis. In contrast with immediate, IgE-mediated food allergies, the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms is delayed for at least 1-2 hours after ingestion in non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders. The pathophysiology of these non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders is poorly understood, and useful in vitro markers are lacking. The results of the skin prick test or measurement of the food-specific serum IgE level is generally negative, although low-positive results may occur. Diagnosis therefore relies on the recognition of a particular clinical phenotype as well as the demonstration of clear clinical improvement after food allergen elimination and the re-emergence of symptoms upon challenge. There is a significant clinical overlap between non-IgE-mediated food allergy and several common paediatric gastroenterological conditions, which may lead to diagnostic confusion. The treatment of gastrointestinal food allergies requires the strict elimination of offending food allergens until tolerance has developed. In breast-fed infants, a maternal elimination diet is often sufficient to control symptoms. In formula-fed infants, treatment usually involves the use an extensively hydrolysed or amino acid-based formula. Apart from the use of hypoallergenic formulae, the solid diets of these children also need to be kept free of specific food allergens, as clinically indicated. The nutritional progress of infants and young children should be carefully monitored, and they should undergo ongoing, regular food protein elimination reassessments by cautious food challenges to monitor for possible tolerance development.

  7. The gastrointestinal endocrine system

    OpenAIRE

    Track, Norman S.

    1980-01-01

    Gastrointestinal endocrinology is the study of the hormonal regulation of digestion. A number of characterized polypeptide hormones have been localized in specific gastroenteropancreatic endocrine cells. The fact that some of these hormones are also found in nerve and brain cells has given rise to the concept of a gut-brain axis. The functional capacities of these endocrine cells are determined by their anatomic location; the luminal exposure of gastroenteric endocrine cells represents an add...

  8. Combination of erythritol and fructose increases gastrointestinal symptoms in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeonsoo; Park, Sonhee C; Wolf, Bryan W; Hertzler, Steven R

    2011-11-01

    Consumption of a large amount of dietary fructose induces gastrointestinal intolerance, and glucose has been known as an enhancer of fructose absorption. Erythritol is a nonglycemic sugar alcohol, and it has been suggested that erythritol is absorbed paracellularly. It was hypothesized that paracellular absorption of erythritol could also enhance paracellular absorption of fructose in healthy adults. This is one of the proposed pathways for how additional glucose enhances the absorption of fructose. Thirty-seven nondiabetic, healthy adults participated in a randomized, double-masked, controlled crossover study. After an overnight fast, participants consumed beverages containing either 50 g fructose and 50 g glucose, 50 g fructose and 33.3 g erythritol (an equimolar concentration of fructose), or 50 g fructose alone. Breath hydrogen response was determined for 8 hours postprandially. Gastrointestinal intolerance symptoms and the number and consistency of bowel movements were recorded for 24 hours postprandially. The breath hydrogen area under the curve (AUC) of the fructose and erythritol beverage was 2 times the AUC of the fructose beverage and 8.75 times the AUC of the fructose and glucose beverage (P fructose and glucose beverage and fructose alone, frequency of watery stools increased (P fructose and erythritol. These data suggest that coingestion of equimolar concentrations of fructose and erythritol increased carbohydrate malabsorption.

  9. Lower gastrointestinal endoscopies results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Bozdağ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Endoscopic examinations have great potential in early diagnosis of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas with reducing to colorectal cancer incidence and mortality. We aimed to evaluate for diagnostic purposeful lower gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures in the second step state hospital retrospectively Methods: Between June 2010 and June 2013, we evaluated 278 patients with rectal bleeding, constipation and abdominal pain detected by lower gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures retrospectively. Results: The mean age of the patients was 54.8 ± 16.8 (15-90 year, respectively. 172 (61.9% of the patients were male and 106 (38.1% of the patients were female. 116 (41.7% of the patients was performed rectosigmoidoscopy and 162 (58.3% of the patients was performed colonoscopy. 51(18.3% of our patients were normal. 10 (3.6% of patients had colorectal cancer, 11(3.9% of patients had inflammatory bowel disease, 8 (2.9% of patients had parasitosis, 31(11.1% of patients had colorectal polyps, 12 (4.3% , in patients had diverticular disease, 2 (0.7% patients had rectal ulcer, 25 (9% patients had anal fissure and 159 (57.2% of the patients had hemorrhoidal disease. Conclusion: Lower gastrointestinal endoscopy is a method been the gold standard with a low complication rate and that can be easily applied in the evaluation to pathology of colorectal and anal canal. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (4: 580-582

  10. Impact of Diabetes-Specific Nutritional Formulas versus Oatmeal on Postprandial Glucose, Insulin, GLP-1 and Postprandial Lipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottalib, Adham; Mohd-Yusof, Barakatun-Nisak; Shehabeldin, Mohamed; Pober, David M; Mitri, Joanna; Hamdy, Osama

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes-specific nutritional formulas (DSNFs) are frequently used as part of medical nutrition therapy for patients with diabetes. This study aims to evaluate postprandial (PP) effects of 2 DSNFs; Glucerna (GL) and Ultra Glucose Control (UGC) versus oatmeal (OM) on glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides (TG). After an overnight fast, 22 overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes were given 200 kcal of each of the three meals on three separate days in random order. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 min. Glucose area under the curve (AUC0-240) after GL and UGC was lower than OM (p oatmeal of similar caloric level. This is achieved by either direct stimulation of insulin secretion or indirectly by stimulating GLP-1 secretion. The difference between their effects is probably related to their unique blends of amino acids, carbohydrates and fat. PMID:27455318

  11. Impact of Diabetes-Specific Nutritional Formulas versus Oatmeal on Postprandial Glucose, Insulin, GLP-1 and Postprandial Lipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottalib, Adham; Mohd-Yusof, Barakatun-Nisak; Shehabeldin, Mohamed; Pober, David M; Mitri, Joanna; Hamdy, Osama

    2016-07-22

    Diabetes-specific nutritional formulas (DSNFs) are frequently used as part of medical nutrition therapy for patients with diabetes. This study aims to evaluate postprandial (PP) effects of 2 DSNFs; Glucerna (GL) and Ultra Glucose Control (UGC) versus oatmeal (OM) on glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides (TG). After an overnight fast, 22 overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes were given 200 kcal of each of the three meals on three separate days in random order. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 min. Glucose area under the curve (AUC0-240) after GL and UGC was lower than OM (p oatmeal of similar caloric level. This is achieved by either direct stimulation of insulin secretion or indirectly by stimulating GLP-1 secretion. The difference between their effects is probably related to their unique blends of amino acids, carbohydrates and fat.

  12. Increased postprandial energy expenditure in obese women after peroral K- and Mg-phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaedig, S; Lindgärde, F; Arborelius, M

    1994-01-01

    Energy expenditure (EE) was studied in 15 obese (BMI > 27.5, median 29.2) and 15 lean (BMI magnesium-phosphate to glucose increases the postprandial thermogenesis in obese postmenopausal women, but not in lean ones.

  13. Postprandial Plasma Concentrations of Individual Bile Acids and FGF-19 in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, David P; van Nierop, F Samuel; Kulik, Willem;

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Bile acids regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism by interaction with membrane or intracellular proteins including the nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Postprandial activation of ileal FXR leads to secretion of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19), a gut hormone that may...... be implicated in postprandial glucose metabolism. OBJECTIVE: To describe postprandial plasma concentrations of 12 individual bile acids and FGF-19 in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and healthy controls. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive study, performed at the Center for Diabetes Research, Gentofte Hospital...... controls, but differences were not statistically significant due to considerable variation. CONCLUSION: Postprandial plasma patterns of bile acids with FXR agonistic properties (CDCA, DCA, and CA) and FXR antagonistic properties (UDCA) in T2D patients support the notion of a "T2D-bile acid-FGF-19...

  14. Clinical relevance of non-fasting and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and remnant cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Freiberg, Jacob J

    2011-01-01

    -fasting/postprandial total cholesterol minus low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol minus high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Elevated levels of non-fasting/postprandial triglycerides directly correlate with elevated remnant cholesterol. In the general population, 38% of men have non......-fasting/postprandial triglycerides > 2mmol/L (>176 mg/dL) while 45% of men have non-fasting/postprandial triglyceride levels of 1-2 mmol/L (89-176 mg/dL); corresponding fractions in women are 20% and 47%. Also, 31% of men have remnant cholesterol levels > 1mmol/L (>39 mg/dL) while 46% of men have remnant cholesterol levels of 0...

  15. Postprandial hyperglycemia and cerebrovascular diseases%餐后高血糖与脑血管病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛家厚; 周农

    2009-01-01

    Postprandial hyperglycemia is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and cerebro-vascular diseases. This article reviews the mechanisms of cerebrovascular diseases caused by postprandial hyperglycemia from aspects of postprandial hyperglycemia participating in the pathophysiological mechanisms of atherosclerosis, and the relations between postprandial hyperglycemia and cerebrovascular diseases.%餐后血糖升高是动脉粥样硬化和脑血管病的危险因素.文章分别从餐后高血糖参与动脉粥样硬化的病理生理学机制、餐后高血糖与脑血管病的关系及其病理生理学机制等方面,综述了餐后高血糖引起脑血管病的机制.

  16. Postprandial blood glucose control in type 1 diabetes for carbohydrates with varying glycemic index foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shogo; Noguchi, Claudia Cecilia Yamamoto; Furutani, Eiko

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of type 1 diabetes consists of maintaining postprandial normoglycemia using the correct prandial insulin dose according to food intake. Nonetheless, it is hardly achieved in practice, which results in several diabetes-related complications. In this study we present a feedforward plus feedback blood glucose control system that considers the glycemic index of foods. It consists of a preprandial insulin bolus whose optimal bolus dose and timing are stated as a minimization problem, which is followed by a postprandial closed-loop control based on model predictive control. Simulation results show that, for a representative carbohydrate intake of 50 g, the present control system is able to maintain postprandial glycemia below 140 mg/dL while preventing postprandial hypoglycemia as well. PMID:25571074

  17. Postprandial Administration of Intranasal Insulin Intensifies Satiety and Reduces Intake of Palatable Snacks in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Hallschmid, Manfred; Higgs, Suzanne; Thienel, Matthias; Ott, Volker; Lehnert, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    The role of brain insulin signaling in the control of food intake in humans has not been thoroughly defined. We hypothesized that the hormone contributes to the postprandial regulation of appetite for palatable food, and assessed the effects on appetite and snack intake of postprandial versus fasted intranasal insulin administration to the brain in healthy women. Two groups of subjects were intranasally administered 160 IU insulin or vehicle after lunch. Two hours later, consumption of cookie...

  18. Optimizing Postprandial Glycemia in Pediatric Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Using Insulin Pump Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connell, Michele A.; Gilbertson, Heather R.; Donath, Susan M; Cameron, Fergus J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Postprandial glycemic excursions may contribute to the development of diabetes-related complications. Meals of high and low glycemic index (GI) have distinct effects on postprandial glycemia (PPG). Insulin pump therapy offers the potential to tailor insulin delivery to meal composition; however, optimal bolus types for meals of different glycemic loads have not been defined. We sought to compare the impact of GI combined with varying prandial bolus types on PPG. RESEARCH DESIGN AND ...

  19. Short-term high-fat diet alters postprandial glucose metabolism and circulating vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numao, Shigeharu; Kawano, Hiroshi; Endo, Naoya; Yamada, Yuka; Takahashi, Masaki; Konishi, Masayuki; Sakamoto, Shizuo

    2016-08-01

    Short-term intake of a high-fat diet aggravates postprandial glucose metabolism; however, the dose-response relationship has not been investigated. We hypothesized that short-term intake of a eucaloric low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (LCHF) would aggravate postprandial glucose metabolism and circulating adhesion molecules in healthy males. Seven healthy young males (mean ± SE; age: 26 ± 1 years) consumed either a eucaloric control diet (C, approximately 25% fats), a eucaloric intermediate-carbohydrate/intermediate-fat diet (ICIF, approximately 50% fats), or an LCHF (approximately 70% fats) for 3 days. An oral meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed after the 3-day dietary intervention. The concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were determined at rest and during MTT. The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of plasma glucose concentration during MTT was significantly higher in LCHF than in C (P = 0.009). The first-phase insulin secretion indexes were significantly lower in LCHF than in C (P = 0.04). Moreover, the iAUC of GLP-1 and VCAM-1 concentrations was significantly higher in LCHF than in C (P = 0.014 and P = 0.04, respectively). The metabolites from ICIF and C were not significantly different. In conclusion, short-term intake of eucaloric diet containing a high percentage of fats in healthy males excessively increased postprandial glucose and VCAM-1 concentrations and attenuated first-phase insulin release. PMID:27454856

  20. Reduction of blood oxygen levels enhances postprandial cardiac hypertrophy in Burmese python (Python bivittatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slay, Christopher E; Enok, Sanne; Hicks, James W; Wang, Tobias

    2014-05-15

    Physiological cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by reversible enlargement of cardiomyocytes and changes in chamber architecture, which increase stroke volume and via augmented convective oxygen transport. Cardiac hypertrophy is known to occur in response to repeated elevations of O2 demand and/or reduced O2 supply in several species of vertebrate ectotherms, including postprandial Burmese pythons (Python bivittatus). Recent data suggest postprandial cardiac hypertrophy in P. bivittatus is a facultative rather than obligatory response to digestion, though the triggers of this response are unknown. Here, we hypothesized that an O2 supply-demand mismatch stimulates postprandial cardiac enlargement in Burmese pythons. To test this hypothesis, we rendered animals anemic prior to feeding, essentially halving blood oxygen content during the postprandial period. Fed anemic animals had heart rates 126% higher than those of fasted controls, which, coupled with a 71% increase in mean arterial pressure, suggests fed anemic animals were experiencing significantly elevated cardiac work. We found significant cardiac hypertrophy in fed anemic animals, which exhibited ventricles 39% larger than those of fasted controls and 28% larger than in fed controls. These findings support our hypothesis that those animals with a greater magnitude of O2 supply-demand mismatch exhibit the largest hearts. The 'low O2 signal' stimulating postprandial cardiac hypertrophy is likely mediated by elevated ventricular wall stress associated with postprandial hemodynamics.

  1. Embolization for gastrointestinal hemorrhages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, S.C.; Goerich, J.; Rilinger, N.; Aschoff, A.J.; Vogel, J.; Brambs, H.J. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Ulm (Germany); Siech, M. [Dept. of Abdominal Surgery, University of Ulm (Germany)

    2000-05-01

    Retrospective evaluation of interventional embolization therapy in the treatment of gastrointestinal hemorrhage over a long-term observation period from 1989 to 1997. Included in the study were 35 patients (age range 18-89 years) with gastrointestinal bleeding (GI) referred for radiological intervention either primarily or following unsuccessful endoscopy or surgery. Sources of GI bleeding included gastric and duodenal ulcers (n = 7), diverticula (n = 3), erosion of the intestinal wall secondary to malignancy (n = 6), vascular malformations (n = 4), and hemorrhoids (n = 2), as well as from postoperative (n = 6), posttraumatic (n = 2), postinflammatory (n = 4) or unknown (n = 1) causes. Ethibloc (12 cases) or metal coils (14 cases) were predominantly used as embolisates. In addition, combinations of tissue adhesive and gelfoam particles and of coils and Ethibloc were used (six cases). Finally, polyvinyl alcohol particles, a coated stent, and an arterial wire dissection were utilized in one case each. Bleeding was stopped completely in 29 of 35 cases (83 %). In one case (3 %) the source of bleeding was recognized but the corresponding vessel could not be catheterized. In five other cases (14 %) there was partial success with reduced, though still persistent, bleeding. The rate of complications was 14 %, including four instances of intestinal ischemia with fatal outcome in the first years, and, later, one partial infarction of the spleen without serious consequences. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage can be controlled in a high percentage of patients, including the seriously ill and those who had previously undergone surgery, with the use of minimally invasive interventional techniques. The availability of minicoils instead of fluid embolization agents has reduced the risk of serious complications. (orig.)

  2. A New Strategy Using Rikkunshito to Treat Anorexia and Gastrointestinal Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayoi Saegusa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Because the clinical condition of gastrointestinal dysfunction, including functional dyspepsia, involves tangled combinations of pathologies, there are some cases of insufficient curative efficacy. Thus, traditional herbal medicines (Kampo medicines uniquely developed in Japan are thought to contribute to medical treatment for upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Rikkunshito is a Kampo medicine often used to treat dyspeptic symptoms. Over the past few years, several studies have investigated the efficacy of rikkunshito for dysmotility, for example, upper abdominal complaints, in animals and humans. Rikkunshito ameliorated the decrease in gastric motility and anorexia in cisplatin-treated rats, stress-loaded mice, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-treated rats by enhancing plasma ghrelin levels via serotonin2B/2C receptor antagonism. In addition, rikkunshito ameliorated the decrease in food intake in aged mice and stress-loaded decreased gastric motility via enhanced ghrelin receptor signaling. Several clinical studies revealed that rikkunshito was effective in ameliorating upper gastrointestinal symptoms, including dyspepsia, epigastric pain, and postprandial fullness. In this review, we discuss these studies and propose additional evidence-based research that may promote the clinical use of Kampo medicines, particularly rikkunshito, for treating anorexia and gastrointestinal dysfunction.

  3. Acute Effects of Energy Deficit Induced by Moderate-Intensity Exercise or Energy-Intake Restriction on Postprandial Lipemia in Healthy Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackray, Alice Emily; Barrett, Laura Ann; Tolfrey, Keith

    2015-05-01

    Eleven healthy girls (mean ± SD: age 12.1 ± 0.6 years) completed three 2-day conditions in a counterbalanced, crossover design. On day 1, participants either walked at 60 (2)% peak oxygen uptake (energy deficit 1.55[0.20] MJ), restricted food energy intake (energy deficit 1.51[0.25] MJ) or rested. On day 2, capillary blood samples were taken at predetermined intervals throughout the 6.5 hr postprandial period before, and following, the ingestion of standardized breakfast and lunch meals. Fasting plasma triacylglycerol concentrations (TAG) was 29% and 13% lower than rest control in moderate-intensity exercise (effect size [ES] = 1.39, p = .01) and energy-intake restriction (ES = 0.57, p = .02) respectively; moderate-intensity exercise was 19% lower than energy-intake restriction (ES = 0.82, p = .06). The moderate-intensity exercise total area under the TAG versus time curve was 21% and 13% lower than rest control (ES = 0.71, p = .004) and energy-intake restriction (ES = 0.39, p = .06) respectively; energy-intake restriction was marginally lower than rest control (-10%; ES = 0.32, p = .12). An exercise-induced energy deficit elicited a greater reduction in fasting plasma TAG with a trend for a larger attenuation in postprandial plasma TAG than an isoenergetic diet-induced energy deficit in healthy girls. PMID:25389209

  4. The effects of functional fiber on postprandial glycemia, energy intake, satiety, palatability and gastrointestinal wellbeing: a randomized crossover trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, J.Y.F.; Smeele, R.J.M.; Harington, K.D.; Loon, van F.M.; Wanders, A.J.; Venn, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fiber intakes in developed countries are generally below those recommended by relevant authorities. Given that many people consume fiber-depleted refined-grain products, adding functional fiber will help to increase fiber intakes. The objective of the study was to determine metabolic and

  5. Neonatal gastrointestinal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Padma [Department of Radiology, Royal Children' s Hospital and University of Melbourne, Flemington Road, Parkville, Melbourne, Vic. 3052 (Australia)]. E-mail: padma.rao@rch.org.au

    2006-11-15

    Radiological imaging is an important part of the evaluation and management of neonates with suspected anomalies of the gastrointestinal tract. Clinical presentation is often non-specific, commonly with abdominal distension and vomiting for which the underlying cause may or may not be clinically apparent. In a proportion of patients, the clinical assessment alone may suffice in providing the diagnosis and no further imaging is necessary. The reader must have an understanding of the normal radiographic appearances of the gastrointestinal tract in neonates and appreciate normal variants and differences to adults. In certain cases, the abdominal radiograph alone is diagnostic. In others, sonography and contrast studies are useful adjunct investigations and the indications for CT and MRI are few, but specific. Appropriate radiological investigation will help to establish the diagnosis and guide surgical intervention whilst also avoiding unnecessary radiation. Some of the conditions require transfer to specialist paediatric institutions for care. Thus, in some circumstances it is appropriate for imaging to be delayed and performed at the specialist centre with early referral often essential for the continued well being of the child.

  6. Coffee polyphenols protect human plasma from postprandial carbonyl modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirota, Roman; Gorelik, Shlomit; Harris, Raviv; Kohen, Ron; Kanner, Joseph

    2013-05-01

    The antioxidant capability of coffee polyphenols to inhibit red-meat lipid peroxidation in stomach medium and absorption into blood of malondialdehyde (MDA) in humans was studied. Roasted-ground coffee polyphenols that were found to inhibit lipid peroxidation in stomach medium are 2- to 5-fold more efficient antioxidant than those found in instant coffee. Human plasma from ten volunteers analyzed after a meal of red-meat cutlets (250 g) revealed a rapid accumulation of MDA. The accumulation of MDA in human plasma modified low-density lipoprotein is known to trigger atherogenesis. Consumption of 200 mL roasted coffee by ten volunteers during a meal of red-meat cutlets, resulted after 2 and 4 h in the inhibition by 80 and 50%, respectively, of postprandial plasma MDA absorption. The results obtained in vitro simulated stomach model on MDA accumulation were predictive for the amount of MDA absorbed into circulating human plasma, in vivo. Timing the consumption of coffee during the meals may make it a very active functional food.

  7. Important Aspects of Post-Prandial Antidiabetic Drug, Acarbose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Rajeev Kumar; Singh, Radha; Dubey, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Acarbose, a well known and efficacious α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitor, is a postprandial acting antidiabetic drug. DNS-based α-amylase inhibitory assays showed that use of acarbose at concentrations above 125 µg/ml resulted in release of reducing sugar in the reaction, an unexpected observation. Objective of the present study was to design experimental strategies to address this unusual finding. Acarbose was found to be susceptible to thermo-lysis. Further, besides being an inhibitor, it could also be hydrolyzed by porcine pancreatic α-amylase, but had weaker affinity for α - amylase compared to starch. GRIP docking was done for the mechanistic analysis of the active site in the enzyme for substrate, inhibitor and, inhibitor's metabolite (K2). Interaction between acarbose and α-amylase involved significant hydrogen binding compared to that of starch, producing a stronger enzyme-inhibitor complex. Further, docking analysis led us to predict the site on α-amylase where the inhibitor (acarbose) bound more tightly, which possibly affected the binding and hydrolysis of starch exerting its effective anti-diabetic function. PMID:27086787

  8. The dynamics of the microcirculation in the subcutaneous adipose tissue is impaired in the postprandial state in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Bülow, Jens

    2011-01-01

    that the postprandial adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) increase is accompanied by capillary recruitment in healthy subjects. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the postprandial capillary recruitment in adipose tissue is affected in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Eight type 2 diabetic overweight male...... blood volume changes in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue are impaired in overweight type 2 diabetic subjects compared to weight-matched healthy subjects.......UNLABELLED: Postprandially, the blood flow and uptake of non-esterified fatty acids increase concomitantly in the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in healthy subjects. In insulin-resistant subjects, this postprandial blood flow increase is blunted. We have previously found...

  9. Influence of various carbohydrate sources on postprandial glucose, insulin and NEFA concentrations in obese cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, A; Ueda, K; Lee, P; Oda, H; Ishioka, K; Sako, T

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate is an important source of energy, which can significantly affect postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels in cats. In healthy animals, this is not a big concern; however, in obese and diabetic animals, this is an important detail. In the present study, the impact of four different carbohydrate sources (glucose, maltose, corn starch, and trehalose) on short-term post-prandial serum glucose, insulin, and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations was investigated with four obese cats. Each of the carbohydrate sources was added to a commercial wet food diet for feeding the animals. A significant difference was observed in postprandial glucose, insulin, and NEFA area under the curve (AUC) values between each carbohydrate source in obese cats. Furthermore, glucose and maltose induced the highest postprandial glucose and insulin AUC values, whereas trehalose induced the lowest postprandial glucose and insulin AUC value amongst all carbohydrate sources, respectively, in obese cats. However, trehalose has a higher risk of inducing side effects, such as diarrhea, as compared to other carbohydrate sources. As such, different carbohydrate sources appear to have a very significant impact on post-prandial glycemia and subsequent insulin requirement levels in obese cats. These results might be useful when selecting a prescription diet for obese or diabetic cats. In addition, maltose appears to be capable of inducing experimentally evoked postprandial hyperglycemia in obese cats, which may serve as a good tool for use to check the impact and effectiveness of newly developed oral hypoglycemic drugs or supplements for cats in future experiments. PMID:27487514

  10. Effects of Fuscoporia obliqua on Postprandial Glucose Excursion and Endothelial Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Postprandial hyperglycemia has been reported to elicit endothelial dysfunction and provoke future cardiovascular complications. A reduction of postprandial blood glucose levels by the glucosidase inhibitor Fuscoporia obliqua was associated with a risk reduction of cardiovascular complications, but the effects of Fuscoporia obliqua on endothelial function have never been elucidated. This study is aimed to assess the efficacy of Fuscoporia obliqua on postprandial metabolic parameters and endothelial function in type 2 diabetic patients. Postprandial peak glucose (14.47±1.27 vs. 8.50±0.53 mmol/liter), plasma glucose excursion (PPGE), and change in the area under the curve (AUC) glucose after a single loading of test meal (total 450 kcal; protein 15.3%; fat 32.3%; carbohydrate 51.4%) were significantly higher in the diet-treated type 2 diabetic patients (n=14) than the age- and sex-matched controls (n=12). The peak forearm blood flow response and total reactive hyperemic flow (flow debt repayment) during reactive hyperemia, indices of resistance artery endothelial function on strain-gauge plethysmography, were unchanged before and after meal loading in the controls. But those of the diabetics were significantly decreased 120 and 240 min after the test meal. A prior administration of Fuscoporia obliqua decreased postprandial peak glucose, PPGE, and AUC glucose. The peak forearm blood flow and flow debt repayment were inversely well correlated with peak glucose, PPGE, and AUC glucose, but not with AUC insulin or the other lipid parameters. Even a single loading of the test meal was shown to impair the endothelial function in type 2 diabetic patients, and the postprandial endothelial dysfunction was improved by a prior use of Fuscoporia obliqua. Fuscoporia obliqua might reduce macrovascular complication by avoiding endothelial injury in postprandial hyperglycemic status.

  11. Impact of Diabetes-Specific Nutritional Formulas versus Oatmeal on Postprandial Glucose, Insulin, GLP-1 and Postprandial Lipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adham Mottalib

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes-specific nutritional formulas (DSNFs are frequently used as part of medical nutrition therapy for patients with diabetes. This study aims to evaluate postprandial (PP effects of 2 DSNFs; Glucerna (GL and Ultra Glucose Control (UGC versus oatmeal (OM on glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, free fatty acids (FFA and triglycerides (TG. After an overnight fast, 22 overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes were given 200 kcal of each of the three meals on three separate days in random order. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 min. Glucose area under the curve (AUC0–240 after GL and UGC was lower than OM (p < 0.001 for both. Insulin positive AUC0–120 after UGC was higher than after OM (p = 0.02. GLP-1 AUC0–120 and AUC0–240 after GL and UGC was higher than after OM (p < 0.001 for both. FFA and TG levels were not different between meals. Intake of DSNFs improves PP glucose for 4 h in comparison to oatmeal of similar caloric level. This is achieved by either direct stimulation of insulin secretion or indirectly by stimulating GLP-1 secretion. The difference between their effects is probably related to their unique blends of amino acids, carbohydrates and fat.

  12. Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... privileges for flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy. Privileging in flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy should be based on demonstration of competency in these techniques. Surgical Simulation: The Value of Individualization Surgical simulation ...

  13. Estrogen and gastrointestinal malignancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, A M

    2012-02-01

    The concept that E2 exerts an effect on the gastrointestinal tract is not new and its actions on intestinal mucosa have been investigated for at least three decades. An attempt to consolidate results of these investigations generates more questions than answers, thus suggesting that many unexplored avenues remain and that the full capabilities of this steroid hormone are far from understood. Evidence of its role in esophageal, gastric and gallbladder cancers is confusing and often equivocal. The most compelling evidence regards the protective role conferred by estrogen (or perhaps ERbeta) against the development and proliferation of colon cancer. Not only has the effect been described but also many mechanisms of action have been explored. It is likely that, along with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, hormonal manipulation will play an integral role in colon cancer management in the very near future.

  14. Gastrointestinal bleeding under dabigatran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Stöllberger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dabigatran-absorption is dependent on the intestinal P-glycoprotein (P-gp-system, and P-gp activity is modulated by several drugs. We report an 83-old female with atrial fibrillation who developed gastrointestinal bleeding. She was under a therapy with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID and P-gp-modulating drugs and renal function was impaired. We conclude that NSAID and P-gp-modulating drugs should be avoided in dabigatran-treated patients. If renal function deteriorates the dabigatran-dosage should be reduced or the therapy should be stopped. There is an urgent need to increase knowledge about drug interactions with dabigatran.

  15. Obesity and Gastrointestinal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Fujimoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity in the Japanese population has been increasing dramatically in step with the Westernization of lifestyles and food ways. Our study demonstrated significant associations between obesity and a number of gastrointestinal disorders in a large sample population in Japan. We demonstrated that reflux esophagitis and hiatal hernia were strongly related to obesity (BMI > 25 in the Japanese. In particular, obesity with young male was a high risk for these diseases. On the other hand, it has been reported that obesity is also associated with Barrett’s esophagus and colorectal adenoma; however, obesity was not a risk factor for these diseases in our study. The difference of ethnicity of our subjects may partly explain why we found no data to implicate obesity as a risk factor for Barrett’s esophagus. Arterial sclerosis associated with advanced age and hyperglycemia was accompanied by an increased risk of colorectal adenoma.

  16. [Obesity and gastrointestinal motility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon Seong

    2006-08-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) motility has a crucial role in the food consumption, digestion and absorption, and also controls the appetite and satiety. In obese patients, various alterations of GI motility have been investigated. The prevalence of GERD and esophageal motor disorders in obese patients are higher than those of general population. Gastric emptying of solid food is generally accelerated and fasting gastric volume especially in distal stomach is larger in obese patients without change in accommodation. Contractile activity of small intestine in fasting period is more prominent, but orocecal transit is delayed. Autonomic dysfunction is frequently demonstrated in obese patients. These findings correspond with increased appetite and delayed satiety in obese patients, but causes or results have not been confirmed. Therapeutic interventions of these altered GI motility have been developed using botulinum toxin, gastric electrical stimulation in obese patients. Novel agents targeted for GI hormone modulation (such as ghrelin and leptin) need to be developed in the near future. PMID:16929152

  17. Cinnamon extract inhibits α-glucosidase activity and dampens postprandial glucose excursion in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirumurugan Kavitha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background α-glucosidase inhibitors regulate postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG by impeding the rate of carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine and thereby hampering the diet associated acute glucose excursion. PPHG is a major risk factor for diabetic vascular complications leading to disabilities and mortality in diabetics. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, a spice, has been used in traditional medicine for treating diabetes. In this study we have evaluated the α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of cinnamon extract to control postprandial blood glucose level in maltose, sucrose loaded STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods The methanol extract of cinnamon bark was prepared by Soxhlet extraction. Phytochemical analysis was performed to find the major class of compounds present in the extract. The inhibitory effect of cinnamon extract on yeast α-glucosidase and rat-intestinal α-glucosidase was determined in vitro and the kinetics of enzyme inhibition was studied. Dialysis experiment was performed to find the nature of the inhibition. Normal male Albino wistar rats and STZ induced diabetic rats were treated with cinnamon extract to find the effect of cinnamon on postprandial hyperglycemia after carbohydrate loading. Results Phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract displayed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, coumarins and anthraquinones. In vitro studies had indicated dose-dependent inhibitory activity of cinnamon extract against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC 50 value of 5.83 μg/ml and mammalian α-glucosidase with IC 50 value of 670 μg/ml. Enzyme kinetics data fit to LB plot pointed out competitive mode of inhibition and the membrane dialysis experiment revealed reversible nature of inhibition. In vivo animal experiments are indicative of ameliorated postprandial hyperglycemia as the oral intake of the cinnamon extract (300 mg/kg body wt. significantly dampened the postprandial hyperglycemia by 78.2% and 52

  18. Disorders of gastrointestinal hypomotility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielefeldt, Klaus; Tuteja, Ashok; Nusrat, Salman

    2016-01-01

    Ingestion and digestion of food as well as expulsion of residual material from our gastrointestinal tract requires normal propulsive, i.e. motor, function. Hypomotility refers to inherited or acquired changes that come with decreased contractile forces or slower transit. It not only often causes symptoms but also may compromise nutritional status or lead to other complications. While severe forms, such as pseudo-obstruction or ileus, may have a tremendous functional impact, the less severe forms of hypomotility may well be more relevant, as they contribute to common disorders, such as functional dyspepsia, gastroparesis, chronic constipation, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Clinical testing can identify changes in contractile activity, defined by lower amplitudes or abnormal patterns, and the related effects on transit. However, such biomarkers show a limited correlation with overall symptom severity as experienced by patients. Similarly, targeting hypomotility with pharmacological interventions often alters gut motor function but does not consistently improve symptoms. Novel diagnostic approaches may change this apparent paradox and enable us to obtain more comprehensive information by integrating data on electrical activity, mechanical forces, patterns, wall stiffness, and motions with information of the flow of luminal contents. New drugs with more selective effects or more specific delivery may improve benefits and limit adverse effects. Lastly, the complex regulation of gastrointestinal motility involves the brain-gut axis as a reciprocal pathway for afferent and efferent signaling. Considering the role of visceral input in emotion and the effects of emotion on visceral activity, understanding and managing hypomotility disorders requires an integrative approach based on the mind-body continuum or biopsychosocial model of diseases. PMID:27583135

  19. Clinical relevance of non-fasting and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and remnant cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Freiberg, Jacob J

    2011-01-01

    -fasting/postprandial total cholesterol minus low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol minus high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Elevated levels of non-fasting/postprandial triglycerides directly correlate with elevated remnant cholesterol. In the general population, 38% of men have non......Non-fasting triglycerides are measured at any time within up to 8 h (14 h) after any normal meal, while postprandial triglycerides are measured at a fixed time point within up to 8 h (14 h) of a standardised fat tolerance test. The simplest possible way of evaluating remnant cholesterol is non......-fasting/postprandial triglycerides > 2mmol/L (>176 mg/dL) while 45% of men have non-fasting/postprandial triglyceride levels of 1-2 mmol/L (89-176 mg/dL); corresponding fractions in women are 20% and 47%. Also, 31% of men have remnant cholesterol levels > 1mmol/L (>39 mg/dL) while 46% of men have remnant cholesterol levels of 0...

  20. Coffee bean polyphenols ameliorate postprandial endothelial dysfunction in healthy male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Ryuji; Sugiura, Yoko; Otsuka, Kazuhiro; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa; Hashiguchi, Teruto

    2015-05-01

    To reveal the effect of coffee bean polyphenols (CBPs) on blood vessels, this study aimed to investigate the effect of CBPs on acute postprandial endothelial dysfunction. Thirteen healthy non-diabetic men (mean age, 44.9 ± 1.4 years) consumed a test beverage (active: containing CBPs, placebo: no CBPs) before a 554-kcal test meal containing 14 g of protein, 30 g of fat and 58 g of carbohydrates. Then, a crossover analysis was performed to investigate the time-dependent changes in flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in the brachial artery. In the active group, the postprandial impairment of FMD was significantly improved, the two-hour postprandial nitric oxide metabolite levels were significantly increased and the six-hour postprandial urinary 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α levels were significantly reduced compared to the placebo group. The test meal increased the levels of blood glucose, insulin and triglycerides in both groups with no significant intergroup differences. These findings indicate that CBPs intake ameliorates postprandial endothelial dysfunction in healthy men.

  1. Postprandial lipemia in young men and women of contrasting training status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herd, S L; Lawrence, J E; Malkova, D; Murphy, M H; Mastana, S; Hardman, A E

    2000-11-01

    This study compared the postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) response to a high-fat meal in trained and untrained normolipidemic young adults after 2 days' abstinence from exercise. Fifty-three subjects (11 endurance-trained men, 9 endurance-trained women, 10 sprint/strength-trained men, 11 untrained men, 11 untrained women) consumed a meal (1.2 g fat, 1.1 g carbohydrate, 66 kJ per kg body mass) after a 12-h fast. Venous blood samples were obtained in the fasted state and at intervals until 6 h. Postprandial responses were the areas under the plasma or serum concentration-vs.-time curves. Neither fasting TAG concentrations nor the postprandial TAG response differed between trained and untrained subjects. The insulinemic response was 29% lower in endurance-trained men than in untrained men [mean difference -37.4 (95% confidence interval -62.9 to -22.9) microIU/ml x h, P = 0.01]. Responses of plasma glucose, serum insulin, and plasma nonesterified fatty acids were all lower for endurance-trained men than for untrained men. These findings suggest that, in young adults, no effect of training on postprandial lipemia can be detected after 60 h without exercise. The effect on postprandial insulinemia may persist for longer.

  2. Post-prandial changes in protein synthesis in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Ian D; Fuiman, Lee A

    2011-06-01

    Protein synthesis is one of the major energy-consuming processes in all living organisms. Post-prandial changes in protein synthesis have been studied in a range of animal taxa but have been little studied in fish larvae. Using the flooding-dose method, we measured post-prandial changes in whole-body rates of protein synthesis in regularly fed red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus) larvae for 24-28 h following their daily meal. Fractional rates of protein synthesis increased from a baseline (pre-feeding) rate of 16% day(-1) to a post-prandial peak of 48% day(-1) ca. 8 h after feeding before declining to 12% day(-1) after 24-28 h. The overall mean daily rate of protein synthesis was calculated as 27% day(-1). Although suggested as energetically impossible in larval poikilotherms, our results show that rates in excess of 30% day(-1) can be attained by larval fishes for a few hours but are not sustained. The average daily energetic cost of protein synthesis was estimated as 34% of daily total oxygen consumption, ranging from 19% immediately before feeding to 61% during the post-prandial peak in protein synthesis. This suggests that during the post-prandial peak, protein synthesis will require a large proportion of the hourly energy production, which, given the limited metabolic scope in fish larvae, may limit the energy that could otherwise be allocated to other energy-costly functions, such as foraging and escape responses. PMID:21562168

  3. Peripheral arterial disease, type 2 diabetes and postprandial lipidaemia: Is there a link?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro; Valdivielso; José; Ramírez-Bollero; Carmen; Pérez-López

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease, manifested as intermittent claudication or critical ischaemia, or identified by an ankle/brachial index < 0.9, is present in at least one in every four patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Several reasons exist for peripheral arterial disease indiabetes. In addition to hyperglycaemia, smoking and hypertension, the dyslipidaemia that accompanies type2 diabetes and is characterised by increased triglyceride levels and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations also seems to contribute to this association. Recent years have witnessed an increased interest in postprandial lipidaemia, as a result of various prospective studies showing that non-fasting triglycerides predict the onset of arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease better than fasting measurements do. Additionally,the use of certain specific postprandial particle markers,such as apolipoprotein B-48, makes it easier and more simple to approach the postprandial phenomenon. Despite this, only a few studies have evaluated the role of postprandial triglycerides in the development of peripheral arterial disease and type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this review is to examine the epidemiology and risk factors of peripheral arterial disease in type 2 diabetes, focusing on the role of postprandial triglycerides and particles.

  4. Postprandial Triglyceride Is Associated with Fasting Triglyceride and HOMA-IR in Korean Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Hee Lee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRecent studies indicate postprandial triglyceride (TG had a better association with cardiovascular events and metabolic syndrome than fasting TG. The authors of the present study investigated the metabolic and clinical relevance of postprandial TG.MethodsIn a cross-sectional retrospective study, the authors of the present study compared fasting and postprandial TG and analyzed the relationship between postprandial TG and various demographic and metabolic parameters in 639 Korean subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D, group I, n=539 and impaired fasting glucose (IFG, group II, n=100 after ingestion of a standardized liquid meal (total 500 kcal, 17.5 g fat, 68.5 g carbohydrate, and 17.5 g protein.ResultsFasting and postprandial TG were significantly correlated (r=0.973, r=0.937, P<0.001 in group I and II, respectively. Of the variables, total cholesterol, waist circumference and body mass index were significantly correlated with fasting and postprandial TG in both groups. Only postprandial TG showed a significant correlation with glucose metabolic parameters (e.g., postprandial glucose, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], and fasting C-peptide in subjects with T2D. Multiple regression analysis showed fasting TG and HOMA-IR could be predictable variables for postprandial TG in subjects with T2D.ConclusionPostprandial TG was very strongly correlated with fasting TG. The authors of the present study suggest insulin resistance may be more associated with postprandial TG than fasting TG in Korean T2D patients on a low-fat diet.

  5. A whey protein supplement decreases post-prandial glycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Alexandra L

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incidence of diabetes, obesity and insulin resistance are associated with high glycemic load diets. Identifying food components that decrease post-prandial glycemia may be beneficial for developing low glycemic foods and supplements. This study explores the glycemic impact of adding escalating doses of a glycemic index lowering peptide fraction (GILP from whey to a glucose drink. Methods Ten healthy subjects (3M, 7F, 44.4 ± 9.3 years, BMI 33.6 ± 4.8 kg/m2 participated in an acute randomised controlled study. Zero, 5, 10 and 20 g of protein from GILP were added to a 50 g glucose drink. The control (0 g of GILP meal was repeated 2 times. Capillary blood samples were taken fasting (0 min and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after the start of the meal and analyzed for blood glucose concentration. Results Increasing doses of GILP decreased the incremental areas under the curve in a dose dependant manner (Pearson's r = 0.48, p = 0.002. The incremental areas (iAUC under the glucose curve for the 0, 5, 10, and 20 g of protein from GILP were 231 ± 23, 212 ± 23, 196 ± 23, and 138 ± 13 mmol.min/L respectively. The iAUC of the 20 g GILP was significantly different from control, 5 g GILP and 10 g GILP (p Conclusion Addition of GILP to a oral glucose bolus reduces blood glucose iAUC in a dose dependent manner and averages 4.6 ± 1.4 mmol.min/L per gram of GILP. These data are consistent with previous research on the effect of protein on the glycemic response of a meal.

  6. Photonic Crystal Fiber Attenuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joo Beom Eom; Hokyung Kim; Jinchae Kim; Un-Chul Paek; Byeong Ha Lee

    2003-01-01

    We propose a novel fiber attenuator based on photonic crystal fibers. The difference in the modal field diameters of a conventional single mode fiber and a photonic crystal fiber was used. A variable optical attenuator was also achieved by applying macro-bending on the PCF part of the proposed attenuator

  7. A novel technique of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass reversal for postprandial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycaemia: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvigstad, E.; Gulseth, H.L.; Risstad, H.; le Roux, C.W.; Berg, T.J.; Mala, T.; Kristinsson, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background We describe an evaluation of the effects of partial Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) reversal on postprandial hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia, insulin and GLP-1 levels. Case summary A 37 year old man was admitted with neuroglycopenia (plasma–glucose 1.6 mmol/l) 18 months after RYGB, with normal 72 h fasting test and abdominal CT. Despite dietary modifications and medical treatment, the hypoglycaemic episodes escalated in frequency. Feeding by a gastrostomy tube positioned in the gastric remnant did not prevent severe episodes of hypoglycaemia. A modified reversal of the RYGB was performed. Mixed meal tests were done perorally (PO), through the gastrostomy tube 1 (GT1), 4 weeks (GT2) after placement and 4 weeks after reversal (POr), with assessment of glucose, insulin and GLP-1 levels. Results Plasma–glucose increased to a maximum of 9.6, 5.4, 6.5 and 5.8 mmol/l at the PO, GT1, GT2 and POr tests respectively. The corresponding insulin levels were 2939, 731, 725 and 463 pmol/l. A decrease of plasma–glucose followed: 2.2, 3.0, 3.9 and 2.9 mmol/l respectively and insulin levels were suppressed at 150 min: 45, 22, 21 and 14 pmol/l, respectively. GLP-1 levels increased in the PO test (60 min: 122 pmol/l, 21 fold of basal), but was attenuated in the two latter tests (12–23 pmol/l at 60 min). Conclusions Reduction of plasma–glucose, insulin and GLP-1 excursions and symptoms were seen after gastric tube placement and partial RYGB reversal. This attenuation of GLP-1 response to feeding could reflect an adaptation to nutrients. PMID:26957187

  8. Effect of 6 dietary fatty acids on the postprandial lipid profile, plasma fatty acids, lipoprotein lipase, and cholesterol ester transfer activities in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Sandstrøm, B.; Bysted, Anette;

    2001-01-01

    Background: There is increasing evidence that postprandial triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins may be related to atherogenic risk. Objective: The objective was to investigate the effect of individual fatty acid intakes on postprandial plasma lipoprotein triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations...

  9. Acute differential effects of dietary protein quality on postprandial lipemia in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Mortensen, Lene Sundahl; Astrup, Arne;

    2013-01-01

    Non-fasting triglyceridemia is much closer associated to cardiovascular risk compared to fasting triglyceridemia. We hypothesized that there would be acute differential effects of four common dietary proteins (cod protein, whey isolate, gluten, and casein) on postprandial lipemia in obese non......-diabetic subjects. To test the hypothesis we conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study with crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins i.e. cod protein, whey protein, gluten or casein. Eleven obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, body mass index: 30.......3-42.0 kg/m(2)) participated and blood samples were drawn in the 8-h postprandial period. Supplementation of a fat rich mixed meal with whey protein caused lower postprandial lipemia (P = .048) compared to supplementation with cod protein and gluten. This was primarily due to lower triglyceride...

  10. Acute differential effects of milk-derived dietary proteins on postprandial lipaemia in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Hartvigsen, Merete; Mortensen, L.S.;

    2012-01-01

    Postprandial lipaemia is an established risk factor for atherosclerosis. To investigate the acute effect of four milk-derived dietary proteins (alpha-lactalbumin, whey isolate, caseinoglycomacropeptide and whey hydrolysate) on postprandial lipaemia, we have conducted a randomized, acute, single-b...

  11. Impaired first-phase insulin response predicts postprandial blood glucose increment in patients with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, C; Rosenfalck, A M; Dejgaard, Anders;

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between postprandial blood glucose and first-phase insulin response and, furthermore, to assess whether the intravenous glucagon stimulation test can be used as a predictor for increased postprandial glucose in patients with recently diagnosed...... type 2 diabetes....

  12. The link between high-fat meals and postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII possibly involves kallikrein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L F; Marckmann, P; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie;

    2000-01-01

    by monocytes, factor XII or insulin in postprandial FVII activation was observed. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor and prothrombin fragment 1+2, a marker of thrombin generation, were not affected postprandially after either the high-fat or the low-fat meals. Our findings indicate that triglyceride...

  13. Differential postprandial lipoprotein responses in type 2 diabetic men with and without clinical evidence of a former myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Marius; Thomsen, Claus; Gotzsche, Ole;

    2005-01-01

    Postprandial lipemia plays an important role in the development of coronary heart disease through an elevation of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. In type 2 diabetic male subjects, our aim was to compare postprandial lipemia in a high-risk population with former myocardial infarction (MI) with tha...

  14. Plasma metabolomics and proteomics profiling after a postprandial challenge reveal subtle diet effects on human metabolic status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellis, L.; Erk, M.J. van; Ommen, B. van; Bakker, G.C.M.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Cnubben, N.H.P.; Kleemann, R.; Someren, E.P. van; Bobeldijk, I.; Rubingh, C.M.; Wopereis, S.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the metabolomics and proteomics based Postprandial Challenge Test (PCT) to quantify the postprandial response of multiple metabolic processes in humans in a standardized manner. The PCT comprised consumption of a standardized 500 ml dairy shake containing respectively 59, 30 and 12 ener

  15. A single session of neuromuscular electrical stimulation does not augment postprandial muscle protein accretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Marlou L; Wall, Benjamin T; Kramer, Irene Fleur; Zorenc, Antoine H; Goessens, Joy P B; Gijsen, Annemie P; van Loon, Luc J C

    2016-07-01

    The loss of muscle mass and strength that occurs with aging, termed sarcopenia, has been (at least partly) attributed to an impaired muscle protein synthetic response to food intake. Previously, we showed that neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) can stimulate fasting muscle protein synthesis rates and prevent muscle atrophy during disuse. We hypothesized that NMES prior to protein ingestion would increase postprandial muscle protein accretion. Eighteen healthy elderly (69 ± 1 yr) males participated in this study. After a 70-min unilateral NMES protocol was performed, subjects ingested 20 g of intrinsically l-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine-labeled casein. Plasma samples and muscle biopsies were collected to assess postprandial mixed muscle and myofibrillar protein accretion as well as associated myocellular signaling during a 4-h postprandial period in both the control (CON) and stimulated (NMES) leg. Protein ingestion resulted in rapid increases in both plasma phenylalanine concentrations and l-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine enrichments, which remained elevated during the entire 4-h postprandial period (P 0.05). In agreement, no differences were observed in the postprandial rise in myofibrillar protein bound l-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine enrichments between the CON and NMES legs (0.0115 ± 0.0014 vs. 0.0133 ± 0.0013 MPE, respectively, P > 0.05). Significant increases in mTOR and P70S6K phosphorylation status were observed in the NMES-stimulated leg only (P food intake does not augment postprandial muscle protein accretion in healthy older men. PMID:27279248

  16. Effects of acute sprint interval cycling and energy replacement on postprandial lipemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Eric C; Levine, Ari S; Chapman, Donald P; Hausman, Dorothy B; Cureton, Kirk J

    2011-12-01

    High postprandial blood triglyceride (TG) levels increase cardiovascular disease risk. Exercise interventions may be effective in reducing postprandial blood TG. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of sprint interval cycling (SIC), with and without replacement of the energy deficit, on postprandial lipemia. In a repeated-measures crossover design, six men and six women participated in three trials, each taking place over 2 days. On the evening of the first day of each trial, the participants either did SIC without replacing the energy deficit (Ex-Def), did SIC and replaced the energy deficit (Ex-Bal), or did not exercise (control). SIC was performed on a cycle ergometer and involved four 30-s all-out sprints with 4-min active recovery. In the morning of day 2, responses to a high-fat meal were measured. Venous blood samples were collected in the fasted state and at 0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min postprandial. There was a trend toward a reduction with treatment in fasting TG (P = 0.068), but no significant treatment effect for fasting insulin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, or betahydroxybutryrate (P > 0.05). The postprandial area under the curve (mmol·l(-1)·3 h(-1)) TG response was significantly lower in Ex-Def (21%, P = 0.006) and Ex-Bal (10%, P = 0.044) than in control, and significantly lower in Ex-Def (12%, P = 0.032) than in Ex-Bal. There was no treatment effect (P > 0.05) observed for area under the curve responses of insulin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, or betahydroxybutryrate. SIC reduces postprandial lipemia, but the energy deficit alone does not fully explain the decrease observed.

  17. Apolipoprotein E polymorphism influences postprandial retinyl palmitate but not triglyceride concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerwinkle, E. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX (United States)); Brown, S.; Patsch, W. (Methodist Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)); Sharrett, A.R. (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)); Heiss, G. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States))

    1994-02-01

    To quantify the effect of the apolipoprotein (apo) E polymorphism on the magnitude of postprandial lipemia, the authors have defined its role in determining the response to a single high-fat meal in a large sample of (N = 474) individuals taking part in the biethnic Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. The profile of postprandial response in plasma was monitored over 8 h by triglyceride, triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TGRL)-triglyceride, apo B-48/apo B-100 ratio, and retinyl palmitate concentrations, and the apo E polymorphism was determined by DNA amplification and digestion. The frequency of the apo E alleles and their effects on fasting lipid levels in this sample with vitamin A was significantly different among apo E genotypes, with delayed clearance in individuals with an [var epsilon]2 allele, compared with [var epsilon]3/3 and [var epsilon]3/4 individuals. In the sample of 397 Caucasians, average retinyl palmitate response was 1,489 [mu]g/dl in [var epsilon]2/3 individuals, compared with 1,037 [mu]g/dl in [var epsilon]3/3 individuals and 1,108 [mu]g/dl in [var epsilon]3/4 individuals. The apo E polymorphism accounted for 7.1% of the interindividual variation in postprandial retinyl palmitate response, a contribution proportionally greater than its well-known effect on fasting LDL-cholesterol. However, despite this effect on postprandial retinyl palmitate, the profile of postprandial triglyceride response was not significantly different among apo E genotypes. The profile of postprandial response was consistent between the sample of Caucasians and a smaller sample of black subjects. While these data indicate that the removal of remnant particles from circulation is delayed in subjects with the [var epsilon]2/3 genotype, there is no reported evidence that the [var epsilon]2 allele predisposes to coronary artery disease (CAD). 82 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. EVALUATION OF FASTING AND POSTPRANDIAL SERUM GASTRIN AND PEPSINOGEN I AND II IN HEALTHY SUBJECTS AND POSITIVE HELICOBACTER PYLORI-DUODENAL ULCER PATIENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out to clarify the relation between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and levels of serum gastrin and pepsinogen (PG) I and II in patients suffered upper gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. The present study was suggested to assess the relation between fast and postprandial serum levels of gastrin and PG I and II in healthy subjects and positive H. pylori-duodenal ulcer (DU) patients after high protein diet intake. In patients with H. pylori, ammonia and hypergastrinemia and/or gastritis were observed.Blood samples were collected from 25 healthy individual and 25 H. pylori-DU patients at 0, 60 and 120 min after meal rich in protein. The concentrations of fasting and postprandial serum gastrin and PG I and II in both healthy subjects and positive H. pylori-DU patients were assayed by radioimmunoassay.Serum gastrin and PG I and II concentrations were significantly increased in H. pylori-DU patients (P<0.05). In healthy subjects, serum gastrin levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05) 1 h after the meal vs. 0 h. In positive H. pylori-DU patients, serum gastrin levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05) 1 h after the meal vs. 0 h while in serum PG I and II levels, there was significant difference between all tested groups.It could be concluded that the rich protein meal has a role only on serum gastrin in healthy subjects while it has a role on gastrin, PG I and II on positive H. pylori-DU patients pointing to the possible restriction of high protein intake in positive H. pylori-DU patients to avoid worse prognosis

  19. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Simonetti, Rosa G;

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory.......Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory....

  20. The efficacy of Ezetimibe added to ongoing Fibrate-Statin therapy on postprandial lipid profile in the patients with type 2 Diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Sharifi, Faranak; Hojeghani, Nima; Mazloomzadeh, Saeideh; Shajari, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in diabetes mellitus can be followed by endothelial dysfunction, impaired vascular compliance and increased cardiovascular complications. So focus on better control of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia is as important as controlling fasting triglyceride level in type 2 DM. Objective We evaluated the effect of ezetimibe adding to fibrate or statin on postprandial hypertriglyceridemia. Methods In a randomized controlled clinical trial, 47 subjects wi...

  1. Epigenetic mechanisms and gastrointestinal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review considers the hypothesis that nutrition during infancy affects developmental epigenetics in the gut, causing metabolic imprinting of gastrointestinal (GI) structure and function. Fundamentals of epigenetic gene regulation are reviewed, with an emphasis on the epigenetic mechanism of DNA ...

  2. Sleep Dysfunction and Gastrointestinal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanijow, Vikesh; Prakash, Pia; Emsellem, Helene A; Borum, Marie L; Doman, David B

    2015-12-01

    Sleep deprivation and impaired sleep quality have been associated with poor health outcomes. Many patients experience sleep disturbances, which can increase the risk of medical conditions such as hypertension, obesity, stroke, and heart disease as well as increase overall mortality. Recent studies have suggested that there is a strong association between sleep disturbances and gastrointestinal diseases. Proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6, have been associated with sleep dysfunction. Alterations in these cytokines have been seen in certain gastrointestinal diseases, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, inflammatory bowel disease, liver disorders, and colorectal cancer. It is important for gastroenterologists to be aware of the relationship between sleep disorders and gastrointestinal illnesses to ensure good care for patients. This article reviews the current research on the interplay between sleep disorders, immune function, and gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:27134599

  3. Primary pediatric gastrointestinal lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Bandyopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL of the gastrointestinal (GI tract is the most common extranodal lymphoma in pediatric age group. Yet, the overall incidence is very low. The rarity of the disease as well as variable clinical presentation prevents early detection when the possibility of cure exists. Materials and Methods: We studied six cases of primary GI NHL in pediatric age group with reference to their clinical presentation, anatomic distribution and histopathologic characteristics. Results: All were males except one. Intestinal obstruction was the presenting feature in 50%. Half the cases showed ileocaecal involvement, while large bowel was involved in 16%. Histology showed four cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL, one case of Burkitt lymphoma, and one Burkitt-like lymphoma. Immunohistochemistry for Tdt, CD20, CD3, CD30, bcl2, bcl6 confirmed the morphological diagnosis. Conclusion: Pediatric GI lymphoma commonly involves the ileocaecal region and presents with intestinal obstruction. A higher prevalence of DLBCL is found compared to other series. A high proliferative index is useful in differentiating Burkitt-like lymphoma from DLBCL.

  4. Feline gastrointestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamoto, Yasushi; Hooda, Seema; Swanson, Kelly S; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2012-06-01

    The close relationship between gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota and its host has an impact on the health status of an animal that reaches beyond the GI tract. A balanced microbiome stimulates the immune system, aids in the competitive exclusion of transient pathogens and provides nutritional benefits to the host. With recent rapid advances in high-throughput sequencing technology, molecular approaches have become the routinely used tools for ecological studies of the feline microbiome, and have revealed a highly diverse and complex intestinal ecosystem in the feline GI tract. The major bacterial groups are similar to those found in other mammals, with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria constituting more than 99% of intestinal microbiota. Several nutritional studies have demonstrated that the feline microbiota can be modulated by the amount of soluble fibers (i.e., prebiotics) and macronutrients (i.e., protein content) in the diet. Initial clinical studies have suggested the presence of a dysbiosis in feline inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recently, metagenomic approaches have attempted to characterize the microbial gene pool. However, more studies are needed to describe the phylogenetic and functional changes in the intestinal microbiome in disease states and in response to environmental and dietary modulations. This paper reviews recent studies cataloging the microbial phylotypes in the GI tract of cats.

  5. Epidemiology of gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selikoff, I J

    1974-12-01

    Some 99,000 new cases of cancer of the colon are expected next year, an incidence rate higher than that for both cancer of the lung and cancer of the breast. Evidence from geographic pathology suggests that some environmental factors play a strong role in its etiology. Data obtained in the 1959 survey of one million people by the American Cancer Society and followed since, has failed to show correlation with any of the large number of factors listed. It is suggested that the etiology is one of multiple factors. The synergistic effect of exposure to asbestos and cigarette smoking in the production of bronchogenic carcinoma is demonstrated by data on cohorts of insulation workers. There was also a modest increase in the number of deaths from gastrointestinal cancer in asbestos workers, but smoking did not seem to act in synergistic fashion at that site, except perhaps in the esophagus. Deaths from cancer occurred almost entirely after a period of 20 years or more from initial exposure. The death rate from cancer tended to increase with duration of exposure, but a distinct rise over the expected was seen in those who had been exposed less than one year to amosite dust. PMID:4470947

  6. [Acute gastrointestinal bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbach, Robert; Faiss, Siegbert; Cordruwisch, Wolfgang; Schrader, Carsten

    2016-04-01

    Acute gastrointestinal bleeding is a common major emergency (Internal medical or gastroenterological or medical), approximately 85 % of which occur in the upper GI tract. It is estimated that about a half of upper GI bleeds are caused by peptic ulcers. Upper GI bleeds are associated with more severe bleeding and poorer outcomes when compared to middle or lower GI bleeds. Prognostic determinants include bleeding intensity, patient age, comorbid conditions and the concomitant use of anticoagulants. A focused medical history can offer insight into the bleeding intensity, location and potential cause (along with early risk stratification). Initial measures should focus on rapid assessment and resuscitation of unstable patients. The oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD) is the gold standard method for localizing the source of bleeding and for interventional therapy. Bleeding as a result of peptic ulcers is treated endoscopically with mechanical and / or thermal techniques in combination with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. When variceal bleeding is suspected, pre-interventional use of vasopressin analogues and antibiotic therapies are recommended. Endoscopically, the first line treatment of esophageal varices is endoscopic ligature therapy, whereas that for gastric varices is the use of Histoacryl injection sclerotherapy. When persistent and continued massive hemorrhage occurs in a patient with known or suspected aortic disease the possibility of an aorto-enteric fistula must be considered. PMID:27078246

  7. Gastrointestinal function development and microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Di Mauro, Antonio; Neu, Josef; Riezzo, Giuseppe; Raimondi, Francesco; Martinelli, Domenico; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Indrio, Flavia

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the development of post-natal gastrointestinal functions of the host. Recent advances in our capability to identify microbes and their function offer exciting opportunities to evaluate the complex cross talk between microbiota, intestinal barrier, immune system and the gut-brain axis. This review summarizes these interactions in the early colonization of gastrointestinal tract with a major focus on the role of intestinal microbiota in the p...

  8. The Frequency and Severity of Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Patients with Early Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Young Sung

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective Although gastrointestinal dysfunctions occur in the majority of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD, they are often unrecognized because many patients remain relatively asymptomatic in the early stage. We investigated the frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with PD using newly developed gastrointestinal symptom questionnaires. Methods Early PD patients with a symptom duration not exceeding 3 years were included in this study. All PD patients were evaluated using a questionnaire, which consisted of three relevant domains: oropharyngoesophageal (10 items; gastric (3 items; and intestinal-anorectal (7 items. The frequency of symptoms was calculated as a proportion with an item score ≥ 2. Results Of the 54 patients enrolled, 48 patients (88.9% responded that bowel symptoms developed before the onset of Parkinsonian motor symptoms, and four patients reported that the onset of two types of symptoms (i.e., bowel and neurological occurred approximately simultaneously, with only months between them. The frequencies of gastrointestinal symptoms are as follows: speech disturbance (40.7%, drooling (24.1%, sense of getting stuck (31.5%, choking (27.8%, globus pharyngis (16.7%, repetitive deglutition (29.6%, pain during swallowing (5.6%, food regurgitation (3.7%, acid reflux (7.4%, nausea/vomiting (11.1%, early satiety (16.7%, postprandial fullness (14.8%, epigastric soreness (9.3%, abdominal pain (3.7%, constipation (46.3%, excessive strain during defecation (33.3%, fecal incontinence (7.4%, tenesmus (20.4%, loose stool or diarrhea (3.7%, and difficulty in relaxing anal sphincter (11.1%. Two patients were scored at zero. Conclusions Our findings confirm that gastrointestinal dysfunction occurs in early PD in relatively high frequency.

  9. Foreign bodies in gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Kefeli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ingested foreign bodies in gastrointestinal tract are a common event which can cause serious morbidity and mortality in the children and adult population. For this reason, early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for preventing these life threatening complications. In this study, we aimed to analyze the characteristics of the patients with upper gastrointestinal foreign bodies that were treated in our department. Methods: Patients diagnosed with upper gastrointestinal foreign bodies who were admitted to our hospital between February 2010 and August2013 were evaluated retrospectively. The data regarding their age, gender, clinical profile, type and localization of the esophageal foreign body, performed endoscopic procedure and initial symptoms of the patients were noted and analyzed statistically. Results: Thirty-eight patients with a diagnosis of gastrointestinal foreign body were included in this study. Of these patients, 21 were male and 17 were female. The youngest patient was 17 years old and the oldest patient was 79 years old. Most of the foreign bodies (%55.3 detected in the stomach. Food waste and metallic objects in 21 and 16 patients respectively. The most common complaint was dysphagia (%50. After endoscopic intervention three of the patients were directed to surgery. Conclusion: Early recognition and treatment of gastrointestinal foreign bodies is important as their complications are life threatening. The best method of removal of foreign bodies is controversial. Early management with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the most efficient and safe treatment method in current conditions.

  10. Surveillance for gastrointestinal malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashish K Tiwari; Heather S Laird-Fick; Ramesh K Wali; Hemant K Roy

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are notorious for frequently progressing to advanced stages even in the absence of serious symptoms,thus leading to delayed diagnoses and dismal prognoses.Secondary prevention of GI malignancies through early detection and treatment of cancer-precursor/premalignant lesions,therefore,is recognized as an effective cancer prevention strategy.In order to efficiently detect these lesions,systemic application of screening tests (surveillance) is needed.However,most of the currently used non-invasive screening tests for GI malignancies (for example,serum markers such as alpha-fetoprotein for hepatocellular carcinoma,and fecal occult blood test,for colon cancer) are only modestly effective necessitating the use of highly invasive endoscopy-based procedures,such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy for screening purposes.Even for hepatocellular carcinoma where non-invasive imaging (ultrasonography) has become a standard screening tool,the need for repeated liver biopsies of suspicious liver nodules for histopathological confirmation can't be avoided.The invasive nature and high-cost associated with these screening tools hinders implementation of GI cancer screening programs.Moreover,only a small fraction of general population is truly predisposed to developing GI malignancies,and indeed needs surveillance.To spare the average-risk individuals from superfluous invasive procedures and achieve an economically viable model of cancer prevention,it's important to identify cohorts in general population that are at substantially high risk of developing GI malignancies (riskstratification),and select suitable screening tests for surveillance in these cohorts.We herein provide a brief overview of such high-risk cohorts for different GI malignancies,and the screening strategies that have commonly been employed for surveillance purpose in them.

  11. Primary gastrointestinal lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Aledavood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extranodal lymphoma may arise anywhere outside lymph nodes mostly in the gastrointestinal (GI tract as non-Hodgkin′s disease. We reviewed the clinicopathological features and treatment results of patients with primary GI lymphoma. Materials and Methods : A total number of 30 cases with primary GI lymphoma were included in this study. Patients referred to the Radiation Oncology Department of Omid Hospital (Mashhad, Iran during a 5-year period (2006-11. Clinical, paraclinical, and radiological data was collected from medical records of the patients. Results: Out of the 30 patients with primary GI lymphoma in the study, 12 were female (40% and 18 were male (60% (male to female ratio: 3/2. B symptoms were present in 27 patients (90%. Antidiuretic hormone (LDH levels were elevated in 9 patients (32.1%. The most common primary site was stomach in 14 cases (46.7%. Other common sites included small intestine and colon each in 8 patients (26.7%. All patients had histopathologically proven non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma. The most common histologic subtype was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL in 16 patients (53.3%. In addition, 28 patients (93.3% received chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, prednisolone (CHOP regimen. The median course of chemotherapy was 6 cources. Moreover, 8 patients (26.7% received radiotherapy with cobalt 60. The median follow-up time was 26 months. The overall 5-year survival rate was 53% and the median survival time was 60 months. Conclusion : Primary GI lymphoma is commonly seen in stomach and small intestine and mostly is DLBCL or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma.

  12. Mechanisms of Gastric Emptying Disturbances in Chronic and Acute Inflammation of the Distal Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Jutta; Beglinger, Christoph; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2009-01-01

    Objective: It is unclear why patients with inflammation of the distal bowel complain of symptoms referable to the upper gastrointestinal tract, specifically to gastric emptying (GE) disturbances. Thus, we aimed to determine occurrence and putative pathomechanisms of gastric motor disorders...... (25.1[5.2] vs. 33.5[13.0] pmol/l, p=0.046) but markedly decreased in DIV (9.6[5.2] pmol/l, pdisturbances are most pronounced in CD and might partly be caused by excessive CCK release. In DIV there might...... be a pathophysiological link between decreased GLP-1 release, postprandial hyperglycemia and delayed GE. These explorative data encourage further studies in larger patient groups. Key words: inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulitis, motility, hormonal regulation....

  13. Effect of a high-protein breakfast on the postprandial ghrelin response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Wendy A M; Lluch, Anne; Stafleu, Annette;

    2006-01-01

    -carbohydrate breakfast (HC) through suppression of postprandial ghrelin concentrations or through other physiologic processes. DESIGN: Fifteen healthy men were studied in a single-blind, crossover design. Blood samples and subjective measures of satiety were assessed frequently for 3 h after the consumption of 2...

  14. Pre and postprandial changes in orexigenic and anorexigenic factors in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin (GRLN), cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and cholecystokinin (CCK) are neuropeptides involved in the regulation of appetite and feeding in vertebrates. We examined pre- and postprandial changes in the expression of plasma GHRL and mRNAs encoding GRL...

  15. Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin Kexin Type 9 Null Mice Are Protected From Postprandial Triglyceridemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le May, Cedric; Kourimate, Sanae; Langhi, Cedric; Chetiveaux, Maud; Jarry, Anne; Comera, Christine; Collet, Xavier; Kuipers, Folkert; Krempf, Michel; Cariou, Bertrand; Costet, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Objectives-Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a natural inhibitor of the low-density lipoprotein receptor, and its deficiency in humans results in low plasma LDL-cholesterol and protection against cardiovascular disease. We explored whether PCSK9 expression impacts postprandial

  16. PUFAs acutely affect triacylglycerol-derived skeletal muscle fatty acid uptake and increase postprandial insulin sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jans, A.; Konings, E.; Goossens, G.H.; Bouwman, F.G.; Moors, C.C.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Afman, L.A.; Muller, M.R.; Mariman, E.C.; Blaak, E.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dietary fat quality may influence skeletal muscle lipid processing and fat accumulation, thereby modulating insulin sensitivity. Objective: The objective was to examine the acute effects of meals with various fatty acid (FA) compositions on skeletal muscle FA processing and postprandial

  17. Study of Postprandial Lipaemia in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Exenatide versus Liraglutide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Voukali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic approaches based on the actions of the incretin hormone GLP-1 have been widely established in the management of T2DM. Nevertheless, much less research has been aimed at elucidating the role of GLP-1 in lipid metabolism and in particular postprandial dyslipidemia. Exenatide and liraglutide are two GLP-1 receptor agonists which are currently available as subcutaneously administered treatment for T2DM but their chronic effects on postprandial lipaemia have not been well investigated. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of treatment with either liraglutide or exenatide for two weeks on postprandial lipaemia in obese subjects with T2DM. This study was a single-center, two-armed, randomized, controlled 2-week prospective intervention trial in 20 subjects with T2DM. Patients were randomized to receive either liraglutide or exenatide treatment and underwent a standardized meal tolerance test early in the morning after 10 h fast at baseline (visit 1, beginning of treatment and after a two-week treatment period (visit 2. Exenatide and liraglutide both appear to be equally effective in lowering postprandial lipaemia after the first administration and after a two-week treatment. The mechanisms which lead to this phenomenon, which seem to be independent of gastric emptying, are yet to be studied.

  18. An investigation of acarbose effects in PCOS women with postprandial hyperglycemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑建淮; 曹缵孙; 陈晓燕; 毛文军

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of insulin resistance on serum androgen level and ovulation of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and observe clinic role of acarbose in the treatment of hyperinsulinemia, postprandial hyperglycemia and anovulation. Methods: 14 women accompanied by postprandial hyperglycemia with PCOS were administrated by acarbose for 12 weeks.14 age-matched individuals who had similar body mass index and normal menstruation were served as controls. Results: Serum T levels declined significantly from 4.09±1.04 nmol/L to 1.71±0.54 nmol/L (P<0.001), after acarbose treatment for 12 weeks. 12 out of 14 cases restored ovulation and menstrual cycles after acarbose treatment, among which 4 got pregnant. Conclusion: Acarbose may play a role on reducing postprandial hyperglycemia and HbAic levels, increase ISI and FSG/FI, indirectly reduce serum androgen levels through reducing plasma insulin level and recover ovarian ovulation in PCOS women with postprandial hyperglycemia.

  19. Postprandial lipemia in men with metabolic syndrome, hypertensives and healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraklianou Stella A

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome (MetS, as well as postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, is associated with coronary heart disease. This study aimed to evaluate the postprandial lipemia after oral fat tolerance test (OFTT in subjects with MetS and compare them to hypertensive (HTN and healthy subjects. Results OFTT was given to 33 men with MetS (defined by the Adult Treatment Panel III, 17 HTN and 14 healthy men. The MetS group was further divided according to fasting triglycerides (TG into TG ≥ 150 [MetS+TG, (n = 22] or The postprandial response was significantly higher in MetS compared to HTN and healthy men [AUC (SD in mg/dl/h; 2534 ± 1016 vs. 1620 ± 494 and 1019 ± 280, respectively, p ≤ 0.001]. The TG levels were increased significantly in MetS+TG compared to MetS-TG subjects at 4 (p = 0.022, 6 (p Conclusion Fasting TG concentration is the main determinant of postprandial lipemia. However, an exaggeration of TG postprandialy was found in normotriglyceridemic MetS and HTN compared to healthy subjects. This suggests that intervention to lower fasting TG levels should be recommended in MetS subjects.

  20. Assessment and clinical relevance of non-fasting and postprandial triglycerides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Kovar, Jan;

    2011-01-01

    An Expert Panel group of scientists and clinicians met to consider several aspects related to non-fasting and postprandial triglycerides (TGs) and their role as risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this context, we review recent epidemiological studies relevant to elevated non...

  1. Reduced postprandial GLP-1 responses in women with gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, L; Vilsbøll, T; Nielsen, T;

    2013-01-01

    AIM: We investigated postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) responses in pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and again following delivery when normal glucose tolerance (NGT) was re-established. METHODS: Eleven women with GDM [plasma glucose (PG) concentration...

  2. Effects of Breaking Sitting by Standing and Acute Exercise on Postprandial Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Sedentary behavior, which includes sitting and TV viewing, has been identified as an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Breaking sedentary behavior improves metabolic health such as postprandial glycaemia and insulinemia. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect are unclear. Objectives Here, we examined whether breaking sitting by standing and acute exercise reduces postprandial oxidative stress. Patient and Methods Fifteen participants performed 3 trials (sitting, standing, and exercise, each lasting 2 days, in a randomised order. On day one of sitting trial, participants sat in a chair. For the standing trial, the participants stood 6 times, for a 45-minute period each time. For the exercise trial, the participants walked or ran at approximately 60% of age-predicted maximum heart rate for 30 minutes. On day two of each trial, participants rested and consumed the standardised breakfast and lunch. Blood samples were collected in the morning and afternoon on day one, and fasting and at 2, 4, and 6 hours postprandially on day two. Results The concentrations of serum derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs measured at 4 hours (P = 0.064 and 6 hours (P = 0.071 tended to be higher than that in the fasting state in the sitting trial, but not standing and exercise trial (two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA, trial × time interaction, P = 0.006. Conclusions Our results indicate the importance of reducing sitting time for improving postprandial oxidative stress status.

  3. Dairy proteins, dairy lipids, and postprandial lipemia in persons with abdominal obesity (DairyHealth)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohl, Mette; Bjørnshave, Ann; Rasmussen, Kia V.; Schioldan, Anne Grethe; Amer, Bashar; Larsen, Mette K.; Dalsgaard, Trine K.; Holst, Jens J.; Herrmann, Annkatrin; O'Neill, Sadhbh; O'Driscoll, Lorraine; Afman, Lydia; Jensen, Erik; Christensen, Merete M.; Gregersen, Søren; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abdominal obesity and exaggerated postprandial lipemia are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality, and both are affected by dietary behavior. Objective: We investigated whether dietary supplementation with whey protein and medium-chain saturated fatty

  4. Pre and postprandial changes in orexigenic and anorexigenic factors in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined pre- and postprandial changes in the expression of plasma ghrelin (GHRL) and mRNAs encoding GRLN, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and cholecystokinin (CCK) in channel catfish. Fish were either offered feed (Fed) or fasted (Unfed). Feeding incr...

  5. The structure of wheat bread influences the postprandial metabolic response in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W. J.; Sozer, Nesli; Koehorst, Martijn; Holst, Jens J.; Deacon, Carolyn F.; Rehfeld, Jens F.; Poutanen, Kaisa; Vonk, Roel J.; Oudhuis, Lizette; Priebe, Marion G.

    2015-01-01

    Postprandial high glucose and insulin responses after starchy food consumption, associated with an increased risk of developing several metabolic diseases, could possibly be improved by altering food structure. We investigated the influence of a compact food structure; different wheat products with

  6. Hepatic fat is not associated with beta-cell function or postprandial free fatty acid response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkelijkhuizen, J.M.; Doesburg, T.; Girman, C.J.; Mari, A.; Rhodes, T.; Gastaldelli, A.; Nijpels, M.G.A.A.M.; Dekker, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the association of hepatic fat with beta-cell function estimated from the oral glucose tolerance test. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that postprandial free fatty acid (FFA) suppression after a meal tolerance test (MTT) is linked to hepatic fat. Individuals with normal glucose me

  7. Diagnosis of bile acid diarrhoea by fasting and postprandial measurements of fibroblast growth factor 19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Christian; Syversen, Charlotte; Bouchelouche, Pierre;

    2015-01-01

    in the fasting state 1 week later. RESULTS: Nine of 26 patients had SeHCAT less than 10% and fasting FGF19 was lower [median 62 pg/ml, interquartile range (IQR): 47-67] than in the 17 diarrhoea controls with SeHCAT at least 10% (median 103 pg/ml, IQR: 77-135, P=0.006). Postprandial FGF19 in BAD patients (61 pg....../ml, IQR: 48-69) was similar to fasting values (P=0.59) and increased insignificantly in diarrhoea controls (137 pg/ml, IQR: 88-182; P=0.25). The difference in postprandial FGF19 between patients with BAD and diarrhoea controls was highly significant (P... between groups of patients with BAD and diarrhoea controls is amplified postprandially. Within each group, the difference between fasting and postprandial FGF19 was not statistically significant. Further investigations are warranted on stimulated FGF19 response to elucidate its role in BAD....

  8. Variable laser attenuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltyn, Stephen R.

    1988-01-01

    The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprng one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength.

  9. [Efficacy and tolerance of cinitapride on the disturbances of gastrointestinal transit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego Santos, J; Fombuena Filpo, J; Martínez López, J

    1991-01-01

    In order to evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of cinitapride, 103 patients with gastrointestinal disorders were admitted to a randomized, parallel, double blind trial for treatment with cinitapride, metoclopramide or placebo. Cinitapride was significantly more effective than metoclopramide in restoring normal defecation rates in constipated patients after 7 and 14 days of treatment (p = 0.036 and p = 0.008) and significantly more effective than placebo in restoring normal consistency of compact stools after 7 and 14 days of treatment (p = 0.006 and p = 0.051). Cinitrapide also proved to be significantly more effective than metoclopramide in curing or improving post-prandial epigastric distention (p = 0.031), post-prandial epigastric fullness (p = 0.037) and abdominal pain (p = 0.002) after 7 and 14 days of treatment. After treatment with cinitapride, dyspeptic symptoms disappeared or improved in 56-82% of patients. The efficacy rates in controlling gastrointestinal transit disorders, according to the investigators, were 64% for cinitapride, 28% for metoclopramide (p = 0.004) and 39% for placebo (p = 0.031) and, according to the patients, 55% for cinitapride, 25% for metoclopramide (p = 0.014) and 39% for placebo, 44% of the patients treated with cinitapride, 51% of the patients treated with metoclopramide and 26% of the patients treated with placebo reported and adverse reaction, with statistically significant differences between metoclopramide and placebo (p = 0.031). The tolerance rates, according to the investigators, were 82% for cinitapride, 64% for metoclopramide and 94% for placebo (placebo vs. metoclopramide, p = 0.001) and, according to the patients, 72% for cinitapride, 51% for metoclopramide and 89% for placebo (placebo vs. metoclopramide, p = 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1820589

  10. Postprandial plasma adiponectin response is reduced in prepubertal premature pubarche girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larqué, Elvira; Gil-Campos, Mercedes; Villada, Isabel; Ramírez-Tortosa, M Carmen; Cañete, Ramón; Gil, Angel

    2010-09-01

    The association between premature pubarche (PP) and metabolic syndrome is controversial and not supported by some authors. The aim of this study was to determine insulin resistance syndrome, plasma adiponectin, and fatty acid profile in PP girls to discern potential confounder variables and markers of metabolic disturbances. We studied 22 prepubertal girls with a diagnosis of PP and 20 healthy controls who differed in body mass index (BMI) (19.33 +/- 0.71 vs 17.30 +/- 0.60). We evaluated insulin resistance syndrome components and postprandial response of adiponectin, nonesterified fatty acids, and fatty acid profile after consumption of a standardized breakfast. No lipid disturbances were detected in the PP group. High-density lipoprotein to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio tended to be lower in PP girls (P = .052), but this effect disappeared when data were adjusted for both BMI and age (P = .480). Insulin levels tended to be higher at 2 hours in PP girls, who showed significantly higher C-peptide area under the curve. In contrast, adiponectin at 3 hours after the meal and postprandial adiponectin area under the curve were significantly lower. The PP girls showed significantly higher percentages of eicosapentaenoic acid in total plasma and plasma phospholipids. No differences were found in the postprandial fatty acid clearance rate. In conclusion, PP girls and controls differed in postprandial plasma adiponectin response and in postprandial plasma C-peptide response after both BMI and age adjustment. Cholesterol plasma disturbances were mainly attributable to their higher BMI, although n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were higher because of the PP. PMID:20096425

  11. Effects of the n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio on postprandial metabolism in hypertriacylglycerolemia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Zhixiu; Yang, Ligang; SHU, GUOFANG; LU, HUIXIA; Sun, Guiju

    2013-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is a postprandial phenomenon. The balanced n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio contributing to the prevention of atherosclerosis has been well shown, but the effect of the ratio on postprandial metabolism has not been fully investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the n-6/n-3 PUFAs ratio on postprandial metabolism in hypertriacylglycerolemia patients, comparing them to healthy controls. Methods Test meals with 0.97 (high n-3) and 8.80 (low n-3) n-6/n-3 P...

  12. Interventional nutrition for gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, M A

    1998-11-01

    Nutritional intervention plays a key role in the successful management of gastrointestinal disease. This article focuses on several novel areas of nutritional intervention that are becoming increasingly important in gastrointestinal disease, including short-chain fatty acids, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and glutamine. Short-chain fatty acids are the principal end-products of bacterial fermentation of dietary fibers and have profound effects on normal intestinal cell metabolism and proliferation. Short-chain fatty acids have the potential to improve overall intestinal health, stimulate intestinal healing, and decrease intestinal inflammation. Omega-3 fatty acids, from dietary sources or supplements, may also be useful in decreasing intestinal inflammation and in preventing intestinal cancer. Finally, glutamine also may play an important role in the nutritional management of gastrointestinal disease. PMID:9842113

  13. Rapeseed protein in a high-fat mixed meal alleviates postprandial systemic and vascular oxidative stress and prevents vascular endothelial dysfunction in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magné, Joëlle; Huneau, Jean François; Tsikas, Dimitrios; Delemasure, Stéphanie; Rochette, Luc; Tomé, Daniel; Mariotti, François

    2009-09-01

    High-saturated fat and high-sucrose meals induce vascular endothelial dysfunction, the early hallmark of atherogenesis. The impact of dietary protein on vascular homeostasis remains misunderstood. In this study, we investigated whether rapeseed protein, an emergent arginine- and cysteine-rich protein, can acutely modulate the onset of adverse effects induced by a high-saturated fat meal (HFM). In a series of crossover experiments, healthy rats received 3 HFM (saturated fat: 60%; sucrose: 20%; protein: 20% energy) with the protein source being either total milk protein (MP; control), rapeseed protein (RP), or MP supplemented with cysteine and arginine to the same level as in RP (MP+AA). Endothelium-related vascular reactivity, measured as an acetylcholine-induced transient decrease in blood pressure, and plasma triglycerides, hydroperoxides, cyclic GMP (cGMP), and free 3-nitrotyrosine were measured before and 2, 4, and 6 h after meals. Superoxide anion production, expressed as ethidine fluorescence, was measured in the aorta 6 h after meals. Whereas plasma triglycerides rose similarly in all meals, the decrease in vascular reactivity after MP was attenuated after MP+AA and entirely prevented after RP. The type of meal had no consistent effect on plasma cGMP and free 3-nitrotyrosine over the postprandial period. The postprandial increase in plasma hydroperoxides differed according to the meal, and concentrations were 43% lower 6 h after MP+AA and RP than after MP. Aortic superoxide anion production was 36% lower 6 h after RP than MP. These results show that substituting rapeseed protein for milk protein markedly reduces vascular and oxidative disturbances induced by an HFM and this may be mediated in part by cysteine and arginine. PMID:19587122

  14. Nutritional support and gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, K

    1989-06-01

    The use of nutritional support in patients with acute gastrointestinal disease requires a thorough knowledge of the pathophysiology and nutritional alterations that are caused by the disease process. Although nutritional therapy of a patient with gastrointestinal disease is not curative of the underlying disease, it does provide essential support to the patient, which improves response to, and eventual recovery from, illness. Special considerations need to be made to avoid complicating the patient's condition by inappropriate use of nutritional support solutions, which can lead to abnormal liver function. PMID:2498848

  15. Gastrointestinal anthrax: clinical experience in 5 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Maddah, Ghodratollah; ABDOLLAHI, ABBAS; Katebi, Mehrdad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bacillus anthracis may usually cause three forms of anthrax: inhalation, gastrointestinal and cutaneous. The gastrointestinal (GI) anthrax develops after eating contaminated meat. Thus, in this paper were report 5 cases of intestinal anthrax.

  16. Scintigraphic evaluation of gastrointestinal motility disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Jae Gol [College of Medicine, Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-02-01

    Current scintigraphic tests of gastrointestinal motor function provides relevant pathophysiologic information, but their clinical utility is controversial. Many scintigraphic methods are developed to investigate gastrointestinal motility from oral cavity to colon. These are esophageal transit scintigraphy, oropharyngeal transit study, gastric emptying test, small bowel transit time measurement, colon transit study and gastroesopahgeal reflux scintigraphy. Scintigraphy of gastrointestinal tract is the most physiologic and noninvasive method to evaluate gastrointestinal motility disorders. Stomach emptying test is regarded as a gold standard in motility study. Gastrointestinal transit scintigraphy also has a certain role in assessment of drug effect to GI motility and changes after theraphy of motility disorders. Scintigraphy provides noninvasive and quantitative assessment of physiological transit throughout the gastrointestinal tract, and it is extremely useful for diagnosing gastrointestinal motor dysfunction. This article reviews the current procedures, indications, significance and guidelines for gastrointestinal motility measurements by scintigraphy.

  17. INFLUENCE OF ACARBOSE ON POSTPRANDIAL DYSMETABOLISM: RESULTS OF AN OPEN-LABEL RANDOMIZED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ya. Cherniak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate postprandial changes of lipid and glucose profiles, inflammation markers levels and flow-mediated vasodilatation in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS and to estimate acarbose course treatment efficacy in glucose intolerant patients.Material and methods. A total of 114 MS patients (83 men, 31 women were examined, MS was associated with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT in 55 cases. At the first stage postpran- dial dynamics of flow-mediated dilation (FMD, lipid profile parameters, inflammation markers and insulin levels were estimated. At the second stage patients with MS and IGT (n=55 were randomly assigned to the two groups of treatment. Patients of the first group (n=28 had non-drug treatment. Patients of the second group (n=27 received acarbose 300 mg/day for 3 months in addition to recommendations for lifestyle change. 3 months later postprandial values of lipid and glucose profiles parameters, inflammation markers levels and FMD were reassessed. Results. MS patients with IGT revealed maximal disorders in metabolic parameters during postprandial period: increase in the plasma levels of total cholesterol by 6.1%, high density lipoproteins – by 1.7%, and triglycerides – by 27.87%, increase in atherogenic index by 4.8%, and plasma concentrations of glucose – by 54.7%, insulin – by 30.2%, HOMA index – by 73.3%, as well as concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP – by 49.7%, tumor necrose factor alpha – by 20.8%, and interleukin-6 (IL-6 – by 51.9%. FMD decreased by 34.3%.After 12 weeks of the acarbose treatment we had revealed positive dynamics of studied indices in postprandial period as compared to an only non-drug management: levels of glucose in- creased by 24.1% vs 44.4%, insulin – by 14.4% vs 24.4%, CRP – by 19.9% vs 36.6%, IL-6 – by 25.1% vs 41.7%; postprandial FMD decreased by 18.9% vs 31.1%.Conclusion. Prescription of acarbose 300 mg/day for 12 weeks in glucose intolerant patients is characterized

  18. Effects of growth hormone deficiency and recombinant growth hormone therapy on postprandial gallbladder motility and cholecystokinin release.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moschetta, A.; Twickler, M.; Rehfeld, J.F.; Ooteghem, N.A. van; Castro Cabezas, M.; Portincasa, P.; Berge-Henegouwen, G.P. van; Erpecum, K.J. van

    2004-01-01

    In addition to cholecystokinin, other hormones have been suggested to be involved in regulation of postprandial gallbladder contraction. We aimed to evaluate effects of growth hormone (GH) on gallbladder contractility and cholecystokinin release. Gallbladder and gastric emptying (by ultrasound) and

  19. Association between fasting and postprandial triglyceride levels and carotid intima-media thickness in type 2 diabetes patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈香; 田浩明; 刘瑞

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of fasting and postpiandial triglyceride with carotid intima-media thickness among type 2 diabetic patients in southeast China.Methods A total of 78 type 2 diabetic patients from southeast China were recruited. All the subjects underwent a standardized mixed-meal test (SMMT) and an oral glucose tolerance test. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was measured by color doppler ultrasound examination.Results Postprandial triglyceride (PTG) after SMMT increased significantly in type 2 diabetic patients. The carotid IMT in patients with postprandial hypertriglyceridemia was sinificantly greater than that in patients with postprandial normal-triglyceridemia (0.90 mm vs 0.81 mm, P0.05).Conclusion The results suggest that postprandial hypertriglyeridemia may be an independent risk factor of early atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes.

  20. New technologies in gastrointestinal research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asbjφrn Mohr Drewes; Hans Gregersen

    2009-01-01

    This issue presents different new techniques aiming to increase our understanding of the gastrointestinal system and to improve treatment. The technologies cover selected methods to evoke and assess gut pain, new methods for imaging and physiological measurements, histochemistry, pharmacological modelling etc. There is no doubt that the methods will revolutionize the diagnostic approach in near future.

  1. Landing gear noise attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  2. Bezafibrate improves postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and associated endothelial dysfunction in patients with metabolic syndrome: a randomized crossover study

    OpenAIRE

    Ohno, Yuko; Miyoshi, Toru; NODA, YOKO; Oe, Hiroki; Toh, Norihisa; Nakamura, Kazufumi; Kohno, Kunihisa; Morita, Hiroshi; Ito, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Background Postprandial elevation of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins impairs endothelial function, which can initiate atherosclerosis. We investigated the effects of bezafibrate on postprandial endothelial dysfunction and lipid profiles in patients with metabolic syndrome. Methods Ten patients with metabolic syndrome were treated with 400 mg/day bezafibrate or untreated for 4 weeks in a randomized crossover study. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and lipid profiles were assessed du...

  3. The effect of IL6-174C/G polymorphism on postprandial triglyceride metabolism in the GOLDN study*

    OpenAIRE

    Jian SHEN; Arnett, Donna K.; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Parnell, Laurence D.; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Peacock, James M.; Hixson, James E.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Straka, Robert J.; Hopkins, Paul N.; Ordovás, José M.

    2008-01-01

    Chronically elevated interleukin-6 (IL-6) affects lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Individuals genetically predisposed to higher IL-6 secretion may be at risk of dyslipidemia, especially during the postprandial phase. We investigated the effect of genetic variants at the IL6 locus on postprandial lipemia in US Whites participating in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network study. Subjects were given a single fat load composed of 3% of calories as protein, 14% as carbohydrate, a...

  4. Postprandial antioxidant gene expression is modified by Mediterranean diet supplemented with coenzyme Q10 in elderly men and women

    OpenAIRE

    Yubero-Serrano, Elena M.; Gonzalez-Guardia, Lorena; Rangel-Zuñiga, Oriol; Delgado-Casado, Nieves; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Caballero, Javier; Marin, Carmen; Gutierrez-Mariscal, Francisco M.; Tinahones, Francisco J; Villalba, Jose M.; Tunez, Isaac; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

    2011-01-01

    Postprandial oxidative stress is characterized by an increased susceptibility of the organism towards oxidative damage after consumption of a meal rich in lipids and/or carbohydrates. We have investigated whether the quality of dietary fat alters postprandial gene expression and protein levels involved in oxidative stress and whether the supplementation with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) improves this situation in an elderly population. Twenty participants were randomized to receive three isocaloric die...

  5. Effect of dietary advanced glycation end products on postprandial appetite, inflammation, and endothelial activation in healthy overweight individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Malene Wibe; Bak, Monika Judyta; Andersen, Jeanette Marker;

    2014-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formed in food during high-heat cooking may induce overeating and inflammation. We investigated whether AGE contents in a single meal affect postprandial appetite and markers of inflammation, endothelial activation, and oxidative stress.......Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formed in food during high-heat cooking may induce overeating and inflammation. We investigated whether AGE contents in a single meal affect postprandial appetite and markers of inflammation, endothelial activation, and oxidative stress....

  6. Agreement between fasting and postprandial LDL cholesterol measured with 3 methods in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Søren S.; Petersen, Martin; Frandsen, Merete;

    2011-01-01

    LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) is a modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factor. We used 3 LDL-C methods to study the agreement between fasting and postprandial LDL-C in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients.......LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) is a modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factor. We used 3 LDL-C methods to study the agreement between fasting and postprandial LDL-C in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients....

  7. Effects of ageing on gastrointestinal motor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Graff, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    years (range 74-85 years) participated in the study. Gastric emptying and small intestinal and colonic transit rates were determined by gamma camera technique. The technique was also used to measure the postprandial frequency of antral contractions. Furthermore, we assessed the effects of gender, body...

  8. Lapacho tea (Tabebuia impetiginosa) extract inhibits pancreatic lipase and delays postprandial triglyceride increase in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiage-Mokua, Beatrice Nyanchama; Roos, Nils; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2012-12-01

    Earlier work in our laboratory indicated that ethanolic extracts of Tabebuia impetiginosa, Arctium lappa L., Calendula officinalis, Helianthus annuus, Linum usitatissimum and L. propolis, inhibit pancreatic lipase in vitro. In a follow-up study we assessed their effects on plasma triglycerides in rats fed on a fatty meal. Extracts, orlistat or only ethanol were given orally to the rats together with the test meal and the rate of increase of postprandial triglycerides was assessed over 4 h. Clearing of the triglycerides from the blood compartment was abolished by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase with Triton WR-1339. Our results showed that out of all the extracts, the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa led to a significant delay in the postprandial increase of plasma triglycerides. However, lapachol, which is contained in the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa and soluble in ethanol, had no lipase inhibitory effect in vitro and hence this substance did not seem to mediate the pertinent effect. PMID:22431070

  9. The effect of exercise on postprandial lipidemia in type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L. W. L.; Kiens, Bente; Galbo, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    (-2), 84% fat). On one morning, 90 min later subjects cycled 60 min at 57% [Formula: see text]. Biopsies from quadriceps muscle and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue were sampled after exercise or equivalent period of rest and arterialized blood for 615 min. Postprandial increases in serum total......). Lipoprotein lipase activity in muscle (11.0 +/- 2.0 vs. 24.1 +/- 3.4 mU g per wet weight, P adipose tissue and did not change with exercise. In diabetic patients, 210 min after......To elucidate if postprandial exercise can reduce the exaggerated lipidemia seen in type 2 diabetic patients after a high-fat meal. Two mornings eight type 2 diabetic patients (males) (58 +/- 1.2 years, BMI 28.0 +/- 0.9 kg m(-2)) and seven non-diabetic controls ate a high-fat breakfast (680 kcal m...

  10. Dairy proteins, dairy lipids, and postprandial lipemia in persons with abdominal obesity (DairyHealth)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohl, Mette; Bjørnshave, Ann; Rasmussen, Kia V;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal obesity and exaggerated postprandial lipemia are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality, and both are affected by dietary behavior. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether dietary supplementation with whey protein and medium-chain saturated fatty...... acids (MC-SFAs) improved postprandial lipid metabolism in humans with abdominal obesity. DESIGN: We conducted a 12-wk, randomized, double-blinded, diet intervention study. Sixty-three adults were randomly allocated to one of 4 diets in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Participants consumed 60 g milk protein......), free fatty acids (FFAs), insulin, glucose, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP). Furthermore, changes in the expression of adipose tissue genes involved in lipid metabolism were investigated. Two-factor ANOVA was used to examine the difference between...

  11. A Model of NEFA Dynamics with Focus on the Postprandial State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelic, K.; Hallgreen, Christine E.; Colding-Jorgensen, M.

    2009-01-01

    dynamics. Insulin is the major regulator of NEFA metabolism in the postprandial state. Plasma NEFA levels are thus highly dependent on the insulin concentration, the insulin sensitivity of adipose tissue, and the maximal lipolytic rate. In the postabsorptive state, e.g., at low insulin, adipose tissue...... lipolysis results in a net export of NEFA from adipose tissue to other tissues. Postprandially, the rise in insulin results in: Decreased lipolysis; a higher rate of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity; and decreased NEFA uptake and reesterification by adipose tissue stimulation of reesterification....... The result is a drop in plasma NEFA after a carbohydrate containing meal. When insulin returns to postabsorptive levels, a rebound in plasma NEFA often occurs. This rebound is due to a restoration of lipolysis, a decrease in NEFA reesterification by adipose tissue and an increased LPL-as insulin activates...

  12. The impact of beef steak thermal processing on lipid oxidation and postprandial inflammation related responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuora, Anu; Chiang, Vic Shao-Chih; Milan, Amber M; Tarvainen, Marko; Pundir, Shikha; Quek, Siew-Young; Smith, Greg C; Markworth, James F; Ahotupa, Markku; Cameron-Smith, David; Linderborg, Kaisa M

    2015-10-01

    Oxidised lipid species, their bioavailability and impact on inflammatory responses from cooked beef steak are poorly characterised. Oxidised lipid species from pan-fried (PF) and sous-vide (SV) thermally processed beef were determined with UHPLC-ESI/MS. Twenty-three lipid oxidation products increased with thermal processing and differences between the PF and SV steaks were measured. Fifteen oxidised lipids were measured in post-meal plasma after a cross-over randomised clinical study. Postprandial plasma inflammatory markers tended to remain lower following the SV meal than the PF meal. High levels of conjugated dienes were measured in the HDL fraction, suggesting that the protective effect of HDL may extend to the reverse-transport of oxidised lipid species. Oxidised lipids in a single meal may influence postprandial oxidative stress and inflammation. Further studies are required to examine the lipid oxidative responses to increased dietary oxidative lipid load, including the reverse transport activity of HDL.

  13. Effect of Sitagliptin therapy on postprandial lipoprotein levels in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tremblay, AJ; Lamarche, B; Deacon, Carolyn F.;

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Recent studies indicate that type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased secretion of both hepatic and intestinal lipoproteins, leading to the accumulation of atherogenic triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins. Sitagliptin is a selective inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 that has been shown...... to reduce fasting and postprandial glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes presumably through incretin hormone-mediated improvements in islet function. The objective of the present study is to examine the effects of treatment with sitagliptin on postprandial lipid and incretin hormone levels as well...... for a 6-week period each, with a 4-week washout period between the two phases. At the end of each phase of treatment, patients underwent an oral lipid tolerance test providing 35 g of fat per m2 of body surface area and blood samples were taken over an 8-h period. Results: Sitagliptin therapy...

  14. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT1 inhibition perturbs postprandial gut hormone release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua V Lin

    Full Text Available Diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT1 is a potential therapeutic target for treatment of obesity and related metabolic diseases. However, the degree of DGAT1 inhibition required for metabolic benefits is unclear. Here we show that partial DGAT1 deficiency in mice suppressed postprandial triglyceridemia, led to elevations in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and peptide YY (PYY only following meals with very high lipid content, and did not protect from diet-induced obesity. Maximal DGAT1 inhibition led to enhanced GLP-1 and PYY secretion following meals with physiologically relevant lipid content. Finally, combination of DGAT1 inhibition with dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibition led to further enhancements in active GLP-1 in mice and dogs. The current study suggests that targeting DGAT1 to enhance postprandial gut hormone secretion requires maximal inhibition, and suggests combination with DPP-4i as a potential strategy to develop DGAT1 inhibitors for treatment of metabolic diseases.

  15. The structure of wheat bread influences the postprandial metabolic response in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W J; Sozer, Nesli;

    2015-01-01

    Postprandial high glucose and insulin responses after starchy food consumption, associated with an increased risk of developing several metabolic diseases, could possibly be improved by altering food structure. We investigated the influence of a compact food structure; different wheat products...... volunteers. Pasta (PA), with a very compact structure, was used as the control. The rate of appearance of exogenous glucose (RaE), endogenous glucose production, and glucose clearance rate (GCR) was calculated using stable isotopes. Furthermore, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, several...... intestinal hormones and bile acids were analyzed. The structure of FB was considerably more compact compared to CB, as confirmed by microscopy, XRT analysis (porosity) and density measurements. Consumption of FB resulted in lower peak glucose, insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (ns...

  16. The impact of beef steak thermal processing on lipid oxidation and postprandial inflammation related responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuora, Anu; Chiang, Vic Shao-Chih; Milan, Amber M; Tarvainen, Marko; Pundir, Shikha; Quek, Siew-Young; Smith, Greg C; Markworth, James F; Ahotupa, Markku; Cameron-Smith, David; Linderborg, Kaisa M

    2015-10-01

    Oxidised lipid species, their bioavailability and impact on inflammatory responses from cooked beef steak are poorly characterised. Oxidised lipid species from pan-fried (PF) and sous-vide (SV) thermally processed beef were determined with UHPLC-ESI/MS. Twenty-three lipid oxidation products increased with thermal processing and differences between the PF and SV steaks were measured. Fifteen oxidised lipids were measured in post-meal plasma after a cross-over randomised clinical study. Postprandial plasma inflammatory markers tended to remain lower following the SV meal than the PF meal. High levels of conjugated dienes were measured in the HDL fraction, suggesting that the protective effect of HDL may extend to the reverse-transport of oxidised lipid species. Oxidised lipids in a single meal may influence postprandial oxidative stress and inflammation. Further studies are required to examine the lipid oxidative responses to increased dietary oxidative lipid load, including the reverse transport activity of HDL. PMID:25872426

  17. The effect of different types of Finnish bread on postprandial glucose response in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, L; Korpela, R; Mantere, S

    1985-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the fibre content of the bread and the effect of the state of graining on the postprandial blood glucose response in insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetics. The breads were white wheat bread, mixed wholemeal wheat/rye bread, wholemeal rye bread and grained wholemeal rye bread. Finnish wholemeal rye bread induced a slower postprandial blood glucose response than the mixed wholemeal (wheat/rye) bread (P less than or equal to 0.05) and the white wheat bread (P less than or equal to 0.01). Grained wholemeal rye bread resulted in a similar blood glucose response to that from wholemeal rye bread.

  18. A STUDY OF FASTING AND POSTPRANDIAL LIPID ABNORMALITIES IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu R

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM 1. To assess the nature of fasting dyslipidaemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus and correlate the same with severity and duration of diabetes. 2. To assess the postprandial lipid abnormalities in type 2 diabetes and to compare it with that of the fasting lipid load in diabetics. METHODS The study was carried out in Vinayaka Missions Medical College and Hospital, Karaikal over a period of 2 years. A total of 50 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were included and were compared with 50 age and sex matched healthy controls fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria. RESULTS In this study, the mean age±SD was 48.5±5.68 years. The mean HbA1c±SD was 7.48±1.517. All cases in fasting state had raised VLDL-C levels (Mean 50.39±60.27, raised total cholesterol (Mean 169.70±39.917, raised TGL (Mean 146.04±60.140, decreased LDL-C (Mean 92.3±27.699 when compared to control group. In the postprandial state, there was a significant raise in TGL level (Mean 188±68.59, raised total cholesterol (Mean180.74±38.46, decreased HDL-C (Mean 38.761±9.028 compared to the fasting state. CONCLUSION It was found that there was a raised in TGL levels in the postprandial state, raised VLDL-C and reduced LDL-C in fasting state, raised total cholesterol and reduced HDL-C seen in both fasting and postprandial states of diabetic patients

  19. Impact of the sensory and postprandial properties of energy drinks on cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, C.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of energy drinks and their ingredients on cognitive functioning has been of considerable scientific interest in recent years; however studies investigating cognitive effects of energy drink consumption have centred on the postprandial impact, that is the influence of their ingredients once absorbed into the blood. It is possible however, that sensory perception of these drinks, or their ingredients can influence cognition. The four studies outlined in this thesis aim to examin...

  20. Berries and anthocyanins: promising functional food ingredients with postprandial glycaemia-lowering effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Acosta, Monica L; Lenihan-Geels, Georgia N; Corpe, Christopher P; Hall, Wendy L

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is predicted to reach unprecedented levels in the next few decades. In addition to excess body weight, there may be other overlapping dietary drivers of impaired glucose homeostasis that are associated with an obesogenic diet, such as regular exposure to postprandial spikes in blood glucose arising from diets dominated by highly refined starches and added sugars. Strategies to reduce postprandial hyperglycaemia by optimising the functionality of foods would strengthen efforts to reduce the risk of T2D. Berry bioactives, including anthocyanins, are recognised for their inhibitory effects on carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption. Regular consumption of berries has been associated with a reduction in the risk of T2D. This review aims to examine the evidence from in vitro, animal and human studies, showing that berries and berry anthocyanins may act in the gut to modulate postprandial glycaemia. Specifically, berry extracts and anthocyanins inhibit the activities of pancreatic α-amylase and α-glucosidase in the gut lumen, and interact with intestinal sugar transporters, sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 and GLUT2, to reduce the rate of glucose uptake into the circulation. Growing evidence from randomised controlled trials suggests that berry extracts, purées and nectars acutely inhibit postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia following oral carbohydrate loads. Evidence to date presents a sound basis for exploring the potential for using berries/berry extracts as an additional stratagem to weight loss, adherence to dietary guidelines and increasing physical exercise, for the prevention of T2D. PMID:27170557

  1. INFLUENCE OF ACARBOSE ON POSTPRANDIAL DYSMETABOLISM: RESULTS OF AN OPEN-LABEL RANDOMIZED STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ya. Cherniak; I. M. Petrov; I V Medvedeva

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate postprandial changes of lipid and glucose profiles, inflammation markers levels and flow-mediated vasodilatation in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) and to estimate acarbose course treatment efficacy in glucose intolerant patients.Material and methods. A total of 114 MS patients (83 men, 31 women) were examined, MS was associated with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in 55 cases. At the first stage postpran- dial dynamics of flow-mediated dilation (FMD), lipid profile pa...

  2. Is Cancer Cachexia Attributed to Impairments in Basal or Postprandial Muscle Protein Metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstman, Astrid M H; Olde Damink, Steven W; Schols, Annemie M W J; van Loon, Luc J C

    2016-01-01

    Cachexia is a significant clinical problem associated with very poor quality of life, reduced treatment tolerance and outcomes, and a high mortality rate. Mechanistically, any sizeable loss of skeletal muscle mass must be underpinned by a structural imbalance between muscle protein synthesis and breakdown rates. Recent data indicate that the loss of muscle mass with aging is, at least partly, attributed to a blunted muscle protein synthetic response to protein feeding. Whether such anabolic resistance is also evident in conditions where cachexia is present remains to be addressed. Only few data are available on muscle protein synthesis and breakdown rates in vivo in cachectic cancer patients. When calculating the theoretical changes in basal or postprandial fractional muscle protein synthesis and breakdown rates that would be required to lose 5% of body weight within a six-month period, we can define the changes that would need to occur to explain the muscle mass loss observed in cachectic patients. If changes in both post-absorptive and postprandial muscle protein synthesis and breakdown rates contribute to the loss of muscle mass, it would take alterations as small as 1%-2% to induce a more than 5% decline in body weight. Therefore, when trying to define impairments in basal and/or postprandial muscle protein synthesis or breakdown rates using contemporary stable isotope methodology in cancer cachexia, we need to select large homogenous groups of cancer patients (>40 patients) to allow us to measure physiological and clinically relevant differences in muscle protein synthesis and/or breakdown rates. Insight into impairments in basal or postprandial muscle protein synthesis and breakdown rates in cancer cachexia is needed to design more targeted nutritional, pharmaceutical and/or physical activity interventions to preserve skeletal muscle mass and, as such, to reduce the risk of complications, improve quality of life, and lower mortality rates during the various

  3. Impact of short-term dietary modification on postprandial oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Bloomer Richard J; Trepanowski John F; Kabir Mohammad M; Alleman Rick J; Dessoulavy Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background We have recently reported that short-term (21-day) dietary modification in accordance with a stringent vegan diet (i.e., a Daniel Fast) lowers blood lipids as well as biomarkers of oxidative stress. However, this work only involved measurements obtained in a fasted state. In the present study, we determined the postprandial response to a high-fat milkshake with regards to blood triglycerides (TAG), biomarkers of oxidative stress, and hemodynamic variables before and follow...

  4. Chronic intake of fractionated yellow pea flour reduces postprandial energy expenditure and carbohydrate oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinangeli, Christopher P F; Jones, Peter J H

    2011-12-01

    Effects of dietary fibers on human postprandial energetics remain undefined. The objective of the present study was to explore effects of whole yellow pea flour (WPF) and fractionated pea flour (FPF) on postprandial energy expenditure, substrate utilization, and hepatic triglyceride synthesis rate. Using a crossover-diet controlled design, 23 overweight men and women received muffins containing WPF, FPF, and white wheat flour (WF) for 28 days, followed by 28-day washout periods. Subjects received 50 g/day WPF and WF. Given that FPF is approximately 84% fiber, the amount of FPF administered to volunteers was equivalent to the amount of pea-derived fiber in the WPF treatment. Four weeks of FPF consumption reduced (P=.007) total postprandial energy expenditure (333.0±3.6 kcal/330 minutes) compared with WF (349.3±3.6 kcal/330 minutes). When values were normalized to the level of food energy consumed, FPF (4.6±0.3%) decreased (P=.018) the thermic effect of food (TEF) compared with WF (5.7±0.3%). Carbohydrate oxidation tended to be lower (P=.075) with FPF (44.7±2.1 g/330 minutes) versus WF (51.2±0.1.9 g/330 minutes). WPF had no effect on total energy expenditure, TEF, or carbohydrate oxidation. Only after 370 minutes was cumulative oxidation of [1-(13)C]palmitic acid higher (P=.045) in the WPF group (0.96±0.05%) compared with FPF (0.81±0.05%). Neither treatment had any effect on hepatic triglyceride synthesis rate. In conclusion, chronic ingestion of different fractions of yellow peas imposes distinctive effects on postprandial energy expenditure and substrate utilization. PMID:22145774

  5. Improved postprandial glycaemic control with insulin Aspart in type 2 diabetic patients treated with insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Thorsby, P; Kjems, L;

    2000-01-01

    The effect on postprandial blood glucose control of an immediately pre-meal injection of the rapid acting insulin analogue Aspart (IAsp) was compared with that of human insulin Actrapid injected immediately or 30 minutes before a test meal in insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients with residual...... that the improved glucose control previously demonstrated with insulin Aspart compared to human insulin in healthy subjects and type 1 diabetic patients also applies to insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients....

  6. Effect of different protein types on second meal postprandial glycaemia in normal weight and normoglycemic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winder Tadeu Silva Ton

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a global epidemic affecting 346 million people in the world. The glycemic control is the key for diabetes prevention and management. Some proteins can stimulate insulin release and modulate glycemic response. Objectives: To assess the effect of the consumption of different types of protein (whey protein, soy protein and egg white on a second meal postprandial glycaemia in normal weight and normoglycemic subjects. Methodology: Randomized crossover clinical trial. After an overnight fast of 12-hours, ten subjects attended the laboratory to drink one of the protein shakes (whey, soy or egg white or the control drink. Thirty minutes later, the subjects consumed a glucose solution (25 g glucose. Glycemic response was monitored at times 0 (before glucose solution and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min (after glucose solution consumption. Incremental area under the glycemic curve (iAUC was calculated by the trapezoidal method. Furthermore, glycemic response was assessed by a new method using iG equation. Results: Compared with control, whey and soy protein drinks reduced postprandial iAUC in 56.5% (p = 0.004 and 44.4% (p = 0.029, respectively. Whey protein was the only protein capable of avoiding great fluctuations and a peak in postprandial glycemia. The assessment of glycemic response by iG equation showed positive correlation with iAUC (Pearson 0.985, p < 0.05. Conclusion: The consumption of whey and soy protein 30 minutes before a glucose load resulted in lower iAUC compared with control drink. Whey protein maintained postprandial glycemia more stable.

  7. Cinnamon extract inhibits α-glucosidase activity and dampens postprandial glucose excursion in diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Thirumurugan Kavitha; Hansi Priscilla D; Mohamed Sham Shihabudeen. H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background α-glucosidase inhibitors regulate postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) by impeding the rate of carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine and thereby hampering the diet associated acute glucose excursion. PPHG is a major risk factor for diabetic vascular complications leading to disabilities and mortality in diabetics. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, a spice, has been used in traditional medicine for treating diabetes. In this study we have evaluated the α-glucosidase inhibitory po...

  8. Effects of two different types of fast food on postprandial metabolism in normal- and overweight subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Fjóla Dröfn Guðmundsdóttir 1984

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the effects of a conventional and an unconventional fast food meal on postprandial metabolism in normal- and in overweight subjects. Methods: Twenty-five healthy volunteers (21-39yrs) participated in this randomized, dietary cross-over study and received two test meals (matched in energy and energy giving nutrients) after an overnight fast with one week between test days. The conventional fast food meal was a hamburger meal (hamburger, bacon, cola drink), the un...

  9. Postprandial Hypotension due to a Lack of Sympathetic Compensation in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumoto,Akihisa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Postprandial hypotension is an important hemodynamic abnormality in diabetes mellitus, but few reports are available on the relationship between autonomic dysfunction and postprandial hypotension. Ten diabetic patients and 10 healthy volunteers were recruited for this study. Postural blood pressure and heart rate changes were measured before lunch, and then the hemodynamic responses to a standardized meal were investigated. Holter electrocardiogram (ECG monitoring was conducted for assessing spectral powers and time-domain parameters of RR variations. Postural changes from the supine to the upright position decreased the systolic blood pressure of the diabetics from 133(+-16 to 107(+-20 mmHg (p<0.01, but did not decrease the systolic blood pressure of the controls. The heart rate remained constant in the diabetics but was increased in the controls. Food ingestion decreased systolic blood pressure in the diabetics, with a maximum reduction of 25(+-5 mmHg. This decrease was not associated with any changes in the ratio of low frequency to high frequency, and yet the heart rate remained almost constant. Indexes involving parasympathetic tone were not affected. Food ingestion did not affect blood pressure in the control group. These findings suggest that lack of compensatory sympathetic activation is a factor contributing to postprandial hypotension in diabetics, and that parasympathetic drive does not make a significant contribution to this condition.

  10. Postprandial lipemia and cardiovascular diseases: the beneficial role of strength exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Silva Correa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD has been linked with changes to the lipid profile that can be observed during the postprandial period, a phenomenon known as postprandial lipemia (PL. Physical exercise is currently the number one non-pharmacological intervention employed for prevention and reduction of risk factors for the development of CVD. This in turn has created a growing interest in the effects of physical exercise on regulation and equilibrium of lipid metabolism. In this review we compare the results of studies that have investigated the beneficial effects of strength training on PL. We analyzed articles identified in the PubMed, Scopus and EBSCO databases published from 1975 to 2013 in international journals. Studies were selected for review if they covered at least two of four keywords. The results of these studies lead to the conclusion that strength training is effective for reduction of postprandial lipemia because it increases baseline energy expenditure. This type of training can be prescribed as an important element in strategies to treat chronic diseases, such as atherosclerosis.

  11. Intracerebroventricular injection of murine leptin enhances the postprandial metabolic rate in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, M; Nicolaidis, S

    2000-08-18

    Energy balance is achieved by means of a concomitant control of both food intake and energy expenditure. Leptin, synthesized in the adipose tissue, acts on brain structures and lowers body weight by inhibiting food intake and in parallel by enhancing energy expenditure i.e. metabolism or one of its components. Recording distinctly these components allowed us to assess the effect of an acute intracerebroventricular injection of leptin on both feeding pattern and background metabolism (i.e. energy expenditure free from the part of locomotor activity), respiratory quotient, feeding-related metabolism and locomotor activity-related metabolism. Leptin injection to Sprague-Dawley male rats induced an inhibition of feeding that began 90 min after the treatment and lasted 1 h before to return to the control feeding pattern level. Considering this late behavioral effect, it appeared that leptin may act during the postprandial period so that we recorded the different metabolic parameters following a 3 g calibrated meal itself preceded by leptin vs. artificial cerebrospinal fluid injection. Postprandial respiratory quotient was rapidly lowered in leptin-treated animals and subsequent background metabolism increased for 6 h. Thus it appeared that leptin increased the duration of the postprandial metabolic rate via the recruitment of endogenous fat stores. Enhancement in the thermic effect of food may be the reason for feeding behavior inhibition to be delayed. PMID:10936221

  12. Viscosity of gums in vitro and their ability to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia in normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenelli S.L.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out in vitro with three viscous polysaccharides (guar gum, pectin, and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC of similar initial viscosity submitted to conditions that mimic events occurring in the stomach and duodenum, and their viscosity in these situations was compared to their actions on postprandial hyperglycemia in normal human subjects. Guar gum showed greater viscosity than the other gums during acidification and/or alkalinization and also showed larger effects on plasma glucose levels (35% reduction in maximum rise in plasma glucose and on the total area under the curve of plasma glucose (control: 20,314 ± 1007 mg dl-1 180 min-1 vs guar gum: 18,277 ± 699 mg dl-1 180 min-1, P<0.01. Pectin, which showed a marked reduction in viscosity at 37oC and after events mimicking those that occur in the stomach and duodenum, did not have a significant effect on postprandial hyperglycemia. The performance of viscosity and the glycemia response to CMC were at an intermediate level between guar gum and pectin. In conclusion, these data suggest that temperature, the process of acidification, alkalinization and exposure to intestinal ions induce different viscosity changes in gums having similar initial viscosity, establishing a direct relationship between a minor decrease of gum viscosity in vitro and a reduction of postprandial hyperglycemia

  13. Aqueous Extract of Nypa fruticans Wurmb. Vinegar Alleviates Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Normoglycemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Adlin Yusoff

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nypa fruticans Wurmb. vinegar, commonly known as nipa palm vinegar (NPV has been used as a folklore medicine among the Malay community to treat diabetes. Early work has shown that aqueous extract (AE of NPV exerts a potent antihyperglycemic effect. Thus, this study is conducted to evaluate the effect of AE on postprandial hyperglycemia in an attempt to understand its mechanism of antidiabetic action. AE were tested via in vitro intestinal glucose absorption, in vivo carbohydrate tolerance tests and spectrophotometric enzyme inhibition assays. One mg/mL of AE showed a comparable outcome to the use of phloridzin (1 mM in vitro as it delayed glucose absorption through isolated rat jejunum more effectively than acarbose (1 mg/mL. Further in vivo confirmatory tests showed AE (500 mg/kg to cause a significant suppression in postprandial hyperglycemia 30 min following respective glucose (2 g/kg, sucrose (4 g/kg and starch (3 g/kg loadings in normal rats, compared to the control group. Conversely, in spectrophotometric enzymatic assays, AE showed rather a weak inhibitory activity against both α-glucosidase and α-amylase when compared with acarbose. The findings suggested that NPV exerts its anti-diabetic effect by delaying carbohydrate absorption from the small intestine through selective inhibition of intestinal glucose transporters, therefore suppressing postprandial hyperglycemia.

  14. Effects of GLP-1 and Incretin-Based Therapies on Gastrointestinal Motor Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinmay S. Marathe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 is a hormone secreted predominantly by the distal small intestine and colon and released in response to enteral nutrient exposure. GLP-1-based therapies are now used widely in the management of type 2 diabetes and have the potential to be effective antiobesity agents. Although widely known as an incretin hormone, there is a growing body of evidence that GLP-1 also acts as an enterogastrone, with profound effects on the gastrointestinal motor system. Moreover, the effects of GLP-1 on gastrointestinal motility appear to be pivotal to its effect of reducing postprandial glycaemic excursions and may, potentially, represent the dominant mechanism. This review summarizes current knowledge of the enterogastrone properties of GLP-1, focusing on its effects on gut motility at physiological and pharmacological concentrations, and the motor actions of incretin-based therapies. While of potential importance, the inhibitory action of GLP-1 on gastric acid secretion is beyond the scope of this paper.

  15. Effects of combination therapy with mitiglinide and voglibose on postprandial plasma glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konya H

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hiroyuki Konya,1 Tomoyuki Katsuno,2 Taku Tsunoda,1 Yuzo Yano,1 Mai Kamitani,1 Masayuki Miuchi,2 Tomoya Hamaguchi,3 Jun-Ichiro Miyagawa,2 Mitsuyoshi Namba2 1Department of Internal Medicine, Ashiya Municipal Hospital, Ashiya, Hyogo, Japan; 2Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Hyogo, Japan; 3Division of Innovative Diabetes Treatment, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Hyogo, Japan Abstract: Patients with diabetes mellitus are at increased risk from cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality as compared with healthy individuals. An association between the postprandial metabolic state and atherogenesis has been observed in patients with diabetes mellitus. In the Study to Prevent Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (STOP-NIDDM, treatment with an α-glucosidase inhibitor (α-GI in patients with impaired glucose tolerance not only reduced the rate of conversion from impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, but was also associated with a reduction in the risk of cardiovascular events. These results suggested the importance of treating postprandial hyperglycemia in the early stages of T2DM. Glinides are rapid and short-acting insulin secretagogues that bind to the sulfonylurea receptors on pancreatic β-cells to facilitate rapid insulin secretion, restore postprandial early insulin secretion, and reduce the postprandial glucose spike. Moreover, α-GIs reduce postprandial hyperglycemia and insulin secretion by delaying the digestion of carbohydrates and polysaccharides in the small intestine. Then, both glinides and α-GI have beneficial effects for treating patients with T2DM and impaired glucose tolerance. Considering the ameliorating effects of these drugs on postprandial metabolic disorders, combinations of glinides and α-GI might constitute a promising therapeutic strategy for managing patients with T2DM, and also appear to be

  16. Gastrointestinal manifestations of food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Jaime Liou; Aceves, Seema S

    2011-04-01

    The rates of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders appear to be increasing. The most common of these is eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) which is a clinicopathologic condition consisting of characteristic symptoms and endoscopic features accompanied by a pan-esophageal, acid resistant epithelial eosinophilia of greater than equal to 15 per high power field. Typical symptoms include dysphagia and abdominal pain. Typical endoscopic features include pallor, plaques, furrows, concentric rings. Complications include food impactions and strictures. EoE resolution with food elimination diets provides evidence that EoE is a food-antigen driven process. In vitro and microarray studies have identified specific immunologic factors underlying EoE pathogenesis. Other gastrointestinal manifestations of food intolerances/allergy include food protein induced enterocolitis syndrome.

  17. Gastrointestinal hormones and their targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2014-01-01

    , paracrine, spermiocrine secretion etc.), so the same peptide may act as a blood-borne hormone, a neurotransmitter, a local growth factor, or a fertility factor. The molecular targets of each bioactive peptide are specific G-protein coupled receptors expressed in the cell membranes of different target cells......Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes...... it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization...

  18. Gastrointestinal lesions associated with spondyloarthropathies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ambrogio Orlando; Sara Renna; Giovanni Perricone; Mario Cottone

    2009-01-01

    Subclinical gut inflammation has been described in up to two-thirds of patients with spondyloarthropathies (SpA). Arthritis represents an extra-intestinal manifestation of several gastrointestinal diseases,including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Whipple's disease, Behcet's disease, celiac disease, intestinal bypass surgery, parasitic infections of the gut and pseudomembranous colitis. Moreover about twothirds of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug users demonstrate intestinal inflammation. Arthritis may manifest as a peripheral or axial arthritis. The spondyloarthropathy family consists of the following entities:ankylosing spondylitis, undifferentiated spondyloar thr i t is, react ive ar thr i t is, psor iat i c arthritis, spondyloarthritis associated with IBD,juvenile onset spondyloarthritis. This topic reviews the major gastrointestinal manifestations that can occur in patients with SpA and in nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs users.

  19. Upregulation of fatty acid synthesis and the suppression of hepatic triglyceride lipase as a direct cause of hereditary postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuda, Naoki; Ito, Tsunekata; Ohwada, Kazuo; Fujii, Junichi

    2013-01-01

    Rabbits with hereditary postprandial hypertriglyceridemia exhibit central obesity and are regarded as a reliable model for metabolic syndrome. This study was performed to gain insight into the affected process of lipid metabolism and into the causative genes of the postprandial hypertriglyceridemia rabbits. Eleven genes that play key roles in lipid metabolism were selected, their mRNA levels were assessed by quantitative PCR, and their expressions were compared among postprandial hypertriglyc...

  20. Impact of metformin versus the prandial insulin secretagogue, repaglinide, on fasting and postprandial glucose and lipid responses in non-obese patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Søren S; Tarnow, Lise; Frandsen, Merete;

    2008-01-01

    A1c). Whether the same apply for postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism is unknown. Here, we compared the effect of metformin versus repaglinide on postprandial metabolism in non-obese T2DM patients. DESIGN: Single-centre, double-masked, double-dummy, crossover study during 2x4 months involving 96...... non-obese (body mass index ... with T2DM targeting fasting and postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism....

  1. Visceral Pain and Gastrointestinal Microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Chichlowski, Maciej; Rudolph, Colin

    2015-01-01

    A complex set of interactions between the microbiome, gut and brain modulate responses to visceral pain. These interactions occur at the level of the gastrointestinal mucosa, and via local neural, endocrine or immune activity; as well as by the production of factors transported through the circulatory system, like bacterial metabolites or hormones. Various psychological, infectious and other stressors can disrupt this harmonious relationship and alter both the microbiome and visceral pain res...

  2. The Gastrointestinal Aspects of Halitosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kinberg, Sivan; Stein, Miki; Zion, Nataly; Shaoul, Ron

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Halitosis is a common human condition for which the exact pathophysiological mechanism is unclear. It has been attributed mainly to oral pathologies. Halitosis resulting from gastrointestinal disorders is considered to be extremely rare. However, halitosis has often been reported among the symptoms related to Helicobacter pylori infection and gastroesophageal reflux disease.OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively review the experience with children and young adults presenting with halitosis...

  3. Upper gastrointestinal physiology and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldum, Helge L; Kleveland, Per M; Fossmark, Reidar

    2015-06-01

    Nordic research on physiology and pathophysiology of the upper gastrointestinal tract has flourished during the last 50 years. Swedish surgeons and physiologists were in the frontline of research on the regulation of gastric acid secretion. This research finally led to the development of omeprazole, the first proton pump inhibitor. When Swedish physiologists developed methods allowing the assessment of acid secretion in isolated oxyntic glands and isolated parietal cells, the understanding of mechanisms by which gastric acid secretion is regulated took a great step forward. Similarly, in Trondheim, Norway, the acid producing isolated rat stomach model combined with a sensitive and specific method for determination of histamine made it possible to evaluate this regulation qualitatively as well as quantitatively. In Lund, Sweden, the identification of the enterochromaffin-like cell as the cell taking part in the regulation of acid secretion by producing and releasing histamine was of fundamental importance both physiologically and clinically. Jorpes and Mutt established a center at Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm for the purification of gastrointestinal hormones in the 1960s, and Danes followed up this work by excelling in the field of determination and assessment of biological role of gastrointestinal hormones. A Finnish group was for a long period in the forefront of research on gastritis, and the authors' own studies on the classification of gastric cancer and the role of gastrin in the development of gastric neoplasia are of importance. It can, accordingly, be concluded that Nordic researchers have been central in the research on area of the upper gastrointestinal physiology and diseases. PMID:25857514

  4. Gastrointestinal manifestations of endocrine disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christina Maser; Arnbjorn Toset; Sanziana Roman

    2006-01-01

    The hormonal interactions among the systems throughout the body are not fully understood; many vague clinical symptoms may in fact be manifestations of underlying endocrine diseases. The aim of the following review is to discuss gastrointestinal manifestations of surgically correctable endocrine diseases, focusing on abnormalities of thyroid function, cancer and finally autoimmune diseases. We also review manifestations of pancreatic endocrine tumors, and multiple endocrine neoplasia.

  5. Never events in gastrointestinal nursing

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, C. L.

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal diseases and disorders frequently require interventions that can lead to serious consequences for patients when an organization has not put in place the correct systems and processes to prevent incidents from happening, procedures have not been followed (generally due to poor observation), or when an individual disregards protocol (generally due to lack of judgment). It has been identified that over 400,000 patients suffer potentially preventable harmful events each year (Ems...

  6. Rare gastrointestinal lymphomas: the endoscopicinvestigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal lymphomas represent up to 10% ofgastrointestinal malignancies and about one third of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. The most prominent histologies aremucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and diffuselarge B-cell lymphoma. However, the gastrointestinaltract can be the site of rarer lymphoma subtypes as aprimary or secondary localization. Due to their rarity andthe multifaceted histology, an endoscopic classificationhas not been validated yet. This review aims to analyzethe endoscopic presentation of rare gastrointestinallymphomas from disease diagnosis to follow-up,according to the involved site and lymphoma subtype.Existing, new and emerging endoscopic technologieshave been examined. In particular, we investigated thediagnostic, prognostic and follow-up endoscopic featuresof T-cell and natural killer lymphomas, lymphomatouspolyposis and mantle cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma,plasma cell related disease, gastrointestinal lymphomasin immunodeficiency and Hodgkin's lymphoma ofthe gastrointestinal tract. Contrarily to more frequentgastrointestinal lymphomas, data about rare lymphomasare mostly extracted from case series and casereports. Due to the data paucity, a synergism betweengastroenterologists and hematologists is required in order to better manage the disease. Indeed, clinicaland prognostic features are different from nodal andextranodal or the bone marrow (in case of plasma celldisease) counterpart. Therefore, the approach shouldbe based on the knowledge of the peculiar behavior andnatural history of disease.

  7. Increased Postprandial GIP and Glucagon Responses, But Unaltered GLP-1 Response after Intervention with Steroid Hormone, Relative Physical Inactivity, And High-Calorie Diet in Healthy Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Katrine B; Vilsbøll, Tina; Bagger, Jonatan I;

    2011-01-01

    Objective:Increased postprandial glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon responses and reduced postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) responses have been observed in some patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The causality of these pathophysiological traits...... postprandial GLP-1 responses as observed in some individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus....... is unknown. We aimed to determine the impact of insulin resistance and reduced glucose tolerance on postprandial GIP, GLP-1, and glucagon responses in healthy subjects. Research Design and Methods:A 4-h 2200 KJ-liquid meal test was performed in 10 healthy Caucasian males without family history of diabetes...

  8. Evaluation of acrylamide-removing properties of two Lactobacillus strains under simulated gastrointestinal conditions using a dynamic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Jimenez, L; Ramírez-Ortiz, K; González-Córdova, A F; Vallejo-Cordoba, B; Garcia, H S; Hernandez-Mendoza, A

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the capability of Lactobacillus reuteri NRRL 14171 and Lactobacillus casei Shirota to remove dietary acrylamide (AA) under simulated gastrointestinal conditions using a dynamic system. The effects of different AA levels or bacteria concentration on toxin removal by Lactobacillus strains were assessed. Thereafter, AA-removing capability of bacteria strains under either fasting or postprandial simulated gastrointestinal conditions was evaluated. Commercial potato chips were analyzed for their AA content, and then used as a food model. Average AA content (34,162μg/kg) in potato chips exceeded by ca. 34-fold the indicative values recommended by the EU. Toxin removal ability was dependent on AA content and bacterial cell concentration. A reduction on bacterial viability was observed in the food model and at the end of both digestive processes evaluated. However, bacteria survived in enough concentrations to remove part of the toxin (32-73%). Both bacterial strains were able to remove AA under different simulated gastrointestinal conditions, being L. casei Shirota the most effective (ca. 70% removal). These findings confirmed the risk of potato chips as dietary AA exposure for consumers, and that strains of the genus Lactobacillus could be employed to reduce the bioavailability of dietary AA. PMID:27393995

  9. Planetary Ices Attenuation Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Christine; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.

    In this chapter, we review the topic of energy dissipation in the context of icy satellites experiencing tidal forcing. We describe the physics of mechanical dissipation, also known as attenuation, in polycrystalline ice and discuss the history of laboratory methods used to measure and understand it. Because many factors - such as microstructure, composition and defect state - can influence rheological behavior, we review what is known about the mechanisms responsible for attenuation in ice and what can be inferred from the properties of rocks, metals and ceramics. Since attenuation measured in the laboratory must be carefully scaled to geologic time and to planetary conditions in order to provide realistic extrapolation, we discuss various mechanical models that have been used, with varying degrees of success, to describe attenuation as a function of forcing frequency and temperature. We review the literature in which these models have been used to describe dissipation in the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. Finally, we address gaps in our present knowledge of planetary ice attenuation and provide suggestions for future inquiry.

  10. Postprandial Vascular Effects of VIAject Compared With Insulin Lispro and Regular Human Insulin in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forst, Thomas; Pfützner, Andreas; Flacke, Frank; Krasner, Alan; Hohberg, Cloth; Tarakci, Eda; Pichotta, Philip; Forst, Senait; Steiner, Solomon

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Recent studies suggested an impact of prandial insulin delivery on postprandial regulation of tissue blood flow. This study compared the effect of VIAject with human regular insulin and insulin lispro on postprandial oxidative stress and endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Fourteen patients (seven men; aged 61.5 ± 1.8 years; duration of diabetes 6.6 ± 4.6 years; A1C 7.2 ± 0.5% [mean ± SEM]) received a prandial injection of VIAject, human regular insulin, and insulin lispro. At baseline and after a standardized liquid meal test (Ensure Plus), the postprandial increases in asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and nitrotyrosine levels were investigated. In addition, the postprandial effects on microvascular blood flow, skin oxygenation, and vascular elasticity were measured. RESULTS Treatment with VIAject resulted in a significant reduction in the peak postprandial generation of ADMA compared with human insulin and insulin lispro (VIAject −27.3 ± 22.6, human insulin 97.7 ± 24.4, and insulin lispro 66.9 ± 33.9 nmol/l; P < 0.05, respectively). The postprandial increases in nitrotyrosine levels were significantly less after VIAject than after human regular insulin (VIAject −0.22 ± 0.17 vs. human insulin 0.25 ± 0.15 μg/ml; P < 0.05), whereas nitrotyrosine after insulin lispro was in between (insulin lispro 0.09 ± 0.07 μg/ml; NS). In parallel, earlier and more pronounced increases in microvascular blood flow and skin oxygenation were obtained after VIAject compared with those after human insulin or insulin lispro (P < 0.05, respectively). All insulin formulations resulted in comparable improvements in central arterial elasticity. CONCLUSIONS Treatment with VIAject reduced postprandial oxidative stress and improved endothelial function compared with human regular insulin or insulin lispro. PMID:19808913

  11. Cystic changes in intraabdominal extrahepatic metastases from gastrointestinal stromal tumors treated with imatinib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo Cheol; Lee, Jeong Min; Choi, Seoung Hong; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Heon; Kim, Sam Soo [Kangwon National University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Hyun [National Cancer Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-09-15

    This study was undertaken for the purpose of describing the CT features of intra-abdominal extra-hepatic metastases from gastrointestinal stromal tumors in patients who were treated with imatinib. Eleven patients with intra-abdominal extra-hepatic metastases from gastrointestinal stromal tumors, who were treated with imatinib between May 2001 and December 2003, were included in this study. The clinical findings and CT scans were retrospectively reviewed. The metastatic lesions were assessed according to the location, size (greatest diameter), attenuation, and the enhancing pattern before and after imatinib treatment. Prior to the treatment, the sizes and attenuation values of the metastatic lesions ranged from 5 to 20 cm and from 63 to 131 H, respectively. The metastatic lesions showed a heterogeneous enhancement pattern on the contrast-enhanced CT scans. After the treatment, the metastatic lesions became smaller in all 11 patients, and the corresponding attenuation value ranged from 15 to 51 H. The metastatic lesions became homogeneous and cystic in appearance on the follow-up CT scans, mimicking ascites. Intra-abdominal extra-hepatic metastases of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors treated with imatinib may appear as well-circumscribed cystic lesions on contrast-enhanced CT. These metastases are likely to become smaller and resemble ascites, but may persist indefinitely on the follow-up CT.

  12. Gastrointestinal and hepatic manifestations of sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Ellen C; Kierson, Malca; Hagspiel, Klaus D

    2008-12-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease characterized by noncaseating granulomas in the affected organs, including skin, heart, nervous system, and joints. Diagnosis of sarcoidosis is generally based upon a compatible history, demonstration of granulomas in at least two different organs, negative staining and culture for acid fast bacilli, absence of occupational or domestic exposure to toxins, and lack of drug-induced disease. Involvement of the hollow organs is rare. Rather than being due to sarcoidosis, some reported mucosal lesions may simply have incidental granulomas. Extrinsic compression from lymphadenopathy can occur throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The stomach, particularly the antrum, is the most common extrahepatic organ to be involved, while the small bowel is the least common. Liver involvement frequently occurs and ranges from asymptomatic incidental granulomas to portal hypertension from granulomas in the portal triad, usually with relatively preserved liver function. CT scans show hepatosplenomegaly and adenopathy, followed in frequency by focal low-attenuation lesions of the liver and spleen. Ascites is usually a transudate from right heart failure (because of pulmonary hypertension) or portal hypertension (because of biliary cirrhosis). Rarely, an exudative ascites may occur from studding of the peritoneum with nodules. Pancreatic involvement presents as a mass, usually in the head or a diffusely firm, nodular organ. Corticosteroids should be instituted when organ function is threatened, usually lungs, eyes, and central nervous system. Their role in the treatment of hepatic sarcoidosis is unclear. The overall prognosis is good although most patients will have some permanent organ impairment. Cardiac and pulmonary diseases are the main causes of death. PMID:18853979

  13. Frequency Dependent Attenuation Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Richard, Kowar; Xavier, Bonnefond

    2009-01-01

    The work is inspired by thermo-and photoacoustic imaging, where recent efforts are devoted to take into account attenuation and varying wave speed parameters. In this paper we study causal equations describing propagation of attenuated pressure waves. We review standard models like frequency power laws and and the thermo-viscous equation. The lack of causality of standard models in the parameter range relevant for photoacoustic imaging requires to derive novel equations. The main ingredients for deriving causal equations are the Kramers-Kronig relation and the mathematical concept of linear system theory. The theoretical results of this work are underpined by numerical experiments.

  14. A low glycemic index diet does not affect postprandial energy metabolism but decreases postprandial insulinemia and increases fullness ratings in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog-Mikkelsen, Inger; Sloth, Birgitte; Dimitrov, Dimiter;

    2011-01-01

    investigated the effects of 2 high-carbohydrate (55%) diets with low GI (LGI; 79) or high GI (HGI; 103) on postprandial blood profile, subjective appetite sensations, energy expenditure (EE), substrate oxidation rates, and ad libitum energy intake (EI) from a corresponding test meal (LGI or HGI) after......At present, it is difficult to determine whether glycemic index (GI) is an important tool in the prevention of lifestyle diseases, and long-term studies investigating GI with diets matched in macronutrient composition, fiber content, energy content, and energy density are still scarce. We...... consuming the diets ad libitum for 10 wk. Two groups of a total of 29 healthy, overweight women (age: 30.5 ± 6.6 y; BMI: 27.6 ± 1.5 kg/m(2)) participated in the 10-wk intervention and a subsequent 4-h meal test. The breakfast test meals differed in GI but were equal in total energy, macronutrient...

  15. Alpha Linolenic Acid-enriched Diacylglycerol Enhances Postprandial Fat Oxidation in Healthy Subjects: A Randomized Double-blind Controlled Trail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Yasutoshi; Saito, Shinichiro; Oishi, Sachiko; Yamanaka, Nami; Hibi, Masanobu; Osaki, Noriko; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa

    2016-08-01

    Alpha linolenic acid-enriched diacylglycerol (ALA-DAG) reduces visceral fat area and body fat in rodents and humans compared to conventional triacylglycerol (TAG). Although ALA-DAG increases dietary fat utilization as energy in rodents, its effects in humans are not known. The present study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover intervention trial performed to clarify the effect of ALA-DAG on postprandial energy metabolism in humans. Nineteen healthy subjects participated in this study, and postprandial energy metabolism was evaluated using indirect calorimetry followed by 14-d repeated pre-consumption of TAG (rapeseed oil) as a control or ALA-DAG. As a primary outcome, ALA-DAG induced significantly higher postprandial fat oxidation than TAG. As a secondary outcome, carbohydrate oxidation tended to be decreased. In addition, postprandial energy expenditure was significantly increased by ALA-DAG compared to TAG. These findings suggest that daily ALA-DAG consumption stimulates dietary fat utilization as energy after a meal, as well as greater diet induced thermogenesis in healthy humans. In conclusion, repeated consumption of ALA-DAG enhanced postprandial fat metabolism after a meal, which may partially explain its visceral fat area-reducing effect. PMID:27430386

  16. Risks of Misinterpretation in the Evaluation of the Effect of Fruit-Based Drinks in Postprandial Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Peluso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that some fruit-based drinks (FBD may delay the onset of postprandial stress, which is involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases. The majority of the studies, which have investigated the effects of FBD on postprandial stress, involved a placebo that was a drink with the same content in sugars or carbohydrates of the FBD, but without the bioactive antioxidant compounds. These studies were aimed more at evaluating the effect of the antioxidants rather than the effect of the FBD as a whole. Only 4 studies compared the effect of FBD with water as control and did not support the hypothesis that FBD could inhibit postprandial dysmetabolism, as well as the studies that compared the effect of orange juice and cola. Overall, the results suggest a complex relationship between postprandial dysmetabolism, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Furthermore, the inflammatory and oxidative stress markers need further analytical validation and normal ranges should be established in order to reach a firm conclusion. Finally, caution should be taken in the interpretation of the effect of FBD in postprandial studies and the reviewed results suggest that dietary recommendations should aim to limit rather than increase sugar-sweetened beverages consumption.

  17. Tissue Staining (Chromoscopy) of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Fennerty, M. Brian

    1999-01-01

    Tissue staining, or chomoscopy, is used as an adjunctive technique during gastrointestinal endoscopy. Chemical agents are applied to the gastrointestinal mucosal surface to identify specific epithelia or to enhance the mucosal surface characteristics of the gastrointestinal epithelium. This aids in the recognition of subtle lesions (ie, polyps) or allows directed targeting of biopsies (ie, sprue or Barrett’s esophagus) to increase the yield of endoscopic diagnostic accuracy. The four endoscop...

  18. Gastrointestinal helminths in migratory Camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S G Rewatkar

    Full Text Available Survey of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in camel migrated from U.P., M.P., and Rajasthan at Nagpur region was carried out in early summer, 2008. Total 28 samples (12 males and 16 females were collected from different places of Nagpur region. They revealed parasites as Trichuris sp.(50%, Strongyloides sp.(32.14%, Trichostrongylus sp.(10.71%, Nematodirus sp.(10.71%, Haemonchus sp.(14.28%, Eurytrema sp.(21.42% ,Eimeria sp.(25%, Entamoeba sp.(17.85% and Balantidium sp.(7.14%.All were found positive for mixed helminthic infection. [Vet World 2009; 2(7.000: 258-258

  19. Multicentric malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla Shailaja; Singh Sanjeet; Pujani Mukta

    2009-01-01

    Malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a rare type of sarcoma that is found in the digestive system, most often in the wall of the stomach. Multiple GISTs are extremely rare and usually associated with type 1 neurofibromatosis and familial GIST. We report here a case of a 70-year-old woman who reported pain in the abdomen, loss of appetite, and weight loss for six months. Ultrasound examination showed a small bowel mass along with multiple peritoneal deposits and a mass within th...

  20. Changes to the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This article explores changes in the ageing gastrointestinal tract, including: » Diminished sense of taste and smell. » Shrinking of the maxillary and mandibular bones in the jaw. » Slowing of oesophageal peristalsis giving a feeling that something is 'stuck in the throat'. » Relaxation of the lower sphincter leading to gastro-oesophageal reflux. » Reduction in gastric bicarbonate and prostaglandin in mucus increasing susceptibility to stomach ulcers. » Changes in villi in the small intestine reducing the area for absorption. » Overpopulation of bacteria in the small intestine leading to decreased absorption of folic acid and minerals. PMID:27573953

  1. Postprandial dyslipidemia in men with visceral obesity: an effect of reduced LDL receptor expression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, J C; Watts, G F; Barrett, P H; Smith, D; James, A P; Pal, S

    2001-09-01

    Postprandial lipemia after an oral fat challenge was studied in middle-aged men with visceral obesity. The two groups had similar plasma cholesterol levels, but obese subjects had higher levels of plasma triglyceride and reduced amounts of high-density cholesterol. Fasting plasma insulin was fourfold greater in obese subjects because of concomitant insulin resistance, with a calculated HOMA score of 3.1 +/- 0.6 vs. 0.8 +/- 0.2, respectively. Plasma apolipoprotein B(48) (apoB(48)) and retinyl palmitate (RP) after an oral fat challenge were used to monitor chylomicron metabolism. Compared with lean subjects, the fasting concentration of apoB(48) was more than twofold greater in obese individuals, suggestive of an accumulation of posthydrolyzed particles. After the oral lipid load, the incremental areas under the apoB(48) and RP curves (IAUC) were both significantly greater in obese subjects (apoB(48): 97 +/- 17 vs. 44 +/- 12 microg.ml(-1). h; RP: 3,120 +/- 511 vs. 1,308 +/- 177 U. ml(-1). h, respectively). A delay in the conversion of chylomicrons to remnants probably contributed to postprandial dyslipidemia in viscerally obese subjects. The triglyceride IAUC was 68% greater in obese subjects (4.7 +/- 0.6 vs. 2.8 +/- 0.8 mM. h, P removal of proatherogenic chylomicron remnants, we suggest that the hepatic clearance of these particles might be compromised in insulin-resistant obese subjects. Premature and accelerated atherogenesis in viscerally obese, insulin-resistant subjects may in part reflect delayed clearance of postprandial lipoprotein remnants. PMID:11500319

  2. Salacia oblonga improves cardiac fibrosis and inhibits postprandial hyperglycemia in obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhao; Peng, Gang; Li, Qian; Wen, Suping; Huang, Tom Hsun-Wei; Roufogalis, Basil D; Yamahara, Johji

    2004-08-20

    Diabetes has a markedly greater incidence of cardiovascular disease than the non-diabetic population. The heart shows a slowly developing increase in fibrosis in diabetes. Extended cardiac fibrosis results in increased myocardial stiffness, causing ventricular dysfunction and, ultimately, heart failure. Reversal of fibrosis may improve organ function survival. Postprandial hyperglycemia plays an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular complications, and has been proposed as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Salacia oblonga (S.O.) is traditionally used in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. We investigated the effects of its water extract on cardiac fibrosis and hyperglycemia in a genetic model of type 2 diabetes, the obese Zucker rat (OZR). Chronic administration of the extract markedly improved interstitial and perivascular fibrosis in the hearts of the OZR. It also reduced plasma glucose levels in non-fasted OZR, whereas it had little effect in the fasted animals, suggesting inhibition of postprandial hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic animals, which might play a role in improvement of the cardiac complications of OZR. Furthermore, S.O. markedly suppressed the overexpression of mRNAs encoding transforming growth factor betas 1 and 3 in the OZR heart, which may be an important part of the overall molecular mechanisms. S.O. dose-dependently inhibited the increase of plasma glucose in sucrose-, but not in glucose-loaded mice. S.O. demonstrated a strong inhibition of alpha-glucosidase activity in vitro, which is suggested to contribute to the improvement of postprandial hyperglycemia. PMID:15268973

  3. Effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on total antioxidant capacity of fasting and postprandial plasma samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Dragsted, L. O.; Pedersen, A.;

    2001-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are known to protect against cancer and heart disease. This is often ascribed to their high content of antioxidants. We have therefore tested whether a daily intake of fruits and vegetables corresponding to the recommended 600 g had any effect on the antioxidant activity...... of fasting and postprandial plasma samples. Antioxidant activity was determined by the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assay and the Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) assay, which have been reported to be affected by the presence of dietary antioxidants....

  4. Postprandial plasma fructose level is associated with retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Takahiro; Ogata, Nobuyuki; Akanuma, Hiroshi; Sakai, Tadashi; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Ichiyanagi, Kaoru; Yamanouchi, Toshikazu

    2004-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of fructose on microangiopathy in patients with diabetes. Postprandial plasma fructose concentrations and postprandial plasma glucose concentrations were simultaneously measured 3 times within a 24-hour period (2 hours after each meal) in 38 patients with type 2 diabetes that had been admitted to the hospital. The mean postprandial plasma fructose concentrations (MPPF) and the mean postprandial plasma glucose concentrations (MPPG) were calculated. Fructose was measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). Based solely on MPPF, we were able to divide the patients into three groups: the high MPPF (31.9 +/- 6.5 micromol/L) group (n = 12), the middle MPPF (21.2 +/- 1.8 micromol/L) group (n = 13), and the low MPPF (15.2 +/- 2.4 micromol/L) group (n = 13). Prevalence and degree of retinopathy and nephropathy were then evaluated in the 3 different groups. A significant correlation was observed in the prevalence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) among the 3 MPPF groups (P =.024). The prevalence of PDR was higher in the high MPPF group (75.0%) than in the middle and low MPPF groups (23.1% and 38.5%, respectively). Although not significantly different statistically, the prevalence of all degrees of retinopathy showed a tendency to be higher in the high MPPF group (83.3%) than in the middle and low MPPF groups (46.2% and 46.2%, respectively) (P =.081). Nephropathy prevalence also showed a tendency to be higher in the high MPPF group (66.7%) than in the middle and low MPPF groups (38.5% and 30.8%, respectively), although the differences were not significant. The prevalence of clinical albuminuria was not significantly different among the 3 groups, but there was a tendency for it to be higher in the low MPPF group (30.8%) than in the high and middle MPPF groups (16.7% and 0%, respectively). No significant differences in glycemic indicators and mean duration of diabetes were observed among the 3

  5. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Aimee L. Dordevic; Pendergast, Felicity J.; Han Morgan; Silas Villas-Boas; Caldow, Marissa K.; Larsen, Amy E.; Andrew J. Sinclair; David Cameron-Smith

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD)); body mass index (BMI) 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage ...

  6. Positional distribution of decanoic acid: Effect on chylomicron and VLDL TAG structures and postprandial lipemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yli-Jokipii, K.M.; Schwab, U.S.; Tarvonen, R.L.;

    2004-01-01

    Although medium-chain FA (MCFA) are mainly absorbed via the portal venous system, they are also incorporated into chylomicron TAG; therefore, the positional distribution of MCFA in TAG is likely to affect their metabolic fate. We studied chylomicron and VLDL TAG structures, as well as the magnitu...... or in FFA concentrations. Thus, the positional distribution of MCFA in TAG affects their metabolic fate, but the magnitude of postprandial lipemia does not seem to be dependent on the positional distribution of MCFA in the ingested fat....

  7. Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels

    OpenAIRE

    Anton, Stephen D.; Martin, Corby K.; Han, Hongmei; Coulon, Sandra; Cefalu, William T.; Geiselman, Paula; Williamson, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may be one of the dietary causes of metabolic disorders, such as obesity. Therefore, substituting sugar with low-calorie sweeteners may be an efficacious weight management strategy. We tested the effect of preloads containing stevia, aspartame, or sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. Design: 19 healthy lean (BMI = 20.0 – 24.9) and 12 obese (BMI = 30.0 – 39.9) individuals 18 to 50 years old completed three separa...

  8. Gastrointestinal citrate absorption in nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegan, J.; Khan, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Gastrointestinal absorption of citrate was measured in stone patients with idiopathic hypocitraturia to determine if citrate malabsorption could account for low urinary citrate. Citrate absorption was measured directly from recovery of orally administered potassium citrate (40 mEq.) in the intestinal lavage fluid, using an intestinal washout technique. In 7 stone patients citrate absorption, serum citrate levels, peak citrate concentration in serum and area under the curve were not significantly different from those of 7 normal subjects. Citrate absorption was rapid and efficient in both groups, with 96 to 98% absorbed within 3 hours. The absorption of citrate was less efficient from a tablet preparation of potassium citrate than from a liquid preparation, probably due to a delayed release of citrate from wax matrix. However, citrate absorption from solid potassium citrate was still high at 91%, compared to 98% for a liquid preparation. Thus, hypocitraturia is unlikely to be due to an impaired gastrointestinal absorption of citrate in stone patients without overt bowel disease.

  9. Does Hypothyroidism Affect Gastrointestinal Motility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yaylali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gastrointestinal motility and serum thyroid hormone levels are closely related. Our aim was to analyze whether there is a disorder in esophagogastric motor functions as a result of hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods. The study group included 30 females (mean age ± SE 45.17 ± 2.07 years with primary hypothyroidism and 10 healthy females (mean age ± SE 39.40 ± 3.95 years. All cases underwent esophagogastric endoscopy and scintigraphy. For esophageal scintigraphy, dynamic imaging of esophagus motility protocol, and for gastric emptying scintigraphy, anterior static gastric images were acquired. Results. The mean esophageal transit time (52.56 ± 4.07 sec for patients; 24.30 ± 5.88 sec for controls; P=.02 and gastric emptying time (49.06 ± 4.29 min for the hypothyroid group; 30.4 ± 4.74 min for the control group; P=.01 were markedly increased in cases of hypothyroidism. Conclusion. Hypothyroidism prominently reduces esophageal and gastric motor activity and can cause gastrointestinal dysfunction.

  10. Effects of fat supplementation on postprandial GIP, GLP-1, ghrelin and IGFBP-1 levels: a pilot study on adolescents with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodefalk, M; Carlsson-Skwirut, C; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2010-01-01

    . Larger GLP-1 secretion correlated with slower gastric emptying (p = 0.029) and higher fasting ghrelin levels correlated with lower postprandial glycaemia (p = 0.007). Conclusion: In adolescents with T1DM, the postprandial responses of GIP, GLP-1 and ghrelin, but not that of IGFBP-1, depend more on meal...

  11. Different effects of diets rich in olive oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower-seed oil on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and on lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Pedersen, A.; Sandstrøm, B.;

    2002-01-01

    oxidation of fasting and postprandial lipoproteins eighteen males consumed diets enriched with rapeseed oil (RO), olive oil (OO), or sunflower-seed oil (SO) in randomised order for periods of 3 weeks followed by a RO test meal. In the postprandial state the concentrations of cholesterol and triacylglycerol...

  12. Associations between postprandial insulin and blood glucose responses, appetite sensations and energy intake in normal weight and overweight individuals: a meta-analysis of test meal studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flint, Anne; Gregersen, Nikolaj T.; Gluud, Lise L.;

    2007-01-01

    frequently in the postprandial period. Finally, an ad libitum lunch was served. Data were analysed by fixed effects study level (SL) meta-regression analysis and individual participant data (IPD) regression analysis, using STATA software. In SL analysis, postprandial insulin response was associated...

  13. Carbonic anhydrases in normal gastrointestinal tract and gastrointestinal tumours

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antti J. Kivel(a); Jyrki Kivel(a); Juha Saarnio; Seppo Parkkila

    2005-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) catalyse the hydration of CO2to bicarbonate at physiological pH. This chemical interconversion is crucial since HCO3- is the substrate for several biosynthetic reactions. This review is focused on the distribution and role of CA isoenzymes in both normal and pathological gastrointestinal (GI) tract tissues. It has been known for many years that CAs are widely present in the GI tract and play important roles in several physiological functions such as production of saliva, gastric acid, bile, and pancreatic juice as well as in absorption of salt and water in intestine. New information suggests that these enzymes participate in several processes that were not envisioned earlier. Especially, the recent reports on plasma membranebound isoenzymes Ⅸ and Ⅻ have raised considerable interest since they were reported to participate in cancer invasion and spread. They are induced by tumour hypoxia and may also play a role in von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-mediated carcinogenesis.

  14. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) suppresses postprandial lipidemia through fatty acid oxidation in enterocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → PPARα activation increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. → PPARα activation also increased oxygen consumption rate and CO2 production and decreased secretion of triglyceride and ApoB from Caco-2 cells. → Orally administration of bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and CO2 production in small intestinal epithelial cells. → Treatment with bezafibrate decreased postprandial serum concentration of triglyceride after oral injection of olive oil in mice. → It suggested that intestinal lipid metabolism regulated by PPARα activation suppresses postprandial lipidemia. -- Abstract: Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α which regulates lipid metabolism in peripheral tissues such as the liver and skeletal muscle, decreases circulating lipid levels, thus improving hyperlipidemia under fasting conditions. Recently, postprandial serum lipid levels have been found to correlate more closely to cardiovascular diseases than fasting levels, although fasting hyperlipidemia is considered an important risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of PPARα activation on postprandial lipidemia has not been clarified. In this study, we examined the effects of PPARα activation in enterocytes on lipid secretion and postprandial lipidemia. In Caco-2 enterocytes, bezafibrate, a potent PPAR agonist, increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase, and acyl-CoA synthase, and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and suppressed secretion levels of both triglycerides and apolipoprotein B into the basolateral side. In vivo experiments revealed that feeding high-fat-diet containing bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and production of CO2 and acid soluble metabolites in enterocytes. Moreover

  15. Possible Waardenburg syndrome with gastrointestinal anomalies.

    OpenAIRE

    Nutman, J; Steinherz, R; Sivan, Y; Goodman, R M

    1986-01-01

    We describe a patient with possible Waardenburg syndrome associated with anal atresia and oesophageal atresia with tracheooesophageal fistula. Three other published cases with atretic gastrointestinal anomalies associated with the Waardenburg syndrome are reviewed. We conclude that the association between atretic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and the Waardenburg syndrome may be a significant one.

  16. Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Superwarfarins are a class of rodenticides. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a fatal complication of superwarfarin poisoning, requiring immediate treatment. Here, we report a 55-year-old woman with tardive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning after endoscopic cold mucosal biopsy.

  17. Stress, Anxiety and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress has major role in functional gastrointestinal system disorders. The most typical example of this situation is Irritable bowel syndrome. Gastrointestinal system’s response to acute or short-term of stress is delay of gastric emptying and stimulation of colonic transition. While CRF2 receptors are mediate the upper section inhibition, CRF1 is responsible for the lower part colonic and anxiogenic response. Visceral hypersensitivity is managed by the emotional motor system, the amygdala plays a significant role and mucosal mast cells arise. But in people with symptoms of functional gastrointestinal, how is differ motility response in healthy individuals, this situation is due to lack of autonomous nervous system or an increased sensitivity of stress is not adequately understood. The brain-gastrointestinal axis frequency and severity of symptoms associated with negative emotions. American Gastroenterology Association is closely associated with the quality of life and is very difficult to treat the symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders, re-interpreted under the heading of 'Gastrointestinal Distress'. This review is defined as gastrointestinal distresses, physical, emotional, and behavioral components as a disorder in which, almost like an anxiety disorder are discussed. Physical component is pain, gas, and defecation problems, cognitive component is external foci control, catastrophization and anticipatory anxiety, the emotional component is somatic anxiety, hypervigilance, and avoidance of gastrointestinal stimuli as defined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(2.000: 122-133

  18. Gastrointestinal symptoms and ethanol metabolism in alcoholics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laheij, R.J.F.; Verlaan, M.; Oijen, M.G.H. van; Doelder, M.S. de; Jong, C.A.J. de; Jansen, J.B.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Excessive alcohol intake frequently results in gastrointestinal discomfort. It is an empirical fact that the severity of gastrointestinal discomfort induced by alcohol abuse is subject to interindividual variation. The aim of this study was to determine whether genetic polymorphism in alcohol dehydr

  19. The Nervous System and Gastrointestinal Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf, Muhammad A.; Sood, Manu R.

    2008-01-01

    The enteric nervous system is an integrative brain with collection of neurons in the gastrointestinal tract which is capable of functioning independently of the central nervous system (CNS). The enteric nervous system modulates motility, secretions, microcirculation, immune and inflammatory responses of the gastrointestinal tract. Dysphagia,…

  20. Peptide Hormones in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasi...

  1. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G.; Nikolova, D.; Simonetti, R.G.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of antioxidant supplements in preventing gastrointestinal...... Database from inception to October 2007. We scanned reference lists and contacted pharmaceutical companies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials comparing antioxidant supplements to placebo/no intervention examining occurrence of gastrointestinal cancers. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors (GB...... high. Heterogeneity was low to moderate. Antioxidant supplements were without significant effects on gastrointestinal cancers (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.06). However, there was significant heterogeneity (I(2) = 54.0%, P = 0.003). The heterogeneity may have been explained by bias risk (low-bias risk...

  2. Cocoa extract intake for 4 weeks reduces postprandial systolic blood pressure response of obese subjects, even after following an energy-restricted diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idoia Ibero-Baraibar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations. Objective: To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated. Design: Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention study. Half of the volunteers consumed a test meal enriched with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (415 mg flavanols, while the rest of the volunteers consumed the same meal without the cocoa extract (control group. Glucose and lipid profile, as well as blood pressure and cocoa metabolites in plasma, were assessed before and at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption, at the beginning of the study (Postprandial 1 and after following a 4-week 15% energy-restricted diet including meals containing or not containing the cocoa extract (Postprandial 2. Results: In the Postprandial 1 test, the area under the curve (AUC of systolic blood pressure (SBP was significantly higher in the cocoa group compared with the control group (p=0.007, showing significant differences after 120 min of intake. However, no differences between groups were observed at Postprandial 2. Interestingly, the reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP (AUC_Postprandial 2-AUC_Postprandial 1 was higher in the cocoa group (p=0.016. Furthermore, cocoa-derived metabolites were detected in plasma of the cocoa group, while the absence or significantly lower amounts of metabolites were found in the control group. Conclusions: The daily consumption of cocoa extract within an energy-restricted diet for 4 weeks resulted in a greater reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP compared with the effect of energy-restricted diet alone and independently of body weight loss. These results suggest the role of cocoa flavanols on

  3. Effects of Curcuma longa (turmeric on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemansson Sandra

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous animal studies have shown that Curcuma (C. longa lowers plasma glucose. C. longa may thus be a promising ingredient in functional foods aimed at preventing type 2 diabetes. The purpose of the study is to study the effect of C. longa on postprandial plasma glucose, insulin levels and glycemic index (GI in healthy subjects. Methods Fourteen healthy subjects were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was administered together with capsules containing a placebo or C. longa. Finger-prick capillary and venous blood samples were collected before, and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the start of the OGTT to measure the glucose and insulin levels, respectively. Results The ingestion of 6 g C. longa had no significant effect on the glucose response. The change in insulin was significantly higher 30 min (P = 0.03 and 60 min (P = 0.041 after the OGTT including C. longa. The insulin AUCs were also significantly higher after the ingestion of C. longa, 15 (P = 0.048, 30 (P = 0.035, 90 (P = 0.03, and 120 (P = 0.02 minutes after the OGTT. Conclusions The ingestion of 6 g C. longa increased postprandial serum insulin levels, but did not seem to affect plasma glucose levels or GI, in healthy subjects. The results indicate that C. longa may have an effect on insulin secretion. Trial registration number NCT01029327

  4. Postprandial regulation of growth- and metabolism-related factors in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiliez, Iban; Médale, Françoise; Aguirre, Peyo; Larquier, Mélanie; Lanneretonne, Laura; Alami-Durante, Hélène; Panserat, Stéphane; Skiba-Cassy, Sandrine

    2013-06-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have been proposed as a possible model organism for nutritional physiology. However, this potential has not yet been realized and studies on the field remain scarce. In this work, we investigated in this species the effect of a single meal as well as that of an increase in the ratio of dietary carbohydrates/proteins on the postprandial expression of several hepatic and muscle metabolism-related genes and proteins. Fish were fed once either a commercial diet (experiment 1) or one of two experimental diets (experiment 2) containing different protein and carbohydrate levels after 72 h of starvation. Refeeding induced the postprandial expression of genes of glycolysis (GK, HK1) and lipogenesis (FAS, G6PDH, ACCa) and inhibited those of gluconeogenesis (cPEPCK) and beta-oxidation (CPT1b) in the viscera. In the muscle, refeeding increased transcript levels of myogenesis (Myf5, Myogenin), inhibited those of Ub-proteasomal proteolytic system (Atrogin1, Murf1a, Murf1b), and induced the activation of key signaling factors of protein synthesis (Akt, 4EBP1, S6K1, S6). However, diet composition had a low impact on the studied factors. Together, these results highlight some specificity of the zebrafish metabolism and demonstrate the interest and the limits of this species as a model organism for nutritional physiology studies.

  5. Enrichment of biscuits and juice with oat β-glucan enhances postprandial satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentikäinen, Saara; Karhunen, Leila; Flander, Laura; Katina, Kati; Meynier, Alexandra; Aymard, Pierre; Vinoy, Sophie; Poutanen, Kaisa

    2014-04-01

    Effects of fibre and β-glucan on satiety have been reported in many studies, but no consensus has been reached. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of breakfasts varying in the dose of oat bran (4g or 8g β-glucan). The approach was to study whether the food matrix (solid or liquid) into which the oat bran is incorporated influences postprandial satiety in otherwise similar meal settings. Thirty healthy females were offered four different breakfasts: biscuits+juice (0g β-glucan), enriched biscuits+juice (4g β-glucan), biscuits+enriched juice (4g β-glucan) and enriched biscuits+enriched juice (8g β-glucan) in a random order on separate test days. The sensations associated with hunger and satiety were evaluated using visual analogue scales (VAS) before and after ingesting the test breakfasts and every 30min until 210min. Oat bran addition in breakfasts increased postprandial satiety especially when both juice and biscuits were enriched (8g of β-glucan). Addition of oat bran to juice enhanced satiety and related feelings more effectively than the addition into biscuits.

  6. Postprandial prolactin suppression appears absent in antipsychotic-treated male patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coello, Klara; Broberg, Brian V; Bak, Nikolaj;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hyperprolactinemia is a common side-effect of antipsychotic treatment. Antipsychotics and hyperprolactinemia are both considered risk factors of metabolic disturbances and diabetes. Investigations on prolactin response to meal ingestion in antipsychotic-treated patients are missing...... circumference (96.4, SD 13.0 vs. 96.7, SD 11.9 cm). Serum-prolactin was measured in the morning and 90 min after ingestion of a standardized liquid meal (2268 kJ). RESULTS: Fasting prolactin levels varied considerably, and mean fasting prolactin levels did not significantly differ between patients and controls...... (12.33, SD 11.58 vs. 10.06, SD 8.67 ng/ml, p = 0.623). In the controls, postprandial serum prolactin was significantly reduced (Δ -2.53, SD 9.75 ng/ml, p = 0.016). In antipsychotic-treated patients postprandial serum prolactin tended to increase (Δ 2.62, SD 10.96 ng/ml, p = 0.081). Analyses...

  7. Postprandial lipid response following a high fat meal in rats adapted to dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redard, C L; Davis, P A; Middleton, S J; Schneeman, B O

    1992-02-01

    Rats were adapted to diets containing 5 g/100 g cellulose (CL), 5 g/100 g oat bran fiber (OB) or 5 g/100 g psyllium husk (Psy) for 4 wk. Following a 12-h fast, animals were either killed at 0 h (baseline) or fed 4.5 g of a test meal that provided 50% energy from fat, then killed at 1, 4 or 6 h postprandially. Fasting plasma and HDL cholesterol concentrations were lower in Psy-fed animals than in rats fed either CL or OB. Plasma triglycerides increased significantly from baseline (0 h) in all groups but did not differ among diet treatments. Increases in triglyceride content of the treatments. Increases in triglyceride content of the chylomicron/VLDL fraction occurred in the CL- and OB-fed groups and in the HDL fraction of the Psy-fed group during the postprandial period. In unfed animals the hepatic and intestinal levels of apolipoprotein A-IV mRNA were higher in the CL-fed group than in the groups fed OB and Psy. Apolipoprotein B mRNA was higher in the intestine of the OB-fed group than in the groups fed CL and Psy and had a significant gradient along the small intestine, increasing in the distal third. The results suggest that chronic consumption of fiber is less likely to modify the acute plams triglyceride response to a fat-containing test meal than if a fiber supplement is incorporated into the meal. PMID:1310107

  8. Control algorithms for dynamic attenuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Scott S., E-mail: sshsieh@stanford.edu [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Pelc, Norbert J. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford California 94305 and Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The authors describe algorithms to control dynamic attenuators in CT and compare their performance using simulated scans. Dynamic attenuators are prepatient beam shaping filters that modulate the distribution of x-ray fluence incident on the patient on a view-by-view basis. These attenuators can reduce dose while improving key image quality metrics such as peak or mean variance. In each view, the attenuator presents several degrees of freedom which may be individually adjusted. The total number of degrees of freedom across all views is very large, making many optimization techniques impractical. The authors develop a theory for optimally controlling these attenuators. Special attention is paid to a theoretically perfect attenuator which controls the fluence for each ray individually, but the authors also investigate and compare three other, practical attenuator designs which have been previously proposed: the piecewise-linear attenuator, the translating attenuator, and the double wedge attenuator. Methods: The authors pose and solve the optimization problems of minimizing the mean and peak variance subject to a fixed dose limit. For a perfect attenuator and mean variance minimization, this problem can be solved in simple, closed form. For other attenuator designs, the problem can be decomposed into separate problems for each view to greatly reduce the computational complexity. Peak variance minimization can be approximately solved using iterated, weighted mean variance (WMV) minimization. Also, the authors develop heuristics for the perfect and piecewise-linear attenuators which do not requirea priori knowledge of the patient anatomy. The authors compare these control algorithms on different types of dynamic attenuators using simulated raw data from forward projected DICOM files of a thorax and an abdomen. Results: The translating and double wedge attenuators reduce dose by an average of 30% relative to current techniques (bowtie filter with tube current

  9. Treatment of gastrointestinal autonomic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnblom, Hans

    2016-03-01

    The symptoms caused by gastrointestinal autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus is important to highlight since it affects a large proportion of people with diabetes, regardless of whether this is type 1 or type 2. Gastroparesis and general signs of bowel dysfunction, such as constipation, diarrhoea and abdominal pain are most often encountered and involve both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options. This mini-review summarises a presentation given at the 'Diagnosis and treatment of autonomic diabetic neuropathy in the gut' symposium at the 2015 annual meeting of the EASD. It is accompanied by another mini-review on a topic from this symposium (by Azpiroz and Malagelada, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-015-3831-1 ) and a commentary by the Session Chair, Péter Kempler (DOI: 10.1007/s00125-015-3826-y ). PMID:26634570

  10. Neuropathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jackie D Wood

    2007-01-01

    The investigative evidence and emerging concepts in neurogastroenterology implicate dysfunctions at the levels of the enteric and central nervous systems as underlying causes of the prominent symptoms of many of the functional gastrointestinal disorders.Neurogastroenterological research aims for improved understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of the digestive subsystems from which the arrays of functional symptoms emerge. The key subsystems for defecation-related symptoms and visceral hypersensitivity are the intestinal secretory glands, the musculature and the nervous system that controls and integrates their activity. Abdominal pain and discomfort arising from these systems adds the dimension of sensory neurophysiology. This review details current concepts for the underlying pathophysiology in terms of the physiology of intestinal secretion, motility, nervous control, sensing function, immuno-neural communication and the brain-gut axis.

  11. Digestibility and postprandial ammonia excretion in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets containing different oilseed by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obirikorang, Kwasi Adu; Amisah, Stephen; Fialor, Simon Cudjoe;

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential for using oilseed by-products (soybean, copra and palm kernel meals) as partial replacements of fishmeal in feeds for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Nutrient digestibility and postprandial ammonia excretion rates were examined...

  12. Relationship between the Peroxidation of Leukocytes Index Ratio and the Improvement of Postprandial Metabolic Stress by a Functional Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Peluso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, we investigated the relationship between postprandial dysmetabolism and the Peroxidation of Leukocytes Index Ratio (PLIR, a test that measures the resistance of leukocytes to exogenous oxidative stress and their functional capacity of oxidative burst upon activation. Following a blind, placebo controlled, randomized, crossover design, ten healthy subjects ingested, in two different occasions, a high fat and high carbohydrates meal with Snello cookie (HFHCM-S or with control cookies (HFHCM-C. Snello cookie, a functional food covered by dark chocolate and containing glucomannan, inulin, fructooligosaccharides, and Bacillus coagulans strain GanedenBC30, significantly improved postprandial metabolic stress (insulin, glucose, and triglycerides and reduced the postprandial increase of uric acid. HFHCM-S improved PLIR of lymphocytes, but not of monocytes and granulocytes. Both meals increased granulocytes’ count and reduced the lipoperoxidation induced by both exogenous free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS produced by oxidative burst. Our results suggest that the healthy status of the subjects could be a limitation of this pilot study for PLIR evaluation on cells that produce ROS by oxidative burst. In conclusion, the relationship between PLIR and postprandial dysmetabolism requires further investigations.

  13. Laboratory Exercise: Study of Digestive and Regulatory Processes through the Exploration of Fasted and Postprandial Blood Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Mari K.; Maurer, Luke W.

    2013-01-01

    Digestive physiology laboratory exercises often explore the regulation of enzyme action rather than systems physiology. This laboratory exercise provides a systems approach to digestive and regulatory processes through the exploration of postprandial blood glucose levels. In the present exercise, students enrolled in an undergraduate animal…

  14. Breaking up prolonged sitting does not alter postprandial glycemia in young, normal-weight men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rasmus Kopp; Andersen, J B; Vinther, A S;

    2016-01-01

    A randomized, controlled, cross-over study was used to investigate the effects of breaking up prolonged sitting with low intensity physical activity on postprandial blood glucose concentrations in healthy, young, normal-weight adults. 14 men (n=6) and women (n=8) were assigned to 2.5 h of prolonged...

  15. Cinnamon extract inhibits the postprandial overproduction of apolipoprotein B48-containing lipoproteins in fructose-fed animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have reported previously that a cinnamon extract(CE)prevents fructose feeding-induced decreases in insulin sensitivity, and suggested that improvements of insulin sensitivity by CE were partly attributable to enhanced insulin signaling. In this study, we examined the effects of CE on postprandial...

  16. Green Tea Extract Improves the Postprandial Overproduction of Intestinal Apolipoprotein B-containing Lipoproteins in Fructose-Fed Hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green tea has putative medicinal properties that may be useful in preventing the metabolic syndrome since increased consumption of green tea extract (GTE) is associated with improved lipid and glucose homeostasis in human and animals. The acute effect of GTE on postprandial intestinal apoB48 product...

  17. Wheat-fibre-induced changes of postprandial peptide YY and ghrelin responses are not associated with acute alterations of satiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weickert, Martin O; Spranger, Joachim; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2006-01-01

    Weight gain and risk of type 2 diabetes are inversely associated with a high intake of insoluble cereal fibres. Because nutrient-induced changes of 'satiety hormones' from the gut may play a role in this process, we evaluated the effects of purified insoluble fibres on postprandial responses of p...

  18. An explorative study of in vivo digestive starch characteristics and postprandial glucose kinetics of wholemeal wheat bread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, Marion G.; Wachters-Hagedoorn, Renate E.; Heimweg, Janneke A. J.; Small, Alexandra; Preston, Tom; Elzinga, Henk; Stellaard, Frans; Vonk, Roel J.

    2008-01-01

    Based on in vitro measurements, it is assumed that starch in wholemeal bread is rapidly digestible, which is considered to be less desirable for health. To evaluate the in vitro prediction, we characterized starch digestion of wholemeal wheat bread (WB) and postprandial glucose kinetics in healthy v

  19. Devil's claw root: ulcers and gastrointestinal bleeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Harpagophytum procumbens, or devil's claw, is an African plant whose root is used to relieve minor joint symptoms. Several cases of gastrointestinal bleeding associated with the use of devil's claw root have been reported. A systematic review of the adverse effects of devil's claw root in about 20 randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials showed mainly gastrointestinal effects: gastralgia and dyspepsia. In practice, devil's claw root exposes patients to the risk of sometimes serious upper gastrointestinal disorders, yet has no established efficacy beyond a placebo effect. It is best avoided. PMID:24600731

  20. [Metagenomics in studying gastrointestinal tract microorganism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Yang, Yunjuan; Li, Junjun; Tang, Xianghua; Mu, Yuelin; Huang, Zunxi

    2013-12-01

    Animal gastrointestinal tract contains a complex community of microbes, whose composition ultimately reflects the co-evolution of microorganisms with their animal host. The gut microbial community of humans and animals has received significant attention from researchers because of its association with health and disease. The application of metagenomics technology enables researchers to study not only the microbial composition but also the function of microbes in the gastrointestinal tract. In this paper, combined with our own findings, we summarized advances in studying gastrointestinal tract microorganism with metagenomics and the bioinformatics technology.

  1. Digestive physiology of the pig symposium: G protein-coupled receptors in nutrient chemosensation and gastrointestinal hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, A P

    2013-05-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is a highly effective and efficient organ system that digests and absorbs nutrients, contributes to the regulation of glucose homeostasis, and signals postprandial satiety. A network of enteroendocrine cells orchestrates these events through the release of neuropeptide hormones secreted in response to the specific nutrient components within the intraluminal milieu. Nutrient chemosensing by these cells is mediated by cell membrane proteins that have been localized to hormone-producing cells. However, functional studies of the nutrient detection abilities of the endocrine cell population have been limited due to its rare and singly distributed cell type. Recent technological advances have enabled investigations with primary endocrine cells that promise to enhance our current understanding of enteroendocrine cell biology. This review focuses on a particular subset of chemosensing receptors, the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), that have been identified as putative nutrient sensors of the major macronutrients, lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates by enteroendocrine cells. The contributions of these receptors in directly activating and stimulating hormone secretion in several subsets of enteroendocrine cells will be discussed, based on evidence gathered by functional studies in animal models, in vitro studies in endocrine cell lines, and newly described findings in primary endocrine cells. Key insights in chemosensory detection and hormone secretion from enteroendocrine cells may help further the studies in larger animal models and guide the formulation of feed or supplements to influence the gastrointestinal signals regulating optimal food intake, absorptive capacity, and growth. PMID:23230119

  2. Postprandial increase of oleoylethanolamide mobilization in small intestine of the Burmese python (Python molurus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astarita, Giuseppe; Rourke, Bryan C; Andersen, Johnnie Bremholm;

    2006-01-01

    to the induction of between-meal satiety. Here we examined whether feeding-induced OEA mobilization also occurs in Burmese pythons (Python molurus), a species of ambush-hunting snakes that consumes huge meals after months of fasting and undergoes massive feeding-dependent changes in gastrointestinal hormonal...... release and gut morphology. Using liquid-chromatography/mass-spectrometry (LC/MS), we measured OEA levels in the gastrointestinal tract of fasted (28 days) and fed (48h after feeding) pythons. We observed a nearly 300-fold increase in OEA levels in the small intestine of fed compared to fasted animals......-unsaturated, but not polyunsaturated fatty-acid ethanolamides (FAE) in the small intestine of fed pythons. The identification of OEA and other FAEs in the gastrointestinal tract of Python molurus suggests that this class of lipid messengers may be widespread among vertebrate groups and may represent an evolutionarily ancient means...

  3. [Influence of breads with use of barley, buckwheat and oat flours and barley flakes on postprandial glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Gapparov, M M; Plotnikova, O A; Zykina, V V; Shlelenko, L A; Tiurina, O E; Rabotkin, Iu V

    2009-01-01

    It was investigated the influence of breads with use of barley, buckwheat and oat flours and barley flakes on postprandial glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It was shown that consumption of breads with use of barley and buckwheat flours is accompanied less marked postprandial glycaemic reaction in compared with standard loading of carbohydrates (wheat bread). Also it was noted greater increase of postprandial glycaemia in consumption of bread with use of barley flakes in compared with consumption of wheat bread inclusive equivalent amount of carbohydrates. PMID:19999818

  4. Effect of different protein types on second meal postprandial glycaemia in normal weight and normoglycemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Ton, Winder Tadeu; das Graças de Almeida, Crislaine; de Morais Cardoso, Leandro; Marvila Girondoli, Yassana; Feliciano Pereira, Patrícia; Viana Gomes Schitini, Josiane Keila; Galvão Cândido, Flávia; Marques Arbex, Priscila; de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas, Rita

    2014-03-01

    Introducción: La diabetes mellitus es una enfermedad epidémica que afecta a 346 millones de personas en el mundo. El control glicémico es la clave para la prevención y el control de la diabetes. Algunas proteínas pueden estimular la liberación de insulina y modular la respuesta glicémica. Objetivos: Evaluar el efecto del consumo de diferentes tipos de proteínas (proteína de suero de leche, proteína de soja y la clara de huevo) de la glicemia postprandial en una segunda comida en individuos de peso normal y normoglicémicos. Metodología: Este fue un ensayo clínico aleatorizado cruzado. Después de un ayuno nocturno de 12 horas, diez individuos asistieron al laboratorio para beber uno de los batidos de proteínas (suero de leche, soja o clara de huevo) o la bebida control. Treinta minutos más tarde, los individuos consumieron una solución de glucosa (25 g de glucosa). La respuesta glicémica fue monitorizada en los tiempos 0 (antes de solución de glucosa) y 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 y 120 min (después del consumo de la solución de glucosa). El área incrementada bajo la curva de glicemia (iAUC) fue calculada por el método trapezoidal. Por otra parte, la respuesta glicémica se evaluó mediante un nuevo método que utiliza la ecuación de iG. Resultados: En comparación con el control, las bebidas de suero de leche y de proteína de soja reducen iAUC postprandial en 56,5% (p = 0,004) y 44,4% (p = 0,029), respectivamente. La proteína de suero es la única proteína capaz de evitar grandes fluctuaciones y un pico de glicemia postprandial. La evaluación de la respuesta glicémica por la ecuación iG mostró correlación positiva con iAUC (Pearson 0,985, p < 0,05). Conclusión: El consumo de suero de leche y proteína de soja 30 minutos antes de una carga de glucosa resultó en menor iAUC en comparación con la bebida control. La proteína del suero mantiene la glucemia postprandial más estable.

  5. Effects of plant proteins on postprandial, free plasma amino acid concentrations in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bodil Katrine; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2012-01-01

    Postprandial patterns in plasma free amino acid concentrations were investigated in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed either a fish meal based diet (FM) or a diet (VEG) where 59% of fish meal protein (corresponding to 46% of total dietary protein) was replaced by a matrix of plant...... proteins from wheat, peas, field beans, sunflower and soybean. Blood samples were obtained from the caudal vein of 7 fish in each dietary treatment group prior to feeding, as well as: 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after feeding (sampling 7 new fish at each time point), and plasma amino acid...... concentrations were subsequently measured by HPLC. Nutrient digestibility and ammonia excretion of the two experimental diets were measured in a parallel experiment using a modified Guelph setup. Results showed that the appearance of most amino acids (essential and non-essential) in the plasma was delayed...

  6. Hypercapnia adversely affects postprandial metabolism in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Methling, C.; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; Steffensen, John Fleng;

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of elevated CO2 partial pressure on the specific dynamic action (SDA) and ammonia excretion in European eel (Anguilla anguilla) following forced feeding. Two different hypercapnic scenarios were investigated; one inwhich pCO2 oscillated between 20 and 60 mm ...... ammonia excretion were observed at high pCO2 or low Ph/normocapnia. The results demonstrate that despite an exceptional tolerance towards elevated pCO2 and acidosis, postprandial metabolic processes of the European eel are adversely affected by hypercapnia and low pH...... significantly increased the duration of the SDA response by 22% and 29%, respectively.Hypercapnia had no effect on standard metabolic rate,while constant or oscillating hypercapnia significantly lowered the maximum metabolic rate compared to controls, causing a significant reduction of the aerobic scope during...

  7. Postprandial Reactive Hypoglycaemia: Varying Presentation Patterns on Extended Glucose Tolerance Tests and Possible Therapeutic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive hypoglycemia is a state characterised by sympathetic or neuroglycopenic symptoms associated with hypoglycaemia in the postprandial state resulting in considerable distress to the patient. It is our practice to carry out either extended glucose tolerance tests (eGTTs or mixed meal tests in these patients. We describe two patients who experienced hypoglycaemic symptoms early and late during eGTT. The patient who experienced symptoms early, in contrast to the patient who presented with late symptoms, did not possess any characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Based on clinical symptoms, glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid (FFA levels, we speculate on possible mechanisms that may have accounted for each of their presentation patterns. We then discuss low glycaemic index diet which will be the mainstay of management.

  8. A Quantitative Review and Meta-Models of the Variability and Factors Affecting Oral Drug Absorption-Part I: Gastrointestinal pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhelwa, Ahmad Y; Foster, David J R; Upton, Richard N

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to conduct a quantitative meta-analysis for the values of, and variability in, gastrointestinal (GI) pH in the different GI segments; characterize the effect of food on the values and variability in these parameters; and present quantitative meta-models of distributions of GI pH to help inform models of oral drug absorption. The literature was systemically reviewed for the values of, and the variability in, GI pH under fed and fasted conditions. The GI tract was categorized into the following 10 distinct regions: stomach (proximal, mid-distal), duodenum (proximal, mid-distal), jejunum and ileum (proximal, mid, and distal small intestine), and colon (ascending, transverse, and descending colon). Meta-analysis used the "metafor" package of the R language. The time course of postprandial stomach pH was modeled using NONMEM. Food significantly influenced the estimated meta-mean stomach and duodenal pH but had no significant influence on small intestinal and colonic pH. The time course of postprandial pH was described using an exponential model. Increased meal caloric content increased the extent and duration of postprandial gastric pH buffering. The different parts of the small intestine had significantly different pH. Colonic pH was significantly different for descending but not for ascending and transverse colon. Knowledge of GI pH is important for the formulation design of the pH-dependent dosage forms and in understanding the dissolution and absorption of orally administered drugs. The meta-models of GI pH may also be used as part of semi-physiological pharmacokinetic models to characterize the effect of GI pH on the in vivo drug release and pharmacokinetics. PMID:27495120

  9. Postprandial lipaemia and endothelial adhesion molecules in preand postmenopausal Spanish women Lipemia postprandial y moléculas de adhesión endotelial en mujeres españolas premenopáusicas y postmenopáusicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schoppen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postprandial hyperlipaemia is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. Objectives: To compare postprandial lipaemia and fasting adhesion molecules levels in healthy young premenopausal(PrW and postmenopausal (PoW Spanish women. Subjects and methods: Twenty healthy PrW and 18 healthy PoW participated in a postprandial 7-hour intervention study. All participants were given a fat-rich standard meal (11.8% saturated, 39.7% monounsaturated, and 6.6% polyunsaturated after a 12 h fast. Blood samples were taken at baseline and at 60, 120, 240, 360 and 420 min after eating. Triacylglycerols (TAG, total cholesterol (Chol, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1 and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1 were determined in fasting serum samples and TAG andtotal Chol postprandial levels were measured. Results: Anthropometric data, serum lipid and sICAM-1 presented significant higher values in PoW compared to PrW, but sVCAM-1 did not significantly differ between groups. Postprandial TAG and Chol concentrations in PoW were significantly higher than in PrW (p Introducción: La hiperlipemia postprandial es un factor independiente de riesgo de aterosclerosis. Objetivos: Comparar la lipemia postprandial y concentraciones en ayunas de moléculas de adhesión en mujeres sanas, jóvenes premenopáusicas (PrW y postmenopáusicas (PoW. Sujetos y métodos: 20 PrW y 18 PoW participaron en un estudio de intervención postprandial de 7 horas. Tras 12 horas de ayuno, las participantes tomaron una comida estándar rica en grasa (11,8% saturada, 39,7% monoinsaturada y 6,6% poliinsaturada. Se tomaron muestras de sangre basal y a los 60, 120, 240, 360 y 420 min después de comer. En las muestras en ayunas se determinaron triglicéridos (TAG, colesterol total (Chol, moléculas solubles de adhesión intercelular-1 (sICAM-1 y moléculas solubles de adhesión vascular-1 (sVCAM-1. Asimismo se determinaron TAG y Chol postprandiales. Resultados

  10. Histiocytic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detlefsen, Sönke; Fagerberg, Christina R; Ousager, Lilian Bomme;

    2013-01-01

    a short review on histiocytic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract in general. The primary histiocytic disorders of uncertain origin, Rosai-Dorfman disease, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and Erdheim-Chester disease, are addressed. Reactive and infectious conditions such as xanthomatosis...

  11. Ketamine Sedation in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman E. Eskander

    2016-07-01

    CONCLUSION: Ketamine sedation found to be safe for paediatric gastrointestinal endoscopy in Egyptian children without co-morbidities. Transient Hypoxia (13% may occur but easily reversed by nasal oxygen therapy.

  12. Targeted therapies in upper gastrointestinal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Kordes

    2016-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, as esophageal, gastric and pancreatic cancer, are still highly lethal diseases, in spite of advances in surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and specific targeted therapy. Especially when patients are diagnosed with locally advanced or metastasized disease, upper

  13. Postprandial glucose metabolism and SCFA after consuming wholegrain rye bread and wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran in individuals with mild gastrointestinal symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappi, J; Mykkänen, H; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach;

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundRye bread benefits glucose metabolism. It is unknown whether the same effect is achieved by rye bran-enriched wheat bread. We tested whether white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) and sourdough wholegrain rye bread (WGR) have similar effects on glucose metabolism...... and plasma level of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs).  MethodsTwenty-one (12 women) of 23 recruited subjects completed an intervention with a four-week run-in and two four-week test periods in cross-over design. White wheat bread (WW; 3% fibre) was consumed during the run-in, and WGR and BRB + WW (10% fibre.......05) and propionate (p = 0.009) at 30 min increased during both rye bread periods.ConclusionsBeneficial effects of WGR over white wheat bread on glucose and SCFA production were confirmed. The enrichment of the white wheat bread with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) yielded similar but not as pronounced effects than...

  14. Orlistat accelerates gastric emptying and attenuates GIP release in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enç, Feruze Yilmaz; Ones, Tunç; Akin, H Levent;

    2008-01-01

    Orlistat, an inhibitor of digestive lipases, is widely used for the treatment of obesity. Previous reports on the effect of orally ingested orlistat together with a meal on gastric emptying and secretion of gut peptides that modulate postprandial responses are controversial. We investigated...... the effect of ingested orlistat on gastric emptying and plasma responses of gut peptides in response to a solid mixed meal with a moderate energy load. In healthy subjects, gastric emptying was determined using scintigraphy and studies were performed without and with 120 mg of orlistat in pellet form...... in random order. Orlistat shortened t lag and t half and decreased the area under the gastric emptying curve. Orlistat significantly attenuated the secretion of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) but did not alter the plasma responses of cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1...

  15. Tumour markers in gastrointestinal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamerz, R.

    1988-02-01

    For non-endocrine gastrointestinal tumours the following tumour markers are of clinical interest: For esophageal cancer CEA (sensitivity, s: 40-60%) and SCC (squamous cell carcinoma antigen, x: 20-50%); for gastric cancer CEA (s: 30-40%) as well as CA 19-9 (s: 30-40%) because of complementary results (additive s: 50-60); for hepatocellular cancer AFP (first choice, s: 70-90%; second choice CA 19-9, s: 50-70%); for cholangiocellular cancer CA 19-9 (s: 40-70%); for secondary liver cancer in general CEA; for biliary tract cancer CA 19-9 (s: 40-70%) as well as for excretory pancreatic cancer (s: 70-90%); for colorectal cancer CEA (s: 40-70%) as a first choice marker, and CA 19-9 (s: 20-60%) as a second choice marker, and for anal cancer SCC. The frequency of tumour marker determinations depends on follow-up care recommendations for different tumour diseases (e.g. 1-3 monthly during the 1st and 2nd postoperative year, following chemotherapy courses, on change of therapy, on restaging and at unclear alteration of the clinical state). Tumour markers are only valuable adjuncts to the medical care of tumour patients and therefore useless as solitary findings or on missing therapeutic consequence.

  16. ADAM Proteases and Gastrointestinal Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer C; Rustagi, Shelly; Dempsey, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) are a family of cell surface proteases that regulate diverse cellular functions, including cell adhesion, migration, cellular signaling, and proteolysis. Proteolytically active ADAMs are responsible for ectodomain shedding of membrane-associated proteins. ADAMs rapidly modulate key cell signaling pathways in response to changes in the extracellular environment (e.g., inflammation) and play a central role in coordinating intercellular communication within the local microenvironment. ADAM10 and ADAM17 are the most studied members of the ADAM family in the gastrointestinal tract. ADAMs regulate many cellular processes associated with intestinal development, cell fate specification, and the maintenance of intestinal stem cell/progenitor populations. Several signaling pathway molecules that undergo ectodomain shedding by ADAMs [e.g., ligands and receptors from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/ErbB and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) receptor (TNFR) families] help drive and control intestinal inflammation and injury/repair responses. Dysregulation of these processes through aberrant ADAM expression or sustained ADAM activity is linked to chronic inflammation, inflammation-associated cancer, and tumorigenesis.

  17. Multicentric malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a rare type of sarcoma that is found in the digestive system, most often in the wall of the stomach. Multiple GISTs are extremely rare and usually associated with type 1 neurofibromatosis and familial GIST. We report here a case of a 70-year-old woman who reported pain in the abdomen, loss of appetite, and weight loss for six months. Ultrasound examination showed a small bowel mass along with multiple peritoneal deposits and a mass within the liver. Barium studies were suggestive of a neoplastic pathology of the distal ileum. A differential diagnosis of adenocarcinoma/lymphoma with metastases was entertained. Perioperative findings showed two large growths arising from the jejunum and the distal ileum, along with multiple smaller nodules on the serosal surface and adjoining mesentery of the involved bowel segments. Segmental resection of the involved portions of the intestine was performed. Histopathological features were consistent with those of multicentric malignant GIST-not otherwise specified (GIST-NOS). Follow-up examination three months after surgery showed no evidence of recurrence. (author)

  18. Multicentric malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shailaja; Singh, Sanjeet K; Pujani, Mukta

    2009-01-01

    Malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a rare type of sarcoma that is found in the digestive system, most often in the wall of the stomach. Multiple GISTs are extremely rare and usually associated with type 1 neurofibromatosis and familial GIST.We report here a case of a 70-year-old woman who reported pain in the abdomen, loss of appetite, and weight loss for six months. Ultrasound examination showed a small bowel mass along with multiple peritoneal deposits and a mass within the liver. Barium studies were suggestive of a neoplastic pathology of the distal ileum. A differential diagnosis of adenocarcinoma/lymphoma with metastases was entertained. Perioperative findings showed two large growths arising from the jejunum and the distal ileum, along with multiple smaller nodules on the serosal surface and adjoining mesentery of the involved bowel segments. Segmental resection of the involved portions of the intestine was performed. Histopathological features were consistent with those of multicentric malignant GIST-not otherwise specified (GIST-NOS). Follow-up examination three months after surgery showed no evidence of recurrence. PMID:19568556

  19. Multicentric malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Shailaja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST is a rare type of sarcoma that is found in the digestive system, most often in the wall of the stomach. Multiple GISTs are extremely rare and usually associated with type 1 neurofibromatosis and familial GIST. We report here a case of a 70-year-old woman who reported pain in the abdomen, loss of appetite, and weight loss for six months. Ultrasound examination showed a small bowel mass along with multiple peritoneal deposits and a mass within the liver. Barium studies were suggestive of a neoplastic pathology of the distal ileum. A differential diagnosis of adenocarcinoma/lymphoma with metastases was entertained. Perioperative findings showed two large growths arising from the jejunum and the distal ileum, along with multiple smaller nodules on the serosal surface and adjoining mesentery of the involved bowel segments. Segmental resection of the involved portions of the intestine was performed. Histopathological features were consistent with those of multicentric malignant GIST-not otherwise specified (GIST-NOS. Follow-up examination three months after surgery showed no evidence of recurrence.

  20. ADAM Proteases and Gastrointestinal Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer C.; Rustagi, Shelly; Dempsey, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) are a family of cell surface proteases that regulate diverse cellular functions, including cell adhesion, migration, cellular signaling, and proteolysis. Proteolytically active ADAMs are responsible for ectodomain shedding of membrane-associated proteins. ADAMs rapidly modulate key cell signaling pathways in response to changes in the extracellular environment (e.g., inflammation) and play a central role in coordinating intercellular communication within the local microenvironment. ADAM10 and ADAM17 are the most studied members of the ADAM family in the gastrointestinal tract. ADAMs regulate many cellular processes associated with intestinal development, cell fate specification, and the maintenance of intestinal stem cell/progenitor populations. Several signaling pathway molecules that undergo ectodomain shedding by ADAMs [e.g., ligands and receptors from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/ErbB and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) receptor (TNFR) families] help drive and control intestinal inflammation and injury/repair responses. Dysregulation of these processes through aberrant ADAM expression or sustained ADAM activity is linked to chronic inflammation, inflammation-associated cancer, and tumorigenesis. PMID:26667078

  1. ADAM Proteases and Gastrointestinal Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer C; Rustagi, Shelly; Dempsey, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) are a family of cell surface proteases that regulate diverse cellular functions, including cell adhesion, migration, cellular signaling, and proteolysis. Proteolytically active ADAMs are responsible for ectodomain shedding of membrane-associated proteins. ADAMs rapidly modulate key cell signaling pathways in response to changes in the extracellular environment (e.g., inflammation) and play a central role in coordinating intercellular communication within the local microenvironment. ADAM10 and ADAM17 are the most studied members of the ADAM family in the gastrointestinal tract. ADAMs regulate many cellular processes associated with intestinal development, cell fate specification, and the maintenance of intestinal stem cell/progenitor populations. Several signaling pathway molecules that undergo ectodomain shedding by ADAMs [e.g., ligands and receptors from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/ErbB and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) receptor (TNFR) families] help drive and control intestinal inflammation and injury/repair responses. Dysregulation of these processes through aberrant ADAM expression or sustained ADAM activity is linked to chronic inflammation, inflammation-associated cancer, and tumorigenesis. PMID:26667078

  2. Potassium Channelopathies and Gastrointestinal Ulceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jaeyong; Lee, Seung Hun; Giebisch, Gerhard; Wang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Potassium channels and transporters maintain potassium homeostasis and play significant roles in several different biological actions via potassium ion regulation. In previous decades, the key revelations that potassium channels and transporters are involved in the production of gastric acid and the regulation of secretion in the stomach have been recognized. Drugs used to treat peptic ulceration are often potassium transporter inhibitors. It has also been reported that potassium channels are involved in ulcerative colitis. Direct toxicity to the intestines from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been associated with altered potassium channel activities. Several reports have indicated that the long-term use of the antianginal drug Nicorandil, an adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener, increases the chances of ulceration and perforation from the oral to anal regions throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Several of these drug features provide further insights into the role of potassium channels in the occurrence of ulceration in the GI tract. The purpose of this review is to investigate whether potassium channelopathies are involved in the mechanisms responsible for ulceration that occurs throughout the GI tract. PMID:27784845

  3. GEIS 2013 guidelines for gastrointestinal sarcomas (GIST)

    OpenAIRE

    Poveda, Andrés; del Muro, Xavier García; López-Guerrero, Jose Antonio; Martínez, Virginia; Romero, Ignacio; Valverde, Claudia; Cubedo, Ricardo; Martín-Broto, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal soft tissue sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract. Correct diagnosis with thorough use of pathologic and molecular tools of GIST mutations has been of the foremost importance. GIST are usually (95 %) KIT positive and harbor frequent KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor α-activating mutations. This deep molecular understanding has allowed the correct classification into risk groups with implications regarding prog...

  4. Gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumor of the stomach

    OpenAIRE

    Meshikhes, Abdul-Wahed N.; Al-Garni, Ayed A.; Sami A Al-Momen; Al-Nahawi, Mamdouh; Abu Subaih, Jawad

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Female, 32 Final Diagnosis: Gastrintestinal Autonomic Nerve Tumor (GANT) Symptoms: anemia • anorexia • fatigue • fever • hearburn • nausea • weight loss Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumors (GANT) are extremely rare tumors that are related to gastrointestinal autonomic nervous plexuses. They are distinguished from stromal tumors by their unique ultrastructural feature...

  5. Stress, Anxiety and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Sermin Kesebir; Semra Ocak Karatas; Cigdem Bezgin; Fatma Cengiz

    2012-01-01

    Stress has major role in functional gastrointestinal system disorders. The most typical example of this situation is Irritable bowel syndrome. Gastrointestinal system’s response to acute or short-term of stress is delay of gastric emptying and stimulation of colonic transition. While CRF2 receptors are mediate the upper section inhibition, CRF1 is responsible for the lower part colonic and anxiogenic response. Visceral hypersensitivity is managed by the emotional motor system, the amygd...

  6. Imaging spectrum of gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binit Sureka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs were first described by Clark and Mazur in 1983 for smooth muscle neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract differentiating them from leiomyoma, leiomyosarcomas and neurogenic tumors. GISTs can arise from the bowel, peritoneum, omentum or retroperitoneum. This article reviews the computed tomography imaging features of primary GISTs, response to treatment and highlights data on predicting the outcome to chemotherapeutic drugs on imaging.

  7. Anaphylactoid reactions with gastrointestinal contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skucas, J

    1997-04-01

    Significant anaphylactoid reactions to gastrointestinal contrast media are rare. Whether a patient who is atopic or has asthma is predisposed to these reactions is speculative. The rare patient who previously had a severe allergic reaction to such a product probably should not undergo a subsequent examination with a similar agent. The American College of Radiology classification of contrast media side effects can also be applied to the gastrointestinal contrast media. PMID:9124150

  8. Risk assessment after acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage.

    OpenAIRE

    Rockall, T A; Logan, R F; Devlin, H. B.; Northfield, T. C.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the relative importance of risk factors for mortality after acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage, and to formulate a simple numerical scoring system that categorizes patients by risk. A prospective, unselected, multicentre, population based study was undertaken using standardised questionnaires in two phases one year apart. A total of 4185 cases of acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage over the age of 16 identified over a four month period in 1993...

  9. Monitorering og iltbehandling ved gastrointestinal endoskopi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J

    1992-01-01

    Gastroenterological Societies in Britain and USA have published recommendations for sedation, monitoring and oxygen therapy during gastrointestinal endoscopy. No scientific basis for the introduction of recommendations such as these is, however, present as it has not yet been proved that hypoxaemia....... The scientific data available at present in this field is not conclusive. Introduction of recommendations for monitoring and oxygen therapy during gastrointestinal endoscopy in Denmark should be delayed until elucidation of the mechanisms involved has been undertaken....

  10. Surgical management of endoscopically unresectable duodenal gangliocytic paraganglioma in a patient with partial upper gastrointestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Bertsch

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gangliocytic paragangliomas are unusual and often misunderstood tumors that occur almost exclusively in the second portion of the duodenum, although they have been described in other sites such as the urinary bladder, spermatic cord, prostate, urethra, uterus and scalp. We describe our experience with the surgical management of an endoscopically unresectable gangliocytic paraganglioma located in the third part of the duodenum causing a partial upper gastrointestinal obstruction. Case Report: A fifty-two-year-old male presented to the Geisinger clinic with a four-year history of postprandial projectile vomiting associated with epigastric discomfort. Computed tomography scan revealed an oval-shaped filling defect in the third part of the duodenum. Endoscopic ultrasonography showed a 22 x 16 x 35 mm submucosal mass that was not amenable to an endoscopic resection. Exploratory laparotomy revealed an absence of extraduodenal involvement. A long-stalked tumor was successfully excised and extruded through a longitudinal duodenotomy. The pathology report showed a gangliocytic paraganglioma with negative lymph nodes. Conclusions: In patients presenting with prolonged recurrent attacks of vomiting, diagnostic workup to exclude anatomic causes is mandatory. Gangliocytic paraganglioma must be considered in the differential diagnosis of an intraduodenal tumor.

  11. Ghrelin Cells in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Sakata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is 28-amino-acid peptide that was discovered from the rat and human stomach in 1999. Since the discovery of ghrelin, various functions of ghrelin, including growth hormone release, feeding behavior, glucose metabolism, memory, and also antidepressant effects, have been studied. It has also been reported that ghrelin in the gastrointestinal tract has an important physiological effect on gastric acid secretion and gastrointestinal motility. Ghrelin has a unique structure that is modified by O-acylation with n-octanoic acid at third serine residues, and this modification enzyme has recently been identified and named ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT. Ghrelin is considered to be a gut-brain peptide and is abundantly produced from endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal mucosa. In the gastrointestinal tract, ghrelin cells are most abundant in the stomach and are localized in gastric mucosal layers. Ghrelin cells are also widely distributed throughout the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, abundance of ghrelin cells in the gastric mucosa is evolutionally conserved from mammals to lower vertebrates, indicating that gastric ghrelin plays important roles for fundamental physiological functions. Ghrelin cells in the gastrointestinal tract are a major source of circulating plasma ghrelin, and thus understanding the physiology of these cells would reveal the biological significance of ghrelin.

  12. Ingestion of coffee polyphenols increases postprandial release of the active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1(7-36)) amide in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yoshie; Osaki, Noriko; Hase, Tadashi; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2015-01-01

    The widespread prevalence of diabetes, caused by impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance, is now a worldwide health problem. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a major intestinal hormone that stimulates glucose-induced insulin secretion from β cells. Prolonged activation of the GLP-1 signal has been shown to attenuate diabetes in animals and human subjects. Therefore, GLP-1 secretagogues are attractive targets for the treatment of diabetes. Recent epidemiological studies have reported that an increase in daily coffee consumption lowers diabetes risk. The present study examined the hypothesis that the reduction in diabetes risk associated with coffee consumption may be mediated by the stimulation of GLP-1 release by coffee polyphenol extract (CPE). GLP-1 secretion by human enteroendocrine NCI-H716 cells was augmented in a dose-dependent manner by the addition of CPE, and was compatible with the increase in observed active GLP-1(7-36) amide levels in the portal blood after administration with CPE alone in mice. CPE increased intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels in a dose-dependent manner, but this was not mediated by G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119). The oral administration of CPE increased diet (starch and glyceryl trioleate)-induced active GLP-1 secretion and decreased glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide release. Although CPE administration did not affect diet-induced insulin secretion, it decreased postprandial hyperglycaemia, which indicates that higher GLP-1 levels after the ingestion of CPE may improve insulin sensitivity. We conclude that dietary coffee polyphenols augment gut-derived active GLP-1 secretion via the cAMP-dependent pathway, which may contribute to the reduced risk of type 2 diabetes associated with daily coffee consumption.

  13. Triterpene alcohols and sterols from rice bran lower postprandial glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide release and prevent diet-induced obesity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Daisuke; Okahara, Fumiaki; Hashizume, Kohjiro; Yanagawa, Kiyotaka; Osaki, Noriko; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is now a worldwide health problem. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a gut hormone that is secreted following the ingestion of food and modulates energy metabolism. Previous studies reported that lowering diet-induced GIP secretion improved energy homeostasis in animals and humans, and attenuated diet-induced obesity in mice. Therefore, food-derived GIP regulators may be used in the development of foods that prevent obesity. Rice bran oil and its components are known to have beneficial effects on health. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the effects of the oil-soluble components of rice bran on postprandial GIP secretion and obesity in mice. Triterpene alcohols [cycloartenol (CA) and 24-methylene cycloartanol (24Me)], β-sitosterol, and campesterol decreased the diet-induced secretion of GIP in C57BL/6J mice. Mice fed a high-fat diet supplemented with a triterpene alcohol and sterol preparation (TASP) from rice bran for 23 wk gained less weight than control mice. Indirect calorimetry revealed that fat utilization was higher in TASP-fed mice than in control mice. Fatty acid oxidation-related gene expression in the muscles of mice fed a TASP-supplemented diet was enhanced, whereas fatty acid synthesis-related gene expression in the liver was suppressed. The treatment of HepG2 cells with CA and 24Me decreased the gene expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c. In conclusion, we clarified for the first time that triterpene alcohols and sterols from rice bran prevented diet-induced obesity by increasing fatty acid oxidation in muscles and decreasing fatty acid synthesis in the liver through GIP-dependent and GIP-independent mechanisms. PMID:25257874

  14. Leiomyomas in the gastric cardia: CT findings and differentiation from gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hyun Kyung [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, 82, Gumi-ro 173 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Hoon, E-mail: yhkrad@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, 82, Gumi-ro 173 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoon Jin; Park, Ji Hoon; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Kyoung Ho [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, 82, Gumi-ro 173 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hye Seung [Department of Pathology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 82, Gumi-ro 173 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Gastric leiomyomas frequently involve the gastric cardia. • Gastric cardial leiomyomas and GISTs could be differentiated with CT. • Differentiation of cardial leiomyomas and GISTs can help choosing surgical procedure. - Abstract: Objective: To describe CT findings of leiomyomas and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) in the gastric cardia and to identify their differentiating features. Materials and methods: CT images of pathologically proven leiomyomas (n = 26) and GISTs (n = 19) in the gastric cardia were retrospectively reviewed for esophagogastric junction (EGJ) involvement, contour, surface, growth pattern, enhancement pattern and degree of the tumor, and the presences of intralesional low attenuation, calcification and surface dimples or ulcers. The long (LD) and short diameters (SD), LD/SD ratio, and attenuation value of each lesion were measured. Results: EGJ involvement, homogeneous enhancement, intermediate or low enhancement, absences of intralesional low attenuation and surface dimples or ulcers, LD/SD ratio >1.2, and attenuation value ≤71.2 HU were significant findings for differentiating leiomyomas from GISTs (P < 0.05 for each finding). An LD/SD ratio of >1.2 and attenuation value of ≤71.2 HU yielded sensitivities of 84.6% and 61.5%, and specificities of 52.6% and 84.2%, respectively, on the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. When at least five of these seven criteria were used in combination, the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing leiomyomas were 100% (26 of 26) and 89.5% (17 of 19), respectively. When any six of these criteria were used, a specificity of 100% was achieved. Conclusions: CT features including EGJ involvement, enhancement pattern and degree, presences of intralesional low attenuation and surface dimples or ulcers, LD/SD ratio, and attenuation value could help differentiating leiomyomas from GISTs in the gastric cardia, particularly in the manner of combination.

  15. Effects of a Plant Sterol or Stanol Enriched Mixed Meal on Postprandial Lipid Metabolism in Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Sabine; Mensink, Ronald P.; Plat, Jogchum

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence is increasing that plant sterols and stanols not only lower fasting serum low-density lipoprotein concentrations, but also those of triglycerides (TG). Insight into effects of these components on postprandial TG metabolism, an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is missing. Objective Our objective was to examine the 8-hour postprandial response after consuming plant sterol or stanol enriched margarine as part of a mixed meal. Methods This postprandial study was part of a randomized crossover study in which 42 subjects consumed plant sterol enriched (3 g/d plant sterols), plant stanol enriched (3 g/d plant stanols), and control margarines for 4 weeks. After each period, subjects consumed a shake enriched with 3g plant sterols (sterol period), 3g plant stanols (stanol period) or no addition (control period). Subjects received a second shake with no addition after 4 hours. Results TG and apoB48 incremental areas under the curves (iAUC) of the total (0-8h) and 1st meal response (0-4h) were comparable between the meals and in all age categories (I:18-35y, II:36-52y, III:53-69y). In subjects aged 53-69y, TG iAUC after the 2nd meal (4-8h) was higher in the stanol period as compared with the sterol (63.1±53.0 mmol/L/min; P sterol period (67.1±77.0 mg/L/min; P < 0.05) and tended to be higher than after the control period (43.1±64.5 mg/L/min; P = 0.08) in subjects aged 53-69y. These increased postprandial responses may be due to reduced lipoprotein lipase activity, since postprandial apoCIII/II ratios were increased after stanol consumption compared with the control meal. Conclusion Postprandial TG and apoB48 responses are age-dependently increased after plant stanol consumption, which might be related to a changed clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01559428 PMID:27611192

  16. Different patterns of postprandial lipoprotein metabolism in normal, type IIa, type III, and type IV hyperlipoproteinemic individuals. Effects of treatment with cholestyramine and gemfibrozil.

    OpenAIRE

    Weintraub, M S; Eisenberg, S; Breslow, J L

    1987-01-01

    To study exogenous fat metabolism, we used the vitamin A-fat loading test, which specifically labels intestinally derived lipoproteins with retinyl palmitate (RP). Postprandial RP concentrations were followed in total plasma, and chylomicron (Sf greater than 1,000) and nonchylomicron (Sf less than 1,000) fractions. In normal subjects postprandial lipoproteins were present for more than 14 h, and chylomicron levels correlated inversely with lipoprotein lipase activity and fasting high density ...

  17. Different postprandial acute response in healthy subjects to three strawberry jams varying in carbohydrate and antioxidant content: a randomized, crossover trial

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, J. A.; Zulet, M.A. (María Ángeles); I. Abete; S. Navas-Carretero; Cuervo, M.; Ibero-Baraibar, I. (Idoia)

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Dietary food composition influences postprandial glucose homeostasis. Thus, the objective was to investigate the effects of an acute intake of three different types of strawberry jam, differing in carbohydrate and antioxidants content, on postprandial glucose metabolism, lipid profile, antioxidant status, and satiety. METHODS: Sixteen healthy adults participated in a randomized, crossover, double-blind study with three arms, receiving 60 g of three different strawberry jam...

  18. Effects of Onion (Allium cepa L.) Extract Administration on Intestinal α-Glucosidases Activities and Spikes in Postprandial Blood Glucose Levels in SD Rats Model

    OpenAIRE

    Sun-Ho Kim; Sung-Hoon Jo; Young-In Kwon; Jae-Kwan Hwang

    2011-01-01

    Diets high in calories and sweetened foods with disaccharides frequently lead to exaggerated postprandial spikes in blood glucose. This state induces immediate oxidant stress and free radicals which trigger oxidative stress-linked diabetic complications. One of the therapeutic approaches for decreasing postprandial hyperglycemia is to retard absorption of glucose by the inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, α-amylase and α-glucosidases, in the digestive organs. Therefore, the inhibi...

  19. Mitigation of starch-induced postprandial glycemic spikes in rats by antioxidants-rich extract of Cicer arietinum Linn. seeds and sprouts

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Kumar Tiwari; Chinthapatla Sahana; Amtul Zehra; Kuncha Madhusudana; Domati Anand Kumar; Sachin Bharat Agawane

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Consumption of highly processed calories dense diet leads abrupt increase in postprandial blood glucose level, which in turn induces immediate oxidative stress. Postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) and resultant oxidative stress is one of the earliest detectable abnormalities in diabetes prone individuals, independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular disorders (CVD), a major pathophysiological link between diabetes and CVD and an important contributing factor in athero...

  20. Synchronous occurrence of gastrointestinal stromal tumors and other primary gastrointestinal neoplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marek Wronski; Bogna Ziarkiewicz-Wroblewska; Barbara Gornicka; Wlodzimierz Cebulski; Maciej Slodkowski; Aleksander Wasiutynski; Ireneusz W Krasnodebski

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To review clinical and pathologic features of Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) occurring synchronously with other primary gastrointestinal neoplasms.METHODS: 28 patients with primary GIST were treated at our institution between 1989 and 2005. Clinical and pathologic records were reviewed.RESULTS: The gastrointestinal stromal tumor occurred simultaneously with other primary GI malignancies in 14% of all patients with GIST. The synchronous stromal tumors were located in the stomach and were incidentally found during the operation. The coexistent neoplasms were colon adenocarcinoma, gastric cancer (2 cases) and gastric lymphoma.CONCLUSION: The synchronous occurrence of GISTs and other gastrointestinal malignancies is more common than it has been considered. The development of gastrointestinal stromal tumors and other neoplasms may involvethe same carcinogenic agents.

  1. Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Lysosmal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid IMANZADEH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available  How to Cite this Article: Imanzadeh F. Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Lysosmal Disease. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012; 6:4 (suppl. 1:17-18.pls see PDF. References: 1. Semenza  GL,  Pyeritz  RE.  Respiratory complications of mucopolysaccharide storage disorders. Medicine (Baltimore 1988; 67:209. 2.   Wraith   JE,   Scarpa   M,   Beck   M,   et   al. Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome: a clinical review and recommendations for treatment in the era of enzyme replacement therapy. Eur J Pediatr 2008; 167:267. 3. Stevens JM, Kendall BE, Crockard HA, Ransford   A.   The   odontoid   process   in Morquio-Brailsford’s disease. The effects of occipitocervical fusion. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1991; 73:851. 4.   Jones AE, Croley TF. Morquio syndrome and anesthesia. Anesthesiology 1979; 51:261. 5.   Ashraf J, Crockard HA, Ransford AO, Stevens JM. Transoral decompression and posterior stabilisation in Morquio’s disease. Arch Dis Child 1991; 66:1318. 6.  Neufeld EF, Muenzer J. The metabolic and molecular bases of inherited disease, Scriver C, Beaudet AL, Valle D, Sly W (Eds, McGraw- Hill, New York 2001. p.3421. 7.   Wraith   JE.   The   mucopolysaccharidoses:   a clinical review and guide to management. Arch Dis Child 1995; 72:263. 8.   Cleary MA, Wraith JE. The presenting features of mucopolysaccharidosis type IH (Hurler syndrome. Acta Paediatr 1995; 84:337. 9.   Elsner B. Ultrastructure of the rectal wall in Hunter’s   syndrome.   Gastroenterology   1970; 58:856. 10. Cleary   MA,   Wraith   JE.   Management   of mucopolysaccharidosis type III. Arch Dis Child 1993; 69:403. 

  2. Helicobacter pylori and Gastrointestinal Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venerito, Marino; Vasapolli, Riccardo; Rokkas, Theodoros; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is the principal trigger of gastric carcinogenesis and gastric cancer (GC) and remains the third leading cause of cancer-related death in both sexes worldwide. In a big Japanese study, the risk of developing GC in patients with peptic ulcer disease who received H. pylori eradication therapy and annual endoscopic surveillance for a mean of 9.9 years was significantly lower after successful eradication therapy compared to the group with persistent infection (0.21%/year and 0.45%/year, respectively, p = .049). According to a recent meta-analysis, H. pylori eradication is insufficient in GC risk reduction in subjects with advanced precancerous conditions (i.e., intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia). A microsimulation model suggested screening smokers over the age of 50 in the U.S. for serum pepsinogens. This would allow to detect advanced gastric atrophy with endoscopic follow-up of subjects testing positive as a cost-effective strategy to reduce GC mortality. In a Taiwanese study, the anti-H. pylori IgG-based test-and-treat program had lower incremental cost-effectiveness ratios than that with (13)C-urea breath test in both sexes to prevent GC whereas expected years of life lost for GC were higher and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of test-and-treat programs were more cost-effective in young adults (30-69 years old) than in elders (>70 years old). With respect to gastrointestinal malignancies other than GC, a meta-analysis confirmed the inverse association between H. pylori infection and esophageal adenocarcinoma. In a Finnish study, H. pylori seropositivity was associated with an increased risk of biliary tract cancers (multivariate adjusted OR 2.63; 95% CI: 1.08-6.37), another meta-analysis showed a slightly increased rate of pancreatic cancer in patients with CagA-negative strains (OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.02-1.65), whereas current data suggest that the association between H. pylori and colorectal neoplasms may be population

  3. Gastrointestinal mucosal barrier function and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Tadayuki; Miwa, Hiroto

    2016-08-01

    The gastrointestinal mucosal barrier plays an essential role in the separation of the inside of the body from the outside environment. Tight junctions (TJs) are the most important component for construction of a constitutive barrier of epithelial cells, and they regulate the permeability of the barrier by tightly sealing the cell-cell junctions. TJ proteins are represented by claudins, occludin, junctional adhesion molecules, and scaffold protein zonula occludens. Among these TJ proteins, claudins are the major components of TJs and are responsible for the barrier and the polarity of the epithelial cells. Gastrointestinal diseases including reflux esophagitis, inflammatory bowel disease, functional gastrointestinal disorders, and cancers may be regulated by these molecules, and disruption of their functions leads to chronic inflammatory conditions and chronic or progressive disease. Therefore, regulation of the barrier function of epithelial cells by regulating the expression and localization of TJ proteins is a potential new target for the treatment of these diseases. Treatment strategies for these diseases might thus be largely altered if symptom generation and/or immune dysfunction could be regulated through improvement of mucosal barrier function. Since TJ proteins may also modify tumor infiltration and metastasis, other important goals include finding a good TJ biomarker of cancer progression and patient prognosis, and developing TJ protein-targeted therapies that can modify patient prognosis. This review summarizes current understanding of gastrointestinal barrier function, TJ protein expression, and the mechanisms underlying epithelial barrier dysregulation in gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:27048502

  4. Endoscopic management of gastrointestinal smooth muscle tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Dong Zhou; Nong-Hua Lv; Hong-Xia Chen; Chong-Wen Wang; Xuan Zhu; Ping Xu; You-Xiang Chen

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic resection of gastrointestinal smooth muscle tumors (SMTs, including leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma) and to review our preliminary experiences on endoscopic diagnosis of gastrointestinal SMTs.METHODS: A total of 69 patients with gastrointestinal SMT underwent routine endoscopy in our department.Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) was also performed in 9 cases of gastrointestinal SMT. The sessile submucosal gastrointestinal SMTs with the base smaller than 2 cm in diameter were resected by "pushing" technique or "grasping and pushing" technique while the pedunculated SMTs were resected by polypectomy. For those SMTs originating from muscularis propria or with the base size ≥ 2 cm, ordinary biopsy technique was performed in tumors with ulcers while the "Digging" technique was performed in those without ulcers.RESULTS: 54 cases of leiomyoma and 15 cases of leiomyosarcoma were identified. In them, 19 cases of submucosal leiomyoma were resected by "pushing"technique and 10 cases were removed by "grasping and pushing" technique. Three cases pedunculated submucosal leiomyoma were resected by polypectomy.No severe complications developed during or after the procedure. No recurrence was observed. The diagnostic accuracy of ordinary and the "Digging" biopsy technique was 90.0% and 94.1%, respectively.CONCLUSION: Endoscopic resection is a safe and effective treatment for leiomyomas with the base size ≤2 cm. The "digging" biopsy technique would be a good option for histologic diagnosis of SMTs.

  5. Effect of dairy calcium or supplementary calcium intake on postprandial fat metabolism, appetite, and subsequent energy intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, J.K.; Nielsen, S.; Holst, J.J.;

    2007-01-01

    Background: High calcium intake has been shown to increase fecal fat excretion. Objective: Our aim was to examine whether a high calcium intake from dairy products or from supplements affects postprandial fat metabolism and appetite through fat malabsorption. Design: Four different isocaloric meals...... were tested in 18 subjects according to a randomized crossover design. The test meals contained high (HC meal: 172 mg/MJ), medium (MC meal: 84 mg/MJ), or low (LC meal: 15 mg/MJ) amounts of calcium from dairy products or a high amount of calcium given as a calcium carbonate supplement (Suppl meal: 183...... and approximate to 15% lower after the MC meal (P = 0.0495) and approximate to 17% lower after the HC meal (P = 0.02) than after the Suppl meal. No consistent effects of calcium on appetite sensation, or on energy intake at the subsequent meal, or on the postprandial responses of cholecystokinin, glucagon...

  6. Effects of a meal rich in medium-chain saturated fat on postprandial lipemia in relatives of type 2 diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietraszek, Anna; Hermansen, Kjeld; Pedersen, Steen B.;

    2013-01-01

    , and ghrelin were measured before and during 240 min postprandially. Muscle and adipose tissue biopsies were taken at baseline and after the test meal. RESULTS: After the test meal, REL had a higher plasma TG response (P = 0.002) and a tendency toward higher insulin response (P = 0.100). A number of genes were...... effect on gene expression in muscle, but not adipose tissue, of REL compared with CON.......OBJECTIVE: Patients with type 2 diabetes and their relatives (REL) have increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Postprandial triglyceridemia (PPL), which is influenced by diet, is an independent risk factor for CVD. Little is known about the effects of medium-chain saturated fatty acids...

  7. Postprandial lipid responses of butter blend containing fish oil in a single-meal study in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie; Porsgaard, Trine; Guo, Zheng;

    2008-01-01

    The postprandial effects of a butter product containing fish oil were investigated in a single-meal, randomized crossover study with a commercial butter product as the control. Twelve healthy males consumed two test meals with (13)C-labelled cholesterol (45 mg) and either an interesterified butter...... blend with fish oil (352 mg n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA)) or the commercial butter blend. Blood samples were collected after the meals and in the fasting condition on the test day and the following morning, and were analysed for cholesterol absorption, plasma lipid profile and fatty acid composition....... No significant difference in the postprandial plasma fatty acid composition was observed between the groups, neither difference in cholesterol absorption, plasma cholesterol or the cholesterol contents of plasma lipoproteins. The incorporation of fish oil in the butter resulted in a significant lower...

  8. Effect of dietary fatty acids on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in healthy male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Anette; Holmer, G.; Lund, Pia;

    2005-01-01

    interesterified test fats with equal amounts of palmitic acid ( P fat), stearic acid (S fat), trans-18: 1 isomers (T fat), oleic acid (O fat), or linoleic acid (L fat) were tested. Subjects: A total of 16 healthy, normolipidaemic males ( age 23 +/- 2 y) were recruited. Interventions: The participants ingested fat......Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of trans-18: 1 isomers compared to other fatty acids, especially saturates, on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols ( TAG) in chylomicrons and VLDL. Design: A randomised crossover experiment where five......-rich test meals ( 1 g fat per kg body weight) and the fatty acid profiles of chylomicron and VLDL TAG were followed for 8 h. Results: The postprandial fatty acid composition of chylomicron TAG resembled that of the ingested fats. The fatty acids in chylomicron TAG were randomly distributed among the three...

  9. Live probiotic cultures and the gastrointestinal tract: symbiotic preservation of tolerance whilst attenuating pathogenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Vitetta, Luis; Hall, Sean; Linnane, Anthony W.

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria comprise the earliest form of independent life on this planet. Bacterial development has included co-operative symbiosis with plants (e.g., Leguminosae family and nitrogen fixing bacteria in soil) and animals (e.g., the gut microbiome). A fusion event of two prokaryotes evolutionarily gave rise to the eukaryote cell in which mitochondria may be envisaged as a genetically functional mosaic, a relic from one of the prokaryote cells. The discovery of bacterial inhibitors such chloramphe...

  10. Magnolol attenuates sepsis-induced gastrointestinal dysmotility in rats by modulating inflammatory mediators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tie-Cheng Yang; Shu-Wen Zhang; Li-Na Sun; Hong Wang; Ai-Min Ren

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the protective effects of magnolol on sepsis-induced inflammation and intestinal dysmotility.METHODS:Sepsis was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS).Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups:magnolol prior to LPS injection (LPS/Mag group);vehicle prior to LPS injection (LPS/Veh group);vehicle prior to injection of saline (Control/Veh).Intestinal transit and circular muscle mechanical activity were assessed 12 h after LPS injection.Tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α),interleukin-10 (IL-10),monoo/te chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA in rat ileum were studied by RT-PCR 2 h after LPS injection.Nuclear factor-KB (NF-Kβ) activity in the intestine was also investigated at this time using electrophoretic mobility shift assay.In addition,antioxidant activity was determined by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the intestine 2 h after LPS injection.RESULTS:Magnolol significantly increased intestinal transit and circular muscle mechanical activity in LPS-treated animals.TNF-α,MCP-1 and iNOS mRNA expression in the small intestine were significantly reduced after magnolol treatment in LPS-induced septic animals,compared with untreated septic animals.Additionally,magnolol significantly increased IL-10 mRNA expression in septic rat ileum.Magnolol also significantly suppressed NF-kβ activity in septic rat intestine.In addition,magnolol significantly decreased MDA concentration and increased SOD activity in rat ileum.CONCLUSION:Magnolol prevents sepsis-induced suppression of intestinal motility in rats.The potential mechanism of this benefit of magnolol appears to be modulation of self-amplified inflammatory events and block of oxidative stress in the intestine.

  11. The Overnight Effect of Dietary Energy Balance on Postprandial Plasma Free Amino Acid (PFAA) Profiles in Japanese Adult Men

    OpenAIRE

    Manabu Nishioka; Akira Imaizumi; Toshihiko Ando; Osamu Tochikubo

    2013-01-01

    The plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profile is affected by various nutritional conditions, such as the dietary energy balance. Regarding the clinical use of PFAA profiling, it is of concern that differences in food ingestion patterns may generate systematic errors in a plasma amino acid profile and constitute a confounding factor in assessment. In this study, the overnight impact of the dietary energy balance on the postprandial plasma amino acid profile was investigated to elucidate in particu...

  12. Investigation into the acute effects of total and partial energy restriction on postprandial metabolism among overweight/obese participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Rona; Johnston, Kelly L; Collins, Adam L; Robertson, M Denise

    2016-03-28

    The intermittent energy restriction (IER) approach to weight loss involves short periods of substantial (75-100 %) energy restriction (ER) interspersed with normal eating. This study aimed to characterise the early metabolic response to these varying degrees of ER, which occurs acutely and prior to weight loss. Ten (three female) healthy, overweight/obese participants (36 (SEM 5) years; 29·0 (sem 1·1) kg/m2) took part in this acute three-way cross-over study. Participants completed three 1-d dietary interventions in a randomised order with a 1-week washout period: isoenergetic intake, partial 75 % ER and total 100 % ER. Fasting and postprandial (6-h) metabolic responses to a liquid test meal were assessed the following morning via serial blood sampling and indirect calorimetry. Food intake was also recorded for two subsequent days of ad libitum intake. Relative to the isoenergetic control, postprandial glucose responses were increased following total ER (+142 %; P=0·015) and to a lesser extent after partial ER (+76 %; P=0·051). There was also a delay in the glucose time to peak after total ER only (P=0·024). Both total and partial ER interventions produced comparable reductions in postprandial TAG responses (-75 and -59 %, respectively; both P<0·05) and 3-d energy intake deficits of approximately 30 % (both P=0·015). Resting and meal-induced thermogenesis were not significantly affected by either ER intervention. In conclusion, our data demonstrate the ability of substantial ER to acutely alter postprandial glucose-lipid metabolism (with partial ER producing the more favourable overall response), as well as incomplete energy-intake compensation amongst overweight/obese participants. Further investigations are required to establish how metabolism adapts over time to the repeated perturbations experienced during IER, as well as the implications for long-term health. PMID:26819200

  13. Comments on: High fat intake leads to acute postprandial exposure to circulating endotoxin in type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Yu Vorotnikova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Comments on: Harte AL, Varma MC, Tripathi G, McGee KC, Al-Daghri NM, Al-Attas OS, Sabico S, O'Hare JP, Ceriello A, Saravanan P, Kumar S, McTernan PG. High fat intake leads to acute postprandial exposure to circulating endotoxin in type 2 diabetic subjects. Diabetes Care. 2012 Feb; 35(2: 375-82

  14. Effect of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist lixisenatide on postprandial hepatic glucose metabolism in the conscious dog

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Mary Courtney; Werner, Ulrich; Smith, Marta S.; Farmer, Tiffany D.; Cherrington, Alan D.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of the GLP-1 receptor agonist lixisenatide on postprandial glucose disposition was examined in conscious dogs to identify mechanisms for its improvement of meal tolerance in humans and examine the tissue disposition of meal-derived carbohydrate. Catheterization for measurement of hepatic balance occurred ≈16 days before study. After being fasted overnight, dogs received a subcutaneous injection of 1.5 μg/kg lixisenatide or vehicle (saline, control; n = 6/group). Thirty minutes late...

  15. Effect of commercial rye whole-meal bread on postprandial blood glucose and gastric emptying in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Darwich Gassan; Björgell Ola; Lindstedt Sandra; Jönsson Jenny; Hlebowicz Joanna; Almér Lars-Olof

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The intake of dietary fibre has been shown to reduce the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of commercial rye whole-meal bread containing whole kernels and white wheat bread on the rate of gastric emptying and postprandial glucose response in healthy subjects. Methods Ten healthy subjects took part in a blinded crossover trial. Blood glucose level and gastric emptying rate (GER) were determined after the ingestion of 150 ...

  16. Seismic attenuation in fractured media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prime objective of this paper is to quantitatively estimate seismic attenuation caused by fractures with different physical parameters. In seismic wave simulation, the fractured media are treated as the anisotropic media and fractures are represented by frequency-dependent elastic constants. Based on numerical experiments with three different parameters, namely viscosity, porosity and the Lamé parameters, this paper has the following observations. First, seismic attenuation is not affected by the viscosity within fractures, although it increases with the increase of porosity and decreases with the increase of the Lamé parameters within fractures. Among the latter two parameters, seismic attenuation is more sensitive to the Lamé parameters than to the porosity. Second, for the attenuation anisotropy, low frequencies have more anisotropic effect than high frequencies. For example, a 50 Hz wavefield has the strongest anisotropy effect if compared to 100 and 150 Hz wavefields. The attenuation anisotropy for low frequency (say 50 Hz) is more sensitive to the viscosity than the porosity and the Lamé parameters have the weakest effect among these three parameters. These observations suggest that low-frequency seismic attenuation, and especially the attenuation anisotropy in low frequency, would have great potential for fluid discrimination within fractured media. (paper)

  17. Impact of short-term dietary modification on postprandial oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloomer Richard J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently reported that short-term (21-day dietary modification in accordance with a stringent vegan diet (i.e., a Daniel Fast lowers blood lipids as well as biomarkers of oxidative stress. However, this work only involved measurements obtained in a fasted state. In the present study, we determined the postprandial response to a high-fat milkshake with regards to blood triglycerides (TAG, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and hemodynamic variables before and following a 21-day Daniel Fast. Methods Twenty-two subjects (10 men and 12 women; aged 35 ± 3 years completed a 21-day Daniel Fast. To induce oxidative stress, a milkshake (fat = 0.8 g·kg-1; carbohydrate = 1.0 g·kg-1; protein = 0.25 g·kg-1 was consumed by subjects on day one and day 22 in a rested and 12-hour fasted state. Before and at 2 and 4 h after consumption of the milkshake, heart rate (HR and blood pressure were measured. Blood samples were also collected at these times and analyzed for TAG, malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, nitrate/nitrite (NOx, and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC. Results A time effect was noted for HR (p = 0.006, with values higher at 2 hr post intake of the milkshake as compared to pre intake (p p = 0.02, and a trend for lower systolic blood pressure was noted (p = 0.07. Time effects were noted for TAG (p = 0.001, MDA (p 2O2 (p p p p p = 0.02, which was higher post fast as compared to pre fast. No pre/post fast × time interactions were noted (p > 0.05, with the area under the curve from pre to post fast reduced only slightly for TAG (11%, MDA (11%, H2O2 (8%, and AOPP (12%, with a 37% increase noted for NOx. Conclusion Partaking in a 21-day Daniel Fast does not result in a statistically significant reduction in postprandial oxidative stress. It is possible that a longer time course of adherence to the Daniel Fast eating plan may be needed to observe significant

  18. A single Mediterranean meal does not impair postprandial flow-mediated dilatation in healthy men with subclinical metabolic dysregulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Sébastien; Des Rosiers, Christine; Gayda, Mathieu; Nozza, Anna; Thorin, Éric; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Nigam, Anil

    2016-08-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors are known to exacerbate high-saturated fatty acid meal (HSFAM)-induced endothelial dysfunction, but the influence of subclinical metabolic dysregulations and the acute impact of a single mixed Mediterranean-type meal (MMM) remains unknown. Thus, this study has the objective to evaluate the metabolic and vascular effect of such meals in healthy subjects with or without subclinical fasting metabolic dysregulations. Twenty-eight healthy males without overt cardiovascular risk factors randomly ingested 1 of 2 isocaloric meals on separate days. Plasma metabolic markers, fatty acid (FA) profile, and endothelial function (flow-mediated dilatation; FMD) were assessed at baseline and 2 and 4 h after meal ingestion. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering identified 2 subgroups of participants (n = 11 and 17) differing by their baseline metabolic profiles. The MMM did not significantly alter postprandial endothelial function in all subjects, irrespective of baseline metabolic parameters. In contrast, the HSFAM induced postprandial endothelial dysfunction (Δ%FMDabsolute = -5.28 ± 2.54, p < 0.01 vs. MMM) in a subgroup of individuals with significantly greater body mass index, fasting insulinemia, and lipid parameters (n = 11). Finally, the postprandial plasma FA profiles were differentially enriched by the HSFAM and MMM, notably with saturated FAs and omega-3 polyunsaturated FAs, respectively. Collectively, our results highlight the detrimental impact of a single HSFAM on endothelial function in healthy individuals displaying subclinical fasting metabolic dysregulations. Such individuals could benefit from MMM, demonstrated herein to be without any acute detriment to endothelial function. PMID:27454855

  19. The Postprandial Hypoglycemic Activity of Fenugreek Seed and Seeds′ Extract in Type 2 Diabetics: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiba A Bawadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Trigonella foenum-groecum L. is directly related to the traditional use. Trigonella foenum-graecum L, have been reported to be beneficial for treating type 2 diabetes (T2D. The study was conducted to investigate the postprandial hypoglycemic effect of fenugreek seeds on patients with T2D. Pretest - posttest control group design was used to test the hypothesis that fenugreek may have a hypoglycemic effect on blood sugar. One hundred sixty--six D2T patients were assigned into three groups: FGO (control group: placebo drink, FG2.5 (2.5g of fenugreek, and FG5 (5g of fenugreek. Participants were instructed to drink the extract and chew the seeds. Postprandial plasma glucose level was measured before and 2-hours after the administration of the treatment. Accounting for gender, age, education, physical activity, body mass index, glycemic control, and medication, patients in FG5 group showed the greatest decrease in postprandial glucose with a pretest-posttest difference (D of - 41 ± 6.1 mg/dl. Two-hour plasma glucose dropped for patients in FG2.5, however, the drop was not statistically different from that noticed in the placebo group (D = - 24.8 ± 4.9 mg/dl vs. - 9.8 ± 2.2 mg/dl respectively. Fenugreek seeds appear to have a significant hypoglycemic activity in T2D patients.

  20. Punica granatum flower extract, a potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, improves postprandial hyperglycemia in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhao; Wen, Suping; Kota, Bhavani Prasad; Peng, Gang; Li, George Qian; Yamahara, Johji; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2005-06-01

    Postprandial hyperglycemia plays an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes and has been proposed as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The flowering part of Punica granatum Linn. (Punicaceae) (PGF) has been recommended in Unani literature as a remedy for diabetes. We investigated the effect and action mechanism of a methanolic extract from PGF on hyperglycemia in vivo and in vitro. Oral administration of PGF extract markedly lowered plasma glucose levels in non-fasted Zucker diabetic fatty rats (a genetic model of obesity and type 2 diabetes), whereas it had little effect in the fasted animals, suggesting it affected postprandial hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. In support of this conclusion the extract was found to markedly inhibit the increase of plasma glucose levels after sucrose loading, but not after glucose loading in mice, and it had no effect on glucose levels in normal mice. In vitro, PGF extract demonstrated a potent inhibitory effect on alpha-glucosidase activity (IC50: 1.8 microg/ml). The inhibition is dependent on the concentration of enzyme and substrate, as well as on the length of pretreatment with the enzyme. These findings strongly suggest that PGF extract improves postprandial hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes and obesity, at least in part, by inhibiting intestinal alpha-glucosidase activity. PMID:15894133

  1. Concomitant Intake of Quercetin with a Grain-Based Diet Acutely Lowers Postprandial Plasma Glucose and Lipid Concentrations in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Wein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment goals of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2 include glycemic control and reduction of nonglycemic risk factors, for example, dyslipidemia. Quercetin, a plant-derived polyphenol, often discussed for possible antidiabetic effects, was investigated for acute postprandial glucose- and lipid-lowering effects in healthy growing pigs. Male pigs (n = 16, body weight = BW 25–30 kg were fed flavonoid-poor grain-based meals without (GBM or with quercetin (GBMQ. In a first experiment, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA, and triacylglycerols were analyzed in 8 pigs receiving 500 g of either GBM or GBMQ (10 mg/kg BW in a cross-over design. Blood samples were collected before, and up to 5 h every 30 min, as well as 6 and 8 h after the feeding. In the second experiment, 2 h after ingestions of 1000 g of either GBM or GBMQ (50 mg/kg BW animals were sacrificed; gastric content was collected and analyzed for dry matter content. Quercetin ingestion reduced postprandial glucose, NEFA, and TG concentration, but two hours after ingestion of the meal no effect on gastric emptying was observed. Our results point to inhibitory effects of quercetin on nutrient absorption, which appear not to be attributable to delayed gastric emptying.

  2. Differential effects of EPA versus DHA on postprandial vascular function and the plasma oxylipin profile in men[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Seán; Tejera, Noemi; Awwad, Khader; Rigby, Neil; Fleming, Ingrid; Cassidy, Aedin; Minihane, Anne Marie

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate the impact of EPA versus DHA on arterial stiffness and reactivity and underlying mechanisms (with a focus on plasma oxylipins) in the postprandial state. In a three-arm crossover acute test meal trial, men (n = 26, 35–55 years) at increased CVD risk received a high-fat (42.4 g) test meal providing 4.16 g of EPA or DHA or control oil in random order. At 0 h and 4 h, blood samples were collected to quantify plasma fatty acids, long chain n-3 PUFA-derived oxylipins, nitrite and hydrogen sulfide, and serum lipids and glucose. Vascular function was assessed using blood pressure, reactive hyperemia index, pulse wave velocity, and augmentation index (AIx). The DHA-rich oil significantly reduced AIx by 13% (P = 0.047) with the decrease following EPA-rich oil intervention not reaching statistical significance. Both interventions increased EPA- and DHA-derived oxylipins in the acute postprandial state, with an (1.3-fold) increase in 19,20-dihydroxydocosapentaenoic acid evident after DHA intervention (P < 0.001). In conclusion, a single dose of DHA significantly improved postprandial arterial stiffness as assessed by AIx, which if sustained would be associated with a significant decrease in CVD risk. The observed increases in oxylipins provide a mechanistic insight into the AIx effect. PMID:27170732

  3. New advances in gastrointestinal motility research

    CERN Document Server

    Pullan, A; Farrugia, G

    2013-01-01

    Research into gastrointestinal motility has received renewed interest in part due to recent advances in the techniques for measuring the structure and function of gastrointestinal cells, tissue and organs. The integration of this wealth of data into biophysically based computation models can aid in interpretation of experimental and clinical measurements and the refinement of measurement techniques. The contents of this book span multiple scales - from cell, tissue, organ, to whole body and is divided into four broad sections covering: i) gastrointestinal cellular activity and tissue structure; (ii) techniques for measuring, analyzing and visualizing high-resolution extra-cellular recordings; (iii) methods for sensing gastroelectrical activity using non-invasive bio-electro-magnetic fields and for modulating the underlying gastric electrical activity, and finally; (iv) methods for assessing manometric and videographic motility patterns and the application of these data for predicting the flow and mixing behav...

  4. The chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilce Mitiko Matsuda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is an infectious disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The disease mainly affects the nervous system, digestive system and heart. The objective of this review is to revise the literature and summarize the main chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease. The chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease are mainly a result of enteric nervous system impairment caused by T. cruzi infection. The anatomical locations most commonly described to be affected by Chagas disease are salivary glands, esophagus, lower esophageal sphincter, stomach, small intestine, colon, gallbladder and biliary tree. Chagas disease has also been studied in association with Helicobacter pylori infection, interstitial cells of Cajal and the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer.

  5. Tissue Staining (Chromoscopy of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Brian Fennerty

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue staining, or chomoscopy, is used as an adjunctive technique during gastrointestinal endoscopy. Chemical agents are applied to the gastrointestinal mucosal surface to identify specific epithelia or to enhance the mucosal surface characteristics of the gastrointestinal epithelium. This aids in the recognition of subtle lesions (ie, polyps or allows directed targeting of biopsies (ie, sprue or Barrett’s esophagus to increase the yield of endoscopic diagnostic accuracy. The four endoscopic tissue-staining techniques in use are vital staining, contrast staining (chromoscopy, reactive staining and tattooing. Some of the agents used for endoscopic tissue staining and the uses of chromoscopy in identifying pathology of the esophagus, stomach, small bowel and colon during endoscopy are discussed.

  6. Placebo responses in patients with gastrointestinal disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frauke Musial; Sibylle Klosterhalfen; Paul Enck

    2007-01-01

    Over the last several years there has been a growing interest in placebo, not only as an inert control in clinical trials, but also in the placebo effect as a group effect as well as a reaction in individual subjects. Methodological factors such as regression to the mean and natural history of the disease play a role in the evaluation of a possible placebo effect. In this report, we discuss several factors including Pavlovian conditionincg,beliefs outcome, expectations, and other factors as potential mediators of the placebo response. Placebo effects are common in gastrointestinal diseases and there seems to be no clear difference between placebo effects in functional gastrointestinal diseases (functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome)and organic gastrointestinal disease (duodenal ulcer and inflammatory bowel disease).

  7. Gastrointestinal and Liver Issues in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Varun; Fang, James C

    2016-04-26

    Heart failure affects ≈23 million people worldwide and continues to have a high mortality despite advancements in modern pharmacotherapy and device therapy. HF is a complex clinical syndrome that can result in the impairment of endocrine, hematologic, musculoskeletal, renal, respiratory, peripheral vascular, hepatic, and gastrointestinal systems. Although gastrointestinal involvement and hepatic involvement are common in HF and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, their bidirectional association with HF progression remains poorly fathomed. The current understanding of multiple mechanisms, including proinflammatory cytokine milieu, hormonal imbalance, and anabolic/catabolic imbalance, has been used to explain the relationship between the gut and HF and has been the basis for many novel therapeutic strategies. However, the failure of these novel therapies such as anti-tumor necrosis factor-α has resulted in further complexity. In this review, we describe the involvement of the gastrointestinal and liver systems within the HF syndrome, their pathophysiological mechanisms, and their clinical consequences.

  8. Gastrointestinal manifestations in myotonic muscular dystrophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Massimo Bellini; Sonia Biagi; Cristina Stasi; Francesco Costa; Maria Gloria Mumolo; Angelo Ricchiuti; Santino Marchi

    2006-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (MD) is characterized by myotonic phenomena and progressive muscular weakness.Involvement of the gastrointestinal tract is frequent and may occur at any level. The clinical manifestations have previously been attributed to motility disorders caused by smooth muscle damage, but histologic evidence of alterations has been scarce and conflicting.A neural factor has also been hypothesized. In the upper digestive tract, dysphagia, heartburn, regurgitation and dyspepsia are the most common complaints, while in the lower tract, abdominal pain, bloating and changes in bowel habits are often reported. Digestive symptoms may be the first sign of dystrophic disease and may precede the musculo-skeletal features. The impairment of gastrointestinal function may be sometimes so gradual that the patients adapt to it with little awareness of symptoms. In such cases routine endoscopic and ultrasonographic evaluations are not sufficient and targeted techniques (electrogastrography, manometry,electromyography, functional ultrasonography,scintigraphy, etc.) are needed. There is a low correlation between the degree of skeletal muscle involvement and the presence and severity of gastrointestinal disturbances whereas a positive correlation with the duration of the skeletal muscle disease has been reported.The drugs recommended for treating the gastrointestinal complaints such as prokinetic, antidyspeptic drugs and laxatives, are mainly aimed at correcting the motility disorders.Gastrointestinal involvement in MD remains a complex and intriguing condition since many important problems are still unsolved. Further studies concentrating on genetic aspects, early diagnostic techniques and the development of new therapeutic strategies are needed to improve our management of the gastrointestinal manifestations of MD.

  9. GASTROINTESTINAL MALIGNANCIES: GETTING A DECADE YOUNGER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmitha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal malignancies are one of the most common malignancies encountered frequently, with rising incidence in young age due to the changing lifestyle and food habits in India. Oesophagus, stomach and colonic cancers are the commonly affected regions of the GI tract. These malignancies is known to occur in older age of fifth decade onwards. This is a study intended to highlight the rising incidence of such malignancies in the younger age in second to third decade as observed in and around Mangalore. Upper gastrointestinal malignancies are common in oesophagus and stomach, whereas lower gastrointestinal malignancies occur more commonly seen in colon. Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the most common of all familial malignancies with peak incidence in 60 to 70 years of age, 90% of cases occur in people aged 50 or older.Risk factors include a genetic predisposition, diet and lifestyle changes in the current era. Inheritance plays a role in the pathogenesis of upto a third of CRC cases. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of gastrointestinal malignancies in patients less than fifty years and the association of positive family history and polyps with colorectal carcinomas. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 128 cases of gastrointestinal malignancies from June 2010 to May 2012 received in and around Mangalore. The study includes endoscopic biopsies, colonoscopic biopsies partial and total colectomy specimens with growth seen anywhere from oesophagus to rectum. Representative sections are taken, processed routinely and stained with H & E. The pathological findings are then correlated with clinical data like age and sex distribution, site, family history and presence of other malignancies. RESULTS: In this study gastrointestinal malignancies were studied as upper and lower gastrointestinal lesions. Upper gastrointestinal (GI lesions were those in oesophagus, stomach, and duodenum. A total of 128 cases

  10. Diagnosis of liver, biliary tract and gastrointestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of RI imaging in the diagnosis of lesions of the liver, biliary tracts and gastrointestinal tracts are reviewed, and representative cases are shown. Liver scintigraphy was of value for the diagnosis of lesions limitted to the liver such as primary and metastatic liver cancer and inflammatory liver diseases. However, RI methods were less useful in the diagnosis of lesions of the biliary tracts and stomach. RI scintigraphy was more sensitive than angiography in the detection of Meckel's deverticulum, Ballet's esophagus, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage. (Tsunoda, M.)

  11. Effects of radiation upon gastrointestinal motility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mary F Otterson

    2007-01-01

    Whether due to therapeutic or belligerent exposure, the gastrointestinal effects of irradiation produce symptoms dreaded by a majority of the population. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal cramping are hallmarks of the prodromal phase of radiation sickness, occurring hours to days following radiation exposure. The prodromal phase is distinct from acute radiation sickness in that the absorptive, secretory and anatomic changes associated with radiation damage are not easily identifiable. It is during this phase of radiation sickness that gastrointestinal motility significantly changes. In addition, there is evidence that motor activity of the gut contributes to some of the acute and chronic effects of radiation.

  12. Candida albicans commensalism in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, B Anne; d'Enfert, Christophe; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth

    2015-11-01

    Candida albicans is a polymorphic yeast species that often forms part of the commensal gastrointestinal mycobiota of healthy humans. It is also an important opportunistic pathogen. A tripartite interaction involving C. albicans, the resident microbiota and host immunity maintains C. albicans in its commensal form. The influence of each of these factors on C. albicans carriage is considered herein, with particular focus on the mycobiota and the approaches used to study it, models of gastrointestinal colonization by C. albicans, the C. albicans genes and phenotypes that are necessary for commensalism and the host factors that influence C. albicans carriage.

  13. Multiple Gastrointestinal Complications of Crack Cocaine Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Carlin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine and its alkaloid free base “crack-cocaine” have long since been substances of abuse. Drug abuse of cocaine via oral, inhalation, intravenous, and intranasal intake has famously been associated with a number of medical complications. Intestinal ischemia and perforation remain the most common manifestations of cocaine associated gastrointestinal disease and have historically been associated with oral intake of cocaine. Here we find a rare case of two relatively uncommon gastrointestinal complications of hemorrhage and pancreatitis presenting within a single admission in a chronic crack cocaine abuser.

  14. Prolonged parenteral nutrition after neonatal gastrointestinal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estmann, Anne; Qvist, Niels; Husby, Steffen

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Long-term treatment with parenteral nutrition (PN) may be essential for survival in infants after neonatal gastrointestinal surgery. It seemed well indicated in a population-based study to estimate the need for long-term PN and to characterize the infants that received TPN with regard...... to diagnosis and clinical course. METHODOLOGY: This study reviews the clinical course of infants with gastrointestinal disease (gastroschisis, intestinal atresia, omphalocele, volvulus, Hirschsprung's disease and necrotizing enterocolitis) with a prolonged need for parenteral nutrition in the Western part...

  15. Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Saeed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI bleeding is more common in patients with chronic kidney disease and is associated with higher mortality than in the general population. Blood losses in this patient population can be quite severe at times and it is important to differentiate anemia of chronic diseases from anemia due to GI bleeding. We review the literature on common causes of lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGI in chronic kidney disease (CKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients. We suggest an approach to diagnosis and management of this problem.

  16. Gastrointestinal pathology in neonates: new imaging strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Stephanie; Donoghue, Veronica [Children' s University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dublin 1 (Ireland)

    2010-06-15

    The mainstay of imaging of gastrointestinal (GI) pathology in infants has always been and still is the plain radiograph of the abdomen and conventional contrast studies. In this review emphasis is placed on the situations where there are new imaging strategies and alternative modalities of imaging, including US, CT, MRI and radionuclide studies. This review will deal with GI pathology in the newborn and in the older neonate. It will also refer to any new approaches to imaging GI pathology in the premature infant. Finally the review will address how antenatal diagnosis of gastrointestinal tract abnormalities has changed the imaging strategy and management of the neonate. (orig.)

  17. Whey protein: The “whey” forward for treatment of type 2 diabetes?

    OpenAIRE

    Mignone, Linda E; Wu, Tongzhi; Horowitz, Michael; Christopher K Rayner

    2015-01-01

    A cost-effective nutritional approach to improve postprandial glycaemia is attractive considering the rising burden of diabetes throughout the world. Whey protein, a by-product of the cheese-making process, can be used to manipulate gut function in order to slow gastric emptying and stimulate incretin hormone secretion, thereby attenuating postprandial glycaemic excursions. The function of the gastrointestinal tract plays a pivotal role in glucose homeostasis, particularly during the postpran...

  18. Posthemorrhage glycogen and lactate metabolism in the liver: an experimental study with postprandial rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boija, P.O.; Nylander, G.; Suhaili, A.; Ware, J.

    1988-06-01

    Glycogen and lactate metabolism was studied in livers from three groups of postprandial rats sustaining 70 mm Hg hemorrhagic hypotension for variable periods, 60 min (60H group), 120 min (120H group), and nonbled controls. The donor livers were investigated after completed hemorrhage using an in vitro perfusion system with L-lactate as substrate, together with U-/sup 14/C-lactate. The residual glycogen stores were determined after perfusions. The incorporation of labelled lactate to glucose was increased in the 120H group by 66.7% and 116.8% compared to the 60H group and controls (p less than 0.01), but glycogenolysis was still the main source of glucose released in the 120H group. Glycogen formation from labelled lactate was 46.6% higher in the 120H group compared to controls (p less than 0.05) and lactate oxidation was decreased by 67.5% (p less than 0.05). The data suggest that hepatocytes are capable of rapid change from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis during hemorrhagic hypovolemia. However, energy-sparing glycogen breakdown is given priority over gluconeogenesis as long as glycogen remains available.

  19. Effect of modified dairy fat on fasting and postprandial haemostatic variables in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tine, Tholstrup; Peter, Marckmann; John, Hermansen;

    1999-01-01

    % energy from rotal fat (30 % energy from the test fats) for periods of4 weeks in a study with a crossover design. Fasting samples were taken in the last week of each study period. Postprandial samples were taken on day 21, 3 h after lunch (n 18), and on the last day of the study 2, 4, 6 and 8 h after...... a fat load containing 1.2 g of one of the milk fats/kg body weight (n 8). After 4 weeks' dietary intervention fasting plasma factor VII coagulant (FVIIc) activity, tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) antigen and P-thromboglobulin did not differ......It has been suggested that milk fat, due to its content of saturated fatty acids, may have a thrombogenic effect. Ln the present study the fatty acid profile of milk fat was modified by changing the feeding regimens of cows and the effect on haemostatic variables of a diet containing the modified...

  20. The postprandial plasma rye fingerprint includes benzoxazinoid-derived phenylacetamide sulfates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanhineva, Kati; Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Lappi, Jenni; Katina, Kati; Pekkinen, Jenna; Savolainen, Otto; Timonen, Oskari; Paananen, Jussi; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa

    2014-07-01

    The bioavailability of whole-grain rye-derived phytochemicals has not yet been comprehensively characterized, and different baking and manufacturing processes can modulate the phytochemical composition of breads and other rye products. The aim of our study was to find key differences in the phytochemical profile of plasma after the consumption of 3 breads containing rye bran when compared with a plain white wheat bread control. Plasma metabolite profiles of 12 healthy middle-aged men and women were analyzed using LC quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry metabolomics analysis while fasting and at 60 min, 120 min, 240 min, and 24 h after consuming a meal that contained either 100% whole-grain sourdough rye bread or white wheat bread enriched with native unprocessed rye bran or bioprocessed rye bran. White wheat bread was used as the control. The meals were served in random order after a 12-h overnight fast, with at least 3 d between each occasion. Two sulfonated phenylacetamides, hydroxy-N-(2-hydroxyphenyl) acetamide and N-(2-hydroxyphenyl) acetamide, potentially derived from the benzoxazinoid metabolites, were among the most discriminant postprandial plasma biomarkers distinguishing intake of breads containing whole-meal rye or rye bran from the control white wheat bread. Furthermore, subsequent metabolite profiling analysis of the consumed breads indicated that different bioprocessing/baking techniques involving exposure to microbial metabolism (e.g., sourdough fermentation) have a central role in modulating the phytochemical content of the whole-grain and bran-rich breads.

  1. Does green tea affect postprandial glucose, insulin and satiety in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindstedt Sandra

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results of epidemiological studies have suggested that consumption of green tea could lower the risk of type 2 diabetes. Intervention studies show that green tea may decrease blood glucose levels, and also increase satiety. This study was conducted to examine the postprandial effects of green tea on glucose levels, glycemic index, insulin levels and satiety in healthy individuals after the consumption of a meal including green tea. Methods The study was conducted on 14 healthy volunteers, with a crossover design. Participants were randomized to either 300 ml of green tea or water. This was consumed together with a breakfast consisting of white bread and sliced turkey. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. Participants completed several different satiety score scales at the same times. Results Plasma glucose levels were higher 120 min after ingestion of the meal with green tea than after the ingestion of the meal with water. No significant differences were found in serum insulin levels, or the area under the curve for glucose or insulin. Subjects reported significantly higher satiety, having a less strong desire to eat their favorite food and finding it less pleasant to eat another mouthful of the same food after drinking green tea compared to water. Conclusions Green tea showed no glucose or insulin-lowering effect. However, increased satiety and fullness were reported by the participants after the consumption of green tea. Trial registration number NCT01086189

  2. A framework for the modeling of gut blood flow regulation and postprandial hyperaemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adam David Jeays; Patricia Veronica Lawford; Richard Gillott; Paul A Spencer; Karna Dev Bardhan; David Rodney Hose

    2007-01-01

    After a meal the activity of the gut increases markedly as digestion takes place. Associated with this increase in activity is an increase in blood flow, which has been shown to be dependent on factors such as caloric content and constitution of the meal. Much qualitative work has been carried out regarding mechanisms for the presence of food in a section of gut producing increased blood flow to that section, but there are still many aspects of this process that are not fully understood.In this paper we briefly review current knowledge on several relevant areas relating to gut blood flow, focusing on quantitative data where available and highlighting areas where further research is needed. We then present new data on the effect of feeding on flow in the superior mesenteric artery. Finally, we describe a framework for combining this data to produce a single model describing the mechanisms involved in postprandial hyperaemia.For a section of the model, where appropriate data are available, preliminary results are presented.

  3. Helianthus annuus Leaf Ameliorates Postprandial Hyperglycaemia by Inhibiting Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes Associated with Type-2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafemi Adeleke Ojo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease. Decreasing postprandial hyperglycemia by retarding glucose absorption through inhibiting carbohydrates digesting enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase is one of many approaches used for the management of this disease. This study was aimed at evaluating the normoglycaemic potential of Helianthus annuus leaf. Methods: The effect of the in vitro inhibitory of different extracts (acetone, ethyl acetate and hexane of the plant was assessed on the activities of diabetes-related enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Results: The hexane extract of H. annuus leaf displayed the best inhibitory activity against α-amylase and α-glucosidase as indicated by the IC50 values (3.92 ± 0.02 mg mL-1 and (3.29 ± 0.12 mg mL-1, respectively. Lineweaver-Burk plot of inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase by this extract showed that it was competitive and non-competitive mode, respectively. Conclusion: H. annuus leaf possesses hypoglycaemic potential which may be due to the inhibition of pancreatic α-amylase and intestinal α-glucosidase.

  4. Fuel switching and energy partitioning during the postprandial metabolic response in the ball python (Python regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waas, Stefan; Werner, Roland A; Starck, J Matthias

    2010-04-01

    Digestion, absorption and assimilation of the meal are active processes that require start-up energy before the energy contained in a meal can be utilized. The energetic costs associated with feeding (specific dynamic action, SDA) are high in sit-and-wait foraging snakes that tolerate long fasting periods. We used (13)C-labelled prey to partition between endogenous energy sources (i.e. snakes' own resources) and exogenous energy sources (i.e. prey). A linear mixing model was then applied to determine the portion of (13)C originating from the different sources. The snakes showed a normal and typical postprandial response. By four hours after feeding, the delta(13)C-values indicated fuel switching from endogenous to exogenous. From then on, fuel mixing continuously increased until, at 20 h after feeding, 75% of fuel was exogenous. Resource partitioning showed that throughout SDA, the amount of exogenous energy increased to approximately 60% of SDA, which was equivalent to approximately 4.5% of the energy contained in a meal.

  5. Trigonella Foenum-Graecum Seeds Lowers Postprandial Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathyasurya Daniel Robert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the effects of fenugreek on postprandial plasma glucose (PPG and satiety among overweight and obese individuals. Fourteen subjects were studied in the morning after overnight fasts on four separate occasions. Glycaemic responses elicited by 50 g carbohydrate portions of white bread and jam with or without 5.5 g of fenugreek and fried rice with or without 5.5 g fenugreek were determined over 2 h. The primary endpoint was the incremental area under the plasma glucose response curve (IAUC. Adding fenugreek to both foods significantly reduced the IAUC compared to the food alone: white bread and jam, 180 ± 22 versus 271 ± 23 mmol × min/L (P = 0.001; fried rice, 176 ± 20 versus 249 ± 25 mmol × min/L (P = 0.001. Fenugreek also significantly reduced the area under the satiety curve for white bread with jam (134 ± 27 versus 232 ± 33 mm × hr, P = 0.01 and fried rice (280 ± 37 versus 379 ± 36 mm × hr, P = 0.01. It is concluded that fenugreek significantly decreased the PPG response and increased satiety among overweight and obese individuals.

  6. Black soybean extract improves lipid profiles in fenofibrate-treated type 2 diabetics with postprandial hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusunoki, Masataka; Sato, Daisuke; Tsutsumi, Kazuhiko; Tsutsui, Hideyo; Nakamura, Takao; Oshida, Yoshiharu

    2015-06-01

    Black soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) are known to be rich in polyphenols, including anthocyanins, and they have been consumed since ancient times for their beneficial effects on health. In addition, it has been reported that black soybean (BS) seed coat may ameliorate obesity and insulin resistance. In the present study, we administered BS extract to type 2 diabetics for 2 months to investigate the effects of BS on glycemic control and lipid metabolism parameters. In addition, we administered BS and antihyperlipidemic agent, fenofibrate, to patients with type 2 diabetes complicated by postprandial hyperlipidemia for 2 months and assessed the combined effects of fenofibrate and BS on serum lipid profile. The results showed that administration of the BS alone had no effect on the blood glucose or lipid levels, but that administration of fenofibrate alone and fenofibrate in combination with the BS significantly lowered their serum triglyceride (TG) level at fasting state, and the percent decrease in the serum TG level after combined administration was significantly higher than in the subjects who received fenofibrate alone. Furthermore, the serum LDL cholesterol concentration, which did not decrease when fenofibrate was administered alone, decreased significantly when the BS and fenofibrate were administered in combination. These results suggest that combined administration of the BS with fenofibrate enhanced the antihyperlipidemic action of fenofibrate, and the results of this study demonstrated the usefulness of the BS in clinical practice. PMID:25651043

  7. Minor Contribution of Endogenous GLP-1 and GLP-2 to Postprandial Lipemia in Obese Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matikainen, Niina; Björnson, Elias; Söderlund, Sanni;

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Glucose and lipids stimulate the gut-hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, GLP-2 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) but the effect of these on human postprandial lipid metabolism is not fully clarified. OBJECTIVE: To explore the responses of GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP after...... a fat-rich meal compared to the same responses after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and to investigate possible relationships between incretin response and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) response to a fat-rich meal. DESIGN: Glucose, insulin, GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP were measured after an...... glucose, insulin, GLP-1, GLP-2, GIP in plasma, and TG, apoB48 and apoB100 in plasma and TG-rich lipoproteins. RESULTS: The GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP responses after the fat-rich meal and after the OGTT correlated strongly (r = 0.73, p<0.0001; r = 0.46, p<0.001 and r = 0.69, p<0.001, respectively). Glucose and...

  8. Algorithms to Improve the Prediction of Postprandial Insulinaemia in Response to Common Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Kirstine J; Petocz, Peter; Colagiuri, Stephen; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns that induce excessive insulin secretion may contribute to worsening insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. Our aim was to generate mathematical algorithms to improve the prediction of postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia for foods of known nutrient composition, glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL). We used an expanded database of food insulin index (FII) values generated by testing 1000 kJ portions of 147 common foods relative to a reference food in lean, young, healthy volunteers. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were applied to validate previously generated equations for predicting insulinaemia, and develop improved predictive models. Large differences in insulinaemic responses within and between food groups were evident. GL, GI and available carbohydrate content were the strongest predictors of the FII, explaining 55%, 51% and 47% of variation respectively. Fat, protein and sugar were significant but relatively weak predictors, accounting for only 31%, 7% and 13% of the variation respectively. Nutritional composition alone explained only 50% of variability. The best algorithm included a measure of glycemic response, sugar and protein content and explained 78% of variation. Knowledge of the GI or glycaemic response to 1000 kJ portions together with nutrient composition therefore provides a good approximation for ranking of foods according to their "insulin demand".

  9. Algorithms to Improve the Prediction of Postprandial Insulinaemia in Response to Common Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstine J. Bell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary patterns that induce excessive insulin secretion may contribute to worsening insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. Our aim was to generate mathematical algorithms to improve the prediction of postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia for foods of known nutrient composition, glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL. We used an expanded database of food insulin index (FII values generated by testing 1000 kJ portions of 147 common foods relative to a reference food in lean, young, healthy volunteers. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were applied to validate previously generated equations for predicting insulinaemia, and develop improved predictive models. Large differences in insulinaemic responses within and between food groups were evident. GL, GI and available carbohydrate content were the strongest predictors of the FII, explaining 55%, 51% and 47% of variation respectively. Fat, protein and sugar were significant but relatively weak predictors, accounting for only 31%, 7% and 13% of the variation respectively. Nutritional composition alone explained only 50% of variability. The best algorithm included a measure of glycemic response, sugar and protein content and explained 78% of variation. Knowledge of the GI or glycaemic response to 1000 kJ portions together with nutrient composition therefore provides a good approximation for ranking of foods according to their “insulin demand”.

  10. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee L. Dordevic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD; body mass index (BMI 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water, carbohydrate (maltodextrin or lipid (dairy-cream. Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h, as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03 and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001 decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed.

  11. A rare cause of recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding: mesenteric hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeytunlu Murat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage accounts for approximately 20% of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The most common causes of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage in adults are diverticular disease, inflammatory bowel disease, benign anorectal diseases, intestinal neoplasias, coagulopathies and arterio-venous malformations. Hemangiomas of gastrointestinal tract are rare. Mesenteric hemangiomas are also extremely rare. We present a 25-year-old female who was admitted to the emergency room with recurrent lower gastrointestinal bleeding. An intraluminal bleeding mass inside the small intestinal segment was detected during explorative laparotomy as the cause of the recurrent lower gastrointestinal bleeding. After partial resection of small bowel segment, the histopathologic examination revealed a cavernous hemagioma of mesenteric origin. Although rare, gastrointestinal hemangioma should be thought in differential diagnosis as a cause of recurrent lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

  12. Do We Know What Causes Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic Can gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors be prevented? Do we know what causes gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors? Researchers have ... our genes, which control how our cells function. We look like our parents because they are the ...

  13. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor and mitosis, pay attention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Federico Coccolini; Fausto Catena; Luca Ansaloni; Antonio Daniele Pinna

    2012-01-01

    The difference between stages I and III of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor depends principally on the number of mitosis. According with TNM classification, the presence in the tumor of high mitotic rate determines the upgrading. Many studies exposed different count techniques in evaluating the number of mitosis. An international standardized method to assess mitotic rate is needed.

  14. Gastrointestinal amyloidosis: a case of chronic diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonnesu, C; Giovinale, M; Verrecchia, E; De Socio, G; Cerquaglia, C; Curigliano, V; Soriano, A; Obici, L; Grieco, A; Lauriola, L; Gasbarrini, G; Manna, R

    2009-03-01

    Amyloidosis is a rare disease caused by extracellular deposits of insoluble fibrillar proteins in various organs and tissues. There are different forms of amyloidosis distinguished by the type of protein fibrils, by the sites of deposition and by associated conditions. Gastrointestinal involvement is common both in primary and secondary amyloidosis, while isolated gastrointestinal amyloidosis is rare. We describe a case of AL amyloidosis with a gastrointestinal involvement and restrictive cardiomiopathy. A 64 year old woman came to our attention with a history of chronic diarrhoea and weight loss, associated with dysphagia, dry mouth, xerophtalmia, chronic gastritis and depression. Clinical diagnosis has been difficult because of aspecificity of symptoms that mimed other more common diseases, like gastro-paresis, epigastric discomfort, gastric or duodenal ulcers, perforation, malabsorption, intestinal pseudo-obstruction. There is an important risk of misunderstanding and diagnostic delay. Indeed in this patient a diagnosis of irritable colon syndrome was erroneously established two years before admission in our hospital. Therefore gastrointestinal amyloidosis should be considered among differential diagnoses of chronic diarrhoea and weight loss when other more common diseases have been excluded. PMID:19530511

  15. Sleep, immunity and inflammation in gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Tauseef; Choe, James; Awab, Ahmed; Wagener, Theodore L; Orr, William C

    2013-12-28

    Sleep disorders have become a global issue, and discovering their causes and consequences are the focus of many research endeavors. An estimated 70 million Americans suffer from some form of sleep disorder. Certain sleep disorders have been shown to cause neurocognitive impairment such as decreased cognitive ability, slower response times and performance detriments. Recent research suggests that individuals with sleep abnormalities are also at greater risk of serious adverse health, economic consequences, and most importantly increased all-cause mortality. Several research studies support the associations among sleep, immune function and inflammation. Here, we review the current research linking sleep, immune function, and gastrointestinal diseases and discuss the interdependent relationship between sleep and these gastrointestinal disorders. Different physiologic processes including immune system and inflammatory cytokines help regulate the sleep. The inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1 (IL-1), and IL-6 have been shown to be a significant contributor of sleep disturbances. On the other hand, sleep disturbances such as sleep deprivation have been shown to up regulate these inflammatory cytokines. Alterations in these cytokine levels have been demonstrated in certain gastrointestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, gastro-esophageal reflux, liver disorders and colorectal cancer. In turn, abnormal sleep brought on by these diseases is shown to contribute to the severity of these same gastrointestinal diseases. Knowledge of these relationships will allow gastroenterologists a great opportunity to enhance the care of their patients. PMID:24409051

  16. Role of Endoscopic Ultrasound in Gastrointestinal Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Biswanath P Gouda; Gupta, Tarun

    2011-01-01

    Endoscopic Ultrasound is an emerging diagnostic tool in the field of Gastrointestinal Surgery. Our review article focuses on role of EUS in staging cancers (esophageal, gastric, biliary and rectal), detection of bilio-pancreatic calculi and diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis. Potential for performing EUS based therapeutic interventions are been explored and looks promising from the initial reports.

  17. Imaging of gastrointestinal and abdominal tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhoenacker, FM; De Backer, AI; Op de Beeck, B; Maes, M; Van Altena, R; Van Beckevoort, D; Kersemans, P; De Schepper, AM

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the abdomen, including involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, the peritoneum, mesentery, omentum, abdominal lymph nodes, solid abdominal organs, the genital system and the abdominal aorta. Abdominal TB is a diagnostic cha

  18. Standardization and Coding of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.M. Groenen (Marcel)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractGastrointestinal endoscopy has developed rapidly in the last five decades. It started in the sixties, when the first commercial model of the then recently invented fully flexible fiberoptic gastroscope was developed. In the late sixties fiberoptic endoscopes changed to forward viewing, w

  19. Angiography and angiotherapy of gastrointestinal tract bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In selected patients with upper and lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage there is an indication for angiography. Vasoconstrictive drugs or embolization materials can be submitted through the catheter to stop the hermorrhage (angiotherapy). 81 patients were diagnosed by this method. Treatment through the angiographic catheter followed the diagnostic procedure in 41 cases. The hemorrhage was controlled in 36 patients. (orig.)

  20. Nutrition in the prevention of gastrointestinal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Diet has been hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of gastrointestinal cancer for a long time. Initially, strong evidence of such effects was found in retrospective epidemiological studies. Dietary habits, in particular those from the distant past, are difficult to measure, however. Results f

  1. Targeting nitric oxide in the gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Gerard; van Goor, Harry; Jansen, Peter L M; Moshage, Han; van Goor, Harm

    2004-01-01

    This review discusses the contributions of the three nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) isozymes neuronal NOS (nNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) to the function and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Small (nanomolar) quantities of NO produced by calcium-dependent nNOS play a

  2. Multiple gastrointestinal atresias in two consecutive siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahukamble, D B; Gahukamble, L D

    2002-03-01

    Two consecutive female siblings with multiple gastrointestinal atresias are described. The history of consanguinity in the parents and the presence of extensive typical pathological lesions suggest a genetically-induced developmental fault in the alimentary tract during the early embryonic period.

  3. Androgen receptor expression in gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Lisandro F; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of estrogen, progesterone, and androgen receptors in a large series of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Clinical and pathologic data were reviewed in 427 cases of gastrointestinal stromal tumor and the expression of such hormone receptors was investigated by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarray technique. All tumors were negative for estrogen receptor expression. Progesterone and androgen receptors expression was observed in 5.4% and 17.6% of tumors, respectively. We found the higher average age at diagnosis, the lower frequency of tumors located in the small intestine, and the higher frequency of extragastrointestinal tumors to be statistically significant in the group of tumors with androgen receptor expression in contrast to the group showing no androgen receptor expression. There was no statistic difference between such groups regarding sex, tumor size, mitotic count, cell morphology, and risk of aggressive behavior. Considering that the expression of androgen receptors in gastrointestinal stromal tumors is not negligible, further studies are encouraged to establish the role of androgen deprivation therapy for gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

  4. Gastrointestinal stromal tumour presenting as gastroduodenal intussusception.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wilson, Mark H

    2012-08-01

    Gastroduodenal intussusception secondary to gastrointestinal stromal tumour is a very rare cause for intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis of this condition can be challenging, as symptoms are often non-specific and intermittent. This article reports a case where the diagnosis was made preoperatively with abdominal imaging and was treated by a combination of endoscopic reduction and laparoscopic resection.

  5. Catastrophic gastrointestinal complication of systemic immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lyn Alexandra; Gangopadhyay, Mitali; Gaya, Daniel R

    2015-02-28

    We present a case of acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage in a patient with systemic vasculitis immunosuppressed on cyclophosphamide and prednisolone. The patient presented with a diffuse haemorrhagic oesophagitis and a non-specific duodenitis. Biopsies taken from the oesophagus and duodenum demonstrated infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) respectively. Viral infection of the upper gastrointestinal tract is a recognised complication of immunosuppression and HSV is one of the most common pathogens. CMV on the other hand most commonly causes a colitis or less commonly oesophagitis. CMV enteritis is rare as is the synchronous infection with two viral agents in an immunocompromised patient having being described in a few case series only. Viral infection of the gastrointestinal tract in immunocompromised patients should be treated with systemic anti-viral medication and consideration to withdrawal of the immunosuppressive therapy if possible and appropriate. The authors highlight the need for a high suspicion of viral infection in immunosuppressed patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:25741165

  6. Gastrointestinal cancer after treatment of Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study aimed to quantify the risk of gastrointestinal cancer following Hodgkin's disease treatment according to age at treatment, type of treatment, and anatomic sites. Methods and Materials: Cases were identified from the records of 2,441 patients treated for Hodgkin's disease between 1961 and 1994. Follow-up averaged 10.9 years, representing 26,590 person-years of observation. Relative risks (RR) for gastrointestinal cancer incidence and mortality were computed by comparison with expected annualized rates for a general population matched for age, sex, and race. Results: Gastrointestinal cancers developed in 25 patients. The incidence RR was 2.5 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5-3.5] and mortality RR was 3.8 (CI, 2.4-4.7). Sites associated with significantly increased risks included the stomach [RR 7.3 (CI, 3.4-13.8)], small intestine [RR 11.6 (CI, 1.9-38.3)], and pancreas [RR 3.5 (CI, 1.1-8.5)]. Risk was significantly elevated after combined modality therapy, RR 3.9 (CI, 2.2-5.6). The risk after radiotherapy alone was 2.0 (CI, 1.0-3.4), not a statistically significant elevation. The RR for gastrointestinal cancer was greatest after treatment at young age and decreased with advancing age. It was significantly elevated within 10 years after treatment [RR 2.0 (CI, 1.1-3.5)] and increased further after 20 years [RR 6.1 (CI, 2.5-12.7)]. Risk assessed by attained age paralleled risk according to age at treatment. Fifteen cases of gastrointestinal cancers arose within the irradiation fields. Conclusion: Patients treated for Hodgkin's disease are at modestly increased risk for secondary gastrointestinal cancer, especially after combined modality therapy and treatment at a young age. Risk was highest more than 20 years after treatment, but was significantly elevated within 10 years. Gastrointestinal sites with increased risk included the stomach, pancreas, and small intestine

  7. 21 CFR 876.1725 - Gastrointestinal motility monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gastrointestinal motility monitoring system. 876... Gastrointestinal motility monitoring system. (a) Identification. A gastrointestinal motility monitoring system is a... include signal conditioning, amplifying, and recording equipment. This generic type of device includes...

  8. Gastrointestinal motility during cardiopulmonary bypass : A sonomicrometric study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, YJ; de Kroon, TL; Elstrodt, JM; Rakhorst, G

    2006-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is known to impair the integrity of the gastrointestinal tract. However, little is known about the movement behavior of the gastrointestinal tract during CPB. This study was aimed to assess the gastrointestinal motility with sonomicrometry, a distance measurement using u

  9. Functional lumen imaging of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottrup, Christian; Gregersen, Hans; Liao, Donghua; Fynne, Lotte; Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum; Krogh, Klaus; Regan, Julie; Kunwald, Peter; McMahon, Barry P

    2015-10-01

    This nonsystematic review aims to describe recent developments in the use of functional lumen imaging in the gastrointestinal tract stimulated by the introduction of the functional lumen imaging probe. When ingested food in liquid and solid form is transported along the gastrointestinal tract, sphincters provide an important role in the flow and control of these contents. Inadequate function of sphincters is the basis of many gastrointestinal diseases. Despite this, traditional methods of sphincter diagnosis and measurement such as fluoroscopy, manometry, and the barostat are limited in what they can tell us. It has long been thought that measurement of sphincter function through resistance to distension is a better approach, now more commonly known as distensibility testing. The functional lumen imaging probe is the first medical measurement device that purports in a practical way to provide geometric profiling and measurement of distensibility in sphincters. With use of impedance planimetry, an axial series of cross-sectional areas and pressure in a catheter-mounted allantoid bag are used for the calculation of distensibility parameters. The technique has been trialed in many valvular areas of the gastrointestinal tract, including the upper esophageal sphincter, the esophagogastric junction, and the anorectal region. It has shown potential in the biomechanical assessment of sphincter function and characterization of swallowing disorders, gastroesophageal reflux disease, eosinophilic esophagitis, achalasia, and fecal incontinence. From this early work, the functional lumen imaging technique has the potential to contribute to a better and more physiological understanding of narrowing regions in the gastrointestinal tract in general and sphincters in particular. PMID:25980822

  10. Computed tomography in gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to define the imaging characteristics of primary and recurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in computed tomography with respect to the tumor size. Computed tomography was performed in 35 patients with histologically confirmed gastrointestinal stromal tumors and analyzed retrospectively by two experienced and independent radiologist. The following morphologic tumor characteristics of primary (n=20) and (n=16) recurrent tumors were evaluated according to tumor size, shape, homogeneity, density compared with liver, contrast enhancement, presence of calcifications, ulcerations, fistula or distant metastases and the anatomical relationship to the intestinal wall, and the infiltration of adjacent visceral organs. Small GIST (5-10 cm) demonstrated an irregular shape, inhomogeneous density on unenhanced and contrast-enhanced images, a combined intra- and extraluminal tumor growth with aggressive findings, and infiltration of adjacent organs in 9 primary diagnosed and 2 recurrent tumors. Large GIST (>10 cm), which were observed in 8 primary tumors and 11 recurrent tumors, showed an irregular margin with inhomogeneous density and aggressive findings, and were characterized by signs of malignancy such as distant and peritoneal metastases. Small recurrent tumors had a similar appearance as compared with large primary tumors. Computed tomography gives additional information with respect to the relationship of gastrointestinal stromal tumor to the gastrointestinal wall and surrounding organs, and it detects distant metastasis. Primary and recurrent GIST demonstrate characteristic CT imaging features which are related to tumor size. Aggressive findings and signs of malignancy are found in larger tumors and in recurrent disease. Computed tomography is useful in detection and characterization of primary and recurrent tumors with regard to tumor growth pattern, tumor size, and varied appearances of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and indirectly

  11. Computed tomography in gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanem, Nadir; Altehoefer, Carsten; Winterer, Jan; Schaefer, Oliver; Springer, Oliver; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106, Freiburg (Germany); Furtwaengler, Alex [Department of Abdominal Surgery, University Hospital Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106, Freiburg (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to define the imaging characteristics of primary and recurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in computed tomography with respect to the tumor size. Computed tomography was performed in 35 patients with histologically confirmed gastrointestinal stromal tumors and analyzed retrospectively by two experienced and independent radiologist. The following morphologic tumor characteristics of primary (n=20) and (n=16) recurrent tumors were evaluated according to tumor size, shape, homogeneity, density compared with liver, contrast enhancement, presence of calcifications, ulcerations, fistula or distant metastases and the anatomical relationship to the intestinal wall, and the infiltration of adjacent visceral organs. Small GIST (<5 cm) showed a sharp tumor margin with homogeneous density and structure on unenhanced and contrast-enhanced images, and were characterized by an intraluminal tumor growth. Intermediate sized GIST (>5-10 cm) demonstrated an irregular shape, inhomogeneous density on unenhanced and contrast-enhanced images, a combined intra- and extraluminal tumor growth with aggressive findings, and infiltration of adjacent organs in 9 primary diagnosed and 2 recurrent tumors. Large GIST (>10 cm), which were observed in 8 primary tumors and 11 recurrent tumors, showed an irregular margin with inhomogeneous density and aggressive findings, and were characterized by signs of malignancy such as distant and peritoneal metastases. Small recurrent tumors had a similar appearance as compared with large primary tumors. Computed tomography gives additional information with respect to the relationship of gastrointestinal stromal tumor to the gastrointestinal wall and surrounding organs, and it detects distant metastasis. Primary and recurrent GIST demonstrate characteristic CT imaging features which are related to tumor size. Aggressive findings and signs of malignancy are found in larger tumors and in recurrent disease. Computed tomography

  12. Estimation of Water Vapour Attenuation And Rain Attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Kalyana Srinivas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Attenuation due to and water vapour and rain can severely degrade the radio wave propagation at centimeter or millimeter wavelengths. It restricts the path length of radio communication systems and limits the use of higher frequencies for line-of-sight microwave links and satellite communications. The attenuation will pose a greater problem to communication as the frequency of occurrence of heavy rain increases.In a tropical region, like Malaysia, where excessive rainfall is a common phenomenon throughout the year, the knowledge of the rain attenuation at the frequency of operation is extremely required for the design of a reliable terrestrial and earth space communication link at a particular location.

  13. The attenuation and the attenuators: strategies and tactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Briz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is inscribed in a research project (ES.POR.ATENUAÇÃO that seeks to analyze and explain the attenuator activity in different regional varieties of Spanish and Portuguese, in order to perform, subsequently, different contrastive intralinguistic and interlinguistic studies. In this article, we explain some of the theoretical and methodological principles on which are based the qualitative and quantitative analysis. And especially, we will refer to the concept of attenuation (Briz 1995, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2007a, 2012.

  14. Multi-transmitting formula for attenuating waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈少林; 廖振鹏

    2003-01-01

    The MTF is extended to case of attenuating incident wave by introducing an attenuation coefficient. The reflection coefficients of this modified MTF and MTF areevaluated and compared when an attenuating wave impinges on the boundary, and the results demonstrate that MTF can be used to absorb slightly attenuating wavesand the modified MTF is more capable of absorbing heavily attenuating waves than MTF. The accuracy of modified MTF is also tested by numerical examples of fluid saturated porous media.

  15. Photoacoustic Imaging Taking into Account Attenuation

    CERN Document Server

    Kowar, Richard

    2010-01-01

    First, we review existing attenuation models and discuss their causality properties, which we believe to be essential for algorithms for inversion with attenuated data. Then, we survey causality properties of common attenuation models. We also derive integro-differential equations which the attenuated waves are satisfying. In addition we discuss the ill--conditionness of the inverse problem for calculating the unattenuated wave from the attenuated one.

  16. Impact of the Content of Fatty Acids of Oral Fat Tolerance Tests on Postprandial Triglyceridemia: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Monfort-Pires

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Whether the content of saturated (SFA, monounsaturated (MUFA, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA could differently influence postprandial triglycerides (TG is unknown. We examined possible differences in the postprandial TG response to fat tolerance tests (FTTs, in which SFA or unsaturated fatty acids were used. Crossover clinical trials investigating the effects of FTTs containing SFA and unsaturated fats on postprandial triglyceridemia in databases from 1994 until 2016 were searched. Of 356 studies, 338 were excluded and 18 were considered. TG net incremental areas under the curve were calculated using time-points or changes from baseline. Pooled effects of standardized mean differences and I2 test were used. Results: In 12 studies, responses to SFA versus PUFA meals, and in 16 studies versus MUFA meals were compared. Over 4 hours, no differences between SFA and unsaturated fats were observed. Over 8 hours a lower response to PUFA (SMD −2.28; 95%CI −4.16, −0.41 and a trend to lower response to MUFA (SMD −0.89, 95%CI −1.82, 0.04 were detected. FTTs shorter than 8 hours may not be sufficient to differentiate postprandial TG after challenges with distinct fatty acids. Clinical significance of different postprandial TG responses on cardiovascular risk in the long-term deserves investigation.

  17. Impact of the Content of Fatty Acids of Oral Fat Tolerance Tests on Postprandial Triglyceridemia: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfort-Pires, Milena; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, José; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Ferreira, Sandra Roberta Gouvea

    2016-01-01

    Whether the content of saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) could differently influence postprandial triglycerides (TG) is unknown. We examined possible differences in the postprandial TG response to fat tolerance tests (FTTs), in which SFA or unsaturated fatty acids were used. Crossover clinical trials investigating the effects of FTTs containing SFA and unsaturated fats on postprandial triglyceridemia in databases from 1994 until 2016 were searched. Of 356 studies, 338 were excluded and 18 were considered. TG net incremental areas under the curve were calculated using time-points or changes from baseline. Pooled effects of standardized mean differences and I2 test were used. Results: In 12 studies, responses to SFA versus PUFA meals, and in 16 studies versus MUFA meals were compared. Over 4 h, no differences between SFA and unsaturated fats were observed. Over 8 h a lower response to PUFA (SMD −2.28; 95% CI −4.16, −0.41) and a trend to lower response to MUFA (SMD −0.89, 95% CI −1.82, 0.04) were detected. FTTs shorter than 8 h may not be sufficient to differentiate postprandial TG after challenges with distinct fatty acids. Clinical significance of different postprandial TG responses on cardiovascular risk in the long-term deserves investigation. PMID:27657122

  18. Diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding: A practical guide for clinicians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bong; Sik; Matthew; Kim; Bob; T; Li; Alexander; Engel; Jaswinder; S; Samra; Stephen; Clarke; Ian; D; Norton; Angela; E; Li

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding is a common problem encountered in the emergency department and in the primary care setting. Acute or overt gastrointestinal bleeding is visible in the form of hematemesis, melena or hematochezia. Chronic or occult gastrointestinal bleeding is notapparent to the patient and usually presents as positive fecal occult blood or iron deficiency anemia. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding is recurrent bleeding when the source remains unidentified after upper endoscopy and colonoscopic evaluation and is usually from the small intestine. Accurate clinical diagnosis is crucial and guides definitive investigations and interventions. This review summarizes the overall diagnostic approach to gastrointestinal bleeding and provides a practical guide for clinicians.

  19. Additional benefit of higher dose green tea in lowering postprandial blood glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Lahirin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Green tea contains catechins that have inhibitory effects on amylase, sucrase, and sodium-dependent glucose transporter (SGLT which result in lowering of postprandial blood glucose (PBG. This beneficial effect has been widely demonstrated using the usual dose (UD of green tea preparation. Our study was aimed to explore futher lowering of PBG using high dose (HD of green tea in healthy adolescents.Methods: 24 subjects received 100 mL infusion of either 0.67 or 3.33 grams of green tea with test meal. Fasting, PBG at 30, 60, 120 minutes were measured. Subjects were cross-overed after wash out. PBG and its incremental area under the curve (IAUC difference between groups were analyzed with paired T-test. Cathecin contents of tea were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC.Results: The PBG of HD group was lower compared to UD (at 60 minutes =113.70 ± 13.20 vs 124.16 ± 8.17 mg/dL, p = 0.005; at 120 minutes = 88.95 ± 6.13 vs 105.25 ± 13.85 mg/dL, p < 0.001. The IAUC of HD was also found to be lower compared to UD (2055.0 vs 3411.9 min.mg/dL, p < 0.001.Conclusion: Additional benefit of lowering PBG can be achieved by using higher dose of green tea. This study recommends preparing higher dose of green tea drinks for better control of PBG.

  20. Postprandial hyperglycemia and cardiovascular diseases%餐后高血糖与心血管病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈家伦; 许曼音

    2006-01-01

    餐后高血糖(postprandial hyperglycemia)指正常餐或标准试餐后食物在消化吸收过程中的血糖升高值超过正常范围。餐后血糖水平受到餐后B.细胞功能(主要是早相分泌功能),靶组织、器官(主要是肌肉、脂肪组织及肝脏)对胰岛素的敏感性、胃肠道消化、吸收等功能,以及进食量及成分、食物烹调方法、摄食速度等多种因素的影响。负荷后高血糖(postchallenge hyperglycemia,posdoad hyperglycemia)指口服75g葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT)中2h血糖水平≥7.8mmol/L(≥140mg/dl)(糖耐量受损),或≥11.1mmol/L(≥200ms/dl)(糖尿病)。有研究表明OGIT2h血糖水平与摄入标准混合餐(含脂肪10.7g,蛋白质12.1g,简单糖8.9g,淀粉41.1g,食用纤维3.8g,共提供345热卡)后的血糖水平甚为相近,提示OGTT在一定程度上可反映进餐后糖代谢的变化状况。

  1. Effect of an extruded pea or rice diet on postprandial insulin and cardiovascular responses in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphe, J L; Drew, M D; Silver, T I; Fouhse, J; Childs, H; Weber, L P

    2015-08-01

    Peas are increasing in popularity as a source of carbohydrate, protein and fibre in extruded canine diets. The aim of this study was to test the health effects of two canine diets with identical macronutrient profiles, but containing either yellow field peas or white rice as the carbohydrate source on metabolism, cardiovascular outcomes and adiposity. First, the acute glycemic, insulinemic and cardiovascular responses to the pea- or rice-based diets were determined in normal weight beagles (n = 7 dogs). The glycemic index did not differ between the pea diet (56 ± 12) and rice diet (63 ± 9). Next, obese beagles (n = 9) were fed the yellow field pea diet or white rice diet ad libitum for 12 weeks in a crossover study. Adiposity (measured using computed tomography), metabolic (oral glucose tolerance test, plasma leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein) and cardiovascular assessments (echocardiography and blood pressure) were performed before and after each crossover study period. After 12 weeks on each diet, peak insulin (p = 0.05) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin after a 10 g oral glucose tolerance test (p = 0.05) were lower with the pea than the rice diet. Diet did not show a significant effect on body weight, fat distribution, cardiovascular variables, adiponectin or leptin. In conclusion, a diet containing yellow field peas reduced the postprandial insulin response after glucose challenge in dogs despite continued obesity, indicating improved metabolic health. PMID:25475789

  2. Effect of an extruded pea or rice diet on postprandial insulin and cardiovascular responses in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphe, J L; Drew, M D; Silver, T I; Fouhse, J; Childs, H; Weber, L P

    2015-08-01

    Peas are increasing in popularity as a source of carbohydrate, protein and fibre in extruded canine diets. The aim of this study was to test the health effects of two canine diets with identical macronutrient profiles, but containing either yellow field peas or white rice as the carbohydrate source on metabolism, cardiovascular outcomes and adiposity. First, the acute glycemic, insulinemic and cardiovascular responses to the pea- or rice-based diets were determined in normal weight beagles (n = 7 dogs). The glycemic index did not differ between the pea diet (56 ± 12) and rice diet (63 ± 9). Next, obese beagles (n = 9) were fed the yellow field pea diet or white rice diet ad libitum for 12 weeks in a crossover study. Adiposity (measured using computed tomography), metabolic (oral glucose tolerance test, plasma leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein) and cardiovascular assessments (echocardiography and blood pressure) were performed before and after each crossover study period. After 12 weeks on each diet, peak insulin (p = 0.05) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin after a 10 g oral glucose tolerance test (p = 0.05) were lower with the pea than the rice diet. Diet did not show a significant effect on body weight, fat distribution, cardiovascular variables, adiponectin or leptin. In conclusion, a diet containing yellow field peas reduced the postprandial insulin response after glucose challenge in dogs despite continued obesity, indicating improved metabolic health.

  3. Reorganization of neuronal circuits of the central olfactory system during postprandial sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro eYamaguchi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastic changes in neuronal circuits often occur in association with specific behavioral states. In this review, we focus on an emerging view that neuronal circuits in the olfactory system are reorganized along the wake-sleep cycle. Olfaction is crucial to sustaining the animals’ life, and odor-guided behaviors have to be newly acquired or updated to successfully cope with a changing odor world. It is therefore likely that neuronal circuits in the olfactory system are highly plastic and undergo repeated reorganization in daily life. A remarkably plastic feature of the olfactory system is that newly generated neurons are continually integrated into neuronal circuits of the olfactory bulb (OB throughout life. New neurons in the OB undergo an extensive selection process, during which many are eliminated by apoptosis for the fine tuning of neuronal circuits. The life and death decision of new neurons occurs extensively during a short time window of sleep after food consumption (postprandial sleep, a typical daily olfactory behavior. We review recent studies that explain how olfactory information is transferred between the OB and the olfactory cortex (OC along the course of the wake-sleep cycle. Olfactory sensory input is effectively transferred from the OB to the OC during waking, while synchronized top-down inputs from the OC to the OB are promoted during the slow-wave sleep. We discuss possible neuronal circuit mechanisms for the selection of new neurons in the OB, which involves the encoding of olfactory sensory inputs and memory trace formation during waking and internally generated activities in the OC and OB during subsequent sleep. The plastic changes in the OB and OC are well coordinated along the course of olfactory behavior during wakefulness and postbehavioral rest and sleep. We therefore propose that the olfactory system provides an excellent model in which to understand behavioral state-dependent plastic mechanisms of the neuronal

  4. Sound attenuation in magnetorheological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-López, J.; Elvira, L.; Resa, P.; Montero de Espinosa, F.

    2013-02-01

    In this work, the attenuation of ultrasonic elastic waves propagating through magnetorheological (MR) fluids is analysed as a function of the particle volume fraction and the magnetic field intensity. Non-commercial MR fluids made with iron ferromagnetic particles and two different solvents (an olive oil based solution and an Araldite-epoxy) were used. Particle volume fractions of up to 0.25 were analysed. It is shown that the attenuation of sound depends strongly on the solvent used and the volume fraction. The influence of a magnetic field up to 212 mT was studied and it was found that the sound attenuation increases with the magnetic intensity until saturation is reached. A hysteretic effect is evident once the magnetic field is removed.

  5. Josephson tunnel junction microwave attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshelets, V. P.; Shitov, S. V.; Shchukin, A. V.;

    1993-01-01

    A new element for superconducting electronic circuitry-a variable attenuator-has been proposed, designed, and successfully tested. The principle of operation is based on the change in the microwave impedance of a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Josephson tunnel junction when dc biased...... at different points in the current-voltage characteristic. Both numerical calculations based on the Tien-Gordon theory and 70-GHz microwave experiments have confirmed the wide dynamic range (more than 15-dB attenuation for one stage) and the low insertion loss in the ''open'' state. The performance of a fully...... integrated submillimeter receiver circuit which comprises a flux-flow oscillator (FFO) as local oscillator, a superconducting variable attenuator, and a microwave SIS detector with tuned-out capacitance is also reported....

  6. Beneficial effect of tagatose consumption on postprandial hyperglycemia in Koreans: a double-blind crossover designed study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Sun; Lee, Jin Hee; Yang, Yoon Jung; Lee, Ki Ho; Kim, Oh Yoen; Lee, Jong Ho

    2013-08-01

    The present study determined the effect of tagatose supplementation on postprandial hyperglycemia in normal (n = 54) and hyperglycemic subjects [n = 40, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes]. In a double-blind crossover designed study, study subjects were randomly assigned to consume a sucralose-erythritol drink (the placebo) or a tagatose-containing drink (the test) with a seven-day interval. Finally, 85 subjects completed the study (normal, n = 52; hyperglycemic, n = 33). Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after ingestion and analyzed for fasting and postprandial levels of glucose, insulin and C-peptide. Basic anthropometric parameters and lipid files were also measured. Hyperglycemic subjects were basically older and heavier, and showed higher levels of triglyceride, total- and LDL-cholesterols and apolipoprotein AI and B compared with normal subjects. After consuming the tagatose (5 g)-containing drink, hyperglycemic subjects had a significant reduction in serum levels of glucose at 120 min (p = 0.019) and glucose area under the curve (AUC) (p = 0.017), however these were not observed in normal subjects. When ages were matched between the two groups, the glucose response patterns were shown to be similar. Additionally, normal subjects who received a high-dose of tagatose-containing drinks (10 g) showed significantly lower levels of insulin at 30 min (p = 0.004) and 60 min (p = 0.011), insulin AUC (p = 0.009), and C-peptide at 30 min (p = 0.004), 60 min (p = 0.011) and C-peptide AUC (p = 0.023). In conclusion, a single dietary supplement in the form of a tagatose-containing drink may be beneficial for controlling postprandial glycemic response in Koreans. PMID:23760573

  7. X-Ray Attenuation Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryutov, D.; Toor, A.

    2000-03-03

    To minimize the pulse-to-pulse variation, the LCLS FEL must operate at saturation, i.e. 10 orders of magnitude brighter spectral brilliance than 3rd-generation light sources. At this intensity, ultra-high vacuums and windowless transport are required. Many of the experiments, however, will need to be conducted at a much lower intensity thereby requiring a reliable means to reduce the x-ray intensity by many orders of magnitude without increasing the pulse-to-pulse variation. In this report we consider a possible solution for controlled attenuation of the LCLS x-ray radiation. We suggest using for this purpose a windowless gas-filled cell with the differential pumping. Although this scheme is easily realizable in principle, it has to be demonstrated that the attenuator can be made short enough to be practical and that the gas loads delivered to the vacuum line of sight (LOS) are acceptable. We are not going to present a final, optimized design. Instead, we will provide a preliminary analysis showing that the whole concept is robust and is worth further study. The spatial structure of the LCLS x-ray pulse at the location of the attenuator is shown in Fig. 1. The central high-intensity component, due to the FEL, has a FWHM of {approx}100 {micro}m. A second component, due to the undulator's broad band spontaneous radiation is seen as a much lower intensity ''halo'' with a FWHM of 1 mm. We discuss two versions of the attenuation cell. The first is directed towards a controlled attenuation of the FEL up to the 4 orders of magnitude in the intensity, with the spontaneous radiation halo being eliminated by collimators. In the second version, the spontaneous radiation is not sacrificed but the FEL component (as well as the first harmonic of the spontaneous radiation) gets attenuated by a more modest factor up to 100. We will make all the estimates assuming that the gas used in the attenuator is Xenon and that the energy of the FEL is 8.25 keV. At

  8. Glucagon-like peptide-1 gastrointestinal regulatory role in metabolism and motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, Per M

    2010-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) motility, primarily gastric emptying, balances the hormonal output that takes place after food intake in order to maintain stable blood sugar. The incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), work together to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia by glucose-dependent insulin secretion and inhibition of glucagon release, as well as inhibition of GI motility and gastric emptying. GLP-1 is considered the more effective of the two incretins due to its additional inhibitory effects on GI motility. It is observed that patients on treatment with GLP-1 analogues or exenatide achieve a considerable weight loss during treatment. This is of benefit to improve insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, weight loss per se is of considerable benefit in an even longer health perspective. The weight loss is considered to be due to the inhibition of GI motility. This effect has been studied in animal experimentation, and from there taken to involve studies on GI motility in healthy volunteers and patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Evolving to a phase II study in IBS, the GLP-1 analogue (ROSE-010) was recently shown to be effective for treatment of acute pain attacks in IBS. Taken together, data speak in favor of GI motility as a central component not only in metabolic disorders but also in IBS, be it due to a direct relaxing effect on GI smooth muscle or a slow emptying of gastric contents resulting in a less outspoken nutritional demand on hormonal regulatory functions in the GI tract. PMID:21094906

  9. Opuntia ficus indica (nopal) attenuates hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress in obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán-Ramos, Sofía; Avila-Nava, Azalia; Tovar, Armando R; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; López-Romero, Patricia; Torres, Nimbe

    2012-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with multiple factors such as obesity, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress. Nopal, a cactus plant widely consumed in the Mexican diet, is considered a functional food because of its antioxidant activity and ability to improve biomarkers of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of nopal consumption on the development of hepatic steatosis and hepatic oxidative stress and on the regulation of genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism. Obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats were fed a control diet or a diet containing 4% nopal for 7 wk. Rats fed the nopal-containing diet had ∼50% lower hepatic TG than the control group as well as a reduction in hepatomegaly and biomarkers of hepatocyte injury such as alanine and aspartate aminotransferases. Attenuation of hepatic steatosis by nopal consumption was accompanied by a higher serum concentration of adiponectin and a greater abundance of mRNA for genes involved in lipid oxidation and lipid export and production of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and microsomal TG transfer proteins in liver. Hepatic reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation biomarkers were significantly lower in rats fed nopal compared with the control rats. Furthermore, rats fed the nopal diet had a lower postprandial serum insulin concentration and a greater liver phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAKT):AKT ratio in the postprandial state. This study suggests that nopal consumption attenuates hepatic steatosis by increasing fatty acid oxidation and VLDL synthesis, decreasing oxidative stress, and improving liver insulin signaling in obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats. PMID:23014486

  10. Opuntia ficus indica (nopal) attenuates hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress in obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán-Ramos, Sofía; Avila-Nava, Azalia; Tovar, Armando R; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; López-Romero, Patricia; Torres, Nimbe

    2012-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with multiple factors such as obesity, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress. Nopal, a cactus plant widely consumed in the Mexican diet, is considered a functional food because of its antioxidant activity and ability to improve biomarkers of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of nopal consumption on the development of hepatic steatosis and hepatic oxidative stress and on the regulation of genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism. Obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats were fed a control diet or a diet containing 4% nopal for 7 wk. Rats fed the nopal-containing diet had ∼50% lower hepatic TG than the control group as well as a reduction in hepatomegaly and biomarkers of hepatocyte injury such as alanine and aspartate aminotransferases. Attenuation of hepatic steatosis by nopal consumption was accompanied by a higher serum concentration of adiponectin and a greater abundance of mRNA for genes involved in lipid oxidation and lipid export and production of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and microsomal TG transfer proteins in liver. Hepatic reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation biomarkers were significantly lower in rats fed nopal compared with the control rats. Furthermore, rats fed the nopal diet had a lower postprandial serum insulin concentration and a greater liver phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAKT):AKT ratio in the postprandial state. This study suggests that nopal consumption attenuates hepatic steatosis by increasing fatty acid oxidation and VLDL synthesis, decreasing oxidative stress, and improving liver insulin signaling in obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats.

  11. The influence of glucagon on postprandial hyperglycaemia in children 5 years after onset of type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredheim, Siri; Andersen, Marie-Louise M; Pörksen, Sven;

    2015-01-01

    comprised 129 children (66 boys) with type 1 diabetes whose mean (SD) age at onset was 10.0 (3.9) years. Liquid mixed-meal tests were performed prospectively at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months and a subset of 40 patients completed follow-up at 60 months. Postprandial (90 min) plasma levels of glucagon, glucose (PG...... function in the first 5 years after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. The positive association of glucagon with total GLP-1 and PG suggests that physiological regulation of alpha cell secretion in type 1 diabetes is seriously disturbed....

  12. Postprandial effects of calcium phosphate supplementation on plasma concentration-double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over human study

    OpenAIRE

    Trautvetter, Ulrike; Kiehntopf, Michael; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to examine the postprandial calcium and phosphate concentrations after supplementation with pentacalcium hydroxy-triphosphate (CaP). Methods Ten men participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. The participants were divided into two groups. One group consumed bread enriched with CaP (plus 1 g calcium/d) and the other group a placebo product for three weeks. After a two week wash-out, the intervention was switched between ...

  13. [Comparative study of postprandial glycaemia in type 2 diabetic patients after consumption of mono- and disaccharides and sweeteners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Meshcheriakova, V A; Plotnikova, O A; Gapparov, M G

    2002-01-01

    It was investigated the influence of mono- and disaccharides, sugar alcohols, honey, corn patoka and products with nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners on dynamic of postprandial glycaemia in type 2 diabetic patients. After ingestion of 30 g fructose, blood glucose did not show a marked increase in comparison with sucrose or honey. After ingestion of 30 g sorbitol or isomalt, blood glucose curve was not significantly different. It was indicated that corn patoka in chewing candies with isomalt has a high hyperglycaemic effect whereas drink with nonnutritive sweeteners did not change blood glucose from fasting levels. PMID:12125470

  14. Increased postprandial responses of GLP-1 and GIP in patients with chronic pancreatitis and steatorrhea following pancreatic enzyme substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina; Larsen, Steen;

    2006-01-01

    We aimed to investigate how assimilation of nutrients affects the postprandial responses of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and to evaluate the effect of pancreatic enzyme substitution (PES) on insulin secretion in patients with chronic...... pancreatitis (CP) and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI). Eight male patients with CP and PEI were studied. Blood was sampled frequently on two separate days after ingestion of a liquid meal with and without PES, respectively. Eight healthy male subjects served as a control group. beta-Cell responsiveness...

  15. Metformin improves postprandial glucose homeostasis in rainbow trout fed dietary carbohydrates : a link with the induction of hepatic lipogenic capacities ?

    OpenAIRE

    Panserat, Stephane; Skiba-Cassy, Sandrine; Seiliez, Iban; Lansard, Marine; Plagnes- Juan, Elisabeth; VACHOT, Christiane; Aguirre, Pierre; Larroquet, Laurence; Chavernac, G.; Médale, Françoise; Corraze, Geneviève; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Moon, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    Panserat S, Skiba-Cassy S, Seiliez I, Lansard M, Plagnes-Juan E, Vachot C, Aguirre P, Larroquet L, Chavernac G, Medale F, Corraze G, Kaushik S, Moon TW. Metformin improves postprandial glucose homeostasis in rainbow trout fed dietary carbohydrates: a link with the induction of hepatic lipogenic capacities? Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 297: R707-R715, 2009. First published June 24, 2009; doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00120.2009.-Carnivorous fish are poor users of dietary carbohydrates and are...

  16. Impaired postprandial fullness in Type 2 diabetic subjects is rescued by acute exercise independently of total and acylated ghrelin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sine H; Karstoft, Kristian; Solomon, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Ghrelin levels are suppressed in obese subjects and subjects with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Exercise-stimulated decreases in plasma ghrelin are a proposed mediator of exercise-induced satiety in healthy subjects. However, exercise-induced satiety and the impact of impaired ghrelin levels...... in obesity-related disease are poorly understood. Therefore our objective was to investigate exercise-induced postprandial satiety and ghrelin responses in overweight subjects with T2DM (N = 8) and healthy controls (N = 7). Visual analog scale satiety questionnaires (assessing hunger, thirst, food that could...

  17. Current status of familial gastrointestinal polyposis syndromes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ioan; Jung; Simona; Gurzu; Gligore; Sabin; Turdean

    2015-01-01

    Because of the rarity of familial gastrointestinal cancerpredisposing syndromes,their exploration in literature is not extensive.In this review,an update of the clinicopathological and molecular criteria of gastrointestinal familial polyposis syndromes with potential malignant transformation is performed.In addition,a guide for screening and surveillance was synthesized and a distribution of gene mutations according to the specific syndromes and geographic distribution was included.The following inherited polyposes syndromes were analyzed: familial adenomatous polyposis,the hamartomatous familial polyposes(Juvenile polyposis,Peutz-Jeghers syndrome,Cowden syndrome,BannayanRiley-Ruvalcaba syndrome,hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome,Gorlin syndrome,Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome,neurofibromatosis type Ⅰand multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome 2B),Li-Fraumeni syndrome,and MUTYHassociated adenomatous polyposis.For proper medical care,subspecialization of gastroenterologists,pathologists,and genticists in the field of familial diseases should be introduced in the medical curriculum.

  18. Imaging of gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, S. E-mail: laushunhk@yahoo.com.hk; Tam, K.F.; Kam, C.K.; Lui, C.Y.; Siu, C.W.; Lam, H.S.; Mak, K.L

    2004-06-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) represents the most common kind of mesenchymal tumour that arises from the alimentary tract. GIST is currently defined as a gastrointestinal tract mesenchymal tumour containing spindle cells (or less commonly epithelioid cells or rarely both) and showing CD117 (c-kit protein) positivity. Targeted molecular therapy of non-resectable GIST using imatinib, a specific tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor, represents a real milestone in the management of solid malignancy. Imaging studies, both anatomical and functional, are playing an increasingly important role in management of patients with GIST. This review illustrates the radiological appearance of GISTs and the site-specific roles of each imaging tool. Clinical features and radiological differential diagnosis of GIST are also discussed.

  19. Gastrointestinal stenting: Current status and imaging features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malgras, B; Lo Dico, R; Pautrat, K; Dohan, A; Boudiaf, M; Pocard, M; Soyer, P

    2015-06-01

    The use of stents in the gastrointestinal tract has been subjected to major changes. Initially, the use of stents was restricted to malignant strictures in patients with metastatic disease. But thanks to reduction of the morbidity and mortality rates, they are now used with curative intention and in patients with benign diseases after careful selection. However, for patients presenting with colon obstruction due to an advanced colon carcinoma, the mortality and morbidity are still high. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of indications, techniques and further developments of the stents in the gastrointestinal tract and to highlight the predominant role of multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) in the detection of potential complications. PMID:25953525

  20. Radionuclide localization of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors prospectively evaluated the usefulness of abdominal radionuclide scintigraphy using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red cells as a means of monitoring for intermittent gastrointestinal bleeding over a 24-hour period in both control and actively bleeding populations. Of 32 patients with documented hemorrhage, 29 had positive scintiscans (sensitivity, 91%; 9% false negatives). Of 18 nonbleeding patients, 17 had negative scintiscans (specificity, 95%; 5% false positives). 12 of 29 patients bled from 6 to 24 hours after the study was begun. Scintiscans were positive in patient with transfusion requirements of greater than or equal to 500 ml/24 hr. The authors conclude that abdominal scintigraphy with /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red cells is an effective method of detecting gastrointestinal bleeding

  1. Radionuclide detection of lower gastrointestinal bleeding sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective review of two years' experience with radionuclide screening to detect lower gastrointestinal bleeding sites was conducted at New York's Montefiore Medical Center. Of 82 studies performed in 63 patients, 13 identified active bleeding sites. Only three of eight angiograms obtained in these 13 patients were positive. Thirteen contrast angiograms were performed in the group of 50 patients with negative radionuclide studies of which ten were negative and one was equivocal. The results of this study suggest that the Tc-99m sulfur colloid study for active lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is an effective screening procedure. Positive studies help determine which vessel to catheterize selectively if an angiogram is to be performed. If vascular ectasis is still suspected following a negative radionuclide study, contrast angiography can be more efficaciously performed on a nonemergent basis

  2. Heterotopic pancreas in the gastrointestinal tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yuan; Jie Chen; Qi Zheng; Xin-Yu Huang; Zhe Yang; Juan Tang

    2009-01-01

    Heterotopic pancreas is defined as pancreatic tissue found outside the usual anatomical location of the pancreas. It is often an incidental finding and can be found at different sites in the gastrointestinal tract. It may become clinically evident when complicated by pathological changes such as inflammation, bleeding, obstruction, and malignant transformation. In this report, a 60-year-old man with carcinoid syndrome caused by heterotopic pancreatic tissue in the duodenum is described, along with a 62-year-old man with abdominal pain caused by heterotopic pancreatic tissue in the gastric antrum. The difficulty of making an accurate diagnosis is highlighted. The patients remain healthy and symptom-free after follow-up of 1 year. Frozen sections may help in deciding the extent of resection intraoperatively. Although heterotopic pancreas is rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

  3. Gastrointestinal hormone research - with a Scandinavian annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2015-01-01

    as a blood-borne hormone, a neurotransmitter, a local growth factor or a fertility factor. The targets of gastrointestinal hormones are specific G-protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in the cell membranes also outside the digestive tract. Thus, gut hormones not only regulate digestive functions......Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from neuroendocrine cells in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gut, which makes it the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasible to conceive the hormones...... under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization or differentiated posttranslational...

  4. [Gastrointestinal human myiasis caused by Eristalis tenax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun, M; Kreiter, A; Semenas, L

    1998-08-01

    The myiasis observed in Bariloche are characterized and the probable conditions under which the infestations took place established. The larvae obtained from faeces of 2 patients were identified as Eristalis tenax (Diptera: Syrphidae) according to Hartley (1961) and Organización Panamericana de la Salud keys (1962). These 2 cases of human gastrointestinal myiasis were the first to be registered in Bariloche (Patagonia, Argentina) and their characteristics were similar to those described for this species in other parts of the world. The lack of specific control measures in the domestic water supply system was the most probable cause of the infestation. This event extends the distribution of E. tenax and human gastrointestinal myiasis in South America to 41 degrees 03' S.

  5. Biopsies in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: When and How

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Peixoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal endoscopy and the acquisition of tissue samples are essential for the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases of the digestive system. However, given the differences between the recommendations and the clinical practice, the inexorable increase of requests for endoscopic examinations and the financial burden associated with it, it is crucial that we concentrate on the challenge that endoscopic biopsies represent. In this review we describe the available evidence in the literature, including the more recent published guidelines, on when or not to perform endoscopic biopsies in upper and lower endoscopy, focusing on the precise diagnosis of the most common gastrointestinal diseases that motivate endoscopic examinations and on the rational use of available resources without compromising proper management of patients.

  6. Differential effects of protein quality on postprandial lipemia in response to a fat-rich meal in type 2 diabetes: comparison of whey, casein, gluten, and cod protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lene S; Hartvigsen, Merete L; Brader, Lea J;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enhanced and prolonged postprandial triglyceride responses involve increased cardiovascular disease risk in type 2 diabetes. Dietary fat and carbohydrates profoundly influence postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, whereas little information exists on the effect of proteins. OBJECTIVE......: The objective was to compare the effects of the proteins casein, whey, cod, and gluten on postprandial lipid and incretin responses to a high-fat meal in persons with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: A crossover study was conducted in 12 patients with type 2 diabetes. Blood samples were collected over 8 h after...... and higher after the Whe-meal than after Cod- and Glu-meals in the chylomicron-poor fraction. Free fatty acids were most pronouncedly suppressed after the Whe-meal. The glucose response was lower after the Whe-meal than after the other meals, whereas no significant differences were found in insulin, glucagon...

  7. Unexplained gastrointestinal symptoms: Think mitochondrial disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, TP; Hadley, G.; Fratter, C; Cullen, SN; Bax, BE; Bain, MD; Sapsford, RA; Poulton, J; Travis, SP

    2014-01-01

    Defects in mitochondrial function are increasingly recognised as central to the pathogenesis of many diseases, both inherited and acquired. Many of these mitochondrial defects arise from abnormalities in mitochondrial DNA and can result in multisystem disease, with gastrointestinal involvement common. Moreover, mitochondrial disease may present with a range of non-specific symptoms, and thus can be easily misdiagnosed, or even considered to be non-organic.We describe the clinical, histopathol...

  8. Unexplained gastrointestinal symptoms: think mitochondrial disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, TP; Hadley, G.; Fratter, C; Cullen, SN; Bax, BE; Bain, MD; Sapsford, RA; Poulton, J; Travis, SP

    2014-01-01

    Defects in mitochondrial function are increasingly recognised as central to the pathogenesis of many diseases, both inherited and acquired. Many of these mitochondrial defects arise from abnormalities in mitochondrial DNA and can result in multisystem disease, with gastrointestinal involvement common. Moreover, mitochondrial disease may present with a range of non-specific symptoms, and thus can be easily misdiagnosed, or even considered to be non-organic. We describe the clinical, histopatho...

  9. Unexplained gastrointestinal symptoms: think mitochondrial disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, TP; Hadley, G.; Fratter, C; Cullen, SN; Bax, BE; Bain, MD; Sapsford, RA; Poulton, J; Travis, SP

    2014-01-01

    Defects in mitochondrial function are increasingly recognised as central to the pathogenesis of many diseases, both inherited and acquired. Many of these mitochondrial defects arise from abnormalities in mitochondrial DNA and can result in multisystem disease, with gastrointestinal involvement common. Moreover, mitochondrial disease may present with a range of non-specific symptoms, and thus can be easily misdiagnosed, or even considered to be non-organic.We describe the clinical, histopathol...

  10. Drug Repurposing for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Pessetto, Ziyan Y.; Weir, Scott J.; Sethi, Geetika; Broward, Melinda A.; Andrew K Godwin

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant treatment advances over the past decade, metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) remains largely incurable. Rare diseases, such as GIST, individually affect small groups of patients but collectively are estimated to affect 25–30 million people in the U.S. alone. Given the costs associated with the discovery, development and registration of new drugs, orphan diseases such as GIST are often not pursued by mainstream pharmaceutical companies. As a result, “drug repur...

  11. Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium in the beagle has been determined to be 0.066 +- 0.014% of the amount administered. This result is quite comparable with the results reported for the dog by other workers, and a factor of 3 smaller than that observed by us for mice. On the average, the retained plutonium was found to be almost equally divided between the liver and the skeleton

  12. Plutonium gastrointestinal absorption by adults baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium was investigated in baboons after ingestion of plutonium solution (oxidation states III; IV; V; VI), and plutonium incorporated in soya bean and winkles. We studied the effects of oxidation state and ingested mass for masses ranging from 0.35 μg to 51.6 x 10+3 μg (4 x 10-2 to 7776 μg of plutonium per kg of body weight). No clear increase in plutonium retention was shown for concentrations of plutonium smaller than 1 μg/kg. From 1 μg/kg to 1 mg/kg no effects of mass or oxidation state was observed and the mean fractional retention value was 10-4. For ingested masses higher than 1 mg/kg the fractional retention values respectively increased for Pu(V) and Pu(III) to (0.9 + 0.2) x 10-2 and (7.4+ 4.1) x 10-4 of the ingested mass. This increase might be due to the weak hydrolysis of these oxidation states which would increase gastrointestinal absorption by decrease of hydroxide formation. The fraction of plutonium retained after ingestion of soya bean was (3.0 + 0.5) x 10-4 about 3 fold higher than the value for 238 Pu nitrate solution. No clear increase in plutonium retention was shown after ingestion of winkles containing 238 Pu. In conclusion, except for high masses of ingested Pu, the retention of which could reach 1% of the ingested dose, our results show that the gastrointestinal transfer factor of 10-4 proposed by ICRP for gastrointestinal absorption of soluble form of Pu is acceptable, but 10-3 would provide better safety margin

  13. Pain Management in Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Vigano, Antonio; Bruera, Eduardo

    1995-01-01

    Pain is a common feature in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). An abnormally low visceral sensory threshold, as well as a number of central, spinal and peripheral pain-modulating abnormalities, have been proposed for this syndrome. Clinical aspects of pain associated with irritable esophagus, functional dyspepsia, biliary dysmotility, inflammatory bowel syndrome and proctalgia fugax are reviewed. Because of its unclear pathophysiology, pain expression is the main target for the suc...

  14. Gastrointestinal stem cell up-to-date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirvulet, V

    2015-01-01

    Cellular and tissue regeneration in the gastrointestinal tract depends on stem cells with properties of self-renewal, clonogenicity, and multipotency. Progress in stem cell research and the identification of potential gastric, intestinal, colonic stem cells new markers and the signaling pathways provide hope for the use of stem cells in regenerative medicine and treatments for disease. This review provides an overview of the different types of stem cells, focusing on tissue-restricted adult stem cells.

  15. Prion Diseases and the Gastrointestinal Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Gwynivere A; Bryant, Adam R; John D. Reynolds; Jirik, Frank R.; Keith A Sharkey

    2006-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a central role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. These are human and animal diseases that include bovine spongiform encephalopathy, scrapie and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. They are uniformly fatal neurological diseases, which are characterized by ataxia and vacuolation in the central nervous system. Alhough they are known to be caused by the conversion of normal cellular prion protein to its infectious conformational isoform...

  16. New Endoscopic Techniques for Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk den Ouden

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The case of a postmenopausal woman with a congenital aortic stenosis is presented. She presented with severe iron deficiency anemia. After negative extensive gastrointestinal analysis, she was treated with octreotide for six months. After cessation of octreotide, anemia rapidly recurred. A second capsule endoscopy and a double balloon enteroscopy were performed, and an intestinal vascular malformation was found. After surgical segment resection, the patient had stable, normal levels of hemoglobin and no complaints after 14 months of follow-up.

  17. Guideline for Capsule Endoscopy: Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Ki-Nam; Moon, Jeong Seop; Chang, Dong Kyung; Do, Jae Hyuk; Kim, Ji Hyun; Min, Byung Hoon; Jeon, Seong Ran; Kim, Jin-Oh; Choi, Myung-Gyu; ,

    2013-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) is considered as a noninvasive and reliable diagnostic tool of examining the entire small bowel. CE has been performed frequently at many medical centers in South Korea; however, there is no evidence-based CE guideline for adequate diagnostic approaches. To provide accurate information and suggest correct testing approaches for small bowel disease, the guideline on CE was developed by the Korean Gut Image Study Group, a part of the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal End...

  18. Penyakit Gastrointestinal Sebagai Penyebab Timbulnya Halitosis

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Aortharika

    2008-01-01

    Halitosis yang juga dikenal dengan sebutan fetor ex ore atau fetor oris disebabkan oleh faktor-faktor fisiologis dan patologis yang berasal dari kondisi local atau intra oral dan kondisi sistemik atau ekstra oral. Namun kondisi intra oral merupakan penyebab halitosis yang paling banyak. Berdasarkan penelitian, para ahli telah menemukan hubungan antara penyakit gastrointestinal dengan halitosis serta penyebab utamanya yaitu adanya koloni Helicobacterpylori dalam saluran cerna. Untuk ...

  19. Panic Attack during Elective Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Charalampos Mitsonis; Nikolaos Dimopoulos; Marianna Zavrou; Vassiliki Psarra; Christos Giofkos; Christos Fiorakis; Athanasios Dimitriadis; Dimitrios Valavanis; Eleni Vousoura; Iannis Zervas; Efstathios Papavassiliou

    2011-01-01

    Background. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and colonoscopy (CS) can evoke anxiety, embarrassment, and discomfort. These concerns can culminate in panic attacks, which may traumatize patients and significantly decrease their compliance to the procedure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between preendoscopic anxiety and the possibility of a panic attack during an elective gastrointestinal endoscopy (EGE). Methods. The study population comprised of 79 Greek outpatie...

  20. Gastrointestinal lymphomas: Morphology, immunophenotype and molecular features

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista-Quach, Marnelli A; Ake, Christopher D.; Chen, Mingyi; Wang, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Primary gastrointestinal lymphoma comprises 10-15% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas and encompasses 30-40% of the total extranodal lymphomas. Approximately 60-75% of cases occur in the stomach, and then the small bowel, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum. Lymphoid neoplasms may consist of mature B, T and less commonly extranodal NK/T cells. Of these, the two most frequently encountered histologic subtypes are extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma), wher...

  1. Yttrium-90 microsphere induced gastrointestinal tract ulceration

    OpenAIRE

    Rikabi Ali A; Thomas Fred B; Kim Edward Y; Meis Gregory; Meyer Marty M; South Christopher D; Khabiri Hooman; Bloomston Mark

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Radiomicrosphere therapy (RT) utilizing yttrium-90 (90Y) microspheres has been shown to be an effective regional treatment for primary and secondary hepatic malignancies. We sought to determine a large academic institution's experience regarding the extent and frequency of gastrointestinal complications. Methods Between 2004 and 2007, 27 patients underwent RT for primary or secondary hepatic malignancies. Charts were subsequently reviewed to determine the incidence and sev...

  2. Heterotopic pancreas in the gastrointestinal tract

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Zhou; Chen, Jie; Zheng, Qi; Huang, Xin-yu; Yang, Zhe; Tang, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Heterotopic pancreas is defined as pancreatic tissue found outside the usual anatomical location of the pancreas. It is often an incidental finding and can be found at different sites in the gastrointestinal tract. It may become clinically evident when complicated by pathological changes such as inflammation, bleeding, obstruction, and malignant transformation. In this report, a 60-year-old man with carcinoid syndrome caused by heterotopic pancreatic tissue in the duodenum is described, along...

  3. An unusual cause of gastrointestinal bleed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C K Adarsh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI bleed often brings the patient to the emergency medical service with great anxiety. Known common causes of GI bleed include ulcers, varices, Mallory-Weiss among others. All causes of GI bleed should be considered however unusual during the evaluation. Aortoenteric fistula (AEF is one of the unusual causes of GI bleed, which has to be considered especially in patients with a history of abdominal surgery in general and aortic surgery in particular.

  4. Biopsies in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: When and How

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Peixoto; Marco Silva; Pedro Pereira; Guilherme Macedo

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal endoscopy and the acquisition of tissue samples are essential for the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases of the digestive system. However, given the differences between the recommendations and the clinical practice, the inexorable increase of requests for endoscopic examinations and the financial burden associated with it, it is crucial that we concentrate on the challenge that endoscopic biopsies represent. In this review we describe the available evidence in the li...

  5. Gambaran Endoskopi Gastrointestinal pada Anak di Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Supriatmo

    2010-01-01

    Background: Endoscopy in children and neonates showed a very fast growth following the recent medical technology improvement. There many pediatric gastrointestinal disorders must be explored by endoscopic examination. Endoscopy must be operated by well trained pediatric gastroenterologist. Objective: To report the profile endoscopy examination in children in Medan. Methods: This retrospective was reviewed medical charts in all children who had endoscopy in H.Adam Malik, Dr.Pirngadi and Sarimu...

  6. Abdominal ultrasonography of the pediatric gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Heather I; Gee, Michael S; Westra, Sjirk J; Nimkin, Katherine

    2016-07-28

    Ultrasound is an invaluable imaging modality in the evaluation of pediatric gastrointestinal pathology; it can provide real-time evaluation of the bowel without the need for sedation or intravenous contrast. Recent improvements in ultrasound technique can be utilized to improve detection of bowel pathology in children: Higher resolution probes, color Doppler, harmonic and panoramic imaging are excellent tools in this setting. Graded compression and cine clips provide dynamic information and oral and intravenous contrast agents aid in detection of bowel wall pathology. Ultrasound of the bowel in children is typically a targeted exam; common indications include evaluation for appendicitis, pyloric stenosis and intussusception. Bowel abnormalities that are detected prenatally can be evaluated after birth with ultrasound. Likewise, acquired conditions such as bowel hematoma, bowel infections and hernias can be detected with ultrasound. Rare bowel neoplasms, vascular disorders and foreign bodies may first be detected with sonography, as well. At some centers, comprehensive exams of the gastrointestinal tract are performed on children with inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease to evaluate for disease activity or to confirm the diagnosis. The goal of this article is to review up-to-date imaging techniques, normal sonographic anatomy, and characteristic sonographic features of common and uncommon disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract in children. PMID:27551336

  7. Gastrointestinal tract modelling in health and disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Hua Liao; Jing-Bo Zhao; Hans Gregersen

    2009-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the system of organs within multi-cellular animals that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. The various patterns of GI tract function are generated by the integrated behaviour of multiple tissues and cell types. A thorough study of the GI tract requires understanding of the interactions between cells, tissues and gastrointestinal organs in health and disease. This depends on knowledge, not only of numerous cellular ionic current mechanisms and signal transduction pathways, but also of large scale GI tissue structures and the special distribution of the nervous network. A unique way of coping with this explosion in complexity is mathematical and computational modelling; providing a computational framework for the multilevel modelling and simulation of the human gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology. The aim of this review is to describe the current status of biomechanical modelling work of the GI tract in humans and animals, which can be further used to integrate the physiological, anatomical and medical knowledge of the GI system. Such modelling will aid research and ensure that medical professionals benefit, through the provision of relevant and precise information about the patient's condition and GI remodelling in animal disease models. It will also improve the accuracy and efficiency of medical procedures, which could result in reduced cost for diagnosis and treatment.

  8. Imatinib treatment for gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Lisandro F; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2010-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. GISTs are believed to originate from intersticial cells of Cajal (the pacemaker cells of the gastrointestinal tract) or related stem cells, and are characterized by KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) activating mutations. The use of imatinib has revolutionized the management of GIST and altered its natural history, substantially improving survival time and delaying disease progression in many patients. The success of imatinib in controlling advanced GIST led to interest in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant use of the drug. The neoadjuvant (preoperative) use of imatinib is recommended to facilitate resection and avoid mutilating surgery by decreasing tumour size, and adjuvant therapy is indicated for patients at high risk of recurrence. The molecular characterization (genotyping) of GISTs has become an essential part of the routine management of the disease as KIT and PDGFRA mutation status predicts the likelihood of achieving response to imatinib. However, the vast majority of patients who initially responded to imatinib will develop tumour progression (secondary resistance). Secondary resistance is often related to secondary KIT or PDGFRA mutations that interfere with drug binding. Multiple novel tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be potentially useful for the treatment of imatinib-resistant GISTs as they interfere with KIT and PDGFRA receptors or with the downstream-signalling proteins.

  9. HER-2 status in gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Lisandro Ferreira; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2008-08-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) encodes for the transmembrane glycoprotein HER-2 that is involved in activation of intracellular signal transduction pathways that control cell growth and differentiation. HER-2 is overexpressed in approximately 20% of patients with breast cancer and has been associated with poorer prognosis. Since 1998, the anti-HER-2 antibody trastuzumab has been used for the treatment of patients with HER-2-positive breast cancers. However, little information is available about the relationship between HER-2 and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. This study's purpose was to determine the HER-2 status in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. We found that all 477 cases included in this study were negative (score 0) by immunohistochemistry using HercepTest, and no HER-2 gene amplification was detected in 71 cases submitted to fluorescence in situ hybridization. These results show that HER-2 may not have any role in gastrointestinal stromal tumor pathogenesis and that the neoplasm may not be suitable for treatment with trastuzumab.

  10. Yttrium-90 microsphere induced gastrointestinal tract ulceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikabi Ali A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiomicrosphere therapy (RT utilizing yttrium-90 (90Y microspheres has been shown to be an effective regional treatment for primary and secondary hepatic malignancies. We sought to determine a large academic institution's experience regarding the extent and frequency of gastrointestinal complications. Methods Between 2004 and 2007, 27 patients underwent RT for primary or secondary hepatic malignancies. Charts were subsequently reviewed to determine the incidence and severity of GI ulceration. Results Three patients presented with gastrointestinal bleeding and underwent upper endoscopy. Review of the pretreatment angiograms showed normal vascular anatomy in one patient, sclerosed hepatic vasculature in a patient who had undergone prior chemoembolization in a second, and an aberrant left hepatic artery in a third. None had undergone prophylactic gastroduodenal artery embolization. Endoscopic findings included erythema, mucosal erosions, and large gastric ulcers. Microspheres were visible on endoscopic biopsy. In two patients, gastric ulcers were persistent at the time of repeat endoscopy 1–4 months later despite proton pump inhibitor therapy. One elderly patient who refused surgical intervention died from recurrent hemorrhage. Conclusion Gastrointestinal ulceration is a known yet rarely reported complication of 90Y microsphere embolization with potentially life-threatening consequences. Once diagnosed, refractory ulcers should be considered for aggressive surgical management.

  11. Gastrointestinal surgical emergencies following kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardaxoglou, E; Maddern, G; Ruso, L; Siriser, F; Campion, J P; Le Pogamp, P; Catheline, J M; Launois, B

    1993-05-01

    This study reports major gastrointestinal complications in a group of 416 patients following kidney transplantation. Three hundred and ninety-nine patients received a cadaveric kidney while the other 17 received a living related organ. The immunosuppressive regimen changed somewhat during the course of the study but included azathioprine, prednisolone, antilymphocyte globulin, and cyclosporin. Perforations occurred in the colon (n = 6), small bowel (n = 4), duodenum (n = 2), stomach (n = 1), and esophagus (n = 1). There were five cases of acute pancreatitis, four of upper gastrointestinal and two of lower intestinal hemorrhage, two of acute appendicitis, one of acute cholecystitis, one postoperative mesenteric infarction, and two small bowel obstructions. Fifty percent of the complications occurred while patients were being given high-dose immunosuppression to manage either the early postoperative period or episodes of acute rejection. Ten percent of the complications had an iatrogenic cause. Of the 31 patients affected, 10 (30%) died as a direct result of their gastrointestinal complication. This high mortality appears to be related to the effects of the immunosuppression and the associated response to sepsis. Reduction of these complications can be achieved by improved surgical management, preventive measures, prompt diagnosis, and a reduced immunosuppressive protocol.

  12. Differential effects of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammation after a single high fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herzig Karl-Heinz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with the pathophysiology of both type-2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Prevention or reduction of chronic low-grade inflammation may be advantageous in relation to obesity related co-morbidity. In this study we investigated the acute effect of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammatory markers after a high-fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Methods We conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study in a crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins - cod protein, whey isolate, gluten or casein. 11 obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, BMI: 30.3-42.0 kg/m2 participated and blood samples were drawn in the 4 h postprandial period. Adiponectin was estimated by ELISA methods and cytokines were analyzed by multiplex assay. Results MCP-1 and CCL5/RANTES displayed significant postprandial dynamics. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals, but overall CCL5/RANTES incremental area under the curve (iAUC was significantly lower after the whey meal compared with the cod and casein meals (P = 0.0053. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all protein meals. However, the iAUC was significantly higher after whey meal compared to the cod and gluten meals (P = 0.04. Conclusion We have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial low grade inflammation of four dietary proteins in obese non-diabetic subjects. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals but the smallest overall postprandial increase was observed after the whey meal. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all 4 protein meals and the whey meal caused the smallest overall postprandial suppression. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00863564

  13. Increased postprandial glycaemia, insulinemia, and lipidemia after 10 weeks’ sucrose-rich diet compared to an artificially sweetened diet: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Astrup

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of exchanging sucrose for artificial sweeteners on risk factors for developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases is not yet clear. Objective: To investigate the effects of a diet high in sucrose versus a diet high in artificial sweeteners on fasting and postprandial metabolic profiles after 10 weeks.Healthy overweight subjects were randomised to consume drinks and foods sweetened with either sucrose (∼2 g/kg body weight (n = 12 or artificial sweeteners (n = 11 as supplements to their usual diet. Supplements were similar on the two diets and consisted of beverages (∼80 weight% and solid foods (yoghurts, marmalade, ice cream, stewed fruits. The rest of the diet was free of choice and ad libitum. Before (week 0 and after the intervention (week 10 fasting blood samples were drawn and in week 10, postprandial blood was sampled during an 8-hour meal test (breakfast and lunch.After 10 weeks postprandial glucose, insulin, lactate, triglyceride, leptin, glucagon, and GLP-1 were all significantly higher in the sucrose compared with the sweetener group. After adjusting for differences in body weight changes and fasting values (week 10, postprandial glucose, lactate, insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 were significantly higher and after further adjusting for differences in energy and sucrose intake, postprandial lactate, insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 levels were still significantly higher on the sucrose-rich diet.A sucrose-rich diet consumed for 10 weeks resulted in significant elevations of postprandial glycaemia, insulinemia, and lipidemia compared to a diet rich in artificial sweeteners in slightly overweight healthy subjects.

  14. Compact plasmonic variable optical attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan; Rosenzveig, Tiberiu; Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon;

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate plasmonic nanowire-based thermo-optic variable optical attenuators operating in the 1525-1625 nm wavelength range. The devices have a footprint as low as 1 mm, extinction ratio exceeding 40 dB, driving voltage below 3 V, and full modulation bandwidth of 1 kHz. The polarization...

  15. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) suppresses postprandial lipidemia through fatty acid oxidation in enterocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Rino [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Takahashi, Nobuyuki, E-mail: nobu@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Murota, Kaeko [Department of Life Science, School of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, Osaka 770-8503 (Japan); Yamada, Yuko [Laboratory of Physiological Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Niiya, Saori; Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Murakami, Yoko [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Moriyama, Tatsuya [Department of Applied Cell Biology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara 631-8505 (Japan); Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kawada, Teruo [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2011-06-24

    Highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation also increased oxygen consumption rate and CO{sub 2} production and decreased secretion of triglyceride and ApoB from Caco-2 cells. {yields} Orally administration of bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and CO{sub 2} production in small intestinal epithelial cells. {yields} Treatment with bezafibrate decreased postprandial serum concentration of triglyceride after oral injection of olive oil in mice. {yields} It suggested that intestinal lipid metabolism regulated by PPAR{alpha} activation suppresses postprandial lipidemia. -- Abstract: Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{alpha} which regulates lipid metabolism in peripheral tissues such as the liver and skeletal muscle, decreases circulating lipid levels, thus improving hyperlipidemia under fasting conditions. Recently, postprandial serum lipid levels have been found to correlate more closely to cardiovascular diseases than fasting levels, although fasting hyperlipidemia is considered an important risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of PPAR{alpha} activation on postprandial lipidemia has not been clarified. In this study, we examined the effects of PPAR{alpha} activation in enterocytes on lipid secretion and postprandial lipidemia. In Caco-2 enterocytes, bezafibrate, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist, increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase, and acyl-CoA synthase, and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and suppressed secretion levels of both triglycerides and apolipoprotein B into the basolateral side. In vivo experiments revealed that feeding high-fat-diet containing bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and

  16. Effect of the ingestion of a mousse with cinnamon C. Burmannii on the postprandial blood glucose response of healthy subjects and its antioxidant power

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, Catarina Medeiros

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Nutrição Clínica Background: Cinnamon has been shown to reduce postprandial glycaemia and enhance insulin sensitivity in healthy adults. Aims: To study the effect of C. burmannii on the postprandial blood glucose response of healthy subjects and its antioxidant capacity in a semi-solid food. Design: Twenty four apparently healthy subjects participated in this study. They were randomly assigned in group A (reference meal) or grou...

  17. Mitigation of starch-induced postprandial glycemic spikes in rats by antioxidants-rich extract of Cicer arietinum Linn. seeds and sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Consumption of highly processed calories dense diet leads abrupt increase in postprandial blood glucose level, which in turn induces immediate oxidative stress. Postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG and resultant oxidative stress is one of the earliest detectable abnormalities in diabetes prone individuals, independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular disorders (CVD, a major pathophysiological link between diabetes and CVD and an important contributing factor in atherogenesis even in non-diabetic individuals. Therefore, dietary supplements mitigating PPHG spikes along with potent antioxidant activities may help decrease development of PPHG and oxidative stress induced pathogenesis. Objectives: The study evaluated free radicals scavenging, antioxidant properties and intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in methanol extract of two varieties of Cicer arietinum Linn viz. Bengal gram and Kabuli chana and green gram (Vigna radiata Linn. Wilczek raw grains and their sprouts and studied their influence on starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion in rats. Materials and Methods: Healthy grains were procured from local markets. Free radicals scavenging antioxidant and glucose-induced hemoglobin (Hb-glycation inhibition activities were analyzed using standard in vitro procedures. In vitro antihyperglycemic activity was evaluated by assessing rat intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Influence on starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion in rats was studied by pre-treatment of rats with extracts. Results: Compared with raw seeds increase in total polyphenol and flavonoids concentration in green gram sprouts and Kabuli chana sprouts (KCs were observed. Total protein concentrations in sprouts did not differ from non-sprouted grains. 2,2′- Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid cation scavenging activity was more than twice in Bengal gram sprouts of (BGs and KCs than their raw seeds. 2,2-diphenyl-1

  18. Stormwater Attenuation by Green Roofs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, A.; O'Carroll, D. M.; Robinson, C. E.; Smart, C. C.

    2014-12-01

    Innovative municipal stormwater management technologies are urgently required in urban centers. Inadequate stormwater management can lead to excessive flooding, channel erosion, decreased stream baseflows, and degraded water quality. A major source of urban stormwater is unused roof space. Green roofs can be used as a stormwater management tool to reduce roof generated stormwater and generally improve the quality of runoff. With recent legislation in some North American cities, including Toronto, requiring the installation of green roofs on large buildings, research on the effectiveness of green roofs for stormwater management is important. This study aims to assess the hydrologic response of an extensive sedum green roof in London, Ontario, with emphasis on the response to large precipitation events that stress municipal stormwater infrastructure. A green roof rapidly reaches field capacity during large storm events and can show significantly different behavior before and after field capacity. At field capacity a green roof has no capillary storage left for retention of stormwater, but may still be an effective tool to attenuate peak runoff rates by transport through the green roof substrate. The attenuation of green roofs after field capacity is linked to gravity storage, where gravity storage is the water that is temporarily stored and can drain freely over time after field capacity has been established. Stormwater attenuation of a modular experimental green roof is determined from water balance calculations at 1-minute intervals. Data is used to evaluate green roof attenuation and the impact of field capacity on peak flow rates and gravity storage. In addition, a numerical model is used to simulate event based stormwater attenuation. This model is based off of the Richards equation and supporting theory of multiphase flow through porous media.

  19. The role of endoscopy in pediatric gastrointestinal bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Markus; Geiß, Andrea; Greiner, Peter; Wellner, Ulrich; Richter-Schrag, Hans-Jürgen; Bausch, Dirk; Fischer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Gastrointestinal bleeding in children and adolescents accounts for up to 20 % of referrals to gastroenterologists. Detailed management guidelines exist for gastrointestinal bleeding in adults, but they do not encompass children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess gastrointestinal bleeding in pediatric patients and to determine an investigative management algorithm accounting for the specifics of children and adolescents. Patients and methods: Pediatric patients with gastrointestinal bleeding admitted to our endoscopy unit from 2001 to 2009 (n = 154) were identified. Retrospective statistical and neural network analysis was used to assess outcome and to determine an investigative management algorithm. Results: The source of bleeding could be identified in 81 % (n = 124/154). Gastrointestinal bleeding was predominantly lower gastrointestinal bleeding (66 %, n = 101); upper gastrointestinal bleeding was much less common (14 %, n = 21). Hematochezia was observed in 94 % of the patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding (n = 95 of 101). Hematemesis (67 %, n = 14 of 21) and melena (48 %, n = 10 of 21) were associated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The sensitivity and specificity of a neural network to predict lower gastrointestinal bleeding were 98 % and 63.6 %, respectively and to predict upper gastrointestinal bleeding were 75 % and 96 % respectively. The sensitivity and specifity of hematochezia alone to predict lower gastrointestinal bleeding were 94.2 % and 85.7 %, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for hematemesis and melena to predict upper gastrointestinal bleeding were 82.6 % and 94 %, respectively. We then developed an investigative management algorithm based on the presence of hematochezia and hematemesis or melena. Conclusions: Hematochezia should prompt colonoscopy and hematemesis or melena should prompt esophagogastroduodenoscopy. If no

  20. Gastrointestinal chewable tablet. Progress of gastrointestinal chewable tablet; Kamikudaku ichoyaku. Chuaburu ichoyaku no shinpo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, Shiro.; Yamada, Wataru. [Rohto Phamaceutical Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    In recent years, preparation of various useful medical supplies was examined in consideration of medical action mechanism. Gastrointestinal chewable tablet was one example introduced in this paper, it made good use of character of the drug form and obtained a great support as gastrointestinal tablets matched with the modern society. Among antacids, there were the immediately effective antacids with fast neutralization reaction to gastric acid and the sustained antacids with character to absorb on gastric wall, gradually neutralize gastric acid, and protect gastric mucous membrane. In the proscription design of antacid type gastrointestinal chewable tablet, stomach uncomfort was relieved by direct neutralization of gastric acid after taking medicine based on a good combination of these antacids, made an effort on sustaining this effect in a certain time. It was specially described that xylitol was combined as dilution in PANSIRON NOW series. (NEDO)