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Sample records for attenuates mptp induced

  1. extract attenuates MPTP-induced oxidative stress and behavioral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on oxidative stress levels were assessed by estimating enzyme status, ... Results: MPTP (25 mg/kg, i.p.)-treated mice resulted in a significant (p ... Conclusion: CCY extract exhibits strong protection against MPTP-induced behavioral deficit through ..... cuminol, cymine, cuminaldehyde, limonene, ... Antibacterial effect of plant.

  2. Estrogen attenuates the MPTP-induced loss of dopamine neurons from the mouse SNc despite a lack of estrogen receptors (ERalpha and ERbeta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shughrue, Paul J

    2004-12-01

    Estrogen attenuates the loss of dopamine from striatum and dopamine neurons from the substantia nigra (SNc) in animal models of Parkinson's disease. Interestingly, estrogen receptors (ERalpha and ERbeta) are thought to be sparse or absent in mouse striatum and SNc. Since ERalpha is markedly induced in rodent cortex after ischemic injury, the present studies evaluated changes in ERs after acute treatment with the dopamine neurotoxin MPTP. Mice were injected daily with estradiol, injected with MPTP on day 6, and brains collected on day 9 or 13. Immunocytochemistry was then used to assess tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in striatum and investigate the localization of ERalpha and ERbeta in the striatum and SNc. In addition, cryostat sections were hybridized with a riboprobe complementary to ERalpha or ERbeta mRNA. Evaluation of TH immunoreactivity revealed a dense network of fibers in the striatum of vehicle-treated animals, while a near complete loss of terminals was seen after MPTP treatment. When, however, mice were pretreated with estradiol, the MPTP-induced loss of TH was attenuated. Evaluation of ERalpha and ERbeta in the SNc and striatum demonstrated a sparse localization of both ERs in vehicle-treated mice, a pattern that did not change in animals treated with vehicle/MPTP or estradiol/MPTP. These data demonstrate that ERs are sparse in the mouse striatum and SNc and show that this pattern does not change after MPTP intoxication. This observation and the finding that estrogen affords some protection against MPTP suggest that estrogen may act via nuclear receptor independent mechanisms to protect dopamine neurons from toxins such as MPTP.

  3. Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibition Attenuates MPTP-Induced Neurotoxicity in the Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic System: Involvement of α-Synuclein Aggregation and ER Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Ju; Wang, Yi-Ting; Lin, Hui-Ching; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Anya Maan-Yuh

    2017-08-18

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is widely expressed in the mammalian brain and possesses dual enzymatic activities, including C-terminal epoxide hydrolase (C-EH) which degrades epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET), a beneficial arachidonic acid metabolite. In the present study, the neuroprotective effect of sEH inhibition on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced neurodegeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic system was investigated using genetic and pharmacological approaches. MPTP (15 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected in sEH knockout (KO) mice and C57BL/6J mice as wild-type (WT) mice. Compared with the MPTP-treated WT mice, MPTP-induced reductions in striatal dopamine content and nigral tyrosine hydroxylase level (TH, a biomarker of dopaminergic neurons) were less significant in the treated sEH mice. Furthermore, MPTP-induced HO-1 elevation (a redox-regulated protein), α-synuclein aggregation, and caspase 12 activation (a hallmark of ER stress) were less prominent in sEH KO mice than in WT mice. These data indicate that sEH KO mice are more resistant to MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. The pharmacological effect of N-[1-(1-oxopropyl)-4-piperidinyl]-N0-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)-urea (TPPU, an sEH inhibitor) on MPTP-induced neurotoxicity was investigated in WT mice. TPPU (1 mg/kg, i.p.) attenuated MPTP-induced reduction in striatal dopamine content, TH-positive cell numbers, TH, and pro-caspase 9 protein levels (an initiator caspase of apoptosis) in mouse SN. Moreover, TPPU reduced MPTP-induced HO-1 elevation, α-synuclein aggregation and caspase 12 activation, indicating that TPPU is effective in attenuating MPTP-induced oxidative stress, apoptosis, protein aggregation, and ER stress. In conclusion, our study suggests that sEH is a potential target for developing therapies for parkinsonism. Furthermore, sEH inhibitors may be of clinical significance for treating CNS neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. Asiaticoside: attenuation of neurotoxicity induced by MPTP in a rat model of Parkinsonism via maintaining redox balance and up-regulating the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chang-Liang; Wang, Qi-Zhi; Sun, Ling-Mei; Li, Xiu-Min; Deng, Ji-Min; Li, Lu-Fan; Zhang, Jin; Xu, Rong; Ma, Shi-Ping

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of asiaticoside, a triterpenoid saponin isolated from the Chinese medicinal herb Centella asiatica, in the rats model of Parkinsonism induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Rats were first injected with MPTP. One day after surgery, asiaticoside was administered and the behavioral tests were assessed. On 14th day, the rats were sacrificed, substantia nigra (SN) and striatum were dissected, and then dopamine (DA) and its metabolites in striatum and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) contents, reduced glutathione (GSH) level and gene expression level in SN were estimated. Treatment with asiaticoside was found to protect dopaminergic neuron by antagonizing MPTP induced neurotoxicity and to improve locomotor dysfunction. Asiaticoside significantly attenuated the MPTP-induced reduction of dopamine in the striatum. The content of MDA was significantly decreased while the GSH level was significantly increased in asiaticoside-treated groups. In addition, asiaticoside increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. These results indicated that asiaticoside was effective in reversing MPTP induced Parkinsonism via its neuroprotective effects including antioxidant activity, maintaining the metabolic balance of DA, and increasing ratio of Bcl-2/Bax.

  5. Phytic acid attenuates inflammatory responses and the levels of NF-κB and p-ERK in MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease model of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yuqiang; Zhang, Zheng; Hou, Lin; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Jinyu; Wang, Yuehua; Liu, Cun; Xu, Pingping; Liu, Lu; Gai, Xiaoying; Lu, Tingxiu

    2015-06-15

    Phytic acid (PA) is a naturally occurring constituent which exhibits protective action in Parkinson's disease (PD). Inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) is strongly associated with neuronal death in PD. However, the molecular mechanism of the protective effect of PA in PD has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we tried to testify the protection of PA on neuron and inflammatory responses in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD model of mice and investigated the mechanism involved in them. Motor behavior test and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry method showed PA significantly inhibited MPTP-induced dopaminergic cell loss in the substantia nigra (SN). Moreover, using immunohistochemistry method and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), microglial activation and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were found to be markedly repressed by PA. Via western blot assay, expressions of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) were significantly attenuated by PA. In conclusion, it is suggested that PA has a neuroprotective effect in MPTP-induced PD model and the neuroprotection is correlated with its anti-inflammatory effect which may be associated with suppression of pathways that involved in NF-κB and p-ERK.

  6. N-Methyl, N-propynyl-2-phenylethylamine (MPPE), a Selegiline Analog, Attenuates MPTP-induced Dopaminergic Toxicity with Guaranteed Behavioral Safety: Involvement of Inhibitions of Mitochondrial Oxidative Burdens and p53 Gene-elicited Pro-apoptotic Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eun-Joo; Nam, Yunsung; Lee, Ji Won; Nguyen, Phuong-Khue Thi; Yoo, Ji Eun; Tran, The-Vinh; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Jang, Choon-Gon; Oh, Young J; Youdim, Moussa B H; Lee, Phil Ho; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2016-11-01

    Selegiline is a monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibitor with anti-Parkinsonian effects, but it is metabolized to amphetamines. Since another MAO-B inhibitor N-Methyl, N-propynyl-2-phenylethylamine (MPPE) is not metabolized to amphetamines, we examined whether MPPE induces behavioral side effects and whether MPPE affects dopaminergic toxicity induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Multiple doses of MPPE (2.5 and 5 mg/kg/day) did not show any significant locomotor activity and conditioned place preference, whereas selegiline (2.5 and 5 mg/kg/day) significantly increased these behavioral side effects. Treatment with MPPE resulted in significant attenuations against decreases in mitochondrial complex I activity, mitochondrial Mn-SOD activity, and expression induced by MPTP in the striatum of mice. Consistently, MPPE significantly attenuated MPTP-induced oxidative stress and MPPE-mediated antioxidant activity appeared to be more pronounced in mitochondrial-fraction than in cytosolic-fraction. Because MPTP promoted mitochondrial p53 translocation and p53/Bcl-xL interaction, it was also examined whether mitochondrial p53 inhibitor pifithrin-μ attenuates MPTP neurotoxicity. MPPE, selegiline, or pifithrin-μ significantly attenuated mitochondrial p53/Bcl-xL interaction, impaired mitochondrial transmembrane potential, cytosolic cytochrome c release, and cleaved caspase-3 in wild-type mice. Subsequently, these compounds significantly ameliorated MPTP-induced motor impairments. Neuroprotective effects of MPPE appeared to be more prominent than those of selegiline. MPPE or selegiline did not show any additional protective effects against the attenuation by p53 gene knockout, suggesting that p53 gene is a critical target for these compounds. Our results suggest that MPPE possesses anti-Parkinsonian potentials with guaranteed behavioral safety and that the underlying mechanism of MPPE requires inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial

  7. Isobavachalcone Attenuates MPTP-Induced Parkinson's Disease in Mice by Inhibition of Microglial Activation through NF-κB Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Haoran; Wang, Shaoxia; Wang, Min; Fu, Wenliang; Zhang, Chao; Xu, Donggang

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex multi-system and age-related neurodegenerative disorder. The intervention targeting neuroinflammation in PD patients is one effective strategy to slow down or inhibit disease progression. Microglia-mediated inflammatory response plays an important role in Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and other cerebral diseases. Isobavachalcone is a main component of Chinese herb medicine Psoralea corylifolia, which function includes immunoregulation, anti-oxidation and the regulation of β-amyloid (Aβ42) deposited in hippocampus in Alzheimer's patients. Whether it has the therapeutic effect on Parkinson's disease, however, is unclear. In this study, we found that isobavachalcone could effectively remit Parkinson's disease induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), prolong the residence time of mice on Rota-rod and alleviate the neuronal necrosis. It also inhibited the over-activation of microglia, and decreased the expression of IL-6 and IL-1β in the brain of PD mice. In vitro, isobavachalcone could inhibit nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) pathway through inhibiting the LPS-induced transfer of NF-κB subunit from cytoplasm to nucleus in BV-2 cells. Isobavachalcone decreased the LPS-induced oxidative stress and the expression of inflammatory cytokines, and provided a neuroprotective effect by antagonizing microglia-mediated inflammation. Our results indicated that isobavachalcone may be a candidated drug against Parkinson's disease with great clinical potential.

  8. Isobavachalcone Attenuates MPTP-Induced Parkinson's Disease in Mice by Inhibition of Microglial Activation through NF-κB Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Haoran; Wang, Shaoxia; Wang, Min; Fu, Wenliang; Zhang, Chao; Xu, Donggang

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex multi-system and age-related neurodegenerative disorder. The intervention targeting neuroinflammation in PD patients is one effective strategy to slow down or inhibit disease progression. Microglia-mediated inflammatory response plays an important role in Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and other cerebral diseases. Isobavachalcone is a main component of Chinese herb medicine Psoralea corylifolia, which function includes immunoregulation, anti-oxidation and the regulation of β-amyloid (Aβ42) deposited in hippocampus in Alzheimer's patients. Whether it has the therapeutic effect on Parkinson's disease, however, is unclear. In this study, we found that isobavachalcone could effectively remit Parkinson's disease induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), prolong the residence time of mice on Rota-rod and alleviate the neuronal necrosis. It also inhibited the over-activation of microglia, and decreased the expression of IL-6 and IL-1β in the brain of PD mice. In vitro, isobavachalcone could inhibit nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) pathway through inhibiting the LPS-induced transfer of NF-κB subunit from cytoplasm to nucleus in BV-2 cells. Isobavachalcone decreased the LPS-induced oxidative stress and the expression of inflammatory cytokines, and provided a neuroprotective effect by antagonizing microglia-mediated inflammation. Our results indicated that isobavachalcone may be a candidated drug against Parkinson's disease with great clinical potential. PMID:28060896

  9. Harpagoside attenuates MPTP/MPP⁺ induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration and movement disorder via elevating glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoyu; Xiong, Zhongkui; Zhang, Yongfang; Meng, Ya; Xu, Gang; Xia, Zhiming; Li, Jiamei; Zhang, Rui; Ke, Zunji; Xia, Zongqin; Hu, Yaer

    2012-03-01

    Parkinson's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. New therapeutic approaches aiming at delaying or reversing the neurodegenerative process are under active investigations. In this work, we found that harpagoside, an iridoid purified from the Chinese medicinal herb Scrophularia ningpoensis, could not only prevent but also rescue the dopaminergic neurodegeneration in MPTP/MPP(+) intoxication with promising efficacy. Firstly, in cultured mesencephalic neurons, harpagoside significantly attenuated the loss of TH-positive neuron numbers and the shortening of axonal length. Secondly, in a chronic MPTP mouse model, harpagoside dose-dependently improved the loco-motor ability (rotarod test), increased the TH-positive neuron numbers in the substantia nigra pars compacta (unbiased stereological counting) and increased the striatal DAT density ((125) I-FP-CIT autoradiography). Thirdly, harpagoside markedly elevated the GDNF mRNA and GDNF protein levels in MPTP/MPP(+) lesioned models. However, the protecting effect of harpagoside on the dopaminergic degeneration disappeared when the intrinsic GDNF action was blocked by either the Ret inhibitor PP1 or the neutralizing anti-GDNF antibody. Taken together, we conclude that harpagoside attenuates the dopaminergic neurodegeneration and movement disorder mainly through elevating glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor.

  10. Neuroprotective effect of lycopene against MPTP induced experimental Parkinson's disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prema, Asokan; Janakiraman, Udaiyappan; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan; Thenmozhi, Arokiasamy Justin

    2015-07-10

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder that mainly affects the movement of the aged populations. Lycopene is a carotenoid with unique pharmacological properties and its efficacy on experimental Hunginton's disease and brain ischemia has shown intense neuroprotective effects. The present study was aimed to explore the neuroprotective effect of lycopene against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induced PD mice. Administration of lycopene (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg/day orally) protected MPTP induced depletion of striatal dopamine (DA) and its metabolites in a dose dependent manner. It also attenuated MPTP-induced oxidative stress and motor abnormalities seen in PD mice. Our western blot studies showed that treatment with lycopene reversed MPTP induced apoptosis may be due to its antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties. As to conclude, lycopene reverses neurochemical deficts, oxidative stress, apoptosis and physiological abnormalities in PD mice and offer promise strategy in the treatment of this neurodegenerative disease.

  11. Attenuation of MPTP Neurotoxicity by Rolipram, a Specific Inhibitor of Phosphodiesterase IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lichuan; Calingasan, Noel Y.; Lorenzo, Beverly J.; Beal, M. Flint

    2012-01-01

    Rolipram, a specific inhibitor of the phosphodiesterase IV (PDE IV), has recently been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in an Alzheimer transgenic mouse model and in hypoxic-ischemic damage in the rat brain. It activates the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA)/cAMP regulatory element-binding protein (CREB) signaling pathway and it inhibits inflammation. We tested the neuroprotective effects of the specific PDE IV inhibitor rolipram in C57BL/6 mice treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). We found that rolipram administered at 1.25mg/kg or 2.5mg/kg doses significantly attenuated MPTP-induced dopamine depletion in the striatum, and reduced the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra. There was a bell-shaped dose effect with greater efficacy at the 1.25 mg/kg dose than 2.5 mg/kg and a higher dose of rolipram, 5mg/kg, had no protective effect and even increased the mortality of animals when co-administered with MPTP. Rolipram did not interact with MPTP in its absorption into the brain and in its metabolism to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). Our data show a neuroprotective effect of the PDE IV specific inhibitor rolipram against dopaminergic neuron degeneration, suggesting that PDE IV inhibitors might be a potential treatment for Parkinson’s disease. PMID:18328479

  12. Paeoniflorin attenuates neuroinflammation and dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the MPTP model of Parkinson's disease by activation of adenosine A1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Qing; Zhang, Wei-Yu; Luo, Xue-Ting; Ye, Yang; Zhu, Xing-Zu

    2006-06-01

    1. This study examined whether Paeoniflorin (PF), the major active components of Chinese herb Paeoniae alba Radix, has neuroprotective effect in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). 2. Subcutaneous administration of PF (2.5 and 5 mg kg(-1)) for 11 days could protect tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive substantia nigra neurons and striatal nerve fibers from death and bradykinesia induced by four-dose injection of MPTP (20 mg kg(-1)) on day 8. 3. When given at 1 h after the last dose of MPTP, and then administered once a day for the following 3 days, PF (2.5 and 5 mg kg(-1)) also significantly attenuated the dopaminergic neurodegeneration in a dose-dependent manner. Post-treatment with PF (5 mg kg(-1)) significantly attenuated MPTP-induced proinflammatory gene upregulation and microglial and astrocytic activation. 4. Pretreatment with 0.3 mg kg(-1) 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, an adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR) antagonist, 15 min before each dose of PF, reversed the neuroprotective and antineuroinflammatory effects of PF. 5. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that PF could reduce the MPTP-induced toxicity by inhibition of neuroinflammation by activation of the A1AR, and suggested that PF might be a valuable neuroprotective agent for the treatment of PD.

  13. Acupuncture inhibits microglial activation and inflammatory events in the MPTP-induced mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun Mo; Park, Hi Joon; Choi, Yeong Gon; Choe, Il Hwan; Park, Jae Hyun; Kim, Yong Sik; Lim, Sabina

    2007-02-02

    Using a mouse model of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinson's disease (PD), this study investigated on the neuroprotective effects of acupuncture by examining whether acupuncture contributed to inhibiting microglial activation and inflammatory events. C57BL/6 mice were treated with MPTP (30 mg/kg, i.p.) for 5 consecutive days. Acupuncture was then applied to acupoints Yanglingquan (GB34) and Taichong (LR3) starting 2 h after the first MPTP administration and then at 48 h intervals until the mice were sacrificed for analyses at 1, 3, and 7 days after the last MPTP injection. These experiments demonstrated that acupuncture inhibited the decreased of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity (IR) and generated a neuroprotective effects in the striatum (ST) and the substantia nigra (SN) on days 1, 3, and 7 post-MPTP injections. Acupuncture attenuated the increase of macrophage antigen complex-1 (MAC-1), a marker of microglial activation, at 1 and 3 days and reduced the increases in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression on days 1, 3, and 7. In MPTP group, striatal dopamine (DA) was measured by 46% at 7 days, whereas DA in the acupuncture group was 78%. On the basis of these results, we suggest that acupuncture could be used as a neuroprotective intervention for the purpose of inhibiting microglial activation and inflammatory events in PD.

  14. Neuroprotective effect of thalidomide on MPTP-induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palencia, Guadalupe; Garcia, Esperanza; Osorio-Rico, Laura; Trejo-Solís, Cristina; Escamilla-Ramírez, Angel; Sotelo, Julio

    2015-03-01

    Thalidomide is a sedative with unique pharmacological properties; studies on epilepsy and brain ischemia have shown intense neuroprotective effects. We analyzed the effect of thalidomide treatment on the neurotoxicity caused by the administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahidropyridine (MPTP) in mice. Thalidomide was administered at two times; before and after the exposure to MPTP. In both circumstances thalidomide improved the neurotoxicity induced by MPTP as seen by a significant raise of the striatal contents of dopamine and simultaneous decrease of monoamine-oxidase-B (MAO-B). These results indicate that in the experimental model of Parkinson's disease the administration of thalidomide improves the functional damage on the nigrostriatal cell substratum as seen by the production of dopamine. This neuroprotective effect seems to be mediated by inhibition of excitotoxicity. Our results suggest that thalidomide could be investigated as potential adjuvant therapy for Parkinson's disease.

  15. L-F001, a Multifunction ROCK Inhibitor Prevents 6-OHDA Induced Cell Death Through Activating Akt/GSK-3beta and Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway in PC12 Cells and Attenuates MPTP-Induced Dopamine Neuron Toxicity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Liting; Chen, Jingkao; Su, Dan; Chen, Meihui; Luo, Bingling; Pi, Rongbiao; Wang, Lan; Shen, Wei; Wang, Rikang

    2017-02-01

    Amounting evidences demonstrated that Rho/Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) might be a novel target for the therapy of Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, we synthesized L-F001 and revealed it was a potent ROCK inhibitor with multifunctional effects. Here we investigated the effects of L-F001 in PD models. We found that L-F001 potently attenuated 6-OHDA-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells and significantly decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), prevented the 6-OHDA-induced decline of mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular GSH levels. In addition, L-F001 increased Akt and GSK-3beta phosphorylation and induced the nuclear Nrf2 and HO-1 expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, L-F001 restored the levels of p-Akt and p-GSK-3beta (Ser9) as well as HO-1 expression reduced by 6-OHDA. Those effects were blocked by the specific PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, indicating the involvement of Akt/GSK-3beta pathway in the neuroprotective effect of L-F001. In addition, L-F001 significantly attenuated the tyrosinehydroxylase immunoreactive cell loss in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mice PD model. Together, our findings suggest that L-F001 prevents 6-OHDA-induced cell death through activating Akt/GSK-3beta and Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway and attenuates MPTP-induced dopaminergic neuron toxicity in mice. L-F001 might be a promising drug candidate for PD.

  16. Magnolol Protects against MPTP/MPP+-Induced Toxicity via Inhibition of Oxidative Stress in In Vivo and In Vitro Models of Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Muroyama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the role of magnolol in preventing 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP- induced neurodegeneration in mice and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion-(MPP+- induced cytotoxicity to human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and to examine the possible mechanisms. Magnolol (30 mg/kg was orally administered to C57BL/6N mice once a day for 4 or 5 days either before or after MPTP treatment. Western blot analysis revealed that MPTP injections substantially decreased protein levels of dopamine transporter (DAT and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH and increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP levels in the striatum. Both treatments with magnolol significantly attenuated MPTP-induced decrease in DAT and TH protein levels in the striatum. However, these treatments did not affect MPTP-induced increase in GFAP levels. Moreover, oral administration of magnolol almost completely prevented MPTP-induced lipid peroxidation in the striatum. In human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, magnolol significantly attenuated MPP+-induced cytotoxicity and the production of reactive oxygen species. These results suggest that magnolol has protective effects via an antioxidative mechanism in both in vivo and in vitro models of Parkinson’s disease.

  17. Inhibition of Drp1 mitochondrial translocation provides neural protection in dopaminergic system in a Parkinson’s disease model induced by MPTP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filichia, Emily; Hoffer, Barry; Qi, Xin; Luo, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggest mitochondria-mediated pathways play an important role in dopaminergic neuronal cell death in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Drp1, a key regulator of mitochondrial fission, has been shown to be activated and translocated to mitochondria under stress, leading to excessive mitochondria fission and dopaminergic neuronal death in vitro. However, whether Drp1 inhibition can lead to long term stable preservation of dopaminergic neurons in PD-related mouse models remains unknown. In this study, using a classical MPTP animal PD model, we showed for the first time Drp1 activation and mitochondrial translocation in vivo after MPTP administration. Inhibition of Drp1 activation by a selective peptide inhibitor P110, blocked MPTP-induced Drp1 mitochondrial translocation and attenuated dopaminergic neuronal loss, dopaminergic nerve terminal damage and behavioral deficits caused by MPTP. MPTP-induced microglial activation and astrogliosis were not affected by P110 treatment. Instead, inhibition of Drp1 mitochondrial translocation diminished MPTP-induced p53, BAX and PUMA mitochondrial translocation. This study demonstrates that inhibition of Drp1 hyperactivation by a Drp1 peptide inhibitor P110 is neuroprotective in a MPTP animal model. Our data also suggest that the protective effects of P110 treatment might be mediated by inhibiting the p53 mediated apoptotic pathways in neurons through inhibition of Drp1-dependent p53 mitochondrial translocation. PMID:27619562

  18. Synthetic and Natural Environmental Compounds as Potential Facilitators of Mptp-Induced Parkinsonism

    OpenAIRE

    Dodd, Celia Anne

    2009-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative Lewy body disorder characterized by severe motor deficits, followed by cognitive dysfunction with progression of the disease. Environmental exposure has been suggested as a possible contributor to the development of PD and this view is linked to the discovery of the nigrostriatal neurotoxin MPTP. MPTP can induce dopamine specific degeneration within the basal ganglia often resulting in motor deficits similar to PD. MPTP used in the C57BL/6 mouse...

  19. Nicotine, but not cotinine, partially protects dopaminergic neurons against MPTP-induced degeneration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parain, K; Marchand, V; Dumery, B; Hirsch, E

    2001-02-02

    In order to analyze the putative neuroprotective role of nicotine and cotinine in parkinsonian syndromes, these two compounds were administered in male C57Bl6 mice for 4 weeks. On day 8, four injections of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6,-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) were administered. MPTP intoxication induced a 50% loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and a 45% reduction in dopaminergic fibers in the striatum. Administration of cotinine did not affect MPTP toxicity in the nigrostriatal system but chronic nicotine treatment showed a slight protection (15%) of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons against MPTP.

  20. Dihydromyricetin protects neurons in an MPTP-induced model of Parkinson's disease by suppressing glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhao-xiang; Zhao, Ya-fei; Cao, Ting; Zhen, Xue-chu

    2016-01-01

    Aim: It is general believed that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress play critical roles in the pathology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Dihydromyricetin (DHM), a natural flavonoid extracted from Ampelopsis grossedentata, has recently been found to elicit potent anti-oxidative effects. In the present study, we explored the role of DHM in protecting dopaminergic neurons. Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally injected with 1-methyl4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) for 7 d to induce PD. Additionally, mice were treated with either 5 or 10 mg/kg DHM for a total of 13 d (3 d before the start of MPTP, during MPTP administration (7 d) and 3 d after the end of MPTP). For the saline or DHM alone treatment groups, mice were injected with saline or DHM for 13 d. On d 14, behavioral tests (locomotor activity, the rotarod test and the pole test) were administered. After the behavioral tests, the mice were sacrificed, and brain tissue was collected for immunofluorescence staining and Western blotting. In addition, MES23.5 cells were treated with MPP+ and DHM, and evaluated using cell viability assays, reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurements, apoptosis analysis and Western blotting. Results: DHM significantly attenuated MPTP-induced mouse behavioral impairments and dopaminergic neuron loss. In the MES23.5 cells, DHM attenuated MPP+-induced cell injury and ROS production in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, DHM increased glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta phosphorylation in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which may be associated with DHM-induced dopaminergic neuronal protection. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that DHM is a potent neuroprotective agent for DA neurons by modulating the Akt/GSK-3β pathway, which suggests that DHM may be a promising therapeutic candidate for PD. PMID:27374489

  1. Propofol and magnesium attenuate isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation via inhibiting mitochondrial permeability transition pore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yiying

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inhalation anesthetic isoflurane has been shown to open the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP and induce caspase activation and apoptosis, which may lead to learning and memory impairment. Cyclosporine A, a blocker of mPTP opening might attenuate the isoflurane-induced mPTP opening, lessening its ripple effects. Magnesium and anesthetic propofol are also mPTP blockers. We therefore set out to determine whether propofol and magnesium can attenuate the isoflurane-induced caspase activation and mPTP opening. Methods We investigated the effects of magnesium sulfate (Mg2+, propofol, and isoflurane on the opening of mPTP and caspase activation in H4 human neuroglioma cells stably transfected to express full-length human amyloid precursor protein (APP (H4 APP cells and in six day-old wild-type mice, employing Western blot analysis and flowcytometry. Results Here we show that Mg2+ and propofol attenuated the isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation in H4-APP cells and mouse brain tissue. Moreover, Mg2+ and propofol, the blockers of mPTP opening, mitigated the isoflurane-induced mPTP opening in the H4-APP cells. Conclusion These data illustrate that Mg2+ and propofol may ameliorate the isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity by inhibiting its mitochondrial dysfunction. Pending further studies, these findings may suggest the use of Mg2+ and propofol in preventing and treating anesthesia neurotoxicity.

  2. Monoamine oxidase-inhibition and MPTP-induced neurotoxicity in the non-human primate: comparison of rasagiline (TVP 1012) with selegiline.

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    Kupsch, A; Sautter, J; Götz, M E; Breithaupt, W; Schwarz, J; Youdim, M B; Riederer, P; Gerlach, M; Oertel, W H

    2001-01-01

    The neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) has been shown to induce parkinsonism in man and non-human primates. Monoamine-oxidase B (MAO-B) has been reported to be implicated in both MPTP-induced parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease, since selegiline (L-deprenyl), an irreversible MAO-B inhibitor, prevents MPTP-induced neurotoxicity in numerous species including mice, goldfish and drosophyla. However, one disadvantage of this substance relates to its metabolism to (-)-methamphetamine and (-)-amphetamine. Rasagiline (R-(+)-N-propyl-1-aminoindane) is a novel irrevesible MAO-B-inhibitor, which is not metabolized to metamphetamine and/or amphetamine. The present study compared the effects of high doses of selegiline and rasagiline (10 mg/kg body weight s.c.) on MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in a non-human primate (Callithrix jacchus) model of PD. Groups of four monkeys were assigned to the following six experimental groups: Group I: Saline, Group II: Selegiline/Saline, Group III: Rasagiline/Saline, Group IV: MPTP/Saline, Group V: Rasagiline/MPTP, Group VI: Selegiline/MPTP. Daily treatment with MAO-B-inhibitors (either rasagiline or selegiline, 10 mg/kg body weight s.c.) was initiated four days prior to MPTP-exposure (MPTP-HCl, 2 mg/kg body weight subcutaneously, separated by an interval of 24 hours for a total of four days) and was continued until the end of the experiment, i.e. 7 days after the cessation of the MPTP-injections, when animals were sacrificed. MPTP-treatment caused distinct behavioural, histological, and biochemical alterations: 1. significant reduction of motor activity assessed by clinical rating and by computerized locomotor activity measurements; 2. substantial loss (approx. 40%) of dopaminergic (tyrosine-hydroxylase-positive) cells in the substantia nigra, pars compacta; and 3. putaminal dopamine depletion of 98% and its metabolites DOPAC (88%) and HVA (96%). Treatment with either rasagiline or selegiline markedly

  3. Neuroprotective Effects of a Variety of Pomegranate Juice Extracts against MPTP-Induced Cytotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Human Primary Neurons

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    Nady Braidy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP is an environmental toxin which selectively induces oxidative damage and mitochondrial and proteasomal dysfunctions to dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra leading to Parkinsonian syndrome in animal models and humans. MPTP is one of the most widely used in vitro models to investigate the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD and, screen for novel therapeutic compounds that can slow down or ameliorate this progressive degenerative disease. We investigated the therapeutic effect of pomegranate juice extracts (PJE, Helow, Malasi, Qusum, and Hamadh against MPTP-induced neurotoxicity in primary human neurons by examining extracellular LDH activity, intracellular NAD+ and ATP levels, and endogenous antioxidant levels including lipid peroxidation products, catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities, and reduced glutathione (GSH levels. MPTP induced a reduction in SOD and GPx activities and intracellular NAD+, ATP, and GSH levels parallel to an increase in extracellular LDH and CAT activities, although lipid peroxidation was not altered. We report that helow and malasi can ameliorate MPTP-induced neurotoxicity by attenuating the observed changes in redox function to a greater extent than qusum and hamedh. Selected PJE varieties may exhibit properties which may be of therapeutic value to slow down age-related degeneration and neurodegeneration in particular.

  4. Effect of inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase on MPTP-induced dopaminergic neuronal damage.

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    Viveros-Paredes, J M; Gonzalez-Castañeda, R E; Escalante-Castañeda, A; Tejeda-Martínez, A R; Castañeda-Achutiguí, F; Flores-Soto, M E

    2017-01-16

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by balance problems, muscle rigidity, and slow movement due to low dopamine levels and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). The endocannabinoid system is known to modulate the nigrostriatal pathway through endogenous ligands such as anandamide (AEA), which is hydrolysed by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). The purpose of this study was to increase AEA levels using FAAH inhibitor URB597 to evaluate the modulatory effect of AEA on dopaminergic neuronal death induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Our study included 4 experimental groups (n = 6 mice per group): a control group receiving no treatment, a group receiving URB597 (0.2mg/kg) every 3 days for 30 days, a group treated with MPTP (30mg/kg) for 5 days, and a group receiving URB597 and subsequently MPTP injections. Three days after the last dose, we conducted a series of behavioural tests (beam test, pole test, and stride length test) to compare motor coordination between groups. We subsequently analysed immunoreactivity of dopaminergic cells and microglia in the SNpc and striatum. Mice treated with URB597 plus MPTP were found to perform better on behavioural tests than mice receiving MPTP only. According to the immunohistochemistry study, mice receiving MPTP showed fewer dopaminergic cells and fibres in the SNpc and striatum. Animals treated with URB597 plus MPTP displayed increased tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity compared to those treated with MPTP only. Regarding microglial immunoreactivity, the group receiving MPTP showed higher Iba1 immunoreactivity in the striatum and SNpc than did the group treated with URB597 plus MPTP. Our results show that URB597 exerts a protective effect since it inhibits dopaminergic neuronal death, decreases microglial immunoreactivity, and improves MPTP-induced motor alterations. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado

  5. Paeoniflorin attenuates neuroinflammation and dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the MPTP model of Parkinson's disease by activation of adenosine A1 receptor

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    Liu, Hua-Qing; Zhang, Wei-Yu; Luo, Xue-Ting; Ye, Yang; Zhu, Xing-Zu

    2006-01-01

    This study examined whether Paeoniflorin (PF), the major active components of Chinese herb Paeoniae alba Radix, has neuroprotective effect in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD).Subcutaneous administration of PF (2.5 and 5 mg kg−1) for 11 days could protect tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive substantia nigra neurons and striatal nerve fibers from death and bradykinesia induced by four-dose injection of MPTP (20 mg kg−1) on day 8.When...

  6. Generalized mathematical-computational-electronic model of MPTP- induced Parkinsonism

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    Jaramillo Raquejo, Daniela

    2013-05-01

    The substance 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6 tetrahy dropyridine (MPTP) has been studied as a major cause of neurodegeneration dopaminica, which is specifically related to Parkinson's disease. The analysis is in terms of the diffusion of the substance to the mammalian brain, by evaluating the diffusion equation in a spherical coordinate system, being η (collective diffusion term) spatially modulated. Although the progress of the disease with respect to time has not been established with certainty, an attempt to find a stable pattern of the concentration of MPTP and its effects has been made.

  7. Neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects of Apigenin and Luteolin in MPTP induced parkinsonism in mice.

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    Patil, Sachin P; Jain, Pankaj D; Sancheti, Jayant S; Ghumatkar, Priya J; Tambe, Rufi; Sathaye, Sadhana

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, we aim to investigate the neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects of naturally occurring polyphenols like apigenin and luteolin and also to explore the underlying mechanisms with respect to Parkinson's disease (PD). MPTP (25 mg/kg) along with Probenecid (250 mg/kg) was administrated for five consecutive days to induce parkinsonism in mice. Apigenin (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg), luteolin (10 and 20 mg/kg) and Bromocriptine (10 mg/kg) were administrated orally for 26 days including 5 days of pretreatment. Behavioural analysis and biochemical estimation of oxidative stress biomarkers were conducted. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were evaluated in substantia nigra (SN) region of the brain by immunostaining. TNF-α was estimated using ELISA technique. Our results demonstrate that apigenin and luteolin treatment improved the locomotor and muscular activities in MPTP treated mice. TH-positive cells decreased up to 7% in MPTP treated mice compared to normal mice (P apigenin (69%) and luteolin (63%) treated mice (P apigenin and luteolin treatment as compared to MPTP mice. BDNF levels were elevated significantly in apigenin and luteolin treatment groups when compared to MPTP treatment mice. In conclusion, apigenin and luteolin protected the dopaminergic neurons probably by reducing oxidative damage, neuroinflammation and microglial activation along with enhanced neurotrophic potential. The above results propose both these flavonoids as promising molecules in the therapeutics of PD.

  8. Rejuvenation of MPTP-induced human neural precursor cell senescence by activating autophagy

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    Zhu, Liang [East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Dong, Chuanming [East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, The Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Neuroregeneration, Nantong University, Nantong (China); Sun, Chenxi; Ma, Rongjie; Yang, Danjing [East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Zhu, Hongwen, E-mail: hongwen_zhu@hotmail.com [Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin Academy of Integrative Medicine, Tianjin (China); Xu, Jun, E-mail: xunymc2000@yahoo.com [East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China)

    2015-08-21

    Aging of neural stem cell, which can affect brain homeostasis, may be caused by many cellular mechanisms. Autophagy dysfunction was found in aged and neurodegenerative brains. However, little is known about the relationship between autophagy and human neural stem cell (hNSC) aging. The present study used 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to treat neural precursor cells (NPCs) derived from human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line H9 and investigate related molecular mechanisms involved in this process. MPTP-treated NPCs were found to undergo premature senescence [determined by increased senescence-associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, elevated intracellular reactive oxygen species level, and decreased proliferation] and were associated with impaired autophagy. Additionally, the cellular senescence phenotypes were manifested at the molecular level by a significant increase in p21 and p53 expression, a decrease in SOD2 expression, and a decrease in expression of some key autophagy-related genes such as Atg5, Atg7, Atg12, and Beclin 1. Furthermore, we found that the senescence-like phenotype of MPTP-treated hNPCs was rejuvenated through treatment with a well-known autophagy enhancer rapamycin, which was blocked by suppression of essential autophagy gene Beclin 1. Taken together, these findings reveal the critical role of autophagy in the process of hNSC aging, and this process can be reversed by activating autophagy. - Highlights: • We successfully establish hESC-derived neural precursor cells. • MPTP treatment induced senescence-like state in hESC-derived NPCs. • MPTP treatment induced impaired autophagy of hESC-derived NPCs. • MPTP-induced hESC-derived NPC senescence was rejuvenated by activating autophagy.

  9. Influence of noradrenaline denervation on MPTP-induced deficits in mice.

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    Archer, T; Fredriksson, A

    2006-09-01

    C57/BL6 mice were administered either DSP4 (50 mg/kg, s.c., 30 min after injection of zimeldine, 20 mg/kg, s.c.) or vehicle (saline) at 63 days of age. Three weeks later, one group (n = 10) of DSP4-treated and one group of vehicle-treated mice were administered MPTP (2 x 40 mg/kg, s.c., 24 hours between injections; the High dose groups), one group (n = 10) of DSP4-treated and one group of vehicle-treated mice were administered MPTP (2 x 20 mg/kg, s.c., 24 hours between injections; the Low dose groups), and one group (n = 10) of DSP4-treated and one group of vehicle-treated mice were administered vehicle. Three weeks later, all six groups were tested in motor activity test chambers, followed by injections of L-Dopa (20 mg/kg, s.c.), and then tested over a further 360 min in the activity test chambers. It was found that pretreatment with the selective NA neurotoxin, DSP4, deteriorated markedly the dose-dependent motor activity deficits observed in the vehicle pretreated MPTP treated mice. These 'ultra-deficits' in the spontaneous motor behaviour of MPTP-treated mice were observed over all three parameters: locomotion, rearing and total activity, and were restricted to the 1(st) and 2(nd) 20-min periods. Administration of L-Dopa (20 mg/kg) following the 60-min testing of spontaneous behaviour restored the motor activity of Vehicle + MPTP treated mice (neither the Vehicle + MPTP-Low nor the Vehicle + MPTP-High groups differed from the Vehicle-Vehicle group, here) but failed to do so in the DSP4 pretreated mice. Here, a dose-dependent deficit of L-Dopa-induced motor activity (over all three parameters) was obtained thereby offering further evidence of an 'ultra-deficit' of function due to previous denervation of the NA terminals. The present findings support the notion that severe damage to the locus coeruleus noradrenergic system, through systemic DSP4, disrupts the facilitatory influence on the nigrostriatal DA system, and interferes with the ability of the

  10. Pharmacological treatments inhibiting levodopa-induced dyskinesias in MPTP-lesioned monkeys: brain glutamate biochemical correlates

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    Nicolas eMorin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Antiglutamatergic drugs can relieve Parkinson’s disease (PD symptoms and decrease L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias (LID. This review reports relevant studies investigating glutamate receptor subtypes in relation to motor complications in PD patients and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP-lesioned monkeys. Antagonists of the ionotropic glutamate receptors, such as NMDA and AMPA receptors, display antidyskinetic activity in PD patients and animal models such as the MPTP monkey. Metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5 receptor antagonists were shown to reduce the severity of LID in PD patients as well as in already dyskinetic non-human primates and to prevent the development of LID in de novo treatments in non-human primates. An increase in striatal post-synaptic NMDA, AMPA and mGlu5 receptors is documented in PD patients and MPTP monkeys with LID. This increase can be prevented in MPTP monkeys with the addition of a specific glutamate receptor antagonist to the L-DOPA treatment and also with drugs of various pharmacological specificities suggesting multiple receptor interactions. This is yet to be well documented for presynaptic mGlu4 and mGlu2/3 and offers additional new promising avenues.

  11. NEURO-SHEILDING EFFECT OF ASIATICOSIDE AGAINST MPTP INDUCED VARIATIONS IN EXPERIMENTAL MICE

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    Sampath Uvarajan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease is one of major neurodegenerative disorders caused by endogenous and exogenous neurotoxins. It is characterized by the progressive loss of dopominergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNPc. The present study was aimed to investigate the potential role of asiaticoside against 1 – methyl 4 – phenyl 1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine (MPTP-induced neurotoxicity in experimental mice. Mice were divided in to 4 groups : Group I received vehicle saline(0.2ml,group II was treated with 20mg/kg of body weight of MPTP(2 doses with 2 h intervals, group III received MPTP along with 50 mg/kg body weight of asiaticoside and group IV received 50 mg/kg body weight of asiaticoside (Drug control. Animals were sacrificed at the end of 14th day as per the experimental protocol. Histopathological and immunohistochemical studies showed marked changes in MPTP treated mice brain. Also a significant depletion of GSH with decreased specific activities of SOD, CAT and increased lipid peroxidation in striatum, mid brain and RBCs were observed. The changes were found to be reversed significantly (p<0.05 on treatment with asiaticoside. The observations highlight the protective effect of asiaticoside against experimental neurotoxication in mice.

  12. Exercise does not protect against MPTP-induced neurotoxicity in BDNF haploinsufficient mice.

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    Kim M Gerecke

    Full Text Available Exercise has been demonstrated to potently protect substantia nigra pars compacta (SN dopaminergic neurons from 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. One mechanism proposed to account for this neuroprotection is the upregulation of neurotrophic factors. Several neurotrophic factors, including Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF, have been shown to upregulate in response to exercise. In order to determine if exercise-induced neuroprotection is dependent upon BDNF, we compared the neuroprotective effects of voluntary exercise in mice heterozygous for the BDNF gene (BDNF+/- with strain-matched wild-type (WT mice. Stereological estimates of SNpc DA neurons from WT mice allowed 90 days exercise via unrestricted running demonstrated complete protection against the MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. However, BDNF+/- mice allowed 90 days of unrestricted exercise were not protected from MPTP-induced SNpc DA neuron loss. Proteomic analysis comparing SN and striatum from 90 day exercised WT and BDNF+/- mice showed differential expression of proteins related to energy regulation, intracellular signaling and trafficking. These results suggest that a full genetic complement of BDNF is critical for the exercise-induced neuroprotection of SNpc DA neurons.

  13. Impaired CBS-H2S signaling axis contributes to MPTP-induced neurodegeneration in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

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    Yuan, Yu-Qing; Wang, Ya-Li; Yuan, Bao-Shi; Yuan, Xin; Hou, Xiao-Ou; Bian, Jin-Song; Liu, Chun-Feng; Hu, Li-Fang

    2017-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a novel neuromodulator, is linked to the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders. Exogenous application of H2S exerts neuroprotection via anti-inflammation and anti-oxidative stress in animal and cellular models of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the role of endogenous H2S and the contribution of its various synthases in PD remain unclear. In the present study, we found a decline of plasma and striatal sulfide level in 1-methy-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induced PD mouse model. Interestingly, among the three H2S generating enzymes, only cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) expression was largely reduced in the striatum of MPTP-treated mice. The in vitro study confirmed a significant decrease of CBS expression in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-stimulated astrocytes and microglia, but not in neurons or SH-SY5Y dopaminergic cells. Striatal CBS overexpression, elicited by stereotaxic delivery with Cbs gene using recombinant adeno-associated-virus (rAAV-Cbs), successfully enhanced the sulfide level in the striatum and partially rescued the MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in the midbrain. Specifically, striatal CBS overexpression alleviated the motor deficits and dopaminergic neuron losses in the nigro-striatal pathway, with a concomitant inhibition of glial activation in MPTP-treated mice. Furthermore, compared to rAAV-Vector, rAAV-Cbs injection reduced the aberrant accumulation of nitric oxide and 3-nitrotyrosine (an indicator of protein nitration) in the striatum of MPTP-treated mice. Notably, it also attenuated the increase of nitrated α-synuclein level in MPTP mice. The in vitro study demonstrated that lentivirus-mediated CBS overexpression elevated the sulfide generation in glial cells. Moreover, glial CBS overexpression offered protection to midbrain dopaminergic neurons through repressing nitric oxide overproduction in both glial and neuronal cells induced by MPP(+). Taken together, our data suggest

  14. Olfaction in three genetic and two MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease mouse models.

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    Stefan Kurtenbach

    Full Text Available Various genetic or toxin-induced mouse models are frequently used for investigation of early PD pathology. Although olfactory impairment is known to precede motor symptoms by years, it is not known whether it is caused by impairments in the brain, the olfactory epithelium, or both. In this study, we investigated the olfactory function in three genetic Parkinson's disease (PD mouse models and mice treated with MPTP intraperitoneally and intranasally. To investigate olfactory function, we performed electro-olfactogram recordings (EOGs and an olfactory behavior test (cookie-finding test. We show that neither a parkin knockout mouse strain, nor intraperitoneal MPTP treated animals display any olfactory impairment in EOG recordings and the applied behavior test. We also found no difference in the responses of the olfactory epithelium to odorants in a mouse strain over-expressing doubly mutated α-synuclein, while this mouse strain was not suitable to test olfaction in a cookie-finding test as it displays a mobility impairment. A transgenic mouse expressing mutated α-synuclein in dopaminergic neurons performed equal to control animals in the cookie-finding test. Further we show that intranasal MPTP application can cause functional damage of the olfactory epithelium.

  15. Protective effects of 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside in the MPTP-induced mouse model of Parkinson's disease: Involvement of reactive oxygen species-mediated JNK, P38 and mitochondrial pathways.

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    He, Hong; Wang, Songhai; Tian, Jiyu; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Junjie; Tang, Haifeng; Zhang, Xiaojun; Chen, Jianzong

    2015-11-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the selective death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Oxidative stress-induced neuron loss is thought to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of PD. Previous work from our group suggests that 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG), an active component extracted from a traditional Chinese herb, Polygonum multiflorum thunb, can attenuate 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridium-induced apoptosis in the neuronal cell line PC12, by inhibiting reactive oxygen species generation and modulating c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) activation. Here, we investigated the protective effects of TSG against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropypridine (MPTP)-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase positive cells in mice and the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that MPTP-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase positive cells and reactive oxygen species generation were prevented by TSG in a dose-dependent manner. The reactive oxygen species scavenger N-acetylcysteine could also mitigate reactive oxygen species generation. Moreover, JNK and P38 were activated by MPTP, but extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases phosphorylation did not change after MPTP treatment. TSG at different doses blocked the activation of JNK and P38. The protective effect of TSG was also associated with downregulation of the bax/bcl-2 ratio, reversed the release of cytochrome c and smac, and inhibited the activation of caspase-3, -6, and -9 induced by MPTP. In conclusion, our studies demonstrated that the protective effects of TSG in the MPTP-induced mouse model of PD are involved, at least in part, in controlling reactive oxygen species-mediated JNK, P38, and mitochondrial pathways.

  16. Astrocyte reactivity in related brain regions in a mouse model of MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhijun Zhang; Chunlin Xia; Yulin Dong; Guangming Lü; Juan Liu; Lin Ding; Hengjian Ni

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severe injury to dopaminergic neuronal cell bodies and their axon terminals in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC) has been observed in both Parkinson's disease (PD) patients or in 1-methy-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyrindine(MPTP)-induced PD animal models, but only slight injury occurs in the adjacent ventral tegmental area (VTA). The mechanisms underlying this selective injury remain poorly understood.OBJECTIVE: To comparatively observe astrocyte reactivity in the SNC, caudate putamen (Cpu), VTA, and frontal association cortex (FrA).DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A cellular and molecular biology, randomized, controlled experiment was performed at the Institute of Neurobiology, Department of Human Anatomy, Medical School of Nantong University, between December 2006 and September 2008.MATERIALS: A total of 80 healthy adult male C57BL/6 mice were included in this study. MPTP was purchased from Sigma, USA.METHODS: Mice were randomly divided into a model group (n = 64) and a sham-operated group (n = 16). PD was induced in the mice from the model group by intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/kg MPTP, once every three hours, for a total of 4 times.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive neurons and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-immunoreactive astrocytes were examined by dual immunofluorescence labeling. GFAP-immunoreactive astrocytes in the Cpu and FrA were determined by immunofluorescent staining. GFAP mRNA expression in the SNC, Cpu, VTA, and FrA was detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction. TH protein levels in the TH-immunoreactive axon terminals of the Cpu and FrA were detected by Western blotting.RESULTS: Numbers of TH-immunoreactive neurons in the SNC, and TH protein level in the Cpu, markedly decreased (by approximately 68%) 1 day after MPTP injection, and gradually increased at 3 days. Simultaneously, astrocyte reactivity was strengthened, in particular at 7 days. However, after MPTP injection, decreases in

  17. Catecholamine-induced cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction and mPTP opening: protective effect of curcumin.

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    Izem-Meziane, Malika; Djerdjouri, Bahia; Rimbaud, Stephanie; Caffin, Fanny; Fortin, Dominique; Garnier, Anne; Veksler, Vladimir; Joubert, Frederic; Ventura-Clapier, Renee

    2012-02-01

    The present study was designed to characterize the mitochondrial dysfunction induced by catecholamines and to investigate whether curcumin, a natural antioxidant, induces cardioprotective effects against catecholamine-induced cardiotoxicity by preserving mitochondrial function. Because mitochondria play a central role in ischemia and oxidative stress, we hypothesized that mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in catecholamine toxicity and in the potential protective effects of curcumin. Male Wistar rats received subcutaneous injection of 150 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) isoprenaline (ISO) for two consecutive days with or without pretreatment with 60 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) curcumin. Twenty four hours after, cardiac tissues were examined for apoptosis and oxidative stress. Expression of proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function were measured by real-time RT-PCR. Isolated mitochondria and permeabilized cardiac fibers were used for swelling and mitochondrial function experiments, respectively. Mitochondrial morphology and permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening were assessed by fluorescence in isolated cardiomyocytes. ISO treatment induced cell damage, oxidative stress, and apoptosis that were prevented by curcumin. Moreover, mitochondria seem to play an important role in these effects as respiration and mitochondrial swelling were increased following ISO treatment, these effects being again prevented by curcumin. Importantly, curcumin completely prevented the ISO-induced increase in mPTP calcium susceptibility in isolated cardiomyocytes without affecting mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial network dynamic. The results unravel the importance of mitochondrial dysfunction in isoprenaline-induced cardiotoxicity as well as a new cardioprotective effect of curcumin through prevention of mitochondrial damage and mPTP opening.

  18. IRC-082451, a novel multitargeting molecule, reduces L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in MPTP Parkinsonian primates.

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    Romina Aron Badin

    Full Text Available The development of dyskinesias following chronic L-DOPA replacement therapy remains a major problem in the long-term treatment of Parkinson's disease. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of IRC-082451 (base of BN82451, a novel multitargeting hybrid molecule, on L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias (LIDs and hypolocomotor activity in a non-human primate model of PD. IRC-082451 displays multiple properties: it inhibits neuronal excitotoxicity (sodium channel blocker, oxidative stress (antioxidant and neuroinflammation (cyclooxygenase inhibitor and is endowed with mitochondrial protective properties. Animals received daily MPTP injections until stably parkinsonian. A daily treatment with increasing doses of L-DOPA was administered to parkinsonian primates until the appearance of dyskinesias. Then, different treatment regimens and doses of IRC-082451 were tested and compared to the benchmark molecule amantadine. Primates were regularly filmed and videos were analyzed with specialized software. A novel approach combining the analysis of dyskinesias and locomotor activity was used to determine efficacy. This analysis yielded the quantification of the total distance travelled and the incidence of dyskinesias in 7 different body parts. A dose-dependent efficacy of IRC-082451 against dyskinesias was observed. The 5 mg/kg dose was best at attenuating the severity of fully established LIDs. Its effect was significantly different from that of amantadine since it increased spontaneous locomotor activity while reducing LIDs. This dose was effective both acutely and in a 5-day sub-chronic treatment. Moreover, positron emission tomography scans using radiolabelled dopamine demonstrated that there was no direct interference between treatment with IRC-082451 and dopamine metabolism in the brain. Finally, post-mortem analysis indicated that this reduction in dyskinesias was associated with changes in cFOS, FosB and ARC mRNA expression levels in the putamen. The data

  19. Toll Like Receptor 4 Affects the Cerebral Biochemical Changes Induced by MPTP Treatment.

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    Conte, Carmela; Roscini, Luca; Sardella, Roccaldo; Mariucci, Giuseppina; Scorzoni, Stefania; Beccari, Tommaso; Corte, Laura

    2017-01-21

    The etiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) are still unclear. However, multiple lines of evidence suggest a critical role of the toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) in inflammatory response and neuronal death. Neuroinflammation may be associated with the misfolding and aggregation of proteins accompanied by a change in their secondary structure. Recent findings also suggest that biochemical perturbations in cerebral lipid content could contribute to the pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS) disorders, including PD. Thus, it is of great importance to determine the biochemical changes that occur in PD. In this respect, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy represents a useful tool to detect molecular alterations in biological systems in response to stress stimuli. By relying upon FTIR approach, this study was designed to elucidate the potential role of TLR4 in biochemical changes induced by methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxin in a mouse model of PD. The analysis of the FTIR spectra was performed in different brain regions of both wild type (WT) and toll like receptor 4-deficient (TLR4(-/-)) mice. It revealed that each brain region exhibited a characteristic molecular fingerprint at baseline, with no significant differences between genotypes. Conversely, WT and TLR4(-/-) mice showed differential biochemical response to MPTP toxicity, principally related to lipid and protein composition. These differences appeared to be characteristic for each brain area. Furthermore, the present study showed that WT mice resulted more vulnerable than TLR4(-/-) animals to striatal dopamine (DA) depletion following MPTP treatment. These results support the hypothesis of a possible involvement of TLR4 in biochemical changes occurring in neurodegeneration.

  20. Discovery of a novel neuroprotectant, BHDPC, that protects against MPP+/MPTP-induced neuronal death in multiple experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Cheong-Meng; Ma, Dan; Zhao, Chao; Franklin, Robin J M; Zhou, Zhong-Yan; Ai, Nana; Li, Chuwen; Yu, Huidong; Hou, Tingjun; Sa, Fei; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen

    2015-12-01

    Progressive degeneration and death of neurons are main causes of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Although some current medicines may temporarily improve their symptoms, no treatments can slow or halt the progression of neuronal death. In this study, a pyrimidine derivative, benzyl 7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-5-methyl-4,7-dihydrotetrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-6-carboxylate (BHDPC), was found to attenuate dramatically the MPTP-induced death of dopaminergic neurons and improve behavior movement deficiency in zebrafish, supporting its potential neuroprotective activity in vivo. Further study in rat organotypic cerebellar cultures indicated that BHDPC was able to suppress MPP(+)-induced cell death of brain tissue slices ex vivo. The protective effect of BHDPC against MPP(+) toxicity was also effective in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells through restoring abnormal changes in mitochondrial membrane potential and numerous apoptotic regulators. Western blotting analysis indicated that BHDPC was able to activate PKA/CREB survival signaling and further up-regulate Bcl2 expression. However, BHDPC failed to suppress MPP(+)-induced cytotoxicity and the increase of caspase 3 activity in the presence of the PKA inhibitor H89. Taken together, these results suggest that BHDPC is a potential neuroprotectant with prosurvival effects in multiple models of neurodegenerative disease in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo.

  1. Complement 3-deficient mice are not protected against MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yajie; Li, Shurong; Guo, Qiang; Zhang, Yanling; Zhang, Yanliang; Wen, Can; Zou, Qiang; Su, Bingyin

    2007-10-31

    Recent studies have invoked inflammation as a major contributor to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Emerging evidence indicated that components of complement system may be involved in such disorder and contribute to its development. We thus observed the influence of deficiency of complement 3 (C3), the key component of complement system, on the death of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and the loss of dopaminergic fibers in striatum induced by acute or chronic administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Immunohistochemical staining of dopaminergic neurons in SNpc and neurochemical analysis of dopamine and its metabolites in striata revealed that there was no significant difference between the two genotypes. Longer survival time also indicated that C3 might not mediate the spontaneous recovery of dopaminergic fibers in mouse striatum acutely challenged by MPTP. We conclude that, despite growing evidence indicating the involvement of complement system in the pathogenesis of PD, our data do not support a role for C3 in this established model of PD, as indicated by results from HPLC analysis and immunohistochemical staining.

  2. Nesfatin-1 protects dopaminergic neurons against MPP+/MPTP-induced neurotoxicity through the C-Raf–ERK1/2-dependent anti-apoptotic pathway

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    Shen, Xiao-Li; Song, Ning; Du, Xi-Xun; Li, Yong; Xie, Jun-Xia; Jiang, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Several brain-gut peptides have been reported to have a close relationship with the central dopaminergic system; one such brain-gut peptide is nesfatin-1. Nesfatin-1 is a satiety peptide that is predominantly secreted by X/A-like endocrine cells in the gastric glands, where ghrelin is also secreted. We previously reported that ghrelin exerted neuroprotective effects on nigral dopaminergic neurons, which implied a role for ghrelin in Parkinson’s disease (PD). In the present study, we aim to clarify whether nesfatin-1 has similar effects on dopaminergic neurons both in vivo and in vitro. We show that nesfatin-1 attenuates the loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mouse model of PD. In addition, nesfatin-1 antagonized 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridillium ion (MPP+)-induced toxicity by restoring mitochondrial function, inhibiting cytochrome C release and preventing caspase-3 activation in MPP+-treated MES23.5 dopaminergic cells. These neuroprotective effects could be abolished by selective inhibition of C-Raf and the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Our data suggest that C-Raf-ERK1/2, which is involved in an anti-apoptotic pathway, is responsible for the neuroprotective effects of nesfatin-1 in the context of MPTP-induced toxicity. These results imply that nesfatin-1 might have therapeutic potential for PD. PMID:28106099

  3. Angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist losartan, reduces MPTP-induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra

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    Jhaveri Vimal V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent attention has focused on understanding the role of the brain-renin-angiotensin-system (RAS in stroke and neurodegenerative diseases. Direct evidence of a role for the brain-RAS in Parkinson's disease (PD comes from studies demonstrating the neuroprotective effect of RAS inhibitors in several neurotoxin based PD models. In this study, we show that an antagonist of the angiotensin II (Ang II type 1 (AT1 receptor, losartan, protects dopaminergic (DA neurons against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP toxicity both in primary ventral mesencephalic (VM cultures as well as in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc of C57BL/6 mice (Fig. 1. Results In the presence of exogenous Ang II, losartan reduced MPP+ (5 μM induced DA neuronal loss by 72% in vitro. Mice challenged with MPTP showed a 62% reduction in the number of DA neurons in the SNpc and a 71% decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH immunostaining of the striatum, whereas daily treatment with losartan lessened MPTP-induced loss of DA neurons to 25% and reduced the decrease in striatal TH+ immunostaining to 34% of control. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that the brain-RAS plays an important neuroprotective role in the MPTP model of PD and points to AT1 receptor as a potential novel target for neuroprotection.

  4. Magnolol Protects against MPTP/MPP+-Induced Toxicity via Inhibition of Oxidative Stress in In Vivo and In Vitro Models of Parkinson’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Akiko Muroyama; Aya Fujita; Cheng Lv; Shota Kobayashi; Yoshiyasu Fukuyama; Yasuhide Mitsumoto

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the role of magnolol in preventing 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP-) induced neurodegeneration in mice and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion-(MPP+-) induced cytotoxicity to human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and to examine the possible mechanisms. Magnolol (30 mg/kg) was orally administered to C57BL/6N mice once a day for 4 or 5 days either before or after MPTP treatment. Western blot analysis revealed that MPTP injections substantially ...

  5. MPTP-induced increase in c-Fos- and c-Jun-like immunoreactivity in the monkey cerebellum

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    D Necchi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The transcription factors c-Fos and c-Jun have been described to be overexpressed following many pathological stimuli, but whether they are required for neurodegeneration or neuroprotection is still open. In the present report, we analyzed the role of c-Fos and c-Jun proteins in Purkinje cell degeneration caused by the neurotoxin MPTP (1-methyl-4- phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine in the monkey cerebellum, and determined the neuroprotective effect of the antioxidant drug a-dihydroergocryptine (DHEC, whose prior and simultaneous administration reduced the MPTP-induced neuronal loss in the substantia nigra. Immunocytochemistry for c-Fos- and c-Jun-like proteins showed persistent increased staining in Purkinje cells of MPTP-treated monkeys. The staining was greatly reduced in animals receiving DHEC. Similar results were observed in white matter glial cells after immunoreaction for c-Fos. The results suggest that, at least as far as the cerebellum is concerned, the increase in c-Fos and c-Jun expression correlate with cell damage, rather than with preservation.

  6. MPTP-induced increase in c-Fos- and c-Jun-like immunoreactivity in the monkey cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necchi, Daniela; Soldani, C; Ronchetti, F; Bernocchi, G; Scherini, E

    2004-01-01

    The transcription factors c-Fos and c-Jun have been described to be overexpressed following many pathological stimuli, but whether they are required for neurodegeneration or neuroprotection is still open. In the present report, we analyzed the role of c-Fos and c-Jun proteins in Purkinje cell degeneration caused by the neurotoxin MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) in the monkey cerebellum, and determined the neuroprotective effect of the antioxidant drug a-dihydroergocryptine (DHEC), whose prior and simultaneous administration reduced the MPTP-induced neuronal loss in the substantia nigra. Immunocytochemistry for c-Fos- and c-Jun-like proteins showed persistent increased staining in Purkinje cells of MPTP-treated monkeys. The staining was greatly reduced in animals receiving DHEC. Similar results were observed in white matter glial cells after immunoreaction for c-Fos. The results suggest that, at least as far as the cerebellum is concerned, the increase in c-Fos and c-Jun expression correlate with cell damage, rather than with preservation.

  7. Inhibition of mixed lineage kinase 3 attenuates MPP+-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiasen, Joanne R; McKenna, Beth Ann W; Saporito, Michael S; Ghadge, Ghanashyam D; Roos, Raymond P; Holskin, Beverly P; Wu, Zhi-Liang; Trusko, Stephen P; Connors, Thomas C; Maroney, Anna C; Thomas, Beth Ann; Thomas, Jeffrey C; Bozyczko-Coyne, Donna

    2004-04-02

    The neuropathology of Parkinson's Disease has been modeled in experimental animals following MPTP treatment and in dopaminergic cells in culture treated with the MPTP neurotoxic metabolite, MPP(+). MPTP through MPP(+) activates the stress-activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway in mice and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Recently, it was demonstrated that CEP-1347/KT7515 attenuated MPTP-induced nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuron degeneration in mice, as well as MPTP-induced JNK phosphorylation. Presumably, CEP-1347 acts through inhibition of at least one upstream kinase within the mixed lineage kinase (MLK) family since it has been shown to inhibit MLK 1, 2 and 3 in vitro. Activation of the MLK family leads to JNK activation. In this study, the potential role of MLK and the JNK pathway was examined in MPP(+)-induced cell death of differentiated SH-SY5Y cells using CEP-1347 as a pharmacological probe and dominant negative adenoviral constructs to MLKs. CEP-1347 inhibited MPP(+)-induced cell death and the morphological features of apoptosis. CEP-1347 also prevented MPP(+)-induced JNK activation in SH-SY5Y cells. Endogenous MLK 3 expression was demonstrated in SH-SY5Y cells through protein levels and RT-PCR. Adenoviral infection of SH-SY5Y cells with a dominant negative MLK 3 construct attenuated the MPP(+)-mediated increase in activated JNK levels and inhibited neuronal death following MPP(+) addition compared to cultures infected with a control construct. Adenoviral dominant negative constructs of two other MLK family members (MLK 2 and DLK) did not protect against MPP(+)-induced cell death. These studies show that inhibition of the MLK 3/JNK pathway attenuates MPP(+)-mediated SH-SY5Y cell death in culture and supports the mechanism of action of CEP-1347 as an MLK family inhibitor.

  8. ELDEPRYL AND RILUZOLE INHIBIT 1-METHYL-4-PHENYL -1,2,3,6-TETRAHYDROPYRIDINE (MPTP)-INDUCED NIGRAL NEURONAL APOPTOSIS IN MICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈生弟; 郭明; 刘振国; 陈红专

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the possible role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of Parkinsons disease. Methods C57BL mice were treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine(MPTP), and TUNEL and flow cytometry were employed to detect neuronal apoptosis in the substantia nigra. ResultsThe results of animal experiment demonstrated that the administration of MPTP 30mg/kg for 7d could induce neuronal apoptosis in the substantia nigra. The MPTP-induced nigral neuronal apoptosis could be completely prevented by pre-treatment of Eldepryl, an inhibitor of B typed monoamine oxidase (MAO-B);and partially protected by pre-treatment of Riluzole, an antagonist of excitatory amino acid receptors. Data of cell culture experiment showed that 20mmol 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion(MPP+) induced the apoptosis of pheochromocytoma(PC12 cells), whereas 20mmol MPTP did not cause PC12 cells apoptosis. Conclusion It is concluded that the apoptotic effect of MPTP in vivo on the nigral neurons may be mediated by its intermediate metabolite MPP+. The dopaminergic neuronal apoptosis in the substantia nigra may be a common pathway of various causes that lead to the onset of Parkinson's disease.

  9. PET imaging a MPTP-induced mouse model of Parkinson's disease using the fluoropropyl-dihydrotetrabenazine analog [18F]-DTBZ (AV-133.

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    James S Toomey

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is characterized by the loss of dopamine-producing neurons in the nigrostriatal system. Numerous researchers in the past have attempted to track the progression of dopaminergic depletion in PD. We applied a quantitative non-invasive PET imaging technique to follow this degeneration process in an MPTP-induced mouse model of PD. The VMAT2 ligand (18F-DTBZ (AV-133 was used as a radioactive tracer in our imaging experiments to monitor the changes of the dopaminergic system. Intraperitoneal administrations of MPTP (a neurotoxin were delivered to mice at regular intervals to induce lesions consistent with PD. Our results indicate a significant decline in the levels of striatal dopamine and its metabolites (DOPAC and HVA following MPTP treatment as determined by HPLC method. Images obtained by positron emission tomography revealed uptake of (18F-DTBZ analog in the mouse striatum. However, reduction in radioligand binding was evident in the striatum of MPTP lesioned animals as compared with the control group. Immunohistochemical analysis further confirmed PET imaging results and indicated the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in treated animals compared with the control counterparts. In conclusion, our findings suggest that MPTP induced PD in mouse model is appropriate to follow the degeneration of dopaminergic system and that (18F-DTBZ analog is a potentially sensitive radiotracer that can used to diagnose changes associated with PD by PET imaging modality.

  10. Neuroprotective effects of alkaloids from Piper longum in a MPTP-induced mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Ying; Qu, Peng-Cheng; Wang, Qing-Song; Zheng, Li; Liu, Hao-Long; Luo, Rong; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Ba, Yin-Ying; Wu, Xia; Yang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Alkaloids of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) (PLA) include piperine and piperlonguminine. Piper longum and piperine have multiple biological properties including antioxidant activity. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of PLA in a MPTP-induced mouse model of Parkinson's disease. PLA was prepared by extracting the dry seed of P. longum using 85% ethanol. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were divided into eight groups of 12 rats each. Experimental and control groups received an equivalent volume of saline, 0.5% CMC-Na, and 0.1% Tween 80, treated groups received oral PLA (30, 60, and 120 mg/kg), other groups treated with piperine (60 mg/kg) or Madopar (50 mg/kg). The PLA prevention group (PLA-Pr) administrated PLA (120 mg/kg) for 1 week before MPTP challenged. Except for the PLA-Pr group, others were treated for seven consecutive weeks. Parkinson's disease was induced by injecting MPTP intraperitoneally (25 mg/kg) twice weekly for five consecutive weeks. Dopaminerigic (DA) neurons and their metabolism were detected by UFLC-MS/MS. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunohistochemistry assay and Western blotting were performed. The antioxidant enzymatic levels were determined by kit-based assays. The LD50 value of PLA was determined at 1509 mg/kg of body weight. PLA (60 mg/kg) can significantly increase total movement time and distance (p < 0.05), increase levels of DA (p < 0.05) and DOPAC (p <  .05), increase glutathione (GSH) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (p < 0.05), and decrease the lipid peroxidation of malondiadehycle (MDA) (p < 0.05) in PLA-treated groups as compared with the control group. Our results indicate that PLA possesses neuroprotective effects and has ameliorative properties in dopaminergic neurons.

  11. Persistent penetration of MPTP through the nasal route induces Parkinson's disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Ana I; Montero, Celia; Salazar, María; Close, Ryan M; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Sánchez-González, Miguel A; de Sagarra, María Rosa; Jackson-Lewis, Vernice; Cavada, Carmen; Cuadrado, Antonio

    2006-10-01

    The aetiology of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) is poorly defined but environmental aggression may be relevant. Here, we report a new model of PD in mice, based on chronic inoculation with neurotoxins in the nasal cavity, which is a natural route of contact with the environment. C57BL/6 mice, submitted to daily intranasal inoculation with MPTP for 30 days, developed motor deficits that correlated with a progressive and severe depletion of striatal dopamine levels, and loss of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter staining in substantia nigra and striatum. Moreover, mice intranasally inoculated with MPTP developed strong astrogliosis and microgliosis in substantia nigra and striatum. Consistent with these observations, a role for oxidant aggression was demonstrated by increased levels of Mn-superoxide dismutase. However, alpha-synuclein aggregation was not observed. This new animal model provides a new tool for studying PD symptoms that develop slowly over time, and it may be used to asses risk from environmental neurotoxins.

  12. Protective effects of a polysaccharide from Spirulina platensis on dopaminergic neurons in an MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease model in C57BL/6J mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Ji-guo; Xie, Jun-xia

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether a polysaccharide obtained from Spirulina platensis shows protective effects on dopaminergic neurons. A Parkinson's disease model was established through the intraperitoneal injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in C57BL/6J mice. Prior to the MPTP injection, some mice were pretreated with intraperitoneal injections of a polysaccharide derived from Spirulina platensis once daily for 10 days. The results showed that the immunoreactive staining and mRNA expression of the dopamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, in the substantia nigra, were significantly increased in mice pretreated with 800 mg/kg of the polysaccharide compared with those in MPTP-treated mice. The activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in the serum and midbrain were also increased significantly in mice injected with MPTP after pretreatment with the polysaccharide from Spirulina platensis. By contrast, the activity of monoamine oxidase B in serum and midbrain maintained unchanged. These experimental findings indicate that the polysaccharide obtained from Spirulina platensis plays a protective role against the MPTP-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons in C57BL/6J mice, and that the antioxidative properties of this polysaccharide likely underlie its neuroprotective effect. PMID:25883632

  13. Protective effects of a polysaccharide from Spirulina platensis on dopaminergic neurons in an MPTP-induced Parkinson′s disease model in C57BL/6J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine whether a polysaccharide obtained from Spirulina platensis shows protective effects on dopaminergic neurons. A Parkinson′s disease model was established through the intraperitoneal injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP in C57BL/6J mice. Prior to the MPTP injection, some mice were pretreated with intraperitoneal injections of a polysaccharide derived from Spirulina platensis once daily for 10 days. The results showed that the immunoreactive staining and mRNA expression of the dopamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, in the substantia nigra, were significantly increased in mice pretreated with 800 mg/kg of the polysaccharide compared with those in MPTP-treated mice. The activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in the serum and midbrain were also increased significantly in mice injected with MPTP after pretreatment with the polysaccharide from Spirulina platensis. By contrast, the activity of monoamine oxidase B in serum and midbrain maintained unchanged. These experimental findings indicate that the polysaccharide obtained from Spirulina platensis plays a protective role against the MPTP-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons in C57BL/6J mice, and that the antioxidative properties of this polysaccharide likely underlie its neuroprotective effect.

  14. Influences of Chronic Mild Stress Exposure on Motor, Non-Motor Impairments and Neurochemical Variables in Specific Brain Areas of MPTP/Probenecid Induced Neurotoxicity in Mice.

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    Udaiyappan Janakiraman

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is regarded as a movement disorder mainly affecting the elderly population and occurs due to progressive loss of dopaminergic (DAergic neurons in nigrostriatal pathway. Patients suffer from non-motor symptoms (NMS such as depression, anxiety, fatigue and sleep disorders, which are not well focussed in PD research. Depression in PD is a predominant /complex symptom and its pathology lies exterior to the nigrostriatal system. The main aim of this study is to explore the causative or progressive effect of chronic mild stress (CMS, a paradigm developed as an animal model of depression in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (25 mg/kg. body wt. with probenecid (250 mg/kg, s.c. (MPTP/p induced mice model of PD. After ten i.p. injections (once in 3.5 days for 5 weeks of MPTP/p or exposure to CMS for 4 weeks, the behavioural (motor and non-motor impairments, levels and expressions of dopamine (DA, serotonin (5-HT, DAergic markers such as tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, dopamine transporter (DAT, vesicular monoamine transporters-2 (VMAT 2 and α-synuclein in nigrostriatal (striatum (ST and substantia nigra (SN and extra-nigrostriatal (hippocampus, cortex and cerebellum tissues were analysed. Significantly decreased DA and 5-HT levels, TH, DAT and VMAT 2 expressions and increased motor deficits, anhedonia-like behaviour and α-synuclein expression were found in MPTP/p treated mice. Pre and/or post exposure of CMS to MPTP/p mice further enhanced the MPTP/p induced DA and 5-HT depletion, behaviour abnormalities and protein expressions. Our results could strongly confirm that the exposure of stress after MPTP/p injections worsens the symptoms and neurochemicals status of PD.

  15. The novel tetramethylpyrazine bis-nitrone (TN-2) protects against MPTP/MPP+-induced neurotoxicity via inhibition of mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Daping; Duan, Hongwei; Zhang, Zaijun; Cui, Wei; Wang, Liang; Sun, Yewei; Lang, Ming; Hoi, Pui Man; Han, Yifan; Wang, Yuqiang; Lee, Simon MingYuen

    2014-03-01

    Mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis plays an important role in the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetra- hydropyridine (MPTP), the most widely used neurotoxin to simulate PD, is converted to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) in vivo. MPP(+) induces excessive intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis via sequentially opening mitochondria permeability transition pore (mPTP) to release cytochrome c from mitochondria into cytoplasm and activate pro-apoptotic caspase proteins. We have previously synthesized 2,5-[[(1,1-dimethylethyl)oxidoimino]methyl]-3,6-trimethylpyrazine (TN-2), a novel derivative of the Chinese herb medicine tetramethylpyrazine (TMP). TN-2 is armed with two powerful free radical-scavenging nitrone moieties. TN-2 significantly reversed the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the decrease in dopamine level in the striatum induced by MPTP in mice. TN-2 ameliorated the MPTP-induced decrease of brain superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione concentration and increase of brain malondialdehyde. In addition, TN-2 inhibited MPP(+)-induced neuronal damage/apoptosis in primary cerebellum granular neurons (CGNs) and SH-SY5Y cells. TN-2 decreased excessive intracellular ROS, prevented the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, blocked the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and inhibited the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Moreover, TN-2 treatment increased the mRNA expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ coactivator-1 (PGC- 1α and β) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) in SH-SY5Y cells and CGNs. These results suggest that TN-2 protects dopaminergic neurons against MPTP/MPP(+)-induced neurotoxicity via the inhibition of mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis and possibly via the activation of mitochondrial biogenesis, indicating that TN-2 is a potential

  16. Region-Specific Protein Abundance Changes in the Brain of MPTP-induced Parkinson’s Disease Mouse Model

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    Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Jianying; Chin, Mark H; Schepmoes, Athena A; Petyuk, Vladislav A; Weitz, Karl K; Petritis, Brianne O; Monroe, Matthew E; Camp, David G; Wood, Stephen A; Melega, William P; Bigelow, Diana J; Smith, Desmond J; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D

    2010-02-15

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the nigrostriatal region of the brain; however, the neurodegeneration extends well beyond dopaminergic neurons. To gain a better understanding of the molecular changes relevant to PD, we applied two-dimensional LC-MS/MS to comparatively analyze the proteome changes in four brain regions (striatum, cerebellum, cortex, and the rest of brain) using a MPTP-induced PD mouse model with the objective to identify nigrostriatal-specific and other region-specific protein abundance changes. The combined analyses resulted in the identification of 4,895 non-redundant proteins with at least two unique peptides per protein. The relative abundance changes in each analyzed brain region were estimated based on the spectral count information. A total of 518 proteins were observed with significant MPTP-induced changes across different brain regions. 270 of these proteins were observed with specific changes occurring either only in the striatum and/or in the rest of the brain region that contains substantia nigra, suggesting that these proteins are associated with the underlying nigrostriatal pathways. Many of the proteins that exhibit significant abundance changes were associated with dopamine signaling, mitochondrial dysfunction, the ubiquitin system, calcium signaling, the oxidative stress response, and apoptosis. A set of proteins with either consistent change across all brain regions or with changes specific to the cortex and cerebellum regions were also detected. One of the interesting proteins is ubiquitin specific protease (USP9X), a deubiquination enzyme involved in the protection of proteins from degradation and promotion of the TGF-β pathway, which exhibited altered abundances in all brain regions. Western blot validation showed similar spatial changes, suggesting that USP9X is potentially associated with neurodegeneration. Together, this study for the first time presents an overall picture of

  17. Interleukin-4 Protects Dopaminergic Neurons In vitro but Is Dispensable for MPTP-Induced Neurodegeneration In vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hühner, Laura; Rilka, Jennifer; Gilsbach, Ralf; Zhou, Xiaolai; Machado, Venissa; Spittau, Björn

    2017-01-01

    Microglia are involved in physiological as well as neuropathological processes in the central nervous system (CNS). Their functional states are often referred to as M1-like and M2-like activation, and are believed to contribute to neuroinflammation-mediated neurodegeneration or neuroprotection, respectively. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one the most common neurodegenerative disease and is characterized by the progressive loss of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons in the substantia nigra resulting in bradykinesia, tremor, and rigidity. Interleukin 4 (IL4)-mediated M2-like activation of microglia, which is characterized by upregulation of alternative markers Arginase 1 (Arg1) and Chitinase 3 like 3 (Ym1) has been well studied in vitro but the role of endogenous IL4 during CNS pathologies in vivo is not well understood. Interestingly, microglia activation by IL4 has been described to promote neuroprotective and neurorestorative effects, which might be important to slow the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we addressed the role of endogenous and exogenous IL4 during MPP+-induced degeneration of mDA neurons in vitro and further addressed the impact of IL4-deficiency on neurodegeneration in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD in vivo. Our results clearly demonstrate that exogenous IL4 is important to protect mDA neurons in vitro, but endogenous IL4 seems to be dispensable for development and maintenance of the nigrostriatal system as well as MPTP-induced loss of TH+ neurons in vivo. These results underline the importance of IL4 in promoting a neuroprotective microglia activation state and strengthen the therapeutic potential of exogenous IL4 for protection of mDA neurons in PD models. PMID:28337124

  18. Protective effect of arctigenin against MPP+ and MPTP-induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongwei; Liu, Qingping; Jia, Dong; Dou, Deqiang; Wang, Xiaofei; Kang, Tingguo

    2014-01-01

    The potential protective effects of arctigenin on 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyride-induced neurotoxicity were examined, and the results indicated that arctigenin could improve the movement behaviors and upregulate dopamine and γ-aminobutyric acid levels in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyride-induced neurotoxicity mouse model. A further in vitro experiment showed that the pretreatment with arctigenin on cultured human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells could obviously attenuate the decrease of cell survival rates caused by treatment with 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion by way of acting against cell apoptosis through the decrease of Bax/Bcl-2 and caspase-3, and by antioxidative action through reduction of the surplus reactive oxygen species production and downregulation of mitochondrial membrane potential. It is for the first time that a neuroprotective activity of arctigenin in both in vitro and in vivo experiments was reported, enlightening that arctigenin could be useful as a potential therapeutic agent for Parkinson's disease.

  19. Hsp70 gene transfer by adeno-associated virus inhibits MPTP-induced nigrostriatal degeneration in the mouse model of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhizhong; Wolfer, David P; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Büeler, Hansruedi

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress have been implicated in Parkinson disease (PD). In addition, genetic evidence points to an important role of protein misfolding, aggregation, and failure in the proteasomal degradation of specific neuronal proteins in the pathogenesis of PD. The chaperone heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) reduces protein misfolding and aggregation and protects cells against a variety of adverse conditions, including oxidative stress. Moreover, Hsp70 exerts antiapoptotic activity by blocking the function of several key proapoptotic factors. Recently, Hsp70 was shown to inhibit alpha-synuclein toxicity in a Drosophila model of inherited PD. Here we tested the potential of Hsp70 (approved gene symbol HSPA1A) for gene therapy in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of idiopathic PD. We show that Hsp70 gene transfer to dopamine neurons by a recombinant adeno-associated virus significantly protects the mouse dopaminergic system against MPTP-induced dopamine neuron loss and the associated decline in striatal dopamine levels and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive fibers. Hsp70 reduced MPTP-induced apoptosis in the substantia nigra, and unilateral protection of the dopaminergic system by Hsp70 was associated with increased amphetamine-induced turning toward the uninjected side. Collectively, these results suggest that increasing chaperone activity may be beneficial for the treatment of idiopathic PD.

  20. Antioxidant Formulae, Shengmai San, and LingGuiZhuGanTang, Prevent MPTP Induced Brain Dysfunction and Oxidative Damage in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the preventive effect of antioxidative traditional oriental medicine formulae, Shengmai San (SMS) and LingGuiZhuGanTang (LGZGT), against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) (i.p 30 mg·kg−1 for 5 consecutive days) induced neurotoxicity. In in vitro antioxidant assays measured with Trolox and butyl hydroxyl toluene as reference antioxidant revealed that SMS has higher scavenging potential against hydroxyl radical than superoxide anion r...

  1. A disruption mechanism of the molecular clock in a MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Akane; Matsunaga, Naoya; Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Kakimoto, Keisuke; Kimura, Yoshinori; Azuma, Hiroki; Ikeda, Eriko; Shiba, Takeshi; Yamato, Mayumi; Yamada, Ken-Ichi; Koyanagi, Satoru; Ohdo, Shigehiro

    2013-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and dopamine depletion in the striatum. Although the motor symptoms are still regarded as the main problem, non-motor symptoms in PD also markedly impair the quality of life. Several non-motor symptoms, such as sleep disturbances and depression, are suggested to be implicated in the alteration in circadian clock function. In this study, we investigated circadian disruption and the mechanism in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. MPTP-treated mice exhibited altered 24-h rhythms in body temperature and locomotor activity. In addition, MPTP treatment also affected the circadian clock system at the genetic level. The exposure of human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) to 1-metyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) increased or decreased the mRNA levels of several clock genes in a dose-dependent manner. MPP(+)-induced changes in clock genes expression were reversed by Compound C, an inhibitor of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Most importantly, addition of ATP to the drinking water of MPTP-treated mice attenuated neurodegeneration in dopaminergic neurons, suppressed AMPK activation and prevented circadian disruption. The present findings suggest that the activation of AMPK caused circadian dysfunction, and ATP may be a novel therapeutic strategy based on the molecular clock in PD.

  2. Protective effects of a polysaccharide fromSpirulina platensis on dopaminergic neurons in an MPTP-induced Parkinson’s disease model in C57BL/6J mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Zhang; Jian Lu; Ji-guo Zhang; Jun-xia Xie

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether a polysaccharide obtained fromSpirulina platensis shows protective effects on dopaminergic neurons. A Parkinson’s disease model was established through the intraperitoneal injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyr-idine (MPTP) in C57BL/6J mice. Prior to the MPTP injection, some mice were pretreated with intraperitoneal injections of a polysaccharide derived fromSpirulina platensis once daily for 10 days. The results showed that the immunoreactive staining and mRNA expression of the dopa-mine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, in the substantia nigra, were signiifcantly increased in mice pretreated with 800 mg/kg of the poly-saccharide compared with those in MPTP-treated mice. The activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in the serum and midbrain were also increased signiifcantly in mice injected with MPTP after pretreatment with the polysaccharide fromSpirulina platensis. By con-trast, the activity of monoamine oxidase B in serum and midbrain maintained unchanged. These experimental ifndings indicate that the polysaccharide obtained fromSpirulina platensis plays a protective role against the MPTP-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons in C57BL/6J mice, and that the antioxidative properties of this polysaccharide likely underlie its neuroprotective effect.

  3. Neuroprotective Effects of β-Caryophyllene against Dopaminergic Neuron Injury in a Murine Model of Parkinson’s Disease Induced by MPTP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Viveros-Paredes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders and is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN. Although the causes of PD are not understood, evidence suggests that its pathogenesis is associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Recent studies have suggested a protective role of the cannabinoid signalling system in PD. β-caryophyllene (BCP is a natural bicyclic sesquiterpene that is an agonist of the cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB2R. Previous studies have suggested that BCP exerts prophylactic and/or curative effects against inflammatory bowel disease through its antioxidative and/or anti-inflammatory action. The present study describes the neuroprotective effects of BCP in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP-induced murine model of PD, and we report the results of our investigation of its neuroprotective mechanism in neurons and glial cells. In the murine model, BCP pretreatment ameliorated motor dysfunction, protected against dopaminergic neuronal losses in the SN and striatum, and alleviated MPTP-induced glia activation. Additionally, BCP inhibited the levels of inflammatory cytokines in the nigrostriatal system. The observed neuroprotection and inhibited glia activation were reversed upon treatment with the CB2R selective antagonist AM630, confirming the involvement of the CB2R. These results indicate that BCP acts via multiple neuroprotective mechanisms in our murine model and suggest that BCP may be viewed as a potential treatment and/or preventative agent for PD.

  4. Comparison of the neuroprotective potential of Mucuna pruriens seed extract with estrogen in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Satyndra Kumar; Prakash, Jay; Chouhan, Shikha; Westfall, Susan; Verma, Mradul; Singh, Tryambak Deo; Singh, Surya Pratap

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disease found in the aging population. Currently, many studies are being conducted to find a suitable and effective cure for PD, with an emphasis on the use of herbal plants. In Ayurveda, Mucuna pruriens (Mp), a leguminous plant, is used as an anti-inflammatory drug. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of an ethanolic extract of Mp seed is evaluated in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of PD and compared to estrogen, a well reported neuroprotective agent used for treating PD. Twenty-four Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into four groups: Control, MPTP, MPTP+Mp and MPTP+estrogen. The behavioural recovery in both Mp and estrogen treated mice was investigated using the rotarod, foot printing and hanging tests. The recovery of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) region was estimated by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), immunostaining. Additionally inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity was evaluated to assess the level of oxidative damage and glial activation respectively. The levels of dopamine and its metabolite in the nigrostriatal region were measured by HPLC. Mp treatment restored all the deficits induced by MPTP more effectively than estrogen. Mp treatment recovered the number of TH-positive cells in both the SN region and the striatum while reducing the expression of iNOS and GFAP in the SN. Treatment with Mp significantly increased the levels of dopamine, DOPAC and homovanillic acid compared to MPTP intoxicated mice. Notably, the effect of Mp was greater than that elicited by estrogen. Mp down regulates NO production, neuroinflammation and microglial activation and all of these actions contribute to Mp's neuroprotective activity. These results suggest that Mp can be an effective treatment for neurodegenerative diseases, especially PD by decreasing oxidative stress and possibly by

  5. Parkinson-like syndrome induced by continuous MPTP infusion: Convergent roles of the ubiquitin-proteasome system and α-synuclein

    OpenAIRE

    Fornai, Francesco; Schlüter, Oliver M.; Lenzi, Paola; Gesi, Marco; Ruffoli, Riccardo; Ferrucci, Michela; Lazzeri, Gloria; Busceti, Carla L.; Pontarelli, Fabrizio; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Pellegrini, Antonio; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Ruggieri, Stefano; Paparelli, Antonio; Südhof, Thomas C.

    2005-01-01

    In animals, sporadic injections of the mitochondrial toxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) selectively damage dopaminergic neurons but do not fully reproduce the features of human Parkinson's disease. We have now developed a mouse Parkinson's disease model that is based on continuous MPTP administration with an osmotic minipump and mimics many features of the human disease. Although both sporadic and continuous MPTP administration led to severe striatal dopamine depletion ...

  6. Quantitative analysis of the therapeutic effect of magnolol on MPTP-induced mouse model of Parkinson’s disease using in vivo 18F-9-fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine PET imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ko-Ting; Ee, Ting-Wei; Lin, Kun-Ju; Chan, Ming-Huan; Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Kung, Mei-Ping; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2017-01-01

    18F-9-Fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine [18F-FP-(+)-DTBZ] positron emission tomography (PET) has been shown to detect dopaminergic neuron loss associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD) in human and neurotoxin-induced animal models. A polyphenol compound, magnolol, was recently proposed as having a potentially restorative effect in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)- or 6-hydroxydopamine-treated animal models. In this study, 18F-FP-(+)-DTBZ PET was used to determine the therapeutic efficacy of magnolol in an MPTP–PD mouse model that was prepared by giving an intraperitoneally (i.p.) daily dose of 25 mg/kg MPTP to male C57BL/6 mice for 5 consecutive days. Twenty-minute static 18F-FP-(+)-DTBZ PET scans were performed before MPTP treatment and 5 days after the termination of MPTP treatment to set up the baseline control. Half of the MPTP-treated mice then received a daily dose of magnolol (10 mg/kg dissolved in corn oil, i.p.) for 6 days. 18F-FP-(+)-DTBZ PET imaging was performed the day after the final treatment. All 18F-FP-(+)-DTBZ PET images were analysed and the specific uptake ratio (SUr) was calculated. Ex vivo autoradiography (ARG) and corresponding immunohistochemistry (IHC) studies were conducted to confirm the distribution of dopaminergic terminals in the striatum. The striatal SUr ratios of 18F-FP-(+)-DTBZ PET images for the Sham, the MPTP, and the MPTP + Magnolol-treated groups were 1.25 ± 0.05, 0.75 ± 0.06, and 1.00 ± 0.11, respectively (n = 4 for each group). The ex vivo 18F-FP-(+)-DTBZ ARG and IHC results correlated favourably with the PET imaging results. 18F-FP-(+)-DTBZ PET imaging suggested that magnolol post-treatment may reverse the neuronal damage in the MPTP-lesioned PD mice. In vivo imaging of the striatal vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2) distribution using 18F-FP-(+)-DTBZ animal PET is a useful method to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic drugs i.e., magnolol, for the management of PD. PMID:28257461

  7. Neuroprotective changes in degeneration-related gene expression in the substantia nigra following acupuncture in an MPTP mouse model of Parkinsonism: Microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujung Yeo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the death of dopamine-generating cells in the substantia nigra (SN. Acupuncture stimulation results in an enhanced survival of dopaminergic neurons in the SN in Parkinsonism animal models. The present study investigated changes in gene expression profiles measured using whole transcript array in the SN region related to the inhibitory effects of acupuncture in a chronic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP Parkinsonism model. In this model, acupuncture stimulation at GB34 and LR3 attenuated the decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase in the SN region; stimulation at non-acupoints did not suppress this decrease. Gene array analysis revealed that 22 (10 annotated genes: Cdh1, Itih2, Mpzl2, Rdh9, Serping1, Slc6a13, Slc6a20a, Slc6a4, Tph2, and Ucma probes that were up-regulated in MPTP animals relative to controls were exclusively down-regulated by acupuncture stimulation. In addition, 17 (two annotated genes: 4921530L21Rik and Gm13931 probes that were down-regulated in MPTP animals compared to controls were exclusively up-regulated by acupuncture stimulation. These findings indicate that the 39 probes (12 annotated genes affected by MPTP and acupuncture may be responsible for the inhibitory effects of acupuncture on degeneration-related gene expression in the SN following damage induced by MPTP intoxication.

  8. Neuroprotective changes in degeneration-related gene expression in the substantia nigra following acupuncture in an MPTP mouse model of Parkinsonism: Microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Sujung; An, Keon Sang; Hong, Yeon-Mi; Choi, Yeong-Gon; Rosen, Bruce; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lim, Sabina

    2015-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the death of dopamine-generating cells in the substantia nigra (SN). Acupuncture stimulation results in an enhanced survival of dopaminergic neurons in the SN in Parkinsonism animal models. The present study investigated changes in gene expression profiles measured using whole transcript array in the SN region related to the inhibitory effects of acupuncture in a chronic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) Parkinsonism model. In this model, acupuncture stimulation at GB34 and LR3 attenuated the decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase in the SN region; stimulation at non-acupoints did not suppress this decrease. Gene array analysis revealed that 22 (10 annotated genes: Cdh1, Itih2, Mpzl2, Rdh9, Serping1, Slc6a13, Slc6a20a, Slc6a4, Tph2, and Ucma) probes that were up-regulated in MPTP animals relative to controls were exclusively down-regulated by acupuncture stimulation. In addition, 17 (two annotated genes: 4921530L21Rik and Gm13931) probes that were down-regulated in MPTP animals compared to controls were exclusively up-regulated by acupuncture stimulation. These findings indicate that the 39 probes (12 annotated genes) affected by MPTP and acupuncture may be responsible for the inhibitory effects of acupuncture on degeneration-related gene expression in the SN following damage induced by MPTP intoxication.

  9. The parkinsonian toxin MPTP: action and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przedborski, Serge; Jackson-Lewis, Vernice; Djaldetti, Ruth; Liberatore, Gabriel; Vila, Miquel; Vukosavic, Slobodanka; Almer, Gabrielle

    2000-01-01

    MPTP causes damage to substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) dopaminergic (DA) neurons as seen in Parkinson's disease (PD). After sys-temic administration of MPTP, its active metabolite, MPP +, accumulates within SNpc DA neurons, where it inhibits ATP production and stim-ulates superoxide radical formation. The produced superoxide radicals react with nitric oxide (NO) to produce peroxynitrite, a highly reactive tissue-damaging species that damages proteins by oxidation and nitration. Only selected proteins appear nitrated, and among these, is found tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate limiting enzyme in DA synthesis. The process of nitration inactivates TH and, consequently dopamine pro-duction. Peroxynitrite also nicks DNA, which, in turn, activates poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). PARP activation consumes ATP, and thus acutely depletes cell energy stores. This latter event aggravates the preexisting energy failure due to MPP + -induced mitochondrial respira-tion blockade and precipitates cell death. Altogether, these findings support the view that MPTP's deleterious cascade of events include mito-chondrial respiration deficit, oxidative stress, and energy failure. Because of the similarity between the MPTP mouse model and PD, it is tempting to propose that a similar scenario applies to the pathogenesis of PD.

  10. Study of apoptosis pattern of dopaminergic neurons and neuroprotective effect of nicotine in MPTP mouse model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Hu; Wei Cao; Shenggang Sun

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons and the protective effect of nicotine in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Methods :The mouse model of Parkinson's disease were formed by MPTP (30 mg/kg/d×7, i.p.); and the loss and apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons was observed by Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH) and TUNEL stains. In "Nicotime plus MPTP" group, mice were pretreated with nicotine before MPTP injection. The putative protective effect of nicotine was analyzed. Results:The number of TH-positive cells decreased during MPTP treatment. Apoptotic neurons began to appear after three injections of MPTP and peaked on the 8th day.In the MPTP-intoxicated mice treated with nicotine, the loss of TH-positive cells was significantly less than that of MPTP-treated group (30 mg/kg/d×7)(P < 0.05). Conclusion:The chronic treatment of MPTP can induce the apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra, and nicotine might have a neuroprotecitve effect on dopaminergic neurons against MPTP toxicity.

  11. Ginsenoside Rg1 Attenuates Isoflurane-induced Caspase-3 Activation via Inhibiting Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Hui Hui; ZHEN Yu; DING Guan Nan; HONG Fang Xiao; XIE Zhong Cong; TIAN Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective The inhalation anesthetic isoflurane has been shown to induce mitochondrial dysfunction and caspase activation, which may lead to learning and memory impairment. Ginsenoside Rg1 is reported to be neuroprotective. We therefore set out to determine whether ginsenoside Rg1 can attenuate isoflurane-induced caspase activation via inhibiting mitochondrial dysfunction. Methods We investigated the effects of ginsenoside Rg1 at concentrations of 12.5, 25, and 50 µmol/L and pretreatment times of 12 h and 24 h on isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation in H4 naïve and stably transfected H4 human neuroglioma cells that express full-length human amyloid precursor protein (APP) (H4-APP cells). For mitochondrial dysfunction, we assessed mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) and adenosine-5’-triphosphate (ATP) levels. We employed Western blot analysis, chemiluminescence, and flowcytometry. Results Here we show that pretreatment with 50 µmol/L ginsenoside Rg1 for 12 h attenuated isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation and mitochondrial dysfunction in H4-APP cells, while pretreatment with 25 and 50 µmol/L ginsenoside Rg1 for 24 h attenuated isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation and mitochondrial dysfunction in both H4 naïve and H4-APP cells. Conclusion These data suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 may ameliorate isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation by inhibiting mitochondrial dysfunction. Pending further studies, these findings might recommend the use of ginsenoside Rg1 in preventing and treating isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity.

  12. Metformin, besides exhibiting strong in vivo anti-inflammatory properties, increases mptp-induced damage to the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaiel, Afrah A K; Espinosa-Oliva, Ana M; Santiago, Martiniano; García-Quintanilla, Albert; Oliva-Martín, María J; Herrera, Antonio J; Venero, José L; de Pablos, Rocío M

    2016-05-01

    Metformin is a widely used oral antidiabetic drug with known anti-inflammatory properties due to its action on AMPK protein. This drug has shown a protective effect on various tissues, including cortical neurons. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of metformin on the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra of mice using the animal model of Parkinson's disease based on the injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial complex I. In vivo and in vitro experiments were used to study the activation of microglia and the damage of the dopaminergic neurons. Our results show that metformin reduced microglial activation measured both at cellular and molecular levels. Rather than protecting, metformin exacerbated dopaminergic damage in response to MPTP. Our data suggest that, contrary to other brain structures, metformin treatment could be deleterious for the dopaminergic system. Hence, metformin treatment may be considered as a risk factor for the development of Parkinson's disease.

  13. Inhibitive Effect of Magnolol Against MPTP-Induced Apoptosis in PC12 Cells%厚朴酚对MPTP诱导PC12细胞凋亡的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢印根; 林泉峰; 徐焱; 黄小丽

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the inhibition of magnolol on the apoptosis of PC 12 cell induced by MPTP and its mechanism. Method: Magnolol (final concentration 0.1, 10 μmol·L-1) and /or MPTP ( final concentration 50, 100, 150, 200 μmol·L-1) were added into the culture of PC12 cells. The cell viability was detected with MTT method, apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry and Bcl-2/Bax ratio was detected by western blot. Result: Cell viability was declined sharply by MPTP with different concentrations, the pre-treatment of magnolol 0. 1-10 μmol·L-1 could significantly increase the PC12 cell viability, apoptosis and the decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Conclusion: Magnolol may inhibit the cell damage induced by MPTP and the mechanism is likely related to inhibition to expression of Bcl-2/Bax.%探讨厚朴酚( mangolol,Mag)对1-甲基-4-苯基-1,2,3,6-四氢吡啶(MPTP)诱导PC12细胞凋亡的抑制作用及可能作用机制.方法 将厚朴酚(终浓度0.1,10 μmol· L-1)或/和MPTP(终浓度50,100,150,200 μmol·L-1)加入到培养的PC12细胞中.四甲基偶氮唑盐法(MTT法)检测细胞增殖活性,用流式细胞仪检测细胞凋亡率,以及Western -blot法检测Bax和Bcl-2的蛋白表达变化.结果 在加入不同浓度的MPTP处理细胞24 h,细胞增殖活性渐次降低,而厚朴酚0.1~10μmol·L-1预处理1h可明显减轻MPTP导致的PC12细胞的损伤,抑制细胞凋亡,以及Bcl-2/Bax比值的改变.结论 厚朴酚对MPTP诱导的PC12细胞凋亡损伤有一定的抑制作用,其作用机制涉及到影响细胞内Bcl-2/Bax蛋白的表达.

  14. Cold water stress attenuates dopaminergic neurotoxicity induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingfeng Xia; Minjuan Bian; Qian Yu; Jie Liu; Yufang Huang; Xueting Jin; Shiduo Lu; Mei Yu; Fang Huang

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we tested the effect of cold water stress (CWS) on dopaminergic neurons in 1-methyl4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinsou's disease (PD) mouse model, and found that CWS pretreatment elicited less MPTP neurotoxicity.To understand the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we detected the expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the striatum of the experimental mice, and found that CWS pretreatment could significantly increase striatal Hsp70 in MPTP-treated mice.Furthermore, in parallel with the induction of Hsp70, the MPTP-induced increase of striatal o-synuclein was inhibited in the CWS + MPTP-treated mice.CWS pretreatment also significantly inhibited the reduction of anti-apoptotic molecule Bcl-2 expression in the striatum and enhanced Bcl-2 transcription in the substantia nigra of MPTP-treated mice.Taken together, these data indicated that Hsp70 might be an important intermediate for the neuroprotective effect of CWS against MPTP-induced dopaminergic toxicity.

  15. Bioenergetic Approaches and Inflammation in MPTP Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    gliosis, heat shock protein 70, Hunt- 48% loss of dopaminergic neurons induced by MPTP in the ington, inflammation, Parkinson . substantia nigra pars...et al. 2001; tumor necrosis factor-o. © 2005 International Society for Neurochemistry , J. Neurochem. (2005) 94, 995-1004 995 996 C. Cleren et al. 1986...ndokTUA injection was perfonned 6 h after the first injection. Mice were © 2005 International Society for Neurochemistry , J. Neurochem. (2005) 94

  16. Gypenosides ameliorate memory deficits in MPTP-lesioned mouse model of Parkinson's disease treated with L-DOPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ting Ting; Kim, Kyung Sook; Shin, Keon Sung; Park, Hyun Jin; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Lee, Kyung Eun; Lee, Myung Koo

    2017-09-06

    Previous studies have revealed that gypenosides (GPS) improve the symptoms of anxiety disorders in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). The present study aimed to investigate the effects of GPS on memory deficits in an MPTP-lesioned mouse model of PD treated with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA). MPTP (30 mg/kg/day, 5 days)-lesioned mice were treated with GPS (50 mg/kg) and/or L-DOPA (10 and 25 mg/kg) for 21 days. After the final treatments, behavioral changes were assessed in all mice using passive avoidance and elevated plus-maze tests. We then evaluated the biochemical influences of GPS treatment on levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), and cyclic AMP-response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. MPTP-lesioned mice exhibited deficits associated with habit learning and spatial memory, which were further aggravated by treatment with L-DOPA (25 mg/kg). However, treatment with GPS (50 mg/kg) ameliorated memory deficits. Treatment with GPS (50 mg/kg) also improved L-DOPA (25 mg/kg)-treated MPTP lesion-induced decreases in retention latency on the passive avoidance test, as well as levels of TH-immunopositive cells and dopamine in the substantia nigra and striatum. GPS treatment also attenuated increases in retention transfer latency on the elevated plus-maze test and in NMDA receptor expression, as well as decreases in the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and CREB in the hippocampus. Treatment with L-DOPA (10 mg/kg) also ameliorated deficits in habit learning and spatial memory in MPTP-lesioned mice, and this effect was further enhanced by treatment with GPS (50 mg/kg). GPS ameliorate deficits in habit learning and spatial memory by modulating the dopaminergic neuronal and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated signaling systems in MPTP-lesioned mice treated with L-DOPA. GPS may serve as an adjuvant

  17. Swim-test as a function of motor impairment in MPTP model of Parkinson's disease: a comparative study in two mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haobam, Reena; Sindhu, Kizhakke M; Chandra, Goutam; Mohanakumar, Kochupurackal P

    2005-09-08

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease that exhibits motor dysfunctions, such as tremor, akinesia and rigidity. In the present study, we investigated whether swim-test could be used as one of the behavioural monitoring techniques to study motor disability in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced parkinsonism in two mouse strains, Balb/c and C57BL/6. Mice were treated with different doses of MPTP (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg, twice, 16 h apart), and were subjected to swim-test on the third day of the first MPTP injection. MPTP-induced tremor was monitored at 30 min, and akinesia and rigidity developed were studied 3 h after the second MPTP treatment. While tremor and akinesia produced were dose-dependent and the intensity of tremor was comparable in the two strains of mice studied, the latter response in C57BL/6 was significantly lesser than that observed in Balb/c. Rigidity exhibited in Balb/c mice were dose-dependent, but not in C57BL/6. There was observed an inverse relationship between swim-score and the doses of MPTP in both the strains. MPTP caused a significant and dose-dependent reduction in striatal dopamine level in both the strains of mice, when assayed on the fourth day employing an HPLC with electrochemical detector. A significant positive correlation existed (r = 0.94 for Balb/c and r = 0.82 for C57BL/6) for the striatal dopamine-depletion and the swim-score in the MPTP-treated mice. While swim deficit and striatal dopamine loss were long lasting (till the third week) in C57BL/6, in Balb/c mice the motor deficit showed recovery by the second week. In these animals, a significant attenuation in striatal dopamine loss was observed by the third week. These results indicate that swim ability is directly proportional to striatal dopamine content, and suggest that swim-test could be used as a major technique to monitor motor dysfunction in experimental animals.

  18. Agmatine attenuates silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Agamy, D S; Sharawy, M H; Ammar, E M

    2014-06-01

    There is a large body of evidence that nitric oxide (NO) formation is implicated in mediating silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis. As a reactive free radical, NO may not only contribute to lung parenchymal tissue injury but also has the ability to combine with superoxide and form a highly reactive toxic species peroxynitrite that can induce extensive cellular toxicity in the lung tissues. This study aimed to explore the effect of agmatine, a known NO synthase inhibitor, on silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were treated with agmatine for 60 days following a single intranasal instillation of silica suspension (50 mg in 0.1 ml saline/rat). The results revealed that agmatine attenuated silica-induced lung inflammation as it decreased the lung wet/dry weight ratio, protein concentration, and the accumulation of the inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Agmatine showed antifibrotic activity as it decreased total hydroxyproline content of the lung and reduced silica-mediated lung inflammation and fibrosis in lung histopathological specimen. In addition, agmatine significantly increased superoxide dismutase (p pulmonary nitrite/nitrate as well as tumor necrosis factor α. Collectively, these results demonstrate the protective effects of agmatine against the silica-induced lung fibrosis that may be attributed to its ability to counteract the NO production, lipid peroxidation, and regulate cytokine effects.

  19. Neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties of a coffee component in the MPTP model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang-Woo; Im, Joo-Young; Woo, Jong-Min; Grosso, Hilary; Kim, Yoon-Seong; Cristovao, Ana Clara; Sonsalla, Patricia K; Schuster, David S; Jalbut, Marla M; Fernandez, Jose R; Voronkov, Michael; Junn, Eunsung; Braithwaite, Steven P; Stock, Jeffry B; Mouradian, M Maral

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of coffee is associated with reduced risk of Parkinson's disease (PD), an effect that has largely been attributed to caffeine. However, coffee contains numerous components that may also be neuroprotective. One of these compounds is eicosanoyl-5-hydroxytryptamide (EHT), which ameliorates the phenotype of α-synuclein transgenic mice associated with decreased protein aggregation and phosphorylation, improved neuronal integrity and reduced neuroinflammation. Here, we sought to investigate if EHT has an effect in the MPTP model of PD. Mice fed a diet containing EHT for four weeks exhibited dose-dependent preservation of nigral dopaminergic neurons following MPTP challenge compared to animals given control feed. Reductions in striatal dopamine and tyrosine hydroxylase content were also less pronounced with EHT treatment. The neuroinflammatory response to MPTP was markedly attenuated, and indices of oxidative stress and JNK activation were significantly prevented with EHT. In cultured primary microglia and astrocytes, EHT had a direct anti-inflammatory effect demonstrated by repression of lipopolysaccharide-induced NFκB activation, iNOS induction, and nitric oxide production. EHT also exhibited a robust anti-oxidant activity in vitro. Additionally, in SH-SY5Y cells, MPP(+)-induced demethylation of phosphoprotein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), the master regulator of the cellular phosphoregulatory network, and cytotoxicity were ameliorated by EHT. These findings indicate that the neuroprotective effect of EHT against MPTP is through several mechanisms including its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities as well as its ability to modulate the methylation and hence activity of PP2A. Our data, therefore, reveal a strong beneficial effect of a novel component of coffee in multiple endpoints relevant to PD.

  20. Plasmalogen Augmentation Reverses Striatal Dopamine Loss in MPTP Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Miville-Godbout

    Full Text Available Plasmalogens are a class of glycerophospholipids shown to play critical roles in membrane structure and function. Decreased plasmalogens are reported in the brain and blood of Parkinson's disease (PD patients. The present study investigated the hypothesis that augmenting plasmalogens could protect striatal dopamine neurons that degenerate in response to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP treatment in mice, a PD model. First, in a pre-treatment experiment male mice were treated for 10 days with the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA-plasmalogen precursor PPI-1011 (10, 50 and 200 mg/kg. On day 5 mice received MPTP and were killed on day 11. Next, in a post-treatment study, male mice were treated with MPTP and then received daily for 5 days PPI-1011 (5, 10 and 50 mg/kg. MPTP treatment reduced serum plasmalogen levels, striatal contents of dopamine (DA and its metabolites, serotonin, DA transporter (DAT and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2. Pre-treatment with PPI-1011 (10 and 50 mg/kg prevented all MPTP-induced effects. Positive correlations were measured between striatal DA contents and serum plasmalogen levels as well as striatal DAT and VMAT2 specific binding. Post-treatment with PPI-1011 prevented all MPTP-induced effects at 50 mg/kg but not at lower doses. Positive correlations were measured between striatal DA contents and serum plasmalogen levels as well as striatal DAT and VMAT2 specific binding in the post-treatment experiment. PPI-1011 treatment (10 days at 5, 10 and 50 mg/kg of intact mice left unchanged striatal biogenic amine contents. These data demonstrate that treatment with a plasmalogen precursor is capable of protecting striatal dopamine markers in an animal model of PD.

  1. Neuroprotection by caffeine in the MPTP model of parkinson's disease and its dependence on adenosine A2A receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, K; Di Luca, D G; Orrú, M; Xu, Y; Chen, J-F; Schwarzschild, M A

    2016-05-13

    Considerable epidemiological and laboratory data have suggested that caffeine, a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist, may protect against the underlying neurodegeneration of parkinson's disease (PD). Although both caffeine and more specific antagonists of the A2A subtype of adenosine receptor (A2AR) have been found to confer protection in animal models of PD, the dependence of caffeine's neuroprotective effects on the A2AR is not known. To definitively determine its A2AR dependence, the effect of caffeine on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetra-hydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxicity was compared in wild-type (WT) and A2AR gene global knockout (A2A KO) mice, as well as in central nervous system (CNS) cell type-specific (conditional) A2AR knockout (cKO) mice that lack the receptor either in postnatal forebrain neurons or in astrocytes. In WT and in heterozygous A2AR KO mice caffeine pretreatment (25mg/kgip) significantly attenuated MPTP-induced depletion of striatal dopamine. By contrast in homozygous A2AR global KO mice caffeine had no effect on MPTP toxicity. In forebrain neuron A2AR cKO mice, caffeine lost its locomotor stimulant effect, whereas its neuroprotective effect was mostly preserved. In astrocytic A2AR cKO mice, both caffeine's locomotor stimulant and protective properties were undiminished. Taken together, these results indicate that neuroprotection by caffeine in the MPTP model of PD relies on the A2AR, although the specific cellular localization of these receptors remains to be determined.

  2. Isobavachalcone Attenuates MPTP-Induced Parkinson's Disease in Mice by Inhibition of Microglial Activation through NF-κB Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Jing, Haoran; Wang, Shaoxia; Min WANG; Fu, Wenliang; Zhang, Chao; Xu, Donggang

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex multi-system and age-related neurodegenerative disorder. The intervention targeting neuroinflammation in PD patients is one effective strategy to slow down or inhibit disease progression. Microglia-mediated inflammatory response plays an important role in Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and other cerebral diseases. Isobavachalcone is a main component of Chinese herb medicine Psoralea corylifolia, which function includes immunoregulation, anti-oxidation and the r...

  3. Endothelium attenuates ethanol induced vasoconstriction of arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morley, D.; Bove, A.A.; Walter, J. (Temple School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1990-02-26

    The authors have previously demonstrated that clinically relevant doses of ethanol (ETH) caused significant vasoconstriction of rabbit thoracic aorta. This study examined the role of endothelium in ethanol vasoconstriction. Thoracic aorta was harvested from 3 New Zealand White rabbits after anesthetization with sodium pentobarbital. Twelve aortic 3 mm rings were mounted in organ baths attached to force transducers and recording apparatus. Six of the twelve rings were denuded. Denudation was confirmed by challenge with acetylcholine (10-4 M). Resting tension was set at 10 grams and the rings equilibrated in 37 C Krebs-Heinsleit solution for 2 hours. Then, the response to norepinephrine (NE) was established (10-8 to 10-5 M). After reattaining resting tension, the response to ETH (500-2,500 ug/ml) was recorded. ETH produced significant vasoconstriction in both non-denuded (48{plus minus}7% of NE max) and denuded (58{plus minus}2% of NE max) arteries. Vasoconstriction was significantly higher in the denuded condition. The authors conclude that the predominant ETH action on arteries is based in vascular smooth muscle although endothelium acts to attenuate the ETH induced vasoconstrictor response.

  4. Effects of treadmill exercise on hippocampal neurogenesis in an MPTP /probenecid-induced Parkinson's disease mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Yun-Hee

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of treadmill exercise on non-motor function, specifically long-term memory, in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/probenecid-induced Parkinson's disease mouse model. [Methods] A mouse model of Parkinson's disease was developed by injecting 20 mg/kg of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine and 250 mg/kg of probenecid (P). We divided in into four groups: probenecid group, probenecid-exercise group, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/probenecid group, and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/probenecid-exercise group. Mice in the exercise groups ran on treadmill for 30 min/day, five times per week for 4 weeks. [Results] Latency in the passive avoidance test increased in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/probenecid-exercise group compared with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/probenecid group. In addition, the number of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine/NeuN-positive cells and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine/doublecortin-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was higher in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/probenecid-exercise group than that in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/probenecid group. These changes were associated with the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that treadmill exercise may improve long-term memory in Parkinson's disease mice by facilitating neurogenesis via increased expression of neurotrophic factors.

  5. Neuroprotective effects of piperine on the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced Parkinson's disease mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Chen, Yu-Hua; Liu, Hao; Qu, Hong-Dang

    2015-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is second only to Alzheimer's disease as the most common and debilitating age-associated neurodegenerative disorder. Currently, no therapy has been shown to unequivocally retard or arrest the progression of the disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of piperine on the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6‑tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinson's mouse model. For MPTP treatment, the animals received repeated intraperitoneal injections (i.p.) of MPTP (30 mg/kg) solution for 7 days. Piperine (10 mg/kg) was administered orally for 15 days including 8 days of pretreatment. Motor behavior analysis was conducted with the rotarod test. The Morris water maze (MWM) was used to assess the cognitive learning ability of the mice. A histological examination was subsequently conducted. The results ddemonstrate that piperine treatment attenuated MPTP-induced deficits in motor coordination and cognitive functioning. Piperine also prevented MPTP-induced decreases in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells in the substantia nigra. Additionally, piperine reduced the number of activated microglia, expression of cytokine IL-1β, and oxidative stress following MPTP treatment. An anti-apoptotic property of piperine was identified by maintaining the balance of Bcl-2/Bax. In conclusion, the results show that piperine exerts a protective effect on dopaminergic neurons via antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory mechanisms in an MPTP-induced mouse model of PD. Thus, piperine is a potential therapeutic treatment for PD.

  6. MPTP所致急性帕金森病小鼠焦虑行为的评价%Evaluation of the anxiety behavior in acute PD mice induced by MPTP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶素贞; 张书平; 施剑; 梁艳; 黄汉津

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the anxious behavior in acute parkinson's mice that were induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) injection.Methods Twenty mice were randomly divided into the control group (n =10) and model group(n =10);The model group was induced by injecting MPTP dosage,and the control group was induced by the same dose of saline.The anxious behaviors in mice were tested by the elevated plus-maze test and the light/dark box.Results The model group mice spent a longer time than the control group in the dark box (P < 0.05).The open arm entry (OE),open arm time (OT) and OE% of model group was significantly less than that in control group in the elevated plus-maze test (P < 0.01),the OT% was significantly less than control group (P <0.05).Conclusions Anxiety symptoms appeared in the model group of early parkinson disease (PD)mice.%目的 研究1-甲基-4-苯基-1,2,3,6-四氢吡啶(MPTP)所致急性帕金森病(PD)小鼠模型的焦虑行为.方法 选取20只C57BL/6J小鼠,随机分为对照组(n=10)和模型组(n=10);模型组用MPTP制作急性PD小鼠模型,对照组用等量生理盐水注射.用高架十字迷宫和明暗箱检测小鼠的焦虑症行为.结果 模型组小鼠在暗箱的停留时间明显高于对照组(P<0.05);高架十字迷宫中模型组进入开放臂次数(OE)、开放臂停留时间(OT)及进入开放臂次数比例(OE%)与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),开放臂停留时间比例(OT%)显著低于对照组(P<0.05).结论 急性PD小鼠模型早期即会出现焦虑症状.

  7. The high-affinity D2/D3 agonist D512 protects PC12 cells from 6-OHDA-induced apoptotic cell death and rescues dopaminergic neurons in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mrudang; Rajagopalan, Subramanian; Xu, Liping; Voshavar, Chandrashekhar; Shurubor, Yevgeniya; Beal, Flint; Andersen, Julie K; Dutta, Aloke K

    2014-10-01

    In this study, in vitro and in vivo experiments were carried out with the high-affinity multifunctional D2/D3 agonist D-512 to explore its potential neuroprotective effects in models of Parkinson's disease and the potential mechanism(s) underlying such properties. Pre-treatment with D-512 in vitro was found to rescue rat adrenal Pheochromocytoma PC12 cells from toxicity induced by 6-hydroxydopamine administration in a dose-dependent manner. Neuroprotection was found to coincide with reductions in intracellular reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage. In vivo, pre-treatment with 0.5 mg/kg D-512 was protective against neurodegenerative phenotypes associated with systemic administration of MPTP, including losses in striatal dopamine, reductions in numbers of DAergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN), and locomotor dysfunction. These observations strongly suggest that the multifunctional drug D-512 may constitute a novel viable therapy for Parkinson's disease.

  8. Therapeutic Effect of IL-6 on MPTP-induced Parkinsonism in Mice%IL-6治疗帕金森病小鼠模型的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈强; 李学忠; 陈晓鹏; 赵坤; 彭勃

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨IL-6对1-甲基-4-苯基-1,2,3,6-四氢吡啶(MPTP)诱导的帕金森病(PD)小鼠模型是否具有治疗作用。方法采用脑室内注射 IL-6对MPTP诱导的PD小鼠模型进行治疗,首先进行行为学测试,而后采用免疫组织化学及蛋白印迹分析(western blot)的方法对 PD相关标志物酪氨酸羟化酶(TH)进行检测。结果①MPTP可以显著降低小鼠的转棒潜伏期,延长爬杆时间,IL-6可以改善这种效应;②黑质免疫组化染色显示:阳性对照组较正常对照组 TH阳性细胞数明显减少,治疗组可逐渐恢复TH 阳性细胞损失,中和抗体可以抵消这种效应;③纹状体Western blot结果显示:治疗组较阳性对照组TH表达明显增多。结论适当浓度的IL-6可以对MPTP诱导的小鼠PD模型产生明显的治疗作用。%Objective To investigate the ef ects of IL-6 on the functional and morphological outcome in a mice model of PD rendered by MPTP. Methods Male mice were treated with IL-6 for 3 days after MPTP administration, and were compared with saline-treated mice. Immunohistochemistry and western blot were used to detect the alterations of PD biomarker including tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). In addition, monoamine neurotransmit ers in the striatum of mice were measured by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results Mice in MPTP-treated group had significant shorter rol ing bar test latency than other groups(P<0.05), and also manifested a longer pole-climbing time(P<0.05). IL-6 can improve the behavior of mice, while IL-6-neutralizing antibody can abrogate the ef ects. TH immunohistochemistry indicated that the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra was increased in IL-6-treated mice. Western blot demonstrated the similar TH protein expression in striatum. Conclusion The appropriate concentration of IL-6 can MPTP-induced mouse model of PD have a significant therapeutic ef ect.

  9. Pathological observation of cornu anterius medullae spinalis in MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease mice%MPTP诱导的帕金森病模型小鼠脊髓前角结构变化的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敏; 劳明; 韦献良; 刘承伟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe pathological changes of cornu anterius medullae spinalis and to analyze its correlation with age in 1 - methyl - l - 4 - phenyl - 1 ,2,3 ,6 - tetrahydropyridine ( MPTP ) - induced Parkinson's disease ( PD ) mice. Methods C57BL/6J mice ( n = 32 ) were randomly divided into the following groups: Group A ( PD models of 8 weeks old ), Group B ( controls of 8 weeks old ), Group C ( PD models of 30 weeks old ) and Group D ( controls of 30 weeks old ). PD model was established with daily intraperitoneal injection of 30 mg/kg MPTP, which was replaced by normal saline in controls, for 5 days. Pathological observation with toluidine blue staining, glial fibrillary acidic protein ( GFAP ) and electronic microscopy were carried out on cervical enlargement and intumescentia lumbalis. Results Significant pathological changes, including reduction of neuron and up - regulation of GFAP expression, were observed in cornu anterius medullae spinalis of MPTP - injected mice ( P < 0. 01 ). In PD models , there were hydropic degeneration, apoptosis and oncosis in neurons, hyperplastia and hypertrophy in astrocytes and activation of microglial cells. Permeahility of blood - brain barrier was mcreased in MPTP - injected mice. No significant difference was revealed between models with different ages. Conclusion Pathological alteration of cornu anterius medullae spinalis contributes structural basis for the dyskinesia in PD. More widespread pathological changes in PD should be noticed.%目的 观察1-甲基-4-苯基-1,2,3,6-四氢吡啶MPTP诱导的帕金森病模型小鼠脊髓前角的结构变化及其与年龄的关系.方法 C57BL/6J小鼠分为8周龄正常对照组、8周龄模型组、30周龄正常对照组及30周龄模型组.连续5 d给药并进行行为学观察后取小鼠颈膨大和腰膨大做甲苯胺蓝尼氏染色、胶质原纤维酸性蛋白(GFAP)免疫组化反应和电镜观察.结果 MPTP诱导帕金森病小鼠脊髓前角尼氏染

  10. Saturated hydrogen saline attenuates endotoxin-induced lung dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Liu, Yiming; Zhang, Jin

    2015-09-01

    Acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) is caused by pulmonary inflammation and pulmonary vascular permeability. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase causes inflammation, and proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress induce autophagy, a catabolic mechanism responsible for protein degradation and recycling of damaged proteins and cytoplasmic organelles. If not controlled, excessive autophagy responses can result in cell death. In this study, we pretreated rats with saturated hydrogen saline, and examined the molecular mechanism by which saturated hydrogen saline attenuates LPS-induced acute lung dysfunction. Sixty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups--a control group, an LPS group, or an LPS plus saturated hydrogen saline (LPS + H2) group. Treatment with saturated hydrogen saline prolonged the median survival time of rats and reduced lung dysfunction induced by LPS. Moreover, saturated hydrogen saline significantly attenuated LPS-mediated induction of serum tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6, myeloperoxidase, and malondialdehyde (P hydrogen saline decreased the number of autophagosomes and LC3I/II expression. Saturated hydrogen saline also attenuated the LPS-mediated increase in apoptosis and p38 expression. Taken together, saturated hydrogen saline may attenuate LPS-induced acute lung dysfunction in rats by reducing inflammation, autophagy, and apoptosis involving the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Wogonin Induces Eosinophil Apoptosis and Attenuates Allergic Airway Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorward, David A.; Sharma, Sidharth; Rennie, Jillian; Felton, Jennifer M.; Alessandri, Ana L.; Duffin, Rodger; Schwarze, Jurgen; Haslett, Christopher; Rossi, Adriano G.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Eosinophils are key effector cells in allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, eczema, and asthma. Their tissue presence is regulated by both recruitment and increased longevity at inflamed sites. Objectives: To investigate the ability of the flavone wogonin to induce eosinophil apoptosis in vitro and attenuate eosinophil-dominant allergic inflammation in vivo in mice. Methods: Human and mouse eosinophil apoptosis in response to wogonin was investigated by cellular morphology, flow cytometry, mitochondrial membrane permeability, and pharmacological caspase inhibition. Allergic lung inflammation was modeled in mice sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung tissue were examined for inflammation, mucus production, and inflammatory mediator production. Airway hyperresponsiveness to aerosolized methacholine was measured. Measurements and Main Results: Wogonin induced time- and concentration-dependent human and mouse eosinophil apoptosis in vitro. Wogonin-induced eosinophil apoptosis occurred with activation of caspase-3 and was inhibited by pharmacological caspase inhibition. Wogonin administration attenuated allergic airway inflammation in vivo with reductions in BAL and interstitial eosinophil numbers, increased eosinophil apoptosis, reduced airway mucus production, and attenuated airway hyperresponsiveness. This wogonin-induced reduction in allergic airway inflammation was prevented by concurrent caspase inhibition in vivo. Conclusions: Wogonin induces eosinophil apoptosis and attenuates allergic airway inflammation, suggesting that it has therapeutic potential for the treatment of allergic inflammation in humans. PMID:25629436

  12. Anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of (RS)-glucoraphanin bioactivated with myrosinase in murine sub-acute and acute MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuppo, Maria; Iori, Renato; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2013-09-01

    This study was focused on the possible neuroprotective role of (RS)-glucoraphanin, bioactivated with myrosinase enzyme (bioactive RS-GRA), in an experimental mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). RS-GRA is one of the most important glucosinolates, a thiosaccharidic compound found in Brassicaceae, notably in Tuscan black kale seeds. RS-GRA was extracted by one-step anion exchange chromatography, further purified by gel-filtration and analyzed by HPLC. Following, pure RS-GRA was characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectrometry and the purity was assayed by HPLC analysis of the desulfo-derivative according to the ISO 9167-1 method. The obtained purity has been of 99%. To evaluate the possible pharmacological efficacy of bioactive RS-GRA (administrated at the dose of 10mg/kg, ip +5μl/mouse myrosinase enzyme), C57BL/6 mice were used in two different sets of experiment (in order to evaluate the neuroprotective effects in different phases of the disease), according to an acute (2 injections·40mg/kg MPTP) and a sub-acute (5 injections·20mg/kg MPTP) model of PD. Behavioural test, body weight changes measures and immunohistochemical localization of the main PD markers were performed and post-hoc analysis has shown as bioactive RS-GRA is able to reduce dopamine transporter degradation, tyrosine hydroxylase expression, IL-1β release, as well as the triggering of neuronal apoptotic death pathway (data about Bax/Bcl-2 balance and dendrite spines loss) and the generation of radicalic species by oxidative stress (results focused on nitrotyrosine, Nrf2 and GFAP immunolocalization). These effects have been correlated with the release of neurotrophic factors, such as GAP-43, NGF and BDNF, that, probably, play a supporting role in the neuroprotective action of bioactive RS-GRA. Moreover, after PD-induction mice treated with bioactive RS-GRA are appeared more in health than animals that did not received the treatment both for phenotypic behaviour and for general condition

  13. Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate Attenuates Paraquat-Induced Lung Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Chang

    2009-01-01

    PQ+PDTC-treated groups than that of PQ-treated groups (P<.05. The histopathological changes in the PQ+PDTC-treated groups were milder than those of PQ groups. Our results suggested that PDTC treatment significantly attenuated paraquat-induced pulmonary damage.

  14. On the effectiveness of mangroves in attenuating cyclone induced waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narayan, S.; Suzuki, T.; Stive, M.J.F.; Verhagen, H.J.; Ursem, W.N.J.; Ranasinghe, R.

    2010-01-01

    A study of the effectiveness of mangroves in attenuating cyclone- induced waves was done using the SWAN 40.81 numerical model. Hydraulic parameters during extreme events and local mangrove vegetation parameters were estimated for the Kanika Sands mangrove island near the upcoming Dhamra Port in Oris

  15. On the effectiveness of mangroves in attenuating cyclone induced waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narayan, S.; Suzuki, T.; Stive, M.J.F.; Verhagen, H.J.; Ursem, W.N.J.; Ranasinghe, R.

    2010-01-01

    A study of the effectiveness of mangroves in attenuating cyclone- induced waves was done using the SWAN 40.81 numerical model. Hydraulic parameters during extreme events and local mangrove vegetation parameters were estimated for the Kanika Sands mangrove island near the upcoming Dhamra Port in

  16. Pentoxifylline Attenuates Cardiac Remodeling Induced by Tobacco Smoke Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minicucci, Marcos; Oliveira, Fernando; Santos, Priscila; Polegato, Bertha; Roscani, Meliza; Fernandes, Ana Angelica; Lustosa, Beatriz; Paiva, Sergio; Zornoff, Leonardo; Azevedo, Paula, E-mail: paulasa@fmb.unesp.br [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-05-15

    Tobacco smoke exposure is an important risk factor for cardiac remodeling. Under this condition, inflammation, oxidative stress, energy metabolism abnormalities, apoptosis, and hypertrophy are present. Pentoxifylline has anti‑inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-thrombotic and anti-proliferative properties. The present study tested the hypothesis that pentoxifylline would attenuate cardiac remodeling induced by smoking. Wistar rats were distributed in four groups: Control (C), Pentoxifylline (PX), Tobacco Smoke (TS), and PX-TS. After two months, echocardiography, invasive blood pressure measurement, biochemical, and histological studies were performed. The groups were compared by two-way ANOVA with a significance level of 5%. TS increased left atrium diameter and area, which was attenuated by PX. In the isolated heart study, TS lowered the positive derivate (+dp/dt), and this was attenuated by PX. The antioxidants enzyme superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were decreased in the TS group; PX recovered these activities. TS increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and decreased 3-hydroxyacyl Coenzyme A dehydrogenases (OH-DHA) and citrate synthase (CS). PX attenuated LDH, 3-OH-DHA and CS alterations in TS-PX group. TS increased IL-10, ICAM-1, and caspase-3. PX did not influence these variables. TS induced cardiac remodeling, associated with increased inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and changed energy metabolism. PX attenuated cardiac remodeling by reducing oxidative stress and improving cardiac bioenergetics, but did not act upon cardiac cytokines and apoptosis.

  17. Diamide accelerates opening of the Tl(+)-induced permeability transition pore in Ca(2+)-loaded rat liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkov, Sergey M; Konovalova, Svetlana A; Brailovskaya, Irina V

    Opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) in the inner membrane is due to matrix Ca(2+) overload and matrix glutathione loss. Fixing the 'm' conformation of the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) by ADP or N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) inhibits opening of the MPTP. Oxidants (diamide or tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBHP)) fix the ANT in 'c' conformation, and the ability of ADP to inhibit the MPTP is thus attenuated. Earlier we found (Korotkov and Saris, 2011) that calcium load of rat liver mitochondria resulted in Tl(+)-induced MPTP opening, which was accompanied by a decrease in state 3, state 4, and 2,4-dinitrophenol-uncoupled respiration, as well as increased swelling and membrane potential dissipation. These effects, which were increased by diamide and tBHP, were visibly reduced in the presence of the MPTP inhibitors (ADP, NEM, and cyclosporine A). Our data suggest that conformational changes of the ANT and matrix glutathione loss may be directly involved in opening the Tl(+)-induced MPTP in the inner membrane of Ca(2+)-loaded rat liver mitochondria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Neuroprotective effects of echinacoside in the mouse MPTP model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xingchao; Tian, Xuefei; Tu, Pengfei; Pu, Xiaoping

    2007-06-14

    In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of echinacoside, a phenylethanoid glycoside extracted from the medicinal Chinese herb Cistanches salsa, against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic toxicity. We confirmed that exposure to MPTP in mice leads to permanent behavioral deficits and depletion of dopamine and its metabolites. When administered prior to MPTP, echinacoside reduced behavioral deficits, increased striatal dopamine and dopamine metabolite levels, reduced cell death, and led to a marked increase in tyrosine hydroxylase expression relative to mice treated with MPTP alone. In addition, pre-treatment with echinacoside significantly reduced caspase-3 and caspase-8 activation in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced apoptosis in cerebellar granule neurons. Taken together, these findings suggest that echinacoside improves the behavioral and neurochemical outcomes in MPTP mice model of Parkinson's disease and inhibits caspase-3 and caspase-8 activation in cerebellar granule neurons, making the compound an attractive candidate treatment for various neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease.

  19. Acetazolamide Attenuates Lithium-Induced Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Theun; Sinke, Anne P; Kortenoeven, Marleen L A; Alsady, Mohammad; Baumgarten, Ruben; Devuyst, Olivier; Loffing, Johannes; Wetzels, Jack F; Deen, Peter M T

    2016-07-01

    To reduce lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (lithium-NDI), patients with bipolar disorder are treated with thiazide and amiloride, which are thought to induce antidiuresis by a compensatory increase in prourine uptake in proximal tubules. However, thiazides induced antidiuresis and alkalinized the urine in lithium-NDI mice lacking the sodium-chloride cotransporter, suggesting that inhibition of carbonic anhydrases (CAs) confers the beneficial thiazide effect. Therefore, we tested the effect of the CA-specific blocker acetazolamide in lithium-NDI. In collecting duct (mpkCCD) cells, acetazolamide reduced the cellular lithium content and attenuated lithium-induced downregulation of aquaporin-2 through a mechanism different from that of amiloride. Treatment of lithium-NDI mice with acetazolamide or thiazide/amiloride induced similar antidiuresis and increased urine osmolality and aquaporin-2 abundance. Thiazide/amiloride-treated mice showed hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, hypercalcemia, metabolic acidosis, and increased serum lithium concentrations, adverse effects previously observed in patients but not in acetazolamide-treated mice in this study. Furthermore, acetazolamide treatment reduced inulin clearance and cortical expression of sodium/hydrogen exchanger 3 and attenuated the increased expression of urinary PGE2 observed in lithium-NDI mice. These results show that the antidiuresis with acetazolamide was partially caused by a tubular-glomerular feedback response and reduced GFR. The tubular-glomerular feedback response and/or direct effect on collecting duct principal or intercalated cells may underlie the reduced urinary PGE2 levels with acetazolamide, thereby contributing to the attenuation of lithium-NDI. In conclusion, CA activity contributes to lithium-NDI development, and acetazolamide attenuates lithium-NDI development in mice similar to thiazide/amiloride but with fewer adverse effects.

  20. Mitochondrial permeability transition pore component cyclophilin D distinguishes nigrostriatal dopaminergic death paradigms in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Bobby; Banerjee, Rebecca; Starkova, Natalia N; Zhang, Steven F; Calingasan, Noel Y; Yang, Lichuan; Wille, Elizabeth; Lorenzo, Beverly J; Ho, Daniel J; Beal, M Flint; Starkov, Anatoly

    2012-05-01

    Mitochondrial damage due to Ca(2+) overload-induced opening of permeability transition pores (PTP) is believed to play a role in selective degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Genetic ablation of mitochondrial matrix protein cyclophilin D (CYPD) has been shown to increase Ca(2+) threshold of PTP in vitro and to prevent cell death in several in vivo disease models. We investigated the role of CYPD in a mouse model of MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine)-induced PD. We demonstrate that in vitro, brain mitochondria isolated from CYPD knockout mice were less sensitive to MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium ion)-induced membrane depolarization, and free radical generation compared to wild-type mice. CYPD knockout mitochondria isolated from ventral midbrain of mice treated with MPTP in vivo exhibited less damage as judged from respiratory chain Complex I activity, State 3 respiration rate, and respiratory control index than wild-type mice, whereas assessment of apoptotic markers showed no differences between the two genotypes. However, CYPD knockout mice were significantly resistant only to an acute regimen of MPTP neurotoxicity in contrast to the subacute and chronic MPTP paradigms. Inactivation of CYPD is beneficial in preserving mitochondrial functions only in an acute insult model of MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Our results suggest that CYPD deficiency distinguishes the modes of dopaminergic neurodegeneration in various regimens of MPTP-neurotoxicity.

  1. Caffeine attenuates scopolamine-induced memory impairment in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, W; Hogervorst, E; Leboux, R; Verhey, F; van Praag, H; Jolles, J

    1995-11-01

    Caffeine consumption can be beneficial for cognitive functioning. Although caffeine is widely recognized as a mild CNS stimulant drug, the most important consequence of its adenosine antagonism is cholinergic stimulation, which might lead to improvement of higher cognitive functions, particularly memory. In this study, the scopolamine model of amnesia was used to test the cholinergic effects of caffeine, administered as three cups of coffee. Subjects were 16 healthy volunteers who received 250 mg caffeine and 2 mg nicotine separately, in a placebo-controlled double-blind cross-over design. Compared to placebo, nicotine attenuated the scopolamine-induced impairment of storage in short-term memory and attenuated the scopolamine-induced slowing of speed of short-term memory scanning. Nicotine also attenuated the scopolamine-induced slowing of reaction time in a response competition task. Caffeine attenuated the scopolamine-induced impairment of free recall from short- and long-term memory, quality and speed of retrieval from long-term memory in a word learning task, and other cognitive and non-cognitive measures, such as perceptual sensitivity in visual search, reading speed, and rate of finger-tapping. On the basis of these results it was concluded that caffeine possesses cholinergic cognition enhancing properties. Caffeine could be used as a control drug in studies using the scopolamine paradigm and possibly also in other experimental studies of cognitive enhancers, as the effects of a newly developed cognition enhancing drug should at least be superior to the effects of three cups of coffee.

  2. 移植的神经干细胞在MPTP诱导的帕金森病小鼠脑内的存活与分化%Survival and differentiation of transplanted neural stem cells in mice brain with MPTP-induced Parkinson disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学坤; 郭安臣; 左萍萍

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To determine survival and differentiation of cultured neural stem cells (NSCs) into viable and functional neurons upon transplantation into mice brain of MPTP-induced Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS: Mouse model of PD was established with two subcutaneous (sc) injections of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP, 40 mg/kg) twice, 16 h apart. NSCs isolated from rat embryo midbrain were cultured in clonal density.After labeled with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), the NSCs were transplanted into the uni- or bi-lateral striatum of PD mouse. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunofluorescence was used to evaluate the toxicity of MPTP on theneural cells in the substantia nigra. Immunohistology and laser confocal microscope were used to detect the survival and differentiation of transplanted NSCs. RESULTS: The cultured NSCs generated neurospheres and differentiated into neuron and astrocyte. It indicated that the cultured NSCs were multipotent and self-renewal in vitro.TH-positive neural cells were significantly reduced in the substantia nigra. Immunohistology showed that the uni- or bi-lateral transplanted NSCs survived in the brain of PD model mouse. Laser confocal microscope indicated that some transplanted NSCs could properly differentiate into targeted TH-positive neural cells in vivo. CONCLUSION:The transplanted multipotent NSCs could survive and differentiate into functional dopamine neurons.

  3. Toll like receptor 4 mediates cell death in a mouse MPTP model of Parkinson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noelker, Carmen; Morel, Lydie; Lescot, Thomas; Osterloh, Anke; Alvarez-Fischer, Daniel; Breloer, Minka; Henze, Carmen; Depboylu, Candan; Skrzydelski, Delphine; Michel, Patrick P.; Dodel, Richard C.; Lu, Lixia; Hirsch, Etienne C.; Hunot, Stéphane; Hartmann, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    In mammalians, toll-like receptors (TLR) signal-transduction pathways induce the expression of a variety of immune-response genes, including inflammatory cytokines. It is therefore plausible to assume that TLRs are mediators in glial cells triggering the release of cytokines that ultimately kill DA neurons in the substantia nigra in Parkinson disease (PD). Accordingly, recent data indicate that TLR4 is up-regulated by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treatment in a mouse model of PD. Here, we wished to evaluate the role of TLR4 in the acute mouse MPTP model of PD: TLR4-deficient mice and wild-type littermates control mice were used for the acute administration way of MPTP or a corresponding volume of saline. We demonstrate that TLR4-deficient mice are less vulnerable to MPTP intoxication than wild-type mice and display a decreased number of Iba1+ and MHC II+ activated microglial cells after MPTP application, suggesting that the TLR4 pathway is involved in experimental PD. PMID:23462811

  4. Administration of MPTP to the common marmoset does not alter cortical cholinergic function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvey, J.; Petersen, M.; Waters, C.M.; Rose, S.P.; Hunt, S.; Briggs, R.; Jenner, P.; Marsden, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    The administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to common marmosets induced persistent motor deficits and decreased concentrations of dopamine, homovanillic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and (TH)dopamine uptake in the caudate-putamen. There was an 80% reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive cells in substantia nigra. At 10 days following the start of MPTP administration, the activity of choline acetyltransferase in the thalamus and frontal cortex was unchanged compared with control animals. Similarly, specific (TH)QNB binding was unaltered. At 4-6 weeks following the start of MPTP treatment, choline acetyltransferase activity and (TH)QNB binding in the frontal cortex and thalamus remained unaffected. There was no evidence for cell loss in the nucleus basalis of Meynert or alteration in the intensity of staining for acetylcholinesterase. MPTP treatment of the common marmoset produces a nigrostriatal lesion. In contrast, MPTP did not alter cortical cholinergic function and was not neurotoxic to the cholinergic cells in the nucleus basalis of Meynert.

  5. Resveratrol Attenuates Copper-Induced Senescence by Improving Cellular Proteostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Copper sulfate-induced premature senescence (CuSO4-SIPS) consistently mimetized molecular mechanisms of replicative senescence, particularly at the endoplasmic reticulum proteostasis level. In fact, disruption of protein homeostasis has been associated to age-related cell/tissue dysfunction and human disorders susceptibility. Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound with proved antiaging properties under particular conditions. In this setting, we aimed to evaluate resveratrol ability to attenuate cellular senescence induction and to unravel related molecular mechanisms. Using CuSO4-SIPS WI-38 fibroblasts, resveratrol is shown to attenuate typical senescence alterations on cell morphology, senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity, and cell proliferation. The mechanisms implicated in this antisenescence effect seem to be independent of senescence-associated genes and proteins regulation but are reliant on cellular proteostasis improvement. In fact, resveratrol supplementation restores copper-induced increased protein content, attenuates BiP level, and reduces carbonylated and polyubiquitinated proteins by autophagy induction. Our data provide compelling evidence for the beneficial effects of resveratrol by mitigating CuSO4-SIPS stressful consequences by the modulation of protein quality control systems. These findings highlight the importance of a balanced cellular proteostasis and add further knowledge on molecular mechanisms mediating resveratrol antisenescence effects. Moreover, they contribute to identifying specific molecular targets whose modulation will prevent age-associated cell dysfunction and improve human healthspan. PMID:28280523

  6. Resveratrol Attenuates Copper-Induced Senescence by Improving Cellular Proteostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Matos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper sulfate-induced premature senescence (CuSO4-SIPS consistently mimetized molecular mechanisms of replicative senescence, particularly at the endoplasmic reticulum proteostasis level. In fact, disruption of protein homeostasis has been associated to age-related cell/tissue dysfunction and human disorders susceptibility. Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound with proved antiaging properties under particular conditions. In this setting, we aimed to evaluate resveratrol ability to attenuate cellular senescence induction and to unravel related molecular mechanisms. Using CuSO4-SIPS WI-38 fibroblasts, resveratrol is shown to attenuate typical senescence alterations on cell morphology, senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity, and cell proliferation. The mechanisms implicated in this antisenescence effect seem to be independent of senescence-associated genes and proteins regulation but are reliant on cellular proteostasis improvement. In fact, resveratrol supplementation restores copper-induced increased protein content, attenuates BiP level, and reduces carbonylated and polyubiquitinated proteins by autophagy induction. Our data provide compelling evidence for the beneficial effects of resveratrol by mitigating CuSO4-SIPS stressful consequences by the modulation of protein quality control systems. These findings highlight the importance of a balanced cellular proteostasis and add further knowledge on molecular mechanisms mediating resveratrol antisenescence effects. Moreover, they contribute to identifying specific molecular targets whose modulation will prevent age-associated cell dysfunction and improve human healthspan.

  7. Grim19 Attenuates DSS Induced Colitis in an Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Kyung; Lee, Seung Hoon; Lee, Seon-Young; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kwon, Jeong-Eun; Seo, Hyeon-Beom; Lee, Han Hee; Lee, Bo-In; Park, Sung-Hwan; Cho, Mi-La

    2016-01-01

    DSS induced colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, which destabilizes the gut and induces an uncontrolled immune response. Although DSS induced colitis is generally thought to develop as a result of an abnormally active intestinal immune system, its pathogenesis remains unclear. Gene associated with retinoid interferon induced mortality (Grim) 19 is an endogenous specific inhibitor of STAT3, which regulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, we investigated the influence of GRIM19 in a DSS induced colitis mouse model. We hypothesized that Grim19 would ameliorate DSS induced colitis by altering STAT3 activity and intestinal inflammation. Grim19 ameliorated DSS induced colitis severity and protected intestinal tissue. The expression of STAT3 and proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and TNF-α in colon and lymph nodes was decreased significantly by Grim19. Moreover, DSS induced colitis progression in a Grim19 transgenic mouse line was inhibited in association with a reduction in STAT3 and IL-17 expression. These results suggest that Grim19 attenuates DSS induced colitis by suppressing the excessive inflammatory response mediated by STAT3 activation.

  8. Arctigenin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xianbao; Sun, Hongzhi; Zhou, Dun; Xi, Huanjiu; Shan, Lina

    2015-04-01

    Arctigenin (ATG) has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effects of ATG on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) remains not well understood. In the present study, our investigation was designed to reveal the effect of ATG on LPS-induced ALI in rats. We found that ATG pretreatment attenuated the LPS-induced ALI, as evidenced by the reduced histological scores, myeloperoxidase activity, and wet-to-dry weight ratio in the lung tissues. This was accompanied by the decreased levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-1 (IL-6) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Furthermore, ATG downregulated the expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, promoted the phosphorylation of inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB-α (IκBα) and activated the adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPKα) in the lung tissues. Our results suggested that ATG attenuates the LPS-induced ALI via activation of AMPK and suppression of NF-κB signaling pathway.

  9. Cilostazol attenuates ovariectomy-induced bone loss by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Ke

    Full Text Available Cilostazol has been reported to alleviate the metabolic syndrome induced by increased intracellular adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP levels, which is also associated with osteoclast (OC differentiation. We hypothesized that bone loss might be attenuated via an action on OC by cilostazol.To test this idea, we investigated the effect of cilostazol on ovariectomy (OVX-induced bone loss in mice and on OC differentiation in vitro, using μCT and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining, respectively. Cilostazol prevented from OVX-induced bone loss and decreased oxidative stress in vivo. It also decreased the number and activity of OC in vitro. The effect of cilostazol on reactive oxygen species (ROS occurred via protein kinase A (PKA and cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1, two major effectors of cAMP. Knockdown of NADPH oxidase using siRNA of p47phox attenuated the inhibitory effect of cilostazol on OC formation, suggesting that decreased OC formation by cilostazol was partly due to impaired ROS generation. Cilostazol enhanced phosphorylation of nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFAT2 at PKA phosphorylation sites, preventing its nuclear translocation to result in reduced receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand-induced NFAT2 expression and decreased binding of nuclear factor-κB-DNA, finally leading to reduced levels of two transcription factors required for OC differentiation.Our data highlight the therapeutic potential of cilostazol for attenuating bone loss and oxidative stress caused by loss of ovarian function.

  10. Simvastatin attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU Xue-mei; FENG Yu-lin; WEN Fu-qiang; HUANG Xiang-yang; XIAO Jun; WANG Ke; WANG Tao

    2008-01-01

    Background Bleomycin-induced fibrosis is extensively used to model aspects of the pathogenesis of interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. This study aimed to determine the benefic effects and mechanisms of simvastatin on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.Methods Bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis mice were administered with simvastatin in different doses for 28 days.We measured inflammatory response, fibrogenic cytokines and profibrogenic markers in both bleomycin-stimulated and control lungs, and correlated these parameters with pulmonary fibrosis.Results Simvastatin attenuated the histopathological change of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis and prevented the increase of lung hydroxyproline content and collagen (Ⅰand Ⅲ) mRNA expression induced by bleomycin. Moreover,simvastatin down-regulated the increased expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) induced by bleomycin at both gene and protein levels. Simultaneously, the accumulation of neutrophils and lymphocytes and the increased production of tumor necrosis factor-(] (TNF-a) in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid were inhibited by simvastatin in early inflammatory phase after bleomycin infusion. The higher dose of simvastatin was associated with a more significant reduction in these inflammatory and fibrotic parameters. Furthermore,the inactivation of p38, RhoA and Smad2/3 signaling pathways was observed during simvastatin administration.Conclusions Simvastatin attenuated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, as indicated by decreases in Ashcroft score and lung collagen accumulation. The inhibitory effect of simvastatin on the progression of pulmonary fibrosis may be demonstrated by reducing inflammatory response and production of TGF-βI and CTGF. These findings indicate that simvastatin may be used in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis.

  11. Sulforaphane Attenuates Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity: Role of Mitochondrial Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Yepez, Sara; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Zatarain-Barrón, Zyanya Lucía; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Torres, Ismael; Tapia, Edilia; Pedraza-Chaverri, José

    2013-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate naturally occurring in Cruciferae, induces cytoprotection in several tissues. Its protective effect has been associated with its ability to induce cytoprotective enzymes through an Nrf2-dependent pathway. Gentamicin (GM) is a widely used antibiotic; nephrotoxicity is the main side effect of this compound. In this study, it was investigated if SFN is able to induce protection against GM-induced nephropathy both in renal epithelial LLC-PK1 cells in culture and in rats. SFN prevented GM-induced death and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in LLC-PK1 cells. In addition, it attenuated GM-induced renal injury (proteinuria, increases in serum creatinine, in blood urea nitrogen, and in urinary excretion on N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, and decrease in creatinine clearance and in plasma glutathione peroxidase activity) and necrosis and apoptosis in rats. The apoptotic death was associated with enhanced active caspase-9. Caspase-8 was unchanged in all the studied groups. In addition, SFN was able to prevent GM-induced protein nitration and decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase and glutathione peroxidase in renal cortex. In conclusion, the protective effect of SFN against GM-induced acute kidney injury could be associated with the preservation in mitochondrial function that would prevent the intrinsic apoptosis and nitrosative stress. PMID:23662110

  12. Sulforaphane Attenuates Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity: Role of Mitochondrial Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Negrette-Guzmán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulforaphane (SFN, an isothiocyanate naturally occurring in Cruciferae, induces cytoprotection in several tissues. Its protective effect has been associated with its ability to induce cytoprotective enzymes through an Nrf2-dependent pathway. Gentamicin (GM is a widely used antibiotic; nephrotoxicity is the main side effect of this compound. In this study, it was investigated if SFN is able to induce protection against GM-induced nephropathy both in renal epithelial LLC-PK1 cells in culture and in rats. SFN prevented GM-induced death and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in LLC-PK1 cells. In addition, it attenuated GM-induced renal injury (proteinuria, increases in serum creatinine, in blood urea nitrogen, and in urinary excretion on N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, and decrease in creatinine clearance and in plasma glutathione peroxidase activity and necrosis and apoptosis in rats. The apoptotic death was associated with enhanced active caspase-9. Caspase-8 was unchanged in all the studied groups. In addition, SFN was able to prevent GM-induced protein nitration and decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase and glutathione peroxidase in renal cortex. In conclusion, the protective effect of SFN against GM-induced acute kidney injury could be associated with the preservation in mitochondrial function that would prevent the intrinsic apoptosis and nitrosative stress.

  13. Pharmacologically induced hypothermia attenuates traumatic brain injury in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaohuan; Wei, Zheng Zachory; Espinera, Alyssa; Lee, Jin Hwan; Ji, Xiaoya; Wei, Ling; Dix, Thomas A; Yu, Shan Ping

    2015-05-01

    Neonatal brain trauma is linked to higher risks of mortality and neurological disability. The use of mild to moderate hypothermia has shown promising potential against brain injuries induced by stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI) in various experimental models and in clinical trials. Conventional methods of physical cooling, however, are difficult to use in acute treatments and in induction of regulated hypothermia. In addition, general anesthesia is usually required to mitigate the negative effects of shivering during physical cooling. Our recent investigations demonstrate the potential therapeutic benefits of pharmacologically induced hypothermia (PIH) using the neurotensin receptor (NTR) agonist HPI201 (formerly known as ABS201) in stroke and TBI models of adult rodents. The present investigation explored the brain protective effects of HPI201 in a P14 rat pediatric model of TBI induced by controlled cortical impact. When administered via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, HPI201 induced dose-dependent reduction of body and brain temperature. A 6-h hypothermic treatment, providing an overall 2-3°C reduction of brain and body temperature, showed significant effect of attenuating the contusion volume versus TBI controls. Attenuation occurs whether hypothermia is initiated 15min or 2h after TBI. No shivering response was seen in HPI201-treated animals. HPI201 treatment also reduced TUNEL-positive and TUNEL/NeuN-colabeled cells in the contusion area and peri-injury regions. TBI-induced blood-brain barrier damage was attenuated by HPI201 treatment, evaluated using the Evans Blue assay. HPI201 significantly decreased MMP-9 levels and caspase-3 activation, both of which are pro-apototic, while it increased anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 gene expression in the peri-contusion region. In addition, HPI201 prevented the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6. In sensorimotor activity assessments, rats in the HPI201

  14. Effects of lithium chloride on behavior and neuroprotection of dopaminergic neurons in a mice model of MPTP-induced Parkinsons disease%氯化锂对MPTP致帕金森病小鼠模型行为学及黑质多巴胺能神经元影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王炎强; 刘洪梅; 王红军; 曹俊平; 肖成华; 高殿帅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the behavioral changes and protective effect of lithium chloride on dopaminergic ( DA) neurons in the substantia nigra( SN) of MPTP-induced mice model of Parkinson disease ( PD). Methods The mice were randomly divided into four groups, MPTP group, NS group PBS + MPTP ( PM) group and LiCl + MPTP ( LM) group. They were observed by behavioral paralysis agitans ratings,mobile grid number,stand number and rotarod swim test. The im-munohistochemistry label the DA neurons (Tyrosine hydroxylase) and CB-containing neurons (CalbindinD28k) with anti-CB respectively was adopted. Western blot assay was used to determine the protein expression of TH and CB in the SN of each group. Results Behavior Parkinsonism score,mobile grid number,stand number,roller experiment and swimming a-bility of the LM group were significantly higher than those of PM group ( P < 0. 05). The densities of TH and CB positive neurons and the protein expressions of TH and CB in LM group of became significantly higher (P<0. 05). Conclusion Lithium chloride can improve the movement disorders of MPTP- induced mice model of PD,and protect DA neurons via the increase of intracellular CB expression. PD model behaviors and dopaminergic neurons are in the consistency.%目的 探讨氯化锂对MPTP致帕金森病小鼠模型行为学及黑质多巴胺能神经元保护作用的影响.方法 实验小鼠随机分为MPTP组、NS(生理盐水)组、LM(LiCl +MPTP)组、PM(PBS+ MPTP)组;通过行为学观察各组震颤麻痹、移动格子数、站立次数、滚轴次数、游泳能力;免疫组织化学染色与免疫印迹技术观察各组酪氨酸羟化酶(TH)和钙结合蛋白(CB)的表达变化.结果 行为学检测LM组震颤麻痹评分、移动格子数、站立次数、滚轴实验、游泳能力都显著高于PM组(P<0.05);免疫组织化学染色结果显示LM组黑质致密部TH与CB阳性神经元数量显著多于PM组;Western blot免疫印迹结果显示LM组TH、CB蛋白

  15. Hypobaric intermittent hypoxia attenuates hypoxia-induced depressor response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Cui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypobaric intermittent hypoxia (HIH produces many favorable effects in the cardiovascular system such as anti-hypertensive effect. In this study, we showed that HIH significantly attenuated a depressor response induced by acute hypoxia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sprague-Dawley rats received HIH in a hypobaric chamber simulating an altitude of 5000 m. The artery blood pressure (ABP, heart rate (HR and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA were recorded in anesthetized control rats and rats received HIH. The baseline ABP, HR and RSNA were not different between HIH and control rats. Acute hypoxia-induced decrease in ABP was significantly attenuated in HIH rat compared with control rats. However, acute hypoxia-induced increases in HR and RSNA were greater in HIH rat than in control rats. After removal of bilateral ascending depressor nerves, acute hypoxia-induced depressor and sympathoexcitatory responses were comparable in control and HIH rats. Furthermore, acute hypoxia-induced depressor and sympathoexcitatory responses did not differ between control and HIH groups after blocking ATP-dependent K(+ channels by glibenclamide. The baroreflex function evaluated by intravenous injection of phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside was markedly augmented in HIH rats compared with control rats. The pressor and sympathoexcitatory responses evoked by intravenous injection of cyanide potassium were also significantly greater in HIH rats than in control rats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that HIH suppresses acute hypoxia-induced depressor response through enhancement of baroreflex and chemoreflex function, which involves activation of ATP-dependent K(+ channels. This study provides new information and underlying mechanism on the beneficiary effect of HIH on maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis.

  16. Cardiotrophin-1 attenuates endotoxin-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, E J; Shames, B D; Pennica, D; O'leary, R M; Bensard, D D; Cain, B S; McIntyre, R C

    1999-06-15

    Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) is a recently discovered member of the gp130 cytokine family, which includes IL-6, IL-11, leukemia inhibitory factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor, and oncostatin M. Recent evidence suggests that, like other members of this family, CT-1 may possess anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that in vivo CT-1 administration would attenuate endotoxin (ETX)-induced acute lung injury. We studied the effects of CT-1 (100 microgram/kg ip, 10 min prior to ETX) in a rat model of ETX-induced acute lung injury (Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide, 20 mg/kg ip). Six hours after ETX, lungs were harvested for determination of neutrophil accumulation (myeloperoxidase, MPO, assay) and lung edema (wet-to-dry weight ratio). Mechanisms of pulmonary vasorelaxation were examined in isolated pulmonary artery rings at 6 h by interrogating endothelium-dependent (response to acetylcholine) and endothelium-independent (response to sodium nitroprusside) relaxation following alpha-adrenergic (phenylephrine)-stimulated preconstriction. CT-1 abrogated the endotoxin-induced lung neutrophil accumulation: 2.3 +/- 0.2 units MPO/g wet lung (gwl) vs 6. 3 +/- 0.3 units MPO/gwl in the ETX group (P 0.05 vs control). Similarly, CT-1 prevented ETX-induced lung edema: wet-to-dry-weight ratio, 4.473 +/- 0.039 vs 4.747 +/- 0.039 in the ETX group (P 0.05 vs control). Endotoxin caused significant impairment of both endothelium-dependent and -independent pulmonary vasorelaxation, and CT-1 attenuated this injury. Thus, cardiotrophin-1 possesses significant anti-inflammatory properties in a model of endotoxin-induced acute lung injury. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  17. Attenuation of cryocooler induced vibration in spaceborne infrared payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veprik, A.; Twitto, A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancement of operational responsive space programs calls for a development of compact, reliable, low power and vibration free cryogenic cooling for sophisticated infrared payloads. The refrigeration in a typical closed cycle split Stirling linear cryocooler is achieved by a cyclic compression and expansion of a gaseous working agent due to a synchronized reciprocation of electro-dynamically and pneumatically actuated compressor and expander pistons. Attenuation of the cryocooler induced vibration usually relies on the concept of actively assisted momentum cancellation. In a typical dual-piston compressor this objective is achieved by actively synchronizing the motion of oppositely moving piston assemblies; a typical single-piston expander may be counterbalanced by a motorized counter-balancer. The above approach produces complexity, weight, size, high incurred costs and affects reliability. The authors analyze the case of passive attenuation the vibration export induced by the split Stirling linear cryocooler comprised of inline mounted single-piston compressor and expander. Placement of all the moving components onto a common axis results in a single axis consolidation of vibration export and enables use of single tuned dynamic absorber and low frequency vibration mount. From theoretical analysis and full-scale testing, the performance of such vibration protection arrangement is similar to known systems of active vibration cancellation.

  18. (-) deprenyl attenuates aluminium induced neurotoxicity in primary cortical cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munirathinam, S; Lakshmana, M K; Raju, T R

    1996-06-01

    The role of (-) deprenyl in offering neuroprotection to cortical neurons exposed to Aluminium chloride (AlCl3) was examined. Primary cortical cultures derived from newborn rats were exposed to AlCl3 on 6th day in vitro, at 100,200,400,600,800 and 1000 microM concentrations of AlCl3. After 48 h of AlCl3 exposure, many nerve cell bodies were swollen; a beading of neurites and a disruption of the neuritic network were also observed suggesting neurodegeneration. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) efflux increased in a dose-dependent manner (59-120%). (-) Deprenyl co-exposure at concentrations of 10(-7), 10(-8) and 10(-9) M significantly attenuated both the morphological alterations and the LDH efflux induced by AlCl3. This in vitro study has demonstrated that (-) deprenyl can protect neurons from aluminium induced neurotoxicity.

  19. Agaricus bisporus attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Min Young; Park, Jae Ho; Gwon, So Young; Ahn, Jiyun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Ha, Tae Youl

    2014-12-01

    Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom, WBM) is widely consumed in most countries and is reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. However, little is known regarding its effects in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, which are related to dysfunction of intestinal immunity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of WBMs in an animal model of DSS-induced colitis. Male, 4-week-old ICR mice (n=10 per group) were fed a normal diet with or without 10% WBM for 4 weeks, and colitis was induced by 3% DSS in drinking water for 7 days. WBMs prevented DSS-induced shortening of colon length (P=.033) and diminished diarrhea (P=.049) and gross bleeding (P=.001), resulting in a decreased disease activity index. Results of histological analysis showed that WBMs suppressed mucosal damage. In addition, WBMs attenuated the DSS-induced increase in myeloperoxidase activity (P=.012) and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (P=.020) in the colon segment. Taken together, these findings suggest a possible role for the WBM as an immunomodulator that can prevent and/or treat ulcerative colitis.

  20. Novel EGFR inhibitors attenuate cardiac hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kesong; Tian, Xinqiao; Qian, Yuanyuan; Skibba, Melissa; Zou, Chunpeng; Liu, Zhiguo; Wang, Jingying; Xu, Zheng; Li, Xiaokun; Liang, Guang

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is an important risk factor for heart failure. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been found to play a role in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this current study was to examine the role of EGFR in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac hypertrophy and identify the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, we observed that both Ang II and EGF could increase the phospohorylation of EGFR and protein kinase B (AKT)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and then induce cell hypertrophy in H9c2 cells. Both pharmacological inhibitors and genetic silencing significantly reduced Ang II-induced EGFR signalling pathway activation, hypertrophic marker overexpression, and cell hypertrophy. In addition, our results showed that Ang II-induced EGFR activation is mediated by c-Src phosphorylation. In vivo, Ang II treatment significantly led to cardiac remodelling including cardiac hypertrophy, disorganization and fibrosis, accompanied by the activation of EGFR signalling pathway in the heart tissues, while all these molecular and pathological alterations were attenuated by the oral administration with EGFR inhibitors. In conclusion, the c-Src-dependent EGFR activation may play an important role in Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophy, and inhibition of EGFR by specific molecules may be an effective strategy for the treatment of Ang II-associated cardiac diseases. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  1. Interleukin-11 attenuates ifosfamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Mota

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible protective effect of recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11 against ifosfamide (IFS-induced hemorrhagic cystitis (HC MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Swiss mice (20-30g were pretreated with rhIL-11 (25-625 mg, subcutaneously. 30 min before intraperitoneal injection of IFS (400 mg/kg or with saline (control group. Twelve hours later, HC was evaluated by bladder wet weight (BWW to quantify edema, Evans blue extravasation (EBE to measure vascular permeability, and macroscopic and microscopic analysis. All bladders were assessed by histopathological analysis RESULTS: rhIL-11 (at 125 and 625 mg attenuated the IFS- induced increase of BWW (37.48% and 45.44%, respectively, p < 0.05 and EBE (62.35% and 56.47%, respectively, p < 0.05. IFS- induced macroscopic edema and hemorrhage and microscopic alterations, were also prevented by rhIL-11 at 625 mg. (p < 0.05 CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate a protective effect of rhIL-11 on experimental IFS- induced HC, not previously reported.

  2. Seismic attenuation due to wave-induced flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pride, S.R.; Berryman, J.G.; Harris, J.M.

    2003-10-09

    Analytical expressions for three P-wave attenuation mechanisms in sedimentary rocks are given a unified theoretical framework. Two of the models concern wave-induced flow due to heterogeneity in the elastic moduli at mesoscopic scales (scales greater than grain sizes but smaller than wavelengths). In the first model, the heterogeneity is due to lithological variations (e.g., mixtures of sands and clays) with a single fluid saturating all the pores. In the second model, a single uniform lithology is saturated in mesoscopic ''patches'' by two immiscible fluids (e.g., air and water). In the third model, the heterogeneity is at ''microscopic'' grain scales (broken grain contacts and/or micro-cracks in the grains) and the associated fluid response corresponds to ''squirt flow''. The model of squirt flow derived here reduces to proper limits as any of the fluid bulk modulus, crack porosity, and/or frequency is reduced to zero. It is shown that squirt flow is incapable of explaining the measured level of loss (10{sup -2} < Q{sup -1} < 10{sup -1}) within the seismic band of frequencies (1 to 10{sup 4} Hz); however, either of the two mesoscopic scale models easily produce enough attenuation to explain the field data.

  3. Injury-stimulated Sonic hedgehog expression in microglia contributes to neuroinflammatory response in the MPTP model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Hwi; Chung, Young Cheul; Bok, Eugene; Lee, Hankyu; Huh, Sue Hee; Lee, Ji Eun; Jin, Byung Kwan; Ko, Hyuk Wan

    2017-01-22

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder in which dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) region are selectively destroyed. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) has been well known to play a key role in a variety of processes such as embryogenesis, cell proliferation and protection, and tissue repair during inflammation. However, the evidences for the innate role of Shh in adult brain injury are presently lacking and studies have been needed to unveil the importance of Shh in the process of neurodegeneration. Here, we investigated the role of Shh in the pathologic progress of Parkinson's disease in MPTP-induced animal model system. Interestingly, we observed that Shh expression was gradually increased in MPTP affected SNpc region. Activated microglia exclusively expressed SHH in vivo and we could recapitulate Shh induction in activated cultured primary microglia cells. Using the SHH responsive Cre-loxP binary genetic reporter transgenic mouse system, we also found that most of the cell types except for oligodendrocyte in the SNpc region reacted to the SHH by MPTP injection. Taken together, activated microglia induced Shh expression and most neural cells except oligodendrocyte responded to microglia-derived SHH in MPTP-treated SN. These results suggest that SHH in activated microglia by MPTP-injection might be involved in the innate processes of recovery from neurotoxin induced injury in the PD animal model system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Temperature dependence of radiation-induced attenuation of optical fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingming Song; Jianhua Guo; Xueqin Wang; Jing Jin

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the temperature dependence of radiation-induced attenuation (RIA) at 1 310 nm for a Ge/P co-doped fiber after a steady-state γ-ray irradiation.A γ irradiation facility 60Co source is used to irradiate the fiber at a dose rate of 0.5 Gy/min,satisfying a total dose of 100 Gy.The test temperature ranges from-40 to 60 ℃ by 20 ℃,and the RIA of the fiber is obtained using a power measuring device.The experimental result demonstrates that RIA exhibits a steady,monotonic,and remarkable temperature dependence after approximately 48 h of accelerated annealing at 70 ℃.The optical fiber irradiated with a high dose and annealed sufficiently can be used as a temperature sensor.

  5. Melatonin attenuates β-amyloid-induced inhibition of neurofilament expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-chun ZHANG; Ze-fen WANG; Qun WANG; Yi-peng WANG; Jian-zhi WANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the effect of β-amyloid (Aβ) on metabolism of cytoskeletal protein neurofilament, and search for effective cure to the lesion. METHODS: Wild type murine neuroblastoma N2a (N2awt) and N2a stably transfected with wild type amyloid precursor protein (N2aAPP) were cultured. Sandwich ELISA, immunocytochemistry, and Western blot were used respectively to measure the level of Aβ, the expression and phosphorylation of neurofilament proteins. RESULTS: The immunoreactivity of neurofilament protein was almost abolished in N2aAPP, which beard a significantly higher level of Aβ. Melatonin effectively decreased the level of Aβ, and restored partially the level of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated neurofilament in N2aAPP. CONCLUSION: Overproduction of Aβ inhibits neurofilament expression, and melatonin attenuates the Aβ-induced lesion in cytoskeletal protein.

  6. Salicylic Acid Attenuates Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavle Randjelovic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gentamicin (GM is a widely used antibiotic against serious and life-threatening infections, but its usefulness is limited by the development of nephrotoxicity. The present study was designed to determine the protective effect of salicylic acid (SA in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Quantitative evaluation of gentamicin-induced structural alterations and degree of functional alterations in the kidneys were performed by histopathological and biochemical analyses in order to determine potential beneficial effects of SA coadministration with gentamicin. Gentamicin was observed to cause a severe nephrotoxicity which was evidenced by an elevation of serum urea and creatinine levels. The significant increases in malondialdehyde (MDA levels and protein carbonyl groups indicated that GM-induced tissue injury was mediated through oxidative reactions. On the other hand, simultaneous SA administration protected kidney tissue against the oxidative damage and the nephrotoxic effect caused by GM treatment. Exposure to GM caused necrosis of tubular epithelial cells. Necrosis of tubules was found to be prevented by SA pretreatment. The results from our study indicate that SA supplement attenuates oxidative-stress associated renal injury by reducing oxygen free radicals and lipid peroxidation in gentamicin-treated rats.

  7. Salicylic acid attenuates gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randjelovic, Pavle; Veljkovic, Slavimir; Stojiljkovic, Nenad; Jankovic-Velickovic, Ljubinka; Sokolovic, Dusan; Stoiljkovic, Milan; Ilic, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Gentamicin (GM) is a widely used antibiotic against serious and life-threatening infections, but its usefulness is limited by the development of nephrotoxicity. The present study was designed to determine the protective effect of salicylic acid (SA) in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Quantitative evaluation of gentamicin-induced structural alterations and degree of functional alterations in the kidneys were performed by histopathological and biochemical analyses in order to determine potential beneficial effects of SA coadministration with gentamicin. Gentamicin was observed to cause a severe nephrotoxicity which was evidenced by an elevation of serum urea and creatinine levels. The significant increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and protein carbonyl groups indicated that GM-induced tissue injury was mediated through oxidative reactions. On the other hand, simultaneous SA administration protected kidney tissue against the oxidative damage and the nephrotoxic effect caused by GM treatment. Exposure to GM caused necrosis of tubular epithelial cells. Necrosis of tubules was found to be prevented by SA pretreatment. The results from our study indicate that SA supplement attenuates oxidative-stress associated renal injury by reducing oxygen free radicals and lipid peroxidation in gentamicin-treated rats.

  8. Flavocoxid attenuates gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kashef, Dalia H; El-Kenawi, Asmaa E; Suddek, Ghada M; Salem, Hatem A

    2015-12-01

    Gentamicin is a widely used antibiotic against serious and life-threatening infections; however, its usefulness is limited by the development of nephrotoxicity. The present study was designed to determine whether flavocoxid has a protective effect against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. For this purpose, we quantitatively evaluated gentamicin-induced renal structural and functional alterations using histopathological and biochemical approaches. Furthermore, the effect of flavocoxid on gentamicin induced hypersensitivity of urinary bladder rings to acetylcholine (ACh) was determined. Twenty-four male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three groups, namely control, gentamicin (100 mg/kg, i.p.) and gentamicin plus flavocoxid (20 mg/kg, orally). At the end of the study, all rats were sacrificed and then blood, urine samples and kidneys were collected for further analysis. Gentamicin administration caused a severe nephrotoxicity which was evidenced by an elevated renal somatic index (RSI), serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, serum lactate dehydrogenase, and protein in urine with a concomitant reduction in serum albumin and normalized creatinine clearance value as compared with the controls. Moreover, a significant increase in renal contents of malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha with a significant decrease in renal reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activities was detected upon gentamicin administration together with increasing the sensitivity of isolated urinary bladder rings to ACh. Exposure to gentamicin induced necrosis of renal tubular epithelial cells. Flavocoxid protected kidney tissue against the oxidative damage and the nephrotoxic effect caused by gentamicin treatment. In addition, flavocoxid significantly reduced the responses of isolated bladder rings to ACh. The results from our study indicate that flavocoxid supplement attenuates gentamicin-induced renal injury via the amelioration of

  9. Resistance to MPTP-neurotoxicity in α-synuclein knockout mice is complemented by human α-synuclein and associated with increased β-synuclein and Akt activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobby Thomas

    Full Text Available Genetic and biochemical abnormalities of α-synuclein are associated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. In the present study we investigated the in vivo interaction of mouse and human α-synuclein with the potent parkinsonian neurotoxin, MPTP. We find that while lack of mouse α-synuclein in mice is associated with reduced vulnerability to MPTP, increased levels of human α-synuclein expression is not associated with obvious changes in the vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons to MPTP. However, expressing human α-synuclein variants (human wild type or A53T in the α-synuclein null mice completely restores the vulnerability of nigral dopaminergic neurons to MPTP. These results indicate that human α-synuclein can functionally replace mouse α-synuclein in regard to vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons to MPTP-toxicity. Significantly, α-synuclein null mice and wild type mice were equally sensitive to neurodegeneration induced by 2'NH(2-MPTP, a MPTP analog that is selective for serotoninergic and noradrenergic neurons. These results suggest that effects of α-synuclein on MPTP like compounds are selective for nigral dopaminergic neurons. Immunoblot analysis of β-synuclein and Akt levels in the mice reveals selective increases in β-synuclein and phosphorylated Akt levels in ventral midbrain, but not in other brain regions, of α-synuclein null mice, implicating the α-synuclein-level dependent regulation of β-synuclein expression in modulation of MPTP-toxicity by α-synuclein. Together these findings provide new mechanistic insights on the role α-synuclein in modulating neurodegenerative phenotypes by regulation of Akt-mediated cell survival signaling in vivo.

  10. Simvastatin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced airway mucus hypersecretion in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU Xue-mei; WANG Bai-ding; WEN Fu-qiang; FENG Yu-lin; HUANG Xiang-yang; XIAO Jun

    2008-01-01

    Background Mucus hypersecretion in the respiratory tract and goblet cell metaplasia in the airway epithelium contribute to the morbidity and mortality associated with airway inflammatory diseases.This study aimed to examine the effect and mechanisms of simvastatin on airway mucus hypersecretion in rats treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS).Methods Mucus hypersecretion in rat airways was induced by intra-tracheal instillation of LPS.Rats treated with or without LPS were administered intra-peritoneally simvastatin (5 and 20 mg/kg) for 4 days.Expression of Muc5ac,RhoA and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) p38 in lung were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR),immunohistochemistry or Western blotting.Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a and IL-8 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF)were assayed by an enzyme-linked lectin assay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results Simvastatin attenuated LPS-induced goblet cell hyperplasia in bronchial epithelium and Muc5ac hypersecretion at both the gene and protein levels in lung (P<0.05).Moreover,simvastatin inhibited neutrophil accumulation and the increased concentration of TNF-α and IL-8 in BALF follows LPS stimulation (P<0.05).The higher dose of simvastatin was associated with a more significant reduction in Muc5ac mRNA expression,neutrophil accumulation and inflammatory cytokine release.Simultaneously,the increased expression of RhoA and p38 MAPK were observed in LPS-treated lung (P<0.05).Simvastatin inhibited the expression of RhoA and p38 phosphorylation in lung following LPS stimulation (P<0.05).However,the increased expression of p38 protein in LPS-traated lung was not affected by simvastatin administration.Conclusions Simvastatin attenuates airway mucus hypersecretion and pulmonary inflammatory damage induced by LPS.The inhibitory effect of simvastatin on airway mucus hypersecretion may be through,at least in part,the suppression of neutrophil accumulation and inflammatory cytokine

  11. Bioenergetic Approaches and Inflammation of MPTP Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    precursors are derived from PSCs 11 days after exposure to small molecule activators of sonic hedgehog ( SHH ) and canonical WNT signalling . Engraftable...Dopamine metabolites DOP AC and HV A showed similar effects. This work has been recently published in a manuscript in Antioxid Redox Signal . We...activation and activation of microglia and MPTP toxicity. We studied the effects of matrix matalloprotease 3 (MMP3) and its role as a novel signaling

  12. Dexmedetomidine Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide Induced MCP-1 Expression in Primary Astrocyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Faez Abdelgawad, Amro

    2017-01-01

    Background. Neuroinflammation which presents as a possible mechanism of delirium is associated with MCP-1, an important proinflammatory factor which is expressed on astrocytes. It is known that dexmedetomidine (DEX) possesses potent anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to investigate the potential effects of DEX on the production of MCP-1 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated astrocytes. Materials and Methods. Astrocytes were treated with LPS (10 ng/ml, 50 ng/ml, 100 ng/ml, and 1000 ng/ml), DEX (500 ng/mL), LPS (100 ng/ml), and DEX (10, 100, and 500 ng/mL) for a duration of three hours; expression levels of MCP-1 were measured by real-time PCR. The double immunofluorescence staining protocol was utilized to determine the expression of α2-adrenoceptors (α2AR) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) on astrocytes. Results. Expressions of MCP-1 mRNA in astrocytes were induced dose-dependently by LPS. Administration of DEX significantly inhibited the expression of MCP-1 mRNA (P < 0.001). Double immunofluorescence assay showed that α2AR colocalize with GFAP, which indicates the expression of α2-adrenoceptors in astrocytes. Conclusions. DEX is a potent suppressor of MCP-1 in astrocytes induced with lipopolysaccharide through α2A-adrenergic receptors, which potentially explains its beneficial effects in the treatment of delirium by attenuating neuroinflammation. PMID:28286770

  13. Ginsenoside Rb1 attenuates activated microglia-induced neuronal damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lining Ke; Wei Guo; Jianwen Xu; Guodong Zhang; Wei Wang; Wenhua Huang

    2014-01-01

    The microglia-mediated inlfammatory reaction promotes neuronal damage under cerebral isch-emia/hypoxia conditions. We therefore speculated that inhibition of hypoxia-induced microglial activation may alleviate neuronal damage. To test this hypothesis, we co-cultured ginsenoside Rb1, an active component of ginseng, and cortical neurons. Ginsenoside Rb1 protected neuronal morphology and structure in a single hypoxic culture system and in a hypoxic co-culture system with microglia, and reduced neuronal apoptosis and caspase-3 production. The protective effect was observable prior to placing in co-culture. Additionally, ginsenoside Rb1 inhibited levels of tumor necrosis factor-αin a co-culture system containing activated N9 microglial cells. Ginse-noside Rb1 also signiifcantly decreased nitric oxide and superoxide production induced by N9 microglia. Our ifndings indicate that ginsenoside Rb1 attenuates damage to cerebral cortex neu-rons by downregulation of nitric oxide, superoxide, and tumor necrosis factor-αexpression in hypoxia-activated microglia.

  14. Rolipram attenuates MK-801-induced deficits in latent inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jennifer A; Gould, Thomas J

    2005-04-01

    Latent inhibition is used to examine attention and study cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. Research using MK-801, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) open channel blocker, implicates glutamate receptors in acquisition of latent inhibition of cued fear conditioning. Evidence suggests an important relationship between NMDA-induced increases in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and learning and memory. The authors examine whether amplification of the cAMP signaling pathway by rolipram, a selective Type 4 cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor, reverses MK-801-induced impairments in latent inhibition. One day before training, mice were injected with MK-801, rolipram, MK-801 and rolipram, or vehicle and received 20 preexposures or no preexposures to an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS). Training consisted of 2 CS-footshock unconditioned stimulus pairings. Rolipram attenuated the disruptive effect of MK-801 on latent inhibition, which suggests a role for the cAMP signaling pathway in the task and implicates phosphodiesterase inhibition as a target for treating cognitive impairments associated with schizophrenia.

  15. Salvianolic acid B attenuates toxin-induced neuronal damage via Nrf2-dependent glial cells-mediated protective activity in Parkinson's disease models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhou

    Full Text Available Salvianolic acid B (SalB, a bioactive compound isolated from the plant-derived medicinal herb Danshen, has been shown to exert various anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities in several neurological disorders. In this study, we sought to investigate the potential protective effects and associated molecular mechanisms of SalB in Parkinson's disease (PD models. To determine the neuroprotective effects of SalB in vitro, MPP+- or lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced neuronal injury was achieved using primary cultures with different compositions of neurons, microglia and astrocytes. Our results showed that SalB reduced both LPS- and MPP+-induced toxicity of dopamine neurons in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, SalB treatment inhibited the release of microglial pro-inflammatory cytokines and resulted in an increase in the expression and release of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF from astrocytes. Western blot analysis illustrated that SalB increased the expression and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2. The knockdown of Nrf2 using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA partially reversed the SalB-induced GDNF expression and anti-inflammatory activity. Moreover, SalB treatment significantly attenuated dopaminergic (DA neuronal loss, inhibited neuroinflammation, increased GDNF expression and improved the neurological function in MPTP-treated mice. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that SalB protects DA neurons by an Nrf-2 -mediated dual action: reducing microglia activation-mediated neuroinflammation and inducing astrocyte activation-dependent GDNF expression. Importantly the present study also highlights critical roles of glial cells as targets for developing new strategies to alter the progression of neurodegenerative disorders.

  16. Salvianolic Acid B Attenuates Toxin-Induced Neuronal Damage via Nrf2-Dependent Glial Cells-Mediated Protective Activity in Parkinson’s Disease Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Yun; Wei-Ji; Liu, Qi; Ma, Yi-Hui; He, Jiao-Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Salvianolic acid B (SalB), a bioactive compound isolated from the plant-derived medicinal herb Danshen, has been shown to exert various anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities in several neurological disorders. In this study, we sought to investigate the potential protective effects and associated molecular mechanisms of SalB in Parkinson’s disease (PD) models. To determine the neuroprotective effects of SalB in vitro, MPP+- or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuronal injury was achieved using primary cultures with different compositions of neurons, microglia and astrocytes. Our results showed that SalB reduced both LPS- and MPP+-induced toxicity of dopamine neurons in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, SalB treatment inhibited the release of microglial pro-inflammatory cytokines and resulted in an increase in the expression and release of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) from astrocytes. Western blot analysis illustrated that SalB increased the expression and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). The knockdown of Nrf2 using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) partially reversed the SalB-induced GDNF expression and anti-inflammatory activity. Moreover, SalB treatment significantly attenuated dopaminergic (DA) neuronal loss, inhibited neuroinflammation, increased GDNF expression and improved the neurological function in MPTP-treated mice. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that SalB protects DA neurons by an Nrf-2 -mediated dual action: reducing microglia activation-mediated neuroinflammation and inducing astrocyte activation-dependent GDNF expression. Importantly the present study also highlights critical roles of glial cells as targets for developing new strategies to alter the progression of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24991814

  17. Ghrelin attenuates gastrointestinal epithelial damage induced by doxorubicin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed A Fahim; Hazem Kataya; Rkia El-Kharrag; Dena AM Amer; Basel al-Ramadi; Sherif M Karam

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To examine the influence of ghrelin on the regenerative potential of gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium.METHODS: Damage to GI epithelium was induced in mice by two intravenous injections of doxorubicin (10 and 6 mg/kg). Some of the doxorubicin-treated mice received a continuous subcutaneous infusion of ghrelin (1.25 μg/h) for 10 d via implanted mini-osmotic pumps. To label dividing stem cells in the S-phase of the cell cycle, all mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) one hour before sacrifice. The stomach along with the duodenum were then removed and processed for histological examination and immunohistochemistry using anti-BrdU antibody. RESULTS: The results showed dramatic damage to the GI epithelium 3 d after administration of chemotherapy which began to recover by day 10. In ghrelin-treated mice, attenuation of GI mucosal damage was evident in the tissues examined post-chemotherapy. Immunohistochemical analysis showed an increase in the number of BrdU-labeled cells and an alteration in their distribution along the epithelial lining in response to damage by doxorubicin. In mice treated with both doxorubicin and ghrelin, the number of BrdU-labeled cells was reduced when compared with mice treated with doxorubicin alone. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that ghrelin enhances the regenerative potential of the GI epithelium in doxorubicin-treated mice, at least in part, by modulating cell proliferation.

  18. Intermedin attenuates LPS-induced inflammation in the rat testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    Full Text Available First reported as a vasoactive peptide in the cardiovascular system, intermedin (IMD, also known as adrenomedullin 2 (ADM2, is a hormone with multiple potent roles, including its antioxidant action on the pulmonary, central nervous, cardiovascular and renal systems. Though IMD may play certain roles in trophoblast cell invasion, early embryonic development and cumulus cell-oocyte interaction, the role of IMD in the male reproductive system has yet to be investigated. This paper reports our findings on the gene expression of IMD, its receptor components and its protein localization in the testes. In a rat model, bacterial lippolysaccharide (LPS induced atypical orchitis, and LPS treatment upregulated the expression of IMD and one of its receptor component proteins, i.e. receptor activity modifying protein 2 (RAMP2. IMD decreased both plasma and testicular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS production, attenuated the increase in the gene expression of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, interleukin 6 (IL6 and interleukin 1 beta (IL1β, rescued spermatogenesis, and prevented the decrease in plasma testosterone levels caused by LPS. The restorative effect of IMD on steroidogenesis was also observed in hydrogen peroxide-treated rat primary Leydig cells culture. Our results indicate IMD plays an important protective role in spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis, suggesting therapeutic potential for IMD in pathological conditions such as orchitis.

  19. Thiazolidinediones attenuate lipolysis and ameliorate dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinhan; Xu, Chong; Kuang, Jiangying; Liu, Qinhui; Jiang, Hongfeng; Mo, Li; Geng, Bin; Xu, Guoheng

    2015-07-01

    Elevated levels of circulating free fatty acids induce insulin resistance and often occur in obese and diabetic conditions. One pharmacological basis for the antidiabetic effects of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) is that TZDs reduce levels of circulating FFAs by accelerating their uptake and reesterification from plasma into adipocytes. Here, we investigated whether TZDs affect adipose lipolysis, a process controlling triglyceride hydrolysis and FFA efflux to the bloodstream. The effects of TZDs on lipolysis were investigated in primary rat adipocytes in vitro and in rats in vivo. In rat primary adipocytes, the TZDs pioglitazone, rosiglitazone and troglitazone inhibited the lipolytic reaction dose- and time-dependently and in a post-receptor pathway by decreasing cAMP level and total lipase activity. TZDs increased the phosphorylation of Akt/protein kinase B, an action required for activating cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase 3B, a major enzyme responsible for cAMP hydrolysis in adipocytes. Furthermore, rosiglitazone inhibited the lipolytic action in dexamethasone-stimulated adipocytes, thereby preventing the increased level of circulating FFAs, and ameliorated insulin resistance in vivo in dexamethasone-treated rats. TZDs may attenuate lipolysis and FFA efflux by activating Akt signaling to decrease cAMP level and hence reduce lipase activity in adipocytes. Inhibiting lipolysis and FFA efflux with TZDs could be a pharmacological basis by which TZDs antagonize diabetes, particularly in patients with hypercortisolemia or glucocorticoid challenge. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Doxycycline Attenuated Pulmonary Fibrosis Induced by Bleomycin in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Masaki; Ye, Qing; Ouchi, Hiroshi; Harada, Eiji; Inoshima, Ichiro; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2006-01-01

    The administration of doxycycline prior to bleomycin in mice attenuated pulmonary fibrosis. Bronchoalveolar neutrophil influx and gelatinase activity, but not caseinolytic activity, were attenuated by doxycycline. Established fibrosis was not affected by doxycycline. Thus, doxycycline might be useful for slowing down pulmonary fibrosis by biological activity other than antibacterial activity.

  1. Opposite effects of bone marrow-derived cells transplantation in MPTP-rat model of Parkinson's disease: a comparison study of mononuclear and mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitelli, Caroline Santos; Lopes, Carolina Salomão; Alves, Angélica Cristina; Barbiero, Janaína; Oliveira, Lucas Felipe; da Silva, Valdo José Dias; Vital, Maria Aparecida Barbato Frazão

    2014-01-01

    The 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) animal model is a useful tool to study Parkinson's disease (PD) and was used in the present study to investigate the potential beneficial as well as deleterious effects of systemic bone-marrow mononuclear cell (BMMC) or mesenchymal stem cell (BM-MSC) transplantation. MPTP administration resulted in a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and motor impairment in the open field test 24 h after surgery. Three and 7 days after receiving the lesion, the injured animals showed remaining motor impairment compared to the sham groups along with a significant loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). The MPTP-lesioned rats treated with BMMCs immediately after lesioning exhibited motor impairment similar to the MPTP-saline group, though they presented a significantly higher loss of TH-ir cells in the SNpc compared to the MPTP-saline group. This increased loss of TH-ir cells in the SNpc was not observed when BMMC transplantation was performed 24 h after MPTP administration. In contrast, in the MPTP animals treated early with systemic BM-MSCs, no loss of TH-ir cells was observed. BMMCs and BM-MSCs previously labeled with CM-DiI cell tracker were found in brain sections of all transplanted animals. In addition, cells expressing CD45, an inflammatory white blood cell marker, were found in all brain sections analyzed and were more abundant in the MPTP-BMMC animals. In these animals, Iba1+ microglial cells showed also marked morphological changes indicating increased microglial activation. These results show that systemic BMMC transplantation did not ameliorate or prevent the lesion induced by MPTP. Instead, BMMC transplantation in MPTP-lesioned rats accelerated dopaminergic neuronal damage and induced motor impairment and immobility behavior. These findings suggest that caution should be taken when considering cell therapy using BMMCs to treat PD. However, systemic

  2. Neuroprotection effects of retained acupuncture in neurotoxin-induced Parkinson's disease mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jen-Lin; Chen, Jay S C; Yang, Yi-Fei; Chen, Jyh-Cheng; Lin, Ching-Huang; Chang, Rong-Seng; Tsao, Po-Jui; Chen, Fang-Pey; Chern, Chang-Ming; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Chiu, Jen-Hwey

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of retained acupuncture (RA) in neurotoxin-induced Parkinson's disease (PD) mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were injected with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to induce the PD model. The mice were divided into four groups, namely, (1) normal; (2) MPTP+retained acupuncture (RA); (3) MPTP+electroacupuncture (EA); (4) MPTP+sham acupuncture (SA). After mice being manipulated with/without acupuncture at acupoints (Daling, PC 7), groups 2-4 were injected with MPTP (15 mg/kg/d). The mice were evaluated for behavioral changes, in terms of time of landing, after acupuncture treatment. The animals were sacrificed and their brains assayed for dopamine and its metabolites and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression by using HPLC and immunohistochemistry/Western blotting, respectively. [(123)I] IBZM-SPECT imaging between SA and RA groups were compared. The results showed that the time of landing of the three groups with treatment was significant longer than group 1 (normal) (4.33±0.15 s). Nonetheless, group 2 (RA) (7.13±0.20 s) had a shorter time of landing than group 4 (SA) (7.89±0.46 s). The number of TH (+) neurons and the expression of TH proteins were significantly higher in the RA group than in the SA/EA groups. RA also increased the uptake of [(123)I] IBZM into the triatum compared to the SA group. We conclude that RA possibly attenuates neuronal damage in MPTP-induced PD mice, which suggests RA may be useful as a complementary strategy when treating human PD.

  3. Rosiglitazone attenuates pulmonary fibrosis and radiation-induced intestinal damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangoni, M.; Gerini, C.; Sottili, M.; Cassani, S.; Stefania, G.; Biti, G. [Radiotherapy Unit, Clinical Physiopathology Department, University of Florence, Firenze (Italy); Castiglione, F. [Department of Human Pathology and Oncology, University of Florence, Firenze (Italy); Vanzi, E.; Bottoncetti, A.; Pupi, A. [Nuclear Medicine Unit, Clinical Physiopathology Department, University of Florence, Firenze (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    Full text of publication follows: Purpose.-The aim of the study was to evaluate radioprotective effect of rosiglitazone (RGZ) on a murine model of late pulmonary damage and of acute intestinal damage. Methods.- Lung fibrosis: C57 mice were treated with the radiomimetic agent bleomycin, with or without rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg/day). To obtain an independent qualitative and quantitative measure for lung fibrosis we used high resolution CT, performed twice a week during the entire observation period. Hounsfield Units (HU) of section slides from the upper and lower lung region were determined. On day 31 lungs were collected for histological analysis. Acute intestinal damage: mice underwent 12 Gy total body irradiation with or without rosiglitazone. Mice were sacrificed 24 or 72 h after total body irradiation and ileum and colon were collected. Results.- Lung fibrosis: after bleomycin treatment, mice showed typical CT features of lung fibrosis, including irregular septal thickening and patchy peripheral reticular abnormalities. Accordingly, HU lung density was dramatically increased. Rosiglitazone markedly attenuated the radiological signs of fibrosis and strongly inhibited HU lung density increase (60% inhibition at the end of the observation period). Histological analysis revealed that in bleomycin-treated mice, fibrosis involved 50-55% of pulmonary parenchyma and caused an alteration of the alveolar structures in 10% of parenchyma, while in rosiglitazone-treated mice, fibrosis involved only 20-25% of pulmonary parenchyma, without alterations of the alveolar structures. Acute intestinal damage: 24 h after 12 Gy of total body irradiation intestinal mucosa showed villi shortening, mucosal thickness and crypt necrotic changes. Rosiglitazone showed a histological improvement of tissue structure, with villi and crypts normalization and oedema reduction. Conclusion.- These results demonstrate that rosiglitazone displays a protective effect on pulmonary fibrosis and radiation-induced

  4. Experimental Study and Numerical Modeling of Wave Induced Pore Pressure Attenuation Inside a Rubble Mound Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troch, Peter; Rouck, Julien De; Burcharth, Hans Falk

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to study the attenuation of the wave induced pore pressures inside the core of a rubble mound breakwater. The knowledge of the distribution and the attenuation of the pore pressures is important for the design of a stable and safe breakwater. The pore pressure...

  5. Neuroprotective changes of thalamic degeneration-related gene expression by acupuncture in an MPTP mouse model of parkinsonism: microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Sujung; Choi, Yeong-Gon; Hong, Yeon-Mi; Lim, Sabina

    2013-02-25

    Acupuncture stimulations at GB34 and LR3 inhibit the reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in the parkinsonism animal models. Especially, behavioral tests showed that acupuncture stimulations improved the motor dysfunction in a previous study by almost 87.7%. The thalamus is a crucial area for the motor circuit and has been identified as one of the most markedly damaged areas in Parkinson's disease (PD), so acupuncture stimulations might also have an effect on the thalamic damage. In this study, gene expression changes following acupuncture at the acupoints were investigated in the thalamus of a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced parkinsonism model using a whole transcript array. It was confirmed that acupuncture at these acupoints could inhibit the decrease of tyrosine hydroxylase in the thalamic regions of the MPTP model, while acupuncture at the non-acupoints could not suppress this decrease by its level shown in the acupoints. GeneChip gene array analysis showed that 18 (5 annotated genes: Dnase1l2, Dusp4, Mafg, Ndph and Pgm5) of the probes down-regulated in MPTP, as compared to the control, were exclusively up-regulated by acupuncture at the acupoints, but not at the non-acupoints. In addition, 14 (3 annotated genes; Serinc2, Sp2 and Ucp2) of the probes up-regulated in MPTP, as compared to the control, were exclusively down-regulated by acupuncture at the acupoints, but not at the non-acupoints. The expression levels of the representative genes in the microarray were validated by real-time RT-PCR. These results suggest that the 32 probes (8 annotated genes) which are affected by MPTP and acupuncture may be responsible for exerting the inhibitory effect of acupuncture in the thalamus which can be damaged by MPTP intoxication.

  6. Centella asiatica Attenuates D-Galactose-Induced Cognitive Impairment, Oxidative and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    l (D-galactose. Centella asiatica also attenuated enhanced acetylcholine esterase enzyme level in D-galactose senescence mice. Present study highlights the protective effect of Centella asiatica against D-galactose induced behavioral, biochemical and mitochondrial dysfunction in mice.

  7. Ingestion of TRP channel agonists attenuates exercise-induced muscle cramps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, Daniel H; Shank, Sean W; Gottschall, Jinger S; Passe, Dennis H; Murray, Bob; Alexander, Lacy M; Kenney, W Larry

    2017-02-13

    Exercise associated muscle cramping (EAMC) is a poorly understood problem that is neuromuscular in origin. Ingestion of transient receptor potential (TRP) channel agonists has been efficacious in attenuating electrically-induced muscle cramps.

  8. Neuroprotective Effects of Salidroside in the MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease: Involvement of the PI3K/Akt/GSK3β Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The degenerative loss through apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta plays a primary role in the progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD. Our in vitro experiments suggested that salidroside (Sal could protect against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine-induced cell apoptosis in part by regulating the PI3K/Akt/GSK3β pathway. The current study aims to increase our understanding of the protective mechanisms of Sal in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropypridine- (MPTP- induced PD mouse model. We found that pretreatment with Sal could protect against MPTP-induced increase of the time of turning downwards and climbing down to the floor. Sal also prevented MPTP-induced decrease of locomotion frequency and the increase of the immobile time. Sal provided a protection of in MPTP-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in SNpc and the level of DA, DOPAC, and HVA in the striatum. Furthermore, Sal could increase the phosphorylation level of Akt and GSK3β, upregulate the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, and inhibit the activation of caspase-3, caspase-6, and caspase-9. These results show that Sal prevents the loss of dopaminergic neurons and the PI3K/Akt/GSK3β pathway signaling pathway may have mediated the protection of Sal against MPTP, suggesting that Sal may be a potential candidate in neuroprotective treatment for PD.

  9. To involvement the conformation of the adenine nucleotide translocase in opening the Tl(+)-induced permeability transition pore in Ca(2+)-loaded rat liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkov, Sergey M; Konovalova, Svetlana A; Brailovskaya, Irina V; Saris, Nils-Erik L

    2016-04-01

    The conformation of adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) has a profound impact in opening the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) in the inner membrane. Fixing the ANT in 'c' conformation by phenylarsine oxide (PAO), tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBHP), and carboxyatractyloside as well as the interaction of 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (DIDS) with mitochondrial thiols markedly attenuated the ability of ADP to inhibit the MPTP opening. We earlier found (Korotkov and Saris, 2011) that calcium load of rat liver mitochondria in medium containing TlNO3 and KNO3 stimulated the Tl(+)-induced MPTP opening in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The MPTP opening as well as followed increase in swelling, a drop in membrane potential (ΔΨmito), and a decrease in state 3, state 4, and 2,4-dinitrophenol-uncoupled respiration were visibly enhanced in the presence of PAO, tBHP, DIDS, and carboxyatractyloside. However, these effects were markedly inhibited by ADP and membrane-penetrant hydrophobic thiol reagent, N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) which fix the ANT in 'm' conformation. Cyclosporine A additionally potentiated these effects of ADP and NEM. Our data suggest that conformational changes of the ANT may be directly involved in the opening of the Tl(+)-induced MPTP in the inner membrane of Ca(2+)-loaded rat liver mitochondria. Using the Tl(+)-induced MPTP model is discussed in terms finding new transition pore inhibitors and inducers among different chemical and natural compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Macro-Bending Influence on Radiation Induced Attenuation Measurement in Optical Fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Guillermain, E; Ricci, D; Weinand, U

    2014-01-01

    Influence of the bending radius on the measurement of radiation induced attenuation in glass optical fibres is discussed in this paper. Radiation induced attenuation measured in two single-mode fibre types shows discrepancies when coiled around a low bending radius spool: the observed attenuation is lower than expected. A series of dedicated tests reveals that this invalid measurement is related to the displacement of the mode field towards the cladding when the fibre is bent with a low radius, and to the different radiation resistances of the core and cladding glasses. For irradiation tests of optical fibres, the spool radius should therefore be carefully chosen.

  11. Phosphodiesterase-3 inhibitor (cilostazol) attenuates oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in the heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siriporn C.Chattipakorn; Savitree Thummasorn; Jantira Sanit; Nipon Chattipakorn

    2014-01-01

    Background Cilostazol is a type 3 phosphodiesterase inhibitor which has been previously demonstrated to prevent the occurrence of tachyarrhythmia and improve defibrillation efficacy. However, the mechanism for this beneficial effect is still unclear. Since cardiac mito-chondria have been shown to play a crucial role in fatal cardiac arrhythmias and that oxidative stress is one of the main contributors to arr-hythmia generation, we tested the effects of cilostazol on cardiac mitochondria under severe oxidative stress. Methods Mitochondria were isolated from rat hearts and treated with H2O2 to induce oxidative stress. Cilostazol, at various concentrations, was used to study its protective effects. Pharmacological interventions, including a mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) blocker, cyclosporine A (CsA), and an inner membrane anion channel (IMAC) blocker, 4’-chlorodiazepam (CDP), were used to investigate the mechanistic role of cilostazol on cardiac mitochondria. Cardiac mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane potential change and mi-tochondrial swelling were determined as indicators of cardiac mitochondrial function. Results Cilostazol preserved cardiac mitochondrial function when exposed to oxidative stress by preventing mitochondrial depolarization, mitochondrial swelling, and decreasing ROS produc-tion. Conclusions Our findings suggest that cardioprotective effects of cilostazol reported previously could be due to its prevention of car-diac mitochondrial dysfunction caused by severe oxidative stress.

  12. Noradrenergic-Dopaminergic Interactions Due to DSP-4-MPTP Neurotoxin Treatments: Iron Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Trevor

    The investigations of noradrenergic lesions and dopaminergic lesions have established particular profiles of functional deficits and accompanying alterations of biomarkers in brain regions and circuits. In the present account, the focus of these lesions is directed toward the effects upon dopaminergic neurotransmission and expression that are associated with the movement disorders and psychosis-like behavior. In this context, it was established that noradrenergic denervation, through administration of the selective noradrenaline (NA) neurotoxin, DSP-4, should be performed prior to the depletion of dopamine (DA) with the selective neurotoxin, MPTP. Employing this regime, it was shown that (i) following DSP-4 (50 mg/kg) pretreatment of C57/Bl6 mice, both the functional and neurochemical (DA loss) effects of MPTP (2 × 20 and 2 × 40 mg/kg) were markedly exacerbated, and (ii) following postnatal iron (Fe(2+), 7.5 mg/kg, on postnatal days 19-12), pretreatment with DSP-4 followed by the lower 2 × 20 mg/kg MPTP dose induced even greater losses of motor behavior and striatal DA. As yet, the combination of NA-DA depletions, and even more so Fe(2+)-NA-DA depletion, has been considered to present a movement disorder aspect although studies exploring cognitive domains are lacking. With intrusion of iron overload into this formula, the likelihood of neuropsychiatric disorder, as well, unfolds.

  13. Caspase-3 activation in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turmel, H; Hartmann, A; Parain, K; Douhou, A; Srinivasan, A; Agid, Y; Hirsch, E C

    2001-03-01

    In 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) models of Parkinson's disease (PD), dopaminergic (DA) neurons have been shown to die by apoptosis. Moreover, recent postmortem and in vitro results have indicated that apoptotic cell death induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) may be mediated by caspase-3. To establish whether caspase-3 activation may indeed play a role in an in vivo model of PD, we studied caspase-3 activation in C57Bl/6 mice subchronically intoxicated with MPTP. We show that caspase-3 activation peaks early, at days 1 and 2 after the end of MPTP intoxication. In contrast, pycnotic neurons persist until day 7 postintoxication, indicating that caspase-3 activation is an early and transient phenomenon in apoptotic death of DA neurons. We further demonstrate that loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity in this model is indeed due to cell loss rather than to loss of TH protein expression. We conclude that mice subchronically intoxicated with MPTP represent a valid PD model to study and manipulate caspase activation in vivo.

  14. Acetazolamide Attenuates Lithium-Induced Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, T. de; Sinke, A.P.; Kortenoeven, M.L.A.; Alsady, M.; Baumgarten, R.; Devuyst, O.; Loffing, J.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Deen, P.M.T.

    2016-01-01

    To reduce lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (lithium-NDI), patients with bipolar disorder are treated with thiazide and amiloride, which are thought to induce antidiuresis by a compensatory increase in prourine uptake in proximal tubules. However, thiazides induced antidiuresis and

  15. Resistance of the golden hamster to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-neurotoxicity is not only related with low levels of cerebral monoamine oxidase-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Sebastián; Ito, Tsuyoshi; He, Xi Jun; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) has been proved to be a potent neurotoxin on dopaminergic neurons inducing most of the symptoms and cerebral lesions observed in the idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Although there is a substantial body of theory and researches about the effects of MPTP on susceptible mice and nonhuman primates, there are only few studies in resistant animals, such as golden hamsters (GH). The low levels of cerebral monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) enzyme have been proposed as the cause of the GH insensitivity to MPTP. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether MAO-B is the only factor which confer GH resistance to MPTP. Neither loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) nor cell death in the subventricular zone (SVZ) were found in female GH in response to an acute intraperitoneal (ip) MPTP treatment. To prove the role of MAO-B in the MPTP-resistance, female and male GH was intracerebroventricularly (icv) injected with either MPTP or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinum (MPP(+)). Neither depletion in the number of dopaminergic neurons, nor astrogliosis, cell death in the SVZ of female and male GH were registered after an icv treatment with MPTP or MPP(+). Furthermore, we demonstrated that MAO-B is located predominantly within the endothelial cells in the blood brain barrier (BBB), but not in the astroglia. The present results raise the possibility that, in GH, other mechanisms, apart from the low levels of regional MAO-B, confer resistance to MPTP and its metabolites.

  16. Tyrosol attenuates ischemia-reperfusion-induced kidney injury via inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengqi; Zhu, Qingjun; Wu, Nan; Siow, Yaw L; Aukema, Harold; O, Karmin

    2013-04-17

    Tyrosol is a natural phenolic antioxidant compound. Oxidative stress represents one of the important mechanisms underlying ischemia-reperfusion-induced kidney injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tyrosol against ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury. The left kidney of Sprague-Dawley rats was subjected to 45 min of ischemia followed by reperfusion for 6 h. Ischemia-reperfusion caused an increase in peroxynitrite formation and lipid peroxidation. The level of nitric oxide (NO) metabolites and the mRNA of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were elevated in ischemia-reperfused kidneys. Administration of tyrosol (100 mg/kg body weight) to rats prior to the induction of ischemia significantly reduced peroxynitrite formation, lipid peroxidation, and the level of NO metabolites. Tyrosol administration also attenuated ischemia-reperfusion-induced NF-κB activation and iNOS expression. Such a treatment improved kidney function. Results suggest that tyrosol may have a protective effect against acute kidney injury through inhibition of iNOS-mediated oxidative stress.

  17. Mepivacaine attenuates vasodilation induced by ATP-sensitive potassium channels in rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Jiseok; Ok, Seong-Ho; Kim, Eun-Jin; Kang, Dawon; Hong, Jeong-Min; Shin, Il-Woo; Lee, Heon Keun; Chung, Young-Kyun; Cho, Youngil; Lee, Soo Hee; Kang, Sebin; Sohn, Ju-Tae

    2016-07-05

    The goal of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of mepivacaine on vasodilation induced by the ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel opener levcromakalim in isolated endothelium-denuded rat aortas. The effects of mepivacaine and the KATP channel inhibitor glibenclamide, alone or in combination, on levcromakalim-induced vasodilation were assessed in the isolated aortas. The effects of mepivacaine or combined treatment with a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, GF109203X, and mepivacaine on this vasodilation were also investigated. Levcromakalim concentration-response curves were generated for isolated aortas precontracted with phenylephrine or a PKC activator, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu). Further, the effects of mepivacaine and glibenclamide on levcromakalim-induced hyperpolarization were assessed in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. Mepivacaine attenuated levcromakalim-induced vasodilation, whereas it had no effect on this vasodilation in isolated aortas pretreated with glibenclamide. Combined treatment with GF109203X and mepivacaine enhanced levcromakalim-induced vasodilation compared with pretreatment with mepivacaine alone. This vasodilation was attenuated in aortas precontracted with PDBu compared with those precontracted with phenylephrine. Mepivacaine and glibenclamide, alone or in combination, attenuated levcromakalim-induced membrane hyperpolarization. Taken together, these results suggest that mepivacaine attenuates vasodilation induced by KATP channels, which appears to be partly mediated by PKC.

  18. Oridonin attenuates Aβ1-42-induced neuroinflammation and inhibits NF-κB pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulei Wang

    Full Text Available Neuroinflammation induced by beta-amyloid (Aβ plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD, and inhibiting Aβ-induced neuroinflammation serves as a potential strategy for the treatment of AD. Oridonin (Ori, a compound of Rabdosia rubescens, has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we demonstrated that Ori inhibited glial activation and decreased the release of inflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus of Aβ1-42-induced AD mice. In addition, Ori inhibited the NF-κB pathway and Aβ1-42-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, Ori could attenuate memory deficits in Aβ1-42-induced AD mice. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that Ori inhibited the neuroinflammation and attenuated memory deficits induced by Aβ1-42, suggesting that Ori might be a promising candidate for AD treatment.

  19. A novel biomechanical analysis of gait changes in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner J. Geldenhuys

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is an age-associated neurodegenerative disorder hallmarked by a loss of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. Accurate recapitulation of the PD movement phenotype in animal models of the disease is critical for understanding disease etiology and developing novel therapeutic treatments. However, most existing behavioral assays currently applied to such animal models fail to adequately detect and subsequently quantify the subtle changes associated with the progressive stages of PD. In this study, we used a video-based analysis system to develop and validate a novel protocol for tracking locomotor performance in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP mouse model of PD. We anticipated that (1 treated mice should use slower, shorter, and less frequent strides and (2 that gait deficits should monotonically increase following MPTP administration, as the effects of neurodegeneration become manifest. Video-based biomechanical analyses, utilizing behavioral measures motivated by the comparative biomechanics literature, were used to quantify gait dynamics over a seven-day period following MPTP treatment. Analyses revealed shuffling behaviors consistent with the gait symptoms of advanced PD in humans. Here we also document dramatic gender-based differences in locomotor performance during the progression of the MPTP-induced lesion, despite male and female mice showing similar losses of striatal dopaminergic cells following MPTP administration. Whereas female mice appeared to be protected against gait deficits, males showed multiple changes in gait kinematics, consistent with the loss of locomotor agility and stability. Overall, these data show that the novel video analysis protocol presented here is a robust method capable of detecting subtle changes in gait biomechanics in a mouse model of PD. Our findings indicate that this method is a useful means by which to easily and economically screen preclinical therapeutic

  20. Alterations in energy metabolism, neuroprotection and visual signal transduction in the retina of Parkinsonian, MPTP-treated monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Campello

    Full Text Available Parkinson disease is mainly characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the central nervous system, including the retina. Different interrelated molecular mechanisms underlying Parkinson disease-associated neuronal death have been put forward in the brain, including oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Systemic injection of the proneurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP to monkeys elicits the appearance of a parkinsonian syndrome, including morphological and functional impairments in the retina. However, the intracellular events leading to derangement of dopaminergic and other retinal neurons in MPTP-treated animal models have not been so far investigated. Here we have used a comparative proteomics approach to identify proteins differentially expressed in the retina of MPTP-treated monkeys. Proteins were solubilized from the neural retinas of control and MPTP-treated animals, labelled separately with two different cyanine fluorophores and run pairwise on 2D DIGE gels. Out of >700 protein spots resolved and quantified, 36 were found to exhibit statistically significant differences in their expression levels, of at least ± 1.4-fold, in the parkinsonian monkey retina compared with controls. Most of these spots were excised from preparative 2D gels, trypsinized and subjected to MALDI-TOF MS and LC-MS/MS analyses. Data obtained were used for protein sequence database interrogation, and 15 different proteins were successfully identified, of which 13 were underexpressed and 2 overexpressed. These proteins were involved in key cellular functional pathways such as glycolysis and mitochondrial electron transport, neuronal protection against stress and survival, and phototransduction processes. These functional categories underscore that alterations in energy metabolism, neuroprotective mechanisms and signal transduction are involved in MPTP-induced neuronal degeneration in the retina, in similarity to

  1. Attenuating effect of daidzein on polychlorinated biphenyls-induced oxidative toxicity in mouse testicular cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-lei ZHANG; Yu-ling MI; Kai-ming WANG; Wei-dong ZENG; Cai-qiao ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    The attenuating effect of daidzein (DAD on oxidative toxicity induced by Aroclor 1254 (A 1254) was investigated in mouse testicular cells. Cells were exposed to A1254 alone or with DAI. The oxidative damage was estimated by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) content. Results show that A 1254 induced a decrease of germ cell number, an elevation in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) but a decrease in SOD activity and GSH content. However, simultaneous supplementation with DAI decreased TBARS level and increased SOD activity and GSH content. Consequently, dietary DAI may restore the intracellular antioxidant system to attenuate the oxidative toxicity of A1254 in testicular cells.

  2. Patterns of Cell Activity in the Subthalamic Region Associated with the Neuroprotective Action of Near-Infrared Light Treatment in MPTP-Treated Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria E. Shaw

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have shown previously that near-infrared light (NIr treatment or photobiomodulation neuroprotects dopaminergic cells in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc from degeneration induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP in mice. The present study explores whether NIr treatment changes the patterns of Fos expression in the subthalamic region, namely, the subthalamic nucleus (STN and zona incerta (ZI; both cell groups have abnormally overactive cells in parkinsonian cases. BALB/c mice were treated with MPTP (100–250 mg/kg or saline either over 30 hours followed by either a two-hour or six-day survival period (acute model or over five weeks followed by a three-week survival period (chronic model. NIr and MPTP were applied simultaneously. Brains were processed for Fos immunochemistry, and cell number was estimated using stereology. Our major finding was that NIr treatment reduced (30–45% the increase in Fos+ cell number evident in the STN and ZI after MPTP insult. This reduction was concurrent with the neuroprotection of dopaminergic SNc cells shown previously and was evident in both MPTP models (except for the 2 hours survival period which showed no changes in cell number. In summary, our results indicated that NIr had long lasting effects on the activity of cells located deep in the brain and had repaired partially the abnormal activity generated by the parkinsonian toxin.

  3. Hypercapnia attenuates ventilator-induced diaphragm atrophy and modulates dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, W.J.M.; Hees, H.W.H. van; Kox, M.; Linkels, M.; Acuna, G.L.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Scheffer, G.J.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Heunks, L.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Diaphragm weakness induced by prolonged mechanical ventilation may contribute to difficult weaning from the ventilator. Hypercapnia is an accepted side effect of low tidal volume mechanical ventilation, but the effects of hypercapnia on respiratory muscle function are largely unknown.

  4. Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa Extract Attenuates DSS-Induced Murine Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Chan Jang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the protective effects of Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa (AAK extract on a murine model of acute experimental colitis. Colitis was induced by 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS in the drinking water of male C57BL/6 mice, for 7 consecutive days. Oral administration of AAK extract (500 mg/kg/day significantly alleviated DSS-induced symptoms such as anorexia, weight loss, events of diarrhea or bloody stools, and colon shortening. Histological damage was also ameliorated, as evidenced by the architectural preservation and suppression of inflammatory cell infiltration in colonic samples. Treatment improved the colonic mRNA expression of different inflammatory markers: cytokines, inducible enzymes, matrix metalloproteinases, and tight junction-related proteins. In the isolated serum, IgE levels were downregulated. Collectively, these findings indicate the therapeutic potentials of AAK as an effective complementary or alternative modality for the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

  5. Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa Extract Attenuates DSS-Induced Murine Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jong-Chan; Lee, Kang Min; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    We examined the protective effects of Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa (AAK) extract on a murine model of acute experimental colitis. Colitis was induced by 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water of male C57BL/6 mice, for 7 consecutive days. Oral administration of AAK extract (500 mg/kg/day) significantly alleviated DSS-induced symptoms such as anorexia, weight loss, events of diarrhea or bloody stools, and colon shortening. Histological damage was also ameliorated, as evidenced by the architectural preservation and suppression of inflammatory cell infiltration in colonic samples. Treatment improved the colonic mRNA expression of different inflammatory markers: cytokines, inducible enzymes, matrix metalloproteinases, and tight junction-related proteins. In the isolated serum, IgE levels were downregulated. Collectively, these findings indicate the therapeutic potentials of AAK as an effective complementary or alternative modality for the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

  6. Metformin attenuates pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy via AMPK activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-nan FU; Han XIAO; Xiao-wei MA; Sheng-yang JIANG; Ming XU; You-yi ZHANG

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To identify the role of metformin in cardiac hypertrophy and investigate the possible mechanism underlying this effect.Methods: Wild type and AMPKα2 knockout (AMPKα2-/-) littermates were subjected to left ventricular pressure overload caused by evaluated using echocardiography and anatomic and histological methods. The antihypertrophic mechanism of metformin was analyzed using Western blotting.Results: Metformin significantly attenuated cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload in wild type mice, but the antihypertrophic actions of metformin were ablated in AMPKx2-/- mice. Furthermore, metformin suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt/protein kinase B (AKT) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in response to pressure overload in wild type mice, but not in AMPKα2-/-mice.Conclusion: Long-term administration of metformin may attenuate cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload in nondiabetic mice, and this attenuation is highly dependent on AMPK activation. These findings may provide a potential therapy for patients at risk of developing pathological cardiac hypertrophy.

  7. 侧脑室注射DJ-1蛋白对MPTP致帕金森病小鼠的神经保护作用%Neuroprotective effects of intracerebroventricular administration of DJ-1protein on MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙双勇; 周俊俊; 邓政; 安春娜; 赵欣; 蒲小平

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe the neuroprotective effects of DJ-1 protein on 1-methyl-4- phenyl-1,2,3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induced Parkinson's disease (PD) in mice. Methods: SDS-PAGE and bio-mass spectrometry were used to determine the purity and active sites of DJ-1 protein. DJ-1 protein was then injected into the lateral ventricles of mice. MPTP was intraperitoneally injected to induce Parkinson's disease after 24 hours. Behavioral changes of mice in each group were observed through rotarod performance test, spontaneous movement test and vertical grid test. Neurotransmitter contents in the striatum were determined by HPLC-ECD, and dopaminergic neurons in the Substantia nigra (SN) were observed through tyroxine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemical staining. Results: The results of SDS-PAGE and bio-mass spectrometry indicated that DJ-1 protein had high purity and it was not oxidized. The PD symptoms of mice were improved obviously after DJ-1 protein was injected into the lateral ventricles of mice, including behavioral improvement, neurotransmitter contents restoration and dopaminergic neuronal death reduction.Conclusion:Intracerebroventricular administration of DJ-1 protein can improve PD symptoms of mice, and DJ-1 protein is proved to have neuroprotective effects.%目的:观察DJ-1蛋白对1-甲基-4-苯基-1,2,3,6-四氢吡啶(1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahy-dropyridine,MPTP)致帕金森病(Parkinson's disease,PD)小鼠是否具有神经保护作用.方法:分别采用SDS-PAGE和生物质谱仪对DJ-1蛋白的纯度和活性位点进行检测.然后将DJ-1蛋白注射进入小鼠侧脑室内,24 h后小鼠腹腔注射MPTP造模,通过滚筒实验、自主活动实验和竖直网格实验观察行为学变化,使用HPLC-ECD对纹状体内神经递质含量进行测定,通过酪氨酸羟化酶(tyroxine hydroxylase,TH)免疫组化染色观察SN区域多巴胺能神经元的存活状态.结果:SDS-PAGE和质谱实验表明DJ-1蛋白纯度较高,且活性

  8. Crocin attenuates lipopolysacchride-induced acute lung injury in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Kuai, Jianke; Luo, Zhonghua; Wang, Wuping; Wang, Lei; Ke, Changkang; Li, Xiaofei; Ni, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    Crocin, a representative of carotenoid compounds, exerts a spectrum of activities including radical scavenger, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties. To investigate the protective effect of crocin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. ALI was induced in mice by intratracheal instillation of LPS (1 mg/kg). The mice received intragastric injection of crocin (50 mg/kg) 1 h before LPS administration. Pulmonary histological changes were evaluated by hematoxylineosin stain and lung wet/dry weight ratios were observed. Concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and nitric oxide (NO), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were measured by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lung tissues was determined by Western blot analysis. Crocin pretreatment significantly alleviated the severity of lung injury and inhibited the production of TNF-α and IL-1β in mice with ALI. After LPS administration, the lung wet/dry weight ratios, as an index of lung edema, and MPO activity were also markedly reduced by crocin pretreatment. Crocin pretreatment also reduced the concentrations of NO in lung tissues. Furthermore, the expression of iNOS was significantly suppressed by crocin pretreatment. Croncin potently protected against LPS-induced ALI and the protective effects of crocin may attribute partly to the suppression of iNOS expression. PMID:26191176

  9. Hydrogen peroxide centrally attenuates hyperosmolarity-induced thirst and natriuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanella, Regis C; Melo, Mariana Rosso; Furuya, Werner Issao; Colombari, Eduardo; Menani, José V; Colombari, Débora Simões Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Intragastric hypertonic NaCl that simulates the ingestion of osmotically active substances by food intake induces thirst, vasopressin and oxytocin release, diuresis and natriuresis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced endogenously in central areas may act modulating autonomic and behavioral responses. In the present study, we investigated the effects of H2O2 injected centrally on water intake and renal responses induced by increasing plasma osmolality with intragastric (ig) administration of 2M NaCl (2 ml/rat). Male Holtzman rats (280-320 g) with stainless steel cannula implanted in the lateral ventricle (LV) were used. Injections of H2O2 (2.5 μmol/1 μl) into the LV reduced ig 2M NaCl-induced water intake (3.1 ± 0.7, vs. PBS: 8.6 ± 1.0 ml/60 min, pnatriuresis (769 ± 93, vs. PBS: 1158 ± 168 μEq/120 min, pdiuresis (4.1 ± 0.5, vs. PBS: 5.0 ± 0.5 ml/120 min, pnatriuresis induced by hyperosmolarity and on meal-associated thirst.

  10. Lipoic acid attenuates Aroclor 1260-induced hepatotoxicity in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Hamdy A A; Mansour, Ahmed M; Hassan, Memy H; Abd-Ellah, Mohamed F

    2016-08-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the mechanistic aspect of Aroclor 1260-induced hepatotoxicity and its protection by lipoic acid. The adult male Albino rats were divided into six groups. Group I served as control. Group II received lipoic acid (35 mg/kg/day). Aroclor 1260 was given to rats by oral gavage at doses 20, 40, or 60 mg/kg/day (Groups III, IV, and V, respectively). Group VI was pretreated with lipoic acid (35 mg/kg/day) 24 h before Aroclor 1260 (40 mg/kg/day). Treatment in all groups was continued for further 15 consecutive days. Serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase activities and total bilirubin, total cholesterol, and triglycerides were significantly increased while total protein, total albumin, and high-density lipoprotein were significantly decreased. Hydrogen peroxide production and lipid peroxidation were significantly increased while superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and reduced glutathione (GSH) content was significantly decreased in liver. Caspase-3 & -9 activities were significantly increased in liver. Lipoic acid pretreatment significantly reverted all these abnormalities toward their normal levels. In conclusion, Aroclor 1260 induced liver dysfunction, at least in part, by induction of oxidative stress. Apoptotic effect of hepatic cells is involved in Aroclor 1260-induced liver injury. Lipoic acid could protect rats against Aroclor 1260-induced hepatotoxicity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 913-922, 2016.

  11. Attenuation of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-28

    Jul 28, 2010 ... 1UPM-MAKNA Cancer Research Laboratory, Institute of Bioscience (IBS), Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), ..... testicular, gynecologic, head and neck and lung .... Jun N-terminal Kinases (JNKs) is involved in the preventive effect of ... micronutrients and chemotherapy-induced toxicity in cancer patients.

  12. Tropisetron attenuates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirak, Mohammad Reza; Rahimian, Reza; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud; Abbasi, Ata; Razmi, Ali; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaei; Mousavizadeh, Kazem; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2014-09-05

    Nephrotoxicity is one of the most important complications of cisplatin, a potent chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of various malignancies. 5-HT3 antagonists are widely used to counteract chemotherapy-induced emesis and new studies reveal that they poses notable anti-inflammatory properties. In current study, we investigated the effects of 5-HT3 antagonists on cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in mice. To identify the underlying mechanism of renal protection by tropisetron, we investigated the probable involvement of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR). A single injection of cisplatin (20mg/kg; i.p) induced nephrotoxicity, 5-HT3 antagonists (tropisetron, granisetron and ondansetron,) were given twice daily for 3 day (3mg/kg; i.p). Finally animals were euthanized and blood sample was collected to measure urea and creatinin level. Also kidneys were removed for histopathological examination and biochemical measurements including glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and inflammatory cytokines. Tropisetron decreased the expression of inflammatory molecules including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and iNOS and improved histopathological damage and renal dysfunction. However other 5-HT3 antagonists, granisetron or ondansetron do not have any elicit effects on biochemical markers and histological damages. Since methyllycaconitine, antagonist of α7nAChR, was unable to reverse the beneficial effect of tropisetron, we concluded that this effect of tropisetron is not mediated by α7nAChR.Our results showed that tropisetron treatment markedly ameliorated the experimental cisplatin induced-nephrotoxicity and this effect might be 5-HT3 receptor and α7nAChR independent.

  13. DIBROMOACETIC ACID ATTENUATES A DIMETHYLDITHIOCARBAMATE-INDUCED SUPPRESSION OF THE RAT LH SURGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    DIBROMOACETIC ACID ATTENUATES A DITHIOCARBAMATE-INDUCED SUPPRESSION OF THE LH SURGE IN THE RAT. Jerome M. Goldman, Ashley S. Murr, Angela R. Buckelew, W. Keith McElroy and Janet M. Ferrell. Repro. Toxicol. Div., NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NCAt elevated concentrations, the ...

  14. Attenuation of endoplasmic reticulum stress by caffeine ameliorates hyperoxia-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Ru-Jeng; Jing, Xigang; Michalkiewicz, Teresa; Afolayan, Adeleye J; Wu, Tzong-Jin; Konduri, Girija G

    2017-05-01

    Rodent pups exposed to hyperoxia develop lung changes similar to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in extremely premature infants. Oxidative stress from hyperoxia can injure developing lungs through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Early caffeine treatment decreases the rate of BPD, but the mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized that caffeine attenuates hyperoxia-induced lung injury through its chemical chaperone property. Sprague-Dawley rat pups were raised either in 90 (hyperoxia) or 21% (normoxia) oxygen from postnatal day 1 (P1) to postnatal day 10 (P10) and then recovered in 21% oxygen until P21. Caffeine (20 mg/kg) or normal saline (control) was administered intraperitoneally daily starting from P2. Lungs were inflation-fixed for histology or snap-frozen for immunoblots. Blood caffeine levels were measured in treated pups at euthanasia and were found to be 18.4 ± 4.9 μg/ml. Hyperoxia impaired alveolar formation and increased ER stress markers and downstream effectors; caffeine treatment attenuated these changes at P10. Caffeine also attenuated the hyperoxia-induced activation of cyclooxygenase-2 and markers of apoptosis. In conclusion, hyperoxia-induced alveolar growth impairment is mediated, in part, by ER stress. Early caffeine treatment protects developing lungs from hyperoxia-induced injury by attenuating ER stress. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Taurine attenuates radiation-induced lung fibrosis in C57/Bl6 fibrosis prone mice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Robb, W B

    2010-03-01

    The amino acid taurine has an established role in attenuating lung fibrosis secondary to bleomycin-induced injury. This study evaluates taurine\\'s effect on TGF-beta1 expression and the development of lung fibrosis after single-dose thoracic radiotherapy.

  16. PTTG1 attenuates drug-induced cellular senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunguang Tong

    Full Text Available As PTTG1 (pituitary tumor transforming gene abundance correlates with adverse outcomes in cancer treatment, we determined mechanisms underlying this observation by assessing the role of PTTG1 in regulating cell response to anti-neoplastic drugs. HCT116 cells devoid of PTTG1 (PTTG1(-/- exhibited enhanced drug sensitivity as assessed by measuring BrdU incorporation in vitro. Apoptosis, mitosis catastrophe or DNA damage were not detected, but features of senescence were observed using low doses of doxorubicin and TSA. The number of drug-induced PTTG1(-/- senescent cells increased ∼4 fold as compared to WT PTTG1-replete cells (p<0.001. p21, an important regulator of cell senescence, was induced ∼3 fold in HCT116 PTTG1(-/- cells upon doxorubicin or Trichostatin A treatment. Binding of Sp1, p53 and p300 to the p21 promoter was enhanced in PTTG1(-/- cells after treatment, suggesting transcriptional regulation of p21. p21 knock down abrogated the observed senescent effects of these drugs, indicating that PTTG1 likely suppresses p21 to regulate drug-induced senescence. PTTG1 also regulated SW620 colon cancer cells response to doxorubicin and TSA mediated by p21. Subcutaneously xenografted PTTG1(-/- HCT116 cells developed smaller tumors and exhibited enhanced responses to doxorubicin. PTTG1(-/- tumor tissue derived from excised tumors exhibited increased doxorubicin-induced senescence. As senescence is a determinant of cell responses to anti-neoplastic treatments, these findings suggest PTTG1 as a tumor cell marker to predict anti-neoplastic treatment outcomes.

  17. Measurements of frequency dependent shear wave attenuation in sedimentary basins using induced earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Tom; Wegler, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Modeling of peak ground velocity caused by induced earthquakes requires detailed knowledge about seismic attenuation properties of the subsurface. Especially shear wave attenuation is important, because shear waves usually show the largest amplitude in high frequency seismograms. We report intrinsic and scattering attenuation coefficients of shear waves near three geothermal reservoirs in Germany for frequencies between 2 Hz and 50 Hz. The geothermal plants are located in the sedimentary basins of the upper Rhine graben (Insheim and Landau) and the Molasse basin (Unterhaching). The method optimizes the fit between Green's functions for the acoustic, isotropic radiative transfer theory and observed energy densities of induced earthquakes. The inversion allows the determination of scattering and intrinsic attenuation, site corrections, and spectral source energies for the investigated frequency bands. We performed the inversion at the three sites for events with a magnitude between 0.7 and 2. We determined a transport mean free path of 70 km for Unterhaching. For Landau and Insheim the transport mean free path depends on frequency. It ranges from 2 km (at 2 Hz) to 30 km (at 40 Hz) for Landau and from 9 km to 50 km for Insheim. The quality factor for intrinsic attenuation is constant for frequencies smaller than 10 Hz at all three sites. It is around 100 for Unterhaching and 200 for Landau and Insheim with higher values above 10 Hz.

  18. PUNICA GRANATUM ATTENUATES SCIATIC NERVE LIGATION INDUCED-NEUROPATHIC PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramica Sharma et al.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The study has been designed to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of rind of Punica granatum in sciatic nerve ligation induced-neuropathic pain in rats. Surgical procedure was performed with sciatic nerve ligation to develop neuropathic pain in rats. The development of neuropathic pain was assessed by employing behaviour parameters such as hyperalgesia and allodynia. Further, the functionality of sciatic nerve was assessed using the histopathological study of myelinated and unmyelinated fibers in sciatic nerve. Moreover, the oxidative stress was assessed by estimating serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, catalase, glutathione and tissue TBARS and Superoxide dismutase (SOD. Rats exposed to sciatic nerve ligation produced marked increase in oxidative stress, which was assessed in terms of TBARS and SOD along with decrease in the level of catalase and glutathione. Moreover, it develops neuropathic pain by impairing the normal functions of myelinated and unmyelinated fibers in sciatic nerve. Treatment with aqueous extract of Punica granatum extract (100mg/kg, p.o markedly prevented sciatic nerve ligation-induced neuropathy and oxidative stress by increasing the pain threshold, by improving the functionality of sciatic nerve, by decreasing serum and tissue TBARS and tissue SOD, by increasing levels of serum glutathione and catalase. It may be concluded that Punica granatum extract reduced the oxidative stress via inhibiting p38MAPK and alleviates neuropathic symptoms and consequently improved the functionality of sciatic nerve and prevents sciatic nerve ligation–induced neuropathic pain.

  19. Melatonin attenuates doxorubicin-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K-M; Lee, I-C; Kim, S-H; Moon, C; Park, S-H; Shin, D-H; Kim, S-H; Park, S-C; Kim, H-C; Kim, J-C

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated the protective effects of melatonin (MLT) against doxorubicin (DXR)-induced testicular toxicity and oxidative stress in rats. DXR was given as a single intraperitoneal dose of 10 mg kg(-1) body weight to male rats at 1 h after MLT treatment on day 6 of the study. MLT at 15 mg kg(-1) body weight was administered daily by gavage for 5 days before DXR treatment followed by an additional dose for 5 days. Sperm analysis, histopathological examination and biochemical methods were used for this investigation. DXR caused a decrease in the weight of seminal vesicles, epididymal sperm count and motility and an increase in the incidence of histopathological changes of the testis. In addition, an increased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and decreased glutathione content, glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities were observed. On the contrary, MLT treatment significantly ameliorated DXR-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Moreover, MDA concentration and GR, GST and SOD activities were not affected when MLT was administered in conjunction with DXR. These results indicate that MLT had a protective effect against DXR-induced testicular toxicity and that the protective effects of MLT may be due to both the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and increased antioxidant activity.

  20. Phosphine-induced oxidative damage in rats: attenuation by melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, C; Han, B; Liu, M; Yeh, C; Casida, J E

    2000-02-15

    Phosphine (PH(3)), from hydrolysis of aluminum, magnesium and zinc phosphide, is an insecticide and rodenticide. Earlier observations on PH(3)-poisoned insects, mammals and a mammalian cell line led to the proposed involvement of oxidative damage in the toxic mechanism. This investigation focused on PH(3)-induced oxidative damage in rats and antioxidants as candidate protective agents. Male Wistar rats were treated ip with PH(3) at 2 mg/kg. Thirty min later the brain, liver, and lung were analyzed for glutathione (GSH) levels and lipid peroxidation (as malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals) and brain and lung for 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dGuo) in DNA. PH(3) caused a significant decrease in GSH concentration and elevation in lipid peroxidation in brain (36-42%), lung (32-38%) and liver (19-25%) and significant increase of 8-OH-dGuo in DNA of brain (70%) and liver (39%). Antioxidants administered ip 30 min before PH(3) were melatonin, vitamin C, and beta-carotene at 10, 30, and 6 mg/kg, respectively. The PH(3)-induced changes were significantly or completely blocked by melatonin while vitamin C and beta-carotene were less effective or inactive. These findings establish that PH(3) induces and melatonin protects against oxidative damage in the brain, lung and liver of rats and suggest the involvement of reactive oxygen species in the genotoxicity of PH(3).

  1. Gefitinib attenuates murine pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ping; TIAN Qing; LIANG Zhi-xin; YANG Zhen; XU Shu-feng; SUN Ji-ping; CHEN Liang-an

    2010-01-01

    Background Gefitinib, an inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase, is an effective treatment for epithelial tumors, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and is generally well tolerated.However, some clinical trials revealed that gefitinib exposure caused lung fibrosis, a severe adverse reaction.This study investigated the effect of gefitinib on lung fibrosis in mice.Methods We generated a mouse model of lung fibrosis induced by bleomycin to investigate the fibrotic effect of gefitinib.C57BL/6 mice were injected intratracheally with bleomycin or saline, with intragastric administration of gefitinib or saline.Lung tissues were harvested on day 14 or 21 for histology and genetic analysis.Results The histological results showed that bleomycin successfully induced lung fibrosis in mice, and gefitinib prevented lung fibrosis and suppressed the proliferation of S100A4-positive fibroblast cells.In addition, Western blotting analysis revealed that gefitinib decreased the expression of phosphorylated EGFR (p-EGFR).Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) demonstrated that gefitinib inhibited the accumulation of collagens Ⅰ and Ⅲ.Conclusions These results reveal that gefitinib reduces pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin in mice and suggest that administration of small molecule EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors has the potential to prevent pulmonary fibrosis by inhibiting the proliferation of mesenchymal cells, and that targeting tyrosine kinase receptors might be useful for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis in humans.

  2. Propolis attenuates doxorubicin-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Sherine M; Zaki, Hala F; Mina, Mary A M

    2014-05-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox), an effective anticancer agent, can impair testicular function leading to infertility. The present study aimed to explore the protective effect of propolis extract on Dox-induced testicular injury. Rats were divided into four groups (n=10). Group I (normal control), group II received propolis extract (200 mg kg(-1); p.o.), for 3 weeks. Group III received 18 mg kg(-1) total cumulative dose of Dox i.p. Group IV received Dox and propolis extract. Serum and testicular samples were collected 48 h after the last treatment. In addition, the effects of propolis extract and Dox on the growth of solid Ehrlich carcinoma in mice were investigated. Dox reduced sperm count, markers of testicular function, steroidogenesis and gene expression of testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). In addition, it increased testicular oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic markers. Morphometric and histopathologic studies supported the biochemical findings. Treatment with propolis extract prevented Dox-induced changes without reducing its antitumor activity. Besides, administration of propolis extract to normal rats increased serum testosterone level coupled by increased activities and gene expression of 3ß-HSD and 17ß-HSD. Propolis extract may protect the testis from Dox-induced toxicity without reducing its anticancer potential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Azadirachta indica Attenuates Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed E. Abdel Moneim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of methanolic leaves extract of Azadirachta indica (MLEN, 500 mg/kg bwt on cisplatin- (CP- induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. CP (5 mg/kg bwt was injected intraperitoneally and MLEN was given by gastric gavage for 5 days before or after CP injection. After 5 days of CP injection, CP-induced injury of the renal tissue was evidenced (i as histopathological damage of the renal tissue, (ii as increases in serum uric acid, urea, and creatinine, (iii as increases in malondialdehyde (MDA and nitric oxide (NO, (iv as decreases in the level of glutathione and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase, and (v as increase in the expression of nuclear factor kappa B and apoptosis in kidney tissues. However, the oral administration of MLEN to CP-intoxicated rats for 5 days brought back MDA, NO production, and enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants to near normalcy. Moreover, the histological observations evidenced that neem extract effectively rescues the kidney from CP-mediated oxidative damage. Furthermore, PCR results for caspase-3 and caspase-9 and Bax genes showed downregulation in MLEN treated groups. Therefore, Azadirachta indica can be considered a potential candidate for protection of nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin.

  4. Changes of gene expression profiles in the cervical spinal cord by acupuncture in an MPTP-intoxicated mouse model: microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yeong-Gon; Yeo, Sujung; Hong, Yeon-Mi; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lim, Sabina

    2011-07-15

    It has been shown that acupuncture at acupoints GB34 and LR3 inhibits the degeneration of nigrostriatal neurons in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson's disease. The degeneration of spinal cord was reported to be induced in the MPTP-treated pre-symptomatic mouse. In this study, the gene expression profile changes following acupuncture at the acupoints were investigated in the cervical spinal cord of an MPTP-induced parkinsonism model using a whole transcript array (Affymetrix GeneChip mouse gene 1.0 ST array). It was shown that 8 of the probes up-regulated in MPTP, as compared to the control, were down-regulated after acupuncture at the acupoints. Of these 8 probes, 6 probes (4 annotated genes in 6 probes: Ctla2a, EG383229, Ppbp and Ube2l6) were exclusively down-regulated by acupuncture at the specific acupoints except for 2 probes as these 2 probes were commonly down-regulated by acupuncture at both the acupoints and the non-acupoints. In addition, 11 of the probes down-regulated in MPTP, as compared to the control, were up-regulated by acupuncture at the acupoints. Of these 11 probes, 10 probes (5 annotated genes in 10 probes: EG665033, ENSMUSG00000055323, Obox6, Pbp2 and Tmem150) were exclusively up-regulated by acupuncture at the specific acupoints except for the Fut11 because the Fut11 was commonly up-regulated by acupuncture at both the acupoints and the non-acupoints. The expression levels of the representative genes in the microarray were validated by real-time RT-PCR. These data suggest that the expression of these exclusively regulated 16 probes (9 genes) may be, at least in part, affected by acupuncture at the acupoints in the cervical spinal cord which can be damaged by MPTP intoxication.

  5. Attenuating effect of daidzein on polychlorinated biphenyls-induced oxidative toxicity in mouse testicular cells*

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Da-lei; Mi, Yu-ling; Wang, Kai-Ming; Zeng, Wei-dong; Zhang, Cai-qiao

    2008-01-01

    The attenuating effect of daidzein (DAI) on oxidative toxicity induced by Aroclor 1254 (A1254) was investigated in mouse testicular cells. Cells were exposed to A1254 alone or with DAI. The oxidative damage was estimated by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) content. Results show that A1254 induced a decrease of germ cell number, an elevation in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) but a decrease in SOD activity and ...

  6. RAGE deficiency attenuates the protective effect of Lidocaine against sepsis-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Zhou, Jie; Liao, Changli; Li, Xiaobing; Liu, Minghua; Song, Daqiang; Jiang, Xian

    2017-04-01

    Lidocaine (Lido) is reported to suppress inflammatory responses and exhibit a therapeutic effect in models of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). The receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE) exerts pro-inflammatory effects by enhancing pro-inflammatory cytokine production. However, the precise mechanism by which Lido confers protection against ALI is not clear. ALI was induced in RAGE WT and RAGE knockout (KO) rats using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) operations for 24 h. The results showed that Lido significantly inhibited CLP-induced lung inflammation and histopathological lung injury. Furthermore, Lido significantly reduced CLP-induced upregulation of HMGB1 and RAGE expression and activation of the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. With the use of RAGE KO rats, we demonstrate here that RAGE deficiency attenuates the protective effect of Lido against CLP-induced lung inflammatory cell infiltration and histopathological lung injury. These results suggest that RAGE deficiency attenuates the protective effect of Lido against CLP-induced ALI by attenuating the pro-inflammatory cytokines production.

  7. Curcumin Attenuates Gentamicin-Induced Kidney Mitochondrial Alterations: Possible Role of a Mitochondrial Biogenesis Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Negrette-Guzmán

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that curcumin (CUR, a polyphenol derived from Curcuma longa, exerts a protective effect against gentamicin- (GM- induced nephrotoxicity in rats, associated with a preservation of the antioxidant status. Although mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark in the GM-induced renal injury, the role of CUR in mitochondrial protection has not been studied. In this work, LLC-PK1 cells were preincubated 24 h with CUR and then coincubated 48 h with CUR and 8 mM GM. Treatment with CUR attenuated GM-induced drop in cell viability and led to an increase in nuclear factor (erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 nuclear accumulation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α cell expression attenuating GM-induced losses in these proteins. In vivo, Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously with GM (75 mg/Kg/12 h during 7 days to develop kidney mitochondrial alterations. CUR (400 mg/Kg/day was administered orally 5 days before and during the GM exposure. The GM-induced mitochondrial alterations in ultrastructure and bioenergetics as well as decrease in activities of respiratory complexes I and IV and induction of calcium-dependent permeability transition were mostly attenuated by CUR. Protection of CUR against GM-induced nephrotoxicity could be in part mediated by maintenance of mitochondrial functions and biogenesis with some participation of the nuclear factor Nrf2.

  8. Curcumin Attenuates Gentamicin-Induced Kidney Mitochondrial Alterations: Possible Role of a Mitochondrial Biogenesis Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrette-Guzmán, Mario; García-Niño, Wylly Ramsés; Tapia, Edilia; Zazueta, Cecilia; Huerta-Yepez, Sara; León-Contreras, Juan Carlos; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Aparicio-Trejo, Omar Emiliano; Madero, Magdalena; Pedraza-Chaverri, José

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that curcumin (CUR), a polyphenol derived from Curcuma longa, exerts a protective effect against gentamicin- (GM-) induced nephrotoxicity in rats, associated with a preservation of the antioxidant status. Although mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark in the GM-induced renal injury, the role of CUR in mitochondrial protection has not been studied. In this work, LLC-PK1 cells were preincubated 24 h with CUR and then coincubated 48 h with CUR and 8 mM GM. Treatment with CUR attenuated GM-induced drop in cell viability and led to an increase in nuclear factor (erythroid-2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear accumulation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) cell expression attenuating GM-induced losses in these proteins. In vivo, Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously with GM (75 mg/Kg/12 h) during 7 days to develop kidney mitochondrial alterations. CUR (400 mg/Kg/day) was administered orally 5 days before and during the GM exposure. The GM-induced mitochondrial alterations in ultrastructure and bioenergetics as well as decrease in activities of respiratory complexes I and IV and induction of calcium-dependent permeability transition were mostly attenuated by CUR. Protection of CUR against GM-induced nephrotoxicity could be in part mediated by maintenance of mitochondrial functions and biogenesis with some participation of the nuclear factor Nrf2.

  9. Ranolazine attenuation of CFA-induced mechanical hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Gregory P; Roberts, Jomar S; Paul, Dennis; Diamond, Ivan; Gould, Harry J

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether ranolazine, a new anti-angina medication, could be an effective analgesic agent in complete Freund's adjuvant-induced inflammatory pain. Plantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) produces an extended period of hyperalgesia that is associated with a dramatic up-regulation of Na(v) 1.7 sodium channels in populations of large and small dorsal root ganglion neurons related to the injection site. Ranolazine appears to produce its anti-angina effect through blocking the late sodium current associated with the voltage-gated sodium channel, Na(v) 1.5. Because ranolazine also inhibits Na(v) 1.7, and 1.8, we sought to determine whether it could be an effective analgesic agent in CFA-induced inflammatory pain. Baseline determinations of withdrawal from thermal and mechanical stimulation were made in Sprague-Dawley rats ( approximately 300-350 x g). Following determination of baseline, one hindpaw in each group was injected with 0.1 mL of CFA. The contralateral paw received saline. Thermal and mechanical stimulation was repeated on the third day post-injection. Vehicle (0.9% isotonic saline; pH 3.0) or ranolazine was then administered in randomized and blinded doses either by intraperitoneal (ip) injection (0, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) or by oral gavage (po; 0, 20, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg). Animals were again tested 30 minutes (ip) and 1 hour (po) after drug administration. Ranolazine produced dose-dependant analgesia on mechanical allodynia induced by CFA injection, but had no effect on thermal hyperalgesia. Ranolazine's potential as a new option for managing both angina and chronic inflammatory pain warrants further study.

  10. Cinnamaldehyde attenuates pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Wu, Qing-Qing; Liu, Yuan; Hu, Zhe-Fu; Bian, Zhou-Yan; Tang, Qi-Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamaldehyde is a major bioactive compound isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum osmophloeum. Studies have demonstrated that cinnamaldehyde has anti-bacterial activity, anti-tumorigenic effect, immunomodulatory effect, anti-fungal activity, anti-oxidative effect, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effect. It has been proven that Cinnamaldehyde improves ischemia/reperfusion injury of pre-treatment. However, little is known about the effect of cinnamaldehyde on cardiac hypertrophy. Aortic banding (AB) was performed to induce cardiac hypertrophy in mice. Cinnamaldehyde premixed in diets was administered to mice after one week of AB. Echocardiography and catheter-based measurements of hemodynamic parameters were performed at week 7 after starting cinnamaldehyde (8 weeks after surgery). The extent of cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by pathological and molecular analyses of heart samples. Meanwhile, the effect of cinnamaldehyde on myocardial hypertrophy, fibrosis and dysfunction induced by AB was investigated, as was assessed by heart weigh/body weight, lung weight/body weight, heart weight/tibia length, echocardiographic and haemodynamic parameters, histological analysis, and gene expression of hypertrophic and fibrotic markers. Our data demonstrated that echocardiography and catheter-based measurements of hemodynamic parameters at week 7 revealed the amelioration of systolic and diastolic abnormalities by cinnamaldehyde intervention. Cardiac fibrosis in AB mice was also decreased by cinnamaldehyde. Moreover, the beneficial effect of cinnamaldehyde was associated with the normalization in gene expression of hypertrophic and fibrotic markers. Further studies showed that pressure overload significantly induced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway, which was blocked by cinnamaldehyde. Cinnamaldehyde may be able to retard the progression of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, probably via blocking ERK signaling pathway.

  11. Transgenic expression and activation of PGC-1α protect dopaminergic neurons in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudò, Giuseppa; Mäkelä, Johanna; Di Liberto, Valentina; Tselykh, Timofey V; Olivieri, Melania; Piepponen, Petteri; Eriksson, Ove; Mälkiä, Annika; Bonomo, Alessandra; Kairisalo, Minna; Aguirre, Jose A; Korhonen, Laura; Belluardo, Natale; Lindholm, Dan

    2012-04-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress occur in Parkinson's disease (PD), but little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling these events. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) is a transcriptional coactivator that is a master regulator of oxidative stress and mitochondrial metabolism. We show here that transgenic mice overexpressing PGC-1α in dopaminergic neurons are resistant against cell degeneration induced by the neurotoxin MPTP. The increase in neuronal viability was accompanied by elevated levels of mitochondrial antioxidants SOD2 and Trx2 in the substantia nigra of transgenic mice. PGC-1α overexpression also protected against MPTP-induced striatal loss of dopamine, and mitochondria from PGC-1α transgenic mice showed an increased respiratory control ratio compared with wild-type animals. To modulate PGC-1α, we employed the small molecular compound, resveratrol (RSV) that protected dopaminergic neurons against the MPTP-induced cell degeneration almost to the same extent as after PGC-1α overexpression. As studied in vitro, RSV activated PGC-1α in dopaminergic SN4741 cells via the deacetylase SIRT1, and enhanced PGC-1α gene transcription with increases in SOD2 and Trx2. Taken together, the results reveal an important function of PGC-1α in dopaminergic neurons to combat oxidative stress and increase neuronal viability. RSV and other compounds acting via SIRT1/PGC-1α may prove useful as neuroprotective agents in PD and possibly in other neurological disorders.

  12. Simvastatin attenuates radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu L

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Liping Xu,* Xi Yang,* Jiayan Chen, Xiaolin Ge, Qin Qin, Hongcheng Zhu, Chi Zhang, Xinchen Sun Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: Statins are widely used lipid-lowering drugs, which have pleiotropic effects, such as anti-inflammation, and vascular protection. In our study, we investigated the radioprotective potential of simvastatin (SIM in a murine model of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Design: Ninety-six Institute of Cancer Research mice were randomly divided into four groups: solvent + sham irradiation (IR (Group I, SIM + sham IR (Group II, IR + solvent (Group III, and IR + SIM (Group IV. SIM (10 mg/kg body weight, three times per week was administered intraperitoneally 1 week prior to IR through to the end of the experiment. Saliva and submandibular gland tissues were obtained for biochemical, morphological (hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson’s trichrome, and Western blot analysis at 8 hours, 24 hours, and 4 weeks after head and neck IR. Results: IR caused a significant reduction of salivary secretion and amylase activity but elevation of malondialdehyde. SIM remitted the reduction of saliva secretion and restored salivary amylase activity. The protective benefits of SIM may be attributed to scavenging malondialdehyde, remitting collagen deposition, and reducing and delaying the elevation of transforming growth factor β1 expression induced by radiation. Conclusion: SIM may be clinically useful to alleviate side effects of radiotherapy on salivary gland. Keywords: simvastatin, radiation protection, submandibular gland, transforming growth factor-β1, mice

  13. Antioxidant treatment attenuates hyperglycemia-induced cardiomyocyte death in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiordaliso, Fabio; Bianchi, Roberto; Staszewsky, Lidia; Cuccovillo, Ivan; Doni, Mirko; Laragione, Teresa; Salio, Monica; Savino, Costanza; Melucci, Silvia; Santangelo, Francesco; Scanziani, Eugenio; Masson, Serge; Ghezzi, Pietro; Latini, Roberto

    2004-11-01

    Diabetes and oxidative stress concur to cardiac myocyte death in various experimental settings. We assessed whether N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an antioxidant and glutathione precursor, has a protective role in a rat model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes and in isolated myocytes exposed to high glucose (HG). Diabetic rats were treated with NAC (0.5 g/kg per day) or vehicle for 3 months. At sacrifice left ventricle (LV) myocyte number and size, collagen deposition and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by quantitative histological methods. Diabetes reduced LV myocyte number by 29% and increased myocyte volume by 20% compared to non-diabetic controls. NAC protected from myocyte loss (+25% vs. untreated diabetics, P < 0.05) and reduced reactive hypertrophy (-16% vs. untreated diabetics, P < 0.05). Perivascular fibrosis was high in diabetic rats (+88% vs. control, P < 0.001) but prevented by NAC. ROS production and fraction of ROS-positive cardiomyocyte nuclei were drastically raised in diabetic rats (2.4- and 5.1-fold vs. control, P < 0.001) and normalized by NAC. In separate experiments, isolated adult rat ventricular myocytes were incubated in a medium containing high concentrations of glucose (HG, 25 mM) +/- 0.01 mM NAC; myocyte survival (Trypan blue exclusion and apoptosis by TUNEL) and glutathione content were evaluated. The number of dead and apoptotic myocytes increased five and 6.7-fold in HG and glutathione decreased by 48% (P < 0.05). NAC normalized cell death and apoptosis and prevented glutathione loss. NAC effectively protects from hyperglycemia-induced myocyte cell death and compensatory hypertrophy through direct scavenging of ROS and replenishment of the intracellular glutathione content.

  14. PLGA-Curcumin Attenuates Opioid-Induced Hyperalgesia and Inhibits Spinal CaMKIIα.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Hu

    Full Text Available Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH is one of the major problems associated with prolonged use of opioids for the treatment of chronic pain. Effective treatment for OIH is lacking. In this study, we examined the efficacy and preliminary mechanism of curcumin in attenuating OIH. We employed a newly developed PLGA-curcumin nanoformulation (PLGA-curcumin in order to improve the solubility of curcumin, which has been a major obstacle in properly characterizing curcumin's mechanism of action and efficacy. We found that curcumin administered intrathecally or orally significantly attenuated hyperalgesia in mice with morphine-induced OIH. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the effects of curcumin on OIH correlated with the suppression of chronic morphine-induced CaMKIIα activation in the superficial laminae of the spinal dorsal horn. These data suggest that PLGA-curcumin may reverse OIH possibly by inhibiting CaMKIIα and its downstream signaling.

  15. PLGA-Curcumin Attenuates Opioid-Induced Hyperalgesia and Inhibits Spinal CaMKIIα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Huang, Fang; Szymusiak, Magdalena; Tian, Xuebi; Liu, Ying; Wang, Zaijie Jim

    2016-01-01

    Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) is one of the major problems associated with prolonged use of opioids for the treatment of chronic pain. Effective treatment for OIH is lacking. In this study, we examined the efficacy and preliminary mechanism of curcumin in attenuating OIH. We employed a newly developed PLGA-curcumin nanoformulation (PLGA-curcumin) in order to improve the solubility of curcumin, which has been a major obstacle in properly characterizing curcumin's mechanism of action and efficacy. We found that curcumin administered intrathecally or orally significantly attenuated hyperalgesia in mice with morphine-induced OIH. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the effects of curcumin on OIH correlated with the suppression of chronic morphine-induced CaMKIIα activation in the superficial laminae of the spinal dorsal horn. These data suggest that PLGA-curcumin may reverse OIH possibly by inhibiting CaMKIIα and its downstream signaling.

  16. Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid Attenuates the Oxidative Stress-Induced Decrease of CD33 Expression in Human Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Guzmán-Beltrán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA is a natural lignan with recognized antioxidant and beneficial properties that is isolated from Larrea tridentata. In this study, we evaluated the effect of NDGA on the downregulation of oxidant stress-induced CD33 in human monocytes (MNs. Oxidative stress was induced by iodoacetate (IAA or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and was evaluated using reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and cell viability. NDGA attenuates toxicity, ROS production and the oxidative stress-induced decrease of CD33 expression secondary to IAA or H2O2 in human MNs. It was also shown that NDGA (20 μM attenuates cell death in the THP-1 cell line that is caused by treatment with either IAA or H2O2. These results suggest that NDGA has a protective effect on CD33 expression, which is associated with its antioxidant activity in human MNs.

  17. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid attenuates the oxidative stress-induced decrease of CD33 expression in human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Beltrán, Silvia; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Gonzalez-Reyes, Susana; Hernández-Sánchez, Fernando; Juarez-Figueroa, Ulises E; Gonzalez, Yolanda; Bobadilla, Karen; Torres, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is a natural lignan with recognized antioxidant and beneficial properties that is isolated from Larrea tridentata. In this study, we evaluated the effect of NDGA on the downregulation of oxidant stress-induced CD33 in human monocytes (MNs). Oxidative stress was induced by iodoacetate (IAA) or hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and was evaluated using reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and cell viability. NDGA attenuates toxicity, ROS production and the oxidative stress-induced decrease of CD33 expression secondary to IAA or H(2)O(2) in human MNs. It was also shown that NDGA (20  μ M) attenuates cell death in the THP-1 cell line that is caused by treatment with either IAA or H(2)O(2). These results suggest that NDGA has a protective effect on CD33 expression, which is associated with its antioxidant activity in human MNs.

  18. Central serotonin attenuates LPS-induced systemic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Clarissa M D; Rodrigues-Santos, Caroline; Fernández, Rodrigo A R; Carolino, Ruither O G; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A; Branco, Luiz G S

    2017-07-16

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a neuromodulator involved in several central-mediated mechanisms, such as endocrine processes, behavior, and sleep. Dysfunction of the serotonergic system is mainly linked to psychiatric disorders, but emerging evidence suggests that immune system activation may also alter brain 5-HT signaling. However, whether central 5-HT modulates systemic inflammation (SI) remains unknown. For this purpose, male Wistar rats (280-350g, 8-9weeks) were submitted to the experimental protocols beginning between 9 and 10AM with the performance of injections. The animals were housed at controlled conditions [temperature (25±1°C), light (06:00-18:00) and humidity (60-65%)]. Thus, we measured 5-HT and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) in the anteroventral preoptic region [(AVPO) - the hierarchically most important region for body temperature (Tb) control] during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced SI. We also combined LPS (100μg/kg) treatment with intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of 5-HT (5, 10 and 40μg/μL) and measured Tb ("hallmark" of SI), AVPO prostaglandin E2 [(PGE2) - an essential mediator of fever] and prostaglandin D2 [(PGD2) - a cryogenic mediator], plasma corticosterone [(CORT) - a stress marker with an endogenous anti-inflammatory effect] and interleukin-6 [(IL-6) - an immune mediator] levels. Detection limits of PGE2, PGD2, CORT and IL-6 assays were 39.1-2500pg/mL, 19.5-2500pg/mL, 0.12-2000μg/dL, and 0.125-8ng/mL, respectively. We also assessed tail skin temperature [used to calculate heat loss index (HLI)] to assess a key thermoeffector mechanism. As expected we observed LPS-induced increases in Tb, AVPO PGE2 (whereas PGD2 remained unchanged), plasma CORT and IL-6 levels, as well as a decrease in HLI. These changes were accompanied by reduced levels of AVPO 5-HT and 5-HIAA. Furthermore, we also observed a negative correlation between 5-HT and plasma CORT levels. Moreover, icv 5-HT (5, 10 and 40μg/μL) microinjection caused

  19. Tolbutamide attenuates diazoxide-induced aggravation of hypoxic cell injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pissarek, M; Reichelt, C; Krauss, G J; Illes, P

    1998-11-23

    ATP-dependent potassium (KATP) channels of neurons are closed in the presence of physiological levels of intracellular ATP and open when ATP is depleted during hypoxia or metabolic damage. The present study investigates hypoxic alterations of purine and pyrimidine nucleotide levels supposed to intracellularly modulate KATP channels. In addition, the effects of the KATP channel activator diazoxide and its antagonist tolbutamide were investigated on ATP, GTP, CTP and UTP levels in slices of the parietal cortex. Hypoxia was evoked by saturation of the medium with 95% N2-5% CO2 instead of 95% O2-5% CO2 for 5 min. Nucleotide contents were measured by anion-exchange HPLC in neutralized perchloric acid extracts obtained from slices frozen immediately at the end of incubation. Hypoxia per se decreased purine and pyrimidine nucleoside triphosphate contents. Thus, ATP and GTP contents were reduced to 69.9 and 77.6% of the respective normoxic levels. UTP and CTP contents were even more decreased (to 60.9 and 41.6%),, probably because the salvage pathway of these pyrimidine nucleotides is less effective than that of the purine nucleotides ATP and GTP. While tolbutamide (30 microM) had no effect on the hypoxia-induced decrease of nucleotides, diazoxide at 300, but not 30 microM aggravated the decline of ATP, UTP and CTP to 51.8, 37.5 and 28.5% of the contents observed at normoxia; GTP levels also showed a tendency to decrease after diazoxide application. Tolbutamide (300 microM) antagonized the effects of diazoxide (300 but not 30 microM aggravated the decline of ATP, UTP and CTP to 51.8, 37.5 and 28.5% of the contents observed at normoxia; GTP levels also showed a tendency to decrease after diazoxide application. Tolbutamide (300 microM) antagonized the effects of diazoxide (300 MicroM). Nucleoside diphosphate (ADP, GDP and UDP) levels were uniformly increased by hypoxia. There was no hypoxia-induced increase of ADP contents in the presence of tolbutamide (300 microM). The ATP

  20. Astaxanthin pretreatment attenuates acetaminophen-induced liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyao; Zhang, Simin; Bi, Jianbin; Gu, Jingxian; Deng, Yan; Liu, Chang

    2017-04-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is a conventional drug widely used in the clinic because of its antipyretic-analgesic effects. However, accidental or intentional APAP overdoses induce liver injury and even acute liver failure (ALF). Astaxanthin (ASX) is the strongest antioxidant in nature that shows preventive and therapeutic properties, such as ocular protection, anti-tumor, anti-diabetes, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. The aim of present study was to determine whether ASX pretreatment provides protection against APAP-induced liver failure. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into 7 groups, including control, oil, ASX (30mg/kg or 60mg/kg), APAP and APAP+ASX (30mg/kg or 60mg/kg) groups. Saline, olive oil and ASX were administered for 14days. The APAP and APAP+ASX groups were given a peritoneal injection of 700mg/kg or 300mg/kg APAP to determine the 5-day survival rate and for further observation, respectively. Blood and liver samples were collected to detect alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), inflammation, oxidative stress and antioxidant systems, and to observe histopathologic changes and key proteins in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family. ASX pretreatment before APAP increased the 5-day survival rate in a dose-dependent manner and reduced the ALT, AST, hepatic necrosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation (LPO), oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory factors. ASX protected against APAP toxicity by inhibiting the depletion of glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Administration of ASX did not change the expression of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and P38. However, phosphorylation of JNK, ERK and P38 was reduced, consistent with the level of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2). ASX provided protection for the liver against APAP hepatotoxicity by alleviating hepatocyte necrosis, blocking ROS

  1. PTPN2 attenuates T-cell lymphopenia-induced proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiede, Florian; La Gruta, Nicole L.; Tiganis, Tony

    2014-01-01

    When the peripheral T-cell pool is depleted, T cells undergo homoeostatic expansion. This expansion is reliant on the recognition of self-antigens and/or cytokines, in particular interleukin-7. The T cell-intrinsic mechanisms that prevent excessive homoeostatic T-cell responses and consequent overt autoreactivity remain poorly defined. Here we show that protein tyrosine phosphatase N2 (PTPN2) is elevated in naive T cells leaving the thymus to restrict homoeostatic T-cell proliferation and prevent excess responses to self-antigens in the periphery. PTPN2-deficient CD8+ T cells undergo rapid lymphopenia-induced proliferation (LIP) when transferred into lymphopenic hosts and acquire the characteristics of antigen-experienced effector T cells. The enhanced LIP is attributed to elevated T-cell receptor-dependent, but not interleukin-7-dependent responses, results in a skewed T-cell receptor repertoire and the development of autoimmunity. Our results identify a major mechanism by which homoeostatic T-cell responses are tuned to prevent the development of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders.

  2. The Ca²⁺-calmodulin-Ca²⁺/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II signaling pathway is involved in oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial permeability transition and apoptosis in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Flavia D; Pérez, Leonardo M; Basiglio, Cecilia L; Ochoa, Justina E; Sanchez Pozzi, Enrique J; Roma, Marcelo G

    2014-09-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) is a common event in most hepatopathies, leading to mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) formation and further exacerbation of both OS from mitochondrial origin and cell death. Intracellular Ca²⁺ increase plays a permissive role in these events, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly known. We examined in primary cultured rat hepatocytes whether the Ca²⁺/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) signaling pathway is involved in this process, by using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBOOH) as a pro-oxidant, model compound. tBOOH (500 μM, 15 min) induced MPTP formation, as assessed by measuring mitochondrial membrane depolarization as a surrogate marker, and increased lipid peroxidation in a cyclosporin A (CsA)-sensitive manner, revealing the involvement of MPTPs in tBOOH-induced radical oxygen species (ROS) formation. Intracellular Ca²⁺ sequestration with BAPTA/AM, CaM blockage with W7 or trifluoperazine, and CaMKII inhibition with KN-62 all fully prevented tBOOH-induced MPTP opening and reduced tBOOH-induced lipid peroxidation to a similar extent to CsA, suggesting that Ca²⁺/CaM/CaMKII signaling pathway fully mediates MPTP-mediated mitochondrial ROS generation. tBOOH-induced apoptosis, as shown by flow cytometry of annexin V/propidium iodide, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-3 and increase in the Bax-to-Bcl-xL ratio, and the Ca²⁺/CaM/CaMKII signaling antagonists fully prevented these effects. Intramitochondrial CaM and CaMKII were partially involved in tBOOH-induced MPTP formation, since W7 and KN-62 both attenuated the tBOOH-induced, MPTP-mediated swelling of isolated mitochondria. We concluded that Ca²⁺/CaM/CaMKII signaling pathway is a key mediator of OS-induced MPTP formation and the subsequent exacerbation of OS from mitochondrial origin and apoptotic cell death.

  3. Rikkunshi-to attenuates adverse gastrointestinal symptoms induced by fluvoxamine

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    Kodama Naoki

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upper gastrointestinal (GI symptoms such as nausea and vomiting are common adverse events associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, and may result in discontinuation of drug therapy in patients with depressive disorder. Rikkunshi-to (formulation TJ-43, a traditional herbal medicine, has been reported to improve upper GI symptoms and comorbid depressive symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia. The aim of the present study was to determine if TJ-43 reduces GI symptoms and potentiates an antidepressant effect in a randomized controlled study of depressed patients treated with fluvoxamine (FLV. Methods Fifty patients with depressive disorder (19–78 years, mean age 40.2 years were treated with FLV (n = 25 or FLV in combination with TJ-43 (FLV+TJ-43 (n = 25 for eight weeks. The following parameters of the two groups were compared: The number of patients who complained of adverse events and their symptoms; GI symptoms quality of life (QOL score, assessed by the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS, Japanese edition, before and two weeks after beginning treatment; and depressive symptoms assessed by the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS, before and 2, 4, and 8 weeks after beginning treatment. Results The number of patients who complained of adverse events in the FLV+TJ-43 group (n = 6 was significantly lower than the number complaining in the FLV group (n = 13 (P P Conclusion This study suggests that Rikkunshi-to reduces FLV-induced adverse events, especially nausea, and improves QOL related to GI symptoms without affecting the antidepressant effect of FLV.

  4. Losartan attenuates paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, F; Sun, Y B; Su, L; Li, S; Liu, Z F; Li, J; Hu, X T; Li, J

    2015-05-01

    Paraquat (PQ) is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world and can cause pulmonary fibrosis in the cases with intoxication. Losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, has beneficial effects on the treatment of fibrosis. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of losartan on pulmonary fibrosis in PQ-intoxicated rats. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 32, 180-220 g) were randomly assigned to four groups: (i) control group; (ii) PQ group; (iii) PQ + losartan 7d group; and (iv) PQ + losartan 14d group. Losartan treatment (intragastrically (i.g.), 10 mg/kg) was performed for 7 and 14 days after a single i.g. dose of 40 mg/kg PQ. All rats were killed on the 16th day, and hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome staining were used to examine lung injury and fibrosis. The levels of hydroxyproline and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), matrix metallopeptidase 9 (Mmp9), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and relative expression levels of collagen type I and III were also detected. PQ caused a significant increase in hydroxyproline content, mRNA expression of TGF-β1, Mmp9, and TIMP-1, and relative expression levels of collagen type I and III ( p losartan significantly decreased the amount of hydroxyproline and downregulated TGF-β1, Mmp9, and TIMP-1 mRNA and collagen type I and III expressions ( p losartan could markedly reduce such damage and prevent pulmonary fibrosis. The results of this study indicated that losartan could reduce lung damage and prevent pulmonary fibrosis induced by PQ.

  5. Behavioral recovery in MPTP-treated monkeys: neurochemical mechanisms studied by intrastriatal microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, Sabrina; Mounayar, Stéphanie; Poupard, Annie; Bertrand, Anne; Jan, Caroline; Pessiglione, Mathias; Hirsch, Etienne C; Feuerstein, Claude; François, Chantal; Féger, Jean; Savasta, Marc; Tremblay, Léon

    2008-09-17

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients express motor symptoms only after 60-80% striatal dopamine (DA) depletion. The presymptomatic phase of the disease may be sustained by biochemical modifications within the striatum. We used an appropriate specific 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) monkey model (Mounayar et al., 2007) to study the compensatory mechanisms operating in recovery from PD motor symptoms. We assessed the levels of DA and its metabolites (DOPAC, homovanillic acid), GABA, glutamate (Glu), serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite (5HIAA) by repeated intracerebral microdialysis in awake animals before exposure to MPTP during full expression of the motor symptoms induced by MPTP and after recovery from these symptoms. Measurements were obtained from two functionally and anatomically different striatal areas: the associative-limbic territory and sensorimotor territory. Animals with motor symptoms displayed an extremely large decrease in levels of DA and its metabolites and an increase in Glu and GABA levels, as reported by other studies. However, we show here for the first time that serotonin levels increased in these animals. We found that increases in DA levels in the sensorimotor and/or associative-limbic territory and high levels of 5-HT and of its metabolite, 5HIAA, were associated with recovery from motor symptoms in this model. Determining whether similar changes in DA and 5-HT levels are involved in the compensatory mechanisms delaying the appearance of motor symptoms in the early stages of PD might make it possible to develop new treatment strategies for the disease.

  6. Palmitoylethanolamide attenuates PTZ-induced seizures through CB1 and CB2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei, Iraj; Rostampour, Mohammad; Shabani, Mohammad; Naderi, Nima; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Babaei, Parvin; Khakpour-Taleghani, Behrooz

    2015-11-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurologic disorders. Though there are effective medications available to reduce the symptoms of the disease, their side effects have limited their usage. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) has been shown to attenuate seizure in different animal models. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the role of CB1 and CB2 receptors in this attenuation. Male wistar rats were used for the current experiment. PTZ was injected to induce chemical kindling in animals. After verification of kindling in animals, treatment was performed with PEA, AM251 and AM630 in different groups. Latency to induce seizure, seizure stages and latency and duration of fifth stage of seizure was recorded for each animal. Injection of PTZ led to seizure in the animals. Pretreatment with PEA increased the latency to initiate seizures and reduced the duration of seizure. Pretreatment with different dosages of AM251 had contrary effects so that at lower doses they increased the seizure in animals but at higher doses led to the attenuation of seizure. AM630 increased seizures in a dose dependent manner. Combination of the antagonists increased the seizure parameters and attenuated the effect of PEA on seizure. PEA attenuated the PTZ-induced seizures and pretreatment with CB1 and CB2 antagonists diminished this effect of PEA, but still PEA was effective, which might be attributed to the contribution of other receptors in PEA anti-epileptic properties. Findings of the current study implied that endocannabinoid signaling pathway might have an important role in the effects of PEA.

  7. Cutaneous reflex modulation and self-induced reflex attenuation in cerebellar patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogkamer, Wouter; Van Calenbergh, Frank; Swinnen, Stephan P; Duysens, Jacques

    2015-02-01

    Modulation of cutaneous reflexes is important in the neural control of walking, yet knowledge about underlying neural pathways is still incomplete. Recent studies have suggested that the cerebellum is involved. Here we evaluated the possible roles of the cerebellum in cutaneous reflex modulation and in attenuation of self-induced reflexes. First we checked whether leg muscle activity during walking was similar in patients with focal cerebellar lesions and in healthy control subjects. We then recorded cutaneous reflex activity in leg muscles during walking. Additionally, we compared reflexes after standard (computer triggered) stimuli with reflexes after self-induced stimuli for both groups. Biceps femoris and gastrocnemius medialis muscle activity was increased in the patient group compared with the control subjects, suggesting a coactivation strategy to reduce instability of gait. Cutaneous reflex modulation was similar between healthy control subjects and cerebellar patients, but the latter appeared less able to attenuate reflexes to self-induced stimuli. This suggests that the cerebellum is not primarily involved in cutaneous reflex modulation but that it could act in attenuation of self-induced reflex responses. The latter role in locomotion would be consistent with the common view that the cerebellum predicts sensory consequences of movement. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Heat stress attenuates skeletal muscle atrophy of extensor digitorum longus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, K; Une, S; Akiyama, J

    2015-09-01

    To investigate whether heat stress attenuates skeletal muscle atrophy of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, 12-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 6 per group): control (Con), heat stress (HS), diabetes mellitus (DM), and diabetes mellitus/heat stress (DM + HS). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). Heat stress was induced in the HS and DM + HS groups by immersion of the lower half of the body in hot water at 42 °C for 30 min; it was initiated 7 days after injection of streptozotocin, and was performed once a day, five times a week for 3 weeks. The muscle fiber cross-sectional area of EDL muscles from diabetic and non-diabetic rats was determined; heat stress protein (HSP) 72 and HSP25 expression levels were also analyzed by western blotting. Diabetes-induced muscle fiber atrophy was attenuated upon heat stress treatment in diabetic rats. HSP72 and HSP25 expression was upregulated in the DM + HS group compared with the DM group. Our findings suggest that heat stress attenuates atrophy of the EDL muscle by upregulating HSP72 and HSP25 expression.

  9. Dosing schedule-dependent attenuation of dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Reiko; Yamamoto, Saori; Yasumoto, Yuki; Oishi, Katsutaka

    2014-05-01

    Many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases are treated using synthetic glucocorticoids. However, excessive glucocorticoid can often cause unpredictable effects including muscle atrophy. Endogenous glucocorticoid levels robustly fluctuate in a circadian manner and peak just before the onset of the active phase in both humans and nocturnal rodents. The present study determines whether muscle atrophy induced by exogenous glucocorticoid can be avoided by optimizing dosing times. We administered single daily doses of the glucocorticoid analog dexamethasone (Dex) to mice for 10 days at the times of day corresponding to peak (early night) or trough (early morning) endogenous glucocorticoid levels. Administration at the acrophase of endogenous glucocorticoids significantly attenuated Dex-induced wasting of the gastrocnemius (Ga) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles that comprise mostly fast-twitch muscle fibers. Real-time RT-PCR revealed that the Dex-induced mRNA expression of genes encoding the atrophy-related ubiquitin ligases Muscle Atrophy F-box (Fbxo32, also known as MAFbx/Atrogin-1) and Muscle RING finger 1 (Trim63, also known as MuRF1) in the Ga and TA muscles was significantly attenuated by Dex when administered during the early night. Dex negligibly affected the weight of the soleus (So) muscle that mostly comprises slow-twitch muscle fibers, but significantly and similarly decreased the weight of the spleen at both dosing times. These results suggest that glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy can be attenuated by optimizing the dosing schedule.

  10. Effect of MK-801 on methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity: long-term attenuation of methamphetamine-induced dopamine release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Eun; Kim, Yu Ri; Hwang, Se Hwan [Sungkyunkwan Univ., School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-08-01

    Repeated administration of methamphetamine (METH) produces high extracellular levels of dopamine (DA) and subsequent striatal DA terminal damage. The effect of MK-801, a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, on METH-induced changes in DA transporter (DAT) and DA release evoked by an acute METH challenge was evaluated in rodent striatum using [{sup 3}H] WIN 38,428 ex vivo auto-radiography and in vivo microdialysis. Four injections of METH (10 mg/kg, i.p.), each given 2 h apart, produced 71% decrease in DAT levels in mouse striatum 3 d after administration. Pretreatment with MK-801 (2.5 g/kg, i.p.) 15 min before each of the four METH injections protected completely against striatal DAT depletions. Four injections of MK-801 alone did not significantly change striatal DAT levels. Striatal DA release evoked by an acute METH challenge (4mg/kg, i.p.) at 3 d after repeated administration of METH in rats was decreased but significant compared with controls, which was attenuated by repeated pretreatment with MK-801. Also, repeated injections of MK-801 alone attenuated acute METH-induced striatal DA release 3 d after administration. These results suggest that repeated administration of MK-801 may exert a preventive effect against METH-induced DA terminal injury through long-term attenuation of DA release induced by METH and other stimuli.

  11. Attenuation of CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice by vaccinating against TGF-β1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobao Fan

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 is the pivotal pro-fibrogenic cytokine in hepatic fibrosis. Reducing the over-produced expression of TGF-β1 or blocking its signaling pathways is considered to be a promising therapeutic strategy for hepatic fibrosis. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of attenuating hepatic fibrosis by vaccination against TGF-β1 with TGF-β1 kinoids. Two TGF-β1 kinoid vaccines were prepared by cross-linking TGF-β1-derived polypeptides (TGF-β1(25-[41-65] and TGF-β1(30-[83-112] to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH. Immunization with the two TGF-β1 kinoids efficiently elicited the production of high-levels of TGF-β1-specific antibodies against in BALB/c mice as tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and Western blotting. The antisera neutralized TGF-β1-induced growth-inhibition on mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu and attenuated TGF-β1-induced Smad2/3 phosphorylation, α-SMA, collagen type 1 alpha 2 (COL1A2, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1 expression in the rat hepatic stellate cell (HSC line, HSC-T6. Vaccination against TGF-β1 with the kinoids significantly suppressed CCl4-induced collagen deposition and the expression of α-SMA and desmin, attenuated hepatocyte apoptosis and accelerated hepatocyte proliferation in BALB/c mice. These results demonstrated that immunization with the TGF-β1 kinoids efficiently attenuated CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis and liver injury. Our study suggests that vaccination against TGF-β1 might be developed into a feasible therapeutic approach for the treatment of chronic fibrotic liver diseases.

  12. Probiotic Cheese Attenuates Exercise-induced Immune Suppression In Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lollo P.C.B.; Cruz A.G.; Morato P.N.; Moura C.S.; Carvalho-Silva L.B.; Oliveira C.A.F.; Faria J.A.F.; Amaya-Farfan J.

    2012-01-01

    Intense physical activity results in a substantial volume of stress and hence a significant probability of immunosuppression in athletes, with milk proteins being, perhaps, the most recommended protein supplements. Consumption of a probiotic cheese can attenuate immune suppression induced by exhausting exercise in rats. A popular Brazilian fresh cheese (Minas Frescal cheese) containing Lactobacillus acidophilus LA14 and Bifidobacterium longum BL05 was fed for 2 wk to adult Wistar rats, which ...

  13. Blueberry Anthocyanins-Enriched Extracts Attenuate Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cardiac Injury.

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    Yunen Liu

    Full Text Available We sought to explore the effect of blueberry anthocyanins-enriched extracts (BAE on cyclophosphamide (CTX-induced cardiac injury. The rats were divided randomly into five groups including normal control, CTX 100 mg/kg, BAE 80mg/kg, CTX+BAE 20mg/kg and CTX+BAE 80mg/kg groups. The rats in the three BAE-treated groups were administered BAE for four weeks. Seven days after BAE administration, rats in CTX group and two BAE-treated groups were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of 100 mg/kg CTX. Cardiac injury was assessed using physiological parameters, Echo, morphological staining, real-time PCR and western blot. In addition, cardiotoxicity indices, inflammatory cytokines expression and oxidative stress markers were also detected. Four weeks 20mg/kg and 80mg/kg dose of BAE treatment following CTX exposure attenuated mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate and activities of heart enzymes, improved cardiac dysfunction, left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis. Importantly, BAE also attenuated CTX-induced LV leukocyte infiltration and inflammatory cytokines expression, ameliorated oxidative stress as well as cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In conclusion, BAE attenuated the CTX-induced cardiac injury and the protective mechanisms were related closely to the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory characteristics of BAE.

  14. MLKL inhibition attenuates hypoxia-ischemia induced neuronal damage in developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yi; Shi, Jing; Tang, Ying; Zhao, Fengyan; Li, Shiping; Meng, Junjie; Tang, Jun; Lin, Xuemei; Peng, Xiaodong; Mu, Dezhi

    2016-05-01

    Mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) is a critical molecule mediating cell necroptosis. However, its role in brain injury remains obscure. We first investigated the functions and mechanisms of MLKL in mediating neuronal damage in developing brain after hypoxia-ischemia. Neuronal necroptosis was induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) plus caspase inhibitor zVAD treatment (OGD/zVAD). We found that two important necroptosis related proteins, receptor-interacting protein 1 and 3 (RIP1, RIP3) were upregulated. Furthermore, the interaction of RIP1-RIP3 with MLKL increased. Inhibition of MLKL through siRNA diminished RIP1-RIP3-MLKL interaction and attenuated neuronal death induced by OGD/zVAD. The translocation of oligomerized MLKL to the neuronal membrane leading to the injury of cellular membrane is the possible new mechanism of neuronal necroptosis. Animal experiment with neonatal rats further proved that MLKL inhibition attenuated brain damage induced by hypoxia-ischemia. These findings suggest that MLKL is a target to attenuate brain damage in developing brain.

  15. Reinfection immunity in schistosomiasis. With special reference to immunity induced by radiation attenuated Cercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Haruo

    1987-07-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most important parasitic diseases in the world, especially in endemic areas of developing countries. This situation has prompted parasitologist to attempt intensive researches on immune mechanisms, especially those of reinfection immunity associated with eliminating challenge infection. The current knowledge of reinfection immunity against Schistosoma spp. infection was therefore reviewed briefly and discussed with special reference to our data on protective immune responses induced by radiation-attenuated cercarial infection. A recently developed technique of compressed organ autoradiography (COA) has contributed to assessing parasite attrition in immune animals following challenge infection. Our study using COA has demonstrated that major attrition of schistosomula from challenge infection occurs in the skin of CBA/Ca mice vaccinated with 20 Krad gamma radiation-attenuated cercariae of S. mansoni, while in both lungs and liver of similarly vaccinated guinea pig model. Furthermore, gamma-irradiation to cercariae affected their migration potential and surface-antigen profiles. The immunizing stimuli of gamma radiation-attenuated cercariae profoundly affected the expression of responsiveness in vaccinated animals. The change in antigenic profiles and migration potential of those vaccinating population was discussed in relation to the kinetics of reinfection immunity induced in vaccinated amimal models. These works might provide a base line data to develop a practical vaccine for schistosomiasis using defined antigens. It must be emphasized that these vaccines could serve as a practical prophylactic measure for schistosomiasis in the endemic areas, even if the vaccines fail to induce sterilizing immunity. (author). 141 refs.

  16. Dexamethasone and N-acetyl-cysteine attenuate Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced mucus expression in human airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Lisa; Goldmann, Torsten; Vollmer, Ekkehard; Steffen, Armin; Wollenberg, Barbara; Zabel, Peter; Hauber, Hans-Peter

    2011-04-01

    Infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) induces mucus hypersecretion in airways. Therapeutic options to attenuate excessive mucus expression are sparse. To investigate the effect of steroids and N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) on PA-induced mucus expression. Calu-3 cells and explanted human mucosa from the upper airways were stimulated with either PA, lipopolysaccharide from alginate producing PA (smooth, sPA-LPS) or non-alginate producing PA (rough, rPA-LPS). Dexamethasone (DEX) and NAC were added in different concentrations. Expression of mucin (MUC5AC) gene and mucin protein expression was quantified using PAS (periodic acids Schiff) staining and real time PCR. PA, sPA-LPS or rPA-LPS significantly induced mucin protein and MUC5AC gene expression in Calu-3 cells and explanted mucosal tissue (P NAC significantly decreased PA-, sPA-LPS- and rPA-LPS-induced mucin protein expression both in vitro and ex vivo (P 0.05). Our data show that both an anti-inflammatory drug (DEX) and an anti-oxidative agent (NAC) can attenuate PA-induced mucus expression in human airways. These results support the use of steroids and NAC in clinical practice to treat PA-induced mucus hypersecretion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental Enrichment Attenuated Sevoflurane-Induced Neurotoxicity through the PPAR-γ Signaling Pathway

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    Yupeng Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sevoflurane is the most widely used inhaled anesthetic. Environmental enrichment (EE can reverse sevoflurane-induced learning and memory impairment in young mice. However, the mechanism by which EE elicits this effect is unclear. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR regulatory pathway plays a critical role in the regulation of inflammation in central nervous system diseases. In this study, we investigated whether EE attenuates sevoflurane-induced learning and memory disability via the PPAR signaling pathway. Six-day-old mice were treated with 3% sevoflurane for 2 hours daily from postnatal day 6 (P6 to P8. Then, the mice were treated with EE. The effects of sevoflurane on learning and memory function, PPAR-γ expression in the brain, and the numbers of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells and 5-bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells in the hippocampus were determined. Sevoflurane induced neuronal apoptosis and neurogenesis inhibition, which may impair learning and memory in young mice. Furthermore, sevoflurane downregulated PPAR-γ expression. Both EE and the PPAR-γ agonist, rosiglitazone, attenuated sevoflurane-induced neuronal apoptosis, neurogenesis inhibition, and learning and memory impairment. Our findings suggest that EE ameliorated sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity and learning and memory impairment through the PPAR-γ signaling pathway. PPAR-γ may be a potential therapeutic target for preventing or treating sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity.

  18. Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) desensitization increases sea urchin spermatozoa fertilization rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrezan-Nitao, Elis; Boni, Raianna; Marques-Santos, Luis Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) is a protein complex whose opening promotes an abrupt increase in mitochondrial inner membrane permeability. Calcium signaling pathways are described in gametes and are involved in the fertilization process. Although mitochondria may act as Ca(2+) store and have a fast calcium-releasing mechanism through MPTP, its contribution to fertilization remains unclear. The work aimed to investigate the MPTP phenomenon in sea urchin spermatozoa and its role on the fertilization. Several pharmacological tools were used to evaluate the MPTP's physiology. Our results demonstrated that MPTP occurs in male gametes in a Ca(2+) - and voltage-dependent manner and it is sensitive to cyclosporine A. Additionally, our data show that MPTP opening does not alter ROS generation in sperm cells. Inhibition of MPTP in spermatozoa strongly improved the fertilization rate, which may involve mechanisms that increase the spermatozoa lifespan. The present work is the first report of the presence of a voltage- and Ca(2+) -dependent MPTP in gametes of invertebrates and indicates MPTP opening as another evolutionary feature shared by sea urchins and mammals. Studies about MPTP in sea urchin male gametes may contribute to the elucidation of several mechanisms involved in sperm infertility. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  19. Genetically attenuated, P36p-deficient malarial sporozoites induce protective immunity and apoptosis of infected liver cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, M.R. van; Douradinha, B.; Franke-Fayard, B.; Heussler, V.; Dooren, M.W. van; Schaijk, B.C.L. van; Gemert, G.J.A. van; Sauerwein, R.W.; Mota, M.M.; Waters, A.P.; Janse, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Immunization with Plasmodium sporozoites that have been attenuated by gamma-irradiation or specific genetic modification can induce protective immunity against subsequent malaria infection. The mechanism of protection is only known for radiation-attenuated sporozoites, involving cell-mediated and hu

  20. Motor Function in MPTP-Treated Tree Shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kai-Li; Gao, Jia-Hong; Huang, Zhang-Qiong; Zhang, Ying; Kuang, De-Xuan; Jiang, Qin-Fang; Han, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Cong; Wang, Wen-Guang; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Xu, Juan; Tong, Pin-Fen; Yin, Xing-Xiao; Dai, Jie-Jie

    2013-06-25

    The tree shrew, a new experimental animal model, has been used to study a variety of diseases, especially diseases of the nervous system. 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is the gold standard for toxin-based animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) because MPTP treatment replicates almost all of the pathological hallmarks of PD. Therefore, in this study, the effects of MPTP on the motor function of the tree shrew were examined. After five daily injections of a 3 mg/kg dose of MPTP, the motor function of MPTP-injected tree shrews decreased significantly, and the classic Parkinsonian symptoms of action and resting tremor, bradykinesia, posture abnormalities, and gait instability were observed in most MPTP-injected tree shrews. HPLC results also showed significantly reduced striatal dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels in tree shrews after MPTP injection. Increased oxidative stress levels are usually considered to be the cause of dopaminergic neuron depletion in the presence of MPTP and were observed in the substantia nigra of MPTP-treated tree shrews, as indicated by a significant reduction in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity and increased levels of malondialdehyde. In addition, elevated α-synuclein mRNA levels in the midbrain of MPTP-treated tree shrews were observed. Furthermore, MPTP-treated tree shrews showed the classic Parkinsonian symptoms at a lower MPTP dosage compared with other animal models. Thus, the MPTP-treated tree shrew may be a potential animal model for studying the pathogenesis of PD.

  1. Simvastatin Attenuates TGF-β1-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuo Yang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT of alveolar epithelial cells (AEC may contribute to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. TGF-β1-induced EMT in A549 cells (a human AEC cell line resulted in the adoption of mesenchymal responses that were predominantly mediated via the TGF-β1-Smad2/3 signaling pathway. Simvastatin (Sim, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, has been previously reported to inhibit EMT in human proximal tubular epithelial cells and porcine lens epithelial cells and to suppress Smad2/3 phosphorylation in animal models. However, whether Sim can attenuate TGF-β1-induced EMT in A549 cells and its underlying mechanisms remains unknown. Methods: Cells were incubated with TGF-β1 in the presence or absence of Sim. The epithelial marker E-cadherin (E-Cad and the mesenchymal markers, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, vimentin (Vi and fibronectin (FN, were detected using western blotting analyses and immunofluorescence. Phosphorylated Smad2 and Smad3 levels and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF were analyzed using western blotting. In addition, a cell migration assay was performed. Moreover, the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and -9 in the culture medium were examined using ELISA. Results: Sim significantly attenuated the TGF-β1-induced decrease in E-Cad levels and elevated the levels of α-SMA, Vi and FN via the suppression of Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, Sim inhibited the mesenchymal-like responses in A549 cells, including cell migration, CTGF expression and secretion of MMP-2 and -9. However, Sim failed to reverse the cell morphologial changes induced by TGF-β1 in A549 cells. Conclusion: Sim attenuated TGF-β1-induced EMT in A549 cells and might be a promising therapeutic agent for treating IPF.

  2. Resveratrol attenuates methylglyoxal-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis by Sestrin2 induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Kyuhwa; Seo, Suho; Han, Jae Yun; Ki, Sung Hwan; Shin, Sang Mi, E-mail: smshin@chosun.ac.kr

    2014-10-15

    Methylglyoxal is found in high levels in the blood and other tissues of diabetic patients and exerts deleterious effects on cells and tissues. Previously, we reported that resveratrol, a polyphenol in grapes, induced the expression of Sestrin2 (SESN2), a novel antioxidant protein, and inhibited hepatic lipogenesis. This study investigated whether resveratrol protects cells from the methylglyoxal-induced toxicity via SESN2 induction. Methylglyoxal significantly induced cell death in HepG2 cells. However, cells pretreated with resveratrol were rescued from methylglyoxal-induced apoptosis. Resveratrol attenuated glutathione (GSH) depletion and ROS production promoted by methylglyoxal. Moreover, mitochondrial damage was observed by methylglyoxal treatment, but resveratrol restored mitochondrial function, as evidenced by the observed lack of mitochondrial permeability transition and increased ADP/ATP ratio. Resveratrol treatment inhibited SESN2 depletion elicited by methylglyoxal. SESN2 overexpression repressed methylglyoxal-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Likewise, rotenone-induced cytotoxicity was not observed in SESN2 overexpressed cells. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of SESN2 reduced the ability of resveratrol to prevent methylglyoxal-induced mitochondrial permeability transition. In addition, when mice were exposed to methylglyoxal after infection of Ad-SESN2, the plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and GSH depletion by methylglyoxal in liver was reduced in Ad-SESN2 infected mice. Our results demonstrated that resveratrol is capable of protecting cells from methylglyoxal-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress via SESN2 induction. - Highlights: • Resveratrol decreased methylglyoxal-induced apoptosis. • Resveratrol attenuated GSH depletion and ROS production promoted by methylglyoxal. • Resveratrol restored the mitochondrial function by Sestrin2 induction. • Induction of Sestrin2

  3. CNB-001 a Novel Curcumin Derivative, Guards Dopamine Neurons in MPTP Model of Parkinson’s Disease

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    Richard L. Jayaraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Copious experimental and postmortem studies have shown that oxidative stress mediated degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons underlies Parkinson’s disease (PD pathology. CNB-001, a novel pyrazole derivative of curcumin, has recently been reported to possess various neuroprotective properties. This study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective mechanism of CNB-001 in a subacute 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP rodent model of PD. Administration of MPTP (30 mg/kg for four consecutive days exacerbated oxidative stress and motor impairment and reduced tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, dopamine transporter, and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2 expressions. Moreover, MPTP induced ultrastructural changes such as distorted cristae and mitochondrial enlargement in substantia nigra and striatum region. Pretreatment with CNB-001 (24 mg/kg not only ameliorated behavioral anomalies but also synergistically enhanced monoamine transporter expressions and cosseted mitochondria by virtue of its antioxidant action. These findings support the neuroprotective property of CNB-001 which may have strong therapeutic potential for treatment of PD.

  4. Salidroside Protects Against 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Cytotoxicity by Attenuating ER Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Kai; Wang, Bao; Feng, Dayun; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Fangfang; Lai, Juan; Huang, Lu; Nie, Tiejian; Yang, Qian

    2016-02-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a persistent decline of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Despite its frequency, effective therapeutic strategies that halt the neurodegenerative processes are lacking, reinforcing the need to better understand the molecular drivers of this disease. Importantly, increasing evidence suggests that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced unfolded protein response is likely involved in DA neuronal death. Salidroside, a major compound isolated from Rhodiola rosea L., possesses potent anti-oxidative stress properties and protects against DA neuronal death. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that salidroside prevents 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced cytotoxicity by attenuating ER stress. Furthermore, treatment of a DA neuronal cell line (SN4741) and primary cortical neurons with salidroside significantly reduced neurotoxin-induced increases in cytoplasmic reactive oxygen species and calcium, both of which cause ER stress, and cleaved caspase-12, which is responsible for ER stress-induced cell death. Together, these results suggest that salidroside protects SN4741 cells and primary cortical neurons from 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity by attenuating ER stress. This provides a rationale for the investigation of salidroside as a potential therapeutic agent in animal models of PD.

  5. Etanercept attenuates TNBS-induced experimental colitis: role of TNF-α expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiotti, Ana Paula Ribeiro; Miszputen, Sender Jankiel; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; Artigiani Neto, Ricardo; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Franco, Marcello

    2011-10-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with gut barrier dysfunction. Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays an important role into the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases because its expression is increased in inflamed mucosa of CD patients. Anti-TNF therapy improves significantly mucosal inflammation. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of Etanercept (ETC), a tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) antagonist on the 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced experimental colitis. A total of 18 Wistar rats were randomized into four groups, as follows: (1) Sham: sham induced-colitis; (2) TNBS: non-treated induced-colitis; (3) ETC control; (4) ETC-treated induced-colitis. Rats from group 4 presented significant improvement either of macroscopic or of histopathological damage in the distal colon. The gene expression of TNF-α mRNA, decreased significantly in this group compared to the TNBS non-treated group. The treatment with etanercept attenuated the colonic damages and reduced the inflammation caused by TNBS. Taken together, our results suggest that ETC attenuates intestinal colitis induced by TNBS in Wistar rats by TNF-α downregulation.

  6. Low-Dose Aronia melanocarpa Concentrate Attenuates Paraquat-Induced Neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, A J; Agraz, D; Ahmad, I M; Zimmerman, M C

    2016-01-01

    Herbicides containing paraquat may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease. Paraquat induces reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptosis in neurons, which is a primary mechanism behind its toxicity. We sought to test the effectiveness of a commercially available polyphenol-rich Aronia melanocarpa (aronia berry) concentrate in the amelioration of paraquat-induced neurotoxicity. Considering the abundance of antioxidants in aronia berries, we hypothesized that aronia berry concentrate attenuates the paraquat-induced increase in reactive oxygen species and protects against paraquat-mediated neuronal cell death. Using a neuronal cell culture model, we observed that low doses of aronia berry concentrate protected against paraquat-mediated neurotoxicity. Additionally, low doses of the concentrate attenuated the paraquat-induced increase in superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and oxidized glutathione levels. Interestingly, high doses of aronia berry concentrate increased neuronal superoxide levels independent of paraquat, while at the same time decreasing hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, high-dose aronia berry concentrate potentiated paraquat-induced superoxide production and neuronal cell death. In summary, aronia berry concentrate at low doses restores the homeostatic redox environment of neurons treated with paraquat, while high doses exacerbate the imbalance leading to further cell death. Our findings support that moderate levels of aronia berry concentrate may prevent reactive oxygen species-mediated neurotoxicity.

  7. Low-Dose Aronia melanocarpa Concentrate Attenuates Paraquat-Induced Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Case

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides containing paraquat may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease. Paraquat induces reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptosis in neurons, which is a primary mechanism behind its toxicity. We sought to test the effectiveness of a commercially available polyphenol-rich Aronia melanocarpa (aronia berry concentrate in the amelioration of paraquat-induced neurotoxicity. Considering the abundance of antioxidants in aronia berries, we hypothesized that aronia berry concentrate attenuates the paraquat-induced increase in reactive oxygen species and protects against paraquat-mediated neuronal cell death. Using a neuronal cell culture model, we observed that low doses of aronia berry concentrate protected against paraquat-mediated neurotoxicity. Additionally, low doses of the concentrate attenuated the paraquat-induced increase in superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and oxidized glutathione levels. Interestingly, high doses of aronia berry concentrate increased neuronal superoxide levels independent of paraquat, while at the same time decreasing hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, high-dose aronia berry concentrate potentiated paraquat-induced superoxide production and neuronal cell death. In summary, aronia berry concentrate at low doses restores the homeostatic redox environment of neurons treated with paraquat, while high doses exacerbate the imbalance leading to further cell death. Our findings support that moderate levels of aronia berry concentrate may prevent reactive oxygen species-mediated neurotoxicity.

  8. Edaravone attenuates monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein

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    Li, Zhijuan, E-mail: zjlee038@163.com; Cheng, Jianxin; Wang, Liping

    2015-10-30

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) plays a vital role in recruitment of monocytes to endothelial cells, which is important during early stages of atherosclerosis development. Edaravone, a potent and novel scavenger of free radicals inhibiting hydroxyl radicals, has been clinically used to reduce the neuronal damage following ischemic stroke. In the present study, Edaravone was revealed to markedly reduce oxLDL-induced monocyte adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The inhibitory mechanism of Edaravone was associated with suppression of the chemokine MCP-1 and adhesion molecule VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression. In addition, luciferase reporter assay results revealed that administration of Edaravone attenuated the increase in NF-κB transcriptional activity induced by oxLDL. Notably, it's also shown that Edaravone treatment blocked oxLDL induced p65 nuclear translocation in HUVECs. Results indicate that Edaravone negatively regulates endothelial inflammation. - Highlights: • Edaravone reduces oxLDL-induced monocyte adhesion to HUVECs. • Edaravone attenuates oxLDL-induced expression of MCP-1, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1. • Edaravone reduces NF-κB transcriptional activity and p65 nuclear translocation.

  9. Nicorandil attenuates endothelial VCAM-1 expression via thioredoxin production in diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihua; Liu, Yun; Qi, Benling; Wu, Qinqin; Li, Yuanyuan; Wang, Zhaohui

    2014-06-01

    The anti-angina agent nicorandil has been reported to be beneficial even in patients who have angina with diabetes. However, the mechanism underlying the effect of nicorandil in patients with diabetes remains to be elucidated. In this study, the protective effect of nicorandil on thioredoxin (TRX) protein was investigated, as TRX is a multifunctional endogenous redox regulator that protects cells against various types of cellular and tissue stress. This study was conducted to examine whether nicorandil induces the expression of TRX for the protection against diabetic damage in the vascular tissue of rats. Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (fasting glucose levels in STZ-induced rats were >14 mmol/l). Diabetic rats were divided into a diabetic control and a nicorandil-treated group. Nicorandil was administered at a dosage of 15 mg/kg/day by gavage feeding. After five weeks of nicorandil administration, blood samples were obtained from the angular vein to measure levels of stress markers, serum superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde, using the ELISA. The expression of TRX in STZ-induced rat vascular tissue was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot analysis. The oral administration of nicorandil induced TRX protein and mRNA expression in the vascular tissue of STZ-induced diabetic rats. In the diabetic control group, the levels of stress were markedly higher than those in the nicorandil-treated group, indicating that nicorandil reduces oxidative stress in serum. In addition to inducing TRX expression, nicorandil attenuated the expression of the vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in diabetic rat vascular endothelial cells. In conclusion, nicorandil attenuates the formation of reactive oxygen species and induces TRX protein expression, consequently resulting in the suppression of VCAM-1 secretion in the vascular endothelial cells of STZ-induced diabetic

  10. 17β-Estradiol administration attenuates seawater aspiration-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qixin; Zhao, Pengtao; Li, Jiahuan; Xie, Xiaoyan; Xu, Min; Zhang, Yong; Mu, Deguang; Li, Wangping; Sun, Ruilin; Liu, Wei; Nan, Yandong; Zhang, Bo; Jin, Faguang; Li, Zhichao

    2011-12-01

    There is very little evidence on the value of administering estrogen in cases of seawater drowning which can induce acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). Therefore, this study aimed to investigate whether 17β-estradiol (E2) treatment can attenuate seawater aspiration-induced ALI in rats. In the experiment, ALI was induced by endotracheal instillation of seawater (4mL/kg) and the rats were then given intraperitoneal injection of E2 (5mg/kg) 20min after seawater instillation. Finally, the changes of arterial blood gases which contained hydrogen ion concentration (pH), arterial oxygen tension (PaO(2)) and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO(2)) were measured and the measurement of extravascular lung water (EVLW) was observed. The pulmonary histological changes were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin stain. The expression of aquaporins (AQPs) 1, AQP5, and estrogen receptor-β (ERβ) was measured by western blotting and immunohistochemical methods. The results showed that compared with normal saline water, seawater aspiration induced more serious ALI in rats which was markedly alleviated by E2 treatment. Meanwhile, the ERβ in lung tissues was activated after E2 administration. The seawater aspiration group also presented with severe pulmonary edema which was paralleled with over expressed AQP1 and AQP5. However, the up-regulation of AQP1 and AQP5 was suppressed by the administration of E2, resulting in an attenuation of lung edema. In conclusion, E2 treatment could effectively attenuate seawater aspiration-induced acute lung injury in rats by the down-regulation of AQP1 and AQP5.

  11. Mepivacaine-induced contraction is attenuated by endothelial nitric oxide release in isolated rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hui-Jin; Choi, Mun-Jeoung; Ok, Seong-Ho; Lee, Soo Hee; Hwang, Il Jeong; Kim, Hee Sook; Chang, Ki Churl; Shin, Il-Woo; Lee, Heon-Keun; Park, Kyeong-Eon; Chung, Young-Kyun; Sohn, Ju-Tae

    2012-07-01

    Mepivacaine is an aminoamide-linked local anesthetic with an intermediate duration that intrinsically produces vasoconstriction both in vivo and in vitro. The aims of this in-vitro study were to examine the direct effect of mepivacaine in isolated rat aortic rings and to determine the associated cellular mechanism with a particular focus on endothelium-derived vasodilators, which modulate vascular tone. In the aortic rings with or without endothelium, cumulative mepivacaine concentration-response curves were generated in the presence or absence of the following antagonists: N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester [L-NAME], indomethacin, fluconazole, methylene blue, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one [ODQ], verapamil, and calcium-free Krebs solution. Mepivacaine produced vasoconstriction at low concentrations (1 × 10(-3) and 3 × 10(-3) mol/L) followed by vasodilation at a high concentration (1 × 10(-2) mol/L). The mepivacaine-induced contraction was higher in endothelium-denuded aortae than in endothelium-intact aortae. Pretreatment with L-NAME, ODQ, and methylene blue enhanced mepivacaine-induced contraction in the endothelium-intact rings, whereas fluconazole had no effect. Indomethacin slightly attenuated mepivacaine-induced contraction, whereas verapamil and calcium-free Krebs solution more strongly attenuated this contraction. The vasoconstriction induced by mepivacaine is attenuated mainly by the endothelial nitric oxide - cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway. In addition, mepivacaine-induced contraction involves cyclooxygenase pathway activation and extracellular calcium influx via voltage-operated calcium channels.

  12. Toxic Chemical from Plastics Attenuates Phenylbiguanide-induced Cardio-respiratory Reflexes in Anaesthetized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Jayanti; Pant, Mahendra K; Chouhan, Shikha; Singh, Surya P; Deshpande, Shripad B

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) attenuated phenylbiguanide (PBG)-induced cardio-respiratory reflexes involving decreased vagal afferent activity. BPA leaches out from plastics thus it is expected that chronic exposure to plastic boiled (PBW) water will also produce similar changes. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of chronic ingestion of PBW on PBG evoked reflexes and were compared with BPA. Adult female rats were ingested BPA containing pellets (2 µg/kg body weight)/PBW/tap water (ad libitum) for 30 days. On day 30, the animals were anaesthetized and BP, ECG and respiratory excursions were recorded. Further, PBG was injected intravenously to evoke cardio-respiratory reflexes and at the end lungs were excised for histopathological examination. BPA concentration in PBW was 6.6 µg/ml estimated by HPLC. In rats receiving tap water, PBG produced bradycardia, hypotension and tachypnoea. In PBW/BPA treated groups, PBG-induced reflexes were attenuated significantly along with emphysematous and consolidative changes in lungs. The present results indicate that PBW attenuates the protective cardio-respiratory reflexes and also produces histopathological changes in lungs.

  13. Puerarin attenuates learning and memory impairments and inhibits oxidative stress in STZ-induced SAD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shan-shan; Yang, Wei-na; Jin, Hui; Ma, Kai-ge; Feng, Gai-feng

    2015-12-01

    Puerarin (PUE), an isoflavone purified from the root of Pueraria lobata (Chinese herb), has been reported to attenuate learning and memory impairments in the transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we tested PUE in a sporadic AD (SAD) mouse model which was induced by the intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The mice were administrated PUE (25, 50, or 100mg/kg/d) for 28 days. Learning and memory abilities were assessed by the Morris water maze test. After behavioral test, the biochemical parameters of oxidative stress (glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutases (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA)) were measured in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The SAD mice exhibited significantly decreased learning and memory ability, while PUE attenuated these impairments. The activities of GSH-Px and SOD were decreased while MDA was increased in the SAD animals. After PUE treatment, the activities of GSH-Px and SOD were elevated, and the level of MDA was decreased. The middle dose PUE was more effective than others. These results indicate that PUE attenuates learning and memory impairments and inhibits oxidative stress in STZ-induced SAD mice. PUE may be a promising therapeutic agent for SAD.

  14. Flavanone silibinin treatment attenuates nitrogen mustard-induced toxic effects in mouse skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Anil K.; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Inturi, Swetha; Kumar, Dileep [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Orlicky, David J. [Department of Pathology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Agarwal, Chapla [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); White, Carl W. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045USA (United States); Agarwal, Rajesh, E-mail: Rajesh.Agarwal@UCDenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Currently, there is no effective antidote to prevent skin injuries by sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM), which are vesicating agents with potential relevance to chemical warfare, terrorist attacks, or industrial/laboratory accidents. Our earlier report has demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of silibinin, a natural flavanone, in reversing monofunctional alkylating SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide-induced toxic effects in mouse skin. To translate this effect to a bifunctional alkylating vesicant, herein, efficacy studies were carried out with NM. Topical application of silibinin (1 or 2 mg) 30 min after NM exposure on the dorsal skin of male SKH-1 hairless mice significantly decreased NM-induced toxic lesions at 24, 72 or 120 h post-exposure. Specifically, silibinin treatment resulted in dose-dependent reduction of NM-induced increase in epidermal thickness, dead and denuded epidermis, parakeratosis and microvesication. Higher silibinin dose also caused a 79% and 51%reversal in NM-induced increases in myeloperoxidase activity and COX-2 levels, respectively. Furthermore, silibinin completely prevented NM-induced H2A.X phosphorylation, indicating reversal of DNA damage which could be an oxidative DNA damage as evidenced by high levels of 8-oxodG in NM-exposed mouse skin that was significantly reversed by silibinin. Together, these findings suggest that attenuation of NM-induced skin injury by silibinin is due to its effects on the pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation, vesication and oxidative stress. In conclusion, results presented here support the optimization of silibinin as an effective treatment of skin injury by vesicants. - Highlights: • Silibinin treatment attenuated nitrogen mustard (NM)-induced skin injury. • Silibinin affects pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation and vesication. • The efficacy of silibinin could also be associated with oxidative stress. • These results support testing and optimization of

  15. TLR9 signalling in microglia attenuates seizure-induced aberrant neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Taito; Murao, Naoya; Katano, Yuki; Juliandi, Berry; Kohyama, Jun; Akira, Shizuo; Kawai, Taro; Nakashima, Kinichi

    2015-01-01

    Pathological conditions such as epilepsy cause misregulation of adult neural stem/progenitor populations in the adult hippocampus in mice, and the resulting abnormal neurogenesis leads to impairment in learning and memory. However, how animals cope with abnormal neurogenesis remains unknown. Here we show that microglia in the mouse hippocampus attenuate convulsive seizure-mediated aberrant neurogenesis through the activation of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), an innate immune sensor known to recognize microbial DNA and trigger inflammatory responses. We found that microglia sense self-DNA from degenerating neurons following seizure, and secrete tumour necrosis factor-α, resulting in attenuation of aberrant neurogenesis. Furthermore, TLR9 deficiency exacerbated seizure-induced cognitive decline and recurrent seizure severity. Our findings thus suggest the existence of bidirectional communication between the innate immune and nervous systems for the maintenance of adult brain integrity.

  16. Attenuation of Low Ambient Temperature-Induced Myocardial Hypertrophy by Atorvastatin via Promoting Bcl-2 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: It is well documented that myocardial hypertrophy is associated with low ambient temperature. Atorvastatin (Atv has been shown to protect against atherosclerosis, cardiac fibrosis, ischemia/reperfusion injury, etc. In this study, we aim to determine whether atorvastatin is effective in the treatment of myocardial hypertrophy induced by cold exposure and to shed light on underlying mechanism. Methods: The mice aged 4-week were randomized to Control (Ctl group (raised at room temperature, Cold group (raised at 3-5ºC and Atv treatment group (raised at 3-5ºC followed by 10mg/kg/day Atv infusion. Echocardiography (ECG, HE, TUNEL and Masson’s trichrome staining, and Transmission electronic microscopy were performed to analyze cardiac function, myocardial hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis, apoptosis and cardiomyocyte ultrastructure, respectively. Western blot was carried out to determine the involvement of MAPK and apoptosis pathways. Results: Exposure of mice to low temperature induced myocardial hypertrophic growth characterized by the elevation of heart/body weight index and heart weight /tibia length index, compared with control mice. Atv treatment attenuated cardiac hypertrophy induced by cold exposure; Atv also attenuated the increase of cross-sectional area of cardiomyocytes and cardiac collagen content fraction in mice exposed to cold. ECG showed that the decline of cardiac functions including the elevated left ventricular systolic/diastolic internal dimension (LVIDs/d and fractional shortening (FS in mice with cold exposure was also inhibited by Atv treatment. Transmission electronic microscopy uncovered that Atv attenuated mitochondrial injury induced by cold exposure in mice. In addition, systolic blood pressure was gradually increased in mice exposed to cold temperature, and Atv treatment significantly inhibited the elevation of blood pressure in cold-treated mice. Mechanistically, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK

  17. MMP-3 Contributes to Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Neuronal Loss, BBB Damage, and Neuroinflammation in an MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Cheul Chung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined whether matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3 participates in the loss of dopaminergic (DA neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease with blood brain barrier (BBB damage and infiltration of peripheral immune cells. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH immunostaining of brain sections from MPTP-treated mice showed that MPTP induced significant degeneration of nigrostriatal DA neurons. Moreover, FITC-labeled albumin detection and immunostaining revealed that MPTP caused damage to the BBB and increased the number of ED-1- and CD-3-immunopositive cells in the substantia nigra (SN. Genetic ablation of MMP-3 reduced the nigrostriatal DA neuron loss and improved motor function. This neuroprotective effect afforded by MMP-3 deletion was associated with the suppression of BBB disruption and a decrease in the number of ED-1- and CD-3-immunopositive cells in the SN. These data suggest that MMP-3 could play a crucial role in neurodegenerative diseases such as PD in which BBB damage and neuroinflammation are implicated.

  18. Date preliminare privind unele manifestări ale durerii într-un model de șobolan MPTP-indus a bolii Parkinson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Carmen Ababei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is less known as a disease causing pain syndromes, although pain is found in 40-80 % of PD patients, as described by the very few reports in this area of research. Moreover, in some PD patients, pain is so severe and intractable that it overshadows the motor symptoms of the disorder. Still, pain in PD frequently goes under acknowledged and undertreated. Also, the studies regarding pain perception in the existing animal models of PD are very few. We experimentally induced the PD model in rats by injecting subcutaneously one dose of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP, 20mg/kg, while the control group received saline. The behavioral testing for pain included the hot-plate task and was performed 7 days after MPTP injection. In this way, our rat model resulted from the acute treatment with a low dose of MPTP, exhibited an increased sensitivity to pain perception, as demonstrated by the significant decrease in the values of the latency time in hot-plate for rats treated with MPTP, as compared to the controls. In this way, further studies in this area of research seem warranted.

  19. Cholesterol contributes to dopamine-neuronal loss in MPTP mouse model of Parkinson’s disease: Involvement of mitochondrial dysfunctions and oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Giri, Anirudha; Sandhir, Rajat

    2017-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a known contributor to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease while its role in the occurrence of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is only conjecture and far from conclusive. Altered antioxidant homeostasis and mitochondrial functions are the key mechanisms in loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) region of the midbrain in PD. Hypercholesterolemia is reported to cause oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions in the cortex and hippocampus regions of the brain in rodents. However, the impact of hypercholesterolemia on the midbrain dopaminergic neurons in animal models of PD remains elusive. We tested the hypothesis that hypercholesterolemia in MPTP model of PD would potentiate dopaminergic neuron loss in SN by disrupting mitochondrial functions and antioxidant homeostasis. It is evident from the present study that hypercholesterolemia in naïve animals caused dopamine neuronal loss in SN with subsequent reduction in striatal dopamine levels producing motor impairment. Moreover, in the MPTP model of PD, hypercholesterolemia exacerbated MPTP-induced reduction of striatal dopamine as well as dopaminergic neurons in SN with motor behavioral depreciation. Activity of mitochondrial complexes, mainly complex-I and III, was impaired severely in the nigrostriatal pathway of hypercholesterolemic animals treated with MPTP. Hypercholesterolemia caused oxidative stress in the nigrostriatal pathway with increased generation of hydroxyl radicals and enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes, which were further aggravated in the hypercholesterolemic mice with Parkinsonism. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence of increased vulnerability of the midbrain dopaminergic neurons in PD with hypercholesterolemia. PMID:28170429

  20. Hydrogen sulfide protects against cognitive impairment induced by hepatic ischemia and reperfusion via attenuating neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Faping; Li, Jingdong; Wang, Ji; Li, Qiang; Chu, Weihua

    2016-03-01

    Previously, hepatic ischemia followed by reperfusion (hepatic I/R) has been found to cause cognitive impairment. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) attenuates hepatectomy induced cognitive deficits and also protects against cognitive dysfunction induced by neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we aim to determine whether sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a H2S donor, could alleviate hepatic I/R-induced cognitive impairment and the underlying mechanisms. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with NaHS (5 mg/kg/d) for 11 days. A segmental hepatic I/R model was established on the fourth day. Cognitive function, proinflammatory cytokines levels, and hippocampal ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1) expression was analyzed. We found hepatic I/R increased proinflammatory cytokines levels in serum and hippocampus, up-regulated Iba1 expression, leading to cognitive impairment in rats. However, treatment with NaHS alleviated hepatic I/R induced these neuroinflammatory changes and effectively improved cognitive function. Thus, NaHS appears to protect against cognitive impairment in rats undergoing hepatic I/R by attenuating neuroinflammation in the hippocampus.

  1. Vetiver oil (Java) attenuates cisplatin-induced oxidative stress, nephrotoxicity and myelosuppression in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sonali; Jothiramajayam, Manivannan; Ghosh, Manosij; Jana, Aditi; Chatterji, Urmi; Mukherjee, Anita

    2015-07-01

    Clinical efficacy of the widely used anticancer drug cisplatin is limited due to its adverse side effects in normal tissues mediated by oxidative stress. This study was aimed to investigate the protective effects of vetiver acetate oil, Java (VO) against cisplatin-induced toxicity in Swiss albino mice. The ameliorating potential was evaluated by orally priming the animals with VO at doses 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg bw for 7 days prior to cisplatin treatment. Acute toxicity in mice was induced by injecting cisplatin (3 mg/kg bw) intraperitoneally for 5 consecutive days. Significant attenuation of renal toxicity was confirmed by histopathological examination, lowered levels of serum blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and reduced DNA damage. VO also compensated deficits in the renal antioxidant system. VO intervention significantly inhibited DNA damage, clastogenic effects, and cell cycle arrest in the bone marrow cells of mice. Hematological parameters indicated attenuation of cisplatin-induced myelosuppression. Overall, this study provides for the first time that VO has a protective role in the abatement of cisplatin-induced toxicity in mice which may be attributed to its antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cannabidiol protects oligodendrocyte progenitor cells from inflammation-induced apoptosis by attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecha, M; Torrao, A S; Mestre, L; Carrillo-Salinas, F J; Mechoulam, R; Guaza, C

    2012-06-28

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is the most abundant cannabinoid in Cannabis sativa that has no psychoactive properties. CBD has been approved to treat inflammation, pain and spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), of which demyelination and oligodendrocyte loss are hallmarks. Thus, we investigated the protective effects of CBD against the damage to oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) mediated by the immune system. Doses of 1 μM CBD protect OPCs from oxidative stress by decreasing the production of reactive oxygen species. CBD also protects OPCs from apoptosis induced by LPS/IFNγ through the decrease of caspase 3 induction via mechanisms that do not involve CB1, CB2, TRPV1 or PPARγ receptors. Tunicamycin-induced OPC death was attenuated by CBD, suggesting a role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the mode of action of CBD. This protection against ER stress-induced apoptosis was associated with reduced phosphorylation of eiF2α, one of the initiators of the ER stress pathway. Indeed, CBD diminished the phosphorylation of PKR and eiF2α induced by LPS/IFNγ. The pro-survival effects of CBD in OPCs were accompanied by decreases in the expression of ER apoptotic effectors (CHOP, Bax and caspase 12), and increased expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. These findings suggest that attenuation of the ER stress pathway is involved in the 'oligoprotective' effects of CBD during inflammation.

  3. Gypenoside Attenuates β Amyloid-Induced Inflammation in N9 Microglial Cells via SOCS1 Signaling

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    Hui Cai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing β amyloid- (Aβ- induced microglial activation is believed to be effective in treating Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Microglia can be activated into classic activated state (M1 state or alternative activated state (M2 state, and the former is harmful; in contrast, the latter is beneficial. Gypenoside (GP is the major bioactive constituent of Gynostemma pentaphyllum, a traditional Chinese herb medicine. In this study, we hypothesized that GP attenuates Aβ-induced microglial activation by ameliorating microglial M1/M2 states, and the process may be mediated by suppressor of cell signaling protein 1 (SOCS1. In this study, we found that Aβ exposure increased the levels of microglial M1 markers, including iNOS expression, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interleukin 1β (IL-1β, and IL-6 releases, and coadministration of GP reversed the increase of M1 markers and enhanced the levels of M2 markers, including arginase-1 (Arg-1 expression, IL-10, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF releases in the Aβ-treated microglial cells. SOCS1-siRNA, however, significantly abolished the GP-induced effects on the levels of microglial M1 and M2 markers. These findings indicated that GP attenuates Aβ-induced microglial activation by ameliorating M1/M2 states, and the process may be mediated by SOCS1.

  4. Gypenoside Attenuates β Amyloid-Induced Inflammation in N9 Microglial Cells via SOCS1 Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hui; Liang, Qianlei; Ge, Guanqun

    2016-01-01

    Reducing β amyloid- (Aβ-) induced microglial activation is believed to be effective in treating Alzheimer's disease (AD). Microglia can be activated into classic activated state (M1 state) or alternative activated state (M2 state), and the former is harmful; in contrast, the latter is beneficial. Gypenoside (GP) is the major bioactive constituent of Gynostemma pentaphyllum, a traditional Chinese herb medicine. In this study, we hypothesized that GP attenuates Aβ-induced microglial activation by ameliorating microglial M1/M2 states, and the process may be mediated by suppressor of cell signaling protein 1 (SOCS1). In this study, we found that Aβ exposure increased the levels of microglial M1 markers, including iNOS expression, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 releases, and coadministration of GP reversed the increase of M1 markers and enhanced the levels of M2 markers, including arginase-1 (Arg-1) expression, IL-10, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) releases in the Aβ-treated microglial cells. SOCS1-siRNA, however, significantly abolished the GP-induced effects on the levels of microglial M1 and M2 markers. These findings indicated that GP attenuates Aβ-induced microglial activation by ameliorating M1/M2 states, and the process may be mediated by SOCS1. PMID:27213058

  5. Teuvincenone F Suppresses LPS-Induced Inflammation and NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation by Attenuating NEMO Ubiquitination.

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    Zhao, Xibao; Pu, Debing; Zhao, Zizhao; Zhu, Huihui; Li, Hongrui; Shen, Yaping; Zhang, Xingjie; Zhang, Ruihan; Shen, Jianzhong; Xiao, Weilie; Chen, Weilin

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation causes many diseases that are serious threats to human health. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of inflammation and inflammasome activation are not fully understood which has delayed the discovery of new anti-inflammatory drugs of urgent clinic need. Here, we found that the natural compound Teuvincenone F, which was isolated and purified from the stems and leaves of Premna szemaoensis, could significantly inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines production and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Our results showed that Teuvincenone F attenuated K63-linked ubiquitination of NF-κB-essential modulator (NEMO, also known as IKKγ) to suppress LPS-induced phosphorylation of NF-κB, and inhibited mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and NLRP3. In addition, we found that decreased NLRP3 expression by Teuvincenone F suppressed NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β/IL-18 maturation. In vivo, we revealed that Teuvincenone F treatment relieved LPS-induced inflammation. In conclusion, Teuvincenone F is a highly effective natural compound to suppress LPS-induced inflammation by attenuating K63-linked ubiquitination of NEMO, highlighting that Teuvincenone F may be a potential new anti-inflammatory drug for the treatment of inflammatory and NLRP3 inflammasome-driven diseases.

  6. Hydrogen sulfide attenuates carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity, liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension in rats.

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    Gang Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hydrogen sulfide (H(2S displays vasodilative, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective activities. Impaired production of H(2S contributes to the increased intrahepatic resistance in cirrhotic livers. The study aimed to investigate the roles of H(2S in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4-induced hepatotoxicity, cirrhosis and portal hypertension. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a donor of H(2S, and DL-propargylglycine (PAG, an irreversible inhibitor of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE, were applied to the rats to investigate the effects of H(2S on CCl(4-induced acute hepatotoxicity, cirrhosis and portal hypertension by measuring serum levels of H(2S, hepatic H(2S producing activity and CSE expression, liver function, activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP 2E1, oxidative and inflammatory parameters, liver fibrosis and portal pressure. CCl(4 significantly reduced serum levels of H(2S, hepatic H(2S production and CSE expression. NaHS attenuated CCl(4-induced acute hepatotoxicity by supplementing exogenous H(2S, which displayed anti-oxidative activities and inhibited the CYP2E1 activity. NaHS protected liver function, attenuated liver fibrosis, inhibited inflammation, and reduced the portal pressure, evidenced by the alterations of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, hyaluronic acid (HA, albumin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, liver histology, hepatic hydroxyproline content and α-smooth muscle actin (SMA expression. PAG showed opposing effects to NaHS on most of the above parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Exogenous H(2S attenuates CCl(4-induced hepatotoxicity, liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension by its multiple functions including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, cytoprotection and anti-fibrosis, indicating that targeting H(2S may present a promising approach, particularly for its prophylactic effects, against liver

  7. Metformin attenuates hyperalgesia and allodynia in rats with painful diabetic neuropathy induced by streptozotocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junxiong; Yu, Hailong; Liu, Jun; Chen, Yu; Wang, Qi; Xiang, Liangbi

    2015-10-05

    Painful diabetic neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus, which often makes the patients suffer from severe hyperalgesia and allodynia. Thus far, the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy remains unsatisfactory. Metformin, which is the first-line drug for type-2 diabetes, has been proved to attenuate hyperexcitability in sensory neurons linked to chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain, highlighting its potential in alleviating pain related with painful diabetic neuropathy. The present study was designed to investigate the potential beneficial effect of metformin on hyperalgesia and allodynia in diabetic rats. The mechanical sensitivity, heat nociception, and cold allodynia were examined. The levels of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and advanced glycation end-products in the blood were measured. The expression of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and AMPK target genes were examined in the sciatic nerves of the animals. It was found that metformin was capable of attenuating diabetes-induced mechanical hyperalgesia, heat hyperalgesia and cold allodynia. In addition, metformin was capable of decreasing malondialdehyde and glycation end-products levels in blood, as well as increasing superoxide dismutas activity, indicating the inhibitory effect of metformin against diabetes-induced oxidative stress. Further studies showed that metformin could activate AMPK and increase the AMPK target genes in sciatic nerves in diabetic rats. In conclusion, metformin is able to attenuate diabetes-induced hyperalgesia and allodynia, which might be associated its anti-oxidative effect through AMPK pathway. Metformin might be used as an effective drug, especially with fewer side effects, for abnormal sensation in painful diabetic neuropathy.

  8. Vitamin C Attenuates Isoflurane-Induced Caspase-3 Activation and Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Baiqi; Zhang, Yiying; Wang, Arthur; Dong, Yuanlin; Xie, Zhongcong

    2015-12-01

    Anesthetic isoflurane has been reported to induce caspase-3 activation. The underlying mechanism(s) and targeted intervention(s), however, remain largely to be determined. Vitamin C (VitC) inhibits oxidative stress and apoptosis. We therefore employed VitC to further determine the up-stream mechanisms and the down-stream consequences of the isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation. H4 human neuroglioma cells overexpressed human amyloid precursor protein (H4-APP cells) and rat neuroblastoma cells were treated either with (1) 2% isoflurane or (2) with the control condition, plus saline or 400 μM VitC for 3 or 6 h. Western blot analysis and fluorescence assay were utilized at the end of the experiments to determine caspase-3 activation, levels of reactive oxygen species and ATP, and mitochondrial function. The interaction of isoflurane (1.4% for 2 h) and VitC (100 mg/kg) on cognitive function in mice was also assessed in the fear conditioning system. Here, we show for the first time that the VitC treatment attenuated the isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation. Moreover, VitC mitigated the isoflurane-induced increases in the levels of reactive oxygen species, opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore, reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential, and the reduction in ATP levels in the cells. Finally, VitC ameliorated the isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment in the mice. Pending confirmation from future studies, these results suggested that VitC attenuated the isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation and cognitive impairment by inhibiting the isoflurane-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and reduction in ATP levels. These findings would promote further research into the underlying mechanisms and targeted interventions of anesthesia neurotoxicity.

  9. l-Cystathionine Inhibits the Mitochondria-Mediated Macrophage Apoptosis Induced by Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingzhu; Du, Junbao; Chen, Siyao; Liu, Angie Dong; Holmberg, Lukas; Chen, Yonghong; Zhang, Chunyu; Tang, Chaoshu; Jin, Hongfang

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the regulatory role of l-cystathionine in human macrophage apoptosis induced by oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and its possible mechanisms. THP-1 cells were induced with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and differentiated into macrophages. Macrophages were incubated with ox-LDL after pretreatment with l-cystathionine. Superoxide anion, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential, and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening were examined. Caspase-9 activities and expression of cleaved caspase-3 were measured. The results showed that compared with control group, ox-LDL treatment significantly promoted superoxide anion generation, release of cytochrome c (cytc) from mitochondrion into cytoplasm, caspase-9 activities, cleavage of caspase-3, and cell apoptosis, in addition to reduced mitochondrial membrane potential as well as increased MPTP opening. However, 0.3 and 1.0 mmol/L l-cystathionine significantly reduced superoxide anion generation, increased mitochondrial membrane potential, and markedly decreased MPTP opening in ox-LDL + l-cystathionine macrophages. Moreover, compared to ox-LDL treated-cells, release of cytc from mitochondrion into cytoplasm, caspase-9 activities, cleavage of caspase-3, and apoptosis levels in l-cystathionine pretreated cells were profoundly attenuated. Taken together, our results suggested that l-cystathionine could antagonize mitochondria-mediated human macrophage apoptosis induced by ox-LDL via inhibition of cytc release and caspase activation. PMID:25514411

  10. Resveratrol attenuates methylglyoxal-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis by Sestrin2 induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Kyuhwa; Seo, Suho; Han, Jae Yun; Ki, Sung Hwan; Shin, Sang Mi

    2014-10-15

    Methylglyoxal is found in high levels in the blood and other tissues of diabetic patients and exerts deleterious effects on cells and tissues. Previously, we reported that resveratrol, a polyphenol in grapes, induced the expression of Sestrin2 (SESN2), a novel antioxidant protein, and inhibited hepatic lipogenesis. This study investigated whether resveratrol protects cells from the methylglyoxal-induced toxicity via SESN2 induction. Methylglyoxal significantly induced cell death in HepG2 cells. However, cells pretreated with resveratrol were rescued from methylglyoxal-induced apoptosis. Resveratrol attenuated glutathione (GSH) depletion and ROS production promoted by methylglyoxal. Moreover, mitochondrial damage was observed by methylglyoxal treatment, but resveratrol restored mitochondrial function, as evidenced by the observed lack of mitochondrial permeability transition and increased ADP/ATP ratio. Resveratrol treatment inhibited SESN2 depletion elicited by methylglyoxal. SESN2 overexpression repressed methylglyoxal-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Likewise, rotenone-induced cytotoxicity was not observed in SESN2 overexpressed cells. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of SESN2 reduced the ability of resveratrol to prevent methylglyoxal-induced mitochondrial permeability transition. In addition, when mice were exposed to methylglyoxal after infection of Ad-SESN2, the plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and GSH depletion by methylglyoxal in liver was reduced in Ad-SESN2 infected mice. Our results demonstrated that resveratrol is capable of protecting cells from methylglyoxal-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress via SESN2 induction.

  11. Bromophenacyl bromide, a phospholipase A2 inhibitor attenuates chemically induced gastroduodenal ulcers in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Tariq; Ibrahim Elfaki; Haseeb Ahmad Khan; Mohammad Arshaduddin; Samia Sobki; Meshal Al Moutaery

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of bromophenacyl bromide (BPB), a phospholipase A2 inhibitor on gastric secretion and to protect chemically induced gastric and duodenal ulcers in rats.METHODS: Acid secretion studies were undertaken in pylorus-ligated rats with BPB treatment (0, 5, 15 and 45 mg/kg). Gastric and duodenal lesions in the rats were induced by ethanol and cysteamine respectively. The levels of gastric wall mucus, nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were also measured in the glandular stomach of rats following ethanol induced gastric lesions.RESULTS: BPB produced a dose-dependent inhibition of gastric acid secretion and acidity in rats. Pretreatment with BPB significantly attenuated the formation of ethanol induced gastric lesion. BPB also protected intestinal mucosa against cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers.The antiulcer activity of BPB was associated with significant inhibition of ethanol-induced depletion of gastric wall mucus, NP-SH and MPO. These findings pointed towards the mediation of sulfhydryls in BPB induced gastrointestinal cytoprotection.CONCLUSION: BPB possesses significant antiulcer and cytoprotective activity against experimentally induced gastroduodenal lesions.

  12. Inhibition of Receptor Interacting Protein Kinases Attenuates Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy Induced by Palmitic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingyue; Lu, Lihui; Lei, Song; Chai, Hua; Wu, Siyuan; Tang, Xiaoju; Bao, Qinxue; Chen, Li; Wu, Wenchao; Liu, Xiaojing

    2016-01-01

    Palmitic acid (PA) is known to cause cardiomyocyte dysfunction. Cardiac hypertrophy is one of the important pathological features of PA-induced lipotoxicity, but the mechanism by which PA induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is still unclear. Therefore, our study was to test whether necroptosis, a receptor interacting protein kinase 1 and 3 (RIPK1 and RIPK3-) dependent programmed necrosis, was involved in the PA-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. We used the PA-treated primary neonatal rat cardiac myocytes (NCMs) or H9c2 cells to study lipotoxicity. Our results demonstrated that cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was induced by PA treatment, determined by upregulation of hypertrophic marker genes and cell surface area enlargement. Upon PA treatment, the expression of RIPK1 and RIPK3 was increased. Pretreatment with the RIPK1 inhibitor necrostatin-1 (Nec-1), the PA-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, was attenuated. Knockdown of RIPK1 or RIPK3 by siRNA suppressed the PA-induced myocardial hypertrophy. Moreover, a crosstalk between necroptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was observed in PA-treated cardiomyocytes. Inhibition of RIPK1 with Nec-1, phosphorylation level of AKT (Ser473), and mTOR (Ser2481) was significantly reduced in PA-treated cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, RIPKs-dependent necroptosis might be crucial in PA-induced myocardial hypertrophy. Activation of mTOR may mediate the effect of necroptosis in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by PA.

  13. Attenuating effect of bioactive coumarins from Convolvulus pluricaulis on scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Jai; Karan, Maninder; Vasisht, Karan

    2016-01-01

    Convolvulus pluricaulis Chois. (Convolvulaceae) has been used in Ayurveda as Medhya Rasyana (nervine tonic) to treat various mental disorders. This study was designed to isolate the bioactive compound(s) of this plant and to evaluate their effect against scopolamine-induced amnesia. Column chromatography of the chloroform and ethyl-acetate fractions led to the isolation of three coumarins identified as scopoletin, ayapanin and scopolin. All the three compounds at 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 mg/kg, p.o. were evaluated for memory-enhancing activity against scopolamine-induced amnesia using elevated plus maze and step down paradigms. Effect on acetylcholinesterase activity in mice brain was also evaluated. Scopoletin and scopolin, in both the paradigms, significantly and dose dependently attenuated the scopolamine-induced amnesic effect. Furthermore, these compounds at 10 and 15 mg/kg exhibited activity comparable to that of standard drug, donepezil. The compounds also exhibited significant acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.

  14. L-arginine Attenuates Hypobaric Hypoxia-Induced Increase in Ornithine Decarboxylase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuhong, Li; Zhengzhong, Bai; Feng, Tang; Quanyu, Yang; Ge, Ri-Li

    2017-07-20

    Chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling have been shown to be associated with ornithine decarboxylase 1 (ODC1). However, few animal studies have investigated the role of ODC1 in acute hypoxia. We investigated ODC1 gene expression, morphologic and functional changes, and the effect of L-arginine as an attenuator in lung tissues of rats exposed to acute hypobaric hypoxia at a simulated altitude of 6000 m. Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to simulated hypobaric hypoxia (6000 m) for 24, 48, or 72 hours were treated with L-arginine (L-arginine group, 20 mg/100 g intraperitoneal; n=15) or untreated (non-L-arginine group, n=15). Control rats (n=5) were maintained at 2260 m in a normal environment for the same amount of time but were treated without L-arginine. The mean pulmonary artery pressure was measured by PowerLab system. The morphologic and immunohistochemical changes in lung tissue were observed under a microscope. The mRNA and protein levels of ODC1 were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western-blot, respectively. Hypobaric hypoxia induced pulmonary interstitial hyperemia and capillary expansion in the lungs of rats exposed to acute hypoxia at 6000 m. The mean pulmonary artery pressure and the mRNA and protein levels of ODC1 were significantly increased, which could be attenuated by treatment with L-arginine. L-arginine attenuates acute hypobaric hypoxia-induced increase in mean pulmonary artery pressure and ODC1 gene expression in lung tissues of rats. ODC1 gene contributes to the development of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Dimethyl Sulfoxide Attenuates Acute Lung Injury Induced by Hemorrhagic Shock/Resuscitation in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsung, Yu-Chi; Chung, Chih-Yang; Wan, Hung-Chieh; Chang, Ya-Ying; Shih, Ping-Cheng; Hsu, Han-Shui; Kao, Ming-Chang; Huang, Chun-Jen

    2017-04-01

    Inflammation following hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation (HS/RES) induces acute lung injury (ALI). Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidative capacities. We sought to clarify whether DMSO could attenuate ALI induced by HS/RES. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to receive either a sham operation, sham plus DMSO, HS/RES, or HS/RES plus DMSO, and these were denoted as the Sham, Sham + DMSO, HS/RES, or HS/RES + DMSO group, respectively (n = 12 in each group). HS/RES was achieved by drawing blood to lower mean arterial pressure (40-45 mmHg for 60 min) followed by reinfusion with shed blood/saline mixtures. All rats received an intravenous injection of normal saline or DMSO immediately before resuscitation or at matching points relative to the sham groups. Arterial blood gas and histological assays (including histopathology, neutrophil infiltration, and lung water content) confirmed that HS/RES induced ALI. Significant increases in pulmonary expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), malondialdehyde, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) confirmed that HS/RES induced pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress. DMSO significantly attenuated the pulmonary inflammation and ALI induced by HS/RES. The mechanisms for this may involve reducing inflammation and oxidative stress through inhibition of pulmonary NF-κB, TNF-α, iNOS, and COX-2 expression.

  16. Isoforskolin pretreatment attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weimin; Qiang, Dongjin; Zhang, Min; Ma, Limei; Zhang, Yonghui; Qing, Chen; Xu, Yunlong; Zhen, Chunlan; Liu, Jikai; Chen, Yan-Hua

    2011-06-01

    Isoforskolin was isolated from Coleus forskohlii native to Yunnan in China. We hypothesize that isoforskolin pretreatment attenuates acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin). Three acute lung injury models were used: situ perfused rat lung, rat and mouse models of endotoxic shock. Additionally, lipopolysaccharide stimulated proinflammatory cytokine production was evaluated in human mononuclear leukocyte. In situ perfused rat lungs, pre-perfusion with isoforskolin (100, and 200 μM) and dexamethasone (65 μM, positive control) inhibited lipopolysaccharide (10 mg/L) induced increases in lung neutrophil adhesion rate, myeloperoxidase activity, lung weight Wet/Dry ratio, permeability-surface area product value, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. In rats, pretreatments with isoforskolin (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) and dexamethasone (5mg/kg, i.p.) markedly reduced lipopolysaccharide (6 mg/kg i.v.) induced increases of karyocyte, neutrophil counts and protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and plasma myeloperoxidase activity. Lung histopathology showed that morphologic changes induced by lipopolysaccharide were less pronounced in the isoforskolin and dexamethasone pretreated rats. In mice, 5 mg/kg isoforskolin and dexamethasone caused 100% and 80% survival, respectively, after administration of lipopolysaccharide (62.5mg/kg, i.v., 40% survival if untreated). In human mononuclear leukocyte, isoforskolin (50, 100, and 200 μM) and dexamethasone (10 μM) pre-incubation lowered lipopolysaccharide (2 μg/mL) induced secretion of the cytokine TNF-α, and interleukins (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-8. In conclusion, pretreatment with isoforskolin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in several models, and it is involved in down-regulation of inflammatory responses and proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8.

  17. Adventitial gene transfer of catalase attenuates angiotensin II-induced vascular remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cun-Fei; Zhang, Jia; Shen, Kai; Gao, Ping-Jin; Wang, Hai-Ya; Jin, Xin; Meng, Chao; Fang, Ning-Yuan

    2015-04-01

    Vascular adventitia and adventitia‑derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to vascular remodeling following vascular injury. A previous ex vivo study in adventitial fibroblasts showed that catalase, one of most important anti‑oxide enzymes, was downregulated by angiotensin II (AngII). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether adventitial gene transfer of catalase affects AngII‑induced vascular remodeling in vivo. Adenoviruses co‑expressing catalase and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) or expressing eGFP only were applied to the adventitial surface of common carotid arteries of Sprague‑Dawley rats. Alzet minipumps administering AngII (0.75 mg/kg/day) were then implanted subcutaneously for 14 days. Systolic blood pressure and biological parameters of vascular remodeling were measured in each group. Adventitial fibroblasts were cultured and p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation was measured using western blot analysis. The results showed that adventitial gene transfer of catalase had no effect on AngII‑induced systolic blood pressure elevation. However, catalase adenovirus transfection significantly inhibited AngII‑induced media hypertrophy compared with that of the control virus (Pcatalase transfection significantly attenuated AngII‑induced ROS generation, macrophage infiltration, collagen deposition and adventitial α‑smooth muscle actin expression. Furthermore, catalase transfection significantly inhibited the AngII‑induced increase in p38MAPK phosphorylation. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that adventitial gene transfer of catalase significantly attenuated AngII‑induced vascular remodeling in rats via inhibition of adventitial p38MAPK phosphorylation.

  18. Quercetin attenuates neuronal death against aluminum-induced neurodegeneration in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, D R; Wani, W Y; Sunkaria, A; Kandimalla, R J; Sharma, R K; Verma, D; Bal, A; Gill, K D

    2016-06-02

    Aluminum is a light weight and toxic metal present ubiquitously on earth, which has gained considerable attention due to its neurotoxic effects. It also has been linked ecologically and epidemiologically to several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Guamanian-Parkinsonian complex and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The mechanism of aluminum neurotoxicity is poorly understood, but it is well documented that aluminum generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). Enhanced ROS production leads to disruption of cellular antioxidant defense systems and release of cytochrome c (cyt-c) from mitochondria to cytosol resulting in apoptotic cell death. Quercetin (a natural flavonoid) protects it from oxidative damage and has been shown to decrease mitochondrial damage in various animal models of oxidative stress. We hypothesized that if oxidative damage to mitochondria does play a significant role in aluminum-induced neurodegeneration, and then quercetin should ameliorate neuronal apoptosis. Administration of quercetin (10 mg/kg body wt/day) reduced aluminum (10 mg/kg body wt/day)-induced oxidative stress (decreased ROS production, increased mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity). In addition, quercetin also prevents aluminum-induced translocation of cyt-c, and up-regulates Bcl-2, down-regulates Bax, p53, caspase-3 activation and reduces DNA fragmentation. Quercetin also obstructs aluminum-induced neurodegenerative changes in aluminum-treated rats as seen by Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining. Further electron microscopic studies revealed that quercetin attenuates aluminum-induced mitochondrial swelling, loss of cristae and chromatin condensation. These results indicate that treatment with quercetin may represent a therapeutic strategy to attenuate the neuronal death against aluminum-induced neurodegeneration.

  19. Inhibition of Uncoupling Protein 2 Attenuates Cardiac Hypertrophy Induced by Transverse Aortic Constriction in Mice

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    Xiao-Bing Ji

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 is critical in regulating energy metabolism. Due to the significant change in energy metabolism of myocardium upon pressure overload, we hypothesize that UCP2 could contribute to the etiology of cardiac hypertrophy. Methods: Adult male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to pressure overload by using transverse aortic constriction (TAC, and then received genipin (a UCP2 selective inhibitor; 25 mg/kg/d, ip or vehicle for three weeks prior to histologic assessment of myocardial hypertrophy. ATP concentration, ROS level, and myocardial apoptosis were also examined. A parallel set of experiments was also conducted in UCP2-/- mice. Results: TAC induced left ventricular hypertrophy, as reflected by increased ventricular weight/thickness and increased size of myocardial cell (vs. sham controls. ATP concentration was decreased; ROS level was increased. Apoptosis and fibrosis markers were increased. TAC increased mitochondrial UCP2 expression in the myocardium at both mRNA and protein levels. Genipin treatment attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and the histologic/biochemical changes described above. Hypertrophy and associated changes induced by TAC in UCP2-/- mice were much less pronounced than in WT mice. Conclusions: Blocking UCP2 expression attenuates cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload.

  20. Attenuation of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage conferred by maximal isometric contractions: a mini review

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    Leonardo Coelho Rabello Lima

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although beneficial in determined contexts, eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD might be unwanted during training regimens, competitions and daily activities. There are a vast number of studies investigating strategies to attenuate EIMD response after damaging exercise bouts. Many of them consist of performing exercises that induce EIMD, consuming supplements or using equipment that are not accessible for most people. It appears that performing maximal isometric contractions (ISOs 2-4 days prior to damaging bouts promotes significant attenuation of EIMD symptoms that are not related to muscle function. It has been shown that the volume of ISOs, muscle length in which they are performed, and interval between them and the damaging bout influence the magnitude of this protection. Additionally, it appears that this protection is not long-lived, lasting no longer than 4 days. Although no particular mechanisms for these adaptations were identified, professionals should consider applying this non-damaging stimulus before submitting their patients to unaccustomed exercised. However, it seems not to be the best option for athletes or relatively trained individuals. Future studies should focus on establishing if ISOs protect other populations (i.e., trained individuals or muscle groups (i.e., knee extensors against EIMD, as well as investigate different mechanisms for ISO-induced protection.

  1. Curcumin Mediated Attenuation of Carbofuran Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Sunil Kumar; Sharma, Ashish; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Sharma, Bechan

    2016-01-01

    The indiscriminate use of carbofuran to improve crop productivity causes adverse effects in nontargets including mammalian systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate carbofuran induced oxidative stress in rat brain stem and its attenuation by curcumin, a herbal product. Out of 6 groups of rats, 2 groups received two different doses of carbofuran, that is, 15 and 30% of LD50, respectively, for 30 days. Out of these, 2 groups receiving same doses of carbofuran were pretreated with curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight). The levels of antioxidants, TBARS, GSH, SOD, catalase, and GST were determined in rat brain stem. The 2 remaining groups served as placebo and curcumin treated, respectively. The data suggested that carbofuran at different doses caused significant alterations in the levels of TBARS and GSH in dose dependent manner. The TBARS and GSH contents were elevated. The activities of SOD, catalase, and GST were significantly inhibited at both doses of carbofuran. The ratio of P/A was also found to be sharply increased. The pretreatment of curcumin exhibited significant protection from carbofuran induced toxicity. The results suggested that carbofuran at sublethal doses was able to induce oxidative stress in rat brain which could be attenuated by curcumin. PMID:27213055

  2. Curcumin Mediated Attenuation of Carbofuran Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Brain

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    Sunil Kumar Jaiswal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate use of carbofuran to improve crop productivity causes adverse effects in nontargets including mammalian systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate carbofuran induced oxidative stress in rat brain stem and its attenuation by curcumin, a herbal product. Out of 6 groups of rats, 2 groups received two different doses of carbofuran, that is, 15 and 30% of LD50, respectively, for 30 days. Out of these, 2 groups receiving same doses of carbofuran were pretreated with curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight. The levels of antioxidants, TBARS, GSH, SOD, catalase, and GST were determined in rat brain stem. The 2 remaining groups served as placebo and curcumin treated, respectively. The data suggested that carbofuran at different doses caused significant alterations in the levels of TBARS and GSH in dose dependent manner. The TBARS and GSH contents were elevated. The activities of SOD, catalase, and GST were significantly inhibited at both doses of carbofuran. The ratio of P/A was also found to be sharply increased. The pretreatment of curcumin exhibited significant protection from carbofuran induced toxicity. The results suggested that carbofuran at sublethal doses was able to induce oxidative stress in rat brain which could be attenuated by curcumin.

  3. Euflammation attenuates peripheral inflammation-induced neuroinflammation and mitigates immune-to-brain signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Nemeth, Daniel P; Tarr, Andrew J; Belevych, Natalya; Syed, Zunera W; Wang, Yufen; Ismail, Ahmad S; Reed, Nathaniel S; Sheridan, John F; Yajnik, Akul R; Disabato, Damon J; Zhu, Ling; Quan, Ning

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral inflammation can trigger a number of neuroinflammatory events in the CNS, such as activation of microglia and increases of proinflammatory cytokines. We have previously identified an interesting phenomenon, termed "euflammation", which can be induced by repeated subthreshold infectious challenges. Euflammation causes innate immune alterations without overt neuroimmune activation. In the current study, we examined the protective effect of euflammation against peripheral inflammation-induced neuroinflammation and the underlying mechanisms. When Escherichia coli or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was injected inside or outside the euflammation induction locus (EIL), sickness behavior, global microglial activation, proinflammatory cytokine production in the brain, expression of endothelial cyclooxygenase II and induction of c-fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus were all attenuated in the euflammatory mice compared with those in the control unprimed mice. Euflammation also modulated innate immunity outside the EIL by upregulating receptors for pathogen-associated molecular patterns in spleen cells. In addition, euflammation attenuated CNS activation in response to an intra-airpouch (outside the EIL) injection of LPS without suppressing the cytokine expression in the airpouch. Collectively, our study demonstrates that signaling of peripheral inflammation to the CNS is modulated dynamically by peripheral inflammatory kinetics. Specifically, euflammation can offer effective protection against both bacterial infection and endotoxin induced neuroinflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Melatonin attenuates dextran sodium sulfate induced colitis with sleep deprivation: possible mechanism by microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sook Hee; Park, Young Sook; Kim, Ok Soon; Kim, Ja Hyun; Baik, Haing Woon; Hong, Young Ok; Kim, Sang Su; Shin, Jae-Ho; Jun, Jin-Hyun; Jo, Yunju; Ahn, Sang Bong; Jo, Young Kwan; Son, Byoung Kwan; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2014-06-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract. It can be aggravated by stress, like sleep deprivation, and improved by anti-inflammatory agents, like melatonin. We aimed to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation and melatonin on inflammation. We also investigated genes regulated by sleep deprivation and melatonin. In the 2% DSS induced colitis mice model, sleep deprivation was induced using modified multiple platform water bath. Melatonin was injected after induction of colitis and colitis with sleep deprivation. Also mRNA was isolated from the colon of mice and analyzed via microarray and real-time PCR. Sleep deprivation induced reduction of body weight, and it was difficult for half of the mice to survive. Sleep deprivation aggravated, and melatonin attenuated the severity of colitis. In microarrays and real-time PCR of mice colon tissues, mRNA of adiponectin and aquaporin 8 were downregulated by sleep deprivation and upregulated by melatonin. However, mRNA of E2F transcription factor (E2F2) and histocompatibility class II antigen A, beta 1 (H2-Ab1) were upregulated by sleep deprivation and downregulated by melatonin. Melatonin improves and sleep deprivation aggravates inflammation of colitis in mice. Adiponectin, aquaporin 8, E2F2 and H2-Ab1 may be involved in the inflammatory change aggravated by sleep deprivation and attenuated by melatonin.

  5. Haloperidol-induced extra pyramidal symptoms attenuated by imipramine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Noreen; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2014-09-01

    Effects of administration of imipramine (IMI) are determined on haloperidol-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). Haloperidol is administered orally at a dose of 0.2 mg/rat/day in rats for a period of 5 weeks, by this treatment rats developed vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) after 2 weeks, which increased in a time dependent manner as the treatment continued for 5 weeks. Motor coordination (assess on rota rod activity) impaired maximally after 3 weeks and tolerance was developed in the haloperidol induced motor impairment after 5 weeks of treatment. Motor activity in an open field or activity box was not altered. The administration of IMI (intraperitoneally, for 5 weeks) did not affect motor activity or motor coordination. Co-administration of IMI at a dose of 5 mg/ml/kg/day attenuated the induction of haloperidol elicited VCMs (Quantitative orofacial dyskinesia) as well impairment of motor coordination. Results are discussed in the context of the mechanism involved by which imipramine attenuated haloperidol-induced EPS.

  6. Static Magnetic Field Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Pulp Cells by Affecting Cell Membrane Stability

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    Sung-Chih Hsieh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the causes of dental pulpitis is lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced inflammatory response. Following pulp tissue inflammation, odontoblasts, dental pulp cells (DPCs, and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs will activate and repair damaged tissue to maintain homeostasis. However, when LPS infection is too serious, dental repair is impossible and disease may progress to irreversible pulpitis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether static magnetic field (SMF can attenuate inflammatory response of dental pulp cells challenged with LPS. In methodology, dental pulp cells were isolated from extracted teeth. The population of DPSCs in the cultured DPCs was identified by phenotypes and multilineage differentiation. The effects of 0.4 T SMF on DPCs were observed through MTT assay and fluorescent anisotropy assay. Our results showed that the SMF exposure had no effect on surface markers or multilineage differentiation capability. However, SMF exposure increases cell viability by 15%. In addition, SMF increased cell membrane rigidity which is directly related to higher fluorescent anisotropy. In the LPS-challenged condition, DPCs treated with SMF demonstrated a higher tolerance to LPS-induced inflammatory response when compared to untreated controls. According to these results, we suggest that 0.4 T SMF attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory response to DPCs by changing cell membrane stability.

  7. Amniotic fluid stem cells from EGFP transgenic mice attenuate hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury.

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    Shih-Tao Wen

    Full Text Available High concentrations of oxygen aggravate the severity of lung injury in patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Although mesenchymal stem cells have been shown to effectively attenuate various injured tissues, there is limited information regarding a role for amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs in treating acute lung injury. We hypothesized that intravenous delivery of AFSCs would attenuate lung injury in an experimental model of hyperoxia-induced lung injury. AFSCs were isolated from EGFP transgenic mice. The in vitro differentiation, surface markers, and migration of the AFSCs were assessed by specific staining, flow cytometry, and a co-culture system, respectively. The in vivo therapeutic potential of AFSCs was evaluated in a model of acute hyperoxia-induced lung injury in mice. The administration of AFSCs significantly reduced the hyperoxia-induced pulmonary inflammation, as reflected by significant reductions in lung wet/dry ratio, neutrophil counts, and the level of apoptosis, as well as reducing the levels of inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α and early-stage fibrosis in lung tissues. Moreover, EGFP-expressing AFSCs were detected and engrafted into a peripheral lung epithelial cell lineage by fluorescence microscopy and DAPI stain. Intravenous administration of AFSCs may offer a new therapeutic strategy for acute lung injury (ALI, for which efficient treatments are currently unavailable.

  8. Phenylephrine-induced cardiac hypertrophy is attenuated by a histone acetylase inhibitor anacardic acid in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chang; Luo, Xiaomei; Li, Shuo; Sun, Huichao

    2017-03-28

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a complex process involving highly coordinated but tight regulation of multiple elements, such as in epigenetics, which make an important contribution to myocardium remodeling and cardiac hypertrophy. Epigenetic regulations, particularly histone acetylation, have been implicated in cardiac hypertrophy, however, the exact mechanism is still largely unknown. In the present study, we explored the potential attenuating effects of Chinese herbal extract anacardic acid on phenylephrine-induced cardiac hypertrophy and the underlying mechanism. The mouse cardiac hypertrophy model was established and the hearts were collected from C57BL/6 mice for further analyses. The data showed that anacardic acid modulated the cardiac genes expression and attenuated the phenylephrine-induced cardiac hypertrophy via the suppression of histone acetylases activity and downstream cardiac genes. In addition, anacardic acid abrogated histone and MEF2A acetylation and DNA-binding activity by blocking p300-HAT and PCAF-HAT activities. In addition, anacardic acid normalized the cardiac hypertrophy-related genes expressions (ANP, BNP, cTnT, cTnI, β-MHC, and Cx43) induced by phenylephrine at the level of transcription and translation. In addition, anacardic acid did not affect the blood routine index, hepatic function, renal function, and myocardial enzymes. Therefore, anacardic acid may prove to be a candidate drug to cure hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

  9. Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx Flavonoids Fraction Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice

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    Chun-jun Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx (Maxim. Hara, belonging to the Labiatae family, is widely used as an anti-inflammatory and antitumor drug for the treatment of different inflammations and cancers. Aim of the Study. To investigate therapeutic effects and possible mechanism of the flavonoids fraction of Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx (Maxim. Hara (RJFs in acute lung injury (ALI mice induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Materials and Methods. Mice were orally administrated with RJFs (6.4, 12.8, and 25.6 mg/kg per day for 7 days, consecutively, before LPS challenge. Lung specimens and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF were isolated for histopathological examinations and biochemical analysis. The level of complement 3 (C3 in serum was quantified by a sandwich ELISA kit. Results. RJFs significantly attenuated LPS-induced ALI via reducing productions of the level of inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, and significantly reduced complement deposition with decreasing the level of C3 in serum, which was exhibited together with the lowered myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and nitric oxide (NO and protein concentration in BALF. Conclusions. RJFs significantly attenuate LPS-induced ALI via reducing productions of proinflammatory mediators, decreasing the level of complement, and reducing radicals.

  10. Morphine Attenuated the Cytotoxicity Induced by Arsenic Trioxide in H9c2 Cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini-Khoei, Hossein; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal; Momeny, Majid; Rahimi-Balaei, Maryam; Amiri, Shayan; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Khedri, Mostafa; Jahanabadi, Samane; Mohammadi-Asl, Ali; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaie; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is an efficient drug for the treatment of the patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Inhibition of proliferation as well as apoptosis, attenuation of migration, and induction of differentiation in tumor cells are the main mechanisms through which ATO acts against APL. Despite advantages of ATO in treatment of some malignancies, certain harmful side effects, such as cardiotoxicity, have been reported. It has been well documented that morphine has antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, and cytoprotective properties and is able to attenuate cytotoxicity. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of morphine against ATO toxicity in H9c2 myocytes using multi-parametric assay including thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, caspase 3 activity, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) phosphorylation assay, and expression of apoptotic markers. Our results showed that morphine (1 μM) attenuated cytotoxicity induced by ATO in H9c2 cells. Results of this study suggest that morphine may have protective properties in management of cardiac toxicity in patients who receive ATO as an anti-cancer treatment.

  11. Nicorandil attenuates monocrotaline-induced vascular endothelial damage and pulmonary arterial hypertension.

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    Makoto Sahara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An antianginal K(ATP channel opener nicorandil has various beneficial effects on cardiovascular systems; however, its effects on pulmonary vasculature under pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we attempted to determine whether nicorandil can attenuate monocrotaline (MCT-induced PAH in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats injected intraperitoneally with 60 mg/kg MCT were randomized to receive either vehicle; nicorandil (5.0 mg·kg(-1·day(-1 alone; or nicorandil as well as either a K(ATP channel blocker glibenclamide or a nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor N(ω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, from immediately or 21 days after MCT injection. Four or five weeks later, right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP was measured, and lung tissue was harvested. Also, we evaluated the nicorandil-induced anti-apoptotic effects and activation status of several molecules in cell survival signaling pathway in vitro using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. RESULTS: Four weeks after MCT injection, RVSP was significantly increased in the vehicle-treated group (51.0±4.7 mm Hg, whereas it was attenuated by nicorandil treatment (33.2±3.9 mm Hg; P<0.01. Nicorandil protected pulmonary endothelium from the MCT-induced thromboemboli formation and induction of apoptosis, accompanied with both upregulation of endothelial NOS (eNOS expression and downregulation of cleaved caspase-3 expression. Late treatment with nicorandil for the established PAH was also effective in suppressing the additional progression of PAH. These beneficial effects of nicorandil were blocked similarly by glibenclamide and l-NAME. Next, HUVECs were incubated in serum-free medium and then exhibited apoptotic morphology, while these changes were significantly attenuated by nicorandil administration. Nicorandil activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK

  12. Attenuation by phentolamine of hypoxia and levcromakalim-induced abbreviation of the cardiac action potential.

    OpenAIRE

    Tweedie, D.; Boachie-Anash, G.; Henderson, C. G.; Kane, K. A.

    1993-01-01

    1. The effects of phentolamine (5-30 microM) and glibenclamide (10 microM) on action potential characteristics were examined in guinea-pig papillary muscle exposed to either hypoxia or levcromakalim (20 microM). 2. The hypoxia-induced abbreviation of action potential duration (APD) and effective refractory period (ERP) were attenuated but not abolished by glibenclamide (10 microM). Hypoxia reduced APD by 24 +/- 2 vs 65 +/- 4% in glibenclamide- and vehicle-treated tissue, respectively. 3. Phen...

  13. Scorpion venom heat-resistant protein decreases immunoreactivity of OX-42-positive microglia cells in MPTP-treated mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengming Yin; Deqin Yu; Xi Gao; Yan Peng; Yanhui Feng; Jie Zhao; Yiyuan Tang; Wanqin Zhang

    2008-01-01

    , the number of OX-42-positive microglia significantly decreased in the frontal cortex, caudatum, and hippocampal hilus, compared to the model group (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: SV heat-resistant protein inhibited MPTP-induced microglial activation in the mouse frontal cortex and hippocampus, resulting in reduced microglial activation in the brain.

  14. Taurine supplementation attenuates delayed increase in exercise-induced arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Song-Gyu; Choi, Youngju; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Ohmori, Hajime; Maeda, Seiji

    2016-06-01

    There is a delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise that is possibly mediated by the concurrent delayed increase in circulating oxidative stress. Taurine has anti-oxidant action, and taurine supplementation may be able to attenuate the increase in oxidative stress after exercise. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether taurine supplementation attenuates the delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise. In the present double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial, we divided 29 young, healthy men into 2 groups. Subjects received either 2.0 g of placebo (n = 14) or taurine (n = 15) 3 times per day for 14 days prior to the exercise, on the day of exercise, and the following 3 days. The exercise consisted of 2 sets of 20 maximal-effort eccentric repetitions with the nondominant arm only. On the morning of exercise and for 4 days thereafter, we measured serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) as indices of oxidative stress and arterial stiffness, respectively. On the third and fourth days after exercise, both MDA and cfPWV significantly increased in the placebo group. However, these elevations were significantly attenuated in the taurine group. The increase in MDA was associated with an increase in cfPWV from before exercise to 4 days after exercise (r = 0.597, p taurine group. Our results suggest that delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise was probably affected by the exercise-induced oxidative stress and was attenuated by the taurine supplementation.

  15. Impact of intravenous immunoglobulin on the dopaminergic system and immune response in the acute MPTP mouse model of Parkinson’s disease

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    St-Amour Isabelle

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg is a blood-derived product, used for the treatment of immunodeficiency and autoimmune diseases. Since a range of immunotherapies have recently been proposed as a therapeutic strategy for Parkinson’s disease (PD, we investigated the effects of an IVIg treatment in a neurotoxin-induced animal model of PD. Mice received four injections of MPTP (15 mg/kg at 2-hour intervals followed by a 14-day IVIg treatment, which induced key immune-related changes such as increased regulatory T-cell population and decreased CD4+/CD8+ ratio. The MPTP treatment induced significant 80% and 84% decreases of striatal dopamine concentrations (P P P 

  16. Propofol attenuates high glucose-induced superoxide anion accumulation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaqiang; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Yanjun; Zhu, Yun; Zhu, Minmin

    2016-12-01

    Perioperative hyperglycemia is a common clinical metabolic disorder. Hyperglycemia could induce endothelial apoptosis, dysfunction, and inflammation, resulting in endothelial injury. Propofol is a widely used anesthetic drug in clinical settings. Our previous studies indicated that propofol attenuated high glucose-induced endothelial apoptosis, dysfunction, and inflammation via inhibiting reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. However, the mechanisms by which propofol reduces high glucose-induced endothelial ROS accumulation are still obscure. In this study, we examined how propofol attenuates high glucose-induced endothelial ROS accumulation. Compared with 5 mm glucose treatment, 15 mm glucose upregulated the expression of pin-1, phosphatase A2 (PP2A), p66(shc) and mitochondrial p66(shc) expression, increased p66(shc) -Ser(36) phosphorylation, and O2·- accumulation. More importantly, although propofol had no effect on 15 mm glucose-induced p66(shc) -Ser(36) phosphorylation and pin-1 expression, propofol could downregulated PP2A expression and p66(shc) expression in whole-cell and mitochondrion, resulting in the reduction of O2·- accumulation. Moreover, we demonstrated that the antioxidative effect of propofol was similar to that of calyculin A, an inhibitor of PP2A. In contrast, FTY720, an activator of PP2A, antagonized the effect of propofol. Our data indicated that the antioxidative effect of propofol was achieved by downregulating PP2A expression, resulting in the inhibition of p66(shc) -Ser(36) dephosphorylation and mitochondrial p66(shc) expression. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  17. Rebamipide attenuates 5-Fluorouracil-induced small intestinal mucositis in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Jin Hyun; Moon, Won; Park, Jongha; Park, Seun Ja; Song, Geun Am; Han, Seung Hee; Lee, Jong Hun

    2015-01-01

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced intestinal mucositis is one of the most common morbidities in chemotherapy and involves the reactive oxygen species (ROS) system, apoptosis, and inflammatory cytokines. Rebamipide exerts a mucosal-protective effect, mediated through several mechanisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of rebamipide in 5-FU-induced mouse small-intestinal mucositis. BALB/c mice were assigned randomly to four groups; (1) control group (n=10; receiving saline orally for 6 d), (2) rebamipide group (n=10; 150 mg/kg rebamipide for 6 d orally), (3) 5-FU group (n=10; 30 mg/kg 5-FU for 5 d, intraperitoneally (i.p.)), and (4) rebamipide +5-FU group (n=10; 150 mg/kg rebamipide for 6 d orally and 30 mg/kg 5-FU for 5 d, i.p.). Body weights and diarrhea scales were assessed. At day 5, the mice were sacrificed. Small intestinal tissue was used for: (1) hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining for determination of small intestinal villi height, (2) terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, (3) immunohistochemistry for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), F4/80, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, (4) measurement of serum and tissue GSH levels, and (5) measurement of serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. Rebamipide attenuated the severity of mucosal injury reflected by body weight changes, degrees of diarrhea, and heights of villi. Rebamipide reduced the expression of iNOS and TGF-β1, apoptosis, macrophage accumulation, serum TNF-α levels, and prevented reductions in serum and tissue glutathione (GSH) levels by 5-FU administration. These results suggest that rebamipide promotes several mechanisms of mucosal protection and attenuated the 5-FU-induced mucosal injury. In conclusion, administration of rebamipide may have significant protective effects against 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis.

  18. Pulmonary function changes in rats with taurocholate-induced pancreatitis are attenuated by pretreatment with melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ting-Ywan; Reiter, Russel J; Chen, Kuan-Hao; Leu, Fur-Jiang; Wang, David; Yeh, Diana Y

    2014-03-01

    Melatonin is a free radical scavenger and broad-spectrum antioxidant with immunomodulatory effects. We studied the effects of melatonin on changes in lung function, oxidative/nitrosative stress, and inflammatory cell sequestration in an acute pancreatitis (AP)-associated lung inflammation model. Acute pancreatitis was induced by injection of 5% sodium taurocholate into the pancreatic duct of rats. Animals were randomized into control, AP, and a melatonin pretreatment (10 mg/kg)/AP group. Functional residual capacity (FRC), lung compliance (Cchord), expiratory flow rate at 50% (FEF50), airway resistance index (RI), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) were evaluated. White blood cell count (WBC) and hydrogen peroxide, lung lavage fluid WBC, methylguanidine, protein, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), nitric oxide (NO), and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) levels were determined. Lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, peroxynitrite, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS) mRNA and protein were measured. AP induction resulted in reductions in FRC, Cchord, FEF50, and PEF, and increase in RI and lung wet-to-dry weight ratio. Blood and lung lavage fluid WBC, lavage fluid LDH, protein, and blood hydrogen peroxide also increased. Levels of hydroxyl radicals, nitric oxide, and LTB4 in lung lavage fluid, inducible NOS mRNA, protein expression, and peroxynitrite in lung tissue also were significantly elevated. Pretreatment with melatonin attenuated obstructive and restrictive ventilatory insufficiency induced by AP. Blood and lavage WBC, lavage LDH and protein, lung edema, oxidative/nitrosative stress, and lipoxygenase pathway derivatives were also significantly attenuated by melatonin. We conclude that melatonin decreases AP-induced obstructive and restrictive lung function changes via its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Attenuation of mitochondrial, but not cytosolic, Ca2+ overload reduces myocardial injury induced by ischemia and reperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-mei CAO; Wing-yee YAN; Jing LIU; Kenneth WL KAM; Shi-zhong ZHAN; James SK SHAM; Tak-ming WONG

    2006-01-01

    Aim: Attenuation of mitochondrial Ca2+ ([Ca2+]m, but not cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c), overload improves contractile recovery. We hypothesized that attenuation of [Ca2+]m, but not [Ca2+]c, overload confers cardioprotection against ischemia/ reperfusion-induced injury. Methods: Infarct size from isolated perfused rat heart, cell viability, and electrically-induced Ca2+ transient in isolated rat ventricular myocytes were measured. We determined the effects of BAPTA-AM, a Ca2+ chelator, at concentrations that abolish the overload of both [Ca2+]c and [Ca2+]m, and ruthenium red, an inhibitor of mitochondrial uniporter of Ca2+ transport, at concentrations that abolish the overload of [Ca2+]m, but not [Ca2+]c, on cardiac injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion. Results: Attenuation of both [Ca2+]m and [Ca2+]c by BAPTA-AM, and attenuation of [Ca2+]m, but not [Ca2+]c, overload by ruthenium red, reduced the cardiac injury observations, indicating the importance of [Ca2+]m in cardioprotection and contractile recovery in response to ischemia/reperfusion. Conclusion: The study has provided unequivocal evidence using a cause-effect approach that attenuation of [Ca2+]m, but not [Ca2+]c, overload is responsible for cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury. We also confirmed the previous observation that attenuation of [Ca2+]m, but not [Ca2+]c, by ruthenium red improves contractile recovery following ischemia/ reperfusion.

  20. Attenuation of aspirin-induced bronchoconstriction by sodium cromoglycate and nedocromil sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robuschi, M; Gambaro, G; Sestini, P; Pieroni, M G; Refini, R M; Vaghi, A; Bianco, S

    1997-04-01

    The protective activity of nedocromil sodium and of sodium cromoglycate against aspirin-induced asthma has never been investigated in controlled studies. Because it has been reported that aspirin-induced platelet-mediated cytotoxic activity in vitro is inhibited after treatment in vivo with nedocromil but not with cromoglycate, we investigated whether these compounds also exhibit a different protective activity against aspirin-induced bronchoconstriction. Ten patients with aspirin-induced asthma underwent three bronchial challenges with a single dose of lysine acetylsalicylate (LASA) that caused a decrease in FEV1 of 25% or more in a preliminary dose-response test 30 min after inhalation of 4 mg nedocromil sodium, 10 mg sodium cromoglycate, or placebo. FEV1 and SRaw were recorded at intervals for 195 min. After placebo, LASA caused a maximal decrease in FEV1 of 42 +/- 4% of baseline. After cromoglycate and nedocromil the maximal decrease in FEV1 was reduced to 20 +/- 3% and 18 +/- 4%, respectively (p sodium cromoglycate and nedocromil sodium are equally effective in attenuating aspirin-induced bronchoconstriction and that it is unlikely that platelet activation participates in the pathogenesis of aspirin-induced asthma.

  1. Olmesartan attenuates tacrolimus-induced biochemical and ultrastructural changes in rat kidney tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harbi, Naif O; Imam, Faisal; Al-Harbi, Mohammed M; Iqbal, Muzaffar; Nadeem, Ahmed; Sayed-Ahmed, Mohammed M; Alabidy, Ali D; Almukhallafi, Ali F

    2014-01-01

    Tacrolimus, a calcineurin inhibitor, is clinically used as an immunosuppressive agent in organ transplantation, but its use is limited due to its marked nephrotoxicity. The present study investigated the effect of olmesartan (angiotensin receptor blocker) on tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. A total of 24 rats were divided into four groups, which included control, tacrolimus, tacrolimus + olmesartan, and olmesartan groups. Tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity was assessed biochemically and histopathologically. Tacrolimus significantly increased BUN and creatinine level. Treatment with olmesartan reversed tacrolimus-induced changes in the biochemical markers (BUN and creatinine) of nephrotoxicity. Tacrolimus significantly decreased GSH level and catalase activity while increasing MDA level. Olmesartan also attenuated the effects of tacrolimus on MDA, GSH, and catalase. In tacrolimus group histological examination showed marked changes in renal tubule, mitochondria, and podocyte processes. Histopathological and ultrastructural studies showed that treatment with olmesartan prevented tacrolimus-induced renal damage. These results suggest that olmesartan has protective effects on tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity, implying that RAS might be playing role in tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity.

  2. The histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid attenuates human astrocyte neurotoxicity induced by interferon-γ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashioka Sadayuki

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds Increasing evidence shows that the histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA possesses potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. It is tempting to evaluate the potential of SAHA as a therapeutic agent in various neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. Methods We examined the effects of SAHA on interferon (IFN-γ-induced neurotoxicity of human astrocytes and on IFN-γ-induced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT 3 in human astrocytes. We also studied the effects of SAHA on the astrocytic production of two representative IFN-γ-inducible inflammatory molecules, namely IFN-γ-inducible T cell α chemoattractant (I-TAC and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1. Results SAHA significantly attenuated the toxicity of astrocytes activated by IFN-γ towards SH-SY5Y human neuronal cells. In the IFN-γ-activated astrocytes, SAHA reduced the STAT3 phosphorylation. SAHA also inhibited the IFN-γ-induced astrocytic production of I-TAC, but not ICAM-1. These results indicate that SAHA suppresses IFN-γ-induced neurotoxicity of human astrocytes through inhibition of the STAT3 signaling pathway. Conclusion Due to its anti-neurotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties, SAHA appears to have the therapeutic or preventive potential for a wide range of neuroinflammatory disorders associated with activated astrocytes.

  3. Proteasome inhibitors attenuated cholesterol-induced cardiac hypertrophy in H9c2 cells

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    Lee, Hyunjung; Park, Jinyoung; Kim, Eunice EunKyeong; Yoo, Young Sook; Song, Eun Joo

    2016-01-01

    The Ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays roles in protein degradation, cell cycle control, and growth and inflammatory cell signaling. Dysfunction of UPS in cardiac diseases has been seen in many studies. Cholesterol acts as an inducer of cardiac hypertrophy. In this study, the effect of proteasome inhibitors on the cholesterol-induced hypertrophic growth in H9c2 cells is examined in order to observe whether UPS is involved in cardiac hypertrophy. The treatment of proteasome inhibitors MG132 and Bortezomib markedly reduced cellular surface area and mRNA expression of β-MHC in cholesterol-induced cardiac hypertrophy. In addition, activated AKT and ERK were significantly attenuated by MG132 and Bortezomib in cholesterol-induced cardiac hypertrophy. We demonstrated that cholesterol-induced cardiac hypertrophy was suppressed by proteasome inhibitors. Thus, regulatory mechanism of cholesterol-induced cardiac hypertrophy by proteasome inhibitors may provide a new therapeutic strategy to prevent the progression of heart failure. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(5): 270-275] PMID:26592933

  4. Olmesartan Attenuates Tacrolimus-Induced Biochemical and Ultrastructural Changes in Rat Kidney Tissue

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    Naif O. Al-Harbi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tacrolimus, a calcineurin inhibitor, is clinically used as an immunosuppressive agent in organ transplantation, but its use is limited due to its marked nephrotoxicity. The present study investigated the effect of olmesartan (angiotensin receptor blocker on tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. A total of 24 rats were divided into four groups, which included control, tacrolimus, tacrolimus + olmesartan, and olmesartan groups. Tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity was assessed biochemically and histopathologically. Tacrolimus significantly increased BUN and creatinine level. Treatment with olmesartan reversed tacrolimus-induced changes in the biochemical markers (BUN and creatinine of nephrotoxicity. Tacrolimus significantly decreased GSH level and catalase activity while increasing MDA level. Olmesartan also attenuated the effects of tacrolimus on MDA, GSH, and catalase. In tacrolimus group histological examination showed marked changes in renal tubule, mitochondria, and podocyte processes. Histopathological and ultrastructural studies showed that treatment with olmesartan prevented tacrolimus-induced renal damage. These results suggest that olmesartan has protective effects on tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity, implying that RAS might be playing role in tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity.

  5. A pilot study on an attenuated Chinese EIAV vaccine inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qinglai; Lin, Yuezhi; Ma, Jian; Ma, Yan; Zhao, Liping; Li, Shenwei; Liang, Hua; Zhou, Jianhua; Shen, Rongxian; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Shao, Yiming

    2011-08-01

    The attenuated Chinese equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) vaccine has successfully protected millions of equine animals from EIA disease in China. In this pilot study, to determine whether this attenuated vaccine can induce broadly neutralizing antibodies, we immunized four horses with the attenuated Chinese vaccine strain EIAVFDDV and then observed the evolution of neutralizing antibodies against different EIAV strains. During the vaccination phase, all vaccinees rapidly developed high levels of neutralizing antibodies against the homologous vaccine strain (pLGFD3V), and 3 out of 4 horses showed a gradual increase in serum neutralizing activity against two relatively heterologous virulent variants of the challenge strain (pLGFD3Mu12V and DLV34). After challenge, the three horses that had developed high levels of neutralizing antibodies against pLGFD3Mu12V and DLV34 did not show signs of infection, which was demonstrated by immune suppression, while the one horse producing serum that could only neutralize pLGFD3V developed a febrile episode during the 8-month observation period. To assess whether the broadly neutralizing activity is associated with immune protection, sera drawn on the day of challenge from these four vaccinees and an additional four EIAVFDDV-vaccinated horses were analyzed for neutralizing antibodies against pLGFD3V, pLGFD3Mu12V and DLV34. Although there was no significant correlation between protection from infection and serum neutralizing activity against any of these three viral strains, protection from infection was observed to correlate better with serum neutralizing activity against the two heterologous virulent strains than against the homologous vaccine strain. These data indicate that EIAVFDDV induced broadly neutralizing antibodies, which might confer enhanced protection of vaccinees from infection by the challenge virus.

  6. Yersinia pestis with regulated delayed attenuation as a vaccine candidate to induce protective immunity against plague.

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    Sun, Wei; Roland, Kenneth L; Kuang, Xiaoying; Branger, Christine G; Curtiss, Roy

    2010-03-01

    Two mutant strains of Yersinia pestis KIM5+, a Deltacrp mutant and a mutant with arabinose-dependent regulated delayed-shutoff crp expression (araC P(BAD) crp), were constructed, characterized in vitro, and evaluated for virulence, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy in mice. Both strains were highly attenuated by the subcutaneous (s.c.) route. The 50% lethal doses (LD(50)s) of the Deltacrp and araC P(BAD) crp mutants were approximately 1,000,000-fold and 10,000-fold higher than those of Y. pestis KIM5+, respectively, indicating that both strains were highly attenuated. Mice vaccinated s.c. with 3.8 x 10(7) CFU of the Deltacrp mutant developed high anti-Y. pestis and anti-LcrV serum IgG titers, both with a strong Th2 bias, and induced protective immunity against subcutaneous challenge with virulent Y. pestis (80% survival) but no protection against pulmonary challenge. Mice vaccinated with 3.0 x 10(4) CFU of the araC P(BAD) crp mutant also developed high anti-Y. pestis and anti-LcrV serum IgG titers but with a more balanced Th1/Th2 response. This strain induced complete protection against s.c. challenge and partial protection (70% survival) against pulmonary challenge. Our results demonstrate that arabinose-dependent regulated crp expression is an effective strategy to attenuate Y. pestis while retaining strong immunogenicity, leading to protection against the pneumonic and bubonic forms of plague.

  7. Inhibition of adenosine deaminase attenuates endotoxin-induced release of cytokines in vivo in rats.

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    Tofovic, S P; Zacharia, L; Carcillo, J A; Jackson, E K

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate in vivo the effects of modulating the adenosine system on endotoxin-induced release of cytokines and changes in heart performance and neurohumoral status in early, profound endotoxemia in rats. Time/pressure variables of heart performance and blood pressure were recorded continuously, and plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin 1-beta (IL-1beta), plasma renin activity (PRA), and catecholamines were determined before and 90 min after administration of endotoxin (30 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide, i.v.). Erythro-9[2-hydroxyl-3-nonyl] adenine (EHNA; an adenosine deaminase inhibitor) had no effects on measured time-pressure variables of heart performance under baseline conditions and during endotoxemia, yet significantly attenuated endotoxin-induced release of cytokines and PRA. Pretreatment with the non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist DPSPX not only prevented the effects of EHNA but also increased the basal release of cytokines and augmented PRA. At baseline, caffeine (a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist) increased HR, +dP/dtmax, heart rate x ventricular pressure product (HR x VPSP) and +dP/dtmax normalized by pressure (+dP/dtmax/VPSP), and these changes persisted during endotoxemia. Caffeine attenuated endotoxin-induced release of cytokines and augmented endotoxin-induced increases in plasma catecholamines and PRA. Pretreatment with propranolol abolished the effects of caffeine on heart performance and neurohumoral activation during the early phase of endotoxemia. 6N-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA; selective A1 adenosine receptor agonist) induced bradicardia and negative inotropic effects, reduced work load (i.e., decreased HR, VPSP, +dP/dtmax, +dP/dtmax/VPSP and HR x VPSP) and inhibited endotoxin-induced tachycardia and renin release. CGS 21680 (selective A2A adenosine receptor agonist) decreased blood pressure under basal condition but did not potentiate decreases in blood pressure

  8. cis-Urocanic acid attenuates acute dextran sodium sulphate-induced intestinal inflammation.

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    Eric Albert

    Full Text Available On exposure to sunlight, urocanic acid (UCA in the skin is converted from trans to the cis form and distributed systemically where it confers systemic immunosuppression. The aim of this study was to determine if administration of cis-UCA would be effective in attenuating colitis and the possible role of IL-10. Colitis was induced in 129/SvEv mice by administering 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS for 7 days in drinking water. During this period mice received daily subcutaneously injections of cis-UCA or vehicle. To examine a role for IL-10, 129/SvEv IL-10(-/- mice were injected for 24 days with cis-UCA or vehicle. Clinical disease was assessed by measurement of body weight, stool consistency, and presence of blood. At sacrifice, colonic tissue was collected for histology and measurement of myeloperoxidase and cytokines. Splenocytes were analyzed for CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T-regulatory cells via flow cytometry. Murine bone-marrow derived antigen-presenting cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS ± UCA and cytokine secretion measured. Our results demonstrated that cis-UCA at a dose of 50 µg was effective in ameliorating DSS-induced colitis as evidenced by reduced weight loss and attenuated changes in colon weight/length. This protection was associated with reduced colonic expression of CXCL1, an increased expression of IL-17A and a significant preservation of splenic CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T-regulatory cells. cis-UCA decreased LPS induced CXCL1, but not TNFα secretion, from antigen-presenting cells in vitro. UCA reduced colonic levels of IFNγ in IL-10(-/- mice but did not attenuate colitis. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that cis-urocanic acid is effective in reducing the severity of colitis in a chemically-induced mouse model, indicating that pathways induced by ultraviolet radiation to the skin can influence distal sites of inflammation. This provides further evidence for a possible role for sunlight exposure in modulating inflammatory

  9. Fibroblast growth factor-1 attenuates TGF-β1-induced lung fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimbori, Chiko; Bellaye, Pierre-Simon; Xia, Jiaji; Gauldie, Jack; Ask, Kjetil; Ramos, Carlos; Becerril, Carina; Pardo, Annie; Selman, Moises; Kolb, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by progressive fibroblast and myofibroblast proliferation, and extensive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM). Fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF-1) belongs to the FGF family and has been shown to inhibit fibroblast collagen production and differentiation into myofibroblasts, and revert epithelial-mesenchymal transition by inhibiting TGF-β1 signalling pathways. However, the precise role of FGF-1 in pulmonary fibrosis has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we explore the mechanisms underlying the anti-fibrogenic effect of FGF-1 in pulmonary fibrosis in vitro and in vivo by prolonged transient overexpression of FGF-1 (AdFGF-1) and TGF-β1 (AdTGF-β1) using adenoviral vectors. In vivo, FGF-1 overexpression markedly attenuated TGF-β1-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rat lungs when given both concomitantly, or delayed, by enhancing proliferation and hyperplasia of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs). AdFGF-1 also attenuated the TGF-β1 signalling pathway and induced FGFR1 expression in AECs. In vitro, AdFGF-1 prevented the increase in α-SMA and the decrease in E-cadherin induced by AdTGF-β1 in normal human lung fibroblasts, primary human pulmonary AECs, and A549 cells. Concomitantly, AdTGF-β1-induced Smad2 phosphorylation was significantly reduced by AdFGF-1 in both cell types. AdFGF-1 also attenuated the increase in TGFβR1 protein and mRNA levels in fibroblasts. In AECs, AdFGF-1 decreased TGFβR1 protein by favouring TGFβR1 degradation through the caveolin-1/proteasome pathway. Furthermore, FGFR1 expression was increased in AECs, whereas it was decreased in fibroblasts. In serum of IPF patients, FGF-1 levels were increased compared to controls. Interestingly, FGF-1 expression was restricted to areas of AEC hyperplasia, but not α-SMA-positive areas in IPF lung tissue. Our results demonstrate that FGF-1 may have preventative and therapeutic effects on TGF-β1-driven pulmonary fibrosis via inhibiting

  10. Inhibition of phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase attenuates ethanol-induced hyperactivity in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Magda; Tran, Steven; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Zebrafish have been successfully employed in the study of the behavioural and biological effects of ethanol. Like in mammals, low to moderate doses of ethanol induce motor hyperactivity in zebrafish, an effect that has been attributed to the activation of the dopaminergic system. Acute ethanol exposure increases dopamine (DA) in the zebrafish brain, and it has been suggested that tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme of DA synthesis, may be activated in response to ethanol via phosphorylation. The current study employed tetrahydropapaveroline (THP), a selective inhibitor of phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase, for the first time, in zebrafish. We treated zebrafish with a THP dose that did not alter baseline motor responses to examine whether it can attenuate or abolish the effects of acute exposure to alcohol (ethanol) on motor activity, on levels of DA, and on levels of dopamine's metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). We found that 60-minute exposure to 1% alcohol induced motor hyperactivity and an increase in brain DA. Both of these effects were attenuated by pre-treatment with THP. However, no differences in DOPAC levels were found among the treatment groups. These findings suggest that tyrosine hydroxylase is activated via phosphorylation to increase DA synthesis during alcohol exposure in zebrafish, and this partially mediates alcohol's locomotor stimulant effects. Future studies will investigate other potential candidates in the molecular pathway to further decipher the neurobiological mechanism that underlies the stimulatory properties of this popular psychoactive drug.

  11. High-intensity resistance training attenuates dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, André L O; Macedo, Anderson G; Zago, Anderson S; Rush, James W E; Santos, Carlos F; Amaral, Sandra L

    2016-05-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of high-intensity resistance training (RT) on dexamethasone (DEX)-induced muscle atrophy in flexor hallucis longus (FHL), tibialis anterior (TA), and soleus (SOL) muscles. Rats underwent either high-intensity RT or were kept sedentary. In the last 10 days they received either DEX (0.5 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally) or saline. DEX reduced body weight (-21%), food intake (-28%), FHL and TA muscle mass (-20% and -18%, respectively), and increased muscle-specific ring finger 1 (MuRF-1) protein level (+37% and +45.5%). RT attenuated FHL muscle atrophy through a combination of low increase in MuRF-1 protein level (-3.5%) and significant increases in mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) (+63%) and p70S6K (+46% and +49% for control and DEX, respectively) protein levels. RT attenuated DEX-induced muscle atrophy through a combination of increases in mTOR and p70S6K protein levels and a low increase in MuRF-1 protein level. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Aerobic exercise attenuates inhibitory avoidance memory deficit induced by paradoxical sleep deprivation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Jansen; Baliego, Luiz Guilherme Zaccaro; Peixinho-Pena, Luiz Fernando; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Venancio, Daniel Paulino; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; de Mello, Marco Tulio; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2013-09-05

    The deleterious effects of paradoxical sleep deprivation (SD) on memory processes are well documented. Physical exercise improves many aspects of brain functions and induces neuroprotection. In the present study, we investigated the influence of 4 weeks of treadmill aerobic exercise on both long-term memory and the expression of synaptic proteins (GAP-43, synapsin I, synaptophysin, and PSD-95) in normal and sleep-deprived rats. Adult Wistar rats were subjected to 4 weeks of treadmill exercise training for 35 min, five times per week. Twenty-four hours after the last exercise session, the rats were sleep-deprived for 96 h using the modified multiple platform method. To assess memory after SD, all animals underwent training for the inhibitory avoidance task and were tested 24h later. The aerobic exercise attenuated the long-term memory deficit induced by 96 h of paradoxical SD. Western blot analysis of the hippocampus revealed increased levels of GAP-43 in exercised rats. However, the expression of synapsin I, synaptophysin, and PSD-95 was not modified by either exercise or SD. Our results suggest that an aerobic exercise program can attenuate the deleterious effects of SD on long-term memory and that this effect is not directly related to changes in the expression of the pre- and post-synaptic proteins analyzed in the study.

  13. Caspase Inhibitors may Attenuate Opioid-induced Hyperalgesia and Tolerance via Inhibiting Microglial Activation and Neuroinflammation

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    Jiancheng Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exposure to an opioid induces hyperalgesia and tolerance, which negatively affect pain management in turn and significantly hamper the application of opioids. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that glial activation contributes to the development of these two side effects. Recent studies have demonstrated that morphine, binding to an accessory protein of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, activates microglia and produces neuroinflammation in amanner parallel to lipopolysaccharide. Meanwhile, lipopolysaccharide activates microglia through TLR4/caspase signalling. Therefore, we hypothesise that morphine may activate microglia throughTLR4/caspase signalling and that caspase inhibitors may attenuate opioid-induced hyperalgesia and tolerance via inhibiting microglial activation and neuroinflammation

  14. Oral erdosteine administration attenuates cisplatin-induced renal tubular damage in rats.

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    Yildirim, Zeki; Sogut, Sadik; Odaci, Ersan; Iraz, Mustafa; Ozyurt, Huseyin; Kotuk, Mahir; Akyol, Omer

    2003-02-01

    The effect of oral erdosteine on tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels, and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities are investigated in the cisplatin model of acute renal failure in rats. A single dose of cisplatin caused kidney damage manifested by kidney histology as well as increases in plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. Treatment with free radical scavenger erdosteine attenuated increases in plasma creatinine and BUN, and tissue MDA and NO levels, and provided a histologically-proven protection against cisplatin-induced acute renal failure. Erdosteine also reduced depletion in the tissue CAT, GSH-Px, and SOD activities. These results show that erdosteine may be a promising drug for protection against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. However, further studies with different doses of erdosteine are warranted for clarifying the issue.

  15. Amyloid β-induced erythrocytic damage and its attenuation by carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kiko, Takehiro; Miyazawa, Taiki; Sookwong, Phumon; Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi; Satoh, Akira; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2011-04-20

    The presence of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) in human blood has recently been established, and it has been hypothesized that Aβ readily contacts red blood cells (RBC) and oxidatively impairs RBC functions. In this study, we conducted in vitro and in vivo studies, which provide evidence that Aβ induces oxidative injury to RBC by binding to them, causing RBC phospholipid peroxidation and diminishing RBC endogenous carotenoids, especially xanthophylls. This type of damage is likely to injure the vasculature, potentially reducing oxygen delivery to the brain and facilitating Alzheimer's disease (AD). As a preventive strategy, because the Aβ-induced RBC damage could be attenuated by treatment of RBC with xanthophylls, we suggest that xanthophylls may contribute to the prevention of AD.

  16. Salidroside Attenuates Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Cell Damage Through a cAMP-Dependent Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuming Deng

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Salidroside, a major component of Rhodiola rosea L., has shown various pharmacological functions, including antioxidant effects, but the signal transduction pathway of its antioxidant effects is not very clear. In this study, we found that salidroside could attenuate hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced HL-7702 cell damage, inhibit H2O2-induced cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i elevation, scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS and increase 3’-5’-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP level in a dose-dependent manner, but it couldn’t influence 3’-5’-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP levels. Therefore, these results indicated that the antioxidant effects of salidroside were associated with down-regulation of [Ca2+]i, ROS occur via a cAMP-dependent pathway.

  17. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuates cadmium-induced chronic renal injury and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinglou; Du, Lifen; Li, Jingjing; Song, Hongping

    2016-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution is a serious environmental problem. Kidney is a main target organ of Cd toxicity. This study was undertaken to investigate the potential protective effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) against chronic renal injury and fibrosis induced by CdCl2. Rat model was induced by exposing to 250 mg/L CdCl2 through drinking water. The renal function was evaluated by detecting the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCR). The oxidative stress was measured by detecting the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) and renal enzymatic antioxidant status. Additionally, the renal levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), Smad3, phosphorylation-Smad3 (pp-Smad3), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), vimentin and E-cadherin were measured by western blot assay. Renal levels of microRNA-21 (miR-21), miR-29a/b/c and miR-192 were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. It was found that EGCG ameliorated the CdCl2-induced renal injury, inhibited the level of oxidative stress, normalized renal enzymatic antioxidant status and E-cadherin level, as well as attenuated the over generation of TGF-β1, pp-Smad3, vimentin and α-SMA. EGCG also decreased the production of miR-21 and miR-192, and enhanced the levels of miR-29a/b/c. These results showed that EGCG could attenuate Cd induced chronic renal injury.

  18. Attenuation of MK-801-induced behavioral perseveration by typical and atypical antipsychotic pretreatment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuplin, Erin W; Stocco, Marlaina R; Holahan, Matthew R

    2015-08-01

    The noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo [a,d] cyclohepten-5-10-imine maleate (MK-801) has been shown to increase the probability of operant responding during extinction and reduce infralimbic prefrontal cortical activation, possibly modeling the cognitive dysfunction symptomology, and underlying cause, in patients with schizophrenia. The present study sought to determine if typical and/or atypical antipsychotics would attenuate the MK-801-induced behavioral perseveration and whether this would be associated with concomitant changes in phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) labeling in the infralimbic cortex (IL). Male, Long Evans rats were pretreated with the typical antipsychotic, Flupenthixol (0, 0.125, 0.25 or 0.5 mg/kg) or the atypical antipsychotic, aripiprazole (0, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0 mg/kg), then given 0.1 mg/kg MK-801 followed by a 60-min appetitive operant extinction session. Flupenthixol produced a dose-dependent decrease in MK-801-induced bar pressing behavior and locomotor activity and a dose-dependent increase in IL pERK1/2 labeling. Aripiprazole produced a U-shaped dose-response curve on MK-801-induced bar pressing behavior, a dose-dependent decrease in locomotor activity but no changes in IL pERK1/2 labeling. The attenuation of the MK-801-induced behavioral (bar pressing, locomotion) profile by Flupenthixol indicates a clear dopaminergic contribution to this behavior. The behavioral effect of aripiprazole may be due to its a) binding to presynaptic dopamine receptors at the midrange dose decreasing dopamine output and b) binding to postsynaptic dopamine receptors at the higher dose increasing dopamine tone. While both classes of antipsychotics can normalize perseverative behavioral symptoms, the underlying prefrontal cortical dysregulation seems to persist.

  19. Inflammation During Gestation Induced Spatial Memory and Learning Deficits: Attenuated by Physical Exercise in Juvenile Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangarajan, Rajesh; Rai, Kiranmai. S.; Gopalakrishnan, Sivakumar; Perumal, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Background Gestational infections induced inflammation (GIII) is a cause of various postnatal neurological deficits in developing countries. Such intra uterine insults could result in persistent learning-memory disabilities. There are no studies elucidating the efficacy of adolescence exercise on spatial learning- memory abilities of young adult rats pre-exposed to inflammatory insult during fetal life. Aims and Objectives The present study addresses the efficacy of physical (running) exercise during adolescent period in attenuating spatial memory deficits induced by exposure to GIII in rats. Materials and Methods Pregnant Wistar dams were randomly divided into control and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) groups, injected intra peritoneally (i.p) with saline (0.5ml) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (0.5mg/kg) on alternate days from gestation day 14 (GD 14) till delivery. After parturition, pups were divided into 3 groups (n=6/group) a) Sham control and LPS group divided into 2 subgroups- b) LPS and c) LPS exercise group. Running exercise was given only to LPS exercise group during postnatal days (PNDs) 30 to 60 (15min/day). Spatial learning and memory performance was assessed by Morris water maze test (MWM), on postnatal day 61 to 67 in all groups. Results Young rats pre-exposed to GIII and subjected to running exercise through juvenile period displayed significant decrease in latency to reach escape platform and spent significant duration in target quadrant in MWM test, compared to age matched LPS group. Results of the current study demonstrated that exercise through juvenile/adolescent period effectively mitigates gestational inflammation-induced cognitive deficits in young adult rats. Conclusion Inflammation during gestation impairs offspring’s spatial memory and learning abilities. Whereas, early postnatal physical exercise attenuates, to higher extent, cognitive impairment resulted from exposure to LPS induced inflammation during intrauterine growth period. PMID:26266117

  20. Infliximab attenuates activated charcoal and polyethylene glycol aspiration-induced lung injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Aygül; Günaydin, Mithat; Güzel, Ahmet; Alaçam, Hasan; Murat, Naci; Gacar, Ayhan; Güvenç, Tolga

    2012-04-01

    Aspiration is a serious complication of gastrointestinal (GI) decontamination procedure. Studies have shown that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) blockers have beneficial effects on lung injury. Therefore, the authors investigated the attenuation by infliximab (INF) on activated charcoal (AC)- and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced lung injury in rat model. Forty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were allotted into 1 of 6 groups: saline (NS), activated charcoal (AC), polyethylene glycol (PEG), NS+INF treated, AC+INF treated, and PEG+INF treated. All materials were aspirated into the lungs at a volume of 1 mL/kg. Before aspiration, the rats were injected subcutaneously with INF. Seven days later, both lungs and serum specimens in all groups were evaluated histopathologically, immunohistochemically, and biochemically. Following aspiration of AC and PEG, evident histopathological changes were assigned in the lung tissue that were associated with increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), increased serum levels of oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde [MDA], surfactant protein-D [SP-D], TNF-α), and decreased antioxidant enzyme (glutathione peroxidase [GSH-Px]) activities. INF treatment significantly decreased the elevated serum MDA and TNF-α levels and increased serum GSH-Px levels. Furthermore, the current results show that there is a significant reduction in the activity of iNOS in lung tissue and increased serum SP-D levels of AC and PEG aspiration-induced lung injury with INF treatment. These findings suggest that INF attenuates lung inflammation and prevents GI decontamination agent-induced lung injury in rats.

  1. A simple model for the estimation of rain-induced attenuation along earth-space paths at millimeter wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzman, W. L.; Dishman, W. K.

    1982-12-01

    A simple attenuation model (SAM) is presented for estimating rain-induced attenuation along an earth-space path. The rain model uses an effective spatial rain distribution which is uniform for low rain rates and which has an exponentially shaped horizontal rain profile for high rain rates. When compared to other models, the SAM performed well in the important region of low percentages of time, and had the lowest percent standard deviation of all percent time values tested.

  2. Early activation of STAT3 regulates reactive astrogliosis induced by diverse forms of neurotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P O'Callaghan

    Full Text Available Astrogliosis, a cellular response characterized by astrocytic hypertrophy and accumulation of GFAP, is a hallmark of all types of central nervous system (CNS injuries. Potential signaling mechanisms driving the conversion of astrocytes into "reactive" phenotypes differ with respect to the injury models employed and can be complicated by factors such as disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB. As denervation tools, neurotoxicants have the advantage of selective targeting of brain regions and cell types, often with sparing of the BBB. Previously, we found that neuroinflammation and activation of the JAK2-STAT3 pathway in astrocytes precedes up regulation of GFAP in the MPTP mouse model of dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Here we show that multiple mechanistically distinct mouse models of neurotoxicity (MPTP, AMP, METH, MDA, MDMA, KA, TMT engender the same neuroinflammatory and STAT3 activation responses in specific regions of the brain targeted by each neurotoxicant. The STAT3 effects seen for TMT in the mouse could be generalized to the rat, demonstrating cross-species validity for STAT3 activation. Pharmacological antagonists of the neurotoxic effects blocked neuroinflammatory responses, pSTAT3tyr705 and GFAP induction, indicating that damage to neuronal targets instigated astrogliosis. Selective deletion of STAT3 from astrocytes in STAT3 conditional knockout mice markedly attenuated MPTP-induced astrogliosis. Monitoring STAT3 translocation in GFAP-positive cells indicated that effects of MPTP, METH and KA on pSTAT3tyr705 were localized to astrocytes. These findings strongly implicate the STAT3 pathway in astrocytes as a broadly triggered signaling pathway for astrogliosis. We also observed, however, that the acute neuroinflammatory response to the known inflammogen, LPS, can activate STAT3 in CNS tissue without inducing classical signs of astrogliosis. Thus, acute phase neuroinflammatory responses and neurotoxicity-induced astrogliosis both

  3. Ligustrazine attenuates inflammation and the associated chemokines and receptors in ovalbumine-induced mouse asthma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ying; Liu, Jiaqi; Zhang, Hongying; Du, Xin; Luo, Qingli; Sun, Jing; Liu, Feng; Li, Mihui; Xu, Fei; Wei, Kai; Dong, Jingcheng

    2016-09-01

    Ligustrazine which is isolated from Chinese herb ligusticum chuanxiong hort, has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for asthma treatment. In this study, we aim to observe the effect of ligustrazine on inflammation and the associated chemokines and receptors in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mouse asthma model. Our data demonstrates that ligustrazine suppresses airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine and lung inflammation in OVA-induced mouse asthma model. Ligustrazine also induces inhibition of inflammatory cells including neutrophils, lymphocytes and eosinophils. In addition, ligustrazine significantly reduces IL-4, IL-5, IL-17A, CCL3, CCL19 and CCL21 level in BALF of asthma mice. Furthermore, ligustrazine induces down-regulation of CCL19 receptor CCR7, STAT3 and p38 MAPK protein expression. Collectively, these results suggest that ligustrazine is effective in attenuation of allergic airway inflammatory changes and related chemokines and receptors in OVA-induced asthma model, and this action might be associated with inhibition of STAT3 and p38 MAPK pathway, which indicates that ligustrazine may be used as a potential therapeutic method to treat asthma.

  4. Cordycepin attenuates traumatic brain injury-induced impairments of blood-brain barrier integrity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Wang, Aihua; He, Yan; Si, Zhihua; Xu, Shan; Zhang, Shanchao; Wang, Kun; Wang, Dawei; Liu, Yiming

    2016-10-01

    Loss of blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity is a downstream event caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI). BBB integrity is affected by certain physiological conditions, including inflammation and oxidative stress. Cordycepin is a susbtance with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate whether cordycepin affects TBI-induced impairments of BBB integrity. Using TBI rats as the in vivo model and applying multiple techniques, including stroke severity evaluation, Evans blue assessment, quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting and ELISA, we investigated the dose-dependent protective effects of cordycepin on the TBI-induced impairments of BBB integrity. Cordycepin treatment attenuated the TBI-induced impairments in a dose-dependent manner, and played a role in protecting BBB integrity. Cordycepin was able to alleviate TBI-induced loss of tight junction proteins zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1) and occludin, which are important for BBB integrity. Moreover, cordycepin suppressed pro-inflammatory factors, including IL-1β, iNOS, MPO and MMP-9, and promoted anti-inflammation-associated factors arginase 1 and IL-10. Furthermore, cordycepin inhibited NADPH oxidase (NOX) expression and activity following TBI, probably through NOX1, but not NOX2 and NOX4. Cordycepin has protective effects against brain damages induced by TBI. The protection of cordycepin on BBB integrity was probably achieved through recovery of tight junction proteins, inhibition of local inflammation, and prevention of NOX activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Vam3, a derivative of resveratrol, attenuates cigarette smoke-induced autophagy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji SHI; Ning YIN; Ling-ling XUAN; Chun-suo YAO; Ai-min MENG; Qi HOU

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To appraise the efficacy of Vam3 (Amurensis H),a dimeric derivative of resveratrol,at inhibiting cigarette smoke-induced autophagy.Methods:Human bronchial epithelial cells were treated with cigarette smoke condensates,and a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) model was established by exposing male BALB/c mice to cigarette smoke.The protein levels of the autophagic marker microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3),Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1),and foxhead box O 3a (FoxO3a) were examined using Western blotting and Immunohistochemistry.LC3 punctae were detected by immunofluorescence.The levels of FoxO3a acetylation were examined by immunoprecipitation.The level of intracellular oxidation was assessed by detecting ROS and GSH-Px.Results:Vam3 attenuated cigarette smoke condensate-induced autophagy in human bronchial epithelial cells,and restored the expression levels of Sift1 and FoxO3a that had been reduced by cigarette smoke condensates.Similar protective effects of Vam3,reducing autophagy and restoring the levels of Sirt1 and FoxO3a,were observed in the COPD animal model.Additionally,Vam3 also diminished the oxidative stress that was induced by the cigarette smoke condensates.Conclusion:Vam3 decreases cigarette smoke-induced autophagy via up-regulating/restoring the levels of Sirt1 and FoxO3a and inhibiting the induced oxidative stress.

  6. Cepharanthine attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced mice mastitis by suppressing the NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershun, Zhou; Yunhe, Fu; Zhengkai, Wei; Yongguo, Cao; Naisheng, Zhang; Zhengtao, Yang

    2014-04-01

    Cepharanthine (CEP), a biscoclaurine alkaloid isolated from Stephania cepharantha Hayata, has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory properties. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of CEP on a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis and its underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of CEP on LPS-induced mouse mastitis. The mouse model of mastitis was induced by inoculation of LPS through the canals of the mammary gland. CEP was administered intraperitoneally at 1 h before and 12 h after induction of LPS. The results show that CEP significantly attenuates the infiltration of neutrophils, suppresses myeloperoxidase activity, and reduces the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in LPS-induced mouse mastitis. Furthermore, CEP inhibited the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 subunit and the degradation of its inhibitor IκBα. All the results suggest that CEP exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-induced mouse mastitis. Accordingly, CEP might be a potential therapeutic agent for mastitis.

  7. Intravenous tryptophan administration attenuates cortisol secretion induced by intracerebroventricular injection of noradrenaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutoh, Madoka; Kasuya, Etsuko; Yayou, Ken-ichi; Ohtani, Fumihiro; Kobayashi, Yosuke

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the possibility of suppression of stress-induced cortisol (CORT) secretion by tryptophan (TRP) administration and to better understand its regulatory mechanisms by using a noradrenaline (NA) injection into the third ventricle (3V) as a stress model in cattle. A total of 25 Holstein steers with a cannula in the 3V were used. First, the increase in CORT secretion was observed following a NA injection into the 3V in a dose-dependent manner, verifying the appropriateness of this treatment as a stress model of CORT secretion (Experiment 1). The effect of prior-administration of TRP into peripheral blood with a dose that has been demonstrated to increase brain 5-hydroxytryptamine levels on the elevation of plasma CORT induced by NA or corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) was then examined (Experiment 2). The prior administration of TRP suppressed NA-induced, but not CRH-induced, CORT elevation. These results suggest that an increase in TRP absorption into peripheral blood could suppress the stress-induced CORT secretion in cattle via the attenuation of the stimulatory effect of NA on the hypothalamic CRH release.

  8. Melatonin Attenuates Manganese and Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Activation of BV2 Microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Euteum; Chun, Hong Sung

    2017-02-01

    Melatonin, a naturally occurring neurohormone in the pineal gland, has been shown to exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. This study examined the effects of melatonin on manganese (Mn) and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation. Melatonin (10 μM) inhibited Mn (100 μM) and/or LPS (0.5 μg/ml)-induced phagocytotic activity of activated BV2 microglia. It also inhibited the lipid peroxidation and intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion induced by Mn and/or LPS. Melatonin effectively suppressed the upregulation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) at both mRNA and protein levels in Mn and/or LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia. In addition, melatonin pretreatment attenuated Mn and/or LPS-induced degradation of IκB-α, nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and its activation, and the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) in BV2 microglial cells. These results suggest that melatonin can effectively modulate phagocytosis and expression of proinflammatory mediators, and can prevent neuroinflammatory disorders accompanied by microglial activation.

  9. Supplementary catechins attenuate cooking-oil-fumes-induced oxidative stress in rat lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao-Huei; Lin, Chun-Yao; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Liou, Shaw-Yih; Li, Ping-Chia; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2009-06-30

    Cooking-oil-fumes containing toxic components may induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) to oxidize macromolecules and lead to acute lung injury. Our previous study showed that a decaffineated green tea extract containing (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-gallocatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin gallate, and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate can inhibit oxidation, inflammation, and apoptosis. We determined whether the catechins supplement may reduce cooking-oil-fumes-induced acute lung injury in rat. In the urethane-anesthetized Wistar rat subjected to 30-120 min of cooking-oil-fumes exposure, blood ROS significantly increased in the recovery stage. After 30-min cooking-oil-fumes exposure, the enhanced blood ROS level further increased in a time-dependent manner during the recovery stage (321 +/- 69 counts/10 s after 1 h, 540 +/- 89 counts/10 s after 2 h, and 873 +/- 112 counts/10 s after 4 h). Four hours after 30-min cooking-oil-fumes exposure, lung lavage neutrophils and ROS as well as lung tissue dityrosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal increased significantly. Two weeks of catechins supplememnt significantly reduced the enhanced lavage ROS, lung dityrosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal level. Cooking-oil-fumes-induced oxidative stress decreased lung Bcl-2/Bax ratio and HSP70 expression, but catechins treatment preserved the downregulation of Bcl-2/Bax ratio and HSP70 expression. We conclude that catechins supplement attenuates cooking-oil-fumes-induced acute lung injury via the preservation of oil-smoke induced downregulation of antioxidant, antiapoptosis, and chaperone protein expression.

  10. Effects of (-)-sesamin on motor and memory deficits in an MPTP-lesioned mouse model of Parkinson's disease treated with l-DOPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T T; Shin, K S; Kim, K S; Park, H J; Kim, H J; Lee, K E; Lee, M K

    2016-12-17

    The present study investigated the effects of (-)-sesamin on motor and memory deficits in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD) with l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA). MPTP-lesioned (30mg/kg/day, 5days) mice showed deficits in memory including habit learning memory and spatial memory, which were further aggravated by daily treatment with 25mg/kg l-DOPA for 21days. However, daily treatment with (-)-sesamin (25 and 50mg/kg) for 21days ameliorated memory deficits in an MPTP-lesioned mouse model of PD treated with l-DOPA (25mg/kg). Both (-)-sesamin doses reduced decreases in the retention latency time in the passive avoidance test, latency to fall of rotarod test and distance traveled in the open field test, and attenuated decreases in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunopositive cells, dopamine, and its metabolites in the substantia nigra-striatum. (-)-Sesamin reduced increases in the retention transfer latency time in the elevated plus-maze test and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) expression and reduced decreases in the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and cyclic AMP-response element binding protein (CREB) in the hippocampus. In contrast, daily treatment with 10mg/kg l-DOPA for 21days ameliorated memory deficits in MPTP-lesioned mice, and this effect was further improved by treatment with (-)-sesamin (25 and 50mg/kg). These results suggest that (-)-sesamin protects against habit learning memory deficits by activating the dopamine neuronal system, while spatial memory deficits are decreased by its modulatory effects on the NMDAR-ERK1/2-CREB system. Accordingly, (-)-sesamin may act as an adjuvant phytonutrient for motor and memory deficits in patients with PD receiving l-DOPA.

  11. Serum thymic factor, FTS, attenuates cisplatin nephrotoxicity by suppressing cisplatin-induced ERK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohda, Yuka; Kawai, Yoshiko; Iwamoto, Noriaki; Matsunaga, Yoshiko; Aiga, Hiromi; Awaya, Akira; Gemba, Munekazu

    2005-11-01

    Serum thymic factor (FTS), a thymic peptide hormone, has been reported to attenuate the bleomycin-induced pulmonary injury and also experimental pancreatitis and diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the effect of FTS on cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II (cisplatin)-induced nephrotoxicity. We have already demonstrated that cephaloridine, a nephrotoxic antibiotic, leads to extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) activation in the rat kidney, which probably contributes to cephaloridine-induced renal dysfunction. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of cisplatin on ERK activation in the rat kidney and also the effect of FTS on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. In vitro treatment of LLC-PK1 cells with FTS significantly ameliorated cisplatin-induced cell injury. Treatment of rats with intravenous cisplatin for 3 days markedly induced renal dysfunction and increased platinum contents in the kidney cortex. An increase in pERK was detected in the nuclear fraction prepared from the rat kidney cortex from days 1 to 3 after injection of cisplatin. FTS suppressed cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction and ERK activation in the kidney. FTS did not influence any Pt contents in the kidney after cisplatin administration. FTS has been shown to enhance the in vivo expression of heat shock protein (HSP) 70 in the kidney cortex. The beneficial role of FTS against cisplatin nephrotoxicity may be mediated in part by HSP70, as suggested by its up-regulation in the kidney cortex treated with FTS alone. Our results suggest that FTS participates in protection from cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by suppressing ERK activation caused by cisplatin.

  12. Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore Component Cyclophilin D Distinguishes Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Death Paradigms in the MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Bobby; Banerjee, Rebecca; Starkova, Natalia N.; Zhang, Steven F.; Calingasan, Noel Y.; Yang, Lichuan; Wille, Elizabeth; Lorenzo, Beverly J.; Ho, Daniel J.; Beal, M. Flint; Starkov, Anatoly

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Mitochondrial damage due to Ca2+ overload-induced opening of permeability transition pores (PTP) is believed to play a role in selective degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Genetic ablation of mitochondrial matrix protein cyclophilin D (CYPD) has been shown to increase Ca2+ threshold of PTP in vitro and to prevent cell death in several in vivo disease models. We investigated the role of CYPD in a mouse model of MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-...

  13. Effects of fracture contact areas on seismic attenuation due to wave-induced fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germán Rubino, J.; Müller, Tobias M.; Milani, Marco; Holliger, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Wave-induced fluid flow (WIFF) between fractures and the embedding matrix is considered to be a predominant seismic attenuation mechanism in fractured rocks. That is, due to the strong compressibility contrast between fractures and embedding matrix, seismic waves induce strong fluid pressure gradients, followed by local fluid flow between such regions, which in turn produces significant energy dissipation. Natural fractures can be conceptualized as two surfaces in partial contact, containing very soft and highly permeable material in the inner region. It is known that the characteristics of the fracture contact areas control the mechanical properties of the rock sample, since as the contact area increases, the fracture becomes stiffer. Correspondingly, the detailed characteristics of the contact area of fractures are expected to play a major role in WIFF-related attenuation. To study this topic, we consider a simple model consisting of a horizontal fracture located at the center of a porous rock sample and represented by a number of rectangular cracks of constant height separated by contact areas. The cracks are modelled as highly compliant, porous, and permeable heterogeneities, which are hydraulically connected to the background material. We include a number of rectangular regions of background material separating the cracks, which represent the presence of contact areas of the fracture. In order to estimate the WIFF effects, we apply numerical oscillatory relaxation tests based on the quasi-static poro-elastic equations. The equivalent undrained, complex plane-wave modulus, which allows to estimate seismic attenuation and velocity dispersion for the vertical direction of propagation, is expressed in terms of the imposed displacement and the resulting average vertical stress at the top boundary. In order to explore the effects of the presence of fracture contact areas on WIFF effects, we perform an exhaustive sensitivity analysis considering different

  14. Clopidogrel attenuates lithium-induced alterations in renal water and sodium channels/transporters in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Peti-Peterdi, János; Heiney, Kristina M; Riquier-Brison, Anne; Carlson, Noel G; Müller, Christa E; Ecelbarger, Carolyn M; Kishore, Bellamkonda K

    2015-12-01

    Lithium (Li) administration causes deranged expression and function of renal aquaporins and sodium channels/transporters resulting in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Extracellular nucleotides (ATP/ADP/UTP), via P2 receptors, regulate these transport functions. We tested whether clopidogrel bisulfate (CLPD), an antagonist of ADP-activated P2Y(12) receptor, would affect Li-induced alterations in renal aquaporins and sodium channels/transporters. Adult mice were treated for 14 days with CLPD and/or Li and euthanized. Urine and kidneys were collected for analysis. When administered with Li, CLPD ameliorated polyuria, attenuated the rise in urine prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and resulted in significantly higher urinary arginine vasopressin (AVP) and aldosterone levels as compared to Li treatment alone. However, urine sodium excretion remained elevated. Semi-quantitative immunoblotting revealed that CLPD alone increased renal aquaporin 2 (AQP2), Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2), Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC), and the subunits of the epithelial Na channel (ENaC) in medulla by 25-130 %. When combined with Li, CLPD prevented downregulation of AQP2, Na-K-ATPase, and NKCC2 but was less effective against downregulation of cortical α- or γ-ENaC (70 kDa band). Thus, CLPD primarily attenuated Li-induced downregulation of proteins involved in water conservation (AVP-sensitive), with modest effects on aldosterone-sensitive proteins potentially explaining sustained natriuresis. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy revealed strong labeling for P2Y(12)-R in proximal tubule brush border and blood vessels in the cortex and less intense labeling in medullary thick ascending limb and the collecting ducts. Therefore, there is the potential for CLPD to be directly acting at the tubule sites to mediate these effects. In conclusion, P2Y(12)-R may represent a novel therapeutic target for Li-induced NDI.

  15. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifang Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Local renin-angiotensin system (RAS activation has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. It has been reported that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2 could inhibit RAS-mediated epithelial injury and fibrogenesis and that ACE2 deficiency could aggravate acute and chronic lung injury. Through research, it could be deduced that ACE2 could protect against pulmonary fibrosis as a therapeutic target. Methods: Time-course analysis of the pathological characteristics of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis was undertaken in a mouse model, and the effect of exogenous ACE2 on lung fibrosis was studied. Immunohistchemistry (IHC staining and western blot (WB testing for AGT and ACE2 were performed to evaluate the regulation of local RAS. TUNEL staining was used to observe epithelial apoptosis. Leukocyte common antigen (LCA and pulmonary surfactant-associated protein A (SP-A IHC staining and WB testing were performed to assess the inflammatory response and epithelial regeneration. Masson's staining and a hydroxyproline assay were performed to examine collagen deposition. IHC staining and WB testing for TGF-β1 and α-SMA were performed to investigate the regulation of pro-fibrotic cytokines and the activation of fibroblasts. Results: Exogenous ACE2 attenuated bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis by reversing the reduction of local ACE2 and by suppressing the elevation of AGT. ACE2 decreased the apoptosis index and LCA levels and ameliorated the dynamic change in SP-A level, thus protecting against epithelial injury. Reductions of TGF-β1 and α-SMA were also found in ACE2-treated mice, indicating the inhibition of fibrogenesis. Conclusion: ACE2 attenuated bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis as an anti-inflammatory anti-apoptotic and anti-fibrotic agent, and it might be a promising therapeutic target for IPF.

  16. Acute Ethanol Gavage Attenuates Hemorrhage/Resuscitation-Induced Hepatic Oxidative Stress in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Relja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute ethanol intoxication increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Hemorrhagic shock with subsequent resuscitation (H/R also induces ROS resulting in cellular and hepatic damage in vivo. We examined the role of acute ethanol intoxication upon oxidative stress and subsequent hepatic cell death after H/R. 14 h before H/R, rats were gavaged with single dose of ethanol or saline (5 g/kg, EtOH and ctrl; H/R_EtOH or H/R_ctrl, resp.. Then, rats were hemorrhaged to a mean arterial blood pressure of 30±2 mmHg for 60 min and resuscitated. Two control groups underwent surgical procedures without H/R (sham_ctrl and sham_EtOH, resp.. Liver tissues were harvested at 2, 24, and 72 h after resuscitation. EtOH-gavage induced histological picture of acute fatty liver. Hepatic oxidative (4-hydroxynonenal, 4-HNE and nitrosative (3-nitrotyrosine, 3-NT stress were significantly reduced in EtOH-gavaged rats compared to controls after H/R. Proapoptotic caspase-8 and Bax expressions were markedly diminished in EtOH-gavaged animals compared with controls 2 h after resuscitation. EtOH-gavage increased antiapoptotic Bcl-2 gene expression compared with controls 2 h after resuscitation. iNOS protein expression increased following H/R but was attenuated in EtOH-gavaged animals after H/R. Taken together, the data suggest that acute EtOH-gavage may attenuate H/R-induced oxidative stress thereby reducing cellular injury in rat liver.

  17. Vibrio cholerae porin OmpU induces LPS tolerance by attenuating TLR-mediated signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakharwade, Sanica C; Mukhopadhaya, Arunika

    2015-12-01

    Porins can act as pathogen-associated molecular patterns, can be recognized by the host immune system and modulate immune responses. Vibrio choleraeporin OmpU aids in bacterial survival in the human gut by increasing resistance against bile acids and anti-microbial peptides. V. choleraeOmpU is pro-inflammatory in nature. However, interestingly, it can also down-regulate LPS-mediated pro-inflammatory responses. In this study, we have explored how OmpU-pretreatment affects LPS-mediated responses. Our study indicates that OmpU-pretreatment followed by LPS-activation does not induce M2-polarization of macrophages/monocytes. Further, OmpU attenuates LPS-mediated TLR2/TLR6 signaling by decreasing the association of TLRs along with recruitment of MyD88 and IRAKs to the receptor complex. This results in decreased translocation of NFκB in the nucleus. Additionally, OmpU-pretreatment up-regulates expression of IRAK-M, a negative regulator of TLR signaling, in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells upon LPS-stimulation. Suppressor cytokine IL-10 is partially involved in OmpU-induced down-regulation of LPS-mediated TNFα production in human PBMCs. Furthermore, OmpU-pretreatment also affects macrophage function, by enhancing phagocytosis in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells, and down-regulates LPS-induced cell surface expression of co-stimulatory molecules. Altogether, OmpU causes suppression of LPS-mediated responses by attenuating the LPS-mediated TLR signaling pathway.

  18. Telmisartan-induced PPARγ activity attenuates lipid accumulation in VSMCs via induction of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing-Hu; Liao, Shao-Qiong; Yin, Yan-Wei; Long, Chun-Yan; Guo, Lu; Cao, Xiao-Jie; Liu, Yun; Zhou, Yi; Gao, Chang-Yue; Zhang, Li-Li; Li, Jing-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Foam cell formation is the hallmark of atherosclerosis. Both telmisartan and autophagy protect against the development of atherosclerosis. However, it has yet to be elucidated whether telmisartan prevents vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC)-derived foam cell formation. Vascular smooth muscle cells isolated from the thoracic aorta of male C57BL/6J mice were used for this study. To induce foam cell formation, primary VSMCs were incubated in 80 μg/ml oxLDL for 24 h. LC3, beclin-1, PPARγ, AMPK, p-AMPK, mTOR and p-mTOR expression were determined via Western blot. Lipid accumulation was evaluated via oil red O staining and intracellular total cholesterol level measurement. Our study demonstrated that telmisartan dose-dependently increased the expression of beclin-1, the LC3II/LC3I ratio and the quantity of GFP-labeled autophagosomes, displaying a peak effect at 10 μM. In control siRNA-transfected VSMCs, telmisartan (10 μM) decreased lipid droplet accumulation and the total cholesterol level significantly. In contrast, in Atg7 siRNA-transfected VSMCs, telmisartan failed to attenuate lipid accumulation. In addition, telmisartan dose-dependently increased the expression of PPARγ and p-AMPK and decreased the expression of p-mTOR. GW9662 attenuated the telmisartan-induced increase in PPARγ expression, the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio and p-AMPK expression and the telmisartan-induced decrease in p-mTOR expression. Compound C restored mTOR activity and abolished the increase in the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio. Rapamycin significantly reduced p-mTOR expression and increased the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that the chronic pharmacological activation of the PPARγ-mediated autophagy pathway using telmisartan may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for atherosclerosis.

  19. Anti-RAGE antibody attenuates isoflurane-induced cognitive dysfunction in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chengmei; Yi, Duan; Li, Zhengqian; Zhou, Yongde; Cao, Yiyun; Sun, Yan; Chui, Dehua; Guo, Xiangyang

    2017-03-30

    Several animal studies demonstrated that the volatile anesthetic isoflurane could influence the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity, which involved the cognitive impairment. Increasing evidence has also shown that the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) played a major role in maintaining the integrity of BBB. The present study aimed to determine whether the RAGE-specific antibody protects against BBB disruption and cognitive impairment induced by isoflurane exposure in aged rats. 108 aged rats were randomly divided into four groups: (1) control group (Control); (2) 4h of 2% isoflurane exposure group (ISO); (3) RAGE antibody (20μL, 2.5μg/μL) treated+4h of 2% isoflurane exposure group (anti-RAGE+ISO); (4) RAGE antibody (20μL, 2.5μg/μL) treated group (anti-RAGE). The isoflurane anesthesia resulted in the upregulation of hippocampal RAGE expression, disruption of BBB integrity, neuroinflammation, and beta-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation in aged rats. In addition, significant cognitive deficits in the Morris water maze test was also observed. The antibody pretreatment resulted in significant improvements in BBB integrity. Furthermore, the expression of RAGE and proinflammatory mediators, as well as, Aβ accumulation were attenuated. Moreover, the antibody administration attenuated the isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment in aged rats. These results demonstrate that RAGE signaling is involved in BBB damage after isoflurane exposure. Thus, the RAGE antibody represents a novel therapeutic intervention to prevent isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Complement C3 deficiency attenuates chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen M Bauer

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests a role of both innate and adaptive immunity in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The complement system is a key sentry of the innate immune system and bridges innate and adaptive immunity. To date there are no studies addressing a role for the complement system in pulmonary arterial hypertension.Immunofluorescent staining revealed significant C3d deposition in lung sections from IPAH patients and C57Bl6/J wild-type mice exposed to three weeks of chronic hypoxia to induce pulmonary hypertension. Right ventricular systolic pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy were increased in hypoxic vs. normoxic wild-type mice, which were attenuated in C3-/- hypoxic mice. Likewise, pulmonary vascular remodeling was attenuated in the C3-/- mice compared to wild-type mice as determined by the number of muscularized peripheral arterioles and morphometric analysis of vessel wall thickness. The loss of C3 attenuated the increase in interleukin-6 and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in response to chronic hypoxia, but not endothelin-1 levels. In wild-type mice, but not C3-/- mice, chronic hypoxia led to platelet activation as assessed by bleeding time, and flow cytometry of platelets to determine cell surface P-selectin expression. In addition, tissue factor expression and fibrin deposition were increased in the lungs of WT mice in response to chronic hypoxia. These pro-thrombotic effects of hypoxia were abrogated in C3-/- mice.Herein, we provide compelling genetic evidence that the complement system plays a pathophysiologic role in the development of PAH in mice, promoting pulmonary vascular remodeling and a pro-thrombotic phenotype. In addition we demonstrate C3d deposition in IPAH patients suggesting that complement activation plays a role in the development of PAH in humans.

  1. Epigallocatechin gallate attenuated non-alcoholic steatohepatitis induced by methionine- and choline-deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Sun, Xin; Chen, Yuning; Deng, Yue; Qian, Ke

    2015-08-15

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its progressive form, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), are the most common causes of chronic liver disease. In this study, we evaluated the effects of Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet-induced NASH. Our data showed that EGCG significantly prevented MCD diet-induced liver and body weight loss. Histological analysis showed that EGCG inhibited MCD diet-induced steatohepatitis including fat accumulation and inflammatory cells infiltration. Biochemical analysis data showed that EGCG significantly reduced the elevation of plasma ALT and AST levels but increased plasma triglyceride and cholesterol contents. However, EGCG significantly inhibited hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol content in MCD diet fed mice. Consistent with histology results, EGCG treatment significantly inhibited MCD diet-induced IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and MCP-1 mRNA expression. As an antioxidant, EGCG treatment significant inhibited hepatic MDA contents and increased hepatic SOD contents. In addition, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, collagen I-α1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) and α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) mRNA expression, which are markers of hepatic fibrosis, were markedly inhibited by EGCG treatment. Western blot data showed that EGCG inhibited Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation in the liver and LX-2 cells which were involved in TGF-β-induced pathway. Taken together, EGCG attenuated NASH induced by MCD diet associated with ameliorating fibrosis, oxidative stress, and hepatic inflammation. Our results indicate that EGCG has beneficial roles in the development of MCD diet-induced NASH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Melatonin attenuates stress-induced defecation: lesson from a rat model of stress-induced gut dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, G H; Gwee, K A; Moochhala, S M; Ho, K Y

    2005-10-01

    Melatonin is known to alleviate stress and modulate gut motility. We investigated the modulating effects of melatonin on stress-induced gut dysfunction. One hundred Wistar rats were randomly assigned to five equal groups, receiving intraperitoneal injections of 0, 1, 10, 100 or 1000 microg kg(-1) melatonin, respectively. Fifteen minutes later, each group was divided again into four subgroups receiving no treatment, 0.25 mg luzindole (a non-selective melatonin receptor antagonist) intraperitoneally, wrap-restraint stress, and 10 mg kg(-1) serotonin intraperitoneally, respectively. Two hours later, serum serotonin, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and melatonin levels, and faecal output were recorded. Results showed that intraperitoneal melatonin increased faecal output, but this effect was abolished by luzindole. In wrap-restraint group, prior intraperitoneal melatonin at doses of 100 or 1000 microg kg(-1) significantly inhibited stress-induced defecation. This effect was associated with corresponding reductions in serum serotonin and CRF concentrations. In serotonin-treated group, serotonin-induced defecation was also inhibited by melatonin. In conclusion, melatonin exhibited an excitatory effect on bowel output in rats placed under resting state, while attenuated defecation in those subjected to wrap-restraint stress or serotonin treatment. The inhibitory effects of melatonin on stress-induced defecation may stem from its antagonistic effect on stress-induced enhancement of serotonin and CRF secretion.

  3. Hydrogen sulfide prevents Abeta-induced neuronal apoptosis by attenuating mitochondrial translocation of PTEN.

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    Cui, Weigang; Zhang, Yinghua; Yang, Chenxi; Sun, Yiyuan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Songtao

    2016-06-14

    Neuronal cell apoptosis is an important pathological change in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is known to be a novel gaseous signaling molecule and a cytoprotectant in many diseases including AD. However, the molecular mechanism of the antiapoptosis activity of H(2)S in AD is not yet fully understood. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the inhibitory effects of H(2)S on Abeta (Aβ)-induced apoptosis and the molecular mechanisms underlying primary neuron cells. Our results showed that sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a donor of H(2)S, significantly ameliorated Aβ-induced cell apoptosis. NaHS also reversed the Aβ-induced translocation of the phosphatase and tensin homologs deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) from the cytosol to the mitochondria. Furthermore, H(2)S increased the level of p-AKT/AKT significantly. Interestingly, the antiapoptosis effects of H(2)S were blocked down by specific PI3K/AKT inhibitor wortmannin. In conclusion, these data indicate that H(2)S inhibits Aβ-induced neuronal apoptosis by attenuating mitochondrial translocation of PTEN and that activation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway plays a critical role in H(2)S-mediated neuronal protection. Our findings provide a novel route into the molecular mechanisms of neuronal apoptosis in AD.

  4. Recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist attenuates the severity of chronic pancreatitis induced by TNBS in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunfang; Shen, Jiaqing; Zhang, Jing; Jia, Zhenyu; He, Zhilong; Zhuang, Xiaohui; Xu, Ting; Shi, Yuqi; Zhu, Shunying; Wu, Mingyuan; Han, Wei

    2015-02-15

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a common disease in the department of gastroenterology, with the main symptoms of exocrine and/or endocrine insufficiency and abdominal pain. The pathogenic mechanism of CP is still not fully clarified and the aims of treatment now are to relieve symptoms. In this study, we attempted to find a connection between interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced chronic pancreatitis, and then the therapeutic effect of recombinant IL-1Ra was also detected in the CP model. Chronic pancreatitis was induced by intraductal infusion of TNBS in SD rats followed by a consecutive administration of rIL-1Ra, and the histological changes and collagen content in the pancreas were measured, as well as the abdominal hypersensitivity. We found that rhIL-1Ra could attenuate the severity of chronic pancreatic injury, modulate the extracellular matrix secretion, focal proliferation and apoptosis, and cellular immunity in TNBS-induced CP. Interestingly, rIL-1Ra could also block the pancreatitis-induced referred abdominal hypersensitivity. In conclusion, IL-1Ra may play a protective role in CP and rIL-1Ra would be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of CP, while its possible mechanisms and clinical usage still need further investigation.

  5. Tomato lycopene attenuates myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol:Electrocardiographic, biochemical and anti-apoptotic study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aman Upaganlawar; Vaibhav Patel; Balaraman R

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the protective effects of lycopene on electrocardiographic, hemodynamic, biochemical and apoptotic changes in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction. Methods:Myocardial infarction was induced in rats by subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (200 mg/kg) for two consecutive days at an interval of 24 h. Rats were treated with lycopene (10 mg/kg/day,p.o. ) for a period of 30 days and isoproterenol (ISO) was injected on the 29th and 30th day. At the end of experiment i.e. on the 31st day electrocardiographic, hemodynamic, biochemical and apoptotic changes were monitored from control and experimental groups. Results: ISO injected rats showed a significant alteration in electrocardiograph pattern and hemodynamic changes (i.e. systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure). It also showed significant increase in C-reactive protein, myeloperoxidase, nitrite levels and Caspase-3 protease activity. In addition, it also exhibited alteration in the levels of electrolytes (Na+, K+ and Ca2+), vitamin E, uric acid and serum protein. Gel electrophoresis of ISO injected rats showed increase in DNA fragmentation. Triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining of the heart section shows increase area of infarction in ISO injected rats. Pre-co-treatment with lycopene significantly prevented the ISO induced alteration in ECG, haemodynamic, biochemical and apoptotic changes. Conclusions: The present result shows that treatment of lycopene in ISO injected rats significantly attenuates induced myocardial infarction.

  6. Magnolol pretreatment attenuates heat stress-induced IEC-6 cell injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Chen; He, Sha-Sha; Yin, Peng; Xu, Lei; Shi, Ya-Ran; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Lyu, An; Liu, Feng-Hua; Jiang, Lin-Shu

    2016-06-01

    Heat stress (HS) is an important environmental stressor that adversely influences livestock during the summer. The aim of this study was to investigate whether magnolol protects against HS-induced intestinal epithelial cell injury. An intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6) was subjected to HS at 42 °C, with and without magnolol pretreatment. Cell injury was detected by monitoring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium) assay was used to assess cell proliferation and viability, including identifying effective concentrations of magnolol. Flow cytometry confirmed G1-phase cell-cycle arrest and its alleviation by magnolol. Active DNA synthesis was measured by incorporation of nucleic acid 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU). G1-phase cell-cycle-related gene expression was assessed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and levels of G1-phase-related proteins by Western blotting. HS induced IEC-6 cell injury and decreased cell viability, as demonstrated by data from LDH and MTS assays, respectively. Based on a number of criteria, IEC-6 cells subjected to HS were arrested in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Magnolol pretreatment decreased HS-induced cell injury through relief of this cell-cycle arrest. Magnolol pretreatment attenuates HS-induced injury in IEC-6 cells. Magnolol is potentially promising as a protective strategy for HS in livestock.

  7. Quercetin Attenuates Vascular Calcification through Suppressed Oxidative Stress in Adenine-Induced Chronic Renal Failure Rats

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    Xue-ying Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study investigated whether quercetin could alleviate vascular calcification in experimental chronic renal failure rats induced by adenine. Methods. 32 adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups fed normal diet, normal diet with quercetin supplementation (25 mg/kg·BW/d, 0.75% adenine diet, or adenine diet with quercetin supplementation. All rats were sacrificed after 6 weeks of intervention. Serum renal functions biomarkers and oxidative stress biomarkers were measured and status of vascular calcification in aorta was assessed. Furthermore, the induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS/p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38MAPK pathway was determined to explore the potential mechanism. Results. Adenine successfully induced renal failure and vascular calcification in rat model. Quercetin supplementation reversed unfavorable changes of phosphorous, uric acid (UA and creatinine levels, malonaldehyde (MDA content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in serum and the increases of calcium and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity in the aorta (P<0.05 and attenuated calcification and calcium accumulation in the medial layer of vasculature in histopathology. Western blot analysis showed that iNOS/p38MAPK pathway was normalized by the quercetin supplementation. Conclusions. Quercetin exerted a protective effect on vascular calcification in adenine-induced chronic renal failure rats, possibly through the modulation of oxidative stress and iNOs/p38MAPK pathway.

  8. Novel Toll-like receptor-4 deficiency attenuates trastuzumab (Herceptin induced cardiac injury in mice

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    Yousif Nasser

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac inflammation and generation of oxidative stress are known to contribute to trastuzumab (herceptin induced cardiac toxicity. Toll-like receptors (TLRs are a part of the innate immune system and are involved in cardiac stress reactions. Since TLR4 might play a relevant role in cardiac inflammatory signaling, we investigated whether or not TLR4 is involved in trastuzumab induced cardiotoxicity. Methods Seven days after a single injection of herceptin (2 mg/kg; i.p., left ventricular pressure volume loops were measured in HeN compotent (TLR4+/+ and HeJ mutant (TLR4-/- treated with trastuzumab and control mice. Immunofluorescent staining for monocyte infiltration and analyses of plasma by (ELISAs for different chemokines including: MCP-1and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, Western immunoblotting assay for ICAM-1, and used troponin I for cardiac injury marker. Results Trastuzumab injection resulted in an impairment of left ventricular function in TLR-4 competent (HeN, in contrast TLR4-/- trastuzumab mice showed improved left ventricular function EF%, CO; p -/-; p -/-, marked reduction of myocardial troponin-I levels in TLR4-deficient mice. Data are presented as means ± SE; n = 8 in each group p Conclusions Treatment with trastuzumab induces an inflammatory response that contributes to myocardial tissue TLR4 mediates chemokine expression (TNF-α, MCP-1and ICAM-1, so in experimental animals TLR4 deficiency improves left ventricular function and attenuates pathophysiological key mechanisms in trastuzumab induced cardiomyopathy.

  9. Carvacrol attenuates N-nitrosodiethylamine induced liver injury in experimental Wistar rats

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    Balan Rajan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Carvacrol is a main constituent in the essential oils of countless aromatic plants including Origanum Vulgare and Thymus vulgari, which has been assessed for substantial pharmacological properties. In recent years, notable research has been embarked on to establish the biological actions of Carvacrol for its promising use in clinical applications. The present study is an attempt to reveal the protective role of Carvacrol against N-Nitrosodiethylamine (DEN induced hepatic injury in male Wistar albino rats. DEN is an egregious toxin, present in numerous environmental factors, which enhances chemical driven liver damage by inducing oxidative stress and cellular injury. Administration of DEN (200 mg/kg bodyweight, I.P to rats results in elevated marker enzymes (in both serum and tissue. Carvacrol (15 mg/kg body weight suppressed the elevation of marker enzymes (in both serum and tissue and augmented the antioxidants levels. The hoisted activities of Phase I enzymes and inferior activities of Phase II enzymes were observed in DEN-administered animals, whereas Carvacrol treated animals showed improved near normal activity. Histological observations also support the protective role of Carvacrol against DEN induced liver damage. Final outcome from our findings intimate that Carvacrol might be beneficial in attenuating toxin induced liver damage.

  10. A diet rich in cocoa attenuates N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced liver injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granado-Serrano, Ana Belén; Martín, María Angeles; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia

    2009-10-01

    The effects of cocoa feeding against N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN)-induced liver injury were studied in rats. Animals were divided into five groups. Groups 1 and 2 were fed with standard and cocoa-diet, respectively. Groups 3 and 4 were injected with DEN at 2 and 4 weeks, and fed with standard and cocoa-diet, respectively. Group 5 was treated with DEN, received the standard diet for 4 weeks and then it was replaced by the cocoa-diet. DEN-induced hepatic damage caused a significant increase in damage markers, as well as a decrease in the hepatic glutathione, diminished levels of p-ERK and enhanced protein carbonyl content, caspase-3 activity and values of p-AKT and p-JNK. The cocoa-rich diet prevented the reduction of hepatic glutathione concentration and catalase and GPx activities in DEN-injected rats, as well as diminished protein carbonyl content, caspase-3 activity, p-AKT and p-JNK levels, and increased GST activity. However, cocoa administration did not abrogate the DEN-induced body weight loss and the increased levels of hepatic-specific enzymes and LDH. These results suggested that cocoa-rich diet attenuates the DEN-induced liver injury.

  11. Trimetazidine protects against smoking-induced left ventricular remodeling via attenuating oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation.

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    Xiang Zhou

    Full Text Available Trimetazidine, a piperazine derivative used as an anti-anginal agent, improves myocardial glucose utilization through inhibition of fatty acid metabolism. The present study was designed to investigate whether trimetazidine has the protective effects against smoking-induced left ventricular remodeling in rats. In this study, Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: smoking group (exposed to cigarette smoke, trimetazidine group (exposed to cigarette smoke and treated with trimetazidine, and control group. The echocardiographic and morphometric data indicated that trimetazidine has protective effects against smoking-induced left ventricular remodeling. Oxidative stress was evaluated by detecting malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase in the supernatant of left ventricular tissue. Cardiomyocyte apoptotic rate was determined by flow cytometry with Annexin V/PI staining. Gene expression and serum levels of inflammatory markers, including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α, were deteced by quantitative real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results suggested that trimetazidine could significantly reduce smoking-induced oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that trimetazidine protects against smoking-induced left ventricular remodeling via attenuating oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation.

  12. Isorhamnetin attenuates collagen-induced arthritis via modulating cytokines and oxidative stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuewen; Zhong, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress were involved in the development and progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Isorhamnetin has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities, but its effects on RA have not been investigated. In order to observe the possible therapeutic effects of isorhamnetin on RA, we established a collagen-induced arthritis mouse model and treated the animal with isorhamnetin for 3 weeks. Besides, fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and isorhamnetin. The severity of arthritis was assessed by arthritis score, joint destruction score and inflammation score. Levels of cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-10 and IL-35 in the joint tissue homogenate and cell culture medium as well as anti-type II collagen antibody in serum were measured using ELISA. Contents of H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) in joint tissue homogenate were measured using assay kits. We found collagen immunization induced significant arthritis in mice and isorhamnetin at the dose of 10 and 20 mg/kg/day could significantly attenuate the collagen-induced arthritis. Isorhamnetin also modulated the production of cytokines and suppressed the oxidative stress in the mice with collagen-induced arthritis at the dose of 10 and 20 mg/kg/day. These data suggested that isorhamnetin might be a potential agent for the management of RA.

  13. Simvastatin Attenuates Contrast-Induced Nephropathy through Modulation of Oxidative Stress, Proinflammatory Myeloperoxidase, and Nitric Oxide

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    Ketab E. Al-Otaibi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrast media- (CM- induced nephropathy is a serious complication of radiodiagnostic procedures. Available data suggests that the development of prophylaxis strategies is limited by poor understanding of pathophysiology of CM-induced nephropathy. Present study was designed to determine the role of oxidative stress, myeloperoxidase, and nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of iohexol model of nephropathy and its modification with simvastatin (SSTN. Adult Sprague Dawley rats were divided into seven groups. After 24 h of water deprivation, all the rats except in control and SSTN-only groups were injected (10 ml/kg with 25% glycerol. After 30 min, SSTN (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg was administered orally, daily for 4 days. Twenty-four hours after the glycerol injection, iohexol was infused (8 ml/kg through femoral vein over a period of 2 min. All the animals were sacrificed on day 5 and blood and kidneys were collected for biochemical and histological studies. The results showed that SSTN dose dependently attenuated CM-induced rise of creatinine, urea, and structural abnormalities suggesting its nephroprotective effect. A significant increase in oxidative stress (increased lipid hydroperoxides and reduced glutathione levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO and decreased nitric oxide in CM group were reversed by SSTN. These findings support the use of SSTN to combat CM-induced nephrotoxicity.

  14. 生酮饮食对MPTP 小鼠帕金森病模型黑质TH、Bcl-2和caspase-3基因表达的影响%Ketogenic diet affects substantia nigra TH, Bcl-2 and caspase-3 gene expressions in mouse models with 1-methyl-4-phenyl 1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine-induced PD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鑫; 王国坤; 周晓平

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究生酮饮食对PD小鼠黑质多巴胺能神经元的抗凋亡作用. 方法 1-甲基-4-苯基-1、2、3、6-四氢吡啶(MPTP)腹腔注射方法 制备PD模型小鼠.实验分为正常饮食模型组(正常饮食喂养后造模)、实验组(生酮饮食喂养后造模)、正常饮食组(不造模,正常饮食喂养)和生酮饮食组(不造模,生酮饮食喂养).初次MPTP给药前及末次给药后的次日进行滚轴实验并采集血清样本检测血清酮体和血糖浓度.荧光定量PCR技术检测黑质酪氨酸羟化酶(TH)、Bcl-2及caspase-3基因水平的表达情况. 结果 经过生酮饮食喂养后的小鼠经MPTP给药后,死亡率较正常饮食模型组降低;滚轴实验中实验组在转盘上停留时间较正常饮食模型组延长,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).实验组和生酮饮食组的血清酮体浓度较其他2组明显升高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).荧光定量PCR检测发现,与正常饮食模型组相比,实验组黑质中TH基因的表达明显升高,抗凋亡作用的Bcl-2基因也明显升高,促凋亡作用的caspase-3基因的表达明显减少,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05). 结论 生酮饮食逆转了MPTP给药后的黑质中Bcl-2基因表达的下调和caspase-3基因表达的上调,进而抑制了多巴胺能神经元的凋亡,起到了保护黑质多巴胺能神经元的作用.%Objective To investigate the anti-apoptotic effect of ketogenic diet (KD) on substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons in mouse models with PD.Methods Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice, weighting 24-26 g, were randomly divided into normal diet and model group (1-methyl-4-phenyl 1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine [MPTP]), experimental group (KD+MPTP), normal diet group and KD group. Mouse models with PD were established by subjecting them to intraperitoneal injection of MPTP. All the mice in the normal diet group and MPTP group were fed with normal diet and were free to access food, while mice in the KD+MPTP and KD

  15. Astaxanthin rescues neuron loss and attenuates oxidative stress induced by amygdala kindling in adult rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan; Xie, Tao; He, Xue-Xin; Mao, Zhuo-Feng; Jia, Li-Jing; Wang, Wei-Ping; Zhen, Jun-Li; Liu, Liang-Min

    2015-06-15

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the neuronal damage induced by epilepsy. The present study assessed the possible neuroprotective effects of astaxanthin (ATX) on neuronal damage, in hippocampal CA3 neurons following amygdala kindling. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were chronically kindled in the amygdala and ATX or equal volume of vehicle was given by intraperitoneally. Twenty-four hours after the last stimulation, the rats were sacrificed by decapitation. Histopathological changes and the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured, cytosolic cytochrome c (CytC) and caspase-3 activities in the hippocampus were also recorded. We found extensive neuronal damage in the CA3 region in the kindling group, which was preceded by increases of ROS level and MDA concentration and was followed by caspase-3 activation and an increase in cytosolic CytC. Treatment with ATX markedly attenuated the neuronal damage. In addition, ATX significantly decreased ROS and MDA concentrations and increased GSH levels. Moreover, ATX suppressed the translation of CytC release and caspase-3 activation in hippocampus. Together, these results suggest that ATX protects against neuronal loss due to epilepsy in the rat hippocampus by attenuating oxidative damage, lipid peroxidation and inhibiting the mitochondrion-related apoptotic pathway.

  16. Attenuation of Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Mice by Salmon Proteoglycan

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    Sayuri Yoshimura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a serious autoimmune disease caused by chronic inflammation of connective tissues. The basic principle of RA treatment is aimed to reduce joint inflammation. Our previous studies demonstrated that salmon cartilage proteoglycan (PG suppresses excess inflammation in different mouse inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the prophylactic effect of PG on the progression of RA using an experimental mouse model, collagen-induced arthritis (CIA. Clinical and histological severity of CIA was attenuated by daily oral administration of PG. In the joints of PG-administered mice, infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils and also osteoclast accumulation were limited. In comparison to nonadministered mice, anti-collagen antibodies in the sera of PG-administered mice did not alter. On the other hand, local expression of interleukin-17A (IL-17A, IL-6, IL-1β, interferon-γ (IFN-γ, C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2, C-X-C chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1, and CXCL2 in the joints of PG-administered mice decreased. Moreover, in the response of type II collagen- (CII- restimulation ex vivo, IL-17A and IFN-γ production by splenocytes from PG-administered mice was less than that of control mice. These data suggested that daily ingested PG attenuated CIA pathogenesis by modulating immune response of splenocytes to CII stimulation and local production inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the joints.

  17. Attenuation of collagen-induced arthritis in mice by salmon proteoglycan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Sayuri; Asano, Krisana; Nakane, Akio

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a serious autoimmune disease caused by chronic inflammation of connective tissues. The basic principle of RA treatment is aimed to reduce joint inflammation. Our previous studies demonstrated that salmon cartilage proteoglycan (PG) suppresses excess inflammation in different mouse inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the prophylactic effect of PG on the progression of RA using an experimental mouse model, collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Clinical and histological severity of CIA was attenuated by daily oral administration of PG. In the joints of PG-administered mice, infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils and also osteoclast accumulation were limited. In comparison to nonadministered mice, anti-collagen antibodies in the sera of PG-administered mice did not alter. On the other hand, local expression of interleukin-17A (IL-17A), IL-6, IL-1 β, interferon- γ (IFN- γ), C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), C-X-C chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1), and CXCL2 in the joints of PG-administered mice decreased. Moreover, in the response of type II collagen- (CII-) restimulation ex vivo, IL-17A and IFN- γ production by splenocytes from PG-administered mice was less than that of control mice. These data suggested that daily ingested PG attenuated CIA pathogenesis by modulating immune response of splenocytes to CII stimulation and local production inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the joints.

  18. Paeonol, a Major Compound of Moutan Cortex, Attenuates Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Mice

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    Hyojung Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin is an effective chemotherapeutic agent that is used for the treatment of a variety of cancers; however, its nephrotoxicity limits the use of this drug. In the present study, we examined whether paeonol, a major compound of Moutan Cortex, has protective effects on cisplatin-induced acute renal failure in mice. To accomplish this, Balb/c mice (6 to 8 wk of age, weighing 20 to 25 g were administered, Moutan Cortex (300 mg/kg or paeonol (20 mg/kg once a day. At day 4, mice received cisplatin (30, 20, or 10 mg/kg intraperitoneally. The paeonol-treated group showed marked attenuation of serum creatine and blood urea nitrogen levels as well as reduced levels of proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide when compared to the control group. In addition, the paeonol-treated group showed prolonged survival and marked attenuation of renal tissue injury. Taken together, these results demonstrated that paeonol can prevent the renal toxic effects of cisplatin.

  19. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Attenuate Cigarette Smoke-Induced Cardiac Remodeling and Dysfunction

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    Yingmin Liang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The strong relationship between cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease (CVD has been well-documented, but the mechanisms by which smoking increases CVD risk appear to be multifactorial and incompletely understood. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are regarded as an important candidate for cell-based therapy in CVD. We hypothesized that MSCs derived from induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC-MSCs or bone marrow (BM-MSCs might alleviate cigarette smoke (CS-induced cardiac injury. This study aimed to investigate the effects of BM-MSCs or iPSC-MSCs on CS-induced changes in serum and cardiac lipid profiles, oxidative stress and inflammation as well as cardiac function in a rat model of passive smoking. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly selected for exposure to either sham air (SA as control or 4% CS for 1 h per day for 56 days. On day 29 and 43, human adult BM-MSCs, iPSC-MSCs or PBS were administered intravenously to CS-exposed rats. Results from echocardiography, serum and cardiac lipid profiles, cardiac antioxidant capacity, cardiac pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and cardiac morphological changes were evaluated at the end of treatment. iPSC-MSC-treated group showed a greater effect in the improvement of CS-induced cardiac dysfunction over BM-MSCs-treated group as shown by increased percentage left ventricular ejection fraction and percentage fractional shortening, in line with the greater reversal of cardiac lipid abnormality. In addition, iPSC-MSCs administration attenuated CS-induced elevation of cardiac pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as restoration of anti-inflammatory cytokines and anti-oxidative markers, leading to ameliorate cardiac morphological abnormalities. These data suggest that iPSC-MSCs on one hand may restore CS-induced cardiac lipid abnormality and on the other hand may attenuate cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation via inhibition of CS-induced NF-κB activation, leading to improvement of cardiac remodeling and

  20. Flavanone silibinin treatment attenuates nitrogen mustard-induced toxic effects in mouse skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anil K; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Inturi, Swetha; Kumar, Dileep; Orlicky, David J; Agarwal, Chapla; White, Carl W; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is no effective antidote to prevent skin injuries by sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM), which are vesicating agents with potential relevance to chemical warfare, terrorist attacks, or industrial/laboratory accidents. Our earlier report has demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of silibinin, a natural flavanone, in reversing monofunctional alkylating SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide-induced toxic effects in mouse skin. To translate this effect to a bifunctional alkylating vesicant, herein, efficacy studies were carried out with NM. Topical application of silibinin (1 or 2 mg) 30 min after NM exposure on the dorsal skin of male SKH-1 hairless mice significantly decreased NM-induced toxic lesions at 24, 72 or 120 h post-exposure. Specifically, silibinin treatment resulted in dose-dependent reduction of NM-induced increase in epidermal thickness, dead and denuded epidermis, parakeratosis and microvesication. Higher silibinin dose also caused a 79% and 51% reversal in NM-induced increases in myeloperoxidase activity and COX-2 levels, respectively. Furthermore, silibinin completely prevented NM-induced H2A.X phosphorylation, indicating reversal of DNA damage which could be an oxidative DNA damage as evidenced by high levels of 8-oxodG in NM-exposed mouse skin that was significantly reversed by silibinin. Together, these findings suggest that attenuation of NM-induced skin injury by silibinin is due to its effects on the pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation, vesication and oxidative stress. In conclusion, results presented here support the optimization of silibinin as an effective treatment of skin injury by vesicants. PMID:25791923

  1. Melatonin attenuates 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced PC12 cell death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-feng BAO; Ren-gang WU; Xiao-ping ZHANG; Yan SONG; Chang-ling LI

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To explore the effect of melatonin on PC12 cell death induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). Methods: MTT assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)efflux assay, and immunohistochemistry methods were used to measure neurotoxicity of PC 12 cells treated acutely with MPP+ in low glucose and high glucose conditions, and to assess the neuroprotective effect of melatonin on PC 12 cell death induced by MPP+. Results: In a low glucose condition, MPP+ significantly induced PC 12 cell death, which showed time and concentration dependence. In a serum-free low glucose condition, the percentages of viability of cells treated with MPP+ for 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h were 85.1%, 75.4%, 64.9%, 28.15%, and 9%, respectively. The level of LDH in the culture medium increased and tyrosine hydroxylase positive (TH+) cell count decreased. However, in a serum-free high glucose condition, MPP+ did not significantly induce PC12 cell death compared with control at various concentrations and time regimens. When the cells were preincubated with melatonin 250 μmol/L for 48, 72, and 96 h in a serum-free low glucose condition, cell survival rate significantly increased to 78.1%, 58.8%, and 31.6%, respectively. Melatonin abolished the LDH leakage of cells treated with MPP+ and increased TH+ cells count. Conclusion: MPP+ caused concentrationdependent PC12 cell death. The level of glucose was an important factor to MPP+induced dopaminergic PC12 cell death. Low glucose level could potentiate MPP+toxicity, while high glucose level could reduce the toxicity. In addition, melatonin attenuated PC12 cell death induced by MPP+.

  2. Piracetam Attenuates LPS-Induced Neuroinflammation and Cognitive Impairment in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Alok; Paliwal, Pankaj; Krishnamurthy, Sairam

    2017-02-07

    The present study was performed to investigate the effect of piracetam on neuroinflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and resulting changes in cognitive behavior. Neuroinflammation was induced by a single dose of LPS solution infused into each of the lateral cerebral ventricles in concentrations of 1 μg/μl, at a rate of 1 μl/min over a 5-min period, with a 5-min waiting period between the two infusions. Piracetam in doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg i.p. was administered 30 min before LPS infusion and continued for 9 days. On ninth day, the behavioral test for memory and anxiety was done followed by blood collection and microdissection of the hippocampus (HIP) and prefrontal cortex brain regions. Piracetam attenuated the LPS-induced decrease in coping strategy to novel environment indicating anxiolytic activity. It also reversed the LPS-induced changes in the known arm and novel arm entries in the Y-maze test indicating amelioration of spatial memory impairment. Further, piracetam moderated LPS-induced decrease in the mitochondrial complex enzyme activities (I, II, IV, and V) and mitochondrial membrane potential. It ameliorated changes in hippocampal lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels including the activity of superoxide dismutase. Piracetam region specifically ameliorated LPS-induced increase in the level of IL-6 in HIP indicating anti-neuroinflammatory effect. Further, piracetam reduced HIP Aβ (1-40) and increased blood Aβ level suggesting efflux of Aβ from HIP to blood. Therefore, the present study indicates preclinical evidence for the use of piracetam in the treatment of neuroinflammatory disorders.

  3. Measurement of 60CO gamma radiation induced attenuation in multimode step-index POF at 530 nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Milan S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As optical fibres are used ever more extensively in space applications, nuclear industry, medicine and high-energy physics experiments, it has become essential to investigate the influence of ionizing radiation on their characteristics. In this work, the radiation-induced attenuation at 530 nm is investigated experimentally in step-index multimode polymethyl-methacrylate plastic optical fibres exposed to low dose-rate gamma radiation. Cumulative doses ranged from 50 Gy to 500 Gy. The radiation induced attenuation has been empirically found to obey the power law RIA= aDb, where D is the total radiation dose and a and b are the constants determined by fitting.

  4. Fibre-Coupling Zig-Zag Beam Deflection Technology for Investigation of Attenuation Process of Laser-Induced Shock Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ping; BIAN Bao-Min; LI Zhen-Hua

    2005-01-01

    @@ A novel fibre-coupling zig-zag beam deflection technology is developed to investigate the attenuation process of laser-induced shock waves in air. Utilizing ordinal reflections of probe beams by a pair of parallel mirrors,a zig-zag beam field is formed, which has eleven probe beams in the horizontal plane. When a laser-induced shock wave propagates through the testing field, it causes eleven deflection signals one after another. The whole attenuation process of the shock wave in air can be detected and illuminated clearly on one experimental curve.

  5. Weight loss induced by chronic dapagliflozin treatment is attenuated by compensatory hyperphagia in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devenny, James J; Godonis, Helen E; Harvey, Susan J; Rooney, Suzanne; Cullen, Mary J; Pelleymounter, Mary Ann

    2012-08-01

    Dapagliflozin is a potent and selective sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor which promotes urinary glucose excretion and induces weight loss. Since metabolic compensation can offset a negative energy balance, we explored the potential for a compensatory physiological response to the weight loss induced by dapagliflozin. Dapagliflozin was administered (0.5-5 mpk; p.o.) to diet-induced obese (DIO) rats with or without ad libitum access to food for 38 days. Along with inducing urinary glucose excretion, chronic administration of dapagliflozin dose-dependently increased food and water intake relative to vehicle-treated controls. Despite this, it reduced body weight by 4% (relative to controls) at the highest dose. The degree of weight loss was increased by an additional 9% if hyperphagia was prevented by restricting food intake to that of vehicle controls. Neither oxygen consumption (vO2) or the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were altered by dapagliflozin treatment alone. Animals treated with dapagliflozin and pair-fed to vehicle controls (5 mpk PF-V) showed a reduction in RER and an elevation in nonfasting β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) relative to ad libitum-fed 5 mpk counterparts. Fasting BHBA was elevated in the 1 mpk, 5 mpk, and 5 mpk PF-V groups. Serum glucose was reduced in the fasted, but not the unfasted state. Insulin was reduced in the non-fasted state. These data suggest that in rodents, the persistent urinary glucose excretion induced by dapagliflozin was accompanied by compensatory hyperphagia, which attenuated the weight loss induced by SGLT2 inhibition. Therefore, it is possible that dapagliflozin-induced weight loss could be enhanced with dietary intervention.

  6. ACE inhibition attenuates uremia-induced aortic valve thickening in a novel mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simolin, Mikko A; Pedersen, Tanja X; Bro, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We examined whether impaired renal function causes thickening of the aortic valve leaflets in hyperlipidemic apoE-knockout (apoE-/-) mice, and whether the putative effect on the aortic valves could be prevented by inhibiting the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) with enalapril....... METHODS: Thickening of the aortic valve leaflets in apoE-/- mice was induced by producing mild or moderate chronic renal failure resulting from unilateral nephrectomy (1/2 NX, n = 18) or subtotal nephrectomy (5/6 NX, n = 22), respectively. Additionally, the 5/6 NX mice were randomized to no treatment (n...... treated with enalapril had significantly thinner leaflets than did the untreated 5/6 NX mice (P = 0.014). CONCLUSION: Moderate uremia causes thickening of the aortic valves in apoE-/- mice, which can be attenuated by ACE inhibition. The nephrectomized apoE-/- mouse constitutes a new model...

  7. Luteolin-7-diglucuronide attenuates isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury and fibrosis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Bing-bing; Zhang, Yong; Wu, Dan-dan; Cui, Jin-gang; Liu, Li; Wang, Pei-wei; Wang, Wen-jian; Zhu, Wei-liang; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Teng

    2017-01-01

    Myocardial injury and ensuing fibrotic alterations impair normal heart architecture and cause cardiac dysfunction. Oxidative stress has been recognized as a key player in the pathogenesis of cardiac injury and progression of cardiac dysfunction, and promoting fibrosis. In the current study we investigated whether luteolin-7-diglucuronide (L7DG), a naturally occurring antioxidant found in edible plants, could attenuate isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial injury and fibrosis in mice and the underlying mechanisms. Myocardial injury and fibrosis were induced in mice via injection of ISO (5 mg·kg−1·d−1, ip) for 5 or 10 d. Two treatment regimens (pretreatment and posttreatment) were employed to administer L7DG (5–40 mg·kg−1·d−1, ip) into the mice. After the mice were euthanized, morphological examinations of heart sections revealed that both L7DG pretreatment and posttreatment regimens significantly attenuated ISO-induced myocardial injury and fibrosis. But the pretreatment regimen caused better protection against ISO-induced myocardial fibrosis than the posttreatment regimen. Furthermore, L7DG pretreatment blocked ISO-stimulated expression of the genes (Cyba, Cybb, Ncf1, Ncf4 and Rac2) encoding the enzymatic subunits of NADPH oxidase, which was the primary source of oxidant production in mammalian cells. Moreover, L7DG pretreatment significantly suppressed ISO-stimulated expression of collagen genes Col1a1, Col1a2, Col3a1, and Col12a1 and non-collagen extracellular matrix genes fibrillin-1, elastin, collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 and connective tissue growth factor. In addition, L7DG pretreatment almost reversed ISO-altered expression of microRNAs that were crosstalking with TGFβ-mediated fibrosis, including miR-29c-3p, miR-29c-5p, miR-30c-3p, miR-30c-5p and miR-21. The current study demonstrated for the first time that L7DG is pharmacologically effective in protecting the heart against developing ISO-induced injury and fibrosis, justifying

  8. PVN Blockade of p44/42 MAPK Pathway Attenuates Salt-induced Hypertension through Modulating Neurotransmitters and Attenuating Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong-Li; Yu, Xiao-Jing; Liu, Kai-Li; Shi, Xiao-Lian; Qi, Jie; Chen, Yan-Mei; Zhang, Yan; Bai, Juan; Yi, Qiu-Yue; Feng, Zhi-Peng; Chen, Wen-Sheng; Cui, Wei; Liu, Jin-Jun; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Kang, Yu-Ming

    2017-01-01

    The imbalance of neurotransmitters and excessive oxidative stress responses contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension. In this study, we determined whether blockade of p44/42 MAPK pathway in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) ameliorates the development of hypertension through modulating neurotransmitters and attenuating oxidative stress. Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rats received a high-salt diet (HS, 8% NaCl) or a normal-salt diet (NS, 0.3% NaCl) for 6 weeks and were treated with bilateral PVN infusion of PD-98059 (0.025 μg/h), a p44/42 MAPK inhibitor, or vehicle via osmotic minipump. HS resulted in higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) and Fra-like (Fra-LI) activity, and plasma and PVN levels of norepinephrine (NE), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), NOX2 and NOX4, lower PVN levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) and the 67-kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67), as compared with NS group. PD-98059 infusion reduced NE, TH, NOX2 and NOX4 in the PVN, and induced Cu/Zn-SOD and GAD67 in the PVN. It suggests that PVN blockade of p44/42 MAPK attenuates hypertension through modulating neurotransmitters and attenuating oxidative stress. PMID:28225041

  9. Lipid Emulsion Inhibits Vasodilation Induced by a Toxic Dose of Bupivacaine via Attenuated Dephosphorylation of Myosin Phosphatase Target Subunit 1 in Isolated Rat Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Seong-Ho; Byon, Hyo-Jin; Kwon, Seong-Chun; Park, Jungchul; Lee, Youngju; Hwang, Yeran; Baik, Jiseok; Choi, Mun-Jeoung; Sohn, Ju-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Lipid emulsions are widely used for the treatment of systemic toxicity that arises from local anesthetics. The goal of this in vitro study was to examine the cellular mechanism associated with the lipid emulsion-mediated attenuation of vasodilation induced by a toxic dose of bupivacaine in isolated endothelium-denuded rat aorta. The effects of lipid emulsion on vasodilation induced by bupivacaine, mepivacaine, and verapamil were assessed in isolated aorta precontracted with phenylephrine, the Rho kinase stimulant NaF, and the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu). The effects of Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 on contraction induced by phenylephrine or NaF were assessed. The effects of bupivacaine on intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) and tension induced by NaF were simultaneously measured. The effects of bupivacaine alone and lipid emulsion plus bupivacaine on myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) phosphorylation induced by NaF were examined in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. In precontracted aorta, the lipid emulsion attenuated bupivacaine-induced vasodilation but had no effect on mepivacaine-induced vasodilation. Y-27632 attenuated contraction induced by either phenylephrine or NaF. The lipid emulsion attenuated verapamil-induced vasodilation. Compared with phenylephrine-induced precontracted aorta, bupivacaine-induced vasodilation was slightly attenuated in NaF-induced precontracted aorta. The magnitude of the bupivacaine-induced vasodilation was higher than that of a bupivacaine-induced decrease in [Ca(2+)]i. Bupivacaine attenuated NaF-induced MYPT1 phosphorylation, whereas lipid emulsion pretreatment attenuated the bupivacaine-induced inhibition of MYPT1 phosphorylation induced by NaF. Taken together, these results suggest that lipid emulsions attenuate bupivacaine-induced vasodilation via the attenuation of inhibition of MYPT1 phosphorylation evoked by NaF.

  10. Exercise attenuates the fasting-induced transcriptional activation of metabolic genes in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, A L; Neufer, P D

    2000-06-01

    Fasting elicits a progressive increase in lipid metabolism within skeletal muscle. To determine the effects of fasting on the transcriptional regulation of genes important for metabolic control in skeletal muscle composed of different fiber types, nuclei from control and fasted (24 and 72 h) rats were subjected to nuclear run-on analysis using an RT-PCR-based technique. Fasting increased (P < 0.05) transcription rate of the muscle-specific uncoupling protein-3 gene (UCP3) 14.3- to 21.1-fold in white gastrocnemius (WG; fast-twitch glycolytic) and 5.5- to 7.5-fold in red gastrocnemius (RG; fast-twitch oxidative) and plantaris (PL; mixed) muscles. No change occurred in soleus (slow-twitch oxidative) muscle. Fasting also increased transcription rate of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL), muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I), and long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD) genes 1.7- to 3.7-fold in WG, RG, and PL muscles. Transcription rate responses were similar after 24 and 72 h of fasting. Surprisingly, increasing metabolic demand during the initial 8 h of starvation (two 2-h bouts of treadmill running) attenuated the 24-h fasting-induced transcriptional activation of UCP3, LPL, CPT I, and LCAD in RG and PL muscles, suggesting the presence of opposing regulatory mechanisms. These data demonstrate that fasting elicits a fiber type-specific coordinate increase in the transcription rate of several genes involved in and/or required for lipid metabolism and indicate that exercise may attenuate the fasting-induced transcriptional activation of specific metabolic genes.

  11. Attenuation of dextran sodium sulphate induced colitis in matrix metalloproteinase-9 deficient mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alfredo Santana; Carlos Medina; Maria Iristina Paz-Cabrera; Federico Díaz-Gonzalez; Esther Farré; Antonio Salas; Marek W Radomski; Enrique Quintero

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study whether matrix metalloproteinase-9(MMP-9) is a key factor in epithelial damage in the dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) model of colitis in mice.METHODS: MMP-9-deficient and wild-type (wt)mice were given 5% DSS in drinking water for 5 dfollowed by recovery up to 7 d. On d 5 and 12 after induction of colitis, gelatinases,MMP-2 and MMP-9,were measured in homogenates of colonic tissue by zymography and Western blot, whereas Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) were measured by reverse zymography. The gelatinolytic activity was also determined in supernatants of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) isolated from mice blood. Moreover,intestinal epithelial cells were stimulated with TNF-α to study whether these cells were able to produce MMPs.Finally, colonic mucosal lesions were measured by microscopic examination.RESULTS: On d 5 of colitis, the activity of MMP-9 was increased in homogenates of colonic tissues (0.24±0.1 vs 21.3±6.4,P<0.05) and PMN from peripheral blood in wt (0.5±0.1 vs 10.4±0.7,P<0.05), but not in MMP-9-deficient animals. The MMP-9 activity was also up-regulated by TNF-α in epithelial intestinal cells (2.5±0.5 vs 14.7±3.0, P<0.05). Although colitis also led to increase of TIMP-1 activity, the MMP-9/TIMP-1 balance remained elevated. Finally, in the MMP-9-deficient colitic mice both the extent and severity of intestinal epithelial injury were significantly attenuated when compared with wt mice.CONCLUSION: We conclude that DSS induced colitis is markedly attenuated in animals lacking MMP-9. This suggests that intestinal injury induced by DSS is modulated by MMP-9 and that inhibition of this gelatinase may reduce inflammation.

  12. Attenuation of pancreatitis-induced pulmonary injury by aerosolized hypertonic saline.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shields, C J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The immunomodulatory effects of hypertonic saline (HTS) provide potential strategies to attenuate inappropriate inflammatory reactions. This study tested the hypothesis that administration of intratracheal aerosolized HTS modulates the development of lung injury in pancreatitis. METHODS: Pancreatitis was induced in 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection of 20% L-arginine (500 mg\\/100 g body weight). At 24 and 48 h, intratracheal aerosolized HTS (7.5% NaCl, 0.5 mL) was administered to 8 rats, while a further 8 received 0.5 mL of aerosolized normal saline (NS). At 72 hours, pulmonary neutrophil infiltration (myeloperoxidase activity) and endothelial permeability (bronchoalveolar lavage and wet:dry weight ratios) were assessed. In addition, histological assessment of representative lung tissue was performed by a blinded assessor. In a separate experiment, polymorphonucleocytes (PMN) were isolated from human donors, and exposed to increments of HTS. Neutrophil transmigration across an endothelial cell layer, VEGF release, and apoptosis at 1, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h were assessed. RESULTS: Histopathological lung injury scores were significantly reduced in the HTS group (4.78 +\\/- 1.43 vs. 8.64 +\\/- 0.86); p < 0.001). Pulmonary neutrophil sequestration (1.40 +\\/- 0.2) and increased endothelial permeability (6.77 +\\/- 1.14) were evident in the animals resuscitated with normal saline when compared with HTS (0.70 +\\/- 0.1 and 3.57 +\\/- 1.32), respectively; p < 0.04). HTS significantly reduced PMN transmigration (by 97.1, p = 0.002, and induced PMN apoptosis (p < 0.03). HTS did not impact significantly upon neutrophil VEGF release (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Intratracheal aerosolized HTS attenuates the neutrophil-mediated pulmonary insult subsequent to pancreatitis. This may represent a novel therapeutic strategy.

  13. Attenuation of Replication Stress–Induced Premature Cellular Senescence to Assess Anti-Aging Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Described is an in vitro model of premature senescence in pulmonary adenocarcinoma A549 cells induced by persistent DNA replication stress in response to treatment with the DNA damaging drug mitoxantrone (Mxt). The degree of cellular senescence, based on characteristic changes in cell morphology, is measured by laser scanning cytometry. Specifically, the flattening of cells grown on slides (considered the hallmark of cellular senescence) is measured as the decline in local intensity of DNA-associated DAPI fluorescence (represented by maximal pixels). This change is paralleled by an increase in nuclear area. Thus, the ratio of mean intensity of maximal pixels to nuclear area provides a very sensitive morphometric biomarker for the degree of senescence. This analysis is combined with immunocytochemical detection of senescence markers, such as overexpression of cyclin kinase inhibitors (e.g., p21WAF1) and phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), a key marker associated with aging/senescence that is detected using a phospho-specific antibody. These biomarker indices are presented in quantitative terms defined as a senescence index (SI), which is the fraction of the marker in test cultures relative to the same marker in exponentially growing control cultures. This system can be used to evaluate the anti-aging potential of test agents by assessing attenuation of maximal senescence. As an example, the inclusion of berberine, a natural alkaloid with reported anti-aging properties and a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine, is shown to markedly attenuate the Mxt-induced SI and phosphorylation of rpS6. The multivariate analysis of senescence markers by laser scanning cytometry offers a promising tool to explore the potential anti-aging properties of a variety agents. PMID:24984966

  14. Attenuation of replication stress-induced premature cellular senescence to assess anti-aging modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Described is an in vitro model of premature senescence in pulmonary adenocarcinoma A549 cells induced by persistent DNA replication stress in response to treatment with the DNA damaging drug mitoxantrone (Mxt). The degree of cellular senescence, based on characteristic changes in cell morphology, is measured by laser scanning cytometry. Specifically, the flattening of cells grown on slides (considered the hallmark of cellular senescence) is measured as the decline in local intensity of DNA-associated DAPI fluorescence (represented by maximal pixels). This change is paralleled by an increase in nuclear area. Thus, the ratio of mean intensity of maximal pixels to nuclear area provides a very sensitive morphometric biomarker for the degree of senescence. This analysis is combined with immunocytochemical detection of senescence markers, such as overexpression of cyclin kinase inhibitors (e.g., p21(WAF1) ) and phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), a key marker associated with aging/senescence that is detected using a phospho-specific antibody. These biomarker indices are presented in quantitative terms defined as a senescence index (SI), which is the fraction of the marker in test cultures relative to the same marker in exponentially growing control cultures. This system can be used to evaluate the anti-aging potential of test agents by assessing attenuation of maximal senescence. As an example, the inclusion of berberine, a natural alkaloid with reported anti-aging properties and a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine, is shown to markedly attenuate the Mxt-induced SI and phosphorylation of rpS6. The multivariate analysis of senescence markers by laser scanning cytometry offers a promising tool to explore the potential anti-aging properties of a variety agents.

  15. Aerobic Exercise Attenuated Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis in Th2-Dominant Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Junior, Manoel Carneiro; Assumpção-Neto, Erasmo; Brandão-Rangel, Maysa Alves Rodrigues; Damaceno-Rodrigues, Nilsa Regina; Garcia Caldini, Elia; Velosa, Ana Paula Pereira; Teodoro, Walcy Rosolia; Ligeiro de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Dolhnikoff, Marisa; Eickelberg, Oliver; Vieira, Rodolfo Paula

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic exercise (AE) in reducing bleomycin-induced fibrosis in mice of a Th2-dominant immune background (BALB/c). Methods BALB/c mice were distributed into: sedentary, control (CON), Exercise-only (EX), sedentary, bleomycin-treated (BLEO) and bleomycin-treated+exercised (BLEO+EX); (n = 8/group). Following treadmill adaptation, 15 days following a single, oro-tracheal administration of bleomycin (1.5U/kg), AE was performed 5 days/week, 60min/day for 4 weeks at moderate intensity (60% of maximum velocity reached during a physical test) and assessed for pulmonary inflammation and remodeling, and cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Results At 45 days post injury, compared to BLEO, BLEO+EX demonstrated reduced collagen deposition in the airways (p<0.001) and also in the lung parenchyma (p<0.001). In BAL, a decreased number of total leukocytes (p<0.01), eosinophils (p<0.001), lymphocytes (p<0.01), macrophages (p<0.01), and neutrophils (p<0.01), as well as reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines (CXCL-1; p<0.01), (IL-1β; p<0.001), (IL-5; p<0.01), (IL-6; p<0.001), (IL-13; p<0.01) and pro-fibrotic growth factor IGF-1 (p<0.001) were observed. Anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was increased (p<0.001). Conclusion AE attenuated bleomycin-induced collagen deposition, inflammation and cytokines accumulation in the lungs of mice with a predominately Th2-background suggesting that therapeutic AE (15–44 days post injury) attenuates the pro-inflammatory, Th2 immune response and fibrosis in the bleomycin model. PMID:27677175

  16. Low-intensity resistance training attenuates dexamethasone-induced atrophy in the flexor hallucis longus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Anderson G; Krug, André L O; Herrera, Naiara A; Zago, Anderson S; Rush, James W E; Amaral, Sandra L

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the potential protective effect of low-intensity resistance training (RT) against dexamethasone (DEX) treatment induced muscle atrophy. Rats underwent either an 8 week period of ladder climbing RT or remained sedentary. During the last 10 days of the exercise protocol, animals were submitted to a DEX treatment or a control saline injection. Muscle weights were assessed and levels of AKT, mTOR, FOXO3a, Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 proteins were analyzed in flexor hallucis longus (FHL), tibialis anterior (TA), and soleus muscles. DEX induced blood glucose increase (+46%), body weight reduction (-19%) and atrophy in FHL (-28%) and TA (-21%) muscles, which was associated with a decrease in AKT and an increase in MuRF-1 proteins levels. Low-intensity RT prevented the blood glucose increase, attenuated the FHL atrophy effects of DEX, and was associated with increased mTOR and reductions in Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 in FHL. In contrast, TA muscle atrophy and signaling proteins were not affected by RT. These are the first data to demonstrate that low-intensity ladder-climbing RT specifically mitigates the FHL atrophy, which is the main muscle recruited during the training activity, while not preventing atrophy in other limb muscle not as heavily recruited. The recruitment-dependent prevention of atrophy by low intensity RT likely occurs by a combination of attenuated muscle protein degradation signals and enhanced muscle protein synthesis signals including mTOR, Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. α-Amyrin attenuates high fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Pankaj; Reeta, K H; Maulik, Subir Kumar; Dinda, Amit Kumar; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of α-amyrin (a pentacyclic triterpene) on high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into different groups. The control group was fed normal rat chow diet. The HFD group was fed HFD (60%; w/w) for 42 days. Pioglitazone (10 mg/kg, orally, once daily) was used as a standard drug. α-Amyrin was administered in 3 doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, orally, once daily along with HFD). Plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were estimated. Changes in blood pressure, oral glucose tolerance, and insulin tolerance were measured. Hepatic oxidative stress as well as messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) were analyzed. A significant increase in systolic blood pressure, plasma glucose, total cholesterol, and plasma triglycerides and a significant decrease in HDL-C were observed in HFD rats as compared with control rats. Glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance were also significantly impaired with HFD. α-Amyrin prevented these changes in a dose-dependent manner. Hepatic oxidative stress as well as micro- and macrovesicular fatty changes in hepatocytes caused by HFD were also attenuated by α-amyrin. α-Amyrin preserved the hepatic mRNA and protein levels of PPAR-α, which was reduced in HFD group. This study thus demonstrates that α-amyrin attenuates HFD-induced metabolic syndrome in rats.

  18. Acupuncture plus low-frequency electrical stimulation (Acu-LFES) attenuates denervation-induced muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhen; Hu, Li; Cheng, Jinzhong; Klein, Janet D; Hassounah, Faten; Cai, Hui; Li, Min; Wang, Haidong; Wang, Xiaonan H

    2016-02-15

    Muscle wasting occurs in a variety of clinical situations, including denervation. There is no effective pharmacological treatment for muscle wasting. In this study, we used a tibial nerve denervation model to test acupuncture plus low-frequency electric stimulation (Acu-LFES) as a therapeutic strategy for muscle atrophy. Acupuncture needles were connected to an SDZ-II electronic acupuncture device delivering pulses at 20 Hz and 1 mA; the treatment was 15 min daily for 2 wk. Acu-LFES prevented soleus and plantaris muscle weight loss and increased muscle cross-sectional area in denervated mice. The abundances of Pax7, MyoD, myogenin, and embryonic myosin heavy chain were significantly increased by Acu-LFES in both normal and denervated muscle. The number of central nuclei was increased in Acu-LFES-treated muscle fibers. Phosphorylation of Akt was downregulated by denervation leading to a decline in muscle mass; however, Acu-LFES prevented the denervation-induced decline largely by upregulation of the IGF-1 signaling pathway. Acu-LFES reduced the abundance of muscle catabolic proteins forkhead O transcription factor and myostatin, contributing to the attenuated muscle atrophy. Acu-LFES stimulated the expression of macrophage markers (F4/80, IL-1b, and arginase-1) and inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IFNγ, and TNFα) in normal and denervated muscle. Acu-LFES also stimulated production of the muscle-specific microRNAs miR-1 and miR-206. We conclude that Acu-LFES is effective in counteracting denervation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and increasing muscle regeneration. Upregulation of IGF-1, downregulation of myostatin, and alteration of microRNAs contribute to the attenuation of muscle atrophy in denervated mice. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Pre-Exercise Hyperpnea Attenuates Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Without Affecting Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberger, Philipp A.; Scherer, Thomas A.; Spengler, Christina M.

    2016-01-01

    Whole-body warm-up exercises were shown to attenuate exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). Whether intense pre-exercise hyperpnea offers similar protection and whether this might negatively affect exercise performance is unknown. Nine subjects with EIB (25±5 yrs; forced expiratory volume in 1s [FEV1], 104±15% predicted) performed an exercise challenge (ECh) followed—after 30min—by a constant-load cycling test to exhaustion. The ECh was preceded by one of four conditions: by i) control warm-up (CON) or by 10min of normocapnic hyperpnea with partial rebreathing at either ii) 50% (WU50) or iii) variable intensity (8x 30s-80%/45s-30%; WU80/30), or at iv) 70% (WU70) of maximal voluntary ventilation. FEV1 was measured at baseline and in 5-min intervals until 15min after CON/warm-up and 30min after ECh. None of the warm-up conditions induced EIB. The maximal post-ECh decrease in FEV1 was -13.8±3.1% after CON, −9.3±5.0% after WU50 (p = 0.081 vs. CON), −8.6±7.5% after WU80/30 (p = 0.081 vs. CON) and −7.2±5.0% after WU70 (p = 0.006 vs. CON), and perception of respiratory exertion was significantly attenuated (all p≤0.048), with no difference between warm-up conditions. Only after CON, FEV1 remained significantly reduced up to the start of the cycling endurance test (−8.0±4.3%, p = 0.004). Cycling performance did not differ significantly between test days (CON: 13±7min; WU50: 14±9min; WU80/30: 13±9min; WU70: 14±7min; p = 0.582). These data indicate that intense hyperpnea warm-up is effective in attenuating EIB severity and accelerating lung function recovery while none of the warm-up condition do compromise cycling performance. PMID:27898744

  20. α1-ANTITRYPSIN ATTENUATES ENDOTOXIN-INDUCED ACUTE LUNG INJURY IN RABBITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    揭志军; 蔡映云; 杨文兰; 金美玲; 朱威; 祝慈芳

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether pretreatment with α1-AT can attenuate acute lung injury (ALI) in rabbits induced with endotoxin. Methods Thirty-two New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned to four groups(n=8):1.Infusion of endotoxin(Lipopolysaccharide,LPS 500μg/kg)without α1-AT (group LPS).2.Infusion α1-AT 120mg/kg at 15min before challenge with LPS(group LAV).3.Infusion of α1-AT 120mg/kg(group AAT).4 Infusion of saline 4ml/kg as control (group NS).Arterial blood gases,peripheral leukocyte counts and airway pressure were recorded every 1h.Physiologic intrapulmonary shunting (Qs/Qt) was measured every 4h.After 8h the bloods were collected for measurement of plasma concentration and activity of α1-AT.Then bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF)was collected for measurement of concentrations of total protein (TP),interleukin-8(IL-8),tumor necrosis factor(TNF-α),the activities of elastase-like and α1-AT,total phospholipids(TPL) and disaturated phosphatidylcholine (DSPC).In addition,the wet-to-dry lung weight ratio(W/D) was measured. Results After infusion of endotoxin,it was observed that PaO2,peripheral luekocyte counts,total respiratory compliance progressively decreased and Ppeak and Qs/Qt increased comparing with the baseline values.In contrast to group NS,the increased plasma concentration but reduced activity of α1-AT was found in group LPS.In the BALF,the activity of α1-AT,TPL,DSPC/TPL were lower,but the concentrations of albumin,IL-8,TNF-α,and the activity of NE were higher.The ratio of W/D also increased.The pretreatment of α1-AT attenuated the deterioration of oxygenation,the reduction of compliance and the deterioration of other physiological,biochemical parameters mentioned above. Conclusion Pretreatment with α1-AT could attenuate endotoxin-induced lung injury in rabbits.Those beneficial effects of α1-AT might be due in part to the inhibitory effect on neutrophil elastase.

  1. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Deficiency Attenuates Experimental Colitis-Induced Adipose Tissue Lipolysis

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    Liming Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Nutrient deficiencies are common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Adipose tissue plays a critical role in regulating energy balance. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is an important endocrine metabolic regulator with emerging beneficial roles in lipid homeostasis. We investigated the impact of FGF21 in experimental colitis-induced epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT lipolysis. Methods. Mice were given 2.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS ad libitum for 7 days to induce colitis. The role of FGF21 was investigated using antibody neutralization or knockout (KO mice. Lipolysis index and adipose lipolytic enzymes were determined. In addition, 3T3-L1 cells were pretreated with IL-6, followed by recombinant human FGF21 (rhFGF21 treatment; lipolysis was assessed. Results. DSS markedly decreased eWAT/body weight ratio and increased serum concentrations of free fatty acid (FFA and glycerol, indicating increased adipose tissue lipolysis. eWAT intracellular lipolytic enzyme expression/activation was significantly increased. These alterations were significantly attenuated in FGF21 KO mice and by circulating FGF21 neutralization. Moreover, DSS treatment markedly increased serum IL-6 and FGF21 levels. IL-6 pretreatment was necessary for the stimulatory effect of FGF21 on adipose lipolysis in 3T3-L1 cells. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate that experimental colitis induces eWAT lipolysis via an IL-6/FGF21-mediated signaling pathway.

  2. ICP4-induced miR-101 attenuates HSV-1 replication.

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    Wang, Xiangling; Diao, Caifeng; Yang, Xi; Yang, Zhen; Liu, Min; Li, Xin; Tang, Hua

    2016-03-17

    Hepes simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) is an enveloped DNA virus that can cause lytic and latent infection. miRNAs post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression, and our previous work has indicated that HSV-1 infection induces miR-101 expression in HeLa cells. The present study demonstrates that HSV-1-induced miR-101 is mainly derived from its precursor hsa-mir-101-2, and the HSV-1 immediate early gene ICP4 (infected-cell polypeptide 4) directly binds to the hsa-mir-101-2 promoter to activate its expression. RNA-binding protein G-rich sequence factor 1 (GRSF1) was identified as a new target of miR-101; GRSF1 binds to HSV-1 p40 mRNA and enhances its expression, facilitating viral proliferation. Together, ICP4 induces miR-101 expression, which downregulates GRSF1 expression and attenuates the replication of HSV-1. This allows host cells to maintain a permissive environment for viral replication by preventing lytic cell death. These findings indicate that HSV-1 early gene expression modulates host miRNAs to regulate molecular defense mechanisms. This study provides novel insight into host-virus interactions in HSV-1 infection and may contribute to the development of antiviral therapeutics.

  3. Selenium Nanoparticles Attenuate Oxidative Stress and Testicular Damage in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

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    Dkhil, Mohamed A; Zrieq, Rafat; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2016-11-19

    We investigated the protective and antioxidative effects of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) in streptozotocin STZ-induced diabetic rats. STZ-diabetic rats were exposed daily to treatments with SeNPs and/or insulin and then the effect of these treatments on the parameters correlated to oxidative damage of the rat testes were assessed. Biochemical analysis revealed that SeNPs are able to ameliorate the reduction in the serum testosterone caused by STZ-induced diabetes. Furthermore, SeNPs could significantly decrease testicular tissue oxidative stress markers, namely lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide. In contrast, treatment of the STZ-diabetic rats with SeNPs increased the glutathione content and antioxidant enzyme activities in testicular tissues. Moreover, microscopic analysis proved that SeNPs are able to prevent histological damage in the testes of STZ-diabetic rats. Molecular analysis revealed that the mRNA level of Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) is significantly upregulated. On the contrary, the mRNA level of Bax (Bcl-2 Associated X Protein) was significantly downregulated. Furthermore, treatment of STZ-diabetic rats with SeNPs led to an elevation in the expression of PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen Gene). Interestingly, the insulin treatment also exhibited a significant improvement in the testicular function in STZ-diabetic rats. Collectively, our results demonstrated the possible effects of SeNPs in attenuating diabetes-induced oxidative damage, in particular in testicular tissue.

  4. Captopril and telmisartan treatments attenuate cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

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    Fouad, Amr A; Jresat, Iyad

    2013-04-01

    The possible protective effect of captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, vs. telmisartan, an angiotensin II-receptor antagonist, was investigated in rats with testicular injury induced by a single i.p. injection of cadmium chloride (2 mg/kg). Captopril (60 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and telmisartan (10 mg/kg/day, p.o.) were given for five consecutive days, starting 3 days before cadmium administration. Both agents significantly increased serum testosterone level, which was reduced by cadmium, suppressed lipid peroxidation, restored the depleted reduced glutathione, decreased the elevations of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and cadmium ion levels, and attenuated the reductions of selenium and zinc ions in testicular tissue resulted from cadmium administration. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that both captopril and telmisartan significantly reduced the cadmium-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor-κB, Fas ligand, and caspase-3 in testicular tissue. The differences between the results obtained with captopril and telmisartan were insignificant, suggesting that both drugs equally protected the testicular tissue from the detrimental effects of cadmium.

  5. Selenium Nanoparticles Attenuate Oxidative Stress and Testicular Damage in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Mohamed A. Dkhil

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the protective and antioxidative effects of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs in streptozotocin STZ-induced diabetic rats. STZ-diabetic rats were exposed daily to treatments with SeNPs and/or insulin and then the effect of these treatments on the parameters correlated to oxidative damage of the rat testes were assessed. Biochemical analysis revealed that SeNPs are able to ameliorate the reduction in the serum testosterone caused by STZ-induced diabetes. Furthermore, SeNPs could significantly decrease testicular tissue oxidative stress markers, namely lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide. In contrast, treatment of the STZ-diabetic rats with SeNPs increased the glutathione content and antioxidant enzyme activities in testicular tissues. Moreover, microscopic analysis proved that SeNPs are able to prevent histological damage in the testes of STZ-diabetic rats. Molecular analysis revealed that the mRNA level of Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2 is significantly upregulated. On the contrary, the mRNA level of Bax (Bcl-2 Associated X Protein was significantly downregulated. Furthermore, treatment of STZ-diabetic rats with SeNPs led to an elevation in the expression of PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen Gene. Interestingly, the insulin treatment also exhibited a significant improvement in the testicular function in STZ-diabetic rats. Collectively, our results demonstrated the possible effects of SeNPs in attenuating diabetes-induced oxidative damage, in particular in testicular tissue.

  6. Panax notoginseng Saponins Attenuate Phenotype Switching of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Induced by Notch3 Silencing

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    Liu, Nan; Shan, Dazhi; Li, Ying; Chen, Hui; Gao, Yonghong; Huang, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) could maintain vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in stable phenotypes so as to keep blood vessel elasticity as well as prevent failing in endovascular treatment with stent. Downregulation of Notch3 expression in VSMCs could influence the phenotype of VSMCs under pathologic status. However, whether PNS is able to attenuate the Notch3 silencing induced phenotype switching of VSMCs remains poorly understood. Primary human VSMCs were transfected with a plasmid containing a small interfering RNA (siRNA) against Notch3 and then exposed to different doses of PNS. The control groups included cells not receiving any treatment and cells transfected with a control siRNA. Phenotypic switching was evaluated by observing cell morphology with confocal microscopy, as well as examining α-SM-actin, SM22α, and OPN using Western blot. Downregulated Notch3 with a siRNA induced apparent phenotype switching, as reflected by morphologic changes, decreased expression of α-SM-actin and SM22α and increased expression of OPN. These changes were inhibited by PNS in a dose-dependent manner. The phenotype switching of VSMCs induced by Notch3 knockdown could be inhibited by PNS in a dose-dependent manner. Our study provided new evidence for searching effective drug for amending stability of atherosclerotic disease. PMID:26539217

  7. Panax notoginseng Saponins Attenuate Phenotype Switching of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Induced by Notch3 Silencing

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    Nan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS could maintain vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs in stable phenotypes so as to keep blood vessel elasticity as well as prevent failing in endovascular treatment with stent. Downregulation of Notch3 expression in VSMCs could influence the phenotype of VSMCs under pathologic status. However, whether PNS is able to attenuate the Notch3 silencing induced phenotype switching of VSMCs remains poorly understood. Primary human VSMCs were transfected with a plasmid containing a small interfering RNA (siRNA against Notch3 and then exposed to different doses of PNS. The control groups included cells not receiving any treatment and cells transfected with a control siRNA. Phenotypic switching was evaluated by observing cell morphology with confocal microscopy, as well as examining α-SM-actin, SM22α, and OPN using Western blot. Downregulated Notch3 with a siRNA induced apparent phenotype switching, as reflected by morphologic changes, decreased expression of α-SM-actin and SM22α and increased expression of OPN. These changes were inhibited by PNS in a dose-dependent manner. The phenotype switching of VSMCs induced by Notch3 knockdown could be inhibited by PNS in a dose-dependent manner. Our study provided new evidence for searching effective drug for amending stability of atherosclerotic disease.

  8. Carbon Monoxide Attenuates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis via Inhibition of GSK-3β Signaling

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    Md. Jamal Uddin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO is produced by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 which mediates the degradation of heme into CO, iron, and biliverdin. Also, CO ameliorates the human inflammatory bowel diseases and ulcerative colitis. However, the mechanism for the effect of CO on the inflammatory bowel disease has not yet been known. In this study, we showed that CO significantly increases survival percentage, body weight, colon length as well as histologic parameters in DSS-treated mice. In addition, CO inhalation significantly decreased DSS induced pro-inflammatory cytokines by inhibition of GSK-3β in mice model. To support the in vivo observation, TNF-α, iNOS and IL-10 after CO and LiCl treatment were measured in mesenteric lymph node cells (MLNs and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs from DSS treated mice. In addition, we determined that CO potentially inhibited GSK-3β activation and decreased TNF-α and iNOS expression by inhibition of NF-κB activation in LPS-stimulated U937 and MLN cells pretreated with CO. Together, our findings indicate that CO attenuates DSS-induced colitis via inhibition of GSK-3β signaling in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, this is the first report that investigated the molecular mechanisms mediated the novel effects of CO via inhibition GSK-3β in DSS-induced colitis model.

  9. Ferric Carboxymaltose-Mediated Attenuation of Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in an Iron Deficiency Rat Model

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    Jorge Eduardo Toblli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (AIC, a complication of anthracycline-based chemotherapies, is thought to involve iron, concerns exist about using iron for anaemia treatment in anthracycline-receiving cancer patients. This study evaluated how intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM modulates the influence of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA and doxorubicin (3–5 mg per kg body weight [BW] on oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation, and cardiorenal function in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone (SHR-SP rats. FCM was given as repeated small or single total dose (15 mg iron per kg BW, either concurrent with or three days after doxorubicin. IDA (after dietary iron restriction induced cardiac and renal oxidative stress (markers included malondialdehyde, catalase, Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase, nitrosative stress (inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitrotyrosine, inflammation (tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6, and functional/morphological abnormalities (left ventricle end-diastolic and end-systolic diameter, fractional shortening, density of cardiomyocytes and capillaries, caveolin-1 expression, creatinine clearance, and urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin that were aggravated by doxorubicin. Notably, iron treatment with FCM did not exacerbate but attenuated the cardiorenal effects of IDA and doxorubicin independent of the iron dosing regimen. The results of this model suggest that intravenous FCM can be used concomitantly with an anthracycline-based chemotherapy without increasing signs of AIC.

  10. Metformin attenuates hyperoxia-induced lung injury in neonatal rats by reducing the inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueyu; Walther, Frans J; Sengers, Rozemarijn M A; Laghmani, El Houari; Salam, Asma; Folkerts, Gert; Pera, Tonio; Wagenaar, Gerry T M

    2015-08-01

    Because therapeutic options are lacking for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), there is an urgent medical need to discover novel targets/drugs to treat this neonatal chronic lung disease. Metformin, a drug commonly used to lower blood glucose in type 2 diabetes patients, may be a novel therapeutic option for BPD by reducing pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis and improving vascularization. We investigated the therapeutic potential of daily treatment with 25 and 100 mg/kg metformin, injected subcutaneously in neonatal Wistar rats with severe experimental BPD, induced by continuous exposure to 100% oxygen for 10 days. Parameters investigated included survival, lung and heart histopathology, pulmonary fibrin and collagen deposition, vascular leakage, right ventricular hypertrophy, and differential mRNA expression in the lungs of key genes involved in BPD pathogenesis, including inflammation, coagulation, and alveolar development. After daily metformin treatment rat pups with experimental BPD had reduced mortality, alveolar septum thickness, lung inflammation, and fibrosis, demonstrated by a reduced influx of macrophages and neutrophils and hyperoxia-induced collagen III and fibrin deposition (25 mg/kg), as well as improved vascularization (100 mg/kg) compared with control treatment. However, metformin did not ameliorate alveolar enlargement, small arteriole wall thickening, vascular alveolar leakage, and right ventricular hypertrophy. In conclusion metformin prolongs survival and attenuates pulmonary injury by reducing pulmonary inflammation, coagulation, and fibrosis but does not affect alveolar development or prevent pulmonary arterial hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy in neonatal rats with severe hyperoxia-induced experimental BPD.

  11. Somatostatin does not attenuate intestinal injury in dextran sodium sulphate-induced subacute colitis

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    J. D. van Bergeijk

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available From several in vitro and in vivo studies involvement of som atostatin (SMS in intestinal inflammation emerge. Acute colitis induced in rats is attenuated by the long-acting SMS analogue octreotide. We studied the potential beneficial effect of SMS on non-acute experimental colitis. BALB/c mice received either saline, SMS-14 (36 or 120 μg daily or octreotide (3 μg daily subcutaneously delivered by implant osmotic pumps. A non-acute colitis was induced by administration of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS 10% in drinking water during 7 days. DSS evoked a mild, superficial pancolitis, most characterized by mucosal ulceration and submucosal influx of neutrophils. Neither SMS-14 nor octreotide reduced mucosal inflammatory score or macroscopical disease activity, although reduction of intestinal levels of interleukin1 β (IL-1 β, IL-6 and IL-10 during DSS was augmented both by SMS and octreotide. A slight increase of neutrophil influx was seen during SMS administration in animals not exposed to DSS. In conclusion, SMS or its long-acting analogue did not reduce intestinal inflammation in non-acute DSS-induced colitis. According to the cytokine profile observed, SMS-14 and octreotide further diminished the reduction of intestinal macrophage and Th2 lymphocyte activity.

  12. Tetomilast attenuates elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema through inhibition of oxidative stress in rabbits.

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    Baila, Bulin; Ohno, Yasushi; Nagamoto, Hisashi; Kotosai, Kounori; Yabuuchi, Youichi; Funaguchi, Norihiko; Ito, Fumitaka; Endo, Junki; Mori, Hidenori; Takemura, Genzou; Fujiwara, Takako; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi; Minatoguchi, Shinya

    2012-01-01

    Tetomilast was originally identified as a potent inhibitor of superoxide production in human neutrophils, and is of interest because it may relieve oxidative stress related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our objective was to determine whether tetomilast effectively protects against the development of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE)-induced emphysema in rabbits. Rabbits were divided into three groups (sham n=19, PPE n=19, PPE/Tetomilast n=18). The rabbits were once daily orally administered vehicle solution or tetomilast 5 d/week for 4 weeks before the PPE instillation. We compared pulmonary function, inflammatory cell infiltration, oxidative stress, and the incidences of apoptosis among the three groups. Tetomilast suppressed PPE-induced increases in the incidence of apoptosis and the production of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in lung tissues. PPE-instilled rabbits treated with tetomilast showed significantly less mean linear intercept and significantly better pulmonary function than rabbits administered PPE alone. Tetomilast may inhibit the development of emphysema by attenuating pulmonary inflammation and apoptosis caused by PPE-induced oxidative stress.

  13. CTRP3 attenuates diet-induced hepatic steatosis by regulating triglyceride metabolism

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    Peterson, Jonathan M.; Seldin, Marcus M.; Wei, Zhikui; Aja, Susan

    2013-01-01

    CTRP3 is a secreted plasma protein of the C1q family that helps regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis and is downregulated in a diet-induced obese state. However, the role of CTRP3 in regulating lipid metabolism has not been established. Here, we used a transgenic mouse model to address the potential function of CTRP3 in ameliorating high-fat diet-induced metabolic stress. Both transgenic and wild-type mice fed a high-fat diet showed similar body weight gain, food intake, and energy expenditure. Despite similar adiposity to wild-type mice upon diet-induced obesity (DIO), CTRP3 transgenic mice were strikingly resistant to the development of hepatic steatosis, had reduced serum TNF-α levels, and demonstrated a modest improvement in systemic insulin sensitivity. Additionally, reduced hepatic triglyceride levels were due to decreased expression of enzymes (GPAT, AGPAT, and DGAT) involved in triglyceride synthesis. Importantly, short-term daily administration of recombinant CTRP3 to DIO mice for 5 days was sufficient to improve the fatty liver phenotype, evident as reduced hepatic triglyceride content and expression of triglyceride synthesis genes. Consistent with a direct effect on liver cells, recombinant CTRP3 treatment reduced fatty acid synthesis and neutral lipid accumulation in cultured rat H4IIE hepatocytes. Together, these results establish a novel role for CTRP3 hormone in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism and highlight its protective function and therapeutic potential in attenuating hepatic steatosis. PMID:23744740

  14. USP15 attenuates IGF-I signaling by antagonizing Nedd4-induced IRS-2 ubiquitination.

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    Fukushima, Toshiaki; Yoshihara, Hidehito; Furuta, Haruka; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Iemura, Shun-Ichiro; Natsume, Tohru; Nakatsu, Yusuke; Kamata, Hideaki; Asano, Tomoichiro; Komada, Masayuki; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro

    2017-03-11

    Insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) are phosphorylated by IGF-I receptor tyrosine kinase in a ligand-dependent manner. In turn, they bind to and activate effector proteins such as PI3K, leading to various cell responses including cell proliferation. We had reported that ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 induces mono-ubiquitination of IRS-2, thereby enhancing IRS-2 tyrosine phosphorylation, leading to increased IGF signaling and mitogenic activity. Here we show that ubiquitin-specific protease 15 (USP15) antagonizes the effect of Nedd4 on IRS-2. We identified USP15 as a protein that preferentially bound to IRS-2 when IRS-2 was conjugated with ubiquitin. In HEK293 cells, Nedd4 overexpression induced IRS-2 ubiquitination, which was decreased by USP15 co-expression while increased by USP15 knockdown. Nedd4 overexpression enhanced IGF-I-dependent IRS-2 tyrosine phosphorylation, and USP15 co-expression suppressed it. Conversely, USP15 knockdown increased IRS-2 tyrosine phosphorylation and downstream signaling in prostate cancer PC-3 cells. We concluded that USP15 attenuates IGF-I signaling by antagonizing Nedd4-induced IRS-2 ubiquitination.

  15. Salidroside Attenuates Ventilation Induced Lung Injury via SIRT1-Dependent Inhibition of NLRP3 Inflammasome

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    Yan Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salidroside (SDS is the main effective ingredient of Rhodiola rosea L with a variety of pharmacologic properties. We aim to investigate the effects of SDS on ventilation induced lung injury (VILI and explore the possible underlying molecular mechanism. Methods: Lung injury was induced in male ICR mice via mechanical ventilation (30 ml/kg for 4h. The mice were divided in four groups:(1 Control group; (2 Ventilation group; (3 SDS group; (4 Ventilation with SDS group. SDS (50 mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally 1h before operation. Mouse lung vascular endothelial cells (MLVECs were subjected to cyclic stretch for 4h. Results: It was found that SDS attenuated VILI as shown in HE staining, cell count and protein content levels in BAL fluid, W/D and Evans blue dye leakage into the lung tissue. SDS treatment inhibited the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and subsequent caspase-1 cleavage as well as interleukin (IL-1β secretion both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, SDS administration up-regulated SIRT1 expression. Importantly, knockdown of SIRT1 reversed the inhibitory effect of SDS on NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Conclusions: Taken together, these findings indicate that SDS may confer protection against ventilation induced lung injury via SIRT1-de-pendent inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

  16. Attenuated muscle metaboreflex-induced increases in cardiac function in hypertension.

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    Sala-Mercado, Javier A; Spranger, Marty D; Abu-Hamdah, Rania; Kaur, Jasdeep; Coutsos, Matthew; Stayer, Douglas; Augustyniak, Robert A; O'Leary, Donal S

    2013-11-15

    Sympathoactivation may be excessive during exercise in subjects with hypertension, leading to increased susceptibility to adverse cardiovascular events, including arrhythmias, infarction, stroke, and sudden cardiac death. The muscle metaboreflex is a powerful cardiovascular reflex capable of eliciting marked increases in sympathetic activity during exercise. We used conscious, chronically instrumented dogs trained to run on a motor-driven treadmill to investigate the effects of hypertension on the mechanisms of the muscle metaboreflex. Experiments were performed before and 30.9 ± 4.2 days after induction of hypertension, which was induced via partial, unilateral renal artery occlusion. After induction of hypertension, resting mean arterial pressure was significantly elevated from 98.2 ± 2.6 to 141.9 ± 7.4 mmHg. The hypertension was caused by elevated total peripheral resistance. Although cardiac output was not significantly different at rest or during exercise after induction of hypertension, the rise in cardiac output with muscle metaboreflex activation was significantly reduced in hypertension. Metaboreflex-induced increases in left ventricular function were also depressed. These attenuated cardiac responses caused a smaller metaboreflex-induced rise in mean arterial pressure. We conclude that the ability of the muscle metaboreflex to elicit increases in cardiac function is impaired in hypertension, which may contribute to exercise intolerance.

  17. Quercetin Attenuates Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatic Mitochondrial Damage through Enhanced Mitophagy.

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    Yu, Xiao; Xu, Yanyan; Zhang, Shanshan; Sun, Jian; Liu, Peiyi; Xiao, Lin; Tang, Yuhan; Liu, Liegang; Yao, Ping

    2016-01-05

    Emerging evidence suggested mitophagy activation mitigates ethanol-induced liver injury. However, the effect of ethanol on mitophagy is inconsistent. Importantly, the understanding of mitophagy status after chronic ethanol consumption is limited. This study evaluated the effect of quercetin, a naturally-occurring flavonoid, on chronic ethanol-induced mitochondrial damage focused on mitophagy. An ethanol regime to mice for 15 weeks (accounting for 30% of total calories) led to significant mitochondrial damage as evidenced by changes of the mitochondrial ultrastructure, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and remodeling of membrane lipid composition, which was greatly attenuated by quercetin (100 mg/kg.bw). Moreover, quercetin blocked chronic ethanol-induced mitophagy suppression as denoted by mitophagosomes-lysosome fusion and mitophagy-related regulator elements, including LC3II, Parkin, p62 and voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), paralleling with increased FoxO3a nuclear translocation. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and extracellular signal regulated kinase 2 (ERK2), instead of AKT and Sirtuin 1, were involved in quercetin-mediated mitophagy activation. Quercetin alleviated ethanol-elicited mitochondrial damage through enhancing mitophagy, highlighting a promising preventive strategy for alcoholic liver disease.

  18. Curcumin attenuates diet-induced hepatic steatosis by activating AMP-activated protein kinase.

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    Um, Min Young; Hwang, Kwang Hyun; Ahn, Jiyun; Ha, Tae Youl

    2013-09-01

    Curcumin is a well-known component of traditional turmeric (Curcuma longa), which has been reported to prevent obesity and diabetes. However, the effect of curcumin on hepatic lipid metabolism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of curcumin on hepatic steatosis in high-fat/cholesterol diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet (ND), HFD or HFD with 0.15% curcumin (HFD+C) for 11 weeks. We found that curcumin significantly lowered the body-weight and adipose tissue weight of mice in the HFD+C group compared with the findings for the HFD group (p cholesterol, fasting glucose and insulin in serum were decreased, and HFD-induced impairment of insulin sensitivity was improved by curcumin supplementation (p Curcumin protected against the development of hepatic steatosis by reducing hepatic fat accumulation. Moreover, curcumin activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and elevated the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. By contrast, curcumin suppressed the HFD-mediated increases in sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1, fatty acid synthase and cluster of differentiation 36 expression. Taken together, these findings indicate that curcumin attenuates HFD-induced hepatic steatosis by regulating hepatic lipid metabolism via AMPK activation, suggesting its use as a therapeutic for hepatic steatosis.

  19. Sesame Oil Attenuates Ovalbumin-Induced Pulmonary Edema and Bronchial Neutrophilic Inflammation in Mice

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    Dur-Zong Hsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Allergic asthma is one of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases of airways. Severe asthma may lead to hospitalization and death. Sesame oil is a natural product with anti-inflammatory property. However, the effect of sesame oil on allergic asthma has never been studied. Objective. We investigate the effect of sesame oil on pulmonary inflammation in allergic asthma model. Methods. Allergic airway inflammation was induced by sensitizing with two doses of 10 mg ovalbumin (OVA and then challenged with 1% OVA nebulizer exposure (1 h/day for 3 days. Sesame oil (0.25, 0.5, or 1 mL/kg/day was given orally 30 min before each challenge. Samples were collected 24 h after the last challenge. Results. Data showed that sesame oil inhibited pulmonary edema and decreased interleukin (IL-1β and IL-6 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in OVA-treated mice. Sesame oil also decreased pulmonary nitrite level, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and neutrophil infiltration induced by OVA. Further, sesame oil decreased serum IgE level in OVA-treated mice. Conclusion. Sesame oil may attenuate pulmonary edema and bronchial neutrophilic inflammation by inhibiting systemic IgE level in allergic asthma.

  20. Characterization of immune responses induced by inactivated, live attenuated and DNA vaccines against Japanese encephalitis virus in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jieqiong; Chen, Hui; Wu, Na; Fan, Dongying; Liang, Guodong; Gao, Na; An, Jing

    2013-08-28

    Vaccination is the most effective countermeasure for protecting individuals from Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection. There are two types of JEV vaccines currently used in China: the Vero cell-derived inactivated vaccine and the live attenuated vaccine. In this study, we characterized the immune response and protective efficacy induced in mice by the inactivated vaccine, live attenuated vaccine and the DNA vaccine candidate pCAG-JME, which expresses JEV prM-E proteins. We found that the live attenuated vaccine conferred 100% protection and resulted in the generation of high levels of specific anti-JEV antibodies and cytokines. The pCAG-JME vaccine induced protective immunity as well as the live attenuated vaccine. Unexpectedly, immunization with the inactivated vaccine only induced a limited immune response and partial protection, which may be due to the decreased activity of dendritic cells and the expansion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells observed in these mice. Altogether, our results suggest that the live attenuated vaccine is more effective in providing protection against JEV infection than the inactivated vaccine and that pCAG-JME will be a potential JEV vaccine candidate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Celecoxib attenuates 5-fluorouracil-induced apoptosis in HCT-15 and HT-29 human colon cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Jeong Lim; Jong Chul Rhee; Young Mee Bae; Wan Joo Chun

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the combined chemotherapeutic effects of celecoxib when used with 5-FU in vitro.METHODS: Two human colon cancer cell lines (HCT-15and HT-29) were treated with 5-FU and celecoxib, alone and in combination. The effects of each drug were evaluated using the MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay, flow cytometry,and western blotting.RESULTS: 5-FU and celecoxib showed a dosedependent cytotoxic effect. When treated with 10-3mol/L 5-FU (IC50) and celecoxib with its concentration ranging from 10-8 mol/L to 10-4 mol/L of celecoxib,cells showed reduced cytotoxic effect than 5-FU(10-3 mol/L) alone. Flow cytometry showed that celecoxib attenuated 5-FU induced accumulation of cells at subG1 phase. Western blot analyses for caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage showed that celecoxib attenuated 5-FU induced apoptosis. Western blot analyses for cell cycle molecules showed that G2/M arrest might be possible cause of 5-FU induced apoptosis and celecoxib attenuated 5-FU induced apoptosis via blocking of cell cycle progression to the G2/M phase,causing an accumulation of cells at the G1/S phase.CONCLUSION: We found that celecoxib attenuated cytotoxic effect of 5-FU. Celecoxib might act via inhibition of cell cycle progression, thus preventing apoptosis induced by 5-FU.

  2. Benfotiamine attenuates nicotine and uric acid-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakumar, Pitchai; Sharma, Ramica; Singh, Manjeet

    2008-01-01

    The study has been designed to investigate the effect of benfotiamine, a thiamine derivative, in nicotine and uric acid-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rats. Nicotine (2 mg kg(-1)day(-1), i.p., 4 weeks) and uric acid (150 mg kg(-1)day(-1), i.p., 3 weeks) were administered to produce VED in rats. The development of VED was assessed by employing isolated aortic ring preparation and estimating serum and aortic concentration of nitrite/nitrate. Further, the integrity of vascular endothelium was assessed using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of thoracic aorta. Moreover, the oxidative stress was assessed by estimating serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and aortic superoxide anion generation. The administration of nicotine and uric acid produced VED by impairing the integrity of vascular endothelium and subsequently decreasing serum and aortic concentration of nitrite/nitrate and attenuating acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation. Further, nicotine and uric acid produced oxidative stress, which was assessed in terms of increase in serum TBARS and aortic superoxide generation. However, treatment with benfotiamine (70 mg kg(-1)day(-1), p.o.) or atorvastatin (30 mg kg(-1)day(-1) p.o., a standard agent) markedly prevented nicotine and uric acid-induced VED and oxidative stress by improving the integrity of vascular endothelium, increasing the concentration of serum and aortic nitrite/nitrate, enhancing the acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation and decreasing serum TBARS and aortic superoxide anion generation. Thus, it may be concluded that benfotiamine reduces the oxidative stress and consequently improves the integrity of vascular endothelium and enhances the generation of nitric oxide to prevent nicotine and uric acid-induced experimental VED.

  3. Fenofibrate attenuates nicotine-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakkarwar, Vishal Arvind

    2011-01-01

    The study has been designed to investigate the effect of fenofibrate on nicotine-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rats. Nicotine (2 mg/kg/day, i.p., 4 weeks) was administered to produce VED in rats. The development of VED was assessed by employing isolated aortic ring preparation and estimating serum and aortic concentration of nitrite/nitrate. Further, the integrity of vascular endothelium was assessed using the scanning electron microscopy of thoracic aorta. The expression of mRNA for p22phox and eNOS was assessed by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances concentration (TBARS) and aortic superoxide anion concentration were estimated to assess oxidative stress. Moreover, the serum lipid profile was assessed by estimating serum cholesterol, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein. The administration of nicotine induces VED by increased oxidative stress, altered lipid profile and impaired the integrity of vascular endothelium as assessed in terms of decrease in expression of mRNA for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), impairing the integrity of vascular endothelium and subsequently decreasing serum and aortic nitrite/nitrate and attenuating acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation. Further, nicotine produced oxidative stress, assessed in terms of increase in serum TBARS and aortic superoxide anion generation and increase in expression of mRNA for p22phox. Nicotine altered the lipid profile by increasing the serum cholesterol, triglycerides and decreasing the high density lipoprotein. However, treatment with fenofibrate (32 mg/kg, p.o.) markedly prevented nicotine-induced VED by decreasing oxidative stress and improving integrity of vascular endothelium, normalising the altered lipid profile, increasing the concentration of serum and aortic nitrite/nitrate, enhancing the acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation and decreasing serum TBARS and aortic

  4. Nephroprotective effect of gelsemine against cisplatin-induced toxicity is mediated via attenuation of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Zheng, Jing; Zhu, Weiping; Jia, Ning

    2015-03-01

    Cisplatin-induced generation of reactive oxygen species leads to acute nephrotoxicity limiting its use in the treatment of various cancers. Gelsemine, an alkaloid isolated from Gelsemium elegans, is known to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. This study was aimed to investigate as to whether gelsemine can serve as a protective agent against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups, each with 6 rats. Group 1 served as control and received the vehicles (peanut oil for 14 days and 0.9 % saline on day 14 for gelsemine and cisplatin respectively). Group 2 received a single intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin on day 14. Group 3 and 4 were pretreated with two different doses of gelsemine in addition to cisplatin, and group 5 and 6 received only gelsemine. The effects of gelsemine on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity were examined by measuring anti-oxidant enzymes activities, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage in the kidneys, a well-established model of oxidative damage. Pretreatment of rats with gelsemine caused a significant attenuation of cisplatin-induced DNA and oxidative damages. The blockade of lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activity was accompanied by increased production and/or activity of anti-oxidants, both enzymatic (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione-S-transferase) and non-enzymatic (GSH). The biomarkers of kidney malfunctioning, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen were ameliorated. The results of the present study suggest that gelsemine effectively suppressed cisplatin-induced renal injury by improving redox status.

  5. Silencing MR-1 attenuates inflammatory damage in mice heart induced by AngII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Wenjian [Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Key Lab of Antibiotic Biotechnology, Ministry of Health, Beijing 100050 (China); Hunan Environment-Biological Polytechnic College, Hengyang Hunan 421005 (China); Chen, Haiyang [Hunan Environment-Biological Polytechnic College, Hengyang Hunan 421005 (China); Jiang, Jiandong [Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Key Lab of Antibiotic Biotechnology, Ministry of Health, Beijing 100050 (China); Kong, Weijia, E-mail: wjkong894@sohu.com [Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Key Lab of Antibiotic Biotechnology, Ministry of Health, Beijing 100050 (China); Wang, Yiguang, E-mail: wangyh456@yahoo.com.cn [Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Key Lab of Antibiotic Biotechnology, Ministry of Health, Beijing 100050 (China)

    2010-01-15

    Myofibrillogenesis regulator-1(MR-1) can aggravate cardiac hypertrophy induced by angiotensin(Ang) II in mice through activation of NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway, and nuclear transcription factor (NF)-{kappa}B and activator protein-1(AP-1) regulate inflammatory and immune responses by increasing the expression of specific inflammatory genes in various tissues including heart. Whether inhibition of MR-1 expression will attenuate AngII-induced inflammatory injury in mice heart has not been explored. Herein, we monitored the activation of NF-{kappa}B and AP-1, together with expression of pro-inflammatory of interleukin(IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-{alpha}, vascular-cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM), and inflammatory cell infiltration in heart of mice which are induced firstly by AngII (PBS),then received MR-1-siRNA or control-siRNA injecting. We found that the activation of NF-{kappa}B and AP-1 was inhibited significantly, together with the decreased expression of IL-6, TNF-{alpha}, VCAM-1, and PECAM in AngII-induced mice myocardium in MR-1-siRNA injection groups compared with control-siRNA injecting groups. However, the expression level of MR-1 was not an apparent change in PBS-infused groups than in unoperation groups, and MR-1-siRNA do not affect the expression of MR-1 in PBS-infused mice. Our findings suggest that silencing MR-1 protected mice myocardium against inflammatory injury induced by AngII by suppression of pro-inflammatory transcription factors NF-{kappa}B and AP-1 signaling pathway.

  6. Silibinin attenuates ionizing radiation-induced pro-angiogenic response and EMT in prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nambiar, Dhanya K. [Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi (India); School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi (India); Rajamani, Paulraj [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi (India); Singh, Rana P., E-mail: rana_singh@mail.jnu.ac.in [Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi (India); School of Life Sciences, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar (India)

    2015-01-02

    Graphical abstract: Potential model showing mechanism of silibinin-mediated attenuation of IR-induced angiogenic phenotype and EMT in tumor cells. Silibinin counters radiation induced invasive and migratory phenotype of cancer cells by down-regulating mitogenic pathways activated by IR, leading to inhibition of molecules including VEGF, iNOS, MMPs and N-cadherin. Silibinin also reverses IR mediated E-cadherin down-regulation, inhibiting EMT in tumor cells. Silibinin also radiosensitizes endothelial cells, reduces capillary tube formation by targeting various pro-angiogenic molecules. Further, silibinin may inhibit autocrine and paracrine signaling between tumor and endothelial cells by decreasing the levels of VEGF and other signaling molecules activated in response to IR. - Highlights: • Silibinin radiosensitizes endothelial cells. • Silibinin targets ionization radiation (IR)-induced EMT in PCa cells. • Silibinin is in phase II clinical trial in PCa patients, hence clinically relevant. - Abstract: Radiotherapy of is well established and frequently utilized in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. However, recurrence following therapy and distant metastases are commonly encountered problems. Previous studies underline that, in addition to its therapeutic effects, ionizing radiation (IR) increases the vascularity and invasiveness of surviving radioresistant cancer cells. This invasive phenotype of radioresistant cells is an upshot of IR-induced pro-survival and mitogenic signaling in cancer as well as endothelial cells. Here, we demonstrate that a plant flavonoid, silibinin can radiosensitize endothelial cells by inhibiting expression of pro-angiogenic factors. Combining silibinin with IR not only strongly down-regulated endothelial cell proliferation, clonogenicity and tube formation ability rather it strongly (p < 0.001) reduced migratory and invasive properties of PCa cells which were otherwise marginally affected by IR treatment alone. Most of the pro

  7. Squamosamide derivative FLZ protected tyrosine hydroxylase function in a chronic MPTP/probenecid mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiu-Qi; Wu, Liang-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Sun, Hua; Zhang, Dan

    2015-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor impairments and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. FLZ (formulated as: N-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-ethyl]-2-(2, 5-dimethoxy-phenyl)-3-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenyl)-acrylamide) is a novel synthetic derivative of squamosamide from a Chinese herb and has been proven to protect dopaminergic neurons in subacute PD models. However, whether FLZ has a neuroprotective effect on chronic PD model is still unknown. The present study was designed to verify the neuroprotection of FLZ on chronic PD mouse model induced by MPTP combined with probenecid (MPTP/p). The results showed that treatment of mice with FLZ for 9 weeks significantly improved motor behavior and dopaminergic neuronal function of mice injected with MPTP/p. The beneficial effects of FLZ attributed to the elevation of dopaminergic neuron number, dopamine level, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity, as well as decrease of α-synuclein (α-Syn) expression, α-Syn phosphorylation, nitration, and aggregation. Moreover, FLZ decreased the interaction between α-Syn and TH, which eventually improved dopaminergic neuronal function. Mechanistic study demonstrated that FLZ increased Akt and mTOR phosphorylation, suggesting that FLZ activated Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and this might be involved in the neuroprotection of FLZ. The present results provided more elaborate in vivo evidences to support the neuroprotective effect of FLZ on dopaminergic neurons of chronic PD mouse model and the potential of FLZ to be developed as new drug to treat PD.

  8. Genetic AVP deficiency abolishes cold-induced diuresis but does not attenuate cold-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhongjie

    2006-06-01

    Chronic cold exposure causes hypertension and diuresis. The aim of this study was to determine whether vasopressin (AVP) plays a role in cold-induced hypertension and diuresis. Two groups of Long-Evans (LE) and two groups of homozygous AVP-deficient Brattleboro (VD) rats were used. Blood pressure (BP) was not different among the four groups during a 2-wk control period at room temperature (25 degrees C, warm). After the control period, one LE group and one VD group were exposed to cold (5 degrees C); the remaining groups were kept at room temperature. BP and body weight were measured weekly during exposure to cold. Food intake, water intake, urine output, and urine osmolality were measured during weeks 1, 3, and 5 of cold exposure. At the end of week 5, all animals were killed and blood was collected for measurement of plasma AVP. Kidneys were removed for measurement of renal medulla V2 receptor mRNA and aquaporin-2 (AQP-2) protein expression. BP of LE and VD rats increased significantly by week 2 of cold exposure and reached a high level by week 5. BP elevations developed at approximately the same rate and to the same degree in LE and VD rats. AVP deficiency significantly increased urine output and solute-free water clearance and decreased urine osmolality. Chronic cold exposure increased urine output and solute-free water clearance and decreased urine osmolality in LE rats, indicating that cold exposure caused diuresis in LE rats. Cold exposure failed to affect these parameters in VD rats, suggesting that the AVP system is responsible for cold-induced diuresis. Cold exposure did not alter plasma AVP in LE rats. Renal medulla V2 receptor mRNA and AQP-2 protein expression levels were decreased significantly in the cold-exposed LE rats, suggesting that cold exposure inhibited renal V2 receptors and AVP-inducible AQP-2 water channels. We conclude that 1) AVP may not be involved in the pathogenesis of cold-induced hypertension, 2) the AVP system plays a critical role

  9. A porcine model of progressive Parkinson disease established by chronic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) intoxication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M S; Glud, Andreas Nørgaard; Møller, Arne

    2009-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder, resulting from a progressive dopaminergic neurons loss in the substantia nigra (SN). Attempts to discover effective compounds halting PD progression have so far failed in clinical trials, perhaps because current animal models do...... velocity for the intoxicated animals. This decrease could be reversed completely with apomorphine. For dosages of 2-12 mg MPTP/day, the symptoms failed to progress from the initial state of mild Parkinsonism, and some recovery was observed. Animals receiving 18 mg/day progressed to moderate parkinsonism...... analysis revealed steadily decreasing neuronal counts in the SN from 80,700 unilaterally in normal animals to 32,000, 27,000 and 18,000 at 12, 18 and 24 mg/day, respectively. We conclude that it is possible to induce progressive Parkinson disease based on chronic MPTP-intoxication in Göttingen minipigs...

  10. Study on optical attenuation performance of special stock power optical cable based on a wind induced vibration environment in laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Zhao, Ziyuan

    2010-08-01

    For the purpose of 10G communication system upgrade for Guangdong Power Grid, laboratory simulation tests on dynamic and temperature cycle are performed for the reserved cables (stock optical cables) of existing 2.5G special optical cable lines that have operated for ten years, in order to verify the possibility of optical cable to be upgraded to a 10G transmission level and evaluate the degradation level of optical cables. This paper points out the necessity of laboratory test on attenuation performance in a wind-induced vibration environment, describes the test methods thereof, summarizes and analyzes a variety of optical attenuation performance data, and finds that the attenuation performance of current OPGW, ADSS, ADL optical fiber lines in wind-induced vibration environment meets the industry standards.

  11. An evaluation of istradefylline treatment on Parkinsonian motor and cognitive deficits in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated macaque models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Wai Kin D; Camus, Sandrine M; Li, Qin; Yang, Jianzhong; McGuire, Steve; Pioli, Elsa Y; Bezard, Erwan

    2016-11-01

    Istradefylline (KW-6002), an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, is used adjunct with optimal doses of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) to extend on-time in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients experiencing motor fluctuations. Clinical application of istradefylline for the management of other l-DOPA-induced complications, both motor and non-motor related (i.e. dyskinesia and cognitive impairments), remains to be determined. In this study, acute effects of istradefylline (60-100 mg/kg) alone, or with optimal and sub-optimal doses of l-DOPA, were evaluated in two monkey models of PD (i) the gold-standard 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated macaque model of parkinsonian and dyskinetic motor symptoms and (ii) the chronic low dose (CLD) MPTP-treated macaque model of cognitive (working memory and attentional) deficits. Behavioural analyses in l-DOPA-primed MPTP-treated macaques showed that istradefylline alone specifically alleviated postural deficits. When combined with an optimal l-DOPA treatment dose, istradefylline increased on-time, enhanced therapeutic effects on bradykinesia and locomotion, but exacerbated dyskinesia. Istradefylline treatment at specific doses with sub-optimal l-DOPA specifically alleviated bradykinesia. Cognitive assessments in CLD MPTP-treated macaques showed that the attentional and working memory deficits caused by l-DOPA were lowered after istradefylline administration. Taken together, these data support a broader clinical use of istradefylline as an adjunct treatment in PD, where specific treatment combinations can be utilised to manage various l-DOPA-induced complications, which importantly, maintain a desired anti-parkinsonian response.

  12. A comparative study of attenuation of propofol-induced pain by lignocaine, ondansetron, and ramosetron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangur Basappa Sumalatha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Propofol is widely used for induction of anaesthesia, although the pain during its injection remains a concern for all anaesthesiologists. A number of techniques have been adopted to minimise propofol-induced pain. Various 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 antagonists have shown to reduce propofol-induced pain. Hence, this placebo-controlled study was conducted to compare the efficacy of ondansetron, ramosetron and lignocaine in terms of attenuation of propofol-induced pain during induction of anaesthesia. Methods: Hundred and fifty adult patients, aged 18–60 years, posted for various elective surgical procedures under general anaesthesia were randomly assigned to three groups of 50 each. Group R received 0.3 mg of ramosetron, Group L received 0.5 mg/kg of 2% lignocaine and Group O received 4 mg of ondansetron. After intravenous (IV pre-treatment of study drug, manual occlusion of venous drainage was done at mid-arm with the help of an assistant for 1 min. This was followed by administration of propofol (1% after release of venous occlusion. Pain was assessed with a four-point scale. Unpaired Student's t-test and Chi-square test/Fisher's exact test were used to analyse results. Results: The overall incidence and intensity of pain were significantly less in Groups L and R compared to Group O (P ≤ 0.001. The incidence of mild to moderate pain in Groups O, R and L was 56%, 26% and 20%, respectively. The incidence of score '0' (no pain was significantly higher in Group L (76% and Group R (72% than Group O (34% (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Pre-treatment with IV ramosetron 0.3 mg is equally effective as 0.5 mg/kg of 2% lignocaine in preventing propofol-induced pain and both were better than ondansetron.

  13. Baicalin attenuates TNBS-induced colitis in rats by modulating the Th17/Treg paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ying; Dai, Shi-Xue; Chi, Hong-Gang; Li, Tao; He, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Jian; Ye, Cai-Guo; Huang, Guo-Liang; Zhao, Bing; Li, Wen-Yang; Wan, Zheng; Feng, Jin-Shan; Zheng, Xue-Bao

    2015-10-01

    Baicalin, a flavonoid, has a wide range of pharmacological properties, including immunomodulation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of baicalin on the balance of T helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory T (Treg) cells in a colitis model. The rat colitis model was induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Baicalin (10 ml/kg, each) or mesalazine (positive control) was then administered orally for 7 days. Inflammatory and immunological responses were evaluated by pathology, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blot analysis, and flow cytometry. Our study showed that baicalin not only significantly attenuated TNBS-induced colitis by reducing the disease activity index as well as macroscopic and microscopic scores, but it also improved the weight loss and shortening of the colon. Baicalin treatment also induced a significant decrease in the levels of inflammatory mediators, including the myeloperoxidase activity, the levels of tumor necrosis factor α, IL-1β, and Th1-related cytokines IL-12 and IFN-γ. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of baicalin seem to be associated with regulation of the Th17 and Treg paradigm. We found that administration of baicalin significantly downregulated the number of Th17 cells and the levels of Th17-related cytokines (IL-17 and IL-6) and retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor γt. In contrast, there was an increase in Treg cells numbers, Treg-related cytokines transforming growth factor-β and IL-10, and forkhead box P3. Our results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of baicalin may be linked to modulation of the balance between Th17 and Treg cells in TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis.

  14. Attenuation of cigarette smoke-induced airway mucus production by hydrogen-rich saline in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunye Ning

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over-production of mucus is an important pathophysiological feature in chronic airway disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and asthma. Cigarette smoking (CS is the leading cause of COPD. Oxidative stress plays a key role in CS-induced airway abnormal mucus production. Hydrogen protected cells and tissues against oxidative damage by scavenging hydroxyl radicals. In the present study we investigated the effect of hydrogen on CS-induced mucus production in rats. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: sham control, CS group, hydrogen-rich saline pretreatment group and hydrogen-rich saline control group. Lung morphology and tissue biochemical changes were determined by immunohistochemistry, Alcian Blue/periodic acid-Schiff staining, TUNEL, western blot and realtime RT-PCR. RESULTS: Hydrogen-rich saline pretreatment attenuated CS-induced mucus accumulation in the bronchiolar lumen, goblet cell hyperplasia, muc5ac over-expression and abnormal cell apoptosis in the airway epithelium as well as malondialdehyde increase in the BALF. The phosphorylation of EGFR at Tyr1068 and Nrf2 up-regulation expression in the rat lungs challenged by CS exposure were also abrogated by hydrogen-rich saline. CONCLUSION: Hydrogen-rich saline pretreatment ameliorated CS-induced airway mucus production and airway epithelium damage in rats. The protective role of hydrogen on CS-exposed rat lungs was achieved at least partly by its free radical scavenging ability. This is the first report to demonstrate that intraperitoneal administration of hydrogen-rich saline protected rat airways against CS damage and it could be promising in treating abnormal airway mucus production in COPD.

  15. iNKT-CELL ACTIVATION INDUCES LATE PRETERM BIRTH THAT IS ATTENUATED BY ROSIGLITAZONE1

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, Derek; Romero, Roberto; Plazyo, Olesya; Arenas-Hernandez, Marcia; Panaitescu, Bogdan; Xu, Yi; Milovic, Tatjana; Xu, Zhonghui; Bhatti, Gaurav; Qing-Sheng, Mi; Drewlo, Sascha; Tarca, Adi L.; Hassan, Sonia S.; Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality; however, its non-infection-related mechanisms are poorly understood. Herein, we show that the expansion of activated CD1d-restricted invariant NKT (iNKT) cells in the third trimester by administration of α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) induces late PTB and neonatal mortality. In vivo imaging revealed that fetuses from mice that underwent α-GalCer-induced late PTB had bradycardia and died shortly after delivery. Yet, administration of α-GalCer in the second trimester did not cause pregnancy loss. PPARγ activation, through rosiglitazone treatment, reduced the rate of α-GalCer-induced late PTB and improved neonatal survival. Administration of α-GalCer in the third trimester suppressed PPARγ activation as shown by the down-regulation of Fabp4 and Fatp4 in myometrial and decidual tissues, respectively; this suppression was rescued by rosiglitazone treatment. Administration of α-GalCer in the third trimester induced an increase in the activation of conventional CD4+ T cells in myometrial tissues and the infiltration of activated macrophages, neutrophils and mature DCs to myometrial and/or decidual tissues. All of these effects were blunted after rosiglitazone treatment. Administration of α-GalCer also up-regulated the expression of inflammatory genes at the maternal-fetal interface and systemically, and rosiglitazone treatment partially attenuated these responses. Finally, an increased infiltration of activated iNKT-like cells in human decidual tissues is associated with non-infection-related preterm labor/birth. Collectively, these results demonstrate that iNKT-cell activation in vivo leads to late PTB by initiating innate and adaptive immune responses and suggest that the PPARγ pathway has potential as a target for prevention of this syndrome. PMID:26740111

  16. Magnolol pretreatment attenuates heat stress-induced IEC-6 cell injury*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Chen; He, Sha-sha; Yin, Peng; Xu, Lei; Shi, Ya-ran; Yu, Xiao-hong; Lyu, An; Liu, Feng-hua; Jiang, Lin-shu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Heat stress (HS) is an important environmental stressor that adversely influences livestock during the summer. The aim of this study was to investigate whether magnolol protects against HS-induced intestinal epithelial cell injury. Materials and methods: An intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6) was subjected to HS at 42 °C, with and without magnolol pretreatment. Cell injury was detected by monitoring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium) assay was used to assess cell proliferation and viability, including identifying effective concentrations of magnolol. Flow cytometry confirmed G1-phase cell-cycle arrest and its alleviation by magnolol. Active DNA synthesis was measured by incorporation of nucleic acid 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU). G1-phase cell-cycle-related gene expression was assessed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and levels of G1-phase-related proteins by Western blotting. Results: HS induced IEC-6 cell injury and decreased cell viability, as demonstrated by data from LDH and MTS assays, respectively. Based on a number of criteria, IEC-6 cells subjected to HS were arrested in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Magnolol pretreatment decreased HS-induced cell injury through relief of this cell-cycle arrest. Conclusions: Magnolol pretreatment attenuates HS-induced injury in IEC-6 cells. Magnolol is potentially promising as a protective strategy for HS in livestock. PMID:27256675

  17. Involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress in formalin-induced pain is attenuated by 4-phenylbutyric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fan; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Jianmei; Li, Meirong; Zhong, Feng; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Yuezhu; Wang, Yaping

    2017-01-01

    Background Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in many neurological and inflammatory responses. Peripheral inflammatory responses can induce central sensitization and trigger inflammatory pain. However, there is little research on the relationship between ER stress and inflammatory pain. In this study, we examined whether the ER stress response is involved in peripheral inflammatory pain using a formalin-induced rat pain model. Methods Rats were divided into the following five groups: control, formalin, formalin + vehicle, formalin + 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) (40 mg/kg) and formalin + 4-PBA (100 mg/kg). Formalin-induced pain was assessed behaviorally by recording licking activity. The expression levels of immunoglobulin-binding protein (BIP), activating transcription factor-6 (ATF6), phosphorylated inositol-requiring enzyme-1 (p-IRE1), phosphorylated protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (p-PERK) and c-fos were quantitatively assessed by Western blot, and the distribution of BIP, ATF6 and c-fos in the lumbar enlargement of spinal cord were identified by immunohistochemistry in spinal dorsal horn slices. In addition, the concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the spinal cord were tested by biochemical measurement and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Results Intraperitoneal injection of 4-PBA at the dose of 100 mg/kg before formalin injection significantly decreased nociceptive behavior in the second phase compared with control, formalin, formalin + vehicle and formalin + 4-PBA (40 mg/kg) (Ppain and that inhibition of ER stress may attenuate central sensitization induced by peripheral inflammatory stimulation. PMID:28360534

  18. Doxycycline Attenuates Leptospira-Induced IL-1β by Suppressing NLRP3 Inflammasome Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlong Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Doxycycline (Dox, a semisynthetic antibiotic, has been reported to exert multiple immunomodulatory effects. Treatment with Dox has a satisfactory curative effect against leptospirosis. In addition to its antibacterial action, we supposed that Dox also modulated immune response in controlling leptospira infection. Using J774A.1 mouse macrophages, the effects of Dox on protein and mRNA levels of IL-1β and TNF-α were investigated after infection with live or sonicated Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai strain Lai (56601. Specifically, the level of IL-1β but not TNF-α was sharply decreased when treated with Dox in leptospira-infected macrophages. Western blot analysis showed that Dox suppressed the activation of leptospira-induced MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Using NLRP3-deficient and NLRC4-deficient mice, the data showed that the expression of leptospira-induced IL-1β was mainly dependent on the presence of NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages. Meanwhile, Dox suppressed leptospira-induced NLRP3 inflammasome priming with the upregulation of the Na/K-ATPase Pump β1 subunit. The inhibition effect of Dox on IL-1β was also conspicuous in cells with lipopolysaccharide and ATP stimulation. These results were confirmed in vivo, as peritoneal fluids of mice and organs of hamsters expressed less IL-1β after treatment of leptospiral infection with Dox. Our results indicated that Dox also modulated immune response to attenuate leptospira-induced IL-1β by suppressing p38, JNK, p65, and NLRP3 inflammasome priming.

  19. Hepatitis B virus disrupts mitochondrial dynamics: induces fission and mitophagy to attenuate apoptosis.

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    Seong-Jun Kim

    Full Text Available Human hepatitis B virus (HBV causes chronic hepatitis and is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV infection alters mitochondrial metabolism. The selective removal of damaged mitochondria is essential for the maintenance of mitochondrial and cellular homeostasis. Here, we report that HBV shifts the balance of mitochondrial dynamics toward fission and mitophagy to attenuate the virus-induced apoptosis. HBV induced perinuclear clustering of mitochondria and triggered mitochondrial translocation of the dynamin-related protein (Drp1 by stimulating its phosphorylation at Ser616, leading to mitochondrial fission. HBV also stimulated the gene expression of Parkin, PINK1, and LC3B and induced Parkin recruitment to the mitochondria. Upon translocation to mitochondria, Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, underwent self-ubiquitination and facilitated the ubiquitination and degradation of its substrate Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2, a mediator of mitochondrial fusion. In addition to conventional immunofluorescence, a sensitive dual fluorescence reporter expressing mito-mRFP-EGFP fused in-frame to a mitochondrial targeting sequence was employed to observe the completion of the mitophagic process by delivery of the engulfed mitochondria to lysosomes for degradation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that viral HBx protein plays a central role in promoting aberrant mitochondrial dynamics either when expressed alone or in the context of viral genome. Perturbing mitophagy by silencing Parkin led to enhanced apoptotic signaling, suggesting that HBV-induced mitochondrial fission and mitophagy promote cell survival and possibly viral persistence. Altered mitochondrial dynamics associated with HBV infection may contribute to mitochondrial injury and liver disease pathogenesis.

  20. In vivo evidence of methamphetamine induced attenuation of brain tissue oxygenation as measured by EPR oximetry

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    Weaver, John, E-mail: jmweaver@salud.unm.edu [Center of Biomedical Research Excellence, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Yang, Yirong [Center of Biomedical Research Excellence, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Purvis, Rebecca [Center of Biomedical Research Excellence, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Department of Neurology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Weatherwax, Theodore [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Rosen, Gerald M. [Center for Biomedical Engineering and Technology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Center for EPR Imaging In Vivo Physiology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Liu, Ke Jian [Center of Biomedical Research Excellence, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Department of Neurology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Abuse of methamphetamine (METH) is a major and significant societal problem in the US, as a number of studies have suggested that METH is associated with increased cerebrovascular events, hemorrhage or vasospasm. Although cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in METH-induced toxicity are not completely understood, changes in brain O{sub 2} may play an important role and contribute to METH-induced neurotoxicity including dopaminergic receptor degradation. Given that O{sub 2} is the terminal electron acceptor for many enzymes that are important in brain function, the impact of METH on brain tissue pO{sub 2}in vivo remains largely uncharacterized. This study investigated striatal tissue pO{sub 2} changes in male C57BL/6 mice (16–20 g) following METH administration using EPR oximetry, a highly sensitive modality to measure pO{sub 2}in vivo, in situ and in real time. We demonstrate that 20 min after a single injection of METH (8 mg/kg i.v.), the striatal pO{sub 2} was reduced to 81% of the pretreatment level and exposure to METH for 3 consecutive days further attenuated striatal pO{sub 2} to 64%. More importantly, pO{sub 2} did not recover fully to control levels even 24 h after administration of a single dose of METH and continual exposure to METH exacerbates the condition. We also show a reduction in cerebral blood flow associated with a decreased brain pO{sub 2} indicating an ischemic condition. Our findings suggests that administration of METH can attenuate brain tissue pO{sub 2}, which may lead to hypoxic insult, thus a risk factor for METH-induced brain injury and the development of stroke in young adults. - Highlights: • Explored striatal tissue pO{sub 2}in vivo after METH administration by EPR oximetry. • pO{sub 2} was reduced by 81% after a single dose and 64% after 3 consecutive daily doses. • pO{sub 2} did not recover fully to control levels even 24 h after a single dose. • Decrease in brain tissue pO{sub 2} may be associated with a decrease in

  1. Whey protein isolate attenuates strength decline after eccentrically-induced muscle damage in healthy individuals

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    Cribb Paul J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the effects of short-term consumption of whey protein isolate on muscle proteins and force recovery after eccentrically-induced muscle damage in healthy individuals. Methods Seventeen untrained male participants (23 ± 5 yr, 180 ± 6 cm, 80 ± 11 kg were randomly separated into two supplement groups: i whey protein isolate (WPH; n = 9; or ii carbohydrate (CHO; n = 8. Participants consumed 1.5 g/kg.bw/day supplement (~30 g consumed immediately, and then once with breakfast, lunch, in the afternoon and after the evening meal for a period of 14 days following a unilateral eccentric contraction-based resistance exercise session, consisting of 4 sets of 10 repetitions at 120% of maximum voluntary contraction on the leg press, leg extension and leg flexion exercise machine. Plasma creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels were assessed as blood markers of muscle damage. Muscle strength was examined by voluntary isokinetic knee extension using a Cybex dynamometer. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with an alpha of 0.05. Results Isometric knee extension strength was significantly higher following WPH supplementation 3 (P Conclusions The major finding of this investigation was that whey protein isolate supplementation attenuated the impairment in isometric and isokinetic muscle forces during recovery from exercise-induced muscle injury.

  2. Inhibition of interleukin-6 function attenuates the central sensitization and pain behavior induced by osteoarthritis.

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    Lin, Yuangui; Liu, Lian; Jiang, Haixia; Zhou, Jieshu; Tang, Yuying

    2017-09-15

    Chronic pain is the most prominent and disabling symptom in the patients with osteoarthritis (OA), and the underlying mechanism largely remains unclear. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a proinflammatory cytokine, is critically involved in the development and maintenance of central sensitization in several rodent models of chronic pain. The present study aims to elucidate the IL-6 mediated neurological adaptation in dorsal horn in the rat with monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) - induced OA. Significant upregulation of IL-6 expression was detected in the dorsal horn in the modeled rats. Blockade of IL-6 function by tocilizumab markedly suppressed the activation of astrocytes and microglia in the ipsilateral dorsal horn, reduced c-Fos immunoreactivity in dorsal horn neurons, and attenuated the upregulation of glutamate receptor subunits GluR1 and NR2B in dorsal horn in the rats with MIA-induced OA. It was further reported that administration of tocilizumab significantly improved the performance in weight-bearing test and mitigated the mechanical allodynia in the modeled rats. These data illustrated spinal IL-6 mediated mechanism underlying the chronic pain, and proposed the potential therapeutic effect of tocilizumab on the chronic pain in the setting of OA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Attenuation of Cyclosporine-Induced Sperm Impairment and Embryotoxicity by Crataegus monogyna Fruit Aqueous Extract.

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    Zahra, Armand; Gholamreza, Najafi; Farokhi, Farah; Shalizar Jalali, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Cyclosporine (Cs), a cyclic undecapeptide with potent immuno suppressive activity, causes several adverse effects including reproductive toxicity. This study aims to examine the ability of Crataegus monogyna aqueous fruit extract as an antioxidant to protect against Cs-induced reproductive toxicity. In this experimental study, 32 adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of eight animals each. Rats in two groups received 40 mg/kg/day Cs for 45 days by oral gavage. In addition, one of the two groups received Crataegus monogyna aqueous extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day orally four hours after Cs administration. The remaining two groups consisted of a vehicle treated control (Cont) group and a Crataegus monogyna control (Cr) group. Differences between groups were assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the SPSS software package for Windows. Cs treatment caused a signiifcant decrease in sperm count and viability with an increase in DNA damage and protamine deifciency of the sperm cells. We observed signiifcant decreases in fertilization rate and embryonic development, in addition to an increased rate of embryo arrest in Cs-treated rats. Crataegus monogyna co-administration attenuated all Cs-induced negative changes in the above-mentioned parameters. Supplementation with Crataegus monogyna a queous fruit extract could be useful against reproductive toxicity during Cs treatment in a rat model.

  4. Estradiol pretreatment attenuated nicotine-induced endothelial cell apoptosis via estradiol functional membrane receptor.

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    Wang, Li-li; Zhao, Jian-li; Lau, Wayne-Bond; Zhang, Yan-qing; Qiao, Zhong-dong; Wang, Ya-jing

    2011-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is highly associated with increased cardiovascular disease complications. The female population, however, manifests reduced cardiovascular morbidity. We define nicotine's effect upon human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), determine whether estradiol might ameliorate endothelial dysfunction via its membrane estrogen receptor (mER), and attempt to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Endothelial cells were pretreated with estradiol-BSA and measured resultant ion flux across the cells via the patch clamp technique to assess mER is functionality. Estradiol-BSA administration was associated with 30% decreased nicotine-induced apoptosis and also attenuated nicotine-activated phosphorylation of p38 and ERK. Pretreatment of estradiol-BSA triggered a low calcium influx, suggesting ahead low influx calcium played a critical role in the underlying protective mechanisms of estradiol. Furthermore, this estradiol-BSA protection against apoptosis remained effective in the presence of tamoxifen, an intracellular estrogen receptor (iER) inhibitor. Additionally, tamoxifen did not abolish estradiol-BSA's inhibitory effect upon p38 and ERK's activation, giving evidence to the obligatory role of p38 and ERK signaling in the estradiol-BSA's anti-apoptotic action via mER. Our study provides evidence that nicotine enhances endothelial cell apoptosis, but estrogen exerts anti-apoptotic effect through its functional membrane estrogen receptor. Clinically, the nicotine in cigarettes might contribute to endothelial dysfunction, whereas ambient estradiol may provide cellular protection against nicotine-induced injury through its functional membrane receptor via MAPK pathway downregulation.

  5. ACE inhibition attenuates uremia-induced aortic valve thickening in a novel mouse model

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    Mäyränpää Mikko I

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined whether impaired renal function causes thickening of the aortic valve leaflets in hyperlipidemic apoE-knockout (apoE-/- mice, and whether the putative effect on the aortic valves could be prevented by inhibiting the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE with enalapril. Methods Thickening of the aortic valve leaflets in apoE-/- mice was induced by producing mild or moderate chronic renal failure resulting from unilateral nephrectomy (1/2 NX, n = 18 or subtotal nephrectomy (5/6 NX, n = 22, respectively. Additionally, the 5/6 NX mice were randomized to no treatment (n = 8 or enalapril treatment (n = 13. The maximal thickness of each leaflet was measured from histological sections of the aortic roots. Results Leaflet thickness was significantly greater in the 5/6 NX mice than in the 1/2 NX mice (P = 0.030 or the unoperated mice (P = 0.003. The 5/6 NX mice treated with enalapril had significantly thinner leaflets than did the untreated 5/6 NX mice (P = 0.014. Conclusion Moderate uremia causes thickening of the aortic valves in apoE-/- mice, which can be attenuated by ACE inhibition. The nephrectomized apoE-/- mouse constitutes a new model for investigating the mechanisms of uremia-induced aortic valve disease, and also provides an opportunity to study its pharmacologic prevention.

  6. Thalidomide attenuates learning and memory deficits induced by intracerebroventricular administration of streptozotocin in rats.

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    Elçioğlu, Hk; Kabasakal, L; Alan, S; Salva, E; Tufan, F; Karan, Ma

    2013-05-01

    Neuroinflammatory responses caused by amyloid β (Aβ) peptide deposits are involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thalidomide has a significant anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting TNF-α, which plays role in Aβ neurotoxicity. We investigated the effect of thalidomide on AD-like cognitive deficits caused by intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Intraperitoneal thalidomide was administered 1 h before the first dose of STZ and continued for 21 days. Learning and memory behavior was evaluated on days 17, 18 and 19, and the rats were sacrificed on day 21 to examine histopathological changes. STZ injection caused a significant decrease in the mean escape latency in passive avoidance and decreased improvement of performance in Morris water maze tests. Histopathological changes were examined using hematoxylin-eosin and Bielschowsky staining. Brain sections of STZ treated rats showed increased neurodegeneration and disturbed linear arrangement of cells in the cortical area compared to controls. Thalidomide treatment attenuated significantly STZ induced cognitive impairment and histopathological changes. Thalidomide appears to provide neuroprotection from the memory deficits and neuronal damage induced by STZ.

  7. Oleoylethanolamide dose-dependently attenuates cocaine-induced behaviours through a PPARα receptor-independent mechanism.

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    Bilbao, Ainhoa; Blanco, Eduardo; Luque-Rojas, María Jesús; Suárez, Juan; Palomino, Ana; Vida, Margarita; Araos, Pedro; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco J; Fernández-Espejo, Emilio; Spanagel, Rainer; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is an acylethanolamide that acts as an agonist of nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) to exert their biological functions, which include the regulation of appetite and metabolism. Increasing evidence also suggests that OEA may participate in the control of reward-related behaviours. However, direct experimental evidence for the role of the OEA-PPARα receptor interaction in drug-mediated behaviours, such as cocaine-induced behavioural phenotypes, is lacking. The present study explored the role of OEA and its receptor PPARα on the psychomotor and rewarding responsiveness to cocaine using behavioural tests indicative of core components of addiction. We found that acute administration of OEA (1, 5 or 20 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced spontaneous locomotor activity and attenuated psychomotor activation induced by cocaine (20 mg/kg) in C57Bl/6 mice. However, PPARα receptor knockout mice showed normal sensitization, although OEA was capable of reducing behavioural sensitization with fewer efficacies. Furthermore, conditioned place preference and reinstatement to cocaine were intact in these mice. Our results indicate that PPARα receptor does not play a critical, if any, role in mediating short- and long-term psychomotor and rewarding responsiveness to cocaine. However, further research is needed for the identification of the targets of OEA for its inhibitory action on cocaine-mediated responses.

  8. Saturated hydrogen saline attenuates endotoxin-induced acute liver dysfunction in rats.

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    Xu, X-F; Zhang, J

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effect of saturated hydrogen saline on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver dysfunction, rats were divided into control, LPS, and LPS plus saturated hydrogen saline (LPS+H(2)) groups. Treatment with saturated hydrogen saline prolonged the median survival time and reduced liver dysfunction. Moreover, saturated hydrogen saline significantly reduced pathological alterations in liver tissues, the number of ballooned hepatocytes, serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 levels, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in liver tissues (Phydrogen saline treatment. Saturated hydrogen saline also decreased phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK), phosphorylated Jun kinase (p-JNK), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB), and second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (Smac) levels, and increased p38 activation (Phydrogen saline may attenuate LPS-induced acute liver dysfunction in rats, possibly by reducing inflammation and cell apoptosis. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), NF-kappaB, and Smac may contribute to saturated hydrogen saline-mediated liver protection.

  9. Disodium cromoglycate attenuates hypoxia induced enlargement of end-expiratory lung volume in rats.

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    Maxová, H; Hezinová, A; Vízek, M

    2011-01-01

    Mechanism responsible for the enlargement of end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) induced by chronic hypoxia remains unclear. The fact that the increase in EELV persists after return to normoxia suggests involvement of morphological changes. Because hypoxia has been also shown to activate lung mast cells, we speculated that they could play in the mechanism increasing EELV similar role as in vessel remodeling in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH). We, therefore, tested an effect of mast cells degranulation blocker disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) on hypoxia induced EELV enlargement. Ventilatory parameters, EELV and right to left heart weight ratio (RV/LV+S) were measured in male Wistar rats. The experimental group (H+DSCG) was exposed to 3 weeks of normobaric hypoxia and treated with DSCG during the first four days of hypoxia, control group was exposed to hypoxia only (H), two others were kept in normoxia as non-treated (N) and treated (N+DSCG) groups. DSCG treatment significantly attenuated the EELV enlargement (H+DSCG = 6.1+/-0.8; H = 9.2+/-0.9; ml +/-SE) together with the increase in minute ventilation (H + DSCG = 190+/-8; H = 273 +/- 10; ml/min +/- SE) and RV/LV + S (H + DSCG = 0.39 +/- 0.03; H = 0.50 +/- 0.06).

  10. Gelam honey attenuates carrageenan-induced rat paw inflammation via NF-κB pathway.

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    Saba Zuhair Hussein

    Full Text Available The activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB plays a major role in the pathogenesis of a number of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of Gelam honey in inflammation induced rats via NF-κB signalling pathway. Rats paw edema was induced by subplantar injection of 1% carrageenan into the right hind paw. Rats were pre-treated with Gelam honey at different doses (1 or 2 g/kg, p.o. and NSAID Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, p.o., in two time points (1 and 7 days. Our results showed that Gelam honey at both concentrations suppressed the gene expressions of NF-κB (p65 & p50 and IκBα in inflamed rats paw tissues. In addition, Gelam honey inhibited the nuclear translocation and activation of NF-κB and decreased the cytosolic degradation of IκBα dose dependently in inflamed rats paw tissues. The immunohistochemical expressions of pro-inflammatory mediators COX-2 and TNF-α were also decreased in inflamed rats paw tissues when treated with Gelam honey. The results of our findings suggest that Gelam honey exhibits its inhibitory effects by attenuating NF-κB translocation to the nucleus and inhibiting IκBα degradation, with subsequent decrease of inflammatory mediators COX-2 and TNF-α.

  11. Ambient ultraviolet radiation induces protective responses in soybean but does not attenuate indirect defense

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    Winter, Thorsten R. [Department of Botany II, Julius-von-Sachs Institute for Biosciences, University of Wuerzburg, Julius-von-Sachs-Platz 3, 97082 Wuerzburg (Germany); Rostas, Michael [Department of Botany II, Julius-von-Sachs Institute for Biosciences, University of Wuerzburg, Julius-von-Sachs-Platz 3, 97082 Wuerzburg (Germany)], E-mail: rostas@botanik.uni-wuerzburg.de

    2008-09-15

    We investigated the effects of ambient ultraviolet (UV) radiation on (i) the performance and chemistry of soybean plants, (ii) the performance of Spodoptera frugiperda and (iii) the foraging behavior of the herbivore's natural enemy Cotesia marginiventris which exploits herbivore-induced plant volatiles (VOC) for host location. The accumulation of protective phenolics was faster in plants receiving ambient UV than in controls exposed to sun light lacking UV. Accordingly, isorhamnetin- and quercetin-based flavonoids were increased in UV exposed plants. No UV effects were found on the performance and feeding behavior of S. frugiperda. Herbivore-damaged plants emitted the same VOC when grown under ambient or attenuated UV for 5, 10 or 30 days. Consequently, C. marginiventris was attracted but did not discriminate between exposed and unexposed soybeans. In summary, ambient UV radiation affected soybean morphology and physiology but did not destabilize interactions between trophic levels. - Ambient ultraviolet radiation does not alter induced VOC emission in soybean and thus host location of the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris remains effective.

  12. Exosomes released by granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells attenuate DSS-induced colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yungang; Tian, Jie; Tang, Xinyi; Rui, Ke; Tian, Xinyu; Ma, Jie; Ma, Bin; Xu, Huaxi; Lu, Liwei; Wang, Shengjun

    2016-03-29

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have been described in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but their role in the disease remains controversial. We sought to define the effect of granulocytic MDSC-derived exosomes (G-MDSC exo) in dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced murine colitis. G-MDSC exo-treated mice showed greater resistance to colitis, as reflected by lower disease activity index, decreased inflammatory cell infiltration damage. There was a decrease in the proportion of Th1 cells and an increase in the proportion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) from G-MDSC exo-treated colitis mice. Moreover, lower serum levels of interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were detected in G-MDSC exo-treated colitis mice. Interestingly, inhibition of arginase (Arg)-1 activity in G-MDSC exo partially abrogated the spontaneous improvement of colitis. In addition, G-MDSC exo could suppress CD4+ T cell proliferation and IFN-γ secretion in vitro and inhibit the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, and these abilities were associated with Arg-1 activity. Moreover, G-MDSC exo promoted the expansion of Tregs in vitro. Taken together, these results suggest that G-MDSC exo attenuate DSS-induced colitis through inhibiting Th1 cells proliferation and promoting Tregs expansion.

  13. Attenuation of Cyclosporine-Induced Sperm Impairment and Embryotoxicity by Crataegus monogyna Fruit Aqueous Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Armand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cyclosporine (Cs, a cyclic undecapeptide with potent immunosuppressive activity, causes several adverse effects including reproductive toxicity. This study aims to examine the ability of Crataegus monogyna aqueous fruit extract as an antioxidant to protect against Cs-induced reproductive toxicity.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 32 adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of eight animals each. Rats in two groups received 40 mg/kg/day Cs for 45 days by oral gavage. In addition, one of the two groups received Crataegus monogyna aqueous extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day orally four hours after Cs administration. The remaining two groups consisted of a vehicle treated control (Cont group and a Crataegus monogyna control (Cr group. Differences between groups were assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA using the SPSS software package for Windows.Results: Cs treatment caused a significant decrease in sperm count and viability with an increase in DNA damage and protamine deficiency of the sperm cells. We observed significant decreases in fertilization rate and embryonic development, in addition to an increased rate of embryo arrest in Cs-treated rats. Crataegus monogyna co-administration attenuated all Cs-induced negative changes in the above-mentioned parameters.Conclusion: Supplementation with Crataegus monogyna a queous fruit extract could be useful against reproductive toxicity during Cs treatment in a rat model.

  14. Dietary uptake of Wedelia chinensis extract attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

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    Yuh-Ting Huang

    Full Text Available SCOPE: Traditional medicinal herbs are increasingly used as alternative therapies in patients with inflammatory diseases. Here we evaluated the effect of Wedelia chinensis, a medicinal herb commonly used in Asia, on the prevention of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced acute colitis in mice. General safety and the effect of different extraction methods on the bioactivity of W. chinensis were also explored. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6 mice were administrated hot water extract of fresh W. chinensis (WCHF orally for one week followed by drinking water containing 2% DSS for nine days. WCHF significantly attenuated the symptoms of colitis including diarrhea, rectal bleeding and loss of body weight; it also reduced the shortening of colon length and histopathological damage caused by colonic inflammation. Among four W. chinensis extracts prepared using different extraction techniques, WCHF showed the highest anti-colitis efficacy. Analyses of specific T-cell regulatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-17, TGF-β, IL-12 revealed that WCHF treatment can suppress the Th1 and Th17, but not Th2, responses in colon tissues and dendritic cells of DSS-induced colitis mice. A 28-day subacute toxicity study showed that daily oral administration of WCHF (100, 500, 1000 mg/kg body weight was not toxic to mice. CONCLUSION: Together, our findings suggest that specific extracts of W. chinensis have nutritional potential for future development into nutraceuticals or dietary supplements for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

  15. Nardosinone Suppresses RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis and Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Alveolar Bone Resorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Chenguang; Xiao, Fei; Yuan, Keyong; Hu, XuChen; Lin, Wenzhen; Ma, Rui; Zhang, Xiaoling; Huang, Zhengwei

    2017-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that damages the integrity of the tooth-supporting tissues, known as the periodontium, and comprising the gingiva, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. In this study, the effects of nardosinone (Nd) on bone were tested in a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced alveolar bone loss, and the associated mechanisms were elucidated. Nd effectively suppressed LPS-induced alveolar bone loss and reduced osteoclast (OC) numbers in vivo. Nd suppressed receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated OC differentiation, bone resorption, and F-actin ring formation in a dose-dependent manner. Further investigation revealed that Nd suppressed osteoclastogenesis by suppressing the ERK and JNK signaling pathways, scavenging reactive oxygen species, and suppressing the activation of PLCγ2 that consequently affects the expression and/or activity of the OC-specific transcription factors, c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1). In addition, Nd significantly reduced the expression of OC-specific markers in mouse bone marrow-derived pre-OCs, including c-Fos, cathepsin K (Ctsk), VATPase d2, and Nfatc1. Collectively, these findings suggest that Nd has beneficial effects on bone, and the suppression of OC number implies that the effect is exerted directly on osteoclastogenesis. PMID:28955231

  16. Inhibition of extracellular HMGB1 attenuates hyperoxia-induced inflammatory acute lung injury

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    Maria Entezari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exposure to hyperoxia results in acute lung injury (ALI, accompanied by a significant elevation in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and leukocyte infiltration in the lungs. However, the mechanisms underlying hyperoxia-induced proinflammatory ALI remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of the proinflammatory cytokine high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1 in hyperoxic inflammatory lung injury, using an adult mouse model. The exposure of C57BL/6 mice to ≥99% O2 (hyperoxia significantly increased the accumulation of HMGB1 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF prior to the onset of severe inflammatory lung injury. In the airways of hyperoxic mice, HMGB1 was hyperacetylated and existed in various redox forms. Intratracheal administration of recombinant HMGB1 (rHMGB1 caused a significant increase in leukocyte infiltration into the lungs compared to animal treated with a non-specific peptide. Neutralizing anti-HMGB1 antibodies, administrated before hyperoxia significantly attenuated pulmonary edema and inflammatory responses, as indicated by decreased total protein content, wet/dry weight ratio, and numbers of leukocytes in the airways. This protection was also observed when HMGB1 inhibitors were administered after the onset of the hyperoxic exposure. The aliphatic antioxidant, ethyl pyruvate (EP, inhibited HMGB1 secretion from hyperoxic macrophages and attenuated hyperoxic lung injury. Overall, our data suggest that HMGB1 plays a critical role in mediating hyperoxic ALI through the recruitment of leukocytes into the lungs. If these results can be translated to humans, they suggest that HMGB1 inhibitors provide treatment regimens for oxidative inflammatory lung injury in patients receiving hyperoxia through mechanical ventilation.

  17. Mulberry Leaf Extract Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Mediated Testosterone Depletion in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Mohammad Reza Hajizadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been proposed that oxidative stress may contribute to the development of testicular abnormalities in diabetes. Morus alba leaf extract (MAE has hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties. We, therefore, explored the impact of the administration of MAE on steroidogenesis in diabetic rats. Methods: To address this hypothesis, we measured the serum level of glucose, insulin, and free testosterone (Ts as well as oxidative stress parameters (including glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde in the testis of control, untreated and MAE-treated (1 g/day/kg diabetic rats. In order to determine the likely mechanism of MAE action on Ts levels, we analyzed the quantitative mRNA expression level of the two key steroidogenic proteins, namely steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR and P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, by real-time PCR. Results: The MAE-treated diabetic rats had significantly decreased glucose levels and on the other hand increased insulin and free Ts levels than the untreated diabetic rats. In addition, the administration of MAE to the diabetic rats restored the oxidative stress parameters toward control. Induction of diabetes decreased testicular StAR mRNA expression by 66% and MAE treatment enhanced mRNA expression to the same level of the control group. However, the expression of P540scc was not significantly decreased in the diabetic group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that MAE significantly increased Ts production in the diabetic rats, probably through the induction of StAR mRNA expression levels. Administration of MAE to experimental models of diabetes can effectively attenuate oxidative stress-mediated testosterone depletion. Please cite this article as: Hajizadeh MR, Eftekhar E, Zal F, Jaffarian A, Mostafavi-Pour Z. Mulberry Leaf Extract Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Mediated Testosterone Depletion in

  18. Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1 Attenuates Placental-Ischemia Induced Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Eric M.; Cockrell, Kathy; Aranay, Marietta; Csongradi, Eva; Stec, David E.; Granger, Joey P.

    2011-01-01

    Recent in vitro studies have reported that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) downregulates the angiostatic protein sFlt-1 from placental villous explants and that the HO-1 metabolites CO and bilirubin negatively regulates endothelin-1 and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although sFlt-1, ET-1, and ROS have been implicated in the pathophysiology of hypertension during preeclampsia and in response to placental ischemia in pregnant rats, it is unknown whether chronic induction of HO-1 alters the hypertensive response to placental ischemia. The present study examined the hypothesis that HO-1 induction in a rat model of placental ischemia would beneficially affect blood pressure, angiogenic balance, superoxide, and ET-1 production in the ischemic placenta. To achieve this goal we examined the effects of cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), an HO-1 inducer, in the reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) placental ischemia model and in normal pregnant rats. In response to RUPP treatment, MAP increases 29mmHg (136 ± 7 vs. 106 ± 5 mmHg) which is significantly attenuated by CoPP (118 ± 5 mmHg). While RUPP treatment causes placental sFlt-1/VEGF ratios to alter significantly to an angiostatic balance (1 ± 0.1 vs 1.27 ± 0.2,), treatment with CoPP causes a significant shift in the ratio to an angiogenic balance (0.68 ± 0.1). Placental superoxide increased in RUPP (952.5 ± 278.8 vs 243.9 ± 70.5 RLU/min/mg), but was significantly attenuated by HO-1 induction (482.7 ± 117.4 RLU/min/mg). Also, preproendothelin message was significantly increased in RUPP, which was prevented by CoPP. These data indicate that HO-1, or its metabolites, are potential therapeutics for the treatment of preeclampsia. PMID:21383306

  19. Statin treatment in hypercholesterolemic men does not attenuate angiotensin II-induced venoconstriction.

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    Christoph Schindler

    Full Text Available Experimental studies suggested that statins attenuate vascular AT1 receptor responsiveness. Moreover, the augmented excessive pressor response to systemic angiotensin II infusions in hypercholesterolemic patients was normalized with statin treatment. In 12 hypercholesterolemic patients, we tested the hypothesis that statin treatment attenuates angiotensin II-mediated vasoconstriction in hand veins assessed by a linear variable differential transducer. Subjects ingested daily doses of either atorvastatin (40 mg or positive control irbesartan (150 mg for 30 days in a randomized and cross-over fashion. Ang II-induced venoconstriction at minute 4 averaged 59%±10% before and 28%±9% after irbesartan (mean ± SEM; P<0.05 compared to 65%±11% before and 73%±11% after 30 days of atorvastatin treatment. Plasma angiotensin levels increased significantly after irbesartan treatment (Ang II: 17±22 before vs 52±40 pg/mL after [p = 0.048]; Ang-(1-7: 18±10 before vs 37±14 pg/mL after [p = 0.002] compared to atorvastatin treatment (Ang II: 9±4 vs 11±10 pg/mL [p = 0.40]; Ang-(1-7: 24±9 vs 32±8 pg/mL [p = 0.023]. Our study suggests that statin treatment does not elicit major changes in angiotensin II-mediated venoconstriction or in circulating angiotensin II levels whereas angiotensin-(1-7 levels increased modestly. The discrepancy between local vascular and systemic angiotensin II responses might suggest that statin treatment interferes with blood pressure buffering reflexes.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00154024.

  20. Antioxidant vitamins attenuate oxidative stress and cardiac dysfunction in tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy.

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    Shite, J; Qin, F; Mao, W; Kawai, H; Stevens, S Y; Liang, C

    2001-11-15

    We administered antioxidant vitamins to rabbits with pacing-induced cardiomyopathy to assess whether antioxidant therapy retards the progression of congestive heart failure (CHF). Although oxidative stress is increased in CHF, whether progression of heart failure could be prevented or reduced by antioxidants is not known. Rabbits with chronic cardiac pacing and sham operation were randomized to receive a combination of beta-carotene, ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol, alpha-tocopherol alone or placebo over eight weeks. Echocardiography was used to measure cardiac function weekly. Resting hemodynamics and in vivo myocardial beta-adrenergic responsiveness were studied at week 8. Animals were then sacrificed for measuring myocardial beta-receptor density, norepinephrine (NE) uptake-1 site density, sympathetic neuronal marker profiles, tissue-reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio and oxidative damage of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Rapid cardiac pacing increased myocardial oxidative stress as evidenced by reduced myocardial GSH/GSSG ratio and increased oxidized mtDNA and produced cardiac dysfunction, beta-adrenergic subsensitivity, beta-receptor downregulation, diminished sympathetic neurotransmitter profiles and reduced NE uptake-1 carrier density. A combination of antioxidant vitamins reduced the myocardial oxidative stress, attenuated cardiac dysfunction and prevented myocardial beta-receptor downregulation and sympathetic nerve terminal dysfunction. Administration of alpha-tocopherol alone produced similar effects, but the effects were less marked than those produced by the three vitamins together. Vitamins produced no effects in sham-operated animals. Antioxidant vitamins reduced tissue oxidative stress in CHF and attenuated the associated cardiac dysfunction, beta-receptor downregulation and sympathetic nerve terminal abnormalities. The findings suggest that antioxidant therapy may be efficacious in human CHF.

  1. Sulfasalazine attenuates ACL transection and medial menisectomy-induced cartilage destruction by inhibition of cystine/glutamate antiporter.

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    Tsai, Wei-Yuan; Tsai, Ru-Yin; Liu, Chih-Chung; Wu, Jia-Lin; Wong, Chih-Shung

    2016-04-01

    We had previously demonstrated that excitatory amino acid glutamate plays a role in the progression and severity of knee osteoarthritis (OA), and early hyaluronic acid injection attenuates the OA progression by attenuation of knee joint glutamate level, which was also related to the cystine/glutamate antiporter system X (system XC-) expression. System XC- uptakes cystine into chondrocytes for glutathione (GSH) synthesis, but the role of system XC- in OA is rarely addressed. Sulfasalazine (SSZ) is a system XC- inhibitor; SSZ was applied intra-articularly to study the function of system XC- in the development of OA in rats subjected to anterior cruciate ligament transection and medial meniscectomy (ACLT + MMx). Moerover, the system XC- activator N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was also applied to verify the role of system XC-. The intra-articular injection of SSZ significantly attenuated knee swelling and cartilage destruction in the knees of ACLT + MMx rats and this effect was blocked by NAC. The results showed that inhibition of system XC- function can attenuate ACLT + MMx-induced cartilage destruction. In the present study, system XC- inhibitor SSZ was shown to reduce glutamate content in synovial fluid and GSH in chondrocytes. It was also showed SSZ could attenuate ACLT + MMx-induced cartilage destruction, and treatment of NAC reversed the protective effect of SSZ.

  2. Hypothermia induced by adenosine 5'-monophosphate attenuates early stage injury in an acute gouty arthritis rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhimin; Guo, Weiting; Lu, Shulai; Lv, Wenshan; Li, Changgui; Wang, Yangang; Zhao, Shihua; Yan, Shengli; Tao, Zhenyin; Wang, Yunlong

    2013-08-01

    To investigate whether the hypothermia induced by Adenosine 5'-Monophosphate (5'-AMP) could attenuate early stage injury in a rat acute gouty arthritis model. Ankle joint injection with monosodium urate monohydrate crystals (MSU crystals) in hypothermia rat model which was induced by 5'-AMP and then observe whether hypothermia induced by 5'-AMP could be effectively inhibit the inflammation on acute gouty arthritis in rats. AMP-induced hypothermia has protective effects on our acute gouty arthritis, which was demonstrated by the following criteria: (1) a significant reduction in the ankle swelling (p gouty arthritis model.

  3. Metabolic enhancer piracetam attenuates rotenone induced oxidative stress: a study in different rat brain regions.

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    Verma, Dinesh Kumar; Joshi, Neeraj; Raju, Kunumuri Sivarama; Wahajuddin, Muhammad; Singh, Rama Kant; Singh, Sarika

    2015-01-01

    Piracetam is clinically being used nootropic drug but the details of its neuroprotective mechanism are not well studied. The present study was conducted to assess the effects of piracetam on rotenone induced oxidative stress by using both ex vivo and in vivo test systems. Rats were treated with piracetam (600 mg/kg b.w. oral) for seven constitutive days prior to rotenone administration (intracerebroventricular, 12 µg) in rat brain. Rotenone induced oxidative stress was assessed after 1 h and 24 h of rotenone administration. Ex vivo estimations were performed by using two experimental designs. In one experimental design the rat brain homogenate was treated with rotenone (1 mM, 2 mM and 4 mM) and rotenone+piracetam (10 mM) for 1 h. While in second experimental design the rats were pretreated with piracetam for seven consecutive days. On eighth day the rats were sacrificed, brain homogenate was prepared and treated with rotenone (1 mM, 2 mM and 4mM) for 1h. After treatment the glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were estimated in brain homogenate. In vivo study showed that pretreatment of piracetam offered significant protection against rotenone induced decreased GSH and increased MDA level though the protection was region specific. But the co-treatment of piracetam with rotenone did not offer significant protection against rotenone induced oxidative stress in ex vivo study. Whereas ex vivo experiments in rat brain homogenate of piracetam pretreated rats, showed the significant protection against rotenone induced oxidative stress. Findings indicated that pretreatment of piracetam significantly attenuated the rotenone induced oxidative stress though the protection was region specific. Piracetam treatment to rats led to its absorption and accumulation in different brain regions as assessed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. In conclusion, study indicates the piracetam is able to enhance the antioxidant capacity in brain cells

  4. Hydrogen sulfide, a potential novel drug, attenuates concanavalin A-induced hepatitis

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    Cheng P

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ping Cheng,* Kan Chen,* Yujing Xia, Weiqi Dai, Fan Wang, Miao Shen, Chengfen Wang, Jing Yang, Rong Zhu, Huawei Zhang, Jingjing Li, Yuanyuan Zheng, Junshan Wang, Yan Zhang, Jie Lu, Yingqun Zhou, Chuanyong GuoDepartment of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is known to exert anti-inflammatory properties. Apoptosis and autophagy play important roles in concanavalin A (Con A-induced acute hepatitis. The purpose of this study was to explore both the effect and mechanism of H2S on Con A-induced acute hepatitis. Methods: BALB/c mice were randomized into sham group, Con A-injection group, and 14 µmol/kg of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an H2S donor pretreatment group. Results: Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and pathological damage were significantly ameliorated by NaHS pretreatment. NaHS pretreatment significantly reduced the levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α compared with those of the Con A group. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Beclin-1, and LC3-2, which play important roles in the apoptosis and autophagy pathways, were also clearly affected by NaHS. Furthermore, NaHS affected the p-mTOR and p-AKT. Conclusion: H2S attenuates Con A-induced acute hepatitis by inhibiting apoptosis and autophagy, in part, through activation of the PtdIns3K-AKT1 signaling pathway. Keywords: NaHS, apoptosis, PtdIns3K-AKT, autophagy

  5. Attenuation of Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity by mdivi-1: A Mitochondrial Division/Mitophagy Inhibitor

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    Gharanei, Mayel; Hussain, Afthab; Janneh, Omar; Maddock, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Doxorubicin is one of the most effective anti-cancer agents. However, its use is associated with adverse cardiac effects, including cardiomyopathy and progressive heart failure. Given the multiple beneficial effects of the mitochondrial division inhibitor (mdivi-1) in a variety of pathological conditions including heart failure and ischaemia and reperfusion injury, we investigated the effects of mdivi-1 on doxorubicin-induced cardiac dysfunction in naïve and stressed conditions using Langendorff perfused heart models and a model of oxidative stress was used to assess the effects of drug treatments on the mitochondrial depolarisation and hypercontracture of cardiac myocytes. Western blot analysis was used to measure the levels of p-Akt and p-Erk 1/2 and flow cytometry analysis was used to measure the levels p-Drp1 and p-p53 upon drug treatment. The HL60 leukaemia cell line was used to evaluate the effects of pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial division on the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin in a cancer cell line. Doxorubicin caused a significant impairment of cardiac function and increased the infarct size to risk ratio in both naïve conditions and during ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Interestingly, co-treatment of doxorubicin with mdivi-1 attenuated these detrimental effects of doxorubicin. Doxorubicin also caused a reduction in the time taken to depolarisation and hypercontracture of cardiac myocytes, which were reversed with mdivi-1. Finally, doxorubicin caused a significant elevation in the levels of signalling proteins p-Akt, p-Erk 1/2, p-Drp1 and p-p53. Co-incubation of mdivi-1 with doxorubicin did not reduce the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin against HL-60 cells. These data suggest that the inhibition of mitochondrial fission protects the heart against doxorubicin-induced cardiac injury and identify mitochondrial fission as a new therapeutic target in ameliorating doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity without affecting its anti-cancer properties. PMID

  6. Attenuation of LPS-induced lung inflammation by glucosamine in rats.

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    Chuang, Kun-Han; Peng, Yen-Chun; Chien, Han-Yun; Lu, Meng-Lun; Du, Hsin-I; Wu, Yuh-Lin

    2013-12-01

    Acute inflammation is often observed during acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Glucosamine is known to act as an anti-inflammatory molecule. The effects of glucosamine on acute lung inflammation and its associated mechanisms remain unclear. The present study sought to address how glucosamine plays an anti-inflammatory role in acute lung inflammation in vivo and in vitro. Using the LPS intratracheal instillation-elicited rat lung inflammation model, we found that glucosamine attenuated pulmonary edema and polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration, as well as the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, and nitric oxide (NO) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and in the cultured medium of BALF cells. The expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ, CINC-1, MIP-2, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in LPS-inflamed lung tissue was also suppressed by glucosamine. Using the rat alveolar epithelial cell line L2, we noted that the cytokine mixture (cytomix)-regulated production and mRNA expression of CINC-1 and MIP-2, NO production, the protein and mRNA expression of iNOS, iNOS mRNA stability, and iNOS promoter activity were all inhibited by glucosamine. Furthermore, glucosamine reduced LPS-mediated NF-κB signaling by decreasing IκB phosphorylation, p65 nuclear translocation, and NF-κB reporter activity. Overexpression of the p65 subunit restored the inhibitory action of glucosamine on cytomix-regulated NO production and iNOS expression. In conclusion, glucosamine appears to act as an anti-inflammatory molecule in LPS-induced lung inflammation, at least in part by targeting the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  7. Inhibition of rho kinase attenuates high flow induced pulmonary hypertension in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fu-hai; XIA Wei; LI Ai-wu; ZHAO Cui-fen; SUN Ruo-peng

    2007-01-01

    Background The RhoA/Rho kinase pathway may participate in the pathogenesis of hypoxia and monocrotaline induced pulmonary hypertension. This study tested whether RhoA/Rho kinase pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of high flow induced pulmonary hypertension in rats.Methods Male Wistar rats (4 weeks) were randomly divided into 4 shunt groups, 4 treated groups and 4 control groups.Shunt and treated groups underwent left common carotid artery/external jugular vein shunt operation. Control groups underwent sham operation. Treated groups received fasudil treatment and the others received same dose of saline. At weeks 1, 2, 4 and 8 of the study, right ventricular systolic pressure was measured and blood gases were analysed to calculate Qp/Qs. The weight ratio of right ventricle to left ventricle plus septum and the mean percentage of medial wall thickness in moderate sized pulmonary arteries were obtained. RhoA activity in pulmonary arteries was detected using Rho activity assay reagent. Rho kinase activity was quantified by the extent of MYPT1 phosphorylation with Western blot.Proliferating cells were evaluated using proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistological staining.Results Carotid artery/jugular vein shunt resulted in high pulmonary blood flow, both an acute and a chronic elevation of right ventricular systolic pressure, significant medial wall thickening characterized by smooth muscle cells proliferation,right ventricular hypertrophy and increased activation of RhoA and Rho kinase. Fasudil treatment lowered pulmonary artery systolic pressure, suppressed pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells proliferation, attenuated pulmonary artery medial wall thickening and inhibited right ventricular hypertrophy together with significant suppression of Rho kinase activity but not Rho activity.Conclusions Activated RhoA/Rho kinase pathway is associated with both the acute pulmonary vasoconstriction and the chronic pulmonary artery remodelling of high flow induced

  8. Gallic acid attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in BALB/c mice

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    Pandurangan AK

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ashok Kumar Pandurangan,1,2 Nooshin Mohebali,2 Mohd Esa Norhaizan,1,3 Chung Yeng Looi2 1Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, MalaysiaAbstract: Gallic acid (GA is a polyhydroxy phenolic compound that has been detected in various natural products, such as green tea, strawberries, grapes, bananas, and many other fruits. In inflammatory bowel disease, inflammation is promoted by oxidative stress. GA is a strong antioxidant; thus, we evaluated the cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory role of GA in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced mouse colitis model. Experimental acute colitis was induced in male BALB/c mice by administering 2.5% DSS in the drinking water for 7 days. The disease activity index; colon weight/length ratio; histopathological analysis; mRNA expressions of IL-21 and IL-23; and protein expression of nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 were compared between the control and experimental mice. The colonic content of malondialdehyde and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activity were examined as parameters of the redox state. We determined that GA significantly attenuated the disease activity index and colon shortening, and reduced the histopathological evidence of injury. GA also significantly (P<0.05 reduced the expressions of IL-21 and IL-23. Furthermore, GA activates/upregulates the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream targets, including UDP-GT and NQO1, in DSS-induced mice. The findings of this study demonstrate the protective effect of GA on experimental colitis, which is probably due to an antioxidant nature of GA.Keywords: IL-21, NQO1, MDA, enzymic antioxidants

  9. Esculetin attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammatory processes and depressive-like behavior in mice.

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    Zhu, Lingpeng; Nang, Chen; Luo, Fen; Pan, Hong; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Jingyan; Zhou, Rui; Gao, Jin; Chang, Xiayun; He, He; Qiu, Yue; Wang, Jinglei; Long, Hongyan; Liu, Yu; Yan, Tianhua

    2016-09-01

    Esculetin is one of the major bioactive compounds of Cichorium intybus L. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects and possible underlying mechanism of esculetin (Esc) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammatory processes and depressive-like behavior in mice. Mice were pretreatment with esculetin (Esc, 20, 40mg/kg, intragastric administration) and a positive control drug fluoxetine (Flu, 20mg/kg, intragastric administration) once daily for 7 consecutive days. At the 7th day, LPS (0.83mg/kg) was intraperitoneal injection 30min after drug administration. Higher dose (40mg/kg) of esculetin and fluoxetine significantly decreased immobility time in TST and FST. There was no significant effect on locomotor activity in mice by the drugs. Esculetin significantly reduced LPS-induced elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum and hippocampus. Esculetin attenuated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression by inhibiting nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway in hippocampus. In addition, neuroprotection of esculetin was attributed to the upregulations of Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated tyrosine kinase B (p-TrkB) protein expression in hippocampus. The obtained results demonstrated that esculetin exhibited antidepressant-like effects which might be related to the inhibition of NF-κB pathway and the activation of BDNF/TrkB signaling.

  10. Chronic intermittent ethanol induced axon and myelin degeneration is attenuated by calpain inhibition.

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    Samantaray, Supriti; Knaryan, Varduhi H; Patel, Kaushal S; Mulholland, Patrick J; Becker, Howard C; Banik, Naren L

    2015-10-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption causes multifaceted damage to the central nervous system (CNS), underlying mechanisms of which are gradually being unraveled. In our previous studies, activation of calpain, a calcium-activated neutral protease has been found to cause detrimental alterations in spinal motor neurons following ethanol (EtOH) exposure in vitro. However, it is not known whether calpain plays a pivotal role in chronic EtOH exposure-induced structural damage to CNS in vivo. To test the possible involvement of calpain in EtOH-associated neurodegenerative mechanisms the present investigation was conducted in a well-established mouse model of alcohol dependence - chronic intermittent EtOH (CIE) exposure and withdrawal. Our studies indicated significant loss of axonal proteins (neurofilament light and heavy, 50-60%), myelin proteins (myelin basic protein, 20-40% proteolipid protein, 25%) and enzyme (2', 3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, 21-55%) following CIE in multiple regions of brain including hippocampus, corpus callosum, cerebellum, and importantly in spinal cord. These CIE-induced deleterious effects escalated after withdrawal in each CNS region tested. Increased expression and activity of calpain along with enhanced ratio of active calpain to calpastatin (sole endogenous inhibitor) was observed after withdrawal compared to EtOH exposure. Pharmacological inhibition of calpain with calpeptin (25 μg/kg) prior to each EtOH vapor inhalation significantly attenuated damage to axons and myelin as demonstrated by immuno-profiles of axonal and myelin proteins, and Luxol Fast Blue staining. Calpain inhibition significantly protected the ultrastructural integrity of axons and myelin compared to control as confirmed by electron microscopy. Together, these findings confirm CIE exposure and withdrawal induced structural alterations in axons and myelin, predominantly after withdrawal and corroborate calpain inhibition as a potential protective strategy against

  11. Polaprezinc attenuates cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis and related bladder pain in mice

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    Masahiro Murakami-Nakayama

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cav3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels targeted by H2S, a gasotransmitter, participate in cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis and bladder pain. Given that zinc selectively inhibits Cav3.2 among T-channel isoforms and also exhibits antioxidant activity, we examined whether polaprezinc (zinc-l-carnosine, a medicine for peptic ulcer treatment and zinc supplementation, reveals preventive or therapeutic effects on bladder inflammation and/or pain in the mouse with cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis, a model for interstitial cystitis. Systemic administration of cyclophosphamide caused cystitis-related symptoms including increased bladder weight and vascular permeability, and histological signs of bladder edema, accompanied by bladder pain-like nociceptive behavior/referred hyperalgesia. All these symptoms were significantly attenuated by oral preadministration of polaprezinc at 400 mg/kg. The same dose of polaprezinc also prevented the increased malondialdehyde level, an indicator of lipid peroxidation, and protein upregulation of cystathionine-γ-lyase, an H2S-generating enzyme, but not occludin, a tight junction-related membrane protein, in the bladder tissue of cyclophosphamide-treated mice. Oral posttreatment with polaprezinc at 30–100 mg/kg reversed the nociceptive behavior/referred hyperalgesia in a dose-dependent manner without affecting the increased bladder weight. Together, our data show that zinc supplementation with polaprezinc prevents the cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis probably through the antioxidant activity, and, like T-channel blockers, reverses the established cystitis-related bladder pain in mice, suggesting novel therapeutic usefulness of polaprezinc.

  12. Scoparone attenuates RANKL-induced osteoclastic differentiation through controlling reactive oxygen species production and scavenging

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    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Jang, Hae-Dong, E-mail: haedong@hnu.kr

    2015-02-15

    Scoparone, one of the bioactive components of Artemisia capillaris Thunb, has various biological properties including immunosuppressive, hepatoprotective, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. This study aims at evaluating the anti-osteoporotic effect of scoparone and its underlying mechanism in vitro. Scoparone demonstrated potent cellular antioxidant capacity. It was also found that scoparone inhibited the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and suppressed cathepsin K and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) expression via c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/p38-mediated c-Fos–nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) signaling pathway. During osteoclast differentiation, the production of general reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide anions was dose-dependently attenuated by scoparone. In addition, scoparone diminished NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase 1 (Nox1) expression and activation via the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6)–cSrc–phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3k) signaling pathway and prevented the disruption of mitochondrial electron transport chain system. Furthermore, scoparone augmented the expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and catalase (CAT). The overall results indicate that the inhibitory effect of scoparone on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation is attributed to the suppressive effect on ROS and superoxide anion production by inhibiting Nox1 expression and activation and protecting the mitochondrial electron transport chain system and the scavenging effect of ROS resulting from elevated SOD1 and CAT expression. - Highlights: • Scoparone dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. • Scoparone diminished general ROS and superoxide anions in a dose-dependent manner. • Scoparone inhibited Nox1 expression and

  13. Astragalus Polysaccharide Attenuated Iron Overload-Induced Dysfunction of Mesenchymal Stem Cells via Suppressing Mitochondrial ROS

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    Fan Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs have the ability to differentiate into multilineage cells such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and cardiomyocytes. Dysfunction of BMSCs in response to pathological stimuli participates in the development of diseases such as osteoporosis. Astragalus polysaccharide (APS is a major active ingredient of Astragalus membranaceus, a commonly used anti-aging herb in traditional Chinese medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate whether